Sample records for subject teachers stimulation

  1. Sliding Subject Positions: Knowledge and Teacher Educators (United States)

    Brown, Tony; Rowley, Harriet; Smith, Kim


    In England, adjustments to policy in teacher education have had implications for how subject knowledge is understood and for how job descriptions are defined. That is, the interface between teacher educator and subject knowledge representation has been changing. This paper reports on a wider study that considers the experience of university…

  2. Teacher Autonomy and Subject Knowledge (United States)

    McKeon, Frankie


    The National Primary Strategy (DfES, 2004) is encouraging schools to design "broad and rich curricula" which make the most of links between different areas, building on literacy and numeracy and developing speaking and listening skills. Primary teachers' confidence with, and understanding of, science will be crucial to the effectiveness…

  3. Florida Master Teacher Program: Testing Teacher Subject Matter Knowledge. (United States)

    Lavely, Carolyn; And Others


    The efforts of the Florida Institute for Instructional Research and Practice in designing, developing, and analyzing the subject area knowledge tests of the Florida Master Teacher Program are described. A total of 13 subject area examinations was developed in 1984-85, and 5 additional tests were developed the following year. For each subject area…

  4. Action-blindsight in healthy subjects after transcranial magnetic stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mark Schram; Kristiansen, Lasse; Rowe, James B.


    Clinical cases of blindsight have shown that visually guided movements can be accomplished without conscious visual perception. Here, we show that blindsight can be induced in healthy subjects by using transcranial magnetic stimulation over the visual cortex. Transcranial magnetic stimulation blo...

  5. Teachers' subjectivities and emotionality in HIV/AIDS teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper draws on qualitative, narrative data gathered from five teachers teaching in a midlands town in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. It finds that teachers' subject positions play a significant role in presenting compassionate, supportive and knowledgeable subjectivities in the classroom; and that their positive and negative ...

  6. Subject Teachers as Educators for Sustainability: A Survey Study (United States)

    Uitto, Anna; Saloranta, Seppo


    Sustainability education (SE) is included in school curricula to integrate the principles, values, and practices of sustainable development (SD) into all education. This study investigates lower secondary school subject teachers as educators for sustainability. A survey was used to study the perceptions of 442 subject teachers from 49 schools in…

  7. Healthy subjects with a family history of alcoholism show increased stimulative subjective effects of alcohol. (United States)

    Söderpalm Gordh, Anna H V; Söderpalm, Bo


    Research has shown that subjects with a family history positive (FHP) of alcoholism are at increased risk for alcoholism and that this group reacts differently to alcohol than family history negative (FHN) subjects. These different levels of sensitivity may make FHP persons more likely to consume alcohol. Here, we tested the hypothesis that subjects FHP for type 1 alcoholism (according to Cloninger) are more sensitive than control subjects to the stimulative, properties of alcohol following a single moderate dose of alcohol. Fifty-one healthy men and women (22 FHP and 29 FHN) participated in 2 laboratory sessions, in which they consumed a beverage containing ethanol (0.6 g/kg in juice) or placebo (juice alone) in a randomized order. Primary dependent measures were self-report questionnaires of mood states. Subjects with family history of type 1 alcoholism showed increased stimulative responses and an elevated positive mood state after ethanol compared to controls. At this moderate dose, ethanol increased stimulative subjective responses in individuals who were "family history positive." This enhanced sensitivity could motivate to exaggerated drinking and thereby increase the risk for developing alcoholism. Copyright © 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  8. Preservice History Teachers' Perceptions of Subject Matter Competency (United States)

    Yildirim, Tercan; Yazici, Fatih


    Teachers should be able to understand conceptual constructs, viewpoints, and principles related to their field and organize teaching process accordingly. This is valid also for history teachers. They are expected to comprehend the basic conceptions related to subject areas and reflect them on classroom practices. The association between subject…

  9. Magnetic Vestibular Stimulation in Subjects with Unilateral Labyrinthine Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Kevin Ward


    Full Text Available We recently discovered that static magnetic fields from high-strength MRI machines induce nystagmus in all normal humans, and that a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD Lorentz force, derived from ionic currents in the endolymph and pushing on the cupula, best explains this effect. Individuals with no labyrinthine function have no nystagmus. The influence of magnetic vestibular stimulation (MVS in individuals with unilateral loss of labyrinthine function is unknown and may provide insight into mechanism of MVS. These individuals should experience MVS, but with differences consistent with their residual labyrinthine function. We recorded eye movements in the static magnetic field of a 7T MRI machine in nine individuals with unilateral labyrinthine hypofunction, as determined by head impulse testing and vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP. Eye movements were recorded using infrared videooculography. Static head positions were varied in pitch with the body supine, and slow-phase eye velocity (SPV was assessed. All subjects exhibited predominantly horizontal nystagmus after entering the magnet head-first, lying supine. The SPV direction reversed when entering feet-first. Pitching chin-to-chest caused subjects to reach a null point for horizontal SPV. Right unilateral vestibular hypofunction (UVH subjects developed slow-phase-up nystagmus and left UVH subjects, slow-phase-down nystagmus. Vertical and torsional components were consistent with superior semicircular canal excitation or inhibition, respectively, of the intact ear. These findings provide compelling support for the hypothesis that MVS is a result of a Lorentz force and suggest that the function of individual structures within the labyrinth can be assessed with MVS. As a novel method of comfortable and sustained labyrinthine stimulation, MVS can provide new insights into vestibular physiology and pathophysiology.

  10. How One Exceptional Teacher Navigated Her Working Environment as the Teacher of a Marginal Subject (United States)

    Lux, Karen; McCullick, Bryan A.


    The purpose of this study was to analyze how one exceptional elementary physical education teacher navigated her working environment as the teacher of a marginal subject. Structuration Theory (Giddens, 1984) was used to make meaning of how the teacher functioned within her school community allowing her to remain motivated and effective. Data…

  11. Teachers mathematical communication profile in explaining subject matter (United States)

    Umami, Rohmatul; Budayasa, I. Ketut; Suwarsono, St.


    This study aimed to see a teachers mathematical communication profile in explaining a subject matter. It is a qualitative research. A high-school junior teacher (i.e., a teacher with 1- to 5-year experience) teaching mathematics at X-Social Class was selected as the subject of this study. The data was collected by observing the teachers mathematical communication in explaining a given material (i.e., the rule of sine) in class and an in-depth interview would be organized respectively. The result showed that the junior teacher explained the subject matter in systematic, complete, fluent, and centered manner. In this case, she began with reminding students on the previous material related to the current material to be learned, informing the current learning objectives, and finally delivering the subject matter. To support her explanation, the teacher also provided some related information, led the students attention into the given material by asking them particular related questions, and did not use any confusing terms. However, the study found that some of high-school teachers still used less appropriate language in explaining materials.

  12. GP teachers' subject matter knowledge in the context of a tutorial: the preparation and delivery compared. (United States)

    Cantillon, Peter; de Grave, Willem


    Clinical teachers use several different types of knowledge in the act of teaching. These include content knowledge (subject matter), knowledge of how to teach (pedagogy) and knowledge of learners (context). Most attention in faculty development has been on how to teach rather than what is taught. The quality of a teacher's subject matter knowledge is likely to be a critical determinant of how well a subject is presented, communicated and learned. We therefore set out to examine teachers' subject matter knowledge in the context of a general practice tutorial on grade 1 hypertension. This study is part of a larger study that employed a mixed method approach (concept mapping, phenomenological interviews and video-stimulated recall) to examine differences between clinical educators in subject matter knowledge, pedagogical knowledge and knowledge of the learning environment in the context of general practice education. This paper presents the concept map data findings from the larger study as well as the parts of the phenomenological interviews that relate to subject matter knowledge and beliefs. We found that there were marked differences in the quality and elaborative structure of GP teachers' knowledge in the concept maps completed prior to the tutorials. These differences were also predictive of differences in the content presented to learners in tutorials. Teachers' beliefs about subject matter were also likely to have affected what they chose to teach about and how they presented it. Subject matter knowledge varies considerably between GP teachers in the context of a common and relatively simple tutorial. Differences in the quality of subject matter knowledge matter because they have a profound effect on what is learned and how it is learned. Faculty development for clinical educators needs to pay heed to the quality of subject matter knowledge in addition to its more common pedagogical focus.

  13. Subject Teachers as Educators for Sustainability: A Survey Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Uitto


    Full Text Available Sustainability education (SE is included in school curricula to integrate the principles, values, and practices of sustainable development (SD into all education. This study investigates lower secondary school subject teachers as educators for sustainability. A survey was used to study the perceptions of 442 subject teachers from 49 schools in Finland. There were significant differences between the subject teachers’ perceptions of their SE competence, and the frequency with which they used different dimensions of SE (ecological, economic, social, well-being, cultural in their teaching varied. Teachers’ age had a small effect, but gender, school, and its residential location were nonsignificant factors. Teachers could be roughly classified into three different subgroups according to their perceptions of the role of SE in their teaching; those who considered three SE dimensions rather often and used holistic sustainability approaches in their teaching (biology, geography, history; those who considered two or three dimensions often but were not active in holistic teaching (mother tongue, religion, visual arts, crafts, music, physical and health education, and home economics and those who used one SE dimension or consider only one holistic approach in their teaching (mathematics, physics, chemistry and language. Subject teachers’ awareness of their SE competence is important to encourage them to plan and implement discipline-based and interdisciplinary SE in their teaching. The specific SE expertise of subject teachers should be taken into account in teacher training and education.

  14. The impact of teacher subject knowledge on student achievement: Evidence from within-teacher within-student variation


    Metzler, Johannes; Woessmann, Ludger


    Teachers differ greatly in how much they teach their students, but little is known about which teacher attributes account for this. We estimate the causal effect of teacher subject knowledge on student achievement using within-teacher within-student variation, exploiting a unique Peruvian 6th-grade dataset that tested both students and their teachers in two subjects. We circumvent omitted-variable and selection biases using student and teacher fixed effects and observing teachers teaching bot...

  15. Through the Camera's Eye: A Phenomenological Analysis of Teacher Subjectivity (United States)

    Greenwalt, Kyle A.


    The purpose of this study is to understand how preservice teachers experience a common university assignment: the videotaping and analysis of their own instruction. Using empirical data and the thought of the French philosophers Michel Foucault and Emmanuel Levinas, the study examines the difficulties in transitioning from student subjectivity to…

  16. The Impact of Teacher Qualification and Subject Major in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The simple correlation and regression statistics at the 0.01 and 0.05 significant levels were utilized for data analysis as well as the statistical inference. Findings indicated a significant positive relationship between students' academic achievement in mathematics and teacher qualification and subject majors. The findings ...

  17. students' perception of teacher's knowledge of subject matter and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The study used the ex post facto design to find out the influence of student's perception of teacher's knowledge of the subject matter on the Senior Secondary Three (SS 3) students' performance in reading comprehension. Questionnaires reading comprehension test were used in eliciting data. The data were subsequently ...

  18. Dynamic features of the learning activity of the future teacher as a teacher interaction subject


    Коць, Михайло Онисимович; Kots, Mykhailo O.


    This article deals with theoretical analysis and empirical investigation of educational activity dynamics of future teachers. Activity, awareness, mutual commitment are peculiar to educational interactions by both sides – the students (student) – a teacher – who act as subjects where coordinated action is the result and amplifies by mental state of contact are grounded. Methodological meaning of the notion activity in relation to psychological research, primarily in principle activity o...

  19. Subject Knowledge Development by Science Student Teachers: The Role of University Tutors and School-Based Subject Mentors (United States)

    Youens, Bernadette; McCarthy, Susan


    Following the introduction of a National Curriculum for Science, all secondary science teachers in England need to be prepared to teach all aspects of a broad and balanced science curriculum. This is the second paper in which we explore science student teachers' subject knowledge development during a one-year postgraduate teacher preparation…

  20. Interaction of transcranial magnetic stimulation and electrical transmastoid stimulation in human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Janet L; Petersen, Nicolas Caesar; Butler, Jane E


    Transcranial magnetic stimulation activates corticospinal neurones directly and transsynaptically and hence, activates motoneurones and results in a response in the muscle. Transmastoid stimulation results in a similar muscle response through activation of axons in the spinal cord. This study......-wave, facilitation still occurred at ISIs of -6 and -5 ms and depression of the paired response at ISIs of 0, 1, 4 and 5 ms. The interaction of the response to transmastoid stimulation with the multiple descending volleys elicited by magnetic stimulation of the cortex is complex. However, depression of the response...

  1. The Subject and the Setting: Re-Imagining Opportunities for Primary Teachers' Subject Knowledge Development on School-Based Teacher Education Courses (United States)

    Knight, Rupert


    The landscape of teacher education is undergoing significant change in many countries and this is often associated with a move towards greater school involvement in the preparation of teachers. One aspect of teaching expertise that is particularly challenging for primary student-teachers is the development of subject knowledge across a wide range…

  2. Subject-controlled stimulation of dorsal genital nerve to treat neurogenic detrusor overactivity at home. (United States)

    Opisso, Eloy; Borau, Albert; Rijkhoff, Nico J M


    To investigate the effects of subject controlled dorsal genital nerve (DGN) electrical stimulation on neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) in subjects at home. Subjects underwent a 5-day study at home with DGN stimulation. Stimulation was provided with surface electrodes placed either on the dorsal penile shaft in males and on or close to the clitoris in females. The days 1 and 5 were with no stimulation whereas days 2-4 were with stimulation. Two urodynamic studies were performed at the beginning and at the end of the study. A bladder diary was obtained. Eleven subjects with NDO and with urge incontinence were included. One subject stopped the protocol before the end of the 5-day trial and two did not undergo the second urodynamic study. The subjects showed a statistically significant increase in bladder capacities compared to baseline (P = 0.047). Mean volume per day voided significantly increased over the study within the subjects. Differences between day 1 and day 5 were statistically significant (P = 0.028). The feasibility and the globally positive outcomes of the study indicate that the stimulation of the dorsal genital nerve can be an option for the treatment of the NDO. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. A Conflict between Experience and Professional Learning: Subject Teachers' Beliefs about Teaching English Language Learners (United States)

    Gleeson, Margaret; Davison, Chris


    Secondary schools in Australia have long benefited from state policies aiming to increase the academic success of English language learners (ELLs). Complementary pre-service and in-service teacher education programmes have been implemented to raise the expertise of subject teachers who teach ELL students. However, subject teachers may not be…

  4. MUNIX and incremental stimulation MUNE in ALS patients and control subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furtula, Jasna; Johnsen, Birger; Christensen, Peter Broegger


    This study compares the new Motor Unit Number Estimation (MUNE) technique, MUNIX, with the more common incremental stimulation MUNE (IS-MUNE) with respect to reproducibility in healthy subjects and as potential biomarker of disease progression in patients with ALS.......This study compares the new Motor Unit Number Estimation (MUNE) technique, MUNIX, with the more common incremental stimulation MUNE (IS-MUNE) with respect to reproducibility in healthy subjects and as potential biomarker of disease progression in patients with ALS....

  5. Reformation of VET and Demands on Teachers' Subject Knowledge--Swedish Vocational Teachers' Recurrent Participation in a National CPD Initiative (United States)

    Köpsén, S.; Andersson, P.


    This study investigates continuing professional development (CPD) of vocational teachers, with a focus on recurrent participation. Vocational teachers need to be competent as teachers and in relation to their vocational teaching subject. Reformation of Swedish vocational education in order to strengthen the working-life connection imposes demands…

  6. Viscoelastic performance of dielectric elastomer subject to different voltage stimulation (United States)

    Sheng, Junjie; Zhang, Yuqing; Liu, Lei; Li, Bo; Chen, Hualing


    Dielectric elastomer (DE) is capable of giant deformation subject to an electric field, and demonstrates significant advantages in the potentially application of soft machines with muscle-like characteristics. Due to an inherent property of all macromolecular materials, DE exhibits strong viscoelastic properties. Viscoelasticity could cause a time-dependent deformation and lower the response speed and energy conversion efficiency of DE based actuators, thus strongly affect its electromechanical performance and applications. Combining with the rheological model of viscoelastic relaxation, the viscoelastic performance of a VHB membrane in a circular actuator configuration undergoing separately constant, ramp and sinusoidal voltages are analyzed both theoretically and experimentally. The theoretical results indicated that DE could attain a big deformation under a small constant voltage with a longer time or under a big voltage with a shorter time. The model also showed that a higher critical stretch could be achieved by applying ramping voltage with a lower rate and the stretch magnitude under sinusoidal voltage is much larger at a relatively low frequency. Finally, experiments were designed to validate the simulation and show well consistent with the simulation results.

  7. Effect of Low-Level Laser Stimulation on EEG Power in Normal Subjects with Closed Eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jih-Huah Wu


    Full Text Available In a previous study, we found that the low-level laser (LLL stimulation at the palm with a frequency of 10 Hz was able to induce significant brain activation in normal subjects with opened eyes. However, the electroencephalography (EEG changes to LLL stimulation in subjects with closed eyes have not been studied. In the present study, the laser array stimulator was applied to deliver insensible laser stimulations to the palm of the tested subjects with closed eyes (the laser group. The EEG activities before, during, and after the laser stimulation were collected. The EEG amplitude powers of each EEG frequency band at 19 locations were calculated. These power data were then analyzed by SPSS software using repeated-measure ANOVAs and appropriate posthoc tests. We found a pronounced decrease in the EEG power in alpha-bandwidth during laser simulation and then less decrease in the EEG power in delta-bandwidth in normal subjects with laser stimulation. The EEG power in beta-bandwidth in the right occipital area also decreased significantly in the laser group. We suggest that LLL stimulation might be conducive to falling into sleep in patients with sleep problems.

  8. Pedagogies of difference: Unknowing immigrant teachers as subjects forever in process


    Arndt Sonja


    Immersed in the bicultural, increasingly globalized, yet uniquely local, Aotearoa New Zealand early childhood landscape, immigrant teacher subjects are shaped in complicated, entangled ways. This paper attempts to open fresh spaces for re-thinking knowable teacher identities by drawing on Julia Kristeva’s work on the foreigner and the subject-in-process. It explores the immigrant teacher subject as “infinitely in construction, de-constructible, open and evolving” (Kristeva, 2008, p. 2). In a ...

  9. An International Teacher Training Project: Integrating Subject Content, Communicative and Digital Competences in Didactic Materials (United States)

    Sierra, Lina; Martin, Piedad


    The European intTT project "An Integral Teacher Training for Developing Digital and Communicative Competences and Subject Content Learning at Schools" deals with initial teacher training in primary and secondary School. The general objective of the project is to train future school teachers in order to improve the development of…

  10. Comparison of Coping Strategies of Student Teachers Based on Their Subject of Specialisation (United States)

    P. M., Majitha; Sajan, K. S.


    The purpose of the study was to find out the difference in the mean scores of coping strategies of student teachers based on their subject of specialisation. A total of 558 student teachers were selected for the study. Results indicate that there exists a significant difference in the mean scores of Coping Strategies of student teachers of Arts…

  11. The Discursive Construction of Power in Teacher Partnerships: Language and Subject Specialists in Mainstream Schools. (United States)

    Creese, Angela


    Shows how language and subject teachers in London secondary schools are positioned differently through their discursive performance of pedagogues and knowledge and how members of classroom communities view language and subject teachers as unequal. Data analysis dew on ethnography of communication and semiotic functional approaches to explain the…

  12. Pre-Service Physical Education Teachers' Perceptions of Subject Knowledge: Augmenting Learning to Teach (United States)

    Herold, Frank; Waring, Michael


    This paper explores pre-service teachers' perceptions of subject knowledge as they learn to teach during a one-year postgraduate certificate in education (PGCE) programme in England. The article examines the impact of pre-service teachers' previous experiences and individual subject knowledge profiles on their development during their PGCE course.…

  13. Internal and External Factors Shaping Educational Beliefs of High School Teachers of "Sacred" Subjects to Girls (United States)

    Iluz, Shira; Rich, Yisrael


    This research investigated pedagogical beliefs of teachers of "sacred" school subjects, curricular topics that the school community deems culturally valued, unassailable and inviolate. Two hundred and fifty-five teachers of girls only who taught sacred or secular subjects in Jewish modern religious high schools responded to questionnaires focusing…

  14. Digital Inclusion of Secondary Schools' Subject Teachers in Bolivia (United States)

    Popova, Iskra; Fabre, Gabriela


    The government of Bolivia planned to introduce information technology in secondary education through establishing computer labs in schools and through granting each subject teacher a laptop. This initiative was tested for the first time in 2012 with three public schools in La Paz. Most of the subject teachers have never used a computer before. The…

  15. Using Subjective Teacher Evaluations to Examine Principals' Personnel Management (United States)

    Master, Benjamin


    Teacher evaluation is at the center of current education policy reform. Most evaluation systems rely at least in part on principals' assessments of teachers, and their discretionary judgments carry substantial weight. However, we know relatively little about what they value when determining evaluations and high stakes personnel decisions. The…

  16. Mathematics teachers' knowledge of the subject content and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the need of the mathematics teacher to be equipped adequately in the content areas in mathematics, vis-a-vis the recent concerns about the poor performance of students in the pre-tertiary schools, and the competence of mathematics teachers in the field. The low performance in mathematics at the ...

  17. Teachers' Assessment Experiences and Perceptions in the Practical-Aesthetic Subjects (United States)

    Oltedal, Elizabeth; Gamlem, Siv M.; Kleivenes, Ole M.; Ryslett, Kari; Vasset, Thorstein


    A challenge for the practical-aesthetic subjects is the perception that they are less important than theoretical knowledge subjects. These subjects are among the non-core subjects receiving highest grades in Norwegian lower secondary schools, but also represent the highest number of complaints about grading. This study investigates teachers'…

  18. Stimulating professional development and teaching strategies of honors teachers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liliane Eggens; Drs. Elles Kazemier; Inge Wijkamp


    Professional development of teachers in honors programs. Presentation, Honors Conference: Learning to innovate – Evoking professional excellence in higher education, Hogeschool van Rotterdam. Rotterdam, 5 oktober 2013 Focus: Development of honors teaching strategies Research: Professional

  19. Temporal interactions during paired-electrode stimulation in two retinal prosthesis subjects. (United States)

    Horsager, Alan; Boynton, Geoffrey M; Greenberg, Robert J; Fine, Ione


    Since 2002, six blind patients have undergone implantation of an epiretinal 4 × 4 electrode array designed to directly stimulate the remaining cells of the retina after severe photoreceptor degeneration due to retinitis pigmentosa. This study was conducted to investigate how the brightness of percepts is affected by pulse timing across electrodes in two of these patients. Subjects compared the perceived brightness of a standard stimulus (synchronous pulse trains presented across pairs of electrodes) to the perceived brightness of a test stimulus (pulse trains across the electrode pair phase shifted by 0.075, 0.375, 1.8, or 9 ms). The current amplitude necessary for each phase-shifted test stimulus to match the brightness of the standard was determined. Depending on the electrode pair, interactions between electrodes were either facilitatory (the perceived brightness produced by stimulating the pair of electrodes was greater than that produced by stimulating either electrode alone) or suppressive (the perceived brightness produced by stimulating the pair of electrodes was less than that produced by stimulating either electrode alone). The amount of interaction between electrodes decreased as a function of increased separation both in time (the phase-shift between pulse trains) and space (center-to-center distance between the electrode pair). For visual prostheses to represent visual scenes that are changing in both space and time requires the development of spatiotemporal models describing the effects of stimulation across multiple electrodes. During multielectrode stimulation, interactions between electrodes have a significant influence on subjective brightness that includes both facilitatory and suppressive effects, and these interactions can be described with a simple computational model. ( number, NCT00279500.).

  20. Bone conduction hearing sensitivity in normal-hearing subjects: transcutaneous stimulation at BAHA vs BCI position. (United States)

    Reinfeldt, Sabine; Håkansson, Bo; Taghavi, Hamidreza; Eeg-Olofsson, Måns


    Bone conduction (BC) stimulation closer to the cochlea has previously been shown to give higher cochlear promontory acceleration measured by laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV). This study is investigating whether stimulation closer to the cochlea also gives improved hearing sensitivity. Furthermore, the study compares shifts in hearing sensitivity (BC thresholds) and ear-canal sound pressure (ECSP). BC hearing thresholds and ECSP have been measured for stimulation at two positions: the existing bone-anchored hearing aid (BAHA) position, and a new bone conduction implant (BCI) position that is located closer to the cochlea. The measurements were made on 20 normal-hearing subjects. Depending on frequency, the ipsilateral hearing threshold was 3-14 dB better, and the ipsilateral ECSP was 2-12 dB higher for the BCI than for the BAHA position, with no significant differences between threshold and ECSP shifts at group level for most frequencies, and individually only for some subjects. It was found that both the objective ECSP and the subjective hearing threshold measurements gave similar improvement as previous LDV measurements for stimulation closer to the cochlea. One exception was that the LDV measurements did not show the improved sensitivity for frequencies below 500 Hz found here.

  1. Lipoic Acid Stimulates cAMP Production in Healthy Control and Secondary Progressive MS Subjects. (United States)

    Fiedler, Sarah E; Yadav, Vijayshree; Kerns, Amelia R; Tsang, Catherine; Markwardt, Sheila; Kim, Edward; Spain, Rebecca; Bourdette, Dennis; Salinthone, Sonemany


    Lipoic acid (LA) exhibits antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties; supplementation reduces disease severity and T lymphocyte migration into the central nervous system in a murine model of multiple sclerosis (MS), and administration in secondary progressive MS (SPMS) subjects reduces brain atrophy compared to placebo. The mechanism of action (MOA) of LA's efficacy in suppression of MS pathology is incompletely understood. LA stimulates production of the immunomodulator cyclic AMP (cAMP) in vitro. To determine whether cAMP could be involved in the MOA of LA in vivo, we performed a clinical trial to examine whether LA stimulates cAMP production in healthy control and MS subjects, and whether there are differences in the bioavailability of LA between groups. We administered 1200 mg of oral LA to healthy control, relapsing remitting MS (RRMS) and SPMS subjects, and measured plasma LA and cAMP levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). There were no significant differences between the groups in pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters. Healthy and SPMS subjects had increased cAMP at 2 and 4 h post-LA treatment compared to baseline, while RRMS subjects showed decreases in cAMP. Additionally, plasma concentrations of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, a known cAMP stimulator) were significantly lower in female RRMS subjects compared to female HC and SPMS subjects 4 h after LA ingestion. These data indicate that cAMP could be part of the MOA of LA in SPMS, and that there is a divergent response to LA in RRMS subjects that may have implications in the efficacy of immunomodulatory drugs. This clinical trial, "Defining the Anti-inflammatory Role of Lipoic Acid in Multiple Sclerosis," NCT00997438, is registered at .

  2. Variability of insulin-stimulated myocardial glucose uptake in healthy elderly subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Klaus F; Hove, Jens D; Freiberg, Jacob


    The aim of this study was to assess regional and global variability of insulin-stimulated myocardial glucose uptake in healthy elderly subjects and to evaluate potentially responsible factors. Twenty men with a mean age of 64 years, no history of cardiovascular disease, and normal blood pressure......, bicycle exercise test, electrocardiogram and echocardiography were studied [ P(coronary artery disease) ... rest and hyperaemic blood flow during dipyridamole infusion were measured with nitrogen-13 ammonia and positron emission tomography in 16 left ventricular myocardial segments. Intra-individual and inter-individual variability of insulin-stimulated myocardial glucose uptake [relative dispersion...

  3. Pedagogies of difference: Unknowing immigrant teachers as subjects forever in process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arndt Sonja


    Full Text Available Immersed in the bicultural, increasingly globalized, yet uniquely local, Aotearoa New Zealand early childhood landscape, immigrant teacher subjects are shaped in complicated, entangled ways. This paper attempts to open fresh spaces for re-thinking knowable teacher identities by drawing on Julia Kristeva’s work on the foreigner and the subject-in-process. It explores the immigrant teacher subject as “infinitely in construction, de-constructible, open and evolving” (Kristeva, 2008, p. 2. In a sector that is grappling with the complexities of outcomes driven expectations of productivity, mass participation and often homogenized indicators of ‘quality’, this paper elevates insights into the subject formation of the Other, to expose cracks in this veneer, through the notions of the semiotic and revolt. In this critical philosophical examination, I reconceptualise the idea of knowing immigrant teacher subjects, and their confrontation and (renegotiation of social, political and professional expectations and unknowable foreignness.

  4. Involving Students’ Opinion in Actual and Preferred Teacher Interpersonal Behavior and Their Attitude Towards Science Subject


    Mustafa Kamal Nasution


    This study aims to investigate the student perception on teacher interpersonal behavior and their attitude toward science subject. 207 respondents were involved, consisted of 200 students in 10-12 grade and 7 science teachers of public high school in Aceh. Two types of questionnaires were used namely the Indonesian version of the questionnaire of teacher interaction (QTI) and test of science related attitude (TOSRA). SPSS program were applied to process the data statistically. First, the reli...

  5. Stimulating teachers' continuous professional development in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reynders, Liesje; Vermeulen, Marjan; Kessels, Joseph; Kreijns, Karel


    Planned Continuous Professional Development (CPD) in the past and current international initiatves are frequently based on an implicit deficiency assumption or gap-based model. This study answered the research question “To what extent can teachers be triggered to participate in CPD following a

  6. Language Teacher Subjectivities in Japan's Diaspora Strategies: Teaching My Language as Someone's Heritage Language (United States)

    Motobayashi, Kyoko


    This study demonstrates the ways in which discourses in a state-sponsored volunteer program incited transformations of individual subjectivities, focusing on a group of Japanese language teacher volunteers training in Japan to become teachers of Japanese as a heritage language for the country's diaspora (Nikkei) population in South America. As…

  7. Subject- and Experience-Bound Differences in Teachers' Conceptual Understanding of Sustainable Development (United States)

    Borg, C.; Gericke, N.; Höglund, H.-O.; Bergman, E.


    This article describes the results of a nationwide questionnaire study of 3229 Swedish upper secondary school teachers' conceptual understanding of sustainable development in relation to their subject discipline and teaching experience. Previous research has shown that teachers have difficulties understanding the complex concept of sustainable…

  8. Pre-Service Geography Teachers' Confidence in Geographical Subject Matter Knowledge and Teaching Geographical Skills (United States)

    Harte, Wendy; Reitano, Paul


    This research tracked the confidence of 16 undergraduate and postgraduate pre-service geography teachers as they completed a single semester, senior phase geography curriculum course. The study focused specifically on the pre-service teachers' confidence in geographical subject matter knowledge and their confidence in teaching geographical skills.…

  9. Insights from a Subject Knowledge Enhancement Course for Preparing New Chemistry and Physics Teachers (United States)

    Inglis, Michael; Mallaburn, Andrea; Tynan, Richard; Clays, Ken; Jones, Robert Bryn


    A recent Government response to shortages of new physics and chemistry teachers is the extended subject knowledge enhancement (SKE) course. Graduates without a physics or chemistry bachelor degree are prepared by an SKE course to enter a Postgraduate Certificate in Education (PGCE) programme to become science teachers with a physics or chemistry…

  10. Teacher Support and Adolescents' Subjective Well-Being: A Mixed-Methods Investigation (United States)

    Suldo, Shannon M.; Friedrich, Allison A.; White, Tiffany; Farmer, Jennie; Minch, Devon; Michalowski, Jessica


    Adolescents' subjective well-being (SWB) is associated with a variety of schooling experiences, particularly their perceptions of teacher support. This article presents results of a mixed-methods study conducted to identify which types of perceived social support enacted by teachers are most strongly associated with middle school students' SWB…

  11. The Teacher as One of the Factors Influencing Students' Perception of Biology as a School Subject (United States)

    Kubiatko, Milan; Torkar, Gregor; Rovnanova, Lenka


    The main aim of our research was to determine whether the teacher is one of the factors influencing students' perception of biology as a school subject. The study also aimed to identify the influence of certain other factors in this regard, specifically: students' gender and place of residence, the number of biology teachers who have taught the…

  12. An Investigation of Primary School Teachers' PCK towards Science Subjects Using an Inquiry-Based Approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Menşure Alkiş Küçükaydin; Şafak Uluçinar Sağir


    .... According to the results of the study, in which descriptive and content analysis were used concurrently, primary school teachers lack subject matter knowledge, do not interrogate the pre-knowledge...

  13. The effect of teacher interpersonal behaviour on students' subject-specific motivation


    den Brok, P.; Levy, J.; Brekelmans, M.; Wubbels, Th.


    This study brings together insights from research on teaching and learning in specific subjects, learning environments research and effectiveness research by linking teacher interpersonal behaviour to students’ subject-related attitudes. Teaching was studied in terms of a model originating from clinical psychology that was adapted to education. Teacher interpersonal behaviour was analysed interms of two, independent behaviour dimensions called Influence and Proximity. This study investigated ...

  14. Which factors obstruct or stimulate teacher educators to use ICT innovatively?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drent, Marjolein; Meelissen, Martina R.M.


    This article discusses the factors which stimulate or limit the innovative use of ICT by teacher educators in the Netherlands. Innovative use of ICT is defined as the use of ICT applications that support the educational objectives based on the needs of the current knowledge society. Explorative path

  15. Determinants of the induction of cortical plasticity by non-invasive brain stimulation in healthy subjects. (United States)

    Ridding, M C; Ziemann, U


    The ability to induce cortical plasticity with non-invasive brain stimulation (NBS) techniques has provided novel and exciting opportunities for examining the role of the human cortex during a variety of behaviours. Additionally, and importantly, the induction of lasting changes in cortical excitability can, under some conditions, reversibly modify behaviour and interact with normal learning. Such findings have driven a large number of recent studies examining whether by using such approaches it might be possible to induce functionally significant changes in patients with a large variety of neurological and psychiatric conditions including stroke, Parkinson's disease and depression. However, even in neurologically normal subjects the variability in the neurophysiological and behavioural response to such brain stimulation techniques is high. This variability at present limits the therapeutic usefulness of these techniques. The cause of this variability is multifactorial and to some degree still unknown. However, a number of factors that can influence the induction of plasticity have been identified. This review will summarise what is known about the causes of variability in healthy subjects and propose additional factors that are likely to be important determinants. A greater understanding of these determinants is critical for optimising the therapeutic applications of non-invasive brain stimulation techniques.

  16. Subject domain differences in secondary school teachers' attitudes towards grouping pupils by ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hallam Susan


    Full Text Available Previous research has revealed that teachers' attitudes to ability grouping are influenced by the type of ability grouping adopted in the school where they teach. This research aimed to compare the attitudes of teachers of different subjects teaching low, high or mixed ability classes in years 7 to 9 in 45 secondary schools. Over 1500 teachers from 45 secondary schools, with a range of subject specialisms completed a questionnaire which elicited their responses to statements of beliefs about ability grouping and its effects. Teachers of mathematics and modern foreign languages were more in favour of structured ability grouping than those teaching English and humanities. Science, arts and PE, and ICT, design and business studies teachers expressed intermediate attitudes. Attitudes were determined in part by conceptions of the nature of the subject but also by the type of ability groupings adopted by the school in which they taught. In taking decisions about the type of ability grouping to adopt consideration needs to be given to the nature of the subject matter to be taught and the attitudes of the teachers who teach that subject.

  17. Choosing Content and Methods: Focus Group Interviews with Faculty Teachers in Norwegian Pre-Service Subject Teacher Education in Design, Art, and Crafts (United States)

    Gulliksen, Marte S.; Hjardemaal, Finn R.


    The study is aimed at generating knowledge on how faculty teachers reflect and justify their choice of subject content logic in teacher education, exemplified by a concurrent pre-service Subject Teacher Education in design, art, and crafts. Focus-group interviews generated data. Three topics were discussed: too many choices, different logics, and…

  18. Non-invasive brain stimulation: enhancing motor and cognitive functions in healthy old subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximo Zimerman


    Full Text Available Healthy aging is accompanied by changes in cognitive and motor functions that result in impairment of activities of daily living. This process involves a number of modifications in the brain and is associated with metabolic, structural and physiological changes; some of these serving as adaptive responses to the functional declines. Up to date there are no universally accepted strategies to ameliorate declining functions in this population. An essential basis to develop such strategies is a better understanding of neuroplastic changes during healthy aging. In this context, non-invasive brain stimulation techniques, such as transcranial direct current or transcranial magnetic stimulation, provide an attractive option to modulate cortical neuronal assemblies, even with subsequent changes in neuroplasticity. Thus, in the present review we discuss the use of these techniques as a tool to study underlying cortical mechanisms during healthy aging and as an interventional strategy to enhance declining functions and learning abilities in aged subjects.

  19. Effects of Theta Burst Stimulation on Suprahyoid Motor Cortex Excitability in Healthy Subjects. (United States)

    Lin, Tuo; Jiang, Lisheng; Dou, Zulin; Wu, Cheng; Liu, Feng; Xu, Guangqing; Lan, Yue

    Continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) and intermittent TBS (iTBS) are powerful patterns of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), with substantial potential for motor function rehabilitation post-stroke. However, TBS of suprahyoid motor cortex excitability has not been investigated. This study investigated TBS effects on suprahyoid motor cortex excitability and its potential mechanisms in healthy subjects. Thirty-five healthy subjects (23 females; mean age = 21.66 ± 1.66 years) completed three TBS protocols on separate days, separated by at least one week. A stereotaxic neuronavigation system facilitated accurate TMS positioning. Left and right suprahyoid motor evoked potentials (SMEP) were recorded using single-pulse TMS from the contralateral suprahyoid motor cortex before stimulation (baseline) and 0, 15, and 30 min after stimulation. The SMEP latency and amplitude were analyzed via repeated measures analysis of variance. cTBS suppressed ipsilateral suprahyoid motor cortex excitability and activated the contralateral suprahyoid motor cortex. iTBS facilitated ipsilateral suprahyoid motor cortex excitability; however, it did not affect the contralateral excitability. iTBS eliminated the inhibitory effect caused by cTBS applied to the contralateral suprahyoid motor cortex. TBS had no significant effect on the latencies of bilateral SMEP. TBS effects on suprahyoid motor cortex excitability lasted a minimum of 30 min. TBS effectively regulates suprahyoid motor cortex excitability. Suppression of excitability in one hemisphere leads to further activation of the corresponding contralateral motor cortex. iTBS reverses the inhibitory effect induced by cTBS of the contralateral suprahyoid motor cortex. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Comparison of the pedalling performance induced by magnetic and electrical stimulation cycle ergometry in able-bodied subjects. (United States)

    Szecsi, J; Straube, A; Fornusek, C


    The purpose of the study was to compare the mechanical power and work generated by able-bodied subjects during functional magnetic stimulation (FMS) vs. functional electrical stimulation (FES) induced ergometer training conditions. Both stimulation methods were applied at a 30 Hz frequency to the quadriceps muscles of 22 healthy able-bodied subjects to induce cycling for 4× four minutes or until exhaustion. FMS was performed via large surface, cooled coils, while FES was applied with a typical stimulation setup used for cycling. Significantly more (pstimulation induced pain and fatigue mechanisms of the neuromuscular system. Copyright © 2013 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of tone-based sound stimulation on balance performance of normal subjects: preliminary investigation. (United States)

    Pagnacco, Guido; Klotzek, Adam S; Carrick, Frederick R; Wright, Cameron H G; Oggero, Elena


    Sound is known to affect the human brain, hence sound or music therapy is sometimes used to improve a subject's physicaland mental health. In this study, the effects sound stimulation has on balance were investigated by means of computerizeddynamic posturography tests performed with eyes closed on an unstable surface using a CAPS® system, exceeding theInternational Society for Posture and Gait Research (ISPGR) recommended metrological performance standards. Subjectswere tested without listening to any music (baseline), listening to “pure music”, and listening to the same music with differenttones embedded into it (one for each key). We found that different subjects react differently to different tones. Music alonedid not have a statistically significant effect on balance compared to the baseline, but the “best” tone significantly improvedbalance compared to the baseline or the “pure music” conditions. Furthermore, the “worst” tone reduced the balancecompared to “pure music”, but the reduction was not statistically significant relative to the baseline. The results thereforeindicate that, at least relative to balance performance, the tone-based sound stimulation we investigated is effective andinherently safe, but that tone selection depends on the individual subject.

  2. Involving Students’ Opinion in Actual and Preferred Teacher Interpersonal Behavior and Their Attitude Towards Science Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Kamal Nasution


    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the student perception on teacher interpersonal behavior and their attitude toward science subject. 207 respondents were involved, consisted of 200 students in 10-12 grade and 7 science teachers of public high school in Aceh. Two types of questionnaires were used namely the Indonesian version of the questionnaire of teacher interaction (QTI and test of science related attitude (TOSRA. SPSS program were applied to process the data statistically. First, the reliability of questionnaires is measured using descriptive statistics of all and each scale of QTI. Second, the difference between students’ perceptions on the actual and ideal teacher interpersonal behavior was computed by Paired Sample t-tests. Third, the relationship between students' perception on teachers’ interpersonal behavior and students' attitudes towards science subjects was compared using multiple regression analysis-standardized regression coefficient β. The finding showed that the Indonesian version of questionnaire of teacher interaction (QTI is reliable (αC = 0.86, to be applied to the high school students in the regency. It is generally seen that the students consider their teachers demonstrate more positive interpersonal behavior than the negative. However, it is clearly seen that between actual and ideal perceptions on the whole scale of QTI is significantly different. Last, from the three scales of teacher interpersonal behavior, helping/friendly, dissatisfaction, and admonishing appeared influential, only the helping/friendly scale significantly correlate (at the .05 level with student attitudes toward science subject.

  3. Educator versus Subject Matter Teacher: The Conflict between Two Sub-Identities in Becoming a Teacher (United States)

    Popper-Giveon, Ariela; Shayshon, Bruria


    Research literature often addresses the problems entailed in the integration of beginning teachers within the education system. Most studies emphasize the conflicts these teachers experience, especially between the personal and professional aspects of their profession. We conducted qualitative research among participants and graduates of the…

  4. The effect of teacher interpersonal behaviour on students' subject-specific motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Brok, P.; Levy, J.; Brekelmans, M.; Wubbels, Th.


    This study brings together insights from research on teaching and learning in specific subjects, learning environments research and effectiveness research by linking teacher interpersonal behaviour to students’ subject-related attitudes. Teaching was studied in terms of a model originating from

  5. More than Beliefs: Subject Areas and Teachers' Integration of Laptops in Secondary Teaching (United States)

    Howard, Sarah K.; Chan, Amy; Caputi, Peter


    The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship of subject areas to teachers' technology integration. Educational technology research has often identified "culture clashes" to explain differences in technology use between subject areas. These clashes are frequently attributed to core features, values and beliefs held in the…

  6. Comparison of neuropathology in Parkinson's disease subjects with and without deep brain stimulation. (United States)

    Pal, Gian D; Ouyang, Bichun; Serrano, Geidy; Shill, Holly A; Goetz, Christopher; Stebbins, Glenn; Metman, Leo Verhagen; Driver-Dunckley, Erika; Mehta, Shyamal H; Caviness, John N; Sabbagh, Marwan N; Adler, Charles H; Beach, Thomas G


    The aim of this postmortem study was to compare, in Parkinson's disease subjects with and without bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS), the loss of pigmented neurons within the substantia nigra and pathological alpha-synuclein density within the SN and other brain regions. PD subjects were identified from the Arizona Study of Aging and Neurodegenerative Disorders database (STN-DBS = 11, non-DBS = 156). Pigmented neuron loss scores within the substantia nigra as well as alpha-synuclein density scores within the substantia nigra and 9 other brain regions were compared, the latter individually and in summary as the Lewy body brain load score. DBS subjects had higher alpha-synuclein density scores within the substantia nigra, olfactory bulb, and locus ceruleus, as well as higher total Lewy body brain load scores when compared with non-DBS subjects. No differences in substantia nigra pigmented neuron loss scores were found. STN-DBS subjects tend to have higher alpha-synuclein density scores, but do not have a differential loss of substantia nigra pigmented neurons. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  7. Relationship between Voice Complaints and Subjective and Objective Measures of Vocal Function in Iranian Female Teachers. (United States)

    Faham, Maryam; Jalilevand, Nahid; Torabinezhad, Farhad; Silverman, Erin Pearson; Ahmadi, Akram; Anaraki, Zahra Ghayoumi; Jafari, Narges


    Teachers are at high risk of developing voice problems because of the excessive vocal demands necessitated by their profession. Teachers' self-assessment of vocal complaints, combined with subjective and objective measures of voice, may enable better therapeutic decision-making. This investigation compared audio-perceptual assessment and acoustic variables in teachers with and without voice complaints. Ninety-nine teachers completed this cross-sectional study and were assigned to one of two groups: those "with voice complaint (VC)" and those "without voice complaint (W-VC)." Voice samples were collected during reading, counting, and vowel prolongation tasks. Teachers were also asked to document any voice symptoms they experienced. Voice samples were analyzed using Dr. Speech program (4th version; Tiger Ltd., USA), and labeled "normal" or "abnormal" according to the "grade" dimension "G" from GRBAS scale. Twenty-one teachers were assigned to the VC group based on self-assessment data. There were statistically significant differences between the two groups with regard to self-reported voice symptoms of hoarseness, breathiness, pitch breaks, and vocal fatigue (P Teachers with and without voice complaints differed in the incidence, but not type of voice symptoms. Teachers' voice complaints did not correspond to perceptual and acoustic measures. This suggests a potential unmet need for teachers to receive further education on voice disorders. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. All rights reserved.

  8. Teacher´s Discourses and Subjectivity in Physics Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Villani


    Full Text Available In this work we will analyze some didactical interviews with two high school students about collision in Mechanics. After presenting some categories of analysis, we will show how subjective conditions and relationship to both knowledge and interviewer played important roles in the development of a searching process and in the production of mental schemes. Simultaneously, we will point out how and why interviewer interference was resonant or dissonant with those conditions.

  9. Insulin-stimulated glucose transport in circulating mononuclear cells from nondiabetic and IDDM subjects. (United States)

    Daneman, D; Zinman, B; Elliott, M E; Bilan, P J; Klip, A


    The objectives of this study were 1) to evaluate glucose transport and its regulation by insulin in easily accessible human cells, 2) to investigate the glucose transporter isoforms involved, and 3) to establish whether a defect in glucose transport is associated with peripheral insulin resistance, which is common in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) patients. We measured 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) uptake in circulating mononuclear cells from 23 nondiabetic adults, 16 adults with IDDM, and 10 children with IDDM. Circulating mononuclear cells were separated from whole blood by Ficoll gradients and incubated with +/- 1 nM insulin. 2-DG uptake was measured after incubation with [3H]2-DG and cell separation through corn oil-phthalate. Cytochalasin B-inhibitable 2-DG uptake (basal and insulin stimulated) was higher in control than in IDDM subjects (P less than 0.001). Insulin significantly increased 2-DG uptake or 3-O-methylglucose uptake in both groups. Basal and insulin-stimulated 2-DG uptake was similar for adults and children with IDDM and did not correlate with age or body mass index in any group or disease duration, insulin dosage, or HbA1c in IDDM. In separated monocytes and lymphocytes, 2-DG uptake increased in response to insulin only in the monocyte population. Insulin dose-response curves indicated maximal stimulation of hexose uptake at 1-2 nM insulin for both control and diabetic subjects and demonstrated a significant decrease in maximal insulin response in the latter. Immunoblotting with specific antibodies revealed that circulating mononuclear cells and separated monocytes express the GLUT1 but not the GLUT4 isoform of the glucose transporter.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Stimulating students’ creativity in MTM and ELTM classes: Content choice and teacher creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper is to highlight different means of stimulating creativity with students attending English Language Teaching and Mathematics Teaching Methodology courses and seminars. What is primarily analysed, exemplified and compared is the cultivation of creativity relative to the scientific content taught in the classes under discussion, by means of the creativity of the teacher seen as a key factor to stimulating students’ creativity in nowadays challenging teaching context. The conclusions invite to perspectivization and broaden the view over such a complex concept such as student creativity.

  11. Problems Faced By Elementary School Second Grade English Subject Matter Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belgin Bal Incebacak


    Full Text Available The objective of thisstudy isto determine the problems experienced by subject matter teachers while instructing English lessons in the second grade of elementary school. What are the problemsfaced by English subject matter teachers when they instruct in 2nd grade lessons? In this research the descriptive modeling, which is one of the qualitative research methods, was employed. In accordance with this objective, we worked with 8 subject matter teachers from 5 different schoolsinAtakum and Ilkadim districtslocated in downtown Samsun, through easily accessible case sampling. The semi-structured “English Course Interview Form’’was applied to the teachers. In the study, descriptive survey model was employed, since it was aimed to reveal the current status of qualitative research methods.According to the results obtained from the research, the content was configured and presented under 5 themes. They were categorized as: 1. the problems experienced in classroom management, 2. the problems in physical and cognitive readiness, 3. the problems experienced in the learning and teacher process, 4. the problems seen in counseling, 5. the problems experienced in assessment and evaluation. In conclusion, the teachers stated that they had problems with managing the classroom, especially with the second grade students, whom are younger than others. It is observed that the change for teaching English at a younger age has been appropriate. Our teachersstated that they required in-service training so as to adapt to this aforementioned change.

  12. Effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on mood in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Moulier


    Full Text Available Background: High frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC has shown significant efficiency in the treatment of resistant depression. However in healthy subjects, the effects of rTMS remain unclear. Objective: Our aim was to determine the impact of 10 sessions of rTMS applied to the DLPFC on mood and emotion recognition in healthy subjects. Design: In a randomised double-blind study, 20 subjects received 10 daily sessions of active (10 Hz frequency or sham rTMS. The TMS coil was positioned on the left DLPFC through neuronavigation. Several dimensions of mood and emotion processing were assessed at baseline and after rTMS with clinical scales, visual analogue scales (VASs, and the Ekman 60 faces test. Results: The 10 rTMS sessions targeting the DLPFC were well tolerated. No significant difference was found between the active group and the control group for clinical scales and the Ekman 60 faces test. Compared to the control group, the active rTMS group presented a significant improvement in their adaptation to daily life, which was assessed through VAS. Conclusion: This study did not show any deleterious effect on mood and emotion recognition of 10 sessions of rTMS applied on the DLPFC in healthy subjects. This study also suggested a positive effect of rTMS on quality of life.

  13. Anorectal stimulation causes increased colonic motor activity in subjects with spinal cord injury. (United States)

    Korsten, Mark A; Singal, Ashwani K; Monga, Amit; Chaparala, Geeta; Khan, Amir M; Palmon, Ron; Mendoza, John Reagan D; Lirio, Juan P; Rosman, Alan S; Spungen, Ann; Bauman, William A


    Difficulty with evacuation (DWE) is a major problem after spinal cord injury (SCI). Stimulation of the anal canal and lower rectum, accomplished using a gloved finger (so-called digital rectal stimulation or DRS) is often used as an adjunct to laxatives and enemas to facilitate bowel evacuation. However, the basis for the efficacy of DRS is not known. This study assessed the effect of DRS on colonic motility. Six subjects with SCI were studied several hours after a bowel care session. Colonic motility was assessed using a manometric catheter (affixed endoscopically to the splenic flexure) at baseline, during DRS, and after DRS. In addition, evacuation of barium oatmeal paste (with the consistency of stool and introduced into the rectum and descending colon) was assessed simultaneously using fluoroscopic techniques. The mean number (+/- SEM) of peristaltic waves per minute increased from 0 at baseline to 1.9 (+/- 0.5/min) during DRS and 1.5 (+/- 0.3/min) during the period immediately after cessation of DRS (P < 0.05). The mean amplitude (+/- SEM) of the peristaltic contractions was 43.4 (+/- 2.2) mmHg. The frequency of contractions, as well as amplitude of contractions, during or immediately after DRS was not significantly different. These manometric changes in response to DRS were accompanied by expulsion of barium oatmeal paste in every subject by the fifth DRS. DRS causes left-sided colonic activity in subjects with SCI. At least in part, an anorectal colonic reflex that results in enhanced contractions of the descending colon and rectum may contribute to bowel evacuation in individuals with SCI.

  14. Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Promotes Frontal Compensatory Mechanisms in Healthy Elderly Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Cespón


    Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS is potentially useful to improve working memory. In the present study, young and elderly subjects performed a working memory task (n-back task during an electroencephalogram recording before and after receiving anodal, cathodal, and sham tDCS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC. We investigated modulations of behavioral performance and electrophysiological correlates of working memory processes (frontal and parietal P300 event-related potentials. A strong tendency to modulated working memory performance was observed after the application of tDCS. In detail, young, but not elderly, subjects benefited from additional practice in the absence of real tDCS, as indicated by their more accurate responses after sham tDCS. The cathodal tDCS had no effect in any group of participants. Importantly, anodal tDCS improved accuracy in elderly. Moreover, increased accuracy after anodal tDCS was correlated with a larger frontal P300 amplitude. These findings suggest that, in elderly subjects, improved working memory after anodal tDCS applied over the left DLPFC may be related to the promotion of frontal compensatory mechanisms, which are related to attentional processes.

  15. Subjective stimulant and sedative effects of alcohol during early drinking experiences predict alcohol involvement in treated adolescents. (United States)

    Chung, Tammy; Martin, Christopher S


    Research on low subjective response to alcohol has focused primarily on alcohol's sedative effects during early drinking experiences. This study examined subjective response to both stimulant and sedative effects of alcohol during initial drinking experiences as predictors of treated adolescents' severity of alcohol involvement before treatment and over 1-year follow-up. Adolescents (N = 169) recruited from addictions treatment reported on the number of drinks needed to obtain stimulant and sedative effects of alcohol for early and heavy drinking periods. The number of drinks needed to obtain stimulant and sedative effects, as well as the degree of stimulant and sedative effect obtained, were examined as predictors of adolescents' alcohol involvement at baseline (before treatment) and 1-year follow-up. During early drinking experiences, females reported a greater degree of sedative effect compared with males; there was no gender difference in degree of stimulant effect reported during early drinking experiences. Both early subjective stimulant and sedative effects of alcohol predicted the usual number of drinks needed to become intoxicated and the maximum drinking quantity per day before treatment. However, at 1-year follow-up, only early sedative effects predicted 1-year outcomes. Study findings suggest potentially important roles for both early subjective stimulant and sedative effects of alcohol in relation to adolescent alcohol involvement.

  16. Subjective-personal readiness of correctional teachers to education of ASD children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateryna Ostrovska


    Full Text Available ASD teachers require skills that go beyond the realm of most educators including professional competences and high moral qualities. In the work theoretical approaches and experimental research on the problem of subjective personality readiness of correctional teachers in the education of ASD children are carried out. The psychological investigation has been conducted including measurement of psychological indices of 40 teachers of ASD children from the boarding school "Trust" and 40 teachers from mainstream schools of Lviv city aged from 28 to 59 years. The following methods are used: "Questionnaire for the measurement of tolerance" (Magun, Zhamkochyan, Magura, 2000; "Shein’s Career Anchors" method aimed at studying the career orientations of the teachers (Shein, 2010; “Diagnostics of empathy level” (Viktor Boiko, 2001; method of study “Motivation professional activities” by Catelin Zamfir in a modification of Artur Rean (Bordovskaya, & Rean, 2001. Based on the provided studies a program for development of subject-personality readiness of the correctional teacher to work with ASD children is proposed. The program consists of the following components: motivational component (professional competence, self-development, self-determination, self-control; cognitive component (intellectual personality autonomy, self-identification, stability, challenge, integration of lifestyles; emotionally-volitional component (empathy, positive attitude toward a child, intellectual analysis of emotions, self-regulation.

  17. No Effect of Cathodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Fear Memory in Healthy Human Subjects

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    Aditya Mungee


    Full Text Available Background: Studies have demonstrated that fear memories can be modified using non-invasive methods. Recently, we demonstrated that anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is capable of enhancing fear memories. Here, we examined the effects of cathodal tDCS of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during fear reconsolidation in humans. Methods: Seventeen young, healthy subjects were randomly assigned to two groups, which underwent fear conditioning with mild electric stimuli paired with a visual stimulus. Twenty-four hours later, both groups were shown a reminder of the conditioned fearful stimulus. Shortly thereafter, they received either tDCS (right prefrontal—cathodal, left supraorbital—anodal for 20 min at 1 mA, or sham stimulation. A day later, fear responses of both groups were compared. Results: On Day 3, during fear response assessment, there were no significant differences between the tDCS and sham group (p > 0.05. Conclusion: We conclude that cathodal tDCS of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (right prefrontal—cathodal, left supraorbital—anodal did not influence fear memories.

  18. Effects of short and prolonged transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation on heart rate variability in healthy subjects. (United States)

    De Couck, M; Cserjesi, R; Caers, R; Zijlstra, W P; Widjaja, D; Wolf, N; Luminet, O; Ellrich, J; Gidron, Y


    The vagus nerve is strategically located in the body, and has multiple homeostatic and health-promoting effects. Low vagal activity predicts onset and progression of diseases. These are the reasons to activate this nerve. This study examined the effects of transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (t-VNS) on a main index of vagal activity, namely heart rate variability (HRV). In Study 1, we compared short (10min) left versus right ear t-VNS versus sham (no stimulation) in a within-subjects experimental design. Results revealed significant increases in only one HRV parameter (standard deviation of the RR intervals (SDNN)) following right-ear t-VNS. Study 2 examined the prolonged effects of t-VNS (1h) in the right ear. Compared to baseline, right-t-VNS significantly increased the LF and LF/HF components of HRV, and SDNN in women, but not in men. These results show limited effects of t-VNS on HRV, and are discussed in light of neuroanatomical and statistical considerations and future directions are proposed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. South African Teachers' Views on the Inclusion of Spirituality Education in the Subject Life Orientation (United States)

    Jacobs, Anne C.


    As part of a larger research project into the practice and effectiveness of Life Orientation (LO), a compulsory subject in South African schools, this study investigated the views that teachers have regarding the constructs spirituality and religion within the context of LO. LO attempts to teach skills, attitudes and values from a holistic…

  20. Gratitude, Gratitude Intervention and Subjective Well-Being among Chinese School Teachers in Hong Kong (United States)

    Chan, David W.


    This study assessed the dispositional gratitude and its relationships with orientations to happiness and burnout in a sample of 96 Chinese school teachers in Hong Kong and investigated the effectiveness of an eight-week gratitude intervention programme using a pre-test/post-test design with outcome measures of subjective well-being in the same…

  1. Subject Knowledge Enhancement (SKE) Courses for Creating New Chemistry and Physics Teachers: Do They Work? (United States)

    Tynan, Richard; Mallaburn, Andrea; Jones, Robert Bryn; Clays, Ken


    During extended subject knowledge enhancement (SKE) courses, graduates without chemistry or physics bachelor degrees prepared to enter a Postgraduate Certificate in Education (PGCE) programme to become chemistry or physics teachers. Data were gathered from the exit survey returned by Liverpool John Moores University SKE students about to start…

  2. Subject Knowledge Enhancement Courses for Creating New Chemistry and Physics Teachers: The Students' Perceptions (United States)

    Tynan, Richard; Jones, Robert Bryn; Mallaburn, Andrea; Clays, Ken


    Subject knowledge enhancement (SKE) courses are one option open in England to graduates with a science background whose first degree content is judged to be insufficient to train to become chemistry or physics teachers. Previous articles in "School Science Review" have discussed the structure of one type of extended SKE course offered at…

  3. Developing Multimedia Enhanced Content to Upgrade Subject Content Knowledge of Secondary School Teachers in Tanzania (United States)

    Mtebe, Joel S.; Kibga, Elia Y.; Mwambela, Alfred A.; Kissaka, Mussa M.


    The failure rates and lack of interest amongst students in science and mathematics in secondary schools in Tanzania is a serious problem. The Ministry of Education and Vocational Training (MoEVT) implemented a project to enhance and upgrade the pedagogical knowledge and subject content knowledge of teachers in selected difficult topics in science…

  4. The Role of Subjectivity in Teacher Expertise Development: Mindfully Embracing the "Black Sheep" of Educational Research (United States)

    Inoue, Noriyuki


    In Western cultures, subjectivity has often been seen as the "black sheep" of educational research because of its heavy emphasis on objectivity. Consequently many research initiatives in education share the assumption that objective reasoning should play a central role. However, mentoring teachers' practice improvement research often…

  5. Motivation for choosing teaching as a career - the perspective of pre-service teachers, novices and experienced subject teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simić Nataša


    Full Text Available Since motivation for choosing the teaching profession figures as one of the most important determinants of the successfulness of teachers and even their students, this paper is aimed at investigating the factors of choosing teaching as a career. For that purpose, semi-structured interviews were conducted with the students of “teacher training” faculties, novices and subject teachers with more than five years of work experience (N=76. Thematic analysis was used to identify nine categories of motivational factors: Working with young people (the desire to have a dynamic and creative job in the surroundings of young people, Influence on students (the motivation to exert influence on students’ socio-emotional development, values and education, Dealing with the subject (the motivation for dealing with the science that the person studied, Class teacher/Teacher/Parents as a role model (the motivation stemming from the influence of significant others, Lecturing (the desire to “transfer knowledge”, Lifelong learning (the desire for permanent learning in different fields, Working hours and holidays (the motivation due to working hours and holidays, Fit with the abilities (the desire to realise the “naturally given” abilities and Reputation (the desire to be appreciated in the society. In keeping with the results of other studies, it has been found that altruistic motivation for the choice of teaching as a career is dominant, while extrinsic motivation is least present. The findings are interpreted in the light of the current models of motivation for choosing teaching as a career and the characteristics of teachers’ education and status in Serbia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179018: Identifikacija, merenje i razvoj kognitivnih i emocionalnih kompetencija važnih društvu orijentisanom na evropske integracije

  6. The Relationship between Teacher-Related Factors and Students' Attitudes towards Secondary School Chemistry Subject in Bureti District, Kenya (United States)

    Chepkorir, Salome; Cheptonui, Edna Marusoi; Chemutai, Agnes


    This paper examines the relationship between teacher-related factors and student's attitudes towards Chemistry subject in secondary schools in Kenya. The paper is based on a study conducted in Bureti District in Kericho County, Kenya. This paper highlights issues on the teaching methods used by chemistry teachers, the teachers' availability to…

  7. Sustainable Architecture in the Context of Education: Reponses of Primary School Teachers on the Topical Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cencič Majda


    Full Text Available The concept of sustainability and a sustainable and ecological development are common debate topics in today’s society. This paper discusses the concept of sustainability in green building with regard to schools. The research was conducted on a representative sample of primary school teachers, focusing on some of their opinions on green building. We asked them which aspect of building they favoured and how often they asked themselves certain questions about the school they taught in. Furthermore, we were interested to see whether we would find age-related differences. To this end, teachers were divided into two groups, namely, teachers of up to 35 years of age and teachers over 35. We were surprised to find that teachers over 35 had a more positive attitude towards green building in schools compared to their younger colleagues. Based on the results, we came to a conclusion that the topics pertaining to ecology and sustainable development are neglected in today’s education. However, making them part of school curriculum is not enough, as the opinions and attitudes of teachers on sustainable and ecological issues also have an important impact on the subject-matter itself.

  8. Binaural hearing ability with mastoid applied bilateral bone conduction stimulation in normal hearing subjects. (United States)

    Stenfelt, Stefan; Zeitooni, Mehrnaz


    The ability to use binaural cues when stimulation was by bilaterally applied bone conduction (BC) transducers was investigated in 20 normal hearing participants. The results with BC stimulation were compared with normal air conduction (AC) stimulation through earphones. The binaural hearing ability was tested by spatial release from masking, binaural intelligibility level difference (BILD), binaural masking level difference (BMLD) using chirp stimulation, and test of the precedence effect. In all tests, the participants revealed a benefit of bilateral BC stimulation indicating use of binaural cues. In the speech based tests, the binaural benefit for BC stimulation was approximately half that with AC stimulation. For the BC BMLD test with chirp stimulation, there were indications of superposition of the ipsilateral and contralateral pathways at the cochlear level affecting the results. The precedence effect test indicated significantly worse results for BC stimulation than for AC stimulation with low-frequency stimulation while they were close for high-frequency stimulation; broad-band stimulation gave results that were slightly worse than the high-frequency results.

  9. Students' Perceptions of Teachers' Interpersonal Behaviour across Four Different School Subjects: Control Is Good but Affiliation Is Better (United States)

    Telli, Sibel


    Many researchers have pointed out that teachers' interpersonal behaviour relates to students' positive attitudes towards schooling. However, only few studies have examined whether students' perceptions of their teachers' interpersonal behaviour relates to students' subject-related attitudes across different school subjects. In this study, it was…

  10. Lessons Learned? Teaching Student Teachers to Use ICT in Their Subject Teaching: A View from the UK (United States)

    Haydn, Terry


    The paper looks at the ways in which policymakers in the UK have attempted to get student teachers to use new technology effectively in their subject teaching over the past decade. During this period, there have been changes in the competence frameworks for validating student teachers' ability to use ICT in their subject teaching, and the UK…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norudin Mansor


    Full Text Available The policy of changing the medium of instruction in the teaching of mathematics and science from Bahasa Melayu to English is an important innovation affecting teachers of mathematics and science. It poses special challenges not only for teachers who have been trained in the Malay medium but also for those trained in English. This investigation seeks to find out the achievement of students in mathematic and science subjects after considering the impact of prominent independent variables such as, the school, class and home environment, the teaching methodology and the teachers’ attitude. Analysis of the development in the state of Terengganu has been carried out by the distribution of questionnaires to teachers involved. Result of the correlation and multiple regressions indicated that all the three factors are significantly associated towards students’ achievement. However, the teaching methodology indicated a low level of moderate correlation which is believed to be the immediate issue that needed to be addressed in the new system.

  12. Gravity dependence of the effect of optokinetic stimulation on the subjective visual vertical. (United States)

    Ward, Bryan K; Bockisch, Christopher J; Caramia, Nicoletta; Bertolini, Giovanni; Tarnutzer, Alexander Andrea


    Accurate and precise estimates of direction of gravity are essential for spatial orientation. According to Bayesian theory, multisensory vestibular, visual, and proprioceptive input is centrally integrated in a weighted fashion based on the reliability of the component sensory signals. For otolithic input, a decreasing signal-to-noise ratio was demonstrated with increasing roll angle. We hypothesized that the weights of vestibular (otolithic) and extravestibular (visual/proprioceptive) sensors are roll-angle dependent and predicted an increased weight of extravestibular cues with increasing roll angle, potentially following the Bayesian hypothesis. To probe this concept, the subjective visual vertical (SVV) was assessed in different roll positions (≤ ± 120°, steps = 30°, n = 10) with/without presenting an optokinetic stimulus (velocity = ± 60°/s). The optokinetic stimulus biased the SVV toward the direction of stimulus rotation for roll angles ≥ ± 30° (P integration when estimating direction of gravity with optokinetic stimulation. Visual input was weighted more when vestibular input became less reliable, i.e., at larger roll-tilt angles. However, according to Bayesian theory, the variability of combined cues is always lower than the variability of each source cue. If the observed increase in variability, although nonsignificant, is true, either it must depend on an additional source of variability, added after SVV computation, or it would conflict with the Bayesian hypothesis.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Applying a rotating optokinetic stimulus while recording the subjective visual vertical in different whole body roll angles, we noted the optokinetic-induced bias to correlate with the roll angle. These findings allow the hypothesis that the established optimal weighting of single-sensory cues depending on their reliability to estimate direction of gravity could be extended to a bias caused by visual self-motion stimuli. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological

  13. Directional migration and transcriptional analysis of oligodendrocyte precursors subjected to stimulation of electrical signal. (United States)

    Li, Yongchao; Wang, Xinkun; Yao, Li


    Loss of oligodendrocytes as the result of central nervous system disease causes demyelination that impairs axon function. Effective directional migration of endogenous or grafted oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) to a lesion is crucial in the neural remyelination process. In this study, the migration of OPCs in electric fields (EFs) was investigated. We found that OPCs migrated anodally in applied EFs, and the directedness and displacement of anodal migration increased significantly when the EF strength increased from 50 to 200 mV/mm. However, EFs did not significantly affect the cell migration speed. The transcriptome of OPCs subjected to EF stimulation (100 and 200 mV/mm) was analyzed using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq), and results were verified by the reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. A Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis revealed that the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway that signals cell migration was significantly upregulated in cells treated with an EF of 200 mV/mm compared with control cells. Gene ontology enrichment analysis showed the downregulation of differentially expressed genes in chemotaxis. This study suggests that an applied EF is an effective cue to guiding OPC migration in neural regeneration and that transcriptional analysis contributes to the understanding of the mechanism of EF-guided cell migration. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Normative data of cortical excitability measurements obtained by transcranial magnetic stimulation in healthy subjects. (United States)

    Cueva, Ana Sofia; Galhardoni, Ricardo; Cury, Rubens Gisbert; Parravano, Daniella Cardoso; Correa, Guilherme; Araujo, Haniel; Cecilio, Sofia Barros; Raicher, Irina; Toledo, Diego; Silva, Valquíria; Marcolin, Marco Antonio; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Ciampi de Andrade, Daniel


    The assessment of cortical excitability (CE) measurements has been increasingly used in neuropsychiatric research. However, there is scant information on the normative values of these measurements, as well as the possible effect of hemisphere laterality, gender and age on these variables. To obtain normative data for CE measurements by transcranial magnetic stimulation, to assess inter-/intra-investigator variability and the influence of sex, age and oral contraception use. A sample of 216 healthy volunteers matched according to age and gender was evaluated. Bilateral rest motor thresholds, motor evoked potentials (MEP), intracortical inhibition and facilitation were measured in the first dorsal interosseous muscle area representation of the primary motor cortex with a circular transcranial magnetic stimulation coil delivering biphasic pulses. Normative data were obtained for 200 participants (in a 1:1 male:female ratio) in a balanced proportion between five age groups (18-30; 31-40; 41-50; 51-60; >60 years). Inter/intra-investigator variability was assessed in 20 healthy volunteers in two sessions performed within a 30-minute interval. Measurements were also performed in a subgroup of 16 healthy female volunteers, using oral contraception and during the menstrual phase. Age had a dichotomous effect on CE measurements, providing significantly different normative data for subjects 50 years old, with smaller MEP's and intracortical inhibition in older individuals. There were no differences between genders or between left and right hemispheres. Also, CE parameters did not significantly differ with use of contraceptive treatment compared to the menstrual phase of the cycle. The inter-/intra-investigator reliability assessment showed some variability that may not be clinically significant. Age had a non-linear effect on CE. There were non-significant differences between genders, hemispheres or with use of oral contraceptives. There was good inter

  15. Subject-Oriented Approach in the Professional Formation of the Future Music Teacher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V. Karkina


    Full Text Available The article deals with the possibilities of introducing a subject-oriented approach into the practice of professional education of the future music teacher. Particular attention is paid to the forms and methods used in this field, as well as to the conditions of the modern cultural environment, which allows for the free self-realization of the individual in accordance with his subject needs. Subject-oriented approach is the practice-oriented research. The study identified a number of the most significant components in the preparation of a music teacher, such as individual forms of studies and a number of special methods, which include the method of artistic associations, verbal "allegories", metaphors, the method of heuristic tasks for mastering creative activities. The openness of the musical and pedagogical system has great importance in its ability to respond to changes in the music and educational environment, which includes educational institutions and various cultural institutions: theaters, concert halls, orchestral and choir groups. All that conditions are necessary to ensure the possibility of creative self-realization and self-actualization of future music teachers.

  16. Differential effects of painful and non-painful stimulation on tactile processing in fibromyalgia syndrome and subjects with masochistic behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Pollok

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In healthy subjects repeated tactile stimulation in a conditioning test stimulation paradigm yields attenuation of primary (S1 and secondary (S2 somatosensory cortical activation, whereas a preceding painful stimulus results in facilitation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Since previous data suggest that cognitive processes might affect somatosensory processing in S1, the present study aims at investigating to what extent cortical reactivity is altered by the subjective estimation of pain. To this end, the effect of painful and tactile stimulation on processing of subsequently applied tactile stimuli was investigated in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS and in subjects with masochistic behaviour (MB by means of a 122-channel whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG system. Ten patients fulfilling the criteria for the diagnosis of FMS, 10 subjects with MB and 20 control subjects matched with respect to age, gender and handedness participated in the present study. Tactile or brief painful cutaneous laser stimuli were applied as conditioning stimulus (CS followed by a tactile test stimulus (TS 500 ms later. While in FMS patients significant attenuation following conditioning tactile stimulation was evident, no facilitation following painful stimulation was found. By contrast, in subjects with MB no attenuation but significant facilitation occurred. Attenuation as well as facilitation applied to cortical responses occurring at about 70 ms but not to early S1 or S2 responses. Additionally, in FMS patients the amount of attenuation was inversely correlated with catastrophizing tendency. CONCLUSION: The present results imply altered cortical reactivity of the primary somatosensory cortex in FMS patients and MB possibly reflecting differences of individual pain experience.

  17. The effects of job crafting on subjective well-being amongst South African high school teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Peral


    Full Text Available Orientation: Job crafting can result in a number of positive outcomes for teachers, such as increased meaningfulness and engagement at work. Increased work engagement and psychological meaningfulness may yield positive benefits for the practice of teaching, thus highlighting the pivotal role of job crafting.Research purpose: The study’s aim was to investigate the relationship between job crafting and subjective well-being amongst South African high school teachers. Subjective well-being comprises psychological meaningfulness and work engagement. The potential mediating effect that psychological meaningfulness had on this relationship was further explored.Motivation for the study: Being in a highly stressful occupation, teachers need to continuously find ways to craft their working practices in order to deal effectively with their job demands and to capitalise on their available job resources. Furthermore, South Africa’s current education system calls for serious proactive measures to be taken to improve and rectify the current status, such as job crafting.Research approach, design and method: A quantitative, cross-sectional survey design was used and administered to a sample of South African high school teachers situated in Gauteng, South Africa (N = 251.Main findings: A positive relationship was found between job crafting (increasing structural resources and challenging job demands and work engagement. Furthermore, psychological meaningfulness mediated the relationship between job crafting and work engagement amongst the sampled high school teachers.Practical/managerial implications: Teachers who craft their work to better suit their preferences and needs will obtain greater meaning in their work and experience increased levels of work engagement. Training programmes and/or group-based interventions targeted around job crafting techniques may be particularly useful in the South African teaching context.Contribution/value-add: This study

  18. Transcranial direct current stimulation improves the QT variability index and autonomic cardiac control in healthy subjects older than 60 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piccirillo G


    Full Text Available Gianfranco Piccirillo,1 Cristina Ottaviani,2 Claudia Fiorucci,1 Nicola Petrocchi,2 Federica Moscucci,1 Claudia Di Iorio,1 Fabiola Mastropietri,1 Ilaria Parrotta,1 Matteo Pascucci,1 Damiano Magrì3 1Department of Cardiovascular, Respiratory, Nephrological, Anestesiological and Geriatric Sciences, “Sapienza” University, 2Neuroimaging Laboratory, IRCCS Santa Lucia Foundation, 3Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, University of Rome “Sapienza”, Rome, Italy Background: Noninvasive brain stimulation technique is an interesting tool to investigate the causal relation between cortical functioning and autonomic nervous system (ANS responses. Objective: The objective of this report is to evaluate whether anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS over the temporal cortex influences short-period temporal ventricular repolarization dispersion and cardiovascular ANS control in elderly subjects. Subjects and methods: In 50 healthy subjects (29 subjects younger than 60 years and 21 subjects older than 60 years matched for gender, short-period RR and systolic blood pressure spectral variability, QT variability index (QTVI, and noninvasive hemodynamic data were obtained during anodal tDCS or sham stimulation. Results: In the older group, the QTVI, low-frequency (LF power expressed in normalized units, the ratio between LF and high-frequency (HF power, and systemic peripheral resistances decreased, whereas HF power expressed in normalized units and α HF power increased during the active compared to the sham condition (P<0.05. Conclusion: In healthy subjects older than 60 years, tDCS elicits cardiovascular and autonomic changes. Particularly, it improves temporal ventricular repolarization dispersion, reduces sinus sympathetic activity and systemic peripheral resistance, and increases vagal sinus activity and baroreflex sensitivity. Keywords: transcranial direct current stimulation, QT variability, heart rate variability

  19. Determinants of the induction of cortical plasticity by non‐invasive brain stimulation in healthy subjects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ridding, M. C; Ziemann, U


    The ability to induce cortical plasticity with non‐invasive brain stimulation (NBS) techniques has provided novel and exciting opportunities for examining the role of the human cortex during a variety of behaviours...

  20. An Analysis of Prospective Chemistry Teachers' Cognitive Structures through Flow Map Method: The Subject of Oxidation and Reduction (United States)

    Temel, Senar


    This study aims to analyse prospective chemistry teachers' cognitive structures related to the subject of oxidation and reduction through a flow map method. Purposeful sampling method was employed in this study, and 8 prospective chemistry teachers from a group of students who had taken general chemistry and analytical chemistry courses were…

  1. What Subject Matter Knowledge Do Second-Level Teachers Need to Know to Teach Trigonometry? An Exploration and Case Study (United States)

    Walsh, Richard; Fitzmaurice, Olivia; O'Donoghue, John


    This study reports on the level of trigonometry Subject Matter Knowledge (SMK) of third and final-year pre-service second-level mathematics teachers () at an Irish third-level institution. The aim of the study was to determine if this sample of prospective teachers has an appropriate level of SMK to teach second-level trigonometric concepts. The…

  2. Teacher Related Factors Influencing Students' Enrollment in Biology Subject in Public Secondary Schools in Meru Central Sub County in Kenya (United States)

    Kirima, Teresia Mugure; Kinyua, Susan Muthoni


    This study examined teacher related factors influencing students' enrollment in Biology subject in public secondary schools in Meru Central Sub County in Kenya. The study utilized the descriptive survey research design on a target population of 9,859 respondents consisting of 9,748 Biology students, 62 trained Biology teachers and 49 Heads of…

  3. A Teacher's Perspective of Geography: A School Subject for Today, Tomorrow, and for All Time (United States)

    MacLeod, Douglas G.


    In this article, a retired long-time geography teacher offers his perspective on what a geography teacher needs to keep in mind when teaching geography. The author notes that geography is a useful school subject because it helps young people make their way in the world by giving them some tools to become lifelong learners. The author encourages…

  4. The Knowledge Base of Subject Matter Experts in Teaching: A Case Study of a Professional Scientist as a Beginning Teacher (United States)

    Diezmann, Carmel M.; Watters, James J.


    One method of addressing the shortage of science and mathematics teachers is to train scientists and other science-related professionals to become teachers. Advocates argue that as discipline experts these career changers can relate the subject matter knowledge to various contexts and applications in teaching. In this paper, through interviews and…

  5. In a Strange and Uncharted Land: ESP Teachers' Strategies for Dealing with Unpredicted Problems in Subject Knowledge during Class (United States)

    Wu, HuiDan; Badger, Richard G.


    The literature on English for Specific Purposes (ESP) has largely ignored one of its most distinctive features: many ESP teachers have to teach subject-specific texts from areas outside their primary areas of expertise. This paper addresses this issue by investigating the teaching practices and cognitions of three teachers of maritime English in a…

  6. Should Bible Studies Remain in Israeli Public Schools? Teachers' Attitudes toward Bible Teaching as a Mandatory Subject (United States)

    Idalovichi, Israel


    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview and analysis of attitudes of Israeli K-12 educators and bible teachers toward religious studies. Teachers' attitudes toward bible teaching as a mandatory subject are, on the whole, positive throughout the country. The present study addresses the absence of systematic research into the opinions…

  7. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo


    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  8. Effects of exercise and electrical stimulation on lumbar stabilization in asymptomatic subjects: a comparative study. (United States)

    Bilgin, Sevil; Temucin, Cagrı Mesut; Nurlu, Gulay; Kaya, Derya Ozer; Kose, Nezire; Gunduz, Arzu Guclu


    Segmental stabilization training and electrical stimulation are used as a treatment for patients with low back pain. There is limited information on the efficacy of two interventions in the literature. In this study, the efficacy of the two interventions on the multifidus muscle activation and fatigue, segmental stabilization training and electrical stimulation, were examined and compared. Our sample consists of 30 asymptomatic individuals, randomly assigned to one of three groups: the group that was given segmental stabilization training, the group that was given electrical stimulation and the control group that received no treatment. The muscle activity and fatigability of the multifidus were recorded by the surface electromyography before and after the intervention. No difference is detected for any of the multifidus muscle activation and fatigue characteristics either within or between groups. Both techniques did not improve multifidus activation capacity. An effort at submaximal and maximal level affects and increases the activity of multifidus.

  9. Teaching More than the Facts of Menstruation: Exercises to Stimulate Dialogue about a Taboo Subject. (United States)

    Taylor, Christina J.


    Presents nine exercises designed to help students and teachers become more aware of their attitudes about menstruation and to move beyond the realms of mystery, ignorance, and taboos. Participants list and analyze expressions used to refer to menstruation, discuss pleasant and unpleasant experiences, and recall feelings on first learning of…

  10. The efficiency of simultaneous binaural ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials: a comparative study with monaural acoustic stimulation in healthy subjects. (United States)

    Kim, Min-Beom; Ban, Jae Ho


    To evaluate the test-retest reliability and convenience of simultaneous binaural acoustic-evoked ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (oVEMP). Thirteen healthy subjects with no history of ear diseases participated in this study. All subjects underwent oVEMP test with both separated monaural acoustic stimulation and simultaneous binaural acoustic stimulation. For evaluating test-retest reliability, three repetitive sessions were performed in each ear for calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for both monaural and binaural tests. We analyzed data from the biphasic n1-p1 complex, such as latency of peak, inter-peak amplitude, and asymmetric ratio of amplitude in both ears. Finally, we checked the total time required to complete each test for evaluating test convenience. No significant difference was observed in amplitude and asymmetric ratio in comparison between monaural and binaural oVEMP. However, latency was slightly delayed in binaural oVEMP. In test-retest reliability analysis, binaural oVEMP showed excellent ICC values ranging from 0.68 to 0.98 in latency, asymmetric ratio, and inter-peak amplitude. Additionally, the test time was shorter in binaural than monaural oVEMP. oVEMP elicited from binaural acoustic stimulation yields similar satisfactory results as monaural stimulation. Further, excellent test-retest reliability and shorter test time were achieved in binaural than in monaural oVEMP.

  11. What stimulates teachers to integrate ICT in their pedagogical practices? The use of digital learning materials in education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreijns, Karel; Van Acker, Frederik; Vermeulen, Marjan; Van Buuren, Hans


    The question ‘What stimulates teachers to integrate Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in their pedagogical practices?’ was addressed in the context of teachers’ usage of digital learning mate- rials (DLMs). We adopted Fishbein’s Integrative Model of Behavior Prediction (IMBP), to

  12. Suppression of EMG activity by transcranial magnetic stimulation in human subjects during walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nicolas Caesar; Butler, Jane E; Marchand-Pauvert, Veronique


    1. The involvement of the motor cortex during human walking was evaluated using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the motor cortex at a variety of intensities. Recordings of EMG activity in tibialis anterior (TA) and soleus muscles during walking were rectified and averaged. 2. TMS of lo...

  13. Thyroid peroxidase antibodies, levels of thyroid stimulating hormone and development of hypothyroidism in euthyroid subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, A.; Links, T.P.; de Jong-van den Berg, L.T.; Gans, R.O.; Wolffenbuttel, B.H.; Bakker, S.J.


    Objective: Thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAbs) have been found to be related to the levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and to predict future development of thyroid failure in selected populations. We investigated these relations in a euthyroid general population. Design: Cross-sectional

  14. Synchronization of neuron population subject to steady DC electric field induced by magnetic stimulation. (United States)

    Yu, Kai; Wang, Jiang; Deng, Bin; Wei, Xile


    Electric fields, which are ubiquitous in the context of neurons, are induced either by external electromagnetic fields or by endogenous electric activities. Clinical evidences point out that magnetic stimulation can induce an electric field that modulates rhythmic activity of special brain tissue, which are associated with most brain functions, including normal and pathological physiological mechanisms. Recently, the studies about the relationship between clinical treatment for psychiatric disorders and magnetic stimulation have been investigated extensively. However, further development of these techniques is limited due to the lack of understanding of the underlying mechanisms supporting the interaction between the electric field induced by magnetic stimulus and brain tissue. In this paper, the effects of steady DC electric field induced by magnetic stimulation on the coherence of an interneuronal network are investigated. Different behaviors have been observed in the network with different topologies (i.e., random and small-world network, modular network). It is found that the coherence displays a peak or a plateau when the induced electric field varies between the parameter range we defined. The coherence of the neuronal systems depends extensively on the network structure and parameters. All these parameters play a key role in determining the range for the induced electric field to synchronize network activities. The presented results could have important implications for the scientific theoretical studies regarding the effects of magnetic stimulation on human brain.

  15. ”Nice to have!”: Teacher perceptions of practical and aesthetical curriculum subjects in primary schools


    Aadland Helga; Magne Espeland; Ingrid Grønsdal; Trond Egil Arnesen; Kjetil Sømoe


    In this article we present findings from "Skolefagsundersøkelsen 2011", a national survey mapping teacher perceptions of different aspects of teaching and conditions for the curriculum subjects art & craft, home economics, music, and physical education (PA-subjects), in grades 1-7 in primary school. The questions we focus on and discuss in the article are connected to teachers’ attitudes to this group of subjects, and their use of methods often associated with PA-subjects in other school ...

  16. ”Nice to have!”: Teacher perceptions of practical and aesthetical curriculum subjects in primary schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aadland Helga


    Full Text Available In this article we present findings from "Skolefagsundersøkelsen 2011", a national survey mapping teacher perceptions of different aspects of teaching and conditions for the curriculum subjects art & craft, home economics, music, and physical education (PA-subjects, in grades 1-7 in primary school. The questions we focus on and discuss in the article are connected to teachers’ attitudes to this group of subjects, and their use of methods often associated with PA-subjects in other school subjects, like mathematics and science. Our findings suggest that our teacher informants generally have a very positive attitude to PA-subjects and that they believe in the effects of using PA methods in other subjects. However, in everyday schooling, this does only take place to a very small degree.

  17. Neural correlates of transmeatal cochlear laser (TCL) stimulation in healthy human subjects. (United States)

    Siedentopf, Christian M; Ischebeck, Anja; Haala, Ilka A; Mottaghy, Felix M; Schikora, Detlef; Verius, Michael; Koppelstaetter, Florian; Buchberger, Waltraud; Schlager, Andreas; Felber, Stephan R; Golaszewski, Stefan M


    Transmeatal cochlear laser (TCL) treatment has recently been proposed as a therapeutic procedure for cochlear dysfunction such as chronic cochlear tinnitus or sensorineural hearing loss. The aim of this study was to investigate whether TLC has any influence on the central nervous system using functional MRI with healthy young adults. The laser stimulation device was placed on the tympanic membrane of both ears. A laser stimulation run and a placebo run were performed in random order. The participants were unable to differentiate between verum and placebo stimulation. In the comparison of verum to placebo runs, we observed significant activations within the left superior frontal gyrus, the right middle and medial frontal gyrus, the right superior parietal lobule, the left superior occipital gyrus, the precuneus and cuneus bilaterally, the right anterior and the left and right middle and posterior cingulate gyrus and the left thalamus. This network of brain areas corresponds well to results from previous PET studies of patients with tinnitus. Though TCL seems to have a clinically measurable effect on the central nervous system the neurophysiological mechanism leading to the observed activated neuronal network remains unknown.

  18. Objective QbTest and subjective evaluation of stimulant treatment in adult attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder. (United States)

    Bijlenga, D; Jasperse, M; Gehlhaar, S K; Sandra Kooij, J J


    To evaluate the QbTest as an objective measure versus self-reported ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD-RS) before and during stimulant treatment in adults with ADHD. We used the subjective ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD-RS), and the objective computerized QbTest, which is a 20-minute unconditional identical pairs test that measures attention, impulsivity, and also hyperactivity using a motion-tracking system. Patients were assessed before (baseline) and during medical treatment with stimulants (follow-up) in an observational study design. Data of n=145 patients at baseline and n=82 patients at follow-up were analyzed. There were significant symptom reductions on all symptom domains, but correlations between the tests were weak. Improvement on the QbTest was independent of the patient's age, gender, educational level, ADHD subtype, co-morbid disorders, and use of other medications. Patients with worst QbTest results at baseline showed most improvement at follow-up. The QbTest was more sensitive to medication effects than the ADHD-RS. QbTest objectified clinical significant medication effect in 54% of patients who subjectively did not report any clinical effects. Symptoms dimensions of objective and subjective tests refer to different psychological constructs. The QbTest is a valuable addition to existing subjective measures to assess medication effects in ADHD patients who have difficulties reporting treatment effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Academic Majors and Subject-Area Certifications of Health Education Teachers in the United States, 2011-2012 (United States)

    Cardina, Catherine


    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify academic preparation and subject-area certifications of K-12 public school staff teaching at least one health education class during 2011-2012 academic year. In general, teachers who are well qualified to teach a subject area are more likely to positively affect student achievement. Methods: Data…

  20. The Relationship between Happiness, Subjective Well-Being, Creativity and Job Performance of Primary School Teachers in Ramhormoz City (United States)

    Jalali, Zohreh; Heidari, Alireza


    The research aimed to investigate the relationship between happiness, subjective well-being, creativity and job performance of primary school teachers in Ramhormoz City. Hence, a sample of 330 individuals was selected through random stratified sampling. The research tools included Oxford Happiness Inventory, Subjective Well-being Scale by Keyes…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hindarto


    Full Text Available Many problems that arise in today's society are rooted in the issue of morality as a result of the marginalization of the values of character. To solve this problem, need to be enforced the values of good character on every member of the community, and the proper way is through the educational process, including through education in schools ranging from elementary education to higher education. To find out whether the teachers in elementary schools are ready to take this work, the research conducted to determine the readiness of teachers and the problems associated with its implementation. Through a questionnaire calculated in descriptive percentage on a sample of elementary school teachers who are spread in Semarang, Semarang District and Temanggung, it can be concluded that in teachers’ view it is very important to integrate the learning of characters in the lesson. However, they need guidance /examples to develop learning model with its features, which integrate the values of the characters in the science subject.Banyak persoalan yang timbul di masyarakat dewasa ini berakar pada persoalan moralitas sebagai akibat terpinggirkannya nilai-nilai karakter, Untuk mengatasi persoalan ini, perlu ditegakkan lagi nilai nilai karakter yang baik pada setiap anggota masyarakat, dan cara yang tepat adalah melalui proses pendidikan, di antaranya melalui pendidikan di sekolah mulai dari pendidikan dasar sampai pendidikan tinggi. Untuk mengetahui apakah para guru pada Sekolah Dasar siap mengemban tugas ini, maka diadakan penelitian untuk mengetahui kesiapan para guru dan masalah-masalah yang terkait dengan pelaksanaannya. Melalui angket yang kemudian diolah secara deskriptive persentasi pada sampel guru SD yang tersebar di Kota Semarang, Kabupaten Semarang dan Kabupaten Temanggung, dapat diketahui bahwa para guru menganggap sangat penting untuk mengintegrasikan pembelajaran karakter dalam matapelajaran IPA. Namun demikian mereka membutuhkan bimbingan

  2. Basic Teaching Skill Quality of Teacher Candidates in Microteaching Study Subject of Department of Biology Education, Pasir Pengaraian University


    Nurul Afifah


    This research purposed on knowing basic teaching skill quality of teacher candidates in study subject Microteaching of Department of Biology Education, Pasir Pengaraian University, academic year 2016/2016. This research is qualitative research. This research has been done in February to June 2015. The subject of this research is all of the 6th semester students who are taking the Microteaching Study Subject. The instruments of this research including syllabus, teaching plans, and questionnair...

  3. The perceptions of teachers and principals toward providing additional compensation to teachers in high-need subject areas (United States)

    Longing, Jeffrey Lucian

    The purpose of this study was to determine possible differences in the perceptions of teachers teaching in high-need areas (i.e., math, science, special education, etc.) and teachers not teaching in high-need areas, (i.e., business education, physical education, etc.) as defined by the states of Arkansas and Louisiana, regarding higher compensation for high-need teachers. In addition, possible perception differences among principals and teachers were determined. The independent variables consisted of gender, position held, years of certified experience, and certification areas. The dependent variable was the perceptions of the participants on providing higher compensation for high-need teachers in order to attract and retain them. The data for all variables were collected using the Teacher Compensation Survey. The sample for this study was limited to teachers, grades 9 through 12, and principals of public high schools in south Arkansas and north Louisiana. Forty-four school districts in south Arkansas (Arkansas Department of Education, 2008a) and north Louisiana (Louisiana Department of Education, 2008a) met the criteria for this study. Twenty-two superintendents gave permission for their districts to participate in the research. A sample of 849 teachers and 38 principals were identified in these districts. Surveys were returned from 350 teachers, creating a 41% response rate. When the 31 principals that returned surveys were added to the total population, the response rate increased to 43% with 381 of the 887 surveyed responding. However, 42 of the teachers and two of the principals skipped some of the questions on the survey and were not included in the study. The researcher used a One-Way ANOVA and independent t-tests to determine the presence of statistical differences at the .05 level. The data showed that most math and science teachers agreed that high-need teachers should be compensated at a higher rate than teachers not teaching in high-need areas. The data

  4. Comparative Analysis of Participation of Teachers of STEM and Non-STEM Subjects in Professional Development (United States)

    Chiyaka, Edward T.; Kibirige, Joachim; Sithole, Alec; McCarthy, Peter; Mupinga, Davison M.


    School administrators continuously consider teacher professional development (PD) as one of the key strategies to improving teachers' pedagogical skills. Modern proposals for advancing education by improving student learning outcomes are centered on high quality professional development for teachers. However, teachers face a number of barriers…

  5. Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) dose-dependently stimulates glucagon secretion in healthy human subjects at euglycaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, J J; Gallwitz, B; Siepmann, N


    secretion under normoglycaemic conditions. METHODS: Ten healthy subjects (9 men, 1 woman; age 33+/-11; BMI 26.8+/-2.2 kg/m(2)) received three different doses of intravenous GIP (7, 20, and 60 pmol/kg body weight) and placebo. Venous blood samples were drawn over 30 min for glucagon and GIP concentrations...

  6. Substrate utilization and thermogenic responses to beta-adrenergic stimulation in obese subjects with NIDDM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaak, E E; Saris, W H; Wolffenbuttel, B H

    OBJECTIVE: This study intended to investigate disturbances in beta-adrenergically-mediated substrate utilization and thermogenesis in obese subjects with mild non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). DESIGN: Following a baseline period of 30 min, the beta-agonist isoproterenol (ISO) was

  7. Integrating Multicultural Subject Matters into Teaching Strategies of Elementary School Teachers (The U.S. State of Kansas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanka Lunder Verlič


    Full Text Available The following academic article is based on a PhD thesis that is currently being completed, titled Education and Qualifications of Elementary School Teachers in the U.S. State of Kansas and Slovenia for teaching in classes with immigrant children. The research study titled Integrating Multicultural Subject Matters into Teaching Strategies of Elementary School Teachers (The U.S. State of Kansas, conducted in 2007 based on a sample of 89 elementary school teachers in the U.S. State of Kansas, represents one aspect of assessing the adequacy of undergraduate education regarding multicultural subject matters for elementary school teachers in Slovenia and the U.S. (State of Kansas as well as the qualifications of elementary school teachers of both countries for working with immigrant children. Despite the long-standing tradition of multicultural education in western countries, the research results for Kansas elementary school teachers showed a presence of significant discrepancies between the actual and optimal integration of multicultural subject matters. These results indicate that future undergraduate study programs will have to invest more time in developing multicultural skills and providing practical experiences for working in a diverse environment.

  8. High frequency somatosensory stimulation increases sensori-motor inhibition and leads to perceptual improvement in healthy subjects. (United States)

    Rocchi, Lorenzo; Erro, Roberto; Antelmi, Elena; Berardelli, Alfredo; Tinazzi, Michele; Liguori, Rocco; Bhatia, Kailash; Rothwell, John


    High frequency repetitive somatosensory stimulation (HF-RSS), which is a patterned electric stimulation applied to the skin through surface electrodes, improves two-point discrimination, somatosensory temporal discrimination threshold (STDT) and motor performance in humans. However, the mechanisms which underlie these changes are still unknown. In particular, we hypothesize that refinement of inhibition might be responsible for the improvement in spatial and temporal perception. Fifteen healthy subjects underwent 45min of HF-RSS. Before and after the intervention several measures of inhibition in the primary somatosensory area (S1), such as paired-pulse somatosensory evoked potentials (pp-SEP), high-frequency oscillations (HFO), and STDT were tested, as well as tactile spatial acuity and short intracortical inhibition (SICI). HF-RSS increased inhibition in S1 tested by pp-SEP and HFO; these changes were correlated with improvement in STDT. HF-RSS also enhanced bumps detection, while there was no change in grating orientation test. Finally there was an increase in SICI, suggesting widespread changes in cortical sensorimotor interactions. These findings suggest that HF-RSS can improve spatial and temporal tactile abilities by increasing the effectiveness of inhibitory interactions in the somatosensory system. Moreover, HF-RSS induces changes in cortical sensorimotor interaction. HF-RSS is a repetitive electric stimulation technique able to modify the effectiveness of inhibitory circuitry in the somatosensory system and primary motor cortex. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. All rights reserved.

  9. Opinions of Class and Subject Matter Teachers and Candidate Teachers on the Effectiveness of Creative Drama in Teaching Activities (United States)

    Epcacan, Cevdet


    The objective of this research is to establish the opinions of teachers and candidate teachers on the effect of creative drama. Descriptive research method is used in line with the objective of the research. Questionnaire is used for collecting data for the research. Questionnaire was prepared by the researcher. For the reliability of the…

  10. Modification of electrical pain threshold by voluntary breathing-controlled electrical stimulation (BreEStim in healthy subjects.

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    Shengai Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pain has a distinct sensory and affective (i.e., unpleasantness component. BreEStim, during which electrical stimulation is delivered during voluntary breathing, has been shown to selectively reduce the affective component of post-amputation phantom pain. The objective was to examine whether BreEStim increases pain threshold such that subjects could have improved tolerance of sensation of painful stimuli. METHODS: Eleven pain-free healthy subjects (7 males, 4 females participated in the study. All subjects received BreEStim (100 stimuli and conventional electrical stimulation (EStim, 100 stimuli to two acupuncture points (Neiguan and Weiguan of the dominant hand in a random order. The two different treatments were provided at least three days apart. Painful, but tolerable electrical stimuli were delivered randomly during EStim, but were triggered by effortful inhalation during BreEStim. Measurements of tactile sensation threshold, electrical sensation and electrical pain thresholds, thermal (cold sensation, warm sensation, cold pain and heat pain thresholds were recorded from the thenar eminence of both hands. These measurements were taken pre-intervention and 10-min post-intervention. RESULTS: There was no difference in the pre-intervention baseline measurement of all thresholds between BreEStim and EStim. The electrical pain threshold significantly increased after BreEStim (27.5±6.7% for the dominant hand and 28.5±10.8% for the non-dominant hand, respectively. The electrical pain threshold significantly decreased after EStim (9.1±2.8% for the dominant hand and 10.2±4.6% for the non-dominant hand, respectively (F[1, 10] = 30.992, p = .00024. There was no statistically significant change in other thresholds after BreEStim and EStim. The intensity of electrical stimuli was progressively increased, but no difference was found between BreEStim and EStim. CONCLUSION: Voluntary breathing controlled electrical stimulation

  11. Enhanced balance associated with coordination training with stochastic resonance stimulation in subjects with functional ankle instability: an experimental trial

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    Brown Cathleen N


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ankle sprains are common injuries that often lead to functional ankle instability (FAI, which is a pathology defined by sensations of instability at the ankle and recurrent ankle sprain injury. Poor postural stability has been associated with FAI, and sports medicine clinicians rehabilitate balance deficits to prevent ankle sprains. Subsensory electrical noise known as stochastic resonance (SR stimulation has been used in conjunction with coordination training to improve dynamic postural instabilities associated with FAI. However, unlike static postural deficits, dynamic impairments have not been indicative of ankle sprain injury. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of coordination training with or without SR stimulation on static postural stability. Improving postural instabilities associated with FAI has implications for increasing ankle joint stability and decreasing recurrent ankle sprains. Methods This study was conducted in a research laboratory. Thirty subjects with FAI were randomly assigned to either a: 1 conventional coordination training group (CCT; 2 SR stimulation coordination training group (SCT; or 3 control group. Training groups performed coordination exercises for six weeks. The SCT group received SR stimulation during training, while the CCT group only performed coordination training. Single leg postural stability was measured after the completion of balance training. Static postural stability was quantified on a force plate using anterior/posterior (A/P and medial/lateral (M/L center-of-pressure velocity (COPvel, M/L COP standard deviation (COPsd, M/L COP maximum excursion (COPmax, and COP area (COParea. Results Treatment effects comparing posttest to pretest COP measures were highest for the SCT group. At posttest, the SCT group had reduced A/P COPvel (2.3 ± 0.4 cm/s vs. 2.7 ± 0.6 cm/s, M/L COPvel (2.6 ± 0.5 cm/s vs. 2.9 ± 0.5 cm/s, M/L COPsd (0.63 ± 0.12 cm vs. 0.73 ± 0

  12. Stimulation from Cochlear Implant Electrodes Assists with Recovery from Asymmetric Perceptual Tilt: Evidence from the Subjective Visual Vertical Test

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    Joshua J. Gnanasegaram


    Full Text Available Vestibular end organ impairment is highly prevalent in children who have sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL rehabilitated with cochlear implants (CIs. As a result, spatial perception is likely to be impacted in this population. Of particular interest is the perception of visual vertical because it reflects a perceptual tilt in the roll axis and is sensitive to an imbalance in otolith function. The objectives of the present study were thus to identify abnormalities in perception of the vertical plane in children with SNHL and determine whether such abnormalities could be resolved with stimulation from the CI. Participants included 53 children (15.2±4.0 years of age with SNHL and vestibular loss, confirmed with vestibular evoked myogenic potential testing. Testing protocol was validated in a sample of 9 young adults with normal hearing (28.8±7.7 years. Perception of visual vertical was assessed using the static Subjective Visual Vertical (SVV test performed with and without stimulation in the participants with cochleovestibular loss. Trains of electrical pulses were delivered by an electrode in the left and/or right ear. Asymmetric spatial orientation deficits were found in nearly half of the participants with CIs (24/53 [45%]. The abnormal perception in this cohort was exacerbated by visual tilts in the direction of their deficit. Electric pulse trains delivered using the CI shifted this abnormal perception towards centre (i.e., normal [p = 0.007]. Importantly, this benefit was realized regardless of which ear was stimulated. These results suggest a role for CI stimulation beyond the auditory system, in particular, for improving vestibular/balance function.

  13. The researcher as experimental subject: using self-experimentation to access experiences, understand social phenomena, and stimulate reflexivity. (United States)

    Corti, Kevin; Reddy, Geetha; Choi, Ellen; Gillespie, Alex


    The current article argues that researcher-as-subject self-experimentation can provide valuable insight and systematic knowledge to social psychologists. This approach, the modus operandi of experimental psychology when the field was in its infancy, has been largely eclipsed by an almost exclusive focus on participant-as-subject other-experimentation. Drawing from the non-experimental first-person traditions of autoethnography, participant observation, and phenomenology, we argue that participating as both observer and subject within one's own social psychological experiment affords researchers at least three potential benefits: (1) access to "social qualia," that is, the subjective experience of social phenomena; (2) improved mental models of social phenomena, potentially stimulating new research questions; and (3) an enhanced ability to be reflexive about the given experiment. To support our position, we provide first-person self-reflections from researchers who have self-experimented with transformed social interactions involving Milgram's cyranoid method. We close by offering guidelines on how one might approach self-experimentation, and discuss a variety of first-person perspective ethnographic technologies that can be incorporated into the practice.

  14. Acylation stimulating protein, complement C3 and lipid metabolism in ketosis-prone diabetic subjects.

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    Yan Liu

    Full Text Available Ketosis-prone diabetes (KPDM is new-onset diabetic ketoacidosis without precipitating factors in non-type 1 diabetic patients; after management, some are withdrawn from exogenous insulin, although determining factors remain unclear.Twenty KPDM patients and twelve type 1 diabetic patients (T1DM, evaluated at baseline, 12 and 24 months with/without insulin maintenance underwent a standardized mixed-meal tolerance test (MMTT for 2 h.At baseline, triglyceride and C3 were higher during MMTT in KPDM vs. T1DM (p<0.0001 with no differences in non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA while Acylation Stimulating Protein (ASP tended to be higher. Within 12 months, 11 KPDM were withdrawn from insulin treatment (KPDM-ins, while 9 were maintained (KPDM+ins. NEFA was lower in KPDM-ins vs. KPDM+ins at baseline (p = 0.0006, 12 months (p<0.0001 and 24 months (p<0.0001 during MMTT. NEFA in KPDM-ins decreased over 30-120 minutes (p<0.05, but not in KPDM+ins. Overall, C3 was higher in KPDM-ins vs KPDM+ins at 12 months (p = 0.0081 and 24 months (p = 0.0019, while ASP was lower at baseline (p = 0.0024 and 12 months (p = 0.0281, with a decrease in ASP/C3 ratio.Notwithstanding greater adiposity in KPDM-ins, greater NEFA decreases and lower ASP levels during MMTT suggest better insulin and ASP sensitivity in these patients.

  15. Slip behaviour of carbonate-bearing faults subjected to fluid pressure stimulations (United States)

    Collettini, Cristiano; Scuderi, Marco; Marone, Chris


    Earthquakes caused by fluid injection within reservoir have become an important topic of political and social discussion as new drilling and improved technologies enable the extraction of oil and gas from previously unproductive formations. During reservoir stimulation, the coupled interactions of frictional and fluid flow properties together with the stress state control both the onset of fault slip and fault slip behaviour. However, currently, there are no studies under controlled, laboratory conditions for which the effect of fluid pressure on fault slip behaviour can be deduced. To cover this gap, we have developed laboratory experiments where we monitor fault slip evolution at constant shear stress but with increasing fluid pressure, i.e. reducing the effective normal stress. Experiments have been conducted in the double direct shear configuration within a pressure vessel on carbonate fault gouge, characterized by a slightly velocity strengthening friction that is indicative of stable aseismic creep. In our experiments fault slip history can be divided in three main stages: 1) for high effective normal stress the fault is locked and undergoes compaction; 2) when the shear and effective normal stress reach the failure condition, accelerated creep is associated to fault dilation; 3) further pressurization leads to an exponential acceleration during fault compaction and slip localization. Our results indicate that fault weakening induced by fluid pressurization overcomes the velocity strengthening behaviour of calcite gouge, resulting in fast acceleration and earthquake slip. As applied to tectonic faults our results suggest that a larger number of crustal faults, including those slightly velocity strengthening, can experience earthquake slip due to fluid pressurization.

  16. The Bologna reform of subject teacher education in the newly founded states in the territory of the former Yugoslavia

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    Protner Edvard


    Full Text Available The article provides an overview of carrying out the principles of the Bologna reform in the education of subject teachers in the newly founded states in the territory of the former Yugoslavia. Drawing upon official documents, particularly laws and by-laws, study programmes and constituent documents of individual universities, the comparative analysis of the reform processes between 2004 and 2013 is made within a relatively homogeneous area in teacher education that existed before the break-up of the former joint state. Positive effects and weak points of the reform activities are observed and detected. The analysis has shown that by implementing the Bologna process the differences in the training of subject teachers among the states and universities, and even among individual universities, increased significantly compared to the previous state of education. This is evident not only in the simultaneous implementation of different models (i.e., the duration of studies (3+2, 4+1, 5+0, but also in concurrent application of simultaneous and successive forms of acquiring teacher competences, different academic titles, and particularly in the greatest issue - different levels of education at which teachers acquire teaching competences for the same teacher profile.

  17. Physical and Cognitive Stimulation Using an Exergame in Subjects with Normal Aging, Mild and Moderate Cognitive Impairment. (United States)

    Ben-Sadoun, Grégory; Sacco, Guillaume; Manera, Valeria; Bourgeois, Jérémy; König, Alexandra; Foulon, Pierre; Fosty, Baptiste; Bremond, François; d'Arripe-Longueville, Fabienne; Robert, Philippe


    The use of Serious exerGames (SeG) as enriched environments (EE), which promotes cognitive simulation with physical activity in a positive emotional context, has been proposed to represent a powerful method to slow down the decline due to neurodegenerative diseases (ND), such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, so far, no SeG targeting EE has been tested in ND subjects. This study aimed at evaluating the usability and short-term training effects of X-Torp, an action SeG designed for elderly ND subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD. X-Torp is a SeG played using the Microsoft® Kinect™. 10 ND subjects and 8 healthy elderly controls (HEC) were enrolled in a 1-month program with three training sessions per week. Usability was evaluated through game time, game performance, the aerobic intensity level reached, perceived emotions, and perceived usability. All participants successfully completed the training program. ND subjects played less and had a lower game performance compared to HEC. During the sessions, ND subjects maintained a light intensity of aerobic activity, while HEC maintained a moderate intensity. Both groups experienced only positive emotions, and reported a 'moderate' to 'high' perceived competence, a 'moderate' game difficulty, and a 'high' interest in the game. Usability results suggest that X-Torp represents a usable EE for healthy subjects and persons with MCI and AD. However, in order to reach moderate or high intensity of aerobic activity, X-Torp control modes should be adapted to become more physically stimulating.

  18. Subjective Well-Being in Adolescence and Teacher Connectedness: A Health Asset Analysis (United States)

    García-Moya, Irene; Brooks, Fiona; Morgan, Antony; Moreno, Carmen


    Objectives: Teacher connectedness is an important factor for young people's well-being. The aim of this paper was to examine teacher connectedness in detail and its potential association with emotional wellbeing. More specifically, we set out to analyse whether teacher connectedness acted as a universal asset for boys and girls of different ages…

  19. Subjective Well-Being of Hong Kong Chinese Teachers: The Contribution of Gratitude, Forgiveness, and the Orientations to Happiness (United States)

    Chan, David W.


    This study investigated whether gratitude and forgiveness contribute to subjective well-being (life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect) above the contribution of the three orientations to happiness in a sample of 143 Hong Kong Chinese teachers. Gratitude and forgiveness correlated substantially and significantly with each other,…

  20. "First Do No Harm": Factors Influencing Teachers' Ability and Willingness to Use ICT in Their Subject Teaching (United States)

    Haydn, Terry; Barton, Roy


    The paper reports on a Department of Culture, Museums and Sport (DCMS) funded project which provided modest amounts of time for teachers to be freed from their classroom teaching to explore the use of information and communications technology (ICT) in their subject teaching, and to meet up together to discuss their use of new technology. The…

  1. Trainee Teachers' Views on What Helps Them to Use Information and Communication Technology Effectively in Their Subject Teaching (United States)

    Barton, R.; Haydn, T.


    This study explored the views of initial teacher trainees on various components of their training in the use of new technology to teach their subject. The research focused on trainees' reflections on their experiences of trying to "get better" at information and communication technology (ICT) in the course of their training. Data collection…

  2. Safety and Tolerability of Theta Burst Stimulation versus Single and Paired Pulse Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: A Comparative Study of 165 Pediatric Subjects

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    Yaejee H Hong


    Full Text Available Background: Although single- and paired-pulse (sp/pp transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS studies are considered minimal risk in adults and children, the safety profile for theta-burst TMS (TBS is unknown.Objective: In this comparative analysis, we explored the rate, severity, and specific symptoms of TMS-related adverse effects (AEs between sp/ppTMS and TBS in subjects between ages 6 and 18 years.Method: Data from 165 participants from 2009-2014 were analyzed. Assessment of AEs was performed based on baseline and post-TMS administration of a symptom-based questionnaire that rated AEs on a 5-level ordinal scale (minimal, mild, moderate, marked, severe. AE rates and severity were compared using Chi Square or Fisher’s Exact Test depending on data characteristics.Result: Overall, no seizures or severe-rated AEs were reported by 165 pediatric participants. The rate of AE in all TBS sessions was 10.5% (n=76, 95% CI: 4.7 - 19.7%, whereas the rate of AE in all sp/ppTMS sessions was 12.4% (n=89, 95% CI: 6.3 - 21.0%. There was no statistical difference in AE rates between TBS and sp/ppTMS (p=0.71. In all sp/ppTMS and TBS sessions, 20 subjects reported a total of 35 AEs, among these 31 (~88.6% were rated as minimal or mild. There was no difference in the severity of AE between TBS and sp/ppTMS (p=1.0. Only one of 76 TBS participants reported an AE rated as more than minimal/mild.Conclusion: Our comparative analysis showed that TBS appears to be as safe as sp/ppTMS in terms of AE rate and severity. This report supports further investigation of TBS in children.

  3. Motivation of Professional Choice as a Component of Professional Subjectness in Teachers

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    Budnikova S.P.,


    Full Text Available The paper addresses the issue of factors that define the choice of university and future profession in prospective students of the Tula State Lev Tolstoy Pedagogical University. The motives of professional choice are essential when it comes to analyzing the conditions of development of professional subjectness. Our study involved 62% of all first-year students and 85% of first-year students of pedagogical departments. We used our specially developed questionnaire “Motives of University Choice” and a set of others, such as V.G. Katashev’s “Technique for Measuring Learning Motivation in Students” and K. Zamfir’s “Work Motivation Technique” (modified by A.A. Rean. The outcomes show that most students make choices basing on their emotional attitude to the professional sphere which is generally positive. Also, it was revealed that important inner and outer positive motives prevail in most future teachers. The paper states that it is necessary to find the universal criteria which could help predict successful self-actualisation in profession in individuals during their study at university and thus help reveal the mechanisms for managing this process. Finally, we suggest some possible forms promoting professional self-orientation at university.

  4. Mapping of cortical language function by functional magnetic resonance imaging and repetitive navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation in 40 healthy subjects. (United States)

    Sollmann, Nico; Ille, Sebastian; Boeckh-Behrens, Tobias; Ringel, Florian; Meyer, Bernhard; Krieg, Sandro M


    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is considered to be the standard method regarding non-invasive language mapping. However, repetitive navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) gains increasing importance with respect to that purpose. However, comparisons between both methods are sparse. We performed fMRI and rTMS language mapping of the left hemisphere in 40 healthy, right-handed subjects in combination with the tasks that are most commonly used in the neurosurgical context (fMRI: word-generation = WGEN task; rTMS: object-naming = ON task). Different rTMS error rate thresholds (ERTs) were calculated, and Cohen's kappa coefficient and the cortical parcellation system (CPS) were used for systematic comparison of the two techniques. Overall, mean kappa coefficients were low, revealing no distinct agreement. We found the highest agreement for both techniques when using the 2-out-of-3 rule (CPS region defined as language positive in terms of rTMS if at least 2 out of 3 stimulations led to a naming error). However, kappa for this threshold was only 0.24 (kappa of <0, 0.01-0.20, 0.21-0.40, 0.41-0.60, 0.61-0.80 and 0.81-0.99 indicate less than chance, slight, fair, moderate, substantial and almost perfect agreement, respectively). Because of the inherent differences in the underlying physiology of fMRI and rTMS, the different tasks used and the impossibility of verifying the results via direct cortical stimulation (DCS) in the population of healthy volunteers, one must exercise caution in drawing conclusions about the relative usefulness of each technique for language mapping. Nevertheless, this study yields valuable insights into these two mapping techniques for the most common language tasks currently used in neurosurgical practice.

  5. Failure of activation of spinal motoneurones after muscle fatigue in healthy subjects studied by transcranial magnetic stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Birgit; Westlund, Barbro; Krarup, Christian


    During a sustained maximal effort a progressive decline in the ability to drive motoneurones (MNs) develops. We used the recently developed triple stimulation technique (TST) to study corticospinal conduction after fatiguing exercise in healthy subjects. This method employs a collision technique...... to control levels within 1 min and implies that a decreased number of spinal MNs were excited. Additional TST experiments after maximal and submaximal efforts showed that the decrease in size of the TST response was related to duration and strength of exercise. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) after...... response depression. Overall, the results suggest that the outflow from the motor cortex could become insufficient to drive all spinal MNs to discharge when the muscle is fatigued and that complex interactions between failure of activation and compensatory mechanisms to maintain motor unit activation occur...

  6. Failure of activation of spinal motoneurones after muscle fatigue in healthy subjects studied by transcranial magnetic stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Birgit; Westlund, Barbro; Krarup, Christian


    response depression. Overall, the results suggest that the outflow from the motor cortex could become insufficient to drive all spinal MNs to discharge when the muscle is fatigued and that complex interactions between failure of activation and compensatory mechanisms to maintain motor unit activation occur......During a sustained maximal effort a progressive decline in the ability to drive motoneurones (MNs) develops. We used the recently developed triple stimulation technique (TST) to study corticospinal conduction after fatiguing exercise in healthy subjects. This method employs a collision technique...... to estimate the proportion of motor units activated by a transcranial magnetic stimulus. Following a sustained contraction of the abductor digiti minimi muscle at 50 % maximal force maintained to exhaustion there was an immediate reduction of the TST response from > 95 % to about 60 %. This effect recovered...


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    S E Mansurova


    Full Text Available Activity approach, differently refracted at different levels of education, has put many new challenges for teachers. The competence approach acts as the methodological basis of the state educational standard of higher professional education, additional professional education; the system-activity approach acts as the methodological basis of the standards of General education. With regard to teachers of General education, the main task is to overcome the contradiction between the real level of their qualifications and new high requirements for them. These requirements are outlined in the leading normative documents of the educational standards, Professional standard “Teacher”. For the system of teacher professional development the authors of this article propose an integrated approach that combines competence-based and system-activity approaches. The integrated approach differs substantially for teachers who teach subjects of Humanities and science profiles. The paper presents the examples of tasks for various categories of teachers, the specifics of the project and research activities, as well as the characteristics of the process of problematization in the classroom and in extracurricular activities of the teachers. The universal educational actions are differenciated from the position of the variable component. At the same time the authors understand the necessity of taking into account the invariant component in the teaching of humanitarian and natural science disciplines. This thesis is a reflection of the general trend towards integration and interdisciplinarity.

  8. Validity of Subjective Self-Assessment of Digital Competence among Undergraduate Preservice Teachers (United States)

    Maderick, Joseph Andrew


    Technology is now integrated into the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) required to be a highly qualified 21st century teacher. Accurate measurement of digital competence has become critical. Self-assessment has been used widely to measure the digital competence of preservice teachers who are expected to integrate technology into…

  9. Why teachers use digital learning materials: The role of self-efficacy, subjective norm and attitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Acker, Frederik; Van Buuren, Hans; Kreijns, Karel; Vermeulen, Marjan


    Although Information and Communication Technology (ICT) seems a promising tool in an educational context, many teachers are reluctant to integrate it in their daily practice. A large scale survey was undertaken amongst primary and secondary school teachers in the Netherlands to explore possible

  10. What Is It Like to Be a Child? Childhood Subjectivity and Teacher Memories as Heterotopia (United States)

    Chang-Kredl, Sandra; Wilkie, Gala


    Foucault's notion of heterotopia offers a novel way to understand teachers' conceptualizations of childhood, in juxtaposing adult memories of childhood with their present context of teaching children. Memory writing prompts were given to 41 early childhood teachers, and the resulting written narratives were analyzed as heterotopic spaces. The…

  11. Consolidating Pre-Service Physics Teachers' Subject Matter Knowledge Using Didactical Reconstructions (United States)

    Mäntylä, T.; Nousiainen, M.


    In the Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, there are advanced physics courses designed for the needs of pre-service physics teachers. The starting point is that after introductory and intermediate physics courses, pre-service physics teachers know laws and definitions but the knowledge is quite fragmented and does not form coherent…

  12. Pre-Service Teachers' Subject Knowledge of and Attitudes about Radioactivity and Ionising Radiation (United States)

    Colclough, Nicholas Denys; Lock, Roger; Soares, Allan


    This study focussed on secondary school (11-18 years) pre-service teachers' (n = 73) knowledge of and attitudes towards risks associated with alpha, beta, and gamma radiations. A multi-method approach was used with physics, chemistry, biology, and history graduates undertaking the one-year initial teacher training, Post Graduate Certificate in…

  13. How to foster student-student learning of science? The student, the teacher and the subject matter (United States)

    Bianchini, Julie A.


    In this response to Konstantinos Alexakos, Jayson K. Jones, and Victor H. Rodriguez's study, I discuss ways attending to student membership in groups can both inform research on equity and diversity in science education and improve the teaching of science to all students. My comments are organized into three sections: how underrepresented students' experiences in science classrooms are shaped by their peers; how science teachers can help students listen to and learn from one another; and how the subject matter can invite or discourage student participation in science. More specifically, I underscore the need for teachers and students to listen to one another to promote student learning of science. I also highlight the importance of science education researchers and science teachers viewing students both as individuals and as members of multiple groups; women of color, for example, should be understood as similar to and different from each other, from European American women and from ethnic minorities in general.

  14. The response of teachers to new subject areas in a national science curriculum: The case of the earth science component (United States)

    King, Chris


    The National Curriculum for Science (NCS) introduced to schools in England and Wales in 1989 contained an earth science component that was new to many secondary science teachers. Ten years after this introduction, a survey was undertaken to test teacher perception of the effectiveness of their teaching in this subject area that was new to them, and to identify factors that might affect this effectiveness. The information gained has been used in reviewing possible curriculum changes and in developing professional development strategies that would improve the effectiveness of NCS earth science teaching. The data collected from science teachers who are currently teaching this earth science component revealed that their background knowledge of earth science from their own education was generally poor, even though most of them considered their knowledge to be moderate. The teachers indicated that the achievement of their pupils in earth science is moderate, while reports on national testing show it is poor. They reported that their main sources of earth science knowledge and understanding were science textbooks written for 11- to 16-year-old pupils (with their small earth science content of variable quality) and science colleagues (who often have poor earth science backgrounds too). Most teachers indicated that they needed more support in this area. Overall, the data indicated that while teachers consider their teaching in this area to be moderate, other evidence suggests it is poor. If this situation is not to continue it should be addressed. In the longer term the emphasis on the earth science content of the National Science Curriculum could be changed (either enhanced or reduced) within larger scale curriculum changes. Until such curriculum change takes place, effective methods of professional development should be instituted so that teachers have a much improved basis on which to build their earth science teaching. Similar measures would be necessary in other

  15. Benefits of teaching voice amplification as related to subjective laryngeal symptoms and perceived voice quality in teachers (United States)

    Jonsdottir, Valdis


    Loud speaking due to noisy working conditions is a common cause for teachers' voice disorders. One way to diminish the vocal load of teaching is to make use of technical equipment. This Icelandic study explores: (1) if the use of amplification in classrooms would diminish the teachers' experienced symptoms of vocal fatigue; and (2) whether there is a possible change in perceptual voice quality during a teachers' working day. Thirty-three teachers, from grade school to university level, voluntarily served as subjects. They used amplifiers while teaching for one week at least. After that, they filled out a questionnaire concerning their symptoms and experiences. The results showed that the majority of teachers found amplification beneficial. They found it easier to talk and experienced less fatigue. The few disadvantages were technical. For a perceptual analysis, three females and two males (mean age 51 years) with long teaching experience and three or more dysphonic symptoms during the term, had their speech recorded while teaching, with and without amplification. In the clinical examination, no pathological changes were found in the vocal folds. In both studies, the quality of the voices was esteemed better when amplification was used.

  16. Binaural Hearing Ability With Bilateral Bone Conduction Stimulation in Subjects With Normal Hearing: Implications for Bone Conduction Hearing Aids. (United States)

    Zeitooni, Mehrnaz; Mäki-Torkko, Elina; Stenfelt, Stefan

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate binaural hearing ability in adults with normal hearing when bone conduction (BC) stimulation is bilaterally applied at the bone conduction hearing aid (BCHA) implant position as well as at the audiometric position on the mastoid. The results with BC stimulation are compared with bilateral air conduction (AC) stimulation through earphones. Binaural hearing ability is investigated with tests of spatial release from masking and binaural intelligibility level difference using sentence material, binaural masking level difference with tonal chirp stimulation, and precedence effect using noise stimulus. In all tests, results with bilateral BC stimulation at the BCHA position illustrate an ability to extract binaural cues similar to BC stimulation at the mastoid position. The binaural benefit is overall greater with AC stimulation than BC stimulation at both positions. The binaural benefit for BC stimulation at the mastoid and BCHA position is approximately half in terms of decibels compared with AC stimulation in the speech based tests (spatial release from masking and binaural intelligibility level difference). For binaural masking level difference, the binaural benefit for the two BC positions with chirp signal phase inversion is approximately twice the benefit with inverted phase of the noise. The precedence effect results with BC stimulation at the mastoid and BCHA position are similar for low frequency noise stimulation but differ with high-frequency noise stimulation. The results confirm that binaural hearing processing with bilateral BC stimulation at the mastoid position is also present at the BCHA implant position. This indicates the ability for binaural hearing in patients with good cochlear function when using bilateral BCHAs.

  17. Peer group reflection on student ratings stimulates clinical teachers to generate plans to improve their teaching. (United States)

    van Lierop, Marion; de Jonge, Laury; Metsemakers, Job; Dolmans, Diana


    Previous studies have demonstrated that student ratings of a teachers' performance do not incentivize clinical teachers to reflect critically and generate plans to improve their teaching. Peer group reflection might offer a solution in mediating this change. To investigate: (a) to which extent clinical teachers perceive self-evaluation, student ratings and peer group reflection effective; and (b) whether additional peer group reflection fosters critical reflection and the translation of feedback into concrete plans of action. We conducted a quasi-experiment, inviting two groups of 10 clinical teachers each (1) to complete a self-evaluation and (2) subsequently examine their student ratings. One group participated in (3) an additional peer group reflection meeting. All participants were finally requested to define plans for improvement and evaluate each activity's effectiveness. Participants perceived all three activities to be effective. Levels of reflection did not differ across the two groups. However, participation in peer group reflection did result in generating more concrete plans to change clinical teaching. Peer group reflection on student ratings shows promise as tool to assist clinical teachers in generating plans for improvement. Future research should focus on whether teaching indeed improves with the introduction of peer group reflection.

  18. Increased probability of repetitive spinal motoneuron activation by transcranial magnetic stimulation after muscle fatigue in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Birgit; Felding, Ulrik Ascanius; Krarup, Christian


    Triple stimulation technique (TST) has previously shown that transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) fails to activate a proportion of spinal motoneurons (MNs) during motor fatigue. The TST response depression without attenuation of the conventional motor evoked potential suggested increased prob...... the muscle is fatigued. Repetitive MN firing may provide an adaptive mechanism to maintain motor unit activation and task performance during sustained voluntary activity.......Triple stimulation technique (TST) has previously shown that transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) fails to activate a proportion of spinal motoneurons (MNs) during motor fatigue. The TST response depression without attenuation of the conventional motor evoked potential suggested increased...... probability of repetitive spinal MN activation during exercise even if some MNs failed to discharge by the brain stimulus. Here we used a modified TST (Quadruple stimulation; QuadS and Quintuple stimulation; QuintS) to examine the influence of fatiguing exercise on second and third MN discharges after...

  19. Relationship between mathematics teacher subject matter knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge and professional development needs (United States)

    Tajudin, Nor'ain Mohd; Chinnappan, Mohan; Saad, Noor Shah


    Two key variables emerged from the literature review is that Specific Matter Knowledge [SMK] and Pedagogical Content Knowledge [PCK] can influence the mathematics teachers' Professional Development [PD] needs. However, the key variables of SMK and PCK that were being investigated were not defined clearly. Empirical evidence that support relationship between SMK and PD and PCK and PD were not verified. In addition, how does PCK mediate SMK and PD is not clear and somewhat lacking. Therefore, the purpose of this paper was to examine the relationship between primary mathematics teacher's SMK, PCK and PD needs. Results of path analysis with SmartPLS indicated that the direct effect of SMK on PD was mediated via PCK. This data provide support for the claim that PD programs for future teachers of primary mathematics should be driven by a more nuanced understanding of the link between SMK and PCK.

  20. Effects of Force Load, Muscle Fatigue, and Magnetic Stimulation on Surface Electromyography during Side Arm Lateral Raise Task: A Preliminary Study with Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Cao


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to quantitatively investigate the effects of force load, muscle fatigue, and extremely low-frequency (ELF magnetic stimulation on surface electromyography (SEMG signal features during side arm lateral raise task. SEMG signals were recorded from 18 healthy subjects on the anterior deltoid using a BIOSEMI ActiveTwo system during side lateral raise task (with the right arm 90 degrees away from the body with three different loads on the forearm (0 kg, 1 kg, and 3 kg; their order was randomized between subjects. The arm maintained the loads until the subject felt exhausted. The first 10 s recording for each load was regarded as nonfatigue status and the last 10 s before the subject was exhausted was regarded as fatigue status. The subject was then given a five-minute resting between different loads. Two days later, the same experiment was repeated on every subject, and this time the ELF magnetic stimulation was applied to the subject’s deltoid muscle during the five-minute rest period. Three commonly used SEMG features, root mean square (RMS, median frequency (MDF, and sample entropy (SampEn, were analyzed and compared between different loads, nonfatigue/fatigue status, and ELF stimulation and no stimulation. Variance analysis results showed that the effect of force load on RMS was significant (p0.05. In comparison with nonfatigue status, for all the different force loads with and without ELF stimulation, RMS was significantly larger at fatigue (all p<0.001 and MDF and SampEn were significantly smaller (all p<0.001.

  1. Homeroom Teachers or Specialist Teachers?: Considerations for the Workforce for Teaching English as a Subject at Elementary Schools in Japan (United States)

    Okumura, Shinji


    In Japan, English will be officially taught as an academic subject for elementary fifth and sixth graders from 2020. This is a strong initiative of language-in-education policy, aiming at efficient articulation between elementary and junior high schools and targeting the development of English proficiency from early ages simultaneously. However,…

  2. Reflect, "Refract" or Reveal: Sociocultural Explorations of the Place of Teacher Subjectivity in Infant Care (United States)

    Brennan, Margaret


    Research indicates that adult sensitivity to psychological states (both the adult's and the infant's) will affect the security of attachment yet the teacher's internal state has received little attention in infant care. "Perezhivanie" is a sociocultural concept that presents affect and intellect as a unit rather than separate elements.…

  3. Development of Subject Position as a Condition for Forming Communicative Competence of a Future Teacher (United States)

    Yarullina, Alfiya Sh.; Araslanova, Aliya T.


    Since the demand on specialists with broad professional competence grows nowadays, high education is filled with new contents and presupposes formation of a professionally competent teacher. Professional education considers communicative competence of a student as a dominant. This fact requires from a student active attitude to himself and his…

  4. Voicing Early Years Teachers' Subjective Experiences through Maurice Sendak's "Outside Over There" (United States)

    Chang-Kredl, Sandra


    In this article, I present a narrative conversation that combines six teachers' responses to Maurice Sendak's picture book, "Outside Over There" (1981) with my own responses to their discussions and to the book. The purpose of this research is three-fold: first, to examine how children's literature can be used to evoke reflections in early years…

  5. Integration of ICT in Teacher Education and Different School Subjects in Latvia (United States)

    Kangro, Andris; Kangro, Ilze


    The introduction of information and communication technology (ICT) to the educational system of Latvia has implemented infrastructural planning since 1985 (Grinfelds, 1996). The initial plan envisaged equipping schools (mainly secondary schools) and institutions of higher education with computer sets, and training teachers and university faculty.…

  6. Perceived Personality Traits and Types of Teachers and Their Relationship to the Subjective Well-Being and Academic Achievements of Adolescents (United States)

    Eryilmaz, Ali


    The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship of the perceived types of teachers (liked, disliked and neutral) with the subjective well-being and academic success of their students, and to determine how students come to categorize their liked, disliked and neutral teachers considering the Big-Five Personality Model. The quantitative…

  7. Is Practical Subject Matter Knowledge Still Important? Examining the Siedentopian Perspective on the Role of Content Knowledge in Physical Education Teacher Education (United States)

    Herold, Frank; Waring, Michael


    Background: The role that content knowledge, an important component of practical subject matter knowledge, plays for pre-service teachers (PSTs) in physical education teacher education (PETE) remains contested and unclear. Whilst some researchers emphasise the facilitative nature of such knowledge, others criticise that too much focus on content…

  8. So Much to Learn, so Little Time...: Pre-Service Physical Education Teachers' Interpretations and Development of Subject Knowledge as They Learn to Teach (United States)

    Herold, Frank Andreas; Waring, Michael


    This paper explores the development of pre-service teachers during a one-year programme of initial teacher training and education (ITTE) of secondary physical education (PE) in England. It concentrates in particular on the interpretation and development of different dimensions of subject knowledge during different phases of their ITTE programme.…

  9. No effects of slow oscillatory transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on sleep-dependent memory consolidation in healthy elderly subjects. (United States)

    Eggert, Torsten; Dorn, Hans; Sauter, Cornelia; Nitsche, Michael A; Bajbouj, Malek; Danker-Hopfe, Heidi


    Studies in young healthy volunteers provided evidence of a beneficial impact of an anodal time-varied transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) during early slow wave rich sleep on declarative memory but not on procedural memory. The present study investigated whether sleep-dependent memory consolidation can also be affected by slow oscillating tDCS in a population of elderly subjects. 26 subjects (69.1 years ± 7.7 years) received bi-frontal anodal stimulation (max. current density: 0.331 mA/cm(2)) during early NREM sleep in a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized crossover study. Stimulation effects on offline consolidation were tested by using a declarative and a procedural memory task. Furthermore, sleep stages were scored, EEG power was analyzed and spindle densities were assessed. Independently from stimulation condition, performance in both memory tasks significantly decreased overnight. Stimulation revealed no significant effect on sleep-dependent memory consolidation. Verum tDCS was accompanied by significantly more time awake and significantly less NREM stage 3 sleep during five 1-min stimulation free intervals. The results of the present study are in line with other studies showing that offline consolidation during sleep varies with age and is less pronounced in the elderly than in young or middle-aged subjects. Contrary to an almost identical positive study in young adults, slow oscillatory tDCS applied to the elderly failed to show a beneficial effect on memory consolidation in the present study. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Igoshin


    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyze the format of a two-leveled training – bachelor and master – future teachers of mathematics from the point of view of the content of mathematical material, which is to develop prospective teachers of mathematics at those two levels, shaping their professional competence.Methods. The study involves the theoretical methods: the analysis of pedagogical and methodical literature, normative documents; historical, comparative and logical analysis of the content of pedagogical mathematical education; forecasting, planning and designing of two-leveled methodical system of training of future teachers of mathematics.Results and scientific novelty. The level differentiation of the higher education system requires developing the appropriate curricula for undergraduate and graduate programs. The fundamental principle must be the principle of continuity – the magister must continue to deepen and broaden knowledge and skills, along with competences acquired, developed and formed on the undergraduate level. From these positions, this paper examines the course «Number Systems» – the most important in terms of methodology course for future mathematics teachers, and shows what content should be filled with this course at the undergraduate level and the graduate level. At the undergraduate level it is proposed to study classical number systems – natural, integer, rational, real and complex. Further extensions of the number systems are studied at the graduate level. The theory of numeric systems is presented as a theory of algebraic systems, arising at the intersection of algebra and mathematical logic. Here we study algebras over a field, division algebra over a field, an alternative algebra with division over the field, Jordan algebra, Lie algebra. Comprehension of bases of the theory of algebras by the master of the «mathematical education» profile will promote more conscious

  11. Transcranial direct current stimulation over the medial prefrontal cortex and left primary motor cortex (mPFC-lPMC affects subjective beauty but not ugliness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koyo eNakamura


    Full Text Available Neuroaesthetics has been searching for the neural bases of the subjective experience of beauty. It has been demonstrated that neural activities in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC and the left primary motor cortex (lPMC correlate with the subjective experience of beauty. Although beauty and ugliness seem to be semantically and conceptually opposite, it is still unknown whether these two evaluations represent extreme opposites in unitary or bivariate dimensions. In this study, we applied transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS to examine whether noninvasive brain stimulation modulates two types of aesthetic evaluation; evaluating beauty and ugliness. Participants rated the subjective beauty and ugliness of abstract paintings before and after the application of tDCS. Application of cathodal tDCS over the mPFC with anode electrode over the lPMC, which induced temporal inhibition of neural excitability of the mPFC, led to a decrease in beauty ratings but not ugliness ratings. There were no changes in ratings of both beauty and ugliness when applying anodal tDCS or sham stimulation over the mPFC. Results from our experiment indicate that the mPFC and the lPMC have a causal role in generating the subjective experience of beauty, with beauty and ugliness evaluations constituting two distinct dimensions.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Ivanovna Lygina


    Full Text Available In this paper we will present the results of a pedagogical experiment aimed at studying the level of social skills in university professors. Planning cross subject communications in an academic subject with consideration of the previous and associated knowledge and skills of students in the educational programme formed the basis of the pedagogical experiment. Problems have occurred when university professors are faced with elaborating cross subject communications. It was discovered that the problems professors had were connected to their responsiveness and to the various strategies they applied while working within small groups. We will analyze the results, provide recommendations and show the change in the level of the professors’ social skills during elaboration of  cross subject communications.DOI:

  13. Separate and combined impact of acute naltrexone and alprazolam on subjective and physiological effects of oral d-amphetamine in stimulant users (United States)

    Marks, Katherine R.; Lile, Joshua A.; Stoops, William W.


    Rationale Opioid antagonists (e.g., naltrexone) and positive modulators of γ-aminobutyric-acidA (GABAA) receptors (e.g., alprazolam) modestly attenuate the abuse-related effects of stimulants like amphetamine. The use of higher doses to achieve greater efficacy is precluded by side effects. Combining naltrexone and alprazolam might safely maximize efficacy while avoiding the untoward effects of the constituent compounds. Objectives The present pilot study tested the hypothesis that acute pretreatment with the combination of naltrexone and alprazolam would not produce clinically problematic physiological effects or negative subjective effects and would reduce the positive subjective effects of d-amphetamine to a greater extent than the constituent drugs alone. Methods Eight nontreatment-seeking, stimulant-using individuals completed an outpatient experiment in which oral d-amphetamine (0, 15, and 30 mg) was administered following acute pretreatment with naltrexone (0 and 50 mg) and alprazolam (0 and 0.5 mg). Subjective effects, psychomotor task performance, and physiological measures were collected. Results Oral d-amphetamine produced prototypical physiological and stimulant-like positive subjective effects (e.g., VAS ratings of Active/Alert/Energetic, Good Effect, and High). Pretreatment with naltrexone, alprazolam, and their combination did not produce clinically problematic acute physiological effects or negative subjective effects. Naltrexone and alprazolam each significantly attenuated some of the subjective effects of d-amphetamine. The combination attenuated a greater number of subjective effects than the constituent drugs alone. Conclusions The present results support the continued evaluation of an opioid receptor antagonist combined with a GABAA-positive modulator using more clinically relevant experimental conditions like examining the effect of chronic dosing with these drugs on methamphetamine self-administration. PMID:24464531

  14. Symptomatic response to blocked and unblocked pentagastrin stimulation in functional dyspepsia - Comparison of responders and non-responders to omeprazole identified in a single-subject trial model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, L.G.; Bytzer, P.


    Background: The role of acid in functional dyspepsia is controversial and drug treatment trials indicate that only a subset of patients has acid-related symptoms. A novel single-subject trial design, the Random Starting Day trial (RSD trial), was developed to identify acid-related symptoms. We...... was expected not to be influenced by gastric acid stimulation or type of treatment. Methods: Nineteen patients were evaluated. Symptomatic response to pentagastrin (6 mu g/kg) was assessed twice in each patient following placebo and omeprazole (40 mg bid) treatment in a randomized, double-blind, cross......-over design. Epigastric pain was assessed every 15 for 90 min after stimulation using a 5-graded Likert scale and a VAS scale. A positive acid provocation test was defined as an increase of the Likert score of epigastric pain by at least one grade after pentagastrin stimulation during placebo treatment...

  15. Analgesic effect of cathodal transcranial current stimulation over right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in subjects with muscular temporomandibular disorders: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    Brandão Filho, Rivail Almeida; Baptista, Abrahão Fontes; Brandão, Renata de Assis Fonseca Santos; Meneses, Francisco Monteiro; Okeson, Jeffrey; de Sena, Eduardo Pondé


    Temporomandibular disorders are a group of orofacial pain conditions that are commonly identified in the general population. Like many other chronic pain conditions, they can be associated with anxiety/depression, which can be related to changes in the activity of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Some studies have demonstrated clinical improvement in subjects with chronic pain who are given therapeutic neuromodulation. Transcranial direct current stimulation is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique that allows the modulation of neuronal membranes. This therapy can enhance or inhibit action potential generation in cortical neurons. In some instances, medications acting in the central nervous system may be helpful despite their adverse side effects. It is important to determine if cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, an area that modulates emotion and motor cortex excitability, has an analgesic effect on chronic temporomandibular disorders pain. The investigators will run a randomized, controlled crossover double blind study with 15 chronic muscular temporomandibular disorder subjects. Each subject will undergo active (1 mA and 2 mA) and sham transcranial direct current stimulation. Inclusion criteria will be determined by the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders questionnaire, with subjects who have a pain visual analogic scale score of greater than 4/10 and whose pain has been present for the previous 6 months, and with a State-Trait Anxiety Inventory score of more than 42. The influence of transcranial direct current stimulation will be assessed through a visual analogic scale, quantitative sensory testing, quantitative electroencephalogram, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory score. Some studies have demonstrated a strong association between anxiety/depression and chronic pain, where one may be the cause of the other. This is especially true in chronic temporomandibular

  16. Loudness functions with air and bone conduction stimulation in normal-hearing subjects using a categorical loudness scaling procedure


    Stenfelt, Stefan; Zeitooni, Mehrnaz


    In a previous study (Stenfelt and Håkansson, 2002) a loudness balance test between bone conducted (BC) sound and air conducted (AC) sound was performed at frequencies between 0.25 and 4 kHz and at levels corresponding to 30–80 dB HL. The main outcome of that study was that for maintaining equal loudness, the level increase of sound with BC stimulation was less than that of AC stimulation with a ratio between 0.8 and 0.93 dB/dB. However, because it was shown that AC and BC tone cancellation wa...

  17. Common Needs and Different Agendas: How Trainee Teachers Make Progress in Their Ability to Use ICT in Subject Teaching. Some Lessons from the UK (United States)

    Haydn, Terry Anthony; Barton, Roy


    The paper reports on the outcomes of a British Educational Communications and Technology Agency (BECTa) funded study which explored the views of teacher trainees and their mentors in two different school subjects on what strategies, interventions and resources had a positive impact on their ability to use ICT effectively in their subject teaching.…

  18. Inter-subject and Inter-session Variability of Plasticity Induction by Non-invasive Brain Stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziemann, Ulf; Siebner, Hartwig R


    in human cortex well beyond the time of stimulation. These aftereffects have been termed long-term potentiation (LTP)-like and long-term depression (LTD)-like plasticity because indirect evidence supported the notion that synaptic strengthening or weakening similar to LTP/D at the cellular level underlies...

  19. Physical Education Teachers' Subjective Theories about Integrating Information and Communication Technology (ICT) into Physical Education (United States)

    Kretschmann, Rolf


    As well as other school subjects, physical education (PE) is emerging in terms of integrating information and communication technology (ICT) into regular classes. Such innovative teaching practices that implement ICT in PE involve diverse parties that are affected by these teaching processes. Students, principals, districts, parents,…

  20. Modulating phonemic fluency performance in healthy subjects with transcranial magnetic stimulation over the left or right lateral frontal cortex. (United States)

    Smirni, Daniela; Turriziani, Patrizia; Mangano, Giuseppa Renata; Bracco, Martina; Oliveri, Massimiliano; Cipolotti, Lisa


    A growing body of evidence have suggested that non-invasive brain stimulation techniques, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), can improve the performance of aphasic patients in language tasks. For example, application of inhibitory rTMS or tDCs over the right frontal lobe of dysphasic patients resulted in improved naming abilities. Several studies have also reported that in healthy controls (HC) tDCS application over the left prefrontal cortex (PFC) improve performance in naming and semantic fluency tasks. The aim of this study was to investigate in HC, for the first time, the effects of inhibitory repetitive TMS (rTMS) over left and right lateral frontal cortex (BA 47) on two phonemic fluency tasks (FAS or FPL). 44 right-handed HCs were administered rTMS or sham over the left or right lateral frontal cortex in two separate testing sessions, with a 24h interval, followed by the two phonemic fluency tasks. To account for possible practice effects, an additional 22 HCs were tested on only the phonemic fluency task across two sessions with no stimulation. We found that rTMS-inhibition over the left lateral frontal cortex significantly worsened phonemic fluency performance when compared to sham. In contrast, rTMS-inhibition over the right lateral frontal cortex significantly improved phonemic fluency performance when compared to sham. These results were not accounted for practice effects. We speculated that rTMS over the right lateral frontal cortex may induce plastic neural changes to the left lateral frontal cortex by suppressing interhemispheric inhibitory interactions. This resulted in an increased excitability (disinhibition) of the contralateral unstimulated left lateral frontal cortex, consequently enhancing phonemic fluency performance. Conversely, application of rTMS over the left lateral frontal cortex may induce a temporary, virtual lesion, with effects similar to those reported in left frontal

  1. A pilot study of a new method of cognitive stimulation using abacus arithmetic in healthy and cognitively impaired elderly subjects. (United States)

    Matías-Guiu, J A; Pérez-Martínez, D A; Matías-Guiu, J


    This study explores the applicability of a cognitive stimulation method based on abacus arithmetic in elderly people with and without cognitive impairment. This observational and prospective pilot study was performed in 2 hospitals. The study assessed the applicability of a programme of arithmetic training developed for use in the elderly population. The primary endpoint was an evaluation of the stimulation programme, in terms of usability, satisfaction, and participation, in healthy elderly controls and elderly patients with mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer disease. Secondary endpoints were family satisfaction, caregiver burden, and the behaviour and cognition of patients. Usability, satisfaction, and degree of participation were high. The Mini-Mental State Examination showed significant changes (23.1±4.8 before the intervention vs 24.9±4.2 afterwards, P=.002); there were no changes on the Trail Making Test parts A and B, Yesavage Geriatric Depression scale, and Zarit caregiver burden scale. The study suggests that cognitive stimulation with abacus arithmetic may be used in elderly people with and without cognitive impairment. Further studies will be needed to evaluate the efficacy of this kind of programmes. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Patients' expectations of deep brain stimulation, and subjective perceived outcome related to clinical measures in Parkinson's disease: a mixed-method approach. (United States)

    Maier, Franziska; Lewis, Catharine J; Horstkoetter, Nina; Eggers, Carsten; Kalbe, Elke; Maarouf, Mohammad; Kuhn, Jens; Zurowski, Mateusz; Moro, Elena; Woopen, Christiane; Timmermann, Lars


    To study patients' expectations of subthalamic deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) and their subjective perceived outcome, by using qualitative and quantitative methods in Parkinson's disease (PD). PD patients were prospectively examined before and 3 months after surgery. Semistructured interviews regarding preoperative expectations and postsurgical subjective perceived outcome were conducted. These were analysed using content analysis. For statistical analyses, patients were classified according to their subjective perceived outcome, resulting in three different subjective outcome groups (negative, mixed, positive outcome). The groups were used for multiple comparisons between and within each group regarding motor impairment, quality of life (QoL), neuropsychiatric status and cognitive functioning, using standard instruments. A logistic regression analysis was conducted to find predictors of subjective negative outcome. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to analyse cut-off scores for predictive tests. Of the 30 PD patients participating, 8 had a subjective negative outcome, 8 a mixed and 14 a positive outcome. All groups significantly improved in motor functioning. Patients with subjective negative outcome were characterised by preoperative unrealistic expectations, no postsurgical improvement in QoL, and significantly higher presurgical and postsurgical apathy and depression scores. Higher preoperative apathy and depression scores were significant predictors of negative subjective outcome. Cut-off scores for apathy and depression were identified. The mixed-method approach proved useful in examining a patient's subjective perception of STN-DBS outcome. Our results show that significant motor improvement does not necessarily lead to a positive subjective outcome. Moreover, PD patients should be screened carefully before surgery regarding apathy and depression. (DRKS-ID: DRKS00003221).

  3. Comparing the Internet Usage of Pre-Service Language Teachers with Teachers of Other Subjects: Distance Learning vs. On-Campus Learning (United States)

    Firat, Mehmet; Serpil, Harun


    Teachers play a crucial role in helping individuals gain adequate Internet competency, which requires teachers themselves to be Internet-literate. The purpose of this study is to investigate the Internet use of the distance and on-campus pre-service teachers of language and other disciplines by multiple parameters. A total of 789 teacher…

  4. Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of AMG 531, a thrombopoiesis-stimulating peptibody, in healthy Japanese subjects: a randomized, placebo-controlled study. (United States)

    Kumagai, Yuji; Fujita, Tomoe; Ozaki, Machiko; Sahashi, Kunihiko; Ohkura, Masayuki; Ohtsu, Tomoko; Arai, Yoshihiro; Sonehara, Yusuke; Nichol, Janet L


    AMG 531 is a novel thrombopoiesis-stimulating peptibody being investigated for the treatment of chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura. This double-blind, phase I study evaluated the safety, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacokinetics of AMG 531 in healthy Japanese men. Thirty subjects were randomly assigned 4:1 (AMG 531/placebo) to receive 1 dose of AMG 531 (0.3, 1, or 2 microg/kg) or placebo by subcutaneous injection; subjects were evaluated for 6 weeks. AMG 531 was generally well tolerated, with adverse events similar to placebo. Treatment-related adverse events (headache, "feeling hot," malaise) were reported for 5 of 24 AMG 531-treated subjects. Platelets generated after exposure to AMG 531 functioned normally. Four of 8 subjects receiving 1 microg/kg and 7 of 8 receiving 2 microg/kg had platelet count increases > or =1.5-fold over baseline, an effect similar to that seen in non-Japanese subjects. Serum AMG 531 concentrations were below the lower limit of quantification in all but 2 subjects receiving 2 microg/kg.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Nikolayevich Chernov


    Full Text Available Studying of role of «the parent – the child» and «the teacher – the child» generalities, developing as the collective subject, in formation of the language competence of the senior preschooler is the research purpose. Research is executed in a paradigm of the subject-activity approach. The Heidelbergtest of the child language development was applied to studying of the language competence. Experimental procedure of diagnostics of language learning and its results with use of the Vygotskian principle of a zone of the proximal development is offered. Procedure allows to form a generality «the teacher – the child» as the collective subject. For studying of a child-parental generality as collective subject the special methodical complex consisting of seven techniques was used.Essential component of structure of child-parental relations is formation of collective subject «parent – child» with the style of parental relation «the indulging hyperpatronage». This generality positively causes development of speech-linguistic competence spheres. The collective subject «the teacher – the child», generated on the basis of realization of a principle of a zone of the proximal development, allows to create psychological-pedagogical conditions for adequate learning diagnostics and, simultaneously, for achievement of high level language competence. Experience of the subject-subject interrelations with the parent is the precondition of formation the subject-subject interrelations with the teacher in a situation of formation of the language competence.Results can be used for the organization and carrying out of correction-preventive work on formation optimum sociocultural situation of child development for formation of the language competence of the senior preschool child.DOI:

  6. Pulse propagation and failure in the discrete FitzHugh-Nagumo model subject to high-frequency stimulation. (United States)

    Ratas, Irmantas; Pyragas, Kestutis


    We investigate the effect of a homogeneous high-frequency stimulation (HFS) on a one-dimensional chain of coupled excitable elements governed by the FitzHugh-Nagumo equations. We eliminate the high-frequency term by the method of averaging and show that the averaged dynamics depends on the parameter A=a/ω equal to the ratio of the amplitude a to the frequency ω of the stimulating signal, so that for large frequencies an appreciable effect from the HFS is attained only at sufficiently large amplitudes. The averaged equations are analyzed by an asymptotic theory based on the different time scales of the recovery and excitable variables. As a result, we obtain the main characteristics of a propagating pulse as functions of the parameter A and derive an analytical criterion for the propagation failure. We show that depending on the parameter A, the HFS can either enhance or suppress pulse propagation and reveal the mechanism underlying these effects. The theoretical results are confirmed by numerical simulations of the original system with and without noise.

  7. NF-κB activity in muscle from obese and type 2 diabetic subjects under basal and exercise-stimulated conditions. (United States)

    Tantiwong, Puntip; Shanmugasundaram, Karthigayan; Monroy, Adriana; Ghosh, Sangeeta; Li, Mengyao; DeFronzo, Ralph A; Cersosimo, Eugenio; Sriwijitkamol, Apiradee; Mohan, Sumathy; Musi, Nicolas


    NF-κB is a transcription factor that controls the gene expression of several proinflammatory proteins. Cell culture and animal studies have implicated increased NF-κB activity in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and muscle atrophy. However, it is unclear whether insulin-resistant human subjects have abnormal NF-κB activity in muscle. The effect that exercise has on NF-κB activity/signaling also is not clear. We measured NF-κB DNA-binding activity and the mRNA level of putative NF-κB-regulated myokines interleukin (IL)-6 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) in muscle samples from T2DM, obese, and lean subjects immediately before, during (40 min), and after (210 min) a bout of moderate-intensity cycle exercise. At baseline, NF-κB activity was elevated 2.1- and 2.7-fold in obese nondiabetic and T2DM subjects, respectively. NF-κB activity was increased significantly at 210 min following exercise in lean (1.9-fold) and obese (2.6-fold) subjects, but NF-κB activity did not change in T2DM. Exercise increased MCP-1 mRNA levels significantly in the three groups, whereas IL-6 gene expression increased significantly only in lean and obese subjects. MCP-1 and IL-6 gene expression peaked at the 40-min exercise time point. We conclude that insulin-resistant subjects have increased basal NF-κB activity in muscle. Acute exercise stimulates NF-κB in muscle from nondiabetic subjects. In T2DM subjects, exercise had no effect on NF-κB activity, which could be explained by the already elevated NF-κB activity at baseline. Exercise-induced MCP-1 and IL-6 gene expression precedes increases in NF-κB activity, suggesting that other factors promote gene expression of these cytokines during exercise.

  8. The Effects of Mentored Problem-Based STEM Teaching on Pre-Service Elementary Teachers: Scientific Reasoning and Attitudes Toward STEM Subjects (United States)

    Caliendo, Julia C.

    Problem-based learning in clinical practice has become an integral part of many professional preparation programs. This quasi-experimental study compared the effect of a specialized 90-hour field placement on elementary pre-service teachers' scientific reasoning and attitudes towards teaching STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) subjects. A cohort of 53 undergraduate elementary education majors, concurrent to their enrollment in science and math methods classes, were placed into one of two clinical practice experiences: (a) a university-based, problem-based learning (PBL), STEM classroom, or (b) a traditional public school classroom. Group gain scores on the Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning (CTSR) and the Teacher Efficacy and Attitudes Toward STEM Survey-Elementary Teachers (T-STEM) survey were calculated. A MANCOVA revealed that there was a significant difference in gain scores between the treatment and comparison groups' scientific reasoning (p = .011) and attitudes towards teaching STEM subjects (p = .004). The results support the hypothesis that the pre-service elementary teachers who experienced STEM mentoring in a PBL setting will have an increase in their scientific reasoning and produce positive attitudes towards teaching STEM subjects. In addition, the results add to the existing research suggesting that elementary pre-service teachers require significant academic preparation and mentored support in STEM content.

  9. Effect of transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS on hormones profile in subjects with primary dysmenorrhoea - a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. A. Akinbo


    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Primary dysmenorrhoea (PD is definedas the occurrence of painful menstrual cramps of uterine origin which occurs in the absence of any underlying disease. The pathogenesis is unclear, but uterine hyperactivity, elevated prostaglandin and leukotrienes levels, and hormonal level fluctuations have all been implicated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of TENS on the hormones cortisol and prolactin in individuals with PD.Methods: Plasma levels of cortisol and prolactin were studied in twenty-one (21 subjects with PD by obtaining blood samples from each subject pre-and post-TENS therapy on the first day of menstruation. The mean age of subjects was 23 (+ 2 years.  The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS was used to assess the pre-and post-treatment pain intensity.  The TENS unit was applied for a duration of 30 minutes.Results: A paired t-test showed that there was an overall reduction in the mean cortisol and prolactin from  pre treatment values of 28.45µg/dl ((5.27 and 56.81ng/ml ((31.86 to post treatment values of 27.33µg/dl ((5.13 and 53.23ng/ml ((37.63 respectively. However, these differences were not statistically significant (P>0.05.  Pain intensity was significantly reduced comparing pre and post treatment VAS scores (P = 0.001.Conclusion: The probable mechanism by which TENS effected alterations in cortisol and prolactin levels and pain reduction in subjects with PD might be through the opioid-modulating analgesia system, which releases B-endorphins and other endogenous opiates in response to pain.  This is because there is a close relationship between B-endorphin, cortisol and neurons, which secrete dopamine into the hypothalamic-pituitary-portal system.

  10. Activated human neonatal CD8+ T cells are subject to immunomodulation by direct TLR2 or TLR5 stimulation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCarron, Mark


    In conditions of optimal priming, the neonate possesses competency to mount quantitatively adult-like responses. Vaccine formulations containing sufficiently potent adjuvants may overcome the neonate\\'s natural tendency for immunosuppression and provoke a similarly robust immune response. TLR expression on T cells represents the possibility of directly enhancing T cell immunity. We examined the ex vivo responsiveness of highly purified human cord blood-derived CD8(+) T cells to direct TLR ligation by a repertoire of TLR agonists. In concert with TCR stimulation, only Pam(3)Cys (palmitoyl-3-Cys-Ser-(Lys)(4)) and flagellin monomers significantly enhanced proliferation, CD25(+) expression, IL-2, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, and intracellular granzyme B expression. TLR2 and TLR5 mRNA was detected in the CD8(+) T cells. Blocking studies confirmed that the increase in IFN-gamma production was by the direct triggering of surface TLR2 or TLR5. The simultaneous exposure of CD8(+) T cells to both TLR agonists had an additive effect on IFN-gamma production. These data suggest that a combination of the two TLR ligands would be a potent T cell adjuvant. This may represent a new approach to TLR agonist-based adjuvant design for future human neonatal vaccination strategies requiring a CD8(+) component.

  11. Functional brain networks in healthy subjects under acupuncture stimulation: An EEG study based on nonlinear synchronization likelihood analysis (United States)

    Yu, Haitao; Liu, Jing; Cai, Lihui; Wang, Jiang; Cao, Yibin; Hao, Chongqing


    Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal evoked by acupuncture stimulation at "Zusanli" acupoint is analyzed to investigate the modulatory effect of manual acupuncture on the functional brain activity. Power spectral density of EEG signal is first calculated based on the autoregressive Burg method. It is shown that the EEG power is significantly increased during and after acupuncture in delta and theta bands, but decreased in alpha band. Furthermore, synchronization likelihood is used to estimate the nonlinear correlation between each pairwise EEG signals. By applying a threshold to resulting synchronization matrices, functional networks for each band are reconstructed and further quantitatively analyzed to study the impact of acupuncture on network structure. Graph theoretical analysis demonstrates that the functional connectivity of the brain undergoes obvious change under different conditions: pre-acupuncture, acupuncture, and post-acupuncture. The minimum path length is largely decreased and the clustering coefficient keeps increasing during and after acupuncture in delta and theta bands. It is indicated that acupuncture can significantly modulate the functional activity of the brain, and facilitate the information transmission within different brain areas. The obtained results may facilitate our understanding of the long-lasting effect of acupuncture on the brain function.

  12. Student-Teachers' Verbal Communication Patterns during Their Teaching Practice in "Studies for the Environment" Subject in Early Greek Primary Classes (United States)

    Malandrakis, George; Karagianni, Aggeliki; Pani, Dimitra


    This study explores the quality of student-teachers' (STs') verbal communication during their teaching practice on the "Studies for the Environment" subject, and identifies potential factors affecting it. Forty-one teaching sessions were analysed revealing that STs dominate classroom talking by having almost an equal number of utterances…

  13. Physics Education: Effect of Micro-Teaching Method Supported by Educational Technologies on Pre-Service Science Teachers' Misconceptions on Basic Astronomy Subjects (United States)

    Gurbuz, Fatih


    The purpose of this research study is to explore pre-service science teachers' misconceptions on basic astronomy subjects and to examine the effect of micro teaching method supported by educational technologies on correcting misconceptions. This study is an action research. Semi- structured interviews were used in the study as a data collection…

  14. Gender difference in wellbeing during school lessons among 10-12-year-old children: the importance of school subjects and student-teacher relationships. (United States)

    Palsdottir, Aslaug; Asgeirsdottir, Bryndis Bjork; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora


    The aim of the study was to examine gender difference in self-reported wellbeing during school lessons among Icelandic 10-12-year-old boys and girls, in grades 5-7 in elementary schools. Also, to examine whether factors related to attitudes towards school subjects, student-teacher relationships and student-peer relationships mediated the associations between gender and wellbeing during school lessons. A cross-sectional anonymous survey was conducted among 88% (in total 11,387 participants) of all registered students aged 10-12 attending grades 5-7 in Iceland. Multivariate logistic regression was used to test main, mediation, and interaction effects. Boys reported significantly less wellbeing during school lessons than girls. Not finding the subjects taught at school fun fully mediated the relationship between gender and self-reported wellbeing during school lessons. Furthermore, when not considering other school-related factors, finding the subjects at school to hard, not liking the teachers, not being praised by teachers, and being bullied in recess partially mediated the relationship between gender and self-reported wellbeing during school lessons. The results suggest that to improve boy's wellbeing during school lessons, making school subject more appealing to boys is of importance. Furthermore, fostering teacher-student relationships and decreasing bullying of boys in recess should be emphasised.

  15. A Case Study of Beginning Science Teachers' Subject Matter (SMK) and Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) of Teaching Chemical Reaction in Turkey (United States)

    Usak, Muhammet; Ozden, Mustafa; Eilks, Ingo


    This paper describes a case study focusing on the subject matter knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge, and beliefs about science teaching of student teachers in Turkey at the start of their university education. The topic of interest was that of teaching chemical reactions in secondary chemistry education. A written test was developed which…

  16. Exploring the Relationship between Secondary Science Teachers' Subject Matter Knowledge and Knowledge of Student Conceptions While Teaching Evolution by Natural Selection (United States)

    Lucero, Margaret M.; Petrosino, Anthony J.; Delgado, Cesar


    The fundamental scientific concept of evolution occurring by natural selection is home to many deeply held alternative conceptions and considered difficult to teach. Science teachers' subject matter knowledge (SMK) and the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) component of knowledge of students' conceptions (KOSC) can be valuable resources for…

  17. From Black and White to Shades of Grey: A Longitudinal Study of Teachers' Perspectives on Teaching Sociocultural and Subjective Aspects of Science (United States)

    Leden, Lotta; Hansson, Lena; Redfors, Andreas


    Traditional school science has been described as focused on indisputable facts where scientific processes and factors affecting these processes become obscured or left undiscussed. In this article, we report on teachers' perspectives on the teaching of sociocultural and subjective aspects of the nature of science (NOS) as a way to accomplish a…

  18. Normative Values for Intertrial Variability of Motor Responses to Nerve Root and Transcranial Stimulation: A Condition for Follow-Up Studies in Individual Subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Troni

    Full Text Available Intertrial variability (ITV of motor responses to peripheral (CMAP and transcranial (MEP stimulation prevents their use in follow-up studies. Our purpose was to develop strategies to reduce and measure CMAP and MEP ITV to guide long-term monitoring of conduction slowing and conduction failure of peripheral and central motor pathway in the individual patient.Maximal compound muscle action potentials to High Voltage Electrical Stimulation (HVES of lumbo-sacral nerve roots (r-CMAP and activated, averaged motor evoked potentials (MEPs to Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS using double cone coil were recorded from 10 proximal and distal muscle districts of lower limbs. The procedure was repeated twice, 1-2 days apart, in 30 subjects, including healthy volunteers and clinically stable multiple sclerosis patients, using constant stimulating and recording sites and adopting a standardized procedure of voluntary activation. ITV for latency and area indexes and for the ratio between MEP and r-CMAP areas (a-Ratio was expressed as Relative Intertrial Variation (RIV, 5th-95th percentile. As an inverse correlation between the size of area and ITV was found, raw ITV values were normalized as a function of area to make them comparable with one another.All RIV values for latencies were significantly below the optimum threshold of ± 10%, with the exception of r-CMAP latencies recorded from Vastus Lateralis muscle. RIVs for a-Ratio, the most important index of central conduction failure, ranged from a maximum of -25.3% to +32.2% (Vastus Medialis to a minimum of -15.0% to + 17.4% (Flexor Hallucis Brevis.The described procedure represents an effort to lower as much as possible variability of motor responses in serial recording; the reported ITV normative values are the necessary premise to detect significant changes of motor conduction slowing and failure in the individual patient in follow-up studies.

  19. Normative Values for Intertrial Variability of Motor Responses to Nerve Root and Transcranial Stimulation: A Condition for Follow-Up Studies in Individual Subjects (United States)

    Malucchi, Simona; Capobianco, Marco; Sperli, Francesca


    Objective Intertrial variability (ITV) of motor responses to peripheral (CMAP) and transcranial (MEP) stimulation prevents their use in follow-up studies. Our purpose was to develop strategies to reduce and measure CMAP and MEP ITV to guide long-term monitoring of conduction slowing and conduction failure of peripheral and central motor pathway in the individual patient. Methods Maximal compound muscle action potentials to High Voltage Electrical Stimulation (HVES) of lumbo-sacral nerve roots (r-CMAP) and activated, averaged motor evoked potentials (MEPs) to Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) using double cone coil were recorded from 10 proximal and distal muscle districts of lower limbs. The procedure was repeated twice, 1–2 days apart, in 30 subjects, including healthy volunteers and clinically stable multiple sclerosis patients, using constant stimulating and recording sites and adopting a standardized procedure of voluntary activation. ITV for latency and area indexes and for the ratio between MEP and r-CMAP areas (a-Ratio) was expressed as Relative Intertrial Variation (RIV, 5th-95th percentile). As an inverse correlation between the size of area and ITV was found, raw ITV values were normalized as a function of area to make them comparable with one another. Results All RIV values for latencies were significantly below the optimum threshold of ± 10%, with the exception of r-CMAP latencies recorded from Vastus Lateralis muscle. RIVs for a-Ratio, the most important index of central conduction failure, ranged from a maximum of -25.3% to +32.2% (Vastus Medialis) to a minimum of -15.0% to + 17.4% (Flexor Hallucis Brevis). Conclusions The described procedure represents an effort to lower as much as possible variability of motor responses in serial recording; the reported ITV normative values are the necessary premise to detect significant changes of motor conduction slowing and failure in the individual patient in follow-up studies. PMID:27182973

  20. Infrastructure Development as a Condition for Improving the Mechanism of Innovative Activity Stimulation (on the Example of Southern Federal District Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda Nikolaevna Lebedeva


    Full Text Available The article discusses the concept of the mechanism of innovative activity stimulation, which represents a system consisting of actors with their goals; formal regulations (legislation; informal regulations and rules (business culture, adopted by the economic community; incentives and constraints (economic and non-economic in nature. The authors specify the understanding of infrastructure as a condition of the mechanism functioning, compare rating assessments (by the NAIDIT technique of innovation activity of subjects of the Southern Federal District (SFD and reveal significant inconsistencies. The comparative analysis of the main existing infrastructure elements of the innovation sphere (Krasnodar, Volgograd and Rostov regions let make conclusions about their sufficiency or insufficiency in different subjects of the macro-region. The negative trends of innovative infrastructure development include: the lack of a unified information and analytical database and system for the promotion and support of innovative projects; the lack of consolidated data to assess the development level of the regional innovative infrastructure in formal source; the failure and the need for development elements, such as clusters and science-technology parks, support funds and the creation of extensive networks of centers for collective use. Directions of improvement of innovation activity are presented on the basis of comparing its peculiar indicators as well as analyzing and identifying missing infrastructure elements of the innovation system (scientific and investment, information and analytical, organizational and communicative with the aim of increasing the efficiency of existing mechanisms of innovation stimulation in the regions. Scientific and practical significance of this work consists in the future use of its provisions and conclusions as additional theoretical and methodological substantiation of scientific developments in research of innovative activity

  1. The Subject-Modeling Approach to Developing the Methodol- ogy Competence of the Future Teachers-Psychologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Gilmanov


    Full Text Available Any practical activity of a modern specialist requires the methodology knowledge – the ability of setting and transforming goals, operating with summarized approaches and plans, creating and reconstructing them, etc. The paper deals with the role of the methodology competence in professional thinking; the subject-modeling approach to developing the professional thinking and methodology competence is considered regarding the future teachers-psychologists.The substantiation of the above approach is given concerning the content and structure of the competence in question, as well as the students’ personal characteristics. The psychological mechanism of gaining the experience and professional thinking ability is described as interaction of two models – the cognitive and dynamic emotional ones – both reflecting the professional activity. The results of experimental work, based on such methods as analysis, theoretical modeling, supervision and polling, demon- strated the main developing factors of methodology competence: the general culture level, interest to the future profession, the professional activity presentation in educational process. The research results imply the conclusion that the purposeful pedagogic activity based on the methodology competence is necessary for developing the future specialists’ professional thinking. 

  2. Potassium and magnesium distribution, ECG changes, and ventricular ectopic beats during beta 2-adrenergic stimulation with terbutaline in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tveskov, C; Djurhuus, M S; Klitgaard, N A


    .001). The urinary excretion of potassium decreased from 0.077 mmol/min (0.052 to 0.102) to 0.038 mmol/min (0.025 to 0.051) (p sodium potassium pumps from 1,104.1 nmol/kg dry weight (1,030.6 to 1,177.5) to 1,273.3 nmol/kg dry weight (1,193.5 to 1,353.2) (p ... of sodium-potassium pumps. Furthermore, terbutaline induced changes in ECG with a highly significant lengthening of the QTc interval but with an unchanged number of ventricular ectopic beats in healthy subjects....... or terbutaline (bolus, 0.25 mg; maintenance dose, 5 micrograms/min). SETTING: University Department of Clinical Chemistry. PARTICIPANTS: Ten healthy male volunteers. Mean age was 24.1 (range, 20 to 31) years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Serum potassium and magnesium muscle potassium and magnesium, and muscle sodium...

  3. Growth differentiation factor 11 improves neurobehavioral recovery and stimulates angiogenesis in rats subjected to cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. (United States)

    Ma, Jingxi; Zhang, Lina; Niu, Tengfei; Ai, Chibo; Jia, Gongwei; Jin, Xinhao; Wen, Lan; Zhang, Keming; Zhang, Qinbin; Li, Changqing


    The recent suggestion that growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) acts as a rejuvenation factor has remained controversial. However, in addition to its role in aging, the relationship between GDF11 and cerebral ischemia is still an important area that needs more investigation. Here we examined effects of GDF11 on angiogenesis and recovery of neurological function in a rat model of stroke. Exogenous recombinant GDF11 (rGDF11) at different doses were directly injected into the tail vein in rats subjected to cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Neurobehavioral tests were performed, the proliferation of endothelial cells (ECs) and GDF11 downstream signal activin-like kinase 5 (ALK5) were assessed, and functional microvessels were measured. Results showed that rGDF11 at a dosage of 0.1 mg/kg/day could effectively activate cerebral angiogenesis in vivo. In addition, rGDF11 improved the modified neurological severity scores and the adhesive removal somatosensory test, promoted proliferation of ECs, induced ALK5 and increased vascular surface area and the number of vascular branch points in the peri-infarct cerebral cortex after cerebral I/R. These effects were suppressed by blocking ALK5. Our novel findings shed new light on the role of GDF11. Our results strongly suggest that GDF11 improves neurofunctional recovery from cerebral I/R injury and that this effect is mediated partly through its proangiogenic effect in the peri-infarct cerebral cortex, which is associated with ALK5. Thus, GDF11/ALK5 may represent new therapeutic targets for aiding recovery from stroke. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The influence of GLP-1 on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion: effects on beta-cell sensitivity in type 2 and nondiabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjems, Lise L; Holst, Jens J; Vølund, Aage


    , 4, 6, 8, and 12 mg x kg(-1) x min(-1) over 150 min on four occasions with infusion of saline or GLP-1 at 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 pmol x kg(-1) x min(-1). GLP-1 enhanced ISR in a dose-dependent manner during the graded glucose infusion from 332 +/- 51 to 975 +/- 198 pmol/kg in the patients with type 2....... However, the dose-response relationship between GLP-1 and basal and glucose-stimulated prehepatic insulin secretion rate (ISR) is currently not known. Seven patients with type 2 diabetes and seven matched nondiabetic control subjects were studied. ISR was determined during a graded glucose infusion of 2...... that of the control subjects without GLP-1. Our results show that GLP-1 increases insulin secretion in patients with type 2 diabetes and control subjects in a dose-dependent manner and that the beta-cell responsiveness to glucose may be increased to normal levels with a low dose of GLP-1 infusion. Nevertheless...

  5. Teacher Subject Specialisms and Their Relationships to Learning Styles, Psychological Types and Multiple Intelligences: Implications for Course Development (United States)

    Perry, Chris; Ball, Ian


    This study explores issues in teacher education that increase our understanding of, and response to, the individual differences displayed by learners. A large undergraduate teacher education cohort provided evidence of the range and distribution of preferences in learning styles, psychological types and multiple intelligences. This information…

  6. The Design of Preservice Primary Teacher Education Science Subjects: The Emergence of an Interactive Educational Design Model (United States)

    McKinnon, David H.; Danaia, Lena; Deehan, James


    Over the past 20 years there have been numerous calls in Australia and beyond for extensive educational reforms to preservice teacher education in the sciences. Recommendations for science teacher education programs to integrate curriculum, instruction and assessment are at the forefront of such reforms. In this paper, we describe our scholarly…

  7. Attitudinal Study of User and Non-User Teachers' towards ICT in Relation to Their School Teaching Subjects (United States)

    Lal, Chhavi


    The present study aimed to know the attitude towards ICT of user and non-user teachers of ICT. The data were collected from 40 (20 male and 20 Female) user and non-user of ICT secondary school teachers from Agra city. Attitude towards ICT was measured by Computer Attitude Scale (CAS), originally developed by Loyd and Gressard (1984). Data were…

  8. Stimulating Teachers' Reflection and Feedback Asking: An interplay of Self-Efficacy, Learning Goal Orientation, and Transformational Leadership (United States)

    Runhaar, Piety; Sanders, Karin; Yang, Huadong


    The goal of the study was to investigate how teachers' reflection and feedback asking--two crucial components of professional development--can be explained by occupational self-efficacy, learning goal orientation and transformational leadership. A survey study with data from 456 teachers from a Dutch College for Vocational Education and Training…

  9. Why Inquiry? Primary Teachers' Objectives in Choosing Inquiry- and Context-Based Instructional Strategies to Stimulate Students' Science Learning (United States)

    Walan, Susanne; Nilsson, Pernilla; Ewen, Birgitta Mc


    Studies have shown that there is a need for pedagogical content knowledge among science teachers. This study investigates two primary teachers and their objectives in choosing inquiry- and context-based instructional strategies as well as the relation between the choice of instructional strategies and the teachers' knowledge about of students' understanding and intended learning outcomes. Content representations created by the teachers and students' experiences of the enacted teaching served as foundations for the teachers' reflections during interviews. Data from the interviews were analyzed in terms of the intended, enacted, and experienced purposes of the teaching and, finally, as the relation between intended, enacted, and experienced purposes. Students' experiences of the teaching were captured through a questionnaire, which was analyzed inductively, using content analysis. The results show that the teachers' intended teaching objectives were that students would learn about water. During the enacted teaching, it seemed as if the inquiry process was in focus and this was also how many of the students experienced the objectives of the activities. There was a gap between the intended and experienced objectives. Hardly any relation was found between the teachers' choice of instructional strategies and their knowledge about students' understanding, with the exception that the teacher who also added drama wanted to support her students' understanding of the states of water.

  10. Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) or continuous unilateral distal experimental pain stimulation in healthy subjects does not bias visual attention towards one hemifield. (United States)

    Filippopulos, Filipp M; Grafenstein, Jessica; Straube, Andreas; Eggert, Thomas


    In natural life pain automatically draws attention towards the painful body part suggesting that it interacts with different attentional mechanisms such as visual attention. Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) patients who typically report on chronic distally located pain of one extremity may suffer from so-called neglect-like symptoms, which have also been linked to attentional mechanisms. The purpose of the study was to further evaluate how continuous pain conditions influence visual attention. Saccade latencies were recorded in two experiments using a common visual attention paradigm whereby orientating saccades to cued or uncued lateral visual targets had to be performed. In the first experiment saccade latencies of healthy subjects were measured under two conditions: one in which continuous experimental pain stimulation was applied to the index finger to imitate a continuous pain situation, and one without pain stimulation. In the second experiment saccade latencies of patients suffering from CRPS were compared to controls. The results showed that neither the continuous experimental pain stimulation during the experiment nor the chronic pain in CRPS led to an unilateral increase of saccade latencies or to a unilateral increase of the cue effect on latency. The results show that unilateral, continuously applied pain stimuli or chronic pain have no or only very limited influence on visual attention. Differently from patients with visual neglect, patients with CRPS did not show strong side asymmetries of saccade latencies or of cue effects on saccade latencies. Thus, neglect-like clinical symptoms of CRPS patients do not involve the allocation of visual attention.

  11. A description of a staff development program: Preparing the elementary school classroom teacher to lead environmental field trips and to use an integrated subject approach to environmental education (United States)

    Egana, John Joseph

    This study of the Field Trip Specialist Program (FTS) described how a professional development plan fostered change in the traditional roles of third and fourth grade teachers. Teachers that volunteered were prepared to become interpretive guides for their class on environmental field trips, integrate their basic subject areas lessons into an environmental science context, and develop their self-perception as professional educators. This qualitative study made use of quantitative data and drew on information collected over four years from surveys, interviews, classroom observations, field trip and workshop observations, focus groups, journals and assessments performed in Florida. The FTS Program attracted teachers who thought it was important for all students to understand environmental issues, and these teachers believed in integrated instruction. These beliefs were inconsistent with many aspects of school culture. FTS invited the participation of these teachers and encouraged them to take control of the program by serving as instructors and program developers. Teachers described themselves as prepared to deliver the FTS Program with a high level of motivation and relevance. They also credited the program as beneficial in preparation for the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Tests (FCAT). Teachers reported that their responsibility as field trip leaders was the primary factor motivating them to provide conscientious presentation of pre- and post-field trip lessons and thorough integration of environmental topics in basic subject area instruction. Despite the impact of the field trip leadership factor, I could not find another program in the State of Florida that required teachers to lead their own field trips. Other influential factors specific to this program were: Voluntary participation, on-site field instruction, peer instructors and program developers, high quality and task specific materials, and pre- and post-assessments for students. Factors were identified

  12. From black and white to shades of grey. A longitudinal study of teachers' perspectives on teaching sociocultural and subjective aspects of science (United States)

    Leden, Lotta; Hansson, Lena; Redfors, Andreas


    Traditional school science has been described as focused on indisputable facts where scientific processes and factors affecting these processes become obscured or left undiscussed. In this article, we report on teachers' perspectives on the teaching of sociocultural and subjective aspects of the nature of science (NOS) as a way to accomplish a more nuanced science teaching in Swedish compulsory school. The teachers ( N = 6) took part in a longitudinal study on NOS and NOS teaching that spanned 3 years. The data consists of recorded and transcribed focus group discussions from all 3 years. In the analysis, the transcripts were searched for teachers' suggestions of issues, relevant for teaching in compulsory school, as well as opportunities and challenges connected to the teaching of these issues. The results of the analysis show that (a) the number of suggested issues increased over the years, (b) teachers' ways of contextualizing the issues changed from general and unprecise to more tightly connected to socio-scientific or scientific contexts, and (c) the number of both opportunities and challenges related to NOS teaching increased over the years. The most evident changes occurred from the beginning of year 2 when the focus group discussions became more closely directed towards concrete teaching activities. Tensions between the opportunities and challenges are discussed as well as how these can be met, and made use of, in science teacher education.

  13. Digital media promoting new approaches to subject specific didactics in visual arts education in primary school, high school, teacher education and university education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Kirsten

    Digital media promoting new approaches to subject specific didactics in visual arts education in primary school, high school, teacher education and university education The symposium addresses current developments in visual arts education based on empirical projects from different levels of the e......Digital media promoting new approaches to subject specific didactics in visual arts education in primary school, high school, teacher education and university education The symposium addresses current developments in visual arts education based on empirical projects from different levels......, social aesthetics, community art and co-creation all represent an approach to art production and appreciation where content, media and visual expressions unfold in societal, digital, collaborative, and transgressive constellations involving the art maker and audiences in social and relational projects...

  14. Hypothalamic-pituitary axis and peripheral tissue responses to TRH stimulation and liothyronine suppression tests in normal subjects evaluated by current methods. (United States)

    Dare, Gustavo Leopoldo Rodrigues; de Castro, Margaret; Maciel, Lea Maria Zanini


    To reevaluate the responses of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) stimulation test in baseline condition as well as after the administration of graded supraphysiological doses of liothyronine (L-T(3)) in normal subjects. To assess various parameters related to the hypothalamic-pituitary axis and peripheral tissue responses to L-T(3) in 22 normal individuals (median age: 30.5 years). Subjects were submitted to an intravenous TRH test at baseline condition and also to the oral administration of sequential and graded doses of L-T(3) (50, 100, and 200 microg/day), each given over 3 days, at an outpatient clinic. Blood samples were obtained for thyrotropin (TSH) and prolactin (PRL) at basal and then 15, 30, and 60 minutes after the TRH injection. Effects of L-T(3) administration on cholesterol, creatine kinase, retinol, ferritin, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were also measured at basal and after the oral administration of L-T(3). TRH administration resulted in an increase of 4- to 14-fold rise in serum TSH (8.3 +/- 2.5-fold), and in a slight rise in serum PRL concentrations (3.8 +/- 1.5-fold). Administration of graded doses of triiodothyronine (T(3)) resulted in a dose-dependent suppression of TSH and PRL. Basal thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) and cholesterol levels decreased, and ferritin and SHBG increased after L-T(3) administration, while creatine kinase and retinol did not change throughout the study. There was a positive correlation between basal TSH and TSH peak response to TRH at basal condition and after each sequential L-T(3) doses. On the other hand, TSH peak response to the TRH test did not predict cholesterol, TBG, ferritin, or SHBG values. Using the current methods on hormone and biochemical analysis, we standardized the response of many parameters to TRH stimulation test after sequential and graded T(3) suppression test in normal subjects. Our data suggest that the evaluation of the responses of the hypothalamus-pituitary axis to TRH test as

  15. The Role of Teachers' Pedagogical and Subject-Matter Knowledge in Planning and Enacting Science-Inquiry Instruction, and in Assessing Students' Science-Inquiry Learning (United States)

    Birlean, Camelia

    This study explored the relation between pedagogical knowledge and subject-matter knowledge, in the context of inquiry-driven science instruction, and their relation to instructors' performance in the instructional process. This multiple case study focused on three distinct categories of teachers--Novice in Inquiry and in Science, Novice in Inquiry and Expert in Science, and Expert in Inquiry and in Science--and examined the commonalities and differences among them by exploring the cognitive processes these teachers used when planning and enacting an inquiry instructional situation, as well as when assessing students' learning resulting from this specific instructional event. Inquiry instruction varied across cases from largely structured to largely open. The Novice-Novice's science instruction, predominantly traditional in the approach, differed greatly from that of the Expert-Expert and of the Novice-Expert. The latter two emphasized--to various extents structured, guided, and open--inquiry strategy as part of their ongoing instruction. The open inquiry was an approach embraced solely by the Expert-Expert teacher throughout the Advanced Science Research instruction, emphasizing the creative aspect of problem generation. Edward teacher also distinguished himself from the other two participants in his view of planning and terminology used to describe it, both of which emphasized the dynamic and flexible feature of this instructional process. The Expert-Expert identified occasional planning, planning of specific skills and content critical to students' learning process during their independent inquiry. The observed teaching performance of the three participants partly reflected their planning; the alignment was least frequent for the Novice-Novice. The assessment of inquiry-based projects varied greatly across participants. Each teacher participant evaluated a set of three inquiry-based science projects that differed in their quality, and this variation increased

  16. A single-subject study to evaluate the inhibitory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with traditional dysphagia therapy in patients with post-stroke dysphagia. (United States)

    Ghelichi, Leila; Joghataei, Mohammad Taghi; Jalaie, Shohreh; Nakhostin-Ansari, Noureddin; Forogh, Bijan; Mehrpour, Masoud


    Post-stroke dysphagia is common and is associated with the development of pneumonia. To investigate the effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) combined with traditional dysphagia therapy (TDT) on swallowing function in patients with post-stroke dysphagia. In this single-subject study, four patients with dysphagia post-stroke included. The patients received the rTMS applied to the intact cerebral hemisphere at 1 Hz with train of 1200 for 5 consecutive days combined with TDT 3 days per week for 6 weeks. The main outcome measure was the Mann Assessment of Swallowing Ability (MASA). Measurements were taken before, after the end of 5(th), 10(th), 15(th) treatment sessions, and after the end of the treatment (18(th) session). The MASA scores improved in all patients following treatment. The maximum and minimum change in level between the baseline phase and treatment phase was +84 and +36. The greatest percentage improvement was observed after 5(th) treatment sessions ranging between 11 and 35%. The treatment trend was upward shown by the directions of the slopes indicated by positive values (+9.1-+20.7). The dysphagia was resolved after 10(th) treatment session in all participants. The aspiration resolved in two participants after the 5(th) treatment session and resolved in another 2 participants after the 10(th) treatment session. The combination therapy of rTMS plus TDT improved swallowing function in patients with post-stroke dysphagia. Further research with a larger sample size is recommended.

  17. The influence of GLP-1 on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion: effects on beta-cell sensitivity in type 2 and nondiabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjems, Lise L; Holst, Jens J; Vølund, Aage


    The intestinally derived hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) (7-36 amide) has potent effects on glucose-mediated insulin secretion, insulin gene expression, and beta-cell growth and differentiation. It is, therefore, considered a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of type 2 diabetes....... However, the dose-response relationship between GLP-1 and basal and glucose-stimulated prehepatic insulin secretion rate (ISR) is currently not known. Seven patients with type 2 diabetes and seven matched nondiabetic control subjects were studied. ISR was determined during a graded glucose infusion of 2......, 4, 6, 8, and 12 mg x kg(-1) x min(-1) over 150 min on four occasions with infusion of saline or GLP-1 at 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 pmol x kg(-1) x min(-1). GLP-1 enhanced ISR in a dose-dependent manner during the graded glucose infusion from 332 +/- 51 to 975 +/- 198 pmol/kg in the patients with type 2...

  18. The Impact of Service Learning on the Training of Pre-Service Teachers: Analysis from a Physical Education Subject (United States)

    Gil-Gómez, Jesús; Chiva-Bartoll, Óscar; Martí-Puig, Manuel


    This paper discusses the effects of the use of service learning in pre-service teachers (PSTs). This methodology has been applied for two academic years at a Spanish university, providing a direct service for children with special educational needs (SEN) through motor and expressive games. We used Butin's model for the analysis of data collected…

  19. Citizenship Education in the Social Science Subjects: An Analysis of the Teacher Education Curriculum for Secondary Schools (United States)

    Sigauke, Aaron T.


    Citizenship education is widely acknowledged as a necessary part of the school curriculum for various reasons. For young people, it is assumed that citizenship can best be learnt through the school curriculum. This means that teachers need to thoroughly understand what citizenship means and how to pass this knowledge on to students. This paper…

  20. Motivation, Empowerment, and Innovation: Teachers' Beliefs about How Participating in the Edmodo Math Subject Community Shapes Teaching and Learning (United States)

    Trust, Torrey


    Educators around the world participate in virtual communities, social media sites, and online networks in order to gain support and ideas for improving their practice. Many researchers have explored how and why teachers participate in these online spaces; however, there is limited research on how participation might impact teaching and learning.…

  1. The Effect of a Stimulating Learning Environment on Pre-Service Teachers' Motivation and 21st Century Skills (United States)

    Nissim, Yonit; Weissblueth, Eyal; Scott-Webber, Lennie; Amar, Shimon


    We investigated the effect of an innovative technology-supported learning environment on pre-service student teachers' motivation and 21st century skills. Students and instructors filled-in the Active Learning Post Occupancy Evaluation (AL-POE) questionnaire. Analysis included tests for individual items and a comparison of the overall mean,…

  2. Enhancement of motor learning by focal intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) of either the primary motor (M1) or somatosensory area (S1) in healthy human subjects. (United States)

    Platz, Thomas; Adler-Wiebe, Marija; Roschka, Sybille; Lotze, Martin


    Motor rehabilitation after brain damage relies on motor re-learning as induced by specific training. Non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) can alter cortical excitability and thereby has a potential to enhance subsequent training-induced learning. Knowledge about any priming effects of NIBS on motor learning in healthy subjects can help to design targeted therapeutic applications in brain-damaged subjects. To examine whether complex motor learning in healthy subjects can be enhanced by intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) to primary motor or sensory cortical areas. Eighteen young healthy subjects trained eight different arm motor tasks (arm ability training, AAT) once a day for 5 days using their left non-dominant arm. Except for day 1 (baseline), training was performed after applying an excitatory form of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (iTBS) to either (I) right M1 or (II) S1, or (III) sham stimulation to the right M1. Subjects were randomly assigned to conditions I, II, or III. A principal component analysis of the motor behaviour data suggested eight independent motor abilities corresponding to the 8 trained tasks. AAT induced substantial motor learning across abilities with generalisation to a non-trained test of finger dexterity (Nine-Hole-Peg-Test, NHPT). Participants receiving iTBS (to either M1 or S1) showed better performance with the AAT tasks over the period of training compared to sham stimulation as well as a bigger improvement with the generalisation task (NHPT) for the trained left hand after training completion. Priming with an excitatory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation as iTBS of either M1 or S1 can enhance motor learning across different sensorimotor abilities.

  3. Science Teachers' Handbook. Reprint R-50. (United States)

    Rao, C. S., Ed.

    Science should not be presented as a collection of facts; it must be presented as an active dynamic subject. It should be used to stimulate young minds and encourage questioning. This is a publication designed to meet the needs of science teachers for a day-to-day reference in science. It was intended for the use of Peace Corps volunteers and…

  4. Third Spaces and Video-Stimulated Recall: An Exploration of Teachers' Cultural Role in an Indigenous Education Context (United States)

    Stevenson, Blair


    This paper explores the use of video-stimulated recall as a reflective approach for supporting the development of third spaces in action research. The concept of third spaces is used as a conceptual descriptor of the specific intercultural context and relations between the researcher and participants present within the project. The paper…

  5. Historia de las disciplinas, profesionalización docente y formación de profesores: el caso español History of school subjects, the professionalization of teachers and teachers' training: the Spanish case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Viñao


    Full Text Available Este texto pretende analizar, a partir del caso español, las relaciones existentes entre la historia de las disciplinas (y, dentro de ella, de los manuales escolares, el proceso de profesionalización docente y la formación de profesores. Primero se exponen las causas que explican la ausencia legal, en el caso español, de la historia de las disciplinas en la formación de profesores, así como algunas iniciativas aisladas en relación con este tema. Seguidamente se da cuenta de algunos aspectos o cuestiones en los que fundamentar la presencia de la historia de las disciplinas en la formación de profesores, en especial de la necesidad de insertar los estudios sobre la manualística escolar en el ámbito, más amplio, de dicha historia. Por último, se exponen algunos conceptos e ideas clave para estructurar la historia de las disciplinas.This text tries to analyze, through a Spanish case, the relationships existing among the history of school subjects (and, inside it, the history of textbooks, the process of the professionalization of teaching and teachers' training. First, the causes explaining the legal absence, in Spanish, of the history of school subjects in teachers' training, as well as some isolated initiatives on this theme are presented. Then, some aspects and issues are dealt with in order to justify the presence of the history of school subjects in teachers' training, especially the need to include the analysis of textbooks in the wider field of such history. Finally, some key concepts and ideas with the aim of shaping the history of the school subjects are also presented.

  6. Impact of short-term high-fat feeding and insulin-stimulated FGF21 levels in subjects with low birth weight and controls. (United States)

    Vienberg, Sara G; Brøns, Charlotte; Nilsson, Emma; Astrup, Arne; Vaag, Allan; Andersen, Birgitte


    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a metabolic factor involved in glucose and lipid metabolism. However, little is known about the physiological role of FGF21 during a dietary challenge in humans. Twenty healthy low birth weight (LBW) with known risk of type 2 diabetes and 26 control (normal birth weight (NBW)) young men were subjected to 5 days of high-fat (HF) overfeeding (+50%). Basal and clamp insulin-stimulated serum FGF21 levels were examined before and after the diet, and FGF21 mRNA expression was measured in muscle and fat biopsies respectively. Five days of HF overfeeding diet significantly (Pincreased fasting serum FGF21 levels in both the groups (Pinsulin infusion additionally increased serum FGF21 levels to a similar extent in both the groups. Basal mRNA expression of FGF21 in muscle was near the detection limit and not present in fat in both the groups before and after the dietary challenge. However, insulin significantly (Pincreased FGF21 mRNA in both muscle and fat in both the groups during both diets. Short-term HF overfeeding markedly increased serum FGF21 levels in healthy young men with and without LBW but failed to increase muscle or fat FGF21 mRNA levels. This suggests that the liver may be responsible for the rise of serum FGF21 levels during overfeeding. In contrast, the increase in serum FGF21 levels during insulin infusion may arise from increased transcription in muscle and fat. We speculate that increased serum FGF21 levels during HF overfeeding may be a compensatory response to increase fatty acid oxidation and energy expenditure.

  7. Role of the insula and vestibular system in patients with chronic subjective dizziness: An fMRI study using sound-evoked vestibular stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iole eIndovina


    Full Text Available Chronic subjective dizziness (CSD is a common vestibular disorder characterized by persistent non-vertiginous dizziness, unsteadiness, and heightened sensitivity to motion stimuli that may last for months to years after events that cause acute vestibular symptoms or disrupt balance. CSD is not associated with abnormalities of basic vestibular or oculomotor reflexes. Rather, it is thought to arise from persistent use of high-threat postural control strategies and greater reliance on visual cues for spatial orientation (i.e., visual dependence, long after triggering events resolve. Anxiety-related personality traits confer vulnerability to CSD. Anomalous interactions between the central vestibular system and neural structures related to anxiety may sustain it. Vestibular- and anxiety-related processes overlap in the brain, particularly in the insula and hippocampus. Alterations in activity and connectivity in these brain regions in response to vestibular stimuli may be the neural basis of CSD.We examined this hypothesis by comparing brain activity from 18 patients with CSD and 18 healthy controls measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging during loud short tone bursts, which are auditory stimuli that evoke robust vestibular responses. Relative to controls, patients with CSD showed reduced activations to sound-evoked vestibular stimulation in the parieto-insular vestibular cortex (PIVC including the posterior insula, and in the anterior insula, inferior frontal gyrus, hippocampus, and anterior cingulate cortex. Patients with CSD also showed altered connectivity between the anterior insula and PIVC, anterior insula and middle occipital cortex, hippocampus and PIVC, and anterior cingulate cortex and PIVC.We conclude that reduced activation in PIVC, hippocampus, anterior insula, inferior frontal gyrus, and anterior cingulate cortex, as well as connectivity changes among these regions, may be linked to long-term vestibular symptoms in patients

  8. Body fat loss achieved by stimulation of thermogenesis by a combination of bioactive food ingredients: a placebo-controlled, double-blind 8-week intervention in obese subjects. (United States)

    Belza, A; Frandsen, E; Kondrup, J


    A combination of tyrosine, capsaicin, catechines and caffeine may stimulate the sympathetic nervous system and promote satiety, lipolysis and thermogenesis. In addition, dietary calcium may increase fecal fat excretion. To investigate the acute and subchronic effect of a supplement containing the above mentioned agents or placebo taken t.i.d on thermogenesis, body fat loss and fecal fat excretion. In total, 80 overweight-obese subjects ((body mass index) 31.2+/-2.5 kg/m(2), mean+/-s.d.) underwent an initial 4-week hypocaloric diet (3.4 MJ/day). Those who lost>4% body weight were instructed to consume a hypocaloric diet (-1.3 MJ/day) and were randomized to receive either placebo (n=23) or bioactive supplement (n=57) in a double-blind, 8-week intervention. The thermogenic effect of the compound was tested at the first and last day of intervention, and blood pressure, heart rate, body weight and composition were assessed. Weight loss during the induction phase was 6.8+/-1.9 kg. At the first exposure the thermogenic effect of the bioactive supplement exceeded that of placebo by 87.3 kJ/4 h (95%CI: 50.9;123.7, P=0.005) and after 8 weeks this effect was sustained (85.5 kJ/4 h (47.6;123.4), P=0.03). Body fat mass decreased more in the supplement group by 0.9 kg (0.5; 1.3) compared with placebo (P<0.05). The bioactive supplement had no effect on fecal fat excretion, blood pressure or heart rate. The bioactive supplement increased 4-h thermogenesis by 90 kJ more than placebo, and the effect was maintained after 8 weeks and accompanied by a slight reduction in fat mass. These bioactive components may support weight maintenance after a hypocaloric diet.

  9. Efforts in Improving Teachers’ Competencies Through Collaboration between Teacher Forum on Subject Matter (MGMP and Pre-Service Teacher Training Institution (LPTK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Purwoko


    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to improve high school chemistry teacher’s competency in terms of classroom instruction. This goal is achieved through the workshop and continuous assistance activities that enable teachers to improve their knowledge and skills in developing learning scenarios that reflect scientific methods (brain-based learning in the classroom instruction. The effect of teachers’ competence improvement was measured by a survey of student’s perception on the classroom teaching-learning process, using Likert-scale questionnaire. The first poll was conducted before the program was started, and the second one was after the program completion. The first observation shows that only 18% of students perceive that the chemistry learning process in the classroom are “good,” while the rest (82% say that it is “fair”. However, the second poll shows that there are 45% of students who perceive that the learning process is “good”; interestingly, there are 35%, and 20% of respondents say “excellent” and “fair,” respectively. Furthermore, data analyses using chi-square test conclude that the continuous teacher assistance activity significantly improves teachers’ competencies. This article describes detailed of collaboration program and the results of improvement of chemistry teachers’ competence in north Lombok regency. Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New

  10. Facilitation of corticospinal excitability by virtual reality exercise following anodal transcranial direct current stimulation in healthy volunteers and subacute stroke subjects


    Kim, Yeun Joon; Ku, Jeonghun; Cho, Sangwoo; Kim, Hyun Jung; Cho, Yun Kyung; Lim, Teo; Kang, Youn Joo


    Background There is growing evidence that the combination of non-invasive brain stimulation and motor skill training is an effective new treatment option in neurorehabilitation. We investigated the beneficial effects of the application of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) combined with virtual reality (VR) motor training. Methods In total, 15 healthy, right-handed volunteers and 15 patients with stroke in the subacute stage participated. Four different conditions (A: active wrist...

  11. Collaboration Between Art Teacher Students and Communication and Digital Media Students Promoting Subject Specific Didactics in Digital Visual Learning Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie; Skov, Kirsten

    design was based on the purpose of involving the future users in developing a visual learning design, and thereby drawing on visual art expertise in all phases of the design. The Design Based Research (DBR) approach (Amiel & Reeves 2008) was chosen in order to facilitate the collaborative aspect......, No. 15, 2016, p. 1-21 Buhl, M. & Ejsing-Duun (2015) Blended learning promoting new developments for Nordic master programs in visual studies and art education, ECEL Proceedings, Hatfield Buhl, M. & Flensborg (2011). Visuel kulturpædagogik, København: Hans Reitzels Forlag Peppler, K. (2010). Media...... arts: Arts education for a digital age. Teachers College Record, vol 112, nr. 8, p. 2118-2153 Dunleavy, M. & Dede, C. (2014). Augmented reality teaching and learning. in. J.M. Spector, M.D. Merrill, J. Elen & M...

  12. Teachers' interpersonal role identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Want, Anna C.; den Brok, Perry; Beijaard, Douwe; Brekelmans, Mieke; Claessens, Luce C A; Pennings, Helena J M


    This article investigates the link between teachers' appraisal of specific interpersonal situations in classrooms and their more general interpersonal identity standard, which together form their interpersonal role identity. Using semi-structured and video-stimulated interviews, data on teachers'

  13. Teachers' Interpersonal Role Identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Want, Anna C.; den Brok, Perry; Beijaard, Douwe; Brekelmans, Mieke; Claessens, Luce C A; Pennings, Helena J M


    This article investigates the link between teachers' appraisal of specific interpersonal situations in classrooms and their more general interpersonal identity standard, which together form their interpersonal role identity. Using semi-structured and video-stimulated interviews, data on teachers'

  14. "Frustrated" or "Surprised?" An Examination of the Perspectives of Spanish Teacher Candidates regarding the Praxis II Subject-Matter Tests (United States)

    Moser, Kelly


    Researchers (Sandarg & Schomber, 2009; Wilkerson, Schomber, & Sandarg, 2004) have urged the profession to develop a new subject-matter licensure test to reflect the best practices in the foreign language classroom. In October 2010, the Praxis II: World Language Test joined the Praxis Series. Given that this standards-driven test differs…

  15. Self-Efficacy, Self-Esteem, and Subjective Happiness of Teacher Candidates at the Pedagogical Formation Certificate Program (United States)

    Erozkan, Atilgan; Dogan, Ugur; Adiguzel, Arca


    This study investigated the relationship between self-efficacy, self-esteem, and subjective happiness. The study group is composed by 556 (291 female; 265 male) students who were studying at the pedagogical formation program at Mugla Sitki Kocman University. The data were collected by using the General Self-Efficacy Scale-Turkish Form,…

  16. "Obey", "disobey" or "tinker with" reforms to the system: a subject for French teacher trade unions to work on. (United States)

    Cau-Bareille, Dominique


    This paper presents our work to support and train members of the teaching sectors of two trade unions. The aim was to encourage participants to discuss practices, the difficulties in their day-to-day work and impediments to taking action, given the current reforms to primary education, and thereby assess the reforms' impact on the teachers' activity. It was also intended to help trade unions build up a collective dynamic around their work and re-positioning the work activity at the heart of their preoccupations. This project consisted of one/two day workshops held at local trade union branches. They were led by an ergonomist and a trade union representative. The discussions revealed that the prescriptions received from the management increasingly contradict the values of the profession. Therefore, in the name of professional ethics, different strategies of resistance have emerged, from minor modifications to the prescriptions received, to disobedience. However, adopting such strategies is itself a cause of suffering for teaching staff, and leads to some leaving the profession prematurely. We will discuss the difficulty trade unions have in dealing with the issue of work, their strategic positioning as regards developments within the profession, and the role an ergonomist can play in this process.

  17. Collaboration between student art teachers and communication and digital media students promoting subject specific didactics in digital visual learning design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Kirsten; Buhl, Mie

    of learning designs and digital media in visual arts education (Peppler 2010, Rasmussen 2015, Buhl & Ejsing-Duun, 2015; Buhl, 2016). Methodology The choice of empirical design was based on the purpose of involving the future users in developing a visual learning design, and thereby drawing on visual art....... p. 26-40 (14 s.) Buhl, M. (2016) Theory-generating practice. Proposing a principle for learning design. Læring og Medier (LOM), Vol. 9, No. 15, 2016, p. 1-21 Buhl, M. & Ejsing-Duun (2015) Blended learning promoting new developments for Nordic master programs in visual studies and art education, ECEL...... Proceedings, Hatfield Buhl, M. & Flensborg (2011). Visuel kulturpædagogik, København: Hans Reitzels Forlag Peppler, K. (2010). Media arts: Arts education for a digital age. Teachers College Record, vol 112, nr. 8, p. 2118-2153

  18. Reel Teachers: References for Reflection for Real Teachers (United States)

    Shaw, Carla Cooper; Nederhouser, Deborah Dobbin


    Movies with teachers as main characters provide a powerful medium of instruction in the teacher-education classroom. The authors describe a graduate course for practicing teachers, "The Portrayal of Teachers in Film," in which such movies stimulate the examination of trends in the portrayal of teachers and serve as springboards for the exploration…

  19. Benefits of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS for Spastic Subjects: Clinical, Functional, and Biomechanical Parameters for Lower Limb and Walking in Five Hemiparetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Terreaux


    Full Text Available Introduction. Spasticity is a disabling symptom resulting from reorganization of spinal reflexes no longer inhibited by supraspinal control. Several studies have demonstrated interest in repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in spastic patients. We conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blind crossover study on five spastic hemiparetic patients to determine whether this type of stimulation of the premotor cortex can provide a clinical benefit. Material and Methods. Two stimulation frequencies (1 Hz and 10 Hz were tested versus placebo. Patients were assessed clinically, by quantitative analysis of walking and measurement of neuromechanical parameters (H and T reflexes, musculoarticular stiffness of the ankle. Results. No change was observed after placebo and 10 Hz protocols. Clinical parameters were not significantly modified after 1 Hz stimulation, apart from a tendency towards improved recruitment of antagonist muscles on the Fügl-Meyer scale. Only cadence and recurvatum were significantly modified on quantitative analysis of walking. Neuromechanical parameters were modified with significant decreases in Hmax⁡ /Mmax⁡ and T/Mmax⁡ ratios and stiffness indices 9 days or 31 days after initiation of TMS. Conclusion. This preliminary study supports the efficacy of low-frequency TMS to reduce reflex excitability and stiffness of ankle plantar flexors, while clinical signs of spasticity were not significantly modified.

  20. Facilitation of corticospinal excitability by virtual reality exercise following anodal transcranial direct current stimulation in healthy volunteers and subacute stroke subjects. (United States)

    Kim, Yeun Joon; Ku, Jeonghun; Cho, Sangwoo; Kim, Hyun Jung; Cho, Yun Kyung; Lim, Teo; Kang, Youn Joo


    There is growing evidence that the combination of non-invasive brain stimulation and motor skill training is an effective new treatment option in neurorehabilitation. We investigated the beneficial effects of the application of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) combined with virtual reality (VR) motor training. In total, 15 healthy, right-handed volunteers and 15 patients with stroke in the subacute stage participated. Four different conditions (A: active wrist exercise, B: VR wrist exercise, C: VR wrist exercise following anodal tDCS (1 mV, 20 min) on the left (healthy volunteer) or affected (stroke patient) primary motor cortex, and D: anodal tDCS without exercise) were provided in random order on separate days. We compared during and post-exercise corticospinal excitability under different conditions in healthy volunteers (A, B, C, D) and stroke patients (B, C, D) by measuring the changes in amplitudes of motor evoked potentials in the extensor carpi radialis muscle, elicited with single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation. For statistical analyses, a linear mixed model for a repeated-measures covariance pattern model with unstructured covariance within groups (healthy or stroke groups) was used. The VR wrist exercise (B) facilitated post-exercise corticospinal excitability more than the active wrist exercise (A) or anodal tDCS without exercise (D) in healthy volunteers. Moreover, the post-exercise corticospinal facilitation after tDCS and VR exercise (C) was greater and was sustained for 20 min after exercise versus the other conditions in healthy volunteers (A, B, D) and in subacute stroke patients (B, D). The combined effect of VR motor training following tDCS was synergistic and short-term corticospinal facilitation was superior to the application of VR training, active motor training, or tDCS without exercise condition. These results support the concept of combining brain stimulation with VR motor training to promote recovery after a stroke.

  1. Sex differences in subjective and objective responses to a stimulant medication (methylphenidate): Comparisons between overweight/obese adults with and without binge-eating disorder. (United States)

    Davis, Caroline; Levitan, Robert D; Kaplan, Allan S; Carter-Major, Jacqueline C; Kennedy, James L


    The purpose of this study was to examine sex differences in response to a single dose of a psychomotor-stimulant medication (methylphenidate: MP) and to assess whether expected differences were moderated by binge-eating disorder (BED) status. It is anticipated that findings will shed light on factors that contribute to response variation in the use of stimulant pharmacotherapy to treat BED. The study employed a double-blind, drug-placebo, cross-over design in overweight/obese adults with BED (n = 90) and without BED (n = 108). Emotional/mood ratings were assessed every 15 minutes after oral administration of the drug/placebo, and appetite, cravings, and consumption were assessed during a laboratory-based snack-food challenge. Women reported earlier and more sustained "overall" effects of the drug-including "feeling high"-than the men. There was also a significantly greater suppression in appetite ratings, food cravings, and food consumption from the placebo to the drug condition among the women. Indeed, among men there were no significant differences between the two conditions on any of the food-related variables. BED status also did not moderate any of the drug-placebo differences. These findings are relevant to the use of stimulant pharmacotherapy for BED, and raise the possibility that overweight/obese men may be relatively less responsive to this form of treatment. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:473-481). © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoria Shcherbatiuk


    Full Text Available The author of the article analyzes the methodology of using a number of creative tasks for working with students of Philology Department during the practical sessions of literary subjects. The tasks are focused on designing the creative qualities of future language and literature teachers: imagination, inspiration, initiative, noncommonality, extraordinary nature, his/her own point of view. At present, the students perceive the learning process as something fixed, which necessarily must be studied and passed. They will not think critically, as long as the teacher does not create creative atmosphere to facilitate the active involvement of students into the learning process. And one should allow them to freely speculate, dream up. Each person has the potential of skills, and the tasks of modern teacher are developing these skills and managing the process of the development. Therefore, the main purpose of organization of practical session is to be able to encounter the students’ intellectual forces, to cause them to work, to create a favorable pedagogical environment for their formation and simultaneously to shape the identity of a young person, his/her outlook. Organizing the practical training one should find a way to students’ minds and doesn`t give them ready knowledge but to ensure them to acquire knowledge themselves trying to search, establish dependences, and patterns. They should be engaged in creative dialogue with cultural texts and nourish their own personal position. The problem of creativity is complex and multifaceted. Since ancient times it has been in the scholars’ and philosophers’ field of view (Plato, Aristotle, Hegel, Pestalozzi, etc.. Basic issues of a creative individual are disclosed in the works by A. Luk, Ia. Ponomarev, A. Matiushkin, P. Enhelmeier, V. Moliako, O. Amatev, E. Belkina, A. Bohush, N. Vetluhina, N. Havrish, O. Dronova and others. However, the growing relevance and educational significance of this issue

  3. The Impact of Subjective Norm and Facilitating Conditions on Pre-Service Teachers' Attitude toward Computer Use: A Structural Equation Modeling of an Extended Technology Acceptance Model (United States)

    Teo, Timothy


    This study examined pre-service teachers' self-report on their attitude toward computer use. Participants were 285 pre-service teachers at a teacher training institution in Singapore. They completed a survey questionnaire measuring their responses to five constructs which formed a research model using the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) as a…

  4. La peur de l'evaluation: evaluation de l'enseignement ou du sujet? (Fear of Evaluation: Evaluating the Teacher or the Subject?) (United States)

    Kosmidou-Hardy, Chryssoula; Marmarinos, Jean


    Addresses questions related to the evaluation of teachers, with specific attention to why there is such teacher resistance. Theorizes that it is the teachers' fear of evaluation of their personal identity rather than their professional competence that lies behind their resistance to evaluation. Calls for the use of action research as a basic…

  5. How Do You Get Pre-Service Teachers to Become "Good at ICT" in Their Subject Teaching? The Views of Expert Practitioners (United States)

    Haydn, Terry


    The paper reports on a particular strand of the outcomes of the English contribution to an Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development comparative study, "ICT in Initial Teacher Training," which aimed to develop insights into how courses of initial teacher training prepare student teachers to use information and communications…

  6. How Vocational Teachers Describe Their Vocational Teacher Identity (United States)

    Köpsén, Susanne


    Given the current demands of Swedish vocational education and the withdrawal of the requirement for formal teacher competence in vocational subject teachers, the aim of this article is to develop knowledge of what it means to be a vocational subject teacher in an upper secondary school, i.e. how vocational subject teachers describe their…

  7. Examining the Influence of Subjective Norm and Facilitating Conditions on the Intention to Use Technology among Pre-Service Teachers: A Structural Equation Modeling of an Extended Technology Acceptance Model (United States)

    Teo, Timothy


    This study examined pre-service teachers' self-reported behavioral intentions to use technology. Three hundred and fourteen participants completed a survey questionnaire measuring their responses to six constructs from a research model that extends the technology acceptance model (TAM) by including facilitating conditions and subjective norm.…

  8. Gluten stimulation induces an in vitro expansion of peripheral blood T gamma delta cells from HLA-DQ2-positive subjects of families of patients with celiac disease. (United States)

    Lio, D; Bonanno, C T; D'Anna, C; De Luca, S; Gervasi, F; Cavataio, F; Iacono, F; Salerno, A


    The intestinal gluten sensitivity formally known as celiac disease (CD) is characterized by an evident involvement of local immune response and it is associated with the expression of HLA-DQ2 allele. The major role in the disease seems to be played by the T lymphocyte population bearing gamma delta T cell receptor (T gamma delta cells) which are increased both in peripheral blood and intestinal mucosae of celiac patients. In this paper data on the effects of in vitro gluten stimulation on lymphocytes expressing the T gamma delta phenotype are reported. Gluten seems to be able to induce the expansion of the T gamma delta cell population both in CD patients and their HLA-DQ2-positive asymptomatic relatives, in spite of the absence of clinical evidence of the disease. In addition, the evaluation of gluten-induced cytokine production shows that interleukin-4 could be implied in the early phases of pathogenesis of CD.

  9. Study of thyroid hormones free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in subjects with dental fluorosis. (United States)

    Hosur, Mahadevi B; Puranik, R S; Vanaki, Shrinivas; Puranik, Surekha R


    Apart from its well-known deleterious dental and skeletal effects, fluoride excess can have toxic effects on many other tissues. Fluoride, when in excess, is known to interfere with thyroid gland function. Fluoride-induced thyroid disturbances similar to those observed in iodine deficiency state in spite of adequate iodine intake have been documented. Similar thyroid disturbances in individuals with dental fluorosis have not been well studied in populations with endemic fluorosis. This work was undertaken to study the effects of fluoride-induced thyroid disturbances in individuals with dental fluorosis. The study group included 65 subjects with dental fluorosis from endemic fluorosis populations. An additional control group was comprised of 10 subjects without dental fluorosis. The drinking water fluoride levels of the study populations were analyzed. Serum free FT3, FT4, and TSH levels of both groups were assessed. All subjects with dental fluorosis had serum levels of thyroid hormones (FT3, FT4, and TSH) within the normal range, with the exception of 1 individual, who had elevated levels of TSH. Statistical significance was found when FT3 and TSH values were compared with different Dean's index groups by a 1-way ANOVA test: FT3 (F = 3.4572; P=.0377) and TSH (F = 3.2649 and P=.0449). Findings of this study did not show any significant alterations in the levels of the thyroid hormones FT3, FT4, and TSH in subjects with dental fluorosis. Our observations suggest that thyroid hormone levels were not altered in subjects with dental fluorosis. Hence, future studies of this kind, along with more detailed investigations are needed.

  10. Conceptualising GP teachers' knowledge: a pedagogical content knowledge perspective. (United States)

    Cantillon, Peter; de Grave, Willem


    Most teacher development initiatives focus on enhancing knowledge of teaching (pedagogy), whilst largely ignoring other important features of teacher knowledge such as subject matter knowledge and awareness of the learning context. Furthermore, teachers' ability to learn from faculty development interventions is limited by their existing (often implicit) pedagogical knowledge and beliefs. Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) represents a model of teacher knowledge incorporating what they know about subject matter, pedagogy and context. PCK can be used to explore teachers' prior knowledge and to structure faculty development programmes so that they take account of a broader range of teachers' knowledge. We set out to examine the application of a PCK model in a general practice education setting. This study is part of a larger study that employed a mixed method approach (concept mapping, phenomenological interviews and video-stimulated recall) to explore features of GP teachers' subject matter knowledge, pedagogical knowledge and knowledge of the learning environment in the context of a general practice tutorial. This paper presents data on GP teachers' pedagogical and context knowledge. There was considerable overlap between different GP teachers' knowledge and beliefs about learners and the clinical learning environment (i.e. knowledge of context). The teachers' beliefs about learners were largely based on assumptions derived from their own student experiences. There were stark differences, however, between teachers in terms of pedagogical knowledge, particularly in terms of their teaching orientations (i.e. transmission or facilitation orientation) and this was manifest in their teaching behaviours. PCK represents a useful model for conceptualising clinical teacher prior knowledge in three domains, namely subject matter, learning context and pedagogy. It can and should be used as a simple guiding framework by faculty developers to inform the design and delivery of

  11. Stimulants and narcotic drugs. (United States)

    King, P; Coleman, J H


    This article focuses on the use of stimulant and narcotic drugs, as well as lookalike preparations that are subject to abuse. There is a brief discussion of the pharmacology of these agents, demographic use patterns, and treatment modalities.

  12. A-Level Psychology Teachers: Who Are They and What Do They Think about Psychology as a Subject and a Discipline? (United States)

    Rowley, Martin; Dalgarno, Elizabeth L.


    A-level psychology teachers (N=109) responded to a questionnaire asking about their academic background, their experience of and views about A-level psychology. Teachers were also asked about the scientific status of psychology as a discipline and about the nature of science in general. Most respondents thought that the A-level course provides…

  13. Development of Arithmetical Thinking: Evaluation of Subject Matter Knowledge of Pre-Service Teachers in Order to Design the Appropriate Course (United States)

    Guberman, Raisa


    One of the key courses in the mathematics teacher education program in Israel is arithmetic, which engages in contents which these pre-service mathematics teachers (PMTs) will later teach at school. Teaching arithmetic involves knowledge about the essence of the concept of "number" and the development thereof, calculation methods and…

  14. Video-Stimulated Recall as a Facilitator of a Pre-Service Teacher's Reflection on Teaching and Post-Teaching Supervision Discussion--"A Case Study from Finland" (United States)

    Lutovac, Sonja; Kaasila, Raimo; Juuso, Hannu


    The use of video in learning to teach is not new. The vast body of research shows that both pre-service and in-service teachers benefit from analyzing video lessons conducted by experienced teachers, their peers, or themselves. In this narrative case study, we analyze one post-teaching supervision discussion about a mathematics lesson. The study…

  15. Subjective experiences of a yogo teacher with reference to health support activities carried out in the first year after the Great East Japan Earthquake: A case study based on a narrative approach. (United States)

    Aoyagi, Chiharu; Kanaizumi, Shiomi; Shikama, Kumiko; Sakou, Keiko


    Objectives To offer an empirical lens-based on the account of a yogo teacher employed at a temporary school in the community where she was relocated after experiencing the Great East Japan Earthquake alongside her students-into the subjective experience of health support activities carried out during the year immediately following the disaster.Method An interview was conducted with one yogo teacher who experienced the Great East Japan Earthquake, employed at a public junior high school in the region to where she was evacuated. Analysis involved a narrative approach whereby the yogo teacher's story was rewritten as a story in chronological order.Results The immediate course of events following the disaster was divided into three periods and examined. Period 1: The yogo teacher first experienced the earthquake and was forced to evacuate alongside her students, during which time she felt strong [sense of loss] and [sense of despair]. Period 2: At the reopening of the school in temporary classrooms, she believed her top priority was doing what she could as a yogo teacher and contributing to reopening the school, while working with other teaching staff to make the most of their surroundings. The school's reopening brought a significant sense of security and joy to students. This led her to [finding hope], and she recovered her positive attitude. Subsequently, problems manifested such as bullying and violence. She believed that [being there for the children] was the most important thing she could do as a yogo teacher and continued to provide [emotional care]. Period 3: At the time of completion of a temporary school building, she was [confused and explored] the delay of the children's recovery from emotional problems. She coordinated with a university professor of psychology to conduct classes to alleviate students' tension and stress using strategies such as relaxation techniques. She realized the importance of initiatives that involve [a keen sense of connection

  16. Manuel du Professeur de Science. (Science Teachers' Handbook). Appropriate Technologies for Development Series Reprint R-64. (United States)

    Rao, C. S., Ed.

    Science should not be presented as a collection of facts; it must be presented as an active dynamic subject. It should be used to stimulate young minds and encourage questioning. This is a publication designed to meet the needs of science teachers for a day-to-day reference in science. It was intended for the use of Peace Corps volunteers and…

  17. Science Teachers' Decision-Making in Abstinence-Only-Until-Marriage (AOUM) Classrooms: Taboo Subjects and Discourses of Sex and Sexuality in Classroom Settings (United States)

    Gill, Puneet Singh


    Sex education, especially in the southeastern USA, remains steeped in an Abstinence-Only-Until-Marriage (AOUM) approach, which sets up barriers to the education of sexually active students. Research confirms that science education has the potential to facilitate discussion of controversial topics, including sex education. Science teachers in the…

  18. Teachers' and Parents' Perspectives on a Curricular Subject of "Religion and Spirituality" for Indian Schools: A Pilot Study Toward School Mental Health Program. (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Parameshwaran; Baccari, Andrew; Ramachandran, Uma; Ahmed, Syed Faiz; Koenig, Harold G


    Religious-spiritual (R/S) education helps medical students cope with caregiving stress and gain skills in interpersonal empathy needed for clinical care. Such R/S education has been introduced into K-12 and college curricula in some developed nations and has been found to positively impact student's mental health. Such a move has not yet been seen in the Indian education system. This paper aimed to examine perspectives of teachers and parents in India on appropriateness, benefits, and challenges of including R/S education into the school curriculum and also to gather their impressions on how a R/S curriculum might promote students' health. A cross-sectional study of religiously stratified sample of teachers and parents was initiated in three preselected schools in India and the required sample size (N = 300) was reached through snowballing technique. A semi-structured questionnaire, with questions crafted from "Religion and Spirituality in Medicine, Physicians Perspective" (RSMPP) and "American Academy of Religion's (AAR) Guidelines for Religious Literacy," was used to determine participants' perspectives. Findings revealed that teachers' and parents' "comfort in integrating R/S into school curriculum" was associated with their gender (OR 1.68), education status (OR 1.05), and intrinsic religiosity (OR 1.05). Intrinsic religiosity was significantly (p = 0.025) high among parents while "intrinsic spirituality" was high (p = 0.020) among teachers. How participants' R/S characteristics influence their support of R/S education in school is discussed. In conclusion, participants believe R/S education will fosters students' emotional health and interpersonal skills needed for social leadership. A curriculum that incorporates R/S education, which is based on AAR guidelines and clinically validated interpersonal spiritual care tools would be acceptable to both teachers and parents.

  19. Estimulação transcraniana não invasiva em indivíduos com paralisia cerebral: uma revisão integrativa da literatura = Noninvasive brain stimulation in subjects with cerebral palsy: a integrative literature review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gomes, Aline Freitas; Martins, Juliana Saibt


    ... eletrônicas Scielo, Medline/PubMed, PEDro e Lilacs. Os descritores e operadores boleanos utilizados foram congenital hemiplegia OR cerebral palsy AND transcranial magnetic stimulation OR transcranial direct current stimulation. Foram...

  20. Teachers' Interpersonal Role Identity (United States)

    van der Want, Anna C.; den Brok, Perry; Beijaard, Douwe; Brekelmans, Mieke; Claessens, Luce C. A.; Pennings, Helena J. M.


    This article investigates the link between teachers' appraisal of specific interpersonal situations in classrooms and their more general interpersonal identity standard, which together form their interpersonal role identity. Using semi-structured and video-stimulated interviews, data on teachers' appraisals and interpersonal identity standards…

  1. Teacher dilemmas in challenging students in higher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scager, Karin; Akkerman, Sanne F.; Pilot, Albert; Wubbels, Theo


    Students need to be challenged to stimulate their learning. Applying challenge in practice however is not straightforward. Challenging students may conflict with other teacher responsibilities, creating potential dilemmas for teachers. This study discloses dilemmas teachers encounter when

  2. Subject to Form: Research Interviews, Performative Subjectivity, Professional Development (United States)

    Sarigianides, Sophia Tatiana


    In this dissertation, I analyze teacher, literacy coach and researcher subjectivities in a five-year study of on-site professional development with middle-grade Language Arts teachers in a school designated by its district and state as severely underperforming. Interested in the role of research interviews as both research method and cultural…

  3. Primary Teacher Education in Malaysia (United States)

    Ching, Chin Phoi; Yee, Chin Peng


    In Malaysia the training of primary school teachers is solely carried out by teacher training institutes which offer the Bachelor of Teaching with Honors (Primary education) program and was first launched in 2007. This program prepares primary school teachers specializing in various subjects or major and is carried out in 27 teacher training…

  4. Manual para los Profesores de Ciencias. (Science Teachers' Handbook). Appropriate Technologies for Development Series Reprint R-66. (United States)

    Rao, C. S., Ed.

    Science should not be presented as a collection of facts; it must be presented as an active dynamic subject. It should be used to stimulate young minds and encourage questioning. This is a publication designed to meet the needs of science teachers for a day-to-day reference in science. It was intended for the use of Peace Corps volunteers and…

  5. The control processes and subjective well-being of Chinese teachers: Evidence of convergence with and divergence from the key propositions of the motivational theory of life-span development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Chi eWong


    Full Text Available An analytical review of the motivational theory of life-span development reveals that this theory has undergone a series of elegant theoretical integrations. Its claim to universality nonetheless brings forth unresolved controversies. With the purpose of scrutinizing the key propositions of this theory, an empirical study was designed to examine the control processes and subjective well-being of Chinese teachers (N = 637. The OPS-Scales (Optimization in Primary and Secondary Control Scales for the Domain of Teaching were constructed to assess patterns of control processes. Three facets of subjective well-being were investigated with the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, the Life Satisfaction Scale, and the Subjective Vitality Scale. The results revealed certain aspects of alignment with and certain divergences from the key propositions of the motivational theory of life-span development. Neither primacy of primary control nor primacy of secondary control was clearly supported. Notably, using different criteria for subjective well-being yielded different subtypes of primary and secondary control as predictors. The hypothesized life-span trajectories of primary and secondary control received limited support. To advance the theory in this area, we recommend incorporating Lakatos’ ideas about sophisticated falsification by specifying the hard core of the motivational theory of life-span development and articulating new auxiliary hypotheses.

  6. The Development of Community Competence in the Teacher Education Curriculum (United States)

    Dobber, Marjolein; Vandyck, Inne; Akkerman, Sanne; Graaff, Rick de; Beishuizen, Jos; Pilot, Albert; Verloop, Nico; Vermunt, Jan


    Teachers are expected to frequently collaborate within teacher communities in schools. This requires teacher education to prepare student teachers by developing the necessary community competence. The present study empirically investigates the extent to which teacher education programmes pay attention to and aim to stimulate the development of…

  7. Teachers' Beliefs and Behaviors: What Really Matters? (United States)

    Muijs, Daniel; Reynolds, David


    In this study, we looked at the relationship between teacher behaviors, teacher beliefs, teacher self-efficacy, and teacher subject knowledge with student achievement in mathematics. Data was collected from 103 primary school teachers and 2,148 students in the UK using achievement tests, classroom observation, and questionnaires. Structural…

  8. Viewing Teachers as Leaders without Being Administrators (United States)

    Warren, Louis L.


    What makes teachers effective in the classroom? Research indicates that teachers effectiveness is contingent upon the teacher knowing pedagogy, learn theory, knowledge of subject matter, experience as well as other qualifications such as classroom management skills. Teachers effectiveness are often determined by three indicators; teachers' scores…

  9. Copeptin under glucagon stimulation. (United States)

    Lewandowski, Krzysztof C; Lewiński, Andrzej; Skowrońska-Jóźwiak, Elżbieta; Stasiak, Magdalena; Horzelski, Wojciech; Brabant, Georg


    Stimulation of growth hormone (GH) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secretion by glucagon is a standard procedure to assess pituitary dysfunction but the pathomechanism of glucagon action remains unclear. As arginine vasopressin (AVP) may act on the release of both, GH and ACTH, we tested here the role of AVP in GST by measuring a stable precursor fragment, copeptin, which is stoichiometrically secreted with AVP in a 1:1 ratio. ACTH, cortisol, GH, and copeptin were measured at 0, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 min during GST in 79 subjects: healthy controls (Group 1, n = 32), subjects with pituitary disease, but with adequate cortisol and GH responses during GST (Group 2, n = 29), and those with overt hypopituitarism (Group 3, n = 18). Copeptin concentrations significantly increased over baseline 150 and 180 min following glucagon stimulation in controls and patients with intact pituitary function but not in hypopituitarism. Copeptin concentrations were stimulated over time and the maximal increment correlated with ACTH, while correlations between copeptin and GH were weaker. Interestingly, copeptin as well as GH secretion was significantly attenuated when comparing subjects within the highest to those in the lowest BMI quartile (p Copeptin is significantly released following glucagon stimulation. As this release is BMI-dependent, the time-dependent relation between copeptin and GH may be obscured, whereas the close relation to ACTH suggests that AVP/copeptin release might be linked to the activation of the adrenal axis.

  10. growth stimulant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of timing and duration of supplementation of LIVFIT VET ® (growth stimulant) as substitute for fish meal on the growth performance, haematology and clinical enzymes concentration of growing pigs.

  11. Human Resource Subjects Allocation and Students' Academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated human resource subjects' allocation and students' academic performance in Secondary Schools in Obudu, Nigeria. The relevant variables of teachers subject was used as independent variable while the dependent variables were students' academic performance. Six hundred teachers from 20 ...

  12. Experiencias coeducativas del profesorado de educación física y relación con los contenidos de la materia Co-educational experiences of physical education teachers in relation with the contents of the subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Ángel VALDIVIA MORAL


    Full Text Available Los objetivos de este estudio fueron conocer las vivencias coeducativas del profesorado en relación con los contenidos de Educación Física y analizar las diferentes estrategias metodológicas que se utilizan en cada bloque de contenidos. Se realizaron entrevistas semiestructuradas sometidas a análisis de contenido. Mediante el proceso hermenéutico se destaca que: (I la categoría “Bloque de contenidos de Condición Física y Salud” demuestra que el profesorado pretende que las diferencias fisiológicas por cuestión de sexo no se reproduzcan; (II la categoría “Bloque de contenidos de Expresión Corporal” señala que existe profesorado que no aborda estos contenidos porque los desconoce; (III la categoría “Bloque de contenidos de Juegos y Deportes” resalta que el principal problema que encuentra el profesorado son los estereotipos que ciertos deportes llevan asociados; la categoría (IV “Bloque de contenidos de Actividades en el Medio Natural” pone de manifiesto que ninguno de los dos sexos dificulta su trabajo.The aims of this study were to be familiar with the co-educational experiences of teachers in relation to the contents of Physical Education and to analyze the different methodological strategies which are used in each block of content. Semi structured interviews were realized subjected to content´s analysis. Through the hermeneutic process it is emphasized that: (I the category “Content´s Block of Fitness and Health” shows that the teacher pretends that the physiological differences that are produced by matter of sex don´t happen again; (II the category “Content´s Physical Language” notes that there are teachers who don’t deal with these contents because they don´t recognize them; (III the category “Content´s Block Games and Sports” underlines that the main problem that the teachers find is the stereotypes that some sports take associated; the category (IV “Content´s Block of Activities in the

  13. Digital media promoting new approaches to subject specific didactics in visual arts education in primary school, high school, teacher education and university education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie; Örtegren, Hans; Haïkö, Tarja

    The symposium discusses eventual paradigmatic shift within Art Education at different levels when new tools for creation are applied in educational settings. The symposium addresses current developments in visual arts education based on empirical projects from different levels of the educational...... system. The purpose is to discuss to which extend digital media can be seen as an integrated part of existing theory mainly based on developments from analog media or rather give rise to think subject specific didactics differently. Recent developments like visual culture, contemporary arts, social...... aesthetics, community art and co-creation all represent an approach to art production and appreciation where content, media and visual expressions unfold in societal, digital, collaborative, and transgressive constellations involving the art maker and audiences in social and relational projects processes...

  14. A Study of Alternative English Teacher Certification Practices in Turkey (United States)

    Seferoglu, Golge


    For several years the number of teachers trained in several subject areas through regular teacher education programs in Turkey has been insufficient to meet the demands in the country. As a result, to combat teacher shortages in many subjects alternative routes to teacher certification have been sought. Here we examine teacher candidates'…

  15. A nonpedagogical teacher education?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvols, Anja Madsen; Madsen, Peter Hougaard; Beck, Mette Holdsendorf


    regarding changes in education – which seem to come from evaluations more than from educational and pedagogical theories (Gruschka, 2011). Moreover, the teacher education has increased its focus on both research-based academic training and professional training at the same time. Our study is double – 1...... characterizes teacher professionalism? (Subject studies? Pedagogical studies? Professional training? Academic studies? Bildung studies? Etc.) - What characterizes ‘pedagogy of teacher education’ (Darling-Hammond, 2006; Loughran, 2008; Zeichner, 2005)?...

  16. Teacher Feedback during Active Learning:

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. Linda Keuvelaar - van den Bergh


    Feedback is one of the most powerful tools teachers can use to enhance student learning. In 2006, the Dutch Inspectorate of Education concluded from classroom observations that it is difficult for Dutch teachers to give their students good feedback in order to stimulate students' learning process

  17. Short-term Acipimox decreases the ability of plasma from Type 2 diabetic patients and healthy subjects to stimulate cellular cholesterol efflux : a potentially adverse effect on reverse cholesterol transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullaart, RPF; van Tol, A

    Aims To evaluate the effect of short-term administration of the anti-lipolytic agent, Acipimox, on the ability of plasma to stimulate cellular cholesterol removal, which represents one of the first steps in the anti-atherogenic process of reverse cholesterol transport. Methods Eight male Type 2

  18. Short-term Acipimox decreases the ability of plasma from type 2 diabetic patients and healthy subjects to stimulate cellular cholesterol efflux: A potentially adverse effect on reverse cholesterol transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P.F. Dullaart (Robin); A. van Tol (Arie)


    textabstractAims: To evaluate the effect of short-term administration of the anti-lipolytic agent, Acipimox, on the ability of plasma to stimulate cellular cholesterol removal, which represents one of the first steps in the anti-atherogenic process of reverse cholesterol transport. Methods: Eight

  19. Origem da vida: como licenciandos em Ciências Biológicas lidam com este tema? Life's origin: how do pre-service Biology teachers deal with this subject?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Baptista Nicolini


    Full Text Available A presente pesquisa identificou e analisou a representação social do tema origem da vida entre estudantes da licenciatura em Ciências Biológicas de uma universidade federal do Rio de Janeiro. A coleta de dados foi realizada por meio de questionário, e seus resultados analisados qualitativamente, de acordo com a metodologia do Discurso do Sujeito Coletivo (DSC. A análise e discussão dos resultados permitiram concluir que a representação social dos licenciandos, em relação ao tema proposto, apresenta elementos de uma cultura religiosa e de uma cultura científica. A análise dos elementos científicos nos permitiu identificar algumas deficiências nos conhecimentos expressos por esses sujeitos; apresentamos indícios de que essas deficiências derivam basicamente de duas fontes: (a a ausência de abordagem específica do tema no curso de graduação da universidade pesquisada e (b o conteúdo dos livros didáticos do Ensino Médio.This research identified and analyzed social representations about the life origin among preservice Biology teachers from a Rio de Janeiro federal university. Data were collected through questionnaires and the outcomes were analyzed in a qualitatively basis, according to the Collective Subject Discourse (CSD approach. Data analysis and discussion allowed concluding that pre-service social representations about this subject, shows elements of a religious culture and the scientific ones. The scientific elements' analysis allowed identifying some deficiencies in the knowledge expressed by them; the outcomes provided evidences that those deficiencies come from two main sources: (a lack of a approach to the origin of life subject, while in the undergraduate program; and (b High School didactic books contents.

  20. Teacher Race and School Discipline (United States)

    Lindsay, Constance A.; Hart, Cassandra M. D.


    Does having a teacher of the same race make it more or less likely that students are subject to exclusionary school discipline? In this study, the authors analyze a unique set of student and teacher demographic and discipline data from North Carolina elementary schools to examine whether being matched to a same-race teacher affects the rate at…

  1. Teachers, Arts Practice and Pedagogy (United States)

    Franks, Anton; Thomson, Pat; Hall, Chris; Jones, Ken


    What are possible overlaps between arts practice and school pedagogy? How is teacher subjectivity and pedagogy affected when teachers engage with arts practice, in particular, theatre practices? We draw on research conducted into the Learning Performance Network (LPN), a project that involved school teachers working with the Royal Shakespeare…

  2. Brain Stimulation Therapies (United States)

    ... Magnetic Seizure Therapy Deep Brain Stimulation Additional Resources Brain Stimulation Therapies Overview Brain stimulation therapies can play ... for a shorter recovery time than ECT Deep Brain Stimulation Deep brain stimulation (DBS) was first developed ...

  3. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen


    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool to understa...

  4. Which characteristics of written feedback are perceived as stimulating students' reflective competence : an exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Hanke; Schonrock-Adema, Johanna; Snoek, Jos W.; van der Molen, Thys; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke


    Background: Teacher feedback on student reflective writing is recommended to improve learners' reflective competence. To be able to improve teacher feedback on reflective writing, it is essential to gain insight into which characteristics of written feedback stimulate students' reflection processes.

  5. Within the Teacher Evaluation Policies Black Box: Two Case Studies (United States)

    Vaillant, Denise; Gonzalez-Vaillant, Gabriela


    This paper analyzes the relationship between teacher evaluation policies in Chile and Uruguay, teacher professional development, and teacher performance effectiveness. The analysis tries to understand the extent to which the existing processes for teacher evaluation stimulate an improvement in the quality of teaching. The comparison of two…

  6. Low intensity transcranial electric stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antal, A.; Alekseichuk, I.; Bikson, M.


    Low intensity transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) in humans, encompassing transcranial direct current (tDCS), transcutaneous spinal Direct Current Stimulation (tsDCS), transcranial alternating current (tACS), and transcranial random noise (tRNS) stimulation or their combinations, appears...... to suboptimal electrode-skin contact. Very rarely mania or hypomania was induced in patients with depression (11 documented cases), yet a causal relationship is difficult to prove because of the low incidence rate and limited numbers of subjects in controlled trials. Mild AEs (MAEs) include headache and fatigue...

  7. Teacher Quality and Teacher Mobility (United States)

    Feng, Li; Sass, Tim R.


    There is growing concern among policy makers over the quality of the teacher workforce in general, and the distribution of effective teachers across schools. The impact of teacher attrition on overall teacher quality will depend on the effectiveness of teachers who leave the profession. Likewise, teacher turnover may alleviate or worsen inequities…

  8. Teacher Leader Model Standards and the Functions Assumed by National Board Certified Teachers (United States)

    Swan Dagen, Allison; Morewood, Aimee; Smith, Megan L.


    The Teacher Leader Model Standards (TLMS) were created to stimulate discussion around the leadership responsibilities teachers assume in schools. This study used the TLMS to gauge the self-reported leadership responsibilities of National Board Certified Teachers (NBCTs). The NBCTs reported engaging in all domains of the TLMS, most frequently with…

  9. [Multisensory stimulation]. (United States)

    Etchepareborda, M C; Abad-Mas, L; Pina, J


    Diagnosis in early care (EC) involves a global study that covers the child's development, their personal history, family and surroundings. The specific aims of an intervention programme in EC could be summed up in four areas: the prevention of deficits or difficulties, the detection of problems linked with a socio-family deficiency or shortages, the stimulation of development, and help and assistance for families. Multisensory stimulation (MSS) of small children is essential for their future existence. The presentation of stimuli must follow a strict schedule; indeed, this observation is so important that if the critical moment for incorporating a stimulus is missed, providing the stimulus at another time will not have the same effect. Intellectual development during early childhood was taken into account when defining the fundamental aims of a therapeutic intervention programme in EC. To develop suitable therapy according to these concepts, an EMS (Snoezelen) room with certain special characteristics is required. This room must allow the stimuli offered in each moment and under each sensory modality to be controlled. Applying intervention programmes in a proper, specific and timely manner will enable us to accompany each child, as far as is possible in each case, in the development of his or her abilities and capabilities.


    CERN Multimedia


    The English Language Programme of the Lycée International de Ferney-Voltaire has two teaching posts available for la rentrée 2001. 1. Part-time teacher of Primary-level English Candidates for the post need to be mother-tongue English speakers. They should have a relevant degree and teaching qualification. The post involves teaching the English curriculum to pupils who are within the French educational system. Classes take place on Tuesday afternoons at the Lycée. Team spirit necessary as teachers work as a team. Induction & training are offered. 2. Part-time teacher of Secondary-level history-geography Candididates for the post need to be mother-tongue English speakers. They should have a relevant degree in history or geography and also a strong interest in the other subject. They should have a relevant teaching qualification and be confident classroom practioners. For more information on either of these posts please contact the school office on

  11. How pupils percieve the teacher's motivational techniques?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodroža Bojana


    Full Text Available Current research in the field of education indicates that the behaviour of the teacher affects significantly the quality and level of the pupil's motivation. The aim of our research was to determine the structure of the motivational style of teachers seen from the pupils' perspective, and to find out whether the pupils' perceptions of the teacher's motivational style depend upon cultural-educational influences of the family, and some characteristics of the students (academic achievements, gender. The sample included 856 pupils from 40 elementary schools in Serbia. We used the questionnaire with Likert's scale to obtain the evaluation of the teachers' behaviours. By the factor analysis we extracted three components of the teacher' behaviour: stimulating pupils' interest and competences, de-motivational teachers' behaviours and stimulating freedom of thinking and expression. The results show that the pupils whose parents have lower levels of education think that the behaviour of the teachers is directed to stimulating interest and competencies, as well as freedom of thinking and speech than the pupils of the parents of higher educational status. The control of the influence of the education of parents showed that the pupils of lower academic achievement perceive the teacher's behaviour as de-motivational. Compared to girls boys estimate more highly that teachers stimulate their interests and competencies. A suggestion is offered how a teacher should develop a behavioural style which would positively influence the quality of the pupils' motivation.


    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subject Index. Variation of surface electric field during geomagnetic disturbed period at Maitri, Antarctica. 1721. Geomorphology. A simple depression-filling method for raster and irregular elevation datasets. 1653. Decision Support System integrated with Geographic. Information System to target restoration actions in water-.

  13. Estimulação transcraniana não invasiva em indivíduos com paralisia cerebral: uma revisão integrativa da literatura = Noninvasive brain stimulation in subjects with cerebral palsy: a integrative literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes, Aline Freitas


    Full Text Available Objetivo: Verificar na literatura a finalidade do uso da estimulação transcraniana não invasiva nos indivíduos com paralisia cerebral (PC. Materiais e Métodos: Este estudo se caracteriza como uma revisão integrativa da literatura. A coleta dos dados foi realizada de agosto a setembro de 2015, utilizando as bases eletrônicas Scielo, Medline/PubMed, PEDro e Lilacs. Os descritores e operadores boleanos utilizados foram congenital hemiplegia OR cerebral palsy AND transcranial magnetic stimulation OR transcranial direct current stimulation. Foram incluídos na amostra artigos publicados entre os anos de 2005 e 2015, nos idiomas inglês, espanhol e português. Resultados: A busca nas bases de dados resultou na coleta de 214 artigos, dos quais 12 preencheram os critérios de inclusão. O maior número de publicações que compuseram a amostra foi publicado entre os anos de 2013 e 2015. Oito estudos aplicaram a estimulação magnética transcraniana (EMT para realização de diagnóstico, mapeamento cortical e avaliação da função da mão e quatro utilizaram a estimulação por corrente contínua (ETCC e verificaram seu efeito sobre a distonia e a marcha de indivíduos com PC. Em relação ao tratamento de indivíduos com PC, os estudos mostraram resultados importantes do uso de estimulação transcraniana, sobretudo quando associado à fisioterapia. Conclusão: A pesquisa mostrou que a estimulação transcraniana não invasiva, por meio da EMT e da ETCC, tem sido utilizada na PC com a finalidade de tratamento e diagnóstico

  14. The Reform of the Inservice Teacher Education System in Poland. (United States)

    Zawadoska, Janina


    Poland is in the midst of sweeping educational reform, including reform of inservice teacher education. The system is abandoning totalitarianism for democracy. Most Polish teachers are specialized in only one subject, and there are surpluses of teachers in some subjects, so inservice education is focusing on helping teachers change specialties.…

  15. Physics teachers go back to school at CERN

    CERN Multimedia


    Fifty physics teachers came together at CERN during a lovely spring weekend at the beginning of May to revitalise their teaching methods. CERN held the third of its programmes for physics teachers during the first weekend of May. This was the occasion for the presentation of the second 'CERN Education Award'. The fifty physics teachers who came to CERN to find exciting ideas to stimulate the interest of their pupils hardly had a spare minute during their three-day stay, which included a detailed tour of CERN, and different seminars. From their visit, which lasted from the evening of 29 April until 2 May, they came away with information on the latest developments in physics and a host of new ideas for teaching the subject (see Bulletin 11/2002). 'One of the reasons why I wanted to take part in the programme was to gain a better understanding of today's big physics projects and the results of the latest research,' explains Luigia Cazzaniga, a teacher from Italy. 'As a physics teacher, I wanted to make my pupil...

  16. Supplying Disadvantaged Schools with Effective Teachers: Experimental Evidence on Secondary Math Teachers from Teach For America (United States)

    Chiang, Hanley S.; Clark, Melissa A.; McConnell, Sheena


    Teach For America (TFA) is an important but controversial source of teachers for hard-to-staff subjects in high-poverty U.S. schools. We present findings from the first large-scale experimental study of secondary math teachers from TFA. We find that TFA teachers are more effective than other math teachers in the same schools, increasing student…

  17. Cooperating Teacher Perceptions of Music Student Teacher Preparedness for the Elementary Music Classroom (United States)

    Hester, Charlotte V.


    The present study investigated the strengths and areas of improvement for elementary music teacher preparation from the perspective of multiple members of a single body of music teachers. Subjects for the study were elementary music teachers from an urban school district in the southern United States. All elementary music teachers in the school…

  18. The Roles of Teachers' Work Motivation and Teachers' Job Satisfaction in the Organizational Commitment in Extraordinary Schools (United States)

    Tentama, Fatwa; Pranungsari, Dessy


    Teachers' work motivation and teachers' job satisfaction are the factors influencing the organizational commitment. This research is aimed to empirically examine the roles of teachers' work motivation and teachers' job satisfaction in the commitment of the organization in extraordinary schools. The subjects of the research are the teachers in…

  19. Enteral feeding without pancreatic stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaushik, Neeraj; Pietraszewski, Marie; Holst, Jens Juul


    .5 g protein/kg ideal body weight/d. Plasma gut peptide responses were monitored in 15 subjects. RESULTS: In comparison with basal fasting trypsin secretion rates (mean = 134 [standard error = 22] U/h), duodenal feeding with the polymeric and elemental formulae stimulated trypsin secretion (mean = 408...... in enteral feeding without pancreatic stimulation, with particular reference to trypsin, because the avoidance of trypsin stimulation may optimize enteral feeding in acute pancreatitis. METHODS: The pancreatic secretory responses to feeding were studied in 36 healthy volunteers by standard double...... [standard error = 51] U/h; P standard error = 34] U/h) and mid-distal jejunal (mean = 119 [standard error = 16] U/h) did not. Stimulation was associated with an increase in plasma cholecystokinin, whereas distal jejunal feeding resulted in an increase...

  20. Teacher Perceptions of Teacher Bullying (United States)

    Zerillo, Christine; Osterman, Karen F


    This mixed-methods study examined elementary teachers' perceptions of teacher-student bullying. Grounded in previous research on peer bullying, the study posed several questions: to what extent did teachers perceive bullying of students by other teachers as a serious matter requiring intervention? Did they perceive teacher bullying as more serious…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovan Stamatović


    Full Text Available The authors of this paper is directed to physical education in elementary school younger and the role of teachers in the implementation of this subject. The first part discusses the importance of physical education for physical and mental development of younger school children of primary school In the second part the authors indicate the quality and organization of physical education in elementary grades, referring to a large number of studies in this field. The third part talks about education and preparing teachers for teaching and learning. Indicated a need for training of teachers in the field of physical education and are given specific proposals.

  2. Exploring how surgeon teachers motivate residents in the operating room. (United States)

    Dath, Deepak; Hoogenes, Jen; Matsumoto, Edward D; Szalay, David A


    Motivation in teaching, mainly studied in disciplines outside of surgery, may also be an important part of intraoperative teaching. We explored techniques surgeons use to motivate learners in the operating room (OR). Forty-four experienced surgeon teachers from multiple specialties participated in 9 focus groups about teaching in the OR. Focus groups were transcribed and subjected to qualitative thematic analysis by 3 reviewers through an iterative, rigorous process. Analysis revealed 8 motivational techniques. Surgeons used motivation techniques tacitly, describing multiple ways that they facilitate resident motivation while teaching. Two major categories of motivational techniques emerged: (1) the facilitation of intrinsic motivation; and (2) the provision of factors to stimulate extrinsic motivation. Surgeons unknowingly but tacitly and commonly use motivation in intraoperative teaching and use a variety of techniques to foster learners' intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Motivating learners is 1 vital role that surgeon teachers play in nontechnical intraoperative teaching. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jesús Valverde Berrocoso; María Rosa Fernández Sánchez; Francisco Ignacio Revuelta Domínguez


    .... In a sample of innovative teachers (N=41) of schools selected for their good practice with ICT, a questionnaire was used to measure how motivations, emotions and skills are present in an innovative practice with technology, and the degree of...

  4. Maths4Stats: Educating teachers


    Blignaut, Renette J.; Retha Luus; Ronell Lombard; Abduraghiem Latief; Danelle Kotze


    The inadequate nature of the education infrastructure in South Africa has led to poor academic performance at public schools. Problems within schools such as under-qualified teachers and poor teacher performance arise due to the poorly constructed education system in our country. The implementation in 2012 of the Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement (CAPS) at public schools in South Africa saw the further crippling of some teachers, as they were unfamiliar with parts of the CAPS subject...

  5. Vagus Nerve Stimulation (United States)

    Vagus nerve stimulation Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Vagus nerve stimulation is a procedure that involves implantation of a device that stimulates the vagus nerve with electrical impulses. There's one vagus nerve ...

  6. Analysis of microvascular perfusion with multi-dimensional complete ensemble empirical mode decomposition with adaptive noise algorithm: Processing of laser speckle contrast images recorded in healthy subjects, at rest and during acetylcholine stimulation. (United States)

    Humeau-Heurtier, Anne; Marche, Pauline; Dubois, Severine; Mahe, Guillaume


    Laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) is a full-field imaging modality to monitor microvascular blood flow. It is able to give images with high temporal and spatial resolutions. However, when the skin is studied, the interpretation of the bidimensional data may be difficult. This is why an averaging of the perfusion values in regions of interest is often performed and the result is followed in time, reducing the data to monodimensional time series. In order to avoid such a procedure (that leads to a loss of the spatial resolution), we propose to extract patterns from LSCI data and to compare these patterns for two physiological states in healthy subjects: at rest and at the peak of acetylcholine-induced perfusion peak. For this purpose, the recent multi-dimensional complete ensemble empirical mode decomposition with adaptive noise (MCEEMDAN) algorithm is applied to LSCI data. The results show that the intrinsic mode functions and residue given by MCEEMDAN show different patterns for the two physiological states. The images, as bidimensional data, can therefore be processed to reveal microvascular perfusion patterns, hidden in the images themselves. This work is therefore a feasibility study before analyzing data in patients with microvascular dysfunctions.

  7. Subject knowledge for teaching and continuing professional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This short discussion article outlines a range of theoretical issues underpinning the formation of subject knowledge for teaching. It suggests a number of practical needs that secondary school teachers of English may be seeking to address in the way of subject knowledge development and how this may relate to the ...

  8. Dietary strawberries increase the proliferative response of CD3/CD28-activated CD8⁺ T cells and the production of TNF-α in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated monocytes from obese human subjects. (United States)

    Zunino, Susan J; Storms, David H; Freytag, Tammy L; Mackey, Bruce E; Zhao, Ling; Gouffon, Julia S; Hwang, Daniel H


    Obesity increases the risk of developing bacterial and viral infections compared with normal weight. In a 7-week double-blind, randomised, cross-over trial, twenty obese volunteers (BMI between 30 and 40 kg/m²) were fed freeze-dried strawberry powder or strawberry-flavoured placebo preparations to determine the effects of dietary strawberries on immune function. Blood was collected at six time points during the study and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated at each time point and activated with CD3 plus CD28 antibodies (T-lymphocyte activation) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS, monocyte activation). Interferon-γ, TNF-α, IL-4 and IL-10 were measured in supernatants from the activated T cells. Supernatants from the activated monocytes were analysed for the production of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8. PBMC were pre-stained with PKH (Paul Karl Horan) dye and activated with CD3 plus CD28 antibodies to determine the proliferative responses of CD4⁺ and CD8⁺ T-lymphocytes by flow cytometry. To detect global changes in gene expression, microarray analysis was performed on LPS- and vehicle-treated PBMC from two subjects before and after the strawberry intervention. No difference was observed for the production of T-cell cytokines between the intervention groups. The production of TNF-α was increased in the supernatants from LPS-activated PBMC in the group consuming strawberries compared with the placebo. A modest increase in the proliferation of the CD8⁺ T-lymphocyte population was observed at 24 h post-activation. These data suggest that dietary strawberries may increase the immunological response of T-lymphocytes and monocytes in obese people who are at greater risk for developing infections.

  9. Training Teachers for Developing Communicative Skills


    Tatjana Kadunc


    A teacher's professional success in working with students, his or her physical health and personal fulfilment depend on how successful his or her interpersonal relationsbips with the students are which accounts for the need for permanent teachers training in communicative skills. A successful teachers training model has to offer models and approaches aiming at the integration of scientific and practical theories. Theoretical basis should stimulate reflection on important problems. There is a ...

  10. Teacher Dilemmas in Challenging Students in Higher Education (United States)

    Scager, Karin; Akkerman, Sanne F.; Pilot, Albert; Wubbels, Theo


    Students need to be challenged to stimulate their learning. Applying challenge in practice however is not straightforward. Challenging students may conflict with other teacher responsibilities, creating potential dilemmas for teachers. This study discloses dilemmas teachers encounter when challenging students as well as the considerations…

  11. The Connotations of Language Teacher Autonomy (United States)

    Han, Ligang


    With the research on the development of learner autonomy in foreign language education, teacher autonomy has become a hot topic in the research of foreign language teacher education. However, it is the most difficult question to define language teacher autonomy and any answer to it is likely to be subjective. On the basis of expounding upon the…

  12. Teacher Education and "Politics of Humanity" (United States)

    Waghid, Y.


    Since the demise of apartheid education, the development of policy in relation to teacher education in South Africa has undergone major adjustments. By far the most poignant conceptual and pragmatic change that teacher education has been subjected to points towards the cultivation of teachers who can enact their professions as democratic citizens.…

  13. The Effect of Teacher Psychological and School Organizational and Leadership Factors on Teachers' Professional Learning in Dutch Schools (United States)

    Geijsel, Femke P.; Sleegers, Peter J. C.; Stoel, Reinoud D.; Kruger, Meta L.


    In this study we examined the relative importance of teachers' psychological states, school organizational conditions (teacher collaboration and participative decision making), and the leadership practices (vision, individual consideration, and intellectual stimulation) of principals at their schools in explaining variation in teachers'…

  14. Initial teacher education and continuing professional development for science teachers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolin, Jens; Evans, Robert Harry


    , and belong to various cultures, both educationally and socially. Section 1 presents a review of the research literature across these dimensions and looks at the knowledge, skills and competences needed for teaching science, specific issues within science teacher education, and strategies for educating......Research into ways of improving the initial education and continuing professional development of science teachers is closely related to both common and unique strands. The field is complex since science teachers teach at different educational levels, are often educated in different science subjects...... and developing science teachers....

  15. Mimicking muscle activity with electrical stimulation (United States)

    Johnson, Lise A.; Fuglevand, Andrew J.


    Functional electrical stimulation is a rehabilitation technology that can restore some degree of motor function in individuals who have sustained a spinal cord injury or stroke. One way to identify the spatio-temporal patterns of muscle stimulation needed to elicit complex upper limb movements is to use electromyographic (EMG) activity recorded from able-bodied subjects as a template for electrical stimulation. However, this requires a transfer function to convert the recorded (or predicted) EMG signals into an appropriate pattern of electrical stimulation. Here we develop a generalized transfer function that maps EMG activity into a stimulation pattern that modulates muscle output by varying both the pulse frequency and the pulse amplitude. We show that the stimulation patterns produced by this transfer function mimic the active state measured by EMG insofar as they reproduce with good fidelity the complex patterns of joint torque and joint displacement.

  16. A nonpedagogical teacher education?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvols, Anja Madsen; Madsen, Peter Hougaard; Beck, Mette Holdsendorf

    of the students and thereby it seems to contribute to a change of this pedagogical an educational paradigm. In 2013 Danish teacher education was latest reformed into a model of performance assessment and a general focus on learning outcomes. Increased attention paid to output and assessment raises issues...... regarding changes in education – which seem to come from evaluations more than from educational and pedagogical theories (Gruschka, 2011). Moreover, the teacher education has increased its focus on both research-based academic training and professional training at the same time. Our study is double – 1...... characterizes teacher professionalism? (Subject studies? Pedagogical studies? Professional training? Academic studies? Bildung studies? Etc.) - What characterizes ‘pedagogy of teacher education’ (Darling-Hammond, 2006; Loughran, 2008; Zeichner, 2005)?...

  17. Teachers of high ability pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cándido Genovard


    Full Text Available In this article we analyze the characteristics of gifted and talented students’ expert teachers. The subject background and the specific proprieties of the instructional process to meet gifted students’ educational needs are analyzed. The value of teacher-student interactions and of teaching and learning styles are highlighted. Also, we include different action guidelines and instructional resources to use in the classroom to teach these students. There is not an ideal teacher for high ability students. However, teachers must know what the teaching-learning processes are and how these work, and the diverse psychological, content and contextual variables involved in such processes.


    Czura, Christopher J.; Schultz, Arthur; Kaipel, Martin; Khadem, Anna; Huston, Jared M.; Pavlov, Valentin A.; Redl, Heinz; Tracey, Kevin J.


    The central nervous system regulates peripheral immune responses via the vagus nerve, the primary neural component of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. Electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve suppresses pro-inflammatory cytokine release in response to endotoxin, I/R injury, and hypovolemic shock and protects against lethal hypotension. To determine the effect of vagus nerve stimulation on coagulation pathways, anesthetized pigs were subjected to partial ear resection before and after electrical vagus nerve stimulation. We observed that electrical vagus nerve stimulation significantly decreased bleeding time (pre–electrical vagus nerve stimulation = 1033 ± 210 s versus post–electrical vagus nerve stimulation = 585 ± 111 s; P vagus nerve stimulation = 48.4 ± 6.8 mL versus post–electrical vagus nerve stimulation = 26.3 ± 6.7 mL; P vagus nerve stimulation was independent of changes in heart rate or blood pressure and correlated with increased thrombin/antithrombin III complex generation in shed blood. These data indicate that electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve attenuates peripheral hemorrhage in a porcine model of soft tissue injury and that this protective effect is associated with increased coagulation factor activity. PMID:19953009

  19. The EFL Teachers' Perceptions of Teacher Identity: A Survey of "Zhuangang" and "Non-Zhuangang" Primary School Teachers in China (United States)

    Xiong, Tao; Xiong, Xiuzhen


    "Zhuangang" (literally means "transferring post") English teachers, usually in the primary schools of rural areas in China, refer to the English teachers who used to teach school subjects other than English. Some of them may at the same time still teach other subjects in addition to English. They are a part of the solutions to…

  20. New Lives of Teachers (United States)

    Day, Christopher


    The work and lives of teachers have always been subject to external influence as those who are nearing the end of their careers will attest, but it is arguable that what is new over the last two decades is the pace, complexity, and intensity of change as governments have responded to the shrinking world of economic competitiveness and social…

  1. Electrical stimulation of the upper extremity in stroke: cyclic versus EMG-triggered stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kroon, Joke R.; IJzerman, Maarten Joost


    Objective: To compare the effect of cyclic and electromyography (EMG)-triggered electrical stimulation on motor impairment and function of the affected upper extremity in chronic stroke. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting: Outpatient clinic of a rehabilitation centre. Subjects and

  2. First Year Teaching Experiences of Early Childhood Urban Teachers. (United States)

    Guyton, Edith

    The first-year teaching experiences of urban teachers were studied to conceptualize the reality faced by urban teachers and to determine the implications of the urban environment for teacher education. Subjects were four graduates of a teacher education program that gave no particular attention to the urban context beyond placement for student…

  3. 34 CFR 300.18 - Highly qualified special education teachers. (United States)


    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Highly qualified special education teachers. 300.18... special education teachers. (a) Requirements for special education teachers teaching core academic subjects. For any public elementary or secondary school special education teacher teaching core academic...

  4. Relationship Between Teachers\\' Qualification And Students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has been observed that students\\' performance in technical subjects is very poor. Coupled with this problem is that of lack of qualified technical teachers. This study determines the relationship between teachers\\' qualification and students\\' performance in technical subjects in selected schools in northern Nigeria.

  5. Integrating Advocacy into Teacher Education Programming (United States)

    Richards, K. Andrew R.; Aros, Emily; Ostrander, Anna


    It is critical that preservice teachers (PSTs) in PE learn strategies to help them advocate for the importance of their subject in and around school settings. This article describes curricular and extracurricular activities that teacher educators can draw upon in preparing PSTs to advocate for their subject.

  6. Teacher perspectives about using formative assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evans, Robert Harry; Dolin, Jens; Nielsen, Jan Alexis


    Abstract. This chapter examines three different classroom teacher perspectives when using ASSIST-ME project formative assessment methods as described in the introductory chapter. The first ‘teacher perspective' is about changes in teacher self-efficacies while using formative assessment methods...... as monitored by a pre and post teacher questionnaire. Teachers who tried the unfamiliar formative methods of assessment (see introductory book chapter for these methods) as well as their colleagues who did not were surveyed. The second ‘teacher perspective’ examines changes in teachers' subjective theories...... while trying project specific formative assessment methods in the Czech Republic. Analyses are done through case studies and interviews. The final part of the chapter looks at teacher perspectives while using an internet-based application to facilitate formative assessment. Teacher use...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rias Ning Astuti


    Full Text Available English becomes an international language that has to be mastered by the students in Indonesia and many countries in the world. Teaching English is not easy as we thought. As an English teachers, we should master some criteria to be  good teachers. Because English today in Indonesia is considered as a foreign language, then it difficult for the students to learn it. Teacher is also  important in teaching learning process in the classroom, the foundation of English teacher education, teacher knowledge, and professionalism of the teacher is primary goal that should be mastered In this case, the writer tries to explore the phenomena that happened in Indonesia especially in East Indonesia, that is,  Merauke - Papua. The educational system in Merauke- Papua is good enough, but there are several terms that should be changed by the government and the teachers themselves. There are some problems faced by the teacher when they teach in the class, such as: what they teach does not match with the skills the  subject requires and they only focus on finishing the curriculum. In this context, the roles of the government is very important in order to improve the teacher professionalism in Indonesia, one of which is certification for the teacher and the government will increase their salary per month. But, it is not only the matter of salary, but the government should find another ways to improve the teacher’s professionalism such as: conference, seminars, or another activities.

  8. Clarifying preservice teacher perceptions of mentor teachers' developing use of mentoring skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennissen, P.; Crasborn, F.; Brouwer, N.; Korthagen, F.A.J.; Bergen, T.


    The aim of this study is to clarify how pre-service teachers perceive mentor teachers' use of mentoring skills. Sixty stimulated-recall interviews were conducted, each in connection with a previously recorded mentoring dialogue. A quantitative analysis showed that six types of mentoring skills

  9. Clarifying pre-service teacher perceptions of mentor teachers' developing use of mentoring skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. Paul Hennissen; Prof. Dr. Fred Korthagen; Prof. Dr. Theo Bergen; Dr. Niels Brouwer; Dr. F.J.A.J. Crasborn


    The aim of this study is to clarify how pre-service teachers perceive mentor teachers' use of mentoring skills. Sixty stimulated-recall interviews were conducted, each in connection with a previously recorded mentoring dialogue. A quantitative analysis showed that six types of mentoring skills

  10. Teachers' Centres. (United States)

    Thornbury, Robert, Ed.

    Teacher centers in England are professional laboratories where inservice teachers (freed from their classrooms by a release program) can share ideas, experiences, and problems with their colleagues and participate in the development and testing of teaching materials. The evolution of the teacher centers, their functioning, their projects, and…

  11. Becoming a teacher educator: experiences with a specific induction period for beginning teacher educators.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr Rita Schildwacht; MEd Marly Gootzen; Quinta Kools; MEd Marije Veraa


    Introduction and theoretical background In the past few years, there has been a growing interest in the specific position of beginning teacher educators. In the book 'Becoming a teacher Educator' (Swennen & Van der Klink, 2009) several chapters deal with this subject. In conclusion, teacher

  12. Developing Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching Teachers: A Model for the Professional Development of Teacher Educators (United States)

    Superfine, Alison Castro; Li, Wenjuan


    What is needed to prepare teachers to effectively teach mathematics has been the subject of considerable debate for at least two decades, with the focus shifting back and forth between the number of mathematics courses that teachers need to the mathematics content that teachers need to know. Building upon previous work related to teacher…

  13. From the Classroom to the Keyboard: How Seven Teachers Created Their Online Teacher Identities (United States)

    Richardson, Jennifer C.; Alsup, Janet


    Teacher identity is defined as a sense of teacher self that results from a productive combination of key personal and professional subjectivities or beliefs. Much empirical research has been done on the development of teacher identity in the K-12 arena, with a great deal of theoretical and philosophical scholarship about teaching at the college…

  14. Stimulating the Comfort of Textile Electrodes in Wearable Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhou


    Full Text Available Textile electrodes are becoming an attractive means in the facilitation of surface electrical stimulation. However, the stimulation comfort of textile electrodes and the mechanism behind stimulation discomfort is still unknown. In this study, a textile stimulation electrode was developed using conductive fabrics and then its impedance spectroscopy, stimulation thresholds, and stimulation comfort were quantitatively assessed and compared with those of a wet textile electrode and a hydrogel electrode on healthy subjects. The equivalent circuit models and the finite element models of different types of electrode were built based on the measured impedance data of the electrodes to reveal the possible mechanism of electrical stimulation pain. Our results showed that the wet textile electrode could achieve similar stimulation performance as the hydrogel electrode in motor threshold and stimulation comfort. However, the dry textile electrode was found to have very low pain threshold and induced obvious cutaneous painful sensations during stimulation, in comparison to the wet and hydrogel electrodes. Indeed, the finite element modeling results showed that the activation function along the z direction at the depth of dermis epidermis junction of the dry textile electrode was significantly larger than that of the wet and hydrogel electrodes, thus resulting in stronger activation of pain sensing fibers. Future work will be done to make textile electrodes have similar stimulation performance and comfort as hydrogel electrodes.

  15. Stimulating the Comfort of Textile Electrodes in Wearable Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation. (United States)

    Zhou, Hui; Lu, Yi; Chen, Wanzhen; Wu, Zhen; Zou, Haiqing; Krundel, Ludovic; Li, Guanglin


    Textile electrodes are becoming an attractive means in the facilitation of surface electrical stimulation. However, the stimulation comfort of textile electrodes and the mechanism behind stimulation discomfort is still unknown. In this study, a textile stimulation electrode was developed using conductive fabrics and then its impedance spectroscopy, stimulation thresholds, and stimulation comfort were quantitatively assessed and compared with those of a wet textile electrode and a hydrogel electrode on healthy subjects. The equivalent circuit models and the finite element models of different types of electrode were built based on the measured impedance data of the electrodes to reveal the possible mechanism of electrical stimulation pain. Our results showed that the wet textile electrode could achieve similar stimulation performance as the hydrogel electrode in motor threshold and stimulation comfort. However, the dry textile electrode was found to have very low pain threshold and induced obvious cutaneous painful sensations during stimulation, in comparison to the wet and hydrogel electrodes. Indeed, the finite element modeling results showed that the activation function along the z direction at the depth of dermis epidermis junction of the dry textile electrode was significantly larger than that of the wet and hydrogel electrodes, thus resulting in stronger activation of pain sensing fibers. Future work will be done to make textile electrodes have similar stimulation performance and comfort as hydrogel electrodes.

  16. Teachers Need Teachers to Grow (United States)

    Wenzlaff, Terri L.; Wieseman, Katherine C.


    The purpose of this study was to examine the nature of teacher learning in a cohort-based, master's degree program in curriculum and pedagogy that was intentionally designed to be responsive to teachers' personal needs and preferences. The program aimed to: (1) provide teachers with the confidence to connect what they do in their classrooms to…

  17. Teacher to Teacher: Transgenerational Mentoring (United States)

    Juarez-Torres, Rachel; Hurst, Jeannine Lane; Hurst, Roy


    This qualitative case study examines the relationship of teachers who mentor other teachers. We studied 125 autobiographical portfolios submitted by elementary and secondary teachers who had won awards as outstanding educators from their campuses and were competing at the district level. The research site was a midsize city (population 95,000) in…

  18. EFL Teacher Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belabbas Ouerrad


    Full Text Available In any teaching-learning situation success depends on giving proper consideration to both human elements, such as the role of the teacher, the nature of the learners, and also to non-human elements like the textbook, the syllabus, the number of hours allotted to the subject study and the like. With the education reform, teaching foreign languages is the core of many debates and the agenda of almost all discussions. Thus, many questions on the subject are posed: should we teach scientific subjects in French or in English? Should we introduce both of them in primary schools? At what level? But the true questions are hardly raised like the ones concerning the teacher, his qualifications and his training. Let us make no mistake about it, any tentative reform, and whatever its actions are, could not be achieved without prior action of teachers ; they are the cornerstone and the secret of any successful educational system, for they contribute to a large extent in the achievement of all objectives. Therefore, priority should be given to teachers - how to prepare them to changes, innovations and reforms that are likely to happen

  19. Spinal cord stimulation (United States)

    ... this page: // Spinal cord stimulation To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Spinal cord stimulation is a treatment for pain that uses a ...

  20. Feldspar, Infrared Stimulated Luminescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Mayank


    This entry primarily concerns the characteristics and the origins of infrared-stimulated luminescence in feldspars.......This entry primarily concerns the characteristics and the origins of infrared-stimulated luminescence in feldspars....

  1. Technical note: simple vibroacoustic foetal stimulator. (United States)

    Stojanović, D; Frković, A; Filiplić-Stojanović, H; Kirincić, N


    To build and test a simple vibroacoustic foetal stimulator. A vibroacoustic foetal stimulator was constructed and subjected to bench testing. Clinical trial was carried out in comparison to an electro laynx. Screening specificity of 98% and 100% sensitivity was achieved, with no decrease in specificity due to user's maladjustments. The device was characterized by simple use, maintenance and disinfection. The device is a good screening instrument for foetal health in prenatal care, despite its simplicity and low price.



    Czura, Christopher J; Schultz, Arthur; Kaipel, Martin; Khadem, Anna; Huston, Jared M.; Pavlov, Valentin A.; Redl, Heinz; Tracey, Kevin J.


    The central nervous system regulates peripheral immune responses via the vagus nerve, the primary neural component of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. Electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve suppresses pro-inflammatory cytokine release in response to endotoxin, I/R injury, and hypovolemic shock and protects against lethal hypotension. To determine the effect of vagus nerve stimulation on coagulation pathways, anesthetized pigs were subjected to partial ear resection before and aft...

  3. Laboratory instruction and subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Barolli


    Full Text Available The specific aspects which determined the way some groups of students conducted their work in a university laboratory, made us understand the articulation of these groups´s dynamics, from elements that were beyond the reach of cognition. In more specific terms the conduction and the maintenance of the groups student´s dynamics were explicited based on a intergame between the non conscious strategies, shared anonymously, and the efforts of the individuals in working based on their most objective task. The results and issues we have reached so far, using a reference the work developed by W.R.Bion, with therapeutical groups, gave us the possibility for understanding the dynamics of the student´s experimental work through a new approach that approximates the fields of cognition and subjectivity. This approximation led us to a deeper reflection about the issues which may be involved in the teaching process, particularly in situations which the teacher deals with the class, organised in groups.

  4. Noninvasive brain stimulation improves language learning. (United States)

    Flöel, Agnes; Rösser, Nina; Michka, Olesya; Knecht, Stefan; Breitenstein, Caterina


    Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a reliable technique to improve motor learning. We here wanted to test its potential to enhance associative verbal learning, a skill crucial for both acquiring new languages in healthy individuals and for language reacquisition after stroke-induced aphasia. We applied tDCS (20 min, 1 mA) over the posterior part of the left peri-sylvian area of 19 young right-handed individuals while subjects acquired a miniature lexicon of 30 novel object names. Every subject participated in one session of anodal tDCS, one session of cathodal tDCS, and one sham session in a randomized and double-blinded design with three parallel versions of the miniature lexicon. Outcome measures were learning speed and learning success at the end of each session, and the transfer to the subjects' native language after the respective stimulation. With anodal stimulation, subjects showed faster and better associative learning as compared to sham stimulation. Mood ratings, reaction times, and response styles were comparable between stimulation conditions. Our results demonstrate that anodal tDCS is a promising technique to enhance language learning in healthy adults and may also have the potential to improve language reacquisition after stroke.

  5. Science teacher's perception about science learning experiences as a foundation for teacher training program (United States)

    Tapilouw, Marisa Christina; Firman, Harry; Redjeki, Sri; Chandra, Didi Teguh


    Teacher training is one form of continuous professional development. Before organizing teacher training (material, time frame), a survey about teacher's need has to be done. Science teacher's perception about science learning in the classroom, the most difficult learning model, difficulties of lesson plan would be a good input for teacher training program. This survey conducted in June 2016. About 23 science teacher filled in the questionnaire. The core of questions are training participation, the most difficult science subject matter, the most difficult learning model, the difficulties of making lesson plan, knowledge of integrated science and problem based learning. Mostly, experienced teacher participated training once a year. Science training is very important to enhance professional competency and to improve the way of teaching. The difficulties of subject matter depend on teacher's education background. The physics subject matter in class VIII and IX are difficult to teach for most respondent because of many formulas and abstract. Respondents found difficulties in making lesson plan, in term of choosing the right learning model for some subject matter. Based on the result, inquiry, cooperative, practice are frequently used in science class. Integrated science is understood as a mix between Biology, Physics and Chemistry concepts. On the other hand, respondents argue that problem based learning was difficult especially in finding contextual problem. All the questionnaire result can be used as an input for teacher training program in order to enhanced teacher's competency. Difficult concepts, integrated science, teaching plan, problem based learning can be shared in teacher training.

  6. Defining Primary Geography from Teachers' Expertise: What Chilean Teachers Mean by Geography (United States)

    Salinas-Silva, Victor; Perez-Gallardo, Patricio; Arenas-Martija, Andoni


    This article examines teachers' subject expertise in a context where geography could be considered a neglected school subject. Using an empirical approach to the problem, the article aims to provide a view on the dynamics of teaching primary geography in Chile, through considering teachers' narratives on curriculum making and their associated…

  7. Brain Stimulation in Addiction. (United States)

    Salling, Michael C; Martinez, Diana


    Localized stimulation of the human brain to treat neuropsychiatric disorders has been in place for over 20 years. Although these methods have been used to a greater extent for mood and movement disorders, recent work has explored brain stimulation methods as potential treatments for addiction. The rationale behind stimulation therapy in addiction involves reestablishing normal brain function in target regions in an effort to dampen addictive behaviors. In this review, we present the rationale and studies investigating brain stimulation in addiction, including transcranial magnetic stimulation, transcranial direct current stimulation, and deep brain stimulation. Overall, these studies indicate that brain stimulation has an acute effect on craving for drugs and alcohol, but few studies have investigated the effect of brain stimulation on actual drug and alcohol use or relapse. Stimulation therapies may achieve their effect through direct or indirect modulation of brain regions involved in addiction, either acutely or through plastic changes in neuronal transmission. Although these mechanisms are not well understood, further identification of the underlying neurobiology of addiction and rigorous evaluation of brain stimulation methods has the potential for unlocking an effective, long-term treatment of addiction.

  8. Violence against Teachers in Comprehensive Schools: Reasons of Origin, Forms of Expression and Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdas Pruskus


    Full Text Available The violence against teachers discussed in this article is a phenomenon realistically existing in schools and it reflects the processes of modern society and their outcome for the youth as well as the interpersonal value priorities and relation with the surrounding world. This article shows the significantly changed situation in schools and the changed teachers’ work conditions. Teachers working at schools do not feel safe. The pupils’ violence influences not only motivation of teacher’s work but also the quality of education service. The appearance and development of pupils’ violence against teachers is stimulated by both objective (social-psychological situation promoting the provisions of aggressiveness in the country, prolonged Education reform and constant reconstruction of schools, derogation and degradation of teacher’s job and subjective preconditions and first of all – the pupils’ structured model of behaviour with the surrounding people, which is influenced by negative impact of school and peer groups as well as by propagation of violence in mass media and experience of violence in the family. In modern school pupils use both kinds of violence – physical and psychological. Physical violence can be used against a the personality of the teacher and b teacher’s possession, thing or animal. This kind of violence can be committed by a single person (pupil when an offended pupil uses violence against the teacher or his possession or by a group of persons (pupils when a group of pupils on agreement or spontaneously uses violence against the teacher or his possession. Actually, physical violence against teachers (the usage of physical power is rather rare. The most frequently met in the relations between pupils and teachers is the psychological violence and such its forms as teachers’ derogation, devaluation, harassment, assault, isolation, rejection, alienation, terrorizing, etc. The violence against teachers is specific

  9. Teacher expertise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens

    and practice through development of better models for bridging the teaching at college and the internship teaching. The study was a longitudinal research and development project that followed teacher students during their first three years of a four year teacher education program after the teacher education...... reform of 2007. The study included four teacher training colleges at two university colleges and about 100 students. In the reform and in the study focus was on professional development. Each of the colleges implemented a number of actions in order to see whether they had potential for bridging the gap......Teacher Expertise: How to improve the relationship between Theory and Practice in Teacher Education Jens Rasmussen, Department of Education, Aarhus University In several studies and reports it has been nailed over and over that teachers’ matter. So this is not the question in this study...

  10. Robot Teachers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Rikke Toft; Ess, Charles Melvin; Bhroin, Niamh Ni

    The world's first robot teacher, Saya, was introduced to a classroom in Japan in 2009. Saya, had the appearance of a young female teacher. She could express six basic emotions, take the register and shout orders like 'be quiet' (The Guardian, 2009). Since 2009, humanoid robot technologies have...... developed. It is now suggested that robot teachers may become regular features in educational settings, and may even 'take over' from human teachers in ten to fifteen years (cf. Amundsen, 2017 online; Gohd, 2017 online). Designed to look and act like a particular kind of human; robot teachers mediate human...... existence and roles, while also aiming to support education through sophisticated, automated, human-like interaction. Our paper explores the design and existential implications of ARTIE, a robot teacher at Oxford Brookes University (2017, online). Drawing on an initial empirical exploration we propose...

  11. The Stimulation of Students’ Interest in the Teaching by Competency-based Approach: Latin American Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhyzhko Olena


    Full Text Available This article presents the results of scientific-pedagogical research, which consisted in identifying, what are the best strategies of stimulation of students’ interest in the teaching by competency-based approach studying the works of Latin American scientists. With support in the pedagogic-comparative study the author has found out that in the Mexican education system the competency-based approach has been implemented since 2009 through the new national educational policies and Reform of Basic Education in which documents it is argued that competence means putting in play knowledge, attitudes, skills and values for achieving purposes in certain contexts and situations. One of the key tasks of the teacher is to lead and keep the attention of his/her students towards certain goals. Motivation to learning represents the socio-emotional or psychosocial variables (social identity, attitude to the subject, motivation, involved in learning on par with the educational variables (teacher, methodology, learning context; individual variables (subject learning abilities, aptitudes, needs, personality; socio-demographic variables (student’s age, sex, socio-economic and socio-cultural level; sociopolitical context variables (importance in the society of knowledge that provides the subject. The study has showed that the best strategies for stimulation of students’ interest in the learning by competency-based approach, following the Latin American scientists, are, among others, modeling, adapting, making the content of the studied discipline “accessible” to the student’s needs; developing students’ autonomy in learning; promoting conscious learning; establishing dynamic and equitable system of interrelations in the class; creating positive psychological environment; raising the illustrative and dynamic teaching; ensuring the self-control and self-regulation; using the error as part of the learning process (and not as punitive.

  12. Comparing teacher roles in Denmark and England

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelly, Peter; Dorf, Hans; Pratt, Nick


    was the ease with which competent English teachers moved between roles. The English teachers observed adopted roles consistent with a wider techno-rationalist discourse. There was a greater subject emphasis by Danish teachers, whose work was set predominantly within a democratic humanist discourse, whilst...... the English teachers placed a greater emphasis on applied skills.......This article reports the findings of a comparative study of teaching in Denmark and England. Its broader aim is to help develop an approach for comparing pedagogy. Lesson observations and interviews identified the range of goals towards which teachers in each country worked and the actions...

  13. Electrocutaneous stimulation system for Braille reading. (United States)

    Echenique, Ana Maria; Graffigna, Juan Pablo; Mut, Vicente


    This work is an assistive technology for people with visual disabilities and aims to facilitate access to written information in order to achieve better social inclusion and integration into work and educational activities. Two methods of electrical stimulation (by current and voltage) of the mechanoreceptors was tested to obtain tactile sensations on the fingertip. Current and voltage stimulation were tested in a Braille cell and line prototype, respectively. These prototypes are evaluated in 33 blind and visually impaired subjects. The result of experimentation with both methods showed that electrical stimulation causes sensations of touch defined in the fingertip. Better results in the Braille characters reading were obtained with current stimulation (85% accuracy). However this form of stimulation causes uncomfortable sensations. The latter feeling was minimized with the method of voltage stimulation, but with low efficiency (50% accuracy) in terms of identification of the characters. We concluded that electrical stimulation is a promising method for the development of a simple and unexpensive Braille reading system for blind people. We observed that voltage stimulation is preferred by the users. However, more experimental tests must be carry out in order to find the optimum values of the stimulus parameters and increase the accuracy the Braille characters reading.

  14. Teachers Who Grow As Collaborative Leaders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard D. Sawyer


    Full Text Available The following narratives examine three teachers over a course of ten years as they first entered teaching and began to collaborate with other teachers on curriculum. Specifically, the study examines how the teachers 1 developed as collaborators and 2 perceived elements of support from both within and outside the classroom for their collaborative efforts. The article argues that the successful collaborative efforts helped deepen their sense of agency and initiative within their teaching and, to a lesser degree, stimulated reform and change within their schools. In turn and to varying degrees, the process of collaboration supported their personal renewal in their work. The article suggests that structural support for these teachers that connected to their emerging personal practical knowledge was crucial for their development as teacher collaborators. The article concludes by suggesting how schools may be restructured to start to become sites of authentic leadership that build on the talents, meaning, voice, and knowledge of teachers.

  15. Attitudes among students and teachers on vertical integration between clinical medicine and basic science within a problem-based undergraduate medical curriculum. (United States)

    Brynhildsen, J; Dahle, L O; Behrbohm Fallsberg, M; Rundquist, I; Hammar, M


    Important elements in the curriculum at the Faculty of Health Sciences in Linköping are vertical integration, i.e. integration between the clinical and basic science sections of the curriculum, and horizontal integration between different subject areas. Integration throughout the whole curriculum is time-consuming for both teachers and students and hard work is required for planning, organization and execution. The aim was to assess the importance of vertical and horizontal integration in an undergraduate medical curriculum, according to opinions among students and teachers. In a questionnaire 102 faculty teachers and 106 students were asked about the importance of 14 different components of the undergraduate medical curriculum including vertical and horizontal integration. They were asked to assign between one and six points to each component (6 points = extremely important for the quality of the curriculum; 1 point = unimportant). Students as well as teachers appreciated highly both forms of integration. Students scored horizontal integration slightly but significantly higher than the teachers (median 6 vs 5 points; p=0.009, Mann-Whitney U-test), whereas teachers scored vertical integration higher than students (6 vs 5; p=0.019, Mann-Whitney U-test). Both students and teachers considered horizontal and vertical integration to be highly important components of the undergraduate medical programme. We believe both kinds of integration support problem-based learning and stimulate deep and lifelong learning and suggest that integration should always be considered deeply when a new curriculum is planned for undergraduate medical education.

  16. Effects of insular stimulation on thermal nociception. (United States)

    Denis, D J; Marouf, R; Rainville, P; Bouthillier, A; Nguyen, D K


    Electrical stimulation used for brain mapping in the postero-superior insula can evoke pain. The effects of prolonged high frequency insular stimulation on pain thresholds are unknown. Prolonged high frequency insular stimulation, by virtue of its inhibitory properties on networks, could decrease thermal nociception. Epileptic subjects had electrodes implanted in the insular cortex for the purpose of epileptic focus resection. Thermal and pressure nociceptive thresholds were tested bilaterally on the forearm on two consecutive days. Randomly assigned double-blind high frequency (150 Hz) insular stimulation took place for 10 min before pain testing either on the first day or on the second day. Six subjects (three females; mean age of 35 years) were included. Insular stimulation increased heat pain threshold on the ipsilateral (p = 0.003; n = 6) and contralateral sides (p = 0.047; n = 6). Differences in cold pain threshold did not reach statistical significance (ipsilateral: p = 0.341, contralateral: p = 0.143; n = 6), but one subject had a profound decrease in both heat and cold pain responses. Pressure pain threshold was not modified by insular stimulation (ipsilateral: p = 0.1123; contralateral: p = 0.1192; n = 6). Two of the three subjects who had a postero-superior operculo-insulectomy developed central pain with contralateral thermal nociceptive deficit. High frequency inhibitory postero-superior insular stimulation may have the potential to decrease thermal nociception. Together with previous studies, our data support the notion that the integrity of this brain region is necessary for thermal but not pressure nociceptive processing. © 2015 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  17. Music teacher identity and professionalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holgersen, Sven-Erik


    The present article is concerned with transformative learning and identity formation in student music teachers acting as researchers of a music education practice as part of their MA study programme. More specific, the aim is to discuss how engaging in a research perspective may serve as an eye......-opener for student music teachers and widen their perspective on subject didactics, teaching/learning issues and professional practice....

  18. Student attitudes toward science and sciencerelated careers: A program designed to promote a stimulating gender-free learning environment (United States)

    Mason, Cheryl L.; Butler Kahle, Jane

    A project designed to foster the full and fair participation of girls in high-school science classes addressed obstacles, both perceived and actual, to equal participation. In order to modify existing classroom techniques and environments, a Teacher Intervention Program was designed. By means of a workshop and periodic personal communications, teachers were sensitized to the importance of a stimulating, gender-free learning environment. In addition, they were presented with a variety of methods and materials which had been shown to encourage girls in science. Twelve teachers, who were selected randomly, taught in diverse communities throughout one Midwestern state. The subjects tested were students in 24 general biology classes taught by the 12 teachers. Although both qualitative and quantitative measures were used during the research, only the quantitative results are discussed in this paper. Using ANOVA's, treatment group by student sex, a comparison of the mean scores was made for all students, as well as for all females and for all males. The results indicated that the experimental group, compared to the control group, had significantly higher mean scores on tests of attitudes toward science, perceptions of science, extracurricular science activities, and interest in a science-related career.

  19. Group guidance services to improved creativity for teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solihatun Solihatun


    Full Text Available Creativity in the learning process by teachers is very important in order to support the task at school. Teacher creativity allows teachers to apply various learning methods that encourage students' interest to learn from the classroom. Besides, creativity for teachers is needed to support student development. This study aims to determine the level of creativity of teachers through group guidance services. Subjects in this study involved 10 teachers at Gemma Insani Indonesia Depok. Data analysis used a quantitative approach with pre-test and post-test control group of one design. The results show effective group guidance to improve teacher creativity at Gemma Insani Indonesia Depok.

  20. The effect of teacher psychological, school organizational and leadership factors on teachers’ professional learning in Dutch schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geijsel, F.P.; Sleegers, P.J.C.; Stoel, R.D.; Krüger, M.L.


    In this study we examined the relative importance of teachers' psychological states, school organizational conditions (teacher collaboration and participative decision making), and the leadership practices (vision, individual consideration, and intellectual stimulation) of principals at their

  1. Professional development of teacher-educators towards transformative learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Marie-Jeanne; Kuijpers, Marinka; Boei, Fer; Vrieling, Emmy; Geijsel, Femke


    This study explores the specific characteristics of teacher-educator professional development interventions that enhance their transformative learning towards stimulating the inquiry-based attitude of students. An educational design research method was followed. Firstly, in partnership with five

  2. Assessing student teachers' reflective writing through quantitative content analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poldner, Eric; Van der Schaaf, Marieke; Simons, P. Robert Jan; Van Tartwijk, Jan; Wijngaards, Guus


    Students' reflective essay writing can be stimulated by the formative assessments provided to them by their teachers. Such assessments contain information about the quality of students' reflective writings and offer suggestions for improvement. Despite the importance of formatively assessing

  3. Intravaginal stimulation randomized trial. (United States)

    Smith, J J


    The effectiveness of intravaginal electrical stimulation was compared to standard therapy in the treatment of genuine stress urinary incontinence and detrusor instability. A total of 57 women with urinary incontinence was evaluated with video urodynamics and voiding diaries before and after treatment. Of the women 18 with stress urinary incontinence were randomized to electrical stimulation or Kegel exercise and 38 with detrusor instability were randomized to anticholinergic therapy or electrical stimulation. Of patients using electrical stimulation in the stress urinary incontinence group 66% improved and 72% of the patients with detrusor instability treated with electrical stimulation improved. These rates were not statistically significant when compared to traditional therapy. Electrical stimulation is safe and at least as effective as properly performed Kegel and anticholinergic therapy in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence and detrusor instability.

  4. teachers beliefs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Abstract. The major purpose of this study was to examine teachers' beliefs and actual classroom practices of .... Solving: According to Thompson (1992), teachers' classroom practice of mathematics problem solving is a critical factor in determining students' problems ... inquiry and creativity (Micintosh, 2000). To foster critical ...

  5. Teacher Absenteeism. (United States)

    Pohl, James M.


    Nationwide, there are several innovative approaches to substitute teacher staffing issues, including: increased substitute teacher pay and enlistment of local college students to substitute at least 3 days per week in exchange for tuition help and a guaranteed job after graduation. Incentive programs for low absenteeism rates are a good way to…

  6. Spatiotemporal interactions in retinal prosthesis subjects. (United States)

    Horsager, Alan; Greenberg, Robert J; Fine, Ione


    Vision loss due to retinitis pigmentosa affects an estimated 15 million people worldwide. Through collaboration between Second Sight Medical Products, Inc., and the Doheny Eye Institute, six blind human subjects underwent implantation with epiretinal 4 x 4 electrode arrays designed to directly stimulate the remaining cells of the retina, with the goal of restoring functional vision by applying spatiotemporal patterns of stimulation. To better understand spatiotemporal interactions between electrodes during synchronous and asynchronous stimulation, the authors investigated how percepts changed as a function of pulse timing across the electrodes. Pulse trains (20, 40, 80, and 160 Hz) were presented on groups of electrodes with 800, 1600, or 2400 microm center-to-center separation. Stimulation was either synchronous (pulses were presented simultaneously across electrodes) or asynchronous (pulses were phase shifted). Using a same-different discrimination task, the authors were able to evaluate how the perceptual quality of the stimuli changed as a function of phase shifts across multiple electrodes. Even after controlling for electric field interactions, subjects could discriminate between spatiotemporal pulse train patterns based on differences of phase across electrodes as small as 3 ms. These findings suggest that the quality of the percept is affected not only by electric field interactions but also by spatiotemporal interactions at the neural level. During multielectrode stimulation, interactions between electrodes have a significant influence on the quality of the percept. Understanding how these spatiotemporal interactions at the neural level influence percepts during multielectrode stimulation is fundamental to the successful design of a retinal prosthesis.

  7. Brief effect of acupoint stimulation using focused ultrasound. (United States)

    Tsuruoka, Noriko; Watanabe, Masashi; Takayama, Shin; Seki, Takashi; Matsunaga, Tadao; Haga, Yoichi


    Acupuncture is used worldwide in medical treatment. However, needle insertion damages the skin and patients sometimes feel pain. To avoid such drawbacks, an acupoint stimulation device using focused ultrasound has been developed. Ultrasound stimulation does not damage the skin like acupuncture does because ultrasound can deliver vibration energy to soft tissues noninvasively. The aim of this study was to clarify the effect of acupoint stimulation using focused ultrasound. Fifty (50) healthy volunteers (40 males and 10 females) were included in this experiment. Subjects were randomly assigned to two groups. LR-3 was stimulated bilaterally for 36 seconds by focused ultrasound and conventional acupuncture. Brachial artery blood flow volume was monitored by an ultrasound with an echo-tracking system. The hemodynamic parameters were measured before, during, and 30, 60, 180 seconds after stimulation. During stimulation, the blood flow volume of the acupuncture stimulation group decreased significantly (pfocused ultrasound stimulation group did not decrease. Blood flow volume of both groups increased gradually and showed significant increase at 180 seconds after stimulation (pfocused ultrasound stimulation and conventional acupuncture. Although a significant decrease of blood flow volume during acupuncture stimulation was observed, no such decrease was observed during ultrasound stimulation. Findings of the present study show that noninvasive stimulation of acupoints by focused ultrasound is as effective as conventional acupuncture in blood flow volume of the brachial artery.

  8. Where Have All the Teachers Gone?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Fetler


    Full Text Available A rising need for teachers is projected for California and the nation during the next decade. Sound policy for teacher preparation should not only foster a capable workforce, it should also assure that the supply of qualified teachers balances with employment demand. A conceptual model is proposed to describe the flow of individuals through teacher preparation programs and the workplace. In California the workforce is projected to grow by thirty percent over the next ten years, stimulating the demand for teachers. At present the number of newly credentialed teachers exceeds the number hired. However, the apparent abundance masks an oversupply of teachers in some curricular and geographic areas and shortages elsewhere. Evidence for a lack of balance between supply and demand is found in an upward trend of emergency hiring of teachers who do not meet all requirements for a credential and low employment rates for first-time college and university prepared teachers. The asymmetry between supply and demand could be redressed partly through better retention of working teachers and closer coordination of preparation programs with the needs of schools in their service areas.

  9. As disciplinas pedagógicas na formação e na construção de representações sobre o trabalho docente: visões de alunos de licenciatura em Química e Física Pedagogy subjects in the formation and in the construction of representations about teachers' work: views of preservice Chemistry and Physics teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro da Cunha Pinto Neto


    development. The texts revealed that their ideas were consistent concerning many of the views and goals of teacher preparation courses. Their statements reflected desires to share and stimulate interest for chemistry and physics in their future students. Their comments evidenced past experiences they would like to emulate and others they would rather not. They also expressed their worries about becoming teachers who do care for their students. The texts were analyzed by Discourse Analysis, in its French approach, according to Eni Orlandi, especially the concept of discursive formation.

  10. Transcranial direct current stimulation and related techniques in treatment of psychiatric disorders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zyss, Tomasz


    Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation tDCS is one from many techniques of electrical head stimulation, which were or are subjected to clinical investigations for testing their mainly antidepressive...

  11. Cushing, Penfield, and cortical stimulation. (United States)

    Leblanc, Richard


    Harvey Cushing and Wilder Penfield enjoyed a unique professional and personal relationship. Shortly before his retirement from Harvard University in 1933, Cushing sent Penfield 8 sketches that he drew in 1902 and 1903 while he was at Johns Hopkins Hospital. The first series of 3 sketches illustrate the relationship between a cortical hemorrhagic lesion and the motor strip in a patient with focal motor seizures. The second series also comprises 3 sketches. These depict the operative findings in a patient in whom Cushing had electrically stimulated the precentral gyrus, before resecting the cortex subserving motility of the upper extremity to control painful dyskinetic movements. The third series consists of 2 sketches that illustrate the results of stimulation of the motor strip as an aid in the safe resection of an epileptogenic focus in a patient with Jacksonian seizures. These sketches are the subjects of this paper. They add to the relatively sparse record of Cushing's activities in cortical stimulation and in the treatment of functional disorders.

  12. Numerical dosimetry of transcranial magnetic stimulation coils (United States)

    Crowther, Lawrence; Hadimani, Ravi; Jiles, David


    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive neuromodulation technique capable of stimulating neurons by means of electromagnetic induction. TMS can be used to map brain function and shows promise for the diagnosis and treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Calculation of fields induced in the brain are necessary to accurately identify stimulated neural tissue during TMS. This allows the development of novel TMS coil designs capable of stimulating deeper brain regions and increasing the localization of stimulation that can be achieved. We have performed numerical calculations of magnetic and electric field with high-resolution anatomically realistic human head models to find these stimulated brain regions for a variety of proposed TMS coil designs. The realistic head models contain heterogeneous tissue structures and electrical conductivities, yielding superior results to those obtained from the simplified homogeneous head models that are commonly employed. The attenuation of electric field as a function of depth in the brain and the localization of stimulating field have been methodically investigated. In addition to providing a quantitative comparison of different TMS coil designs the variation of induced field between subjects has been investigated. We also show the differences in induced fields between adult, adolescent and child head models to preemptively identify potential safety issues in the application of pediatric TMS.

  13. Preventing Facial Nerve Stimulation by Triphasic Pulse Stimulation in Cochlear Implant Users: Intraoperative Recordings. (United States)

    Bahmer, Andreas; Adel, Youssef; Baumann, Uwe


    Triphasic pulse stimulation of the auditory nerve can prevent unintended facial nerve stimulation (FNS) due to a different electromyographic (EMG) input-output function compared with biphasic pulses. FNS is sometimes observed in cochlear implant (CI) users as an unpleasant side effect of electrical stimulation using biphasic pulse patterns (BPP). Clinical remedies to alleviate FNS are 1) to extend stimulus phase duration or 2) to completely deactivate the electrode. In some cases, these options do not provide sufficient FNS reduction or are detrimental to subject performance. Stimulation using triphasic pulse patterns (TPP) has been shown to prevent FNS more effectively, yet the underlying mechanism remains unclear. EMG potentials of muscles innervated by the facial nerve (orbicularis oculi and oris muscles) were recorded to quantitatively compare the effect of BPP and TPP stimulation on FNS. Recordings were conducted in five subjects during CI surgery. In two exemplary cases, different leading phase polarities in alternating and non-alternating order were tested. Compared with our previous study in awake patients using surface electrodes (Bahmer and Baumann, 2016), intraoperative recordings using subdermal electrodes showed lower noise content and allowed higher sampling resolution. While inter-subject variation remained high, intra-subject results for different electrode positions were comparable: FNS was strongly reduced for cathodic-first TPP stimulation. In contrast, exemplary cases showed little reduction for anodic-first TPP as well as for alternating stimulation. FNS in CI users can be reduced using TPP stimulation, but the ameliorative effect appears to be dependent on the leading stimulus polarity.

  14. Avaliação de material didático digital centrada no usuário: uma investigação de instrumentos passíveis de utilização por professores User-centred evaluation of digital learning materials: an investigation of instruments subject to use by teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Alexandra de Godoi


    Full Text Available Neste artigo, discute-se a importância da avaliação de materiais didáticos digitais centrada no usuário. Primeiramente, apresentam-se as abordagens de avaliação passíveis de aplicação a esses materiais, assim como suas definições e classificações. Em seguida, revisam-se conceitos de usabilidade em materiais didáticos digitais. Por fim, descreve-se uma série de instrumentos avaliativos passíveis de serem utilizados por professores.In this study, we discuss the importance of user-centered evaluation of digital learning materials. First of all, different evaluation approaches are introduced, as well as their definitions and classifications. Then, concepts of usability in digital learning materials are surveyed. Finally, a range of evaluation tools subject to use by teachers are described.

  15. Teacher agency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Priestley, M.; Biesta, G.; Robinson, Sarah


    remains an inexact and poorly conceptualised construct in much of the literature, where it is often not clear whether the term refers to an individual capacity of teachers to act agentically or to an emergent ‘ecological’ phenomenon dependent upon the quality of individuals’ engagement...... of the contexts within which teachers work – for example accountability mechanisms and other forms of output regulation of teachers’ work – leading to engagement with policy that is often instrumental and blighted by unintended consequences. In the chapter, we illustrate how a detailed understanding of teacher...

  16. Subjective vs Objective Accommodative Amplitude: Preschool to Presbyopia (United States)

    Anderson, Heather A.; Stuebing, Karla K.


    Purpose This study compared subjective and objective accommodative amplitudes to characterize changes from preschool to presbyopia. Methods Monocular accommodative amplitude was measured with three techniques in random order (subjective push-up, objective minus lens stimulated, and objective proximal stimulated) on 236 subjects 3–64 years using a 1.5mm letter. Subjective push-up amplitudes were the dioptric distance at which the target first blurred along a near-point rod. Objective minus lens stimulated amplitudes were the greatest accommodative response obtained by Grand Seiko autorefraction as subjects viewed the stimulus at 33cm through increasing minus lens powers. Objective proximal stimulated amplitudes were the greatest accommodative response obtained by Grand Seiko autorefraction as subjects viewed the stimulus at increasing proximity from 40cm up to 3.33cm. Results In comparison with subjective push-up amplitudes, objective amplitudes were lower at all ages, with the most dramatic difference occurring in the 3–5 year group (subjective push-up = 16.00 ± 4.98D versus objective proximal stimulated = 7.94 ± 2.37D and objective lens stimulated = 6.20 ± 1.99D). Objective proximal and lens stimulated amplitudes were largest in the 6–10 year group (8.81 ± 1.24D and 8.05 ± 1.82D, respectively) and gradually decreased until the fourth decade of life when a rapid decline to presbyopia occurred. There was a significant linear relationship between objective techniques (y = 0.74 + 0.96x, R2 = 0.85, p<0.001) with greater amplitudes measured for the proximal stimulated technique (mean difference = 0.55D). Conclusions Objective measurements of accommodation demonstrate that accommodative amplitude is substantially less than that measured by the subjective push-up technique, particularly in young children. These findings have important clinical implications for the management of uncorrected hyperopia. PMID:25602235

  17. Subjective versus objective accommodative amplitude: preschool to presbyopia. (United States)

    Anderson, Heather A; Stuebing, Karla K


    This study compared subjective and objective accommodative amplitudes to characterize changes from preschool to presbyopia. Monocular accommodative amplitude was measured with three techniques in random order (subjective push-up, objective minus lens stimulated, and objective proximal stimulated) on 236 subjects aged 3 to 64 years using a 1.5-mm letter. Subjective push-up amplitudes were the dioptric distance at which the target first blurred along a near-point rod. Objective minus lens stimulated amplitudes were the greatest accommodative response obtained by Grand Seiko autorefraction as subjects viewed the stimulus at 33 cm through increasing minus lens powers. Objective proximal stimulated amplitudes were the greatest accommodative response obtained by Grand Seiko autorefraction as subjects viewed the stimulus at increasing proximity from 40 cm up to 3.33 cm. In comparison with subjective push-up amplitudes, objective amplitudes were lower at all ages, with the most dramatic difference occurring in the 3- to 5-year group (subjective push-up, 16.00 ± 4.98 diopters [D] vs. objective proximal stimulated, 7.94 ± 2.37 D, and objective lens stimulated, 6.20 ± 1.99 D). Objective proximal and lens stimulated amplitudes were largest in the 6- to 10-year group (8.81 ± 1.24 D and 8.05 ± 1.82 D, respectively) and gradually decreased until the fourth decade of life when a rapid decline to presbyopia occurred. There was a significant linear relationship between objective techniques (y = 0.74 + 0.96x, R2 = 0.85, p < 0.001) with greater amplitudes measured for the proximal stimulated technique (mean difference, 0.55 D). Objective measurements of accommodation demonstrate that accommodative amplitude is substantially less than that measured by the subjective push-up technique, particularly in young children. These findings have important clinical implications for the management of uncorrected hyperopia.

  18. Experienced biology teachers' pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) on photosynthesis (United States)

    Widodo, Ari


    Teacher certification program raises a question of whether certified teachers really more competence than non-certified teachers. However, since the notion of teachers' competence is measure in terms of content knowledge and pedagogical knowledge instead of Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK). Teacher' PCK as the essence of teachers' competence is somehow ignored. The study presented here analyses experienced biology teachers' PCK. Subjects are experienced biology teachers who teach at the formerly called Pioneered Standardized Schools (RSBI). They are purposively chosen since they are certified teachers who have received very intensive training organized by the education authorities (national, province and district) as well as by the schools. Therefore, this group of teachers can be considered as experienced and well-prepared for teaching science.

  19. Teachers pattern of instruction and location on pupils critical thinking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Teachers pattern of instruction and location on pupils critical thinking in science achievement in Imo state. ... that classroom teachers be sufficiently equipped with appropriate skills that would enable them provide the relevant stimulation needed by pupils' (irrespective of location) to engage in critical thinking activities.

  20. Teacher-Student Relationships and L2 Motivation (United States)

    Henry, Alastair; Thorsen, Cecilia


    Positive relationships with teachers are important for students' second language motivation. However, little is known about how interpersonal interactions stimulate motivated behavior. Drawing on studies of teacher-student relationships, theories from positive psychology, and the psychology of unconscious self-regulation, this case study examines…

  1. "Becoming" Learners/Teachers in Nomadic Space (United States)

    Gorodetsky, Malka; Barak, Judith


    This paper suggests a conjunction between the learning space of educational edge community (EEC) and the Deleuzeguattarian thought regarding the nature of teachers' "becoming." It attends to the emerging subjectivities of teachers/learners within an EEC, a nomadic, open, and smooth space of learning. It is suggested that autonomous…

  2. English Language Teaching: Role of a Teacher


    Anamika Shukla


    Teacher can change subject matter from prose to poetry, from essay writing to letter writing to prevent the class from monotonous routine. Audio-Visual aids can add to the presentation of the topic. Students can be encouraged to listen to English news and Key words: English teaching, language teaching, role of teacher

  3. Secondary School Teachers’ Perception of “Teacher Professional Development”: A Case Study of Teachers from Five Districts of Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Merab Kagoda


    Full Text Available Teacher professional development (TPD is important in keeping teachers abreast with changes that characterise the 21st century schools. However, TPD will only be valuable if teachers perceive it as important. Moreover the varying perceptions of teacher professional development by teachers are likely to affect their view of TPD. Using data collected from secondary school teachers, this study explored teachers’ understanding of the concept “teacher professional development, TPD approaches used by teachers and barriers/constraints they face. Results show that teachers have narrow understanding of the concept, and that to many TPD meant subject content upgrading by going back to teacher training college, while others view it as attending workshops and seminars. Barriers mentioned included shortage of time, lack of funds, lack of motivation and support by head teachers and government as a whole. Researchers recommend that teacher education should incorporate a component of professional teacher development in the initial teacher training. The head teachers and Ministry of Education and Sports should support in-service teachers in their endeavour to develop professionally. Teachers with low selfesteem should be motivated through attendance of conferences, workshops and group activities at local level.

  4. Comparison of Gait Aspects According to FES Stimulation Position Applied to Stroke Patients


    Mun, Byeong-mu; Kim, Tae-Ho; Lee, Jin-hwan; Lim, Jin-youg; Seo, Dong-Kwon; Lee, Dong-Jin


    [Purpose] This study sought to identify the gait aspects according to the FES stimulation position in stroke patients during gait training. [Subjects and Methods] To perform gait analysis, ten stroke patients were grouped based on 4 types of gait conditions: gait without FES stimulation (non-FES), gait with FES stimulation on the tibialis anterior (Ta), gait with FES stimulation on the tibialis anterior and quadriceps (TaQ), and gait with FES stimulation on the tibialis anterior and gluteus m...

  5. Teachers' views of student achievement standards

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maksimovic, Aleksandra


    .... The paper reports about a research of the views of class- and subject elementary-school teachers of the importance of defining, and the role of defined achievement standards, as well as their limitations...

  6. A "Politics against Social Submission": Of Early Years Teachers' Accessibility and Work with Children in Québec (United States)

    Chang-Kredl, Sandra


    In this paper, I examine the claim that teachers' subjective experiences can lead to social change through the perspective of the early years teacher in Quebec. Fourteen early childhood teachers participated in memory writing and individual interviews. Data were inductively coded and analysed in terms of the teachers' subjective experiences of:…

  7. Teacher Educators' Professional Journeys: Pedagogical and Systemic Issues Affecting Role Perceptions (United States)

    Braund, Martin


    Teacher educators in many countries share similar concerns as they aspire to improve education for learners and stimulate interest in further study and careers. The roles and professional development of school teachers have been researched, but little attention has been given to teacher educators. Using a small-scale, illuminative study in England…

  8. An Exploration of the Use of Multimedia Cases as a Reflective Tool in Teacher Education. (United States)

    van den Berg, Ellen


    Multimedia cases are perceived as bridging the gap between theory and practice in teacher education. Examines how multimedia cases can stimulate reflective thought among preservice teachers. Employs Gestalt psychology as a theoretical lens to examine how seven preservice teachers work with a multimedia case. Concludes that there is still much to…

  9. Who Teaches Primary Physical Education? Change and Transformation through the Eyes of Subject Leaders (United States)

    Jones, Luke; Green, Ken


    Primary physical education (PE) lessons tend to be taught by one, or a combination of, three different groups: generalist classroom teachers, specialist primary PE teachers and so-called adults other than teachers, who are almost exclusively sports coaches. Drawing upon data gathered from one-to-one interviews with 36 subject leaders (SLs), this…

  10. Catching the Moments--Coteaching to Stimulate Science in the Preschool Context (United States)

    Nilsson, Pernilla


    An important task for the preschool teacher is to create meaningful learning situations where children have opportunities to experience science. However, many teachers have both weak subject knowledge and a lack of confidence to teach science. The aim of the project presented in this article was to capture how nine preschool teachers developed…

  11. The Relationship between Quality Circles and Teacher Satisfaction. (United States)

    Sherman, Ross


    The relationship of teacher participation in Quality Circles to teacher satisfaction was examined for 64 elementary school teachers participating in 9 Quality Circle decision-making groups. Participation in the Quality Circles did not meet subjects' needs for achievement, recognition, or growth; and it did not increase job satisfaction. (SLD)

  12. Fifty Years of Federal Teacher Policy: An Appraisal (United States)

    Sykes, Gary; Dibner, Kenne


    Federal policy directed to teaching and teachers is the subject of this review, which is organized around: (1) recruitment; (2) training; (3) accountability; (4) incentives; (5) qualifications; (6) class size reduction; (teacher working conditions; and (8) human resource management and the overall coordination of teacher policy. For each theme,…

  13. Examining Epistemological Beliefs of Teacher Candidates According to Various Variables (United States)

    Aslan, Cengiz


    Purpose: Epistemological beliefs of teachers are important factors on their perceptions of subject area and their classroom practices. This research aims to define epistemological beliefs of teacher candidates and investigates whether or not epistemological beliefs change according to teacher candidates' gender, fields of study, year of study, and…

  14. The Opinions of Prospective Teachers on Peer Assessment (United States)

    Özdemir, Serpil


    This research was conducted to determine the opinions of prospective teachers on peer assessment. The study was carried out at a university in the West Black sea with forty-one prospective Turkish teachers. The prospective teachers presented a lesson on a subject they had decided on formerly, and were evaluated by their peers. The groups consisted…

  15. Organizational Commitment among High School Teachers of India and Iran (United States)

    Joolideh, Faranak; Yeshodhara, K.


    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate the organizational commitment of teachers in India and Iran. It is an attempt to understand how these perceptions vary by demographic variables such as age and subject taught by teachers. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected from 721 high school teachers in Bangalore (India) and Sanandaj (Iran).…

  16. Sensibility and Subjectivity: Levinas’ Traumatic Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmika Pandya


    Full Text Available The importance of Levinas’ notions of sensibility and subjectivity are evident in the revision of phenomenological method by current phenomenologists such as Jean-Luc Marion and Michel Henry. The criticisms of key tenants of classical phenomenology, intentionality and reduction, are of a particular note. However, there are problems with Levinas’ characterization of subjectivity as essentially sensible. In “Totality and Infinity” and “Otherwise than Being”, Levinas criticizes and recasts a traditional notion of subjectivity, particularly the notion of the subject as the first and foremost rational subject. The subject in Levinas’ works is characterized more by its sensibility and affectedness than by its capacity to reason or affect its world. Levinas ties rationality to economy and suggests an alternative notion of reason that leads to his analysis of the ethical relation as the face-to-face encounter. The ‘origin’ of the social relation is located not in our capacity to know but rather in a sensibility that is diametrically opposed to the reason understood as economy. I argue that the opposition in Levinas’ thought between reason and sensibility is problematic and essentially leads to a self-conflicted subject. In fact, it would seem that violence characterizes the subject’s self-relation and, thus, is also inscribed at the base of the social relation. Rather than overcoming a problematic tendency to dualistic thought in philosophy Levinas merely reverses traditional hierarchies of reason/emotion, subject/object and self/other. 

  17. Non-native Chinese Foreign Language (CFL) Teachers: Identity and Discourse


    Zhang, Chun


    AbstractNative Chinese foreign language (CFL) teacher identity is an emerging subject of research interest in the teacher education. Yet, limited study has been done on the construction of Non-native CFL teachers in their home culture. Guided by a concept of teacher identity-in-discourse, the paper reports on a qualitative study that explores how three Non-native CFL teachers construct their teacher identity as they interact with Danish students while teaching CFL at one Danish university. Da...

  18. Training Teachers for Developing Communicative Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Kadunc


    Full Text Available A teacher's professional success in working with students, his or her physical health and personal fulfilment depend on how successful his or her interpersonal relationsbips with the students are which accounts for the need for permanent teachers training in communicative skills. A successful teachers training model has to offer models and approaches aiming at the integration of scientific and practical theories. Theoretical basis should stimulate reflection on important problems. There is a need, however, for planning activities based on solving true, everyday problems. This should help teachers linking the newly acquired knowledge to what they already know and to their life experience. It should further help them introduce the new knowledge into solving their teaching problems. In this way teachers could be trained to monitor the process of their continuing education, to delineate their problems, find solutions, evaluate the results of the their solving problems. Such a concept of permanent education considerably enhances the professionalism of the teaching job.

  19. Stimulating students’ academic language : opportunities in instructional methods in elementary school mathematics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nanke Dokter; Rian Aarts; Jeanne Kurvers; Anje Ros; Sjaak Kroon


    Mastering academic language (AL) by elementary school students is important for achieving school success. The extent to which teachers play a role in stimulating students’ AL development may differ. Two types of AL stimulating behavior are distinguished: aimed at students’ understanding and at

  20. Stimulating students’ academic language : Opportunities in instructional methods in elementary school mathematics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dokter, Nanke; Aarts, Rian; Kurvers, J.J.H.; Ros, Anje; Kroon, Sjaak


    Mastering academic language (AL) by elementary school students is important for achieving school success. The extent to which teachers play a role in stimulating students’ AL development may differ. Two types of AL stimulating behavior are distinguished: aimed at students’ understanding and at

  1. Antecedents of teachers' emotions in the classroom: an intraindividual approach. (United States)

    Becker, Eva S; Keller, Melanie M; Goetz, Thomas; Frenzel, Anne C; Taxer, Jamie L


    Using a preexisting, but as yet empirically untested theoretical model, the present study investigated antecedents of teachers' emotions in the classroom. More specifically, the relationships between students' motivation and discipline and teachers' enjoyment and anger were explored, as well as if these relationships are mediated by teachers' subjective appraisals (goal conduciveness and coping potential). The study employed an intraindividual approach by collecting data through a diary. The sample consisted of 39 teachers who each participated with one of their 9th or 10th grade mathematics classes (N = 758 students). Both teachers and students filled out diaries for 2-3 weeks pertaining to 8.10 lessons on average (N = 316 lessons). Multilevel structural equation modeling revealed that students' motivation and discipline explained 24% of variance in teachers' enjoyment and 26% of variance in teachers' anger. In line with theoretical assumptions, after introducing teachers' subjective appraisals as a mediating mechanism into the model, the explained variance systematically increased to 65 and 61%, for teachers' enjoyment and anger respectively. The effects of students' motivation and discipline level on teachers' emotions were partially mediated by teachers' appraisals of goal conduciveness and coping potential. The findings imply that since teachers' emotions depend to a large extent on subjective evaluations of a situation, teachers should be able to directly modify their emotional experiences during a lesson through cognitive reappraisals.

  2. Effective Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beverly A. King Miller


    Full Text Available This article focuses on the educational strategies that can be used to support female students of African descent in their persistence in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM education and careers. STEM careers have historically been White male and White female dominated, which has yielded an underrepresentation of those of African descent. Drawing from a grounded qualitative case study, the data used for this article share the responses of Afro-Caribbean females in STEM who have immigrated to the United States from the country of Panama. As Latinas, they are representative of the changing face in the American educational system—bilingual, multicultural, and of African descent. The strategies offered reflect their own teaching practices, their former teachers, or experiences with their children’s teachers. What emerged were descriptions of four strategies and behaviors of effective teachers that align with Ladson-Billings’s culturally relevant pedagogy and Gay’s culturally responsive teaching. Included in the findings are the high standards and expectations embodied by effective teachers that serve to positively inspire their students. Culturally responsive teachers create an atmosphere of learning that supports academic success, conveying their belief in their students’ ability based upon their own reflectivity. As the U.S. educational system continues to become multilingual and multicultural, there is need for strategies for the successful inclusion and progression of students in STEM educational pathways and careers. This will occur as teachers challenge themselves to be the agents of change in the lives of their students.

  3. Dancing on Thin Ice: The Journey of Two Male Teacher Candidates Emerging as Professionals within a Teacher Education Dance Program (United States)

    Kalyn, Brenda; Campbell, Eric; McAvoy, Alekcei; Weimer, Michelle


    Teacher candidates entering the world of curricula face the realities of teaching a variety of subjects, some more conceptually foreign than others. One challenging area for teacher candidates, particularly males, is in dance education (Gard, 2008; Kiley, 2010). A teacher's former dance experience, beliefs about who dances and why, personal…

  4. Every Teacher an English Teacher? Literacy Strategy Teaching and Research in the Content Area of Science Education (United States)

    Buckingham, Thomas


    Recent statements from teachers of English and literacy (NCTE, 2007) have voiced the failure of schools to help minority students and ELLs close the literacy achievement gap and the responsibility of all teachers to help with this endeavor. Central to this effort in secondary schools are the content area teachers, as their subjects constitute the…

  5. Primary Teacher Educators' Perception of Desired and Achieved Pedagogical Content Knowledge in Geography Education in Primary Teacher Training (United States)

    Blankman, Marian; van der Schee, Joop; Volman, Monique; Boogaard, Marianne


    This paper presents the findings of a study conducted among primary geography teacher educators. The research examines the perceptions of educators of primary teacher students' desired and achieved levels of substantial knowledge, syntactic knowledge, and beliefs about the subject of geography. The findings indicate that primary teacher educators…

  6. Preservice Teachers Respond to "And Tango Makes Three": Deconstructing Disciplinary Power and the Heteronormative in Teacher Education (United States)

    Phillips, Donna Kalmbach; Larson, Mindy Legard


    This study employs Foucualdian concepts to analyse macro and micro contexts of publicly spoken and silent discourses describing "homosexuality," "education" and "teacher" in order to identify teacher subject positions available to preservice teachers. The macro context is analysed by tracing heteronormative discourses…

  7. Stimulant and sedative effects of alcohol. (United States)

    Hendler, Reuben A; Ramchandani, Vijay A; Gilman, Jodi; Hommer, Daniel W


    Alcohol produces both stimulant and sedating effects in humans. These two seemingly opposite effects are central to the understanding of much of the literature on alcohol use and misuse. In this chapter we review studies that describe and attempt to measure various aspects of alcohol's subjective, autonomic, motor, cognitive and behavioral effects from the perspective of stimulation and sedation. Although subjective sedative and stimulatory effects can be measured, it is not entirely clear if all motor, cognitive and behavioral effects can be unambiguously assigned to either one or the other category. Increased heart rate and aggression seem strongly associated with stimulation, but motor slowing and cognitive impairment can also show a similar time course to stimulation, making their relation to sedation problematic. There is good agreement that alcohol's ability to induce striatal dopamine release is the mechanism underlying alcohol's stimulatory effects; however, the change in brain function underlying sedation is less well understood. In general, stimulatory effects are thought to be more rewarding than sedative effects, but this may not be true for anxiolytic effects which seem more closely related to sedation than stimulation. The two major theories of how response to alcohol predicts risk for alcoholism both postulate that individuals at high risk for alcohol use disorders have a reduced sedative response to alcohol compared to individuals not at high risk. In addition one theory proposes that alcoholism risk is also associated with a larger stimulatory response to alcohol.

  8. Salivary Glucose Concentration and Excretion in Normal and Diabetic Subjects


    Jurysta, Cedric; Bulur, Nurdan; Oguzhan, Berrin; Satman, Ilhan; Yilmaz, Temel M.; Malaisse, Willy J.; Sener, Abdullah


    The present report aims mainly at a reevaluation of salivary glucose concentration and excretion in unstimulated and mechanically stimulated saliva in both normal and diabetic subjects. In normal subjects, a decrease in saliva glucose concentration, an increase in salivary flow, but an unchanged glucose excretion rate were recorded when comparing stimulated saliva to unstimulated saliva. In diabetic patients, an increase in salivary flow with unchanged salivary glucose concentration and gluco...

  9. How to Activate Teachers through Teacher Evaluation? (United States)

    Tuytens, Melissa; Devos, Geert


    There is a general doubt on whether teacher evaluation can contribute to teachers' professional development. Recently, standards-based teacher evaluation has been introduced in many countries to improve teaching practice. This study wants to investigate which teacher evaluation procedural, leadership, and teacher characteristics can stimulate…

  10. Cerebellar stimulation in ataxia. (United States)

    Groiss, Stefan Jun; Ugawa, Yoshikazu


    The cerebellum plays an important role in movement execution and motor control by modulation of the primary motor cortex (M1) through cerebello-thalamo-cortical connections. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) allows direct investigations of neural networks by stimulating neural structures in humans noninvasively. The motor evoked potential to single-pulse TMS of M1 is used to measure the motor cortical excitability. A conditioning stimulus over the cerebellum preceding a test stimulus of the contralateral M1 enables us to study the cerebellar regulatory functions on M1. In this brief review, we describe this cerebellar stimulation method and its usefulness as a diagnostic tool in clinical neurophysiology.

  11. Neuro magnetic stimulation: Engineering aspects (United States)

    Al-Mutawaly, Nafia

    Magnetic nerve stimulation has proven to be an effective, non-invasive technique to excite peripheral and central nervous systems. In this technique, the excitement of the neural tissue depends on exposure to a transient magnetic field generated by passing a high pulse of current through a coil. By positioning the coil in a specific orientation over the targeted tissue, the transient magnetic field will induce an electric field in the conductive milieu of the body. If this field reaches a certain threshold within a specific time period, neural depolarization is then evident. The primary objective of this thesis is the development and testing of new coil designs that can focus the magnetic field more effectively. Two such coils have been built. The first coil has an air core, while the other has a magnetic core. The magnetic fields of these coils, applied to the human upper limb, have been determined theoretically, and the results compared to the field generated by the most common commercial coil, the Figure-8 coil. To design these coils and to test them experimentally, a current pulse generator has been designed and built. Further, a novel measurement system using surface mount inductances and a computer based data acquisition system has been designed and built. The experimental results confirm the theoretical findings, that the air core coil is slightly better than the Figure-8, as far as field strength and focality are concerned. In addition, the experimental results, prove that the coil with the ferromagnetic core, is superior. The second objective is to investigate the effect of stimulus waveforms theoretically, experimentally, and through in vivo study. The goals of the study are to establish a quantitative relationship among various waveforms and to investigate the effect of these waveforms in determining the site of stimulation. Accordingly, a multi subject trial was conducted: a Figure-8 coil was applied to the median nerve of ten subjects at the upper limb

  12. Avaliação do ácido lático em indivíduos com hemiparesia pós-acidente vascular encefálico após estimulação elétrica para fortalecimento muscular Lactic acid assessment in post-stroke hemiparetic subjects following electrical stimulation for muscle strengthening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Ishida Corrêa


    Full Text Available O fortalecimento da musculatura parética promove melhora da capacidade funcional, o que pode ser obtido pela estimulação elétrica funcional (EEF, porém são necessários parâmetros específicos para evitar fadiga muscular. Este estudo visou verificar, em indivíduos com hemiparesia pós-AVE, o tempo de repouso (time off necessário para reabsorção do ácido lático durante a EEF, de modo a evitar a fadiga - detectada por lactacidemia (concentração excessiva de ácido lático. Foram coletadas amostras de sangue de 18 indivíduos portadores de hemiparesia em sete momentos, antes, durante e após a EEF. A corrente quadrada bifásica, de 50 Hz, foi usada com time on de 10 segundos (s e o time off variou de 10 s (protocolo 1 a 30 s (protocolo 2, sobre o ponto motor do músculo tibial anterior. Na análise do sangue coletado, não foi encontrada diferença estatisticamente significante (p>0,05 entre os dois protocolos; tampouco foi registrada diferença no período imediatamente pós-terapia. Pode-se pois afirmar que a ferramenta utilizada para mensurar lactacidemia não se mostrou eficaz na detecção da fadiga muscular, inviabilizando verificar o tempo ideal de repouso (time off, sendo necessários mais estudos em busca de protocolos seguros. Sugere-se a continuidade deste estudo, com alteração do músculo e atividade funcional eliciada pela estimulação elétrica, bem como uma ferramenta alternativa na mensuração e detecção da fadiga muscular.Strengthening paretic muscles improves functional capacity, which can be achieved by functional electric stimulation (FES, but specific parameters are needed in order to prevent muscle fatigue. The purpose of this study was to assess, in post-stroke hemiparetic patients, the necessary time of rest (time off for re-absorption of lactic acid during FES, so as to prevent fatigue - detected by lactic acid testing. Blood samples of 18 hemiparetic subjects were collected at seven moments: pre

  13. Sex Stereotypes of Secondary School Teaching Subjects: Male and Female Status Gains and Losses (United States)

    Simpson, Richard L.


    A survey reveals that teachers considered different subjects appropriately taught by men or by women and that higher prestige was attributed to whatever sex conformed to the subjects' sex stereotypes. (Author/KM)

  14. "Physics and Life" for Europe's Science Teachers (United States)


    The EIROforum Contribution to the European Science and Technology Week 2003 [Physics on Stage 3 Logo] What do you know about modern science? Was your school science teacher inspiring and enthusiastic? Or was physics class a good time to take a nap? Unfortunately, many young Europeans don't have the fondest memories of science in school, and the result is a widespread disinterest and lack of understanding of science among adults. This has become a real problem - especially at a time when science is having a growing impact on our daily lives, and when society needs more scientists than ever! What can be done? Some of Europe's leading research organisations, scientists and teachers have put their heads together and come up with a unique approach called "Physics on Stage" . This will be the third year that these institutes, with substantial support from the European Commission, are running this project - attacking the problem at its roots. EIROforum and "Physics on Stage 3" [EIROforum Logo] "Physics On Stage 3" is based on the very successful "Physics On Stage" concept that was introduced in 2000. It is directed towards science teachers and students in Europe's secondary schools. It is a part of the year-long build-up to the European Science and Technology Week 2003 (3-9 November), an initiative by the European Commission, and is run by seven of Europe's leading Intergovernmental Research Organizations (the EIROforum) [1]. The project addresses the content and format of science teaching in European schools , seeking to improve the quality of teaching and to find new ways to stimulate pupils to take an interest in science. Innovative and inspirational science teaching is seen as a key component to attract young people to deal with scientific issues, whether or not they finally choose a career in science. Hence, "Physics On Stage 3" aims to stimulate the interest of young people through the school teachers, who can play a key role in reversing the trend of falling

  15. Vagus nerve stimulation improves working memory performance. (United States)

    Sun, Lihua; Peräkylä, Jari; Holm, Katri; Haapasalo, Joonas; Lehtimäki, Kai; Ogawa, Keith H; Peltola, Jukka; Hartikainen, Kaisa M


    Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is used for treating refractory epilepsy and major depression. While the impact of this treatment on seizures has been established, its impact on human cognition remains equivocal. The goal of this study is to elucidate the immediate effects of vagus nerve stimulation on attention, cognition, and emotional reactivity in patients with epilepsy. Twenty patients (12 male and 8 female; 45 ± 13 years old) treated with VNS due to refractory epilepsy participated in the study. Subjects performed a computer-based test of executive functions embedded with emotional distractors while their brain activity was recorded with electroencephalography. Subjects' cognitive performance, early visual event-related potential N1, and frontal alpha asymmetry were studied when cyclic vagus nerve stimulation was on and when it was off. We found that vagus nerve stimulation improved working memory performance as seen in reduced errors on a subtask that relied on working memory, odds ratio (OR) = 0.63 (95% confidence interval, CI [0.47, 0.85]) and increased N1 amplitude, F(1, 15) = 10.17, p = .006. In addition, vagus nerve stimulation resulted in longer reaction time, F(1, 16) = 8.23, p = .019, and greater frontal alpha asymmetry, F(1, 16) = 11.79, p = .003, in response to threat-related distractors. This is the first study to show immediate improvement in working memory performance in humans with clinically relevant vagus nerve stimulation. Furthermore, vagus nerve stimulation had immediate effects on emotional reactivity evidenced in behavior and brain physiology.

  16. Neuromagnetic effects of pico-Tesla stimulation. (United States)

    Troebinger, Luzia; Anninos, Photios; Barnes, Gareth


    We used a double-blind experimental design to look for an effect of pico-Tesla magnetic stimulation in healthy subjects. Pico-Tesla stimulation is thought to increase the dominant frequency of 2-7 Hz oscillations in the human brain. We used magnetoencephalography to measure resting state brain activity. Each subject had two separate recording sessions consisting of three runs in between which they were given real or sham pT stimulation. We then tried to predict the real and sham stimulation sessions based on changes in the mean peak frequency in the 2-7 Hz band. Our predictions for these individual runs were 8 out of 14 at chance level (p = 0.39). After unblinding, we found no significant effect (p = 0.11) of an increase in the frequency range (2-7 Hz) across the subject group. Finally, we performed a Bayesian model comparison between the effect size predicted from previous clinical studies and a null model. Even though this study had a sensitivity advantage of at least one order of magnitude over previous work, we found the null model to be significantly (2000 times) more likely.

  17. Performance Enhancement by Brain Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Gazerani


    Full Text Available Number of substances and strategies are available to increase performance in sport (Catlin and Murray, 1996. Since 2004, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA posts an updated list of substances and methods prohibited to athletes. Drugs (e.g., steroids, stimulants are a major part of this list; however, technologies and methods (e.g., gene doping are increasingly being identified and added (WADA, 2017. Among technologies and methods that might exert a potential effect on athletic performance, brain stimulation has recently been subjected to extensive discussion. Neuro-enhancement for doping purposes has been termed “neurodoping” in the literature (Davis, 2013; however, this concept needs further documentation before the term “neurodoping” can be used properly. Two major non-invasive techniques of brain stimulations are transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS (Hallett, 2007; Rossi et al., 2009, and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS (Stagg and Nitsche, 2011. In TMS, an electric coil held over the head applies magnetic pulses to create currents in the brain. In tDCS, a low, continuous electrical current is delivered to the brain by using surface electrodes attached on the scalp. TMS and tDCS have been used in both research and clinic (Shin and Pelled, 2017 for example to examine alterations in cognitive function or motor skills or to assist in recovering motor function after a stroke (Gomez Palacio Schjetnan et al., 2013 or reducing fatigue in patients with multiple sclerosis (Saiote et al., 2014. In an opinion paper, it was proposed that use of emerging brain stimulation techniques might also enhance physical and mental performance in sports (Davis, 2013. The assumption was based on several reports. For example some studies have shown that TMS could shorten reaction times to visual, auditory and touch stimuli, reduce tremor, and enhance the acquisition of complex motor skills. Based on the current evidence, a recent review (Colzato


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Андрій Малихін


    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of using the ideas of praxeology in methodical preparation of future teachers of technology. The author explores the theoretical and practical aspects of praxeological approach for the training of a future teacher of education branch «Technology», a description of the system, the activityrelated, competence, personality directed, technological and thesaurus functions of praxeological approach are given that ensure effective communication of objective and subjective factors that contribute to successful mastery of the methodical knowledge and skills by students. Also in the article the essence of the principles of praxeology is revealed: diagnosticity of objectives and learning outcomes; stimulating and motivating the students a positive attitude to learning, focus on their needs and interests; choice of effective methods, means and forms of activity; relationship of stages of training; the importance of learning results; support for the creation of conditions for individual self-regulation of cognitive activity of subjects of training, compliance with which can effectively realize the praxeological approach to methodical training of future teachers of technology.

  19. Somatosensory evoked potentials elicited by dorsal penile and posterior tibial nerve stimulation. (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, D F; Hendricks, S E; Graber, B; Balogh, S E; Wetzel, M


    SEPs were elicited by stimulation of the dorsal penile nerve (DPN) or posterior tibial nerve (PTN) under 3 conditions of stimulation: random and constant interstimulus intervals, and subject-initiated stimulation. Within these conditions, the effects of repeated stimulation were also examined. The latency of the N90 peak decreased with repeated stimulation. N90 amplitude decreased with increased foreknowledge as well as with repeated stimulation. Factors extracted by principal components analysis revealed similar effects. A difference between DPN and PTN stimulation was seen in a factor associated with the N90 peak, wherein the condition involving subject self-initiation of the stimulus reflected a significantly greater decrease in SEP amplitude when the DPN was stimulated. Morphological commonalities were observed in the SEPs elicited by DPN and PTN for a given subject.

  20. Geothermal Well Stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, D. A.; Morris, C. W.; Sinclair, A. R.; Hanold, R. J.; Vetter, O. J.


    The stimulation of geothermal wells presents some new and challenging problems. Formation temperatures in the 300-600 F range can be expected. The behavior of stimulation fluids, frac proppants, and equipment at these temperatures in a hostile brine environment must be carefully evaluated before performance expectations can be determined. In order to avoid possible damage to the producing horizon of the formation, high temperature chemical compatibility between the in situ materials and the stimulation materials must be verified. Perhaps most significant of all, in geothermal wells the required techniques must be capable of bringing about the production of very large amounts of fluid. This necessity for high flow rates represents a significant departure from conventional petroleum well stimulation and demands the creation of very high near-wellbore permeability and/or fractures with very high flow conductivity.

  1. Good teacher, good tutor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Couto LB


    Full Text Available Lucélio B Couto, Gustavo S Romão, Reinaldo B Bestetti  Department of Medicine, University of Ribeirão Preto, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil We have read with great interest the paper by Kassab et al, who have essentially shown that good teachers will be good tutors in a problem-based learning (PBL environment. We have been facing great difficulties to select tutors because there has been no tradition in PBL in our region in the preuniversity teaching. Furthermore, the majority of our teachers have been formed in a discipline-based medical curriculum. Therefore, it is reassuring to learn from the work by Kassab et al that subject-matter mastery is the powerful independent predictor of tutoring skills.  View the original paper by Kassab and colleagues.

  2. Stephen Hawking's Universe. Teacher's Guide. (United States)

    Thompson, Malcolm H.; Rameau, Jonathan D.

    This program guide is meant to help teachers assist their students in viewing the six-part public television series, "Stephen Hawking's Universe." The guide features program summaries that give background information and brief synopses of the programs; previewing activities that familiarize students with the subject; vocabulary that…

  3. Holland's Theory and Retired Teachers. (United States)

    Wiggins, James D.


    Studied retired teachers (N=102) representing five subject areas that were related to the Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, and Conventional Scales of the Vocational Preference Inventory. Results indicated congruence between tested and environmental codes, especially in artistic and conventional areas. (RC)

  4. The Student as a Teacher. (United States)

    Edwards, K. Anthony

    Teachers trained in the art of teaching have recognized for many years that the student is an object of instruction. It has only been recently recognized, however, that the student can effectively teach his peers. By doing the teaching, students learn the material better and retain the subject matter longer than they ordinarily would. In addition,…

  5. Teachers Sourcebook for Extensive Reading (United States)

    Jacobs, George; Farrell, Thomas S. C.


    The best way for students to learn to read and to come to love reading is--surprise, surprise--by reading in quantity. Unfortunately, many of today's students read far too little. This lack of time spent reading is particularly unfortunate, as reading constitutes a bedrock skill, essential in all subject areas. Thus, we teachers need to devote…

  6. Efeito da estimulação acústica nas habilidades do processamento temporal em idosos antes e após a protetização auditiva Acoustic stimulation effect on temporal processing skills in elderly subjects before and after hearing aid fitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Madalena Canina Pinheiro


    Full Text Available O envelhecimento pode ocasionar alterações no processamento temporal, afetando a percepção da fala. OBJETIVO: Comparar as respostas auditivas do processamento temporal em idosos candidatos e novos usuários de próteses auditivas. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Participaram do estudo 60 idosos com perda auditiva neurossensorial bilateral. Os procedimentos selecionados foram o Teste Padrão de Duração e Teste de Detecção de gaps no Ruído (GIN, no qual foram analisadas as respostas de identificação correta e o limar de acuidade temporal antes e após a adaptação das próteses auditivas. Forma de Estudo: Pesquisa clínica e experimental com amostra não probabilística por conveniência. RESULTADOS: Os idosos usuários de prótese auditiva apresentaram menor limiar de acuidade temporal, maior reconhecimento de gaps e de discriminação do padrão de duração em relação ao momento em que eram candidatos. CONCLUSÃO: Houve deterioração das habilidades do processamento temporal, independentemente do grau da perda auditiva. O efeito de estimulação acústica pelo uso de prótese auditiva melhorou as habilidades de ordenação e resolução temporal.Aging can alter temporal processing and affect speech perception. AIM: To compare temporal processing auditory processing in elderly subject to and new hearing aid users. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 60 elderly patients with bilateral sensorineural hearing loss. The procedures selected were the Duration Pattern Tests (DPT and gaps in noise (GIN test were used to analyze the responses of correct identification, and the temporal acuity threshold before and after the fitting of hearing aids. Study design: clinical and experimental research with non-probability sample of convenience. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference between the responses from GI and GII individuals. The elderly users of hearing aids had a lower gap detection threshold, greater recognition of gaps

  7. Heuristic Inquiry: Intensifying Subjectivity in Art Education Research. (United States)

    Emery, Lee


    Recommends using a number of qualitative research techniques, specifically for research regarding art education teaching techniques and teachers. Argues that the process of teaching and the subject of art are so subjective that researchers should embrace unabashedly qualitative approaches to research. Briefly describes these approaches. (MJP)

  8. Comparing Classroom Interactive Behaviors of Science and Non-Science Pre-Service Teachers (United States)

    Bergman, Daniel; Morphew, Jason


    This study compared classroom interactive behaviors of science pre-service teachers and pre-service teachers of other subjects. Participants included pre-service teachers enrolled in a general methods course for secondary educators and its school-based fieldwork counterpart. Statistical tests found that science pre-service teachers had fewer…

  9. From Diagrams to Self-Regulated Learning: Student Teachers' Reflections on the Construction of Their PLE (United States)

    Tur, Gemma; Marín, Victoria I.; Moreno, Juan; Gallardo, Antonio; Urbina, Santos


    This paper presents a study on the reflections on their PLEs by student teachers in an ICT subject of the fourth degree course in Teacher Education (Early Childhood Teacher Training) at the University of the Balearic Islands (UIB). There were four student teacher groups (n = 117) participating in this project, from the three Balearic Islands'…

  10. Physical Education Teachers in Motion: An Account of Attrition and Area Transfer (United States)

    Mäkelä, Kasper; Hirvensalo, Mirja; Laakso, Lauri; Whipp, Peter R.


    Background: Teacher turnover has been identified as a major problem that represents instability in teaching. Teacher turnover can be divided into three components: attrition means that the teacher is leaving the profession; "area transfer" means that the teacher is changing his/her subject area and "migration" means that the…

  11. Developing and Validating a Competence Framework for Secondary Mathematics Student Teachers through a Delphi Method (United States)

    Muñiz-Rodríguez, Laura; Alonso, Pedro; Rodríguez-Muñiz, Luis J.; Valcke, Martin


    Initial teacher education programmes provide student teachers with the desired competences to develop themselves as teachers. Although a generic framework for teaching competences is available covering all school subjects in Spain, the initial teacher education programmes curriculum does not specify which competences secondary mathematics student…

  12. Stimulant alcohol effects prime within session drinking behavior. (United States)

    Corbin, William R; Gearhardt, Ashley; Fromme, Kim


    Individual differences in subjective alcohol effects have been shown to differ by risk status (e.g., family history of alcoholism) and to predict future risk for alcohol-related problems. Presumably, individual differences in both stimulant and sedative responses affect the rewarding value of drinking which, in turn, impacts future drinking behavior. Although plausible, this theoretical model is largely untested. The current study attempted to provide experimental evidence for the impact of subjective alcohol responses on within session drinking behavior. Using a placebo-controlled between-subjects alcohol administration paradigm, experiences and evaluations of stimulant and sedative alcohol effects (after a target dose of 0.06 g%) were assessed as predictors of ad-libitum consumption in the context of anticipatory stress. Analyses indicated that an initial dose of alcohol increased experiences of both stimulation and sedation although stimulant effects were evaluated much more positively. In addition, stimulant effects after a priming dose predicted further consumption, whereas sedative effects did not. At least among moderate to heavy drinking college students, stimulant alcohol effects are more reinforcing and predict within session drinking behavior under social stress. Increased attention should be given to stimulant alcohol effects as a risk factor for excessive consumption in this population. Incorporating information about stimulant alcohol effects in prevention and intervention programs may also be important if additional research supports the current results.

  13. Tennessee Teacher Career Ladder. (United States)

    Clapp, Beecher

    Tennessee's Better Schools Program includes a Master Teacher Program that has three components: teacher education, clinical supervision of beginning teachers, and a career ladder based on performance. In conjunction with the establishment of the Master Teacher Program, 23 master teacher competencies for teacher evaluation have been defined.…

  14. Challenges to nordic teacher education programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens; Dorf, Hans


      This article resumes a comparative study on the Nordic teacher education programs in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden (Nordisk Ministerråd/Nordic Council of Ministers, 2008). By focusing on the part of the study which is occupied with the structure and organisation of the Nordic...... teacher education programs it tries to find explanations for the fact that only the Finnish teacher education does not suffer from a decreasing number of applicants, from high drop-out rates, and from low retention rates. It is claimed that the strong emphasis on specific professional elements...... and subjects in the Finnish teacher education program (pedagogical studies, quality of practice teaching, research base) and its strong focus on training future teachers for the teacher profession and a professional community play an important role in respect to recruitment and low drop-out rates....

  15. Self-reported ``best'' resources for teachers (United States)

    White, Susan


    In over 80% of the schools where physics is taught, there is only one teacher teaching the subject, so most teachers cannot readily turn to a colleague at their schools for answers or suggestions about issues that deal specifically with physics. When physics teachers do have questions about physics content, the most often reported "best" source for answers is the Internet. Potentially demonstrating a better personal network or a better familiarity with the resources available to them, teachers who had completed physics education courses were significantly less likely to use their class texts as the best answer source. Instead, they were more likely to rely on college or university teachers. Having access to resources beyond the class text can help teachers develop a more nuanced understanding of physics concepts, as well as a better sense of perspective about the content they teach.

  16. Effects of bilateral subthalamic stimulation on sleep in Parkinson's disease. (United States)

    Monaca, C; Ozsancak, C; Jacquesson, J M; Poirot, I; Blond, S; Destee, A; Guieu, J D; Derambure, P


    Sleep disturbances are frequently observed in Parkinson's disease (PD). Bilateral chronic subthalamic nucleus (STN) stimulation is an alternative treatment for advanced PD. Improvements in motor disturbances after STN stimulation are well documented and seem to be associated with better sleep quality, even though the objective effect on sleep structure remains unclear. We have therefore studied the sleep/wakefulness cycle before and after surgical treatment in 10 consecutive parkinsonian patients. Subjective sleep quality and sleep recordings were evaluated one month before and three months after initiation of STN stimulation. After surgery, the recordings were performed under two conditions: with stimulation (the "on" condition) and-if patients had given their consent-in the absence of stimulation (the "off" condition). With STN stimulation, subjective and objective sleep qualities were improved. Total sleep time, sleep efficiency and the durations of deep slow wave sleep and paradoxical sleep increased significantly. When stimulation was absent, sleep disturbances were similar to those observed before surgery. Chronic STN stimulation is associated with a sleep improvement, which can be explained in part by the concomitant decrease in motor disturbances but also by the reduction in dosages of antiparkinsonian medication. However, we can not exclude a direct effect of STN stimulation on sleep regulatory centres.

  17. Modelling and Validating the Learning Opportunities of Preservice Language Teachers: On the Key Components of the Curriculum for Teacher Education (United States)

    König, Johannes; Bremerich-Vos, Albert; Buchholtz, Christiane; Lammerding, Sandra; Strauß, Sarah; Fladung, Ilka; Schleiffer, Charlotte


    Opportunities to learn (OTL) is used as a research concept for describing and analysing the curriculum of a programme which frames the learning and development of preservice teachers. Typical elements of teacher education programmes are investigated: the representation of content in courses of the subject, subject-related pedagogy and general…

  18. Teorías subjetivas de profesores sobre la motivación y sus expectativas de éxito y fracaso escolar Teorias subjetivas de professores sobre a motivação e suas expectativas de sucesso e fracasso escolar Subjective theories of teachers about motivation and their expectancies about school success and failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Javier Castro-Carrasco


    Full Text Available Investigación cualitativa que busca describir e interpretar las teorías subjetivas de un grupo de profesores de un liceo técnico público acerca de la motivación escolar (rol como agente motivacional y motivación inherente a las alumnas y sus expectativas acerca del éxito y fracaso escolar. Los datos recolectados mediante observación directa de reuniones de profesores y de una entrevista grupal en profundidad, fueron analizados mediante el programa Atlas-Ti, siguiendo orientaciones de la Grounded Theory. Los resultados muestran que la sobreatribución que hacen los profesores acerca de su responsabilidad como agente motivacional ignora otras variables del proceso enseñanza-aprendizaje, dependientes tanto de las alumnas como del contexto educativo, y que sus expectativas de éxito o fracaso se relacionan directamente con los objetivos del establecimiento.Pesquisa qualitativa que procura descrever e interpretar as teorias subjetivas de um grupo de professores de uma escola técnica pública sobre a motivação escolar (seu papel como agente motivacional e motivação relacionada às alunas e suas expectativas a respeito do sucesso e fracasso escolar. Os dados coletados, mediante observação direta de reuniões dos professores e de uma entrevista grupal em profundidade, foram analisados utilizando-se o programa Atlas-Ti, seguindo as orientações da Grounded Theory. Os resultados mostram que a supervalorização, por parte dos professores, quanto à sua responsabilidade como agente motivacional ignora outras variáveis no processo ensino-aprendizagem, dependentes tanto das alunas como do contexto educativo, e que suas expectativas de sucesso ou fracasso se relacionam diretamente com os objetivos do estabelecimento.Qualitative research that looks to describe and to interpret the subjective theories of a group of teachers from a public technical high school about school motivation (its role as a motivational agent and the motivation inherent

  19. Mongolian Teachers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ulla Ambrosius


    The article comprises the result of a research project conducted among Mongolian teachers in a period of transition. The study is based on quantitative as well as on qualitative data. The study is carried out as part of research activities in an educational development programme.......The article comprises the result of a research project conducted among Mongolian teachers in a period of transition. The study is based on quantitative as well as on qualitative data. The study is carried out as part of research activities in an educational development programme....

  20. Adult teachers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lea Lund


    as a 'reflective practitioner’, who develops 'the language of practice’, through experience and learns when she is exposed to 'disjuncture’. Research done on continuing professional development and the inquiries done in the field of teacher thinking and within this the research on novices becoming expert......In this paper I examine the research into the process of adult teachers’ practice-based learning as a part of an on-going project titled “Competence development through practice-based learning – a study of adult teacher’s learning processes”. The project relies on the notion of the adult teacher...


    CERN Multimedia


    Part-time teacher of primary English needed from 1st December 2002 to teach English National Curriculum (KS2) and NLS to mother tongue or good second language English-speakers aged 7-10. 4 hours contact time per week, team planning, marking and meetings. Candidates should be English mother tongue qualified teachers, confident, flexible classroom practitioners and team players. For further details and how to apply: or 04 50 40 82 66. Apply as soon as possible, and in any case before November 20th. English National Programme - Lycée International, Ferney-Voltaire

  2. The teacher as interface : teachers of EFL in ICT-rich environments : beliefs, practices, appropriation


    Lund, Andreas


    The present thesis is a study of teachers of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) and their encounters with Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs): how teachers perceive the impact of such technologies on education and on their specific subject domain, and how they practice in learning environments where ICTs are integrated. This is the phenomenon that is being researched.

  3. In-Service Teachers' Perspectives of Pre-Service Teachers' Knowledge Domains in Science (United States)

    Botha, M. L.; Reddy, C. P. S.


    The concept of pedagogical content knowledge is integral to teaching as a profession and is often considered to be an important aspect of a teacher's lived experience. Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) is described as a transformation of teacher knowledge from a variety of domains of knowledge, which includes subject matter knowledge,…

  4. Teacher Education: The Application of Fisher's LSD Matrix in the Evaluation of Preservice Teachers. (United States)

    Stolworthy, Reed L.

    The degrees of variance among three groups of evaluators relative to their assessments of the teaching competencies of preservice teacher education students were studied. Subjects included groups of 23 and 32 undergraduates who were certified to teach by the teacher preparation program at Washburn University in Topeka (Kansas) in 1987 and in 1988,…

  5. Learning Mathematics for Teaching Mathematics: Non-Specialist Teachers' Mathematics Teacher Identity (United States)

    Crisan, Cosette; Rodd, Melissa


    A non-specialist teacher of mathematics is a school teacher who qualified to teach in a subject other than mathematics yet teaches mathematics to students in secondary school. There is an emerging interest internationally in this population, a brief report of which is given in the paper. Because of concerns about the quality of non-specialists'…

  6. Teacher Learning across Boundaries: A Challenge to the Legitimacy of Language Teachers' Disciplinary Knowledge (United States)

    Han, Chunyan; Wu, Zongjie


    The legitimate forms of knowledge recognised for language teachers in Chinese universities are differentiated by strong academic boundaries, subject only to disciplinary authority and fashion. Classroom practice on the whole tends not to be informed by research. For many language teachers, a disconnect exists between the academic discipline in…

  7. Teachers' Professional Knowledge for Teaching English as a Foreign Language: Assessing the Outcomes of Teacher Education (United States)

    König, Johannes; Lammerding, Sandra; Nold, Günter; Rohde, Andreas; Strauß, Sarah; Tachtsoglou, Sarantis


    Despite an increasing research interest in subject-specific teacher knowledge, the scientific understanding regarding teachers' professional knowledge for teaching English as a foreign language (TEFL) is very limited. This study therefore applies standardized tests to directly assess content knowledge (CK), pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), and…

  8. An Alternative Model of Continuing Professional Development for Teachers: Giving Teachers Time (United States)

    Haydn, Terry; Barton, Roy; Oliver, Ann


    The paper reports on the outcomes of a Department of Culture, Museums and Sport (DCMS) funded project which provided resources for three groups of teachers in different subjects and age phases to have some time where they were freed from their teaching responsibilities, and also given time to meet together with other teachers to share ideas. The…

  9. Digital Video/Multimedia Portfolios as a Tool To Develop Reflective Teacher Candidates. (United States)

    Spurgeon, Sheila; Bowen, James L.

    This research examined the effects of a process of digital video editing used to create multimedia portfolio has on the quality of teacher candidates' critical reflections. The target population was Northwestern Oklahoma State University teacher candidates. Subjects were 22 student teachers in the fall 2001. Subjects were randomly assigned to one…

  10. The Challenges Faced by Science Teachers When Teaching Outside Their Specific Science Specialism (United States)

    Mizzi, Doreen


    Several research studies have been conducted with novice and experienced teachers when teaching within and outside their subject specialism. This paper aims to review a number of these studies and highlights key points concerning the teaching of different science subjects at secondary level and teachers' level of self-confidence. Teachers face…

  11. Approaching Pedagogical Language Knowledge through Student Teachers: Assessment of Second Language Writing (United States)

    Aalto, Eija; Tarnanen, Mirja


    The article examines student teachers' pedagogical language knowledge. The analysis is based on data from an applied task in which Finnish student teachers (n = 221) of 16 school subjects assessed second language (SL) learners' writing skills. First, we briefly discuss subject teachers' role in language and literacy teaching in the multilingual…

  12. Self-educational activities of music teachers as a condition for creativity implementation


    Dubrovina, Irina


    Artistic self-educational activities of music teachers are analyzed as a scientific problem. The category of “artistic self-education” of music teachers is defined. Main priority targets and indicators of artistic self-education of music teachers are outlined. The mechanisms of stimulation of artistic self-education of music teachers, their self-education skills as a condition for the implementation of creativity are described.

  13. Braille line using electrical stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puertas, A; Pures, P; Echenique, A M; Ensinck, J P Graffigna y G [Gabinete de TecnologIa Medica. Universidad N. de San Juan (Argentina)


    Conceived within the field of Rehabilitation Technologies for visually impaired persons, the present work aims at enabling the blind user to read written material by means of a tactile display. Once he is familiarized to operate this system, the user will be able to achieve greater performance in study, academic and job activities, thus achieving a rapid and easier social inclusion. The devise accepts any kind of text that is computer-loadable (documents, books, Internet information, and the like) which, through digital means, can be read as Braille text on the pad. This tactile display is composed of an electrodes platform that simulate, through stimulation the writing/reading Braille characters. In order to perceive said characters in similar way to the tactile feeling from paper material, the skin receptor of fingers are stimulated electrically so as to simulate the same pressure and depressions as those of the paper-based counterpart information. Once designed and developed, the display was tested with blind subjects, with relatively satisfactory results. As a continuing project, this prototype is currently being improved as regards.

  14. Braille line using electrical stimulation (United States)

    Puertas, A.; Purés, P.; Echenique, A. M.; Ensinck, J. P. Graffigna y. G.


    Conceived within the field of Rehabilitation Technologies for visually impaired persons, the present work aims at enabling the blind user to read written material by means of a tactile display. Once he is familiarized to operate this system, the user will be able to achieve greater performance in study, academic and job activities, thus achieving a rapid and easier social inclusion. The devise accepts any kind of text that is computer-loadable (documents, books, Internet information, and the like) which, through digital means, can be read as Braille text on the pad. This tactile display is composed of an electrodes platform that simulate, through stimulation the writing/reading Braille characters. In order to perceive said characters in similar way to the tactile feeling from paper material, the skin receptor of fingers are stimulated electrically so as to simulate the same pressure and depressions as those of the paper-based counterpart information. Once designed and developed, the display was tested with blind subjects, with relatively satisfactory results. As a continuing project, this prototype is currently being improved as regards.

  15. Subject and text production in virtual campus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Mireya Cuéllar Sánchez


    Full Text Available This research takes place in the context of academic processes in virtual campus, through field diaries, which recorded the interactions and dynamics of both students and teachers, two discussion groups were planned with counselors who develop their practice through virtual platforms. This allowed us to recognize a substantial difference between the usual subject of culture and the virtual subject, this aspect has been developed over the investigation. Finally an argument arises about the need to work with methodologies that blend the synchronous and asynchronous chnopedagogy practices of virtual environments in order to promote academic interaction, critical and the possibility of textual construction.

  16. Noninvasive Spinal Cord Stimulation: Technical Aspects and Therapeutic Applications. (United States)

    Nardone, Raffaele; Höller, Yvonne; Taylor, Alexandra; Thomschewski, Aljoscha; Orioli, Andrea; Frey, Vanessa; Trinka, Eugen; Brigo, Francesco


    Electrical and magnetic trans-spinal stimulation can be used to increase the motor output of multiple spinal segments and modulate cortico-spinal excitability. The application of direct current through the scalp as well as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation are known to influence brain excitability, and hence can also modulate other central nervous system structures, including spinal cord. This study aimed to evaluate the effects and the therapeutic usefulness of these noninvasive neuromodulatory techniques in healthy subjects and in the neurorehabilitation of patients with spinal cord disorders, as well as to discuss the possible mechanisms of action. A comprehensive review that summarizes previous studies using noninvasive spinal cord stimulation is lacking. PubMed (MEDLINE) and EMBASE were systematically searched to identify the most relevant published studies. We performed here an extensive review in this field. By decreasing the spinal reflex excitability, electrical and magnetic trans-spinal stimulation could be helpful in normalizing reflex hyperexcitability and treating hypertonia in subjects with lesions to upper motor neurons. Transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation, based on applying direct current through the skin, influences the ascending and descending spinal pathways as well as spinal reflex excitability, and there is increasing evidence that it also can induce prolonged functional neuroplastic changes. When delivered repetitively, magnetic stimulation could also modulate spinal cord functions; however, at present only a few studies have documented spastic-reducing effects induced by repetitive spinal magnetic stimulation. Moreover, paired peripheral and transcranial stimulation can be used to target the spinal cord and may have potential for neuromodulation in spinal cord-injured subjects. Noninvasive electrical and magnetic spinal stimulation may provide reliable means to characterize important neurophysiologic and

  17. Vagus Nerve Stimulation (United States)

    Howland, Robert H.


    The vagus nerve is a major component of the autonomic nervous system, has an important role in the regulation of metabolic homeostasis, and plays a key role in the neuroendocrine-immune axis to maintain homeostasis through its afferent and efferent pathways. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) refers to any technique that stimulates the vagus nerve, including manual or electrical stimulation. Left cervical VNS is an approved therapy for refractory epilepsy and for treatment resistant depression. Right cervical VNS is effective for treating heart failure in preclinical studies and a phase II clinical trial. The effectiveness of various forms of non-invasive transcutaneous VNS for epilepsy, depression, primary headaches, and other conditions has not been investigated beyond small pilot studies. The relationship between depression, inflammation, metabolic syndrome, and heart disease might be mediated by the vagus nerve. VNS deserves further study for its potentially favorable effects on cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, metabolic, and other physiological biomarkers associated with depression morbidity and mortality. PMID:24834378

  18. A subjective scheduler for subjective dedicated networks (United States)

    Suherman; Fakhrizal, Said Reza; Al-Akaidi, Marwan


    Multiple access technique is one of important techniques within medium access layer in TCP/IP protocol stack. Each network technology implements the selected access method. Priority can be implemented in those methods to differentiate services. Some internet networks are dedicated for specific purpose. Education browsing or tutorial video accesses are preferred in a library hotspot, while entertainment and sport contents could be subjects of limitation. Current solution may use IP address filter or access list. This paper proposes subjective properties of users or applications are used for priority determination in multiple access techniques. The NS-2 simulator is employed to evaluate the method. A video surveillance network using WiMAX is chosen as the object. Subjective priority is implemented on WiMAX scheduler based on traffic properties. Three different traffic sources from monitoring video: palace, park, and market are evaluated. The proposed subjective scheduler prioritizes palace monitoring video that results better quality, xx dB than the later monitoring spots.

  19. teachers beliefs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The major purpose of this study was to examine teachers' beliefs and actual classroom practices of problem-solving teaching in ... their actual practices in the classroom. Out of nine high schools found in Awi Zone, five of them were randomly selected. In ..... To foster critical thinking and creative mind in the students through ...

  20. language teachers

    CERN Multimedia


    The Le Rosey Institute at Rolle (autumn and spring) and Gstaad (winter) is looking for part-time language teachers of 
Bulgarian, Farsi, Hindi, Korean and Romanian for the start of the autumn term in September 2007. For further details, please contact : Please send applications with CVs to

  1. The Effect of Electrical Stimulation in Improving Muscle Tone (Clinical) (United States)

    Azman, M. F.; Azman, A. W.


    Electrical stimulation (ES) and also known as neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) and transcutaneous electrical stimulation (TES) involves the use of electrical current to stimulate the nerves or nerve endings that innervate muscle beneath the skin. Electrical stimulation may be applied superficially on the skin (transcutaneously) or directly into a muscle or muscles (intramuscularly) for the primary purpose of enhancing muscle function. The basic theoretical premise is that if the peripheral nerve can be stimulated, the resulting excitation impulse will be transmitted along the nerve to the motor endplates in the muscle, producing a muscle contraction. In this work, the effect of mere electrical stimulation to the muscle bulk and strength are tested. This paper explains how electrical stimulation can affect the muscle bulk, muscle size, muscle tone, muscle atrophy and muscle strength. The experiment and data collection are performed on 5 subjects and the results obtained are analyzed. This research aims to understand the full potential of electrical stimulation and identifying its possible benefits or disadvantages to the muscle properties. The results indicated that electrical stimulation alone able to improve muscle properties but with certain limits and precautions which might be useful in rehabilitation programme.

  2. Parent Empowerment and Teacher Professionalism: Teachers' Perspective (United States)

    Addi-Raccah, Audrey; Arviv-Elyashiv, Rinate


    School decentralization, which has reshaped power relations in the educational system, has empowered teachers and parents. Taking Abbott's approach to professions, the authors examine teachers' perceptions of the implications of parents' empowerment for teacher--parent relations. In-depth interviews with homeroom teachers in affluent urban…

  3. [Deep brain stimulation]. (United States)

    Fraix, V; Pollak, P; Chabardes, S; Ardouin, C; Koudsie, A; Benazzouz, A; Krack, P; Batir, A; Le Bas, J-F; Benabid, A-L


    The present renewal of the surgical treatment of Parkinson's disease, almost abandoned for twenty Years, arises from two main reasons. The first is the better understanding of the functional organization of the basal ganglia. It was demonstrated in animal models of Parkinson's disease that the loss of dopaminergic neurons within the substantia nigra, at the origin of the striatal dopaminergic defect, induces an overactivity of the excitatory glutamatergic subthalamo-internal pallidum pathway. The decrease in this hyperactivity might lead to an improvement in the pakinsonian symptoms. The second reason is the improvement in stereotactic neurosurgery in relation with the progress in neuroimaging techniques and with intraoperative electrophysiological microrecordings and stimulations, which help determine the location of the deep brain targets. In the 1970s chronic deep brain stimulation in humans was applied to the sensory nucleus of the thalamus for the treatment of intractable pain. In 1987, Benabid and colleagues suggested high frequency stimulation of the ventral intermediate nucleus of the thalamus in order to treat drug-resistant tremors and to avoid the adverse effects of thalamotomies. How deep brain stimulation works is not well known but it has been hypothetized that it could change the neuronal activities and thus avoid disease-related abnormal neuronal discharges. Potential candidates for deep brain stimulation are selected according to exclusion and inclusion criteria. Surgery can be applied to patients in good general and mental health, neither depressive nor demented and who are severely disabled despite all available drug therapies but still responsive to levodopa. The first session of surgery consists in the location of the target by ventriculography and/or brain MRI. The electrodes are implanted during the second session. The last session consists in the implantation of the neurostimulator. The ventral intermediate nucleus of the thalamus was the

  4. Effects of Vibrotactile Stimulation During Virtual Sandboarding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Stine; Thomsen, Lui; Egebjerg, Mie


    This poster details a within-subjects study (n=17) investigating the effects of vibrotactile stimulation on illusory self-motion, presence and perceived realism during an interactive sandboarding simulation. Vibrotactile feedback was delivered using a low frequency audio transducer mounted...... underneath the board. The study compared three conditions: no vibration, constant vibration and dynamic vibration. The results suggest that constant vibrotactile feedback led to significantly more compelling self-motion illusions and a higher degree of perceived realism, than the condition devoid...

  5. Prevalence of occupational voice disorders in teachers. (United States)

    Angelillo, M; Di Maio, G; Costa, G; Angelillo, N; Barillari, U


    In Italy the number of teachers among private and public schools is around one million. Voice disorders are thought to be one of the major occupational hazards of school teaching; in fact the teachers often use their voice with high-intensity, in noisy classes, for a long time and without suitable breaks. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of voice problems in teachers of Naples district, identifying risk factors for developing voice pathology. In this study we evaluated 504 teachers (322 F-182 M) with an age ranging between 24 and 62 years, randomly choiced in 28 schools of the district of Naples submitted to a questionnaire to determine the prevalence of voice disorders. In our study we have also introduced a comparison group of not-teachers workers of 402 subjects (244 F-158 M); they were in the same age range as the teacher sample (range: 22-65 years). The control group was also submitted to a questionnaire regarding sociodemographic characteristics, smoking and alcohol use, a self-report of voice problems, voice symptoms, frequency of acute and chronic voice problems, absenteeism due to voice problems. The prevalence of reporting a current voice problem was significantly greater in teachers compared with not-teachers (8.7% vs 2.9%), as the prevalence of voice disorders during their lifetime too (51.4% vs 25.9%), chi2 = 86.672, p teachers group (23.01%) have been forced, during their professional activity, to miss job for problems related to voice; only 22 subjects of control group (5.47%) instead, missed job for voice troubles. This study confirms that teachers have a higher rate of self-reported voice problems than subjects working in other occupations. Teachers, compared with not-teachers, were significantly more likely to have experienced multiple voice symptoms including hoarseness, discomfort while using their voice, difficulty projecting their voice and tiring or change in voice quality after short use. Large proportion of these problems

  6. Higher success rate with transcranial electrical stimulation of motor-evoked potentials using constant-voltage stimulation compared with constant-current stimulation in patients undergoing spinal surgery. (United States)

    Shigematsu, Hideki; Kawaguchi, Masahiko; Hayashi, Hironobu; Takatani, Tsunenori; Iwata, Eiichiro; Tanaka, Masato; Okuda, Akinori; Morimoto, Yasuhiko; Masuda, Keisuke; Tanaka, Yuu; Tanaka, Yasuhito


    During spine surgery, the spinal cord is electrophysiologically monitored via transcranial electrical stimulation of motor-evoked potentials (TES-MEPs) to prevent injury. Transcranial electrical stimulation of motor-evoked potential involves the use of either constant-current or constant-voltage stimulation; however, there are few comparative data available regarding their ability to adequately elicit compound motor action potentials. We hypothesized that the success rates of TES-MEP recordings would be similar between constant-current and constant-voltage stimulations in patients undergoing spine surgery. The objective of this study was to compare the success rates of TES-MEP recordings between constant-current and constant-voltage stimulation. This is a prospective, within-subject study. Data from 100 patients undergoing spinal surgery at the cervical, thoracic, or lumbar level were analyzed. The success rates of the TES-MEP recordings from each muscle were examined. Transcranial electrical stimulation with constant-current and constant-voltage stimulations at the C3 and C4 electrode positions (international "10-20" system) was applied to each patient. Compound muscle action potentials were bilaterally recorded from the abductor pollicis brevis (APB), deltoid (Del), abductor hallucis (AH), tibialis anterior (TA), gastrocnemius (GC), and quadriceps (Quad) muscles. The success rates of the TES-MEP recordings from the right Del, right APB, bilateral Quad, right TA, right GC, and bilateral AH muscles were significantly higher using constant-voltage stimulation than those using constant-current stimulation. The overall success rates with constant-voltage and constant-current stimulations were 86.3% and 68.8%, respectively (risk ratio 1.25 [95% confidence interval: 1.20-1.31]). The success rates of TES-MEP recordings were higher using constant-voltage stimulation compared with constant-current stimulation in patients undergoing spinal surgery. Copyright © 2017

  7. Translating Policy: Governmentality and the Reflective Teacher (United States)

    Perryman, Jane; Ball, Stephen J.; Braun, Annette; Maguire, Meg


    This paper deploys some concepts from the work of Michel Foucault to problematise the mundane and quotidian "practices" of policy translation as these occur in the everyday of schools. In doing that, we suggest that these "practices" are complicit in the formation of and constitution of teacher subjects, and their subjection to…

  8. influence of teachers' competence on students academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    pedagogical. Academic competencies are the teacher's knowledge of his subject. Pedagogical competency is the art of teaching the subject, observing such principles as teaching from known to ... A. U. Ugbe, Faculty of Education, Cross River University of Technology, Akamkpa Campus, Nigeria ..... educational psychology.

  9. Subjective appraisal of music: neuroimaging evidence. (United States)

    Brattico, Elvira; Jacobsen, Thomas


    In the neurosciences of music, a consensus on the nature of affective states during music listening has not been reached. What is undeniable is that subjective affective states can be triggered by various and even opposite musical events. Here we review the few recent studies on the neural determinants of subjective affective processes of music, contrasted with early automatic neural processes linked to the objective universal properties of music. In particular, we focus on the evaluative judgments of music by subjects according to its aesthetic and structural values, on music-specific emotions felt by listeners, and on conscious liking. We then discuss and seek to stimulate further research on the interplay between the emotional attributes of music and the subjective cognitive, psychological, and biographic factors, such as personality traits and cognitive strategies of listening. We finally draw the neuroscientist's attention to the sociocultural context as a relevant variable to study when considering music as an aesthetic domain.

  10. Braille character discrimination in blindfolded human subjects. (United States)

    Kauffman, Thomas; Théoret, Hugo; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro


    Visual deprivation may lead to enhanced performance in other sensory modalities. Whether this is the case in the tactile modality is controversial and may depend upon specific training and experience. We compared the performance of sighted subjects on a Braille character discrimination task to that of normal individuals blindfolded for a period of five days. Some participants in each group (blindfolded and sighted) received intensive Braille training to offset the effects of experience. Blindfolded subjects performed better than sighted subjects in the Braille discrimination task, irrespective of tactile training. For the left index finger, which had not been used in the formal Braille classes, blindfolding had no effect on performance while subjects who underwent tactile training outperformed non-stimulated participants. These results suggest that visual deprivation speeds up Braille learning and may be associated with behaviorally relevant neuroplastic changes.

  11. Teachers' scientific knowledge, teaching practice, and students' learning activities: Cases of three elementary classroom teachers (United States)

    Jang, Shinho

    The purposes of this dissertation study are to better understand what specific types of scientific knowledge and practice three elementary teachers exhibit, and to examine how they use their scientific knowledge in their classroom teaching practice to provide students' opportunities to learn science when teaching condensation in the context of a unit on the water cycle. By comparing and contrasting three cases of elementary classroom teaching, this study discusses what kinds of scientific knowledge and practice are fundamental for teaching elementary science for scientific understanding. The data include structured interviews (content, pre- and post- observation, and stimulated recall), videotaped classroom observations, and collections of teachers' and students' written artifacts. Data were collected prior to, during, and after the three teachers taught condensation to fifth grade students. The data were analyzed in three contexts: interviews, teaching practices, and students' classroom activities. This made it possible to clarify which characteristics of teacher's scientific knowledge influenced which aspects of their teaching practice. Data analysis shows that teachers' scientific knowledge were closely associated with their teaching practice and students' classroom activities. Two characteristics of the teachers' scientific reasoning emerged as especially important. The first concerned how teachers connected observations of condensation with patterns in those observations (e.g., condensation occurs when warm moist air cools) and with explanations for those patterns (e.g., condensation is water vapor that changes to liquid water). Two teachers were careful to connect observations with patterns in their own thinking and in their classroom teaching. One of those teachers also connected the observations and patterns to scientific explanations. In contrast, the third teacher focused on listing scientific terms with little elaboration with specific observations and

  12. Hearing suppression induced by electrical stimulation of human auditory cortex. (United States)

    Fenoy, Albert J; Severson, Meryl A; Volkov, Igor O; Brugge, John F; Howard, Matthew A


    In the course of performing electrical stimulation functional mapping (ESFM) in neurosurgery patients, we identified three subjects who experienced hearing suppression during stimulation of sites within the superior temporal gyrus (STG). One of these patients had long standing tinnitus that affected both ears. In all subjects, auditory event related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from chronically implanted intracranial electrodes and the results were used to localize auditory cortical fields within the STG. Hearing suppression sites were identified within anterior lateral Heschl's gyrus (HG) and posterior lateral STG, in what may be auditory belt and parabelt fields. Cortical stimulation suppressed hearing in both ears, which persisted beyond the period of electrical stimulation. Subjects experienced other stimulation-evoked perceptions at some of these same sites, including symptoms of vestibular activation and alteration of audio-visual speech processing. In contrast, stimulation of presumed core auditory cortex within posterior medial HG evoked sound perceptions, or in one case an increase in tinnitus intensity, that affected the contralateral ear and did not persist beyond the period of stimulation. The current results confirm a rarely reported experimental observation, and correlate the cortical sites associated with hearing suppression with physiologically identified auditory cortical fields.

  13. Strategies for Stimulating Discussion (United States)


    practices describe ways to facilitate communication during discussion. Use constructive questioning strategies . Facilitators serve to ensure the...lecture and group discussion teaching strategies in developing critical thinking skills. Communication Education, 45, 212-227. Gilmore, T. N., & Schall, E...U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences Research Report 2008 Strategies for Stimulating Discussion

  14. Stimulant Medication for ADHD


    J Gordon Millichap


    The use of stimulant medication by primary care physicians in treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder was evaluated by a random national survey of family practitioners and direct screening of 457 patients in midwestern cities and is reported from the Division of Developmental Disabilities, Departments of Pediatrics and Preventive Medicine University of Iowa, Iowa City and Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington.

  15. Development Block or Stimulant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katznelson, Ron D; Howells, John

    subsequent to the courts upholding the validity of Edison's claim 2. We argue that Edison's patent had the effect of stimulating downstream invention. This analysis is contrary to several recent papers that have been published in the student-reviewed US law literature that assume Edison's patent was used...

  16. Deep brain and cortical stimulation for epilepsy. (United States)

    Sprengers, Mathieu; Vonck, Kristl; Carrette, Evelien; Marson, Anthony G; Boon, Paul


    impact on quality life after three months of stimulation (high-quality evidence). Electrode implantation resulted in postoperative asymptomatic intracranial haemorrhage in 1.6% to 3.7% of the patients included in the two largest trials and 2.0% to 4.5% had postoperative soft tissue infections (9.4% to 12.7% after five years); no patient reported permanent symptomatic sequelae. Anterior thalamic DBS was associated with fewer epilepsy-associated injuries (7.4 versus 25.5%; P = 0.01) but higher rates of self-reported depression (14.8 versus 1.8%; P = 0.02) and subjective memory impairment (13.8 versus 1.8%; P = 0.03); there were no significant differences in formal neuropsychological testing results between the groups. Responsive ictal-onset zone stimulation seemed to be well-tolerated with few side effects.The limited number of patients preclude firm statements on safety and tolerability of hippocampal DBS. With regards to centromedian thalamic DBS, nucleus accumbens DBS and cerebellar stimulation, no statistically significant effects could be demonstrated but evidence is of only low to very low quality. Except for one very small RCT, only short-term RCTs on intracranial neurostimulation for epilepsy are available. Compared to sham stimulation, one to three months of anterior thalamic DBS ((multi)focal epilepsy), responsive ictal onset zone stimulation ((multi)focal epilepsy) and hippocampal DBS (temporal lobe epilepsy) moderately reduce seizure frequency in refractory epilepsy patients. Anterior thalamic DBS is associated with higher rates of self-reported depression and subjective memory impairment. There is insufficient evidence to make firm conclusive statements on the efficacy and safety of hippocampal DBS, centromedian thalamic DBS, nucleus accumbens DBS and cerebellar stimulation. There is a need for more, large and well-designed RCTs to validate and optimize the efficacy and safety of invasive intracranial neurostimulation treatments.

  17. Transcranial brain stimulation: closing the loop between brain and stimulation. (United States)

    Karabanov, Anke; Thielscher, Axel; Siebner, Hartwig Roman


    To discuss recent strategies for boosting the efficacy of noninvasive transcranial brain stimulation to improve human brain function. Recent research exposed substantial intra- and inter-individual variability in response to plasticity-inducing transcranial brain stimulation. Trait-related and state-related determinants contribute to this variability, challenging the standard approach to apply stimulation in a rigid, one-size-fits-all fashion. Several strategies have been identified to reduce variability and maximize the plasticity-inducing effects of noninvasive transcranial brain stimulation. Priming interventions or paired associative stimulation can be used to 'standardize' the brain-state and hereby, homogenize the group response to stimulation. Neuroanatomical and neurochemical profiling based on magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy can capture trait-related and state-related variability. Fluctuations in brain-states can be traced online with functional brain imaging and inform the timing or other settings of transcranial brain stimulation. State-informed open-loop stimulation is aligned to the expression of a predefined brain state, according to prespecified rules. In contrast, adaptive closed-loop stimulation dynamically adjusts stimulation settings based on the occurrence of stimulation-induced state changes. Approaches that take into account trait-related and state-related determinants of stimulation-induced plasticity bear considerable potential to establish noninvasive transcranial brain stimulation as interventional therapeutic tool.

  18. Vestibular stimulation after head injury: effect on reaction times and motor speech parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, A


    Earlier studies by other authors indicate that vestibular stimulation may improve attention and dysarthria in head injured patients. In the present study of five severely head injured patients and five controls, the effect of vestibular stimulation on reaction times (reflecting attention) and some...... motor speech parameters (reflecting dysarthria) was investigated. After eight weeks with regular stimulation, it was concluded that reaction time changes were individual and consistent for a given subject. Only occasionally were they shortened after stimulation. However, reaction time was lengthened...

  19. Students' and teachers' cognitions about good teachers. (United States)

    Beishuizen, J J; Hof, E; van Putten, C M; Bouwmeester, S; Asscher, J J


    Good teachers have been studied ever since Plato described how Socrates taught by asking questions of his audience. Recent findings shed light on two characteristics of good teachers: their personality and their ability. However, more attention has been paid to teachers' practices and opinions than to students' views. The study reported here attempted to deepen our understanding of what students think about good teachers. Students of four age groups (7, 10, 13, and 16 years of age) and teachers from primary and secondary schools were asked to write an essay on the good teacher. The correspondence between conceptual items in the essays was investigated by determining the extent to which they were used in the same essays to describe good teachers. Correspondence analysis revealed two dimensions. The first dimension reflected the preference of students and teachers for describing the good teacher in terms of either personality or ability characteristics. The second dimension was interpreted as an orientation in the essays towards either attachment to, detachment from or commitment to school and teachers. Students and teachers were compared to establish the amount of (dis)agreement about what makes a good teacher. Primary school students described good teachers primarily as competent instructors, focusing on transfer of knowledge and skills, whereas secondary school students emphasised relational aspects of good teachers. Teachers, however, considered good teachers in the first place a matter of establishing personal relationships with their students. Consequently, primary school students and teachers disagreed about the characteristics of good teachers. In secondary education, disagreements between teachers and students were relatively small. The research method of collecting free essays and utilising correspondence analysis to represent conceptual items and groups of participants seems promising as long as a theoretical framework is available to interpret the

  20. Understanding Teacher Development. (United States)

    Hargreaves, Andy, Ed.; Fullan, Michael G., Ed.

    The 12 chapters in this book interpret teacher development in relation to self-development, teacher reflection, teacher biographies, cultures of teaching, teacher careers, teachers' work, gender identity, and classroom practice. The collection begins with an introductory chapter (Andy Hargreaves and Michael G. Fullan) and continues with 11…

  1. Multimedia Teacher Research (United States)

    Leaman, Heather; DiLucchio, Connie


    In this qualitative study, two teacher educators and course instructors in a Masters of Education (M.Ed.) program explored beginning teacher researchers' use of multimedia to support action research. Fifty-eight teachers (36 in spring 2010 and 22 in spring 2011) completed teacher research as the capstone in their M.Ed. program. Teachers utilized…

  2. Facilitating access to emotions: neural signature of EMDR stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Herkt

    Full Text Available Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing (EMDR is a method in psychotherapy effective in treating symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. The client attends to alternating bilateral visual, auditory or sensory stimulation while confronted with emotionally disturbing material. It is thought that the bilateral stimulation as a specific element of EMDR facilitates accessing and processing of negative material while presumably creating new associative links. We hypothesized that the putatively facilitated access should be reflected in increased activation of the amygdala upon bilateral EMDR stimulation even in healthy subjects.We investigated 22 healthy female university students (mean 23.5 years with fMRI. Subjects were scanned while confronted with blocks of disgusting and neutral picture stimuli. One third of the blocks was presented without any additional stimulation, one third with bilateral simultaneous auditory stimulation, and one third with bilateral alternating auditory stimulation as used in EMDR.Contrasting disgusting vs. neutral picture stimuli confirmed the expected robust effect of amygdala activation for all auditory stimulation conditions. The interaction analysis with the type of auditory stimulation revealed a specific increase in activation of the right amygdala for the bilateral alternating auditory stimulation. Activation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex showed the opposite effect with decreased activation.We demonstrate first time evidence for a putative neurobiological basis of the bilateral alternating stimulation as used in the EMDR method. The increase in limbic processing along with decreased frontal activation is in line with theoretical models of how bilateral alternating stimulation could help with therapeutic reintegration of information, and present findings may pave the way for future research on EMDR in the context of posttraumatic stress disorder.

  3. Facilitating access to emotions: neural signature of EMDR stimulation. (United States)

    Herkt, Deborah; Tumani, Visal; Grön, Georg; Kammer, Thomas; Hofmann, Arne; Abler, Birgit


    Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing (EMDR) is a method in psychotherapy effective in treating symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. The client attends to alternating bilateral visual, auditory or sensory stimulation while confronted with emotionally disturbing material. It is thought that the bilateral stimulation as a specific element of EMDR facilitates accessing and processing of negative material while presumably creating new associative links. We hypothesized that the putatively facilitated access should be reflected in increased activation of the amygdala upon bilateral EMDR stimulation even in healthy subjects. We investigated 22 healthy female university students (mean 23.5 years) with fMRI. Subjects were scanned while confronted with blocks of disgusting and neutral picture stimuli. One third of the blocks was presented without any additional stimulation, one third with bilateral simultaneous auditory stimulation, and one third with bilateral alternating auditory stimulation as used in EMDR. Contrasting disgusting vs. neutral picture stimuli confirmed the expected robust effect of amygdala activation for all auditory stimulation conditions. The interaction analysis with the type of auditory stimulation revealed a specific increase in activation of the right amygdala for the bilateral alternating auditory stimulation. Activation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex showed the opposite effect with decreased activation. We demonstrate first time evidence for a putative neurobiological basis of the bilateral alternating stimulation as used in the EMDR method. The increase in limbic processing along with decreased frontal activation is in line with theoretical models of how bilateral alternating stimulation could help with therapeutic reintegration of information, and present findings may pave the way for future research on EMDR in the context of posttraumatic stress disorder.

  4. Teacher Interrupted


    Rosie Mulholland; Andy McKinlay; John Sproule


    A sample of 399 secondary school teachers (156 males, 243 females, 18 schools) responded to a survey questionnaire containing one measure of stress and two measures of strain. The Stressors in Teaching Scale (SITS), developed specifically to place work stress within the Scottish “teaching” context (Mulholland, 2005), gauged work stress. The General Health Questionnaire-30 (GHQ-30; Goldberg, 1972) and Glasgow Symptom Ch...

  5. Difficulties in learning and teaching statistics: teacher views (United States)

    Koparan, Timur


    The purpose of this study is to define teacher views about the difficulties in learning and teaching middle school statistics subjects. To serve this aim, a number of interviews were conducted with 10 middle school maths teachers in 2011-2012 school year in the province of Trabzon. Of the qualitative descriptive research methods, the semi-structured interview technique was applied in the research. In accordance with the aim, teacher opinions about the statistics subjects were examined and analysed. Similar responses from the teachers were grouped and evaluated. The teachers stated that it was positive that middle school statistics subjects were taught gradually in every grade but some difficulties were experienced in the teaching of this subject. The findings are presented in eight themes which are context, sample, data representation, central tendency and dispersion measure, probability, variance, and other difficulties.

  6. A questionnaire for teachers to improve training activity and students on environmental science in the frame of ENVRIPLUS project (United States)

    D'Addezio, Giuliana; Marsili, Antonella; Beranzoli, Laura


    ENVRIplus is a Horizon 2020 project bringing together Environmental and Earth System Research Infrastructures, projects and networks together with technical specialist partners to create a more coherent, interdisciplinary and interoperable cluster of Environmental Research. One of the aims of this project is to disseminate knowledge on environmental topics, focusing attention on European secondary schools. We elaborated actions to design an e-Training Platform for multimedia education of secondary school level teachers and students. The purpose is to favor teacher training and consequently students training on selected scientific themes faced within the ENVRIPLUS Research Infrastructures. In particular we address major thematic research areas and challenges on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services, Greenhouse effect and Earth Warming, Ocean acidifications and Environmental sustainability. To realize the training platform we start detailed study and analysis of teaching and multimedia information materials already available. We plan the realization of an appealing and usable portal/digital repository, to stimulate learning of STEM topics and which also includes opportunities to develop original content. To better project the actions and to catch teacher needs, we prepare a questionnaire that will be administered to a large sample of international school audience to collect input directly from the potential users. The first part focused on objective information about the formal, quantitative and qualitative position of science class in schools and the content and methods of teaching in different countries. The second part investigates subjective teacher experiences, views and proposals on what can improve training offer for environmental science lessons and courses.

  7. Effect of stimulation in coma. (United States)

    Karma, Deepa; Rawat, A K


    To find out efficacy and benefits of early starting of stimulation therapy in coma patients. Randomized controlled trial. Sixty children admitted to the Department of Pediatrics, having coma due to non-traumatic neurological insult were randomly selected. Both study and control groups had 30 patients each. Children in the study group were given stimulation therapy while those in control group received no stimulation. The level of consciousness was assessed before and two weeks after giving stimulation therapy. Improvement in level of consciousness was better in study group as compared to control after two weeks of stimulation therapy. Stimulation therapy was found to be highly effective in coma patients.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Regina D'Antonio


    ógica.This paper diagnoses the Teacher Training in Mathematics course from UEM (State University of Maringá, Brazil. The research, using discourse analysis and pedagogical practices was developed through observation of Educational Theory and Practice I, II, III and IV lessons offered to students of the Teacher Training in Mathematics course of UEM, in order to verify what has been the contribution of these subjects in the construction of teacher knowledge and the development of more communicative and reflective classrooms as well as the influence of the discourse of professors in the practice of future teachers, keeping in mind that knowledge construction relies on the use of practices that enable students to publish their thoughts, their ideas, and to compare, negotiate and modify their representations, conceptions and beliefs. From the analysis of the data, we observed that with the open space for student participation, creating differentiated strategies, the teacher has the possibility to redesign, in confrontations, debates and discussions, not only the thought of the students, but their own thoughts in order to make their message clearer and more objective. In order to achieve the desired objectives, a total of 54 classes were observed from June 2010 to November 2011. The described analysis refers to classes of three professors: (A and (B are tenured professors in the department of mathematics whose post-graduation courses (masters and doctorate are in the area of mathematics. The third one, professor (C, is an employee of the department of mathematics, with a Masters in Education for Science and Mathematics Teaching. The three worked in the field of mathematics education, teaching the subjects of Educational Theory and Practice.

  9. Transcranial brain stimulation: closing the loop between brain and stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karabanov, Anke; Thielscher, Axel; Siebner, Hartwig Roman


    stimulation. Trait-related and state-related determinants contribute to this variability, challenging the standard approach to apply stimulation in a rigid, one-size-fits-all fashion. Several strategies have been identified to reduce variability and maximize the plasticity-inducing effects of noninvasive......-related and state-related variability. Fluctuations in brain-states can be traced online with functional brain imaging and inform the timing or other settings of transcranial brain stimulation. State-informed open-loop stimulation is aligned to the expression of a predefined brain state, according to prespecified...... rules. In contrast, adaptive closed-loop stimulation dynamically adjusts stimulation settings based on the occurrence of stimulation-induced state changes. SUMMARY: Approaches that take into account trait-related and state-related determinants of stimulation-induced plasticity bear considerable...

  10. Teachers' and students' work-culture variables associated with positive school outcome. (United States)

    Goldwater, O D; Nutt, R L


    Little is known about the relationship between teachers' family-of-origin variables, impacting their work attitudes and interpersonal skills, and students' academic outcome. This study investigated whether goodness of fit between teachers' and students' backgrounds is associated with subjective grading and objective achievement at school. One hundred one seventh graders and twenty of their teachers completed the Self-Report Family Inventory. Similarity between teachers' and students' work-culture variables was associated with the subjective grading practices of teachers. The self-report data also revealed effective teacher and successful student profiles.

  11. Gastric Electrical Stimulation (United States)


    to assess the effectiveness, safety, and cost-effectiveness of GES to treat patients who have: a) chronic refractory symptomatic GP; or b) morbid obesity. The Medical Advisory Secretariat used its standard search strategy to retrieve international health technology assessments and English-language journal articles from selected databases. The GRADE approach was used to systematically and explicitly make judgments about the quality of evidence and strength of recommendations. Findings As stated by the GRADE Working Group, the following definitions were used in grading the quality of the evidence in Tables 1 and 2. High Further research is very unlikely to change our confidence in the estimate of effect. Moderate Further research is likely to have an important impact on our confidence in the estimate of effect and may change the estimate. Low Further research is very likely to have an important impact on our confidence in the estimate of effect and is likely to change the estimate. Very Low Any estimate of effect is very uncertain Table 1: GRADE Quality of Studies – Gastroparesis Outcome Design Quality Consistency Directness Overall Quality Reduced vomiting & nausea(1° end point) RCT(Abell et al. 2003)Case Series LowWhy?Confounders related to diabetes.Possible Type 2 error for subgroup analyses.Subjective self-reported end point.Posthoc change in primary end point analysis.No sample size justification.Concomitant prokinetic/antiemetic therapy.Same as above. Some uncertainty.Why?Only 1 RCT (with different results for FDA and publication). Some uncertainty.Why?GES originally hypothesized to correct gastric rhythms, stimulate gastric emptying and therefore eliminate symptoms.Now hypothesized to directly act on neurons to the CNS to control symptoms.Weak correlation between symptoms and gastric emptying.Unclear whether gastric emptying is still considered an end point to investigate. Low Improved gastric emptying(2° end point) Open label portion of Abell et al. 2003

  12. Informal teacher communities enhancing the professional development of medical teachers: a qualitative study. (United States)

    van Lankveld, Thea; Schoonenboom, Judith; Kusurkar, Rashmi; Beishuizen, Jos; Croiset, Gerda; Volman, Monique


    development of tutors, but also validate and strengthen their identity as teachers. They seem to provide a dialogical space where informal intercollegiate learning is stimulated, stories are shared, tacit knowledge is made explicit, concerns are shared, and teacher identity is nurtured.

  13. Evaluation of Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation System (United States)

    Kofman, I. S.; Warren, E.; DeSoto, R.; Moroney, G.; Chastain, J.; De Dios, Y. E.; Gadd, N.; Taylor, L.; Peters, B. T.; Allen, E.; hide


    ) similar to what astronauts experience during transitions to new gravitational environments. Stochastic electrical stimulation can be applied to the vestibular system through electrodes placed over the mastoid process behind the ears in the binaural configuration resulting in stimulation in the mediolateral (side-to-side) plane. An additional electrode can be placed over the bony landmark of the tip of the c7 spinous process for the double monaural configuration, which will cause stimulation in the anteroposterior (forward-backward) plane. A portable constant current bipolar stimulator with subject isolation was designed and built to deliver the stimulus. The unit is powered using a 3.7 V battery pack and designed to produce currents up to 5 mA. The stimulator, controlled by a Raspberry Pi 3 computer, offers several stimulus signal generation options including a standalone mode, which uses onboard signal files stored on the flash memory card. Stochastic stimulation signals will be generated in 0-30 Hz frequency bandwidth. Stimulation amplitude can be increased incrementally to a maximum amplitude of 5.0 mA (e.g., 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, 5.0 mA). In control trials, subjects will be experiencing vestibular stimulation with 0-mA current applied through the electrodes. The system will be evaluated at various levels of stimulation and in both the binaural and double monaural electrode configurations. One of the objectives is to identify stimulation levels producing effects most comparable to the post-flight disturbances. This is a pilot study that will set the stage for a larger, more comprehensive study that will investigate wider aspects of post-flight sensorimotor dysfunction and set sensorimotor standards for crew health.

  14. Estimating Subjective Probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.

    Subjective probabilities play a central role in many economic decisions, and act as an immediate confound of inferences about behavior, unless controlled for. Several procedures to recover subjective probabilities have been proposed, but in order to recover the correct latent probability one must...

  15. Estimating Subjective Probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.


    Subjective probabilities play a central role in many economic decisions and act as an immediate confound of inferences about behavior, unless controlled for. Several procedures to recover subjective probabilities have been proposed, but in order to recover the correct latent probability one must ...

  16. Subjective meaning: an introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijnbergen-Huitink, Janneke; van Wijbergen-Huitink, Janneke; Meier, Cécile

    This introductory chapter traces some of the considerations on the basis of which relativistic approaches to subjective meaning became en vogue. In doing so, the chapter provides an overview of the relevant linguistic and philosophical issues when developing a treatment of subjectivity. In addition,

  17. Subjective safety in traffic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    The term ‘subjective safety in traffic’ refers to people feeling unsafe in traffic or, more generally, to anxiety regarding being unsafe in traffic for oneself and/or others. Subjective safety in traffic can lead to road users limiting their mobility and social activities, which is one of the

  18. Subjective poverty line definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Flik; B.M.S. van Praag (Bernard)


    textabstractIn this paper we will deal with definitions of subjective poverty lines. To measure a poverty threshold value in terms of household income, which separates the poor from the non-poor, we take into account the opinions of all people in society. Three subjective methods will be discussed

  19. Inducing circular vection with tactile stimulation encircling the waist. (United States)

    Tinga, Angelica M; Jansen, Chris; van der Smagt, Maarten J; Nijboer, Tanja C W; van Erp, Jan B F


    In general, moving sensory stimuli (visual and auditory) can induce illusory sensations of self-motion (i.e. vection) in the direction opposite of the sensory stimulation. The aim of the current study was to examine whether tactile stimulation encircling the waist could induce circular vection (around the body's yaw axis) and to examine whether this type of stimulation would influence participants' walking trajectory and balance. We assessed the strength and direction of perceived self-motion while vision was blocked and while either receiving tactile stimulation encircling the waist clockwise or counterclockwise or no tactile stimulation. Additionally, we assessed participants' walking trajectory and balance while receiving these different stimulations. Tactile stimulation encircling the waist was found to lead to self-reported circular vection in a subset of participants. In this subset of participants, circular vection was on average experienced in the same direction as the tactile stimulation. Additionally, perceived rotatory self-motion in participants that reported circular vection correlated with balance (i.e., sway velocity and the standard error of the mean in the medio-lateral dimension). The fact that, in this subset of participants, subjective reports of vection correlated with objective outcome measures indicates that tactile stimulation encircling the waist might indeed be able to induced circular vection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Stimulated Black Hole Evaporation

    CERN Document Server

    Spaans, Marco


    Black holes are extreme expressions of gravity. Their existence is predicted by Einstein's theory of general relativity and is supported by observations. Black holes obey quantum mechanics and evaporate spontaneously. Here it is shown that a mass rate $R_f\\sim 3\\times 10^{-8} (M_0/M)^{1/2}$ $M_0$ yr$^{-1}$ onto the horizon of a black hole with mass $M$ (in units of solar mass $M_0$) stimulates a black hole into rapid evaporation. Specifically, $\\sim 3 M_0$ black holes can emit a large fraction of their mass, and explode, in $M/R_f \\sim 3\\times 10^7 (M/M_0)^{3/2}$ yr. These stimulated black holes radiate a spectral line power $P \\sim 2\\times 10^{39} (M_0/M)^{1/2}$ erg s$^{-1}$, at a wavelength $\\lambda \\sim 3\\times 10^5 (M/M_0)$ cm. This prediction can be observationally verified.