Full Text Available The contribution of modern science to the progress of civilization is immeasurable. Even its tendency toward exclusive concentration on the objective world has had salutary effects of great value. Modern science has wiped away much that was merely superstitious or speculative. Its rejection of unfounded opinions and prejudices has helped the thinking mind question conventional beliefs, shed preferences and prejudices, and challenge established authority. But modern systems thinking inherited from natural science is the suppression of the subjective dimension of reality. Many complex systems are an attempt to define and represent all subjective experience in physical terms. The modern man has a bias towards objectivity. The powerful influence of sense impressions on his mind and thinking makes him ignore the subjective experience and consider only objective facts as a valid, legitimate and representation of reality. Observing objective factors that are physical is easier than observing subjective factors that are subtle. The mechanistic view of reality has led to the rejection of the role of the individual in social development as insignificant. The individuals determine the development of society. Their social power has its roots both in subjective factors and objective factors. Economy, politics, society, and culture are inseparable dimensions of a single integrated reality. Subject and object constitute an integrated whole. The mind sees them as separate and independent. Or it views one as completely subordinate to the other. Unbiased approach to the study of all human experiences may prove that subject and object are interdependent dimensions or elements of reality.
Cardoso, Maria João; Cardoso, Jaime; Amaral, Natália
Twelve expert observers from nine different countries convened in a workshop to evaluate the validity of the Breast Cancer Conservative Treatment. Cosmetic results (BCCT.core) software, an objective method for the aesthetic evaluation of breast cancer conservative treatment. Experts were initiall...
Baandrup, Lone; Glenthøj, Birte Yding; Jennum, Poul Jørgen
and subjective sleep quality during benzodiazepine discontinuation and whether sleep variables were associated with benzodiazepine withdrawal. Eligible patients included adults with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder and long-term use of benzodiazepines in combination...... with antipsychotics. All participants gradually tapered the use of benzodiazepines after randomization to add-on treatment with melatonin versus placebo. Here we report a subsample of 23 patients undergoing sleep recordings (one-night polysomnography) and 55 patients participating in subjective sleep quality ratings....... Melatonin had no effect on objective sleep efficiency, but significantly improved self-reported sleep quality. Reduced benzodiazepine dosage at the 24-week follow-up was associated with a significantly decreased proportion of stage 2 sleep. These results indicate that prolonged-release melatonin has some...
Hansen, Brian Benjamin
The article presents a theory of the subject, based on the work of Jacques Lacan, using the concepts of alienation, separation and liberation.......The article presents a theory of the subject, based on the work of Jacques Lacan, using the concepts of alienation, separation and liberation....
van Empel, P.J.; van Rijssen, L.B.; Commandeur, J.P.; Verdam, M.G.E.; Huirne, J.A.; Scheele, F.; Bonjer, H.J.; Meijerink, W.J.
Background: The equality of subjective- and objective-assessment methods in laparoscopic surgery are unknown. The aim of this study was to compare a subjective assessment method to an objective assessment method to evaluate laparoscopic skill. Methods: A prospective observational cohort study was
Beun, R.J.; Cremers, Anita H.M.
In this chapter we report on an investigation into the principles underlying the choice of a particular referential expression to refer to an object located in a domain to which both participants in the dialogue have multimodal access. Our approach is based on the assumption that participants try
Full Text Available In recent years policy makers and social scientists have devoted considerable attention to wellbeing, a concept that refers to people's capacity to live healthy, creative and fulfilling lives. Two conceptual approaches dominate wellbeing research. The objective approach examines the objective components of a good life. The subjective approach examines people's subjective evaluations of their lives. In the objective approach how subjective wellbeing relates to objective wellbeing is not a relevant research question. The subjective approach does investigate how objective wellbeing relates to subjective wellbeing, but has focused primarily on one objective wellbeing indicator, income, rather than the comprehensive indicator set implied by the objective approach. This paper attempts to contribute by examining relationships between a comprehensive set of objective wellbeing measures and subjective wellbeing, and by linking wellbeing research to inequality research by also investigating how subjective and objective wellbeing relate to class, gender, age and ethnicity. We use three waves of a representative state-level household panel study from Queensland, Australia, undertaken from 2008 to 2010, to investigate how objective measures of wellbeing are socially distributed by gender, class, age, and ethnicity. We also examine relationships between objective wellbeing and overall life satisfaction, providing one of the first longitudinal analyses linking objective wellbeing with subjective evaluations. Objective aspects of wellbeing are unequally distributed by gender, age, class and ethnicity and are strongly associated with life satisfaction. Moreover, associations between gender, ethnicity, class and life satisfaction persist after controlling for objective wellbeing, suggesting that mechanisms in addition to objective wellbeing link structural dimensions of inequality to life satisfaction.
Lucassen, M.P.; Gijsenij, A.; Gevers, T.
We compare an objective and a subjective performance measure for color constancy algorithms. Eight hyper-spectral images were rendered under a neutral reference illuminant and four chromatic illuminants (Red, Green, Yellow, Blue). The scenes rendered under the chromatic illuminants were color
Watson, Michael D.
Occam's razor is often used in science to define the minimum criteria to establish a physical or philosophical idea or relationship. Albert Einstein is attributed the saying "everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler". These heuristic ideas are based on a belief that there is a minimum state or set of states for a given system or phenomena. In looking at system complexity, these heuristics point us to an idea that complexity can be reduced to a minimum. How then, do we approach a reduction in complexity? Complexity has been described as a subjective concept and an objective measure of a system. Subjective complexity is based on human cognitive comprehension of the functions and inter relationships of a system. Subjective complexity is defined by the ability to fully comprehend the system. Simplifying complexity, in a subjective sense, is thus gaining a deeper understanding of the system. As Apple's Jonathon Ive has stated," It's not just minimalism or the absence of clutter. It involves digging through the depth of complexity. To be truly simple, you have to go really deep". Simplicity is not the absence of complexity but a deeper understanding of complexity. Subjective complexity, based on this human comprehension, cannot then be discerned from the sociological concept of ignorance. The inability to comprehend a system can be either a lack of knowledge, an inability to understand the intricacies of a system, or both. Reduction in this sense is based purely on a cognitive ability to understand the system and no system then may be truly complex. From this view, education and experience seem to be the keys to reduction or eliminating complexity. Objective complexity, is the measure of the systems functions and interrelationships which exist independent of human comprehension. Jonathon Ive's statement does not say that complexity is removed, only that the complexity is understood. From this standpoint, reduction of complexity can be approached
Binocular vision refers to the integration of images in the two eyes for improved visual performance and depth perception. One aspect of binocular vision is the fixation disparity, which is a suboptimal condition in individuals with respect to binocular eye movement control and subsequent neural processing. The objective fixation disparity refers to the vergence angle between the visual axes, which is measured with eye trackers. Subjective fixation disparity is tested with two monocular nonius lines which indicate the physical nonius separation required for perceived alignment. Subjective and objective fixation disparity represent the different physiological mechanisms of motor and sensory fusion, but the precise relation between these two is still unclear. This study measures both types of fixation disparity at viewing distances of 40, 30, and 24 cm while observers fixated a central stationary fusion target. 20 young adult subjects with normal binocular vision were tested repeatedly to investigate individual differences. For heterophoria and subjective fixation disparity, this study replicated that the binocular system does not properly adjust to near targets: outward (exo) deviations typically increase as the viewing distance is shortened. This exo proximity effect—however—was not found for objective fixation disparity, which–on the average–was zero. But individuals can have reliable outward (exo) or inward (eso) vergence errors. Cases with eso objective fixation disparity tend to have less exo states of subjective fixation disparity and heterophoria. In summary, the two types of fixation disparity seem to respond in a different way when the viewing distance is shortened. Motor and sensory fusion–as reflected by objective and subjective fixation disparity–exhibit complex interactions that may differ between individuals (eso versus exo) and vary with viewing distance (far versus near vision). PMID:28135308
Full Text Available Binocular vision refers to the integration of images in the two eyes for improved visual performance and depth perception. One aspect of binocular vision is the fixation disparity, which is a suboptimal condition in individuals with respect to binocular eye movement control and subsequent neural processing. The objective fixation disparity refers to the vergence angle between the visual axes, which is measured with eye trackers. Subjective fixation disparity is tested with two monocular nonius lines which indicate the physical nonius separation required for perceived alignment. Subjective and objective fixation disparity represent the different physiological mechanisms of motor and sensory fusion, but the precise relation between these two is still unclear. This study measures both types of fixation disparity at viewing distances of 40, 30, and 24 cm while observers fixated a central stationary fusion target. 20 young adult subjects with normal binocular vision were tested repeatedly to investigate individual differences. For heterophoria and subjective fixation disparity, this study replicated that the binocular system does not properly adjust to near targets: outward (exo deviations typically increase as the viewing distance is shortened. This exo proximity effect-however-was not found for objective fixation disparity, which-on the average-was zero. But individuals can have reliable outward (exo or inward (eso vergence errors. Cases with eso objective fixation disparity tend to have less exo states of subjective fixation disparity and heterophoria. In summary, the two types of fixation disparity seem to respond in a different way when the viewing distance is shortened. Motor and sensory fusion-as reflected by objective and subjective fixation disparity-exhibit complex interactions that may differ between individuals (eso versus exo and vary with viewing distance (far versus near vision.
Sep 1, 1990 ... clinical chemistry investigations. Most of the reference values corresponded to values for the same age groups in the. Western world. There was no age-related rise in the alkaline phosphatase values, which suggested absence of occult. Paget's disease. Reference values for serum total protein and.
Wan Zaki Wan Mimi Diyana
Full Text Available Abstract This article presents a new method for background subtraction (BGS and object detection for a real-time video application using a combination of frame differencing and a scale-invariant feature detector. This method takes the benefits of background modelling and the invariant feature detector to improve the accuracy in various environments. The proposed method consists of three main modules, namely, modelling, matching and subtraction modules. The comparison study of the proposed method with a popular Gaussian mixture model proved that the improvement in correct classification can be increased up to 98% with a reduction of false negative and true positive rates. Beside that the proposed method has shown great potential to overcome the drawback of the traditional BGS in handling challenges like shadow effect and lighting fluctuation.
Dömötör, Zs; Szemerszky, R; Köteles, F
Impact of 5 mg/kg caffeine, chance of receiving caffeine (stimulus expectancies), and expectations of effects of caffeine (response expectancies) on objective (heart rate (HR), systolic/diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP), measures of heart rate variability (HRV), and reaction time (RT)) and subjective variables were investigated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled experiment with a no-treatment group. Participants were 107 undergraduate university students (mean age 22.3 ± 3.96 years). Consumption of 5 mg/kg caffeine had an impact on participants' SBP, standard deviation of normal heartbeat intervals, HR (decrease), and subjective experience 40 minutes later even after controlling for respective baseline values, stimulus and response expectancies, and habitual caffeine consumption. No effects on DBP, high frequency component of HRV, the ratio of low- and high-frequency, and RT were found. Beyond actual caffeine intake, response expectancy score was also a determinant of subjective experience which refers to a placebo component in the total effect. Actual autonomic (SBP, HR) changes and somatosensory amplification tendency, however, had no significant impact on subjective experience. Placebo reaction plays a role in the subjective changes caused by caffeine consumption but it has no impact on objective variables. Conditional vs deceptive administration of caffeine (i.e. stimulus expectancies) had no impact on any assessed variable.
Full Text Available The quality of an image produced by the Whole Slide Imaging (WSI scanners is of critical importance for using the image in clinical diagnosis. Therefore, it is very important to monitor and ensure the quality of images. Since subjective image quality assessments by pathologists are very time-consuming, expensive and difficult to reproduce, we propose a method for objective assessment based on clinically relevant and perceptual image parameters: sharpness, contrast, brightness, uniform illumination and color separation; derived from a survey of pathologists. We developed techniques to quantify the parameters based on content-dependent absolute pixel performance and to manipulate the parameters in a predefined range resulting in images with content-independent relative quality measures. The method does not require a prior reference model. A subjective assessment of the image quality is performed involving 69 pathologists and 372 images (including 12 optimal quality images and their distorted versions per parameter at 6 different levels. To address the inter-reader variability, a representative rating is determined as a one-tailed 95% confidence interval of the mean rating. The results of the subjective assessment support the validity of the proposed objective image quality assessment method to model the readers’ perception of image quality. The subjective assessment also provides thresholds for determining the acceptable level of objective quality per parameter. The images for both the subjective and objective quality assessment are based on the HercepTestTM slides scanned by the Philips Ultra Fast Scanners, developed at Philips Digital Pathology Solutions. However, the method is applicable also to other types of slides and scanners.
Darlington, Richard B.
The search for a satisfactory objective definition of a culture-fair test is doomed to failure, except in the special case in which different cultural groups have the same mean scores on the criterion variable to be predicted by the test. In the general case, it can be shown that no test (except one with the rare quality of perfect validity) can…
The original formulation of the (weak) anthropic principle was prompted by a question about objective time at a macroscopic level, namely the age of the universe when ``anthropic'' observers such as ourselves would be most likely to emerge. Theoretical interpretation of what one observes requires the theory to indicate what is expected, which will commonly depend on where, and particularly when, the observation can be expected to occur. In response to the question of where and when, the origi...
Full Text Available Thermal comfort sensation can be predicted in the most exact way based on Fanger’s predicted mean vote (PMV model. This evaluation method takes all the six influencing factors into consideration: air temperature and humidity, air velocity, mean radiant temperature of surrounding surfaces, clothing insulation, and occupants’ activities. Fanger’s PMV method was developed for temperate climate and European people, with the participation of university students as subjects. Many researchers had investigated its validity in different geographic locations (i. e. climatic conditions, people and under non-laboratory circumstances. The results were summarised by van Hoof which had been published in the scientific references. The articles gave us the idea to elaborate the former measurement results. During the last decades thermal comfort was evaluated by our research team using subjective scientific questionnaires and applying the objective Fanger’s model in several office buildings in Hungary. The relation between the PMV and actual mean vote values were analysed based on these results. Investigations were carried out under steady-state conditions in winter time. We performed objective thermal comfort evaluations based on instrumental measurements using the PMV theory. Parallel to this we assessed the subjective thermal sensation using scientific questionnaires. The mathematical relationship between the actual mean vote and PMV was defined according to the evaluated thermal environment: AMV = PMV + 0.275, (arg. –1.7 ≤ PMV ≤ +0.5.
Marno, Hanna; Davelaar, Eddy J; Csibra, Gergely
In humans, a good proportion of knowledge, including knowledge about objects and object kinds, is acquired via social learning by direct communication from others. If communicative signals raise the expectation of social learning about objects, intrinsic (permanent) features that support object recognition are relevant to store into memory, while extrinsic (accidental) object properties can be ignored. We investigated this hypothesis by instructing participants to memorise shape-colour associations that constituted either an extrinsic object property (the colour of the box that contained the object, Experiment 1) or an intrinsic one (the colour of the object, Experiment 2). Compared to a non-communicative context, communicative presentation of the objects impaired participants' performance when they recalled extrinsic object properties, while their incidental memory of the intrinsic shape-colour associations was not affected. Communicative signals had no effect on performance when the task required the memorisation of intrinsic object properties. The negative effect of communicative reference on the memory of extrinsic properties was also confirmed in Experiment 3, where this property was object location. Such a memory bias suggests that referent objects in communication tend to be seen as representatives of their kind rather than as individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Previous studies on the determinants of subjective well-being concur on the importance of relative income, i.e., the fact that individuals' subjective well-being is dependent on how well they are doing in relation to their reference group. Using South African data from 1993, Kingdon and Knight (2006, 2007) found that in ...
Anderson, Heather A.; Stuebing, Karla K.
Purpose This study compared subjective and objective accommodative amplitudes to characterize changes from preschool to presbyopia. Methods Monocular accommodative amplitude was measured with three techniques in random order (subjective push-up, objective minus lens stimulated, and objective proximal stimulated) on 236 subjects 3–64 years using a 1.5mm letter. Subjective push-up amplitudes were the dioptric distance at which the target first blurred along a near-point rod. Objective minus lens stimulated amplitudes were the greatest accommodative response obtained by Grand Seiko autorefraction as subjects viewed the stimulus at 33cm through increasing minus lens powers. Objective proximal stimulated amplitudes were the greatest accommodative response obtained by Grand Seiko autorefraction as subjects viewed the stimulus at increasing proximity from 40cm up to 3.33cm. Results In comparison with subjective push-up amplitudes, objective amplitudes were lower at all ages, with the most dramatic difference occurring in the 3–5 year group (subjective push-up = 16.00 ± 4.98D versus objective proximal stimulated = 7.94 ± 2.37D and objective lens stimulated = 6.20 ± 1.99D). Objective proximal and lens stimulated amplitudes were largest in the 6–10 year group (8.81 ± 1.24D and 8.05 ± 1.82D, respectively) and gradually decreased until the fourth decade of life when a rapid decline to presbyopia occurred. There was a significant linear relationship between objective techniques (y = 0.74 + 0.96x, R2 = 0.85, p<0.001) with greater amplitudes measured for the proximal stimulated technique (mean difference = 0.55D). Conclusions Objective measurements of accommodation demonstrate that accommodative amplitude is substantially less than that measured by the subjective push-up technique, particularly in young children. These findings have important clinical implications for the management of uncorrected hyperopia. PMID:25602235
Anderson, Heather A; Stuebing, Karla K
This study compared subjective and objective accommodative amplitudes to characterize changes from preschool to presbyopia. Monocular accommodative amplitude was measured with three techniques in random order (subjective push-up, objective minus lens stimulated, and objective proximal stimulated) on 236 subjects aged 3 to 64 years using a 1.5-mm letter. Subjective push-up amplitudes were the dioptric distance at which the target first blurred along a near-point rod. Objective minus lens stimulated amplitudes were the greatest accommodative response obtained by Grand Seiko autorefraction as subjects viewed the stimulus at 33 cm through increasing minus lens powers. Objective proximal stimulated amplitudes were the greatest accommodative response obtained by Grand Seiko autorefraction as subjects viewed the stimulus at increasing proximity from 40 cm up to 3.33 cm. In comparison with subjective push-up amplitudes, objective amplitudes were lower at all ages, with the most dramatic difference occurring in the 3- to 5-year group (subjective push-up, 16.00 ± 4.98 diopters [D] vs. objective proximal stimulated, 7.94 ± 2.37 D, and objective lens stimulated, 6.20 ± 1.99 D). Objective proximal and lens stimulated amplitudes were largest in the 6- to 10-year group (8.81 ± 1.24 D and 8.05 ± 1.82 D, respectively) and gradually decreased until the fourth decade of life when a rapid decline to presbyopia occurred. There was a significant linear relationship between objective techniques (y = 0.74 + 0.96x, R2 = 0.85, p < 0.001) with greater amplitudes measured for the proximal stimulated technique (mean difference, 0.55 D). Objective measurements of accommodation demonstrate that accommodative amplitude is substantially less than that measured by the subjective push-up technique, particularly in young children. These findings have important clinical implications for the management of uncorrected hyperopia.
One of the problems confronting historians in historical writing is the question of objectivity. Objectivity holds that any historical writing should be based on solid facts, devoid of sentiments, biases and prejudice irrespective of tribes, gender, race, sex, and nation. It is simply referred to as “respect for the truth”. It also means ...
Völker, Ina; Kirchner, Christine; Bock, Otmar Leo
Objective and subjective methods have been used in the past to assess workplace fatigue, but little is known about correlations between them. We examine correlations between subjective and objective measures, including measures collected in a workplace scenario. 15 young and 17 older participants were assessed before and after work with four types of fatigue measure: objective physical (posturography), objective mental (psychomotor vigilance task), subjective physical and mental (self-assessment), objective and subjective realistic (oculomotor behaviour, observer-rated facial expression, typing performance). Pre- and post-test scores were analysed with an ANOVA, significant differences were submitted to a factor analysis. It yielded three factors: one representing posturography, the second self-rated mental and physical fatigue and the third observer-rated facial expression. Results advocate the existence of three independent fatigue components: Objective physical fatigue, introspective and extrospective fatigue. Practitioner Summary: This study analyses correlations between different subjective and objective fatigue markers to better understand the complex nature of workplace fatigue. Measurements were conducted directly at the workplace. Results reveal that fatigue comprises three independent fatigue components: Objective physical fatigue, introspective and extrospective fatigue.
Demant, Kirsa M; Vinberg, Maj; Kessing, Lars V
Cognitive dysfunction is prevalent in bipolar disorder (BD). However, the evidence regarding the association between subjective cognitive complaints, objective cognitive performance and psychosocial function is sparse and inconsistent. Seventy seven patients with bipolar disorder who presented...
Moustgaard, Helene; Bello, Segun; Miller, Franklin G
OBJECTIVES: The degree of bias in randomized clinical trials varies depending on whether the outcome is subjective or objective. Assessment of the risk of bias in a clinical trial will therefore often involve categorization of the type of outcome. Our primary aim was to examine how the concepts...... "subjective outcome" and "objective outcome" are defined in methodological publications and clinical trial reports. To put this examination into perspective, we also provide an overview of how outcomes are classified more broadly. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: A systematic review of methodological publications...... provided for subjective outcome: (1) dependent on assessor judgment, (2) patient-reported outcome, or (3) private phenomena (ie, phenomena only assessable by the patient). Of the 200 clinical trial reports, 12 used the term "subjective" and/or "objective" about outcomes, but no clinical trial reports...
The concern for measuring wellbeing objectively and subjectively is found in modern political philosophy. This study explores objective indicators versus subjective perceptions of human wellbeing in ranking of survey data for districts of Pakistan. Data used for the analysis is ‘The Pakistan Social and Living Standards Measurement Survey’ for the year 2006-07. The human wellbeing is examined in four domains: education, health, living conditions and economic situation. Principal component anal...
Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to compare Serbian and Japanese participants in their subjective experience of Serbian and Japanese architectural objects. Subjective experience was operationalized through the ratings on the bipolar scales (e.g. pleasant-unpleasant. In the Preliminary study 1, a set of twelve rating scales was generated. In the Preliminary study 2 twelve Serbian and twelve Japanese architectural objects were specified. In the main experiment two groups of participants, twenty-one Serbian and twenty Japanese, rated twelve Serbian and twelve Japanese objects. A factor analysis extracted three dimensions of subjective experience: Beauty, Firmness and Fullness. Analysis of variance have shown that both Serbian and Japanese participants agreed that Japanese architectural objects looked more beautiful and firmer than Serbian objects. These finding is generally in line with perceptualist hypothesis that stimulus constraints are more effective than culture. However, interactions revealed some cultural differences that are consistent with culturalist hypothesis: compared to Serbian participants, Japanese participants rated Japanese architectural objects as more beautiful, whereas, compared to Japanese, Serbian participants rated Serbian objects as less fragile and emptier than Japanese objects. Generaly, our study have shown that Serbian (Western and Japanese (Eastern participants show general similarity in their subjective experience of architectural objects. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179033
In this report, outcomes of a PBL tutorial in 55 second year MBBS students have been evaluated by the facilitators (subjective evaluation) and by asking the students a set of questions based on the intended outcome of the PBL ( objective evaluation) soon after the completion of PBL tutorial. In the subjective assessment by ...
Schmidt, I.W; Berg, I.J; Deelman, B.G
Several explanations for the weak relations between subjective memory judgments and objective memory performance were investigated in two groups of normal older adults. Group 1 sampled a general population (mean age 61.6 yr., range 46-891, while Group 2 sampled subjects who were on a waiting Est for
Maria Aurelia Cotfas
Full Text Available The paper looks at the dependency of Romanian subjunctive complements on the semantic class of the matrix verb. It shows that different types of temporal dependency trigger different identity relations between the null embedded subject and the (subject antecedent in the main clause (cf. Farkas 1984. Volitional verbs are also looked at in terms of the restrictions they impose on the subjunctive complements they subcategorize for. Finally, following Landau’s (1999 classification of infinitive complements in English, Romanian subjunctives are argued to fall into two distinct classses exhibiting different properties in terms of subject reference and temporal dependency.
Bos, Annemieke; Kleverlaan, Cornelis J; Hoogstraten, Johan; Prahl-Andersen, Birte; Kuitert, Rein
Many studies have used subjective measures to examine patient compliance during orthodontic treatment. Objective measurement of compliance has been confined to only a few studies that used electronic timing devices built into removable appliances. Our aim in this study was to compare subjective and objective methods of measuring compliance with headgear wear. It was hypothesized that orthodontists, patients, and patients' parents overestimate compliance and report more wearing hours than the headgear timers indicate. Also, relationships between sex, age, treatment time, and headgear compliance were explored. A headgear timer device and 3 questionnaires were developed to assess compliance. The subjects were unaware that their headgear use was being measured. Significant differences between the estimates of orthodontists, patients, parents, and headgear timer scores were found. Also, there were differences regarding age and treatment time. Subjective measures might result in overestimation of compliance. This suggests that the use of an objective instrument to measure headgear compliance should be continued in future studies.
Lussiana, Thibault; Gindre, Cyrille; Mourot, Laurent; Hébert-Losier, Kim
Running patterns are often categorized into subgroups according to common features before data analysis and interpretation. The Volodalen(®) method is a simple field-based tool used to classify runners into aerial or terrestrial using a 5-item subjective rating scale. We aimed to validate the Volodalen(®) method by quantifying the relationship between its subjective scores and 3D biomechanical measures. Fifty-four runners ran 30 s on a treadmill at 10, 12, 14, 16, and 18 km h(-1) while their kinematics were assessed subjectively using the Volodalen(®) method and objectively using 3D motion capture. For each runner and speed, two researchers scored the five Volodalen(®) items on a 1-to-5 scale, which addressed vertical oscillation, upper-body motion, pelvis and foot position at ground contact, and footstrike pattern. Seven 3D biomechanical parameters reflecting the subjective items were also collected and correlated to the subjective scores. Twenty-eight runners were classified as aerial and 26 as terrestrial. Runner classification did not change with speed, but the relative contribution of the biomechanical parameters to the subjective classification was speed dependent. The magnitude of correlations between subjective and objective measures ranged from trivial to very large. Five of the seven objective parameters significantly differed between aerial and terrestrial runners, and these parameters demonstrated the strongest correlations to the subjective scores. Our results support the validity of the Volodalen(®) method, whereby the visual appreciation of running gait reflected quantifiable objective parameters. Two minor modifications to the method are proposed to simplify its use and improve agreement between subjective and objective measures.
Tsuruta, Miho; Takahashi, Toru; Tokunaga, Miki; Iwasaki, Masanori; Kataoka, Shota; Kakuta, Satoko; Soh, Inho; Awano, Shuji; Hirata, Hiromi; Kagawa, Masaharu; Ansai, Toshihiro
Pathologic subjective halitosis is known as a halitosis complaint without objective confirmation of halitosis by others or by halitometer measurements; it has been reported to be associated with social anxiety disorder. Olfactory reference syndrome is a preoccupation with the false belief that one emits a foul and offensive body odor. Generally, patients with olfactory reference syndrome are concerned with multiple body parts. However, the mouth is known to be the most common source of body odor for those with olfactory reference syndrome, which could imply that the two conditions share similar features. Therefore, we investigated potential causal relationships among pathologic subjective halitosis, olfactory reference syndrome, social anxiety, and preoccupations with body part odors. A total of 1360 female students (mean age 19.6 ± 1.1 years) answered a self-administered questionnaire regarding pathologic subjective halitosis, olfactory reference syndrome, social anxiety, and preoccupation with odors of body parts such as mouth, body, armpits, and feet. The scale for pathologic subjective halitosis followed that developed by Tsunoda et al.; participants were divided into three groups based on their scores (i.e., levels of pathologic subjective halitosis). A Bayesian network was used to analyze causal relationships between pathologic subjective halitosis, olfactory reference syndrome, social anxiety, and preoccupations with body part odors. We found statistically significant differences in the results for olfactory reference syndrome and social anxiety among the various levels of pathologic subjective halitosis (P social anxiety directly influenced pathologic subjective halitosis and olfactory reference syndrome. Preoccupations with mouth and body odors also influenced pathologic subjective halitosis. Social anxiety may be a causal factor of pathologic subjective halitosis and olfactory reference syndrome.
Full Text Available Objectives: When a person speaks, voice problems usually include pain or discomfort and/or difficulties in terms of the pitch, the loudness and the quality of the voice. When patients with voice problems induced by stroke, Parkinson’s disease, and systemic diseases involving the voice are examined, generally, of the Four Diagnoses (四診, a Diagnosis of Hearing can be used in current Korean medicine. The effects of acupuncture and herb medicine on voice problems have been reported for over 20 years. However, when it comes to improvements, objective and subjective evaluation methods need to be explained. Methods: Subjective methods for evaluating voice were studied through a literature search of old medicinal books containing Korean medicine diagnostics, and an objective evaluation method using Praat software is presented. Results: Korean medicine doctors analyze the patient’s voice in clinical settings unconsciously on a daily basis. However, most voice diagnoses depend on the doctor’s subjective evaluation. Voice qualities can be evaluated by using the Eight Principles (八綱, including Yin-Yang; the Five Elements (Phases; the Grade, Roughness, Breathy, Asthenic, Strained (GRBAS score, and the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS as subjective methods, and an acoustic analysis using the Praat program can be used as an objective method. Conclusion: A more complete voice examination can be achieved by using subjective and objective methods at the same time. For an objective explanation and management of patient’s voice problems or systemic disorders, an objective method should be used in Korean medicine, which already has many subjective diagnostic methods. More research needs to be conducted, and more clinical evidence needs to be collected in the future.
When a person speaks, voice problems usually include pain or discomfort and/or difficulties in terms of the pitch, the loudness and the quality of the voice. When patients with voice problems induced by stroke, Parkinson's disease, and systemic diseases involving the voice are examined, generally, of the Four Diagnoses (), a Diagnosis of Hearing can be used in current Korean medicine. The effects of acupuncture and herb medicine on voice problems have been reported for over 20 years. However, when it comes to improvements, objective and subjective evaluation methods need to be explained. Subjective methods for evaluating voice were studied through a literature search of old medicinal books containing Korean medicine diagnostics, and an objective evaluation method using Praat software is presented. Korean medicine doctors analyze the patient's voice in clinical settings unconsciously on a daily basis. However, most voice diagnoses depend on the doctor's subjective evaluation. Voice qualities can be evaluated by using the Eight Principles (), including Yin-Yang; the Five Elements (Phases); the Grade, Roughness, Breathy, Asthenic, Strained (GRBAS) score, and the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) as subjective methods, and an acoustic analysis using the Praat program can be used as an objective method. A more complete voice examination can be achieved by using subjective and objective methods at the same time. For an objective explanation and management of patient's voice problems or systemic disorders, an objective method should be used in Korean medicine, which already has many subjective diagnostic methods. More research needs to be conducted, and more clinical evidence needs to be collected in the future.
Meuwese, J.D.I.; van Loon, A.M.; Lamme, V.A.F.; Fahrenfort, J.J.
Perceptual decisions seem to be made automatically and almost instantly. Constructing a unitary subjective conscious experience takes more time. For example, when trying to avoid a collision with a car on a foggy road you brake or steer away in a reflex, before realizing you were in a near accident.
Park, Hee-Sung; Moon, Il Joon; Jin, Sun Hwa; Choi, Ji Eun; Cho, Yang-Sun; Hong, Sung Hwa
The aims of this study were to find and compare the effect of directional (DIR) processing of two different hearing aids via both subjective and objective methods, to determine the association between the results of the subjective and objective evaluations, and to find out individual predictive factors influencing the DIR benefit. Twenty-six hearing aid users fitted unilaterally with each two different experimental hearing aid performed modified Korean Hearing in Noise Test (K-HINT) in three DIR conditions; omnidirectional (OMNI) mode, OMNI plus noise reduction feature, fixed DIR mode. In order to determine benefits from DIR benefit within a hearing aid and compare performance of the DIR processing between hearing aids, a subjective questionnaire was administrated on speech quality (SQ) and discomfort in noise (DN) domain. Correlation analysis of factors influencing DIR benefit was accomplished. Benefits from switching OMNI mode to DIR mode within both hearing aids in K-HINT were about 2.8 (standard deviation, 3.5) and 2.1 dB SNR (signal to ratio; SD, 2.5), but significant difference in K-HINT results between OMNI and OMNI plus noise reduction algorithm was not shown. The subjective evaluation resulted in the better SQ and DN scores in DIR mode than those in OMNI mode. However, the difference of scores on both SQ and DN between the two hearing aids with DIR mode was not statistically significant. Any individual factors did not significantly affect subjective and objective DIR benefits. DIR benefit was found not only in the objective measurement performed in the laboratory but also in the subjective questionnaires, but the subjective results was failed to have significant correlation with the DIR benefit obtained in the K-HINT. Factors influencing individual variation in perceptual DIR benefit were still hard to explain.
Bos, A.; Kleverlaan, C.J.; Hoogstraten, J.; Prahl-Andersen, B.; Kuitert, R.
Introduction: Many studies have used subjective measures to examine patient compliance during orthodontic treatment. Objective measurement of compliance has been confined to only a few studies that used electronic timing devices built into removable appliances. Our aim in this study was to compare
I present, with critique, influential moments in the genesis of the received notions of objectivity and of subjectivity, and argue for the inadequacy of Nagel's problematization of these categories of contemporary thought. With the aim of suggesting a rethink of how philosophy questions are framed in our syllabus I argue two ...
This paper examines the relationship between objective academic achievement (OAA) and subjective well-being (SWB). Using a sample of 515 adolescents from ten different high schools across a small country, semi-structured interviews, academic records and observations provided relevant data for the study. OAA was measured from examination results…
An analysis of the concepts of subjectivity and objectivity at work in standard introductions to philosophy reveals an oversight of self-knowledge and tracing the move from a common-sense culture to a scientific one throws up the idea of self-appropriation as the hidden heart of modern thought. The aftermath of the rise of ...
Verschuren, R.M.A.F.; Hogema, J.H.
TNO Human Factors and TNO Automotive are investigating relationships between subjective and objective measures in the area of vehicle handling. This paper presents a driving simulator study and a field experiment in which these relationships were investigated. First, in the driving simulator
Full Text Available In optometry of binocular vision, the question may arise whether prisms should be included in eyeglasses to compensate an oculomotor and/or sensory imbalance between the two eyes. The corresponding measures of objective and subjective fixation disparity may be reduced by the prisms, or the adaptability of the binocular vergence system may diminish effects of the prisms over time. This study investigates effects of wearing prisms constantly for about 5 weeks in daily life. Two groups of 12 participants received eyeglasses with prisms having either a base-in direction or a base-out direction with an amount up to 8 prism diopters. Prisms were prescribed based on clinical fixation disparity test plates at 6 m. Two dependent variables were used: (1 subjective fixation disparity was indicated by a perceived offset of dichoptic nonius lines that were superimposed on the fusion stimuli and (2 objective fixation disparity was measured with a video based eye tracker relative to monocular calibration. Stimuli were presented at 6 m and included either central or more peripheral fusion stimuli. Repeated measurements were made without the prisms and with the prisms after about 5 weeks of wearing these prisms. Objective and subjective fixation disparity were correlated, but the type of fusion stimulus and the direction of the required prism may play a role. The prisms did not reduce the fixation disparity to zero, but induced significant changes in fixation disparity with large effect sizes. Participants receiving base-out prisms showed hypothesized effects, which were concurrent in both types of fixation disparity. In participants receiving base-in prisms, the individual effects of subjective and objective effects were negatively correlated: the larger the subjective (sensory effect, the smaller the objective (motor effect. This response pattern was related to the vergence adaptability, i.e. the individual fusional vergence reserves.
Schroth, Volkhard; Joos, Roland; Jaschinski, Wolfgang
In optometry of binocular vision, the question may arise whether prisms should be included in eyeglasses to compensate an oculomotor and/or sensory imbalance between the two eyes. The corresponding measures of objective and subjective fixation disparity may be reduced by the prisms, or the adaptability of the binocular vergence system may diminish effects of the prisms over time. This study investigates effects of wearing prisms constantly for about 5 weeks in daily life. Two groups of 12 participants received eyeglasses with prisms having either a base-in direction or a base-out direction with an amount up to 8 prism diopters. Prisms were prescribed based on clinical fixation disparity test plates at 6 m. Two dependent variables were used: (1) subjective fixation disparity was indicated by a perceived offset of dichoptic nonius lines that were superimposed on the fusion stimuli and (2) objective fixation disparity was measured with a video based eye tracker relative to monocular calibration. Stimuli were presented at 6 m and included either central or more peripheral fusion stimuli. Repeated measurements were made without the prisms and with the prisms after about 5 weeks of wearing these prisms. Objective and subjective fixation disparity were correlated, but the type of fusion stimulus and the direction of the required prism may play a role. The prisms did not reduce the fixation disparity to zero, but induced significant changes in fixation disparity with large effect sizes. Participants receiving base-out prisms showed hypothesized effects, which were concurrent in both types of fixation disparity. In participants receiving base-in prisms, the individual effects of subjective and objective effects were negatively correlated: the larger the subjective (sensory) effect, the smaller the objective (motor) effect. This response pattern was related to the vergence adaptability, i.e. the individual fusional vergence reserves. PMID:26431525
Full Text Available This study is theoretical and exploratory. It aims to describe a reference system which should determine or influence the decisions for the new curriculum design. The example of geography as a subject matter (or, in a wider perspective, of a field of study called “Geography – Environmental Studies” reveals specific elements resulting from the characteristics of the interior structure. The reference system may be altered, reduced, amplified, categorized or adjusted with respect to other subjects or fields of study, that are at least similar. The example of the “vertical” curriculum of Geography (grades V – XII relies upon a system of outcomes (competencies in progression (according to levels and ages and it depends on the time horizon of the design. Consequently, different options might come out within the process. Nevertheless, the curriculum depends a lot on the paradigm of its design: with a scientific dominance (with a likely minimal individual human insertion or with a subjective touch, as a result of some individual or group opinions which are more or less justified.
Mascolo, Michael F
The question of whether psychology can properly be regarded as a science has long been debated (Smedslund in Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science, 50, 185-195, 2016). Science is typically understood as a method for producing reliable knowledge by testing falsifiable claims against objective evidence. Psychological phenomena, however, are traditionally taken to be "subjective" and hidden from view. To the extent that science relies upon objective observation, is a scientific psychology possible? In this paper, I argue that scientific psychology does not much fail to meet the requirements of objectivity as much as the concept of objectivity fails as a methodological principle for psychological science. The traditional notion of objectivity relies upon the distinction between a public, observable exterior and a private, subjective interior. There are good reasons, however, to reject this dichotomy. Scholarship suggests that psychological knowledge arises neither from the "inside out" (subjectively) nor from the outside-in (objectively), but instead intersubjective processes that occur between people. If this is so, then objectivist methodology may do more to obscure than illuminate our understanding of psychological functioning. From this view, we face a dilemma: Do we, in the name of science, cling to an objective epistemology that cuts us off from the richness of psychological activity? Or do we seek to develop a rigorous intersubjective psychology that exploits the processes through which we gain psychological knowledge in the first place? If such a psychology can produce systematic, reliable and useful knowledge, then the question of whether its practices are "scientific" in the traditional sense would become irrelevant.
Gertrudis Van de Vijver
Full Text Available In this paper, it is argued that the question ldquo;What is life?rdquo; time and again emergesmdash;and within the confines of an objectivistic/subjectivistic frame of thought has to emergemdash;as a symptom, a non-deciphered, cryptic message that insists on being interpreted. br /Our hypothesis is that the failure to measure up the living to the standards of objectification has been taken too frequently from an objectivistic angle, leading to a simple postponement of an objective treatment of the living, and meanwhile confining it to the domain of the subjective, the relative and the metaphorical. As a consequence, the truly important question of the co-constitutive relation between objectivity and subjectivity is thereby evaded. A critical, transcendental account can be relevant in this regard, not only because of the fact that objectivity and subjectivity are seen as co-constitutive, but also because it addresses the question of the embeddedness of objectivity and subjectivity from within the living dynamics.br /This hypothesis will be articulated on the basis of Erwin Schrouml;dingerrsquo;s famous little book on ldquo;What is life?rdquo;, in dialogue with Robert Rosenrsquo;s critical reading of it. It appears that Schrouml;dinger considered the living as a genuine challenge for classical objectification procedures. However, it is doubtful whether this brought him to a critical reading of objectivity or to the acknowledgment of a constitutive role of subjectivity in relation to objectivity. We argue that his viewpoint has the merit ofnbsp; expressing the difficulty of the living within the field of the physical sciences, but does not really transcend the objectivism/subjectivism opposition. At this point, Rosenrsquo;s relational account takes up the challenge more radically by acknowledging the need for a new epistemology and a new metaphysics in relation to living systems, and by attributing a place to classical objectivity from within this
Gelonch, Olga; Garolera, Maite; Valls, Joan; Rosselló, Lluís; Pifarré, Josep
There is evidence to suggest the existence of an executive dysfunction in people diagnosed with fibromyalgia, although there are certain inconsistencies between studies. Here, we aim to compare executive performance between patients with fibromyalgia and a control group by using subjective and objective cognitive tests, analyzing the influence of patient mood on the results obtained, and studying associations between the two measures. 82 patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia and 42 healthy controls, matched by age and years of education, were assessed using the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function - Adult Version (BRIEF-A) as a subjective measure of executive functioning. A selection of objective cognitive tests were also used to measure a series of executive functions and to identify symptoms of depression and anxiety. Patients with fibromyalgia perceived greater difficulties than the control group on all of the BRIEF-A scales. However, after adjustments were made for depression and anxiety the only differences that remained were those associated with the working memory scale and the Metacognition and Global Executive Composite index. In the case of the objective cognitive tests, a significantly worse overall performance was evidenced for the fibromyalgia patients. However, this also disappeared when adjustments were made for depression and anxiety. After this adjustment, fibromyalgia patients only performed significantly worse for the interference effect in the Stroop Test. Although there were no significant associations between most of the objective cognitive tests and the BRIEF-A scales, depression and anxiety exhibited strong associations with almost all of the BRIEF-A scales and with several of the objective cognitive tests. Patients with fibromyalgia showed executive dysfunction in subjective and objective measures, although most of this impairment was associated with mood disturbances. Exceptions to this general rule were observed in the
Full Text Available The phenomenological point of view of the body is usually appreciated for having introduced the notion of the ‘lived’ body. We cannot merely analyze and explain the body as one of the elements of the world of objects. We must also describe it, for example, as the center of our perspective on the world, the place where our sensing is ‘localized’, the agens which directly executes our intentions. However, in Husserl, the idea of the body as lived primarily complements his objectivism: the body (Leib is an objective and mental reality, a ‘double unity’, as he writes. In contrast, Merleau-Ponty’s later considerations of the body in Phenomenology of Perception tend to the idea of a circular relationship between the objective and subjective dimensions of the body – between the objective and the lived. One of the means to overcome the idea of the body as a site of the correlation between two opposite and complementary realms is, for Merleau-Ponty, the philosophical interpretation of an early neurological notion of ‘body schema’. Body schema is neither an idea nor a physiological-physical fact, it is rather a practical diagram of our relationships with the world, an action-based norm in reference to which things make sense. In the recently published preparatory notes for his 1953 courses, Merleau-Ponty dedicates much effort to further developing the notion of body schema, and interprets fresh sources that he did not use in Phenomenology of Perception. Notably, he studies various possibilities of how this practical ‘diagram’ can be de-differentiated (pathology or further refined (cognitive and cultural superstructures, symbolic systems, which shows the fundamentally dynamic unity of the body. This paper summarizes the basic elements of Merleau-Ponty’s 1953 renewed philosophical interpretation of the notion of body schema, while contrasting it to the more traditional understanding of the body in phenomenology and in recent
Previous research has shown that epilepsy patients frequently report increased memory impairments compared to the normal population but that their performance on standardised memory tests does not reflect this, displaying an “objective-subjective memory discrepancy” not seen in healthy controls (e.g. Witt et al., 2012). Multiple factors have been proposed to explain this phenomenon, many summarised comprehensively by Hall et al. (2009). These explanations include methodological flaws in both ...
ter, Meulen B C; Van Woerkom, T C A M
Medically unexplained somatic symptoms present a real challenge to modem medicine. They occur frequently and are often chronic. To discuss the physician's approach to these symptoms. We focus on the views of the human body put forward by the French philosopher Merleau-Ponty. His view is illustrated with the help of a case study concerning a patient suffering from borderline personality disorder and complex regional pain syndrome. Merleau-Ponty draws a distinction between body-subject and body-object. By body-object he means the body as determined and predicted by medical science. By body-subject he means the body as we experience it, even before we are aware of it. It is our pre-reflexive body that gives meaning to the world around us. We argue that the physician should regard the body not only as an object, but also as a subject, thereby giving renewed attention to the significance of symptoms as an expression of inner experience. In this way symptoms that cannot be explained on a purely physico-chemical level will become more meaningful.
Jainta, S; Hoormann, J; Jaschinski, W
Dichoptic nonius lines are used for subjectively (psychophysically) measuring vergence states, but they have been questioned as valid indicators of vergence eye position. In a mirror-stereoscope, we presented convergent and divergent step-stimuli and estimated the vergence response with nonius lines flashed at fixed delays after the disparity step stimulus. For each delay, an adaptive psychophysical procedure was run to determine the physical nonius offset required for subjective alignment; these vergence states were compared with objective eye movement recordings. Between both measures of initial vergence, we calculated the maximal cross-correlation coefficient: the median in our sample was about 0.9 for convergence and divergence, suggesting a good agreement. Relative to the objective measures, the subjective method revealed a smaller vergence velocity and a larger vergence response in the final phase of the response, but both measures were well correlated. The dynamic nonius test is therefore considered to be useful to relatively evaluate a subject's ability in disparity vergence.
Full Text Available Purpose: This paper aims to match subjective and objective measures of organizational innovativeness and test correlative relationship between the two. Methodology: The research adopts a quantitative approach, and applies correlation analysis to identify interdependencies. The study has been done in the aviation industry, as organizational innovativeness has so far been described especially in high-tech industries – however it has not been investigated within aviation industry yet. Findings: The results show that the discussions over reliability of research based on subjective measurements techniques are not unfounded. The evidence suggests that subjective measures are not correlated with objective measures, and the outcomes of third-party investigations differ considerably. Therefore decisions about measurements techniques should be deliberate, thought out, theoretically grounded and justifi ed. In general, methodological recommendations provided by this paper could be boiled down to the ascertainment that accurate and reliable assessment of organizational innovativeness should use a set of objective measures addressing all stages of the innovation process. Originality: It should be noted that this study was restricted to only one industry and prone to some common bias. The aviation industry sample was relatively small and purposefully selected, disallowing conclusive statements made outside of this empirical setting. However despite the limitations this paper provides some significant contribution to evaluation and research on innovativeness. It compares two approaches to measurement and empirically proves which approach is more suitable in case of such a highly innovation-intensive sector like aviation. Moreover, it introduces a new in Polish research tool for subjective assessment of organizational innovativeness namely the questionnaire developed by Wang and Ahmed (2004.
Liptak, V; Egger, J
The subjective and objective effects of music consumption during intellectual work were assessed by a special questionnaire and the concentration paper-pencil-test (Brickencamp). Three different styles of music (pop-music, classical music and folk-music) were presented in a standardized way. It appeared that pop-music was experienced to be less conscious, less irritable and more pleasant than classical music. Although there was a subjective preference for pop- and folk-music an adequate increase of the concentration-test-scores could not be ascertained. On the contrary a significant discrepancy was found between subjective recorded music-effect and objective measured task-performance. Under the condition of classical music which was least preferred there was a significant greater variance of false responses than under the condition of no music. Nevertheless the total output of the discrimination-task was relatively the highest during classical music. The results are interpreted primarily as an enhanced psycho-physiological activation and a different selective concentration on music-presentation and task-demands. In accordance with empirical findings on psychological and physiological effects of music the results of this study reinforce the statement that also i mental activities music per se does not principally increase or lower the task output.
Culcea, Ileana C; Freitas, Antonio L
We investigated whether people's judgments of self-reference could be influenced by cues of importance. Our investigation builds on evidence that information related to the self is processed in specialized ways and that implicit attributions affect how stimuli are interpreted. We hypothesized that the more important a trait descriptor was, the more likely participants would be to misremember it as having been presented in a self-referential manner. This hypothesis was tested using a source-memory task; subjective ratings of importance served as predictors of accuracy. In two experiments, logistic multilevel analyses supported our predictions, indicating that people use cues of importance when deciding if stimuli are self-referential. The results show that people do not rely solely on valence when making self-referential judgments; importance also can bias self-referential attributions. These findings have implications for social and autobiographical memory, including how people may assign responsibility for jointly produced actions.
Philipp S. Ritter
Full Text Available Background. Several studies have described but not formally tested discrepancies between subjective and objective measures of sleep. Study Objectives. To test the hypothesis that patients with bipolar disorder display a systematic bias to underestimate sleep duration and overestimate sleep latency. Methods. Actimetry was used to assess sleep latency and duration in 49 euthymic participants (bipolar = 21; healthy controls = 28 for 5–7 days. Participants simultaneously recorded estimated sleep duration and sleep latency on a daily basis via an online sleep diary. Group differences in the discrepancy between subjective and objective parameters were calculated using t-tests and corrected for multiple comparisons. Results. Patients with bipolar disorder significantly underestimated their sleep duration but did not overestimate their sleep latency compared to healthy controls. Conclusions. Studies utilizing diaries or questionnaires alone in patients with bipolar disorders may systematically underestimate sleep duration compared to healthy controls. The additional use of objective assessment methods such as actimetry is advisable.
Wang, Lily M.; Gade, Anders Christian
Several objective measures have been proposed to describe the feeling of spatial impression in concert halls, including Lateral Energy Fraction (LF) and Interaural Cross-Correlation Coefficient (IACC). However, previous studies have shown that LF and IACC values did not highly correlate with each...... generated by the room acoustics simulation program ODEON, using four different musical motifs, and were presented to test subjects via headphones. Results from the experiments are presented. [Work supported by ASA Hunt Postdoctoral Research Fellowship.]...... other at individual seat positions in real halls [J. S. Bradley, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 96, 3525–3535 (1994)]. To investigate the listener envelopment aspect of spatial impression further, subjective paired-comparison tests have been run using signals which have various values for LF, early IACC (from 5...
Kajla, Garima; Rohatgi, Jolly; Dhaliwal, Upreet
Visual disability is categorised using objective criteria. Subjective measures are not considered. To use subjective criteria along with objective ones to categorise visual disability. Ophthalmology out-patient department; teaching hospital; observational study. Consecutive persons aged >25 years, with vision disability; group-zero: normal range of vision, to group-X: no perception of light, bilaterally. Snellen's vision; binocular contrast sensitivity (Pelli-Robson chart); automated binocular visual field (Humphrey; Esterman test); and vision-related quality of life (Indian Visual Function Questionnaire-33; IND-VFQ33) were recorded. SPSS version-17; Kruskal-wallis test was used to compare contrast sensitivity and visual fields across groups, and Mann-Whitney U test for pair-wise comparison (Bonferroni adjustment; P visual fields were comparable for differing disability grades except when disability was severe (P disability grades but comparable for groups III (78.51 ± 6.86) and IV (82.64 ± 5.80), and groups IV and V (77.23 ± 3.22); these were merged to generate group 345; similarly, global scores were comparable for adjacent groups V and VI (72.53 ± 6.77), VI and VII (74.46 ± 4.32), and VII and VIII (69.12 ± 5.97); these were merged to generate group 5678; thereafter, contrast sensitivity and global and individual IND-VFQ33 scores could differentiate between different grades of disability in the five new groups. Subjective criteria made it possible to objectively reclassify visual disability. Visual disability grades could be redefined to accommodate all from zero-100%.
Cerdá, Salvador; Giménez, Alicia; Cibrián, Rosa; Girón, Sara; Zamarreño, Teófilo
This paper studies the global subjective assessment, obtained from mean values of the results of surveys addressed to members of the audience of live concerts in Spanish auditoriums, through the mean values of the three orthogonal objective parameters (Tmid, IACCE3, and LEV), expressed in just noticeable differences (JNDs), regarding the best-valued hall. Results show that a linear combination of the relative variations of orthogonal parameters can largely explain the overall perceived quality of the sample. However, the mean values of certain orthogonal parameters are not representative, which shows that an alternative approach to the problem is necessary. Various possibilities are proposed.
Campora, Nuria; Kochen, Silvia
Conscious states are inner states and processes of awareness. These states are by definition subjective. We analyzed subjective and objective characteristics of alteration of consciousness (AOC) during epileptic seizures, including its involvement in both the level of awareness and subjective content of consciousness. We evaluated AOC using the Consciousness Seizure Scale, the Ictal Consciousness Inventory, and a new structured survey developed by our group: the Seizure Perception Survey, which incorporates patients' subjective experiences before and after they watch a video-electroencephalographic recording of their own seizure. We included 35 patients (105 seizures) with drug-resistant epilepsy. Most seizures caused profound AOC. The content of consciousness was lower during temporal seizures with profound AOC. We uncovered a correlation between the subjective perception and objective duration of a seizure using the Seizure Perception Survey regarding memory; the patients had a better recall of ictal onset during wakefulness regardless of the epileptogenic zone, laterality, or magnitude of AOC. Nonetheless, the recovery of memory at the end of a seizure took more time in patients who showed greater AOC, less vivid content of consciousness, or a longer seizure. For 85% of the patients, this was the first time they were able to view their own seizures. The majority of the patients requested to view them again because this procedure allowed them to compare the recordings with their own memories and emotions during a seizure and to verify the real duration of the seizure. Alteration of consciousness is one of the most dramatic clinical manifestations of epilepsy. Usually, practitioners or relatives assume that the patients with AOC may not have any knowledge on their seizures. In this study, however, we found that most patients with AOC had a fairly accurate perception of the duration of a seizure and retained their memory of ictal onset. In contrast, for the
Yang, Xinyan; Zhao, Wei; Ye, Long; Zhang, Qin
This paper proposes a no-reference objective stereoscopic video quality assessment method with the motivation that making the effect of objective experiments close to that of subjective way. We believe that the image regions with different visual salient degree should not have the same weights when designing an assessment metric. Therefore, we firstly use GBVS algorithm to each frame pairs and separate both the left and right viewing images into the regions with strong, general and week saliency. Besides, local feature information like blockiness, zero-crossing and depth are extracted and combined with a mathematical model to calculate a quality assessment score. Regions with different salient degree are assigned with different weights in the mathematical model. Experiment results demonstrate the superiority of our method compared with the existed state-of-the-art no-reference objective Stereoscopic video quality assessment methods.
Meit, Heather Anderson
The present study viewed personality characteristics of medical students using both objective (i.e., a valid and reliable psychological instrument) and subjective methods (i.e., medical students' self-ratings of how they viewed themselves and how they believed others viewed them). The 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF, 5th Edition) and a researcher developed instrument, the Subjective Rating Form (SRF), were utilized in this study. Significant differences were found in 16PF scores from entry to medical school (Time 1) to exit from medical school (Time 2). Significant differences were also observed when SRF scores were compared between Self at Time 1 (retrospectively), Self at Time 2, and self-ratings made from the perspective of Other. Most striking were differences between 16PF and SRF scores when compared with each other, at both Time 1 and Time 2. This last group of findings translated into differences between the actual and perceived self (i.e., real vs. ideal). The implications of such differences are discussed.
In the article issues of the marketing audit theory are considered. Views of different authors on the tasks and objects of the marketing audit and marketing control are suggested. Objectives and principles of marketing audit performing are determined.
The use and neural representation of egocentric spatial reference frames is well-documented. In contrast, whether the brain represents spatial relationships between objects in allocentric, object-centered, or world-centered coordinates is debated. Here, I review behavioral, neuropsychological, neurophysiological (neuronal recording), and neuroimaging evidence for and against allocentric, object-centered, or world-centered spatial reference frames. Based on theoretical considerations, simulations, and empirical findings from spatial navigation, spatial judgments, and goal-directed movements, I suggest that all spatial representations may in fact be dependent on egocentric reference frames. PMID:26696861
Biochemical reference values for the black age group of ≥ 65 years were determined from the black urban population of the Orange Free State. Biochemical investigations performed were those included in the Sequential Multiple Analyser Computer profile because it includes the 20 most requested clinical chemistry ...
Tahmasian, Masoud; Jamalabadi, Hamidreza; Abedini, Mina; Ghadami, Mohammad R; Sepehry, Amir A; Knight, David C; Khazaie, Habibolah
Sleep disturbance is common in chronic post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, prior work has demonstrated that there are inconsistencies between subjective and objective assessments of sleep disturbance in PTSD. Therefore, we investigated whether subjective or objective sleep assessment has greater clinical utility to differentiate PTSD patients from healthy subjects. Further, we evaluated whether the combination of subjective and objective methods improves the accuracy of classification into patient versus healthy groups, which has important diagnostic implications. We recruited 32 chronic war-induced PTSD patients and 32 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects to participate in this study. Subjective (i.e. from three self-reported sleep questionnaires) and objective sleep-related data (i.e. from actigraphy scores) were collected from each participant. Subjective, objective, and combined (subjective and objective) sleep data were then analyzed using support vector machine classification. The classification accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for subjective variables were 89.2%, 89.3%, and 89%, respectively. The classification accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for objective variables were 65%, 62.3%, and 67.8%, respectively. The classification accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for the aggregate variables (combination of subjective and objective variables) were 91.6%, 93.0%, and 90.3%, respectively. Our findings indicate that classification accuracy using subjective measurements is superior to objective measurements and the combination of both assessments appears to improve the classification accuracy for differentiating PTSD patients from healthy individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This article analyses a series of negotiations on how to measure welfare and quality of life in Sweden beyond economic indicators. It departs from a 2015 Government Official Report that advanced a strong recommendation to measure only 'objective indicators' of quality of life, rather than relying on what is referred to as 'subjective indicators' such as life satisfaction and happiness. The assertion of strictly 'objective' indicators falls back on a sociological perspective developed in the 1970s, which conceived of welfare as being measurable as 'levels of living', a framework that came to be called 'the Scandinavian model of welfare research'. However, in the mid-2000s, objective indicators were challenged scientifically by the emerging field of happiness studies, which also found political advocates in Sweden who argued that subjective indicators should become an integral part of measuring welfare. This tension between 'subjective' and 'objective' measurements resulted in a controversy between several actors about what should count as a valuable measurement of welfare. As a consequence, we argue that the creation of such value meters is closely intertwined with how welfare is defined, and by what measures welfare should be carried through.
Søgaard, Jacob; Tavakoli, Samira; Brunnström, Kjell
The HTTP Adaptive Streaming (HAS) technology allows video service providers to improve the network utilization and thereby increasing the end-users’ Quality of Experience (QoE).This has made HAS a widely used approach for audiovisual delivery. There are several previous studies aiming to identify...... the factors influencing on subjective QoE of adaptation events.However, adapting the video quality typically lasts in a time scale much longer than what current standardized subjective testing methods are designed for, thus making the full matrix design of the experiment on an event level hard to achieve....... In this study, we investigated the overall subjective QoE of 6 minutes long video sequences containing different sequential adaptation events. This was compared to a data set from our previous work performed to evaluate the individual adaptation events. We could then derive a relationship between the overall...
Castelão, Guilherme P.; Irber, Luiz C.; Villas Boas, Ana B. M.
Rings are marine vortices with a scale of hundreds of kilometers that can last for months, whose associated transport and mixing play an important role in the ocean dynamics. Such features are traditionally treated as a geostrophic flow, but since the centrifugal acceleration is not negligible in the inner core, the cyclo-geostrophic balance is a better approximation for the rings. In the present work, we describe a novel objective technique to identify the ring center, which is used as the origin of a convenient framework to handle rings under the cyclo-geostrophic balance. Furthermore, we correct the velocity field by the translation to isolate the swirl movement, a procedure ignored by other methodologies. We show that the lack of such correction would lead to an error of 30 km on the center definition of a ship surveyed North Brazil Current Ring with 160 km of radius. Another distinct characteristic of our approach is the flexibility in the spatio-temporal structure of the data, because it allows for ungridded data, an important ability for in situ observations. That also enables the use of a hybrid dataset composed from different instruments. The error on the Monte Carlo experiments to identify the center of the propagating ring is less than 10 km, and depends on the level of noise, sampling strategy, and strength of the ring, among other factors. This technique was fully implemented in PyRings, an open Python library with a collection of procedures to handle oceanic rings and mesoscale eddies in general.
Hallgren, Richard C; Andary, Michael T
The objective of this study was to determine if blindfolded, asymptomatic subjects undershoot or overshoot a self-selected neutral reference position (NRP) when performing a full-cycle, head repositioning accuracy test in the sagittal plane. An asymptomatic group of subjects, consisting of 7 men and 5 women with no history of head and neck pain, were recruited for the study. Subjects, performing a full-cycle series of head/neck movements in the sagittal plane, attempted to return to a self-selected NRP, defined at the beginning of the movement sequence, without benefit of visual clues. Data were collected for each subject, and repositioning errors were calculated. The sign of the error was used to determine if undershooting or overshooting of the NRP had occurred. Subjects undershot a self-selected NRP at statistically significant levels (P < .01) when performing the head repositioning accuracy test while blindfolded. Subjects undershot the NRP 83% of the time when moving from flexion to the NRP and undershot the NRP 92% of the time when moving from extension to the NRP. A Fisher exact test showed no significant difference between the number of times subjects undershot the NRP when moving from either flexion to the NRP or from extension to the NRP. To our knowledge, neither undershooting nor overshooting of an NRP has previously been reported for asymptomatic subjects at statistically significant levels. Knowing that asymptomatic subjects undershoot an NRP may help to direct treatment and rehabilitation of patients who have experienced whiplash-type injuries and are shown to overshoot the NRP when performing the same test.
Hawkins, Jeremy R.; McLoda, Todd A.; Stanek, Justin M.
Context: Admission decisions are made annually concerning whom to accept into athletic training programs. Objective: To present an approach used to make admissions decisions at an undergraduate athletic training program and to corroborate this information by comparing each aspect to nursing program admission processes. Background: Annually,…
Jan-Emmanuel De Neve; Ed Diener; Louis Tay; Cody Xuereb
The aim of this paper is to survey the 'hard' evidence on the effects of subjective well-being. In doing so, we complement the evidence on the determinants of well-being by showing that human well-being also affects outcomes of interest such as health, income, and social behaviour. Generally, we observe a dynamic relationship between happiness and other important aspects of our lives, with influence running in both directions.
Sieberen Pieter Van Der Werf
Full Text Available It has been suggested that the memory complaints of patients who are not impaired on formal memory tests may reflect accelerated forgetting. We examined this hypothesis by comparing the one-week delayed recall and recognition test performance of outpatients who were referred for neuropsychological assessment and who had normal memory performance during standard memory assessment with that of a non-patient control group. Both groups performed equally in verbal learning and delayed recall. However, after one week, the patients performed worse than controls on both recall and recognition tests. Although subjective memory ability predicted short-term memory function in patients, it did not predict long-term delayed forgetting rates in either the patients or controls. Thus, long-term delayed recall and recognition intervals provided no additional value to explain poor subjective memory ability in the absence of objective memory deficits.
Srisurapanont, Manit; Suttajit, Sirijit; Eurviriyanukul, Kanokkwan; Varnado, Prirada
This study aimed to determine: i) the correlation between objective and subjective cognition, ii) the correlates of objective and subjective cognition and iii) the predictors of discrepancy between objective and subjective cognition. Participants were non-elderly patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). We assessed subjective cognition using the Perceived Deficit Questionnaire for Depression (PDQ-D) and objective cognition using Face I and Face II tests of the Wechsler Memory Scale, 3rd...
Ghadiyaram, Deepti; Bovik, Alan C
Most publicly available image quality databases have been created under highly controlled conditions by introducing graded simulated distortions onto high-quality photographs. However, images captured using typical real-world mobile camera devices are usually afflicted by complex mixtures of multiple distortions, which are not necessarily well-modeled by the synthetic distortions found in existing databases. The originators of existing legacy databases usually conducted human psychometric studies to obtain statistically meaningful sets of human opinion scores on images in a stringently controlled visual environment, resulting in small data collections relative to other kinds of image analysis databases. Toward overcoming these limitations, we designed and created a new database that we call the LIVE In the Wild Image Quality Challenge Database, which contains widely diverse authentic image distortions on a large number of images captured using a representative variety of modern mobile devices. We also designed and implemented a new online crowdsourcing system, which we have used to conduct a very large-scale, multi-month image quality assessment (IQA) subjective study. Our database consists of over 350 000 opinion scores on 1162 images evaluated by over 8100 unique human observers. Despite the lack of control over the experimental environments of the numerous study participants, we demonstrate excellent internal consistency of the subjective data set. We also evaluate several top-performing blind IQA algorithms on it and present insights on how the mixtures of distortions challenge both end users as well as automatic perceptual quality prediction models. The new database is available for public use at http://live.ece.utexas.edu/research/ChallengeDB/index.html.
Binsch, Olaf; Wilschut, Ellen S; Arns, Martijn; Bottenheft, Charelle; Valk, Pierre J L; Vermetten, Eric H G J M
There is a growing interest in the application of psychophysiological signals in more applied settings. Unidirectional sensory motor rhythm-training (SMR) has demonstrated consistent effects on sleep. In this study the main aim was to analyze to what extent participants could gain voluntary control over sleep-related parameters and secondarily to assess possible influences of this training on sleep metrics. Bidirectional training of SMR as well as heart rate variability (HRV) was used to assess the feasibility of training these parameters as possible brain computer interfaces (BCI) signals, and assess effects normally associated with unidirectional SMR training such as the influence on objective and subjective sleep parameters. Participants (n = 26) received between 11 and 21 training sessions during 7 weeks in which they received feedback on their personalized threshold for either SMR or HRV activity, for both up- and down regulation. During a pre- and post-test a sleep log was kept and participants used a wrist actigraph. Participants were asked to take an afternoon nap on the first day at the testing facility. During napping, sleep spindles were assessed as well as self-reported sleep measures of the nap. Although the training demonstrated successful learning to increase and decrease SMR and HRV activity, no effects were found of bidirectional training on sleep spindles, actigraphy, sleep diaries, and self-reported sleep quality. As such it is concluded that bidirectional SMR and HRV training can be safely used as a BCI and participants were able to improve their control over physiological signals with bidirectional training, whereas the application of bidirectional SMR and HRV training did not lead to significant changes of sleep quality in this healthy population.
Full Text Available In Rome, legal status of woman and her factual possibilities of impact on public life were in serious discrepancy. General attitude of the legal status of woman in time of Romans is best shown by Papinian, 'In many provisions of our law, the position of woman is worse than of man (D.9.1.5.'. Every free Roman woman was considered a subject of law, according to classical Roman law. Nevertheless, there were extensive legislations that limited her legal and business capacity. Naturally, woman did not have legal personality in all periods of Roman state and her legal status was adjusted to the factual changes that had occurred in Roman society. What makes her position specific in Rome is progressive social role that did not exist in Greek-Asian world. From these previously mentioned views, which were confronting, it is possible to draw some doubts. Was woman really on the margins of political happenings, or was she an actual actor, even initiator, of some political events?.
Westerbeek, Hans; Koolen, Ruud; Maes, A.A.
When speakers describe objects with atypical properties, do they include these properties in their referring expressions, even when that is not strictly required for unique referent identification? Based on previous work, we predict that speakers mention the color of a target object more often when
McClure, Erin A; Lydiard, Jessica B; Goddard, Scott D; Gray, Kevin M
Cannabis is the most widely used illicit substance worldwide, with an estimated 160 million users. Among adolescents, rates of cannabis use are increasing, while the perception of detrimental effects of cannabis use is declining. Difficulty with memory is one of the most frequently noted cognitive deficits associated with cannabis use, but little data exist exploring how well users can identify their own memory deficits, if present. The current secondary analysis sought to characterize objective verbal and visual memory performance via a neurocognitive battery in cannabis-dependent adolescents enrolled in a pharmacotherapeutic cannabis cessation clinical trial (N = 112) and compare this to a single self-reported item assessing difficulties with memory loss. Exploratory analyses also assessed dose-dependent effects of cannabis on memory performance. A small portion of the study sample (10%) endorsed a "serious problem" with memory loss. Those participants reporting "no problem" or "serious problem" scored similarly on visual and verbal memory tasks on the neurocognitive battery. Exploratory analyses suggested a potential relationship between days of cannabis use, amount of cannabis used, and gender with memory performance. This preliminary and exploratory analysis suggests that a sub-set of cannabis users may not accurately perceive difficulties with memory. Further work should test this hypothesis with the use of a control group, comprehensive self-reports of memory problems, and adult populations that may have more years of cannabis use and more severe cognitive deficits. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.
Maglione, Jeanne E.; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Peters, Katherine W.; Paudel, Misti L.; Yaffe, Kristine; Ensrud, Kristine E.; Stone, Katie L.
Objectives To examine the relationship between depressive symptoms and subjective and objective sleep in older women. Design Cross-sectional. Setting Four US clinical centers. Participants 3045 community-dwelling women ≥70 years. Measurements Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Geriatric Depression Scale categorizing participants as “normal” (0–2, referent), “some depressive symptoms” (3–5), or “depressed” (≥6). Subjective sleep quality and daytime sleepiness were assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Objective sleep measures were assessed with wrist actigraphy. Results In multivariable-adjusted models, there were graded associations between increased level of depressive symptoms and both worse subjective sleep quality and more subjective daytime sleepiness (p-trends depressive symptoms (OR 1.82, CI 1.48–2.24) and depressed (OR 2.84, CI 2.08–3.86) women had greater odds of reporting poor sleep (PSQI>5). Women with some depressive symptoms (OR 1.97, CI 1.47–2.64) and depressed women (OR 1.70, CI 1.12–2.58) had greater odds of reporting excessive daytime sleepiness (ESS>10). There were also graded associations between increased level of depressive symptoms and objectively measured wake after sleep onset (WASO) (p-trend = 0.030) and long wake episodes >5 minutes (p-trend 0.006). Depressed women had modestly increased odds of WASO ≥1 hour (OR 1.37, CI 1.03–1.83). Women with some depressive symptoms (OR 1.49, CI 1.19–1.86) and depressed women (OR 2.04, CI 1.52–2.74) had greater odds of being in the highest quartile for number of nap episodes >5 minutes. No associations between depressive symptom level and prolonged sleep latency, reduced sleep efficiency, or reduced or increased total sleep time were found. Conclusion Greater depressive symptom levels were associated with more subjective sleep disturbance and objective evidence of sleep fragmentation and napping. PMID
El Haj, Mohamad; Antoine, Pascal
This paper investigated whether Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients may demonstrate a discrepancy between subjective autobiographical reliving and objective recall. To this end, 31 AD patients and 35 controls were asked to retrieve three autobiographical memories. For each memory, participants were asked to rate its subjective characteristics (e.g., reliving, travel in time, visual imagery…). Besides this subjective assessment, we analyzed recall objectively with regard to specificity. Results showed poorer subjective autobiographical reliving and objective recall in AD patients than in controls. A discrepancy (i.e., higher level of subjective reliving than of objective recall) was observed in AD but not in control participants. Despite a compromise in their objective recall, AD patients seemed to attribute a high value to their subjective autobiographical experience. This discrepancy can be attributed to a potential genuine consciousness experience in which mild AD patients can, to some extent, experience some subjective features of the past. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hansen, A M; Garde, A H; Christensen, J M
BACKGROUND: Passive smoking has been found to be a respiratory health hazard in humans. The present study describes the calculation of a reference interval for urinary nicotine metabolites calculated as cotinine equivalents on the basis of 72 non-smokers exposed to tobacco smoke less than 25......% of the day. METHODS: Twenty subjects (passive smokers) exposed to tobacco smoke more than 25% of the day (subjectively assessed) and 32 smokers were used to validate the estimated reference interval. Urine samples were collected three times during the day approximately at 06.30, 17.00 and 22.45 h. RESULTS....... Parametric reference interval for excretion of nicotine metabolites in urine from non-smokers was established according to International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) and International Federation for Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) for use of risk assessment of exposure to tobacco smoke...
This thesis critically analyzes the Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM) within higher education and examines SCORM's limitations within a realistic application environment versus within a theoretical/conceptual platform...
The Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS) Subject Area manuals are designed as reference guides, that is, each chapter provides the information needed to make best use of each subject area, its tables, and reporting capabilities. Each subject area is documented in a chapter in one of the subject area manuals. Because these are reference manuals, most of the information is also available in the online help system as well. See Section 5.4.2 of the HEIS User`s Guide (DOE-RL 1994a) for a detailed description of the online help.
Owens, Sarah J; Thacker, Justine M; Graham, Susan A
Speech disfluencies can guide the ways in which listeners interpret spoken language. Here, we examined whether three-year-olds, five-year-olds, and adults use filled pauses to anticipate that a speaker is likely to refer to a novel object. Across three experiments, participants were presented with pairs of novel and familiar objects and heard a speaker refer to one of the objects using a fluent ("Look at the ball/lep!") or disfluent ("Look at thee uh ball/lep!") expression. The salience of the speaker's unfamiliarity with the novel referents, and the way in which the speaker referred to the novel referents (i.e., a noun vs. a description) varied across experiments. Three- and five-year-olds successfully identified familiar and novel targets, but only adults' looking patterns reflected increased looks to novel objects in the presence of a disfluency. Together, these findings demonstrate that adults, but not young children, use filled pauses to anticipate reference to novel objects.
Picou, Erin M.; Moore, Travis M.; Ricketts, Todd A.
Purpose: The purposes of this investigation were (a) to evaluate the effects of hearing aid directional processing on subjective and objective listening effort and (b) to investigate the potential relationships between subjective and objective measures of effort. Method: Sixteen adults with mild to severe hearing loss were tested with study…
Robinson, Nadia; Miller, Arlene; Wilbur, JoEllen; Fogg, Louis
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death for African American (AA) women in the United States. Despite high prevalence of CVD risk factors, AA women perceive their CVD risk as low. Our objectives were to (1) identify relationships between subjective (self-reported perceived) CVD risk and objective CVD risk estimated by the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association atherosclerotic CVD (ASCVD) risk estimator, (2) identify demographic and psychosocial factors associated with subjective perceived risk and discrepancy with objective estimated CVD risk, and (3) determine whether subjective perceived CVD risk was associated with physical activity (PA) adherence. This was a secondary data analysis of data collected from a 12-month lifestyle PA intervention conducted with 281 AA women. Subjective perceived CVD risk was measured by 1 question; objective estimated CVD risk was calculated using the ASCVD score. Women were categorized by congruence or discrepancy between subjective perceived and objective estimated CVD risk. Subjective perceived CVD risk and objective ASCVD risk scores were both low. Approximately 20% subjectively perceived their risk as lower than objective ASCVD scores. Atherosclerotic CVD risk discrepancy groups differed by depressed mood symptoms. Participants reported many perceived barriers to PA. Perceived CVD risk was not related to PA adherence. The significance of associated CVD risk factors may be underestimated by AA women, leading to discrepancy between subjective and objective risk estimates. Research is needed to clarify relationships among perceived risk, estimated risk using risk calculators such as ASCVD, and health behavior.
Srisurapanont, Manit; Suttajit, Sirijit; Eurviriyanukul, Kanokkwan; Varnado, Prirada
This study aimed to determine: i) the correlation between objective and subjective cognition, ii) the correlates of objective and subjective cognition and iii) the predictors of discrepancy between objective and subjective cognition. Participants were non-elderly patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). We assessed subjective cognition using the Perceived Deficit Questionnaire for Depression (PDQ-D) and objective cognition using Face I and Face II tests of the Wechsler Memory Scale, 3rd edition and Digit Span and Matrix Reasoning tests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Adults, 3rd edition. The discrepancy between objective and subjective cognition was estimated. Participants were 57 outpatients with MDD. PDQ-D scores were not correlated with composite neurocognitive test (NCT) z scores. Years of education significantly predicted composite NCT z scores, as did age. The 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) scores significantly predicted PDQ-D scores, as did antidepressant treatment. Age significantly predicted discrepancy scores, as did PHQ-9 scores. In conclusion, objective and subjective cognition in patients with MDD are not correlated. Age and education predict objective cognition. Depression. severity and antidepressant treatment predict subjective cognition. Age and depression severity may predict the discrepancy between objective and subjective cognition.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Outcome following management of congenital talipes equinovarus (clubfoot can be assessed in a number of ways. Bjonness stated simply that "the patient is the final judge of whether he has a good foot"; a purely subjective assessment. Others have employed objective measures. Combining subjective evaluation with a more objective assessment of movement and position of the foot, is likely to give a more comprehensive picture of the final result of clubfoot. The purpose of this study was to compare subjective and objective outcome following management of clubfoot, and evaluate sex differences in outcome. Methods We used a patient-administered subjective assessment of outcome following treatment of clubfoot and compared it with objective anthropometry and range of movement of the ankle to assess and compare subjective and objective outcome in clubfoot. Statistical analysis was performed using Pearson correlation coefficients. Significance was tested using Student's t-test test. Results Objective outcome can be assessed using length of the foot, calf circumference and range of movement at the ankle. These are easy to measure, reproducible, and correlate well with subjective outcome. Objective outcome is comparable for boys and girls. However, subjectively, female patients and their parents are less happy with the results of management of clubfoot. Conclusion There is a correlation between the anthropometric measures and the subjective outcome and an objective grading can be designed using foot length, calf muscle bulk and range of movement at the ankle.
Chesney, David; Barker, Simon; Maffulli, Nicola
Background Outcome following management of congenital talipes equinovarus (clubfoot) can be assessed in a number of ways. Bjonness stated simply that "the patient is the final judge of whether he has a good foot"; a purely subjective assessment. Others have employed objective measures. Combining subjective evaluation with a more objective assessment of movement and position of the foot, is likely to give a more comprehensive picture of the final result of clubfoot. The purpose of this study was to compare subjective and objective outcome following management of clubfoot, and evaluate sex differences in outcome. Methods We used a patient-administered subjective assessment of outcome following treatment of clubfoot and compared it with objective anthropometry and range of movement of the ankle to assess and compare subjective and objective outcome in clubfoot. Statistical analysis was performed using Pearson correlation coefficients. Significance was tested using Student's t-test test. Results Objective outcome can be assessed using length of the foot, calf circumference and range of movement at the ankle. These are easy to measure, reproducible, and correlate well with subjective outcome. Objective outcome is comparable for boys and girls. However, subjectively, female patients and their parents are less happy with the results of management of clubfoot. Conclusion There is a correlation between the anthropometric measures and the subjective outcome and an objective grading can be designed using foot length, calf muscle bulk and range of movement at the ankle. PMID:17598880
De Koning, T.C.M.; Veldhoven, P.; Knoche, H.; Kooij, R.E.
In this paper we explore the relation between subjective and objective measures of video quality. We computed objective MOS values from video clips using the video quality measuring tool VQM and compared it to the clips’ subjective Acceptability scores. Using the ITU defined mapping (M2G) from MOS
Nandori, Eszter Siposne
The paper analyzes subjective poverty in Hungary and compares it to the objective poverty concepts. Subjective poverty is defined by examining who people consider to be poor. Based on the Easterlin paradox, the initial hypothesis states that subjective and absolute poverty concepts are highly correlated. Taking into account that Hungary is a…
Grassmann, Susanne; Stracke, Marén; Tomasello, Michael
Many studies have established that children tend to exclude objects for which they already have a name as potential referents of novel words. In the current study we asked whether this exclusion can be triggered by social-pragmatic context alone without pre-existing words as blockers. Two-year-old children watched an adult looking at a novel object while saying a novel word with excitement. In one condition the adult had not seen the object beforehand, and so the children interpreted the adult's utterance as referring to the gazed-at object. In another condition the adult and child had previously played jointly with the gazed-at object. In this case, children less often assumed that the adult was referring to the object but rather they searched for an alternative referent--presumably because they inferred that the gazed-at object was old news in their common ground with the adult and so not worthy of excited labeling. Since this inference based on exclusion is highly similar to that underlying the Principle of Contrast/Mutual Exclusivity, we propose that this principle is not purely lexical but rather is based on children's understanding of how and why people direct one another's attention to things either with or without language.
Elizabeth A Gage-Bouchard
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Understanding the social determinants of child health is a prominent area of research. This paper examines the measurement of socioeconomic position in a sample of families of children with cancer. Socioeconomic position is difficult to measure in pediatric health research due to sensitivity of asking about finances when research is conducted in health care delivery settings, financial volatility associated with periods of pediatric illness, and difficulty recruiting fathers to research. METHODS: Caregivers of children with cancer (n=76 completed a questionnaire that included the MacArthur Scale of Subjective Social Status (SSS. SSS was measured using two 10-rung ladders with differing referent groups: the US and respondents' communities. Respondents placed themselves on each ladder by placing an X on the rung that represented their social position in relation to the two referent groups. Individuals' SSS ratings and discrepancies in SSS ratings within couples were examined, and associations with objective social status measures were evaluated using Pearson correlations or t-tests. RESULTS: Parents' placement on the US and community ladders was positively associated with their income, education, wealth, household savings, and household savings minus debt. On average, respondents placed themselves higher on the US ladder compared to the community ladder. There was an average intra-couple discrepancy of 1.25 rungs in partner's placements on the US ladder and a 1.56 rung difference for the community ladder. This intra-couple discrepancy was not associated with gender. DISCUSSION: Results offer insight into the use of subjective social status measures to capture a more holistic assessment of socioeconomic position and the measurement of socioeconomic position in two-parent families.
Gage-Bouchard, Elizabeth A.; Devine, Katie A.
Introduction Understanding the social determinants of child health is a prominent area of research. This paper examines the measurement of socioeconomic position in a sample of families of children with cancer. Socioeconomic position is difficult to measure in pediatric health research due to sensitivity of asking about finances when research is conducted in health care delivery settings, financial volatility associated with periods of pediatric illness, and difficulty recruiting fathers to research. Methods Caregivers of children with cancer (n = 76) completed a questionnaire that included the MacArthur Scale of Subjective Social Status (SSS). SSS was measured using two 10-rung ladders with differing referent groups: the US and respondents’ communities. Respondents placed themselves on each ladder by placing an X on the rung that represented their social position in relation to the two referent groups. Individuals’ SSS ratings and discrepancies in SSS ratings within couples were examined, and associations with objective social status measures were evaluated using Pearson correlations or t-tests. Results Parents’ placement on the US and community ladders was positively associated with their income, education, wealth, household savings, and household savings minus debt. On average, respondents placed themselves higher on the US ladder compared to the community ladder. There was an average intra-couple discrepancy of 1.25 rungs in partner’s placements on the US ladder and a 1.56 rung difference for the community ladder. This intra-couple discrepancy was not associated with gender. Discussion Results offer insight into the use of subjective social status measures to capture a more holistic assessment of socioeconomic position and the measurement of socioeconomic position in two-parent families. PMID:24599006
Gage-Bouchard, Elizabeth A; Devine, Katie A
Understanding the social determinants of child health is a prominent area of research. This paper examines the measurement of socioeconomic position in a sample of families of children with cancer. Socioeconomic position is difficult to measure in pediatric health research due to sensitivity of asking about finances when research is conducted in health care delivery settings, financial volatility associated with periods of pediatric illness, and difficulty recruiting fathers to research. Caregivers of children with cancer (n=76) completed a questionnaire that included the MacArthur Scale of Subjective Social Status (SSS). SSS was measured using two 10-rung ladders with differing referent groups: the US and respondents' communities. Respondents placed themselves on each ladder by placing an X on the rung that represented their social position in relation to the two referent groups. Individuals' SSS ratings and discrepancies in SSS ratings within couples were examined, and associations with objective social status measures were evaluated using Pearson correlations or t-tests. Parents' placement on the US and community ladders was positively associated with their income, education, wealth, household savings, and household savings minus debt. On average, respondents placed themselves higher on the US ladder compared to the community ladder. There was an average intra-couple discrepancy of 1.25 rungs in partner's placements on the US ladder and a 1.56 rung difference for the community ladder. This intra-couple discrepancy was not associated with gender. Results offer insight into the use of subjective social status measures to capture a more holistic assessment of socioeconomic position and the measurement of socioeconomic position in two-parent families.
Huang, Silin; Hou, Jiawei; Sun, Ling; Dou, Donghui; Liu, Xia; Zhang, Hongchuan
Although previous investigations have agreed that Chinese rural-to-urban migrants' socioeconomic status (SES) increases with their migration, the association between SES and subjective well-being is uncertain. To address this research gap, the present study proposed that the association between objective SES and subjective well-being is mediated by subjective SES. This model was tested with a sample of 432 Chinese rural-to-urban migrants. The results indicate a significant association between objective SES and subjective well-being and a partial mediating effect of subjective SES. Furthermore, subjective social mobility, which is one's expectation about the possibility to move upward in the social hierarchy, was found to moderate both the direct path from objective SES to subjective well-being and the indirect path from subjective SES to subjective well-being. These findings suggest that Chinese rural-to-urban migrants gained in subjective well-being not only because of direct financial achievement but also because of their perceptions and beliefs about their relative social status.
Boschloo, Annemarie; Krabbendam, Lydia; Dekker, Sanne; Lee, Nikki; De Groot, Renate; Jolles, Jelle
This study investigated the relation between sleep and school performance in a large sample of 561 adolescents aged 11–18 years. Three subjective measures of sleep were used: sleepiness, sleep quality, and sleep duration. They were compared to three measures of school performance: objective school
Boschloo, Annemarie; Krabbendam, Lydia; Dekker, Sanne; Lee, Nikki; De Groot, Renate; Jolles, Jelle
This study investigated the relation between sleep and school performance in a large sam- ple of 561 adolescents aged 11–18 years. Three subjective measures of sleep were used: sleepiness, sleep quality, and sleep duration. They were compared to three measures of school performance: objective school
Boschloo, A.; Krabbendam, L.; Dekker, S.; Lee, N.; Groot, R. de; Jolles, J.
This study investigated the relation between sleep and school performance in a large sample of 561 adolescents aged 11-18 years. Three subjective measures of sleep were used: sleepiness, sleep quality, and sleep duration. They were compared to three measures of school performance: objective school
Walters, R J; Barnes, S J
The UCLA Biomedical Library, in cooperation with the UCLA Graduate School of Library and Information Science, offers a medical library internship program for second-year library school students. Goals, objectives, competencies, and training guidelines have been developed for the reference services section of the internship, including reference desk experience, online searching, group discussions, assigned readings, and training new staff members, allows flexibility in meeting the differing interests, needs, and abilities of trainees.
Volkovich, Ella; Tikotzky, Liat; Manber, Rachel
The aims of this paper are to study the associations between objective and subjective sleep in pregnant women, to examine which specific aspects of women's sleep are associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms and to test the moderating role of depressive and anxiety symptoms in the relations between objective and subjective sleep. The sample included 148 pregnant women. Objective sleep was measured by actigraphy for five nights at the participants' home, and subjective sleep was measured with the Pittsburgh sleep quality index. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Edinburgh postnatal depression scale and anxiety symptoms with the Beck anxiety inventory. Significant associations were found between the subjective sleep measures and the depressive and anxiety scores, but there were no significant associations between actigraphic sleep measures and the depressive and anxiety scores. Depressive and anxiety scores emerged as significant moderators of the links between objective and subjective sleep. The findings suggest that emotional distress (i.e., depressive and anxiety symptoms severity) during pregnancy is associated with subjective sleep disturbances but not with objective sleep disturbances. Importantly, only among women with higher levels of emotional distress was subjective sleep quality associated with objective sleep quality. These findings may suggest that women with higher levels of emotional distress are not necessarily biased in their perception of sleep quality. However, they may perceive fragmented sleep as more detrimental to their wellbeing.
Full Text Available When children are learning a novel object label, they tend to exclude as possible referents familiar objects for which they already have a name. In the current study, we wanted to know if children would behave in this same way regardless of how well they knew the name of potential referent objects, specifically, whether they could only comprehend it or they could both comprehend and produce it. Sixty-six monolingual German-speaking 2-, 3-, and 4-year-old children participated in two experimental sessions. In one session the familiar objects were chosen such that their labels were in the children's productive vocabularies, and in the other session the familiar objects were chosen such that their labels were only in the children's receptive vocabularies. Results indicated that children at all three ages were more likely to exclude a familiar object as the potential referent of the novel word if they could comprehend and produce its name rather than comprehend its name only. Indeed, level of word knowledge as operationalized in this way was a better predictor than was age. These results are discussed in the context of current theories of word learning by exclusion.
Reza Najjari; Behnaz Kermani; Hossein Farzad
.... Thus, the aim of present study was to determine the relationship between extraversion and introversion personality types and subjective and objective career success among nurses of selected private hospitals in Tehran. Methods...
Hastings, Gareth D; Marsack, Jason D; Nguyen, Lan Chi; Cheng, Han; Applegate, Raymond A
To prospectively examine whether using the visual image quality metric, visual Strehl (VSX), to optimise objective refraction from wavefront error measurements can provide equivalent or better visual performance than subjective refraction and which refraction is preferred in free viewing. Subjective refractions and wavefront aberrations were measured on 40 visually-normal eyes of 20 subjects, through natural and dilated pupils. For each eye a sphere, cylinder, and axis prescription was also objectively determined that optimised visual image quality (VSX) for the measured wavefront error. High contrast (HC) and low contrast (LC) logMAR visual acuity (VA) and short-term monocular distance vision preference were recorded and compared between the VSX-objective and subjective prescriptions both undilated and dilated. For 36 myopic eyes, clinically equivalent (and not statistically different) HC VA was provided with both the objective and subjective refractions (undilated mean ± S.D. was -0.06 ± 0.04 with both refractions; dilated was -0.05 ± 0.04 with the objective, and -0.05 ± 0.05 with the subjective refraction). LC logMAR VA provided by the objective refraction was also clinically equivalent and not statistically different to that provided by the subjective refraction through both natural and dilated pupils for myopic eyes. In free viewing the objective prescription was preferred over the subjective by 72% of myopic eyes when not dilated. For four habitually undercorrected high hyperopic eyes, the VSX-objective refraction was more positive in spherical power and VA poorer than with the subjective refraction. A method of simultaneously optimising sphere, cylinder, and axis from wavefront error measurements, using the visual image quality metric VSX, is described. In myopic subjects, visual performance, as measured by HC and LC VA, with this VSX-objective refraction was found equivalent to that provided by subjective refraction, and was typically preferred
Aura González Serna
Full Text Available This article aims to instill reflections on the theoretical debate around the development. The premise for fixing the analysis is to consider the impact of modes of apprehending social existence, since it is demarcated between subjectivities and objective conditions. Different conceptions appear to interpret and represent the individual and collective imagination. Fragmentation between subjectivity and objectivity, constitute an impediment to understanding the generic nature of being that builds and permanently transformed the social existence.
Kay, Daniel B.; Buysse, Daniel J.; Germain, Anne; Hall, Martica; Monk, Timothy H.
Discrepancy between subjective and objective measures of sleep is associated with insomnia and increasing age. Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia improves sleep quality and decreases subjective-objective sleep discrepancy. This study describes differences between older adults with insomnia and controls in sleep discrepancy, and tests the hypothesis that reduced sleep discrepancy following cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia correlates with the magnitude of symptom improvement rep...
Corchs, Silvia; Gasparini, Francesca; Schettini, Raimondo
The aim of this work is to study image quality of both single and multiply distorted images. We address the case of images corrupted by Gaussian noise or JPEG compressed as single distortion cases and images corrupted by Gaussian noise and then JPEG compressed, as multiply distortion case. Subjective studies were conducted in two parts to obtain human judgments on the single and multiply distorted images. We study how these subjective data correlate with No Reference state-of-the-art quality metrics. We also investigate proper combining of No Reference metrics to achieve better performance. Results are analyzed and compared in terms of correlation coefficients.
Aspel, Andrew D.; Willis, W. Grant; Faust, David
States that the literature suggests that decision makers lack insight into the cues they use to reach conclusions. Compares school psychologists' subjective versus objective cue-use when analyzing three clinical cases. Results indicated that there was little correspondence between the psychologists' subjective impressions about the importance of…
Klandermans, B.; Klein Hesselink, J.; Vuuren, T. van
The article argues that job insecurity has subjective aspects that are not determined by the objective levels of security of someone's employment status. These subjective aspects can be divided into two elements: the perceived probability and the perceived severity of job loss. The psychological
Annemarie eBoschloo; Lydia eKrabbendam; Sanne eDekker; Lee, Nikki C.; Renate ede Groot; Jelle eJolles
This study investigated the relation between sleep and school performance in a large sample of 561 adolescents aged 11-18 years. Three subjective measures of sleep were used: sleepiness, sleep quality and sleep duration. They were compared to three measures of school performance: objective school grades, self-reported school performance, and parent-reported school performance. Sleepiness – ‘I feel sleepy during the first hours at school’ – appeared to predict both school grades and self-repor...
KumarShrestha, Ajay; Singh Maharjan, Pradip; Paudel, Santosh
The insecure direct object reference simply represents the flaws in the system design without the full protection mechanism for the sensitive system resources or data. It basically occurs when the web application developer provides direct access to objects in accordance with the user input. So any attacker can exploit this web vulnerability and gain access to privileged information by bypassing the authorization. The main aim of this paper is to demonstrate the real effect and the identification of the insecure direct object references and then to provide the feasible preventive solutions such that the web applications do not allow direct object references to be manipulated by attackers. The experiment of the insecure direct object referencing is carried out using the insecure J2EE web application called WebGoat and its security testing is being performed using another JAVA based tool called BURP SUITE. The experimental result shows that the access control check for gaining access to privileged information is a very simple problem but at the same time its correct implementation is a tricky task. The paper finally presents some ways to overcome this web vulnerability.
Chao, Linda L
Despite the fact that many veterans returned from the 1991 Gulf War (GW) with complaints of memory difficulties, most neuropsychological studies to date have found little evidence of a correspondence between subjective and objective measures of cognitive function in GW veterans. However, if GW veterans complain about memory problems, it is likely that they experience memory problems in their daily lives. In this respect, it is notable that the past studies that have investigated the relationship between subjective and objective measures of cognitive function in GW veterans used composite measures to quantify subjective complaints and batteries of neuropsychological tests that assessed multiple domains to objectively measure cognitive function. The study's focus on memory was motivated by the suggestive evidence that subjective memory complaint may be a harbinger of further cognitive decline and increased risk for dementia. This study examined the association between subjective memory complaint (probed with single question: "Do you have difficulty remembering things?") and performance on a single objective test of verbal learning and memory (i.e., California Verbal Learning Test, CVLT-II) in a sample of 428 deployed GW veterans. GW veterans who endorsed memory difficulties performed more poorly on CVLT-II measures of total learning, retention, and delayed recall than GW veterans without subjective memory complaints (p subjective memory complaint significantly predicted CVLT-II retention scores (β = -0.12, p = 0.04) and marginally predicted CVLT-II delayed recall scores (β = -0.11, p = 0.05) over and above potentially confounding demographic and clinical variables. This study suggests that deployed GW veterans with subjective memory complaints have objective memory impairments. In light of the evidence linking subjective memory complaint to increased risk for dementia in the elderly, these findings suggest that aging GW veterans with subjective memory complaints
This article provides new insights into the impact of social engagement on CVD risk factors in older adults. We hypothesized that objective (social participation, social ties and marital status) and subjective (emotional support) aspects of social engagement are independently associated with objective measures of cardiovascular risk.
Pool-Goudzwaard, A.L.; Mens, Jan M A; Beekmans, RE; Tijhuis, MT
DESIGN: Cross sectional. OBJECTIVE: To fill a gap in the validation of the active straight leg raising (ASLR) test concerning the relation between a patient's subjective score on the ASLR test and the objective measured force. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The ASLR test is used to classify patients
The following laboratory exercise was designed to aid student understanding of the differences between subjective and objective measurements. Students assess the color and texture of different varieties of potato chip (crisps) by means of an intensity rating scale and a rank test and objectively with a colorimeter and texture analyzer. For data…
Giovanella, Luca; Imperiali, Mauro; Ferrari, Anna; Palumbo, Alessia; Furlani, Lino; Graziani, Maria Stella; Castello, Roberto
The present study was undertaken to establish serum thyroglobulin (Tg) normal reference values in a large group of healthy subjects. Four hundred and thirty-eight non-smoking healthy subjects were selected to assess the Tg reference values (209 males, 229 non-pregnant females, age 34.7±13.1 years). Inclusion criteria were: no personal or familial history of thyroid disease, thyrotropin levels from 0.5 to 2.00 mUI/L, negative thyroperoxidase and thyroglobulin antibodies. In addition, the patients had a normal size thyroid (females ≤18 mL, males ≤25 mL) without nodules on the thyroid ultrasound (TUS). According to National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB) criteria the Tg results were transformed to a logarithmic scale and reference ranges were calculated as mean±2 SD. Serum Tg was measured on the Beckman Coulter UniCel DxI 800 automated platform by the simultaneous 1-step immunoenzymatic Access Thyroglobulin assay (Beckmann-Coulter SA, Nyon, Switzerland). Serum Tg levels were higher in females than in males (p=0.0022). Accordingly, gender-specific reference values were calculated (i.e., males: 1.40-29.2 ng/mL; females: 1.50-38.5 ng/mL). To the best of the authors' knowledge, the first reference interval study for Tg that integrates NACB criteria and TUS assessment for the selection of the reference population is provided here.
Bruno Latour claims to have shown that a Kantian model of knowledge, which he describes as seeking to unite a disembodied transcendental subject with an inaccessible thing-in-itself, is dramatically falsified by empirical studies of science in action. Instead, Latour puts central emphasis on scientific practice, and replaces this Kantian model with a model of "circulating reference." Unfortunately, Latour's alternative schematic leaves out the scientific subject. I repair this oversight through a simple mechanical procedure. By putting a slight spin on Latour's diagrammatic representation of his theory, I discover a new space for a post-Kantian scientific subject, a subject brilliantly described by Ludwik Fleck. The neglected subjectivities and ceaseless practices of science are thus re-united. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cohen, Sheldon; Alper, Cuneyt M; Doyle, William J; Adler, Nancy; Treanor, John J; Turner, Ronald B
We ask whether subjective socioeconomic status (SES) predicts who develops a common cold when exposed to a cold virus. 193 healthy men and women ages 21-55 years were assessed for subjective (perceived rank) and objective SES, cognitive, affective and social dispositions, and health practices. Subsequently, they were exposed by nasal drops to a rhinovirus or influenza virus and monitored in quarantine for objective signs of illness and self-reported symptoms. Infection, signs and symptoms of the common cold, and clinical illness (infection and significant objective signs of illness). Increased subjective SES was associated with decreased risk for developing a cold for both viruses. This association was independent of objective SES and of cognitive, affective and social disposition that might provide alternative spurious (third factor) explanations for the association. Poorer sleep among those with lesser subjective SES may partly mediate the association between subjective SES and colds. Increased Subjective SES is associated with less susceptibility to upper respiratory infection, and this association is independent of objective SES, suggesting the importance of perceived relative rank to health. Copyright (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.
Anna A. Pichkhadze
Full Text Available This paper describes the Old Russian construction involving verbs of perception, thought, and communication. In this construction, a single semantic argument corresponds to two syntactic constituents: a direct object and a finite subordinate clause, the subject of which is coreferential with the direct object of the main clause. The Old Russian construction is seen as an instantiation of a cross-linguistic option in the argument structure of these verbs (above all, of the perception verbs, that is, to take the subject of the subordinate clause as the direct object.
McCracken, M J; McIlwain, T F; Fottler, M D
One of the major challenges facing health services management researchers is the measurement of various aspects of organizational performance. This challenge is exacerbated by a reluctance of many healthcare organizations to share data with researchers because of a fear of competitor access to these data. Even where objective, reliable and valid measures of organizational performance are available, typically they are available only in aggregate form, rather than for individual organizations. In response to these constraints, researchers have used subjective measures of performance often based on the perception of key executives. This research compares the subjective perceptions of hospital executives to the objective financial performance data of 60 hospitals. While the correlations between the subjective and objective measures vary, return of assets (ROA) and operating margin are the most valid subjective financial measures of hospital performance. Implications for future research are discussed.
Full Text Available Objective/Background: Sleep plays a central role in maintaining health and cognition. In most epidemiologic studies, sleep is evaluated by self-report questionnaires but several reports suggest that these evaluations might be less accurate than objective measures such as polysomnography or actigraphy. Determinants of the discrepancy between objective and subjective measures remain to be investigated. The aim of this pilot-study was to examine the role of mood states in determining the discrepancy observed between objective and subjective measures of sleep duration in older adults.Patients/Methods: Objective sleep quantity and quality were recorded by actigraphy in a sample of 45 elderly subjects over at least three consecutive nights. Subjective sleep duration and supplementary data, such as mood status and memory, were evaluated using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA.Results: A significant discrepancy was observed between EMA and actigraphic measures of sleep duration (p<0.001. The magnitude of this difference was explained by the patient’s mood status (p=0.020. No association was found between the magnitude of this discrepancy and age, sex, sleep quality or memory performance.Conclusion: The discrepancy classically observed between objective and subjective measures of sleep duration can be explained by mood status at the time of awakening. These results have potential implications for epidemiologic and clinical studies examining sleep as a risk factor for morbidity or mortality.
Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the subjective and objective physical function scores of patients with Chronic Low Back Pain (CLBP. Method: A cross- sectional survey design was used. Fifty-one patients with CLBP of mechanical origin were recruited from the physiotherapy out patient clinics of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital and the National Orthopedic Hospital both in Enugu, Nigeria. The box numerical scale, Roland-Morris Questionnaire (RMQ-24 and the Back Performance Scale (BPS were used to assess the present pain intensity, the subjective and objective functional status of the participants respectively. Pearson correlation was used to determine relationships. Multiple Regressions were used to determine the predictors of objective function. Alpha level was set at 0.5. Results: The mean age and Body Mass Index of the participants were 49.04 ± 14.33 years and 26.57 ± 4.29 kg/m2 respectively. The mean Pain Intensity, subjective disability (RMQ and objective disability (BPS scores were 6.33 ± 2.09, 9.76 ± 5.14 and 6.43 ± 2.9 respectively. Stepwise multiple regressions showed that when all the variables were entered only marital status was a significant predictor of objective physical function. Conclusion: There is no significant association between subjective and objective functions in patients with CLBP. However, marital status (married is a significant predictor of objective function in CLBP.
Gerlach, Robert W; Barker, Matthew L; Sagel, Paul A
To evaluate objective and subjective whitening responses of two marketed vital bleaching systems under intended use conditions. MATERIALSA ND METHODS: The randomized clinical trial evaluated 50 adults who received either a combination system with a 3% hydrogen peroxide bleaching gel, pre-formed dual arch tray, dentifrice and oral rinse (Rapid White), or 6% hydrogen peroxide whitening strips (Crest Whitestrips). Efficacy was assessed objectively from L*a*b* tooth color at Days 7 & 14, while subjective, first-person whitening perception was measured by questionnaire. A cumulative multinomial probability model was generated to predict subjective responses from objectively measured tooth color. At end-of-treatment, adjusted mean deltab* was -2.05 +/- 0.158 for the whitening strip group compared to -0.69 +/- 0.141 for the combination group, with these groups differing significantly (P color parameter and time point in this study. Relative to the combination system, subjects in the whitening strip group rated that product significantly (P impression. These subjective responses were correlated with objective changes in tooth color measured during treatment. When the deltab* effect was included in a cumulative multinomial probability model, deltaL*, deltaa*, and treatment were non-significant predictors. Odds ratios demonstrate that a subject had 3.3 times (1/0.3003 = 3.33) greater odds of selecting a higher whiteness rating when the value of deltab* was decreased by 1.0 unit (less yellowness). Similar results were noted for whitening satisfaction and overall impression of treatment.
DiNapoli, Elizabeth A; Gebara, Marie Anne; Kho, Terry; Butters, Meryl A; Gildengers, Ariel G; Albert, Steven M; Dew, Mary Amanda; Erickson, Kirk I; Reynolds, Charles F; Karp, Jordan F
We investigated the prevalence and correlates of discrepancies between self-reported sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) and objective sleep efficiency (actigraphy) in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and subsyndromal depression. This was a secondary analysis of a clincial trial with 59 adults aged 60 years and older with MCI and subsyndromal depression. We included baseline data on participants' subjective sleep quality, objective sleep efficiency, depressive symptoms, insomnia diagnosis, and cognitive functioning. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index subjective sleep quality and actigraphy-measured sleep efficiency were not significantly correlated ( r = -.06; P = .64), with 61% of participants having subjective-objective sleep discrepancies. Correlates of subjective-objective sleep discrepancy included the presence of an insomnia diagnosis and impaired memory, particularly delayed memory. These findings are important because subjective underestimation of symptoms in older adults with memory impairments may result in sleep disturbances going unrecognized in clinical practice; on the other hand, an insomnia disorder may be a possible remediable contribution to subjective overestimation of sleep disturbances.
Mantel, Claire; Ferchiu, Stefan Catalin; Forchhammer, Søren
In this paper a subjective test in which participants evaluate the quality of JPEG-XT compressed HDR images is presented. Results show that for the selected test images and display, the subjective quality reached its saturation point starting around 3bpp. Objective evaluations are obtained by app...... the best performance with the limit that it does not capture the quality saturation. The usage of the gamma correction prior to applying metrics depends on the characteristics of each objective metric.......In this paper a subjective test in which participants evaluate the quality of JPEG-XT compressed HDR images is presented. Results show that for the selected test images and display, the subjective quality reached its saturation point starting around 3bpp. Objective evaluations are obtained...... by applying a model of the display and providing the modeled images to three objective metrics dedicated to HDR content. Objective grades are compared with subjective data both in physical domain and using a gamma correction to approximate perceptually uniform luminance coding. The MRSE metric obtains...
Baillet, Marion; Cosin, Charlotte; Schweitzer, Pierre; Pérès, Karine; Catheline, Gwenaëlle; Swendsen, Joel; Mayo, Willy
Sleep plays a central role in maintaining health and cognition. In most epidemiologic studies, sleep is evaluated by self-report questionnaires but several reports suggest that these evaluations might be less accurate than objective measures such as polysomnography or actigraphy. Determinants of the discrepancy between objective and subjective measures remain to be investigated. The aim of this pilot-study was to examine the role of mood states in determining the discrepancy observed between objective and subjective measures of sleep duration in older adults. Objective sleep quantity and quality were recorded by actigraphy in a sample of 45 elderly subjects over at least three consecutive nights. Subjective sleep duration and supplementary data, such as mood status and memory, were evaluated using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). A significant discrepancy was observed between EMA and actigraphic measures of sleep duration (p sleep quality or memory performance. The discrepancy classically observed between objective and subjective measures of sleep duration can be explained by mood status at the time of awakening. These results have potential implications for epidemiologic and clinical studies examining sleep as a risk factor for morbidity or mortality.
Wallentin, Mikkel; Kristensen, Line Burholt; Olsen, Jacob Hedeager
of an object-centered, rather than egocentric, spatial reference frame. In this behavioral experiment we wanted to demonstrate a causal relationship between eye movement control and manipulation of spatial reference frames. Sixty two participants recalled either spatial ("Was X in front of Y?") or non......-spatial ("Was X darker than Y?") relations in a previously shown image containing two to four objects, each with an intrinsic orientation and unique luminance. During half of all recall trials a moving visual stimulus was presented, which participants had to ignore, thus suppressing eye movement. Response times...... were significantly slower for spatial relations with distraction while there was no effect on non-spatial relations. There was no effect on accuracy, i.e. WM maintenance. This is consistent with the hypothesis that in spatial representations the FEFs are involved in WM content manipulation...
Nguyen, Nhan T.; Hashemi, Kelley E.; Yucelen, Tansel; Arabi, Ehsan
This paper presents a new adaptive control approach that involves a performance optimization objective. The problem is cast as a multi-objective optimal control. The control synthesis involves the design of a performance optimizing controller from a subset of control inputs. The effect of the performance optimizing controller is to introduce an uncertainty into the system that can degrade tracking of the reference model. An adaptive controller from the remaining control inputs is designed to reduce the effect of the uncertainty while maintaining a notion of performance optimization in the adaptive control system.
Bijlenga, D; Jasperse, M; Gehlhaar, S K; Sandra Kooij, J J
To evaluate the QbTest as an objective measure versus self-reported ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD-RS) before and during stimulant treatment in adults with ADHD. We used the subjective ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD-RS), and the objective computerized QbTest, which is a 20-minute unconditional identical pairs test that measures attention, impulsivity, and also hyperactivity using a motion-tracking system. Patients were assessed before (baseline) and during medical treatment with stimulants (follow-up) in an observational study design. Data of n=145 patients at baseline and n=82 patients at follow-up were analyzed. There were significant symptom reductions on all symptom domains, but correlations between the tests were weak. Improvement on the QbTest was independent of the patient's age, gender, educational level, ADHD subtype, co-morbid disorders, and use of other medications. Patients with worst QbTest results at baseline showed most improvement at follow-up. The QbTest was more sensitive to medication effects than the ADHD-RS. QbTest objectified clinical significant medication effect in 54% of patients who subjectively did not report any clinical effects. Symptoms dimensions of objective and subjective tests refer to different psychological constructs. The QbTest is a valuable addition to existing subjective measures to assess medication effects in ADHD patients who have difficulties reporting treatment effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Boschloo, Annemarie; Krabbendam, Lydia; Dekker, Sanne; Lee, Nikki; De Groot, Renate; Jolles, Jelle
This study investigated the relation between sleep and school performance in a large sample of 561 adolescents aged 11–18 years. Three subjective measures of sleep were used: sleepiness, sleep quality, and sleep duration. They were compared to three measures of school performance: objective school grades, self-reported school performance, and parent-reported school performance. Sleepiness – “I feel sleepy during the first hours at school” – appeared to predict both school grades and self-repo...
Shin, Donghoon; Kim, Youngdoe; Kim, Yoo Seok; Körnicke, Thomas; Fuhr, Rainard
SB2, a biosimilar to infliximab reference product (INF), has an identical amino acid sequence and similar physicochemical functional properties to its reference product. The primary objective of this study is to demonstrate pharmacokinetic (PK) bioequivalence between SB2 and EU-sourced INF (EU-INF), between SB2 and US-sourced INF (US-INF), and between EU-INF and US-INF. This study was a randomized, single-blind, three-arm, parallel group study in 159 healthy subjects. All subjects received a single 5 mg/kg intravenous infusion of study drug and then were observed for 10 weeks to study PK, safety and immunogenicity. The primary PK parameters were area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) from time zero to infinity (AUCinf), AUC from time zero to the last quantifiable concentration (AUClast) and maximum concentration (C max). Bioequivalence for the primary PK parameters was to be concluded using an analysis of variance (ANOVA) if the 90 % confidence intervals (CIs) for the ratio of geometric least squares means (LSMeans) of the treatments compared were completely contained within the pre-defined equivalence margin, 0.8-1.25. All of the 90 % CIs for the geometric LSMean ratios of primary PK parameters for each comparison were within the pre-defined equivalence margin. The proportion of subjects who experienced treatment-emergent adverse events was comparable between treatments. The incidences of anti-drug antibodies between the three treatments were comparable. This study demonstrated biosimilarity of SB2 to its marketed reference products of infliximab in terms of PK equivalence in healthy subjects. SB2 was generally well tolerated and showed comparable safety and immunogenicity profiles to the reference products (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01922336).
Full Text Available The relationship between the objective accuracy of visual-short term memory (VSTM representations and their subjective conscious experience is unknown. We investigated this issue by assessing how the objective and subjective components of VSTM in a delayed cue-target orientation discrimination task are affected by intervening distracters. On each trial, participants were shown a memory cue (a grating, the orientation of which they were asked to hold in memory. On approximately half of the trials, a distractor grating appeared during the maintenance interval; its orientation was either identical to that of the memory cue, or it differed by 10 or 40 degrees. The distractors were masked and presented briefly, so they were only consciously perceived on a subset of trials. At the end of the delay period, a memory test probe was presented, and participants were asked to indicate whether it was tilted to the left or right relative to the memory cue (VSTM accuracy; objective performance. In order to assess subjective metacognition, participants were asked indicate the vividness of their memory for the original memory cue. Finally, participants were asked rate their awareness of the distracter. Results showed that objective VSTM performance was impaired by distractors only when the distractors were very different from the cue, and that this occurred with both subjectively visible and invisible distractors. Subjective metacognition, however, was impaired by distractors of all orientations, but only when these distractors were subjectively invisible. Our results thus indicate that the objective and subjective components of VSTM are to some extent dissociable.
Full Text Available The paper is devoted to such topical issue of Criminal Law as Object and Subject of Evasion of Taxes and Other Compulsory Payments. There are analyzed researched crime determination problems, which are connected with subject and object of tax and other compulsory payments evasion. In the course of the research, the author has made the conclusions that the object of the evasion of taxes and other compulsory payments group is the national economic interests. The direct object is the national economic interests in the sphere of state revenues or the national fiscal interests. While analyzing the law and regulations it is concluded that the subject of the evasion of taxes and other compulsory payments is the tax base (income, property, expenses and consumption, taxes, state and local government fees, as well as other payments determined by the State. The author has also concluded that the subject of the evasion of taxes and other compulsory payments does not include increase in the tax principal debt, fine and late charge, which are covered by the financial responsibility. The subject of the evasion of taxes and other compulsory payments may not include also income from illegal activity or proceeds resulting from criminal offences.
Zoraghi, Nima; Amiri, Maghsoud; Talebi, Golnaz; Zowghi, Mahdi
This paper presents a fuzzy multi-criteria decision-making (FMCDM) model by integrating both subjective and objective weights for ranking and evaluating the service quality in hotels. The objective method selects weights of criteria through mathematical calculation, while the subjective method uses judgments of decision makers. In this paper, we use a combination of weights obtained by both approaches in evaluating service quality in hotel industries. A real case study that considered ranking five hotels is illustrated. Examples are shown to indicate capabilities of the proposed method.
The current study examined children's ability to analyse pictures of a risky situation, both in relation to the characteristics of the pictures and in relation to the centering/decentering process of cognitive development. Sixty children aged 6, 9 or 11 years were given an objective or subjective version of a story about a risky situation involving road crossing and were asked to reconstruct it by putting six pictures in chronological order. The type of picture series, objective or subjective, had a different effect on the children's understanding and performance, according to the age. The older children were better at ordering the pictures, but on the subjective version only. The picture-version effect on planning time decreased with age; only the younger children took more time to start touching the pictures. On one hand, it is concluded that for the youngest children, objective representations are essential to analysing pictures showing a risk, whereas the oldest children will profit more from a subjective view. On the other hand, subjective representations, which give a more realistic view, provide an excellent tool for testing children's abilities. Subjective representations can be used to detect potentially risky behaviour in virtual situations (static pictures, or multimedia tools), since it permits one to predict at-risk behaviour in the street and to assess the effectiveness of remedial measures.
Reinholz, Markus; Schwaiger, Hannah; Poetschke, Julian; Epple, Andreas; Ruzicka, Thomas; Von Braunmühl, Tanja; Gauglitz, Gerd G
Currently, different types of treatments for pathological scars are available, however, to date, there is no established method of measurement to objectively assess therapeutic outcome. Treatment success is usually evaluated clinically by the physician and patient. Non-invasive imaging techniques, such as HD-OCT (high-definition optical coherence tomography), may represent a valuable diagnostic tool to objectively measure therapeutic outcome. To compare HD-OCT with ultrasound and subjective evaluation tools, such as questionnaires. In total, eight patients with pathological scars were treated in this pilot study with cryotherapy and intralesional steroid injections, and evaluated pre- and post-treatment using clinical examination, photography, sonography, and HD-OCT. The analysis of objective and subjective measuring methods was used to draw direct comparisons. HD-OCT revealed reduced epidermal and dermal thickness of the scar after four treatments with triamcinolone acetonide and cryotherapy. Based on sonography, a total reduction in scar height and reduction in scar depth was demonstrated. Both methods correlated well with the injected amount of triamcinolone acetonide. In addition, a positive correlation between well-established subjective and objective evaluation methods was found. We demonstrate that HD-OCT may be used as an objective diagnostic instrument to evaluate skin thickness under therapy for pathological scars, and serves as a valuable adjunctive device in combination with ultrasound and subjective evaluation tools. This provides additional information for the therapist concerning the quality and success of the applied treatment.
The study investigated the relationship between college students’ subjective and objective assessment of mathematics anxiety levels. Students rated their general and current mathematics anxiety levels, mathematical ability levels, and confidence in doing mathematics. The Revised Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale was used as an objective measure of their mathematics anxiety levels. Participants were 559 students, 406 (72.6%) women and 151 (27.0%) men. Results showed that perceived general mathe...
Salleh, N M; Fueki, K; Garrett, N R; Ohyama, T
The aim of this study was to compare objective and subjective hardness of selected common foods with a wax cube used as a test item in a mixing ability test. Objective hardness was determined for 11 foods (cream cheese, boiled fish paste, boiled beef, apple, raw carrot, peanut, soft/hard rice cracker, jelly, plain chocolate and chewing gum) and the wax cube. Peak force (N) to compress each item was obtained from force-time curves generated with the Tensipresser. Perceived hardness ratings of each item were made by 30 dentate subjects (mean age 26.9 years) using a visual analogue scale (100 mm). These subjective assessments were given twice with a 1 week interval. High intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for test-retest reliability were seen for all foods (ICC > 0.68; P < 0.001). One-way anova found a significant effect of food type on both the objective hardness score and the subjective hardness rating (P < 0.001). The wax cube showed significant lower objective hardness score (32.6 N) and subjective hardness rating (47.7) than peanut (45.3 N, 63.5) and raw carrot (82.5 N, 78.4) [P < 0.05; Ryan-Einot-Gabriel-Welsch (REGW)-F]. A significant semilogarithmic relationship was found between the logarithm of objective hardness scores and subjective hardness ratings across twelve test items (r = 0.90; P < 0.001). These results suggest the wax cube has a softer texture compared with test foods traditionally used for masticatory performance test, such as peanut and raw carrot. The hardness of the wax cube could be modified to simulate a range of test foods by changing mixture ratio of soft and hard paraffin wax.
Maglione, Jeanne E; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Peters, Katherine W; Paudel, Misti L; Yaffe, Kristine; Ensrud, Kristine E; Stone, Katie L
To investigate the longitudinal relationship between subjective and objective sleep disturbance and depressive symptoms. Longitudinal. Three US clinical centers. Nine hundred fifty-two community-dwelling older women (70 y or older). At baseline, subjective sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and objective sleep measures were assessed with wrist actigraphy. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) at baseline and approximately 5 y later. The analysis was restricted to women with few (GDS 0-2) depressive symptoms at baseline. There was an independent association between greater PSQI score (per standard deviation increase, indicating worse subjective sleep quality) at baseline and greater odds of worsening depressive symptoms (≥ 2-point increase in GDS) (Multivariate Odds Ratio [MOR] 1.19, confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.40, P = 0.036). Higher scores specifically on the sleep quality (MOR 1.41, CI 1.13-1.77, P sleep latency (MOR 1.21, CI 1.03-1.41, P = 0.018) PSQI subscales were also associated with greater odds for worsening depressive symptoms. Objective assessments revealed an association between baseline prolonged wake after sleep onset (WASO ≥ 60 min) and worsening depressive symptoms at follow-up (MOR 1.36, CI 1.01-1.84, P = 0.046). There were no associations between other objectively assessed sleep measures and worsening depressive symptoms. In older women with few or no depressive symptoms at baseline, those with more subjectively reported sleep disturbance and more objectively assessed fragmentation of sleep at baseline had greater odds of worsening depressive symptoms 5 y later. Future studies investigating this relationship in more detail are indicated. Maglione JE, Ancoli-Israel S, Peters KW, Paudel ML, Yaffe K, Ensrud KE, Stone KL, Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group. Subjective and objective sleep disturbance and longitudinal risk of depression in a cohort of older
Fiabane, Elena; Dordoni, Paola; Argentero, Piergiorgio
Elderly care workers have a higher risk than other professionals of developing burnout. Despite literature has highlighted the methodological advantage resulting from an integration of subjective and objective measures of stressors, only few studies have investigated job stress and burnout in the Italian elderly care context using this kind of assessment. The aims of this study were: (a) to investigate the level of stress and burnout and their organizational sources in a sample of eldercare workers by means of subjective and objective tools, and b) to compare the stress and burnout levels between health care staff and nursing aides employed in a residential home for the, elderly. The sample of the study included the totality of the elderly workers employed in a residential home for the elderly (N=49; response rate: 100%). The Maslach Burnout Inventory-GS and the Areas of Worklife Scale were used for the subjective assessment of burnout and organizational riskfactors. A check list of objective indicators was used for the objective assessment of job stress. Results from the self-report questionnaires showed high levels of exhaustion and a perception of high workload and unfairness for, the total sample. Objective parameters ofjob stress risk were biomechanical overload, dealing with suffering people and the risk of work-related violence. Nursing aides had greater risk of burnout and reported a greater number of objective sources of stress, compared to health care workers. This exploratory study supports the use of both subjective and objective method for the assessment of job stress risk as the most comprehensive approach for the implementation of preventive and corrective interventions.
Larivière, Nadine; Denis, Catherine; Payeur, Amélie; Ferron, Amélie; Levesque, Stéphanie; Rivard, Guillaume
Life balance is associated to health, well-being and quality of life and is a target of psychiatric rehabilitation interventions. However, little is known about this life dimension in women living with personality disorders. The purpose of this descriptive-correlational study was to compare and explore relationships between subjective life balance, objective time use, quality of life and perceived stress in women without a mental health disorder (n = 43) and women with a personality disorder (clusters B and C) (n = 30), aged between 18 and 50 years old. The variables were measured with the Life Balance Inventory (subjective life balance), the Occupational Questionnaire (objective time use), the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (perceived stress) and the Quality of Life Index (satisfaction and importance with life domains). The analyses showed that women with a personality disorder spend significantly less time in work but more time in daily tasks and leisure. Subjective life balance, quality of life and perceived stress were significantly lower in women with a personality disorder (p life balance was explained by quality of life (R(2) = 27.5 %). In women without a mental illness, subjective life balance was explained by quality of life and motherhood (R(2) = 36.1 %). To support the recovery of women with personality disorders and their quality of life, it is important to address objective and subjective time use to enable accomplishment of a variety of meaningful activities.
Kim, Min-Beom; Chung, Won-Ho; Choi, Jeesun; Hong, Sung Hwa; Cho, Yang-Sun; Park, Gyuseok; Lee, Sangmin
The object was to evaluate speech perception improvement through Bluetooth-implemented hearing aids in hearing-impaired adults. Thirty subjects with bilateral symmetric moderate sensorineural hearing loss participated in this study. A Bluetooth-implemented hearing aid was fitted unilaterally in all study subjects. Objective speech recognition score and subjective satisfaction were measured with a Bluetooth-implemented hearing aid to replace the acoustic connection from either a cellular phone or a loudspeaker system. In each system, participants were assigned to 4 conditions: wireless speech signal transmission into hearing aid (wireless mode) in quiet or noisy environment and conventional speech signal transmission using external microphone of hearing aid (conventional mode) in quiet or noisy environment. Also, participants completed questionnaires to investigate subjective satisfaction. Both cellular phone and loudspeaker system situation, participants showed improvements in sentence and word recognition scores with wireless mode compared to conventional mode in both quiet and noise conditions (P Bluetooth-implemented hearing aids helped to improve subjective and objective speech recognition performances in quiet and noisy environments during the use of electronic audio devices.
Park, Namgyoo K.; Chun, Monica Youngshin; Lee, Jinju
Compared to the significant development of creativity studies, individual creativity research has not reached a meaningful consensus regarding the most valid and reliable method for assessing individual creativity. This study revisited 2 of the most popular methods for assessing individual creativity: subjective and objective methods. This study…
Rietveld, S.; Prins, P.J.M.
Examined whether negative emotions influence subjective rather than objective symptoms of asthma, breathlessness, and airways obstruction in 40 asthmatic children (aged 7-18 yrs). The Ss were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 experimental conditions: (1) viewing an emotional film of 10 min; (2) performing
Van Dijk, Martin; De Groot, Renate; Van Acker, Frederik; Savelberg, Hans; Kirschner, Paul A.
Van Dijk, M. L., De Groot, R. H. M., Van Acker, F., Savelberg, H. C. M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2013, 26 February). Objectively and subjectively measured physical activity: associations with cognition and academic achievement in adolescents. Presentation at the CELSTEC plenary, Heerlen, The
Van Egmond, R.; Pappas, T.N.; De Ridder, H.
In a previous study we investigated the roughness of real world textures taken from the CUReT database. We showed that people could systematically judge the subjective roughness of these textures. However, we did not determine which objective factors relate to these perceptual judgments of
Okay-Somerville, Belgin; Scholarios, Dora
This article aims to understand predictors of objective (i.e. job offers, employment status and employment quality) and subjective (i.e. perceived) graduate employability during university-to-work transitions. Using survey data from two cohorts of graduates in the UK (N = 293), it contrasts three competing theoretical approaches to employability:…
Solomon, Zahava; And Others
Studied combat intensity, social support, and related stress reactions among soldiers who fought in the 1982 Israeli-Lebanon War, comparing those who experienced combat stress reaction (N=382) and those who did not (N=344). Subjective indicators were found to be stronger predictors than were objective indicators. Combat stress reaction was clearly…
Stumpf, Stephen A.; Tymon, Walter G., Jr.
We use a sample of working adults (N = 638) to explore the effects of past objective career success (mobility, promotions, and salary change) on current subjective success (human capital assessments by one's managers, core self evaluations, satisfaction with one's career) by gender, across an economic cycle (2004-2011), controlling for career…
Holsgaard-Larsen, Anders; Jensen, Carsten; Aagaard, Per
BACKGROUND: Associations between objective and subjective measures of knee function may facilitate rehabilitation in ACL-patients. AIM: The aim of this study is to investigate if a test-battery of functional and/or muscle outcomes are associated with Knee osteoarthritis outcome score (KOOS) subsc...
Van Dijk, Martin; De Groot, Renate; Savelberg, Hans; Van Acker, Frederik; Kirschner, Paul A.
Van Dijk, M. L., De Groot, R. H. M., Savelberg, H. C. M., Van Acker, F. H. M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2013, 25 May). Objectively versus subjectively measured physical activity: associations with cognition and academic achievement in adolescents. Poster presentation at the ISBNPA conference 2013, Ghent,
Burgersdijk, R.; Truin, G.J.; Kalsbeek, H.; Hof, M. van 't; Mulder, J.
In order to assess the objective and subjective need for cosmetic dentistry in the Dutch adult population in 1986 a stratified sample of 2784 dentate persons, aged 15-74 yr, participated in the study. The aesthetics of anterior teeth and first premolars in the maxillary mandibular arch were
Full Text Available This article describes a study of the Russian confectionery market. Determining the specificity of the market in Russia, identified and examined the components of this market with the help of subject - object orientation. As well as the actuality of considering new approaches to promote sales of confectionery products.
Rijsbergen, M.W.A.; Mark, R E; Kop, W J; de Kort, P L M; Sitskoorn, M M
Background and purpose: Objective cognitive performance (OCP) is often impaired in patients post-stroke but the consequences of OCP for patient-reported subjective cognitive complaints (SCC) are poorly understood. We performed a detailed analysis on the association between post-stroke OCP and SCC.
Minoo, Koohyar; Gu, Zhouye; Baylon, David; Luthra, Ajay
In high dynamic range (HDR) video, it is possible to represent a wider range of intensities and contrasts compared to the current standard dynamic range (SDR) video. HDR video can simultaneously preserve details in very bright and very dark areas of a scene whereas these details become lost or washed out in SDR video. Because the perceived quality due to this increased fidelity may not fit the same model of perceived quality in the SDR video, it is not clear whether the objective metrics that have been widely used and studied for SDR visual experience are reasonably accurate for HDR cases, in terms of correlation with subjective measurement for HDR video quality. This paper investigates several objective metrics and their correlation to subjective quality for a variety of HDR video content. Results are given for the case of HDR content compressed at different bit rates. In addition to rating the relevance of each objective metric in terms of its correlation to the subjective measurements, comparisons are also presented to show how closely different objective metrics can predict the results obtained by subjective quality assessment in terms of coding efficiency provided by different coding processes.
Jørgensen, Rikke; Zoffmann, Vibeke; Munk-Jørgensen, Povl
Recovery from schizophrenia involves both subjective elements such as self-appraised wellness and objective elements such as symptom remission. Less is known about how they interact. To explore this issue, this study examined the relationship over the course of 1 year of four assessments...
Chen, Yue; Ekstrom, Tor
Objectives Face perception impairment in schizophrenia has been demonstrated, mostly through experimental studies. How this laboratory-defined behavioral impairment is associated with patients’ perceptual experience of various faces in everyday life is however unclear. This question is important because a first-person account of face perception has direct consequences on social functioning of patients. In this study, we adapted and administered a self-reported questionnaire on narrative perceptual experience of faces along with psychophysical assessments of face perception in schizophrenia. Methods The self-reported questionnaire includes six rating items of face-related functioning in everyday life, providing a subjective measure of face perception. The psychophysical assessment determines perceptual threshold for discriminating different facial identities, providing an objective measure of face perception. Results Compared to controls (n=25), patients (n=35) showed significantly lower scores (worse performance) in the subjective assessment and significantly higher thresholds (worse performance) in the objective assessment. The subjective and objective face perception assessments were moderately correlated in controls but not in patients. The subjective face perception assessments were significantly correlated with measurements of a social cognitive ability (Theory of Mind), again in controls but not in patients. Conclusion These results suggest that in schizophrenia the quality of face-related functioning in everyday life is degraded and the role that basic face discrimination capacity plays in face-related everyday functioning is disrupted. PMID:26938027
Full Text Available Michael Linden,1,2 Marie Dietz,1 Christian Veauthier,3 Ingo Fietze3 1Research Group Psychosomatic Rehabilitation, Charité University Medicine Berlin, 2Department of Psychosomatic Medicine, Rehabilitation Centre Seehof, Teltow, 3Interdisciplinary Center of Sleep Medicine, Charité University Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany Objective: To elucidate the relationship between subjective complaints and polysomnographical parameters in psychosomatic patients.Method: A convenience sample of patients from a psychosomatic inpatient unit were classified according to the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI as very poor sleepers (PSQI >10, n=80 and good sleepers (PSQI <6, n=19. They then underwent a polysomnography and in the morning rated their previous night’s sleep using a published protocol (Deutschen Gesellschaft für Schlafforschung und Schlafmedizin morning protocol [MP].Results: In the polysomnography, significant differences were found between very poor and good sleepers according to the PSQI with respect to sleep efficiency and time awake after sleep onset. When comparing objective PSG and subjective MP, the polysomnographical sleep onset latency was significantly positively correlated with the corresponding parameters of the MP: the subjective sleep onset latency in minutes and the subjective evaluation of sleep onset latency (very short, short, normal, long, very long were positively correlated with the sleep latency measured by polysomnography. The polysomnographical time awake after sleep onset (in minutes was positively correlated with the subjective time awake after sleep onset (in minutes, evaluation of time awake after sleep onset (seldom, normal often, and subjective restfulness. The polysomnographical total sleep time (TST was positively correlated with the subjective TST. Conversely, the polysomnographical TST was negatively correlated with the evaluation of TST (high polysomnographical TST was correlated with the subjective
Cavuoto, Marina G; Ong, Ben; Pike, Kerryn E; Nicholas, Christian L; Bei, Bei; Kinsella, Glynda J
Research on the relationship between habitual sleep patterns and memory performance in older adults is limited. No previous study has used objective and subjective memory measures in a large, older-aged sample to examine the association between sleep and various domains of memory. The aim of this study was to examine the association between objective and subjective measures of sleep with memory performance in older adults, controlling for the effects of potential confounds. One-hundred and seventy-three community-dwelling older adults aged 65-89 years in Victoria, Australia completed the study. Objective sleep quality and length were ascertained using the Actiwatch 2 Mini-Mitter, while subjective sleep was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Memory was indexed by tests of retrospective memory (Hopkins Verbal Learning Test - Revised), working memory (n-back, 2-back accuracy) and prospective memory (a habitual button pressing task). Compared with normative data, overall performance on retrospective memory function was within the average range. Hierarchical regression was used to determine whether objective or subjective measures of sleep predicted memory performances after controlling for demographics, health and mood. After controlling for confounds, actigraphic sleep indices (greater wake after sleep onset, longer sleep-onset latency and longer total sleep time) predicted poorer retrospective (∆R(2) = 0.05, P = 0.016) and working memory (∆R(2) = 0.05, P = 0.047). In contrast, subjective sleep indices did not significantly predict memory performances. In community-based older adults, objectively-measured, habitual sleep indices predict poorer memory performances. It will be important to follow the sample longitudinally to determine trajectories of change over time. © 2016 European Sleep Research Society.
Jarrin, Denise C.; McGrath, Jennifer J.; Quon, Elizabeth C.
Objective Socioeconomic position (SEP) is inversely associated with many health outcomes, yielding a socioeconomic gradient in health. In adults, low SEP is associated with short sleep duration, poorer sleep quality, and difficulty initiating and maintaining sleep. Relatively little is known about this relation in youth. The aim of the present study was to examine whether socioeconomic gradients exist for various sleep indices among a healthy sample of children and adolescents. Method Participants took part in the larger Healthy Heart Project and included 239 youth (69.6% Caucasian; 45.6% female), aged 8–17 years (M =12.6, SD =1.9). Parental income and education were used to measure objective SEP. The Subjective Social Status Scale-Youth Version was used to measure subjective SEP. Sleep duration, sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, and sleep disturbances were assessed through self- and parent-report. Results In children, objective SEP was related with sleep duration (β =.35, p <.01), although subjective SEP was related with daytime sleepiness (βavg =.33, p <.01) and parent-reported sleep duration (β =.23, p <.05). In adolescents, subjective SEPwas related with sleep quality (β =.28, p <.01) and parent-reported sleep duration (β = −.18, p <.05), even after controlling for objective SEP. Conclusions Socioeconomic gradients were observed for multiple sleep measures in youth. Objective parental SEP was related with sleep complaints (e.g., sleep disturbances), and subjective SEP was related with sleep quality and daytime sleepiness. Findings suggest sleep may be one pathway underlying the socioeconomic gradient in health. Future research should aim to elucidate how distinct sleep constructs may explain how socioeconomic status “gets under the skin” to affect health. PMID:23730721
Miskowiak, K. W.; Petersen, Jeff Zarp; Ott, C. V.
-reported cognitive difficulties, and ratings of mood, stress, socio-occupational capacity, and quality of life. Cognitive symptom 'sensitivity' scores were calculated using a novel methodology, with positive scores reflecting disproportionately more subjective complaints than objective impairment and negative values...... reflecting disproportionately more objective than subjective impairment ('stoicism'). RESULTS: More subsyndromal depressive and manic symptoms, hospitalizations, BD type II, and being male positively predicted 'sensitivity', while higher verbal IQ predicted more 'stoicism'. 'Sensitive' patients were...... characterized by greater socio-occupational difficulties, more perceived stress, and lower quality of life. CONCLUSION: Objective neuropsychological assessment seems especially warranted in patients with (residual) mood symptoms, BD type II, chronic illness, and/or high IQ for correct identification...
Grønbæk, Kaj; Trigg, Randall Hagner
Nominated for the Doug Engelbart best paper award. This paper discusses experiences and lessons learned from the design of an open hypermedia system, one that integrates applications and data not ''owned'' by the hypermedia. The Dexter Hypertext Reference Model was used as the basis for the design....... Though our experiences were generally positive, we found the model constraining in certain ways and underdeveloped in others. For instance, Dexter argues against dangling links, but we found several situations where permitting and supporting dangling links was advisable. In Dexter, the data objects...
Chen, Yue; Ekstrom, Tor
Face perception impairment in schizophrenia has been demonstrated, mostly through experimental studies. How this laboratory-defined behavioral impairment is associated with patients' perceptual experience of various faces in everyday life is however unclear. This question is important because a first-person account of face perception has direct consequences on social functioning of patients. In this study, we adapted and administered a self-reported questionnaire on narrative perceptual experience of faces along with psychophysical assessments of face perception in schizophrenia. The self-reported questionnaire includes six rating items of face-related functioning in everyday life, providing a subjective measure of face perception. The psychophysical assessment determines perceptual threshold for discriminating different facial identities, providing an objective measure of face perception. Compared to controls (n = 25), patients (n = 35) showed significantly lower scores (worse performance) in the subjective assessment and significantly higher thresholds (worse performance) in the objective assessment. The subjective and objective face perception assessments were moderately correlated in controls but not in patients. The subjective face perception assessments were significantly correlated with measurements of a social cognitive ability (Theory of Mind), again in controls but not in patients. These results suggest that in schizophrenia the quality of face-related functioning in everyday life is degraded and the role that basic face discrimination capacity plays in face-related everyday functioning is disrupted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Arezes, P M; Neves, M M; Teixeira, S F; Leão, C P; Cunha, J L
The study of the thermal comfort of the feet when using a specific type of shoe is of paramount importance, in particular if the main goal of the study is to attend to the needs of users. The main aim of this study was to propose a test battery for thermal comfort analysis and to apply it to the analysis of trekking boots. Methodologically, the project involves both objective and subjective evaluations. An objective evaluation of the thermal properties of the fabrics used in the boots was developed and applied. In addition, the thermal comfort provided when using the boots was also assessed both subjective and objectively. The evaluation of the thermal comfort during use, which was simulated in a laboratory environment, included the measurement of the temperature and moisture of the feet. The subjective assessment was performed using a questionnaire. From the results obtained, it was possible to define an optimal combination of fabrics to apply to trekking boots by considering the provided thermal insulation, air permeability and wicking. The results also revealed that the subjective perception of thermal comfort appears to be more related to the increase in temperature of the feet than to the moisture retention inside the boot. Although the evaluation of knits used in the boots indicated that a particular combination of fibres was optimal for use in the inner layer, the subjective and objective evaluation of thermal comfort revealed that the evaluation provided by users did not necessarily match the technical assessment data. No correlation was observed between the general comfort and specific thermal comfort assessments. Finally, the identification of thermal discomfort by specific foot areas would be useful in the process of designing and developing boots. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available An important issue for international businesses and academia is selecting countries in which to expand in order to achieve entrepreneurial sustainability. This study develops a country selection model for sustainable construction businesses using both objective and subjective information. The objective information consists of 14 variables related to country risk and project performance in 32 countries over 25 years. This hybrid model applies subjective weighting from industrial experts to objective information using a fuzzy LinPreRa-based Analytic Hierarchy Process. The hybrid model yields a more accurate country selection compared to a purely objective information-based model in experienced countries. Interestingly, the hybrid model provides some different predictions with only subjective opinions in unexperienced countries, which implies that expert opinion is not always reliable. In addition, feedback from five experts in top international companies is used to validate the model’s completeness, effectiveness, generality, and applicability. The model is expected to aid decision makers in selecting better candidate countries that lead to sustainable business success.
Hernlund, E; Egenvall, A; Hobbs, S J; Peterson, M L; Northrop, A J; Bergh, A; Martin, J H; Roepstorff, L
The development of safety and quality standards for equestrian surfaces needs to be based on objective, repeatable measurements which allow comparisons between surfaces. These measurements should incorporate the assessment of surface performance by riders. This study provides data from objective and subjective assessment of functional properties of high-level show jumping competition and warm-up arenas. Twenty-five arenas in nine international show jumping events were evaluated by mechanical in-situ testing with a surface tester, rider assessments using visual analogue scales (198 riders provided 749 arena evaluations), descriptions of arena constructions and by laboratory tests of surface material. Mixed models were used to present subjective evaluation of rider perception of the functional properties for each arena while controlling for rider and event. The association between objective and subjective assessments were also explored creating mixed models, controlling for rider and event. Mechanical measurements of impact firmness, and to a lesser extent cushioning and grip, had a significant positive association with the riders' perception. Responsiveness as assessed by the Orono biomechanical surface tester (OBST) was negatively associated with the riders' perceptions, which suggests riders and the OBST had different concepts of this functional property and that further developments of the OBST might be necessary. Objectively measured uniformity showed no useful association with riders' perception. Even though arena assessments were made by top level riders, a substantial inter-rider variation was demonstrated. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Singareddy, Ravi; Krishnamurthy, Venkatesh B.; Vgontzas, Alexandros N.; FERNANDEZ-MENDOZA, Julio; Calhoun, Susan L.; Shaffer, Michele L.; Bixler, Edward O.
Significant association between sleep disturbances and suicidal ideation and/or attempts is reported in adults and adolescents. However, there is paucity of studies exploring the association between sleep and self-harm behaviors (SHB) in young children and are limited to only subjective sleep measures. We examined the association between SHB and both subjective and objective sleep in a population-based sample of 5–12 yr. old. Parents of every student in 3 local school (K-5) districts (n=7,312...
Ordoñez, Rodrigo Pizarro; Visentin, Chiara; Markovic, Milos
Façade insulation of several different construction types were subjectively evaluated using two psychoacoustic methods: paired comparisons using a two alternative forced choice (2-AFC) paradigm and direct scaling using a visual analogue scale (VAS). The stimuli used in the evaluations were obtained...... by filtering recordings of traffic noise with the frequency response of sound insulation measurements. The measurements were performed in typical Italian buildings in accordance with the ISO 140-5 standard. The objectives of the present paper are to compare the subjective evaluations obtained with the two...
Maglione, Jeanne E.; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Peters, Katherine W.; Paudel, Misti L.; Yaffe, Kristine; Ensrud, Kristine E.; Stone, Katie L.
Objective: To investigate the longitudinal relationship between subjective and objective sleep disturbance and depressive symptoms. Design: Longitudinal. Setting: Three US clinical centers. Participants: Nine hundred fifty-two community-dwelling older women (70 y or older). Measurements: At baseline, subjective sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and objective sleep measures were assessed with wrist actigraphy. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) at baseline and approximately 5 y later. The analysis was restricted to women with few (GDS 0-2) depressive symptoms at baseline. Results: There was an independent association between greater PSQI score (per standard deviation increase, indicating worse subjective sleep quality) at baseline and greater odds of worsening depressive symptoms (≥ 2-point increase in GDS) (Multivariate Odds Ratio [MOR] 1.19, confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.40, P = 0.036). Higher scores specifically on the sleep quality (MOR 1.41, CI 1.13-1.77, P sleep latency (MOR 1.21, CI 1.03-1.41, P = 0.018) PSQI subscales were also associated with greater odds for worsening depressive symptoms. Objective assessments revealed an association between baseline prolonged wake after sleep onset (WASO ≥ 60 min) and worsening depressive symptoms at follow-up (MOR 1.36, CI 1.01-1.84, P = 0.046). There were no associations between other objectively assessed sleep measures and worsening depressive symptoms. Conclusions: In older women with few or no depressive symptoms at baseline, those with more subjectively reported sleep disturbance and more objectively assessed fragmentation of sleep at baseline had greater odds of worsening depressive symptoms 5 y later. Future studies investigating this relationship in more detail are indicated. Citation: Maglione JE, Ancoli-Israel S, Peters KW, Paudel ML, Yaffe K, Ensrud KE, Stone KL, Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group. Subjective
Pierce, Larry A; Elston, Brian F; Clunie, David A; Nelson, Dennis; Kinahan, Paul E
To determine the extent of variations in computing standardized uptake value (SUV) by body weight (SUV(BW)) among different software packages and to propose a Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) reference test object to ensure the standardization of SUV computation between medical image viewing workstations. Research ethics board approval was not necessary because this study only evaluated images of a phantom. A synthetic set of positron emission tomographic (PET)/computed tomographic (CT) image data, called a digital reference object (DRO), with known SUV was created. The DRO was sent to 16 sites and evaluated on 21 different PET/CT display software packages. Users were asked to draw various regions of interest (ROIs) on specific features and report the maximum, minimum, mean, and standard deviation of the SUVs for each ROI. Numerical tolerances were defined for each metric, and the fraction of reported values within the tolerance was recorded, as was the mean, standard deviation, and range of the metrics. The errors in reported maximum SUV ranged from -37.8% to 0% for an isolated voxel with 4.11:1 target-to-background activity level, and errors in the reported mean SUV ranged from -1.6% to 100% for a region with controlled noise. There was also a range of errors in the less commonly used metrics of minimum SUV and standard deviation SUV. The variability of computed SUV(BW) between different software packages is substantial enough to warrant the introduction of a reference standard for medical image viewing workstations. © RSNA, 2015
Svendsen, Anne M; Kessing, Lars V; Munkholm, Klaus
Background: Patients with affective disorders experience cognitive dysfunction in addition to their affective symptoms. The relationship between subjectively experienced and objectively measured cognitive function is controversial with several studies reporting no correlation between subjective...... and objective deficits. Aims: To investigate whether there is a correlation between subjectively reported and objectively measured cognitive function in patients with affective disorders, and whether subjective complaints predict objectively measured dysfunction. Methods: The study included 45 participants; 15...... with bipolar disorder (BD), 15 with unipolar disorder (UD) and 15 healthy individuals. Participants' subjectively experienced cognitive function and objective cognitive function were assessed with the Massachusetts General Hospital Cognitive and Physical Functioning Questionnaire (CPFQ) and the Screen...
Toosizadeh, Nima; Mohler, Jane; Lei, Hong; Parvaneh, Saman; Sherman, Scott; Najafi, Bijan
Advances in wearable technology allow for the objective assessment of motor performance in both in-home and in-clinic environments and were used to explore motor impairments in Parkinson’s disease (PD). The aims of this study were to: 1) assess differences between in-clinic and in-home gait speed, and sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit duration in PD patients (in comparison with healthy controls); and 2) determine the objective physical activity measures, including gait, postural balance, instrumented Timed-up-and-go (iTUG), and in-home spontaneous physical activity (SPA), with the highest correlation with subjective/semi-objective measures, including health survey, fall history (fallers vs. non-fallers), fear of falling, pain, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, and PD stage (Hoehn and Yahr). Objective assessments of motor performance were made by measuring physical activities in the same sample of PD patients (n = 15, Age: 71.2±6.3 years) and age-matched healthy controls (n = 35, Age: 71.9±3.8 years). The association between in-clinic and in-home parameters, and between objective parameters and subjective/semi-objective evaluations in the PD group was assessed using linear regression-analysis of variance models and reported as Pearson correlations (R). Both in-home SPA and in-clinic assessments demonstrated strong discriminatory power in detecting impaired motor function in PD. However, mean effect size (0.94±0.37) for in-home measures was smaller compared to in-clinic assessments (1.30±0.34) for parameters that were significantly different between PD and healthy groups. No significant correlation was observed between identical in-clinic and in-home parameters in the PD group (R = 0.10–0.25; p>0.40), while the healthy showed stronger correlation in gait speed, sit-to-stand duration, and stand-to-sit duration (R = 0.36–0.56; p<0.03). This suggests a better correlation between supervised and unsupervised motor function assessments in healthy controls
R. Md Saad
Full Text Available Multicriteria decision making (MCDM is one of the methods that popularly has been used in solving personnel selection problem. Alternatives, criteria, and weights are some of the fundamental aspects in MCDM that need to be defined clearly in order to achieve a good result. Apart from these aspects, fuzzy data has to take into consideration that it may arise from unobtainable and incomplete information. In this paper, we propose a new approach for personnel selection problem. The proposed approach is based on Hamming distance method with subjective and objective weights (HDMSOW’s. In case of vagueness situation, fuzzy set theory is then incorporated onto the HDMSOW’s. To determine the objective weight for each attribute, the fuzzy Shannon’s entropy is considered. While for the subjective weight, it is aggregated into a comparable scale. A numerical example is presented to illustrate the HDMSOW’s.
Saad, R; Ahmad, M Z; Abu, M S; Jusoh, M S
Multicriteria decision making (MCDM) is one of the methods that popularly has been used in solving personnel selection problem. Alternatives, criteria, and weights are some of the fundamental aspects in MCDM that need to be defined clearly in order to achieve a good result. Apart from these aspects, fuzzy data has to take into consideration that it may arise from unobtainable and incomplete information. In this paper, we propose a new approach for personnel selection problem. The proposed approach is based on Hamming distance method with subjective and objective weights (HDMSOW's). In case of vagueness situation, fuzzy set theory is then incorporated onto the HDMSOW's. To determine the objective weight for each attribute, the fuzzy Shannon's entropy is considered. While for the subjective weight, it is aggregated into a comparable scale. A numerical example is presented to illustrate the HDMSOW's.
Full Text Available This paper assesses the Website of a chemical company, Deza, relative to strategy and Website quality. In an attempt to obtain both an objective and subjective measure of the quality of the Deza website, two assessment methods have been used. Firstly, a subjective assessment was conducted based on the WebQual survey instrument proposed by Barnes and Vidgen (2000. Secondly, a more objective assessment was conducted via an “informational content analysis”, based on the work of Carlson et. al. (2001. Analysis of the results of the WebQual survey suggest that overall, the Deza Website is perceived by the user as being of a higher quality than the Koppers Website, but a lower quality then the Nalon Website. The Information content analysis also ranks the Deza website as being superior to Koppers and inferior to Nalon.
Samuel J Bolitho
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Sleep-wake disturbances and concomitant cognitive dysfunction in Parkinson's disease (PD contribute significantly to morbidity in patients and their carers. Subjectively reported daytime sleep disturbance is observed in over half of all patients with PD and has been linked to executive cognitive dysfunction. The current study used daytime actigraphy, a novel objective measure of napping and related this to neuropsychological performance in a sample of PD patients and healthy, age and gender-matched controls. Furthermore this study aimed to identify patients with PD who may benefit from pharmacologic and behavioural intervention to improve these symptoms. METHODS: Eighty-five PD patients and 21 healthy, age-matched controls completed 14 days of wrist actigraphy within two weeks of neuropsychological testing. Objective napping measures were derived from actigraphy using a standardised protocol and subjective daytime sleepiness was recorded by the previously validated Epworth Sleepiness Scale. RESULTS: Patients with PD had a 225% increase in the mean nap time per day (minutes as recorded by actigraphy compared to age matched controls (39.2 ± 35.2 vs. 11.5 ± 11.0 minutes respectively, p < 0.001. Significantly, differences in napping duration between patients, as recorded by actigraphy were not distinguished by their ratings on the subjective measurement of excessive daytime sleepiness. Finally, those patients with excessive daytime napping showed greater cognitive deficits in the domains of attention, semantic verbal fluency and processing speed. CONCLUSION: This study confirms increased levels of napping in PD, a finding that is concordant with subjective reports. However, subjective self-report measures of excessive daytime sleepiness do not robustly identify excessive napping in PD. Fronto-subcortical cognitive dysfunction was observed in those patients who napped excessively. Furthermore, this study suggests that daytime
Bolitho, Samuel J.; Naismith, Sharon L.; Salahuddin, Pierre; Terpening, Zoe; Grunstein, Ron R.; Lewis, Simon J. G.
Introduction Sleep-wake disturbances and concomitant cognitive dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease (PD) contribute significantly to morbidity in patients and their carers. Subjectively reported daytime sleep disturbance is observed in over half of all patients with PD and has been linked to executive cognitive dysfunction. The current study used daytime actigraphy, a novel objective measure of napping and related this to neuropsychological performance in a sample of PD patients and healthy, age and gender-matched controls. Furthermore this study aimed to identify patients with PD who may benefit from pharmacologic and behavioural intervention to improve these symptoms. Methods Eighty-five PD patients and 21 healthy, age-matched controls completed 14 days of wrist actigraphy within two weeks of neuropsychological testing. Objective napping measures were derived from actigraphy using a standardised protocol and subjective daytime sleepiness was recorded by the previously validated Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Results Patients with PD had a 225% increase in the mean nap time per day (minutes) as recorded by actigraphy compared to age matched controls (39.2 ± 35.2 vs. 11.5 ± 11.0 minutes respectively, p napping duration between patients, as recorded by actigraphy were not distinguished by their ratings on the subjective measurement of excessive daytime sleepiness. Finally, those patients with excessive daytime napping showed greater cognitive deficits in the domains of attention, semantic verbal fluency and processing speed. Conclusion This study confirms increased levels of napping in PD, a finding that is concordant with subjective reports. However, subjective self-report measures of excessive daytime sleepiness do not robustly identify excessive napping in PD. Fronto-subcortical cognitive dysfunction was observed in those patients who napped excessively. Furthermore, this study suggests that daytime actigraphy, a non-invasive and inexpensive objective measure of
Bolitho, Samuel J; Naismith, Sharon L; Salahuddin, Pierre; Terpening, Zoe; Grunstein, Ron R; Lewis, Simon J G
Sleep-wake disturbances and concomitant cognitive dysfunction in Parkinson's disease (PD) contribute significantly to morbidity in patients and their carers. Subjectively reported daytime sleep disturbance is observed in over half of all patients with PD and has been linked to executive cognitive dysfunction. The current study used daytime actigraphy, a novel objective measure of napping and related this to neuropsychological performance in a sample of PD patients and healthy, age and gender-matched controls. Furthermore this study aimed to identify patients with PD who may benefit from pharmacologic and behavioural intervention to improve these symptoms. Eighty-five PD patients and 21 healthy, age-matched controls completed 14 days of wrist actigraphy within two weeks of neuropsychological testing. Objective napping measures were derived from actigraphy using a standardised protocol and subjective daytime sleepiness was recorded by the previously validated Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Patients with PD had a 225% increase in the mean nap time per day (minutes) as recorded by actigraphy compared to age matched controls (39.2 ± 35.2 vs. 11.5 ± 11.0 minutes respectively, p napping duration between patients, as recorded by actigraphy were not distinguished by their ratings on the subjective measurement of excessive daytime sleepiness. Finally, those patients with excessive daytime napping showed greater cognitive deficits in the domains of attention, semantic verbal fluency and processing speed. This study confirms increased levels of napping in PD, a finding that is concordant with subjective reports. However, subjective self-report measures of excessive daytime sleepiness do not robustly identify excessive napping in PD. Fronto-subcortical cognitive dysfunction was observed in those patients who napped excessively. Furthermore, this study suggests that daytime actigraphy, a non-invasive and inexpensive objective measure of daytime sleep, can identify patients with PD
Witt, Juri-Alexander; Glöckner, Carina; Helmstaedter, Christoph
Despite their excellent clinical validity, objective measures of memory often do not reflect self-perceived memory impairment. This discordance has mostly been attributed to depressed mood. Alternatively, a lack of ecological validity due to the rather short standard retention intervals of 20-60 min may be responsible for this discordance. Therefore, we explored the value of extended retention intervals in regard to subjective memory deficits. Our prospective study was based on 73 patients with epilepsy. In addition to the standard 30-min retention interval of a verbal learning and memory test (VLMT) patients were randomized to either a free delayed recall after 1 week or after 4 weeks. Mood was assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Forty-four patients (60%) reported self-perceived memory deficits, whereas objective verbal memory impairment was present in 26 patients (36%). Concordance between subjective and objective memory performance was observed in 53% of the patients. Multivariate analyses identified memory performance after 4 weeks and self-rated mood as determinants of subjective memory impairment. Self-perceived memory impairment correlated with the number of remembered words after 4 weeks (r = -0.361, p = 0.030) and the BDI total score (r = 0.332, p = 0.004) but neither with recall performance after 30 min nor after 1 week. Subjective memory appears to follow a different time scale than routine memory testing. Thus, the introduction of longer retention intervals may enhance the ecological validity of standard memory tests. Furthermore, the findings again underscore that controlling for mood is mandatory when dealing with subjective memory complaints. Copyright © 2011 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Reza Najjari; Behnaz Kermani; Hossein Farzad
Background: Career success is an evaluating and relational concept between someone's current progress and his/her future ideals of occupation. Researchers have shown personality characteristics are one of the main predictors of success and favorable job performance. Thus, the aim of present study was to determine the relationship between extraversion and introversion personality types and subjective and objective career success among nurses of selected private hospitals in Tehran. Methods...
Full Text Available Background: Career success is an evaluating and relational concept between someone's current progress and his/her future ideals of occupation. Researchers have shown personality characteristics are one of the main predictors of success and favorable job performance. Thus, the aim of present study was to determine the relationship between extraversion and introversion personality types and subjective and objective career success among nurses of selected private hospitals in Tehran. Methods: This research was a descriptive correlational study in which 230 nurses were selected from five private hospitals in Tehran as the study sample through Cochran sampling technique. Proportional to the number of nurses at each hospital, samples were selected via convenient random sampling. Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, Golparvar and Ghazavi career success scale and personal information form were utilized to collect the data. The collected data wereanalyzed by SPSS-19 software using Pearson correlation coefficient and regression analysis. Results: The results indicated a significant relationship between personality type and subjective and objective career success of the nurses. Further, there was a negatively significant relationship between subjective and objective career success and introversion personality type (sig=0/004, r=-0.391 and sig=0.001, r=-0.415, respectively. However, there was a positively significant relationship between subjective and objective career success and extraversion personality type (sig=0.001, r=0.473 and sig=0.001, r=0.545, respectively. Conclusion: It is essential to take into account the relationship between career success and related factors such as personality in the planning, decisions and technical choices. Besides, favorable environmental factors and effective factors such as knowledge, attitudes and cognitive, emotional and behavioral skills, activity level and the situation of the organization should also be taken into
Okay-Somerville, Belgin; Scholarios, Dora
This article aims to understand predictors of objective (i.e. job offers, employment status and employment quality) and subjective (i.e. perceived) graduate employability during university-to-work transitions. Using survey data from two cohorts of graduates in the UK (N = 293), it contrasts three competing theoretical approaches to employability: position (based on social background), possession (of human capital) and process (of career self-management (CSM)). Findings support the process vie...
Hauervig-Jørgensen, Charlotte; Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Toftum, Jørn
Today, face-to-face meetings are frequently replaced by video conferences in order to reduce costs and carbon footprint related to travels and to increase the company efficiency. Yet, complaints about the difficulty of understanding the speech of the participants in both rooms of the video...... conference occur. The aim of this study is to find out the main causes of difficulties in speech communication. Correlation studies between subjective perceptions were conducted through questionnaires and objective acoustic and indoor climate parameters related to video conferencing. Based on four single......-room and three combined-room measurements, it was found that the traditional measure of speech, such as the speech transmission index, was not correlated with the subjective classifications. Thus, a correlation analysis was conducted as an attempt to find the hidden factors behind the subjective perceptions...
Coo, Soledad; Milgrom, Jeannette; Trinder, John
This study examined the association between measures of objective sleep (OS) and subjective sleep (SS) to postpartum mood in healthy women from the third trimester of pregnancy to 10 to 12 weeks postpartum. Twenty-nine pregnant women completed self-report measures of mood and SS, and wore actigraphs for 7 continuous days during the third trimester (Time 1), within 15 days (Time 2), and 10 to 12 weeks postpartum (Time 3). The subjective perception of marked daytime dysfunction was associated with low mood during Time 1 and Time 3. Poor nighttime SS was related to low mood only at Time 2, whereas poor nighttime OS influenced stress during the same assessment time. These data indicate a stronger association between postpartum mood and the subjective perception of sleep than with OS quality and duration in healthy, non-depressed women, and highlight the awareness of poor daytime functioning as a significant contributor to new mothers' emotional wellbeing.
Tham, See Wan; Fales, Jessica; Palermo, Tonya M
There is increased recognition that sleep problems may develop in children and adolescents after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). However, few studies have utilized both subjective and objective measures to comprehensively assess sleep problems in the pediatric population following the acute post-TBI period. The aims of this study were to compare sleep in adolescents with mTBI to healthy adolescents using subjective and objective measures, and to identify the clinical correlates associated with sleep problems. One hundred adolescents (50 adolescents with mTBI recruited from three to twelve months post-injury and 50 healthy adolescents) completed questionnaires assessing sleep quality, depression, and pain symptoms, and underwent 10 day actigraphic assessment of sleep patterns. Adolescents with mTBI reported poorer sleep quality and demonstrated significantly shorter actigraphic-measured sleep duration, poorer sleep efficiency, and more wake time after onset of sleep, compared with healthy adolescents (all, padolescents, poorer self-reported sleep quality was predicted by greater depressive symptoms. Poorer actigraphic sleep efficiency was predicted by membership in the mTBI group after controlling for age, sex, depressive symptoms, and presence of pain. Our findings suggest that adolescents may experience subjective and objective sleep disturbances up to one year following mTBI. These findings require further replication in larger samples. Additionally, research is needed to identify possible mechanisms for poor sleep in youth with mTBI.
Nyunt, Ma Shwe Zin; Shuvo, Faysal Kabir; Eng, Jia Yen; Yap, Keng Bee; Scherer, Samuel; Hee, Li Min; Chan, Siew Pang; Ng, Tze Pin
This study examined the associations of subjective and objective measures of the neighbourhood environment with the transportation physical activity of community-dwelling older persons in Singapore. A modified version of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS) and Geographical Information System (GIS) measures of the built environment characteristics were related to the frequency of walking for transportation purpose in a study sample of older persons living in high-density apartment blocks within a public housing estate in Singapore. Relevant measured variables to assess the complex relationships among built environment measures and transportation physical activity were examined using structural equation modelling and multiple regression analyses. The subjective measures of residential density, street connectivity, land use mix diversity and aesthetic environment and the objective GIS measure of Accessibility Index have positively significant independent associations with transportation physical activity, after adjusting for demographics, socio-economic and health status. Subjective and objective measures are non-overlapping measures complementing each other in providing information on built environment characteristics. For elderly living in a high-density urban neighborhood, well connected street, diversity of land use mix, close proximity to amenities and facilities, and aesthetic environment were associated with higher frequency of walking for transportation purposes.
Hwang, Jae-Yeon [Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Department of Radiology, Yangsan-si, Gyeongsangnam-do (Korea, Republic of); Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Research Institute for Convergence of Biomedical Science and Technology, Yangsan-si, Gyeongsangnam-do (Korea, Republic of); Choo, Ki Seok; Choi, Yoon Young; Kim, Jin Hyeok; Ryu, Hwaseong; Kim, Yong-Woo; Jeon, Ung Bae; Nam, Kyung Jin [Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Department of Radiology, Yangsan-si, Gyeongsangnam-do (Korea, Republic of); Han, Junhee [Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Division of Biostatistics, Research Institute for Convergence of Biomedical Science and Technology, Yangsan-si, Gyeongsangnam-do (Korea, Republic of)
Several recent studies showed the optimal contrast enhancement with a low-concentration and iso-osmolar contrast media in both adult and pediatric patients. However, low contrast media concentrations are not routinely used due to concerns of suboptimal enhancement of cardiac structures and small vessels. To evaluate the feasibility of using iso-osmolar contrast media containing a low iodine dose for CT cardiac angiography at 80 kilovolts (kVp) in neonates and infants. The iodixanol 270 group consisted of 79 CT scans and the iopromide 370 group of 62 CT scans in patients ≤1 year old. Objective measurement of the contrast enhancement was analyzed and contrast-to-noise ratios of the ascending aorta and left ventricle were calculated. Regarding subjective measurement, a four-point scale system was devised to evaluate degrees of contrast enhancement, image noise, motion artifact and overall image quality of each image set. Reader performance for correctly differentiating iodixanol 270 and iopromide 370 by visual assessment was evaluated. Group objective and subjective measurements were nonsignificantly different. Overall sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy for correctly differentiating iodixanol 270 and iopromide 370 by visual assessment were 42.8%, 59%, and 50%, respectively. The application of iodixanol 270 achieved optimal enhancement for performing pediatric cardiac CT angiography at 80 kVp in neonates and infants. Objective measurements of contrast enhancement and subjective image quality assessments were not statistically different in the iodixanol 270 and iopromide 370 groups. (orig.)
Ramesh Kumar Marya
Full Text Available Problem based learning curriculum is widely recognized as a progressive, learner-centered, active learning approach and is currently used in the entire medical curriculum in over 10% of medical schools worldwide. But, is there real evidence that PBL is more effective than traditional approaches? In this report, outcomes of a PBL tutorial in 55 second year MBBS students have been evaluated by the facilitators (subjective evaluation and by asking the students a set of questions based on the intended outcome of the PBL ( objective evaluation soon after the completion of PBL tutorial. In the subjective assessment by the facilitators, all the students scored over 80% marks. In the objective assessment, out of 55 students, only three students scored over 50% marks. Perusal of answers to individual questions revealed appalling lack of knowledge of the subject. To conclude, before introduction of PBL-based curriculum in medical schools, usefulness of PBLs in preclinical medical education needs to be thoroughly investigated by objective evaluation of intended outcomes.
Yamasaki, Y; Kuwatsuru, R; Tsukiyama, Y; Oki, K; Koyano, K
We aimed to investigate mastication predominance in healthy dentate individuals and patients with unilateral posterior missing teeth using objective and subjective methods. The sample comprised 50 healthy dentate individuals (healthy dentate group) and 30 patients with unilateral posterior missing teeth (partially edentulous group). Subjects were asked to freely chew three kinds of test foods (peanuts, beef jerky and chewing gum). Electromyographic activity of the bilateral masseter muscles was recorded. The chewing side (right side or left side) was judged by the level of root mean square electromyographic amplitude. Mastication predominance was then objectively assessed using the mastication predominant score and the mastication predominant index. Self-awareness of mastication predominance was evaluated using a modified visual analogue scale. Mastication predominance scores of the healthy dentate and partially edentulous groups for each test food were analysed. There was a significant difference in the distribution of the mastication predominant index between the two groups (P < 0·05). The mastication predominant score was weakly correlated with self-awareness of mastication predominance in the healthy dentate group, whereas strong correlation was observed in the partially edentulous group (P < 0·05). The results suggest that the individuals with missing unilateral posterior teeth exhibited greater mastication predominance and were more aware of mastication predominance than healthy dentate individuals. Our findings suggest that an objective evaluation of mastication predominance is more precise than a subjective method. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Estévez-López, Fernando; Segura-Jiménez, Víctor; Álvarez-Gallardo, Inmaculada C; Borges-Cosic, Milkana; Pulido-Martos, Manuel; Carbonell-Baeza, Ana; Aparicio, Virginia A; Geenen, Rinie; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel
The aim of this study was to identify subgroups in terms of adaptation to FM and to test differences in FM severity between these subgroups. The al-Ándalus project made it possible to perform a comprehensive population-based cross-sectional study in 486 FM patients including multiple assessments of modifiable (could be targeted in therapy) resilience and vulnerability factors, measured by objective and subjective assessments, related to psychological and physical function. FM severity was assessed by means of FM impact (total score of the Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire) and distress (Polysymptomatic Distress Scale of the modified 2011 preliminary criteria for FM). Exploratory factor analysis, cluster analysis and analysis of variance were conducted. Factor analysis yielded eight factors: three included objective measures (declarative memory, active lifestyle and objective physical fitness) and five included subjective measures (fatigue, psychological distress, catastrophizing, resilience and subjective physical fitness). Cluster analysis based on these eight factors identified five profiles: Adapted (16%), Fit (18%), Poor performer (20%), Positive (20%) and Maladapted (26%). Most profile comparisons revealed different levels of FM severity varying from Adapted (the most favourable profile) to Maladapted (the most unfavourable profile) with Fit, Poor performer and Positive obtaining intermediate positions. Heterogeneity of FM was shown by five clinically meaningful profiles of modifiable factors that were associated with FM severity. It is of clinical interest to examine whether these profiles are associated with FM prognosis and the effectiveness of interventions, which would enhance the development of customized interventions based on adaptation profiles in FM.
Dalle Grave, Riccardo; Calugi, Simona; Marchesini, Giulio
To define the utility of the DSM-IV-TR definition of binge eating, as it applies to anorexia nervosa (AN) and underweight eating disorder not otherwise specified (ED-NOS). We investigated the psychopathological features associated with bulimic episodes in 105 underweight individuals with eating disorders who reported regular objective bulimic episodes with or without subjective bulimic episodes (OBE group, n = 33), regular subjective bulimic episodes only (SBE group, n = 36) and neither objective nor subjective bulimic episodes (n = 36, no-RBE group). The Eating Disorder Examination (EDE), anxiety, depression, and personality tests were administered before and upon completion of inpatient cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) treatment 6 months later. Compared with the SBE group, OBE subjects had higher body mass index, and more frequent self-induced vomiting, while both OBE and SBE groups had more severe eating disorder psychopathology and lower self-directness than the no-RBE group. Dropout rates and outcomes in response to inpatient CBT were similar in the three groups. Despite a few significant differences at baseline, the similar outcome in response to CBT indicates that categorizing patients with underweight eating disorder on the basis of the type or frequency of bulimic episodes is of limited clinical utility. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available This study investigated the relation between sleep and school performance in a large sample of 561 adolescents aged 11-18 years. Three subjective measures of sleep were used: sleepiness, sleep quality and sleep duration. They were compared to three measures of school performance: objective school grades, self-reported school performance, and parent-reported school performance. Sleepiness – ‘I feel sleepy during the first hours at school’ – appeared to predict both school grades and self-reported school performance. Sleep quality on the other hand – as a measure of (uninterrupted sleep and/or problems falling asleep or waking up – predicted parent-reported school performance. Self- and parent-reported school performance correlated only moderately with school grades. So it turns out that the measures used to measure either sleep or school performance impacts whether or not a relation is found. Further research on sleep and school performance should take this into account. The findings do underscore the notion that sleep in adolescence can be important for learning. They are compatible with the hypothesis that a reduced sleep quality can give rise to sleepiness in the first hours at school which results in lower school performance. This notion could have applied value in counseling adolescents and their parents in changing adolescents’ sleep behavior.
Boschloo, Annemarie; Krabbendam, Lydia; Dekker, Sanne; Lee, Nikki; de Groot, Renate; Jolles, Jelle
This study investigated the relation between sleep and school performance in a large sample of 561 adolescents aged 11-18 years. Three subjective measures of sleep were used: sleepiness, sleep quality, and sleep duration. They were compared to three measures of school performance: objective school grades, self-reported school performance, and parent-reported school performance. Sleepiness - "I feel sleepy during the first hours at school" - appeared to predict both school grades and self-reported school performance. Sleep quality on the other hand - as a measure of (un)interrupted sleep and/or problems falling asleep or waking up - predicted parent-reported school performance. Self- and parent-reported school performance correlated only moderately with school grades. So it turns out that the measures used to measure either sleep or school performance impacts whether or not a relation is found. Further research on sleep and school performance should take this into account. The findings do underscore the notion that sleep in adolescence can be important for learning. They are compatible with the hypothesis that a reduced sleep quality can give rise to sleepiness in the first hours at school which results in lower school performance. This notion could have applied value in counseling adolescents and their parents in changing adolescents' sleep behavior.
Describes the BCcampus Library Services Gateway, chat reference pilot project and planning for a provincial post-secondary virtual reference service. The rationale, vision, models, and challenges for a post-secondary virtual reference service are discussed.
Biörserud, Christina; Olbers, Torsten; Staalesen, Trude; Elander, Anna; Olsén, Monika Fagevik
Excess skin is a well-known side effect of massive weight loss after bariatric surgery. However, there is a lack of longitudinal follow-ups. The primary aims of this study were to investigate the development and amount of excess skin after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and to relate objective results to subjective experiences. University hospital. From 2009 to 2012, 200 patients were included and assessed with respect to excess skin before and 18 months after bariatric surgery. Patients were measured according to a standardized protocol and completed a questionnaire regarding their subjective experience of excess skin. A follow-up visit was completed in 149 patients (78%). All ptosis measurements decreased after weight reduction except for ptosis on the thighs. When comparing objective measurements with patients' subjective experience and discomfort from excess skin, we found little or low correlation in most body parts (rs .03-.67). The prediction analysis indicated that, for every centimeter of ptosis on the abdomen preoperatively, there was a 2-fold greater probability of having a postoperative ptosis on the abdomen of>3 cm (OR = 2.32, 1.76-3.07). The objective measurement of excess skin provides unique information in postbariatric patients' body habitus. Although the measured excess skin decreased compared with preoperative measurements, patients seem to become more aware of and disturbed and discomforted by it after the weight loss. Importantly, the objectively assessed measurements of excess skin correlated fairly with the perceived discomfort. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kobayashi, Ihori; Huntley, Edward; Lavela, Joseph; Mellman, Thomas A
Although reports of sleep disturbances are common among individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), results of polysomnographic (PSG) studies have inconsistently documented abnormalities and have therefore suggested "sleep state misperception." The authors' study objectives were to compare sleep parameters measured objectively and subjectively in the laboratory and at home in civilians with and without trauma exposure and PTSD. Cross-sectional study. PSG recordings in a sleep laboratory and actigraphic recordings in participants' homes. One hundred three urban-residing African Americans with and without trauma exposure and PTSD who participated in a larger study. N/A. Sleep parameters (total sleep time [TST], sleep onset latency [SOL], and wake after sleep onset [WASO]) were assessed using laboratory PSG and home actigraphy. A sleep diary was completed in the morning after PSG and actigraphy recordings. Habitual TST, SOL, and WASO were assessed using a sleep questionnaire. The Clinician Administered PTSD Scale was administered to assess participants' trauma exposure and PTSD diagnostic status. Participants, regardless of their trauma exposure/PTSD status, underestimated WASO in the diary and questionnaire relative to actigraphy and overestimated SOL in the diary relative to PSG. Among participants with current PTSD, TST diary estimates did not differ from the actigraphy measure in contrast with those without current PTSD who overestimated TST. No other significant group differences in discrepancies between subjective and objective sleep measures were found. Discrepancies between subjectively and objectively measured sleep parameters were not associated with trauma exposure or PTSD. This challenges prior assertions that individuals with PTSD overreport their sleep disturbances.
Maske, Ulrike E.; Zeeb, Hajo; Lampert, Thomas
Background There is substantial evidence that lower objective socioeconomic status (SES)—as measured by education, occupation, and income—is associated with a higher risk of depression. Less is known, however, about associations between perceptions of social status and the prevalence of depression. This study investigated associations of both objective SES and subjective social status (SSS) with depressive symptoms among adults in Germany. Methods Data were obtained from the 2013 special wave of the German Health Update study, a national health survey of the adult population in Germany. Objective SES was determined using a composite index based on education, occupation, and income. The three single dimensions of the index were also used individually. SSS was measured using the MacArthur Scale, which asks respondents to place themselves on a 10-rung ‘social ladder’. Regression models were employed to examine associations of objective SES and SSS with current depressive symptoms, as assessed with the eight-item Patient Health Questionnaire depression scale (PHQ-8 sum score ≥10). Results After mutual adjustment, lower objective SES and lower SSS were independently associated with current depressive symptoms. The associations were found in both sexes and persisted after further adjustment for sociodemographic factors, long-term chronic conditions, and functional limitations. Mediation analyses revealed a significant indirect relationship between objective SES and depressive symptoms through SSS. When the three individual dimensions of objective SES were mutually adjusted, occupation and income were independently associated with depressive symptoms. After additional adjustment for SSS, these associations attenuated but remained significant. Conclusions The findings suggest that perceptions of low social status in adults may be involved in the pathogenesis of depression and play a mediating role in the relationship between objective SES and depressive symptoms
Frei, Patrizia; Mohler, Evelyn; Röösli, Martin
Various epidemiological studies have found an association between noise exposure and sleep quality, but the mediating role of annoyance is unclear for this association. To investigate the effects of both objectively modeled road traffic noise exposure as well as noise annoyance on subjective and objective sleep quality measures. 1375 randomly selected participants from Basel, Switzerland, were enrolled in a questionnaire survey in 2008 with follow-up one year later (1122 participants). We assessed sleep quality by using a standardized sleep disturbance score, as well as the level of annoyance with road traffic noise at home. Objective sleep efficiency data was collected in a nested diary study by means of actigraphy from 119 subjects for 1551 nights. Residential nocturnal exposure to road traffic noise was modeled using validated models. Data were analyzed with random intercept mixed-effects regression models. In the main study, self-reported sleep quality was strongly related to noise annoyance (p for trendnoise exposure (p=0.07). In the nested diary study objectively measured sleep efficiency was not related to annoyance (p=0.25) but correlated with modeled noise exposure (p=0.02). Strikingly, noise induced decreased sleep efficiency was even more significant for study participants who were not annoyed with traffic noise (p=0.001). This study indicates that effects of nocturnal traffic noise on objective sleep quality are independent of perceived noise annoyance, whereas the association between self-reported sleep quality and noise is mediated by noise annoyance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Dautovich, Natalie D; McCrae, Christina S; Rowe, Meredeth
To compare objective and subjective measurements of napping and to examine the relationship between evening napping and nocturnal sleep in older adults. For 12 days, participants wore actigraphs and completed sleep diaries. Community. One hundred individuals who napped, aged 60 to 89 (including good and poor sleepers with typical age-related medical comorbidities). Twelve days of sleep diary and actigraphy provided subjective and objective napping and sleep data. Evening naps (within 2 hours of bedtime) were characteristic of the sample, with peak nap time occurring between 20:30 and 21:00 (average nap time occurred between 14:30 and 15:00). Two categories of nappers were identified: those who took daytime and evening naps and daytime-only. No participants napped during the evening only. Day-and-evening nappers significantly underreported evening napping and demonstrated lower objectively measured sleep onset latencies (20.0 vs 26.5 minutes), less wake after sleep onset (51.4 vs 72.8 minutes), and higher sleep efficiencies (76.8 vs 82%) than daytime-only nappers. Day and evening napping was prevalent in this sample of community-dwelling good and poor sleepers but was not associated with impaired nocturnal sleep. Although the elimination or restriction of napping is a common element of cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia, these results suggest that a uniform recommendation to restrict or eliminate napping (particularly evening napping) may not meet the needs of all older individuals with insomnia.
Werner, Gabriela G.; Ford, Brett Q.; Mauss, Iris B.; Schabus, Manuel; Blechert, Jens; Wilhelm, Frank H.
Cardiac vagal control (CVC) has been linked to both physical and mental health. One critical aspect of health, that has not received much attention, is sleep. We hypothesized that adults with higher CVC – operationalized by high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV) – will exhibit better sleep quality assessed both subjectively (i.e., with Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) and objectively (i.e., with polysomnography). HF-HRV was measured in 29 healthy young women during an extended neutral film clip. Participants then underwent full polysomnography to obtain objective measures of sleep quality and HF-HRV during a night of sleep. As expected, higher resting HF-HRV was associated with higher subjective and objective sleep quality (i.e., shorter sleep latency and fewer arousals). HF-HRV during sleep (overall or separated by sleep phases) showed less consistent relationships with sleep quality. These findings indicate that high waking CVC may be a key predictor of healthy sleep. PMID:25709072
Full Text Available In the article it is pointed out that European and worldwide integration processes, the informatization and the competitive character of all the spheres of social life require the overcoming of the tendency of “catching up” that is characteristic of Ukraine — in favour of leaving behind the transformation of the educational sphere, especially the pedagogical one. The attitude of a human being to the world contains theoretical (knowledge and ideas and practical aspects. Created in the process of social development new establishments, things, technologies have a human content; implement human subjectivity — knowledge, intellect, feelings, thinking, volition, convictions, objectives etc. Under discordant challenges of globalization, the philosophy of education can provide an adequate answer, approaches and objectives. The philosophy of education functions as a combination of world view theories (ideas, scientific, cultural, value, moral and ethical principles that predetermine not only the content of education but also a certain type of personality… This takes into account the peculiarities of technogenic (western and traditional (eastern cultures, that is the type of personality: individualistic (the West, collectivistic (the East. The methodological prospects are determined by the correlation of humanitarian, dialogical, synergetic paradigms, the philosophic anthropology and ontology with the accent on culture creation as overcoming the boundaries of the possible (cognition, activity creation of the being by means of culture. The humanitarian and culture creating strategies of the philosophy of education are grounded as conceptually reasonable: integrity and interaction of basic being and value concepts (man-science-culture-art-the style of thinking and objectives — the formation of a personality as a subject of culture. The formation of the subject of culture takes place in a certain social community, among moral rules, customs and
Singareddy, Ravi; Krishnamurthy, Venkatesh B; Vgontzas, Alexandros N; Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Calhoun, Susan L; Shaffer, Michele L; Bixler, Edward O
Significant association between sleep disturbances and suicidal ideation and/or attempts is reported in adults and adolescents. However, there is paucity of studies exploring the association between sleep and self-harm behaviors (SHB) in young children and are limited to only subjective sleep measures. We examined the association between SHB and both subjective and objective sleep in a population-based sample of 5-12 yr old. Parents of every student in 3 local school (K-5) districts (n=7312) was sent a screening questionnaire. Randomly selected children from this sample underwent a comprehensive history, physical examination, a 9-h overnight polysomnogram and completed several questionnaires. Among the final sample (n=693), 27 children had SHB with adjusted prevalence of 3%. There was no difference in age, gender, obesity, or socioeconomic status in subjects with or without SHB. Significantly more children with SHB had subjective sleep difficulty and depression. Difficulty maintaining sleep and frequent nightmares were associated with SHB independent of depression or demographics. Polysomnographic %REM-sleep was significantly higher in the SHB group after adjusting for demographics and depression. These data indicate that parent reported sleep disturbances are independently associated with SHB. It is possible that higher REM-sleep is a non-invasive biomarker for risk of self-harm behaviors in young children. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Auditory stream segregation refers to a segregated percept of signal streams with different acoustic features. Different approaches have been pursued in studies of stream segregation. In psychoacoustics, stream segregation has mostly been investigated with a subjective task asking the subjects to report their percept. Few studies have applied an objective task in which stream segregation is evaluated indirectly by determining thresholds for a percept that depends on whether auditory streams are segregated or not. Furthermore, both perceptual measures and physiological measures of brain activity have been employed but only little is known about their relation. How the results from different tasks and measures are related is evaluated in the present study using examples relying on the ABA- stimulation paradigm that apply the same stimuli. We presented A and B signals that were sinusoidally amplitude modulated (SAM tones providing purely temporal, spectral or both types of cues to evaluate perceptual stream segregation and its physiological correlate. Which types of cues are most prominent was determined by the choice of carrier and modulation frequencies (fmod of the signals. In the subjective task subjects reported their percept and in the objective task we measured their sensitivity for detecting time-shifts of B signals in an ABA- sequence. As a further measure of processes underlying stream segregation we employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. SAM tone parameters were chosen to evoke an integrated (1-stream, a segregated (2-stream or an ambiguous percept by adjusting the fmod difference between A and B tones (∆fmod. The results of both psychoacoustical tasks are significantly correlated. BOLD responses in fMRI depend on ∆fmod between A and B SAM tones. The effect of ∆fmod, however, differs between auditory cortex and frontal regions suggesting differences in representation related to the degree of perceptual ambiguity of
Polman, Remco; Rowcliffe, Naomi; Borkoles, Erika; Levy, Andrew
This study investigated the nature of the relationship between precompetitive state anxiety (CSAI-2C), subjective (race position) and objective (satisfaction) performance outcomes, and self-rated causal attributions (CDS-IIC) for performance in competitive child swimmers. Race position, subjective satisfaction, self-confidence, and, to a lesser extent, cognitive state anxiety (but not somatic state anxiety) were associated with the attributions provided by the children for their swimming performance. The study partially supported the self-serving bias hypothesis; winners used the ego-enhancing attributional strategy, but the losers did not use an ego-protecting attributional style. Age but not gender appeared to influence the attributions provided in achievement situations.
Jensen, Johan Høy; Støttrup, Mette Marie; Nayberg, Emilie
and socio-occupational capacity. Methods Patients with bipolar disorder in partial or full remission (n=84) and healthy controls (n=68) were assessed with the Screen for Cognitive Impairment in Psychiatry (SCIP), Cognitive Complaints in Bipolar Disorder Rating Scale (COBRA), and established...... neuropsychological tests and subjective rating scales. Socio-occupational function and affective symptoms were evaluated with the Functional Assessment Short Test, and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale 17-items and Young Mania Rating Scale, respectively. Concurrent validity of the SCIP and COBRA were assessed......, and socio-occupational difficulties. Results The SCIP and COBRA correlated strongly with established objective and subjective cognitive measures, respectively. The SCIP yielded higher sensitivity and specificity for detection of cognitive dysfunction than the COBRA or a combined SCIP-COBRA measure...
Yoon, Hyun-Seo; Kim, Hae-Young; Patton, Lauren L; Chun, Jin-Ho; Bae, Kwang-Hak; Lee, Mi-Ok
This study aims to comprehensively assess the association of subjective and objective oral health status and oral health behaviors with happiness, under consideration of demographic, socioeconomic, and general health-related factors. This study also aims to test whether subjective oral health outcomes are better predictors of happiness compared with objective oral health outcomes. The data were collected from 479 community-dwelling elders aged 65 years or over selected by a cluster sampling method. A questionnaire and an oral examination were implemented. A multiple regression method was conducted to assess associations with happiness index (HI). The mean age of the elders was 74.6 years. Mean (standard deviation, SD) HI, EuroQol-visual analog scale (EQ-VAS) and 14-item oral health impact profile (OHIP-14) index were 5.7 (SD 2.3), 59.8 (SD 21.1), and 16.3 (SD 13.1). In the final model, a significant association with HI of the OHIP-14 index (P = 0.091) among all the participants and significant associations of oral symptoms (P = 0.038), wearing a removable denture (P = 0.039), and of the oral health behavior of daily toothbrushing (P = 0.007) among poorer oral health QoL group were confirmed under consideration of other related factors. While correlations of HI to subjective measures of health, EQ-VAS and OHIP-14 score were moderate to weak, those to objective measures of health were only weak or insignificant. Oral impacts which might persistently affect one's daily life need to be considered in designing and delivering public services aimed to promote people's happiness. With oral health impacts and behaviors accounting for 10% of happiness among elders, public and community services for the elderly that support oral health and daily toothbrushing for the dentate are critical for the well-being of our elders. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
reason for this result is that the frame energy associated with . UVV errors is in general lower than that of the VUV errors. 33 Report No. 5726 Bolt... Report No. 5726 Bolt Beranek and Newman Inc. SrL A.D Gold f-S ILS jjp-" Percent VUV Error 18.28 29.61 7.15 32.79 26.32 Percent UVV Error 11.42 2.14...IIIlflfflffIfflfflfflf IIIIIIIII’u K Ku U. 11.6 LL Wo 12. 1.6 %r Bolt Beranek and Newman Inc. 6 d Report No. 5726 AD-A146 838 Subjective and Objective
Dasgupta, Aritra; Burrows, Susannah M.; Han, Kyungsik; Rasch, Philip J.
Scientists working in a particular domain often adhere to conventional data analysis and presentation methods and this leads to familiarity with these methods over time. But does high familiarity always lead to better analytical judgment? This question is especially relevant when visualizations are used in scientific tasks, as there can be discrepancies between visualization best practices and domain conventions. However, there is little empirical evidence of the relationships between scientists’ subjective impressions about familiar and unfamiliar visualizations and objective measures of their effect on scientific judgment. To address this gap and to study these factors, we focus on the climate science domain, specifically on visualizations used for comparison of model performance. We present a comprehensive user study with 47 climate scientists where we explored the following factors: i) relationships between scientists’ familiarity, their perceived levels of com- fort, confidence, accuracy, and objective measures of accuracy, and ii) relationships among domain experience, visualization familiarity, and post-study preference.
Cong Dung Pham
Full Text Available This paper studies in detail how different evaluation methods perform when it comes to describing the performance of haptically controlled mobile manipulators. Particularly, we investigate how well subjective metrics perform compared to objective metrics. To find the best metrics to describe the performance of a control scheme is challenging when human operators are involved; how the user perceives the performance of the controller does not necessarily correspond to the directly measurable metrics normally used in controller evaluation. It is therefore important to study whether there is any correspondence between how the user perceives the performance of a controller, and how it performs in terms of directly measurable metrics such as the time used to perform a task, number of errors, accuracy, and so on. To perform these tests we choose a system that consists of a mobile manipulator that is controlled by an operator through a haptic device. This is a good system for studying different performance metrics as the performance can be determined by subjective metrics based on feedback from the users, and also as objective and directly measurable metrics. The system consists of a robotic arm which provides for interaction and manipulation, which is mounted on a mobile base which extends the workspace of the arm. The operator thus needs to perform both interaction and locomotion using a single haptic device. While the position of the on-board camera is determined by the base motion, the principal control objective is the motion of the manipulator arm. This calls for intelligent control allocation between the base and the manipulator arm in order to obtain intuitive control of both the camera and the arm. We implement three different approaches to the control allocation problem, i.e., whether the vehicle or manipulator arm actuation is applied to generate the desired motion. The performance of the different control schemes is evaluated, and our
Full Text Available Background Sleep disorder is one of the most common non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD patients. At present, there are subjective and objective tools to evaluate sleepdisorders. Nevertheless, previous studies commonly used single subjective questionnaires or objective examinations. Therefore, we used the combinations of subjective and objective tools to analyze clinical characteristics of sleep disturbances in PD and investigated differences and consistence between subjective and objective tools. Methods One hundred and sixteen PD patients were eligible to participate into this study. All participants were evaluated by Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS in "on" condition, Hoehn-Yahr (H-Y stage, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD 24 items, Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS, and underwent a video-polysomnography (Video-PSG. Results According to PSQI score of 116 PD patients, the proportion of PD patients with sleep disturbances (PSQI ≥ 7 was 50% (N = 58. Compared to PD patients without sleep disturbances, PD patients with sleep disturbances had lower score of MoCA (23.34 ± 3.50 vs 24.89 ± 3.52; t = 2.377, P = 0.019, higher score of UPDRSⅠ[4.00 (2.00, 5.00 vs 3.00 (2.00, 5.00; U = - 2.306, P = 0.021], UPDRSⅡ[12.00 (9.00, 16.00 vs 10.00 (6.00, 13.00; U = - 1.995, P = 0.046], higher levodopa equivalent daily dose [LED, (508.14 ± 335.85 vs (394.06 ± 236.40 mg/d; t = - 2.115, P = 0.037]. Although PD patients with sleep disturbances had more score of UPDSR Ⅲ and higher H-Y stage, the differences were not significant (P > 0.05. On the other hand, decreased total sleep time (TST, reduced sleep efficiency (SE, increased sleep latency (SL, decreased non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep stage Ⅱ time were found for PD patients with sleep disturbances (P 0.05, for all. The score of PSQI was positively correlated with the score of ESS (r = 0.200, P = 0
Marin, Manuela M; Leder, Helmut
Subjective complexity has been found to be related to hedonic measures of preference, pleasantness and beauty, but there is no consensus about the nature of this relationship in the visual and musical domains. Moreover, the affective content of stimuli has been largely neglected so far in the study of complexity but is crucial in many everyday contexts and in aesthetic experiences. We thus propose a cross-domain approach that acknowledges the multidimensional nature of complexity and that uses a wide range of objective complexity measures combined with subjective ratings. In four experiments, we employed pictures of affective environmental scenes, representational paintings, and Romantic solo and chamber music excerpts. Stimuli were pre-selected to vary in emotional content (pleasantness and arousal) and complexity (low versus high number of elements). For each set of stimuli, in a between-subjects design, ratings of familiarity, complexity, pleasantness and arousal were obtained for a presentation time of 25 s from 152 participants. In line with Berlyne's collative-motivation model, statistical analyses controlling for familiarity revealed a positive relationship between subjective complexity and arousal, and the highest correlations were observed for musical stimuli. Evidence for a mediating role of arousal in the complexity-pleasantness relationship was demonstrated in all experiments, but was only significant for females with regard to music. The direction and strength of the linear relationship between complexity and pleasantness depended on the stimulus type and gender. For environmental scenes, the root mean square contrast measures and measures of compressed file size correlated best with subjective complexity, whereas only edge detection based on phase congruency yielded equivalent results for representational paintings. Measures of compressed file size and event density also showed positive correlations with complexity and arousal in music, which is
Sharma, Anshika; Mathur, Anmol; Batra, Manu; Makkar, Diljot Kaur; Aggarwal, Vikram Pal; Goyal, Nikita; Kaur, Puneet
To investigate the presence of association between objective and subjective evaluation of orthodontic treatment needs in adolescents and their impact on their self-esteem. Cross-sectional study with adolescents aged 10-17 years old in Sri Ganganagar city, Rajasthan, India. The objective index of orthodontic treatment need (IOTN) dental health component (DHC) and the subjective aesthetic component (AC) were used to determine the normative and the self-perception need for orthodontic treatment, respectively. The selected students were further examined for dental trauma, tooth loss, and dental caries. Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale was applied for self-esteem level determination. Linear regression analysis was executed to test the individual association of different independent clinical variables with self-esteem scores. Among 1,140 studied adolescents, the prevalence of dental normative orthodontic treatment need was in 56.9% of individuals, whereas 53.3% of individuals considered themselves as needy for the treatment. Multivariate analyses revealed that out of all dental disorders, DHC followed by AC of IOTN had maximum impact on the self-esteem of the adolescence. Dissatisfaction with dental appearance is a strong predictor for low self-esteem in adolescence.
Kay, Daniel B; Buysse, Daniel J; Germain, Anne; Hall, Martica; Monk, Timothy H
Discrepancy between subjective and objective measures of sleep is associated with insomnia and increasing age. Cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia improves sleep quality and decreases subjective-objective sleep discrepancy. This study describes differences between older adults with insomnia and controls in sleep discrepancy, and tests the hypothesis that reduced sleep discrepancy following cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia correlates with the magnitude of symptom improvement reported by older adults with insomnia. Participants were 63 adults >60 years of age with insomnia, and 51 controls. At baseline, participants completed sleep diaries for 7 days while wearing wrist actigraphs. After receiving cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia, insomnia patients repeated this sleep assessment. Sleep discrepancy variables were calculated by subtracting actigraphic sleep onset latency and wake after sleep onset from respective self-reported estimates, pre- and post-treatment. Mean level and night-to-night variability in sleep discrepancy were investigated. Baseline sleep discrepancies were compared between groups. Pre-post-treatment changes in Insomnia Severity Index score and sleep discrepancy variables were investigated within older adults with insomnia. Sleep discrepancy was significantly greater and more variable across nights in older adults with insomnia than controls, P ≤ 0.001 for all. Treatment with cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia was associated with significant reduction in the Insomnia Severity Index score that correlated with changes in mean level and night-to-night variability in wake after sleep onset discrepancy, P insomnia. © 2014 European Sleep Research Society.
Full Text Available The development of landslide susceptibility maps is of great importance due to rapid urbanization. The purpose of this study is to present a method to integrate the subjective weight with objective weight for regional landslide susceptibility mapping on the geographical information system (GIS platform. The analytical hierarchy process (AHP, which is subjective, was employed to weight predictive factors’ contribution to landslide occurrence. The frequency ratio (FR method, which is objective, was used to derive subclasses’ frequency ratio with respect to landslides that indicate the relative importance of a subclass within each predictive factor. A case study was carried out at Tsushima Island, Japan, using a historical inventory of 534 landslides and seven predictive factors: elevation, slope, aspect, terrain roughness index (TRI, lithology, land cover and mean annual precipitation (MAP. The landslide susceptibility index (LSI was calculated using the weighted linear combination of factors’ weights and subclasses’ weights. The study area was classified into five susceptibility zones according to the LSI. In addition, the produced susceptibility map was compared with maps generated using the conventional FR and AHP method and validated using the relative landslide index (RLI. The validation result showed that the proposed method performed better than the conventional application of the FR method and AHP method. The obtained landslide susceptibility maps could serve as a scientific basis for urban planning and landslide hazard management.
Schnelle, J F; Ouslander, J G; Buchanan, J; Zellman, G; Farley, D; Hirsch, S H; Reuben, D B
The number of nursing home (NH) residents enrolled in managed care plans (HMO) will increase, and there is concern that the quality of their medical care may be compromised by cost-containment pressures. In this study, we evaluated the medical care of residents enrolled in 3 health maintenance organizations (HMO) that developed specific long-term care programs. To compare the medical care received by NH residents enrolled in HMO and Fee-for-Service (FFS) plans with both objective process of care and consumer perception (subjective) measures. To describe the relationship between the objective and subjective measures. Number of primary care visits per month; process of medical care for 2 geriatric tracer conditions (falls, fevers); family and residents' perceptions of the adequacy of sickness episode management; and the frequency of primary provider visits. Quasi-experimental. HMO residents received more timely and appropriate responses to falls and fevers than did FFS residents. HMO residents also received more frequent routine visits by a primary care provider team consisting of a physician and nurse practitioner. Consumer perceptions of quality did not differ between the HMO and FFS groups. Families within both groups were significantly more positive than were residents about the frequency of visits by both physicians and nurse practitioners. Within the HMO group, both families and residents were more positive about the frequency of nurse practitioner visits than were physician visits even when the frequency of visits by the 2 providers were similar. Although the medical care received by HMO residents was better on most objective process measures than that received by FFS residents, consumer perceptions of care did not detect those differences. NH residents and families have different perceptions about the adequacy of visits by physicians and nurse practitioners, and both families and residents appear to have different expectations concerning how often they want
Full Text Available Chinese relative clauses (RCs have word order properties that are distinctly rare across languages of the world; such properties provide a good testing ground to tease apart predictions regarding the relative complexity of subject and object RCs in acquisition and processing. This study considers these special word order properties in a multilingual acquisition context, examining how Cantonese(L1-English(L2-Mandarin(L3 trilingual children process RCs in two Chinese languages differing in exposure conditions. Studying in an English immersion international school, these trilinguals are also under intensive exposure to English. Comparisons of the trilinguals with their monolingual counterparts are made with a focus on the directionality of cross-linguistic influence. The study considers how various factors such as language exposure, structural overlaps in the target languages, typological distance, and language dominance can account for the linguistic abilities and vulnerabilities exhibited by a group of children in a trilingual acquisition context. Twenty-one trilingual 5- to 6-year-olds completed tests of subject- and object- RC comprehension in all three languages. Twenty-four age-matched Cantonese monolinguals and 24 age-matched Mandarin monolinguals served as comparison groups. Despite limited exposure to Mandarin, the trilinguals performed comparable to the monolinguals. Their Cantonese performance uniquely predicts their Mandarin performance, suggesting positive transfer from L1 Cantonese to L3 Mandarin. In Cantonese, however, despite extensive exposure from birth, the trilinguals comprehended object RCs significantly worse than the monolinguals. Error analyses suggested an English-based head-initial analysis, implying negative transfer from L2 English to L1 Cantonese. Overall, we identified a specific case of bi-directional influence between the first and second/third languages. The trilinguals experience facilitation in processing Mandarin
Chan, Angel; Chen, Si; Matthews, Stephen; Yip, Virginia
Chinese relative clauses (RCs) have word order properties that are distinctly rare across languages of the world; such properties provide a good testing ground to tease apart predictions regarding the relative complexity of subject and object RCs in acquisition and processing. This study considers these special word order properties in a multilingual acquisition context, examining how Cantonese(L1)-English(L2)-Mandarin(L3) trilingual children process RCs in two Chinese languages differing in exposure conditions. Studying in an English immersion international school, these trilinguals are also under intensive exposure to English. Comparisons of the trilinguals with their monolingual counterparts are made with a focus on the directionality of cross-linguistic influence. The study considers how various factors such as language exposure, structural overlaps in the target languages, typological distance, and language dominance can account for the linguistic abilities and vulnerabilities exhibited by a group of children in a trilingual acquisition context. Twenty-one trilingual 5- to 6-year-olds completed tests of subject- and object- RC comprehension in all three languages. Twenty-four age-matched Cantonese monolinguals and 24 age-matched Mandarin monolinguals served as comparison groups. Despite limited exposure to Mandarin, the trilinguals performed comparable to the monolinguals. Their Cantonese performance uniquely predicts their Mandarin performance, suggesting positive transfer from L1 Cantonese to L3 Mandarin. In Cantonese, however, despite extensive exposure from birth, the trilinguals comprehended object RCs significantly worse than the monolinguals. Error analyses suggested an English-based head-initial analysis, implying negative transfer from L2 English to L1 Cantonese. Overall, we identified a specific case of bi-directional influence between the first and second/third languages. The trilinguals experience facilitation in processing Mandarin RCs, because
Chan, Angel; Chen, Si; Matthews, Stephen; Yip, Virginia
Chinese relative clauses (RCs) have word order properties that are distinctly rare across languages of the world; such properties provide a good testing ground to tease apart predictions regarding the relative complexity of subject and object RCs in acquisition and processing. This study considers these special word order properties in a multilingual acquisition context, examining how Cantonese(L1)-English(L2)-Mandarin(L3) trilingual children process RCs in two Chinese languages differing in exposure conditions. Studying in an English immersion international school, these trilinguals are also under intensive exposure to English. Comparisons of the trilinguals with their monolingual counterparts are made with a focus on the directionality of cross-linguistic influence. The study considers how various factors such as language exposure, structural overlaps in the target languages, typological distance, and language dominance can account for the linguistic abilities and vulnerabilities exhibited by a group of children in a trilingual acquisition context. Twenty-one trilingual 5- to 6-year-olds completed tests of subject- and object- RC comprehension in all three languages. Twenty-four age-matched Cantonese monolinguals and 24 age-matched Mandarin monolinguals served as comparison groups. Despite limited exposure to Mandarin, the trilinguals performed comparable to the monolinguals. Their Cantonese performance uniquely predicts their Mandarin performance, suggesting positive transfer from L1 Cantonese to L3 Mandarin. In Cantonese, however, despite extensive exposure from birth, the trilinguals comprehended object RCs significantly worse than the monolinguals. Error analyses suggested an English-based head-initial analysis, implying negative transfer from L2 English to L1 Cantonese. Overall, we identified a specific case of bi-directional influence between the first and second/third languages. The trilinguals experience facilitation in processing Mandarin RCs, because
Full Text Available Erich Hohenauer,1-3 Peter Clarys,3 Jean-Pierre Baeyens,2-4 Ron Clijsen,1-31Department of Business Economics, Health and Social Care, University of Applied Sciences and Arts of Southern Switzerland, Landquart, Switzerland; 2University College Physiotherapy, Thim van der Laan, Landquart, Switzerland; 3Faculty of Physical Education and Physiotherapy, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium; 4Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, BelgiumAbstract: The purpose of this controlled trial was to investigate the effects of a single local cryotherapy session on the recovery characteristics over a period of 72 hours. Twentytwo young and healthy female (n=17; mean age: 21.9±1.1 years and male (n=5;mean age:25.4±2.8 years adults participated in this study. Following an exhaustive jump protocol (3×30 countermovement jumps, half of the participants received either a single local cryotherapy application (+8°C or a single local thermoneutral application (+32°C of 20-minute duration using two thigh cuffs. Subjective measures of recovery (delayed-onset muscle soreness and ratings of perceived exertion and objective measures of recovery (vertical jump performanceand peak power output were assessed immediately following the postexercise applications (0 hours and at 24 hours, 48 hours, and 72 hours after the jump protocol. Local cryotherapy failed to significantly affect any subjective recovery variable during the 72-hour recovery period (P>0.05. After 72 hours, the ratings of perceived exertion were significantly lower in the thermoneutral group compared to that in the cryotherapy group (P=0.002. No significant differences were observed between the cryotherapy and the thermoneutral groups with respect to any of the objective recovery variables. In this experimental study, a 20-minute cryotherapy cuff application failed to demonstrate a positive effect on any objective measures of recovery. The effects of local
Full Text Available Christina Riechel,1,* Anna Christina Alegiani,1,* Sascha Köpke,2 Jürgen Kasper,3,4 Michael Rosenkranz,1,5 Götz Thomalla,1 Christoph Heesen1,4 1Department of Neurology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany; 2Nursing Research Unit, Institute of Social Medicine and Epidemiology, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany; 3Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway; 4Institute of Neuroimmunology and Multiple Sclerosis, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany; 5Department of Neurology, Albertinen-Krankenhaus, Hamburg, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Risk knowledge and active role preferences are important for patient involvement in treatment decision-making and adherence. Although knowledge about stroke warning signs and risk factors has received considerable attention, objective knowledge on secondary prevention and further self-esteem subjective knowledge have rarely been studied. The aim of our study was to investigate knowledge and treatment decisional role preferences in cerebrovascular patients compared to controls. Methods: We performed a survey on subjective and objective stroke risk knowledge and autonomy preferences in cerebrovascular patients from our stroke outpatient clinic (n=262 and from pedestrians on the street taken as controls during a “World Stroke Day” (n=274. The questionnaire includes measures for knowledge and decisional role preferences from previously published questionnaires and newly developed measures, for example, subjective knowledge, revealed on a visual analog scale. Results: The overall stroke knowledge was low to moderate, with no differences between patients and controls. Knowledge about secondary prevention was particularly low. Only 10%–15% of participants correctly estimated the stroke absolute risk reduction potential of aspirin. The medical data
Wilcox, Pamela; Augustine, Michelle Campbell; Bryan, Jon Paul; Roberts, Staci D.
While actual, "objective" experiences with crime in school are very important, so too are "subjective" experiences with crime including cognitive perceptions of the likelihood of experiencing school crime and the emotionally-based fear of school crime. Moreover, objective and subjective experiences with crime (and the…
Mowlaee, Pejman; Saeidi, Rahim; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll
are expected to carry on to other applications beyond ASR. In this paper, in addition to conventional speech quality metrics (PESQ and SNRloss), we also evaluate the separation systems output using different source separation metrics: blind source separation evaluation (BSS EVAL) and perceptual evaluation...... that PESQ and PEASS quality metrics predict well the subjective quality of separated signals obtained by the separation systems. From the results it is observed that the short-time objective intelligibility (STOI) measure predict the speech intelligibility results.......Previous studies on performance evaluation of single-channel speech separation (SCSS) algorithms mostly focused on automatic speech recognition (ASR) accuracy as their performance measure. Assessing the separated signals by different metrics other than this has the benefit that the results...
Kölling, Sarah; Endler, Stefan; Ferrauti, Alexander; Meyer, Tim; Kellmann, Michael
This study compared subjective with objective sleep parameters among 72 physical education students. Furthermore, the study determined whether 24-hr recording differs from nighttime recording only. Participants wore the SenseWear Armband™ for three consecutive nights and kept a sleep log. Agreement rates ranged from moderate to low for sleep onset latency (ICC = 0.39 to 0.70) and wake after sleep onset (ICC = 0.22 to 0.59), while time in bed (ICC = 0.93 to 0.95) and total sleep time (ICC = 0.90 to 0.92) revealed strong agreement during this period. Comparing deviations between 24-hr wearing time (n = 24) and night-only application (n = 20) revealed no statistical difference (p > 0.05). As athletic populations have yet to be investigated for these purposes, this study provides useful indicators and practical implications for future studies.
Hox, V; Bobic, S; Callebaux, I; Jorissen, M; Hellings, P W
Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis (NP) represents an invalidating disorder that causes mainly nasal blockage and loss of smell. The aim of this study is to investigate correlations between individual subjective and objective parameters of stable NP disease. 65 NP patients scored their sinonasal symptoms on a visual analogue scale (VAS) and questionnaires (SNOT-22 and SF-36). Peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF) measurement, Sniffinatm Sticks (SS) smell test, blood analysis for eosinophilia, total IgE and culture for Staphylococcus aureus (SA) were performed. VAS scores for nasal blockage correlated with the SNOT-22 and SF-36 scores, which was not observed for VAS of other symptoms. VAS scores for nasal blockage correlated well with PNIF values as well as VAS scores for smell dysfunction and SS results (both psmell reduction (psmell reduction in NP disease. Nasal blockage is the only symptom that correlates well with NP size and SNOT-22 scores, whereas smell reduction correlates with blood eosinophilia.
Brownstone, Lisa M; Bardone-Cone, Anna M; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Printz, Katherine S; Le Grange, Daniel; Mitchell, James E; Crow, Scott J; Peterson, Carol B; Crosby, Ross D; Klein, Marjorie H; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Joiner, Thomas E
The current study explored the clinical meaningfulness of distinguishing subjective (SBE) from objective binge eating (OBE) among individuals with threshold/subthreshold bulimia nervosa (BN). We examined relations between OBEs and SBEs and eating disorder symptoms, negative affect, and personality dimensions using both a group comparison and a continuous approach. Participants were 204 adult females meeting criteria for threshold/subthreshold BN who completed questionnaires related to disordered eating, affect, and personality. Group comparisons indicated that SBE and OBE groups did not significantly differ on eating disorder pathology or negative affect, but did differ on two personality dimensions (cognitive distortion and attentional impulsivity). Using the continuous approach, we found that frequencies of SBEs (not OBEs) accounted for unique variance in weight/shape concern, diuretic use frequency, depressive symptoms, anxiety, social avoidance, insecure attachment, and cognitive distortion. SBEs in the context of BN may indicate broader areas of psychopathology. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Vasudevan, Balamurali; Flores, Michael; Gaib, Sara
The aim of the present study was to compare the objective and subjective visual performance of three different soft multifocal contact lenses. 10 subjects (habitual soft contact lens wearers) between the ages of 40 and 45 years participated in the study. Three different multifocal silicone hydrogel contact lenses (Acuvue Oasys, Air Optix and Biofinity) were fit within the same visit. All the lenses were fit according to the manufacturers' recommendation using the respective fitting guide. Visual performance tests included low and high contrast distance and near visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, range of clear vision and through-focus curve. Objective visual performance tests included measurement of open field accommodative response at different defocus levels and optical aberrations at different viewing distances. Accommodative response was not significantly different between the three types of multifocal contact lenses at each of the accommodative stimulus levels (p>0.05). Accommodative lag increased for higher stimulus levels for all 3 types of contact lenses. Ocular aberrations were not significantly different between these 3 contact lens designs at each of the different viewing distances (p>0.05). In addition, optical aberrations did not significantly differ between different viewing distances for any of these lenses (p>0.05). ANOVA revealed no significant difference in high and low contrast distance visual acuity as well as near visual acuity and contrast sensitivity function between the 3 multifocal contact lenses and spectacles (p>0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in accommodative response, optical aberrations or visual performance between the 3 multifocal contact lenses in early presbyopes. Copyright © 2013 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nang Idayu Nik Zahari
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Sustainable development aims at improving and maintaining the well-being of people and the ecology. However, this paper focuses only on the ecological aspects. The selection of the proper ecological protection determinant plays a very important role in improving the environment of Malaysia. This paper will propose a method from Wang and Lee (2009, and Yong (2006 which applies a fuzzy TOPSIS method -- based on subjective and objective weights – to make the required selection. Four alternatives will be tested which are: prevent pollution (A1, conservation (A2, well-manage (A3, and public awareness (A4. Along with these, four criteria need to be considered: water quality factor (C1, land integrity factor (C2, air quality factor (C3, and biodiversity factor (C4. Finally, a numerical example of ecological protection determinant selection is used to illustrate the proposed method. ABSTRAK: Pembangunan lestari bermatlamat memperbaiki dan mengekalkan kesejahteraan rakyat serta ekologi. Walau bagaimanapun, kertas kajian ini hanya memberi tumpuan kepada aspek-aspek ekologi. Pemilihan penentu perlindungan serta keselamatan bagi aspek ekologi memainkan peranan yang amat penting dalam meningkatkan kualiti alam sekitar di Malaysia. Kertas kajian ini telah menggunakan kaedah Wang dan Lee (2009 dan Yong (2006 yang mengaplikasikan kaedah TOPSIS kabur berdasarkan pemberat subjektif dan objektif. Terdapat empat alternatif yang akan diuji iaitu: pencegahan pencemaran (A1, pemuliharaan (A2, pengurusan yang baik (A3, kesedaran orang awam (A4. Selain itu, terdapat empat kriteria yang perlu dipertimbangkan: faktor kualiti air (C1, faktor kualiti tanah (C2, faktor kualiti udara (C3, faktor kepelbagaian biologi (C4. Kesimpulannya, contoh pengiraan untuk memperoleh penentu pemilihan perlindungan ekologi telah digunakan bagi menunjukkan kaedah yang dicadangkan.KEYWORDS: sustainable development; ecological factors; subjective and objective weight; fuzzy TOPSIS
Jackson, Leanne K; Ridner, Sheila H; Deng, Jie; Bartow, Carmin; Mannion, Kyle; Niermann, Ken; Gilbert, Jill; Dietrich, Mary S; Cmelak, Anthony J; Murphy, Barbara A
Tumor/treatment-related internal lymphedema (IL) and/or external lymphedema (EL) are associated with functional deficits and increased symptom burden in head and neck cancer patients (HNCP). Previously, we noted association between EL/IL and patient-reported dysphagia using the Vanderbilt Head and Neck Symptom Survey (VHNSS) version 1.0. To determine the relationship between IL/EL and subjective and objective measures of swallowing function. Eighty-one HNCP completed: (1) VHNSS version 2.0, including 13 swallowing/nutrition-related questions grouped into three clusters: swallow solids (ss), swallow liquids (sl), and nutrition(nt); (2) physical assessment of EL using Foldi scale; (3) endoscopic assessment of IL using Patterson scale (n = 56); and (4) modified barium swallow study rated by dysphagia outcome and severity scale (DOSS) and in conjunction with a swallow evaluation by National Outcomes Measurement System (NOMS). Examinations were performed at varied time points to assess lymphedema spectrum, from baseline (n = 15, 18.1%) to 18 months post-therapy (n = 20, 24.1%). VHNSS swallow/nutrition items scores correlated with NOMS/DOSS ratings (p nutrition scores correlated with maximum grade of swelling for any single structure on Patterson scale: ss (0.43; p = 0.001); sl (0.38; p = 0.004); nt (0.41; p = 0.002). IL of aryepiglottic/pharyngoepiglottic folds, epiglottis, and pyriform sinus were most strongly correlated with VHNSS and NOMS ratings. NOMS/DOSS ratings correlated with EL (> = -0.34; p nutrition items and EL ( 0.20). IL correlated with subjective and objective measures of swallow dysfunction. Longitudinal analysis of trajectory and impact of IL/EL on dysphagia is ongoing.
Sutin, Angelina R; Terracciano, Antonio
Research on personality and adiposity has focused primarily on middle-aged and older adults. The present research sought to (a) replicate these associations in a young adult sample, (b) examine whether sex, race, or ethnicity moderate these associations, and (c) test whether personality is associated with the subjective experience of body weight and discrepancies between perceived and actual weight. Participants (N = 15,669; M(age) = 29; 53% female; ∼40% ethnic/racial minority) from Wave 4 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health completed a Five-Factor Model personality measure and reported their weight, height, and perception of weight category (e.g., overweight); trained staff measured participants' height, weight, and waist circumference. Conscientiousness was associated with healthier weight, with a nearly 5 kg difference between the top and bottom quartiles. Neuroticism among women and Extraversion among men were associated with higher adiposity. Neuroticism was also associated with misperceived heavier weight, whereas Extraversion was associated with misperceived taller and leaner. The associations were similar across race/ethnic groups. Personality is associated with objective and subjective adiposity in young adulthood. Although modest, the effects are consistent with life span theories of personality, and the misperceptions are consistent with the conceptual worldviews associated with the traits. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Fulga, Valentine; Schroeder, Shlomo; Avraham, Gaby; Belkin, Michael
We tested the objective and subjective performance of the Holo-Or rigid gas permeable multifocal contact lens, a new trifocal diffractive contact lens. Eleven experienced and two non-experienced rigid gas permeable contact lens wearers participated in the study. Eleven patients were presbyopic (age 40 - 57) and two aphakic (age 12 and 14). All patients were tested both with their best spectacle correction for distance and near and the trifocal diffractive contact lenses. The follow up period was 3 - 8 months. Subjective opinion was also assessed. Statistical analysis was performed using Student's T-test. We did not find any significant difference in visual acuity measured at 6 m, 80 cm and 40 cm, between best spectacle correction and Holo-Or diffractive contact lenses. Depth of focus improved to a statistically significant extent when using trifocal contact lenses. A small reduction in contrast sensitivity was observed when the patients used the multifocal contact lenses. Overall satisfaction and comfort was good to excellent in ten of the thirteen patients. Two other patients who used a bifocal model of the same contact lens design showed similar results. Holo-Or trifocal diffractive contact lenses are a satisfactory means of optical correction for patients with presbyopia or accommodative problems.
Bakkum, M J; Plomp, R; Pols, L W
Objective whole-spectrum and formant analyses have been performed on all 15 Dutch vowels pronounced in /C1VC2/ words by 24 deaf and 24 normal-hearing children, in order to develop a model of pronunciation quality for evaluating (deaf) speech; the results as obtained for adult males by Bakkum et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 94, 1989-2004 (1993)] have been verified and extended. Spectral representations of the vowels were created by determining the output levels of a bank of 16 filters (90-7200 Hz), with 1/3-oct bandwidths and logarithmic spacing of their center frequencies. Spectral differences agree well with subjective differences in pronunciation quality obtained from magnitude estimation and identification experiments. Spectral differences not related to pronunciation quality judgments arise as a consequence of physiological interspeaker differences and variation in fundamental frequency, but these differences can be compensated for by speaker-normalization and F0-compensation procedures. Using principal components analysis (PCA), the vowel spectra can be described by a limited number of dimensions, without losing much information; a description in a two-dimensional PCA subspace still agrees well with the subjective judgments and it also agrees with a description by the first two formants. The whole-spectrum approach provides a determinate, readily interpretable model of pronunciation quality for evaluating vowels. As a practical advantage, its computational requirements are modest and, in conjunction with PCA, the vowel dynamics can be visualized, which makes the approach suitable for vowel training and diagnostics.
Ahn, H J; Lee, Y S; Jeong, S H; Kang, S M; Byun, Y S; Kim, B I
This study examined the differences in the masticatory function of patients with temporomandibular disorder (TMD) in Korea. The experimental groups were as follows: 23 patients with painful arthralgia classified as pain group according to the research diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorder (RDC/TMC) and 28 patients with pain-free disc displacement and reduction classified as clicking group. The subjects were obtained from those who had visited Yonsei University Dental Hospital from 2007 to 2008. Twenty dental students without TMD symptoms were enroled as the normal control group. The Mixing Ability Index (MAI) was used as the objective index, and the Food Intake Ability (FIA) Index, Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and oral health impact profile (OHIP) were used as the subjective indices. The MAI, FIA and VAS were significantly lower in the pain group than in the normal and clicking groups (Pmasticatory function in patients with TMD in Korea, and the joint sound, not the masticatory function, affects the declining OHIP. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Martin, Steve P.; Gariani, Joanna; Hachulla, Anne-Lise; Botsikas, Diomidis; Becker, Christoph D.; Montet, Xavier [Geneva University Hospitals, Division of Radiology, Department of Imaging and Medical Information Sciences, Geneva (Switzerland); Adler, Dan [Geneva University Hospitals, Division of Pneumology, Department of Internal Medicine, Geneva (Switzerland); Karenovics, Wolfram [Geneva University Hospitals, Division of Thoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Geneva (Switzerland)
To prospectively evaluate the impact of iterative reconstruction (IR) algorithms on pulmonary emphysema assessment as compared to filtered back projection (FBP). One hundred ten unenhanced chest CT examinations were obtained on two different scanners. Image reconstructions from a single acquisition were done with different levels of IR and compared with FBP on the basis of the emphysema index (EI), lung volume and voxel densities. Objective emphysema assessment was performed with 3D software provided by each manufacturer. Subjective assessment of emphysema was performed as a blinded evaluation. Quantitative and subjective values were compared using repeated ANOVA analysis, Bland-Altman analysis and Kendall's coefficient of concordance (W). Lung volumes are stable on both units, throughout all IR levels (P ≥ 0.057). EI significantly decreases on both units with the use of any level of IR (P < 0.001). The highest levels of IR are responsible for a decrease of 33-36 % of EI. Significant differences in minimal lung density are found between the different algorithms (P < 0.003). Intra- and inter-reader concordance for emphysema characterisation is generally good (W ≥ 0.77 and W ≥ 0.86, respectively). Both commercially available IR algorithms used in this study significantly changed EI but did not alter visual assessment compared to standard FBP reconstruction at identical radiation exposure. (orig.)
Huang, Yi-Ping; Li, Wei-ran
To correlate the objective cephalometric measurements with subjective facial esthetics in patients with bimaxillary protrusion. The sample consisted of 60 Asian-Chinese patients with bimaxillary protrusion who met the inclusion criteria. The facial esthetics of posttreatment profile and the change of profile on standardized lateral photographs were rated by a panel of 10 orthodontists and a panel of 10 lay persons with bimaxillary protrusion. All of the pretreatment and posttreatment cephalograms were digitized and traced. Twenty-five cephalometric measurements were constructed and analyzed. Correlations between the subjective facial esthetic scores and each cephalometric measurement were evaluated. The cephalometric measurements correlated with the facial esthetic scores of posttreatment profile given by the orthodontist and the lay persons were basically the same. For the evaluation of posttreatment profile in bimaxillary protrusion patients, the upper and lower lip to E-line, upper and lower incisor tip to AP plane, Pg-NB distance, mentolabial angle, and sulcus depth correlated significantly with the esthetic score. For the evaluation of profile change during orthodontic treatment, retraction of upper incisor relative to AP plane or the perpendicular line through sella (line Y), change of upper incisor inclination, change of mentolabial sulcus depth, and retraction of lips relative to E-line were correlated positively with the esthetic value. Cephalometric measurements of lip position, incisor position, and chin morphology were key parameters correlated to facial esthetics.
Montakab, H; Langel, G
The sleep-wake cycle is the most important circadian rhythm in man and thus constitutes an excellent indicator of internal equilibrium and of health. Sleep disorders, and particularly insomnia, affect a great percentage of the population. In daily practice, an inappropriate treatment may transform a bad sleeper into an insomniac dependent on pharmaceuticals for life. It is therefore necessary to give priority to non-chemical treatments in the management of insomnia. Acupuncture, which offers a personalized treatment, is particularly indicated for reharmonizing a disturbed sleep-wake cycle. Furthermore, there is an interesting similarity between the 5000-year-old theoretical basis of Chinese medicine and the recent scientific discoveries about man's internal rhythms. Clinical and statistical studies of the effects of acupuncture on insomnia are rare and evaluate only the subjective appreciation of sleep. Objective analysis of sleep by polysomnography permits evaluation of sleep architecture and visualizes the site and depth of action of the therapeutic method. Such studies have only been conducted in relation to pharmaceutical treatments. No such study has been carried out for acupuncture. A scientific and objective evaluation of the effects of acupuncture on insomnia by polysomnography could be not only of academic but mainly of great practical interest. If the efficiency of acupuncture is thus verified, this method could be integrated and proposed along with other classical therapeutic technics.
Abstract Background This article provides new insights into the impact of social engagement on CVD risk factors in older adults. We hypothesized that objective (social participation, social ties and marital status) and subjective (emotional support) aspects of social engagement are independently associated with objective measures of cardiovascular risk. Methods Data from the English Longitudinal Study on Ageing (ELSA) were analyzed. The effects of social participation, social ties, marital status, and emotional support on hypertension, obesity, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, and fibrinogen were estimated by logistic regression controlling for age, sex, education, physical function, depression, cardiovascular disease, other chronic diseases, physical activity, and smoking. Results Social participation is a consistent predictor of low risk for four risk factors, even after controlling for a wide range of covariates. Being married is associated with lower risk for hypertension. Social ties and emotional support are not significantly associated with any of the cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusion Our analysis suggests that participation in social activities has a stronger association with CV risk factors than marital status, social ties or emotional support. Different forms of social engagement may therefore have different implications for the biological risk factors involved.
Aline Teixeira Fabricio
Full Text Available Abstract Memory plays a fundamental role in the identity of people and in human life, as it enables us to interpret our surroundings and make decisions. It is known that the aging process can be accompanied by cognitive decline in some memory sub systems. However, the use of memory strategies can help encoding and retrieval of new information. Objective: The aim of this study was to identify and compare, using objective and subjective measures, which recall strategies are used spontaneously by young and older adults. Methods: Twenty-six first-year college students, and thirty-three seniors enrolled at the Third Age University of the same campus, completed a visual memory test including 18 black and white pictures, memorized a short story, and completed an open question about memory strategies, a memory check list to indicate strategies used, and a memory self-efficacy scale. The Bousfield categorization measure was also calculated from the recall protocol. Results: Young adults demonstrated better performance than the older adults on the memory tasks, and were also more confident. Both groups reported using similar strategies. Conclusion: Young and older adults seem to tackle memory tasks in similar ways but young adults outperform seniors.
Münch, M; Scheuermaier, K D; Zhang, R; Dunne, S P; Guzik, A M; Silva, E J; Ronda, J M; Duffy, J F
Evening bright light exposure is reported to ameliorate daytime sleepiness and age-related sleep complaints, and also delays the timing of circadian rhythms. We tested whether evening light exposure given to older adults with sleep-wake complaints would delay the timing of their circadian rhythms with respect to their sleep timing, thereby reducing evening sleepiness and improving subsequent sleep quality. We examined the impact of evening light exposure from two different light sources on subjective alertness, EEG activity during wakefulness, and sleep stages. Ten healthy older adults with sleep complaints (mean age=63.3 years; 6F) participated in a 13-day study. After three baseline days, circadian phase was assessed. On the evening of days 5-8 the subjects were exposed for 2h to either polychromatic blue-enriched white light or standard white fluorescent light, and on the following day circadian phase was re-assessed. Subjects were allowed to leave the laboratory during all but the two days when the circadian phase assessment took place. Evening assessments of subjective alertness, and wake and sleep EEG data were analyzed. Subjective alertness and wake EEG activity in the alpha range (9.75-11.25 Hz) were significantly higher during light exposures when compared to the pre-light exposure evening (plight exposures produced circadian phase shifts and significantly prolonged latency to rapid eye-movement (REM) sleep for both light groups (plight exposures was negatively correlated with REM sleep duration (plight exposure could benefit older adults with early evening sleepiness, without negatively impacting the subsequent sleep episode. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Cox, Trevor John
Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. The performance of reflectors and diffusers used in auditoria have been evaluated both objectively and subjectively. Two accurate systems have been developed to measure the scattering from surfaces via the cross correlation function. These have been used to measure the scattering from plane panels, curved panels and quadratic residue diffusers (QRDs). The scattering measurements have been used to test theoretical prediction methods based on the Helmholtz-Kirchhoff integral equation. Accurate prediction methods were found for all surfaces tested. The limitations of the more approximate methods have been defined. The assumptions behind Schroeder's design of the QRD have been tested and the local reacting admittance assumption found to be valid over a wide frequency range. It was found that the QRD only produces uniform scattering at low frequencies. For an on-axis source the scattering from a curved panel was as good as from a QRD. For an oblique source the QRD produced much more uniform scattering than the curved panel. The subjective measurements evaluated the smallest perceivable change in the early sound field, the part most influenced by reflectors and diffusers. A natural sounding simulation of a concert hall field within an anechoic chamber was used. Standard objective parameters were reasonable values when compared to values found in real halls and subjective preference measurements. A difference limen was measured for early lateral energy fraction (.048 +/-.005); inter aural cross correlation (.075 +/-.008); clarity index (.67 +/-.13 dB); and centre time (8.6 +/- 1.6 ms). It was found that: (i) when changes are made to diffusers and reflectors, changes in spatial impression will usually be larger than those in clarity; and (ii) acousticians can gain most by paying attention to lateral sound in auditoria. It was also found that: (i) diffuse reflections in the early sound field
Kirill Vladimirovich Kosilov
Full Text Available Purpose: Comparison of subjective reasons for the refusal of antimuscarinic treatment and the state of objective economic, social, psychological and health status markers in the elderly with overactive bladder. Materials and Methods: One thousand seven hundred thirty-six (1,736 patients participated in the experiment: 1,036 or 59.7% of women, and 700 or 40.3% of men aged over 60 years (average age, 68.1 years who took antimuscarinic (AM drugs during the year. The control of objective parameters was carried out by studying patients’ medical records, the use of overactive bladder questionnaire short form and Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Shor-Form Health Survey, voiding diaries, uroflowmetry, as well as income certificates from the Tax Inspectorate, support documentation for expenses on drugs. Results: Fifty-two point six percent (52.6% of patients preserved adherence to treatment during the first 6 months, 30.1% – during the follow-up period. The average time of reaching a 30-day break in the AM drugs administration was 174 days. In 36.5% of cases of the refusal of treatment, patients referred to medical reasons for the refusal, in 31.6% of cases disturbance was established in objective health status markers (differences were significant in 30% of the follow-up time. The percentage of refusals of treatment for social and psychological reasons (13.2% was significantly lower (p≤0.05, than the percentage of individuals with statuses altered objectively (21.9%. Conclusions: A significant share of elderly patients taking AM drugs when treating overactive bladder is inclined to overestimate the importance of health factors influencing their decisions and to underestimate the importance of social and psychological factors, and an urologist should take it into account for the efficacy evaluation.
Kosilov, Kirill Vladimirovich; Loparev, Sergay Alexandrovich; Kuzina, Irina Gennadyevna; Geltser, Boris Izrailevich; Shakirova, Olga Viktorovna; Zhuravskaya, Natalya Sergeevna; Lobodenko, Alexandra
Comparison of subjective reasons for the refusal of antimuscarinic treatment and the state of objective economic, social, psychological and health status markers in the elderly with overactive bladder. One thousand seven hundred thirty-six (1,736) patients participated in the experiment: 1,036 or 59.7% of women, and 700 or 40.3% of men aged over 60 years (average age, 68.1 years) who took antimuscarinic (AM) drugs during the year. The control of objective parameters was carried out by studying patients' medical records, the use of overactive bladder questionnaire short form and Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Shor-Form Health Survey, voiding diaries, uroflowmetry, as well as income certificates from the Tax Inspectorate, support documentation for expenses on drugs. Fifty-two point six percent (52.6%) of patients preserved adherence to treatment during the first 6 months, 30.1% - during the follow-up period. The average time of reaching a 30-day break in the AM drugs administration was 174 days. In 36.5% of cases of the refusal of treatment, patients referred to medical reasons for the refusal, in 31.6% of cases disturbance was established in objective health status markers (differences were significant in 30% of the follow-up time). The percentage of refusals of treatment for social and psychological reasons (13.2%) was significantly lower (p≤0.05), than the percentage of individuals with statuses altered objectively (21.9%). A significant share of elderly patients taking AM drugs when treating overactive bladder is inclined to overestimate the importance of health factors influencing their decisions and to underestimate the importance of social and psychological factors, and an urologist should take it into account for the efficacy evaluation.
Full Text Available Objective: The research question is whether the same tendencies on entrepreneurship, innovation and economic freedom can be captured by subjective (Global Entrepreneurship Monitor and objective (Index of Economic Freedom data – and to which extent one can classify countries by different data sources in a theoretical framework based on the national competitiveness of each country. Research Design & Methods: Main method used is the direct discriminant analysis. Since this approach has shortcomings, selected variables from an exhaustive CHAID analysis were used to predict the degree of economic freedom of the country based on the answers of experts. Findings: To determine the degree of economic freedom in a country, the effective enforcement of intellectual property rights legislation and quick access to utilities are the two variables with the most informational content. 86,8% of the original grouped cases was classified correctly – this is above the widely accepted threshold of 75%. Implications & Recommendations: A new trend in entrepreneurial research is to build compound indices based on different data sources. It is important to understand whether parts of a compound index reflect the same tendencies. This paper gives formal empirical evidence supporting this hypothesis. Contribution & Value Added: Coduras and Autio (2013 define a research program on Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, where they suggest that GEM shall be tested against objective data sources such as Index of Economic Freedom. This was the main aim of the analysis, which closes a research gap defined in this research program.
The main focus of this essay is to closely engage with the role of scientist-subjectivity in the making of objectivity in Lorraine Daston and Peter Galison’s book Objectivity, and Daston’s later and earlier works On Scientific Observation and The Moral Economy of Science. I have posited four
Snitz, Beth E.; Small, Brent J.; Wang, Tianxiu; Chang, Chung-Chou H.; Hughes, Tiffany F.; Ganguli, Mary
Objective The relationship between subjective memory complaints (SM) and objective memory (OM) performance in aging has been variably characterized in a substantial literature, to date. In particular, cross-sectional studies often observe weak or no associations. We investigated whether subjective memory complaints and objectively measured cognition influence each other over time, and if so, which is the stronger pathway of change – objective to subjective, or subjective to objective – or whether they are both important. Method Using bivariate latent change score modeling in data from a population study (N=1980) over 5 annual assessment cycles, we tested 4 corresponding hypotheses: 1) no coupling between SM and OM over time; 2) SM as leading indicator of change in OM; 3) OM as leading indicator of change in SM; 4) dual coupling over time, with both SM and OM leading subsequent change in the other. We also extended objective cognition to two other domains, language and executive functions. Results The dual-coupling models best fit the data for all three objective cognitive domains. The SM – OM temporal dynamics differ qualitatively compared to other domains, potentially reflecting changes in insight and self-awareness specific to memory impairment. Conclusions Subjective memory and objective cognition reciprocally influence each other over time. The temporal dynamics between subjective and objective cognition in aging are nuanced, and must be carefully disentangled to shed light on the underlying processes. PMID:26477680
Shirooka, Hidehiko; Nishiguchi, Shu; Fukutani, Naoto; Tashiro, Yuto; Nozaki, Yuma; Aoyama, Tomoki
The association between subjective cognitive decline and falls has not been clearly determined. Our aim was to explore the effect of subjective cognitive decline on falls in community-dwelling older adults with or without objective cognitive decline. We included 470 older adults (mean age 73.6 ± 5.2; 329 women) living in the community and obtained data on fall history directly from the participants. Subjective cognitive decline was assessed using a self-administered question. Objective cognitive function was measured using the Mini-Mental State Examination. Statistical analyses were carried out separately for participants with objective cognitive decline and those without. A multiple logistic regression analysis showed that, among participants without objective cognitive decline, subjective cognitive decline was positively associated with falls [OR 1.91; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.17-3.12; p = 0.01). Conversely, among participants with objective cognitive decline, subjective cognitive decline was negatively associated with falls (OR 0.07; 95% CI 0.01-0.85, p = 0.04). The result suggests that the objective-subjective disparity may affect falls in community-dwelling older adults. The presence of subjective cognitive decline was significantly positively associated with falls among cognitively intact older adults. However, among their cognitively impaired peers, the absence of subjective cognitive decline was positively associated with falls.
Holtzer, Roee; Yuan, Jennifer; Verghese, Joe; Mahoney, Jeannette R; Izzetoglu, Meltem; Wang, Cuiling
Fatigue adversely impacts quality of life in old age. The relationship between subjective and objective measurements of fatigue, however, is poorly understood. We examined whether subjective fatigue moderated the expression of objective fatigue during locomotion. Associations between objective and subjective measures of fatigue were predicted to manifest only under dual-task conditions that maximized cognitive demands. Participants were 314 nondemented older adults (age = 76.8±6.7 years; % female = 56). Functional near-infrared spectroscopy was used to assess oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO2) levels during walking. A 4×14-foot Zeno electronic walkway was utilized to assess stride velocity (cm/s). Objective fatigue was operationalized as attenuation in HbO2 levels and decline in stride velocity (cm/s) during six continuous straight walks under single- (normal-walk) and dual-task (walk-while-talk) conditions. The Brief Fatigue Inventory assessed subjective fatigue. Worse subjective fatigue was associated with attenuated increase in HbO2 levels (estimate = 0.175; p .05) from normal-walk to walk-while-talk conditions. Objective fatigue did not manifest and was not associated with subjective fatigue during the course of normal-walk. Worse subjective fatigue was associated with attenuated HbO2 levels in the fourth (estimate = -0.178; p subjective and objective measurements of fatigue as defined in the context of attention-demanding locomotion.
Chundury, Rao V; D'Angelo, Alexander S; Couch, Steven M; Holds, John B
To evaluate the Sunnybrook Facial Grading System (SFGS) and Facial Clinimetric Evaluation (FaCE) Scale Instrument outcomes when treating hemifacial spasm (HFS) with onabotulinumtoxinA. An Institutional Review Board-approved retrospective review of records of 66 HFS patients treated with onabotulinumtoxinA. SFGS and FaCE surveys were completed prior to onabotulinumtoxinA therapy and at 1 month follow up. Surveys were analyzed for differences using paired Student t tests, with statistical significance set at p < 0.05. Correlations were determined using Spearman correlation (rs), with coefficients of ≥0.40 or ≤-0.40 considered significant. There were 22 complete data sets. SFGS composite score improved from mean, 56.9 (SD, 12.3) to 63.6 (SD, 12.3), p < 0.01. SFGS subdomain synkinesis score significantly improved (p < 0.01). The FaCE scale subdomain oral function significantly worsened (p = 0.05). The Δ pre-/post-SFGS composite score did not correlate with the Δ pre-/post-FaCE composite score (rs = 0.24). There was a significant positive correlation between SFGS composite score and FaCE social function score (rs = 0.462, p = 0.03) and between SFGS voluntary movement score and FaCE social function score (rs = 0.477, p = 0.03). Subgroup analysis of single FaCE questions demonstrated no statistical change in subjective dry eye (p = 0.30). There was an improvement in social functioning in treated HFS patients, which positively correlated with improvement in overall objective voluntary facial movement. There was no statistical difference in subjective dry eye symptoms. The overall SFGS composite score improved following treatment of HFS with botulinum toxin. This information can be used when counseling expected outcomes in HFS patients treated with onabotulinumtoxinA.
Hopf, Johannes C; Berger, Volker; Krieglstein, Christian F; Müller, Lars P; Koslowsky, Thomas C
The aim of this study was to provide subjective and objective results of surgical treatment of unstable elbow dislocations with the hinged external fixation technique. Twenty-six patients were available for re-examination after treatment. Parameters used to quantify the subjective functional results were the Mayo Elbow Performance Score, the shortened Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire, and the stability of the elbow joint. In addition, we measured the medial and lateral joint space by varus and valgus stress ultrasound examinations of the elbow. The mean Mayo Elbow Performance Score was 93.5 (±8.3 standard deviation), and the shortened Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire showed an average of 7.3 points (±8.9 standard deviation). We saw 18 patients with stable joints and 8 patients with slight instability. In the ultrasound stress test, we saw a significant difference of the affected joint under varus stress (7.8 ± 1.7 mm) compared with the healthy joint (5.8 ± 1.2 mm) laterally. Furthermore, medially the gap was significantly larger (4.8 ± 0.9 mm; treated elbow) than contralaterally under valgus stress (3.3 ± 0.7 mm) (P dislocations resulted in good and very good results. We could identify a slight difference in the stability of the affected elbow compared with the contralateral side in all patients without clinical relevance. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Matsumoto, Mitsuhiro; Lee, Bumsuk; Tozato, Fusae; Gennai, Kazuko; Shiihara, Yasufumi
To objectively evaluate sleep quality of shift-working nurses, we used an Actiwatch 2, a watch-like actigraphy device designed to measure sleep and wakefulness based on the amount of movement. Subjective sleep quality was also assessed using the St. Mary's Hospital Sleep Questionnaire. Nineteen shift-working nurses wore the Actiwatch 2 for 5 days. The monitoring began with 2 days of the morning shift, which were followed by a 16-hour night shift and a rest day. Sleep recordings were obtained four times: night sleep after the second morning shift ("sleep 1"), napping on the night shift ("nap 1"), daytime napping after the night shift ("nap 2") and night sleep after the night shift ("sleep 2"). Actiwatch 2 sleep measures include sleep onset latency, snooze time, sleep efficiency, and percent sleep. In addition, the perceived quality of sleep was obtained using five questions of the St. Mary's Hospital Sleep Questionnaire. Objective and subjective sleep quality were compared between different sleep/nap times: sleep 1 vs. sleep 2, and nap 1 vs. nap 2. Percent sleep of sleep 2 was higher than that of sleep 1. In almost all responses to the St. Mary's Hospital Sleep Questionnaire, the perceived quality of sleep on sleep 2 was better than those of sleep 1, and that of nap 2 was better than nap 1. A significant negative correlation was found between the perceived sleep quality of nap 2 and the characteristics of participants (age, number of children, and length of career). There were positive correlations between the perceived sleep quality of sleep and percent sleep, and between the perceived sleep quality of nap and sleep efficiency. Moreover, the perceived sleep quality of nap 2 tended to decrease in participants whose bedtime deviated from the mean value on morning shift days and the rest day. We found that perceived sleep quality is related to percent sleep, and that the perceived sleep quality of nap is related to sleep efficiency. The results suggest that improving
Fiedler, Anja; Moore, Cathleen M.
The present study combines the object-reviewing paradigm (Kahneman, Treisman, & Gibbs, 1990) with the checkershadow illusion (Adelson, 1995) in order to contrast the effects of objects’ luminance versus lightness on the object-specific preview benefit. To this end, we manipulated objects’ luminance and the amount of illumination given by an informative background scene in four experiments. In line with previous studies (Moore, Stephens, & Hein, 2010), there was no object-specific preview benefit when objects were presented on a uniformly colored background and luminance switched between objects. In contrast, when objects were presented on the checkershadow illusion background which provided an explanation for the luminance switch, a reliable object-specific preview benefit was observed. This suggests that object correspondence as measured by the object-reviewing paradigm can be influenced by scene-induced, perceived lightness of objects’ surfaces. We replicated this finding and moreover showed that the scene context only influences the object-specific preview benefit if the objects are perceived as part of the background scene. PMID:26280265
Full Text Available This article aims to investigate the relationship between education, class struggle and revolution based on Manifesto and the "historical texts" of Marx on the 1848 revolution. Initially, some confrontation will be shown fruitful by illuminating the basic features of the theoretical Marxian: rejecting both "objectivist" and "subjectivist" interpretations. Marx’s theory of history turns out to be founded on two different times - linear and cyclical. These define a dialectical relationship between objectivity and subjectivity of history. Next, the same confrontation will be used to show that Marx represents the process in which the proletariat acquires a mature revolutionary consciousness. Far from considering it as "simple" development of proletarian class consciousness, Marx conceives this process as a more complex path, thus, it is implicated in all social classes. Finally, the last part is devoted to showing "empirically" this theoretical device in action: through the analysis of Marx on the development of class struggles in France, it will "almost" show the absolute centrality of the educational dimension in Marxist conception of history
Full Text Available Nowadays dozens of people share their content in the current Web 2.0 space, talk with friends in social networking sites such as Facebook and live on the Net in many other ways. They do all this quite naturally, forgetting the healthy cautiousness sometimes. In real life we rely on trusted people. Do we know how to reflect real-world trust mechanisms into on-line social software? In the article we focused to bring overview on state of the art in main ideas behind a trust processing in online social networking systems. What are common sources of subjective trust, how the trust emerges and what are the sources of trust dynamics? How can be trust captured into the systems, how can be explicit trust processed to infer indirect trust, the trust between users who do not know each other? And what are the ways to infer objective metrics of trust, the reputation or trustworthiness? Finally, we point out selected challenges related to the trust in current highly dynamic social networks.
The use of hybridity today suggests a less coherent, unified and directed process than that found in the Enlightenment science's cultural imperialism, but regardless of this neither concept exists outside power and inequality. Hence, hybridity raises the question of the terms of the mixture and the conditions of mixing. Cultural hybridity produced by colonisation, under the watchful eye of science at the time, and the subsequent life in a modern world since does not obscure the power that was embedded in the moment of colonisation. Indigenous identities are constructed within and by cultural power. While we all live in a global society whose consequences no one can escape, we remain unequal participants and globalisation remains an uneven process. This article argues that power has become a constitutive element in our own hybrid identities in indigenous people's attempts to participate in science and science education. Using the indigenous peoples of Aotearoa New Zealand (called Māori) as a site of identity construction, I argue that the move from being the object of science to the subject of science, through science education in schools, brings with it traces of an earlier meaning of `hybridity' that constantly erupts into the lives of Māori women scientists.
Menec, Verena H; Newall, Nancy E G; Nowicki, Scott
The notion of age-friendliness is gaining increasing attention from policy makers and researchers. In this study, we examine the congruence between two types of age-friendly surveys: subjective assessments by community residents versus objective assessments by municipal officials. The study was based on data from 39 mostly rural communities in Manitoba, Canada, in which a municipal official and residents (M= 25 residents per community) completed a survey to assess age-friendly features in a range of domains, such as transportation and housing. Congruence between the two surveys was generally good, although the municipal official survey consistently overestimated communities' age-friendliness, relative to residents' ratings. The findings suggest that a survey completed by municipal officials can provide a reasonable assessment of age-friendliness that may be useful for certain purposes, such as cross-community comparisons. However, some caution is warranted when using only these surveys for community development, as they may not adequately reflect residents' views. © The Author(s) 2014.
Faham, Maryam; Jalilevand, Nahid; Torabinezhad, Farhad; Silverman, Erin Pearson; Ahmadi, Akram; Anaraki, Zahra Ghayoumi; Jafari, Narges
Teachers are at high risk of developing voice problems because of the excessive vocal demands necessitated by their profession. Teachers' self-assessment of vocal complaints, combined with subjective and objective measures of voice, may enable better therapeutic decision-making. This investigation compared audio-perceptual assessment and acoustic variables in teachers with and without voice complaints. Ninety-nine teachers completed this cross-sectional study and were assigned to one of two groups: those "with voice complaint (VC)" and those "without voice complaint (W-VC)." Voice samples were collected during reading, counting, and vowel prolongation tasks. Teachers were also asked to document any voice symptoms they experienced. Voice samples were analyzed using Dr. Speech program (4th version; Tiger Ltd., USA), and labeled "normal" or "abnormal" according to the "grade" dimension "G" from GRBAS scale. Twenty-one teachers were assigned to the VC group based on self-assessment data. There were statistically significant differences between the two groups with regard to self-reported voice symptoms of hoarseness, breathiness, pitch breaks, and vocal fatigue (P Teachers with and without voice complaints differed in the incidence, but not type of voice symptoms. Teachers' voice complaints did not correspond to perceptual and acoustic measures. This suggests a potential unmet need for teachers to receive further education on voice disorders. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. All rights reserved.
Conclusion: Our results showed that although the lubricating drop did not improve the tear film stability and optical quality in the silicone hydrogel contact lens wearers, subjects experienced a subjective improvement.
.... In Karl Jaspers' later philosophy, the Periechontology, we find reflections that lead to the limits of the subject-object-division, demonstrating that an absolute and final knowing of Being is impossible...
Saw, Anna E; Main, Luana C; Gastin, Paul B
Monitoring athlete well-being is essential to guide training and to detect any progression towards negative health outcomes and associated poor performance. Objective (performance, physiological, biochemical) and subjective measures are all options for athlete monitoring. We systematically reviewed objective and subjective measures of athlete well-being. Objective measures, including those taken at rest (eg, blood markers, heart rate) and during exercise (eg, oxygen consumption, heart rate response), were compared against subjective measures (eg, mood, perceived stress). All measures were also evaluated for their response to acute and chronic training load. The databases Academic search complete, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus and PubMed were searched in May 2014. Fifty-six original studies reported concurrent subjective and objective measures of athlete well-being. The quality and strength of findings of each study were evaluated to determine overall levels of evidence. Subjective and objective measures of athlete well-being generally did not correlate. Subjective measures reflected acute and chronic training loads with superior sensitivity and consistency than objective measures. Subjective well-being was typically impaired with an acute increase in training load, and also with chronic training, while an acute decrease in training load improved subjective well-being. This review provides further support for practitioners to use subjective measures to monitor changes in athlete well-being in response to training. Subjective measures may stand alone, or be incorporated into a mixed methods approach to athlete monitoring, as is current practice in many sport settings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Papadakis, Chariton E; Asimakopoulou, Panagiota; Proimos, Efklidis; Perogamvrakis, George; Papoutsaki, Effrosyni; Chimona, Theognosia
This study aims to investigate early voice changes after total thyroidectomy, to assess the improved parameters in intermediate postoperative intervals, to evaluate the effect of age on voice after thyroidectomy, and to determine the correlation between the objective and the subjective method outcomes. This is a prospective, nonrandomized study. One hundred ninety-one participants, divided into two age groups, underwent three full voice assessments (preoperatively and 1 and 8 weeks after thyroidectomy) by means of videostroboscopy, perceptual evaluation, acoustic analysis, aerodynamic evaluation, and a self-evaluation questionnaire. Two control groups enrolled in the study: (1) patients with an indication of neck surgery not related to laryngeal nerve injury risk or strap muscle dissection and (2) patients with an indication of a non-neck surgery. No statistically significant difference was found in any voice parameter, between preoperative and 1-week postoperative assessment regarding the control groups. A statistically significant difference was found between preoperative evaluation and 1 week after thyroidectomy for the total study population, as well as for the ≥40 years' age subgroup for all parameters evaluated except for shimmer. The <40 years' age subgroup showed a statistically significant difference in pitch, maximum phonation time, and grade, roughness, breathiness, asthenia, and strain (GRBAS) score between preoperative evaluation and 1 week after thyroidectomy. None of the parameters showed a statistical significant difference in the <40 years' age subgroup at 8 weeks' evaluation. The Voice Handicap Index (VHI) score correlated significantly with the GRBAS score preoperatively and postoperatively at 1 and 8 weeks' evaluations. Furthermore, VHI correlated significantly with pitch a week postoperatively. GRBAS scores showed significant correlation not only with VHI but also with acoustic parameters including pitch, shimmer, and noise-to-harmonic ratio
The study investigates the health effects of subjective class position stratified by objective social position. Four types of subjective class were analysed separately for individuals with manual or non-manual occupational background. The cross-sectional analysis is based on the Swedish Level-of-Living Survey from 2000 and includes 4,139…
Valcour, Monique; Ladge, Jamie J.
This study examined the effects of family and career path characteristics on objective and subjective career success among 916 employed mothers. Among family variables, age at first childbirth was positively related and career priority favoring the husband was negatively related to both income and subjective career success; number of children was…
Weiss, S; LaStayo, P; Mills, A; Bramlet, D
Predisposing factors contributing to the development of first carpometacarpal (CMC) osteoarthritis include an inherent laxity or incongruency of this joint, a shallow trapezium saddle, and heavy stresses placed on the joint with pinching and grasping. Splinting is a common mode of conservative treatment for CMC osteoarthritis. This study assessed the objective and subjective responses of patients with CMC osteoarthritis who wore short and long opponens splints, as well as radiographic changes associated with wearing of the splints. The study evaluated 26 hands. Each patient was assigned at random to wear the long or the short splint first. Patients wore the splints for one week. They then documented function in their splints (on 22 activities of daily living) and rated splint satisfaction and pain levels on visual analog scales. One week after application of the first splint, the second splint was applied and worn for one week, and all measures were repeated. On the final visit, tip pinches were evaluated and x-rays were taken to assess subluxation. One-way repeated-measure analysis and paired comparison were used to analyze the pinch, pain, radiographic, and splint-rating measures. Descriptive statistics were used to assess activity-of-daily-living function and splint preference. Both splints appear to reduce subluxation at the first CMC joint in patients with grades 1 and 2 osteoarthritis. The majority of the patients picked the short splint when asked at the end of the study which splint they preferred. The splints do not appear to increase pinch strength or affect pain levels associated with the performance of pinch strength measurements. This study supports anecdotal evidence that patients with CMC osteoarthritis get pain relief with splinting.
Jarad, N A; Sequeiros, I M; Patel, P; Bristow, K; Sund, Z
Fatigue is a debilitating symptom in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Although fatigue is commonly reported in these patients, an effective treatment for this symptom has not been found. The factors associated with fatigue in CF have not been investigated. We conducted a prospective, case-control study in adult patients with CF. All the patients were chronically infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and were enrolled in the study during disease stability. A gender and age-matched control group was also recruited. Subjective assessment included three questionnaires: the Chalder fatigue questionnaire, St Mary's Hospital sleep questionnaire (SQ), and the scaled general health and Hillier questionnaire (GHQ). For patients with CF, spirometry, body mass index (BMI), haemoglobin level, C-reactive protein, and the burden of pulmonary exacerbations (PExs) were assessed. The control group completed all the three questionnaires, and their BMI was measured. A total of 78 participants were enrolled in the study (44 patients with CF and 34 control). Female patients with CF received antibiotics for more days than male patients with CF. The fatigue score did not differ between female and male participants in either the patients with CF or the control group; however, the fatigue score was greater for both the sexes in the patients with CF compared with the control group: p = 0.038 for female and p = 0.048 for male. The scores for the SQ and the GHQ did not differ between the two study groups. The fatigue score correlated with the total score for SQ (p < 0.0001) in patients with CF, but not in control participants. In patients with CF and the individuals in the control group, a close correlation was found between the fatigue score and the GHQ domain-specific scores and with the total score; p < 0.0001 for patients with CF and p = 0.001 for control. No correlations were found between the fatigue score and any of the objective parameters studied.
Kunnen, Carolina M E; Wolffsohn, James S; Ritchey, Eric R
To validate a semi-objective method of grading lid wiper epitheliopathy (LWE) compared to subjective assessment. Twenty upper and 20 lower eyelid margins of patients with LWE were photographed after instillation of fluorescein and lissamine green. The images were graded by two observers using a 0-3 grading scale for height (%) and width (mm) of the lid staining. The images were also processed using custom designed software in MATLAB. After manual delineation of the staining area, width and perpendicular height were automatically measured throughout the selected area. The height as a proportion of the lid margin width and width measures were then categorized into the same bins as in the grading scale. Repeatability of the image analysis system showed a mean difference (95% limits of agreement) between repeats of -0.01mm (0.03 and -0.05mm) for LWE height, 0.04mm (1.16 and -1.08mm) for LWE width, and -0.11mm(2) (0.32 and -0.53mm(2)) for LWE area. The mean difference (95% limits of agreement) between image analysis and human grading for LWE height was -0.84 grades (0.54 and -2.21 grades), for LWE width was 0.31 grades (1.22 and -0.59 grades), and for the final grade (mean height and width) was -0.26 (0.44 and -0.96 grades) (all p<0.001). Human observers tend to overestimate the height and underestimate the width of LWE staining. Lid wiper region is not well defined, thus, it might be a difficult process for human observers to judge the stained region as a proportion of the lid wiper total region. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Full Text Available A solution for fault tolerant control (FTC of a quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV is proposed. It relies on model reference-based control, where a reference model generates the desired trajectory. Depending on the type of reference model used for generating the reference trajectory, and on the assumptions about the availability and uncertainty of fault estimation, different error models are obtained. These error models are suitable for passive FTC, active FTC and hybrid FTC, the latter being able to merge the benefits of active and passive FTC while reducing their respective drawbacks. The controller is generated using results from the robust linear parameter varying (LPV polytopic framework, where the vector of varying parameters is used to schedule between uncertain linear time invariant (LTI systems. The design procedure relies on solving a set of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs in order to achieve regional pole placement and H∞ norm bounding constraints. Simulation results are used to compare the different FTC strategies.
Rommers, Joost; Meyer, Antje S; Praamstra, Peter; Huettig, Falk
When comprehending concrete words, listeners and readers can activate specific visual information such as the shape of the words' referents. In two experiments we examined whether such information can be activated in an anticipatory fashion. In Experiment 1, listeners' eye movements were tracked while they were listening to sentences that were predictive of a specific critical word (e.g., "moon" in "In 1969 Neil Armstrong was the first man to set foot on the moon"). 500 ms before the acoustic onset of the critical word, participants were shown four-object displays featuring three unrelated distractor objects and a critical object, which was either the target object (e.g., moon), an object with a similar shape (e.g., tomato), or an unrelated control object (e.g., rice). In a time window before shape information from the spoken target word could be retrieved, participants already tended to fixate both the target and the shape competitors more often than they fixated the control objects, indicating that they had anticipatorily activated the shape of the upcoming word's referent. This was confirmed in Experiment 2, which was an ERP experiment without picture displays. Participants listened to the same lead-in sentences as in Experiment 1. The sentence-final words corresponded to the predictable target, the shape competitor, or the unrelated control object (yielding, for instance, "In 1969 Neil Armstrong was the first man to set foot on the moon/tomato/rice"). N400 amplitude in response to the final words was significantly attenuated in the shape-related compared to the unrelated condition. Taken together, these results suggest that listeners can activate perceptual attributes of objects before they are referred to in an utterance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Z.; Addo, O. Y.; Himes, J. H.; Hediger, M L; Albert, P S; Gollenberg, A. L.; Lee, P. A.; Louis, G. M. Buck
Reference curves are commonly used to identify individuals with extreme values of clinically relevant variables or stages of progression which depend naturally on age or maturation. Estimation of reference curves can be complicated by a technical limit of detection (LOD) that censors the measurement from the left, as is the case in our study of reproductive hormone levels in boys around the time of the onset of puberty. We discuss issues with common approaches to the LOD problem in the contex...
Gasparin, Stefania; Tosello, Guido; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard
The report presents methods and procedure to establish the traceability of measurements at both micro and sub-micro dimensional scales. Reference artefacts and new methodologies to ensure traceability of dimensional and geometrical 3D measurements (absolute dimensions below 3 mm, micro features w...... with critical dimensions below 100 μm, roughness lower than 100 nm) have been developed to allow validation and verification of product and process tolerances as developed within the COTECH project.......The report presents methods and procedure to establish the traceability of measurements at both micro and sub-micro dimensional scales. Reference artefacts and new methodologies to ensure traceability of dimensional and geometrical 3D measurements (absolute dimensions below 3 mm, micro features...
Sealy-Jefferson, Shawnita; Messer, Lynne; Slaughter-Acey, Jaime; Misra, Dawn P
The inter-relationships between objective (census based) and subjective (resident reported) measures of the residential environment is understudied in African American (AA) populations. Using data from the Life Influences on Fetal Environments Study (2009-2011; n = 1387) of AA women, we quantified the area-level variation in subjective reports of residential healthy food availability, walkability, safety, and disorder that can be accounted for with an objective neighborhood disadvantage index (NDI). Two-level generalized linear models estimated associations between objective and subjective measures of the residential environment, accounting for individual-level covariates. In unconditional models, intraclass correlation coefficients for block-group variance in subjective reports ranged from 11% (healthy food availability) to 30% (safety). Models accounting for the NDI (vs. both NDI and individual-level covariates) accounted for more variance in healthy food availability (23% vs. 8%) and social disorder (40% vs. 38%). The NDI and individual-level variables accounted for 39% and 51% of the area-level variation in walkability and safety, respectively. Associations between subjective and objective measures of the residential environment were significant and in the expected direction. Future studies on neighborhood effects on health, especially among AAs, should include a wide range of residential environment measures, including subjective, objective, and spatial contextual variables. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Saskia Scholten; Julia Velten; Torsten Neher; Jürgen Margraf
Background: Macro-level factors (MF) such as wealth, justice and freedom measured with objective country-level indicators (objective MF), for instance the Gross Domestic Product (GDP), have been investigated in relation to health and well-being, but rarely in connection with depression, anxiety and stress subsumed as poor mental health. Also, a combination of different objective MF and of how individuals perceive those MF (subjective MF) has not been taken into consideration. In the present s...
Scholten, Saskia; Velten, Julia; Neher, Torsten; Margraf, Jürgen
Background Macro-level factors (MF) such as wealth, justice and freedom measured with objective country-level indicators (objective MF), for instance the Gross Domestic Product (GDP), have been investigated in relation to health and well-being, but rarely in connection with depression, anxiety and stress subsumed as poor mental health. Also, a combination of different objective MF and of how individuals perceive those MF (subjective MF) has not been taken into consideration. In the present st...
Full Text Available The main concern of my work is the issue of the distinction between objectivity and subjectivity on the ground of Frege’s works. It is assumed in this article that in Frege’s concept of objectivity is a special kind of absolute. In order to justify that claim, I use Frege’s ontological ideas, e.g. distinction between object and concept, three kingdoms, Truth, False, distinction between thought and thinking.
. One of the most important publications in which this connection is emphasized is the report of the American Ministry of Health, called Physical activity and health (1996, which gives a number of useful effects on health status of people who participated in some form of physical activity. Exact minimal volume and intensity of physical activity enough to cause positive effects on health status is still unknown, so the estimation of elements of physical form related to health became important for many institutions occupied with health of people. Discussion: For each of the above mentioned elements of physical form related to health, there were different subjective and objective procedures established that can be used for their estimation. Carpensen CJ. Powell KE, Cristenson GM Besides (1985, it is very important to take into account a clear aim for which a certain estimation is done, because it enables implementation of the most appropriate protocol for estimation of each element of physical form. In that sense, subjective and objective estimation of the level of physical activity of an individual is essential for preservation and improvement of their health status. References: American College for Sports Medicine, Guildelines for exericise testing and Prescription.8th ed. Philadelphia: 2009 Lippincott Williams&Wilkins, 248-52. Carpensen CJ, Powell KE, Cristenson GM (1985. Physical activity , ehercise, and physical fitness: definitions and distinctions for healt-related research. Public Health Rep., 100(2, 126-31. U.S. Department of Healt and Human Services and Centers for DiseaseControl and Prevention. Physical Activity and health: A report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta (GA: 1996 National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 89-90.
Tang, Suqin; Chow, Amy Y M
Symptoms of complicated grief are associated with a traumatic death. However, the subjective experience of whether or not the death was considered traumatic has not been substantially explored. This study first examined the difference between objective and subjective traumatic death, and then investigated their respective impacts on complicated grief and depressive symptoms following bereavement among older adults in Hong Kong. Participants were 187 Hong Kong adults aged 65 years or above who had lost a family member within the past five years. Demographic information, the Inventory of Complicated Grief (ICG), the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), and the anxiety subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were utilized. The subjective traumatic level of the death did not differ between the objective traumatic and non-traumatic death as defined by nature of death (t = -1.554, p = 0.122). Higher subjective traumatic levels and younger age of the deceased, were positively related to complicated grief symptoms, F (10, 161) = 14.222, p subjective traumatic levels and older age of the bereaved were positively associated with symptoms of depression, F (10, 160) = 2.855, p = 0.003, R 2 = 0.151. However, objective traumatic death was found to have no relation to either complicated grief or depressive symptoms. Subjective and objective traumatic death may be two distinct concepts, and the subjective experience of the death as a trauma may be a more important factor that contributes to complicated grief and depressive symptoms.
Diaz-Piedra, Carolina; Catena, Andres; Miro, Elena; Martinez, Maria P; Sanchez, Ana I; Buela-Casal, Gualberto
Pain is the cardinal feature in fibromyalgia syndrome (FM) and increases the risk of anxiety and depression. Patients with FM frequently report sleep disturbances as well. Sleep may mediate the association between pain and emotional symptoms, an idea which has been scarcely studied. The objective of this study was to uncover the role of subjective and objective sleep characteristics as mediators of the relationship between pain and anxiety and depression in FM. Fifty-five female with FM (mean age, 47.62 ± 7.64 y) were assessed to obtain self-reported measures of pain, sleep quality, anxiety and depression levels, and self-efficacy to cope with pain. An ambulatory polysomnographic recording was performed to assess sleep architecture. Subjective poor sleep quality was found in all participtants. Pain correlated with subjective and objective sleep parameters, self-efficacy, anxiety, and, marginally, with depression. The mediated regression analysis suggested that the best models to explain the impact of pain on anxiety and depression included, as mediators, subjective sleep quality, objective sleep efficiency, and self-efficacy (these models explained 34% of the variance), with objective sleep efficiency being the mediator with the highest influence (Panxiety and depression. In fact, the impact of chronic pain on the later emotional variables was mediated not only by self-efficacy but also by subjective sleep quality and, especially, by objective sleep efficiency.
Lim, Sun-Young; Chang, Sung-Ok
To discover the structure of the frames of reference for nursing home staff members' subjective judgment of residents' achievement of ego integrity. Q-methodology was applied. Twenty-eight staff members who were working in a nursing home sorted 34 Q-statements into the shape of a normal distribution. A centroid factor analysis and varimax rotation, using the PQ-method program, revealed four factors: identifying clues to residents' positive acceptance of their whole life span, identifying residents' ways of enjoying their current life, referencing residents' attitudes and competencies toward harmonious relationships, and identifying residents' integrated efforts to establish self-esteem. These subjective frames of reference need to be investigated in order to improve the relationships with nursing home residents and their quality of life. Consequently, the fundamental monitoring tools to help staff members make subjective judgments can be formed. © 2017 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.
Subjective perceptions of outcomes (both success and failure) may vary considerably from those of the experimenter's, and causal attributions are based as much on subject's own perceptions of success and failure as on the experimenter's definitions of outcomes. (Author/MJB)
Janke, Vikki; Perovic, Alexandra
This study examines two complex syntactic dependencies (complement control and sentence-final temporal adjunct control) and one pragmatic dependency (controlled verbal gerund subjects) in children with ASD. Sixteen high-functioning (HFA) children (aged 6-16) with a diagnosis of autism and no language impairment, matched on age, gender and non-verbal MA to one TD control group, and on age, gender and verbal MA to another TD control group, undertook three picture-selection tasks. Task 1 measured their base-line interpretations of the empty categories (ec). Task 2 preceded these sentence sets with a weakly established topic cueing an alternative referent and Task 3 with a strongly established topic cueing an alternative referent. In complement control (Ron persuaded Hermione ec to kick the ball) and sentence-final temporal adjunct control (Harry tapped Luna while ec feeding the owl), the reference of the ec is argued to be related obligatorily to the object and subject respectively. In controlled verbal-gerund subjects (VGS) (ec Rowing the boat clumsily made Luna seasick), the ec's reference is resolved pragmatically. Referent choices across the three tasks were compared. TD children chose the object uniformly in complement control across all tasks but in adjunct control, preferences shifted toward the object in Task 3. In controlled VGSs, they exhibited a strong preference for an internal-referent interpretation in Task 1, which shifted in the direction of the cues in Tasks 2 and 3. HFA children gave a mixed performance. They patterned with their TD counterparts on complement control and controlled VGSs but performed marginally differently on adjunct control: no TD groups were influenced by the weakly established topic in Task 2 but all groups were influenced by the strongly established topic in Task 3. HFA children were less influenced than the TD children, resulting in their making fewer object choices overall but revealing parallel patterns of performance. In this
Wallentin, Mikkel; Kristensen, Line Burholt; Olsen, Jacob Hedeager; Nielsen, Andreas Hojlund
The brain's frontal eye fields (FEF), responsible for eye movement control, are known to be involved in spatial working memory (WM). In a previous fMRI experiment (Wallentin, Roepstorff & Burgess, Neuropsychologia, 2008) it was found that FEF activation was primarily related to the formation of an object-centered, rather than egocentric, spatial…
Jesús Vega Encabo
Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation.
Objectivity has a history, and it is full of surprises. In Objectivity, Lorraine Daston and Peter Galison chart the emergence of objectivity in the mid-nineteenth-century sciences--and show how the concept differs from its alternatives, truth-to-nature and trained judgment. This is a story of lofty epistemic ideals fused with workaday practices in the making of scientific images. From the eighteenth through the early twenty-first centuries, the images that reveal the deepest commitments of the empirical sciences--from anatomy to crystallography--are those featured in scientific atlases, the compendia that teach practitioners what is worth looking at and how to look at it. Galison and Daston use atlas images to uncover a hidden history of scientific objectivity and its rivals. Whether an atlas maker idealizes an image to capture the essentials in the name of truth-to-nature or refuses to erase even the most incidental detail in the name of objectivity or highlights patterns in the name of trained judgment is a...
Overbeek, B.U.; Alfen, N. van; Bor, J.A.; Zwarts, M.J.
The sural/radial nerve amplitude ratio (SRAR) has been proposed as a sensitive indicator of early-stage axonal polyneuropathy. However, previous studies did not take into account the effect of sex differences or different calculating methods. To obtain reference values and information on the
This paper reports on a study conducted to determine if PowerPoint presentation is the most effective medium to explain two reference books: "The Storyteller's Sourcebook" and "A Guide to Folktales in the English Language." A secondary purpose was to see if the students who saw the PowerPoint presentation received higher…
van der Werf, S.P.; Geurts, S.; de Werd, M.M.E.
It has been suggested that the memory complaints of patients who are not impaired on formal memory tests may reflect accelerated forgetting. We examined this hypothesis by comparing the 1-week delayed recall and recognition test performance of outpatients who were referred for neuropsychological
Werf, S.P. van der; Geurts, S.; Werd, M.M.E. de
It has been suggested that the memory complaints of patients who are not impaired on formal memory tests may reflect accelerated forgetting. We examined this hypothesis by comparing the 1-week delayed recall and recognition test performance of outpatients who were referred for neuropsychological
Pak, Chan-Gi; Truong, Samson S.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Armstrong Flight Research Center has developed a cost-effective and flexible object-oriented optimization (O (sup 3)) tool that leverages existing tools and practices and allows easy integration and adoption of new state-of-the-art software. This object-oriented framework can integrate the analysis codes for multiple disciplines, as opposed to relying on one code to perform analysis for all disciplines. Optimization can thus take place within each discipline module, or in a loop between the O (sup 3) tool and the discipline modules, or both. Six different sample mathematical problems are presented to demonstrate the performance of the O (sup 3) tool. Instructions for preparing input data for the O (sup 3) tool are detailed in this user's manual.
Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Stangenes, Kristine; Oyane, Nicolas; Forberg, Knut; Lowden, Arne; Holsten, Fred; Akerstedt, Torbjørn
To study the adaptation and readaptation processes to 1 week of night work (6:30 PM to 6:30 AM) followed by 1 week of day work (6:30 AM to 6:30 PM). Part of a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover field study. Here, data from the placebo arm are presented. Oil rig in the North Sea. Work schedule: 2 weeks on a 12-hour shift, with the first week on the night shift and the second week on the day shift. Subjects complaining about problems with adjusting to shift work. Seventeen workers completed the study. N/A. Subjective and objective measures of sleepiness (Karolinska Sleepiness Scale and simple serial reaction time test) and sleep (diary and actigraphy). Both subjective and objective measures improved gradually during night work. The return to day work after 1 week on the night shift led to a clear increase in subjective sleepiness and worsening of sleep parameters. During the week on the day shift, sleepiness and sleep gradually improved, similar to the improvement seen during night work. The workers indicated that the day shift was worse than the night shift on some of the measures, e.g., sleep length was significantly longer during the night-shift period. This is one of few studies showing how shift workers in a real-life setting adjust to night work. Both subjective and objective sleepiness and subjective sleep improved across days. The effects were especially pronounced for the subjective data.
Scholten, Saskia; Velten, Julia; Neher, Torsten; Margraf, Jürgen
Macro-level factors (MF) such as wealth, justice and freedom measured with objective country-level indicators (objective MF), for instance the Gross Domestic Product (GDP), have been investigated in relation to health and well-being, but rarely in connection with depression, anxiety and stress subsumed as poor mental health. Also, a combination of different objective MF and of how individuals perceive those MF (subjective MF) has not been taken into consideration. In the present study, we combined subjective and objective measures of wealth, justice and freedom and examined their relationship with poor mental health. Population-based interviews were conducted in France, Germany, Poland, Russia, Spain, Sweden, U.K. and U.S.A. (n ≈ 1000 per country). GDP, GINI coefficient, Justice Index and Freedom Index were used as objective MF, whereas subjective MF were perceived wealth, justice and freedom measured at the individual level. Poor mental health was assessed as a combination of symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress. In a random-intercept-model, GINI coefficient and Freedom Index were significant positive country-level, and perceived wealth, justice, and freedom significant negative individual-level predictors of symptoms of poor mental health. Multiple subjective and objective MF should be combined to assess the macrosystem's relationship with poor mental health more precisely. The relationship between MF and poor mental health indicates that the macrosystem should be taken into account as relevant context for mental health problems, too.
, one beyond the traditional binary divisions of subject and object, or of universal and particular. In the end, as Agamben illustrates repeatedly, there is only the ‘thingness’ that each thing is, and which must be safeguarded in its precarity, thus paving the way (through a messianic intervention for an ethical discourse to appear.It is a final gesture toward the messianic, then, toward a religiously-inflected terminology which hovers over his entire oeuvre, that will ultimately guide Agamben’s ‘political’ project back toward its canonical moment most clearly identifiable within the Christian heritage. As his reading of Benjamin’s relationship to Saint Paul indicates, there is much to be discerned for him in the transition from Judaic law (with its representational logic to Christian ‘forms of life’ (with its paradigmatic focus. Rather than be content with a simple re-affirmation of Christian claims, however, Agamben deftly maneuvers his own position toward one of exposing the logic of Christianity as that which reveals a deep investment in a pantheistic worldview, one which theology can no longer afford to ignore.
Zhang, Z; Addo, O Y; Himes, J H; Hediger, M L; Albert, P S; Gollenberg, A L; Lee, P A; Louis, G M Buck
Reference curves are commonly used to identify individuals with extreme values of clinically relevant variables or stages of progression which depend naturally on age or maturation. Estimation of reference curves can be complicated by a technical limit of detection (LOD) that censors the measurement from the left, as is the case in our study of reproductive hormone levels in boys around the time of the onset of puberty. We discuss issues with common approaches to the LOD problem in the context of our pubertal hormone study, and propose a two-part model that addresses these issues. One part of the proposed model specifies the probability of a measurement exceeding the LOD as a function of age. The other part of the model specifies the conditional distribution of a measurement given that it exceeds the LOD, again as a function of age. Information from the two parts can be combined to estimate the identifiable portion (i.e. above the LOD) of a reference curve and to calculate the relative standing of a given measurement above the LOD. Unlike some common approaches to LOD problems, the two-part model is free of untestable assumptions involving unobservable quantities, flexible for modeling the observable data, and easy to implement with existing software. The method is illustrated with hormone data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the U.S.A. Published in 2011 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Bolitho, Samuel J; Naismith, Sharon L; Salahuddin, Pierre; Terpening, Zoe; Grunstein, Ron R; Lewis, Simon J G
.... The current study used daytime actigraphy, a novel objective measure of napping and related this to neuropsychological performance in a sample of PD patients and healthy, age and gender-matched controls...
Samuel J Bolitho; Sharon L Naismith; Pierre Salahuddin; Zoe Terpening; Ron R Grunstein; Simon J G Lewis
.... The current study used daytime actigraphy, a novel objective measure of napping and related this to neuropsychological performance in a sample of PD patients and healthy, age and gender-matched controls...
Solli, Hans Magnus; Barbosa da Silva, António
The article defines a comprehensive concept of cognitive objectivity (CCCO) applied to embodied subjects in health care. The aims of this study were: (1) to specify some necessary conditions for the definition of a CCCO that will allow objective descriptions and assessments in health care, (2) to formulate criteria for application of such a CCCO, and (3) to investigate the usefulness of the criteria in work disability assessments in medical certificates from health care provided for social security purposes. The study design was based on a philosophical conceptual analysis of objectivity and subjectivity, the phenomenological notions 'embodied subject', 'life-world', 'phenomenological object' and 'empathy', and an interpretation of certificates as texts. The study material consisted of 18 disability assessments from a total collection of 86 medical certificates provided for social security purposes, written in a Norwegian hospital-based mental health clinic. Four necessary conditions identified for defining a CCCO were: (A) acknowledging the patient's social context and life-world, (B) perceiving patients as cognitive objects providing a variety of meaningful data (clinical, psychometric, and behavioural data - i.e. activities and actions, meaningful expressions and self-reflection), (C) interpreting data in context, and (D) using general epistemological principles. The criteria corresponding to these conditions were: (a) describing the patient's social context and recognizing the patient's perspective, (b) taking into consideration a variety of quantitative and qualitative data drawn from the clinician's perceptions of the patient as embodied subject, (c) being aware of the need to interpret the data in context, and (d) applying epistemological principles (professional expertise, dialogical intersubjectivity, impartiality, accuracy and correctness). Genuine communication is presupposed. These criteria were tested in the work disability assessments of medical
Gerber, Markus; Brand, Serge; Herrmann, Christian; Colledge, Flora; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Pühse, Uwe
The role of physical activity as a factor that protects against stress-related mental disorders is well documented. Nevertheless, there is still a dearth of research using objective measures of physical activity. The present study examines whether objectively assessed vigorous physical activity (VPA) is associated with mental health benefits beyond moderate physical activity (MPA). Particularly, this study examines whether young adults who accomplish the American College of Sports Medicine's (ACSM) vigorous-intensity exercise recommendations differ from peers below these standards with regard to their level of perceived stress, depressive symptoms, perceived pain, and subjective and objective sleep. A total of 42 undergraduate students (22 women, 20 men; M=21.24years, SD=2.20) volunteered to take part in the study. Stress, pain, depressive symptoms, and subjective sleep were assessed via questionnaire, objective sleep via sleep-EEG assessment, and VPA via actigraphy. Meeting VPA recommendations had mental health benefits beyond MPA. VPA was associated with less stress, pain, subjective sleep complaints and depressive symptoms. Moreover, vigorous exercisers had more favorable objective sleep pattern. Especially, they had increased total sleep time, more stage 4 and REM sleep, more slow wave sleep and a lower percentage of light sleep. Vigorous exercisers also reported fewer mental health problems if exposed to high stress. This study provides evidence that meeting the VPA standards of the ACSM is associated with improved mental health and more successful coping among young people, even compared to those who are meeting or exceeding the requirements for MPA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nathan A Parks
Full Text Available Analysis of event-related potential (ERP data includes several steps to ensure that ERPs meet an appropriate level of signal quality. One such step, subject exclusion, rejects subject data if ERP waveforms fail to meet an appropriate level of signal quality. Subject exclusion is an important quality control step in the ERP analysis pipeline as it ensures that statistical inference is based only upon those subjects exhibiting clear evoked brain responses. This critical quality control step is most often performed simply through visual inspection of subject-level ERPs by investigators. Such an approach is qualitative, subjective, and susceptible to investigator bias, as there are no standards as to what constitutes an ERP of sufficient signal quality. Here, we describe a standardized and objective method for quantifying waveform quality in individual subjects and establishing criteria for subject exclusion. The approach uses bootstrap resampling of ERP waveforms (from a pool of all available trials to compute a signal-to-noise ratio confidence interval (SNR-CI for individual subject waveforms. The lower bound of this SNR-CI (SNRLB yields an effective and objective measure of signal quality as it ensures that ERP waveforms statistically exceed a desired signal-to-noise criterion. SNRLB provides a quantifiable metric of individual subject ERP quality and eliminates the need for subjective evaluation of waveform quality by the investigator. We detail the SNR-CI methodology, establish the efficacy of employing this approach with Monte Carlo simulations, and demonstrate its utility in practice when applied to ERP datasets.
Parks, Nathan A.; Gannon, Matthew A.; Long, Stephanie M.; Young, Madeleine E.
Analysis of event-related potential (ERP) data includes several steps to ensure that ERPs meet an appropriate level of signal quality. One such step, subject exclusion, rejects subject data if ERP waveforms fail to meet an appropriate level of signal quality. Subject exclusion is an important quality control step in the ERP analysis pipeline as it ensures that statistical inference is based only upon those subjects exhibiting clear evoked brain responses. This critical quality control step is most often performed simply through visual inspection of subject-level ERPs by investigators. Such an approach is qualitative, subjective, and susceptible to investigator bias, as there are no standards as to what constitutes an ERP of sufficient signal quality. Here, we describe a standardized and objective method for quantifying waveform quality in individual subjects and establishing criteria for subject exclusion. The approach uses bootstrap resampling of ERP waveforms (from a pool of all available trials) to compute a signal-to-noise ratio confidence interval (SNR-CI) for individual subject waveforms. The lower bound of this SNR-CI (SNRLB) yields an effective and objective measure of signal quality as it ensures that ERP waveforms statistically exceed a desired signal-to-noise criterion. SNRLB provides a quantifiable metric of individual subject ERP quality and eliminates the need for subjective evaluation of waveform quality by the investigator. We detail the SNR-CI methodology, establish the efficacy of employing this approach with Monte Carlo simulations, and demonstrate its utility in practice when applied to ERP datasets. PMID:26903849
The main focus of this essay is to closely engage with the role of scientist-subjectivity in the making of objectivity in Lorraine Daston and Peter Galison's book Objectivity, and Daston's later and earlier works On Scientific Observation and The Moral Economy of Science. I have posited four challenges to the neo-Kantian and Foucauldian constructions of the co-implication of psychology and epistemology presented in these texts. Firstly, following Jacques Lacan's work, I have argued that the subject of science constituted by the mode of modern science suffers from paranoia. It is not the fear of subjectivity interfering with objectivity but the impossibility of knowing the truth of the real that causes paranoia. Here, I have argued that it is not the ethos of objectivity that drives epistemology as Daston and Galison suggest, but the pathos of paranoia. The second challenge builds upon Kant's own denial that the perfect correspondence between the human will and the moral law is possible. Kant himself thought that an ethical human act is impossible without the component of "pathology." This questions Daston and Galison's argument that there is always ethical imperative at the core of epistemic virtue. The third challenge contests the way Daston and Galison take appearance for being in their application of the Foucauldian concept of technologies of the self in modeling the master scientist-self. The fourth challenge questions the notion of the psychological and unconscious in the making of epistemology in Daston's later and earlier work. Against this background, I aim to make a claim that understanding and disclosing "entities" in the scientific domain presupposes an understanding of "being" in general. My goal is to open up the discussion for an alternative conception of the scientist-subject and thereby an affective and existential formulation of science.
Wallhuss, Andreas; Isik, Markus; Nystrom, Fredrik H
To measure caloric intake, physical activity level and resting metabolic rate in participants having the subjective opinion of either having a high or low metabolic rate. Recruitment by local advertising of healthy subjects feeling that they have high or low metabolism, i.e. either a tendency to easily stay lean ('high') or to very easily gain weight ('low') also when taking food intake in comparison with physical activity into account. Walking distance was estimated by pedometry, assessment of caloric intake was determined by food registration. Measurement of resting metabolic rate was performed in the fasting state. We recruited 44 participants with a sense of 'high' metabolism and 12 subjects in the contrasting group. Subjects with 'high' metabolism were leaner ('high': 20.4 +/- 2.1 kg/m(2), 'low': 27.8 +/- 7.5 kg/m(2), p difference in the measured resting metabolic rate between the two groups ('high': 7230 +/- 1233 kJ/24 h, 'low': 7430 +/- 1422 kJ/24 h, p = 0.6), nor was there any difference in physical activity measured by pedometry. Resting metabolic rate was negatively correlated with age and positively correlated with BMI in multivariate analyses of the total cohort. The sense of having a low or high metabolic rate is not related to actual resting metabolic rate.
This article examines approaches to defining and measuring quality of life. Each approach to measuring the quality of life contains information that is not contained in the other measures. It describes the economic, subjective and social indicators. The strengths and weaknesses of those indicators are also analyzed.
Wulandari, N. A. D.; Sukestiyarno, Y. L.
This research aims to develop an OQALE based reference module for school geometry subject that meets the criteria of a valid and practical. OQALE approach is learning by of O = observation, Q = question, A = Analyze, L = Logic, E = Express. Geometry subject presented in the module are a triangle, the Pythagorean theorem, and rectangular. Mathematical skills of creative thinking shown from four aspects: fluency, flexibility, originality and elaboration. Research procedures in the development of reference module using a strategy of the investigation and development described by , which is limited to the sixth stage is leading field testing. The focus of this research is to develop a reference module that is valid, practical and able to increase the mathematical creative thinking skills of students. The testing is limited to three teachers, nine students and two mathematic readers using purposive sampling technique. The data validity, practicality, and creative thinking skills upgrading collected through questionnaires, observations, and interviews and analysed with a valid test, practical test, gain test and qualitative descriptive. The results were obtained (1) the validity of the module = 4.52, which is 4.20 ≤ Vmthinking mathematically nine students through the test of the gain included in the high and medium category. The conclusions of this research are the generated OQALE based reference module for school geometry subjectis valid and practical.
Full Text Available The subjective experience of cognitive dysfunction (“fibrofog” is common in fibromyalgia. This study investigated the relation between subjective appraisal of cognitive function, objective cognitive task performance, and brain activity during a cognitive task using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Sixteen fibromyalgia patients and 13 healthy pain-free controls completed a battery of questionnaires, including the Multiple Ability Self-Report Questionnaire (MASQ, a measure of self-perceived cognitive difficulties. Participants were evaluated for working memory performance using a modified N-back working memory task while undergoing Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD fMRI measurements. Fibromyalgia patients and controls did not differ in working memory performance. Subjective appraisal of cognitive function was associated with better performance (accuracy on the working memory task in healthy controls but not in fibromyalgia patients. In fibromyalgia patients, increased perceived cognitive difficulty was positively correlated with the severity of their symptoms. BOLD response during the working memory task did not differ between the groups. BOLD response correlated with task accuracy in control subjects but not in fibromyalgia patients. Increased subjective cognitive impairment correlated with decreased BOLD response in both groups but in different anatomic regions. In conclusion, “fibrofog” appears to be better characterized by subjective rather than objective impairment. Neurologic correlates of this subjective experience of impairment might be separate from those involved in the performance of cognitive tasks.
Julio Michael Stern
Full Text Available This article analyzes the role of entropy in Bayesian statistics, focusing on its use as a tool for detection, recognition and validation of eigen-solutions. “Objects as eigen-solutions” is a key metaphor of the cognitive constructivism epistemological framework developed by the philosopher Heinz von Foerster. Special attention is given to some objections to the concepts of probability, statistics and randomization posed by George Spencer-Brown, a figure of great influence in the field of radical constructivism.
Cortese, Samuele; Faraone, Stephen V; Konofal, Eric; Lecendreux, Michel
To perform a meta-analysis of subjective (i.e., based on questionnaires) and objective (i.e., using polysomnography or actigraphy) studies comparing sleep in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) versus controls. We searched for subjective and objective sleep studies (1987-2008) in children with ADHD (diagnosed according to standardized criteria). Studies including subjects pharmacologically treated or with comorbid anxiety/depressive disorders were excluded. Sixteen studies, providing 9 subjective and 15 objective parameters and including a total pooled sample of 722 children with ADHD versus 638 controls, were retained. With regard to subjective items, the meta-analysis indicated that children with ADHD had significantly higher bedtime resistance (z = 6.94, p breathing (z = 2.05, p =.040), and daytime sleepiness (z = 1.96, p =.050) compared with the controls. As for objective parameters, sleep onset latency (on actigraphy), the number of stage shifts/hour sleep, and the apnea-hypopnea index were significantly higher in the children with ADHD compared with the controls (z = 3.44, p =.001; z = 2.43, p =.015; z = 3.47, p =.001, respectively). The children with ADHD also had significantly lower sleep efficiency on polysomnography (z = 2.26, p =.024), true sleep time on actigraphy (z = 2.85, p =.004), and average times to fall asleep for the Multiple Sleep Latency Test (z = 6.37, p children with ADHD are significantly more impaired than the controls in most of the subjective and some of the objective sleep measures. These results lay the groundwork for future evidence-based guidelines on the management of sleep disturbances in children with ADHD.
O'Farrell, Erin; Smith, Andra; Collins, Barbara
Studies to date have found little correlation between subjective and objective measures of cognitive function in cancer patients, making it difficult to interpret the significance of their cognitive complaints. The purpose of this study was to determine if a stronger correlation would be obtained using measures of cognitive change rather than static scores. Sixty women with early stage breast cancer underwent repeated cognitive assessment over the course of chemotherapy with a neuropsychological test battery (objective measure) and with the FACT-Cog (subjective measure). Their results were compared to 60 healthy women matched on age and education and assessed at similar intervals. We used multilevel modeling, with FACT-Cog as the dependent measure and ordinary least squares slopes of a neuropsychological summary score as the independent variable, to evaluate the co-variation between the subjective and objective measures over time RESULTS: Measures of both objective and subjective cognitive function declined over the course of chemotherapy in the breast cancer patients but there was no significant relationship between them, even when using change measures. Change in objective cognitive function was not related to change in anxiety or fatigue scores but the decline in perceived cognitive function was associated with greater anxiety and fatigue. The discrepancy in objective and subjective measures of cognition in breast cancer patients cannot be accounted for in terms of a failure to use change measures. Although the results are negative, we contend that this is the more appropriate methodology for analyzing cancer-related changes in cognition. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
The objective of this study was to examine the effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on mobility in feedlot cattle. Black-hided steers and heifers (n=96) were sourced from a commercial feedlot and transported to the Texas Tech University Beef Center in New Deal, TX. Cattle were weighed and scan...
An educational researcher describes and reflects on a qualitative research project she conducted, focusing on her positioning, neutrality, and objectivity throughout the research process and during subsequent data analysis. The research took place in a K-12 school in a remote rural New Zealand community inhabited by Maori, 1970s…
Davids, Roeliena C. D.; Groen, Yvonne; Berg, Ina J.; Tucha, Oliver M.; van Balkom, Ingrid D. C.
Although deficits in Executive Functioning (EF) are reported frequently in young individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), they remain relatively unexplored later in life (> 50 years). We studied objective performance on EF measures (Tower of London, Zoo map, phonetic/semantic fluency) as
A central question within planning theory is how changes between the relations of ‘grand institutions’ such as state, market and education influence the formation of objects ‘on the ground’. Drawing upon Foucault’s work, this article contributes to the understanding of these relations and argues
Estevez-Lopez, F.; Segura-Jiménez, V.; Alvarez-Gallardo, I C; Borges-Cosic, M.; Pulido-Martos, M.; Carbonell-Baeza, A; Aparicio, V.A.; Geenen, R.; Delgado-Fernández, M.
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to identify subgroups in terms of adaptation to FM and to test differences in FM severity between these subgroups. METHODS: The al-Ándalus project made it possible to perform a comprehensive population-based cross-sectional study in 486 FM patients including
Most, E.I.S.; Aboudan, S.; Scheltens, P.; van Someren, E.J.W.
Objective: Sleep disturbances such as nocturnal awakenings frequently occur in demented elderly persons and can contribute to depression, cognitive impairment, and caregiver burden. Recognizing sleep disturbances at an early stage of the disease progress is a first prerequisite of intervention and
Donna Marie Lloyd
Full Text Available Un-myelinated C tactile afferents (CT afferents are a key finding in affective touch. These fibres, which activate in response to a caress-like touch to hairy skin (CT afferents are not found in palm skin, may have more in common with interoceptive systems encoding body ownership, than afferent systems processing other tactile stimuli. We tested whether subjective embodiment of a rubber hand (measured through questionnaire items was increased when tactile stimulation was applied to the back of the hand at a rate optimal for CT afferents (3cm/s vs. stimulation of glabrous skin (on the palm of the hand or at a non-optimal rate (30cm/s, which should not activate these fibres. We also collected ratings of tactile pleasantness and a measure of perceived limb position, proprioceptive drift, which is mediated by different mechanisms of multisensory integration than those responsible for feelings of ownership. The results of a multiple regression analysis revealed that proprioceptive drift was a significant predictor of subjective strength of the illusion when tactile stimuli were applied to the back of the hand, regardless of stroking speed. This relationship was modified by pleasantness, with higher ratings when stimulation was applied to the back of the hand at the slower vs. faster stroking speed. Pleasantness was also a unique predictor of illusion strength when fast stroking was applied to the palm of the hand. However, there were no conditions under which pleasantness was a significant predictor of drift. Since the illusion was demonstrated at a non-optimal stroking speed an integrative role for CT afferents within the illusion cannot be fully supported. Pleasant touch, however, does moderate the subjective aspects of the rubber hand illusion, which under certain tactile conditions may interact with proprioceptive information about the body or have a unique influence on subjective body perception.
Tezcaner, Ciler Zahide; Karatayli Ozgursoy, Selmin; Ozgursoy, Selmin Karatayli; Sati, Isil; Dursun, Gursel
The aim of this study was to analyze the efficiency of the voice therapy in children with vocal nodules by using the acoustic analysis and subjective assessment. Thirty-nine patients with vocal fold nodules, aged between 7 and 14, were included in the study. Each subject had voice therapy led by an experienced voice therapist once a week. All diagnostic and follow-up workouts were performed before the voice therapy and after the third or the sixth month. Transoral and/or transnasal videostroboscopic examination and acoustic analysis were achieved using multi-dimensional voice program (MDVP) and subjective analysis with GRBAS scale. As for the perceptual assessment, the difference was significant for four parameters out of five. A significant improvement was found in the acoustic analysis parameters of jitter, shimmer, and noise-to-harmonic ratio. The voice therapy which was planned according to patients' needs, age, compliance and response to therapy had positive effects on pediatric patients with vocal nodules. Acoustic analysis and GRBAS may be used successfully in the follow-up of pediatric vocal nodule treatment.
Full Text Available Motion tracking systems are commonly used in virtual reality-based interventions to detect movements in the real world and transfer them to the virtual environment. There are different tracking solutions based on different physical principles, which mainly define their performance parameters. However, special requirements have to be considered for rehabilitation purposes. This paper studies and compares the accuracy and jitter of three tracking solutions (optical, electromagnetic, and skeleton tracking in a practical scenario and analyzes the subjective perceptions of 19 healthy subjects, 22 stroke survivors, and 14 physical therapists. The optical tracking system provided the best accuracy (1.074 ± 0.417 cm while the electromagnetic device provided the most inaccurate results (11.027 ± 2.364 cm. However, this tracking solution provided the best jitter values (0.324 ± 0.093 cm, in contrast to the skeleton tracking, which had the worst results (1.522 ± 0.858 cm. Healthy individuals and professionals preferred the skeleton tracking solution rather than the optical and electromagnetic solution (in that order. Individuals with stroke chose the optical solution over the other options. Our results show that subjective perceptions and preferences are far from being constant among different populations, thus suggesting that these considerations, together with the performance parameters, should be also taken into account when designing a rehabilitation system.
Pointer, Jonathan S
The magnitude of the far interpupillary distance (FIPD) has recognized significance within and beyond clinical optometry. Quantitative information regarding the lesser-reported near parameter (NIPD) would similarly be of interest, and could be of relevance with regard to the visual comfort obtained with 'readymade' reading spectacles. Mensuration statistics relating to the FIPD and NIPD are presented, as collated from the spectacle dispensing records of n = 1354 healthy Caucasian presbyopic subjects. The FIPD data were partitioned across 4 age bands (by decade, 41-80 years of age): the NIPD data were distributed across seven nominal reading powers (in 0.50 D steps, +1.00 to +4.00 D). The results of these analyses are considered here, along with their potential application. Consistent gender (male > female) and classification (far > near) differences in IPD (both of approximately 3 mm) were confirmed throughout these data. The magnitude of the adult FIPD is in accord with previously published results; this dimension is now supplemented by NIPD values, whose relationship with total near power is also described. This new anthropometric survey indicates that inter- and intra-gender interocular facial measurement stability is a characteristic of presbyopic subjects. It is suggested that across the anticipated range of age and total reading power requirement of Caucasian (White Northern European) wearers of 'readymade' reading spectacles, adoption of a standard optical centration distance of 61 mm would be universally appropriate. Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2012 The College of Optometrists.
This study examined subject-object asymmetry and developmental sequence in the second language (L2) acquisition of three types of "wh"-extraction, i.e., English headed relatives, headless relatives, and embedded "wh"-questions. Sixty-four L1 Korean learners of English completed an elicited imitation task and a grammaticality…
Conclusion: Multiple subjective and objective MF should be combined to assess the macrosystem’s relationship with poor mental health more precisely. The relationship between MF and poor mental health indicates that the macrosystem should be taken into account as relevant context for mental health problems, too.
Epstein, Baila; Hestvik, Arild; Shafer, Valerie L.; Schwartz, Richard G.
Background: Children with specific language impairment (SLI) show particular difficulty comprehending and producing object ("Who did the bear follow?") relative to subject ("Who followed the tiger?") "wh"-questions. Aims: To determine if school-age children with SLI, relative to children with typical development (TD),…
This study explores the consistency between objective indicators and subjective perceptions of quality of life in a ranking of survey data for cities and counties in Taiwan. Data used for analysis included the Statistical Yearbook of Hsiens and Municipalities and the Survey on Living Conditions of Citizens in Taiwan, both given for the year 2000.…
John R. Kouvaris
Full Text Available Curative radiation therapy of pelvic malignancies, frequently results in doselimitingtoxicities such as serous, mucoid, or more rarely, bloody diarrhea. Several studieshave evaluated the cytoprotective effects of amifostine in preventing rectal mucositisassociated with radiation treatment. We searched Medline for published comparativestudies that evaluated the use of amifostine to reduce radiation-induced toxicity associatedwith pelvic irradiation. In ten studies there was an evidence-based cytoprotection (P less than 0.05by amifostine. Although results are variable, current evidence suggests that amifostine mayhave a radioprotective effect in the rectal mucosa, particularly when administeredintrarectally. Significant improvements were seen in both symptomatic and objective(rectosigmoidoscopy end points. There is a need to conduct well-designed clinical trialswith sufficient numbers of participants to confirm these findings together with a costbenefitstudy. Objective measurements using rectosigmoidoscopy are superior tosubjective measures such as WHO or RTOG/EORTC toxicity grading scales.
Kosmadopoulos, Anastasi; Sargent, Charli; Zhou, Xuan; Darwent, David; Matthews, Raymond W; Dawson, Drew; Roach, Gregory D
Fatigue is a significant contributor to motor-vehicle accidents and fatalities. Shift workers are particularly susceptible to fatigue-related risks as they are often sleep-restricted and required to commute around the clock. Simple assays of performance could provide useful indications of risk in fatigue management, but their effectiveness may be influenced by changes in their sensitivity to sleep loss across the day. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of several neurobehavioral and subjective tasks to sleep restriction (SR) at different circadian phases and their efficacy as predictors of performance during a simulated driving task. Thirty-two volunteers (M±SD; 22.8±2.9 years) were time-isolated for 13-days and participated in one of two 14-h forced desynchrony protocols with sleep opportunities equivalent to 8h/24h (control) or 4h/24h (SR). At regular intervals during wake periods, participants completed a simulated driving task, several neurobehavioral tasks, including the psychomotor vigilance task (PVT), and subjective ratings, including a self-assessment measure of ability to perform. Scores transformed into standardized units relative to baseline were folded into circadian phase bins based on core body temperature. Sleep dose and circadian phase effect sizes were derived via mixed models analyses. Predictors of driving were identified with regressions. Performance was most sensitive to sleep restriction around the circadian nadir. The effects of sleep restriction around the circadian nadir were larger for simulated driving and neurobehavioral tasks than for subjective ratings. Tasks did not significantly predict driving performance during the control condition or around the acrophase during the SR condition. The PVT and self-assessed ability were the best predictors of simulated driving across circadian phases during SR. These results show that simple performance measures and self-monitoring explain a large proportion of the variance in
Hiamtoe, Pitarn; Steinhardt, Florian; Köhler, Uwe; Bengler, Klaus
At present, the number of the vehicle requirements has been continuously increasing. These requirements can be related to the customer as well as the technical requirements. Among these, the "feeling of space" of the occupants inside the vehicles can be regarded as one of the most important factors. In this respect, the driver and passengers should be able to experience positive feeling of space inside the vehicle. There are numerous factors that can influence the sense of space inside the vehicle. These include geometry (vehicle dimensions), light exposure, ambient lights, colors, material selection and material surface. Depending on the selection, the sense of space can be dramatically influenced by these factors. In general, human feeling is subjective and cannot be measured by any instrument. The measure can nevertheless be carried out by utilizing the method of subjective evaluation. Throughout the experiments, the method of evaluation is developed and the factors which can influence the interior feeling are analyzed. In this process, psychological perception, architectural aspects and anthropometry are considered and knowledge from the other domains is transferred in the form of a multidisciplinary approach. The experiments with an aim to evaluate the overall sense of space in the vehicle are carried out based on the physical mock up of BMW 1 series (E87). The space perception with different interior dimensions and anthropometric data of test persons are also analyzed. The use of Computer Aided Technology was shown by CATIA V5, PCMAN and RAMSIS. The results show a good correlation between the subjective evaluation and the geometric values.
Quinn, Patrick D; Fromme, Kim
Heavy episodic drinking is strongly associated with driving after drinking, yet there has been mixed evidence regarding whether the disinhibiting effects of alcohol intoxication contribute to the decision to drive after drinking. This investigation tested whether greater alcohol intoxication increased the probability of driving after drinking particularly during drinking episodes in which students experienced reduced subjective feelings of intoxication. A sample of 1,350 college students completed up to 30 days of web-based daily diary monitoring in each of 4 consecutive years. Participants reported daily on their alcohol consumption, subjective intoxication, and whether they drove after drinking on the previous day or night. In generalized estimating equation models, daily estimated blood alcohol concentration (eBAC) was more strongly associated with driving after drinking during episodes in which subjective intoxication was lower. That is, students were most likely to drive after drinking when they were objectively more intoxicated but perceived themselves as less intoxicated. These event-level associations did not change over time nor did they differ as a function of gender. Further, the effects persisted when predicting driving at eBACs above the legal limit for operating a motor vehicle. Greater subjective intoxication may serve to inhibit driving after drinking, particularly when students are objectively more intoxicated. In the absence of subjective intoxication, however, other salient pressures might impel driving after drinking. Prevention efforts should incorporate the importance of variability in subjective intoxication. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.
Eberhard, Kristine Elisabeth; Olsen, Steen Østergaard; Miyazaki, Hidemi
deafness. Main Outcome Measures: At half-year follow-up, aided and unaided sound field hearing was evaluated by 1) warble tone thresholds, 2) pure-Tone average (PTA4), 3) speech discrimination score (SDS) in quiet, and 4) speech reception threshold 50% at 70 dB SPL noise level (SRT50%). Subjective outcome...... was evaluated by three questionnaires: 1) International Outcome Inventory for Hearing AIDS, 2) Speech, Spatial and Qualities of Hearing Scale 12, and 3) a questionnaire on frequency and duration of use. Results: No major complications occurred. The mean aided PTA4 was lowered by 23 dB. SDS was increased by 40...
Bathgate, Christina J; Edinger, Jack D; Wyatt, James K; Krystal, Andrew D
To examine the relationship between hypertension prevalence in individuals with insomnia who have short total sleep duration sleep duration ≥ 6 h, using both objective and subjective measures of total sleep duration. Using a cross-sectional, observational design, 255 adult volunteers (n = 165 women; 64.7%) meeting current diagnostic criteria for insomnia disorder (MAge = 46.2 y, SDAge = 13.7 y) participated in this study at two large university medical centers. Two nights of polysomnography, 2 w of sleep diaries, questionnaires focused on sleep, medical, psychological, and health history, including presence/absence of hypertension were collected. Logistic regressions assessed the odds ratios of hypertension among persons with insomnia with short sleep duration sleep duration ≥ 6 h, measured both objectively and subjectively. Consistent with previous studies using objective total sleep duration, individuals with insomnia and short sleep duration sleep duration ≥ 6 h. Increased risk for hypertension was independent of major confounding factors frequently associated with insomnia or hypertension. No significant risk was observed using subjectively determined total sleep time groups. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis found that the best balance of sensitivity and specificity using subjective total sleep time was at a 6-h cutoff, but the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve showed low accuracy and did not have good discriminant value. Objectively measured short sleep duration increased the odds of reporting hypertension more than threefold after adjusting for potential confounders; this relationship was not significant for subjectively measured sleep duration. This research supports emerging evidence that insomnia with objective short sleep duration is associated with an increased risk of comorbid hypertension. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.
Vlagsma, Thialda T; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Oliver; Dijkstra, Hilde T; Duits, Annelien A; van Laar, Teus; Spikman, Jacoba M
To determine whether objective (neuropsychological tests) and subjective measures (questionnaires) of executive functions (EFs) are associated in patients with Parkinson disease (PD), and to determine to what extent level of participation and quality of life (QoL) of patients with PD can be predicted by these measures of EFs. Correlational research design (case-control and prediction design). Departments of neuropsychology of 3 medical centers. A sample (N=136) of patients with PD (n=42) and their relatives, and controls without PD (n=94). Not applicable. A test battery measuring EFs. In addition, patients, their relatives, and controls completed the Dysexecutive Questionnaire, Brock Adaptive Functioning Questionnaire, and Barkley Deficits in Executive Functioning Scale - time management questionnaires measuring complaints about EFs. Participation and QoL were measured with the Impact on Participation and Autonomy scale and the Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire-39, respectively. Patients with PD showed impairments in EFs on objective tests and reported significantly more complaints about EFs than did controls without PD. No associations were found between patients' performances on objective and subjective measures of EFs. However, both objective and subjective measures predicted patients' level of participation. In addition, subjective measures of EFs predicted QoL in patients with PD. These findings show that objective and subjective measures of EFs are not interchangeable and that both approaches predict level of participation and QoL in patients with PD. However, within this context, sex needs to be taken into account. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bei, Bei; Milgrom, Jeannette; Ericksen, Jennifer; Trinder, John
Study Objectives: This study investigated whether there was a relationship between disrupted sleep and postpartum mood disturbances in women during the week after delivery. Design: Sleep and mood were measured during the third trimester (Time-1) and one week postpartum (Time-2) in a 2-stage longitudinal design. Setting: Participants were recruited from an antenatal clinic in a regional Melbourne hospital. Participants: Forty-four healthy women at low risk for postpartum depression. Interventions: N/A Measurements and Results: Objective sleep was measured by actigraphy and subjective sleep by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; mood was assessed by the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale, the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale, and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. Sleep and mood questionnaires were administered at Time-1 and Time-2. Wrist actigraphy was collected for one week at both times. After delivery, both objective and subjective nighttime sleep significantly worsened with decreased total sleep time and sleep efficiency, while daytime napping behavior significantly increased. On average, mood improved across all scales after delivery, although 45.95% of the sample experienced deterioration of mood. Regression analyses showed little relationship between Time-1 and Time-2 objective nighttime sleep, and postpartum mood. Variables that related to both Time-1 and Time-2 subjective perception of sleep, including subjective nighttime sleep, sleep-related daytime dysfunction, and daytime napping behavior, were significant predictors of postpartum mood. Conclusions: The perception of poor sleep, and the conscious awareness of its impact during wake-time, might share a stronger relationship with the occurrence of immediate postpartum mood disturbances than actual sleep quality and quantity. Citation: Bei B; Milgrom J; Ericksen J; Trinder J. Subjective perception of sleep, but not its objective quality, is associated with immediate postpartum mood disturbances in
Full Text Available This study is to distinguish the objective and subjective measures of atmospheric visibility, and investigate the relationship between the two measures as well as the effect on the people's behavioral intentions on air pollution in China. A mixed method was adopted in this study combining both lab experiments to measure objective atmospheric visibility and a questionnaire survey to measure subjective atmospheric visibility. The regression results show that: (a The people's perception of atmospheric visibility is based on objective information about the ambient air (Relative Humidity, PM2.5, Atmospheric Visibility and there are some turning points that could enable people to distinguish good and poor air quality; (b The people's perception of visibility has a significant effect on either their willingness-to-accept (WTA the visibility or on their willingness-to-pay (WTP for improving the air quality;
Zhou, Sijie; Allison, Brendan Z; Kübler, Andrea; Cichocki, Andrzej; Wang, Xingyu; Jin, Jing
Several studies have explored brain computer interface (BCI) systems based on auditory stimuli, which could help patients with visual impairments. Usability and user satisfaction are important considerations in any BCI. Although background music can influence emotion and performance in other task environments, and many users may wish to listen to music while using a BCI, auditory, and other BCIs are typically studied without background music. Some work has explored the possibility of using polyphonic music in auditory BCI systems. However, this approach requires users with good musical skills, and has not been explored in online experiments. Our hypothesis was that an auditory BCI with background music would be preferred by subjects over a similar BCI without background music, without any difference in BCI performance. We introduce a simple paradigm (which does not require musical skill) using percussion instrument sound stimuli and background music, and evaluated it in both offline and online experiments. The result showed that subjects preferred the auditory BCI with background music. Different performance measures did not reveal any significant performance effect when comparing background music vs. no background. Since the addition of background music does not impair BCI performance but is preferred by users, auditory (and perhaps other) BCIs should consider including it. Our study also indicates that auditory BCIs can be effective even if the auditory channel is simultaneously otherwise engaged.
Full Text Available Several studies have explored brain computer interface (BCI systems based on auditory stimuli, which could help patients with visual impairments. Usability and user satisfaction are important considerations in any BCI. Although background music can influence emotion and performance in other task environments, and many users may wish to listen to music while using a BCI, auditory and other BCIs are typically studied without background music. Some work has explored the possibility of using polyphonic music in auditory BCI systems. However, this approach requires users with good musical skills, and has not been explored in online experiments. Our hypothesis was that an auditory BCI with background music would be preferred by subjects over a similar BCI without background music, without any difference in BCI performance. We introduce a simple paradigm (which does not require musical skill using percussion instrument sound stimuli and background music, and evaluated it in both offline and online experiments. The result showed that subjects preferred the auditory BCI with background music. Different performance measures did not reveal any significant performance effect when comparing background music vs. no background. Since the addition of background music does not impair BCI performance but is preferred by users, auditory (and perhaps other BCIs should consider including it. Our study also indicates that auditory BCIs can be effective even if the auditory channel is simultaneously otherwise engaged.
Pedroni-Pereira, Aline; Marquezin, Maria Carolina Salomé; Araujo, Darlle Santos; Pereira, Luciano José; Bommarito, Silvana; Castelo, Paula Midori
The evaluation of mastication is important to understand the masticatory behavior and diagnose feeding difficulties. The objective of this preliminary study was to verify if there is agreement between objective and subjective validated methods of chewing evaluation in a convenience sample which consisted of 32 adolescents (mean 15.5years), complete permanent dentition and free of tooth decay. The Quality of Masticatory Function Questionnaire with the Food-Mastication, Habits, Meat, Fruit and Vegetables domains was used in the subjective evaluation. The objective aspects consisted of maximum bite force (BF) and masticatory performance (MP) by mastication of cubes of test-material and sieving to determine the median particle size (X50) and distribution in the sieves ("b"), and by the colorimetric method using colorchangeable chewing gum. Data were submitted to exploratory analysis, normality test and correlation tests (Pearson/Spearman). The correlation between BF and X50 (r=-0.43; p=0.02) and between BF and MP chewing gum (r=0.53; p=0.002) was significant with large effect size. The MP evaluated by chewing gum correlated with X50 (r=-0.34; p=0.055), but not with "b" (r=-0.06; p=0.73), while "b" correlated only with X50 (r=0.52, p=0.002). No significant correlation was observed between the objective measures and the total score of the subjective evaluation; only a negative correlation was observed between "b" and Meat domain (r=-0.40; p=0.023). The objective methods showed moderate correlation with each other and no agreement between the objective and subjective methods was observed in this sample of healthy adolescents, emphasizing the importance of both aspects in the evaluation of masticatory function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lagercrantz, Love Per; Wyon, David; Meyer, H. W.
The impact of dry indoor air on comfort and health in winter was investigated in a crossover intervention study in two floors of an office building in northern Sweden. The indoor air humidity (normally 10-20% RH) was raised to 23-24% RH, one floor at a time, using steam humidifiers. Questionnaires...... and objective (clinical) measurements were applied. The following effects of increased humidity were significant, though small: the air was evaluated as less dry (though still on the dry side of neutral), eyes smarted less (by 10% of full scale) eye irritation decreased (by 11%), symptoms of dry throat, mouth...
Dall, Jonas Olsen; Sørensen, Thomas Alrik
Several studies discuss the influence of complexity on the visual short term memory; some have demonstrated that short-term memory is surprisingly stable regardless of content (e.g. Luck & Vogel, 1997) where others have shown that memory can be influenced by the complexity of stimulus (e.g. Alvarez...... of expertise (e.g. Dall, et al., 2016). We will present a paradigm testing the proposed distinction using specific isolation of attentional components (see Bundesen, 1990; Sørensen, Vangkilde, & Bundesen, 2015). We propose that objective complexity can be manipulated through the number of strokes in Chinese...
Dancing humanoids, robotic art installations, and music generated by mathematically precise methods are no longer science fiction; in fact they are the subject of this book. This first-of-its-kind anthology assembles technical research that makes such creations possible. In order to mechanize something as enigmatic and personal as dance, researchers must delve deeply into two distinct academic disciplines: control theory and art. Broadly, this research uses techniques from the world of art to inspire methods in control, enables artistic endeavours using advanced control theory, and aids in the analysis of art using metrics devised by a systems theoretic approach. To ensure that artistic influences are well represented, the individual chapters are focused so that they relate their contribution to the arts meaningfully and explicitly. Specially composed introductions set up the contributions either in terms of inspiration by artistic principles or their contribution to the arts through new analysis tool...
Wilson, Danielle L; Fung, Alison; Walker, Susan P; Barnes, Maree
This study compared self-reported sleep latency (SL) and total sleep time (TST) to objective measures on polysomnography (PSG) during pregnancy. Thirty-three women in the third trimester (T3) of pregnancy, 16 women in the first trimester (T1) of pregnancy, and 15 non-pregnant women underwent overnight PSG, and shortly after awakening reported their perceived SL and TST. Results showed that, on average, the T3 group slightly overestimated their TSTs, whereas the T1 and non-pregnant groups underestimated TSTs when compared with objective measurement. All groups overestimated SL, and perceived SL was closest to the first epoch of 10 min of uninterrupted sleep or the first epoch of slow-wave sleep, rather than the first epoch of sleep (the current definition used for diagnostic sleep studies). The wide variation in discrepancies between estimation and PSG measurement for both TST and SL shows that self-reports made by both pregnant and non-pregnant women tend to be unreliable, which has important implications both clinically and for the many studies based on self-reported sleep patterns in pregnancy.
Boiocchi, S; Vezzoni, L; Vezzoni, A; Bronzo, V; Rossi, F
The hypothesis of this study was that juvenile pubic symphysiodesis (JPS) results in pelvic changes that can be identified radiographically in adult dogs. The medical records at the Clinica Veterinaria Vezzoni were searched for standard ventro-dorsal views of the pelvis of adult Labrador and Golden Retrievers that had undergone JPS or had not undergone surgery. The objective assessment of radiographs included the analysis of various pelvic measurements. Subjective evaluation of radiographs was undertaken by 18 specialists and 21 general practitioners and was based on five criteria relating to 1) the acetabular fossae, 2) the pubic symphysis, 3) the margin of the cranial pubic area, 4) the pubic rami, and 5) the obturator foramen. The radiographs of 42 Labrador Retrievers and 16 Golden Retrievers were evaluated. The most useful criteria were the radiographic measurement of the shape of the obturator foramen and two different ratios of length to width of the pubic rami; these values were significantly smaller in dogs after JPS. The pelvic canal width was the same in both groups. All objective measurements were repeatable within and between evaluators. The most reliable subjective criterion was number 4, followed by number 5 in Golden Retrievers and by 2 in Labrador Retrievers. Our objective and subjective evaluations were simple and yielded useful and repeatable results. There was no significant difference between general practitioners and specialists with regard to subjective evaluation, which indicates that these evaluation criteria can be used by small animal clinicians after minimal training.
De Lameigné, Anaïs Gayte-Papon
The 2004 Act on bioethics has amended the 1994 Act regarding the donation and the use of elements and products of the human body, medically assisted procreation and prenatal diagnosis. The very purpose of these laws led the legislature not to attempt the summa divisio order distinguishing the object to the person. The analysis of bioethical laws reveals the consecration of the non-commercialization of the human body at the expense of its unavailability. Bioethical laws appear to be catalysts of biological scientific advances releasing the status of the components and the products of the human body while framing it. By limiting scientific opportunities, they prevent human beings from trying to play the sorcerer's apprentice.
Wade L. Knez
Full Text Available Maximal effort on a 30 km Time Trial (TT30 was examined to assess whether it would elicit changes in objective and subjective tests of the participants' perception of the environment and their ability to anticipate future occurrences (situation awareness; SA and to determine the effect of post-exercise recovery on SA. Nine experienced (5.22 ± 2.77 years road cyclists had their objective and subjective levels of SA assessed prior to and at the completion of two TT30. The participants' results were compared to measurements of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max, peak power output (PPO, age and years of competitive cycle racing experience. Fatigue resulting from maximal effort on a TT30 produced significant changes in both the objective and subjective test of SA. Effect sizes of 0.93 and 0.99 indicated that the first and second TT30 were likely or almost certain to have a beneficial effect on the objective assessment of SA. However, the effect sizes of 0.97 and 0.95 relating to the subjective assessment of cognitive performance on the first and second TT30 showed that it was very likely the participants' had an increased difficulty in maintaining SA. A recovery period of up to three minutes post TT30 had no effect on SA. Changes in SA had no relationship with measurements of VO2max, peak power output (PPO, age and years of competitive cycle racing experience. The findings suggest that within a laboratory environment, participants consistently underestimate their ability to make accurate assessments of their cycling environment compared to objective measures of their SA
Dianat, Iman; Sedghi, Ali; Bagherzade, Javad; Jafarabadi, Mohammad Asghari; Stedmon, Alex W
A field study was conducted to evaluate the illumination levels, to examine the effect of lighting conditions (including lighting characteristics and disturbances) on employee satisfaction, job performance, safety and health, and to compare the employees' perception of lighting level with actual illuminance levels in a hospital setting using both questionnaire and physical illuminance measurements. The illumination levels varied across different locations within the hospital and were lower than standards for 52.2% of the workplaces surveyed. Most respondents indicated that at least one of the four lighting characteristics (i.e. light level, type of light sources, light colour and use of daylight) was inappropriate, and that at least one of the three lighting disturbances (i.e. flickering lights, glare and unwanted shadows) was a major disturbance to them. The employees' perceptions of illuminance generally reflected the actual illuminance levels. The more appropriate maintenance or installation of lighting fixtures was rated as the most appropriate for improving lighting. The findings suggest that environmental ergonomics should be given a more prominent role in hospital building and workplace design to support safer healthcare facilities (for staff and potentially for patients). Good lighting is essential to improve employee performance, health and safety. The findings suggest that quantitative physical measurements should be supplemented by qualitative subjective assessments to provide a more holistic approach where specific details about the lighting condition in each working environment are incorporated from the workers' perspective.
Boukadi, Mariem; Zouaidi, Cirine; Wilson, Maximiliano A
Normative databases for pictorial stimuli are widely used in research on language processing in order to control for a number of psycholinguistic variables in the selected stimuli. Such resources are lacking for Arabic and its dialectal varieties. In the present study, we aimed to provide Tunisian Arabic (TA) normative data for 348 line drawings taken from Cycowicz, Friedman, Rothstein, and Snodgrass (1997), which include Snodgrass and Vanderwart's (1980) 260 pictures. Norms were collected for the following psycholinguistic variables: name agreement, familiarity, subjective frequency, and imageability. Word length data (in numbers of phonemes and syllables) are also listed in the database. We investigated the effects of these variables on word reading in TA. We found that word length and frequency were the best predictors of word-reading latencies in TA. Name agreement was also a significant predictor of word-reading latencies. A particularly interesting finding was that the semantic variables, imageability and familiarity, affected word-reading latencies in TA. Thus, it would seem that TA readers rely on semantics even when reading individual Arabic words that are transparent in terms of orthography-to-phonology mappings. This database represents a precious and much-needed psycholinguistic resource for researchers investigating language processing in Arabic-speaking populations.
I V Trotsuk
Full Text Available As a rule, it goes without saying that the generational analysis is one of the major tasks of sociology, which aims to diagnose the state and trends of the social development by comparing value priorities, attitudes and behavioral patterns of the age subgroups that constitute the society. Despite the lack of a common definition of ‘generation’ in the scientific discourse and the differences in its interdisciplinary interpretations researchers agree that in sociology we define ‘generation’ not so much as a demographic group of the same age, but as a certain symbolic community whose members were raised in the similar social conditions. Unfortunately, the Russian sociology adheres to the fragmented version of generational analysis focusing mainly on the youth (less often on the working population as a whole and ‘forgets’ about the elderly and children due to several reasons, but the main ones are evident in both cases - the older generations are largely ignored, and for the youngest it is difficult to choose an adequate methodological approach. The article indicates the thematic priorities of generational analysis in its sociological format (focus on the social status and symbolic features of generations rather than on the culture of childhood, which is the subject of historical research, identifies its key concepts (generation and cohort and problems, summarized the differences of the methodological approaches (primarily quantitative and qualitative and research orientations especially in the study of older ages.
Chopra, S; Moerenhout, K; Crevoisier, X
Studies have assessed the outcome of hallux valgus surgeries based on subjective questionnaires, usually the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society Score, and radiographic results reporting good to excellent outcome at 6-12 months postoperatively. However, contrasting results were reported by gait studies at 12-24 months postoperatively. In a previous study, we found nine gait parameters which can describe the altered gait in hallux valgus deformity. This study aimed, to assess the outcome of modified Lapidus at 6 months postoperatively, using gait assessment method, to determine if the nine specified gait parameters effectively relates with the clinical scores and the radiological results or add information missed by these commonly used clinical assessments. We assessed 21 participants including 11 controls and 10 patients with moderate to severe hallux valgus deformity. The patient group was followed 6 months postoperatively. The ambulatory gait assessment was performed utilizing pressure insoles and inertial sensors. Clinical assessment includes foot and ankle questionnaires along with radiographic results. Comparison was made using non parametric tests, Phallux valgus surgeries. The existing clinical assessment overestimates the functional outcome at the early postoperative phase. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mundt, Jennifer M; Crew, Earl C; Krietsch, Kendra; Roth, Alicia J; Vatthauer, Karlyn; Robinson, Michael E; Staud, Roland; Berry, Richard B; McCrae, Christina S
In insomnia, actigraphy tends to underestimate wake time compared to diaries and PSG. When chronic pain co-occurs with insomnia, sleep may be more fragmented, including more movement and arousals. However, individuals may not be consciously aware of these arousals. We examined the baseline concordance of diaries, actigraphy, and PSG as well as the ability of each assessment method to detect changes in sleep following cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I). Adults with insomnia and fibromyalgia (n = 113) were randomized to CBT-I, CBT for pain, or waitlist control. At baseline and posttreatment, participants completed one night of PSG and two weeks of diaries/actigraphy. At baseline, objective measures estimated lower SOL, higher TST, and higher SE than diaries (ps treatment-related changes. PSG values did not change significantly for any sleep parameters. However, diaries showed improvements in SOL, WASO, and SE, and actigraphy also detected the WASO and SE improvements (ps insomnia. However, actigraphy showed greater sensitivity to treatment-related changes than PSG; PSG failed to detect any improvements, but actigraphy demonstrated changes in WASO and SE, which were also found with diaries. In comorbid insomnia/fibromyalgia, actigraphy may therefore have utility in measuring treatment outcomes. © 2015 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.
This study examined subject-object asymmetry and developmental sequence in the second language (L2) acquisition of three types of wh-extraction, i.e., English headed relatives, headless relatives, and embedded wh-questions. Sixty-four L1 Korean learners of English completed an elicited imitation task and a grammaticality judgment task. The learners demonstrated a subject advantage in the headed RCs and headless RCs, but an object advantage in the embedded wh-questions, which suggests that they treat embedded wh-questions differently from headed relatives and headless relatives despite the similarities in surface forms. The learners further demonstrated the order of developing headless RCs followed by embedded wh-questions, and subsequently headed RCs, which supports the primacy of headless relatives as a simple nominal in L2 development.
Sievert, Lynnette L.; Reza, Angela; Mills, Phoebe; Morrison, Lynn; Rahberg, Nichole; Goodloe, Amber; Sutherland, Michael; Brown, Daniel E.
Objective To test for a diurnal pattern in hot flashes in a multi-ethnic population living in a hot, humid environment. To examine rates of concordance between objective and subjective measures of hot flashes using ambulatory and laboratory measures. Methods Study participants aged 45–55 were recruited from the general population of Hilo, Hawaii. Women wore a Biolog hot flash monitor, kept a diary for 24-hours, and also participated in 3-hour laboratory measures (n=199). Diurnal patterns were assessed using polynomial regression. For each woman, objectively recorded hot flashes that matched subjective experience were treated as true positive readings. Subjective hot flashes were considered the standard for computing false positive and false negative readings. True positive, false positive, and false negative readings were compared across ethnic groups by chi-square analyses. Results Frequencies of sternal, nuchal and subjective hot flashes peaked at 15:00 ± 1 hour with no difference by ethnicity. Laboratory results supported the pattern seen in ambulatory monitoring. Sternal and nuchal monitoring showed the same frequency of true positive measures, but non-sternal electrodes picked up more false positive readings. Laboratory monitoring showed very low frequencies of false negatives. There were no ethnic differences in the frequency of true positive or false positive measures. Women of European descent were more likely to report hot flashes that were not objectively demonstrated (false negative measures). Conclusions The diurnal pattern and peak in hot flash occurrence in the hot humid environment of Hilo was similar to results from more temperate environments. Lack of variation in sternal vs. non-sternal measures, and in true positive measures across ethnicities suggests no appreciable effect of population variation in sweating patterns. PMID:20220538
Vázquez Rufino, David
The aim of this thesis is the subjective and objective evaluation of angledependent absorption coefficients. As the assumption of a constant absorption coefficient over the angle of incidence is not always held, a new model acknowledging an angle-dependent reflection must be considered, to get a more accurate prediction in the sound field. The study provides information about the behavior of different materials in several rooms, depending on the reflection modeling of incident sound waves....
Kim, Won Soo; Park, In Ki; Park, Young Kee; Chun, Yeoun Sook
Multiple-pinhole (MPH) glasses are currently sold in many countries with unproven advertisements; however, their objective and subjective effects have not been investigated. Therefore, to investigate the effects of MPH glasses excluding the single-pinhole (SPH) effect, we compared the visual functional changes, reading speed, and ocular discomfort after reading caused by MPH and SPH glasses. Healthy 36 participants with a mean age of 33.1 years underwent examinations of pupil size, visual acu...
Hougaard, Dan Dupont; Boldsen, Soren Kjaergaard; Jensen, Anne Marie
Examination of objective as well as subjective outcomes with a new transcutaneous bone-anchored hearing aid device. The study was designed as a prospective multicenter consecutive case-series study involving tertiary referral centers at two Danish University Hospitals. A total of 23 patients were...... (SDS) in quiet, and (4) speech reception threshold 50% at 70 dB SPL noise level (SRT50%). Subjective benefit was evaluated by three validated questionnaires: (1) the IOI-HA, (2) the SSQ-12, and (3) a questionnaire evaluating both the frequency and the duration of hearing aid usage. The mean aided PTA4...... to a good benefit. In SSQ-12, “quality of hearing” scored especially high. Patients with a conductive and/or mixed hearing loss benefitted the most. This device demonstrates a significant subjective hearing benefit 8 month post surgery. In patients with conductive and/or mixed hearing losses, patient...
The objectives of the present study were to 1) assess student attitudes to physiology, 2) evaluate student opinions about the influence of an objective structured practical examination (OSPE) on competence, and 3) assess the validity and reliability of an indigenously designed feedback questionnaire. A structured questionnaire containing 16 item statements, 8 items on an Osgood's 5-point semantic differential scale and 8 items on a Likert's 5-point scale, was used. Options were assigned scores of 1-5 according to weightage. For Osgood's semantic differential scale items, a χ(2)-test was done to analyze student attitudes toward the subject. For Likert scale items, mean score and SD were calculated to analyze student opinions of the OSPE. Item validity was assessed by item analysis, and reliability was assessed by calculating Crohnbach's α. The subject as a whole was interesting to 82% of the students (n = 135). The theory was interesting to 75% of the students (n = 132) but complex to 42% (n = 118). The practical was interesting to 93% of the students (n = 134); 76% of the students (n = 104) felt that the practical was simple, whereas 4% felt it was complex. The OSPE was interesting to 79% of the students (n = 131); 57% of the students (n = 116) felt it was simple, whereas 24% found it complex. Components of the subject, intricateness, and student interests were strongly associated. Students chose options on a higher weight scale, favoring the OSPE. Items were found to be valid and reliable. In conclusion, the subject of physiology was interesting but not simple to understand. Student interests varied with the components of the subject, and the components of the subject had varied intricateness. Students were in favor of the OSPE for assessment. The questionnaire used for the study was valid and reliable. Copyright © 2015 The American Physiological Society.
Pagny, J Y; Delva, R; Aouizerate, M; Chatellier, G; Battaglia, C; Devriès, C; Plouin, P F; Corvol, P; Ménard, J
For a finer assessment, by repeated blood pressure (BP) measurements, of the cardiovascular risk associated with BP levels, new instruments have been developed which provide multiple reading during periods of activity. However, the lack of epidemiological studies makes it necessary to determine reference ambulatory BP levels by another method. Twelve-hour recordings were taken with the Spacelabs instrument in 130 volunteers (45% males) aged from 20 to 90 years during their various activities. Mean systolic and diastolic BP values +/- SD were calculated per age-groups of 10 years each. That this sample was representative of the general population was confirmed by the fact that BP fluctuations and variations according to age and sex in these 130 subjects were identical with those observed in the population of an entire town (Framingham). The concept of hypertension, as defined by ambulatory BP recordings, is discussed. This study provides, for the first time, reference ambulatory BP values according to age and sex, measured in normotensive subjects with the Spacelabs instrument. These values constitute a preliminary step indispensable to evaluate this technique in hypertensive patients.
Kurtz, Matthew M.; Bronfeld, Melanie; Rose, Jennifer
A small but growing body of work has studied the role of cognitive skills in predicting response to integrated programs of rehabilitation in schizophrenia. No studies however, have directly compared the roles and interrelationships of cognition, social cognition and other disease factors in predicting improvements in the separate domains of objective quality-of-life (QOL) and subjective satisfaction with life (SWL) in response to rehabilitation in schizophrenia,. Forty-four outpatients with schizophrenia were administered measures of cognition, social cognition, and symptoms at entry to a psychosocial and cognitive rehabilitation program. Change in objective QOL and subjective SWL before and after treatment were measured as outcome variables. Cognitive measures of verbal memory and social cognitive measures of facial affect recognition were linked to improvements in objective QOL, while verbal memory and crystallized verbal skill was linked to improvements in SWL. Facial affect recognition partially mediated the relationship between verbal memory and improvements in objective QOL. The implications of these findings for understanding interrelationships between cognition and social cognition and their role in predicting change in different domains of outcome as a function of behavioral treatment are discussed. PMID:22769048
Larissa Louise Campanholi
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of lymphedema can be obtained objectively by measurement methods, and also by subjective methods, based on the patient's complaint. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate inter-rater reliability of objective and subjective criteria used for diagnosis of lymphedema and to propose a lymphedema cut-off for differences in volume between affected and control limbs. METHODS: We studied 84 patients who had undergone lymphadenectomy for treatment of cutaneous melanoma. Physical measures were obtained by manual perimetry (MP. The subjective criteria analyzed were clinical diagnosis of lymphedema in patients' medical records and self-report of feelings of heaviness and/or increase in volume in the affected limb. RESULTS: For upper limbs, the subjective criteria clinical observation (k 0.754, P<0.001 and heaviness and swelling (k 0.689, P<0.001 both exhibited strong agreement with MP results and there was moderate agreement between MP results and swelling (k 0.483 P<0.001, heaviness (k 0.576, P<0.001 and heaviness or swelling (k 0.412, P=0.001. For lower limbs there was moderate agreement between MP results and clinical observation (k 0.423, P=0.003 and regular agreement between MP and self-report of swelling (k 0.383, P=0.003. Cut-off values for diagnosing lymphedema were defined as a 9.7% difference between an affected upper limb and control upper limb and a 5.7% difference between lower limbs. CONCLUSION: Manual perimetry, medical criteria, and self-report of heaviness and/or swelling exhibited better agreement for upper limbs than for lower limbs for diagnosis of lymphedema.
Tomazic, Peter Valentin; Gerstenberger, Claus; Rant, Bettina; Nemetz, Ulrike; Brezjak-Kahlert, Christiana; Wolf, Axel; Freudenschuss, Kurt; Wolf, Gerald
Inferior turbinate hypertrophy is a common cause of nasal obstruction. We conducted a prospective study to correlate subjective and objective parameters in assessing the effectiveness of radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Our initial study population was made up of 10 patients who presented with nasal obstruction; 1 patient was lost to follow-up, leaving us with 7 women and 2 men, aged 26 to 65 years (mean: 37.9 ± 12.8), and 16 turbinates (7 bilateral, 1 right, and 1 left). Visual analogue scale (VAS) scores, Nasal Obstruction and Symptom Evaluation (NOSE) questionnaire scores, rhinomanometry results, and CT- and MRI-based volumetry were obtained before RFA and 6 months afterward. For the subjective parameters, the mean pre- and postoperative VAS scores for the 16 turbinates were 6.6 ± 1.6 and 2.8 ± 2.0 (p < 0.001), respectively, and the mean pre- and postoperative NOSE scores in the 9 patients were 15.3 ± 3.1 and 5.8 ± 5.4 (p = 0.003). For the objective parameters, the mean pre- and postoperative rhinomanometry values at 150 Pa were 241.0 ± 141.3 and 265.4 ± 157.3 ml/sec (p = 0.403), and the mean pre- and postoperative volumetry values were 5.3 ± 2.5 and 5.0 ± 2.1 cm(3) (p = 0.551). Note that only the differences in the subjective parameters reached statistical significance. RFA of the inferior turbinates as a treatment for nasal obstruction is safe and easy. However, our study found a discrepancy between the subjective and objective outcomes parameters, as the former showed highly significant improvement and the latter showed only a slight improvement that did not reach statistical significance.
Sally A. Ferguson
Full Text Available Under controlled laboratory conditions, neurobehavioral assays such as the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT are sensitive to increasing levels of fatigue, and in general, tend to correlate with subjective ratings. However, laboratory studies specifically curtail physical activity, potentially limiting the applicability of such findings to field settings that involve physical work. In addition, laboratory studies typically involve healthy young male participants that are not always representative of a typical working population. In order to determine whether these findings extend to field-like conditions, we put 88 Australian volunteer firefighters through a multi-day firefighting simulation. Participants were required to perform real-world physical and cognitive tasks under conditions of elevated temperature and moderate sleep restriction. We aimed to examine changes in fatigue in an effort to determine the optimum objective and subjective measures. Objective and subjective tests were sensitive to fatigue outside laboratory conditions. The PVT was the most sensitive assay of objective fatigue, with the Samn-Perelli fatigue scale the most sensitive of the subjective measures. The Samn-Perilli fatigue scale correlated best with PVT performance, but explained a small amount of variance. Although the Samn-Perelli scale can be easily administered in the field, the wide range of individual variance limits its efficacy as a once-off assessment tool. Rather, fatigue measures should be applied as a component of a broader fatigue risk management system. Findings provide firefighting agencies, and other occupations involving physical work, guidance as to the most sensitive and specific measures for assessing fatigue in their personnel.
Bei, Bei; Milgrom, Jeannette; Ericksen, Jennifer; Trinder, John
This study investigated whether there was a relationship between disrupted sleep and postpartum mood disturbances in women during the week after delivery. Sleep and mood were measured during the third trimester (Time-1) and one week postpartum (Time-2) in a 2-stage longitudinal design. Participants were recruited from an antenatal clinic in a regional Melbourne hospital. Forty-four healthy women at low risk for postpartum depression. N/A. Objective sleep was measured by actigraphy and subjective sleep by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; mood was assessed by the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale, the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale, and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. Sleep and mood questionnaires were administered at Time-1 and Time-2. Wrist actigraphy was collected for one week at both times. After delivery, both objective and subjective nighttime sleep significantly worsened with decreased total sleep time and sleep efficiency, while daytime napping behavior significantly increased. On average, mood improved across all scales after delivery, although 45.95% of the sample experienced deterioration of mood. Regression analyses showed little relationship between Time-1 and Time-2 objective nighttime sleep, and postpartum mood. Variables that related to both Time-1 and Time-2 subjective perception of sleep, including subjective nighttime sleep, sleep-related daytime dysfunction, and daytime napping behavior, were significant predictors of postpartum mood. The perception of poor sleep, and the conscious awareness of its impact during wake-time, might share a stronger relationship with the occurrence of immediate postpartum mood disturbances than actual sleep quality and quantity.
Verster, J C; Benjaminsen, J M E; van Lanen, J H M; van Stavel, N M D; Olivier, B
The purpose of this on-premise study was to determine if alcohol mixed with energy drink (AMED) consumption masks the subjective feelings of intoxication when compared to consuming alcohol only. The study was conducted on five nights in the city center of Utrecht. N = 997 people leaving bars were interviewed about their alcohol consumption with and without energy drinks, for that particular evening and for other occasions. People reporting drug and medication use were excluded (N = 84). Subjective intoxication was rated on a 10-point scale. Objective intoxication (breath alcohol concentration, BrAC) was determined with a breath alcohol test. Three groups were identified: (1) the AMED-tonight group (N = 185, 20.2 %), (2) the AMED-other-nights group (N = 246, 27.1 %), and (3) the no-AMED group (N = 482, 52.7 %). Objective intoxication (BrAC) did not significantly differ (p = 0.94) between the AMED-tonight group (0.074 % ± 0.05), AMED-other-nights group (0.073 % ± 0.05), and the no-AMED group (0.074 % ± 0.05). In line, subjective intoxication was not significantly different (p = 0.96) between the AMED-tonight group (4.5 ± 2.2), AMED-other-nights group (4.6 ± 2.3), and no-AMED group (4.6 ± 2.2). Within-subjects comparisons revealed no significant differences in total alcohol consumption between AMED occasions and alcohol only occasions. Regression analyses showed that "gender" (beta = 0.078, p = 0.016), "time of testing" (beta = 0.085, p = 0.009,) and "BrAC" (beta = 0.574, p = 0.0001) together explained 37.7 % of variance of subjective intoxication scores (Cohen's f (2) = 0.605). Whether or not subjects consumed energy drinks did not predict subjective intoxication scores. The data suggests that mixing alcohol with energy drink does not mask subjective intoxication.
Full Text Available STUDY OBJECTIVES: The majority of adolescent sleep research has utilized self-reported sleep duration and some have based information on a solitary question. Whilst some have claimed to have validated sleep survey data with objective actigraphy measures in adolescents, the statistical approach applied only demonstrates the strength of the association between subjective and objective sleep duration data and does not reflect if these different methods actually agree. METHODS: Data were collected as part of the Midlands Adolescents Schools Sleep Education Study (MASSES. Adolescents (n=225 aged 11-13 years provided estimates for weekday, weekend and combined sleep duration based on self-reported survey data, a 7-day sleep diary, and wrist-worn actigraphy. RESULTS: We assessed the strength of the relationship as well as agreement levels between subjective and objectively determined sleep duration (weekday, weekend and combined. Subjective diary sleep duration was significantly correlated with actigraphy estimates for weekday and weekend sleep duration r=0.30, p ≤ 0.001 and r=0.31, p ≤ 0.001 respectively. Pitman's test demonstrated no significant difference in the variance between weekend sleep duration (r=0.09, p=0.16 and combined sleep duration (r=0.12, p=0.08 indicating acceptable agreement between actigraphy and sleep diary sleep duration only. Self-reported sleep duration estimates (weekday, weekend and combined did not agree with actigraphy determined sleep duration. CONCLUSIONS: Sleep diaries are a cost-effective alternative to survey/questionnaire data. Self-reported measures of sleep duration in adolescents do not agree with actigraphy measures and should be avoided where possible. Previous adolescent sleep studies that have utilized self-reported survey data may not provide a complete representation of sleep on the outcome measure of interest.
Bakkum, M J; Plomp, R; Pols, L C
An objective analysis has been performed on all 15 Dutch vowels pronounced in /hVt/ words by nine native Dutch, nine non-native, and six deaf males. Spectral representations of the vowel segments were created by determining the mean output levels of a bank of 16 filters (90-7200 Hz), with 1/3-oct bandwidths and logarithmic spacing of their center frequencies. The adequacy of the objective analysis is determined by the extent to which spectral information provides an accurate description of pronunciation quality. Spectral distances between the 24 utterances of each monophthong agree rather well with subjective distances obtained by listeners in an elaborate paired-comparisons experiment. For the various monophthongs, the correlation coefficients are within the range 0.63 to 0.88; averaging across all 12 monophthongs of each speaker results in a coefficient of 0.94. Furthermore, it appeared that the objective spectral analysis is as reliable as a subjective assessment by magnitude estimation by two to three listeners. Using principal components analysis (PCA), the number of dimensions by which the vowel spectra are described can be reduced. For the various monophthongs the range of the correlation coefficients between subjective distances and objective distances in a two-dimensional PCA subspace is 0.30-0.93. The three groups of speakers can still be distinguished in this subspace. In the extreme case of the deaf speakers all vowels are strongly "neutralized," whereas the different vowels of the native speakers are well separated, especially after speaker normalization; results are less clear for the non-natives.
Goerres, G. [Institut fuer diagnostische Radiologie, Departement Radiologie, Universitaetskliniken, Kantonsspital Basel (Switzerland); Mader, I. [Radiologische Gemeinschaftspraxis Dres. Siems, Grossmann, Bayreuth (Germany); Proske, M. [Klinikum Rosenheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische Radiologie
We evaluated the subjective image impression of two different magnetic resonance (MR) sequences by using a subjective ranking system. This ranking system was based on 20 criteria describing several tissue characteristics such as the signal intensity of normal anatomical structures and the changes of signal intensities and shape of lesions as well as artefacts. MR of the vertebral spine was performed in 48 female and 52 male patients (mean age 44.8 years) referred consecutively for investigation of a back problem. Ninety-six pathologies were found in 82 patients. Sagittal and axial T1 weighted spin-echo before and after administration of Gadolinium (Gd-DOTA), and sagittal T2 weighted spin-echo (T2wSE) and Turbo-spin-echo (TSE) sequences were performed by means of surface coils. Using the subjective ranking system the sagittal T2wSE and sagittal TSE were compared. Both sequences were suitable for identification of normal anatomy and pathologic changes and there was no trend for increased detection of disease by one imaging sequence over the other. We found that sagittal TSE sequences can replace sagittal T2wSE sequences in spinal MR and that artefacts at the cervical and lumbar spine are less frequent using TSE, thus confirming previous studies. In this study, our ranking system reveiled, that there are differences between the subjective judgement of image qualities and objective measurement of SNR. However, this approach may not be helpful to compare two different MR sequences as it is limited to the anatomical area investigated and is time consuming. The subjective image impression, i.e. the quality of images, may not always be represented by physical parameters such as a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), radiologists should try to define influences of image quality also by subjective parameters. (orig.)
Beach, Elizabeth Francis; Williams, Warwick; Gilliver, Megan
The aim of the study was to establish whether individuals can subjectively estimate: (1) the loudness of events with respect to the objectively measured noise level; and (2) the overall loudness of their daily noise exposure level. Participants wore personal noise exposure meters for up to five days. During this time, participants kept diaries of daily events and estimated the loudness of these events and their overall noise exposure using 1-to-10 rating scales. A group of 45 volunteers aged between 18 and 35 years participated in the study. 86% of participants' subjective estimates were significantly correlated with the objective noise measurements. Multiple regression showed that age, overall lifestyle noise, and diary quality were predictors of the strength of correlation observed. In addition participants' subjective estimates of their overall noise exposure were significantly correlated with their actual average daily noise exposure. Results suggest that individuals can make a reasonable estimate of the loudness of events they experience and the overall level of noise they experience. These results may have significant influence for those interested in producing effective hearing health awareness programs in that individuals may be capable of assessing their own degree of hazard exposure.
Mählmann, Laura; Gerber, Markus; Furlano, Raoul I; Legeret, Corinne; Kalak, Nadeem; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge
Poor sleep and higher inflammation markers are associated, and impaired sleep quality is common among patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, information on sleep among children and adolescents with IBD is currently lacking. The aims of the present study were to compare subjective and objective sleep of children and adolescents with IBD with healthy controls and to shed more light on the relationship between sleep and inflammation. We expected that poor sleep, as assessed via sleep electroencephalography recordings, would be observed among participants with IBD, but particularly among participants in an active state of disease. Furthermore, we expected that poor sleep and higher inflammatory markers would be associated. A total of 47 children and adolescents participated in the study; 23 were diagnosed with IBD (mean age: 13.88 years, 44% female). The IBD group was divided into a medically well adjusted "remission-group" (IBD-RE; n = 14) and a group with an "active state of disease" (IBD-AD; n = 8). Healthy controls (HC; n = 24) were age and gender matched. Participants completed self-rating questionnaires for subjective sleep disturbances. Anthropometric data, acute and chronic inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein [CRP] and erythrocyte sedimentation rate [ESR]) and objective sleep were considered. Compared to HC and IBD-RE, IBD-AD patients showed impaired objective sleep patterns (eg, more awakenings, longer sleep latency, and reduced stage 3 sleep). Linear relationships described the correlation between higher ESR and more stage 4 (minutes, percentage) sleep. Nonlinear relationships described the relation between ESR and subjective sleep quality (inverse U-shaped) and between CRP and sleep latency (U-shaped). In children and adolescents with an active IBD, objective sleep was impaired and overall sleep quality and inflammation indices were associated in a complex manner. It seems advisable to include assessment of subjective sleep
Zlatar, Zvinka Z; Muniz, Martha; Galasko, Douglas; Salmon, David P
Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) is common in older adults; however, its utility in clinic-based samples remains controversial given its strong associations with mood symptoms. Five hundred nineteen individuals aged 60-95 with a wide range of cognitive performance scores were referred by community health clinics for brief screening of cognitive complaints. Linear regression models examined the cross-sectional associations between SCD (5-item self-reported questions), symptoms of depression (Beck Depression Inventory [BDI]), and concurrent objective cognitive performance (Cognitive Composite) adjusting for demographics. There was not a significant association between SCD and concurrent objective cognition after adjusting for demographics and depression. In contrast, there was a significant association between SCD and depression after adjusting for demographics and objective cognition. There was also a consistent association between SCD and depression, but not between SCD and objective cognition, in those with high and low levels of SCD reporting, in all ranges of cognitive performance, and in those with mild to moderate depression. Results are consistent with previous findings and suggest that SCD does not accurately reflect concurrent cognitive performance in a clinic-based sample of older adults. Clinical interpretation of SCD should account for the role of depression.
Mahdavi, Aida Malek; Safaiyan, Abdolrasool; Ostadrahimi, Alireza
Different methods have been used to assess nutritional status in hospitalized pediatric patients, and there is no agreement on the finest index which reflects nutritional status. The aim of this study was to compare the subjective global assessment (SGA) and objective assessment of nutritional status in hospitalized pediatric patients. One hundred forty children with mean age of 6.43 +/- 0.23 years hospitalized consecutively in Tabriz Pediatric Hospital from June to August in 2008 underwent a subjective assessment using the SGA questionnaire and objective assessment (anthropometric and biochemical measurements). An agreement between 2 assessment methods were analyzed by the kappa statistic. According to the result of SGA method, the overall prevalence of malnutrition was higher than the objective assessment method. The agreement between the 2 methods were merely fair to moderate (kappa = 0.336, P = .000). The linear relationship between 2 methods was also fair to moderate (r = 0.374, P methods in assessing nutritional status of pediatric patients, and it can also detect the changing trend of nutritional status, which may be missed by one-time anthropometry and biochemical methods.
Sharma, Anshika; Mathur, Anmol; Batra, Manu; Makkar, Diljot Kaur; Aggarwal, Vikram Pal; Goyal, Nikita; Kaur, Puneet
ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the presence of association between objective and subjective evaluation of orthodontic treatment needs in adolescents and their impact on their self-esteem. Methods: Cross-sectional study with adolescents aged 10-17 years old in Sri Ganganagar city, Rajasthan, India. The objective index of orthodontic treatment need (IOTN) dental health component (DHC) and the subjective aesthetic component (AC) were used to determine the normative and the self-perception need for orthodontic treatment, respectively. The selected students were further examined for dental trauma, tooth loss, and dental caries. Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale was applied for self-esteem level determination. Linear regression analysis was executed to test the individual association of different independent clinical variables with self-esteem scores. Results: Among 1,140 studied adolescents, the prevalence of dental normative orthodontic treatment need was in 56.9% of individuals, whereas 53.3% of individuals considered themselves as needy for the treatment. Multivariate analyses revealed that out of all dental disorders, DHC followed by AC of IOTN had maximum impact on the self-esteem of the adolescence. Conclusions: Dissatisfaction with dental appearance is a strong predictor for low self-esteem in adolescence. PMID:28977320
Full Text Available The goal of this study is to investigate associations between subjective memory complaint and objective cognitive performance in older people with previous major depression-a high-risk sample for cognitive impairment and later dementia. A cross-sectional study was carried out in people aged 60 or over with previous major depression but not fulfilling current major depression criteria according to DSM-IV-TR. People with dementia or Mini-Mental State Examination score less than 17 were excluded. Subjective memory complaint was defined on the basis of a score ≧4 on the subscale of Geriatric Mental State schedule, a maximum score of 8. Older people aged equal or over 60 without any psychiatric diagnosis were enrolled as healthy controls. Cognitive function was evaluated using a series of cognitive tests assessing verbal memory, attention/speed, visuospatial function, verbal fluency, and cognitive flexibility in all participants. One hundred and thirteen older people with previous major depression and forty-six healthy controls were enrolled. Subjective memory complaint was present in more than half of the participants with depression history (55.8%. Among those with major depression history, subjective memory complaint was associated with lower total immediate recall and delayed verbal recall scores after adjustment. The associations between subjective memory complaint and worse memory performance were stronger in participants with lower depressive symptoms (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score<7. The results suggest subjective memory complaint may be a valid appraisal of memory performance in older people with previous major depression and consideration should be given to more proactive assessment and follow-up in these clinical samples.
Chen, Jieling Elaine; Lou, Vivian Weiqun; Jian, Hong; Zhou, Zhen; Yan, Meiqiong; Zhu, Jingfen; Li, Guohong; He, Yaping
The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of financial burden, using objective and subjective indicators, on the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in lung cancer patients. A total of 227 patients diagnosed with lung cancer (from the inpatient unit of the department of internal medicine-chest oncology, in Shanghai Chest Hospital, China) participated in the study. Financial information was measured by direct medical costs, direct nonmedical costs, healthcare-cost-to-income ratio, and perceived financial difficulty. HRQOL was measured using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Lung (FACT-L) scale. Catastrophic health spending, defined as a healthcare-cost-to-income ratio of more than 40%, was reported in 72.7% of the participants, whereas 37.0% reported that healthcare costs exceeded annual household income. Financial difficulty was perceived in 83.7% of the participants. Patients whose healthcare costs exceeded their annual household income and who perceived financial difficulty reported a clinically meaningful difference in overall HRQOL (> 6 points on the FACT-L) compared with participants without catastrophic health spending or perceived financial difficulty. Healthcare costs did not show a significant effect on HRQOL. Healthcare costs exceeding total annual household income and perceived financial difficulty are associated with poorer HRQOL in lung cancer patients. Subjective indicator of financial burden has a stronger effect on quality of life than objective indicators. Health-cost-to-income ratio and perceived financial difficulty can be implied as objective and subjective indicators of financial burden to identify the patients who may need additional assistance. Communication on deciding on cost-effective treatments can be facilitated.
Gao, Keming; Fang, Fang; Wang, Zuowei; Calabrese, Joseph R
To compare objective and subjective weight gain of second-generation antipsychotics in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. English-language literature published and cited in PubMed (MEDLINE) from January 1966 to December 2015 was searched with the keywords antipsychotic, atypical antipsychotic, or generic/brand name of atypical antipsychotics, and schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, bipolar mania, or bipolar depression, and safety, tolerability, weight gain, and randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials. The absolute risk increases and the numbers needed to treat to harm (NNH) for ≥7% weight gain (objective) and self-report weight gain (subjective) were estimated. In schizophrenia, the NNH for 7% or greater weight gain ranged from 5 to 62, and the NNH for self-reported weight gain was from 11 to -224. The ratio of self-reported NNH to 7% or greater NNH was from 1.5 to 8.0. In bipolar mania, the NNH for 7% or greater weight gain ranged from 7 to -101 and the NNH for self-reported weight gain was from 13 to 84. The ratio of self-reported NNH to 7% or greater NNH was from 0.9 to 2.5. In bipolar depression, the NNH for 7% or greater weight gain ranged from 5 to 69, and the NNH for self-reported weight gain was from 8 to 17. The ratio of self-reported NNH to 7% or greater NNH was 1.2 to 1.6. Subjective reporting underestimated the risk of antipsychotic-related weight gain compared with objectively measured weight change. Self-awareness of antipsychotic-related weight gain was lower in patients with schizophrenia than in patients with bipolar disorder. Measuring weight change during antipsychotic treatment should be a routine practice.
Hougaard, Dan Dupont; Boldsen, Soren Kjaergaard; Jensen, Anne Marie; Hansen, Soren; Thomassen, Per Cayé
Examination of objective as well as subjective outcomes with a new transcutaneous bone-anchored hearing aid device. The study was designed as a prospective multicenter consecutive case-series study involving tertiary referral centers at two Danish University Hospitals. A total of 23 patients were implanted. Three were lost to follow-up. Patients had single-sided deafness, conductive or mixed hearing loss. Rehabilitative. Aided and unaided sound field hearing was evaluated objectively using (1) pure warble tone thresholds, (2) pure-tone average (PTA4), (3) speech discrimination score (SDS) in quiet, and (4) speech reception threshold 50% at 70 dB SPL noise level (SRT50%). Subjective benefit was evaluated by three validated questionnaires: (1) the IOI-HA, (2) the SSQ-12, and (3) a questionnaire evaluating both the frequency and the duration of hearing aid usage. The mean aided PTA4 was lowered by 14.7 dB. SDS was increased by 37.5% at 50 dB SPL, SRT50% in noise improved 1.4 dB. Aided thresholds improved insignificantly at frequencies above 2 kHz. 52.9% of the patients used their device every day, and 76.5% used the device at least 5 days a week. Mean IOI-HA score was 3.4, corresponding to a good benefit. In SSQ-12, "quality of hearing" scored especially high. Patients with a conductive and/or mixed hearing loss benefitted the most. This device demonstrates a significant subjective hearing benefit 8 month post surgery. In patients with conductive and/or mixed hearing losses, patient satisfaction and frequency of use were high. Objective gain measures showed less promising results especially in patients with single-sided deafness (SSD) compared to other bone conduction devices.
Bernatchez, Marie Solange; Savard, Josée; Savard, Marie-Hélène; Aubin, Michèle; Ivers, Hans
Prevalence rates of sleep difficulties in advanced cancer patients have varied widely across studies (12 to 96%), and none of these employed a diagnostic interview to distinguish different types of sleep-wake disorders. Moreover, very limited information is available on subjective and objective sleep parameters in this population. Our study was conducted in palliative cancer patients and aimed to assess rates of sleep-wake disorders and subsyndromal symptoms and to document subjective and objective sleep-wake parameters across various types of sleep-wake difficulties. The sample was composed of 51 community-dwelling cancer patients receiving palliative care and having an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group score of 2 or 3. Relevant sections of the Duke Interview for Sleep Disorders were administered over the phone. An actigraphic recording and a daily sleep diary were completed for 7 consecutive days. Overall, 68.6% of the sample had at least one type of sleep-wake difficulty (disorder or symptoms): 31.4% had insomnia and 29.4% had hypersomnolence as their main sleep-wake problem. Participants with insomnia as their main sleep difficulty had greater disruptions of subjective sleep parameters, while objectively-assessed sleep was more disrupted in patients with hypersomnolence comorbid with another sleep-wake difficulty. Significance of the Results: The high rates of sleep-wake difficulties found in this study indicate a need to screen more systematically for sleep-wake disorders, including insomnia and hypersomnolence, in both palliative care research and clinical practice, and to develop effective nonpharmacological interventions specifically adapted to this population.
Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Accurso, Erin C; Crosby, Ross D; Cao, Li; Ellison, Jo; Smith, Tracey L; Klein, Marjorie H; Mitchell, James E; Crow, Scott J; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Peterson, Carol B
Although loss of control (LOC) while eating is a core construct of bulimia nervosa (BN), questions remain regarding its validity and prognostic significance independent of overeating. We examined trajectories of objective and subjective binge eating (OBE and SBE, respectively; i.e., LOC eating episodes involving an objectively or subjectively large amount of food) among adults participating in psychological treatments for BN-spectrum disorders (n = 80). We also explored whether changes in the frequency of these eating episodes differentially predicted changes in eating-related and general psychopathology and, conversely, whether changes in eating-related and general psychopathology predicted differential changes in the frequency of these eating episodes. Linear mixed models with repeated measures revealed that OBE decreased twice as rapidly as SBE throughout treatment and 4-month follow-up. Generalized linear models revealed that baseline to end-of-treatment reductions in SBE frequency predicted baseline to 4-month follow-up changes in eating-related psychopathology, depression, and anxiety, while changes in OBE frequency were not predictive of psychopathology at 4-month follow-up. Zero-inflation models indicated that baseline to end-of-treatment changes in eating-related psychopathology and depression symptoms predicted baseline to 4-month follow-up changes in OBE frequency, while changes in anxiety and self-esteem did not. Baseline to end-of-treatment changes in eating-related psychopathology, self-esteem, and anxiety predicted baseline to 4-month follow-up changes in SBE frequency, while baseline to end-of-treatment changes in depression did not. Based on these findings, LOC accompanied by objective overeating may reflect distress at having consumed an objectively large amount of food, whereas LOC accompanied by subjective overeating may reflect more generalized distress related to one's eating- and mood-related psychopathology. BN treatments should
Gao, Chen; Ding, Zhongan; Deng, Bofa; Yan, Shengteng
According to the characteristics of electric energy data acquire system (EEDAS), considering the availability of each index data and the connection between the index integrity, establishing the performance evaluation index system of electric energy data acquire system from three aspects as master station system, communication channel, terminal equipment. To determine the comprehensive weight of each index based on triangular fuzzy number analytic hierarchy process with entropy weight method, and both subjective preference and objective attribute are taken into consideration, thus realize the performance comprehensive evaluation more reasonable and reliable. Example analysis shows that, by combination with analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and triangle fuzzy numbers (TFN) to establish comprehensive index evaluation system based on entropy method, the evaluation results not only convenient and practical, but also more objective and accurate.
Ali, Yasser Helmy
Thread lifting rejuvenation procedures are re-evolved again, after developing of absorbable threads, with very popular spread among plastic surgeons and dermatologists but with little articles have been written in literature about absorbable threads. Objective to evaluate two years' outcome of absorbable barbed thread lifting used for facial rejuvenation. Prospective comparative study both objectively and subjectively and follow up assessment for 24 months. Thread lifting for face rejuvenation has significant long-lasting considerable skin lifting from 3-10 mm and high degree of patients' satisfaction with less incidence rate of complications about 4.8%. Augmented results are obtained when thread lifting is combined with other lifting and rejuvenation modalities. Significant facial rejuvenations are got by thread lifting and highly augmented results are observed when they are combined with Botox, fillers and/or platelet rich plasma (PRP) rejuvenations.
Dautovich, Natalie D.; McCrae, Christina S.; Rowe, Meredeth
Objectives To compare objective and subjective measurements of napping, and to examine the relationship between evening napping and nocturnal sleep in older adults. Design For twelve days, participants wore actigraphs and completed sleep diaries. Setting Community Participants 100 individuals who napped, 60–89 years (including good and poor sleepers with typical age-related medical comorbidities). Measurements Twelve days of sleep diary and actigraphy provided subjective and objective napping and sleep data. Results Evening naps (within 2 hours of bedtime) were characteristic of the sample with peak nap time occurring between 20:30–21:00 (average nap time occurred between 14:30–15:00). Two categories of nappers were identified: 1) day/evening – those who took both daytime and evening naps, and 2) daytime-only. Interestingly, no participants napped during the evening only. Day/evening nappers significantly underreported evening napping and demonstrated lower objectively measured sleep onset latencies (20 vs 26.5 minutes), less wake after sleep onset (51.4 vs 72.8 minutes), and higher sleep efficiencies (76.8 vs 82%) than daytime-only nappers. Conclusion Day/evening napping was prevalent amongst this sample of community-dwelling good/poor sleepers, but was not associated with impaired nocturnal sleep. Although the elimination or restriction of napping is a common element of cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTi), these results suggest that a uniform recommendation to restrict/eliminate napping (particularly evening napping) may not meet the needs of all older individuals with insomnia. PMID:18691289
Rodríguez Valiente, A; Trinidad, A; García Berrocal, J R; Górriz, C; Ramírez Camacho, R
The aim of the present study was to study patterns in the extended spectrum of the human hearing (0.125 to 20 kHz) in order to obtain reference thresholds. Then, we compare our values with existing results at extended high-frequencies (8 to 20 kHz) in an attempt to establish new standards for potential international adoption. A prospective study in a group of otologically healthy subjects. A total of 645 subjects aged between 5 and 90 years were recruited. Pure-tone thresholds were determined for conventional and extended high-frequencies. There was an increase in the hearing thresholds as a function of frequency and age. For the 20 to 69 years old group, thresholds were lower in females than in males, especially at 12.5 and 16 kHz. Our threshold values are comparable to those presented in previous studies that used different instrumentation and populations. When comparing different studies the hearing thresholds were found to be similar. Therefore, it would be possible to establish international standard thresholds.
Mekuria, Rufael; Cesar, Pablo; Doumanis, Ioannis; Frisiello, Antonella
Compression of 3D object based video is relevant for 3D Immersive applications. Nevertheless, the perceptual aspects of the degradation introduced by codecs for meshes and point clouds are not well understood. In this paper we evaluate the subjective and objective degradations introduced by such codecs in a state of art 3D immersive virtual room. In the 3D immersive virtual room, users are captured with multiple cameras, and their surfaces are reconstructed as photorealistic colored/textured 3D meshes or point clouds. To test the perceptual effect of compression and transmission, we render degraded versions with different frame rates in different contexts (near/far) in the scene. A quantitative subjective study with 16 users shows that negligible distortion of decoded surfaces compared to the original reconstructions can be achieved in the 3D virtual room. In addition, a qualitative task based analysis in a full prototype field trial shows increased presence, emotion, user and state recognition of the reconstructed 3D Human representation compared to animated computer avatars.
Weston, M; Bird, S; Helsen, W; Nevill, A; Castagna, C
The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of match standard and referee experience on the objective and subjective workload of referees during English Premier League and Football League soccer matches. We also examined the relationship between heart rate (HR) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) for assessing match intensity in soccer referees. Heart rate responses were recorded using short-range telemetry and RPE scores were collected using a 10-point scale. Analysis revealed a significant relationship between mean match HR and match RPE scores (r=0.485, pFootball League 81.5+/-2.2%HRmax, pFootball League 6.9+/-0.8, pReferee experience had no effect on match HR and RPE responses to Premier League and Football League matches. The results of the present study demonstrate the validity of using HR and RPE as a measure of global match intensity in soccer referees. Referee experience had no effect on the referees' objective and subjective match workload assessments, whereas match intensity was correlated to competition standard. These findings have implications for fitness preparation and evaluation in soccer referees. When progressing to a higher level of competition, referees should ensure that appropriate levels of fitness are developed in order to enable them to cope with an increase in physical match demands.
Orff, Henry J; Hays, Chelsea C; Twamley, Elizabeth W
Approximately 20% of current-era Veterans have sustained a traumatic brain injury (TBI), which can result in persistent postconcussive symptoms. These symptoms may disrupt family and social functioning. We explored psychiatric, postconcussive, and cognitive factors as correlates of objective functioning and subjective satisfaction in family and social relationships. At entry into a supported employment study, 50 unemployed Veterans with a history of mild to moderate TBI and current cognitive impairment were administered baseline assessments. Multivariate stepwise regressions determined that higher levels of depressive symptomatology were strongly associated with less frequent social contact, as well as lower subjective satisfaction with family and social relationships. Worse verbal fluency predicted less frequent social contact, whereas worse processing speed and switching predicted higher levels of subjective satisfaction with family relationships. The pattern of results remained similar when examining those Veterans with only mild TBI. Depressive symptoms and cognitive functioning may impact Veterans' social contact and satisfaction with family and social relationships. Evidence-based interventions addressing depression and cognition may therefore aid in improving community reintegration and satisfaction with social and family relationships.
Morita, Yuko; Sasai-Sakuma, Taeko; Inoue, Yuichi
The aims of this study were to compare the effects of acute morning or evening exercise on nocturnal sleep in individuals with two subjective insomnia symptoms: difficulty in initiating sleep (DIS), and early morning awakening (EMA), separately for the first vs the second halves of the night. Older individuals (55-65 years old) with DIS (N = 15) or EMA (N = 15) and age- and sex-matched controls (N = 13) participated in this non-randomized crossover study. Participants were assigned to two exercise conditions (morning exercise and evening exercise) in counterbalanced order following the baseline condition with a two-week interval between conditions. A single session of aerobic step exercise was performed during each exercise condition. Nocturnal polysomnography was carried out to evaluate objective sleep quality. Patient global impression of change scale scores for nocturnal sleep were obtained to subjectively evaluate the different groups. Acute physical exercise did not improve subjective sleep quality. Morning exercise decreased the number of stage shifts over the whole night. The arousal index and the number of stage shifts were decreased especially during the second half of the night in all groups. Furthermore, morning exercise decreased the number of wake stages during the second half of the night in the DIS group, but not in the EMA group. Acute morning exercise can improve nocturnal sleep quality in individuals with difficulty initiating sleep, especially during the later part of the night. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Stocker, Ryan P J; Paul, Benjamin T E; Mammen, Oommen; Khan, Hassen; Cieply, Marissa A; Germain, Anne
This study examined the extent to which self-reported exposure to blast during deployment to Iraq and Afghanistan affects subjective and objective sleep measures in service members and veterans with and without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Seventy-one medication-free service members and veterans (mean age = 29.47 ± 5.76 years old; 85% men) completed self-report sleep measures and overnight polysomnographic studies. Four multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVAs) were conducted to examine the impact of blast exposure and PTSD on subjective sleep measures, measures of sleep continuity, non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep parameters, and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep parameters. There was no significant Blast × PTSD interaction on subjective sleep measures. Rather, PTSD had a main effect on insomnia severity, sleep quality, and disruptive nocturnal behaviors. There was no significant Blast × PTSD interaction, nor were there main effects of PTSD or Blast on measures of sleep continuity and NREM sleep. A significant PTSD × Blast interaction effect was found for REM fragmentation. The results suggest that, although persistent concussive symptoms following blast exposure are associated with sleep disturbances, self-reported blast exposure without concurrent symptoms does not appear to contribute to poor sleep quality, insomnia, and disruptive nocturnal disturbances beyond the effects of PTSD. Reduced REM sleep fragmentation may be a sensitive index of the synergetic effects of both psychological and physical insults. © 2016 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to apply the reference-scaled average bioequivalence (RSABE approach to evaluate the bioequivalence of 2 formulations of agomelatine, and to investigate the pharmacokinetic properties of agomelatine in Chinese healthy male subjects. This was performed in a single-dose, randomized-sequence, open-label, four-way crossover study with a one-day washout period between doses. Healthy Chinese males were randomly assigned to receive 25 mg of either the test or reference formulation. The formulations were considered bioequivalent if 90% confidence intervals (CIs for the log-transformed ratios and ratio of geometric means (GMR of AUC and Cmax of agomelatine were within the predetermined bioequivalence range based on RSABE method. Results showed that both of the 90% CIs for the log-transformed ratios of AUC and Cmax of 7-desmethyl-agomelatine and 3-hydroxy-agomelatine were within the predetermined bioequivalence range. The 90% CIs for natural log-transformed ratios of Cmax, AUC0–t and AUC0–∞ of agomelatine (104.42–139.86, 101.33–123.83 and 97.90–117.94 were within the RSABE acceptance limits, and 3-hydroxy-agomelatine (105.55–123.03, 101.95–109.10 and 101.72–108.70 and 7-desmethyl-agomelatine (104.50–125.23, 102.36–111.50 and 101.62–110.64 were within the FDA bioequivalence definition intervals (0.80–1.25 for AUC and 0.75–1.33 for Cmax. The RSABE approach was successful in evaluating the bioequivalence of these two formulations.
Mark Daniel Lescroart
Full Text Available Perception of natural visual scenes activates several functional areas in the human brain, including the Parahippocampal Place Area (PPA, Retrosplenial Complex (RSC, and the Occipital Place Area (OPA. It is currently unclear what specific scene-related features are represented in these areas. Previous studies have suggested that PPA, RSC, and/or OPA might represent at least three qualitatively different classes of features: (1 2D features related to Fourier power; (2 3D spatial features such as the distance to objects in a scene; or (3 abstract features such as the categories of objects in a scene. To determine which of these hypotheses best describes the visual representation in scene-selective areas, we applied voxel-wise modeling (VM to BOLD fMRI responses elicited by a set of 1,386 images of natural scenes. VM provides an efficient method for testing competing hypotheses by comparing predictions of brain activity based on encoding models that instantiate each hypothesis. Here we evaluated three different encoding models that instantiate each of the three hypotheses listed above. We used linear regression to fit each encoding model to the fMRI data recorded from each voxel, and we evaluated each fit model by estimating the amount of variance it predicted in a withheld portion of the data set. We found that voxel-wise models based on Fourier power or the subjective distance to objects in each scene predicted much of the variance predicted by a model based on object categories. Furthermore, the response variance explained by these three models is largely shared, and the individual models explain little unique variance in responses. Based on an evaluation of previous studies and the data we present here, we conclude that there is currently no good basis to favor any one of the three alternative hypotheses about visual representation in scene-selective areas. We offer suggestions for further studies that may help resolve this issue.
Lescroart, Mark D.; Stansbury, Dustin E.; Gallant, Jack L.
Perception of natural visual scenes activates several functional areas in the human brain, including the Parahippocampal Place Area (PPA), Retrosplenial Complex (RSC), and the Occipital Place Area (OPA). It is currently unclear what specific scene-related features are represented in these areas. Previous studies have suggested that PPA, RSC, and/or OPA might represent at least three qualitatively different classes of features: (1) 2D features related to Fourier power; (2) 3D spatial features such as the distance to objects in a scene; or (3) abstract features such as the categories of objects in a scene. To determine which of these hypotheses best describes the visual representation in scene-selective areas, we applied voxel-wise modeling (VM) to BOLD fMRI responses elicited by a set of 1386 images of natural scenes. VM provides an efficient method for testing competing hypotheses by comparing predictions of brain activity based on encoding models that instantiate each hypothesis. Here we evaluated three different encoding models that instantiate each of the three hypotheses listed above. We used linear regression to fit each encoding model to the fMRI data recorded from each voxel, and we evaluated each fit model by estimating the amount of variance it predicted in a withheld portion of the data set. We found that voxel-wise models based on Fourier power or the subjective distance to objects in each scene predicted much of the variance predicted by a model based on object categories. Furthermore, the response variance explained by these three models is largely shared, and the individual models explain little unique variance in responses. Based on an evaluation of previous studies and the data we present here, we conclude that there is currently no good basis to favor any one of the three alternative hypotheses about visual representation in scene-selective areas. We offer suggestions for further studies that may help resolve this issue. PMID:26594164
Schlesewsky, Matthias; Bornkessel, Ina
Reanalysis in language comprehension provides a window on how superficially similar processes of conflict resolution may differ depending on the context in which they are initiated. Thus, previous ERP studies have shown that reanalyses towards object-initial orders in German sentences with dative-active verbs (e.g., folgen, 'to follow') engender N400 effects, while reanalyses with accusative verbs (e.g., besuchen, 'to visit') elicit P600 effects. This difference appears surprising since these two verb classes are both associated with a subject-initial base order. The present paper reports two ERP experiments designed to shed further light on the nature of the conflict resolution processes involved in each case by examining structures in which word order disambiguation is separated from verb class disambiguation. Experiment 1 contrasted dative-active verbs with accusative verbs, while Experiment 2 compared dative-active and dative object-experiencer verbs (which are associated with an object-initial base order). Our results show that the reanalysis pattern for dative-active constructions is context-dependent: when verb class disambiguation precedes word order disambiguation, an N400-P600 pattern results. By contrast, the reanalysis patterns for the other two verb types are context independent: object-experiencer verbs invariably show an N400 and accusative verbs invariably show a P600. We argue that (a) the N400 is a general marker of reanalysis in dative sentences, reflecting an argument reindexation, while (b) the P600 in accusative sentences reflects a structural recomputation. The variable pattern for dative-active sentences reflects the (in)applicability of "good-enough" representations during conflict resolution in garden path sentences.
Dogan, Ezgi; Wagner, Xenija; Hegerl, Ulrich; Kohls, Elisabeth
Background Electronic mental health interventions for mood disorders have increased rapidly over the past decade, most recently in the form of various systems and apps that are delivered via smartphones. Objective We aim to provide an overview of studies on smartphone-based systems that combine subjective ratings with objectively measured data for longitudinal monitoring of patients with affective disorders. Specifically, we aim to examine current knowledge on: (1) the feasibility of, and adherence to, such systems; (2) the association of monitored data with mood status; and (3) the effects of monitoring on clinical outcomes. Methods We systematically searched PubMed, Web of Science, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for relevant articles published in the last ten years (2007-2017) by applying Boolean search operators with an iterative combination of search terms, which was conducted in February 2017. Additional articles were identified via pearling, author correspondence, selected reference lists, and trial protocols. Results A total of 3463 unique records were identified. Twenty-nine studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. The majority of articles represented feasibility studies (n=27); two articles reported results from one randomized controlled trial (RCT). In total, six different self-monitoring systems for affective disorders that used subjective mood ratings and objective measurements were included. These objective parameters included physiological data (heart rate variability), behavioral data (phone usage, physical activity, voice features), and context/environmental information (light exposure and location). The included articles contained results regarding feasibility of such systems in affective disorders, showed reasonable accuracy in predicting mood status and mood fluctuations based on the objectively monitored data, and reported observations about the impact of monitoring on clinical state
Krüger, Theresa; Behrens, Janina R; Grobelny, Anuschka; Otte, Karen; Mansow-Model, Sebastian; Kayser, Bastian; Bellmann-Strobl, Judith; Brandt, Alexander U; Paul, Friedemann; Schmitz-Hübsch, Tanja
Physical activity (PA) is frequently restricted in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) and aiming to enhance PA is considered beneficial in this population. We here aimed to explore two standard methods (subjective plus objective) to assess PA reduction in PwMS and to describe the relation of PA to health-related quality of life (hrQoL). PA was objectively measured over a 7-day period in 26 PwMS (EDSS 1.5-6.0) and 30 matched healthy controls (HC) using SenseWear mini® armband (SWAmini) and reported as step count, mean total and activity related energy expenditure (EE) as well as time spent in PA of different intensities. Measures of EE were also derived from self-assessment with IPAQ (International Physical Activity Questionnaire) long version, which additionally yielded information on the context of PA and a classification into subjects' PA levels. To explore the convergence between both types of assessment, IPAQ categories (low, moderate, high) were related to selected PA parameters from objective assessment using ANOVA. Group differences and associated effect sizes for all PA parameters as well as their relation to clinical and hrQoL measures were determined. Both, SWAmini and IPAQ assessment, captured differences in PA between PwMS and HC. IPAQ categories fit well with common cut-offs for step count (p = 0.002) and mean METs (p = 0.004) to determine PA levels with objective devices. Correlations between specifically matched pairs of IPAQ and SWAmini parameters ranged between r .288 and r .507. Concerning hrQoL, the lower limb mobility subscore was related to four PA measures, while a relation with patients' report of general contentment was only seen for one. Both methods of assessment seem applicable in PwMS and able to describe reductions in daily PA at group level. Whether they can be used to track individual effects of interventions to enhance PA levels needs further exploration. The relation of PA measures with hrQoL seen with lower limb
Full Text Available This paper constructs the comprehensive index evaluation of population development from the three aspects of human development, population and economic society and population, resources and environment, according to the movement course and changing trend of population development at home and abroad, and the guiding ideology of national population development strategy system. The index system consists of 3 first level indexes, 8 Secondary indexes, 22 tertiary level indexes and 42 fourth level indexes. And on the basis of commonly used comprehensive evaluation methods. The comprehensive evaluation of the population development in China in 2013 was made by using the combined evaluation method, which effectively overcomes the shortcomings of the objective evaluation method and the subjective evaluation method, and obtains a more credible comprehensive evaluation value.
Franklin Yessid Arias Bedoya
Full Text Available Competency Based Education is a curricular approach that, in addition to the controversy it arises, establishes practices and specific thoughts in schools: its origin from behavioral theories and their connection to the economic field disclose formation objectives that highlight the need of thinking about teaching practices and institutional curricula. These goals linked to projects such as work-oriented education and the propaedeutic cycles reveal the implicit intentions in the education system, where students’ specific characteristics yield to national economic imperatives. This reflection paper seeks to explore and define the ‘conceptual gap’ between an education based on the ideals of trade logic, and one directed to the aesthetic and socio-political formation of the subject, on the basis of legal documents as the Curricular Guidelines, Skill Standards for Spanish Language, Law 39 of 1903, General Law of Education and texts by various educational theorists such as Paulo Freire and Gimeno Sacristan.
Richards, Anne; Metzler, Thomas J; Ruoff, Leslie M; Inslicht, Sabra S; Rao, Madhu; Talbot, Lisa S; Neylan, Thomas C
A growing literature shows prominent sex effects for risk for post-traumatic stress disorder and associated medical comorbid burden. Previous research indicates that post-traumatic stress disorder is associated with reduced slow wave sleep, which may have implications for overall health, and abnormalities in rapid eye movement sleep, which have been implicated in specific post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, but most research has been conducted in male subjects. We therefore sought to compare objective measures of sleep in male and female post-traumatic stress disorder subjects with age- and sex-matched control subjects. We used a cross-sectional, 2 × 2 design (post-traumatic stress disorder/control × female/male) involving83 medically healthy, non-medicated adults aged 19-39 years in the inpatient sleep laboratory. Visual electroencephalographic analysis demonstrated that post-traumatic stress disorder was associated with lower slow wave sleep duration (F(3,82) = 7.63, P = 0.007) and slow wave sleep percentage (F(3,82) = 6.11, P = 0.016). There was also a group × sex interaction effect for rapid eye movement sleep duration (F(3,82) = 4.08, P = 0.047) and rapid eye movement sleep percentage (F(3,82) = 4.30, P = 0.041), explained by greater rapid eye movement sleep in post-traumatic stress disorder females compared to control females, a difference not seen in male subjects. Quantitative electroencephalography analysis demonstrated that post-traumatic stress disorder was associated with lower energy in the delta spectrum (F(3,82) = 6.79, P = 0.011) in non-rapid eye movement sleep. Slow wave sleep and delta findings were more pronounced in males. Removal of post-traumatic stress disorder subjects with comorbid major depressive disorder, who had greater post-traumatic stress disorder severity, strengthened delta effects but reduced rapid eye movement effects to non-significance. These findings support previous evidence that post
Lee, D K C; Gray, R D; Robb, F M; Fujihara, S; Lipworth, B J
There are presently no placebo-controlled data regarding the effects of butterbur (BB) on subjective and objective outcomes in patients with perennial allergic rhinitis. We performed a placebo-controlled evaluation of the effects of BB and fexofenadine (FEX) on subjective and objective outcomes in patients with perennial allergic rhinitis. Sixteen patients with perennial allergic rhinitis and house dust mite sensitization were randomized in double-blind cross-over fashion to receive for 1 week either BB 50 mg twice daily, FEX 180 mg once daily and placebo (PL) once daily, or PL twice daily. The peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF) response to adenosine monophosphate (AMP) challenge administered as a single 400 mg/mL dose was measured over a 60-min period after challenge, and domiciliary total nasal symptom score was recorded. Pre-challenge values for mean+/-SEM PNIF (L/min) were not significantly different comparing all groups; BB (138+/-8), FEX (140+/-9), and PL (138+/-8). The maximum % PNIF fall from baseline after nasal AMP challenge was significantly attenuated (P<0.05) compared to PL (46+/-3), with BB (34+/-3) and FEX (39+/-3). The area under the 60-min time-response curve (%.min) was also significantly attenuated (P<0.05) compared to PL (1734+/-156), with BB (1052+/-258) and FEX (1194+/-161). There was also a significant reduction (P<0.05) in total nasal symptom score with BB (1.8+/-0.4) and FEX (1.8+/-0.4), compared to PL (2.8+/-0.5). There were no significant differences between BB and FEX for any outcomes. BB and FEX, in comparison to PL, were equally effective in attenuating the nasal response to AMP and in improving nasal symptoms, highlighting a potential role for BB in the treatment of allergic rhinitis.
Full Text Available Aim: The success of a skin graft in a cat is highly dependent on the granulation formed by the base of recipient bed. Granulation by the base of recipient bed will form after several days after injury. This research aimed to observe subjective and objective profile of skin graft recovery on forelimb of cats with different periods of donor skin placement. Materials and Methods: Nine male Indonesian local cats aged 1-2 years old, weighing 3-4 kg were divided into three groups. The first surgery for creating defect wound of 2 cm×2 cm in size was performed in the whole group. The wound was left for several days with the respective interval for each group, respectively: Group I (for 2 days, Group II (for 4 days, and Group III (for 6 days. In the whole group, the second surgery was done by the harvesting skin of thoracic area which then applied on recipient bed of respective groups. Result: The donor skin on Group II was accepted faster compared to Group I and Group III. The donor skin did not show color differences compared to surrounding skin, painless, bright red in bleeding test had faster both hair growth and drug absorption. Test toward the size of donor skin and the effect of drugs did not show a significant difference between each group. Conclusion: The observe subjective and objective profile of skin graft recovery on forelimb of cats on Group II were accepted faster compared to Group I and III.
Genziani, Mirella; Stewart, Robert; Béjot, Yannick; Amieva, Hélène; Artero, Sylvaine; Ritchie, Karen
To investigate the association between subjective memory impairment (SMI) and objective cognitive impairment in later life, and to ascertain whether this is modified by level of social activity, education or living alone. Data were analyzed from three French community surveys carried out in Bordeaux, Dijon and Montpellier. Representative samples of 9294 residents aged 65 years and over were included in the study. SMI was ascertained and investigated in relation to performance on the Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT), the Isaac Set Test (IST) and Trail Making Test B (TMT). Adjustments were made for age, sex, education, depressive symptoms (Centre for Epidemiological Depression scale), site where study was carried out and living alone. Stratified analyses investigated modification by high or low social activity, education or living arrangement. SMI was reported by 21.9% of the sample, and was significantly associated with lower scores on BVRT and TMT after adjustment for age, sex, education, depressive symptoms, site and living alone. These associations were not significantly modified by social activity, education or living alone. Worse subjective memory was associated independently with worse performance on two tests of cognitive function; however, in these cohorts, no evidence was found for modification of associations by social activity/support or education. © 2012 Japan Geriatrics Society.
Bishop, S.; Sundaresan, A.
Introduction The role of stress and its impact on coping performance motivation behavior cognitive functioning and psychological well-being has become a key focus for long duration missions Since all extreme environments are characterized by significant physical demands e g skiing climbing EVAs as well as inescapable environmental characteristics e g imminent danger noise isolation confinement loss of normal sensory stimuli an examination of the impact of prolong stress in analogue environments should provide insight into developing effective support and countermeasures for long duration space crews The presence of even low levels of chronic stressors if not met with functional adaptation and or countermeasures has been shown to produce subjective symptoms of stress persistent performance incompetence accelerated fatiguability altered mood states increased rate of infections and decrements in attention and cognitive Gender has been shown to cut across both individual factors and group factors including response to stress and ways of coping Generally men and women differ in many arenas such as interaction and communication styles need for affiliation responses to crowding privacy and confined spaces Men and women in homogeneous groups interact in significantly different ways than those in mixed groups Therefore differences between genders on subjective and objective responses to stress are of interest The Mars Society Utah Desert Simulation MDRS facility provides a unique opportunity to examine the interaction of
Germonpré, Peter; Balestra, Costantino; Hemelryck, Walter; Buzzacott, Peter; Lafère, Pierre
Divers try to limit risks associated with their sport, for instance by breathing enriched air nitrox (EANx) instead of air. This double blinded, randomized trial was designed to see if the use of EANx could effectively improve cognitive performance while diving. Eight volunteers performed two no-decompression dry dives breathing air or EANx for 20 min at 0.4 MPa. Cognitive functions were assessed with a computerized test battery, including MathProc and Ptrail. Measurements were taken before the dive, upon arrival and after 15 min at depth, upon surfacing, and at 30 min postdive. After each dive subjects were asked to identify the gas they had just breathed. Identification of the breathing gas was not possible on subjective assessment alone, while cognitive assessments showed significantly better performance while breathing EANx. Before the dives, breathing air, mean time to complete the task was 1795 ms for MathProc and 1905 ms for Ptrail. When arriving at depth MathProc took 1616 ms on air and 1523 ms on EANx, and Ptrail took 1318 ms on air and and 1356 ms on EANx, followed 15 min later by significant performance inhibition while breathing air during the ascent and the postdive phase, supporting the concept of late dive/postdive impairment. The results suggest that EANx could protect against decreased neuro-cognitive performance induced by inert gas narcosis. It was not possible for blinded divers to identify which gas they were breathing and differences in postdive fatigue between air and EANx diving deserve further investigation.Germonpré P, Balestra C, Hemelryck W, Buzzacott P, Lafère P. Objective vs. subjective evaluation of cognitive performance during 0.4-MPa dives breathing air or nitrox. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(5):469-475.
Palavras, Marly Amorim; Morgan, Christina Marcondes; Borges, Ferrari Maria Beatriz; Claudino, Angélica Medeiros; Hay, Phillipa J
Objective binge eating episodes (OBEs) refer to binge eating on an unusually large amount of food and are the core symptom in current definitions of bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED). Subjective binge eating episodes (SBEs) refer to eating on a small or moderate amount of food (that is perceived as large) and like OBEs are associated with loss of control (LOC). Reaching consensus on what is considered a large amount of food can however be problematic and it remains unclear if the size of a binge is an essential component for defining a binge eating episode. The aim of this study was to compare the eating disorder features and general psychopathology of subjects reporting OBEs with those reporting only SBEs. This is a retrospective secondary analysis of data from 70 obese participants at the recruitment phase of a multicentre trial for BED. Individuals who answered positively to the presence of binge eating and LOC over eating had their binge eating episodes further explored by interview and self-report. Two groups, those who reported current OBEs (with or without SBEs) and those who reported current SBEs only were compared for age, gender, marital status, body mass index (BMI), indicators of LOC over eating, severity of binge-eating and associated psychopathology. The majority of participants in both the OBE and SBE groups endorsed the experience of at least four indicators of LOC. There were no significant differences between the groups. Both groups had high levels of binge-eating severity, moderate severity of associated depressive symptoms and frequent psychiatric co-morbidity. Treatment seeking participants with obesity who reported SBEs alone were similar to those who reported OBEs in terms of eating disorder features and general psychopathology. These findings suggest that classificatory systems of mental illnesses should consider introducing SBEs as a feature of the diagnostic criteria for binge eating and, thus, facilitate the inclusion
Gluck, Samuel; Summers, Matthew J; Goddard, Thomas P; Andrawos, Alice; Smith, Natalie C; Lange, Kylie; Iwashyna, Theodore J; Deane, Adam M
Surrogate-decision maker and patient self-reported estimates of the distances walked prior to acute illness are subjective and may be imprecise. It may be possible to extract objective data from a patient's smartphone, specifically, step and global position system data, to quantify physical activity. The objectives were to 1) assess the agreement between surrogate-decision maker and patient self-reported estimates of distance and time walked prior to resting and daily step-count and 2) determine the feasibility of extracting premorbid physical activity (step and global position system) data from critically ill patients. Prospective cohort study. Quaternary ICU. Fifty consecutively admitted adult patients who owned a smartphone, who were ambulatory at baseline, and who remained in ICU for more than 48 hours participated. There was no agreement between patients and surrogates for all premorbid walking metrics (mean bias 108% [99% lower to 8,700% higher], 83% [97% to 2,100%], and 71% [96% to 1,080%], for distance, time, and steps, respectively). Step and/or global position system data were successfully extracted from 24 of 50 phones (48%; 95% CI, 35-62%). Surrogate-decision makers, but not patient self-reported, estimates of steps taken per day correlated with smartphone data (surrogates: n = 13, ρ = 0.56, p smartphones was feasible in approximately 50% of patients.
Azmir, N. A.; Yahya, M. N.
Extended exposure to hand-transmitted vibration from vibrating machine is associated with an increased occurrence of symptoms of occupational disease related to hand disorder. The present case study is to determine the prevalence and correlation of significant subjective as well as objective variables that induce to hand arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) among hand-held grass-cutting workers in Malaysia. Thus, recommendations are made for grass-cutting workers and grass maintenance service management based on findings. A cross sectional study using adopted subjective Hand Arm Vibration Exposure Risk Assessment (HAVERA) questionnaire from Vibration Injury Network on hand disorder signs and symptoms was distributed to a sample of one hundred and sixty eight male workers from grass and turf maintenance industry that use vibrating machine as part of their work. For objective measure, hand-transmitted vibration measurement was collected on site during operation by the following ISO 5349-1, 2001. Two groups were identified in this research comprising of high exposure group and low-moderate exposure group. Workers also gave information about their personal identification, social history, workers’ health, occupational history and machine safety inspection. There was positive HAVS symptoms relationship between the low-moderate exposure group and high exposure group among hand-held grass-cutting workers. The prevalence ratio (PR) was considered high for experiencing white colour change at fingers and fingers go numb which are 3.63 (1.41 to 9.39) and 4.24 (2.18 to 8.27), respectively. The estimated daily vibration exposure, A(8) differs between 2.1 to 20.7 ms-2 for right hand while 2.7 to 29.1 ms-2 for left hand. The subjects claimed that the feel of numbness at left hand is much stronger compared to right hand. The results suggest that HAVS is diagnosed in Malaysia especially in agriculture sector. The A(8) indicates that the exposure value is more than exposure limit value
Dogan, Ezgi; Sander, Christian; Wagner, Xenija; Hegerl, Ulrich; Kohls, Elisabeth
Electronic mental health interventions for mood disorders have increased rapidly over the past decade, most recently in the form of various systems and apps that are delivered via smartphones. We aim to provide an overview of studies on smartphone-based systems that combine subjective ratings with objectively measured data for longitudinal monitoring of patients with affective disorders. Specifically, we aim to examine current knowledge on: (1) the feasibility of, and adherence to, such systems; (2) the association of monitored data with mood status; and (3) the effects of monitoring on clinical outcomes. We systematically searched PubMed, Web of Science, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for relevant articles published in the last ten years (2007-2017) by applying Boolean search operators with an iterative combination of search terms, which was conducted in February 2017. Additional articles were identified via pearling, author correspondence, selected reference lists, and trial protocols. A total of 3463 unique records were identified. Twenty-nine studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. The majority of articles represented feasibility studies (n=27); two articles reported results from one randomized controlled trial (RCT). In total, six different self-monitoring systems for affective disorders that used subjective mood ratings and objective measurements were included. These objective parameters included physiological data (heart rate variability), behavioral data (phone usage, physical activity, voice features), and context/environmental information (light exposure and location). The included articles contained results regarding feasibility of such systems in affective disorders, showed reasonable accuracy in predicting mood status and mood fluctuations based on the objectively monitored data, and reported observations about the impact of monitoring on clinical state and adherence of patients to the
Fini, C; Brass, M; Committeri, G
Space perception depends on our motion potentialities and our intended actions are affected by space perception. Research on peripersonal space (the space in reaching distance) shows that we perceive an object as being closer when we (Witt, Proffitt, & Epstein, 2005; Witt & Proffitt, 2008) or another actor (Costantini, Ambrosini, Sinigaglia, & Gallese, 2011; Bloesch, Davoli, Roth, Brockmole, & Abrams, 2012) can interact with it. Similarly, an object only triggers specific movements when it is placed in our peripersonal space (Costantini, Ambrosini, Tieri, Sinigaglia, & Committeri, 2010) or in the other's peripersonal space (Costantini, Committeri, & Sinigaglia, 2011; Cardellicchio, Sinigaglia, & Costantini, 2013). Moreover, also the extrapersonal space (the space outside reaching distance) seems to be perceived in relation to our movement capabilities: the more effort it takes to cover a distance, the greater we perceive the distance to be (Proffitt, Stefanucci, Banton, & Epstein, 2003; Sugovic & Witt, 2013). However, not much is known about the influence of the other's movement potentialities on our extrapersonal space perception. Three experiments were carried out investigating the categorization of distance in extrapersonal space using human or non-human allocentric reference frames (RF). Subjects were asked to judge the distance ("Near" or "Far") of a target object (a beach umbrella) placed at progressively increasing or decreasing distances until a change from near to far or vice versa was reported. In the first experiment we found a significant "Near space extension" when the allocentric RF was a human virtual agent instead of a static, inanimate object. In the second experiment we tested whether the "Near space extension" depended on the anatomical structure of the RF or its movement potentialities by adding a wooden dummy. The "Near space extension" was only observed for the human agent but not for the dummy. Finally, to rule out the possibility that the
Francisco J. Karkow
Full Text Available A cross-sectional study of 120 subjects was performed with the purpose of evaluating stress hormones and emotional stress (anxiety in outpatient and hospitalized subjects. The aims were to determine the degree of objective stress, as well as to correlate this finding with subjective findings, estimated using Beck's Anxiety Inventory.. METHOD: Three populations were investigated, namely outpatient clinical cases (Group I, n = 30, hospitalized clinical individuals (Group II, n = 30, and hospitalized surgical candidates (Group III, n = 30. Controls (Group IV, n = 30 were healthy volunteers who were health-care professionals and students. To avoid hormone interactions, only men were enrolled in all groups. All hospitalized subjects were tested on admission and before therapeutic interventions. Fasting epinephrine, norepinephrine, and cortisol were measured in the morning, and Beck's Anxiety Inventory was adminstered by a trained psychologist. RESULTS: The 3 patient groups displayed higher anxiety levels than the controls. Hormone concentrations did not present remarkable changes and did not correlate with subjective stress (anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: 1 Subjective disorders (as determined with Beck's Anxiety Inventory were a common finding in both outpatient and hospitalized populations, without differences between the various groups; 2 Objective stress (as determined by elevated hormone levels was more difficult to confirm-findings rarely exceeded the reference range; 3 Correlation between the two variables could not be demonstrated; 4 Further studies are necessary to define stress quantification and interpretation in patient populations, especially in relationship with nutritional diagnosis and dietetic prescription.Um estudo transversal de 120 indivíduos foi executado visando avaliar hormônios do estresse e estresse subjetivo (ansiedade em casos ambulatoriais e hospitalizados. O objetivo era determinar o grau de estresse objetivo, bem como
Chauvey, Valérie; Hatwell, Yvette; Verine, Bertrand; Kaminski, Gwenael; Gentaz, Edouard
...'), references to auditory and tactile attributes are scarcer. However, this statement may be challenged by current theories claiming that cognition is linked to the perceptions and actions from which it...
Pablo Hernández Figaredo
Full Text Available Desarrollar en los estudiantes el respeto al paciente psiquiátrico está entre los objetivos formativos del proyecto educativo de la asignatura Psiquiatría. Para evaluar el cumplimiento de estos objetivos, se realizó un estudio descriptivo, transversal, y cuanti-cualitativo con 65 estudiantes del quinto año de Medicina, a quienes se les aplicó una encuesta al concluir la estancia en Psiquiatría. Los resultados mostraron que los estudiantes consideran al alcohólico como un paciente digno de respeto, atención y con iguales derechos que otros enfermos. El mayor porciento de los estudiantes consideró a la comunidad como el mejor ambiente para el manejo de esta afección mental y expresaron que, en algunos casos, el médico de familia debe ser quien la atienda. Al concluir la estancia, se consideró satisfactoria la preparación para educar a la población en la aceptación y respeto al enfermo mental. Finalmente, se recogieron las dificultades que, según los estudiantes, interfieren en la atención del paciente psiquiátrico en la comunidad. De manera general, se logran los objetivos educativos propuestos para la asignatura.To develop the students' respect to psychiatric patients is among the formative objectives of the educational project for the subject Psychiatry. We carried out a descriptive, cross-sectional, quantitative-qualitative study with 65 fifth-year- Medicine students, who were surveyed at the end of the Psychiatry rotation to assess the achievement of objectives. Results showed that students consider alcoholic patients worthy of respect, consideration, and rights. Most students stated that communities are the best environment for managing mental conditions and family doctors should be the ones to assist some of these cases. At the end of the rotation, the preparation for educating communities in order to accept and respect mentally ill persons was satisfactory. Finally, students provided the difficulties interfering with the
Reddy, J Shashi Kiran; Pereira, Contzen
Microorganisms demonstrate conscious-like intelligent behaviour, and this form of consciousness may have emerged from a quantum mediated mechanism as observed in cytoskeletal structures like the microtubules present in nerve cells which apparently have the architecture to quantum compute. This paper hypothesises the emergence of proto-consciousness in primitive cytoskeletal systems found in the microbial kingdoms of archaea, bacteria and eukarya. To explain this, we make use of the Subject-Object Model (SOM) of consciousness which evaluates the rise of the degree of consciousness to conscious behaviour in these systems supporting the hypothesis of emergence and propagation of conscious behaviour during the pre-Cambrian part of Earth's evolutionary history. Consciousness as proto-consciousness or sentience computed via primitive cytoskeletal structures substantiates as a driver for the intelligence observed in the microbial world during this period ranging from single-cellular to collective intelligence as a means to adapt and survive. The growth in complexity of intelligence, cytoskeletal system and adaptive behaviours are key to evolution, and thus supports the progression of the Lamarckian theory of evolution driven by quantum mediated proto-consciousness to consciousness as described in the SOM of consciousness.
Multiple-pinhole (MPH) glasses are currently sold in many countries with unproven advertisements; however, their objective and subjective effects have not been investigated. Therefore, to investigate the effects of MPH glasses excluding the single-pinhole (SPH) effect, we compared the visual functional changes, reading speed, and ocular discomfort after reading caused by MPH and SPH glasses. Healthy 36 participants with a mean age of 33.1 years underwent examinations of pupil size, visual acuity (VA), depth of focus (DOF), and near point accommodation (NPA); tests for visual field (VF), contrast sensitivity (CS), stereopsis, and reading speed; and a survey of ocular discomfort after reading. Both types of pinhole glasses enlarged pupil diameter and improved VA, DOF, and NPA. However, CS, stereopsis, and VF parameters deteriorated. In comparison with SPH glasses, MPH glasses induced smaller pupil dilation (5.3 and 5.9 mm, P SPH glasses showed the slowest reading speed. Both types of glasses caused significant ocular discomfort after reading compared with baseline, and symptoms were worst with MPH glasses. In conclusion, both types of pinhole glasses had positive effects due to the pinhole effect; however, they had negative effects on VF, CS, stereopsis, reading speed, and ocular discomfort. In spite of the increased luminance and preserved peripheral VF with MPHs, these glasses caused more severe ocular discomfort than SPH glasses. This clinical trial was registered at www.ClinicalTrials.gov (Identifier: NCT02572544). PMID:28378561
Brandt, Robert; Hollis, Scott; Ahuja, Swati; Adatrow, Pradeep; Balanoff, William
The introduction of small-diameter implants has provided dentists the means of providing edentulous and partially edentulous patients with immediate functioning transitional prostheses while definitive restorations are being fabricated. The successful use of these small-diameter implants for temporary stabilization of prostheses has led many clinicians to explore the option of using them as a definitive alternative, especially as the technique requires minimal time and also is economical for the patients. To date, there has been no study with multiple patients looking at both the subjective and objective outcomes of these small-diameter implants. Twenty-seven edentulous patients were enrolled in this study, seven of them were smokers. One-hundred and eight small-diameter (2.0 mm, MDL) implants were surgically placed in 24 edentulous mandibles. All implants were immediately loaded. The patients filled out a screening questionnaire and four subsequent questionnaires to test their satisfaction with the altered prosthesis at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months. The survival of the implants was also noted. Smokers had an implant survival of 79%. Non-smokers had an implant survival of 100%. The results of the questionnaire indicated an overall satisfaction with the implant-supported prosthesis.
Kim, Won Soo; Park, In Ki; Park, Young Kee; Chun, Yeoun Sook
Multiple-pinhole (MPH) glasses are currently sold in many countries with unproven advertisements; however, their objective and subjective effects have not been investigated. Therefore, to investigate the effects of MPH glasses excluding the single-pinhole (SPH) effect, we compared the visual functional changes, reading speed, and ocular discomfort after reading caused by MPH and SPH glasses. Healthy 36 participants with a mean age of 33.1 years underwent examinations of pupil size, visual acuity (VA), depth of focus (DOF), and near point accommodation (NPA); tests for visual field (VF), contrast sensitivity (CS), stereopsis, and reading speed; and a survey of ocular discomfort after reading. Both types of pinhole glasses enlarged pupil diameter and improved VA, DOF, and NPA. However, CS, stereopsis, and VF parameters deteriorated. In comparison with SPH glasses, MPH glasses induced smaller pupil dilation (5.3 and 5.9 mm, P pinhole glasses was significantly slower than baseline; SPH glasses showed the slowest reading speed. Both types of glasses caused significant ocular discomfort after reading compared with baseline, and symptoms were worst with MPH glasses. In conclusion, both types of pinhole glasses had positive effects due to the pinhole effect; however, they had negative effects on VF, CS, stereopsis, reading speed, and ocular discomfort. In spite of the increased luminance and preserved peripheral VF with MPHs, these glasses caused more severe ocular discomfort than SPH glasses. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.
The contribution of South Africans to the subject of dilated cardiomyopathy - with reference to : cardiovascular collagenosis with parietal endocardial thrombosis : a clinicopathologic study of forty cases.
Watkins, D A; Mayosi, B M
Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a heart muscle disease that is endemic in Africa. Over the past 50 years, South African investigators have made significant contributions to scientific elucidation of the condition. The objective of this review was to summarise their research on the subject of DCM. We searched PubMed for articles originating from South Africa and focusing on DCM or the related condition, peripartum cardiomyopathy (PCM). Reference lists and prominent South African researchers on DCM were also consulted. The prevalence of DCM is comparable in magnitude to that of other endemic heart conditions such as hypertension and rheumatic heart disease, although by comparison, DCM may cause disproportionate morbidity from heart failure. In the African context, malnutrition, excessive alcohol intake, prior myocarditis and genetic make-up have been proposed as aetiologies, and some or all of these factors may play an interrelated role in individual disease expression. The pathogenesis of DCM is partially due to the mechanical effects of fibrosis, and the immune response to myocardial damage likely affects disease progression. Small trials of pentoxifylline plus conventional therapy have demonstrated a trend towards reduced mortality from heart failure. Despite half a century of noteworthy research, the pathogenic mechanisms of DCM are still incompletely understood. South Africans have, however, played and should continue to play a critical role in advancing research on DCM.
Schulte-van Maaren, Yvonne W M; Carlier, Ingrid V E; Giltay, Erik J; van Noorden, Martijn S; de Waal, Margot W M; van der Wee, Nic J A; Zitman, Frans G
Routine outcome monitoring (ROM) was developed to establish the outcome of psychotherapeutic and pharmacological treatments through repeated assessments before, during and after treatment. Although standardization of psychiatric assessments and their reference values are essential for patient care, for various ROM instruments reference values are not available. The aim of the Leiden ROM Study is to generate reference values for 22 ROM instruments, covering generic and specific mood, anxiety and somatoform (MAS) disorders, for the general population. This article describes the extensive process of recruitment, as well as baseline characteristics of patient versus non-patient groups. Cross-sectional study in randomly selected participants aged 18-65 years from the Dutch population, included through general practitioners. Extensive demographic, psychosocial, mental health, and biological data from 1302 participants, recruited via general practitioners, were collected during a two-hour standardized assessment including observer-rated and self-report scales. These data will be compared with corresponding data from 7840 patients with psychopathology who were referred to secondary care. On-going quality control and calibration ensured maintenance of high quality during data collection. This reference group study for mental health assessments is the first study of this size carried out in the Netherlands. The results of this study are expected to be of value to secondary psychiatric care because they allow the indication of progress in health, treatment effect and possible termination of treatment. Additionally, the reference values can be used by primary care physicians as decision threshold for referral to specialized mental health care and vice versa. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Bakken, Linda N; Kim, Hesook Suzie; Finset, Arnstein; Lerdal, Anners
To describe sleep experiences after stroke using subjective and objective indicators and identify possible gender differences in sleep in the acute phase and at 6-month follow-up. Sleep disturbances after stoke are recognized, but poorly described. Gender differences in sleep exist in other populations, but have not been reported after stroke. A longitudinal cohort study. Subjective sleep quality was measured with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and objective sleep was estimated with actigraphy in 100 patients in the acute phase and six months after stroke, from April 2007-March 2009. Subjective sleep quality was better and objective wake percentage was lower at follow-up than in the acute phase after stroke. Actigraphy estimated low sleep efficiency and many awakenings at both time points. Subjective and objective measures were correlated at the 6-month follow-up, but not in the acute phase. Women's subjective sleep efficiency and total score on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index were worse than men's in the acute phase, but actigraphy estimated that women slept more than men in the course of a day. Women's subjective sleep quality was better at follow-up than in the acute phase. Men reported worse subjective sleep quality, but better subjective sleep efficiency at follow-up than in the acute phase, and also had lower objective wake percentage at follow-up. Subjective sleep quality was poor and actigraphy indicated disturbed sleep-wake patterns in the acute phase and at 6-month follow-up. Gender differences existed in subjective and objective sleep in the acute phase, but not at follow-up. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Ftouni, Suzanne; Sletten, Tracey L; Howard, Mark; Anderson, Clare; Lenné, Michael G; Lockley, Steven W; Rajaratnam, Shantha M W
To assess the relationships between sleepiness and the incidence of adverse driving events in nurses commuting to and from night and rotating shifts, 27 rotating and permanent night shift-working nurses were asked to complete daily sleep and duty logs, and wear wrist-activity monitors for 2 weeks (369 driving sessions). During all commutes, ocular measures of drowsiness, including the Johns Drowsiness Scale score, were assessed using the Optalert™ system. Participants self-reported their subjective sleepiness at the beginning and end of each drive, and any events that occurred during the drive. Rotating shift nurses reported higher levels of sleepiness compared with permanent night shift nurses. In both shift-working groups, self-reported sleepiness, drowsiness and drive events were significantly higher during commutes following night shifts compared with commutes before night shifts. Strong associations were found between objective drowsiness and increased odds of driving events during commutes following night shifts. Maximum total blink duration (mean = 7.96 s) during the drive and pre-drive Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (mean = 5.0) were associated with greater incidence of sleep-related events [OR, 5.35 (95% CI, 1.32, 21.60), OR, 1.69 (95% CI, 1.04, 2.73), respectively]. Inattention was strongly associated with a Johns Drowsiness Scale score equal to or above 4.5 [OR, 4.58 (95% CI, 1.26-16.69)]. Hazardous driving events were more likely to occur when drivers had been awake for 16 h or more [OR, 4.50 (95% CI, 1.81, 11.16)]. Under real-world driving conditions, shift-working nurses experience high levels of drowsiness as indicated by ocular measures, which are associated with impaired driving performance following night shift work. © 2012 European Sleep Research Society.
Janney, Carol A; Ganguli, Rohan; Tang, Gong; Cauley, Jane A; Holleman, Robert G; Richardson, Caroline R; Kriska, Andrea M
Describe objective and subjective physical activity levels and time spent being sedentary in adults with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders (SZO/SA). Baseline physical activity and sedentary behaviors were assessed among 46 overweight and obese community-dwelling adults (aged 18-70 years; BMI > 27 kg/m(2)) diagnosed with SZO/SA by DSM-IV-TR, with mild symptom severity (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale score physical activity levels, measured using actigraphs, in WAIST were compared to a nationally representative sample of users (n = 46) and nonusers (n = 46) of mental health service (MHS) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2003-2004) matched by sex, BMI, and age. On average, adults with SZO/SA wore actigraphs more than 15 h/d for 7 days averaging 151,000 counts/d. The majority of monitoring time (81%) was classified as sedentary (approximately 13 h/d). Moderate/vigorous and light physical activity accounted for only 2% (19 min/d) and 17% (157 min/d) of monitoring time/d, respectively. Primary source of activity was household activities (409 ± 438 min/wk). Fifty-three percent reported walking for transportation or leisure. Adults with SZO/SA were significantly less active (176 min/d) and more sedentary (756 min/d) than NHANES users of MHS (293 and 640 min/d, respectively) and nonusers of MHS (338 and 552 min/d, respectively) (P physical activity; and significantly less active than NHANES users and nonusers of MHS. This sedentary lifestyle is significantly lower than those of other inactive US populations, is costly for the individual and community, and highlights the need for physical activity promotion and interventions in this high risk population. © Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
Full Text Available The goal of this study is to derive water resource vulnerability characteristics for South Korea according to individual district populations in a changing climate. The definition of water resource vulnerability in this study consists of potential flood damage and potential water scarcity. To quantify these vulnerabilities, key factors, or indicators affecting vulnerability, are integrated with a technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS, which is a multi-criteria decision-making approach to determine the optimal alternative by considering both the best and worst solutions. The weight for each indicator is determined based on both the Delphi technique and Shannon’s entropy, which are employed to reduce the uncertainty in the process of determining the weights. The Delphi technique reflects expert opinions, and Shannon’s entropy reflects the uncertainty of the performance data. Under A1B climate change scenarios, medium-sized districts (200,000–300,000 inhabitants are the most vulnerable regarding potential flood damage; the largest districts (exceeding 500,000 inhabitants are found to be the most vulnerable with respect to potential water scarcity. This result indicates that the local governments of cities or districts with more than 200,000 inhabitants should implement better preventative measures for water resources. In addition, the Delphi and entropy methods show the same rankings for flood vulnerability; however, these approaches produce slightly different rankings regarding water scarcity vulnerability. Therefore, it is suggested that rankings from not only subjective but also objective weights should be considered in making a final decision to implement specific adaptive measures to climate change.
Full Text Available Background Dance is an extremely complicated sports discipline, which combines features of the “original” form of dance associated with the expression of self and one’s emotions while maintaining the qualities of a competitive sport. It is particularly important for the cooperation of a couple to develop a relationship during training so that the partners feel satisfaction from working with each other, but are also pleased with the results in the discipline in which they train. The aim of this study was to analyse the factors responsible for the satisfaction with cooperation in a couple, which included, among other things, the dance level, degree of involvement and responsibility of each partner for the development of the couple. Participants and procedure The study involved 30 dance couples aged 13-26 years (M = 16.48, SD = 2.16. Participants completed two questionnaires (Own Poll and the Dyadic Trust Scale [DTS] and provided demographic information in a quiet environment, usually at their education or training facilities. Results The results indicated the importance of their own and perceived partner involvement in the development of the couple for the satisfaction from the success in the sport. It is surprising, however, that the results reveal no association between dance experience and satisfaction of practising sport analysed in the study. Conclusions Satisfaction plays an important role in relationships of pair dancers. In dancing, satisfaction may derive from subjective rather than objective factors, mainly those related to the relationship in the couple.
Full Text Available Se analiza la relación entre las condiciones laborales, los trastornos psicofísicos y la valoración sobre el contenido del trabajo en una industria químico farmacéutica en México. Se llevó a cabo un estudio transversal a través de la aplicación de tres instrumentos: una guía de observación del proceso de trabajo, una guía para valorar las condiciones de seguridad e higiene en la empresa y una encuesta epidemiológica (N = 377. Los resultados muestran un proceso laboral muy automatizado, pero con una organización del trabajo principalmente fordista. Se encontraron fuertes asociaciones entre conjuntos de exigencias y conjuntos patológicos. La percepción que la población en estudio tiene de su trabajo (valoración, satisfacción, contenido, apoyo social muestra relación con algunos daños a la salud. Se pudo concluir que tanto las condiciones objetivas de trabajo como las subjetivas juegan un papel importante en la generación de enfermedades en los trabajadores.The relationship between working conditions, psychophysical disorders, and employees' attitudes towards their jobs were analyzed in a pharmaceutical factory in Mexico. A cross-sectional study was conducted using three instruments: guided observation of job processes, guided evaluation of health and safety conditions, and an epidemiological questionnaire (N = 377. Tasks were found to be automated to a considerable degree, but organization was basically Fordist. Strong associations were found between sets of job requirements and certain groups of health outcomes. In the study population, perception of the job (attitude, satisfaction, control, and social support showed an association with certain health problems. The study concluded that both subjective and objective occupational conditions play an important role in workers' health.
Hanugrani, Nikita; Setyanto, Nasir Widha; Efranto, Remba Yanuar
PT. Indonesian Tobacco merupakan salah satu Perusahaan rokok yang telah menerapkan konsep Supply Chain Management untuk mengatur proses aliran material. Selama berjalannya Supply Chain Management tersebut, Perusahaan belum pernah melakukan pengukuran terhadap performansi supply chain yang melibatkan semua pihak yang terkait. Metode yang digunakan untuk mengukur performansi supply chain adalah Supply Chain Operation Reference (SCOR). SCOR merupakan suatu model acuan proses untuk operasi supply...
Rommers, J.; Meyer, A.S.; Praamstra, P.; Hüttig, F.
When comprehending concrete words, listeners and readers can activate specific visual information such as the shape of the words' referents. In two experiments we examined whether such information can be activated in an anticipatory fashion. In Experiment 1, listeners' eye movements were tracked
Föhr, Tiina; Tolvanen, Asko; Myllymäki, Tero; Järvelä-Reijonen, Elina; Rantala, Sanni; Korpela, Riitta; Peuhkuri, Katri; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Puttonen, Sampsa; Lappalainen, Raimo; Rusko, Heikki; Kujala, Urho M
The present study aimed to investigate how subjective self-reported stress is associated with objective heart rate variability (HRV)-based stress and recovery on workdays. Another aim was to investigate how physical activity (PA), body composition, and age are associated with subjective stress, objective stress, and recovery. Working-age participants (n = 221; 185 women, 36 men) in this cross-sectional study were overweight (body mass index, 25.3-40.1 kg/m(2)) and psychologically distressed (≥3/12 points on the General Health Questionnaire). Objective stress and recovery were based on HRV recordings over 1-3 workdays. Subjective stress was assessed by the Perceived Stress Scale. PA level was determined by questionnaire, and body fat percentage was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Subjective stress was directly associated with objective stress (P = 0.047) and inversely with objective recovery (P = 0.046). These associations persisted after adjustments for sex, age, PA, and body fat percentage. Higher PA was associated with lower subjective stress (P = 0.037). Older age was associated with higher objective stress (P subjective stress (P = 0.043). The present results suggest that subjective self-reported stress is associated with objective physiological stress, but they are also apparently affected by different factors. However, some of the found associations among these overweight and psychologically distressed participants with low inter-individual variation in PA are rather weak and the clinical value of the present findings should be studied further among participants with greater heterogeneity of stress, PA and body composition. However, these findings suggest that objective stress assessment provides an additional aspect to stress evaluation. Furthermore, the results provide valuable information for developing stress assessment methods.
Sauvanaud, F; Kebir, O; Vlasie, M; Doste, V; Amado, I; Krebs, M-O
In schizophrenic disorders, supportive psychosocial therapies have been used as adjuncts to pharmacotherapy to help alleviate residual symptoms and to improve social functioning and quality of life. Among these therapies, psychoeducational therapies showed a significant efficacy on improving drug adherence and on reducing relapses. However, according to the French Health Agency, fewer than 10% of psychiatric structures in France offer registered psychoeducation programs. Caregiver apprehension of patients' depressive reactions to the awareness of the disease could underlie the underuse of psychoeducation therapies. Indeed, the psychoeducation programs' impact on objective and subjective quality of life is discussed among the literature. In this context, we conducted a retrospective, monocentric, open-labelled and non-controlled pilot study to measure the impact of a registered psychoeducation program on objective and subjective quality of life of patients suffering from schizophrenia. Secondary objectives included measures of the effects on drug observance and awareness of the disease. We included stabilized patients over the age of eighteen suffering from schizophrenia. Referent psychiatrics were asked to inform the patient of the diagnosis and to prescribe psychoeducation therapy. From 2011 to 2014, we offered three ambulatory programs, each program including fifteen two-hour group sessions. The groups were opened for three to six patients and managed by two caregivers. Themes discussed during the sessions included: schizophrenic disease, treatments, relationships to family, diet, social issues, toxics, relaxation. Objective and subjective quality of life were evaluated one month before and one month after the program using respectively the global assessment functioning (GAF) and the subjective quality of life (SQoL) scales. The Medical Adherence Rating Scale (MARS) and the French IQ8 scale evaluated respectively drug adherence and awareness of the disease. All
Yoto, Ai; Katsuura, Tetsuo; Iwanaga, Koichi; Shimomura, Yoshihiro
This study was designed to investigate the physiological effects of color in terms of blood pressure and the results of electroencephalogram (EEG) as subjects looked at the sheets of paper of various colors. A questionnaire was also used to assess psychological effects. Three colors (red, green, blue) were shown to each subject in randomized order. The various colors showed distinctly different effects on the mean power of the alpha band, theta band, and on the total power in the theta-beta EEG bandwidth and alpha attenuation coefficient (AAC). Scores of the subjective evaluations concerning heavy, excited, and warm feelings also indicated significant differences between red and blue conditions. Against to our prediction, blue elicited stronger arousal than did red as expressed by the results of AAC and the mean power of the alpha band, which conflicted with the results of the subjective evaluations scores. This phenomenon might be caused by bluish light's biological activating effect. The powers of the alpha band, and the theta band, and the total power of the theta-beta bandwidth as measured by EEG showed larger values while the subjects looked at red paper than while they looked at blue paper. This indicated that red possibly elicited an anxiety state and therefore caused a higher level of brain activity in the areas of perception and attention than did the color blue. Red paper's effect to activate the central cortical region with regard to perception and attention was considerably more distinguishable than was the biological activating effect of bluish light in our study.
Couch, Steven M; Chundury, Rao V; Holds, John B
To evaluate the Sunnybrook Facial Grading System (SFGS) and Facial Clinimetric Evaluation Scale (FaCE Scale) instrument outcome measures pre- and 30-day posttreatment of facial nerve synkinesis with botulinum toxin with attempts to correlate the 2 scales. An IRB approved retrospective review of 22 patients with facial nerve synkinesis where the surgeon completed the SFGS and the patient completed the FaCE prior to receiving onabotulinumtoxinA therapy, the SFGS, and FaCE scales were completed again 1 month later. Of the 22 patients, 9 complete datasets were analyzed. Mean patient age was 59.8; 8 (89%) women and 1 (11%) men. Overall SFGS composite score decreased from 57.6 ± 20.9 to 45.2 ± 13.5, (p = 0.001). SFGS subdomain synkinesis significantly improved (p < 0.001), while voluntary movement significantly decreased (p = 0.002). A difference in the resting symmetry was not statistically significant (p = 0.08). The FaCE scale composite score significantly improved from 40.9 ± 9.5 to 47.6 ± 11.9, (p = 0.03). FaCE subdomains facial comfort (p = 0.005) and social function (p = 0.009) significantly improved, while oral function, eye comfort, facial movement, and lacrimal control did not. The Δ pre/post-SFGS composite score did not correlate with the Δ pre/post-FaCE composite score (rs= -0.318). Subdomain analysis demonstrated significant negative correlation between Δ pre/post-SFGS synkinesis score and Δ pre/post-FaCE eye comfort score (rs = -0.826, p < 0.01). Significant improvement was seen in objectively reported synkinesis following botulinum toxin therapy. An improvement was noted in the overall subjective facial nerve functioning following therapy along with improvement in social functioning and facial comfort. A meaningful negative correlation was noted when comparing the SFGS "synkinesis" subdomain with the FaCE scale subdomain "eye comfort", implying improvement in eye comfort with control of synkinesis.
The studies by the Leyden school are, however, focused on exploring reference groups within the European context. ... is unemployed as well as the age and race of the individual. Within the South African ...... computer, camera, electric stove, gas stove, microwave, fridge, washing machine, sewing/ knitting machine, lounge ...
Hansen, Åse Marie; Garde, A H; Christensen, J M
leave during the past year, and smoking habits was established. Reference intervals for salivary cortisol in 120 healthy individuals performing their routine work were established according to the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) and the International Federation of Clinical...... min after awakening. Salivary cortisol was not affected by age, body mass index, gender, smoking habits or days of sick leave during the past year....
Senn, Theresa E.; Walsh, Jennifer L.; Carey, Michael P.
Background Objective, subjective, and neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) are associated with perceived health, morbidity, and mortality. Purpose We investigated whether perceived stress and health behaviors mediated the relation between the three types of SES and perceived health. Methods Participants (N = 508) attending a public clinic completed a computerized survey assessing objective SES (income, education, employment); health behaviors; perceived stress; and perceived health. They also indicated their social standing relative to others (subjective SES) and provided their current address to determine neighborhood SES. Results In a structural equation model including all three SES types, lower objective and subjective SES were related to poorer perceived health. When mediators were included in the model, there were significant indirect effects of: (a) SES on health through stress; and (b) SES on health through stress and health compromising behaviors. Conclusions Interventions to reduce the impact of stressors could improve the health of socioeconomically disadvantaged individuals. PMID:24648016
Arnold, R.; Ranchor, A.V; Koëter, G.H; DeJongste, M.J.; Sanderman, R.
This study investigates whether the relationship between objective health parameters and general health perceptions was mediated by symptoms of dyspnoea and physical functioning in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). The different
Buhk, J.H. [Univ. Medical Center, Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Dept. of Neuroradiology; Laqmani, A.; Schultzendorff, H.C. von; Hammerle, D.; Adam, G.; Regier, M. [Univ. Medical Center, Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Sehner, S. [Univ. Medical Center, Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Inst. of Medical Biometry and Epidemiology; Fiehler, J. [Univ. Medical Center, Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Neuroradiology; Nagel, H.D. [Dr. HD Nagel, Science and Technology for Radiology, Buchholz (Germany)
Objectives: To intraindividually evaluate the potential of 4th generation iterative reconstruction (IR) on brain CT with regard to subjective and objective image quality. Methods: 31 consecutive raw data sets of clinical routine native sequential brain CT scans were reconstructed with IR level 0 (= filtered back projection), 1, 3 and 4; 3 different brain filter kernels (smooth/standard/sharp) were applied respectively. Five independent radiologists with different levels of experience performed subjective image rating. Detailed ROI analysis of image contrast and noise was performed. Statistical analysis was carried out by applying a random intercept model. Results: Subjective scores for the smooth and the standard kernels were best at low IR levels, but both, in particular the smooth kernel, scored inferior with an increasing IR level. The sharp kernel scored lowest at IR 0, while the scores substantially increased at high IR levels, reaching significantly best scores at IR 4. Objective measurements revealed an overall increase in contrast-to-noise ratio at higher IR levels, which was highest when applying the soft filter kernel. The absolute grey-white contrast decreased with an increasing IR level and was highest when applying the sharp filter kernel. All subjective effects were independent of the raters' experience and the patients' age and sex. Conclusion: Different combinations of IR level and filter kernel substantially influence subjective and objective image quality of brain CT. (orig.)
Full Text Available Mi‘yar al-‘Ilm fi Fann al-Mantiq of al-Ghazali is the first book written specifically on Muslim logic. But the comprehensive and exclusive study on the essence of its scientific contents of the book and its significance in developing scientific thinking has never been done. Thus this study investigates the objectives and referral sources of Mi‘yar writing. This qualitative study uses content analysis method. The data which were collected using the documentation has been analyzed using the inductive, deductive, and comparative methods. The process of analysis of logic in Mi‘yar be done using textual analysis or textual content analysis and constant comparison method. It is because of this study is a textual study. This study found that Mi‘yar written by two objectives. Firstly; to provide an understanding on the methodologies of thinking and researching, and explain the rules of constructing syllogisms and analogies. Secondly; to review the matters which have been written in Tahafut. The study also found that al-Ghazali wrote Mi‘yar based on three books, a book of his own, namely Maqasid, and two books of Ibn Sina, namely al-Isharat and al-Risalah fi al-Hudud. Therefore Mi‘yar should be a fundamental source of learning logic and methods of thinking of Muslims either at high school or university. Hence the constant and deep study on the content of Mi‘yar is very significant and has high impact. But the dissemination of the findings of this study is the next action that should be realized.
Verster, J.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/241442702; Benjaminsen, JME; van Lanen, JHM; van Stavel, NMD; Olivier, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073067199
Background: The purpose of this on-premise study was to determine if alcohol mixed with energy drink (AMED) consumption masks the subjective feelings of intoxication when compared to consuming alcohol only. Methods: The study was conducted on five nights in the city center of Utrecht. N∈=∈997 people
Haibin Qiu; Shanghong Shi; Tingdi Zhao; Yiwei Qiao; Jiangshi Zhang
The aim of this paper is to recommend that the subjects and contents of certified safety engineers use safety engineering undergraduate curriculum system for reference. Human resources play an important role in accident prevention and loss control. Education on safety engineering develops quickly in China. Moreover, the State Administration of Work Safety and the National Human Resources and Social Security Ministry have implemented a certified safety engineer qualification and examination sy...
van Haveren, Rens; Ogryczak, Włodzimierz; Verduijn, Gerda M.; Keijzer, Marleen; Heijmen, Ben J. M.; Breedveld, Sebastiaan
Previously, we have proposed Erasmus-iCycle, an algorithm for fully automated IMRT plan generation based on prioritised (lexicographic) multi-objective optimisation with the 2-phase ɛ-constraint (2pɛc) method. For each patient, the output of Erasmus-iCycle is a clinically favourable, Pareto optimal plan. The 2pɛc method uses a list of objective functions that are consecutively optimised, following a strict, user-defined prioritisation. The novel lexicographic reference point method (LRPM) is capable of solving multi-objective problems in a single optimisation, using a fuzzy prioritisation of the objectives. Trade-offs are made globally, aiming for large favourable gains for lower prioritised objectives at the cost of only slight degradations for higher prioritised objectives, or vice versa. In this study, the LRPM is validated for 15 head and neck cancer patients receiving bilateral neck irradiation. The generated plans using the LRPM are compared with the plans resulting from the 2pɛc method. Both methods were capable of automatically generating clinically relevant treatment plans for all patients. For some patients, the LRPM allowed large favourable gains in some treatment plan objectives at the cost of only small degradations for the others. Moreover, because of the applied single optimisation instead of multiple optimisations, the LRPM reduced the average computation time from 209.2 to 9.5 min, a speed-up factor of 22 relative to the 2pɛc method.
Full Text Available The modern going is analysed near research of AFK technologies. Their basis is made by interdisciplinary approach. On new theoretical and methodical basis selected and described base components of structure of educational space and subject domain of sporting and adaptive physical culture. Modern AFK technologies must carry out professional preparation of students as far as essence forces, making and individual capabilities of man.
Mooses, Kerli; M?gi, Katrin; Riso, Eva-Maria; Kalma, Maarja; Kaasik, Priit; Kull, Merike
Background Evidence shows the positive influence of moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and negative influence of sedentary time on health and academic achievement. Although schools can significantly contribute to overall physical activity, little is known about MVPA and sedentary behaviour in different school subjects in different grades. Methods Physical activity of 646 students from 18 schools (94 classes) and from three school stages (grades 1?9, aged 7?16) was measured with ac...
Kerli Mooses; Katrin Mägi; Eva-Maria Riso; Maarja Kalma; Priit Kaasik; Merike Kull
Abstract Background Evidence shows the positive influence of moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and negative influence of sedentary time on health and academic achievement. Although schools can significantly contribute to overall physical activity, little is known about MVPA and sedentary behaviour in different school subjects in different grades. Methods Physical activity of 646 students from 18 schools (94 classes) and from three school stages (grades 1–9, aged 7–16) was measure...
Bhattacharya, R.D.; Patel, T.S.; Pandya, C.B.
Many epidemiologists have found a correlation between copper and zinc in the community environment and diseases, such as myocardial and vascular pathologies, and diabetes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the total daily intake of these two metals in cooked food, drinking water and air and their respective levels in blood and urine. A chronobiological methodology has been adopted to establish the reference values of these two metals in biological samples. It has been observed that the daily intake of copper is within the recommended value, whereas its urinary excretion is high. The daily intake of zinc is below the recommended value and its urinary excretion is also high. Both the metals showed a temporal oscillation pattern in blood and urine. A possible chronic zinc deficiency has been anticipated in this particular ethnic group of vegetarian food habit.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence shows the positive influence of moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA and negative influence of sedentary time on health and academic achievement. Although schools can significantly contribute to overall physical activity, little is known about MVPA and sedentary behaviour in different school subjects in different grades. Methods Physical activity of 646 students from 18 schools (94 classes and from three school stages (grades 1–9, aged 7–16 was measured with accelerometry for 5 school days. Time and proportion of MVPA and sedentary time, also average sedentary bout length was calculated for native language (Estonian, mathematics, science, foreign language, music and crafts lessons. Results A total of 6363 lessons were measured, with lesson duration of 45 min. The average lesson time MVPA remained below 2.2 min in all school stages and in all subjects. Students in grades 4–6 had greatest decline in the proportion of lesson time MVPA in science (β = −1.9, 95%CI −3.1– -0.6 and music (−1.2, −2.1– -0.4 and in grades 7–9 in music (−1.7, −3.1– -0.3 lessons compared to grades 1–3. In grades 1–3 students spent on average 76% of lesson time (34.0 ± 7.0 min as sedentary, whereas in grades 7–9 the average proportion of sedentary time was 87% (38.9 ± 5.7 min. An average sedentary bout length increased from 13 min in grades 1–3 to 20 min in grades 7–9. An increase in sedentary bout length from grades 1–3 compared to grades 7–9 was present in most subjects, except crafts, with smallest increase in foreign language (6 min, 3.5–8.9 and greatest in music lessons (16.6 min, 11.9–21.3. Lessons with prolonged sedentary bouts formed a maximum 36% of all lessons in grades 1–3 and 73% in grades 7–9. Conclusion The long sedentary time, bout length and low MVPA in most subjects were unfavourable in respect of both health and academic achievement. Significantly
Mooses, Kerli; Mägi, Katrin; Riso, Eva-Maria; Kalma, Maarja; Kaasik, Priit; Kull, Merike
Evidence shows the positive influence of moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and negative influence of sedentary time on health and academic achievement. Although schools can significantly contribute to overall physical activity, little is known about MVPA and sedentary behaviour in different school subjects in different grades. Physical activity of 646 students from 18 schools (94 classes) and from three school stages (grades 1-9, aged 7-16) was measured with accelerometry for 5 school days. Time and proportion of MVPA and sedentary time, also average sedentary bout length was calculated for native language (Estonian), mathematics, science, foreign language, music and crafts lessons. A total of 6363 lessons were measured, with lesson duration of 45 min. The average lesson time MVPA remained below 2.2 min in all school stages and in all subjects. Students in grades 4-6 had greatest decline in the proportion of lesson time MVPA in science (β = -1.9, 95%CI -3.1- -0.6) and music (-1.2, -2.1- -0.4) and in grades 7-9 in music (-1.7, -3.1- -0.3) lessons compared to grades 1-3. In grades 1-3 students spent on average 76% of lesson time (34.0 ± 7.0 min) as sedentary, whereas in grades 7-9 the average proportion of sedentary time was 87% (38.9 ± 5.7 min). An average sedentary bout length increased from 13 min in grades 1-3 to 20 min in grades 7-9. An increase in sedentary bout length from grades 1-3 compared to grades 7-9 was present in most subjects, except crafts, with smallest increase in foreign language (6 min, 3.5-8.9) and greatest in music lessons (16.6 min, 11.9-21.3). Lessons with prolonged sedentary bouts formed a maximum 36% of all lessons in grades 1-3 and 73% in grades 7-9. The long sedentary time, bout length and low MVPA in most subjects were unfavourable in respect of both health and academic achievement. Significantly increasing sedentary time and sedentary bout length in older school stages highlights the need for
Stavrakaki, Stavroula; Chrysomallis, Marie-Annick; Petraki, Evangelia
In this study we investigate the linguistic performance of a school age French-Greek simultaneous bilingual boy with specific language impairment (SLI) on the production of subject-verb agreement, object clitic pronouns and wh-questions. In addition, we compare his performance on these linguistic structures with that of two French-Greek bilingual…
Abbas Ali Jafari
Results: The non-aureus staphylococcus and alpha-hemolytic streptococci showed the highest positive culture among the isolated microorganisms in both groups, whereas beta hemolytic streptococci showed the least percent of isolated microorganism in both groups. The higher density of non-aureus Staphylococci, α-hemolitic Streptococci, Gram negative cocobasillus, non-pathogenic Neisseria, Candida and Corynebacterium were recovered from oral samples of denture users in compare with dentate subjects (P= 0.0001. There was also seen a statistical significant correlation between the number of isolated microorganisms and the duration of denture utilization in denture users (P=0.013. Conclusion: Results of the present study showed that complete denture can be act as a predisposal factor in overgrowing of several oral micro-flora particularly Candida, non-aureus Staphylococci, α-hemolytic streptococci, gram negative cocobacillus, non-pathogenic Neisseria, and Corynebacterium, which emphasized the users denture hygine.
Conclusion: The Perigee System gave a favorable result in both anatomical and subjective success rates with a low rate of mesh-related morbidities. The strength of the study reported here is its long-term follow up of a relatively large number of patients and the use of validated questionnaires. Limitations are that it is not a RCT; hence, selection and indication bias is unavoidable. The favorable outcome and low morbidities resulting from mesh use is from a single surgeon's perspective and may not be generalized to others.
Petrides, Petro E; Schoergenhofer, Christian; Widmann, Rudolf; Jilma, Bernd; Klade, Christoph S
Anagrelide is an established therapy for essential thrombocythemia. Common adverse effects have been linked to peak plasma concentrations of anagrelide and its 3OH metabolite. Our study was performed to investigate the pharmacokinetics (PK) of a novel anagrelide extended-release (AER) formulation and its active metabolites. Thirty healthy volunteers were randomized to receive either 2 mg AER (under fasting and fed conditions) or 2 mg commercially available reference product (CARP) in an open-label, 3-way crossover trial with washout periods of 6 days. Plasma concentrations of anagrelide and its active metabolites were assessed by tandem mass spectrometry. The PK differed significantly between all treatment periods. Bioavailability of AER was 55% of the CARP under fasting conditions and 60% under fed conditions. C max , AUCt, and AUC∞ were significantly higher and T max and T 1/2 were significantly shorter after the CARP compared with AER. Food had a significant impact on the PK of AER, increasing the C max and AUC t while reducing the T 1/2 , plateau, and mean residence time. Both formulations were well tolerated, with a trend toward more frequently occurring adverse events after the CARP. The PK of AER and the CARP differed significantly in all parameters. Food enhanced the bioavailability of AER. © 2017, The Authors. Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.
Petrides, Petro E.; Schoergenhofer, Christian; Widmann, Rudolf; Klade, Christoph S.
Abstract Anagrelide is an established therapy for essential thrombocythemia. Common adverse effects have been linked to peak plasma concentrations of anagrelide and its 3OH metabolite. Our study was performed to investigate the pharmacokinetics (PK) of a novel anagrelide extended‐release (AER) formulation and its active metabolites. Thirty healthy volunteers were randomized to receive either 2 mg AER (under fasting and fed conditions) or 2 mg commercially available reference product (CARP) in an open‐label, 3‐way crossover trial with washout periods of 6 days. Plasma concentrations of anagrelide and its active metabolites were assessed by tandem mass spectrometry. The PK differed significantly between all treatment periods. Bioavailability of AER was 55% of the CARP under fasting conditions and 60% under fed conditions. Cmax, AUCt, and AUC∞ were significantly higher and Tmax and T1/2 were significantly shorter after the CARP compared with AER. Food had a significant impact on the PK of AER, increasing the Cmax and AUCt while reducing the T1/2, plateau, and mean residence time. Both formulations were well tolerated, with a trend toward more frequently occurring adverse events after the CARP. The PK of AER and the CARP differed significantly in all parameters. Food enhanced the bioavailability of AER. PMID:28301098
Dubin, Ariel K; Smith, Roger; Julian, Danielle; Tanaka, Alyssa; Mattingly, Patricia
To answer the question of whether there is a difference between robotic virtual reality simulator performance assessment and validated human reviewers. Current surgical education relies heavily on simulation. Several assessment tools are available to the trainee, including the actual robotic simulator assessment metrics and the Global Evaluative Assessment of Robotic Skills (GEARS) metrics, both of which have been independently validated. GEARS is a rating scale through which human evaluators can score trainees' performances on 6 domains: depth perception, bimanual dexterity, efficiency, force sensitivity, autonomy, and robotic control. Each domain is scored on a 5-point Likert scale with anchors. We used 2 common robotic simulators, the dV-Trainer (dVT; Mimic Technologies Inc., Seattle, WA) and the da Vinci Skills Simulator (dVSS; Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA), to compare the performance metrics of robotic surgical simulators with the GEARS for a basic robotic task on each simulator. A prospective single-blinded randomized study. A surgical education and training center. Surgeons and surgeons in training. Demographic information was collected including sex, age, level of training, specialty, and previous surgical and simulator experience. Subjects performed 2 trials of ring and rail 1 (RR1) on each of the 2 simulators (dVSS and dVT) after undergoing randomization and warm-up exercises. The second RR1 trial simulator performance was recorded, and the deidentified videos were sent to human reviewers using GEARS. Eight different simulator assessment metrics were identified and paired with a similar performance metric in the GEARS tool. The GEARS evaluation scores and simulator assessment scores were paired and a Spearman rho calculated for their level of correlation. Seventy-four subjects were enrolled in this randomized study with 9 subjects excluded for missing or incomplete data. There was a strong correlation between the GEARS score and the simulator metric
Bertolucci, Luiz Fernando
Muscle Repositioning (MR) is a new style of myofascial release that elicits involuntary motor reactions detectable by electromyography. This article describes the principal theoretical and practical concepts of MR, and summarizes a workshop presented October 31, 2009, after the Second International Fascia Research Congress, held at Vrije Universitiet, Amsterdam.The manual mechanical input of MR integrates the client's body segments into a block, which is evident as a result of the diagnostic manual oscillations the practitioner imparts to the client's body. Segmental integration is achieved when the client's body responds as a unit to the oscillatory assessment. It appears that manually sustaining the condition of segmental integration evokes involuntary muscle reactions, which reactions might correspond to mechanisms that maintain homeostasis, such as pandiculation. It might be that these reactions are part of the MR mechanism of action and underlie its clinically observed efficacy in the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders.For the practitioner and the client alike, segmental integration provides unique sensations. In teaching MR, these paired sensations can be used as kinesthetic feedback resources, because quality of touch can be guided by the client's reported sensations, which should match the practitioner's sensations. Another form of feedback with respect to quality of touch is the visually discernable degree of segmental integration. Finally, because the involuntary motor activity elicited by the MR touch can be objectively monitored through electromyography and possibly other instrumented measurements, the MR approach might yield objectivity, precision, and reproducibility-features seldom found in manual therapies.
Korpelainen, Raija; Lämsä, Jenni; Kaikkonen, Kaisu M; Korpelainen, Juha; Laukkanen, Jari; Palatsi, Ilkka; Takala, Timo E; Ikäheimo, Tiina M; Hautala, Arto J
Exercise stress testing is used as a diagnostic and prognostic tool. We determined the prognostic significance of exercise test findings for cardiovascular (CVD) and all-cause mortality in men and women. 3033 subjects underwent a symptom-limited bicycle exercise test. Exercise capacity was defined as the mean of last four minutes of exercise workload. During an average follow-up of 19 years, 186 (11.6%) CVD and 370 (20.6%) all-cause deaths in men and 57 (5.0%) CVD and 155 (12.5%) all-cause deaths in women occurred. Among exercise test variables (workload, ECG, BP, HR), exercise capacity was the strongest predictor of mortality. Low exercise capacity (1st quartile) was associated with a hazard ratio of 4.2 (95% CI: 1.7, 10.8) for CVD and 4.0 (95% CI: 2.5, 6.4) for all-cause mortality compared with high exercise capacity (4th quartile) among men and in women with a 5.4-fold (95% CI: 1.2, 24.0) risk for CVD and 2.3-fold (95% CI: 1.2, 4.3) risk for all-cause mortality, respectively. The relationship between other exercise test variables and mortality was much weaker. Among exercise test variables exercise capacity was the strongest predictor of CVD and all-cause mortality in both genders, and especially CVD deaths in women. Key Messages Exercise capacity was the most powerful predictor of CVD and all-cause mortality in both men and women. Low exercise capacity is a strong predictor of CVD death, especially among women.
Van Rheenen, Tamsyn E; Rossell, Susan L
People with bipolar disorder (BD) experience significant psychosocial impairment. Understandings of the nature and causes of such impairment is limited by the lack of research exploring the extent to which subjectively reported functioning should be valued as an indicator of objective dysfunction, or examining the relative influence of neurocognition, social cognition and emotion regulation on these important, but different aspects of psychosocial functioning in the context of mania and depression symptoms. This study aimed to address this paucity of research by conducting a comprehensive investigation of psychosocial functioning in a well characterised group of BD patients. Fifty-one BD patients were compared to 52 healthy controls on objectively and subjectively assessed psychosocial outcomes. Relationships between current mood symptoms, psychosocial function and neurocognitive, social cognitive and emotion regulation measures were also examined in the patient group. Patients had significantly worse scores on the global objective and subjective functioning measures relative to controls. In the patient group, although these scores were correlated, regression analyses showed that variance in each of the measures was explained by different predictors. Depressive symptomatology was the most important predictor of global subjective functioning, and neurocognition had a concurrent and important influence with depressive symptoms on objective psychosocial function. Emotion regulation also had an indirect effect on psychosocial functioning via its influence on depressive symptomatology. As this study was cross-sectional in nature, we are unable to draw precise conclusions regarding contributing pathways involved in psychosocial functioning in BD. These results suggest that patients' own evaluations of their subjective functioning represent important indicators of the extent to which their observable function is impaired. They also highlight the importance of
Castellini, Giovanni; Mannucci, Edoardo; Lo Sauro, Carolina; Benni, Laura; Lazzeretti, Lisa; Ravaldi, Claudia; Rotella, Carlo M; Faravelli, Carlo; Ricca, Valdo
Different studies considered the mechanisms involved in the maintenance of binge eating in bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED), suggesting different pathways. The present 3-year follow-up study evaluated the relationships between psychopathological variables, and objective and subjective binge eating episodes in the two syndromes. 85 BN and 133 BED patients were studied. Objective and subjective binge eating, and psychopathological data were collected in a face-to-face interview, and by means of different self-reported questionnaires. The same assessment was repeated at baseline (T0), at the end of an individual cognitive-behavioral treatment (T1), and 3 years after the end of treatment (T2). At baseline, BN and BED patients showed different emotions associated with binge eating: anger/frustration for BN and depression for BED patients. Objective binge eating frequency reduction across time was associated with lower impulsivity and shape concern in BN patients, and with lower emotional eating and depressive symptoms in BED patients. Lower subjective binge eating frequency at baseline predicted recovery, in both BN and BED patients. Recovery was associated with lower impulsivity and body shape concern at baseline for BN patients, and lower depression and emotional eating for BED patients. Eating psychopathology, psychiatric comorbidity, impulsivity and emotional eating have a different pattern of association with objective and subjective binge eating in BN and BED patients, and they act as different moderators of treatment. A different target of intervention for these two syndromes might be taken into account, and subjective binge eating deserves an accurate assessment. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Krakow, Barry; Romero, Edward; Ulibarri, Victor A.; Kikta, Shara
Background: The cause of nocturnal awakenings in patients with chronic insomnia is rarely researched. This study prospectively assessed the etiology of nocturnal awakenings (subjectively and objectively) among patients with insomnia at a private, community-based sleep medical center. Methods: Twenty adult patients with chronic insomnia enrolled between April 2008 and February 2010 met diagnostic criteria for an insomnia disorder, never previously visited a sleep specialist or underwent sleep testing, and reported no classic sleep disordered breathing symptoms. Patients completed validated scales for insomnia, sleepiness, impairment, anxiety, depression, and quality of life, a qualitative interview to assess subjective reasons for awakenings, and a diagnostic sleep study to objectively assess awakenings and their precipitants. Results: Subjective and objective data showed clinically meaningful insomnia, primarily sleep maintenance insomnia. The most common self-reported reasons for awakenings were: uncertain cause (50%), nightmares (45%), nocturia (35%), bedroom distractions (20%), or pain (15%). No patient identified breathing symptoms as a cause. Objectively, 531 awakenings were observed in the total sample, and 478 (90%) were preceded by sleep breathing events (apnea, hypopnea, or respiratory effort-related event). Fifty-three awakenings were caused by other factors (independent leg jerks , spontaneous , and sleep that was laboratory-induced ). Thirty awakenings ≥ 5 min—a duration sufficient to predispose toward an insomnia episode—were each preceded by a breathing event. Conclusions: Among patients with insomnia with no classic sleep breathing symptoms and therefore low probability of a sleep breathing disorder, most of their awakenings were precipitated by a medical condition (sleep disordered breathing), which contrasted sharply with their perceptions about their awakenings. Citation: Krakow B; Romero E; Ulibarri VA; Kikta S. Prospective
Full Text Available Parametric statistical methods, such as Z-, t-, and F-values, are traditionally employed in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI for identifying areas in the brain that are active with a certain degree of statistical significance. These parametric methods, however, have two major drawbacks. First, it is assumed that the observed data are Gaussian distributed and independent; assumptions that generally are not valid for fMRI data. Second, the statistical test distribution can be derived theoretically only for very simple linear detection statistics. With nonparametric statistical methods, the two limitations described above can be overcome. The major drawback of non-parametric methods is the computational burden with processing times ranging from hours to days, which so far have made them impractical for routine use in single-subject fMRI analysis. In this work, it is shown how the computational power of cost-efficient graphics processing units (GPUs can be used to speed up random permutation tests. A test with 10000 permutations takes less than a minute, making statistical analysis of advanced detection methods in fMRI practically feasible. To exemplify the permutation-based approach, brain activity maps generated by the general linear model (GLM and canonical correlation analysis (CCA are compared at the same significance level.
Eklund, Anders; Andersson, Mats; Knutsson, Hans
Parametric statistical methods, such as Z-, t-, and F-values, are traditionally employed in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for identifying areas in the brain that are active with a certain degree of statistical significance. These parametric methods, however, have two major drawbacks. First, it is assumed that the observed data are Gaussian distributed and independent; assumptions that generally are not valid for fMRI data. Second, the statistical test distribution can be derived theoretically only for very simple linear detection statistics. With nonparametric statistical methods, the two limitations described above can be overcome. The major drawback of non-parametric methods is the computational burden with processing times ranging from hours to days, which so far have made them impractical for routine use in single-subject fMRI analysis. In this work, it is shown how the computational power of cost-efficient graphics processing units (GPUs) can be used to speed up random permutation tests. A test with 10000 permutations takes less than a minute, making statistical analysis of advanced detection methods in fMRI practically feasible. To exemplify the permutation-based approach, brain activity maps generated by the general linear model (GLM) and canonical correlation analysis (CCA) are compared at the same significance level. PMID:22046176
Eli J Knapp
Full Text Available Illegal hunters in Africa may be making rational decisions about the hunting activities they partake in. These decisions could be linked to their socioeconomic status and the livelihood opportunities available to them. In particular, poverty is widely considered the leading driver that causes a household's inhabitants to take up poaching in protected areas. Programs aiming to protect vulnerable wildlife populations by mitigating poaching have historically relied upon income-based poverty metrics in efforts to reduce regional poverty and incentivise local inhabitants to discontinue poaching activities. Because such data sets that deal with poachers directly are rare, assumptions about the role of poverty, and the extent of poverty, that drives poaching have been hard to test. This study uses a unique sample of 173 self-admitted poachers living in villages adjacent to Ruaha National Park in Tanzania to explore the influence of poverty on poaching. Results indicated high demographic and household economy heterogeneity among poaching households. Capability deprivation examined more subjective measures of poverty and revealed that poachers are strongly motivated by the need to improve their incomes, but are not necessarily the poorest of the poor.
Visser, Esther-Simone; Wisse, Robert P L; Soeters, Nienke; Imhof, Saskia M; Van der Lelij, Allegonda
To evaluate the performance of medical contact lenses (CLs) for a wide range of clinical indications. Prospective cross-sectional study. A total of 281 eyes were evaluated in 281 consecutive patients (≥18 years of age; CL use ≥3 months) who visited the contact lens service in a tertiary academic clinic for a scheduled follow-up visit. The main outcome measured were clinical indications for CL wear; CL type; change in corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) with CL use; CL wearing duration; CL wearing time; subjective performance measured using a visual analog scale (VAS) questionnaire (score range: 0-100); and effectiveness of the lens-selection algorithm. Wearing CLs significantly improved CDVA compared to wearing spectacles (median change: -0.15 logMAR, range: 1.00 to -2.10; Plenses and users of soft lenses. These results underscore the importance of prescribing scleral lenses and the need for tertiary eye clinics to offer patients a variety of CL types. Copyright © 2016 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Olmedo Carrillo, Pablo; Santiago Fernández, Piedad; García Fuentes, Eduardo; Ureña Fernández, Tomás; Gutiérrez Alcántara, Carmen; Sánchez-Malo, Carolina; Gassó Campos, Manuela; Martínez Ramírez, María José
The treatment guidelines for thyroid dysfunction recommend defining reference ranges for thyroid hormones in each area through assessment of local population data considering the iodine nutritional status. The aim of this study was to define the reference ranges of free thyroxine (FT4), TSH, and thyroglobulin levels in a general population from Jaen, an area of southern Spain with an adequate iodine nutritional status, and whether they were associated with urinary iodine levels. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1,003 subjects of the general population of the Jaen Health District. Levels of urinary iodine, FT4, TSH, thyroglobulin, and thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies were measured according to age and sex. Median and mean urinary iodine levels were 110.59μg/L and 130.11μg/L respectively. Median TSH level was 1.83μIU/mL (p2.5=0.56μIU/mL, p97.5=4.66μIU/mL). Median FT4 level was 0.84ng/dL (p2.5=0.62ng/dL, p97.5=1.18ng/dL). TPO antibodies were detected in 5.7% of subjects. There was no correlation between urinary iodine levels and FT4, TSH or TPO antibodies. Subjects with positive TPO antibodies had higher TSH levels (3.34μIU/L versus 2.14μIU/mL, P=.001; odds ratio=2.42). Urinary iodine levels in Jaen are optimal according to World Health Organization standards. Reference ranges of FT4, TSH, and thyroglobulin do not differ from those reported in the literature and are no associated to urinary iodine levels. The prevalence of positive TPO antibodies was similar to that reported in other Spanish areas. Copyright © 2017 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Roy, Clotilde; Slimani, Alisson; Meester, Christophe De; Amzulescu, Mihaela Silvia; Pasquet, Agnes; Vancraeynest, David; Vanoverschelde, Jean-Louis; Pouleur, Anne-Catherine; Gerber, Bernhard
Myocardial T1, T2 and T2* imaging techniques become increasingly used in clinical practice. While normal values for T1, T2 and T2* times are well established for 1.5 Tesla (T) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR), data for 3T remain scarce. Therefore we sought to determine normal reference values relative to gender and age and day to day reproducibility for native T1, T2, T2* mapping and extracellular volume (ECV) at 3T in healthy subjects.
Riga, M; Komis, A; Maragkoudakis, P; Korres, G; Danielides, V
Normative otoacoustic emission (OAE) suppression values are currently lacking and the role of cochlear efferent innervation in tinnitus is controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between tinnitus and medial olivocochlear bundle (MOCB) malfunction. Potential suppression amplitude cut-off criteria that could differentiate participants with tinnitus from those without were sought. Mean suppression amplitudes of transient evoked OAEs and distortion product OAEs by contralateral white noise (50 dBSL) were recorded. Six mean suppression amplitudes criteria were validated as possible cut-off points. The population consisted of normal hearing (n = 78) or presbycusic adults (n = 19) with tinnitus or without (n = 28 and 13, respectively) chronic tinnitus (in total, n = 138 78 females/60males, aged 49 ± 14 years). Participants with mean suppression values lower than 0.5-1 dBSPL seem to present a high probability to report tinnitus (specificity 88-97%). On the other hand, participants with mean suppression values larger than 2-2.5dBSPL seem to present a high probability of the absence of tinnitus (sensitivity 87-99%). Correlations were stronger among participants with bilateral presence or absence of tinnitus. This study seem to confirm an association between tinnitus and low suppression amplitudes (<1 dBSPL), which might evolve into an objective examination tool, supplementary to conventional audiological testing.
Taylor, Kathryn L; Fitzsimons, Claire; Mutrie, Nanette
Despite its common application and widely reported health benefits, walking, in relation to pace and intensity, is under-researched. Few studies have addressed whether people normally walk at a pace that meets the public health recommendations for moderate intensity physical activity (1.34-1.79 ms(-1)) and there is no known research on individuals' perceptions of factors which influence walking pace. This study aimed to objectively assess if participants were reaching the pace required for moderate intensity physical activity during normal walking. This was examined via a Global Positioning System (GPS) over a 1 km outdoor walk and a timed 150 m trial. In both tests participants (n=10, 3 men, 7 women, mean age 54±8 y) were instructed to walk at their normal pace. Through short interviews, the study also investigated the factors that participants' thought influenced their pace. All participants successfully walked at a pace considered as moderate intensity (≥1.34 ms(-1)). Height was significantly correlated with normal walking pace. The interviews provided an in depth insight into factors that affect walking pace; ground surface and footwear were mentioned frequently and the influence of the weather provided conflicting views, prompting a need for further research in the area. The GPS device showed enormous potential as a human locomotion measurement tool, enabling participants to walk unobstructed and unobserved in an outdoor setting, making the results relevant to real life situations.
Filipe Fontenele Oliveira
Full Text Available This paper aims to propose a discussion about the construction of the referent The place where I live in the V edition of the Portuguese Language Olympiad Writing the Future, while trying to hold a dialogue between the theory of referentiation and the concept of objectivity in brackets proposed by biologist Humberto Maturana. Part of this discussion includes the partial results of our master's research in the Postgraduate in Applied Linguistics Program, State University of Ceará. In this research, we analyze nine texts of opinion written by students of a state school in Fortaleza, produced and intended for this educational event. However, for the current work, we analyze just one text. We seek to achieve the approximation of the theories under discussion in the production of the texts, including the reference articulation that cover The place where I live in the analyzed text. From what we see, the construction of this reference exceeds relations between the words marked by direct expressions or predications attached to it. In fact, it occurs in relation to other related available in text and occurs before the mention by linguistic expressions, as already part of individual and collective buildings, marked by sociohistoric aspects and the intertextual relations with other sources.
Kralimarkova, Tanya Z; Popov, Todor A; Staevska, Maria; Mincheva, Roxana; Lazarova, Cvetelina; Racheva, Rumyana; Mustakov, Tihomir B; Filipova, Violina; Koleva, Margarita; Bacheva, Kalina; Dimitrov, Vasil D
Symptom scoring for the assessment of allergen immunotherapy is associated with a substantial placebo effect. To assess the ability of exhaled breath temperature (EBT), a putative marker of airway inflammation, to evaluate objectively the efficacy of grass pollen sublingual immunotherapy in a proof-of-concept study. This was a double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial in 56 subjects (mean ± SD 30 ± 12 years old, 33 men) sensitized to grass pollen. The objective measurements were EBT, spirometry, and periostin and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in blood. Overall discomfort scored on a visual analog scale was used as a proxy for subjective symptoms. Evaluations were performed before, during, and after the grass pollen season. Fifty-one subjects (25 and 26 in the active treatment and placebo groups, respectively) were assessed before and during the pollen season. The mean pre- vs in-season increase in EBT was significantly smaller (by 59.1%) in the active treatment than in the placebo group (P = .030). Of the other objective markers, only the blood periostin level increased significantly during the pollen season (P = .047), but without intergroup differences. Subjectively, the mean pre- vs in-season increase in the visual analog scale score was 32.3% smaller in the active treatment than in the placebo group, although this difference did not reach statistical significance (P = .116). These results suggest that the efficacy of grass pollen sublingual immunotherapy can be assessed by EBT, a putative quantitative measurement of airway inflammation, which is superior in its power to discriminate between active and placebo treatment than a subjective assessment of symptoms assessed on a visual analog scale. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01785394. Copyright © 2014 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this work was to introduce a new combined method of subjective and objective measures to assess psychosocial risk factors at work and improve workers’ health and well-being. In the literature most of the research on work-related stress focuses on self-report measures and this work represents the first methodology capable of integrating different sources of data. Method An integrated method entitled St.A.R.T. (STress Assessment and Research Toolkit was used in order to assess psychosocial risk factors and two health outcomes. In particular, a self-report questionnaire combined with an observational structured checklist was administered to 113 workers from an Italian retail company. Results The data showed a correlation between subjective data and the rating data of the observational checklist for the psychosocial risk factors related to work contexts such as customer relationship management and customer queue. Conversely, the factors related to work content (workload and boredom measured with different methods (subjective vs. objective showed a discrepancy. Furthermore, subjective measures of psychosocial risk factors were more predictive of workers’ psychological health and exhaustion than rating data. The different objective measures played different roles, however, in terms of their influence on the two health outcomes considered. Conclusions It is important to integrate self-related assessment of stressors with objective measures for a better understanding of workers’ conditions in the workplace. The method presented could be considered a useful methodology for combining the two measures and differentiating the impact of different psychological risk factors related to work content and context on workers’ health.
Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E.; Ciao, Anna C.; Accurso, Erin C.; Pisetsky, Emily M.; Peterson, Carol B.; Byrne, Catherine E.; Le Grange, Daniel
This study investigated the importance of the distinction between objective (OBE) and subjective binge eating (SBE) among 80 treatment-seeking adolescents with bulimia nervosa (BN). We explored relationships among OBEs, SBEs, eating disorder (ED) symptomatology, depression, and self-esteem using two approaches. Group comparisons showed that OBE and SBE groups did not differ on ED symptoms or self-esteem; however, the SBE group had significantly greater depression. Examining continuous variabl...
Full Text Available Abstract Background While approximately 70% of chronic low back pain (CLBP sufferers complain of sleep disturbance, current literature is based on self report measures which can be prone to bias and no objective data of sleep quality, based exclusively on CLBP are available. In accordance with the recommendations of The American Sleep Academy, when measuring sleep, both subjective and objective assessments should be considered as the two are only modestly correlated, suggesting that each modality assesses different aspects of an individual's sleep experience. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to expand previous research into sleep disturbance in CLBP by comparing objective and subjective sleep quality in participants with CLBP and healthy age and gender matched controls, to identify correlates of poor sleep and to test logistics and gather information prior to a larger study. Methods 15 CLBP participants (mean age = 43.8 years (SD = 11.5, 53% female and 15 healthy controls (mean age = 41.5 years (SD = 10.6, 53% female consented. All participants completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Insomnia Severity Index, Pittsburgh Sleep Diary and the SF36v2. CLBP participants also completed the Oswestry Disability Index. Sleep patterns were assessed over three consecutive nights using actigraphy. Total sleep time (TST, sleep efficiency (SE, sleep latency onset (SL and number of awakenings after sleep onset (WASO were derived. Statistical analysis was conducted using unrelated t-tests and Pearson's product moment correlation co-efficients. Results CLBP participants demonstrated significantly poorer overall sleep both objectively and subjectively. They demonstrated lower actigraphic SE (p = .002 and increased WASO (p = .027 but no significant differences were found in TST (p = .43 or SL (p = .97. Subjectively, they reported increased insomnia (p = Conclusion CLBP participants demonstrated poorer overall sleep, increased insomnia symptoms and
Leydesdorff, Loet; Comins, Jordan A; Sorensen, Aaron A; Bornmann, Lutz; Hellsten, Iina
For the biomedical sciences, the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) make available a rich feature which cannot currently be merged properly with widely used citing/cited data. Here, we provide methods and routines that make MeSH terms amenable to broader usage in the study of science indicators: using Web-of-Science (WoS) data, one can generate the matrix of citing versus cited documents; using PubMed/MEDLINE data, a matrix of the citing documents versus MeSH terms can be generated analogously. The two matrices can also be reorganized into a 2-mode matrix of MeSH terms versus cited references. Using the abbreviated journal names in the references, one can, for example, address the question whether MeSH terms can be used as an alternative to WoS Subject Categories for the purpose of normalizing citation data. We explore the applicability of the routines in the case of a research program about the amyloid cascade hypothesis in Alzheimer's disease. One conclusion is that referenced journals provide archival structures, whereas MeSH terms indicate mainly variation (including novelty) at the research front. Furthermore, we explore the option of using the citing/cited matrix for main-path analysis as a by-product of the software.
A soup-to-nuts guide on the Objective-C programming language. Objective-C is the language behind Cocoa and Cocoa Touch, which is the Framework of applications written for the Macintosh, iPod touch, iPhone, and iPad platforms. Part of the Developer Reference series covering the hottest Apple topics, this book covers everything from the basics of the C language to advanced aspects of Apple development. You'll examine Objective-C and high-level subjects of frameworks, threading, networking, and much more.: Covers the basics of the C language and then quickly moves onto Objective-C and more advanc
Buckland, Nicola J; James Stubbs, R; Finlayson, Graham
Hunger is one of the main reasons given by people experiencing problems in managing their weight. Identifying the types and properties of foods that enhance satiety may help consumers improve appetite control and weight management. However the attributes of foods associated with their perceived satiety value have been largely unexamined. The current research examined a range of objective and subjective attributes of foods and sought to map them onto ratings of their perceived satiety value. Participants (n=1127) rated 100 individual food images, through online surveys, based on subjective (e.g. perceived energy content, control over eating, healthiness, palatability) and objective (e.g. actual energy content, macronutrient composition, cost/kcal) attributes. Perceived satiety value was quantified from ratings of how filling each food was judged to be. Results showed that when controlling for perceived total energy content, perceived satiety value was associated with lower energy density (r=-.74), lower %fat (r=-.47), higher %protein (r=.31) and higher cost (r=.48). In terms of subjective attributes, perceived satiety value was associated with greater healthiness (r=.90), weight management (r=.91), frequency of consumption (r=.58) and greater control over eating (r=.76). Linear regression models indicated that the objective attributes of energy density, %fat, fibre content, %carbohydrate and cost (R(2)=.69) and the subjective attribute of utility for weight management and frequency of consumption (R(2)=.83) accounted for the most variance in the perceived satiety value of food. These findings may help towards a 'satiety map' of the diet with implications for public health promotion and the development of satiety enhancing foods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Takagi, Daisuke; Watanabe, Yutaka; Edahiro, Ayako; Ohara, Yuki; Murakami, Masaharu; Murakami, Kohji; Hironaka, Shouji; Taniguchi, Yu; Kitamura, Akihiko; Shinkai, Shoji; Hirano, Hirohiko
This study aimed to examine relevant factors for subjective and objective assessment of masticatory functions and elucidate any differences between the two methods. Previous studies have reported that the results of subjective and objective assessment of masticatory function in older people do not necessarily agree. This study included 487 community-dwelling Japanese older people (205 male and 282 female; mean age 74.1±6.3 years) who participated in a comprehensive geriatric health examination. Basic information (gender and age), higher level of competence in daily living, depression, subjective masticatory function (SMF) and objective masticatory function (OMF) assessments, cognitive function, skeletal muscle mass, handgrip strength, gait speed and oral status (number of remaining and functional teeth, mouth dryness and occlusal force) were recorded. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that depression (odds ratio [OR]: 1.181, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.094-1.275), mouth dryness (OR: 2.037, CI: 1.212-3.423) and occlusal force (OR: 0.997, CI: 0.996-0.999) were significantly associated with SMF, whereas higher level of competence in daily living (OR: 0.730 CI: 0.586-0.910), skeletal muscle mass (OR: 0.521 CI: 0.283-0.960), number of functional teeth (OR: 0.862 CI: 0.775-0.959), number of remaining teeth (OR: 0.868 CI: 0.810-0.930) and occlusal force (OR: 0.994, CI: 0.991-0.998) were associated with OMF. Subjective masticatory functionSMF and OMF were associated with different factors, suggesting that both mental and physical factors should be taken into consideration when treating decreased masticatory function. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Lengacher, Cecile A.; Reich, Richard R.; Paterson, Carly L.; Jim, Heather S.; Ramesar, Sophia; Alinat, Carissa B.; Budhrani, Pinky H.; Farias, Jerrica R.; Shelton, Melissa M.; Moscoso, Manolete S.; Park, Jong Y.; Kip, Kevin E.
Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of MBSR(BC) on multiple measures of objective and subjective sleep parameters among breast cancer survivors (BCS). Methods Data were collected using a two-armed randomized controlled design among BCS enrolled in either a six week MBSR(BC) program or a Usual Care (UC) group with a 12-week follow-up. The present analysis is a subset of the larger parent trial (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01177124). Seventy-nine BCS participants (mean age 57 years), stages 0-III, were randomly assigned to either the formal (in-class) six week MBSR(BC) program or UC. Subjective sleep parameters (SSP) (i.e., sleep diaries and the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI)) and objective sleep parameters (OSP) (i.e., actigraphy) were measured at baseline, six weeks and 12 weeks after completing the MBSR(BC) or UC program. Results Results showed indications of a positive effect of MBSR(BC) on OSP at 12 weeks on sleep efficiency (78.2% MBSR(BC) group vs. 74.6% UC group, p=0.04), percent of sleep time (81.0% MBSR(BC) vs. 77.4% UC, p=0.02) and less number waking bouts (93.5 in MBSR(BC) vs. 118.6 in the UC group, pMBSR(BC) group from baseline to 6 weeks (PSQI total score, p=0.09). No significant relationship was observed between minutes of MBSR(BC) practice and SSP or OSP. Conclusions These data suggest that MBSR(BC) may be an efficacious treatment to improve objective and subjective sleep parameters in BCS. PMID:24943918
Vriz, Olga; Aboyans, Victor; Minisini, Rosalba; Magne, Julien; Bertin, Nicole; Pirisi, Mario; Bossone, Eduardo
Arterial stiffness can predict cardiovascular events, and the aim of this study was to produce age- and sex-specific reference values for echo-tracking carotid stiffness in healthy subjects. A total of 900 subjects (500 males, mean age 45.8±19 years) were enrolled. Common carotid artery stiffness and compliance, using a high-definition echo-tracking ultrasound system, were evaluated. To compare stiffness parameters across the different age groups, individual scores were transformed into T-scores, indicating how many standard deviation (s.d.) units an individual's score was above or below the mean that was observed in the group including same-sex individuals aged 36 to 44 years. Carotid stiffness was similar among genders, except compliance, which was lower in women (Pparameters increased significantly with age, but the opposite occurred for compliance. The T-score was found to increase significantly across all age groups, with a steeper increase in stiffness around the age of 60 years in women. For each T-score s.d., the corresponding carotid absolute values for arterial stiffness and compliance were obtained. In a multivariate model, carotid stiffness parameters were constantly and independently associated with age, mean arterial pressure, pulse pressure, heart rate and body mass index. Our study provides a normogram of carotid arterial stiffness and compliance indices obtained with the echo-tracking method in a large population of healthy subjects stratified by gender and age that can be used in clinical practice.
Aziz, Muhammad; Ali, Shozab S.; Das, Sankalp; Younus, Adnan; Malik, Rehan; Latif, Muhammad A.; Humayun, Choudhry; Anugula, Dixitha; Abbas, Ghulam; Salami, Joseph; Elizondo, Javier Valero; Veledar, Emir
Aim: Abnormal daily sleep duration and quality have been linked to hypertension, diabetes, stroke, and overall cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity & mortality. However, the relationship between daily sleep duration and quality with subclinical measures of CVD remain less well studied. This systematic review evaluated how daily sleep duration and quality affect burden of subclinical CVD in subjects free of symptomatic CVD. Methods: Literature search was done via MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science until June 2016 and 32 studies met the inclusion criteria. Sleep duration and quality were measured either via subjective methods, as self-reported questionnaires or Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) or via objective methods, as actigraphy or polysomnography or by both. Among subclinical CVD measures, coronary artery calcium (CAC) was measured by electron beam computed tomography, Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) measured by high-resolution B-mode ultrasound on carotid arteries, endothelial/microvascular function measured by flow mediated dilation (FMD) or peripheral arterial tone (PAT) or iontophoresis or nailfold capillaroscopy, and arterial stiffness measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV) or ankle brachial index (ABI). Results: Subjective short sleep duration was associated with CAC and CIMT, but variably associated with endothelial dysfunction (ED) and arterial stiffness; however, subjective long sleep duration was associated with CAC, CIMT and arterial stiffness, but variably associated with ED. Objective short sleep duration was positively associated with CIMT and variably with CAC but not associated with ED. Objective long sleep duration was variably associated with CAC and CIMT but not associated with ED. Poor subjective sleep quality was significantly associated with ED and arterial stiffness but variably associated with CAC and CIMT. Poor objective sleep quality was significantly associated with CIMT, and ED but variably associated with CAC. Conclusions
Aziz, Muhammad; Ali, Shozab S; Das, Sankalp; Younus, Adnan; Malik, Rehan; Latif, Muhammad A; Humayun, Choudhry; Anugula, Dixitha; Abbas, Ghulam; Salami, Joseph; Elizondo, Javier Valero; Veledar, Emir; Nasir, Khurram
Abnormal daily sleep duration and quality have been linked to hypertension, diabetes, stroke, and overall cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity& mortality. However, the relationship between daily sleep duration and quality with subclinical measures of CVD remains less well studied. This systematic review evaluated how daily sleep duration and quality affect burden of subclinical CVD in subjects free of symptomatic CVD. Literature search was done via MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science until June 2016 and 32 studies met the inclusion criteria. Sleep duration and quality were measured either via subjective methods, as self-reported questionnaires or Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) or via objective methods, as actigraphy or polysomnography or by both. Among subclinical CVD measures, coronary artery calcium (CAC) was measured by electron beam computed tomography, Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) measured by high-resolution B-mode ultrasound on carotid arteries, endothelial/microvascular function measured by flow mediated dilation (FMD) or peripheral arterial tone (PAT) or iontophoresis or nailfold capillaroscopy, and arterial stiffness measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV) or ankle brachial index (ABI). Subjective short sleep duration was associated with CAC and CIMT, but variably associated with endothelial dysfunction (ED) and arterial stiffness; however, subjective long sleep duration was associated with CAC, CIMT and arterial stiffness, but variably associated with ED. Objective short sleep duration was positively associated with CIMT and variably with CAC but not associated with ED. Objective long sleep duration was variably associated with CAC and CIMT but not associated with ED. Poor subjective sleep quality was significantly associated with ED and arterial stiffness but variably associated with CAC and CIMT. Poor objective sleep quality was significantly associated with CIMT, and ED but variably associated with CAC. Overall, our review provided mixed
Poon, Woei Bing; Tagamolila, Vina; Toh, Ying Pin Anne; Cheng, Zai Ru
INTRODUCTION Various meta-analyses have shown that e-learning is as effective as traditional methods of continuing professional education. However, there are some disadvantages to e-learning, such as possible technical problems, the need for greater self-discipline, cost involved in developing programmes and limited direct interaction. Currently, most strategies for teaching amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (aEEG) in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) worldwide depend on traditional teaching methods. METHODS We implemented a programme that utilised an integrated approach to e-learning. The programme consisted of three sessions of supervised protected time e-learning in an NICU. The objective and subjective effectiveness of the approach was assessed through surveys administered to participants before and after the programme. RESULTS A total of 37 NICU staff (32 nurses and 5 doctors) participated in the study. 93.1% of the participants appreciated the need to acquire knowledge of aEEG. We also saw a statistically significant improvement in the subjective knowledge score (p = 0.041) of the participants. The passing rates for identifying abnormal aEEG tracings (defined as ≥ 3 correct answers out of 5) also showed a statistically significant improvement (from 13.6% to 81.8%, p e-learning can help improve subjective and objective knowledge of aEEG. PMID:25820847
Swanson, J; Wigal, S; Greenhill, L; Browne, R; Waslick, B; Lerner, M; Williams, L; Flynn, D; Agler, D; Crowley, K L; Fineberg, E; Regino, R; Baren, M; Cantwell, D
In a randomized double-blind crossover study of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), the time course effects of four doses of Adderall (5, 10, 15, and 20 mg) and an inactive (placebo) control, and an active (Ritalin) control were evaluated. A laboratory classroom setting was established in which subjective (teacher ratings of deportment and attention) and objective (scores on math tests) measurements were taken every 1.5 hours across the day. In addition to significant time and dose effects of Adderall, significant time-of-day effects were documented in the placebo condition for the subjective measure of deportment and objective measures of performance. Regression analyses were used to estimate the magnitude of these baseline effects. Correlations across time were used to evaluate the test-retest reliability of each measure in the face of these time-dependent placebo effects. After placebo/time adjustments, within-subject correlations between pairs of measures were used to evaluate the validity of the math test as a measure of response to stimulant medication.
Poon, W B; Tagamolila, V; Toh, Y P; Cheng, Z R
Various meta-analyses have shown that e-learning is as effective as traditional methods of continuing professional education. However, there are some disadvantages to e-learning, such as possible technical problems, the need for greater self-discipline, cost involved in developing programmes and limited direct interaction. Currently, most strategies for teaching amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (aEEG) in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) worldwide depend on traditional teaching methods. We implemented a programme that utilised an integrated approach to e-learning. The programme consisted of three sessions of supervised protected time e-learning in an NICU. The objective and subjective effectiveness of the approach was assessed through surveys administered to participants before and after the programme. A total of 37 NICU staff (32 nurses and 5 doctors) participated in the study. 93.1% of the participants appreciated the need to acquire knowledge of aEEG. We also saw a statistically significant improvement in the subjective knowledge score (p = 0.041) of the participants. The passing rates for identifying abnormal aEEG tracings (defined as ≥ 3 correct answers out of 5) also showed a statistically significant improvement (from 13.6% to 81.8%, p approach to e-learning can help improve subjective and objective knowledge of aEEG.
Vladisavljević, Marko; Mentus, Vladimir
In this article, we examine the structure of the subjective well-being and its relation to objective well-being indicators using the data from the European Union's Survey on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) from Serbia. This is one of the first papers to analyze a new module on subjective well-being from EU-SILC micro-dataset (with over 20,000 respondents). We investigate the factor structure of the items and the differences in the association of subjective well-being dimensions with objective indicators of well-being within the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Better Life Initiative framework. Three factors emerge from the principal components analysis: general life satisfaction, affective well-being, and satisfaction with the local environment. The analysis further reveals that life satisfaction is more related to the material living conditions, such as income, unemployment, and housing conditions, while affective well-being is more related to non-material indicators of well-being such as perceived health, personal security, and social connections. On the other hand, positive and negative affect within the affective well-being are not clearly separable, nor is the eudaimonic indicator from either life satisfaction or affective well-being.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical co-morbidity may be associated with impaired cognitive function based on prior studies. However, no studies to date have determined to what extent this association is linked to medical illness or other factors that may be linked to medical illness (such as education, income levels, depression or subjective memory loss. The present study examined how medical co-morbidity, socioeconomic status (defined as residential SES, education and depression are associated with subjective and objective memory function in a sample of patients recruited from a university affiliated Memory Disorders Clinic located in a large Canadian inner city teaching hospital. Methods Data was collected from 85 consecutive referrals to an Inner City Memory Disorders Clinic including socio-demographic characteristics, cognitive status and medical co-morbidity. Descriptive and correlational analyses were conducted. Results Impaired objective cognitive function correlated significantly with increased medical co-morbidity and partially with education but not with residential SES or depression. Elevated memory complaints correlated significantly with depression, inversely with residential SES and not at all with medical co-morbidity or education. Conclusions Increased medical co-morbidity is significantly associated with impaired cognitive performance but not with subjective memory complaints in an Inner City Memory Clinic sample.
Griffin, Joshua D. (Sandai National Labs, Livermore, CA); Eldred, Michael Scott; Martinez-Canales, Monica L. (Sandai National Labs, Livermore, CA); Watson, Jean-Paul; Kolda, Tamara Gibson (Sandai National Labs, Livermore, CA); Adams, Brian M.; Swiler, Laura Painton; Williams, Pamela J. (Sandai National Labs, Livermore, CA); Hough, Patricia Diane (Sandai National Labs, Livermore, CA); Gay, David M.; Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Eddy, John P.; Hart, William Eugene; Guinta, Anthony A.; Brown, Shannon L.
The DAKOTA (Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications) toolkit provides a flexible and extensible interface between simulation codes and iterative analysis methods. DAKOTA contains algorithms for optimization with gradient and nongradient-based methods; uncertainty quantification with sampling, reliability, and stochastic finite element methods; parameter estimation with nonlinear least squares methods; and sensitivity/variance analysis with design of experiments and parameter study methods. These capabilities may be used on their own or as components within advanced strategies such as surrogate-based optimization, mixed integer nonlinear programming, or optimization under uncertainty. By employing object-oriented design to implement abstractions of the key components required for iterative systems analyses, the DAKOTA toolkit provides a flexible and extensible problem-solving environment for design and performance analysis of com