Sample records for subject matter teacher

  1. Florida Master Teacher Program: Testing Teacher Subject Matter Knowledge. (United States)

    Lavely, Carolyn; And Others


    The efforts of the Florida Institute for Instructional Research and Practice in designing, developing, and analyzing the subject area knowledge tests of the Florida Master Teacher Program are described. A total of 13 subject area examinations was developed in 1984-85, and 5 additional tests were developed the following year. For each subject area…

  2. Teachers mathematical communication profile in explaining subject matter (United States)

    Umami, Rohmatul; Budayasa, I. Ketut; Suwarsono, St.


    This study aimed to see a teachers mathematical communication profile in explaining a subject matter. It is a qualitative research. A high-school junior teacher (i.e., a teacher with 1- to 5-year experience) teaching mathematics at X-Social Class was selected as the subject of this study. The data was collected by observing the teachers mathematical communication in explaining a given material (i.e., the rule of sine) in class and an in-depth interview would be organized respectively. The result showed that the junior teacher explained the subject matter in systematic, complete, fluent, and centered manner. In this case, she began with reminding students on the previous material related to the current material to be learned, informing the current learning objectives, and finally delivering the subject matter. To support her explanation, the teacher also provided some related information, led the students attention into the given material by asking them particular related questions, and did not use any confusing terms. However, the study found that some of high-school teachers still used less appropriate language in explaining materials.

  3. students' perception of teacher's knowledge of subject matter and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The study used the ex post facto design to find out the influence of student's perception of teacher's knowledge of the subject matter on the Senior Secondary Three (SS 3) students' performance in reading comprehension. Questionnaires reading comprehension test were used in eliciting data. The data were subsequently ...

  4. Preservice History Teachers' Perceptions of Subject Matter Competency (United States)

    Yildirim, Tercan; Yazici, Fatih


    Teachers should be able to understand conceptual constructs, viewpoints, and principles related to their field and organize teaching process accordingly. This is valid also for history teachers. They are expected to comprehend the basic conceptions related to subject areas and reflect them on classroom practices. The association between subject…

  5. GP teachers' subject matter knowledge in the context of a tutorial: the preparation and delivery compared. (United States)

    Cantillon, Peter; de Grave, Willem


    Clinical teachers use several different types of knowledge in the act of teaching. These include content knowledge (subject matter), knowledge of how to teach (pedagogy) and knowledge of learners (context). Most attention in faculty development has been on how to teach rather than what is taught. The quality of a teacher's subject matter knowledge is likely to be a critical determinant of how well a subject is presented, communicated and learned. We therefore set out to examine teachers' subject matter knowledge in the context of a general practice tutorial on grade 1 hypertension. This study is part of a larger study that employed a mixed method approach (concept mapping, phenomenological interviews and video-stimulated recall) to examine differences between clinical educators in subject matter knowledge, pedagogical knowledge and knowledge of the learning environment in the context of general practice education. This paper presents the concept map data findings from the larger study as well as the parts of the phenomenological interviews that relate to subject matter knowledge and beliefs. We found that there were marked differences in the quality and elaborative structure of GP teachers' knowledge in the concept maps completed prior to the tutorials. These differences were also predictive of differences in the content presented to learners in tutorials. Teachers' beliefs about subject matter were also likely to have affected what they chose to teach about and how they presented it. Subject matter knowledge varies considerably between GP teachers in the context of a common and relatively simple tutorial. Differences in the quality of subject matter knowledge matter because they have a profound effect on what is learned and how it is learned. Faculty development for clinical educators needs to pay heed to the quality of subject matter knowledge in addition to its more common pedagogical focus.

  6. Pre-Service Geography Teachers' Confidence in Geographical Subject Matter Knowledge and Teaching Geographical Skills (United States)

    Harte, Wendy; Reitano, Paul


    This research tracked the confidence of 16 undergraduate and postgraduate pre-service geography teachers as they completed a single semester, senior phase geography curriculum course. The study focused specifically on the pre-service teachers' confidence in geographical subject matter knowledge and their confidence in teaching geographical skills.…

  7. Problems Faced By Elementary School Second Grade English Subject Matter Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belgin Bal Incebacak


    Full Text Available The objective of thisstudy isto determine the problems experienced by subject matter teachers while instructing English lessons in the second grade of elementary school. What are the problemsfaced by English subject matter teachers when they instruct in 2nd grade lessons? In this research the descriptive modeling, which is one of the qualitative research methods, was employed. In accordance with this objective, we worked with 8 subject matter teachers from 5 different schoolsinAtakum and Ilkadim districtslocated in downtown Samsun, through easily accessible case sampling. The semi-structured “English Course Interview Form’’was applied to the teachers. In the study, descriptive survey model was employed, since it was aimed to reveal the current status of qualitative research methods.According to the results obtained from the research, the content was configured and presented under 5 themes. They were categorized as: 1. the problems experienced in classroom management, 2. the problems in physical and cognitive readiness, 3. the problems experienced in the learning and teacher process, 4. the problems seen in counseling, 5. the problems experienced in assessment and evaluation. In conclusion, the teachers stated that they had problems with managing the classroom, especially with the second grade students, whom are younger than others. It is observed that the change for teaching English at a younger age has been appropriate. Our teachersstated that they required in-service training so as to adapt to this aforementioned change.

  8. What Subject Matter Knowledge Do Second-Level Teachers Need to Know to Teach Trigonometry? An Exploration and Case Study (United States)

    Walsh, Richard; Fitzmaurice, Olivia; O'Donoghue, John


    This study reports on the level of trigonometry Subject Matter Knowledge (SMK) of third and final-year pre-service second-level mathematics teachers () at an Irish third-level institution. The aim of the study was to determine if this sample of prospective teachers has an appropriate level of SMK to teach second-level trigonometric concepts. The…

  9. The Knowledge Base of Subject Matter Experts in Teaching: A Case Study of a Professional Scientist as a Beginning Teacher (United States)

    Diezmann, Carmel M.; Watters, James J.


    One method of addressing the shortage of science and mathematics teachers is to train scientists and other science-related professionals to become teachers. Advocates argue that as discipline experts these career changers can relate the subject matter knowledge to various contexts and applications in teaching. In this paper, through interviews and…

  10. Educator versus Subject Matter Teacher: The Conflict between Two Sub-Identities in Becoming a Teacher (United States)

    Popper-Giveon, Ariela; Shayshon, Bruria


    Research literature often addresses the problems entailed in the integration of beginning teachers within the education system. Most studies emphasize the conflicts these teachers experience, especially between the personal and professional aspects of their profession. We conducted qualitative research among participants and graduates of the…

  11. Integrating Multicultural Subject Matters into Teaching Strategies of Elementary School Teachers (The U.S. State of Kansas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanka Lunder Verlič


    Full Text Available The following academic article is based on a PhD thesis that is currently being completed, titled Education and Qualifications of Elementary School Teachers in the U.S. State of Kansas and Slovenia for teaching in classes with immigrant children. The research study titled Integrating Multicultural Subject Matters into Teaching Strategies of Elementary School Teachers (The U.S. State of Kansas, conducted in 2007 based on a sample of 89 elementary school teachers in the U.S. State of Kansas, represents one aspect of assessing the adequacy of undergraduate education regarding multicultural subject matters for elementary school teachers in Slovenia and the U.S. (State of Kansas as well as the qualifications of elementary school teachers of both countries for working with immigrant children. Despite the long-standing tradition of multicultural education in western countries, the research results for Kansas elementary school teachers showed a presence of significant discrepancies between the actual and optimal integration of multicultural subject matters. These results indicate that future undergraduate study programs will have to invest more time in developing multicultural skills and providing practical experiences for working in a diverse environment.

  12. Relationship between mathematics teacher subject matter knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge and professional development needs (United States)

    Tajudin, Nor'ain Mohd; Chinnappan, Mohan; Saad, Noor Shah


    Two key variables emerged from the literature review is that Specific Matter Knowledge [SMK] and Pedagogical Content Knowledge [PCK] can influence the mathematics teachers' Professional Development [PD] needs. However, the key variables of SMK and PCK that were being investigated were not defined clearly. Empirical evidence that support relationship between SMK and PD and PCK and PD were not verified. In addition, how does PCK mediate SMK and PD is not clear and somewhat lacking. Therefore, the purpose of this paper was to examine the relationship between primary mathematics teacher's SMK, PCK and PD needs. Results of path analysis with SmartPLS indicated that the direct effect of SMK on PD was mediated via PCK. This data provide support for the claim that PD programs for future teachers of primary mathematics should be driven by a more nuanced understanding of the link between SMK and PCK.

  13. How to foster student-student learning of science? The student, the teacher and the subject matter (United States)

    Bianchini, Julie A.


    In this response to Konstantinos Alexakos, Jayson K. Jones, and Victor H. Rodriguez's study, I discuss ways attending to student membership in groups can both inform research on equity and diversity in science education and improve the teaching of science to all students. My comments are organized into three sections: how underrepresented students' experiences in science classrooms are shaped by their peers; how science teachers can help students listen to and learn from one another; and how the subject matter can invite or discourage student participation in science. More specifically, I underscore the need for teachers and students to listen to one another to promote student learning of science. I also highlight the importance of science education researchers and science teachers viewing students both as individuals and as members of multiple groups; women of color, for example, should be understood as similar to and different from each other, from European American women and from ethnic minorities in general.

  14. Is Practical Subject Matter Knowledge Still Important? Examining the Siedentopian Perspective on the Role of Content Knowledge in Physical Education Teacher Education (United States)

    Herold, Frank; Waring, Michael


    Background: The role that content knowledge, an important component of practical subject matter knowledge, plays for pre-service teachers (PSTs) in physical education teacher education (PETE) remains contested and unclear. Whilst some researchers emphasise the facilitative nature of such knowledge, others criticise that too much focus on content…

  15. Consolidating Pre-Service Physics Teachers' Subject Matter Knowledge Using Didactical Reconstructions (United States)

    Mäntylä, T.; Nousiainen, M.


    In the Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, there are advanced physics courses designed for the needs of pre-service physics teachers. The starting point is that after introductory and intermediate physics courses, pre-service physics teachers know laws and definitions but the knowledge is quite fragmented and does not form coherent…

  16. Opinions of Class and Subject Matter Teachers and Candidate Teachers on the Effectiveness of Creative Drama in Teaching Activities (United States)

    Epcacan, Cevdet


    The objective of this research is to establish the opinions of teachers and candidate teachers on the effect of creative drama. Descriptive research method is used in line with the objective of the research. Questionnaire is used for collecting data for the research. Questionnaire was prepared by the researcher. For the reliability of the…

  17. A Case Study of Beginning Science Teachers' Subject Matter (SMK) and Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) of Teaching Chemical Reaction in Turkey (United States)

    Usak, Muhammet; Ozden, Mustafa; Eilks, Ingo


    This paper describes a case study focusing on the subject matter knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge, and beliefs about science teaching of student teachers in Turkey at the start of their university education. The topic of interest was that of teaching chemical reactions in secondary chemistry education. A written test was developed which…

  18. Exploring the Relationship between Secondary Science Teachers' Subject Matter Knowledge and Knowledge of Student Conceptions While Teaching Evolution by Natural Selection (United States)

    Lucero, Margaret M.; Petrosino, Anthony J.; Delgado, Cesar


    The fundamental scientific concept of evolution occurring by natural selection is home to many deeply held alternative conceptions and considered difficult to teach. Science teachers' subject matter knowledge (SMK) and the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) component of knowledge of students' conceptions (KOSC) can be valuable resources for…

  19. "Frustrated" or "Surprised?" An Examination of the Perspectives of Spanish Teacher Candidates regarding the Praxis II Subject-Matter Tests (United States)

    Moser, Kelly


    Researchers (Sandarg & Schomber, 2009; Wilkerson, Schomber, & Sandarg, 2004) have urged the profession to develop a new subject-matter licensure test to reflect the best practices in the foreign language classroom. In October 2010, the Praxis II: World Language Test joined the Praxis Series. Given that this standards-driven test differs…

  20. Changes in Dictionary Subject Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro


    The general content of the three editions of the Duden dictionary has undergone few changes. The most substantial changes are the addition of syllabification and the deletion of antonomy in respect of lemmata in the second and third editions. The concept of dictionary subject matter is questioned...

  1. The Role of Teachers' Pedagogical and Subject-Matter Knowledge in Planning and Enacting Science-Inquiry Instruction, and in Assessing Students' Science-Inquiry Learning (United States)

    Birlean, Camelia

    This study explored the relation between pedagogical knowledge and subject-matter knowledge, in the context of inquiry-driven science instruction, and their relation to instructors' performance in the instructional process. This multiple case study focused on three distinct categories of teachers--Novice in Inquiry and in Science, Novice in Inquiry and Expert in Science, and Expert in Inquiry and in Science--and examined the commonalities and differences among them by exploring the cognitive processes these teachers used when planning and enacting an inquiry instructional situation, as well as when assessing students' learning resulting from this specific instructional event. Inquiry instruction varied across cases from largely structured to largely open. The Novice-Novice's science instruction, predominantly traditional in the approach, differed greatly from that of the Expert-Expert and of the Novice-Expert. The latter two emphasized--to various extents structured, guided, and open--inquiry strategy as part of their ongoing instruction. The open inquiry was an approach embraced solely by the Expert-Expert teacher throughout the Advanced Science Research instruction, emphasizing the creative aspect of problem generation. Edward teacher also distinguished himself from the other two participants in his view of planning and terminology used to describe it, both of which emphasized the dynamic and flexible feature of this instructional process. The Expert-Expert identified occasional planning, planning of specific skills and content critical to students' learning process during their independent inquiry. The observed teaching performance of the three participants partly reflected their planning; the alignment was least frequent for the Novice-Novice. The assessment of inquiry-based projects varied greatly across participants. Each teacher participant evaluated a set of three inquiry-based science projects that differed in their quality, and this variation increased

  2. Why Teacher Voice Matters (United States)

    Kahlenberg, Richard D.; Potter, Halley


    Kahlenberg and Potter report on research that shows when teachers are engaged in school decisions and collaborate with administrators and each other, school climate improves. The authors add, this promotes a better learning environment for students, which raises student achievement, and a better working environment for teachers, which reduces…

  3. Efforts in Improving Teachers’ Competencies Through Collaboration between Teacher Forum on Subject Matter (MGMP and Pre-Service Teacher Training Institution (LPTK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Purwoko


    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to improve high school chemistry teacher’s competency in terms of classroom instruction. This goal is achieved through the workshop and continuous assistance activities that enable teachers to improve their knowledge and skills in developing learning scenarios that reflect scientific methods (brain-based learning in the classroom instruction. The effect of teachers’ competence improvement was measured by a survey of student’s perception on the classroom teaching-learning process, using Likert-scale questionnaire. The first poll was conducted before the program was started, and the second one was after the program completion. The first observation shows that only 18% of students perceive that the chemistry learning process in the classroom are “good,” while the rest (82% say that it is “fair”. However, the second poll shows that there are 45% of students who perceive that the learning process is “good”; interestingly, there are 35%, and 20% of respondents say “excellent” and “fair,” respectively. Furthermore, data analyses using chi-square test conclude that the continuous teacher assistance activity significantly improves teachers’ competencies. This article describes detailed of collaboration program and the results of improvement of chemistry teachers’ competence in north Lombok regency. Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New

  4. Teachers' Beliefs and Behaviors: What Really Matters? (United States)

    Muijs, Daniel; Reynolds, David


    In this study, we looked at the relationship between teacher behaviors, teacher beliefs, teacher self-efficacy, and teacher subject knowledge with student achievement in mathematics. Data was collected from 103 primary school teachers and 2,148 students in the UK using achievement tests, classroom observation, and questionnaires. Structural…

  5. Sliding Subject Positions: Knowledge and Teacher Educators (United States)

    Brown, Tony; Rowley, Harriet; Smith, Kim


    In England, adjustments to policy in teacher education have had implications for how subject knowledge is understood and for how job descriptions are defined. That is, the interface between teacher educator and subject knowledge representation has been changing. This paper reports on a wider study that considers the experience of university…

  6. Foodservice. Subject Matter Update 1986-87. (United States)

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This publication recognizes the constantly changing requirements of the food service industry and varying conditions for employment opportunities. It addresses the goal of relevance in education by enabling the educator to make timely adjustments in the subject matter of the food service curriculum. There are six sections in this publication, each…

  7. Teacher Autonomy and Subject Knowledge (United States)

    McKeon, Frankie


    The National Primary Strategy (DfES, 2004) is encouraging schools to design "broad and rich curricula" which make the most of links between different areas, building on literacy and numeracy and developing speaking and listening skills. Primary teachers' confidence with, and understanding of, science will be crucial to the effectiveness…

  8. Teacher Burnout: A Laughing Matter (United States)

    McKenzie, Kemberly Elaine


    This study employed a quantitative research method and examined the relationship among teacher burnout, job-related stress and humor coping styles in 306 high school teachers from the south suburbs of Chicago, Illinois. In particular, this study sought to determine if a relationship existed among the three variables by examining if teacher burnout…

  9. Development of Arithmetical Thinking: Evaluation of Subject Matter Knowledge of Pre-Service Teachers in Order to Design the Appropriate Course (United States)

    Guberman, Raisa


    One of the key courses in the mathematics teacher education program in Israel is arithmetic, which engages in contents which these pre-service mathematics teachers (PMTs) will later teach at school. Teaching arithmetic involves knowledge about the essence of the concept of "number" and the development thereof, calculation methods and…

  10. 45 CFR 703.3 - Scope of subject matter. (United States)


    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope of subject matter. 703.3 Section 703.3... AND FUNCTIONS OF STATE ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 703.3 Scope of subject matter. The scope of the subject matter to be dealt with by Advisory Committees shall be those subjects of inquiry or study with which the...

  11. An Investigation of Primary School Teachers' PCK towards Science Subjects Using an Inquiry-Based Approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Menşure Alkiş Küçükaydin; Şafak Uluçinar Sağir


    .... According to the results of the study, in which descriptive and content analysis were used concurrently, primary school teachers lack subject matter knowledge, do not interrogate the pre-knowledge...

  12. Learning, knowledge building, and subject matter knowledge in school science (United States)

    van Aalst, Jan Cornelis Wouterus

    Following a theoretical analysis of constructivist approaches to collaborative learning, a curriculum development model, the Learning to Knowledge Building Model, is proposed. Two empirical studies of student work with Computer Supported Intentional Learning Environment (CSILE) are then presented; these lend support to the model and explicate in detail the nature and extent of the knowledge developed by elementary school students. The first study is a content analysis of a database developed by a combined Grade 5/6 class as part of a unit on heat and matter, conducted after the children completed their work; the analysis assumes the point of view of a subject matter specialist in the field of the students' inquiry. The second study was conducted while the students' investigation was in progress, and takes the point of view of curriculum coverage; it involved a teacher who used a different model of database use, as well as different subject matter. The proposed LKB model is based on a distinction Bereiter and Scardamalia (1996a) have made between learning and knowledge building (i.e., progressive collaborative problem solving); its aim is to support the design and planning of curriculum units and classroom practices in which knowledge building is central. An important feature of the model is the attention given to ensuring that students learn to evaluate their knowledge and to ask the questions that can advance shared knowledge. Among the findings of the first study are: (a) students who wrote more notes that explicated their commonsense knowledge early in the unit, by means of mixed framework notes, tended to write more notes of high scientific merit later; (b) some of the students in this category tried out their ideas in diverse problem contexts; and (c) they tended to dominate the discussions they started. The second study provides additional insight into the role of the teacher, and the potential role of subject matter specialists, in knowledge building; it

  13. Does content knowledge matter for new teachers? (United States)

    Reeves, Todd D.

    reduce the plausibility of selection threats to internal validity. The study found no evidence for relationships between teacher content knowledge or pedagogical content knowledge and student mathematics and science achievement in fourth and eighth grade. Furthermore, the results indicated no interactive relationships between forms of teacher knowledge and teaching experience, and student achievement in these grades/subjects. The limitations of cross-sectional, observational studies using large-scale data and directions for further research are discussed.

  14. 49 CFR 1108.3 - Matters subject to arbitration. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Matters subject to arbitration. 1108.3 Section... BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE ARBITRATION OF CERTAIN DISPUTES SUBJECT TO THE STATUTORY JURISDICTION OF THE SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD § 1108.3 Matters subject to arbitration. (a) Any...

  15. The Effects of Verbal Rewards and Punishment on Subject-Matter Growth of Culturally Disadvantaged First Grade Children. (United States)

    Honeycutt, Joan K.; Soar, Robert S.

    The purpose of this study was to extend a relationship between teacher verbal rewarding and punishing behavior and subject matter growth previously obtained with middle-class postprimary children, with a different population; namely, first-grade, lower-class children. The subjects were 366 children and 20 teachers from first-grade classes…

  16. Engaging Students with Subject Matter Experts and Science Content Through Classroom Connection Webinars (United States)

    Graff, P. V.; Rampe, E.; Stefanov, W. L.; Vanderbloemen, L.; Higgins, M.


    Connecting students and teachers in classrooms with science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) experts provides an invaluable opportunity. Subject matter experts can share exciting science and science-related events as well as help to "translate" science being conducted by professionals. The Expedition Earth and Beyond (EEAB) Program, facilitated by the Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Division at the NASA Johnson Space Center, has been providing virtual access to subject matter experts through classroom connection webinars for the last five years. Each year, the reach of these events has grown considerably, especially over the last nine months. These virtual connections not only help engage students with role models, but are also designed to help teachers address concepts and content standards they are required to teach. These events also enable scientists and subject matter experts to help "translate" current science in an engaging and understandable manner while actively involving classrooms in the journey of science and exploration.

  17. Language and Composition: Does the Subject Matter? (United States)

    Alexis, Gerhard T.


    Attempts to combine language and composition in the freshman English course at Gustavus Adolphus College (St. Peter, Minnesota) should interest all teachers of English. One project utilized a single key word for several assignments. Students were asked to (1) think through the meaning of the word for a week and write definitions and associations,…

  18. The Impact of Self-Perceived Subject Matter Knowledge on Pedagogical Decisions in EFL Grammar Teaching Practices (United States)

    Sanchez, Hugo Santiago


    Recent developments in language teacher cognition research highlight the need to explore subject matter knowledge in relation to classroom practice. This study examines the impact of two foreign language teachers' knowledge about grammar upon their pedagogical decisions. The primary database consisted of classroom observations and post-lesson…

  19. Conditioning audience patronage using subject matters in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Films are subject-based and when producers set out to communicate their viewpoints, some do it flamboyantly while others take the subtle path. Unlike live theatre before it, the possibility of a virile spiral regarding the themes treated in movies can be as much repugnant as they can be fascinating. In this case, the audience ...

  20. Turkish Science Student Teachers' Conceptions on the States of Matter (United States)

    Aydin, Abdullah; Altuk, Yasemin Gödek


    This study aims to determine science students teachers' conceptions on the concepts related to "the matter and the states of the matter". 112 Turkish science student teachers participated at this research. A questionnaire consisting of thirteen open-ended items was designed to collect the data. The questionnaire aimed to reveal the…

  1. Cortex Parcellation Associated Whole White Matter Parcellation in Individual Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Schiffler


    Full Text Available The investigation of specific white matter areas is a growing field in neurological research and is typically achieved through the use of atlases. However, the definition of anatomically based regions remains challenging for the white matter and thus hinders region-specific analysis in individual subjects. In this article, we focus on creating a whole white matter parcellation method for individual subjects where these areas can be associated to cortex regions. This is done by combining cortex parcellation and fiber tracking data. By tracking fibers out of each cortex region and labeling the fibers according to their origin, we populate a candidate image. We then derive the white matter parcellation by classifying each white matter voxel according to the distribution of labels in the corresponding voxel from the candidate image. The parcellation of the white matter with the presented method is highly reliable and is not as dependent on registration as with white matter atlases. This method allows for the parcellation of the whole white matter into individual cortex region associated areas and, therefore, associates white matter alterations to cortex regions. In addition, we compare the results from the presented method to existing atlases. The areas generated by the presented method are not as sharply defined as the areas in most existing atlases; however, they are computed directly in the DWI space of the subject and, therefore, do not suffer from distortion caused by registration. The presented approach might be a promising tool for clinical and basic research to investigate modalities or system specific micro structural alterations of white matter areas in a quantitative manner.

  2. Subject matter knowledge, classroom management, and instructional practices in middle school science classrooms (United States)

    Lee, Okhee

    This study examined the interrelationships among three major components of classroom teaching: subject matter content knowledge, classroom management, and instructional practices. The study involved two middle school science classes of different achievement levels taught by the same female teacher. The teacher held an undergraduate degree with a major in social studies and a minor in mathematics and science from an elementary teacher education program. The findings indicated that the teacher's limited knowledge of science content and her strict classroom order resulted in heavy dependence on the textbook and students' individual activities (e.g., seatwork) and avoidance of whole-class activities (e.g., discussion) similarly in both classes. Implications for educational practices and further research are discussed.

  3. Teachers' subjectivities and emotionality in HIV/AIDS teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper draws on qualitative, narrative data gathered from five teachers teaching in a midlands town in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. It finds that teachers' subject positions play a significant role in presenting compassionate, supportive and knowledgeable subjectivities in the classroom; and that their positive and negative ...

  4. Subject Teachers as Educators for Sustainability: A Survey Study (United States)

    Uitto, Anna; Saloranta, Seppo


    Sustainability education (SE) is included in school curricula to integrate the principles, values, and practices of sustainable development (SD) into all education. This study investigates lower secondary school subject teachers as educators for sustainability. A survey was used to study the perceptions of 442 subject teachers from 49 schools in…

  5. Race "Still" Matters: Preparing Culturally Relevant Teachers (United States)

    Durden, Tonia; Dooley, Caitlin McMunn; Truscott, Diane


    This qualitative study explores racial identity development of teacher candidates during a teacher preparation program dedicated to preparing teachers for diverse classrooms. Two black teacher candidates in the US demonstrate their racial identity development through critical reflections offered throughout the program. Findings suggest that…

  6. 22 CFR 61.6 - Consultation with subject matter specialists. (United States)


    ... FREE FLOW OF AUDIO-VISUAL MATERIALS § 61.6 Consultation with subject matter specialists. (a) The... assisting the Department in its determination of whether materials for which export certification or import... determine eligibility of material for certification or authentication based in part on the opinions obtained...

  7. Does tutor subject-matter expertise influence student achievement in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To establish whether or not tutor subject-matter expertise influences student achievement in content-based examinations in the problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum at the University of Transkei (UNITRA) Medical School. Design. A retrospective study of MB ChB III student achievement in end-of-block ...

  8. Prospective Primary School Teachers' Misconceptions about States of Matter (United States)

    Tatar, Erdal


    The purpose of this study was to identify prospective primary school teachers' misconceptions about the states of matter. The sample of the study was 227 fourth-year prospective primary school teachers in a Department of Primary Education in Turkey. Researcher asked from every participant to write a response to an open ended question about…

  9. Rhetorical meta-language to promote the development of students' writing skills and subject matter understanding (United States)

    Pelger, Susanne; Sigrell, Anders


    students' understanding of their subject matter.

  10. Subject domain differences in secondary school teachers' attitudes towards grouping pupils by ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hallam Susan


    Full Text Available Previous research has revealed that teachers' attitudes to ability grouping are influenced by the type of ability grouping adopted in the school where they teach. This research aimed to compare the attitudes of teachers of different subjects teaching low, high or mixed ability classes in years 7 to 9 in 45 secondary schools. Over 1500 teachers from 45 secondary schools, with a range of subject specialisms completed a questionnaire which elicited their responses to statements of beliefs about ability grouping and its effects. Teachers of mathematics and modern foreign languages were more in favour of structured ability grouping than those teaching English and humanities. Science, arts and PE, and ICT, design and business studies teachers expressed intermediate attitudes. Attitudes were determined in part by conceptions of the nature of the subject but also by the type of ability groupings adopted by the school in which they taught. In taking decisions about the type of ability grouping to adopt consideration needs to be given to the nature of the subject matter to be taught and the attitudes of the teachers who teach that subject.

  11. Reflective Pedagogy: The Integration of Methodology and Subject-Matter Content in a Graduate-Level Course (United States)

    Jakeman, Rick C.; Henderson, Markesha M.; Howard, Lionel C.


    This article presents a critical reflection on how we, instructors of a graduate-level course in higher education administration, sought to integrate theoretical and subject-matter content and research methodology. Our reflection, guided by autoethnography and teacher reflection, challenged both our assumptions about curriculum design and our…

  12. How One Exceptional Teacher Navigated Her Working Environment as the Teacher of a Marginal Subject (United States)

    Lux, Karen; McCullick, Bryan A.


    The purpose of this study was to analyze how one exceptional elementary physical education teacher navigated her working environment as the teacher of a marginal subject. Structuration Theory (Giddens, 1984) was used to make meaning of how the teacher functioned within her school community allowing her to remain motivated and effective. Data…

  13. Teaching Matters: Observations on Teacher Evaluations (United States)

    Hibler, David W.; Snyder, Jeffrey Aaron


    In this essay, the authors reflect on the ongoing teacher effectiveness debate. W. David Hibler is an experienced language arts teacher, who has taught in public high schools and middle schools in Alaska, North Carolina, and New York City. Jeffrey Aaron Snyder is a historian of education who writes about schooling in the twentieth-century United…

  14. Are Ontario Teachers Paid More Equitably? Do Local Variables Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobin Li


    Full Text Available This study investigated whether Ontario’s education funding reform of 1998 made teacher salaries more equitable. It also examined whether selected local variables had the same influence on teacher salaries in 2001-02 as they did in 1995-96 before the reform. Average teacher salaries before the reform in 1995-96 and after the reform in 2001-02 among school boards and among census divisions were compared to see whether the variation in teacher salaries increased or decreased. A partial correlation analysis was conducted to examine the influence on teacher salaries from local variables, which were derived from a literature review. This study finds that (a teachers are paid more equitably today than before the reform, and (b local variables no longer really matter, as a result of the changed provincial funding formula.

  15. Subject Teachers as Educators for Sustainability: A Survey Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Uitto


    Full Text Available Sustainability education (SE is included in school curricula to integrate the principles, values, and practices of sustainable development (SD into all education. This study investigates lower secondary school subject teachers as educators for sustainability. A survey was used to study the perceptions of 442 subject teachers from 49 schools in Finland. There were significant differences between the subject teachers’ perceptions of their SE competence, and the frequency with which they used different dimensions of SE (ecological, economic, social, well-being, cultural in their teaching varied. Teachers’ age had a small effect, but gender, school, and its residential location were nonsignificant factors. Teachers could be roughly classified into three different subgroups according to their perceptions of the role of SE in their teaching; those who considered three SE dimensions rather often and used holistic sustainability approaches in their teaching (biology, geography, history; those who considered two or three dimensions often but were not active in holistic teaching (mother tongue, religion, visual arts, crafts, music, physical and health education, and home economics and those who used one SE dimension or consider only one holistic approach in their teaching (mathematics, physics, chemistry and language. Subject teachers’ awareness of their SE competence is important to encourage them to plan and implement discipline-based and interdisciplinary SE in their teaching. The specific SE expertise of subject teachers should be taken into account in teacher training and education.

  16. The impact of teacher subject knowledge on student achievement: Evidence from within-teacher within-student variation


    Metzler, Johannes; Woessmann, Ludger


    Teachers differ greatly in how much they teach their students, but little is known about which teacher attributes account for this. We estimate the causal effect of teacher subject knowledge on student achievement using within-teacher within-student variation, exploiting a unique Peruvian 6th-grade dataset that tested both students and their teachers in two subjects. We circumvent omitted-variable and selection biases using student and teacher fixed effects and observing teachers teaching bot...

  17. Single-subject grey matter graphs in Alzheimer's disease. (United States)

    Tijms, Betty M; Möller, Christiane; Vrenken, Hugo; Wink, Alle Meije; de Haan, Willem; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Stam, Cornelis J; Scheltens, Philip; Barkhof, Frederik


    Coordinated patterns of cortical morphology have been described as structural graphs and previous research has demonstrated that properties of such graphs are altered in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it remains unknown how these alterations are related to cognitive deficits in individuals, as such graphs are restricted to group-level analysis. In the present study we investigated this question in single-subject grey matter networks. This new method extracts large-scale structural graphs where nodes represent small cortical regions that are connected by edges when they show statistical similarity. Using this method, unweighted and undirected networks were extracted from T1 weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging scans of 38 AD patients (19 female, average age 72±4 years) and 38 controls (19 females, average age 72±4 years). Group comparisons of standard graph properties were performed after correcting for grey matter volumetric measurements and were correlated to scores of general cognitive functioning. AD networks were characterised by a more random topology as indicated by a decreased small world coefficient (p = 3.53×10(-5)), decreased normalized clustering coefficient (p = 7.25×10(-6)) and decreased normalized path length (p = 1.91×10(-7)). Reduced normalized path length explained significantly (p = 0.004) more variance in measurements of general cognitive decline (32%) in comparison to volumetric measurements (9%). Altered path length of the parahippocampal gyrus, hippocampus, fusiform gyrus and precuneus showed the strongest relationship with cognitive decline. The present results suggest that single-subject grey matter graphs provide a concise quantification of cortical structure that has clinical value, which might be of particular importance for disease prognosis. These findings contribute to a better understanding of structural alterations and cognitive dysfunction in AD.

  18. Through the Camera's Eye: A Phenomenological Analysis of Teacher Subjectivity (United States)

    Greenwalt, Kyle A.


    The purpose of this study is to understand how preservice teachers experience a common university assignment: the videotaping and analysis of their own instruction. Using empirical data and the thought of the French philosophers Michel Foucault and Emmanuel Levinas, the study examines the difficulties in transitioning from student subjectivity to…

  19. The Impact of Teacher Qualification and Subject Major in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The simple correlation and regression statistics at the 0.01 and 0.05 significant levels were utilized for data analysis as well as the statistical inference. Findings indicated a significant positive relationship between students' academic achievement in mathematics and teacher qualification and subject majors. The findings ...

  20. Landscape History and Theory: from Subject Matter to Analytical Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Birksted


    Full Text Available This essay explores how landscape history can engage methodologically with the adjacent disciplines of art history and visual/cultural studies. Central to the methodological problem is the mapping of the beholder - spatially, temporally and phenomenologically. In this mapping process, landscape history is transformed from subject matter to analytical tool. As a result, landscape history no longer simply imports and applies ideas from other disciplines but develops its own methodologies to engage and influence them. Landscape history, like art history, thereby takes on a creative cultural presence. Through that process, landscape architecture and garden design regains the cultural power now carried by the arts and museum studies, and has an effect on the innovative capabilities of contemporary landscape design.

  1. Sustainable Architecture in the Context of Education: Reponses of Primary School Teachers on the Topical Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cencič Majda


    Full Text Available The concept of sustainability and a sustainable and ecological development are common debate topics in today’s society. This paper discusses the concept of sustainability in green building with regard to schools. The research was conducted on a representative sample of primary school teachers, focusing on some of their opinions on green building. We asked them which aspect of building they favoured and how often they asked themselves certain questions about the school they taught in. Furthermore, we were interested to see whether we would find age-related differences. To this end, teachers were divided into two groups, namely, teachers of up to 35 years of age and teachers over 35. We were surprised to find that teachers over 35 had a more positive attitude towards green building in schools compared to their younger colleagues. Based on the results, we came to a conclusion that the topics pertaining to ecology and sustainable development are neglected in today’s education. However, making them part of school curriculum is not enough, as the opinions and attitudes of teachers on sustainable and ecological issues also have an important impact on the subject-matter itself.

  2. In Peer Matters, Teachers Matter: Peer Group Influences on Students' Engagement Depend on Teacher Involvement (United States)

    Vollet, Justin W.; Kindermann, Thomas A.; Skinner, Ellen A.


    This study focused on the joint effects of teachers and peer groups as predictors of change in students' engagement during the first year of middle school, when the importance of peer relationships normatively increases and the quality of teacher-student relationships typically declines. To explore cumulative and contextualized joint effects, the…

  3. Developing Pedagogical Content Knowledge for Teaching a New Topic: More Than Teaching Experience and Subject Matter Knowledge (United States)

    Chan, Kennedy Kam Ho; Yung, Benny Hin Wai


    Teaching experience has been identified as an important factor in pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) development. However, little is known about how experienced teachers may draw on their previous experience to facilitate their PCK development. This study examined how two experienced high school biology teachers approached the teaching of a newly introduced topic in the curriculum, polymerase chain reaction and their PCK development from the pre-lesson planning phase through the interactive phase to the post-lesson reflection phase. Multiple data sources included classroom observations, field notes, semi-structured interviews and classroom artefacts. It was found that the teachers' previous experience informed their planning for teaching the new topic, but in qualitatively different ways. This, in turn, had a bearing on their new PCK development. Subject matter knowledge (SMK) can not only facilitate but may also hinder this development. Our findings identify two types of experienced teachers: those who can capitalise on their previous teaching experiences and SMK to develop new PCK and those who do not. The critical difference is whether in the lesson planning stage, the teacher shows the disposition to draw on a generalised mental framework that enables the teacher to capitalise on his existing SMK to develop new PCK. Helping teachers to acquire this disposition should be a focus for teacher training in light of continuous curriculum changes.

  4. Dynamic features of the learning activity of the future teacher as a teacher interaction subject


    Коць, Михайло Онисимович; Kots, Mykhailo O.


    This article deals with theoretical analysis and empirical investigation of educational activity dynamics of future teachers. Activity, awareness, mutual commitment are peculiar to educational interactions by both sides – the students (student) – a teacher – who act as subjects where coordinated action is the result and amplifies by mental state of contact are grounded. Methodological meaning of the notion activity in relation to psychological research, primarily in principle activity o...

  5. On indexes and subject matter of “global competitiveness”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Korotkov


    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to analyze the subject matter of a country’s competitiveness and to characterize statistical indexes of competitiveness known in the international practice from the perspective of a more elaborated theory of market competition. This aim follows from the identified problems. First, there are no generally accepted interpretation and joint understanding of competition and competitiveness at country level. Even the international organizations giving estimations of global competitiveness disagree on definitions of competitiveness. Secondly, there is no relation to the theory of market competition in the available source materials on competitiveness of the country without original methodology. Thirdly, well-known statistical indexes of global competitiveness do not have enough theoretical justification and differ in sets of factors. All this highlights the incompleteness of the methodology and methodological support of studying competitiveness at country level.Materials and methods. The research is based on the methodology of statistics, economic theory and marketing. The authors followed the basic principle of statistical methodology – requirement of continuous combination of qualitative and quantitative analysis, when the research begins and ends with qualitative analysis. A most important section of statistical methodology is widely used – construction of statistical indexes. In the course of the analysis, a method of statistical classifications is applied. A significant role in the present research is given to the method of generalizing and analogue method, realizing that related terms should mean similar and almost similar contents. Modeling of competition and competitiveness is widely used in the present research, which made it possible to develop a logical model of competition following from the competition theory.Results. Based on the definitions’ survey the analysis of the subject matter of global

  6. Blending critical thinking skills with the teaching of subject matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study draws on Piaget and Vygotsky's theory of (social) constructivism to advance approaches and practices that teachers can employ to promote critical thinking in learners. We develop a lesson plan that incorporates critical thinking skills and show how teachers can correct egocentric and sociocentric tendencies that ...

  7. Subject Knowledge Development by Science Student Teachers: The Role of University Tutors and School-Based Subject Mentors (United States)

    Youens, Bernadette; McCarthy, Susan


    Following the introduction of a National Curriculum for Science, all secondary science teachers in England need to be prepared to teach all aspects of a broad and balanced science curriculum. This is the second paper in which we explore science student teachers' subject knowledge development during a one-year postgraduate teacher preparation…

  8. Do less effective teachers choose professional development does it matter? (United States)

    Barrett, Nathan; Butler, J S; Toma, Eugenia F


    In an ongoing effort to improve teacher quality, most states require continuing education or professional development for their in-service teachers. Studies evaluating the effectiveness of various professional development programs have assumed a normal distribution of quality of teachers participating in the programs. Because participation in many professional development programs is either targeted or voluntary, this article suggests past evaluations of the effectiveness of professional development may be subject to selection bias and policy recommendations may be premature. This article presents an empirical framework for evaluating professional development programs where treatment is potentially nonrandom, and explicitly accounts for the teacher's prior effectiveness in the classroom as a factor that may influence participation in professional development. This article controls for the influence of selection bias on professional development outcomes by generating a matched sample based on propensity scores and then estimating the program's effect. In applying this framework to the professional development program examined in this article, less effective teachers are found to be more likely to participate in the program, and correcting for this selection leads to different conclusions regarding the program's effectiveness than when ignoring teacher selection patterns.

  9. Cerebral white matter lesions and subjective cognitive dysfunction - The Rotterdam Scan Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, J.C.; de Leeuw, FE; Oudkerk, M; Hofman, A; Jolles, J; Breteler, MMB


    Objective: To determine the relationship between cerebral white matter lesions (WML) and subjective cognitive dysfunction. Background: Subjective cognitive dysfunction is present when a person perceives failures of cognitive function. When annoying enough, these failures will be expressed as

  10. The Subject and the Setting: Re-Imagining Opportunities for Primary Teachers' Subject Knowledge Development on School-Based Teacher Education Courses (United States)

    Knight, Rupert


    The landscape of teacher education is undergoing significant change in many countries and this is often associated with a move towards greater school involvement in the preparation of teachers. One aspect of teaching expertise that is particularly challenging for primary student-teachers is the development of subject knowledge across a wide range…

  11. 48 CFR 52.227-10 - Filing of Patent Applications-Classified Subject Matter. (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Filing of Patent... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.227-10 Filing of Patent Applications—Classified Subject Matter. As prescribed at 27.203-2, insert the following clause: Filing of Patent Applications—Classified Subject Matter...

  12. Beyond "Either-Or" Thinking: John Dewey and Confucius on Subject Matter and the Learner (United States)

    Tan, Charlene


    This article compares the educational thought of John Dewey and Confucius on the nature of and relationship between subject matter and the learner. There is a common perception in the existing literature and discourse that Dewey advocates child- or learner-centred education whereas Confucius privileges subject matter via textual transmission.…

  13. A Conflict between Experience and Professional Learning: Subject Teachers' Beliefs about Teaching English Language Learners (United States)

    Gleeson, Margaret; Davison, Chris


    Secondary schools in Australia have long benefited from state policies aiming to increase the academic success of English language learners (ELLs). Complementary pre-service and in-service teacher education programmes have been implemented to raise the expertise of subject teachers who teach ELL students. However, subject teachers may not be…

  14. Global Injustice, Pedagogy and Democratic Iterations: Some Reflections on Why Teachers Matter (United States)

    Unterhalter, Elaine


    The article argues teachers matter because of their potential to engage in critical reflection on values associated with connecting the local, the national and the global. Their practice can support those who are dislocated, and who have no place. Teachers matter because they can help us understand how we share humanity and aspirations across many…

  15. Reformation of VET and Demands on Teachers' Subject Knowledge--Swedish Vocational Teachers' Recurrent Participation in a National CPD Initiative (United States)

    Köpsén, S.; Andersson, P.


    This study investigates continuing professional development (CPD) of vocational teachers, with a focus on recurrent participation. Vocational teachers need to be competent as teachers and in relation to their vocational teaching subject. Reformation of Swedish vocational education in order to strengthen the working-life connection imposes demands…

  16. Construction of Leadership among School Teachers: Does Social Identity Matters?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetan Sinha


    Full Text Available Present study attempts to interrogate the dominant trait based approach of leadership and tried to relook it from group perspective. Investigation was conducted in two phases where teachers were asked about the quality of ideally effective leader they would prefer. The obtained responses were thematically transformed into broader variable which were factor analyzed. Under social identity traditions, leadership is not based on individual characteristics’ but it is a group process (Reicher et al., 2005. Based on this metatheoretical assumption, the present study interrogated the psychometric dimensions of leadership constructed among school teachers and questioned whether social identity matters in the perception of leaders? Result obtained seven dimensions (69.078% of total variance in which four dimensions viz., achievement orientation, conventional personality orientation, nurturant and health orientation (together constituting 31.133% of total variance showing the importance of individual characteristics’ of leaders. However, other three dimensions viz., ingroup prototypicality, entrepreneur of identity, and group productivity together constituting 37.935% of total variance showed traces of social identity as potent reason behind the preferences of ideally effective leader.

  17. Pedagogies of difference: Unknowing immigrant teachers as subjects forever in process


    Arndt Sonja


    Immersed in the bicultural, increasingly globalized, yet uniquely local, Aotearoa New Zealand early childhood landscape, immigrant teacher subjects are shaped in complicated, entangled ways. This paper attempts to open fresh spaces for re-thinking knowable teacher identities by drawing on Julia Kristeva’s work on the foreigner and the subject-in-process. It explores the immigrant teacher subject as “infinitely in construction, de-constructible, open and evolving” (Kristeva, 2008, p. 2). In a ...

  18. Generating a non-English subjectivity lexicon: relations that matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jijkoun, V.; Hofmann, K.


    We describe a method for creating a non-English subjectivity lexicon based on an English lexicon, an online translation service and a general purpose thesaurus: Wordnet. We use a PageRank-like algorithm to bootstrap from the translation of the English lexicon and rank the words in the thesaurus by

  19. The interrelationship between subject matter and school gardens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jacob Højgaard; Wistoft, Karen


    This article maps out existing research regarding the effectiveness of integrated teaching in school gardens, i.e. including the math, languages and science subjects with their related objectives and curricula in school garden teaching and vice versa. The article is based on a literature review...... a standard garden curriculum is essential to planning, carrying out and evaluating effective school garden teaching in math, languages and science. Experiential learning and hands-on activities are teaching methods that immediately come to mind because they make the subject content less abstract, activate...... that concludes that school gardens have a predominantly positive influence on students’ learning outcome. However, there are a few school garden programmes that have the same or even a less beneficial influence on students’ learning outcome than traditional teaching. Thus, school gardens do not have...

  20. Didactic Matters in Teaching Subjects of Economics at the College

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Strazdienė


    Full Text Available It has been stated in Lithuania‘s National School Concept that the primary goal of the education of Lithuania is to secure the best possible comprehensive development of physical, psychological and spiritual human powers, to create conditions for the unfolding of the personal individuality. The subject of my teaching is economic theory. We face economic questions every day and in all areas of life. Therefore, my purpose is to acquaint college students, who do not study economics, with economic basics, to develop economic thinking and literacy. Greatest attention is paid to describe economic concepts and to use them in practice. Economics can not be learned through observing, one must work, analyse, solve practical exercises, search for correct answers. The purpose of the article is to assess the students‘ approach to the relevance of the subjects of economics. It is sought to identify the possibilities of applying new methods for teaching economic subjects and of selecting a teaching method in accordance with the students‘ level of preparation. The assessment of the research carried out enables to conclude that teaching economics forms students‘ capacities of a wide range, stimulates their self-expression, prepares young people to work in market conditions. The following methods of the research have been employed: pedagogic observation, questionnaire (survey, analysis of scientific literature and generalization.

  1. Subjectivity and Objectivity: A Matter of Life and Death?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertrudis Van de Vijver


    Full Text Available In this paper, it is argued that the question ldquo;What is life?rdquo; time and again emergesmdash;and within the confines of an objectivistic/subjectivistic frame of thought has to emergemdash;as a symptom, a non-deciphered, cryptic message that insists on being interpreted. br /Our hypothesis is that the failure to measure up the living to the standards of objectification has been taken too frequently from an objectivistic angle, leading to a simple postponement of an objective treatment of the living, and meanwhile confining it to the domain of the subjective, the relative and the metaphorical. As a consequence, the truly important question of the co-constitutive relation between objectivity and subjectivity is thereby evaded. A critical, transcendental account can be relevant in this regard, not only because of the fact that objectivity and subjectivity are seen as co-constitutive, but also because it addresses the question of the embeddedness of objectivity and subjectivity from within the living /This hypothesis will be articulated on the basis of Erwin Schrouml;dingerrsquo;s famous little book on ldquo;What is life?rdquo;, in dialogue with Robert Rosenrsquo;s critical reading of it. It appears that Schrouml;dinger considered the living as a genuine challenge for classical objectification procedures. However, it is doubtful whether this brought him to a critical reading of objectivity or to the acknowledgment of a constitutive role of subjectivity in relation to objectivity. We argue that his viewpoint has the merit ofnbsp; expressing the difficulty of the living within the field of the physical sciences, but does not really transcend the objectivism/subjectivism opposition. At this point, Rosenrsquo;s relational account takes up the challenge more radically by acknowledging the need for a new epistemology and a new metaphysics in relation to living systems, and by attributing a place to classical objectivity from within this

  2. An International Teacher Training Project: Integrating Subject Content, Communicative and Digital Competences in Didactic Materials (United States)

    Sierra, Lina; Martin, Piedad


    The European intTT project "An Integral Teacher Training for Developing Digital and Communicative Competences and Subject Content Learning at Schools" deals with initial teacher training in primary and secondary School. The general objective of the project is to train future school teachers in order to improve the development of…

  3. Comparison of Coping Strategies of Student Teachers Based on Their Subject of Specialisation (United States)

    P. M., Majitha; Sajan, K. S.


    The purpose of the study was to find out the difference in the mean scores of coping strategies of student teachers based on their subject of specialisation. A total of 558 student teachers were selected for the study. Results indicate that there exists a significant difference in the mean scores of Coping Strategies of student teachers of Arts…

  4. 37 CFR 1.110 - Inventorship and date of invention of the subject matter of individual claims. (United States)


    ... invention of the subject matter of individual claims. 1.110 Section 1.110 Patents, Trademarks, and... invention of the subject matter of individual claims. When more than one inventor is named in an application... claim in the application or patent. Where appropriate, the invention dates of the subject matter of each...

  5. Experiential Learning of Electronics Subject Matter in Middle School Robotics Courses (United States)

    Rihtaršic, David; Avsec, Stanislav; Kocijancic, Slavko


    The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether the experiential learning of electronics subject matter is effective in the middle school open learning of robotics. Electronics is often ignored in robotics courses. Since robotics courses are typically comprised of computer-related subjects, and mechanical and electrical engineering, these…

  6. The Discursive Construction of Power in Teacher Partnerships: Language and Subject Specialists in Mainstream Schools. (United States)

    Creese, Angela


    Shows how language and subject teachers in London secondary schools are positioned differently through their discursive performance of pedagogues and knowledge and how members of classroom communities view language and subject teachers as unequal. Data analysis dew on ethnography of communication and semiotic functional approaches to explain the…

  7. Pre-Service Physical Education Teachers' Perceptions of Subject Knowledge: Augmenting Learning to Teach (United States)

    Herold, Frank; Waring, Michael


    This paper explores pre-service teachers' perceptions of subject knowledge as they learn to teach during a one-year postgraduate certificate in education (PGCE) programme in England. The article examines the impact of pre-service teachers' previous experiences and individual subject knowledge profiles on their development during their PGCE course.…

  8. Internal and External Factors Shaping Educational Beliefs of High School Teachers of "Sacred" Subjects to Girls (United States)

    Iluz, Shira; Rich, Yisrael


    This research investigated pedagogical beliefs of teachers of "sacred" school subjects, curricular topics that the school community deems culturally valued, unassailable and inviolate. Two hundred and fifty-five teachers of girls only who taught sacred or secular subjects in Jewish modern religious high schools responded to questionnaires focusing…

  9. Digital Inclusion of Secondary Schools' Subject Teachers in Bolivia (United States)

    Popova, Iskra; Fabre, Gabriela


    The government of Bolivia planned to introduce information technology in secondary education through establishing computer labs in schools and through granting each subject teacher a laptop. This initiative was tested for the first time in 2012 with three public schools in La Paz. Most of the subject teachers have never used a computer before. The…

  10. One Health in food safety and security education: Subject matter outline for a curricular framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Angelos


    Full Text Available Educating students in the range of subjects encompassing food safety and security as approached from a One Health perspective requires consideration of a variety of different disciplines and the interrelationships among disciplines. The Western Institute for Food Safety and Security developed a subject matter outline to accompany a previously published One Health in food safety and security curricular framework. The subject matter covered in this outline encompasses a variety of topics and disciplines related to food safety and security including effects of food production on the environment. This subject matter outline should help guide curriculum development and education in One Health in food safety and security and provides useful information for educators, researchers, students, and public policy-makers facing the inherent challenges of maintaining and/or developing safe and secure food supplies without destroying Earth's natural resources.

  11. Trends in the journal of nematology, 1969-2009: authors, States, nematodes, and subject matter. (United States)

    McSorley, R


    Issues of the Journal of Nematology from 1969-2009 were examined to determine trends in authorship and subject matter. Data were collected on authors, affiliations, locations, funding, nematodes, and nematological subject matter, and then compared among the 4 decades involved. Some of the more prominent changes noted included: a decrease (P Journal of Nematology in the 1990s and 2000s from a peak in the 1980s; an increase (P Journal of Nematology from 1969-2009. The greatest changes in subject matter were increases in papers on biological control and resistance in the 1990s and 2000s compared to the 1970s and 1980s. Additional trends and subjects are discussed, and data are provided comparing differences among the 4 decades for various aspects of nematology.

  12. One Health in food safety and security education: Subject matter outline for a curricular framework. (United States)

    Angelos, John A; Arens, Amanda L; Johnson, Heather A; Cadriel, Jessica L; Osburn, Bennie I


    Educating students in the range of subjects encompassing food safety and security as approached from a One Health perspective requires consideration of a variety of different disciplines and the interrelationships among disciplines. The Western Institute for Food Safety and Security developed a subject matter outline to accompany a previously published One Health in food safety and security curricular framework. The subject matter covered in this outline encompasses a variety of topics and disciplines related to food safety and security including effects of food production on the environment. This subject matter outline should help guide curriculum development and education in One Health in food safety and security and provides useful information for educators, researchers, students, and public policy-makers facing the inherent challenges of maintaining and/or developing safe and secure food supplies without destroying Earth's natural resources.

  13. Using Subjective Teacher Evaluations to Examine Principals' Personnel Management (United States)

    Master, Benjamin


    Teacher evaluation is at the center of current education policy reform. Most evaluation systems rely at least in part on principals' assessments of teachers, and their discretionary judgments carry substantial weight. However, we know relatively little about what they value when determining evaluations and high stakes personnel decisions. The…

  14. Mathematics teachers' knowledge of the subject content and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the need of the mathematics teacher to be equipped adequately in the content areas in mathematics, vis-a-vis the recent concerns about the poor performance of students in the pre-tertiary schools, and the competence of mathematics teachers in the field. The low performance in mathematics at the ...

  15. Fiberprint: A subject fingerprint based on sparse code pooling for white matter fiber analysis. (United States)

    Kumar, Kuldeep; Desrosiers, Christian; Siddiqi, Kaleem; Colliot, Olivier; Toews, Matthew


    White matter characterization studies use the information provided by diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) to draw cross-population inferences. However, the structure, function, and white matter geometry vary across individuals. Here, we propose a subject fingerprint, called Fiberprint, to quantify the individual uniqueness in white matter geometry using fiber trajectories. We learn a sparse coding representation for fiber trajectories by mapping them to a common space defined by a dictionary. A subject fingerprint is then generated by applying a pooling function for each bundle, thus providing a vector of bundle-wise features describing a particular subject's white matter geometry. These features encode unique properties of fiber trajectories, such as their density along prominent bundles. An analysis of data from 861 Human Connectome Project subjects reveals that a fingerprint based on approximately 3000 fiber trajectories can uniquely identify exemplars from the same individual. We also use fingerprints for twin/sibling identification, our observations consistent with the twin data studies of white matter integrity. Our results demonstrate that the proposed Fiberprint can effectively capture the variability in white matter fiber geometry across individuals, using a compact feature vector (dimension of 50), making this framework particularly attractive for handling large datasets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Teachers' Assessment Experiences and Perceptions in the Practical-Aesthetic Subjects (United States)

    Oltedal, Elizabeth; Gamlem, Siv M.; Kleivenes, Ole M.; Ryslett, Kari; Vasset, Thorstein


    A challenge for the practical-aesthetic subjects is the perception that they are less important than theoretical knowledge subjects. These subjects are among the non-core subjects receiving highest grades in Norwegian lower secondary schools, but also represent the highest number of complaints about grading. This study investigates teachers'…

  17. Active Solidarity: Centering the Demands and Vision of the Black Lives Matter Movement in Teacher Education (United States)

    Mayorga, Edwin; Picower, Bree


    In the era of Black Lives Matter (#BLM), urban teacher education does not exist in isolation. The White supremacist, neoliberal context that impacts all aspects of Black lives also serves to support antiblackness within the structures of teacher education. In this article, the authors, who are grounded in a race radical analytical and political…

  18. Planetary Exploration Education: As Seen From the Point of View of Subject Matter Experts (United States)

    Milazzo, M. P.; Anderson, R. B.; Gaither, T. A.; Vaughan, R. G.


    Planetary Learning that Advances the Nexus of Engineering, Technology, and Science (PLANETS) was selected as one of 27 new projects to support the NASA Science Mission Directorate's Science Education Cooperative Agreement Notice. Our goal is to develop and disseminate out-of-school time (OST) curricular and related educator professional development modules that integrate planetary science, technology, and engineering. We are a partnership between planetary science Subject Matter Experts (SMEs), curriculum developers, science and engineering teacher professional development experts and OST teacher networks. The PLANETS team includes the Center for Science Teaching and Learning (CSTL) at Northern Arizona University (NAU); the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Astrogeology Science Center (Astrogeology), and the Boston Museum of Science (MOS). Here, we present the work and approach by the SMEs at Astrogeology. As part of this overarching project, we will create a model for improved integration of SMEs, curriculum developers, professional development experts, and educators. For the 2016 and 2017 Fiscal Years, our focus is on creating science material for two OST modules designed for middle school students. We will begin development of a third module for elementary school students in the latter part of FY2017. The first module focuses on water conservation and treatment as applied on Earth, the International Space Station, and at a fictional Mars base. This unit involves the science and engineering of finding accessible water, evaluating it for quality, treating it for impurities (i.e., dissolved and suspended), initial use, a cycle of greywater treatment and re-use, and final treatment of blackwater. The second module involves the science and engineering of remote sensing as it is related to Earth and planetary exploration. This includes discussion and activities related to the electromagnetic spectrum, spectroscopy and various remote sensing systems and techniques. In

  19. White and Black Teachers' Job Satisfaction: Does Relational Demography Matter? (United States)

    Fairchild, Susan; Tobias, Robert; Corcoran, Sean; Djukic, Maja; Kovner, Christine; Noguera, Pedro


    Data on the impact of student, teacher, and principal racial and gender composition in urban schools on teacher work outcomes are limited. This study, a secondary data analysis of White and Black urban public school teachers using data taken from the restricted use 2003-04 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS), examines the effects of relational…

  20. Teacher Emotion and Learning as Praxis: Professional Development That Matters (United States)

    Yoo, Joanne; Carter, Don


    This ethnographic study analyses the diverse emotions emerging within one teacher professional development workshop that engaged teachers as creative writers. Participating teachers revealed a vibrant range of positive and negative emotions as they worked within institutional discourses that conflicted with their intrinsic beliefs about effective…

  1. Trends in the Journal of Nematology, 1969-2009: Authors, States, Nematodes, and Subject Matter


    McSorley, R.


    Issues of the Journal of Nematology from 1969-2009 were examined to determine trends in authorship and subject matter. Data were collected on authors, affiliations, locations, funding, nematodes, and nematological subject matter, and then compared among the 4 decades involved. Some of the more prominent changes noted included: a decrease (P < 0.05) in the number of papers published in the Journal of Nematology in the 1990s and 2000s from a peak in the 1980s; an increase (P < 0.05) in number o...

  2. Pedagogies of difference: Unknowing immigrant teachers as subjects forever in process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arndt Sonja


    Full Text Available Immersed in the bicultural, increasingly globalized, yet uniquely local, Aotearoa New Zealand early childhood landscape, immigrant teacher subjects are shaped in complicated, entangled ways. This paper attempts to open fresh spaces for re-thinking knowable teacher identities by drawing on Julia Kristeva’s work on the foreigner and the subject-in-process. It explores the immigrant teacher subject as “infinitely in construction, de-constructible, open and evolving” (Kristeva, 2008, p. 2. In a sector that is grappling with the complexities of outcomes driven expectations of productivity, mass participation and often homogenized indicators of ‘quality’, this paper elevates insights into the subject formation of the Other, to expose cracks in this veneer, through the notions of the semiotic and revolt. In this critical philosophical examination, I reconceptualise the idea of knowing immigrant teacher subjects, and their confrontation and (renegotiation of social, political and professional expectations and unknowable foreignness.

  3. Involving Students’ Opinion in Actual and Preferred Teacher Interpersonal Behavior and Their Attitude Towards Science Subject


    Mustafa Kamal Nasution


    This study aims to investigate the student perception on teacher interpersonal behavior and their attitude toward science subject. 207 respondents were involved, consisted of 200 students in 10-12 grade and 7 science teachers of public high school in Aceh. Two types of questionnaires were used namely the Indonesian version of the questionnaire of teacher interaction (QTI) and test of science related attitude (TOSRA). SPSS program were applied to process the data statistically. First, the reli...

  4. The Effects of CLIL Education on the Subject Matter (Mathematics) and the Target Language (English) (United States)

    Ouazizi, Khalid


    This paper investigates the effects of Content and Language Integrated Learning, CLIL for short, on both the attainment of the subject matter, mathematics in our case, hence the content aspect of CLIL. The second axes of research focuses on the effect of CLIL on the learners' proficiency vis-à-vis the language of instruction, epitomized here by…

  5. On the Importance of Subject Matter in Mathematics Education: A Conversation with Erich Christian Wittmann (United States)

    Akinwunmi, Kathrin; Höveler, Karina; Schnell, Susanne


    Erich Christian Wittmann is one of the primary founders of mathematics education research as an autonomous field of work and research in Germany. The interview presented here reflects on his role in promoting mathematics education as a design science. The interview addresses the following topics: (1) The importance of subject matter in…

  6. The Structure of Subject Matter Content and Its Instructional Design Implications (United States)

    Reigeluth, Charles M.; And Others


    Four types of fundamental structures are briefly described and illustrated: the learning hierarchy, the procedural hierarchy, the taxonomy, and the model. Then a theoretical framework is presented for classifying types of subject matter content, and some implications of these content classifications are discussed. (VT)

  7. The Designer-by-Assignment in Practice: Instructional Design Thinking of Subject Matter Experts (United States)

    Pesce, Sandra V.


    Designers-by-assignment, or subject matter experts (SMEs) who are pressed into training service, have become common in the workplace. A review of more than 24 studies on expert and novice instructional designers, however, revealed that little is known about how designers-by-assignment think about design and make design decisions in the field. A…

  8. The Dialectical Nature of Writing and Its Implications for Learning Subject Matter Courses. (United States)

    Males, Terry


    Looks at writing as a dialectical affair--"dialectic" refers both to the dialogical nature of writing and the opportunity it opens up for the writer in coming to a new understanding of the subject matter. Uses H. Gadamer's philosophical hermeneutics as a starting point for developing writing as a dialectical process. (PA)

  9. Reclaiming the Subject Matter as a Guide to Mutual Understanding: Effectiveness and Ethics in Interpersonal Interaction. (United States)

    Deetz, Stanley


    Presents H. G. Gadamer's ontology of understanding as a developmental foundation for interpersonal system ethics. Conceptualizes interaction in terms of demand that the subject matter places on openly formed mutual understanding. Shows unethical interactions as practices which prohibit this development. Provides examples of processes by which…

  10. Language Teacher Subjectivities in Japan's Diaspora Strategies: Teaching My Language as Someone's Heritage Language (United States)

    Motobayashi, Kyoko


    This study demonstrates the ways in which discourses in a state-sponsored volunteer program incited transformations of individual subjectivities, focusing on a group of Japanese language teacher volunteers training in Japan to become teachers of Japanese as a heritage language for the country's diaspora (Nikkei) population in South America. As…

  11. Subject- and Experience-Bound Differences in Teachers' Conceptual Understanding of Sustainable Development (United States)

    Borg, C.; Gericke, N.; Höglund, H.-O.; Bergman, E.


    This article describes the results of a nationwide questionnaire study of 3229 Swedish upper secondary school teachers' conceptual understanding of sustainable development in relation to their subject discipline and teaching experience. Previous research has shown that teachers have difficulties understanding the complex concept of sustainable…

  12. Insights from a Subject Knowledge Enhancement Course for Preparing New Chemistry and Physics Teachers (United States)

    Inglis, Michael; Mallaburn, Andrea; Tynan, Richard; Clays, Ken; Jones, Robert Bryn


    A recent Government response to shortages of new physics and chemistry teachers is the extended subject knowledge enhancement (SKE) course. Graduates without a physics or chemistry bachelor degree are prepared by an SKE course to enter a Postgraduate Certificate in Education (PGCE) programme to become science teachers with a physics or chemistry…

  13. Teacher Support and Adolescents' Subjective Well-Being: A Mixed-Methods Investigation (United States)

    Suldo, Shannon M.; Friedrich, Allison A.; White, Tiffany; Farmer, Jennie; Minch, Devon; Michalowski, Jessica


    Adolescents' subjective well-being (SWB) is associated with a variety of schooling experiences, particularly their perceptions of teacher support. This article presents results of a mixed-methods study conducted to identify which types of perceived social support enacted by teachers are most strongly associated with middle school students' SWB…

  14. The Teacher as One of the Factors Influencing Students' Perception of Biology as a School Subject (United States)

    Kubiatko, Milan; Torkar, Gregor; Rovnanova, Lenka


    The main aim of our research was to determine whether the teacher is one of the factors influencing students' perception of biology as a school subject. The study also aimed to identify the influence of certain other factors in this regard, specifically: students' gender and place of residence, the number of biology teachers who have taught the…

  15. Methods That Matter in Addressing Cultural Diversity with Teacher Candidates (United States)

    Acquah, Emmanuel O.; Commins, Nancy L.


    Drawing on a combination of prior experience, theoretical stance, and intuition, along with pedagogical practices identified to be effective in addressing diversity with teacher candidates, a model for teaching multicultural education to teacher candidates was designed. This study examined how particular elements of this model were effective in…

  16. The Heart of Matter: A Nuclear Chemistry Module. Teacher's Guide. (United States)

    Viola, Vic; Hearle, Robert

    This teacher's guide is designed to provide science teachers with the necessary guidance and suggestions for teaching nuclear chemistry. In this book, the fundamental concepts of nuclear science and the applications of nuclear energy are discussed. The material in this book can be integrated with the other modules in a sequence that helps students…

  17. Rwandan teachers as educational researchers: why it matters

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    gether eight articles written by English language teachers in Africa (Farell & Makalela, 2009). It should be noted that while teachers can and should engage in general research, I argue that they would be better placed to do action research which Ferrance (2000, p. 1) defines as “a process in which participants exam-.

  18. Research Matters/Novice Teachers Benefit from Lesson Plans (United States)

    Goodwin, Bryan


    In this article, the author reflects on the support that novice teachers may need when preparing lesson plans. Showing that support makes a difference, three groups of teachers (one with access to lessons plans along with assistance from an online learning community; one with model plans but just online access; and one writing their own lesson…

  19. The effect of teacher interpersonal behaviour on students' subject-specific motivation


    den Brok, P.; Levy, J.; Brekelmans, M.; Wubbels, Th.


    This study brings together insights from research on teaching and learning in specific subjects, learning environments research and effectiveness research by linking teacher interpersonal behaviour to students’ subject-related attitudes. Teaching was studied in terms of a model originating from clinical psychology that was adapted to education. Teacher interpersonal behaviour was analysed interms of two, independent behaviour dimensions called Influence and Proximity. This study investigated ...

  20. What Do Subject Matter Experts Have to Say about Participating in Education and Outreach? (United States)

    Manning, Colleen; NASA's Universe of Learning Team


    NASA’s Universe of Learning partners wish to actively engage with Subject Matter Experts (scientists and engineers) throughout the design, development, and delivery of products, programs, and professional development. In order to ensure these engagement efforts aligned with the needs of Subject Matter Experts, the external evaluators conducted an online survey. The subject pool included the scientists and engineers employed at the partner organizations as well as other scientists and engineers affiliated with NASA’s Astrophysics missions and research programs. This presentation will describe scientists’/engineers’ interest in various types of education/outreach, their availability to participate in education/outreach, factors that would encourage their participation in education/outreach, and the preparation and support they have for participation in education/outreach.

  1. Choosing Content and Methods: Focus Group Interviews with Faculty Teachers in Norwegian Pre-Service Subject Teacher Education in Design, Art, and Crafts (United States)

    Gulliksen, Marte S.; Hjardemaal, Finn R.


    The study is aimed at generating knowledge on how faculty teachers reflect and justify their choice of subject content logic in teacher education, exemplified by a concurrent pre-service Subject Teacher Education in design, art, and crafts. Focus-group interviews generated data. Three topics were discussed: too many choices, different logics, and…

  2. Do First Impressions Matter? Predicting Early Career Teacher Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Atteberry


    Full Text Available As educational policy makers seek strategies to improve the teacher workforce, the early career period represents a unique opportunity to identify struggling teachers, examine the likelihood of future improvement, and make strategic pretenure investments in development or dismissals. It is also a useful time to identify particularly promising teachers for development and focus on high-needs areas. This article asks how much teachers vary in performance improvement during their first 5 years of teaching and to what extent initial job performance predicts later performance. We find that, on average, initial performance is quite predictive of future performance, far more so than typically measured teacher characteristics. This is particularly the case in math, while predictions about future English language arts (ELA performance based on initial ELA value added are less precise. Predictions are most powerful at the extremes. We use these predictions to explore the likelihood that personnel actions based on initial performance would lead to inappropriate distinctions between teachers who would be high or low performing in future years. We also examine the much less discussed costs of failure to distinguish performance when meaningful differences exist. The results point to the potential of policies that make use of teachers’ initial performance to inform personnel decisions.

  3. Do Admission Criteria for Teacher Education Institutions Matter? A Comparative Study on Beliefs of Student Teachers from Serbia and Slovenia about Inclusive Practices (United States)

    Pecek, Mojca; Macura-Milovanovic, Suncica


    The relationship between admissions criteria, the preparation provided by teacher education programmes and student teachers' (STs) beliefs about inclusive education (IE) are rarely made explicit. The paucity of data regarding this relationship leads us to question whether teacher candidates' prior beliefs matter relative to admissions criteria or…

  4. Involving Students’ Opinion in Actual and Preferred Teacher Interpersonal Behavior and Their Attitude Towards Science Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Kamal Nasution


    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the student perception on teacher interpersonal behavior and their attitude toward science subject. 207 respondents were involved, consisted of 200 students in 10-12 grade and 7 science teachers of public high school in Aceh. Two types of questionnaires were used namely the Indonesian version of the questionnaire of teacher interaction (QTI and test of science related attitude (TOSRA. SPSS program were applied to process the data statistically. First, the reliability of questionnaires is measured using descriptive statistics of all and each scale of QTI. Second, the difference between students’ perceptions on the actual and ideal teacher interpersonal behavior was computed by Paired Sample t-tests. Third, the relationship between students' perception on teachers’ interpersonal behavior and students' attitudes towards science subjects was compared using multiple regression analysis-standardized regression coefficient β. The finding showed that the Indonesian version of questionnaire of teacher interaction (QTI is reliable (αC = 0.86, to be applied to the high school students in the regency. It is generally seen that the students consider their teachers demonstrate more positive interpersonal behavior than the negative. However, it is clearly seen that between actual and ideal perceptions on the whole scale of QTI is significantly different. Last, from the three scales of teacher interpersonal behavior, helping/friendly, dissatisfaction, and admonishing appeared influential, only the helping/friendly scale significantly correlate (at the .05 level with student attitudes toward science subject.

  5. The effect of teacher interpersonal behaviour on students' subject-specific motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Brok, P.; Levy, J.; Brekelmans, M.; Wubbels, Th.


    This study brings together insights from research on teaching and learning in specific subjects, learning environments research and effectiveness research by linking teacher interpersonal behaviour to students’ subject-related attitudes. Teaching was studied in terms of a model originating from

  6. More than Beliefs: Subject Areas and Teachers' Integration of Laptops in Secondary Teaching (United States)

    Howard, Sarah K.; Chan, Amy; Caputi, Peter


    The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship of subject areas to teachers' technology integration. Educational technology research has often identified "culture clashes" to explain differences in technology use between subject areas. These clashes are frequently attributed to core features, values and beliefs held in the…

  7. John Dewey on theory of learning and inquiry: The scientific method and subject matter (United States)

    Chen, Po-Nien

    This study examines the educational debate between Dewey and some of his critics on the merits of learning the scientific method. Four of Dewey's critics---Hutchins, Hirsch, Hirst, and Scheffler criticize Dewey for over-emphasizing the importance of the scientific method and under-emphasizing the importance of subject matter in education. This dissertation argues that these critics misunderstand Dewey's use of the scientific method and its importance in education. It argues that Dewey conceives of the scientific method in two different ways: first as an attitude and second as a tool. It also argues that, by failing to understand this critical distinction, these critics misunderstand the role of the scientific method in education. The dissertation concludes by showing that, educationally, Dewey's ideas of the scientific method have different meanings in different context. It analyzes the scientific method as empirical method, critical thinking, cooperative learning, and creative thinking, and shows the place of subject matter in each of them.

  8. White Matter Hyperintensity Associations with Cerebral Blood Flow in Elderly Subjects Stratified by Cerebrovascular Risk. (United States)

    Bahrani, Ahmed A; Powell, David K; Yu, Guoquiang; Johnson, Eleanor S; Jicha, Gregory A; Smith, Charles D


    This study aims to add clarity to the relationship between deep and periventricular brain white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), cerebral blood flow (CBF), and cerebrovascular risk in older persons. Deep white matter hyperintensity (dWMH) and periventricular white matter hyperintensity (pWMH) and regional gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) blood flow from arterial spin labeling were quantified from magnetic resonance imaging scans of 26 cognitively normal elderly subjects stratified by cerebrovascular disease (CVD) risk. Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images were acquired using a high-resolution 3-dimensional (3-D) sequence that reduced partial volume effects seen with slice-based techniques. dWMHs but not pWMHs were increased in patients at high risk of CVD; pWMHs but not dWMHs were associated with decreased regional cortical (GM) blood flow. We also found that blood flow in WM is decreased in regions of both pWMH and dWMH, with a greater degree of decrease in pWMH areas. WMHs are usefully divided into dWMH and pWMH regions because they demonstrate differential effects. 3-D regional WMH volume is a potentially valuable marker for CVD based on associations with cortical CBF and WM CBF. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Relationship between Voice Complaints and Subjective and Objective Measures of Vocal Function in Iranian Female Teachers. (United States)

    Faham, Maryam; Jalilevand, Nahid; Torabinezhad, Farhad; Silverman, Erin Pearson; Ahmadi, Akram; Anaraki, Zahra Ghayoumi; Jafari, Narges


    Teachers are at high risk of developing voice problems because of the excessive vocal demands necessitated by their profession. Teachers' self-assessment of vocal complaints, combined with subjective and objective measures of voice, may enable better therapeutic decision-making. This investigation compared audio-perceptual assessment and acoustic variables in teachers with and without voice complaints. Ninety-nine teachers completed this cross-sectional study and were assigned to one of two groups: those "with voice complaint (VC)" and those "without voice complaint (W-VC)." Voice samples were collected during reading, counting, and vowel prolongation tasks. Teachers were also asked to document any voice symptoms they experienced. Voice samples were analyzed using Dr. Speech program (4th version; Tiger Ltd., USA), and labeled "normal" or "abnormal" according to the "grade" dimension "G" from GRBAS scale. Twenty-one teachers were assigned to the VC group based on self-assessment data. There were statistically significant differences between the two groups with regard to self-reported voice symptoms of hoarseness, breathiness, pitch breaks, and vocal fatigue (P Teachers with and without voice complaints differed in the incidence, but not type of voice symptoms. Teachers' voice complaints did not correspond to perceptual and acoustic measures. This suggests a potential unmet need for teachers to receive further education on voice disorders. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. All rights reserved.

  10. Teacher´s Discourses and Subjectivity in Physics Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Villani


    Full Text Available In this work we will analyze some didactical interviews with two high school students about collision in Mechanics. After presenting some categories of analysis, we will show how subjective conditions and relationship to both knowledge and interviewer played important roles in the development of a searching process and in the production of mental schemes. Simultaneously, we will point out how and why interviewer interference was resonant or dissonant with those conditions.

  11. Mentors matter! What makes a mentor teacher a successful mentor teacher?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, H.; Koet, T.; Žogla, I.; Rutka, L.


    In the Netherlands, as in other European countries, school based teacher training is more and more common and successful in teacher education, it strengthens the connection between teacher training institutes and schools. The Dutch secretary of Education van Bijsterveld (2010) called it 'a great

  12. Teacher Education Graduates' Choice (Not) to Enter the Teaching Profession: Does Teacher Education Matter? (United States)

    Rots, Isabel; Aelterman, Antonia; Devos, Geert


    In an era of recurring teacher shortages, Flanders struggles with a considerable proportion of teacher education graduates who do not enter the teaching profession. This study identifies the predictors of teacher education graduates' choice on job entry (teaching profession or not). A prospective research design with two data collection phases is…

  13. Rwandan teachers as educational researchers: why it matters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Teachers have generally been conceptualized as passive adopters of policies articulated in high educational and political offices, which has limited their reflection, creativeness and independent ... One way to achieve this is to engage in educational research, allowing a critical view on educational policies and practices.

  14. Student teacher conceptions of matter and substances – evaporation and dew formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørn Håland


    Full Text Available It is observed that student teachers have problems with seemingly simple ideas in introductory chemistry. In order to uncover possible underlying problems, a rather comprehensive investigation on their views on matter, substances and the particulate view of matter, was accomplished.31 students were interviewed before they started on an introductory course in chemistry. The interviews were semi-structured and linked to a sorting task and some demonstrations. All the interviews were tape-recorded and some photos were taken.This paper reports on the students’ views on evaporation and dew formation and discusses what their statements on these phenomena tell us about their general view on matter, substances and the particulate view of matter. Their statements about evaporation and dew formation are compared.Only 6/31 students displayed a reasonably good understanding of both evaporation and dew formation, and only two of these used a more “advanced” particulate model in their explanation of both phenomena. Most of the other students hold some sensible views and some alternative non-scientific views. All measure of understanding was revealed, from almost total ignorance to an almost complete understanding. At least 4/5 of the students seem to have some problem with the concepts of matter, substance and the particulate view of matter. These concepts, therefore, clearly need to be included and addressed in an understandable way in Norwegian teacher education.

  15. Subjective-personal readiness of correctional teachers to education of ASD children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateryna Ostrovska


    Full Text Available ASD teachers require skills that go beyond the realm of most educators including professional competences and high moral qualities. In the work theoretical approaches and experimental research on the problem of subjective personality readiness of correctional teachers in the education of ASD children are carried out. The psychological investigation has been conducted including measurement of psychological indices of 40 teachers of ASD children from the boarding school "Trust" and 40 teachers from mainstream schools of Lviv city aged from 28 to 59 years. The following methods are used: "Questionnaire for the measurement of tolerance" (Magun, Zhamkochyan, Magura, 2000; "Shein’s Career Anchors" method aimed at studying the career orientations of the teachers (Shein, 2010; “Diagnostics of empathy level” (Viktor Boiko, 2001; method of study “Motivation professional activities” by Catelin Zamfir in a modification of Artur Rean (Bordovskaya, & Rean, 2001. Based on the provided studies a program for development of subject-personality readiness of the correctional teacher to work with ASD children is proposed. The program consists of the following components: motivational component (professional competence, self-development, self-determination, self-control; cognitive component (intellectual personality autonomy, self-identification, stability, challenge, integration of lifestyles; emotionally-volitional component (empathy, positive attitude toward a child, intellectual analysis of emotions, self-regulation.

  16. Viewing Teachers as Leaders without Being Administrators (United States)

    Warren, Louis L.


    What makes teachers effective in the classroom? Research indicates that teachers effectiveness is contingent upon the teacher knowing pedagogy, learn theory, knowledge of subject matter, experience as well as other qualifications such as classroom management skills. Teachers effectiveness are often determined by three indicators; teachers' scores…

  17. South African Teachers' Views on the Inclusion of Spirituality Education in the Subject Life Orientation (United States)

    Jacobs, Anne C.


    As part of a larger research project into the practice and effectiveness of Life Orientation (LO), a compulsory subject in South African schools, this study investigated the views that teachers have regarding the constructs spirituality and religion within the context of LO. LO attempts to teach skills, attitudes and values from a holistic…

  18. Gratitude, Gratitude Intervention and Subjective Well-Being among Chinese School Teachers in Hong Kong (United States)

    Chan, David W.


    This study assessed the dispositional gratitude and its relationships with orientations to happiness and burnout in a sample of 96 Chinese school teachers in Hong Kong and investigated the effectiveness of an eight-week gratitude intervention programme using a pre-test/post-test design with outcome measures of subjective well-being in the same…

  19. Subject Knowledge Enhancement (SKE) Courses for Creating New Chemistry and Physics Teachers: Do They Work? (United States)

    Tynan, Richard; Mallaburn, Andrea; Jones, Robert Bryn; Clays, Ken


    During extended subject knowledge enhancement (SKE) courses, graduates without chemistry or physics bachelor degrees prepared to enter a Postgraduate Certificate in Education (PGCE) programme to become chemistry or physics teachers. Data were gathered from the exit survey returned by Liverpool John Moores University SKE students about to start…

  20. Subject Knowledge Enhancement Courses for Creating New Chemistry and Physics Teachers: The Students' Perceptions (United States)

    Tynan, Richard; Jones, Robert Bryn; Mallaburn, Andrea; Clays, Ken


    Subject knowledge enhancement (SKE) courses are one option open in England to graduates with a science background whose first degree content is judged to be insufficient to train to become chemistry or physics teachers. Previous articles in "School Science Review" have discussed the structure of one type of extended SKE course offered at…

  1. Developing Multimedia Enhanced Content to Upgrade Subject Content Knowledge of Secondary School Teachers in Tanzania (United States)

    Mtebe, Joel S.; Kibga, Elia Y.; Mwambela, Alfred A.; Kissaka, Mussa M.


    The failure rates and lack of interest amongst students in science and mathematics in secondary schools in Tanzania is a serious problem. The Ministry of Education and Vocational Training (MoEVT) implemented a project to enhance and upgrade the pedagogical knowledge and subject content knowledge of teachers in selected difficult topics in science…

  2. The Role of Subjectivity in Teacher Expertise Development: Mindfully Embracing the "Black Sheep" of Educational Research (United States)

    Inoue, Noriyuki


    In Western cultures, subjectivity has often been seen as the "black sheep" of educational research because of its heavy emphasis on objectivity. Consequently many research initiatives in education share the assumption that objective reasoning should play a central role. However, mentoring teachers' practice improvement research often…

  3. Motivation for choosing teaching as a career - the perspective of pre-service teachers, novices and experienced subject teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simić Nataša


    Full Text Available Since motivation for choosing the teaching profession figures as one of the most important determinants of the successfulness of teachers and even their students, this paper is aimed at investigating the factors of choosing teaching as a career. For that purpose, semi-structured interviews were conducted with the students of “teacher training” faculties, novices and subject teachers with more than five years of work experience (N=76. Thematic analysis was used to identify nine categories of motivational factors: Working with young people (the desire to have a dynamic and creative job in the surroundings of young people, Influence on students (the motivation to exert influence on students’ socio-emotional development, values and education, Dealing with the subject (the motivation for dealing with the science that the person studied, Class teacher/Teacher/Parents as a role model (the motivation stemming from the influence of significant others, Lecturing (the desire to “transfer knowledge”, Lifelong learning (the desire for permanent learning in different fields, Working hours and holidays (the motivation due to working hours and holidays, Fit with the abilities (the desire to realise the “naturally given” abilities and Reputation (the desire to be appreciated in the society. In keeping with the results of other studies, it has been found that altruistic motivation for the choice of teaching as a career is dominant, while extrinsic motivation is least present. The findings are interpreted in the light of the current models of motivation for choosing teaching as a career and the characteristics of teachers’ education and status in Serbia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179018: Identifikacija, merenje i razvoj kognitivnih i emocionalnih kompetencija važnih društvu orijentisanom na evropske integracije

  4. OntoBrowser: a collaborative tool for curation of ontologies by subject matter experts. (United States)

    Ravagli, Carlo; Pognan, Francois; Marc, Philippe


    The lack of controlled terminology and ontology usage leads to incomplete search results and poor interoperability between databases. One of the major underlying challenges of data integration is curating data to adhere to controlled terminologies and/or ontologies. Finding subject matter experts with the time and skills required to perform data curation is often problematic. In addition, existing tools are not designed for continuous data integration and collaborative curation. This results in time-consuming curation workflows that often become unsustainable. The primary objective of OntoBrowser is to provide an easy-to-use online collaborative solution for subject matter experts to map reported terms to preferred ontology (or code list) terms and facilitate ontology evolution. Additional features include web service access to data, visualization of ontologies in hierarchical/graph format and a peer review/approval workflow with alerting. The source code is freely available under the Apache v2.0 license. Source code and installation instructions are available at This software is designed to run on a Java EE application server and store data in a relational database. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  5. The Relationship between Teacher-Related Factors and Students' Attitudes towards Secondary School Chemistry Subject in Bureti District, Kenya (United States)

    Chepkorir, Salome; Cheptonui, Edna Marusoi; Chemutai, Agnes


    This paper examines the relationship between teacher-related factors and student's attitudes towards Chemistry subject in secondary schools in Kenya. The paper is based on a study conducted in Bureti District in Kericho County, Kenya. This paper highlights issues on the teaching methods used by chemistry teachers, the teachers' availability to…

  6. Water Matters: Every Day, Everywhere, Every Way. Teacher's Handbook. (United States)

    Hirschland, Roger B., Ed.

    This booklet examines the subject of fresh water and the ways in which it affects every aspect of human life. The document includes an introduction and seven sections: (1) "Agriculture"; (2) "Transportation"; (3) "Culture"; (4) "Engineering"; (5) "Health and Domestic Use"; (6) "Politics and Economics"; and (7) "Industry." Inside each section is an…

  7. Habitual sleep durations and subjective sleep quality predict white matter differences in the human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakh Khalsa


    Full Text Available Self-imposed short sleep durations are increasingly commonplace in society, and have considerable health and performance implications for individuals. Reduced sleep duration over multiple nights has similar behavioural effects to those observed following acute total sleep deprivation, suggesting that lack of sleep affects brain function cumulatively. A link between habitual sleep patterns and functional connectivity has previously been observed, and the effect of sleep duration on the brain's intrinsic functional architecture may provide a link between sleep status and cognition. However, it is currently not known whether differences in habitual sleep patterns across individuals are related to changes in the brain's white matter, which underlies structural connectivity. In the present study we use diffusion–weighted imaging and a group comparison application of tract based spatial statistics (TBSS to investigate changes to fractional anisotropy (FA and mean diffusivity (MD in relation to sleep duration and quality, hypothesising that white matter metrics would be positively associated with sleep duration and quality. Diffusion weighted imaging data was acquired from a final cohort of 33 (23–29 years, 10 female, mean 25.4 years participants. Sleep patterns were assessed for a 14 day period using wrist actigraphs and sleep diaries, and subjective sleep quality with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI. Median splits based on total sleep time and PSQI were used to create groups of shorter/longer and poorer/better sleepers, whose imaging data was compared using TBSS followed by post-hoc correlation analysis in regions identified as significantly different between the groups. There were significant positive correlations between sleep duration and FA in the left orbito-frontal region and the right superior corona radiata, and significant negative correlations between sleep duration and MD in right orbito-frontal white matter and the right

  8. Students' Perceptions of Teachers' Interpersonal Behaviour across Four Different School Subjects: Control Is Good but Affiliation Is Better (United States)

    Telli, Sibel


    Many researchers have pointed out that teachers' interpersonal behaviour relates to students' positive attitudes towards schooling. However, only few studies have examined whether students' perceptions of their teachers' interpersonal behaviour relates to students' subject-related attitudes across different school subjects. In this study, it was…

  9. Lessons Learned? Teaching Student Teachers to Use ICT in Their Subject Teaching: A View from the UK (United States)

    Haydn, Terry


    The paper looks at the ways in which policymakers in the UK have attempted to get student teachers to use new technology effectively in their subject teaching over the past decade. During this period, there have been changes in the competence frameworks for validating student teachers' ability to use ICT in their subject teaching, and the UK…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norudin Mansor


    Full Text Available The policy of changing the medium of instruction in the teaching of mathematics and science from Bahasa Melayu to English is an important innovation affecting teachers of mathematics and science. It poses special challenges not only for teachers who have been trained in the Malay medium but also for those trained in English. This investigation seeks to find out the achievement of students in mathematic and science subjects after considering the impact of prominent independent variables such as, the school, class and home environment, the teaching methodology and the teachers’ attitude. Analysis of the development in the state of Terengganu has been carried out by the distribution of questionnaires to teachers involved. Result of the correlation and multiple regressions indicated that all the three factors are significantly associated towards students’ achievement. However, the teaching methodology indicated a low level of moderate correlation which is believed to be the immediate issue that needed to be addressed in the new system.

  11. Knot numbers used as labels for identifying subject matter of a khipu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Saez-Rodriguez


    Full Text Available This investigation presents a new way to look at the numerical khipu, a knotted-string recording device from Pachacamac (Peru, and the types of information it contains. In addition to celestial coordinates, khipu knots apparently pertain to an early form of double-entry accounting. This study hypothesizes that the khipu sample has the recording capacity needed to register double-entry-like accounts. After the identification of its subject matter, the khipu sample was studied in an attempt to ascertain whether the knot values could represent instructions from the Inca state administration to a local accounting center. The results indicate that the numerical information in the pairing quadrants (determined by the distribution of S- and Z-knots should be read from top to bottom along the full length of the string and can then provide certain complementary details regarding the projected corn stocks of the Inca stat

  12. Teachers Matter: An Examination of Student-Teacher Relationships, Attitudes toward Bullying, and Bullying Behavior (United States)

    Wang, Cixin; Swearer, Susan M.; Lembeck, Paige; Collins, Adam; Berry, Brandi


    This study investigated the influence of student-teacher relationships and attitudes toward bullying on middle school students' bullying behaviors. Gender and grade differences were also examined. Data were collected from 435 middle school students. Results indicated that students' attitudes toward bullying mediated the relationship between…

  13. Multicultural Teacher Education: Why Teachers Say It Matters in Preparing Them for English Language Learners (United States)

    Kolano, Lan Quach; Dávila, Liv Thorstensson; Lachance, Joan; Coffey, Heather


    Numerous studies show that mainstream classroom teachers still remain inadequately prepared to teach diverse students and lack the knowledge base and skills to teach English language learners (ELLs). This has profound implications, particularly in the Southeast, where the rate of school-aged Latino immigrants has grown significantly. Thus, this…

  14. Exploring Pre-Service Elementary Science Teachers' Conceptual Understanding of Particulate Nature of Matter through Three-Tier Diagnostic Test (United States)

    Aydeniz, Mehmet; Bilican, Kader; Kirbulut, Zubeyde Demet


    The purpose of this study was to explore Pre-service Elementary Science Teachers' (PSTs) conceptual understanding of Particulate Nature of Matter (PNM) through a three-tier diagnostic test. Participants were 215 PSTs from Turkey. Data consisted of participants' responses to the Particulate Nature of Matter Test (PNMT). The PNMT consists of…

  15. Subject-Oriented Approach in the Professional Formation of the Future Music Teacher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V. Karkina


    Full Text Available The article deals with the possibilities of introducing a subject-oriented approach into the practice of professional education of the future music teacher. Particular attention is paid to the forms and methods used in this field, as well as to the conditions of the modern cultural environment, which allows for the free self-realization of the individual in accordance with his subject needs. Subject-oriented approach is the practice-oriented research. The study identified a number of the most significant components in the preparation of a music teacher, such as individual forms of studies and a number of special methods, which include the method of artistic associations, verbal "allegories", metaphors, the method of heuristic tasks for mastering creative activities. The openness of the musical and pedagogical system has great importance in its ability to respond to changes in the music and educational environment, which includes educational institutions and various cultural institutions: theaters, concert halls, orchestral and choir groups. All that conditions are necessary to ensure the possibility of creative self-realization and self-actualization of future music teachers.

  16. The effects of job crafting on subjective well-being amongst South African high school teachers

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    Sergio Peral


    Full Text Available Orientation: Job crafting can result in a number of positive outcomes for teachers, such as increased meaningfulness and engagement at work. Increased work engagement and psychological meaningfulness may yield positive benefits for the practice of teaching, thus highlighting the pivotal role of job crafting.Research purpose: The study’s aim was to investigate the relationship between job crafting and subjective well-being amongst South African high school teachers. Subjective well-being comprises psychological meaningfulness and work engagement. The potential mediating effect that psychological meaningfulness had on this relationship was further explored.Motivation for the study: Being in a highly stressful occupation, teachers need to continuously find ways to craft their working practices in order to deal effectively with their job demands and to capitalise on their available job resources. Furthermore, South Africa’s current education system calls for serious proactive measures to be taken to improve and rectify the current status, such as job crafting.Research approach, design and method: A quantitative, cross-sectional survey design was used and administered to a sample of South African high school teachers situated in Gauteng, South Africa (N = 251.Main findings: A positive relationship was found between job crafting (increasing structural resources and challenging job demands and work engagement. Furthermore, psychological meaningfulness mediated the relationship between job crafting and work engagement amongst the sampled high school teachers.Practical/managerial implications: Teachers who craft their work to better suit their preferences and needs will obtain greater meaning in their work and experience increased levels of work engagement. Training programmes and/or group-based interventions targeted around job crafting techniques may be particularly useful in the South African teaching context.Contribution/value-add: This study

  17. Train, teach; taught? How the content of specific science subject matter knowledge sessions impacts on trainee teachers’ classroom practice and children’s learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Kind


    Full Text Available The impact science sessions for trainee science teachers have on 11-14 year olds’ learning of science was assessed using questionnaires and a “Video-Interview (trainee –Interview (pupils” (V-I-I technique devised for this study. V-I-I involved: video-recording trainee-taught lessons; and two interviews – with a pupil group to probe learning occurring in the lesson and with the trainee.Eighty UK-based trainees taking a one-year postgraduate teacher education course completed the questionnaire probing perceptions about university- and school-based training sessions designed to develop science subject matter knowledge (SMK and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK. Six trainees participated in V-I-I.Most trainees saw all sessions as SMK-based, regardless of teacher educators’ intended purposes. Lesson videos revealed ”describing” activities, task completion and good behaviour as main focii. Explanation of key science ideas and use of materials and /ideas from training sessions were largely absent. Trainee interviews revealed contrasts: most perceived a lesson as “successful” when children completed tasks quietly. Other trainees realised their understanding impacted on pupils’ learning science concepts. Pupil interviews showed positive attitudes towards science and learning difficult ideas, but little specific learning of topics taught.

  18. Grey-Matter Metabolism in Relation with White-Matter Lesions in Older Hypertensive Patients with Subjective Memory Complaints: A Pilot Voxel-Based Analysis Study. (United States)

    Verger, Antoine; Hossu, Gabriela; Kearney-Schwartz, Anna; Bracard, Serge; Roch, Veronique; Van der Gucht, Axel; Fay, Renaud; Benetos, Athanase; Marie, Pierre-Yves; Joly, Laure


    This study aimed at assessing the changes in brain metabolism related to white-matter magnetic resonance (MR) hyperintensities of presumed vascular origin, with a voxel-based quantitative analysis of (18F)-fluorodesoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) imaging. Sixty older hypertensive patients with subjective memory complaints (75 ± 5 years, 34 women) were prospectively referred to FDG-PET and MRI brain imaging. The Statistical Parametric Mapping software was used to assess the correlation between brain distribution of FDG and white-matter hyperintensities assessed by the Fazekas score on MRI images. The Fazekas score was inversely related to FDG uptake, independently of age and gender, within 14 Brodmann areas located mainly in the frontal lobe but also in certain limbic, insular and temporal areas. This relationship was also found to be largely independent of the volume of grey matter expressed in percentage of cranial volume, an index of atrophy. White-matter MR hyperintensities of presumed vascular origin are cross-sectionally associated with a lower grey-matter metabolism, mainly but not only within frontal areas and independently of age, gender and grey-matter atrophy. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. 'The body does matter': Women as embodied social subjects in Angela Carter's Nights at the Circus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milosavljević Tatjana B.


    Full Text Available Postmodernism posed a crucial ontological challenge to reality, questioning what constitutes the real world, simultaneously interrogating the horizon of representation of this unstable reality in fiction. Feminism on the other hand equipped us with critical tools for interpreting the reality of being in the world in a gendered body, as well as with a conceptual apparatus for interpreting the manifold institutional and private oppressions of women's bodies that play out in women's daily lives and in the discourses that shape them, literary discourse being one of them. This paper argues that Angela Carter's 1984 novel Nights at the Circus, which is widely held as a postfeminist text due to its narrative commitment to transcending gender binaries, essentially uses the strategies of postmodern storytelling and characterization in order to explore women's embodied potentialities of agency i.e. their construction of subjectivity through body. We will argue that the hybrid magic realist narrative constructs Fevvers' body as a titillating postmodern performance, ontologically illusive and elusive, yet it grounds that same body in various socially effected predicaments and experiences that serve to show that even in the midst of a play of signifiers, in Patricia Waugh's words, 'the body does matter, at least to what has been the dominant perspective within British female fiction' (Waugh, 2006, p. 196. In other words, it may be argued that Carter's novel is invested in traditional second-wave feminist politics to the extent that it shows that a woman's body is an indispensable medium of being in the world with material consequences that bear on the formation of her subjectivity and possibility of agency, and through which she acts out her relationships to others and is acted upon.

  20. An Analysis of Prospective Chemistry Teachers' Cognitive Structures through Flow Map Method: The Subject of Oxidation and Reduction (United States)

    Temel, Senar


    This study aims to analyse prospective chemistry teachers' cognitive structures related to the subject of oxidation and reduction through a flow map method. Purposeful sampling method was employed in this study, and 8 prospective chemistry teachers from a group of students who had taken general chemistry and analytical chemistry courses were…

  1. Teacher Related Factors Influencing Students' Enrollment in Biology Subject in Public Secondary Schools in Meru Central Sub County in Kenya (United States)

    Kirima, Teresia Mugure; Kinyua, Susan Muthoni


    This study examined teacher related factors influencing students' enrollment in Biology subject in public secondary schools in Meru Central Sub County in Kenya. The study utilized the descriptive survey research design on a target population of 9,859 respondents consisting of 9,748 Biology students, 62 trained Biology teachers and 49 Heads of…

  2. A Teacher's Perspective of Geography: A School Subject for Today, Tomorrow, and for All Time (United States)

    MacLeod, Douglas G.


    In this article, a retired long-time geography teacher offers his perspective on what a geography teacher needs to keep in mind when teaching geography. The author notes that geography is a useful school subject because it helps young people make their way in the world by giving them some tools to become lifelong learners. The author encourages…

  3. In a Strange and Uncharted Land: ESP Teachers' Strategies for Dealing with Unpredicted Problems in Subject Knowledge during Class (United States)

    Wu, HuiDan; Badger, Richard G.


    The literature on English for Specific Purposes (ESP) has largely ignored one of its most distinctive features: many ESP teachers have to teach subject-specific texts from areas outside their primary areas of expertise. This paper addresses this issue by investigating the teaching practices and cognitions of three teachers of maritime English in a…

  4. Should Bible Studies Remain in Israeli Public Schools? Teachers' Attitudes toward Bible Teaching as a Mandatory Subject (United States)

    Idalovichi, Israel


    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview and analysis of attitudes of Israeli K-12 educators and bible teachers toward religious studies. Teachers' attitudes toward bible teaching as a mandatory subject are, on the whole, positive throughout the country. The present study addresses the absence of systematic research into the opinions…

  5. NASA's Universe of Learning: The Integral Role of Research Astronomers and Other Subject Matter Experts (United States)

    Lee, Janice; Universe of Learning Team


    Astronomy seeks to understand the workings of the Universe on its largest scales, and to answer fundamental questions about the story of our origins. The science of astronomy thus naturally lends itself to informal education and public outreach activities, as it broadly captures the human imagination. There are at least three overall goals for investment of resources in Astronomy E/PO: to interest students in pursuing STEM education and careers; to develop Astronomy as context for teaching more basic physical and computer science in service of US National Education Goals; to help motivate continued public support of federally funded Astronomy research and technology development. Providing a full spectrum of opportunities for the public to learn about recent Astronomy discoveries is key to achieving these societal goals. Thus, the E/PO professional community must have an understanding of recent scientific/technological results, and engage with the researchers who are creating new knowledge to explicate that knowledge to the public. It stands to reason that researchers (or “subject matter experts, SMEs”) must be involved in and remain connected to the E/PO endeavor. In this talk, I will describe how research astronomers and other SMEs play an integral role in a full range of informal education programming developed by the NASA Universe of Learning collaboration, and opportunities to get involved.

  6. Cognitive Control and White Matter Callosal Microstructure in Methamphetamine Dependent Subjects: A DTI Study (United States)

    Salo, Ruth; Nordahl, Thomas E; Buonocore, Michael H; Natsuaki, Yutaka; Waters, Christy; Moore, Charles D; Galloway, Gantt P; Leamon, Martin H


    Background Methamphetamine (MA) abuse causes damage to structures within the human cerebrum, with particular susceptibility to white matter (WM). Abnormalities have been reported in anterior regions with less evidence of changes in posterior regions. MA abusers have also shown deficits on attention tests that measure response conflict and cognitive control. Methods We examined cognitive control using a computerized measure of the Stroop selective attention task and indices of WM microstructure obtained from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in the callosal genu and splenium of 37 currently abstinent MA abusers and 17 non-substance abusing controls. Measurements of Fractional Anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of callosal fibers and diffusion tensor eigenvalues were obtained in all subjects. Results The MA abusers exhibited greater Stroop reaction time interference (i.e., reduced cognitive control) [p=.04] compared to controls. After correcting for multiple comparisons, FA within the genu correlated significantly with measures of cognitive control in the MA abusers [p=.04, bonferroni corrected] but not in controls [p=.26]. Group differences in genu, but not splenium, FA were trend significant [p=.09]. Conclusions MA abuse appears to alter anterior callosal WM microstructure with less evidence of change within posterior callosal WM microstructure. DTI indices within the genu, but not splenium, correlated with measures of cognitive control in chronic MA abusers. PMID:18814867

  7. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo


    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  8. A Methodology for Investigating the Interactions of Individual Differences and Subject Matter Characteristics with Instructional Methods. ; Report 67. (United States)

    Reigeluth, Charles M.

    This paper presents a general model for conceptualizing and testing the interactions of individual differences and subject-matter characteristics with instructional methods. The model postulates certain ways of classifying the variables of interest in such investigations and of conceptualizing the cause-and-effect relationships among those classes…

  9. Which One Is Better? Jigsaw II versus Jigsaw IV on the Subject of the Building Blocks of Matter and Atom (United States)

    Turkmen, Hakan; Buyukaltay, Didem


    In this study, the effect of using Jigsaw II and Jigsaw IV techniques on the subject of "Atoms-The Basic Unit of Matter" in science course of 6th grade on academic achievement was examined. Pre-test post-test control group research was used in the study. Study population is all secondary schools in Turgutlu district of Manisa province…

  10. Shared Knowledge among Graphic Designers, Instructional Designers and Subject Matter Experts in Designing Multimedia-Based Instructional Media (United States)

    Razak, Rafiza Abdul


    The research identified and explored the shared knowledge among the instructional multimedia design and development experts comprising of subject matter expert, graphic designer and instructional designer. The knowledge shared by the team was categorized into three groups of multimedia design principles encompasses of basic principles, authoring…

  11. The Effect of Applying Elements of Instructional Design on Teaching Material for the Subject of Classification of Matter (United States)

    Ozdilek, Zehra; Ozkan, Muhlis


    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of instructional materials for the subject of classification of matter as solids, liquids and gases that were developed using a holistic instructional design model on student achievement. In the study a pre-test/post-test with control group experimental design was used. The study was conducted in the…

  12. Resting state cortical electroencephalographic rhythms are related to gray matter volume in subjects with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. (United States)

    Babiloni, Claudio; Carducci, Filippo; Lizio, Roberta; Vecchio, Fabrizio; Baglieri, Annalisa; Bernardini, Silvia; Cavedo, Enrica; Bozzao, Alessandro; Buttinelli, Carla; Esposito, Fabrizio; Giubilei, Franco; Guizzaro, Antonio; Marino, Silvia; Montella, Patrizia; Quattrocchi, Carlo C; Redolfi, Alberto; Soricelli, Andrea; Tedeschi, Gioacchino; Ferri, Raffaele; Rossi-Fedele, Giancarlo; Ursini, Francesca; Scrascia, Federica; Vernieri, Fabrizio; Pedersen, Torleif Jan; Hardemark, Hans-Goran; Rossini, Paolo M; Frisoni, Giovanni B


    Cortical gray matter volume and resting state cortical electroencephalographic rhythms are typically abnormal in subjects with amnesic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we tested the hypothesis that in amnesic MCI and AD subjects, abnormalities of EEG rhythms are a functional reflection of cortical atrophy across the disease. Eyes-closed resting state EEG data were recorded in 57 healthy elderly (Nold), 102 amnesic MCI, and 108 AD patients. Cortical gray matter volume was indexed by magnetic resonance imaging recorded in the MCI and AD subjects according to Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative project ( EEG rhythms of interest were delta (2-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha1 (8-10.5 Hz), alpha2 (10.5-13 Hz), beta1 (13-20 Hz), beta2 (20-30 Hz), and gamma (30-40 Hz). These rhythms were indexed by LORETA. Compared with the Nold, the MCI showed a decrease in amplitude of alpha 1 sources. With respect to the Nold and MCI, the AD showed an amplitude increase of delta sources, along with a strong amplitude reduction of alpha 1 sources. In the MCI and AD subjects as a whole group, the lower the cortical gray matter volume, the higher the delta sources, the lower the alpha 1 sources. The better the score to cognitive tests the higher the gray matter volume, the lower the pathological delta sources, and the higher the alpha sources. These results suggest that in amnesic MCI and AD subjects, abnormalities of resting state cortical EEG rhythms are not epiphenomena but are strictly related to neurodegeneration (atrophy of cortical gray matter) and cognition. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Girl Scouts and Subject Matter Experts: What’s the Connection? (United States)

    Harman, Pamela; Girls Scouts of Northern California, Girl Scouts USA, Astronomical Society of the Pacifica, Univeristy of Arizona, and ARIES Scientific.


    Reaching for the Stars: NASA Science for Girl Scouts (Girl Scout Stars) fosters interaction between Girl Scouts and NASA Subject Matter Experts (SMEs), disseminates NASA STEM education-related resources, and engages Girl Scouts in NASA science and programs through space science badges and summer camps.A space science badge is in development for each of the six levels of Girl Scouts: Daisies, Grades K – 1; Brownies, Grades 2 -3; Juniors, Grades 4 -5; Cadettes, Grades 6 -8; Seniors, Grades 9 -10; and Ambassadors, Grades 11 -12. Indirectly, SMEs will reach tens of thousands of girls through the badges. SETI Institute SMEs Institute and SME Co-Is located at ARIES Scientific, Astronomical Society of the Pacific, University of Arizona, and Girl Scouts of Northern California developed and modified astronomy activities for the Girl Scouts USA badge writers to finesse into the Girl Scout formats. Revisions are reviewed by SMEs for accuracy. Each badge includes a step option that encourages girls to connect with SMEs, and recommendations for volunteers.A total of 127 girls from 31 states and the District of Columbia attendedTotal Eclipse Destination Camps at three locations. SMEs led activities and tours, inspiring girls to consider STEM careers. University of Arizona (U of A) SMEs lead Astronomy Camp for Volunteers, enabling volunteers to lead and inspire Girl Scouts in their respective Girl Scout Councils. A Destination Camp for Girl Scouts was also held at U of A. Girls experience authentic astronomy, learning how to collect and analyze data.Eleven teams comprised of two Girl Scouts, a volunteer or Council Staff, and an amateur astronomer attended Astronomy Club Camp, held at NASA GSFC. SMEs delivered science content. The girls will lead the formation of astronomy clubs in their councils, and will train their successors. SMEs will present and coach the clubs during monthly webinars.This presentation will highlight success and discuss lessons learned that are applicable

  14. ”Nice to have!”: Teacher perceptions of practical and aesthetical curriculum subjects in primary schools


    Aadland Helga; Magne Espeland; Ingrid Grønsdal; Trond Egil Arnesen; Kjetil Sømoe


    In this article we present findings from "Skolefagsundersøkelsen 2011", a national survey mapping teacher perceptions of different aspects of teaching and conditions for the curriculum subjects art & craft, home economics, music, and physical education (PA-subjects), in grades 1-7 in primary school. The questions we focus on and discuss in the article are connected to teachers’ attitudes to this group of subjects, and their use of methods often associated with PA-subjects in other school ...

  15. Being in a romantic relationship is associated with reduced gray matter density in striatum and increased subjective happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Kawamichi


    Full Text Available Romantic relationship, a widespread feature of human society, is one of the most influential factors in daily life. Although stimuli related to romantic love or being in a romantic relationship commonly result in enhancement of activation or functional connectivity of the reward system, including the striatum, the structure underlying romantic relationship-related regions remain unclear. Because individual experiences can alter gray matter within the adult human brain, we hypothesized that romantic relationship is associated with structural differences in the striatum related to the positive subjective experience of being in a romantic relationship. Because intimate romantic relationships contribute to perceived subjective happiness, this subjective enhancement of happiness might be accompanied by the experience of positive events related to being in a romantic relationship. To test this hypothesis and elucidate the structure involved, we compared subjective happiness, an indirect measure of the existence of positive experiences caused by being in a romantic relationship, of participants with or without romantic partners (N = 68. Furthermore, we also conducted a voxel-based morphometry (VBM study of the effects of being in a romantic relationship (N = 113. Being in a romantic relationship was associated with greater subjective happiness and reduced gray matter density within the right dorsal striatum. These results suggest that being in a romantic relationship enhances perceived subjective happiness via positive experiences. Furthermore, the observed reduction in gray matter density in the right dorsal striatum may reflect an increase in saliency of social reward within a romantic relationship. Thus, being in a romantic relationship is associated with positive experiences and a reduction of gray matter density in the right dorsal striatum, representing a modulation of social reward.

  16. Being in a Romantic Relationship Is Associated with Reduced Gray Matter Density in Striatum and Increased Subjective Happiness. (United States)

    Kawamichi, Hiroaki; Sugawara, Sho K; Hamano, Yuki H; Makita, Kai; Matsunaga, Masahiro; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Ogino, Yuichi; Saito, Shigeru; Sadato, Norihiro


    Romantic relationship, a widespread feature of human society, is one of the most influential factors in daily life. Although stimuli related to romantic love or being in a romantic relationship commonly result in enhancement of activation or functional connectivity of the reward system, including the striatum, the structure underlying romantic relationship-related regions remain unclear. Because individual experiences can alter gray matter within the adult human brain, we hypothesized that romantic relationship is associated with structural differences in the striatum related to the positive subjective experience of being in a romantic relationship. Because intimate romantic relationships contribute to perceived subjective happiness, this subjective enhancement of happiness might be accompanied by the experience of positive events related to being in a romantic relationship. To test this hypothesis and elucidate the structure involved, we compared subjective happiness, an indirect measure of the existence of positive experiences caused by being in a romantic relationship, of participants with or without romantic partners (N = 68). Furthermore, we also conducted a voxel-based morphometry study of the effects of being in a romantic relationship (N = 113). Being in a romantic relationship was associated with greater subjective happiness and reduced gray matter density within the right dorsal striatum. These results suggest that being in a romantic relationship enhances perceived subjective happiness via positive experiences. Furthermore, the observed reduction in gray matter density in the right dorsal striatum may reflect an increase in saliency of social reward within a romantic relationship. Thus, being in a romantic relationship is associated with positive experiences and a reduction of gray matter density in the right dorsal striatum, representing a modulation of social reward.

  17. ”Nice to have!”: Teacher perceptions of practical and aesthetical curriculum subjects in primary schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aadland Helga


    Full Text Available In this article we present findings from "Skolefagsundersøkelsen 2011", a national survey mapping teacher perceptions of different aspects of teaching and conditions for the curriculum subjects art & craft, home economics, music, and physical education (PA-subjects, in grades 1-7 in primary school. The questions we focus on and discuss in the article are connected to teachers’ attitudes to this group of subjects, and their use of methods often associated with PA-subjects in other school subjects, like mathematics and science. Our findings suggest that our teacher informants generally have a very positive attitude to PA-subjects and that they believe in the effects of using PA methods in other subjects. However, in everyday schooling, this does only take place to a very small degree.

  18. Academic Majors and Subject-Area Certifications of Health Education Teachers in the United States, 2011-2012 (United States)

    Cardina, Catherine


    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify academic preparation and subject-area certifications of K-12 public school staff teaching at least one health education class during 2011-2012 academic year. In general, teachers who are well qualified to teach a subject area are more likely to positively affect student achievement. Methods: Data…

  19. The Relationship between Happiness, Subjective Well-Being, Creativity and Job Performance of Primary School Teachers in Ramhormoz City (United States)

    Jalali, Zohreh; Heidari, Alireza


    The research aimed to investigate the relationship between happiness, subjective well-being, creativity and job performance of primary school teachers in Ramhormoz City. Hence, a sample of 330 individuals was selected through random stratified sampling. The research tools included Oxford Happiness Inventory, Subjective Well-being Scale by Keyes…

  20. Methods to model particulate matter clarification of unit operations subject to unsteady loadings. (United States)

    Spelman, David; Sansalone, John J


    Stormwater, and also wastewater unit operations (UOs) to a much lower extent, are subject to unsteady hydrodynamic and particulate matter (PM) fluxes. Simulating fully transient clarification of hetero-disperse PM requires much greater computational expense compared to steady simulations. An alternative to fully unsteady methods are stepwise steady (SS) methods which use stepwise steady flow transport and fate to approximate unsteady PM clarification of a UO during transient hydraulic loadings such as rainfall-runoff. The rationale is reduced computational effort for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) compared to simulating continuous unsteadiness of such events. An implicit solution stepwise steady (IS3) method is one approach which builds upon previous SS methods. The IS3 method computes steady flows that are representative of unsteady PM transport throughout an unsteady loading. This method departs from some previous SS methods that assume PM fate can be simulated with an instantaneous clarifier (basin) influent flowrate coupled with a PM input. In this study, various SS methods were tested for basins of varying size and residence time to examine PM fate. Differences between SS methods were a function of turnover fraction indicating the role of unsteady flowrates on PM transport for larger basins of longer residence times. The breakpoint turnover fraction was between two and three. The IS3 method best approximated unsteady behavior of larger basins. These methods identified limitations when utilizing standard event-based loading analysis for larger basins. For basins with a turnover fraction less than two, the majority of effluent PM did not originate from the event-based flow; originating from previous event loadings or existing storage. Inter- and multiple event processes and interactions, that are dependent on this inflow turnover fraction, are not accounted for by single event-based inflow models. Results suggest the use of long-term continuous modeling


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hindarto


    Full Text Available Many problems that arise in today's society are rooted in the issue of morality as a result of the marginalization of the values of character. To solve this problem, need to be enforced the values of good character on every member of the community, and the proper way is through the educational process, including through education in schools ranging from elementary education to higher education. To find out whether the teachers in elementary schools are ready to take this work, the research conducted to determine the readiness of teachers and the problems associated with its implementation. Through a questionnaire calculated in descriptive percentage on a sample of elementary school teachers who are spread in Semarang, Semarang District and Temanggung, it can be concluded that in teachers’ view it is very important to integrate the learning of characters in the lesson. However, they need guidance /examples to develop learning model with its features, which integrate the values of the characters in the science subject.Banyak persoalan yang timbul di masyarakat dewasa ini berakar pada persoalan moralitas sebagai akibat terpinggirkannya nilai-nilai karakter, Untuk mengatasi persoalan ini, perlu ditegakkan lagi nilai nilai karakter yang baik pada setiap anggota masyarakat, dan cara yang tepat adalah melalui proses pendidikan, di antaranya melalui pendidikan di sekolah mulai dari pendidikan dasar sampai pendidikan tinggi. Untuk mengetahui apakah para guru pada Sekolah Dasar siap mengemban tugas ini, maka diadakan penelitian untuk mengetahui kesiapan para guru dan masalah-masalah yang terkait dengan pelaksanaannya. Melalui angket yang kemudian diolah secara deskriptive persentasi pada sampel guru SD yang tersebar di Kota Semarang, Kabupaten Semarang dan Kabupaten Temanggung, dapat diketahui bahwa para guru menganggap sangat penting untuk mengintegrasikan pembelajaran karakter dalam matapelajaran IPA. Namun demikian mereka membutuhkan bimbingan

  2. Basic Teaching Skill Quality of Teacher Candidates in Microteaching Study Subject of Department of Biology Education, Pasir Pengaraian University


    Nurul Afifah


    This research purposed on knowing basic teaching skill quality of teacher candidates in study subject Microteaching of Department of Biology Education, Pasir Pengaraian University, academic year 2016/2016. This research is qualitative research. This research has been done in February to June 2015. The subject of this research is all of the 6th semester students who are taking the Microteaching Study Subject. The instruments of this research including syllabus, teaching plans, and questionnair...

  3. The perceptions of teachers and principals toward providing additional compensation to teachers in high-need subject areas (United States)

    Longing, Jeffrey Lucian

    The purpose of this study was to determine possible differences in the perceptions of teachers teaching in high-need areas (i.e., math, science, special education, etc.) and teachers not teaching in high-need areas, (i.e., business education, physical education, etc.) as defined by the states of Arkansas and Louisiana, regarding higher compensation for high-need teachers. In addition, possible perception differences among principals and teachers were determined. The independent variables consisted of gender, position held, years of certified experience, and certification areas. The dependent variable was the perceptions of the participants on providing higher compensation for high-need teachers in order to attract and retain them. The data for all variables were collected using the Teacher Compensation Survey. The sample for this study was limited to teachers, grades 9 through 12, and principals of public high schools in south Arkansas and north Louisiana. Forty-four school districts in south Arkansas (Arkansas Department of Education, 2008a) and north Louisiana (Louisiana Department of Education, 2008a) met the criteria for this study. Twenty-two superintendents gave permission for their districts to participate in the research. A sample of 849 teachers and 38 principals were identified in these districts. Surveys were returned from 350 teachers, creating a 41% response rate. When the 31 principals that returned surveys were added to the total population, the response rate increased to 43% with 381 of the 887 surveyed responding. However, 42 of the teachers and two of the principals skipped some of the questions on the survey and were not included in the study. The researcher used a One-Way ANOVA and independent t-tests to determine the presence of statistical differences at the .05 level. The data showed that most math and science teachers agreed that high-need teachers should be compensated at a higher rate than teachers not teaching in high-need areas. The data

  4. Comparative Analysis of Participation of Teachers of STEM and Non-STEM Subjects in Professional Development (United States)

    Chiyaka, Edward T.; Kibirige, Joachim; Sithole, Alec; McCarthy, Peter; Mupinga, Davison M.


    School administrators continuously consider teacher professional development (PD) as one of the key strategies to improving teachers' pedagogical skills. Modern proposals for advancing education by improving student learning outcomes are centered on high quality professional development for teachers. However, teachers face a number of barriers…

  5. Rhetorical Meta-Language to Promote the Development of Students' Writing Skills and Subject Matter Understanding (United States)

    Pelger, Susanne; Sigrell, Anders


    Background: Feedback is one of the most significant factors for students' development of writing skills. For feedback to be successful, however, students and teachers need a common language--a meta-language--for discussing texts. Not least because in science education such a meta-language might contribute to improve writing training and…

  6. Subject Matter Expert Evaluation of Multi-Flight Common Route Advisories (United States)

    Bilimoria, Karl D.; Hayashi, Miwa; Sheth, Kapil


    manager finds the advisory to be operationally appropriate, he or she would coordinate with the Area Supervisor(s) of the sectors that currently control the flights in the advisory. When the traffic manager accepts the MFCR advisory via the user interface, the corresponding flight plan amendments would be sent to the displays of the appropriate sector controllers, using the Airborne Re-Routing (ABRR) capability which is scheduled for nationwide operation in 2017. The sector controllers would then offer this time-saving route modification to the pilots of the affected flights via datalink (or voice), and implement the corresponding flight plan amendment if the pilots accept it. MFCR is implemented as an application in the software environment of the Future Air traffic management Concepts Evaluation Tool (FACET). This paper focuses on an initial subject matter expert (SME) evaluation of MFCR. The evaluation covers MFCRs operational concept, algorithm, and user interface.

  7. The Bologna reform of subject teacher education in the newly founded states in the territory of the former Yugoslavia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protner Edvard


    Full Text Available The article provides an overview of carrying out the principles of the Bologna reform in the education of subject teachers in the newly founded states in the territory of the former Yugoslavia. Drawing upon official documents, particularly laws and by-laws, study programmes and constituent documents of individual universities, the comparative analysis of the reform processes between 2004 and 2013 is made within a relatively homogeneous area in teacher education that existed before the break-up of the former joint state. Positive effects and weak points of the reform activities are observed and detected. The analysis has shown that by implementing the Bologna process the differences in the training of subject teachers among the states and universities, and even among individual universities, increased significantly compared to the previous state of education. This is evident not only in the simultaneous implementation of different models (i.e., the duration of studies (3+2, 4+1, 5+0, but also in concurrent application of simultaneous and successive forms of acquiring teacher competences, different academic titles, and particularly in the greatest issue - different levels of education at which teachers acquire teaching competences for the same teacher profile.

  8. Subjective Well-Being in Adolescence and Teacher Connectedness: A Health Asset Analysis (United States)

    García-Moya, Irene; Brooks, Fiona; Morgan, Antony; Moreno, Carmen


    Objectives: Teacher connectedness is an important factor for young people's well-being. The aim of this paper was to examine teacher connectedness in detail and its potential association with emotional wellbeing. More specifically, we set out to analyse whether teacher connectedness acted as a universal asset for boys and girls of different ages…

  9. Teachers' Cultural Maps: Asia as a "Tricky Sort of Subject Matter" in Curriculum Inquiry (United States)

    Salter, Peta


    The refocussing of Australia-Asia relations is manifest in a combination of national policy moves in Australia. Parallel shifts have been made in Europe, the United States, Canada and New Zealand. In Australia, the curricular response to this shift has become known as "Asia literacy." This study is drawn from a wider project that…

  10. The effect of learning styles and attitude on preservice elementary teachers' conceptual understanding of chemistry and the nature of matter in a simulation-based learning environment (United States)

    Al-Jaroudi, Mo H.

    scores based on students' learning styles, entering in all 4-combined dimensions at the same time Visual/Verbal, Sensing/Intuitive, Sequential/Global, and Active/Reflective (p > .05), indicating the four learning styles dimensions cannot be used to predict students' achievement gain. Results also indicated that there was no significant relationship between achievement gain and students' attitude (p > .05). Attitude and learning style together were also not significantly related to achievement gain. Preservice elementary teachers' comprehension of chemical concepts in this study varied from no comprehension to fair comprehension, and included many misconceptions; no answer showed complete understanding of the concepts. Many of the preservice teachers held misconception related to evaporation. If not addressed in science content and methods courses, this could be a problem as this new generation of teachers goes out to teach. It is proposed that to fix preservice elementary teachers' conceptual problems, curriculum needs to specifically focus on misconceptions. The preservice elementary subjects of the study showed a variety of misconceptions on both pretest and posttest concerning the particulate and the kinetic nature of matter. Suggestions are made is that a science content course could more contribute to preservice students' conceptual change if curriculum designers incorporate a segment that specifically addresses misconceptions, especially those misconceptions that have been documented in the literature for decades. A robust cognitive model for science education is proposed to increase teachers' science knowledge and to decrease science misconceptions.

  11. Bromatological composition and dry matter digestibility of millet cultivars subjected to nitrogen doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.H.D. Buso


    Full Text Available The bromatological composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility of millet cultivars were assessed for different nitrogen doses and two sowing seasons in the Ceres municipality of Goiás state, Brazil. The treatments consisted of three millet cultivars (ADR-7010, ADR-500 and BRS-1501, four nitrogen (N doses (0, 50, 100 and 200kg ha-1 of N and two sowing seasons. Three replicates and a randomised block design with a 3 x 4 x 2 factorial scheme were used. Two cuttings were performed in each season when plants reached an average height of 0.70 cm. No significant interactions were observed between or among cultivars for N doses and dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fibre (NDF and acid detergent fibre (ADF contents. The DM, CP, NDF and ADF contents were significantly different between N doses. The DM and CP contents increased as the N dose increased to 100kg ha-1. The maximum DM and CP contents were 11.14 and 22.53%, respectively. The NDF and ADF contents were higher in the control treatment (60.11 and 30.01%, respectively. In addition, the lowest ADF and NDF concentrations occurred at an N dose of 50kg ha-1 (56.33 and 30.23%, respectively. The DM contents were higher for the February sowing, with an average of 10.59%. The highest CP and ADF contents were found for the December sowing (22.46 and 31.58%, respectively. No significant differences were found for millet cultivars, N doses or sowing seasons. A significant interaction was found between sowing season and millet cultivar. The BRS-1501 cultivar had a higher in vitro dry matter digestibility in the December/2010 sowing (73.88%.

  12. Subjective Well-Being of Hong Kong Chinese Teachers: The Contribution of Gratitude, Forgiveness, and the Orientations to Happiness (United States)

    Chan, David W.


    This study investigated whether gratitude and forgiveness contribute to subjective well-being (life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect) above the contribution of the three orientations to happiness in a sample of 143 Hong Kong Chinese teachers. Gratitude and forgiveness correlated substantially and significantly with each other,…

  13. "First Do No Harm": Factors Influencing Teachers' Ability and Willingness to Use ICT in Their Subject Teaching (United States)

    Haydn, Terry; Barton, Roy


    The paper reports on a Department of Culture, Museums and Sport (DCMS) funded project which provided modest amounts of time for teachers to be freed from their classroom teaching to explore the use of information and communications technology (ICT) in their subject teaching, and to meet up together to discuss their use of new technology. The…

  14. Trainee Teachers' Views on What Helps Them to Use Information and Communication Technology Effectively in Their Subject Teaching (United States)

    Barton, R.; Haydn, T.


    This study explored the views of initial teacher trainees on various components of their training in the use of new technology to teach their subject. The research focused on trainees' reflections on their experiences of trying to "get better" at information and communication technology (ICT) in the course of their training. Data collection…

  15. Individualized Gaussian process-based prediction and detection of local and global gray matter abnormalities in elderly subjects. (United States)

    Ziegler, G; Ridgway, G R; Dahnke, R; Gaser, C


    Structural imaging based on MRI is an integral component of the clinical assessment of patients with potential dementia. We here propose an individualized Gaussian process-based inference scheme for clinical decision support in healthy and pathological aging elderly subjects using MRI. The approach aims at quantitative and transparent support for clinicians who aim to detect structural abnormalities in patients at risk of Alzheimer's disease or other types of dementia. Firstly, we introduce a generative model incorporating our knowledge about normative decline of local and global gray matter volume across the brain in elderly. By supposing smooth structural trajectories the models account for the general course of age-related structural decline as well as late-life accelerated loss. Considering healthy subjects' demography and global brain parameters as informative about normal brain aging variability affords individualized predictions in single cases. Using Gaussian process models as a normative reference, we predict new subjects' brain scans and quantify the local gray matter abnormalities in terms of Normative Probability Maps (NPM) and global z-scores. By integrating the observed expectation error and the predictive uncertainty, the local maps and global scores exploit the advantages of Bayesian inference for clinical decisions and provide a valuable extension of diagnostic information about pathological aging. We validate the approach in simulated data and real MRI data. We train the GP framework using 1238 healthy subjects with ages 18-94 years, and predict in 415 independent test subjects diagnosed as healthy controls, Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Motivation of Professional Choice as a Component of Professional Subjectness in Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budnikova S.P.,


    Full Text Available The paper addresses the issue of factors that define the choice of university and future profession in prospective students of the Tula State Lev Tolstoy Pedagogical University. The motives of professional choice are essential when it comes to analyzing the conditions of development of professional subjectness. Our study involved 62% of all first-year students and 85% of first-year students of pedagogical departments. We used our specially developed questionnaire “Motives of University Choice” and a set of others, such as V.G. Katashev’s “Technique for Measuring Learning Motivation in Students” and K. Zamfir’s “Work Motivation Technique” (modified by A.A. Rean. The outcomes show that most students make choices basing on their emotional attitude to the professional sphere which is generally positive. Also, it was revealed that important inner and outer positive motives prevail in most future teachers. The paper states that it is necessary to find the universal criteria which could help predict successful self-actualisation in profession in individuals during their study at university and thus help reveal the mechanisms for managing this process. Finally, we suggest some possible forms promoting professional self-orientation at university.

  17. Teachers' Responses to Feedback from Evaluators: What Feedback Characteristics Matter? REL 2017-190 (United States)

    Cherasaro, Trudy L.; Brodersen, R. Marc; Reale, Marianne L.; Yanoski, David C.


    The importance of teacher effectiveness is well supported by studies that document variation in teachers' abilities to contribute to student achievement gains. All else being equal, students taught by some teachers experience greater achievement gains than do students taught by other teachers. In response to initiatives to increase educator…

  18. A common NTRK2 variant is associated with emotional arousal and brain white-matter integrity in healthy young subjects (United States)

    Spalek, K; Coynel, D; Freytag, V; Hartmann, F; Heck, A; Milnik, A; de Quervain, D; Papassotiropoulos, A


    Dysregulation of emotional arousal is observed in many psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia, mood and anxiety disorders. The neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type 2 gene (NTRK2) has been associated with these disorders. Here we investigated the relation between genetic variability of NTRK2 and emotional arousal in healthy young subjects in two independent samples (n1=1171; n2=707). In addition, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data in a subgroup of 342 participants were used to identify NTRK2-related white-matter structure differences. After correction for multiple testing, we identified a NTRK2 single nucleotide polymorphism associated with emotional arousal in both samples (n1: Pnominal=0.0003, Pcorrected=0.048; n2: Pnominal=0.0141, Pcorrected=0.036). DTI revealed significant, whole-brain corrected correlations between emotional arousal and brain white-matter mean diffusivity (MD), as well as significant, whole-brain corrected NTRK2 genotype-related differences in MD (PFWE<0.05). Our study demonstrates that genetic variability of NTRK2, a susceptibility gene for psychiatric disorders, is related to emotional arousal and—independently—to brain white-matter properties in healthy individuals. PMID:26978740

  19. A common NTRK2 variant is associated with emotional arousal and brain white-matter integrity in healthy young subjects. (United States)

    Spalek, K; Coynel, D; Freytag, V; Hartmann, F; Heck, A; Milnik, A; de Quervain, D; Papassotiropoulos, A


    Dysregulation of emotional arousal is observed in many psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia, mood and anxiety disorders. The neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type 2 gene (NTRK2) has been associated with these disorders. Here we investigated the relation between genetic variability of NTRK2 and emotional arousal in healthy young subjects in two independent samples (n1=1171; n2=707). In addition, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data in a subgroup of 342 participants were used to identify NTRK2-related white-matter structure differences. After correction for multiple testing, we identified a NTRK2 single nucleotide polymorphism associated with emotional arousal in both samples (n1: Pnominal=0.0003, Pcorrected=0.048; n2: Pnominal=0.0141, Pcorrected=0.036). DTI revealed significant, whole-brain corrected correlations between emotional arousal and brain white-matter mean diffusivity (MD), as well as significant, whole-brain corrected NTRK2 genotype-related differences in MD (PFWEemotional arousal and-independently-to brain white-matter properties in healthy individuals.

  20. The Role of Reading Comprehension in Large-Scale Subject-Matter Assessments (United States)

    Zhang, Ting


    This study was designed with the overall goal of understanding how difficulties in reading comprehension are associated with early adolescents' performance in large-scale assessments in subject domains including science and civic-related social studies. The current study extended previous research by taking a cognition-centered approach based on…

  1. Subjective Evaluations of Alcohol-Related Consequences among College Students: Experience with Consequences Matters (United States)

    Leavens, Eleanor L.; Leffingwell, Thad R.; Miller, Mary Beth; Brett, Emma I.; Lombardi, Nathaniel


    Objective: Research suggests college students rate some alcohol-related consequences less negatively than others, yet it is unclear how or when these differences in perception develop. The current study compared college students' subjective evaluations of alcohol-related consequences that they had and had not experienced in order to test the…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S E Mansurova


    Full Text Available Activity approach, differently refracted at different levels of education, has put many new challenges for teachers. The competence approach acts as the methodological basis of the state educational standard of higher professional education, additional professional education; the system-activity approach acts as the methodological basis of the standards of General education. With regard to teachers of General education, the main task is to overcome the contradiction between the real level of their qualifications and new high requirements for them. These requirements are outlined in the leading normative documents of the educational standards, Professional standard “Teacher”. For the system of teacher professional development the authors of this article propose an integrated approach that combines competence-based and system-activity approaches. The integrated approach differs substantially for teachers who teach subjects of Humanities and science profiles. The paper presents the examples of tasks for various categories of teachers, the specifics of the project and research activities, as well as the characteristics of the process of problematization in the classroom and in extracurricular activities of the teachers. The universal educational actions are differenciated from the position of the variable component. At the same time the authors understand the necessity of taking into account the invariant component in the teaching of humanitarian and natural science disciplines. This thesis is a reflection of the general trend towards integration and interdisciplinarity.

  3. Why All Teachers Matter: The Relationship between Long-Term Teacher and Classroom Quality and Children's Reading Achievement (United States)

    Palacios, Natalia


    This study uses the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort to examine the influence that teachers and classrooms have on children's short- and long-term reading achievement trajectories throughout the elementary school years. The analytic sample in the 1st grade is 16,604 children nested within 5,029 teachers, the 3rd-grade sample…

  4. Relative activity of cerebral subcortical gray matter in varying states of attention and awareness in normal subjects and patient studies

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    Cooper, M.; Chen, C.T.; Levy, J.; Wagner, N.; Spire, J.P.; Jacobsen, J.; Meltzer, H.; Metz, J.; Beck, R.N.


    An important aspect of the study of brain function involves measurement of the relationships; between activities in the subcortical gray matter of the caudate and of the thalamus; and between these structures and functional cortical areas. The authors have studied these relationships in 22 subjects under different conditions of activation, sleep and sensory deprivation using a PET VI system and F-18-2DG to determine regional cerebral metabolism. Subject activating conditions were maintained throughout the period of equilibration of F-18-2DG and E.E.G.'s were monitored. Multiple tomographic slices of 1-2 million counts were obtained simultaneously with slice separation of 14mm and each plane parallel to the cantho-meatal line. In activated and non-activated awake conditions for normal subjects, left and right thalmus-to-caudate ratios were similar and greater than unity. This relationship was maintained in non-REM sleep, but was reversed and divergent in REM sleep and sensory deprivation; this was also evident in 3/4 narcoleptics awake and asleep in non-REM and REM and 2/3 schizophrenics and affective disorder, subjects. This approach appears to have potential for characterizating normal and disordered regional cerebral function.

  5. Validity of Subjective Self-Assessment of Digital Competence among Undergraduate Preservice Teachers (United States)

    Maderick, Joseph Andrew


    Technology is now integrated into the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) required to be a highly qualified 21st century teacher. Accurate measurement of digital competence has become critical. Self-assessment has been used widely to measure the digital competence of preservice teachers who are expected to integrate technology into…

  6. Why teachers use digital learning materials: The role of self-efficacy, subjective norm and attitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Acker, Frederik; Van Buuren, Hans; Kreijns, Karel; Vermeulen, Marjan


    Although Information and Communication Technology (ICT) seems a promising tool in an educational context, many teachers are reluctant to integrate it in their daily practice. A large scale survey was undertaken amongst primary and secondary school teachers in the Netherlands to explore possible

  7. What Is It Like to Be a Child? Childhood Subjectivity and Teacher Memories as Heterotopia (United States)

    Chang-Kredl, Sandra; Wilkie, Gala


    Foucault's notion of heterotopia offers a novel way to understand teachers' conceptualizations of childhood, in juxtaposing adult memories of childhood with their present context of teaching children. Memory writing prompts were given to 41 early childhood teachers, and the resulting written narratives were analyzed as heterotopic spaces. The…

  8. Pre-Service Teachers' Subject Knowledge of and Attitudes about Radioactivity and Ionising Radiation (United States)

    Colclough, Nicholas Denys; Lock, Roger; Soares, Allan


    This study focussed on secondary school (11-18 years) pre-service teachers' (n = 73) knowledge of and attitudes towards risks associated with alpha, beta, and gamma radiations. A multi-method approach was used with physics, chemistry, biology, and history graduates undertaking the one-year initial teacher training, Post Graduate Certificate in…

  9. Concentration dynamics and biodegradability of dissolved organic matter in wetland soils subjected to experimental warming. (United States)

    Wang, Hang; Holden, Joseph; Zhang, Zhijian; Li, Meng; Li, Xia


    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is the most bioavailable soil organic pool. Understanding how DOM responds to elevated temperature is important for forecasting soil carbon (C) dynamics under climate warming. Here a 4.5-year field microcosm experiment was carried out to examine temporal DOM concentration dynamics in soil pore-water from six different subtropical wetlands. Results are compared between control (ambient temperature) and warmed (+5°C) treatments. UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopy was performed to reveal DOM structural complexity at the end of the warming incubation. Elevated temperature resulted in initially (1 to 2.5 years) high pore-water DOM concentrations in warmed samples. These effects gradually diminished over longer time periods. Of the spectral indices, specific UV absorbance at 280 nm and humification index were significantly higher, while the signal intensity ratio of the fulvic-like to humic-like fluorescence peak was lower in warmed samples, compared to the control. Fluorescence regional integration analysis further suggested that warming enhanced the contribution of humic-like substances to DOM composition for all tested wetlands. These spectral fingerprints implied a declined fraction of readily available substrates in DOM allocated to microbial utilization in response to 4.5 years of warming. As a negative feedback, decreased DOM biodegradability may have the potential to counteract initial DOM increases and alleviate C loss in water-saturated wetland soils. © 2013.

  10. Effects of Storylines Embedded within the Context-Based Approach on Pre-Service Primary School Teachers' Conceptions of Matter and Its States (United States)

    Demircioglu, Hülya; Ayas, Alipasa; Demircioglu, Gökhan; Özmen, Haluk


    In this study, the effect of the context-based approach on pre-service primary school teachers' understanding of matter and its states and their attitude towards chemistry was investigated. Using a simple experimental design, the study was conducted with 35 pre-service primary school teachers who were exposed to context-based material with…

  11. Fostering teacher learning in VET colleges: Do leadership and teamwork matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Groote Beverborg, Arnoud; Sleegers, P.J.C.; van Veen, Klaas


    This study explores teacher learning in Vocational Education and Training colleges, combining organizational and psychological factors, such as transformational leadership, teamwork, and self-efficacy. 447 teachers participated in a survey study. Multilevel structural equation modeling was used to

  12. The response of teachers to new subject areas in a national science curriculum: The case of the earth science component (United States)

    King, Chris


    The National Curriculum for Science (NCS) introduced to schools in England and Wales in 1989 contained an earth science component that was new to many secondary science teachers. Ten years after this introduction, a survey was undertaken to test teacher perception of the effectiveness of their teaching in this subject area that was new to them, and to identify factors that might affect this effectiveness. The information gained has been used in reviewing possible curriculum changes and in developing professional development strategies that would improve the effectiveness of NCS earth science teaching. The data collected from science teachers who are currently teaching this earth science component revealed that their background knowledge of earth science from their own education was generally poor, even though most of them considered their knowledge to be moderate. The teachers indicated that the achievement of their pupils in earth science is moderate, while reports on national testing show it is poor. They reported that their main sources of earth science knowledge and understanding were science textbooks written for 11- to 16-year-old pupils (with their small earth science content of variable quality) and science colleagues (who often have poor earth science backgrounds too). Most teachers indicated that they needed more support in this area. Overall, the data indicated that while teachers consider their teaching in this area to be moderate, other evidence suggests it is poor. If this situation is not to continue it should be addressed. In the longer term the emphasis on the earth science content of the National Science Curriculum could be changed (either enhanced or reduced) within larger scale curriculum changes. Until such curriculum change takes place, effective methods of professional development should be instituted so that teachers have a much improved basis on which to build their earth science teaching. Similar measures would be necessary in other

  13. Does Teaching Experience Matter? The Beliefs and Practices of Beginning and Experienced Physics Teachers (United States)

    Caleon, Imelda S.; Tan, Yuen Sze Michelle; Cho, Young Hoan


    This study utilized multiple data sources to examine the beliefs about learning and teaching physics and the instructional practices of five beginning teachers and seven experienced teachers from Singapore. Our study was implemented in the unique context of teachers teaching the topic of electricity to students grouped according to academic…

  14. Does Student Teaching Matter? Investigating Pre-Service Teachers' Sense of Efficacy and Preparedness (United States)

    Brown, Amber L.; Lee, Joohi; Collins, Denise


    The purpose of this study was to investigate how student teaching experiences impact the sense of teaching efficacy and feelings of preparedness of pre-service teachers in a nearly and elementary teacher education program (EC-6). The study used an action research, mixed-methods design. Seventy-one pre-service teachers at a large public university…

  15. Does Teaching Experience Matter? The Beliefs and Practices of Beginning and Experienced Physics Teachers (United States)

    Caleon, Imelda S.; Tan, Yuen Sze Michelle; Cho, Young Hoan


    This study utilized multiple data sources to examine the beliefs about learning and teaching physics and the instructional practices of five beginning teachers and seven experienced teachers from Singapore. Our study was implemented in the unique context of teachers teaching the topic of electricity to students grouped according to academic abilities. The topic of electricity is one of the most difficult physics topics for students to understand and for teachers to teach. It was found that the experienced teachers, compared to the beginning teachers, tended to have beliefs about teaching and learning physics that are closer to constructivist views. The majority of the teachers, particularly the beginning teachers, espoused beliefs about learning physics that were incongruent with their beliefs about teaching physics. Although transmission-oriented and teacher-directed practices dominated the classroom lessons of both groups of teachers, more elements of constructivist instruction were found in the classroom lessons of the experienced teachers. It was also found that the classroom practices of the teachers, especially those in their inductive years of teaching, were more aligned with their beliefs about learning physics than their beliefs about teaching physics.

  16. Does the Match Matter? Exploring Whether Student Teaching Experiences Affect Teacher Effectiveness (United States)

    Goldhaber, Dan; Krieg, John M.; Theobald, Roddy


    We use data from six Washington State teacher education programs to investigate the relationship between teacher candidates' student teaching experiences and their later teaching effectiveness. Our primary finding is that teachers are more effective when the student demographics of their current school are similar to the student demographics of…

  17. Iranian EFL Teachers' Practices and Learner Autonomy: Do Gender, Educational Degree, and Experience Matter? (United States)

    Nasri, Najmeh; Vahid Dastjerdy, Hossein; Eslami Rasekh, Abbass; Amirian, Zahra


    Owing to the importance of learner autonomy (LA) and considering the prominent role of teachers in this respect, the present study investigated: (1) Iranian English as a foreign language teachers' practices for promoting high school students' autonomy, (2) possible differences among teachers' practices with different educational degrees, levels of…

  18. Morale Matters: When Teachers Feel Good about Their Work, Research Shows, Student Achievement Rises. (United States)

    Black, Susan


    Building teacher morale involves more than compliments, plaques, and one-time events. Teacher morale is higher in schools where principals create a positive school culture and climate. Sinking teacher morale generally accompanies sinking student achievement. Time constraints, excessive workloads, and insufficient classroom resources take their…

  19. Akin to my teacher: Does caste, religious or gender distance between student and teacher matter? Some evidence from India


    Shenila Rawal; Geeta Kingdon


    This paper uses a unique data set from 5028 primary school children in rural India to examine whether the demographic interactions between students and teachers influence student outcomes and whether social distance between student and teacher exacerbates gender, caste and religious gaps in children's achievement. One would expect this to be the case if discrimination and/or role model effects persist in the classroom. School and individual fixed effects methodology are used. In the pupil fix...

  20. Benefits of teaching voice amplification as related to subjective laryngeal symptoms and perceived voice quality in teachers (United States)

    Jonsdottir, Valdis


    Loud speaking due to noisy working conditions is a common cause for teachers' voice disorders. One way to diminish the vocal load of teaching is to make use of technical equipment. This Icelandic study explores: (1) if the use of amplification in classrooms would diminish the teachers' experienced symptoms of vocal fatigue; and (2) whether there is a possible change in perceptual voice quality during a teachers' working day. Thirty-three teachers, from grade school to university level, voluntarily served as subjects. They used amplifiers while teaching for one week at least. After that, they filled out a questionnaire concerning their symptoms and experiences. The results showed that the majority of teachers found amplification beneficial. They found it easier to talk and experienced less fatigue. The few disadvantages were technical. For a perceptual analysis, three females and two males (mean age 51 years) with long teaching experience and three or more dysphonic symptoms during the term, had their speech recorded while teaching, with and without amplification. In the clinical examination, no pathological changes were found in the vocal folds. In both studies, the quality of the voices was esteemed better when amplification was used.

  1. Science teacher's perception about science learning experiences as a foundation for teacher training program (United States)

    Tapilouw, Marisa Christina; Firman, Harry; Redjeki, Sri; Chandra, Didi Teguh


    Teacher training is one form of continuous professional development. Before organizing teacher training (material, time frame), a survey about teacher's need has to be done. Science teacher's perception about science learning in the classroom, the most difficult learning model, difficulties of lesson plan would be a good input for teacher training program. This survey conducted in June 2016. About 23 science teacher filled in the questionnaire. The core of questions are training participation, the most difficult science subject matter, the most difficult learning model, the difficulties of making lesson plan, knowledge of integrated science and problem based learning. Mostly, experienced teacher participated training once a year. Science training is very important to enhance professional competency and to improve the way of teaching. The difficulties of subject matter depend on teacher's education background. The physics subject matter in class VIII and IX are difficult to teach for most respondent because of many formulas and abstract. Respondents found difficulties in making lesson plan, in term of choosing the right learning model for some subject matter. Based on the result, inquiry, cooperative, practice are frequently used in science class. Integrated science is understood as a mix between Biology, Physics and Chemistry concepts. On the other hand, respondents argue that problem based learning was difficult especially in finding contextual problem. All the questionnaire result can be used as an input for teacher training program in order to enhanced teacher's competency. Difficult concepts, integrated science, teaching plan, problem based learning can be shared in teacher training.

  2. Insight on AV-45 binding in white and grey matter from histogram analysis: a study on early Alzheimer's disease patients and healthy subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemmi, Federico; Saint-Aubert, Laure; Peran, Patrice [Inserm, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques UMR 825, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse (France); Universite de Toulouse, UPS, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques UMR 825, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Toulouse (France); Adel, Djilali; Salabert, Anne-Sophie; Payoux, Pierre [Inserm, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques UMR 825, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse (France); Universite de Toulouse, UPS, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques UMR 825, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Toulouse (France); Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Pole Imagerie, Toulouse (France); Pariente, Jeremie [Inserm, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques UMR 825, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse (France); Universite de Toulouse, UPS, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques UMR 825, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Toulouse (France); Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Service de Neurologie, Pole Neurosciences, Toulouse (France); Barbeau, Emmanuel J. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Service de Neurologie, Pole Neurosciences, Toulouse (France); Universite de Toulouse, UPS, Centre de Recherche Cerveau et Cognition, CNRS, CerCo, Toulouse (France)


    AV-45 amyloid biomarker is known to show uptake in white matter in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), but also in the healthy population. This binding, thought to be of a non-specific lipophilic nature, has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the differential pattern of AV-45 binding in white matter in healthy and pathological populations. We recruited 24 patients presenting with AD at an early stage and 17 matched, healthy subjects. We used an optimized positron emission tomography-magnetic resonance imaging (PET-MRI) registration method and an approach based on an intensity histogram using several indices. We compared the results of the intensity histogram analyses with a more canonical approach based on target-to-cerebellum Standard Uptake Value (SUVr) in white and grey matter using MANOVA and discriminant analyses. A cluster analysis on white and grey matter histograms was also performed. White matter histogram analysis revealed significant differences between AD and healthy subjects, which were not revealed by SUVr analysis. However, white matter histograms were not decisive to discriminate groups, and indices based on grey matter only showed better discriminative power than SUVr. The cluster analysis divided our sample into two clusters, showing different uptakes in grey, but also in white matter. These results demonstrate that AV-45 binding in white matter conveys subtle information not detectable using the SUVr approach. Although it is not more efficient than standard SUVr in discriminating AD patients from healthy subjects, this information could reveal white matter modifications. (orig.)

  3. Deconstructing surgical education--teacher quality really matters: implications for attracting medical students to surgical careers. (United States)

    Ehrlich, Peter F; Seidman, P A


    Delineating those factors that enhance a student's surgical experience during medical school may be important to attracting "the best and the brightest" to surgery programs. Therefore, understanding the differences between an excellent and poor student evaluation from the student perspective is critical to surgical education, yet it remains ill defined. We concurrently assessed comprehensive student evaluations from a surgical clerkship over a 2-year period. The purpose of this study is to report the results of this audit. Two years of student-directed evaluations were analyzed. Nine different surgical services were evaluated. Twenty-six data points were collected, including demographic, career, objective, and subjective information. Statistical analysis was performed using descriptive, chi2, and logistic regression tests. One hundred twenty-eight students rotated over 2 years, with 113 (88%) completing the assessment (61% men, 39% women). Men were more interested in surgical careers than women (4:1, P outcome. The "highest rated and lowest rated" service were compared. Analysis demonstrated significant differences in three areas (operating room experience, and resident and faculty teaching.) The characteristics that separated the good teachers from the poor ones were the ability to challenge the student to think, providing useful feedback for their work, the ability to communicate ideas, and a positive attitude toward students/teaching. Student surgical evaluations underscore the role faculty and/or residents play in their education.

  4. ePortfolio Integration in Teacher Education Programs: Does Context Matter from a Student Perspective?


    Ndoye, Abdou; Parker, Michele A; Albert D. Ritzhaupt


    Though ePortfolios have grown in acceptance by teacher education programs across the United States, there still remain many questions regarding whether the tools are meeting student and teacher education program needs. This chapter will address this concern by first describing ePortfolios within teacher education. Next, the chapter will present a stakeholder interaction model and identify the individuals involved in an ePortfolio system. Then, a series of integration questions will be high...

  5. Elevated leukocyte count in asymptomatic subjects is associated with a higher risk for cerebral white matter lesions. (United States)

    Kim, Chi Kyung; Lee, Seung-Hoon; Kim, Beom Joon; Ryu, Wi-Sun; Choi, Seung Ho; Oh, Byung-Hee; Yoon, Byung-Woo


    Cerebral white matter lesions (WMLs) are radiologic markers of small vessel disease in brain, and inflammatory processes were related to WMLs. We propose to determine if elevated leukocyte count was associated with a higher risk of WMLs. 1586 asymptomatic subjects who visited our hospital for a routine health check-up were enrolled. Leukocyte counts were measured and the presence of moderate to severe WMLs was determined by brain MRI. Thirty (1.9%) had moderate to severe WMLs, and a significant greater proportion (4.1%) of subjects in the highest leukocyte count quartile had moderate to severe WMLs. After adjusting by C-reactive protein, aspirin use and cardiovascular risk factors, the highest quartile of leukocyte count (≥6.7×10⁹/L) was significantly associated with moderate to severe WMLs compared with the lowest quartile [adjusted odds ratio, 4.03; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-15.5]. The authors report for the first time that an elevated leukocyte count is independently associated with moderate to severe WMLs. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Black Teachers Matter: Qualitative Study of Factors Influencing African American Candidates Success in a Teacher Preparation Program (United States)

    Dinkins, Elizabeth; Thomas, Kevin


    This qualitative study examined the perspectives and experiences of ten African American students at a predominantly White institution to understand why students persisted or discontinued in the teacher preparation program. Findings indicate three predominant factors influence Black candidates' decision to complete or leave the program: the role…

  7. Homeroom Teachers or Specialist Teachers?: Considerations for the Workforce for Teaching English as a Subject at Elementary Schools in Japan (United States)

    Okumura, Shinji


    In Japan, English will be officially taught as an academic subject for elementary fifth and sixth graders from 2020. This is a strong initiative of language-in-education policy, aiming at efficient articulation between elementary and junior high schools and targeting the development of English proficiency from early ages simultaneously. However,…

  8. Reflect, "Refract" or Reveal: Sociocultural Explorations of the Place of Teacher Subjectivity in Infant Care (United States)

    Brennan, Margaret


    Research indicates that adult sensitivity to psychological states (both the adult's and the infant's) will affect the security of attachment yet the teacher's internal state has received little attention in infant care. "Perezhivanie" is a sociocultural concept that presents affect and intellect as a unit rather than separate elements.…

  9. Development of Subject Position as a Condition for Forming Communicative Competence of a Future Teacher (United States)

    Yarullina, Alfiya Sh.; Araslanova, Aliya T.


    Since the demand on specialists with broad professional competence grows nowadays, high education is filled with new contents and presupposes formation of a professionally competent teacher. Professional education considers communicative competence of a student as a dominant. This fact requires from a student active attitude to himself and his…

  10. Voicing Early Years Teachers' Subjective Experiences through Maurice Sendak's "Outside Over There" (United States)

    Chang-Kredl, Sandra


    In this article, I present a narrative conversation that combines six teachers' responses to Maurice Sendak's picture book, "Outside Over There" (1981) with my own responses to their discussions and to the book. The purpose of this research is three-fold: first, to examine how children's literature can be used to evoke reflections in early years…

  11. Integration of ICT in Teacher Education and Different School Subjects in Latvia (United States)

    Kangro, Andris; Kangro, Ilze


    The introduction of information and communication technology (ICT) to the educational system of Latvia has implemented infrastructural planning since 1985 (Grinfelds, 1996). The initial plan envisaged equipping schools (mainly secondary schools) and institutions of higher education with computer sets, and training teachers and university faculty.…

  12. NPY mRNA Expression in the Prefrontal Cortex: Selective Reduction in the Superficial White Matter of Subjects with Schizoaffective Disorder (United States)

    Morris, Harvey M.; Stopczynski, Rachelle E.; Lewis, David A.


    Background Alterations in the inhibitory circuitry of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in schizophrenia include reduced expression of the messenger RNA (mRNA) for somatostatin (SST), a neuropeptide present in a subpopulation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurons. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is expressed in a subset of SST-containing interneurons and lower levels of NPY mRNA have also been reported in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. However, whether the alterations in these two transcripts identify the same, particularly vulnerable, subset of GABA neurons has not been examined. Methods We used in situ hybridization to quantify NPY mRNA levels in DLPFC gray and white matter from 23 pairs of subjects with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and matched normal control subjects; results were compared to those from a previous study of SST mRNA expression in the same subjects. Results In contrast to SST mRNA, NPY mRNA levels were not significantly lower in the gray matter of subjects with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. However, NPY, but not SST, mRNA expression was significantly lower in the superficial white matter of subjects with schizoaffective disorder. Conclusion These findings suggest that the alterations in SST-containing interneurons in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder are selective for the subset that do not express NPY mRNA, and that lower NPY mRNA expression in the superficial white matter may distinguish subjects with schizoaffective disorder from those with schizophrenia. PMID:19804960

  13. Leadership for Teaching and Learning: How Teacher-Powered Schools Work and Why They Matter (United States)

    Berry, Barnett; Farris-Berg, Kim


    Over the past 20 years, federal and state reforms have drawn on heavy-handed attempts to close the achievement gap through top-down management of teachers. Such approaches have often included high-stakes accountability systems that mandate what to teach and how to teach it and that evaluate teachers on the basis of annual standardized test scores.…

  14. Does Teaching Experience Matter? Examining Biology Teachers' Prior Knowledge for Teaching in an Alternative Certification Program (United States)

    Friedrichsen, Patricia J.; Abell, Sandra K.; Pareja, Enrique M.; Brown, Patrick L.; Lankford, Deanna M.; Volkmann, Mark J.


    Alternative certification programs (ACPs) have been proposed as a viable way to address teacher shortages, yet we know little about how teacher knowledge develops within such programs. The purpose of this study was to investigate prior knowledge for teaching among students entering an ACP, comparing individuals with teaching experience to those…

  15. When Leadership Matters: Perspectives from a Teacher Team Implementing Response to Intervention (United States)

    Meyer, Michele M.; Behar-Horenstein, Linda S.


    Previous research investigating the effectiveness of response to intervention (RTI) has relied on post hoc data analyses and surveys, although few studies have explored interactions among teacher teams. Understanding the synergistic impact of teacher work within the RTI framework may have implications for how school leaders can support teacher…

  16. Do Teachers' Wages Matter for Proficiency? Evidence from a Funding Reform in Brazil (United States)

    Menezes-Filho, Naercio; Pazello, Elaine


    This paper uses the 1998 reform in the funding of fundamental education in Brazil (FUNDEF) to identify the effect of teachers' wages on the proficiency of public school pupils. Wages are set by legislation at the local level and this reform established a floor on the share of expenditures on teacher wages out of total revenues in each Brazilian…

  17. Mind over Matter: Contributing Factors to Self-Efficacy in Montessori Teachers (United States)

    Bhatia, Punum


    Interpreting Albert Bandura's term "self-efficacy" as the individual's belief in his own abilities to succeed in spite of the given circumstances, this study seeks to identify the influences which lead to self-efficacy in Montessori teachers. In order to evaluate perceptions of self-efficacy, 35 pre-service teachers in the…

  18. Teachers Matter: Expectancy Effects in Chinese University English-as-a-Foreign-Language Classrooms (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Rubie-Davies, Christine Margaret


    This study was designed to investigate teacher expectation effects for intact student groups (rather than individuals) in tertiary settings, which have been little studied in the literature. The participants were 50 teachers and their 4617 first-year undergraduate students learning English as a foreign language at two universities in China.…

  19. What Matters Most: A Comparison of Expert and Novice Teachers' Noticing of Mathematics Classroom Events (United States)

    Huang, Rongjin; Li, Yeping


    In this study, we examined 10 expert and 10 novice teachers' noticing of classroom events in China. It was found that both expert and novice teachers, who were selected from two cities in China, highly attended to developing students' mathematics knowledge coherently and developing students' mathematical thinking and ability; they also paid…

  20. Perceived Personality Traits and Types of Teachers and Their Relationship to the Subjective Well-Being and Academic Achievements of Adolescents (United States)

    Eryilmaz, Ali


    The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship of the perceived types of teachers (liked, disliked and neutral) with the subjective well-being and academic success of their students, and to determine how students come to categorize their liked, disliked and neutral teachers considering the Big-Five Personality Model. The quantitative…

  1. So Much to Learn, so Little Time...: Pre-Service Physical Education Teachers' Interpretations and Development of Subject Knowledge as They Learn to Teach (United States)

    Herold, Frank Andreas; Waring, Michael


    This paper explores the development of pre-service teachers during a one-year programme of initial teacher training and education (ITTE) of secondary physical education (PE) in England. It concentrates in particular on the interpretation and development of different dimensions of subject knowledge during different phases of their ITTE programme.…

  2. The Subject's Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    in the significance of the body in our mental life. The sixteen specially commissioned essays in this book reflect the advances in these fields. The book is divided into three parts, each part covering a topic central to an explanation of bodily self-awareness: representation of the body; the sense of bodily......The body may be the object we know the best. It is the only object from which we constantly receive a flow of information through sight and touch; and it is the only object we can experience from the inside, through our proprioceptive, vestibular, and visceral senses. Yet there have been very few...... books that have attempted to consolidate our understanding of the body as it figures in our experience and self-awareness. This volume offers an interdisciplinary and comprehensive treatment of bodily self-awareness, the first book to do so since the landmark 1995 collection The Body and the Self...

  3. Teacher Perceptions of Teacher Bullying (United States)

    Zerillo, Christine; Osterman, Karen F


    This mixed-methods study examined elementary teachers' perceptions of teacher-student bullying. Grounded in previous research on peer bullying, the study posed several questions: to what extent did teachers perceive bullying of students by other teachers as a serious matter requiring intervention? Did they perceive teacher bullying as more serious…

  4. DNA as patentable subject matter and a narrow framework for addressing the perceived problems caused by gene patents. (United States)

    Schilling, Stephen H


    Concerns about the alleged harmful effects of gene patents--including hindered research and innovation and impeded patient access to high-quality genetic diagnostic tests--have resulted in overreactions from the public and throughout the legal profession. These overreactions are exemplified by Association for Molecular Pathology v. U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, a 2010 case in the Southern District of New York that held that isolated DNA is unpatentable subject matter under 35 U.S.C. § 101. The problem with these responses is that they fail to adequately consider the role that gene patents and patents on similar biomolecules play in facilitating investment in the costly and risky developmental processes required to transform the underlying inventions into marketable products. Accordingly, a more precisely refined solution is advisable. This Note proposes a narrowly tailored set of solutions to address the concerns about gene patents without destroying the incentives for companies to create and commercialize inventions derived from these and similar patents.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Igoshin


    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyze the format of a two-leveled training – bachelor and master – future teachers of mathematics from the point of view of the content of mathematical material, which is to develop prospective teachers of mathematics at those two levels, shaping their professional competence.Methods. The study involves the theoretical methods: the analysis of pedagogical and methodical literature, normative documents; historical, comparative and logical analysis of the content of pedagogical mathematical education; forecasting, planning and designing of two-leveled methodical system of training of future teachers of mathematics.Results and scientific novelty. The level differentiation of the higher education system requires developing the appropriate curricula for undergraduate and graduate programs. The fundamental principle must be the principle of continuity – the magister must continue to deepen and broaden knowledge and skills, along with competences acquired, developed and formed on the undergraduate level. From these positions, this paper examines the course «Number Systems» – the most important in terms of methodology course for future mathematics teachers, and shows what content should be filled with this course at the undergraduate level and the graduate level. At the undergraduate level it is proposed to study classical number systems – natural, integer, rational, real and complex. Further extensions of the number systems are studied at the graduate level. The theory of numeric systems is presented as a theory of algebraic systems, arising at the intersection of algebra and mathematical logic. Here we study algebras over a field, division algebra over a field, an alternative algebra with division over the field, Jordan algebra, Lie algebra. Comprehension of bases of the theory of algebras by the master of the «mathematical education» profile will promote more conscious

  6. The Messenger Matters: Teacher Research Experiences and Effective, Long-term Science Communication (United States)

    Timm, K.; Warburton, J.; Larson, A. M.


    PolarTREC - Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating, an NSF-Funded program of the Arctic Research Consortium of the US, matches K-12 teachers with researchers for 2-6 week hands on research experiences in the polar regions. During their teacher research experience, teachers and researchers in the field communicate widely with students and members of the public online through teacher journals, photo galleries, interactive discussion forums, multimedia resources, and real-time live events that connect the science of the Arctic or Antarctic to students and the public around the world. Due to the exciting nature of field-based polar science and the novelty of teacher participation, PolarTREC creates a natural pathway for information—from scientists to students and the general public. Initial data from the PolarTREC evaluation indicates that researchers viewed the dissemination activities of PolarTREC as an essential outreach activity allowing them to meet broader impact objectives of their project. Many researchers noted that conducting outreach through PolarTREC was “easy,” and that it “really increased our public image and bridged the separation between science and the public at large.” Although the immediate outreach activities related to the field experience are valuable, the lasting impacts of PolarTREC are related to the professional development received by the teachers through their participation. Many K-12 teachers, in both undergraduate and graduate education, have little opportunity to actually conduct inquiry-based science. The curriculum at this level consists of primarily memorizing facts and conducting contrived experiments (Michaels et al, 2008). After being embedded in an actual research project with professional scientists, participating teachers reported significant increases in their knowledge of the polar regions and improvements in their ability to teach pertinent science concepts. In particular, teachers had a better


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Ivanovna Lygina


    Full Text Available In this paper we will present the results of a pedagogical experiment aimed at studying the level of social skills in university professors. Planning cross subject communications in an academic subject with consideration of the previous and associated knowledge and skills of students in the educational programme formed the basis of the pedagogical experiment. Problems have occurred when university professors are faced with elaborating cross subject communications. It was discovered that the problems professors had were connected to their responsiveness and to the various strategies they applied while working within small groups. We will analyze the results, provide recommendations and show the change in the level of the professors’ social skills during elaboration of  cross subject communications.DOI:

  8. The effect of productive classroom talk and metacommunication on young children's oral communicative competence and subject matter knowledge: An intervention study in early childhood education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, C.; de Mey, J.R.P.B.; van Kruistum, C.J.; van Oers, B.

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of productive classroom talk and metacommunication on the development of young children's oral communicative competence and subject matter knowledge. This study can be characterized as a quasi-experimental study with a

  9. Does Variation in the Extent of Generalized Trust, Individual Education and Extensiveness of Social Security Policies Matter for Maximization of Subjective Well-Being? (United States)

    Valeeva, Rania F.


    In this paper, I examine whether generalized trust and education, as well as social security policies of welfare state institutions matter for cross-national differences in subjective well-being (SWB), because knowledge on this issue is still lacking. For this purpose I integrated the insights of two sociological theories: Social Function…

  10. The Examination of Secondary Education Chemistry Curricula Published between 1957-2007 in Terms of the Dimensions of Rationale, Goals, and Subject-Matter (United States)

    Pekdag, Bulent; Erol, Hilal


    Fifteen secondary education chemistry curricula published from 1957 until 2007 were examined based on the dimensions of rationale, goals, and subject matter. An examination of documents in the scope of qualitative research was carried out in the study. The goals included in the examined chemistry curricula were analyzed according to the cognitive,…

  11. English Language Teaching: Role of a Teacher


    Anamika Shukla


    Teacher can change subject matter from prose to poetry, from essay writing to letter writing to prevent the class from monotonous routine. Audio-Visual aids can add to the presentation of the topic. Students can be encouraged to listen to English news and Key words: English teaching, language teaching, role of teacher

  12. CosmoQuest: Supporting Subject Matter Experts in Broadening the Impacts of their Work beyond their Institutional Walls. (United States)

    Noel-Storr, J.; Buxner, S.; Grier, J.; Gay, P.


    CosmoQuest is a virtual research facility, which, like its physical counterparts, provides tools for scientists to acquire reduced data products (thanks to our cadre of citizen scientists working to analyze images and produce results online), and also to participate in education and outreach activities either directly through CosmoQuest activities (such as CosmoAcademy and the Educators' Zone) or with the support of CosmoQuest. Here, we present our strategies to inspire, engage and support Subject Matter Experts (SMEs - Scientists, Engineers, Technologists and Mathematicians) in activities outside of their institutions, and beyond college classroom teaching. We provide support for SMEs who are interested in increasing the impacts of their science knowledge and expertise by interacting with people online, or in other venues outside of their normal work environment. This includes a broad spectrum of opportunities for those interested in hosting webinars; running short courses for the public; using Facebook, Twitter or other social media to communicate science; or other diverse activities such as supporting an open house, science fair, or star party. As noted by Katheryn Woods-Townsend and colleagues, "...face-to-face interactions with scientists allowed students to view scientists as approachable and normal people, and to begin to understand the range of scientific areas and careers that exist. Scientists viewed the scientist-student interactions as a vehicle for science communication" (2015). As CosmoQuest fosters these relationships, it We present a framework for SMEs which combine opportunities for continuing professional development (virtually and in person at conferences) with ongoing online support, creating a dynamic professional learning network. The goal of this is to deepen SME capacity-knowledge, attitudes and behaviors-both encouraging and empowering them to connect to broader audiences in new ways.

  13. Common Needs and Different Agendas: How Trainee Teachers Make Progress in Their Ability to Use ICT in Subject Teaching. Some Lessons from the UK (United States)

    Haydn, Terry Anthony; Barton, Roy


    The paper reports on the outcomes of a British Educational Communications and Technology Agency (BECTa) funded study which explored the views of teacher trainees and their mentors in two different school subjects on what strategies, interventions and resources had a positive impact on their ability to use ICT effectively in their subject teaching.…

  14. Physical Education Teachers' Subjective Theories about Integrating Information and Communication Technology (ICT) into Physical Education (United States)

    Kretschmann, Rolf


    As well as other school subjects, physical education (PE) is emerging in terms of integrating information and communication technology (ICT) into regular classes. Such innovative teaching practices that implement ICT in PE involve diverse parties that are affected by these teaching processes. Students, principals, districts, parents,…

  15. Understanding Physical Educators' Perceptions of Mattering Questionnaire--Physical Education (United States)

    Richards, K. Andrew R.; Gaudreault, Karen Lux; Woods, Amelia Mays


    Previous research has illustrated that physical educators feel their subject is valued less than others in the context of schools. However, to date, no instruments have been developed to measure physical education teachers' perceptions of mattering. This study sought to propose and validate the Perceived Mattering Questionnaire--Physical Education…

  16. Friend Influence on Early Adolescent Disruptive Behavior in the Classroom: Teacher Emotional Support Matters (United States)

    Shin, Huiyoung; Ryan, Allison M.


    This research investigated how the level of disruptive behavior and friend influence on disruptive behavior varies across classrooms in relation to teacher emotional support. Data were collected from 48 fifth- and sixth-grade classrooms (N = 879 students) and included classroom observations at Wave 1 and student reports of their disruptive…

  17. Why Academic Depth and Rigour in University-Based Coursework Matters for Prospective Teachers (United States)

    Rusznyak, Lee; Balfour, Robert; Van Vollenhoven, Willie; Sosibo, Lungi


    This special issue of "Perspectives in Education" arises from a symposium entitled "Academic depth and rigour in initial teacher education" jointly organised by four universities in South Africa. The symposium, held in October 2014, attracted 125 delegates from 18 South African higher education institutions (HEIs).…

  18. Do School Bullying and Student-Teacher Relationships Matter for Academic Achievement? A Multilevel Analysis (United States)

    Konishi, Chiaki; Hymel, Shelley; Zumbo, Bruno D.; Li, Zhen


    In extending our understanding of how the social climate of schools can affect academic outcomes, this study examined the relationship between school bullying, student-teacher (S-T) connectedness, and academic performance. Using data collected in Canada as part of a larger international study conducted by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation…

  19. Experienced Teachers' Perspectives on Cultural and Social Class Diversity: Which Differences Matter? (United States)

    Allard, Andrea C.; Santoro, Ninetta


    This article reports on a pilot study that investigated the beliefs, values, and pedagogies of experienced high school teachers who worked with student populations of non-English speaking and economically disadvantaged immigrants or refugees in Australia. Qualitative research methods, including focus groups and in-depth individual interviews with…

  20. Participation in Advanced Mathematics: Do Expectation and Influence of Students, Peers, Teachers, and Parents Matter? (United States)

    Ma, Xin


    Using six waves of data (Grades 7 through 12) from the Longitudinal Study of American Youth (LSAY), this study investigated the effects of expectation and influence of students, peers, teachers, and parents on participation in advanced mathematics. Results of survival analysis indicated a significant decline in participation rate in the transition from Grades 11 to 12. Students with higher future expectation were more likely to participate in advanced mathematics. Peer influence and teacher expectation did not have strong effects, and the effect of student future expectation was independent of peer and teacher effects. The effect of parent expectation and parent college plan for children were strong, and in their presence, the effect of student future expectation declined. Mathematics achievement and attitude toward mathematics were the most important factors affecting participation in advanced mathematics. With control over achievement and attitude, (a) the effect of student future expectation declined, (b) the effects of peer influence and teacher expectation disappeared, and (c) the effects of parent expectation and parent college plan for children were reduced. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  1. Stakes Matter: Student Motivation and the Validity of Student Assessments for Teacher Evaluation (United States)

    Rutkowski, David; Wild, Justin


    In 2011, Indiana lawmakers established a system to evaluate teachers using existing standardized assessments as an indicator of student learning. In this study we examined one component of Indiana's evaluation system to determine whether student knowledge of the test's consequences is predictive of test performance. Using an experimental design,…

  2. What Great Teachers Do Differently: Seventeen Things That Matter Most. Second Edition (United States)

    Whitaker, Todd


    In the second edition of this renowned book, you will find pearls of wisdom, heartfelt advice, and inspiration from one of the nation's leading authorities on staff motivation, teacher leadership, and principal effectiveness. With wit and understanding, Todd Whitaker describes the beliefs, behaviors, attitudes, and interactions of great teachers…

  3. Developmental Trajectories of Children's Behavioral Engagement in Late Elementary School: Both Teachers and Peers Matter (United States)

    De Laet, Steven; Colpin, Hilde; Vervoort, Eleonora; Doumen, Sarah; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Goossens, Luc; Verschueren, Karine


    The present longitudinal study examined how relationships with teachers and peers jointly shape the development of children's behavioral engagement in late elementary school. A sample of 586 children (46% boys; M[subscript age] = 9.26 years at Wave 1) was followed throughout Grades 4, 5, and 6. A multidimensional approach was adopted,…

  4. The Physics Teacher: The Four States of Matter--Solid, Squishy, Liquid and Gas (United States)

    Clark, Roy W.


    The Physics Teacher provides introductory physics education at the high school and university levels and some of its articles are of interest to chemists. One such article points out that several substances used in the kitchen and bathrooms are not simple liquids or solids but are squishy substances, which include mayonnaise, shaving cream,…

  5. Learning Leadership Matters: The Influence of Innovative School Leadership Preparation on Teachers' Experiences and Outcomes (United States)

    Orphanos, Stelios; Orr, Margaret Terry


    School leadership has been shown to exert a positive but mostly indirect influence on school and student outcomes. Currently, there is great interest in how quality leadership preparation is related to leadership practice and improved teacher outcomes. The purpose of the study was to understand the moderating influence of leadership preparation on…

  6. Mother-Teacher Agreement on Preschoolers' Symptoms of ODD and CD: Does Context Matter? (United States)

    Strickland, Jennifer; Hopkins, Joyce; Keenan, Kate


    The aims of this study were to examine mother-teacher agreement on oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) symptoms and diagnoses in preschool children; to determine if context is a source of disagreement; and to explore if sex, referral status, and age moderated agreement rates. Participants included 158 male and 139 female…

  7. Teacher-Child Relationship Quality and Academic Achievement in Elementary School: Does Gender Matter? (United States)

    McCormick, Meghan P.; O'Connor, Erin E.


    Using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1,364) and 2-level hierarchical linear models with site fixed effects, we examined between- and within-child associations between teacher-child relationship closeness and conflict and standardized measures of children's…

  8. What Matters Most when Students and Teachers Use Interactive Whiteboards in Mathematics Classrooms? (United States)

    McQuillan, Kimberley; Northcote, Maria; Beamish, Peter


    Teachers are encouraged to immerse their students in rich and engaging learning environments (NSW Department of Education and Training, 2003). One teaching tool that can facilitate the creation of rich learning environments is the interactive whiteboard (IWB) (Baker, 2009). When teaching mathematics, the varied representational aspects of IWBs can…

  9. Mentoring Matters: Positioning Student Teachers as Powerful Partners--Dancing without Bruised Toes (United States)

    Orzulak, Melinda J. McBee


    Sometimes an enthusiast might confuse enthusiasm for competence. Related experiences and a sense of commitment can suggest that mentors are positioned to do something well, even when they have had no genuine preparation for the task. In this article, the author warns them that their experience as teachers by itself may be insufficient preparation…

  10. Why English Teachers MATTER: Some Reflections on the Life of Dr. Paul Brock (United States)

    Manuel, Jacqueline; Brock, Sophia; Brock, Amelia


    This special issue of "English in Australia" invited the wife (Jacqueline Manuel) and daughters (Sophia and Amelia Brock) of Paul Brock, who served fifty years as an educator, to provide this reflective piece on his influence as a leader in education, a writer, a teacher, a scholar, a mentor, and an advocate for medical research and…

  11. Location of lacunar infarcts correlates with cognition in a sample of non-disabled subjects with age-related white-matter changes: the LADIS study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benisty, S; Gouw, A A; Porcher, R


    in the following areas: lobar white matter, putamen/pallidum, thalamus, caudate nucleus, internal/external capsule, infratentorial areas. An analysis of covariance was performed after adjustment for possible confounders. RESULTS: Among 633 subjects, 47% had at least one lacune (31% at least one within basal...... a significant negative association between the presence of lacunes in putamen/pallidum and the memory compound Z score (beta = -0.13; p = 0.038). By contrast, no significant negative association was found between cognitive parameters and the presence of lacunes in internal capsule, lobar white matter...

  12. In-Service Teachers' Perspectives of Pre-Service Teachers' Knowledge Domains in Science (United States)

    Botha, M. L.; Reddy, C. P. S.


    The concept of pedagogical content knowledge is integral to teaching as a profession and is often considered to be an important aspect of a teacher's lived experience. Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) is described as a transformation of teacher knowledge from a variety of domains of knowledge, which includes subject matter knowledge,…

  13. Does perceived teacher affective support matter for middle school students in mathematics classrooms? (United States)

    Sakiz, Gonul; Pape, Stephen J; Hoy, Anita Woolfolk


    The purpose of the present study was to explore the importance of perceived teacher affective support in relation to sense of belonging, academic enjoyment, academic hopelessness, academic self-efficacy, and academic effort in middle school mathematics classrooms. A self-report survey was administered to 317 seventh- and eighth-grade students in 5 public middle schools. Structural equation modeling indicated significant associations between perceived teacher affective support and middle school students' motivational, emotional, and behavioral outcomes. The structural model explained a significant proportion of variance in students' sense of belonging (42%), academic enjoyment (43%), self-efficacy beliefs (43%), academic hopelessness (18%), and academic effort (32%) in mathematics classrooms. In addition to providing the basis for a concise new measure of perceived teacher affective support, these findings point to the importance of students' perceptions of the affective climate within learning environments for promoting academic enjoyment, academic self-efficacy, and academic effort in mathematics. Copyright © 2011 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Perfection of methods of training to the technics of throws and catching of gymnastic subject matters at a stage of special base preparation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreeva N.O.


    Full Text Available The analysis of performances gymnasts at competitions of a different level shows, that the system of training in rhythmic gymnastics at a stage of special-purpose base preparation requires entering of the corrective amendments which have been directed on perfection of its forms and procedures. One of such innovations may be use in training process of innovative methods of perfection of work on gymnastic subject matters. In article initial theoretical positions and ways of perfection of process of training to throws and catching of a ball and other subject matters as basic means of progress at gymnasts impellent qualities and the skills necessary for achievement of high results in competitive activity are considered.

  15. Comparing the Internet Usage of Pre-Service Language Teachers with Teachers of Other Subjects: Distance Learning vs. On-Campus Learning (United States)

    Firat, Mehmet; Serpil, Harun


    Teachers play a crucial role in helping individuals gain adequate Internet competency, which requires teachers themselves to be Internet-literate. The purpose of this study is to investigate the Internet use of the distance and on-campus pre-service teachers of language and other disciplines by multiple parameters. A total of 789 teacher…

  16. Trained and Untrained Secondary School Teachers in Barbados: Is There a Difference in Classroom Performance? (United States)

    Jones, Mildred


    Barbados secondary school teachers (31 with bachelor's degrees in English or science, 38 who also had teacher training diplomas) were observed teaching. There were only small differences in instructional organization and development and subject-matter presentation between those who had been trained as teachers and those who had not, regardless of…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Nikolayevich Chernov


    Full Text Available Studying of role of «the parent – the child» and «the teacher – the child» generalities, developing as the collective subject, in formation of the language competence of the senior preschooler is the research purpose. Research is executed in a paradigm of the subject-activity approach. The Heidelbergtest of the child language development was applied to studying of the language competence. Experimental procedure of diagnostics of language learning and its results with use of the Vygotskian principle of a zone of the proximal development is offered. Procedure allows to form a generality «the teacher – the child» as the collective subject. For studying of a child-parental generality as collective subject the special methodical complex consisting of seven techniques was used.Essential component of structure of child-parental relations is formation of collective subject «parent – child» with the style of parental relation «the indulging hyperpatronage». This generality positively causes development of speech-linguistic competence spheres. The collective subject «the teacher – the child», generated on the basis of realization of a principle of a zone of the proximal development, allows to create psychological-pedagogical conditions for adequate learning diagnostics and, simultaneously, for achievement of high level language competence. Experience of the subject-subject interrelations with the parent is the precondition of formation the subject-subject interrelations with the teacher in a situation of formation of the language competence.Results can be used for the organization and carrying out of correction-preventive work on formation optimum sociocultural situation of child development for formation of the language competence of the senior preschool child.DOI:

  18. The Effects of Mentored Problem-Based STEM Teaching on Pre-Service Elementary Teachers: Scientific Reasoning and Attitudes Toward STEM Subjects (United States)

    Caliendo, Julia C.

    Problem-based learning in clinical practice has become an integral part of many professional preparation programs. This quasi-experimental study compared the effect of a specialized 90-hour field placement on elementary pre-service teachers' scientific reasoning and attitudes towards teaching STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) subjects. A cohort of 53 undergraduate elementary education majors, concurrent to their enrollment in science and math methods classes, were placed into one of two clinical practice experiences: (a) a university-based, problem-based learning (PBL), STEM classroom, or (b) a traditional public school classroom. Group gain scores on the Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning (CTSR) and the Teacher Efficacy and Attitudes Toward STEM Survey-Elementary Teachers (T-STEM) survey were calculated. A MANCOVA revealed that there was a significant difference in gain scores between the treatment and comparison groups' scientific reasoning (p = .011) and attitudes towards teaching STEM subjects (p = .004). The results support the hypothesis that the pre-service elementary teachers who experienced STEM mentoring in a PBL setting will have an increase in their scientific reasoning and produce positive attitudes towards teaching STEM subjects. In addition, the results add to the existing research suggesting that elementary pre-service teachers require significant academic preparation and mentored support in STEM content.

  19. "Careful, Now You Are Both the Learner and the Teacher!": Student Teachers' Evaluation of Inquiry-Based Peer Lecturing as a Tool in Teacher Training (United States)

    Seroussi, Dominique-Esther; Yaffe, Yossi; Sharon, Rakefet


    Linking between pedagogical content knowledge and high-level subject-matter knowledge in science teacher training remains a challenge. This paper analyses the reaction of beginning student teachers to an activity designed for this purpose, "peer lecturing." This activity was a part of the requirements of an introductory zoology course,…

  20. The Student as a Teacher. (United States)

    Edwards, K. Anthony

    Teachers trained in the art of teaching have recognized for many years that the student is an object of instruction. It has only been recently recognized, however, that the student can effectively teach his peers. By doing the teaching, students learn the material better and retain the subject matter longer than they ordinarily would. In addition,…

  1. Being in a romantic relationship is associated with reduced gray matter density in striatum and increased subjective happiness


    Hiroaki Kawamichi; Sugawara, Sho K.; Hamano, Yuki H.; Kai Makita; Masahiro Matsunaga; Tanabe, Hiroki C.; Yuichi Ogino; Shigeru Saito; Norihiro Sadato


    Romantic relationship, a widespread feature of human society, is one of the most influential factors in daily life. Although stimuli related to romantic love or being in a romantic relationship commonly result in enhancement of activation or functional connectivity of the reward system, including the striatum, the structure underlying romantic relationship-related regions remain unclear. Because individual experiences can alter gray matter within the adult human brain, we hypothesized that ro...

  2. Being in a Romantic Relationship Is Associated with Reduced Gray Matter Density in Striatum and Increased Subjective Happiness


    Kawamichi, Hiroaki; Sugawara, Sho K.; Hamano, Yuki H.; Makita, Kai; Matsunaga, Masahiro; Tanabe, Hiroki C.; Ogino, Yuichi; Saito, Shigeru; Sadato, Norihiro


    Romantic relationship, a widespread feature of human society, is one of the most influential factors in daily life. Although stimuli related to romantic love or being in a romantic relationship commonly result in enhancement of activation or functional connectivity of the reward system, including the striatum, the structure underlying romantic relationship-related regions remain unclear. Because individual experiences can alter gray matter within the adult human brain, we hypothesized that ro...

  3. Student-Teachers' Verbal Communication Patterns during Their Teaching Practice in "Studies for the Environment" Subject in Early Greek Primary Classes (United States)

    Malandrakis, George; Karagianni, Aggeliki; Pani, Dimitra


    This study explores the quality of student-teachers' (STs') verbal communication during their teaching practice on the "Studies for the Environment" subject, and identifies potential factors affecting it. Forty-one teaching sessions were analysed revealing that STs dominate classroom talking by having almost an equal number of utterances…

  4. Physics Education: Effect of Micro-Teaching Method Supported by Educational Technologies on Pre-Service Science Teachers' Misconceptions on Basic Astronomy Subjects (United States)

    Gurbuz, Fatih


    The purpose of this research study is to explore pre-service science teachers' misconceptions on basic astronomy subjects and to examine the effect of micro teaching method supported by educational technologies on correcting misconceptions. This study is an action research. Semi- structured interviews were used in the study as a data collection…

  5. Gender difference in wellbeing during school lessons among 10-12-year-old children: the importance of school subjects and student-teacher relationships. (United States)

    Palsdottir, Aslaug; Asgeirsdottir, Bryndis Bjork; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora


    The aim of the study was to examine gender difference in self-reported wellbeing during school lessons among Icelandic 10-12-year-old boys and girls, in grades 5-7 in elementary schools. Also, to examine whether factors related to attitudes towards school subjects, student-teacher relationships and student-peer relationships mediated the associations between gender and wellbeing during school lessons. A cross-sectional anonymous survey was conducted among 88% (in total 11,387 participants) of all registered students aged 10-12 attending grades 5-7 in Iceland. Multivariate logistic regression was used to test main, mediation, and interaction effects. Boys reported significantly less wellbeing during school lessons than girls. Not finding the subjects taught at school fun fully mediated the relationship between gender and self-reported wellbeing during school lessons. Furthermore, when not considering other school-related factors, finding the subjects at school to hard, not liking the teachers, not being praised by teachers, and being bullied in recess partially mediated the relationship between gender and self-reported wellbeing during school lessons. The results suggest that to improve boy's wellbeing during school lessons, making school subject more appealing to boys is of importance. Furthermore, fostering teacher-student relationships and decreasing bullying of boys in recess should be emphasised.

  6. From Black and White to Shades of Grey: A Longitudinal Study of Teachers' Perspectives on Teaching Sociocultural and Subjective Aspects of Science (United States)

    Leden, Lotta; Hansson, Lena; Redfors, Andreas


    Traditional school science has been described as focused on indisputable facts where scientific processes and factors affecting these processes become obscured or left undiscussed. In this article, we report on teachers' perspectives on the teaching of sociocultural and subjective aspects of the nature of science (NOS) as a way to accomplish a…

  7. The Subject-Modeling Approach to Developing the Methodol- ogy Competence of the Future Teachers-Psychologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Gilmanov


    Full Text Available Any practical activity of a modern specialist requires the methodology knowledge – the ability of setting and transforming goals, operating with summarized approaches and plans, creating and reconstructing them, etc. The paper deals with the role of the methodology competence in professional thinking; the subject-modeling approach to developing the professional thinking and methodology competence is considered regarding the future teachers-psychologists.The substantiation of the above approach is given concerning the content and structure of the competence in question, as well as the students’ personal characteristics. The psychological mechanism of gaining the experience and professional thinking ability is described as interaction of two models – the cognitive and dynamic emotional ones – both reflecting the professional activity. The results of experimental work, based on such methods as analysis, theoretical modeling, supervision and polling, demon- strated the main developing factors of methodology competence: the general culture level, interest to the future profession, the professional activity presentation in educational process. The research results imply the conclusion that the purposeful pedagogic activity based on the methodology competence is necessary for developing the future specialists’ professional thinking. 

  8. ICT Integration in Science and Mathematics Lessons: Teachers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They reported that, the professional development programme made them acquire technological and technological-pedagogical knowledge. However, there was no evidence that teachers learned subject matter content from the programme. Furthermore, teachers appreciated the different kinds of support that they received ...

  9. Developing an ELT Context-Specific Teacher Efficacy Instrument (United States)

    Akbari, Ramin; Tavassoli, Kobra


    Teacher efficacy is a topic of significance in mainstream education and various instruments have been developed to measure this construct. The available instruments however, are general both in terms of their subject matter and context. To compensate for this generality, the present study aims to develop a new teacher efficacy instrument whose…

  10. Conflicts at Schools and Their Impact on Teachers (United States)

    Göksoy, Süleyman; Argon, Türkan


    Based on teacher views, the study was set out to identify school conflicts, reasons behind them, their impact and responses to conflicts. The study undertaken via survey model utilized a qualitative research method. Study group of the study was composed of 57 classroom and subject matter teachers employed in Bolu central district during 2014-2015…

  11. A reflection on linguistic knowledge for teachers of English in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Teachers need to have a knowledge base on which to draw in their teaching. Part of this knowledge base is 'subject matter knowledge' of which linguistic knowledge is a key component for language teachers. It enables them to understand how language works, how it is learned, the nature of their roles in the language ...

  12. Mind Over Matter: Cocaine (United States)

    ... Term(s): Teachers / NIDA Teaching Guide / Mind Over Matter Teaching Guide and Series / Cocaine Mind Over Matter: Cocaine Print Order Free Publication in: English Spanish Download PDF 806.08 KB Cocaine is ...

  13. Mind Over Matter: Methamphetamine (United States)

    ... Term(s): Teachers / NIDA Teaching Guide / Mind Over Matter Teaching Guide and Series / Methamphetamine Mind Over Matter: Methamphetamine (Meth) Print Order Free Publication in: English Spanish Download PDF 739.54 KB Methamphetamine comes ...

  14. Initial Science Teacher Education in Portugal: The Thoughts of Teacher Educators about the Effects of the Bologna Process (United States)

    Leite, Laurinda; Dourado, Luís; Morgado, Sofia


    Between the 1980s and 2007, Portugal used to have one-stage (5-year period) initial teacher education (ITE) programs. In 2007 and consistent with the Bologna process guidelines, Portuguese teacher education moved toward a two-stage model, which includes a 3-year undergraduate program of subject matter that leads to a "licenciatura" (or…

  15. Effect of dimethyl fumarate on gray and white matter pathology in subjects with relapsing multiple sclerosis: a longitudinal study. (United States)

    Zivadinov, R; Hagemeier, J; Bergsland, N; Tavazzi, E; Weinstock-Guttman, B


    Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is an oral treatment for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) with anti-inflammatory and possible neuroprotective properties. Its effect on white matter and gray matter pathology is still not fully understood. The aim of the study was to characterize the effect of DMF on normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) and thalamic pathology longitudinally. In this observational, longitudinal, 24-month magnetic resonance imaging study, 75 patients with relapsing-remitting MS treated with DMF and 40 age- and sex-matched healthy individuals were enrolled. Regional diffusion tensor imaging metrics and tract-based spatial statistics analyses were used to assess differences between groups. Mean diffusivity, axial diffusivity, radial diffusivity and fractional anisotropy were measured in the thalamus and NAWM. Baseline differences and changes over time were evaluated within and between study groups. At baseline, patients with MS showed significantly increased diffusivity and decreased fractional anisotropy in the thalamus (P < 0.001 for mean diffusivity, axial diffusivity and radial diffusivity) and NAWM (all P < 0.016) compared with healthy individuals. No significant within-group difference was found in diffusion tensor imaging measures over 24 months in either group. Healthy individuals showed a significantly greater rate of increased diffusivity parameters in the thalamus and NAWM compared with patients with MS, over 24 months (P < 0.05). The lack of changes in diffusion tensor imaging metrics in patients with MS over 24 months possibly indicates a neuroprotective role of DMF. These findings provide additional evidence of the beneficial effect of DMF on MS-related pathology. © 2018 EAN.

  16. The Teacher's Extra-Role Behaviors: Some Illuminations from a Study of the Israeli Religious State Education System (United States)

    Oplatka, Izhar; Golan, Reli


    The study aimed to trace teachers' role behaviors that religious teachers "perceive" as mandatory versus discretionary and non-prescribed at work. Based on interviews with 15 teachers working in the Israeli religious state education, it was found that teaching the subject matter, preparing students for national exams, encouraging…

  17. Teaching Place Value Concepts to First Grade Romanian Students: Teacher Knowledge and its Influence on Student Learning (United States)

    Tanase, Madalina


    Researchers (Ball, 2003; Ma, 1999; Schulman, 1986) have long investigated how a teacher's subject matter and pedagogical content knowledge impact on students' learning of mathematics. In an attempt to account for the relationship between teacher knowledge and student learning, this study examined four Romanian first grade teachers' knowledge about…

  18. Teacher Subject Specialisms and Their Relationships to Learning Styles, Psychological Types and Multiple Intelligences: Implications for Course Development (United States)

    Perry, Chris; Ball, Ian


    This study explores issues in teacher education that increase our understanding of, and response to, the individual differences displayed by learners. A large undergraduate teacher education cohort provided evidence of the range and distribution of preferences in learning styles, psychological types and multiple intelligences. This information…

  19. The Design of Preservice Primary Teacher Education Science Subjects: The Emergence of an Interactive Educational Design Model (United States)

    McKinnon, David H.; Danaia, Lena; Deehan, James


    Over the past 20 years there have been numerous calls in Australia and beyond for extensive educational reforms to preservice teacher education in the sciences. Recommendations for science teacher education programs to integrate curriculum, instruction and assessment are at the forefront of such reforms. In this paper, we describe our scholarly…

  20. Attitudinal Study of User and Non-User Teachers' towards ICT in Relation to Their School Teaching Subjects (United States)

    Lal, Chhavi


    The present study aimed to know the attitude towards ICT of user and non-user teachers of ICT. The data were collected from 40 (20 male and 20 Female) user and non-user of ICT secondary school teachers from Agra city. Attitude towards ICT was measured by Computer Attitude Scale (CAS), originally developed by Loyd and Gressard (1984). Data were…

  1. Corpus callosum atrophy is associated with mental slowing and executive deficits in subjects with age-related white matter hyperintensities: the LADIS Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jokinen, Hanna; Ryberg, Charlotte; Kalska, Hely


    , attention and executive functions in subjects with age-related white matter hyperintensities (WMH). METHODS: In the Leukoaraiosis and Disability Study, 567 subjects with age-related WMH were examined with a detailed neuropsychological assessment and quantitative magnetic resonance imaging. The relationships...... processing--namely, trail making A and Stroop test parts I and II. Anterior, but not posterior, corpus callosum atrophy was associated with deficits of attention and executive functions as reflected by the symbol digit modalities and digit cancellation tests, as well as by the subtraction scores in the trail...... is related to the frontal-lobe-mediated executive functions and attention, whereas overall corpus callosum atrophy is associated with the slowing of processing speed. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-May...

  2. It matters how old you feel: Antecedents and performance consequences of average relative subjective age in organizations. (United States)

    Kunze, Florian; Raes, Anneloes M L; Bruch, Heike


    This article extends the conceptual knowledge of average relative subjective age in organizations by exploring organizational-level antecedents and consequences of employees, on average, feeling younger than their chronological age. We draw from the theories of selection-optimization-compensation and socioemotional selectivity to build a theoretical framework for relative subjective age in organizations. We hypothesize that companies in which employees, on average, perceive themselves to be younger than they actually are have a higher average individual goal accomplishment and, in turn, experience higher company performance. We further hypothesize that employees' average experience of high work-related meaning relates to a lower subjective age in organizations. In addition, we assess the role of environmental dynamism and age-inclusive human resource management as moderators in this theoretical model. Through empirically testing this model in a multisource dataset, including 107 companies with 15,164 participating employees, we received support for the hypothesized relationships. Our results contribute to current debates in the scientific literature on age and have important practical implications in light of the demographic changes faced by many companies. This research indicates to both researchers and practitioners that it is not employees' chronological age but their subjective age, a factor that can be influenced, which drives organizational performance outcomes. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. The effect of the 4MAT learning model on the achievement and motivation of 7th grade students on the subject of particulate nature of matter and an examination of student opinions on the model (United States)

    Aktas, İdris; Bılgın, İbrahim


    Background:Many researchers agree that students, especially primary students, have learning difficulties on the 'Particulate Nature of Matter' unit. One reason for this difficulty is not considering individual differences for teaching science. In 4MAT model learning, environment is arranged according to individual differences. Purpose:The purpose of this study is to examine (1) the effects of the 4MAT learning model on the7th grade students' academic achievement and motivation on the 'Particulate Nature of Matter' unit and (2) identify student opinions on the 4MAT model. Sample:The sample consists of 235 students (115 experimental, 120 control) in Turkey. Design and methods:Experimental groups were instructed with the 4MAT model while control groups were instructed with a traditional method. Achievement Test (AchToM) and Motivation Scale (MotScl) were administered to students as pre- and post-tests. Moreover, the opinions of students in the experimental groups on the 4MAT model were ascertained through open-ended questions after the application. Results:According to independent t-test results, statistical difference in favour of the experimental groups was detected between the post-AchToM (ES = 1.43; p motivation and participation in the lesson, lessons are more amusing and enjoyable, and the self-confidence of the students increases. Besides these positive opinions, however, a few students stated that the method took too much time, they were not motivated and it did not help them in understanding the subject. Conclusions:The 4MAT model is more effective than traditional method in terms of increasing achievement and motivation. The model takes all learners into account. Thus, the teacher or educator should use the 4MAT model to ensure all students' learning in their classroom.

  4. Single-subject gray matter graph properties and their relationship with cognitive impairment in early- and late-onset Alzheimer's disease. (United States)

    Tijms, Betty M; Yeung, Hiu M; Sikkes, Sietske A M; Möller, Christiane; Smits, Lieke L; Stam, Cornelis J; Scheltens, Philip; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Barkhof, Frederik


    Abstract We investigated the relationships between gray matter graph properties and cognitive impairment in a sample of 215 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and also whether age of disease onset modifies such relationships. We expected that more severe cognitive impairment in AD would be related to more random graph topologies. Single-subject gray matter graphs were constructed from T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans. The following global and local graph properties were calculated: betweenness centrality, normalized clustering coefficient γ, and normalized path length λ. Local clustering, path length, and betweenness centrality measures were determined for 90 anatomically defined areas. Regression models with as interaction term age of onset (i.e., early onset when patients were ≤65 years old and late onset when they were >65 years old at the time of diagnosis)×graph property were used to assess the relationships between cognitive functioning in five domains (memory, language, visuospatial, attention, and executive). Worse cognitive impairment was associated with more random graphs, as indicated by low γ, λ, and betweenness centrality values. Three interaction effects for age of onset×global graph property were found: Low γ and λ values more strongly related to memory impairment in early-onset patients; low beta values were significantly related to impaired visuospatial functioning in late-onset patients. For the local graph properties, language impairment showed the strongest relationship with decreased clustering coefficient in the left superior temporal gyrus across the entire sample. Our study shows that single-subject gray matter graph properties are associated with individual differences in cognitive impairment.

  5. A description of a staff development program: Preparing the elementary school classroom teacher to lead environmental field trips and to use an integrated subject approach to environmental education (United States)

    Egana, John Joseph

    This study of the Field Trip Specialist Program (FTS) described how a professional development plan fostered change in the traditional roles of third and fourth grade teachers. Teachers that volunteered were prepared to become interpretive guides for their class on environmental field trips, integrate their basic subject areas lessons into an environmental science context, and develop their self-perception as professional educators. This qualitative study made use of quantitative data and drew on information collected over four years from surveys, interviews, classroom observations, field trip and workshop observations, focus groups, journals and assessments performed in Florida. The FTS Program attracted teachers who thought it was important for all students to understand environmental issues, and these teachers believed in integrated instruction. These beliefs were inconsistent with many aspects of school culture. FTS invited the participation of these teachers and encouraged them to take control of the program by serving as instructors and program developers. Teachers described themselves as prepared to deliver the FTS Program with a high level of motivation and relevance. They also credited the program as beneficial in preparation for the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Tests (FCAT). Teachers reported that their responsibility as field trip leaders was the primary factor motivating them to provide conscientious presentation of pre- and post-field trip lessons and thorough integration of environmental topics in basic subject area instruction. Despite the impact of the field trip leadership factor, I could not find another program in the State of Florida that required teachers to lead their own field trips. Other influential factors specific to this program were: Voluntary participation, on-site field instruction, peer instructors and program developers, high quality and task specific materials, and pre- and post-assessments for students. Factors were identified

  6. Computer-Based Instruction: Effect of Cognitive Style, Instructional Format, and Subject-Matter Content on Learning (United States)


    for this study. The test consists of 10 pairs of words (see Appendix B), ranked from easy to hard, selected from the Weschler Paired Associate Learning...facts and opinions on a current affairs topic. The decision-making task involved a maze problem. Subjects were tested immediately after training, 2...Screening Measures for Cognitive Style ........................ 5 The 4-Mat Test ......................................... 5 The Lateral Preference Test

  7. Investigation of Psychophysiological and Subjective Effects of Long Working Hours – Do Age and Hearing Impairment Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Wagner-Hartl


    Full Text Available Following current prognosis, demographic development raises expectations of an aging of the working population. Therefore, keeping employees healthy and strengthening their ability to work, becomes more and more important. When employees become older, dealing with age-related impairments of sensory functions, such as hearing impairment, is a central issue. Recent evidence suggests that negative effects that are associated with reduced hearing can have a strong impact at work. Especially under exhausting working situations such as working overtime hours, age and hearing impairment might influence employees’ well-being. Until now, neither the problem of aged workers and long working hours, nor the problem of hearing impairment and prolonged working time has been addressed explicitly. Therefore, a laboratory study was examined to answer the research question: Do age and hearing impairment have an impact on psychophysiological and subjective effects of long working hours. In total, 51 white-collar workers, aged between 24 and 63 years, participated in the laboratory study. The results show no significant effects for age and hearing impairment on the intensity of subjective consequences (perceived recovery and fatigue, subjective emotional well-being and physical symptoms of long working hours. However, the psychophysiological response (the saliva cortisol level to long working hours differs significantly between hearing impaired and normal hearing employees. Interestingly, the results suggest that from a psychophysiological point of view long working hours were more demanding for normal hearing employees.

  8. Conceptualising GP teachers' knowledge: a pedagogical content knowledge perspective. (United States)

    Cantillon, Peter; de Grave, Willem


    Most teacher development initiatives focus on enhancing knowledge of teaching (pedagogy), whilst largely ignoring other important features of teacher knowledge such as subject matter knowledge and awareness of the learning context. Furthermore, teachers' ability to learn from faculty development interventions is limited by their existing (often implicit) pedagogical knowledge and beliefs. Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) represents a model of teacher knowledge incorporating what they know about subject matter, pedagogy and context. PCK can be used to explore teachers' prior knowledge and to structure faculty development programmes so that they take account of a broader range of teachers' knowledge. We set out to examine the application of a PCK model in a general practice education setting. This study is part of a larger study that employed a mixed method approach (concept mapping, phenomenological interviews and video-stimulated recall) to explore features of GP teachers' subject matter knowledge, pedagogical knowledge and knowledge of the learning environment in the context of a general practice tutorial. This paper presents data on GP teachers' pedagogical and context knowledge. There was considerable overlap between different GP teachers' knowledge and beliefs about learners and the clinical learning environment (i.e. knowledge of context). The teachers' beliefs about learners were largely based on assumptions derived from their own student experiences. There were stark differences, however, between teachers in terms of pedagogical knowledge, particularly in terms of their teaching orientations (i.e. transmission or facilitation orientation) and this was manifest in their teaching behaviours. PCK represents a useful model for conceptualising clinical teacher prior knowledge in three domains, namely subject matter, learning context and pedagogy. It can and should be used as a simple guiding framework by faculty developers to inform the design and delivery of

  9. From black and white to shades of grey. A longitudinal study of teachers' perspectives on teaching sociocultural and subjective aspects of science (United States)

    Leden, Lotta; Hansson, Lena; Redfors, Andreas


    Traditional school science has been described as focused on indisputable facts where scientific processes and factors affecting these processes become obscured or left undiscussed. In this article, we report on teachers' perspectives on the teaching of sociocultural and subjective aspects of the nature of science (NOS) as a way to accomplish a more nuanced science teaching in Swedish compulsory school. The teachers ( N = 6) took part in a longitudinal study on NOS and NOS teaching that spanned 3 years. The data consists of recorded and transcribed focus group discussions from all 3 years. In the analysis, the transcripts were searched for teachers' suggestions of issues, relevant for teaching in compulsory school, as well as opportunities and challenges connected to the teaching of these issues. The results of the analysis show that (a) the number of suggested issues increased over the years, (b) teachers' ways of contextualizing the issues changed from general and unprecise to more tightly connected to socio-scientific or scientific contexts, and (c) the number of both opportunities and challenges related to NOS teaching increased over the years. The most evident changes occurred from the beginning of year 2 when the focus group discussions became more closely directed towards concrete teaching activities. Tensions between the opportunities and challenges are discussed as well as how these can be met, and made use of, in science teacher education.

  10. Digital media promoting new approaches to subject specific didactics in visual arts education in primary school, high school, teacher education and university education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Kirsten

    Digital media promoting new approaches to subject specific didactics in visual arts education in primary school, high school, teacher education and university education The symposium addresses current developments in visual arts education based on empirical projects from different levels of the e......Digital media promoting new approaches to subject specific didactics in visual arts education in primary school, high school, teacher education and university education The symposium addresses current developments in visual arts education based on empirical projects from different levels......, social aesthetics, community art and co-creation all represent an approach to art production and appreciation where content, media and visual expressions unfold in societal, digital, collaborative, and transgressive constellations involving the art maker and audiences in social and relational projects...

  11. The Interplay between Adolescents' Perceptions of Teacher-Student Relationships and Their Academic Self-Regulation: Does Liking a Specific Teacher Matter? (United States)

    Raufelder, Diana; Scherber, Sandra; Wood, Megan A.


    Although positive teacher-student relationships are known to aid students' academic self-regulation, the emotional aspects of teacher liking are often neglected within research. The present study used a large sample of seventh- and eighth-grade students (N = 1,088; M[subscript Age] = 13.7) in secondary schools in Germany to investigate whether the…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rias Ning Astuti


    Full Text Available English becomes an international language that has to be mastered by the students in Indonesia and many countries in the world. Teaching English is not easy as we thought. As an English teachers, we should master some criteria to be  good teachers. Because English today in Indonesia is considered as a foreign language, then it difficult for the students to learn it. Teacher is also  important in teaching learning process in the classroom, the foundation of English teacher education, teacher knowledge, and professionalism of the teacher is primary goal that should be mastered In this case, the writer tries to explore the phenomena that happened in Indonesia especially in East Indonesia, that is,  Merauke - Papua. The educational system in Merauke- Papua is good enough, but there are several terms that should be changed by the government and the teachers themselves. There are some problems faced by the teacher when they teach in the class, such as: what they teach does not match with the skills the  subject requires and they only focus on finishing the curriculum. In this context, the roles of the government is very important in order to improve the teacher professionalism in Indonesia, one of which is certification for the teacher and the government will increase their salary per month. But, it is not only the matter of salary, but the government should find another ways to improve the teacher’s professionalism such as: conference, seminars, or another activities.

  13. Predictive Utility of Marketed Volumetric Software Tools in Subjects at Risk for Alzheimer Disease: Do Regions Outside the Hippocampus Matter? (United States)

    Tanpitukpongse, T P; Mazurowski, M A; Ikhena, J; Petrella, J R


    Alzheimer disease is a prevalent neurodegenerative disease. Computer assessment of brain atrophy patterns can help predict conversion to Alzheimer disease. Our aim was to assess the prognostic efficacy of individual-versus-combined regional volumetrics in 2 commercially available brain volumetric software packages for predicting conversion of patients with mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer disease. Data were obtained through the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. One hundred ninety-two subjects (mean age, 74.8 years; 39% female) diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment at baseline were studied. All had T1-weighted MR imaging sequences at baseline and 3-year clinical follow-up. Analysis was performed with NeuroQuant and Neuroreader. Receiver operating characteristic curves assessing the prognostic efficacy of each software package were generated by using a univariable approach using individual regional brain volumes and 2 multivariable approaches (multiple regression and random forest), combining multiple volumes. On univariable analysis of 11 NeuroQuant and 11 Neuroreader regional volumes, hippocampal volume had the highest area under the curve for both software packages (0.69, NeuroQuant; 0.68, Neuroreader) and was not significantly different ( P > .05) between packages. Multivariable analysis did not increase the area under the curve for either package (0.63, logistic regression; 0.60, random forest NeuroQuant; 0.65, logistic regression; 0.62, random forest Neuroreader). Of the multiple regional volume measures available in FDA-cleared brain volumetric software packages, hippocampal volume remains the best single predictor of conversion of mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer disease at 3-year follow-up. Combining volumetrics did not add additional prognostic efficacy. Therefore, future prognostic studies in mild cognitive impairment, combining such tools with demographic and other biomarker measures, are justified in using hippocampal volume as

  14. The Hiring Process Matters: The Role of Person-Job and Person-Organization Fit in Teacher Satisfaction (United States)

    Ellis, Christina; Skidmore, Susan Troncoso; Combs, Julie P.


    Purpose: Teachers' satisfaction with their jobs has reached the lowest point in 25 years. One contributing factor is when teachers experience information-poor hiring processes and do not obtain an accurate preview of their positions, their person-organization (P-O) fit, and person-job (P-J) fit. Sparked by a renewed focus on the variables that can…

  15. Special Education Teacher Evaluation: Why It Matters, What Makes It Challenging, and How to Address These Challenges (United States)

    Johnson, Evelyn; Semmelroth, Carrie Lisa


    There is currently little consensus on how special education teachers should be evaluated. The lack of consensus may be due to several reasons. Special education teachers work under a variety of complex conditions, with a very heterogeneous population, and support student progress toward a very individualized set of goals. In addition, special…




  17. The Impact of Service Learning on the Training of Pre-Service Teachers: Analysis from a Physical Education Subject (United States)

    Gil-Gómez, Jesús; Chiva-Bartoll, Óscar; Martí-Puig, Manuel


    This paper discusses the effects of the use of service learning in pre-service teachers (PSTs). This methodology has been applied for two academic years at a Spanish university, providing a direct service for children with special educational needs (SEN) through motor and expressive games. We used Butin's model for the analysis of data collected…

  18. Citizenship Education in the Social Science Subjects: An Analysis of the Teacher Education Curriculum for Secondary Schools (United States)

    Sigauke, Aaron T.


    Citizenship education is widely acknowledged as a necessary part of the school curriculum for various reasons. For young people, it is assumed that citizenship can best be learnt through the school curriculum. This means that teachers need to thoroughly understand what citizenship means and how to pass this knowledge on to students. This paper…

  19. Motivation, Empowerment, and Innovation: Teachers' Beliefs about How Participating in the Edmodo Math Subject Community Shapes Teaching and Learning (United States)

    Trust, Torrey


    Educators around the world participate in virtual communities, social media sites, and online networks in order to gain support and ideas for improving their practice. Many researchers have explored how and why teachers participate in these online spaces; however, there is limited research on how participation might impact teaching and learning.…

  20. How Do Biology Teacher Candidates Know Particulate Movements & Random Nature of Matter and Their Effects to Diffusion (United States)

    Oztas, Fulya; Oztas, Haydar


    The previous researches results seem to suggest that some aspects of learning of diffusion and osmosis concepts such as membranes, kinetic energy of matter, and elements of the particulate and random nature of matter could lead to misconceptions. The concept of diffusion is very common in science instruction, and understanding the concept is an…

  1. Experiencias coeducativas del profesorado de educación física y relación con los contenidos de la materia Co-educational experiences of physical education teachers in relation with the contents of the subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Ángel VALDIVIA MORAL


    Full Text Available Los objetivos de este estudio fueron conocer las vivencias coeducativas del profesorado en relación con los contenidos de Educación Física y analizar las diferentes estrategias metodológicas que se utilizan en cada bloque de contenidos. Se realizaron entrevistas semiestructuradas sometidas a análisis de contenido. Mediante el proceso hermenéutico se destaca que: (I la categoría “Bloque de contenidos de Condición Física y Salud” demuestra que el profesorado pretende que las diferencias fisiológicas por cuestión de sexo no se reproduzcan; (II la categoría “Bloque de contenidos de Expresión Corporal” señala que existe profesorado que no aborda estos contenidos porque los desconoce; (III la categoría “Bloque de contenidos de Juegos y Deportes” resalta que el principal problema que encuentra el profesorado son los estereotipos que ciertos deportes llevan asociados; la categoría (IV “Bloque de contenidos de Actividades en el Medio Natural” pone de manifiesto que ninguno de los dos sexos dificulta su trabajo.The aims of this study were to be familiar with the co-educational experiences of teachers in relation to the contents of Physical Education and to analyze the different methodological strategies which are used in each block of content. Semi structured interviews were realized subjected to content´s analysis. Through the hermeneutic process it is emphasized that: (I the category “Content´s Block of Fitness and Health” shows that the teacher pretends that the physiological differences that are produced by matter of sex don´t happen again; (II the category “Content´s Physical Language” notes that there are teachers who don’t deal with these contents because they don´t recognize them; (III the category “Content´s Block Games and Sports” underlines that the main problem that the teachers find is the stereotypes that some sports take associated; the category (IV “Content´s Block of Activities in the

  2. The Hierarchical Ordering of Conceptual Systems in Biology: Problems of Student Teachers. (United States)

    Boschhuizen, Robert


    This article illustrates some problems faced by student teachers of biology when they try to realize the process of "didactic transformation" while planning their classes. To address these problems, a method of subject-matter analysis, utilizing hierarchical concept-maps, was introduced into the teacher training component at the Free…

  3. The Examination of Teacher Burnout in Turkey: A Meta-Analysis (United States)

    Yorulmaz, Yilmaz Ilker; Altinkurt, Yahya


    The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of gender, marital status, subject matter, school type, educational status and seniority variables on teacher burnout. In this regard, a meta-analysis was conducted for the studies on teacher burnout in Turkey. The effect size analyses were performed with 100 studies for gender, 73 for marital…

  4. Making Connections: A Curriculum Ideabook for Teachers of Applied Academics and Industrial & Engineering Systems. (United States)

    Harrington, Lois G.

    This document is designed to help vocational/tech prep and applied academics teachers plan and present their subject matter in a more integrated manner. The introduction presents the rationale for the ideabook. It is designed to help teachers modify their instructional program to more closely match the demands and realities of the real world. The…

  5. The Correlation between Prospective Teachers' Knowledge of Algebraic Inverse Operations and Teaching Competency--Using the Square Root as an Example (United States)

    Leung, Issic Kui Chiu; Ding, Lin; Leung, Allen Yuk Lun; Wong, Ngai Ying


    This study is part of a larger study investigating the subject matter knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge of Hong Kong prospective mathematics teachers, the relationship between the knowledge of algebraic operation and its inverse, and their teaching competency. In this paper, we address the subject matter knowledge and pedagogical content…

  6. Historia de las disciplinas, profesionalización docente y formación de profesores: el caso español History of school subjects, the professionalization of teachers and teachers' training: the Spanish case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Viñao


    Full Text Available Este texto pretende analizar, a partir del caso español, las relaciones existentes entre la historia de las disciplinas (y, dentro de ella, de los manuales escolares, el proceso de profesionalización docente y la formación de profesores. Primero se exponen las causas que explican la ausencia legal, en el caso español, de la historia de las disciplinas en la formación de profesores, así como algunas iniciativas aisladas en relación con este tema. Seguidamente se da cuenta de algunos aspectos o cuestiones en los que fundamentar la presencia de la historia de las disciplinas en la formación de profesores, en especial de la necesidad de insertar los estudios sobre la manualística escolar en el ámbito, más amplio, de dicha historia. Por último, se exponen algunos conceptos e ideas clave para estructurar la historia de las disciplinas.This text tries to analyze, through a Spanish case, the relationships existing among the history of school subjects (and, inside it, the history of textbooks, the process of the professionalization of teaching and teachers' training. First, the causes explaining the legal absence, in Spanish, of the history of school subjects in teachers' training, as well as some isolated initiatives on this theme are presented. Then, some aspects and issues are dealt with in order to justify the presence of the history of school subjects in teachers' training, especially the need to include the analysis of textbooks in the wider field of such history. Finally, some key concepts and ideas with the aim of shaping the history of the school subjects are also presented.

  7. The Child Abuse Matter and the Major Role Played by the Teacher: Issues Raised by a Pilot Focus Group Sample of Primary Teachers (United States)

    Vitalaki, Elena


    A great deal of attention is now being paid to issues raised by child abuse. Recent reports, enquiries and relevant agencies have all recognized the important role played by teachers in aiding the detection and prevention of child abuse, due to their close everyday contact with children. The result of the ideas presented in the present work was…

  8. Dark matter in galaxies


    Zasov, A. V.; Saburova, A. S.; Khoperskov, A. V.; Khoperskov, S. A.


    Dark matter in galaxies, its abundance, and its distribution remain a subject of long-standing discussion, especially in view of the fact that neither dark matter particles nor dark matter bodies have yet been found. Experts' opinions range from a very large number of completely dark galaxies exist to nonbaryonic dark matter does not exist at all in any significant amounts. We discuss astronomical evidence for the existence of dark matter and its connection with visible matter and examine att...

  9. Teacher professionalisation in relation to retention strategies:do teacher training activities have any impact on drop-out rates in adult education?


    Wahlgren, Bjarne


    Teacher professionalization in relation to retention strategies Bjarne Wahlgren, professor, directorNational Centre of Competence Development, University of Aarhus, DenmarkThe research project ‘New roles for the teacher’ was initiated due to a concern about the increasing number of dropouts within Danish VET. The main research questions are: Is it possible to train teachers to be able to focus on the students’ completion of the program and not only on the subject matter? Do teachers change th...

  10. Mind Over Matter: Anabolic Steroids (United States)

    ... Term(s): Teachers / NIDA Teaching Guide / Mind Over Matter Teaching Guide and Series / Anabolic Steroids Mind Over Matter: Anabolic Steroids Print Order Free Publication in: English Spanish Download PDF 830.69 KB Anabolic steroids ...

  11. A tale of three blind men on the proper subject matter of clinical science and practice: commentary on Plaud's behaviorism vs. Ilardi and Feldman's cognitive neuroscience. (United States)

    Forsyth, J P; Kelly, M M


    Plaud (J Clin Psychol 57, 1089-1102, 1109-1111, 1119-1120) and Ilardi and Feldman (J Clin Psychol 57, 1067-1088, 1103-1107, 1113-1117, 1121-1124) argue for two very different approaches to clinical science and practice (i.e., behavior analysis and cognitive neuroscience, respectively). We comment on the assets and liabilities of both perspectives as presented and attempt to achieve some semblance of balance between the three protagonists embroiled in this current debate. The vision of clinical science we articulate is more ecumenical and evolutionary, rather than paradigmatic and revolutionary. As we see it, the problem clinical psychology faces is much larger than the authors let on; namely, how best to make clinical science meaningful and relevant to practitioners, consumers, the general public, and the behavioral health-care community. Clinical psychology's immediate internal problem is not pluralism with regard to subject matter, worldview, methodology, or school of thought, but pluralism in clinical psychologists' adherence to a scientific epistemology as the only legitimate form of clinical psychology. On this latter point, we still have a very long way to go. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  12. Collaboration Between Art Teacher Students and Communication and Digital Media Students Promoting Subject Specific Didactics in Digital Visual Learning Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie; Skov, Kirsten

    design was based on the purpose of involving the future users in developing a visual learning design, and thereby drawing on visual art expertise in all phases of the design. The Design Based Research (DBR) approach (Amiel & Reeves 2008) was chosen in order to facilitate the collaborative aspect......, No. 15, 2016, p. 1-21 Buhl, M. & Ejsing-Duun (2015) Blended learning promoting new developments for Nordic master programs in visual studies and art education, ECEL Proceedings, Hatfield Buhl, M. & Flensborg (2011). Visuel kulturpædagogik, København: Hans Reitzels Forlag Peppler, K. (2010). Media...... arts: Arts education for a digital age. Teachers College Record, vol 112, nr. 8, p. 2118-2153 Dunleavy, M. & Dede, C. (2014). Augmented reality teaching and learning. in. J.M. Spector, M.D. Merrill, J. Elen & M...

  13. Culture Matters! African American Students, White Community College Teachers: A Case Study of Cultural Differences and Their Consequences (United States)

    Erskine-Meusa, Denise A.


    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine African American student pedagogical experiences in classrooms with White teachers at a community college in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. The intent of the study was two-fold: (a) to search for evidence of how culture shapes African American students' view of themselves, and (b)…

  14. Methods Matter: Teacher-Trainee Perspectives on Language Teaching Methods in a South Korean TESOL Certificate Program (United States)

    Jobbitt, Todd


    The purpose of this survey was to ascertain Korean teacher-trainees' perspectives on the awareness, likability, perceived usefulness and prospective application of varied language teaching methods that they had been taught in a sixteen-week language teaching methodology course. What did the students think about these methods? Will students…

  15. Does Teaching-Experience Matters? A Study on Female Teachers Involved in Engineering-Education through ODL Mode (United States)

    Roy, Rajarshi; Paira, Anjana


    Irrespective of discipline and trade-boundaries, pedagogy of Engineering-Education demands specialty in most of the cases. Teachers' style of assisting in the process of students' learning accords influence of sequel of factors and variables some of which may be clubbed under "psychopedagogical attributes". Among the many other factors,…

  16. Teacher Use of Instructional Materials and Other Matters Related to Special Education IMC/LRC Collections. Theoretical Paper No. 59. (United States)

    Latham, Glenn

    Presented is the report of a study -- involving 1150 special education teachers and 25 instructional materials centers (IMCs) and learning resource centers (LRCs) -- to investigate the needs for, uses of, and priorities for instructional materials for teaching handicapped children. Listed are three methods of data collection: the use of materials…

  17. Do Teacher-Child Relationship and Friendship Quality Matter for Children's School Engagement and Academic Skills? (United States)

    Hosan, Naheed E.; Hoglund, Wendy


    This study examined three competing models assessing the directional associations between the quality of children's relationships with teachers and friends (i.e., closeness and conflict) and their emotional and behavioral school engagement (i.e., the relationship-driven, engagement-driven, and transactional models). The additive contributions of…

  18. Links between Parent-Teacher Relationships and Kindergartners' Social Skills: Do Child Ethnicity and Family Income Matter? (United States)

    Iruka, Iheoma U.; Winn, Donna-Marie C.; Kingsley, Susan J.; Orthodoxou, Yannick J.


    This study uses National Center for Early Development and Learning (NCEDL) data to examine the moderating effects of child ethnicity and family income on the links between parent-teacher relationships and kindergartners' social skills. This study includes 481 Caucasian, African American, and Latino children from low-income households. Overall,…

  19. Self-Efficacy, Self-Esteem, and Subjective Happiness of Teacher Candidates at the Pedagogical Formation Certificate Program (United States)

    Erozkan, Atilgan; Dogan, Ugur; Adiguzel, Arca


    This study investigated the relationship between self-efficacy, self-esteem, and subjective happiness. The study group is composed by 556 (291 female; 265 male) students who were studying at the pedagogical formation program at Mugla Sitki Kocman University. The data were collected by using the General Self-Efficacy Scale-Turkish Form,…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Aniroh


    Full Text Available Abstract: The teaching of ESP so far has been dominated by the belief that linguistic mastery of English is considered sufficient to deliver the contents of the subject matter concerned. This view seems to need a critical overview for verbal communication in general, let alone in ESP, requires both proficiency in the language and the contents. This implies that English teachers in ESP need to be equipped satisfactorily in English as well as the subject matter. An ESP teacher needs to possess a double competency. With this as a framework, the teaching of ESP accordingly will need to shift its focus from English in isolation to English as medium for subject matters exchanges.

  1. The Tundra Is the Text: Using Alaska Native Contexts To Promote Cultural Relevancy in Teacher Professional Development. (United States)

    Fickel, Letitia Hochstrasser; Jones, Ken

    In summer 2000, the University of Alaska Anchorage and cooperating professional development schools organized four summer institutes to enhance teachers' cultural and subject matter knowledge. This dual focus was prompted by the new Alaska Content Standards and by guidelines for preparing culturally responsive teachers, developed by Alaska Native…

  2. Blended Learning for Professional Development: An Evaluation of a Program for Middle School Mathematics and Science Teachers (United States)

    Owston, Ronald D.; Sinclair, Margaret; Wideman, Herbert


    Background: Improving the subject matter knowledge and pedagogical skills of teachers of mathematics and science is a key priority for many jurisdictions. Blended learning is a promising, yet so far seldom used model for supporting teacher professional development. This model combines the advantages of traditional face-to-face interaction with the…

  3. A Comparison of Two Approaches to Developing In-Service Teachers' Knowledge and Strategies for Teaching Nature of Science (United States)

    Vhurumuku, Elaosi; Chikochi, Andrew


    This paper reports the results of a study that compared two approaches to developing in-service teachers' subject matter knowledge and strategies for teaching nature of science. A treatment post-test only quasi-experimental research design was used. One group of in-service teachers (n = 15) was taught using what is called a capsular approach. In…

  4. "Obey", "disobey" or "tinker with" reforms to the system: a subject for French teacher trade unions to work on. (United States)

    Cau-Bareille, Dominique


    This paper presents our work to support and train members of the teaching sectors of two trade unions. The aim was to encourage participants to discuss practices, the difficulties in their day-to-day work and impediments to taking action, given the current reforms to primary education, and thereby assess the reforms' impact on the teachers' activity. It was also intended to help trade unions build up a collective dynamic around their work and re-positioning the work activity at the heart of their preoccupations. This project consisted of one/two day workshops held at local trade union branches. They were led by an ergonomist and a trade union representative. The discussions revealed that the prescriptions received from the management increasingly contradict the values of the profession. Therefore, in the name of professional ethics, different strategies of resistance have emerged, from minor modifications to the prescriptions received, to disobedience. However, adopting such strategies is itself a cause of suffering for teaching staff, and leads to some leaving the profession prematurely. We will discuss the difficulty trade unions have in dealing with the issue of work, their strategic positioning as regards developments within the profession, and the role an ergonomist can play in this process.

  5. Collaboration between student art teachers and communication and digital media students promoting subject specific didactics in digital visual learning design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Kirsten; Buhl, Mie

    of learning designs and digital media in visual arts education (Peppler 2010, Rasmussen 2015, Buhl & Ejsing-Duun, 2015; Buhl, 2016). Methodology The choice of empirical design was based on the purpose of involving the future users in developing a visual learning design, and thereby drawing on visual art....... p. 26-40 (14 s.) Buhl, M. (2016) Theory-generating practice. Proposing a principle for learning design. Læring og Medier (LOM), Vol. 9, No. 15, 2016, p. 1-21 Buhl, M. & Ejsing-Duun (2015) Blended learning promoting new developments for Nordic master programs in visual studies and art education, ECEL...... Proceedings, Hatfield Buhl, M. & Flensborg (2011). Visuel kulturpædagogik, København: Hans Reitzels Forlag Peppler, K. (2010). Media arts: Arts education for a digital age. Teachers College Record, vol 112, nr. 8, p. 2118-2153

  6. Education Matters, January 2008 (United States)

    Beckner, Gary, Ed.


    "Education Matters" is the monthly newsletter of the Association of American Educators (AAE), an organization dedicated to advancing the American teaching profession through personal growth, professional development, teacher advocacy and protection. This issue of the newsletter includes: (1) Agents of Change: Why So Many Teachers Are…

  7. Teacher expertise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens

    and practice through development of better models for bridging the teaching at college and the internship teaching. The study was a longitudinal research and development project that followed teacher students during their first three years of a four year teacher education program after the teacher education...... reform of 2007. The study included four teacher training colleges at two university colleges and about 100 students. In the reform and in the study focus was on professional development. Each of the colleges implemented a number of actions in order to see whether they had potential for bridging the gap......Teacher Expertise: How to improve the relationship between Theory and Practice in Teacher Education Jens Rasmussen, Department of Education, Aarhus University In several studies and reports it has been nailed over and over that teachers’ matter. So this is not the question in this study...

  8. Geopolitics and "The Courage to Teach": Identity, Integrity and the Subject of Political Geography (United States)

    Flint, Colin


    Previous literature discussing and exemplifying the teaching of political geography has emphasized the material to be disseminated. Building upon those contributions, this paper offers a means of connecting student, teacher, and subject matter. Using the perspective of Parker Palmer, as illustrated in his book "The Courage to Teach," it is…

  9. Students' perception of teachers' effectiveness and their academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Students' perception of teachers' effectiveness and their academic performance in agricultural sciences in Calabar South Local Government Area, Cross River State. ... their knowledge of subject matter, encourage a threat-free interaction with students, and acquire diverse effective communication and motivational skills.

  10. Path analytical study of teachers' characteristics, students' attitude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study determined the effect of teachers' characteristics like qualification, knowledge of subject matter, experience, workload, effectiveness, students' attitude and instructional facilities caused variation in students' performance in Mathematics. Study adopted an expost-facto design covering the colleges of education in ...

  11. Preservice Mathematics Teachers' Knowledge of Students about the Algebraic Concepts (United States)

    Tanisli, Dilek; Kose, Nilufer Yavuzsoy


    The aim of this study was to evaluate preservice primary mathematics teachers' ability to discuss and investigate students' thinking process about the concepts of variable, equality and equation, to analyse their ability to predict student difficulties and misconceptions and, in this respect, to present their subject-matter knowledge and possible…

  12. Good teacher, good tutor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Couto LB


    Full Text Available Lucélio B Couto, Gustavo S Romão, Reinaldo B Bestetti  Department of Medicine, University of Ribeirão Preto, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil We have read with great interest the paper by Kassab et al, who have essentially shown that good teachers will be good tutors in a problem-based learning (PBL environment. We have been facing great difficulties to select tutors because there has been no tradition in PBL in our region in the preuniversity teaching. Furthermore, the majority of our teachers have been formed in a discipline-based medical curriculum. Therefore, it is reassuring to learn from the work by Kassab et al that subject-matter mastery is the powerful independent predictor of tutoring skills.  View the original paper by Kassab and colleagues.

  13. The Lived-Through Experience of the Senior Teacher: A Closer Look at a Middle Management and Leadership Position in Bahraini Public Schools (United States)

    Razzak, Nina Lutfi Abdul


    Senior teachers in Bahraini public schools are a part of the Kingdom's national educational reform initiatives underway. The main role they play is that of leading and managing a group or cluster of teachers who teach the same subject matter at the same grade level. They are therefore more or less like "department heads". With advances…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoria Shcherbatiuk


    Full Text Available The author of the article analyzes the methodology of using a number of creative tasks for working with students of Philology Department during the practical sessions of literary subjects. The tasks are focused on designing the creative qualities of future language and literature teachers: imagination, inspiration, initiative, noncommonality, extraordinary nature, his/her own point of view. At present, the students perceive the learning process as something fixed, which necessarily must be studied and passed. They will not think critically, as long as the teacher does not create creative atmosphere to facilitate the active involvement of students into the learning process. And one should allow them to freely speculate, dream up. Each person has the potential of skills, and the tasks of modern teacher are developing these skills and managing the process of the development. Therefore, the main purpose of organization of practical session is to be able to encounter the students’ intellectual forces, to cause them to work, to create a favorable pedagogical environment for their formation and simultaneously to shape the identity of a young person, his/her outlook. Organizing the practical training one should find a way to students’ minds and doesn`t give them ready knowledge but to ensure them to acquire knowledge themselves trying to search, establish dependences, and patterns. They should be engaged in creative dialogue with cultural texts and nourish their own personal position. The problem of creativity is complex and multifaceted. Since ancient times it has been in the scholars’ and philosophers’ field of view (Plato, Aristotle, Hegel, Pestalozzi, etc.. Basic issues of a creative individual are disclosed in the works by A. Luk, Ia. Ponomarev, A. Matiushkin, P. Enhelmeier, V. Moliako, O. Amatev, E. Belkina, A. Bohush, N. Vetluhina, N. Havrish, O. Dronova and others. However, the growing relevance and educational significance of this issue

  15. In-service teachers' perspectives of pre-service teachers' knowledge domains in science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M L Botha


    Full Text Available The concept of pedagogical content knowledge is integral to teaching as a profession and is often considered to be an important aspect of a teacher's lived experience. Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK is described as a transformation of teacher knowledge from a variety of domains of knowledge, which includes subject matter knowledge, pedagogical knowledge, and knowledge about content. This exploratory study reports on in-service natural science teachers' inferences regarding pre-service teachers' performance in natural science teaching, as observed during a practice teaching period. Perspectives of in-service teachers of the different knowledge domains of pre-service teachers during their final year were investigated. Semi-structured interviews, incorporating a specific set of open-ended questions, were conducted with in-service teachers following a practice teaching period of four weeks. The findings indicate that the in-service teachers rated the pre-service teachers positively in some knowledge domains but less positively in other knowledge domains. This has prompted some rethinking on the structure and presentation of the curriculum, in our undergraduate teacher education programme, to include and accommodate approaches that would enable better uptake of various knowledge domains and improve PCK development.

  16. The Impact of Subjective Norm and Facilitating Conditions on Pre-Service Teachers' Attitude toward Computer Use: A Structural Equation Modeling of an Extended Technology Acceptance Model (United States)

    Teo, Timothy


    This study examined pre-service teachers' self-report on their attitude toward computer use. Participants were 285 pre-service teachers at a teacher training institution in Singapore. They completed a survey questionnaire measuring their responses to five constructs which formed a research model using the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) as a…

  17. La peur de l'evaluation: evaluation de l'enseignement ou du sujet? (Fear of Evaluation: Evaluating the Teacher or the Subject?) (United States)

    Kosmidou-Hardy, Chryssoula; Marmarinos, Jean


    Addresses questions related to the evaluation of teachers, with specific attention to why there is such teacher resistance. Theorizes that it is the teachers' fear of evaluation of their personal identity rather than their professional competence that lies behind their resistance to evaluation. Calls for the use of action research as a basic…

  18. How Do You Get Pre-Service Teachers to Become "Good at ICT" in Their Subject Teaching? The Views of Expert Practitioners (United States)

    Haydn, Terry


    The paper reports on a particular strand of the outcomes of the English contribution to an Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development comparative study, "ICT in Initial Teacher Training," which aimed to develop insights into how courses of initial teacher training prepare student teachers to use information and communications…

  19. Comparing the Change of Teaching Motivations among Preservice Teachers in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland: Do In-School Learning Opportunities Matter? (United States)

    König, Johannes; Rothland, Martin; Tachtsoglou, Sarantis; Klemenz, Stefan


    In this study, we examine the hypothesis that preservice teachers' teaching motivations change during the first two years of their teacher preparation. A sample of 1,779 student teachers with two time points from Austria, Germany, and Switzerland is used. Findings show that student teachers' intrinsic motivation increases, whereas their extrinsic…

  20. How Vocational Teachers Describe Their Vocational Teacher Identity (United States)

    Köpsén, Susanne


    Given the current demands of Swedish vocational education and the withdrawal of the requirement for formal teacher competence in vocational subject teachers, the aim of this article is to develop knowledge of what it means to be a vocational subject teacher in an upper secondary school, i.e. how vocational subject teachers describe their…

  1. Solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic characterization of soil organic matter fractions in a forest ecosystem subjected to prescribed burning and thinning (United States)

    Prescribed burning and thinning are gaining popularity as low-cost forest protection measures. Such field management practices could alter the chemical properties of soil organic matter (SOM), especially humic substances. In this work, we collected surface soil samples from the Bankhead National For...

  2. Examining the Influence of Subjective Norm and Facilitating Conditions on the Intention to Use Technology among Pre-Service Teachers: A Structural Equation Modeling of an Extended Technology Acceptance Model (United States)

    Teo, Timothy


    This study examined pre-service teachers' self-reported behavioral intentions to use technology. Three hundred and fourteen participants completed a survey questionnaire measuring their responses to six constructs from a research model that extends the technology acceptance model (TAM) by including facilitating conditions and subjective norm.…

  3. Gray and white matter changes in subjective cognitive impairment, amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: a voxel-based analysis study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuniaki Kiuchi

    Full Text Available Subjective cognitive impairment may be a very early at-risk period of the continuum of dementia. However, it is difficult to discriminate at-risk states from normal aging. Thus, detection of the early pathological changes in the subjective cognitive impairment period is needed. To elucidate these changes, we employed diffusion tensor imaging and volumetry analysis, and compared subjective cognitive impairment with normal, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. The subjects in this study were 39 Alzheimer's disease, 43 mild cognitive impairment, 28 subjective cognitive impairment and 41 normal controls. There were no statistically significant differences between the normal control and subjective cognitive impairment groups in all measures. Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment had the same extent of brain atrophy and diffusion changes. These results are consistent with the hypothetical model of the dynamic biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease.

  4. Teacher professionalisation in relation to retention strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne


    within Danish VET. The main research questions are: Is it possible to train teachers to be able to focus on the students’ completion of the program and not only on the subject matter? Do teachers change their attitudes and actual performance in the classroom after training programs? And do new......Teacher professionalization in relation to retention strategies Bjarne Wahlgren, professor, director National Centre of Competence Development, University of Aarhus, Denmark The research project ‘New roles for the teacher’ was initiated due to a concern about the increasing number of dropouts...... pedagogical strategies have any impact on retention? The project started in 2010 and includes annual interventions and measurements of the output of these inventions. The intervention includes various teacher training programs e.g. about training in cooperative learning, classroom management, conflict...

  5. A cohort of novice Danish science teachers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birgitte Lund


    A survey on science background and argumentation about science teaching was conducted on a local cohort of newly qualified Danish science teachers. The survey was administered before the novice teachers began their first jobs in primary and lower secondary schools and focused on their reflections...... on specific scenarios of science teaching and themselves as teachers in various science fields. Three areas of concern were identified:There was evidence of reflection upon and argumentation for the practice of science teaching being student centered, but many respondents showed a tendency to focus...... on students' activities as a goal in themselves, few considered what the students learned through the activities. Results furthermore suggest that the teachers' own assessment of their subject matter knowledge in the physics field may, for a large subgroup in the cohort, affect their approach to teaching...

  6. Low episodic memory performance in cognitively normal elderly subjects is associated with increased posterior cingulate gray matter N-acetylaspartate: a1H MRSI study at 7 Tesla. (United States)

    Schreiner, Simon J; Kirchner, Thomas; Wyss, Michael; Van Bergen, Jiri M G; Quevenco, Frances C; Steininger, Stefanie C; Griffith, Erica Y; Meier, Irene; Michels, Lars; Gietl, Anton F; Leh, Sandra E; Brickman, Adam M; Hock, Christoph; Nitsch, Roger M; Pruessmann, Klaas P; Henning, Anke; Unschuld, Paul G


    Low episodic memory performance characterizes elderly subjects at increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and may reflect neuronal dysfunction within the posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus (PCP) region. To investigate a potential association between cerebral neurometabolism and low episodic memory in the absence of cognitive impairment, tissue-specific magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging at ultrahigh field strength of 7 Tesla was used to investigate the PCP region in a healthy elderly study population (n = 30, age 70 ± 5.7 years, Mini-Mental State Examination 29.4 ± 4.1). The Verbal Learning and Memory Test (VLMT) was administered as part of a neuropsychological battery for assessment of episodic memory performance. Significant differences between PCP gray and white matter could be observed for glutamate-glutamine (p = 0.001), choline (p = 0.01), and myo-inositol (p = 0.02). Low Verbal Learning and Memory Test performance was associated with high N-acetylaspartate in PCP gray matter (p = 0.01) but not in PCP white matter. Our data suggest that subtle decreases in episodic memory performance in the elderly may be associated with increased levels of N-acetylaspartate as a reflection of increased mitochondrial energy capacity in PCP gray matter. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. New light on a dark subject: On the use of fluorescence data to deduce redox states of natural organic matter (NOM) (United States)

    Macalady, Donald L.; Walton-Day, Katherine


    This paper reports the use of excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy (EEMS), parallel factor statistical analysis (PARAFAC), and oxidation-reduction experiments to examine the effect of redox conditions on PARAFAC model results for aqueous samples rich in natural organic matter. Fifty-four aqueous samples from 11 different geographic locations and two plant extracts were analyzed untreated and after chemical treatments or irradiation were used in attempts to change the redox status of the natural organic matter. The EEMS spectra were generated and modeled using a PARAFAC package developed by Cory and McKnight (2005). The PARAFAC model output was examined for consistency with previously reported relations and with changes expected to occur upon experimental oxidation and reduction of aqueous samples. Results indicate the implied fraction of total sample fluorescence attributed to quinone-like moieties was consistent (0.64 to 0.78) and greater than that observed by Cory and McKnight (2005). The fraction of the quinone-like moieties that was reduced (the reducing index, RI) showed relatively little variation (0.46 to 0.71) despite attempts to alter the redox status of the natural organic matter. The RI changed little after reducing samples using zinc metal, oxidizing at high pH with air, or irradiating with a Xenon lamp. Our results, however, are consistent with the correlations between the fluorescence indices (FI) of samples and the ratio of PARAFAC fitting parameters suggested by Cory and McKnight (2005), though we used samples with a much narrower range of FI values.

  8. A-Level Psychology Teachers: Who Are They and What Do They Think about Psychology as a Subject and a Discipline? (United States)

    Rowley, Martin; Dalgarno, Elizabeth L.


    A-level psychology teachers (N=109) responded to a questionnaire asking about their academic background, their experience of and views about A-level psychology. Teachers were also asked about the scientific status of psychology as a discipline and about the nature of science in general. Most respondents thought that the A-level course provides…

  9. Prospective Teachers Proportional Reasoning and Presumption of Student Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujiyem Sapti


    Full Text Available This study aimed to describe the proportional reasoning of prospective teachers and their predictions about students' answers. Subjects were 4 prospective teacher  7th semester Department of Mathematics Education, Muhammadiyah University of Purworejo. Proportional reasoning task used to obtain research data. Subjects were asked to explain their reasoning and write predictions of student completion. Data was taken on October 15th, 2014. Interviews were conducted after the subjects completed the task and recorded with audio media. The research data were subject written work and interview transcripts. Data were analyzed using qualitative analysis techniques. In solving the proportional reasoning task, subjects using the cross product. However, they understand the meaning of the cross product. Subject also could predict students' reasoning on the matter.

  10. Age, Cumulative Trauma and Stressful Life Events, and Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms among Older Adults in Prison: Do Subjective Impressions Matter? (United States)

    Maschi, Tina; Morgen, Keith; Zgoba, Kristen; Courtney, Deborah; Ristow, Jennifer


    Background: The aging prison population in the United States presents a significant public health challenge with high rates of trauma and mental health issues that the correctional system alone is ill-prepared to address. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of age, objective, and subjective measures of trauma and stressful…

  11. Using Academic Journals to Help Students Learn Subject Matter Content, Develop and Practice Critical Reasoning Skills, and Reflect on Personal Values in Food Science and Human Nutrition Classes (United States)

    Iwaoka, Wayne T.; Crosetti, Lea M.


    It has been reported that students learn best when they use a wide variety of techniques to understand the information of the discipline, be it visual, auditory, discussion with others, metacognition, hands-on activities, or writing about the subject. We report in this article the use of academic journals not only as an aid for students to learn…

  12. A Structural Equation Model Analyzing the Relationship of Student Achievement Motivations and Personality Factors in a Range of Academic Subject-Matter Areas (United States)

    Tempelaar, Dirk T.; Gijselaers, Wim H.; Schim van der Loeff, Sybrand; Nijhuis, Jan F. H.


    The question of subject-specificity of achievement motivations is important, both for educational psychology, as well as for educational policy. This study contributes to the investigation of the heterogeneity in achievement motivations in the context of the expectancy-value model. Whereas existing research deals with middle and high school…

  13. Students' and teachers' cognitions about good teachers. (United States)

    Beishuizen, J J; Hof, E; van Putten, C M; Bouwmeester, S; Asscher, J J


    Good teachers have been studied ever since Plato described how Socrates taught by asking questions of his audience. Recent findings shed light on two characteristics of good teachers: their personality and their ability. However, more attention has been paid to teachers' practices and opinions than to students' views. The study reported here attempted to deepen our understanding of what students think about good teachers. Students of four age groups (7, 10, 13, and 16 years of age) and teachers from primary and secondary schools were asked to write an essay on the good teacher. The correspondence between conceptual items in the essays was investigated by determining the extent to which they were used in the same essays to describe good teachers. Correspondence analysis revealed two dimensions. The first dimension reflected the preference of students and teachers for describing the good teacher in terms of either personality or ability characteristics. The second dimension was interpreted as an orientation in the essays towards either attachment to, detachment from or commitment to school and teachers. Students and teachers were compared to establish the amount of (dis)agreement about what makes a good teacher. Primary school students described good teachers primarily as competent instructors, focusing on transfer of knowledge and skills, whereas secondary school students emphasised relational aspects of good teachers. Teachers, however, considered good teachers in the first place a matter of establishing personal relationships with their students. Consequently, primary school students and teachers disagreed about the characteristics of good teachers. In secondary education, disagreements between teachers and students were relatively small. The research method of collecting free essays and utilising correspondence analysis to represent conceptual items and groups of participants seems promising as long as a theoretical framework is available to interpret the

  14. Environmental Education for Sustainability in the Curriculum of Primary Teacher Training in Spain (United States)

    Sureda-Negre, Jaume; Oliver-Trobat, Miquel; Catalan-Fernández, Albert; Comas-Forgas, Rubén


    In this study, we analyse, first, what competences regarding environmental sustainability are envisaged in the curricula of primary teachers at Spanish universities and, second, to what extent these competences guide the aims and content of the subject matter and the topics in the syllabi. From an analysis of the 79 competences which, according to…

  15. [Pre-Service and In-Service Training of Junior College Teachers. (United States)

    Ellerbrook, W.L.

    This document combines two papers--one on pre-service, one on in-service training of junior college teachers. Literature on pre-service training shows general agreement on the need for knowledge of the history, philosophy, and unique features of the junior college, of adolescent psychology, of curriculum, and of subject matter. Of the 20…

  16. Greenhouse Crop Production; A Student Handbook, Teacher Education Series, Volume 10 Number 3s. (United States)


    This study guide, developed by the Department of Agricultural Education of The Pennsylvania State University and field-tested by 54 teachers, is for student use in a unit on greenhouse crop production. Learning objectives, key questions, vocabulary terms, subject matter, and references are included for each of these problem areas: (1) Occupational…

  17. Skinning the Pythagorean Cat: A Study of Strategy Preferences of Secondary Math Teachers (United States)

    Maxcy, Clara A.


    A series of observations in math classrooms revealed a pervasive problem of "re-teaching". It matters little the subject; before the teacher can begin teaching new material, basic skills often have to be re-taught before the lesson can move forward. Perhaps some methods are more effective than others in the classroom. Consequently, this study…

  18. Developing Elementary Teachers' Knowledge about Functions and Rate of Change through Modeling (United States)

    Weber, Eric; Tallman, Michael A.; Middleton, James A.


    The purpose of this article is to describe the development of elementary school teachers' mathematical knowledge for teaching as they participated in a Modeling Instruction environment that placed heavy emphasis on improving their subject-matter knowledge as a basis for affecting the development of their pedagogical content knowledge. We…

  19. White matter organization in relation to upper limb motor control in healthy subjects: exploring the added value of diffusion kurtosis imaging. (United States)

    Gooijers, J; Leemans, A; Van Cauter, S; Sunaert, S; Swinnen, S P; Caeyenberghs, K


    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) characterizes white matter (WM) microstructure. In many brain regions, however, the assumption that the diffusion probability distribution is Gaussian may be invalid, even at low b values. Recently, diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) was suggested to more accurately estimate this distribution. We explored the added value of DKI in studying the relation between WM microstructure and upper limb coordination in healthy controls (N = 24). Performance on a complex bimanual tracking task was studied with respect to the conventional DTI measures (DKI or DTI derived) and kurtosis metrics of WM tracts/regions carrying efferent (motor) output from the brain, corpus callosum (CC) substructures and whole brain WM. For both estimation models, motor performance was associated with fractional anisotropy (FA) of the CC-genu, CC-body, the anterior limb of the internal capsule, and whole brain WM (r s range 0.42-0.63). Although DKI revealed higher mean, radial and axial diffusivity and lower FA than DTI (p motor performance was associated with increased mean and radial kurtosis and kurtosis anisotropy (r s range 0.43-0.55). In conclusion, DKI provided additional information, but did not show increased sensitivity to detect relations between WM microstructure and bimanual performance in healthy controls.

  20. Subjective experiences of a yogo teacher with reference to health support activities carried out in the first year after the Great East Japan Earthquake: A case study based on a narrative approach. (United States)

    Aoyagi, Chiharu; Kanaizumi, Shiomi; Shikama, Kumiko; Sakou, Keiko


    Objectives To offer an empirical lens-based on the account of a yogo teacher employed at a temporary school in the community where she was relocated after experiencing the Great East Japan Earthquake alongside her students-into the subjective experience of health support activities carried out during the year immediately following the disaster.Method An interview was conducted with one yogo teacher who experienced the Great East Japan Earthquake, employed at a public junior high school in the region to where she was evacuated. Analysis involved a narrative approach whereby the yogo teacher's story was rewritten as a story in chronological order.Results The immediate course of events following the disaster was divided into three periods and examined. Period 1: The yogo teacher first experienced the earthquake and was forced to evacuate alongside her students, during which time she felt strong [sense of loss] and [sense of despair]. Period 2: At the reopening of the school in temporary classrooms, she believed her top priority was doing what she could as a yogo teacher and contributing to reopening the school, while working with other teaching staff to make the most of their surroundings. The school's reopening brought a significant sense of security and joy to students. This led her to [finding hope], and she recovered her positive attitude. Subsequently, problems manifested such as bullying and violence. She believed that [being there for the children] was the most important thing she could do as a yogo teacher and continued to provide [emotional care]. Period 3: At the time of completion of a temporary school building, she was [confused and explored] the delay of the children's recovery from emotional problems. She coordinated with a university professor of psychology to conduct classes to alleviate students' tension and stress using strategies such as relaxation techniques. She realized the importance of initiatives that involve [a keen sense of connection

  1. Dark matter an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Majumdar, Debasish


    Dark Matter: An Introduction tackles the rather recent but fast-growing subject of astroparticle physics, encompassing three main areas of fundamental physics: cosmology, particle physics, and astrophysics. Accordingly, the book discusses symmetries, conservation laws, relativity, and cosmological parameters and measurements, as well as the astrophysical behaviors of galaxies and galaxy clusters that indicate the presence of dark matter and the possible nature of dark matter distribution.

  2. Education Matters, May 2011 (United States)

    Beckner, Gary, Ed.


    "Education Matters" is the monthly newsletter of the Association of American Educators (AAE), an organization dedicated to advancing the American teaching profession through personal growth, professional development, teacher advocacy and protection. This issue of the newsletter includes: (1) Balancing Act: Achieving a Harmony between…

  3. Education Matters, May 2010 (United States)

    Beckner, Gary, Ed.


    "Education Matters" is the monthly newsletter of the Association of American Educators (AAE), an organization dedicated to advancing the American teaching profession through personal growth, professional development, teacher advocacy and protection. This issue of the newsletter includes: (1) Who Me? Yes, You Can Use Technology to Individualize…

  4. Education Matters, May 2008 (United States)

    Beckner, Gary, Ed.


    "Education Matters" is the monthly newsletter of the Association of American Educators (AAE), an organization dedicated to advancing the American teaching profession through personal growth, professional development, teacher advocacy and protection. This issue of the newsletter includes: (1) Is She Your Competition? Are India's Students…

  5. Education Matters, April 2010 (United States)

    Beckner, Gary, Ed.


    "Education Matters" is the monthly newsletter of the Association of American Educators (AAE), an organization dedicated to advancing the American teaching profession through personal growth, professional development, teacher advocacy and protection. This issue of the newsletter includes: (1) Teaching as Leadership: 6 Traits of Highly…

  6. Comparing practical knowledge storage of deaf and hearing teachers of students who are deaf or hard of hearing. (United States)

    Marlatt, Edward A


    Especially in the education of students who are deaf or hard of hearing, teachers' practical knowledge storage is almost never measured. The Survey of Practical Knowledge was used to compare the practical knowledge storage of deaf and hearing teachers of these students. Surveyed were 48 deaf and 115 hearing individuals at the preservice and in-service experience levels. Practical knowledge storage was defined as images, rules of practice, and practical principles. Results indicate that deaf teachers tend to view students as equals but are more likely to emphasize control over classroom behavior than hearing teachers. Hearing teachers tend to stress efforts to engage students in subject matter by providing variety and relating it to life experiences. Given the trend toward high-stakes testing of teachers, further research is encouraged on role differences between deaf and hearing teachers working with students who are deaf or hard of hearing.

  7. The use of video analysis and the Knowledge Quartet in mathematics teacher education programmes (United States)

    Liston, Miriam


    This study investigates the potential of video analysis and a mathematical knowledge for teaching framework, the Knowledge Quartet (KQ), in mathematics teacher education programmes. It reports on the effectiveness of these tools in analysing and supporting secondary level pre-service mathematics teachers' subject matter knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge. This paper describes how a videotaped lesson of one pre-service teacher, teaching a class of mature students, was analysed and makes comparisons between the teacher educators' and the pre-service teacher's observations. Inter-rater reliability was investigated and a Kappa coefficient of .72 indicated substantial agreement between both coders. Findings are presented and implications of the use of video and the KQ for mathematics teacher education are drawn.

  8. From PCK to TPACK: Developing a Transformative Model for Pre-Service Science Teachers (United States)

    Jang, Syh-Jong; Chen, Kuan-Chung


    New science teachers should be equipped with the ability to integrate and design the curriculum and technology for innovative teaching. How to integrate technology into pre-service science teachers' pedagogical content knowledge is the important issue. This study examined the impact on a transformative model of integrating technology and peer coaching for developing technological pedagogical and content knowledge (TPACK) of pre-service science teachers. A transformative model and an online system were designed to restructure science teacher education courses. Participants of this study included an instructor and 12 pre-service teachers. The main sources of data included written assignments, online data, reflective journals, videotapes and interviews. This study expanded four views, namely, the comprehensive, imitative, transformative and integrative views to explore the impact of TPACK. The model could help pre-service teachers develop technological pedagogical methods and strategies of integrating subject-matter knowledge into science lessons, and further enhanced their TPACK.

  9. An Exploration of Sources of Foreign Language Teacher Motivation in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Mohammad Alavi


    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate sources of motivation of English language teachers in Iranian public and private language schools. To this end, a Language Teacher Motivation Source (LTMS questionnaire was developed on the basis of the related literature. The LTMS examined four sources of motivation, i. e., extrinsic (economic, social, emotional, educational, intrinsic, altruistic, and subject matter motivation. Having been piloted and validated, the LTMS was administered to 200 male and female EFL teachers who had been classified in terms of their gender, age, marital status, academic degrees, job status, and their years of language teaching experiences. The results of parametric statistical analyses showed a hierarchy of language teacher sources of motivation that were not similar among different groups of language teachers in terms of their teaching experiences and level of education. This study suggests that authorities pay close attention to the sources of language teacher motivation to improve the quality of English language teaching and learning.

  10. Respiratory effects of particulate matter air pollution: studies on diesel exhaust, road tunnel, subway and wood smoke exposure in human subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehlstedt, Maria


    Background: Ambient air pollution is associated with adverse health effects, but the sources and components, which cause these effects is still incompletely understood. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the pulmonary effects of a variety of common air pollutants, including diesel exhaust, biomass smoke, and road tunnel and subway station environments. Healthy non-smoking volunteers were exposed in random order to the specific air pollutants and air/control, during intermittent exercise, followed by bronchoscopy. Methods and results: In study I, exposures were performed with diesel exhaust (DE) generated at transient engine load and air for 1 hour with bronchoscopy at 6 hours post-exposure. Immunohistochemical analyses of bronchial mucosal biopsies showed that DE exposure significantly increased the endothelial adhesion molecule expression of p-selectin and VCAM-1, together with increased bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) eosinophils. In study II, the subjects were exposed for 1 hour to DE generated during idling with bronchoscopy at 6 hours. The bronchial mucosal biopsies showed significant increases in neutrophils, mast cells and lymphocytes together with bronchial wash neutrophils. Additionally, DE exposure significantly increased the nuclear translocation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and phosphorylated c-jun in the bronchial epithelium. In contrast, the phase II enzyme NAD(P)H-quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) decreased after DE. In study III, the 2-hour exposures took place in a road tunnel with bronchoscopy 14 hours later. The road tunnel exposure significantly increased the total numbers of lymphocytes and alveolar macrophages in BAL, whereas NK cell and CD56+/T cell numbers significantly decreased. Additionally, the nuclear expression of phosphorylated c-jun in the bronchial epithelium was significantly increased after road tunnel exposure. In study IV, the subjects were exposed to metal-rich particulate aerosol for 2 hours at a subway station

  11. Science Teachers' Decision-Making in Abstinence-Only-Until-Marriage (AOUM) Classrooms: Taboo Subjects and Discourses of Sex and Sexuality in Classroom Settings (United States)

    Gill, Puneet Singh


    Sex education, especially in the southeastern USA, remains steeped in an Abstinence-Only-Until-Marriage (AOUM) approach, which sets up barriers to the education of sexually active students. Research confirms that science education has the potential to facilitate discussion of controversial topics, including sex education. Science teachers in the…

  12. Do CS-US pairings actually matter? A within-subject comparison of instructed fear conditioning with and without actual CS-US pairings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An K Raes

    Full Text Available Previous research showed that instructions about CS-US pairings can lead to fear of the CS even when the pairings are never presented. In the present study, we examined whether the experience of CS-US pairings adds to the effect of instructions by comparing instructed conditioning with and without actual CS-US pairings in a within-subject design. Thirty-two participants saw three fractals as CSs (CS(+1, CS(+2, CS(- and received electric shocks as USs. Before the start of a so-called training phase, participants were instructed that both CS(+1 and CS(+2 would be followed by the US, but only CS(+1 was actually paired with the US. The absence of the US after CS(+2 was explained in such a way that participants would not doubt the instructions about the CS(+2-US relation. After the training phase, a test phase was carried out. In this phase, participants expected the US after both CS(+s but none of the CS(+s was actually paired with the US. During test, self-reported fear was initially higher for CS(+1 than for CS(+2, which indicates that the experience of actual CS-US pairings adds to instructions about these pairings. On the other hand, the CS(+s elicited similar skin conductance responses and US expectancies. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed.

  13. Teachers' and Parents' Perspectives on a Curricular Subject of "Religion and Spirituality" for Indian Schools: A Pilot Study Toward School Mental Health Program. (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Parameshwaran; Baccari, Andrew; Ramachandran, Uma; Ahmed, Syed Faiz; Koenig, Harold G


    Religious-spiritual (R/S) education helps medical students cope with caregiving stress and gain skills in interpersonal empathy needed for clinical care. Such R/S education has been introduced into K-12 and college curricula in some developed nations and has been found to positively impact student's mental health. Such a move has not yet been seen in the Indian education system. This paper aimed to examine perspectives of teachers and parents in India on appropriateness, benefits, and challenges of including R/S education into the school curriculum and also to gather their impressions on how a R/S curriculum might promote students' health. A cross-sectional study of religiously stratified sample of teachers and parents was initiated in three preselected schools in India and the required sample size (N = 300) was reached through snowballing technique. A semi-structured questionnaire, with questions crafted from "Religion and Spirituality in Medicine, Physicians Perspective" (RSMPP) and "American Academy of Religion's (AAR) Guidelines for Religious Literacy," was used to determine participants' perspectives. Findings revealed that teachers' and parents' "comfort in integrating R/S into school curriculum" was associated with their gender (OR 1.68), education status (OR 1.05), and intrinsic religiosity (OR 1.05). Intrinsic religiosity was significantly (p = 0.025) high among parents while "intrinsic spirituality" was high (p = 0.020) among teachers. How participants' R/S characteristics influence their support of R/S education in school is discussed. In conclusion, participants believe R/S education will fosters students' emotional health and interpersonal skills needed for social leadership. A curriculum that incorporates R/S education, which is based on AAR guidelines and clinically validated interpersonal spiritual care tools would be acceptable to both teachers and parents.

  14. Benefits of multi-modal fusion analysis on a large-scale dataset: life-span patterns of inter-subject variability in cortical morphometry and white matter microstructure. (United States)

    Groves, Adrian R; Smith, Stephen M; Fjell, Anders M; Tamnes, Christian K; Walhovd, Kristine B; Douaud, Gwenaëlle; Woolrich, Mark W; Westlye, Lars T


    Neuroimaging studies have become increasingly multimodal in recent years, with researchers typically acquiring several different types of MRI data and processing them along separate pipelines that provide a set of complementary windows into each subject's brain. However, few attempts have been made to integrate the various modalities in the same analysis. Linked ICA is a robust data fusion model that takes multi-modal data and characterizes inter-subject variability in terms of a set of multi-modal components. This paper examines the types of components found when running Linked ICA on a large magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) morphometric and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data set comprising 484 healthy subjects ranging from 8 to 85 years of age. We find several strong global features related to age, sex, and intracranial volume; in particular, one component predicts age to a high accuracy (r=0.95). Most of the remaining components describe spatially localized modes of variability in white or gray matter, with many components including both tissue types. The multimodal components tend to be located in anatomically-related brain areas, suggesting a morphological and possibly functional relationship. The local components show relationships between surface-based cortical thickness and arealization, voxel-based morphometry (VBM), and between three different DTI measures. Further, we report components related to artifacts (e.g. scanner software upgrades) which would be expected in a dataset of this size. Most of the 100 extracted components showed interpretable spatial patterns and were found to be reliable using split-half validation. This work provides novel information about normal inter-subject variability in brain structure, and demonstrates the potential of Linked ICA as a feature-extracting data fusion approach across modalities. This exploratory approach automatically generates models to explain structure in the data, and may prove especially powerful for large

  15. Initial Science Teacher Education in Portugal: The Thoughts of Teacher Educators About the Effects of the Bologna Process (United States)

    Leite, Laurinda; Dourado, Luís; Morgado, Sofia


    Between the 1980s and 2007, Portugal used to have one-stage (5-year period) initial teacher education (ITE) programs. In 2007 and consistent with the Bologna process guidelines, Portuguese teacher education moved toward a two-stage model, which includes a 3-year undergraduate program of subject matter that leads to a licenciatura (or bachelor) degree and a 3-year professional master in the teaching of a subject. The way that teacher educators perceive the ITE programs effects the education of prospective teachers and consequently the future of science education. This paper aims at analyzing how science teacher educators perceived the changes that took place in this formal way of educating junior school (7th-9th grades) and high school (10th-12th grades) science teachers in Portugal, due to the implementation of the Bologna guidelines. To attain the objectives of the study, 33 science teacher educators including science specialists and science education specialists answered an open-ended online questionnaire, which focused on the strengths and weaknesses of the pre- and post-Bologna ITE programs, the overall quality of teacher education and measures for improving ITE. The results indicate that science teacher educators were quite happy with all of the ITE models, but they expressed the belief that both the science and the teaching practice components should be strengthened in the post-Bologna masters in teaching. Meanwhile, changes were introduced in Portuguese educational laws, and they proved to be consistent with the opinions of the participants. However, the professional development of teacher educators along with evidence-based ITE programs seems to be necessary conditions for overcoming the challenges that teacher education is still facing in Portugal and worldwide.

  16. Relationships among science teacher qualifications, instructional practices, and student science achievement (United States)

    Zuelke, Laurie Ann


    Research has shown that teacher effectiveness is a key to student achievement. Indicators of teacher effectiveness also referred to as teacher quality, have been described as years of experience and subject matter certification. As national and state mandates continue the practice of high stakes testing and place pressure upon schools to increase the rate of student achievement, few studies explored the relationships between achievement and teacher quality. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a relationship between teacher qualities (experience, certification type, and science coursework) and student achievement on the eighth grade Science FCAT. Eighth grade Science FCAT scores of over 13,000 students and the data from 127 teachers regarding their experience, certification status (temporary or professional), and subject certification was collected from two Central Florida counties. Student and teacher data was separated into two groups based upon each school's student socioeconomic (SES) data. High SES schools were designated as those that had 24% to 50% of their students on free and reduce priced lunch, whereas low SES schools had 55% to 85% of their students on free and reduce priced lunch. Data from each SES group was analyzed independently. A one-way ANOVA was performed to compare the means of eighth grade student Science FCAT scores among teachers with 0 to 5 years of experience, 6 to 15 years of experience, and over 15 years of experience. Also compared were the eighth grade student mean Science FCAT scores among teachers with regular certification and temporary certification, and teachers with science subject certification or without science subject certification. Four eighth grade science teachers with varying years of experience, certification type, and science college coursework were interviewed and classroom instructional practices observed. Results of this study showed that there was a significant difference at the low SES level in

  17. Examining elementary teachers' knowledge and instruction of scientific explanations for fostering children's explanations in science (United States)

    Wiebke, Heidi Lynn

    This study employed an embedded mixed methods multi-case study design (Creswell, 2014) with six early childhood (grades K-2) teachers to examine a) what changes occurred to their subject matter knowledge (SMK) and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) for teaching scientific explanations while participating in a professional development program, b) how they planned for and implemented scientific explanation instruction within a teacher developed unit on properties of matter, and c) what affordances their instruction of scientific explanations had on fostering their students' abilities to generate explanations in science. Several quantitative and qualitative measures were collected and analyzed in accordance to this studies conceptual framework, which consisted of ten instructional practices teachers should consider assimilating or accommodating into their knowledge base (i.e., SMK & PCK) for teaching scientific explanations. Results of this study indicate there was little to no positive change in the teachers' substantive and syntactic SMK. However, all six teachers did make significant changes to all five components of their PCK for teaching explanations in science. While planning for scientific explanation instruction, all six teachers' contributed some ideas for how to incorporate seven of the ten instructional practices for scientific explanations within the properties of matter unit they co-developed. When enacting the unit, the six teachers' employed seven to nine of the instructional practices to varying levels of effectiveness, as measured by researcher developed rubrics. Given the six teachers' scientific explanation instruction, many students did show improvement in their ability to formulate a scientific explanation, particularly their ability to provide multiple pieces of evidence. Implications for professional developers, teacher educators, researchers, policy makers, and elementary teachers regarding how to prepare teachers for and support students

  18. Student nurse-educators' construction of teacher identity from a self-evaluation perspective: A quantitative case study. (United States)

    Mukumbang, Ferdinand C; Alindekane, Leka Marcel


    The aim of this study was to explore the teacher identity formation dynamics of student nurse-educators about the subject matter, pedagogy and didactics. A case study using descriptive quantitative design was employed. Using a cross-sectional approach, data were collected in 2014 using a self-administered questionnaire. Participants were asked to self-evaluate their teaching competencies on the nursing subject matter, pedagogical expertise and didactical expertise. Using descriptive analysis we determined the central tendencies of the constructs. The descriptive analysis revealed a very small variance (0.0011) and standard deviation (0.04) among the means of the three constructs, which indicates a fair balance in the contribution of the subject matter, pedagogy and didactics towards teacher identity formation. Nursing student-educators can achieve a balanced combination of subject matter expert, pedagogical expert and didactical expert combination during the formation of their teacher identity. This could be indicative of how effective the training programme is in helping the students achieve a balanced teacher identity.

  19. Subject to Form: Research Interviews, Performative Subjectivity, Professional Development (United States)

    Sarigianides, Sophia Tatiana


    In this dissertation, I analyze teacher, literacy coach and researcher subjectivities in a five-year study of on-site professional development with middle-grade Language Arts teachers in a school designated by its district and state as severely underperforming. Interested in the role of research interviews as both research method and cultural…

  20. Primary Teacher Education in Malaysia (United States)

    Ching, Chin Phoi; Yee, Chin Peng


    In Malaysia the training of primary school teachers is solely carried out by teacher training institutes which offer the Bachelor of Teaching with Honors (Primary education) program and was first launched in 2007. This program prepares primary school teachers specializing in various subjects or major and is carried out in 27 teacher training…

  1. How Will We Understand What We Teach? - Primary Student Teachers' Perceptions of their Development of Knowledge and Attitudes Towards Physics (United States)

    Nilsson, Pernilla; van Driel, Jan


    The research outlined in this paper investigated how student teachers perceived the development of their knowledge and attitudes towards physics through video recorded practical workshops based on experiments and subsequent group discussions. During an 8-week physics course, 40 primary science student teachers worked in groups of 13-14 on practical experiments and problem-solving skills in physics. The student teachers were video recorded in order to follow their activities and discussions during the experiments. In connection with every workshop, the student teachers participated in a seminar conducted by their physics teachers and a primary science teacher; they watched the video recording in order to reflect on their activities and how they communicated their conceptions in their group. After the 8 weeks of coursework a questionnaire including a storyline was used to elicit the student teachers' perceptions of their development of subject matter knowledge from the beginning to the end of the course. Finally, five participants were interviewed after the course. The results provided insight into how aspects such as self-confidence and the meaningfulness of knowledge for primary teaching were perceived as important factors for the primary science student teachers' development of subject matter knowledge as well as a positive attitude towards physics.

  2. Cosmetology. Subject Matters, Volume 3, No. 3. (United States)

    Reese, Susan


    "The Beauty of Cosmetology" discusses the employment outlook for cosmetologists. "High School Cosmetology with Great Style" describes the academic and career cosmetology curriculum at Great Oaks Institute of Technology and Career Development (Ohio). "More than Skin Deep" explores the job shadowing program at the American Academy of Hair Design.…

  3. Digital Literacy and Subject Matter Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levinsen, Karin; Sørensen, Birgitte Holm


    It is generally agreed that learners need to acquire digital literacy in order to be able to act as citizens, employees and entrepreneurs in an increasingly digitalized environment. It is also generally agreed that the educational system has to be responsible for educating towards digital literacy....... However, there is no shared conception of the scope and meaning of digital literacy. The overall picture shows two main approaches: The first aims at digital literacy in the sense of Buildung (general education) while the second addresses a wide range of specific skills and competences: From basic...... computer skills over multimodal analysis to social conventions for behavior in online environments. Consequently designs for teaching and learning that aim at learners acquiring digital literacy and the related learning objectives appear as weak defined. According to the Danish Ministry of Education Shared...

  4. Meeting the Challenge: Teaching Sensitive Subject Matter (United States)

    Crosby, Dorian B.


    When teaching diversity courses that discuss sensitive issues, such as racial, gender, sexuality, religious, and ethnic discrimination, it is possible to encounter student resistance, which can subsequently prevent students from comprehending the content. While teaching an introductory course on African American history in a Black Studies…

  5. When Matter Matters

    CERN Document Server

    Easson, Damien A.; Vikman, Alexander


    We study a recently proposed scenario for the early universe: Subluminal Galilean Genesis. We prove that without any other matter present in the spatially flat Friedmann universe, the perturbations of the Galileon scalar field propagate with a speed at most equal to the speed of light. This proof applies to all cosmological solutions -- to the whole phase space. However, in a more realistic situation, when one includes any matter which is not directly coupled to the Galileon, there always exists a region of phase space where these perturbations propagate superluminally, indeed with arbitrarily high speed. We illustrate our analytic proof with numerical computations. We discuss the implications of this result for the possible UV completion of the model.

  6. The control processes and subjective well-being of Chinese teachers: Evidence of convergence with and divergence from the key propositions of the motivational theory of life-span development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Chi eWong


    Full Text Available An analytical review of the motivational theory of life-span development reveals that this theory has undergone a series of elegant theoretical integrations. Its claim to universality nonetheless brings forth unresolved controversies. With the purpose of scrutinizing the key propositions of this theory, an empirical study was designed to examine the control processes and subjective well-being of Chinese teachers (N = 637. The OPS-Scales (Optimization in Primary and Secondary Control Scales for the Domain of Teaching were constructed to assess patterns of control processes. Three facets of subjective well-being were investigated with the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, the Life Satisfaction Scale, and the Subjective Vitality Scale. The results revealed certain aspects of alignment with and certain divergences from the key propositions of the motivational theory of life-span development. Neither primacy of primary control nor primacy of secondary control was clearly supported. Notably, using different criteria for subjective well-being yielded different subtypes of primary and secondary control as predictors. The hypothesized life-span trajectories of primary and secondary control received limited support. To advance the theory in this area, we recommend incorporating Lakatos’ ideas about sophisticated falsification by specifying the hard core of the motivational theory of life-span development and articulating new auxiliary hypotheses.

  7. Why Not Start with Quarks? Teachers Investigate a Learning Unit on the Subatomic Structure of Matter with 12-Year-Olds (United States)

    Wiener, Gerfried J.; Schmeling, Sascha M.; Hopf, Martin


    This paper describes the second in a series of studies exploring the acceptance of the subatomic structure of matter by 12-year-olds. The studies focus on a novel learning unit introducing an atomic model from electrons down to quarks, which is aimed to be used at an early stage in the physics curriculum. Three features are fundamental to the…

  8. Perfectly Reasonable in a Practical World: Understanding Chemistry Teacher Responses to a Change Proposal (United States)

    Westbroek, Hanna; Janssen, Fred; Doyle, Walter


    Curriculum ideals often get compromised as a curriculum moves through its various levels of representation. Across the different science reforms, this process of slippage is clearly present. Research shows that teacher subject matter knowledge, PCK, beliefs and context factors all influence implementation. Professional development arrangements focus on fixing deficiencies in teachers' knowledge, beliefs or work context. This approach has not solved the problem of slippage, as we still do not understand what mechanisms operate when teachers make decisions about change proposals. In this study, we unpacked the decision mechanisms of three highly qualified chemistry teachers who subsequently adapted an innovative context-based chemistry unit. In spite of a state of the art professional development arrangement and the teachers being highly qualified, slippage occurred. The teachers' goal systems were used to interpret their reasoning. A goal system is a context-dependent, within-person mental construct that consists of a hierarchy of a person's goals and means in pursuit of a task. We showed that all three teachers adopted or redesigned elements of the change proposals to meet their core goals, i.e., goals that had multiple connections with other goals. This indicated that the adaptations teachers made were perfectly reasonable ways to serve their professional goals. For change to happen, we contend that one should begin with ways to connect teachers' core goals with the lesson or unit goal demands of a proposed innovation. Change emerges from the adaptions teachers make in the service of their core goals.

  9. Empowering Teachers to Raise Career Awareness in Computing: Lessons Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giti Javidi


    Full Text Available Students' attitudes towards Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM has been a topic of enduring interest in the field of STEM education over the past decade – but why? After all, there is no sense in which people are concerned about students' attitudes towards the learning of English or history. So what drives the interest in these topics? Previous research has suggested a relationship between teachers' and students' attitudes towards a subject area. In order to increase student representation in STEM, we need teachers who have positive attitudes and can serve as role models to encourage their students to pursue STEM careers. In this paper we argue that in order to engage students' interest in the technical career paths, we must start with inspiring and training teachers to instill such interest in their students at early age. We present our experiences and outcomes from a teacher training program. Through the training, we were able to help teachers explore ways to incorporate programming into their curriculum, gain STEM career awareness and develop an understanding of importance of soft skills in STEM. The results show that teachers were able to gain confidence in incorporating their subject matter into Scratch-based classroom activities and teaching this material in a classroom setting and gain a better understanding of careers in STEM.

  10. Pedagogical content knowledge: Knowledge of pedagogy novice teachers in mathematics learning on limit algebraic function (United States)

    Ma'rufi, Budayasa, I. Ketut; Juniati, Dwi


    Teacher is one of the key aspects of student's achievement. Teachers should master content material taught, how to teach it, and can interpret the students' thinking so that students easily understand the subject matter. This research was a qualitative research that aimed at describing profile of PCK's teachers in mathematics on limit algebraic functions in terms of the differences of teaching experience. Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) and understanding of teachers is defined as involving the relationship between knowledge of teaching materials, how to transfer the subject matter, and the knowledge of students in mathematics on limit algebraic functions that the subject matter may be understood by students. The PCK components in this research were knowledge of subject matter, knowledge of pedagogy, and knowledge of students. Knowledge of pedagogy defines as knowledge and understanding of teachers about the planning and organization of the learning and teaching strategy of limit algebraic function. The subjects were two mathematics high school teachers who teach in class XI IPS. Data were collected through observation of learning during five meetings and interviews before and after the lesson continued with qualitative data analysis. Focus of this article was to describe novice teacher's knowledge of student in mathematics learning on limit algebraic function. Based on the results of the analysis of qualitative data the data concluded that novice teacher's knowledge of pedagogy in mathematics on limit algebraic function showed: 1) in teaching the definitions tend to identify prior knowledge of the student experience with the material to be studied, but not in the form of a problem, 2) in posing the questions tend to be monotonous non lead and dig, 3) in response to student questions preservice teachers do not take advantage of the characteristics or the potential of other students, 4) in addressing the problem of students, tend to use the drill approach and did

  11. Solid Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A


    Supported by a generous quantity of full-color illustrations and interesting sidebars, Solid Matter introduces the basic characteristics and properties of solid matter. It briefly describes the cosmic connection of the elements, leading readers through several key events in human pre-history that resulted in more advanced uses of matter in the solid state. Chapters include:. -Solid Matter: An Initial Perspective. -Physical Behavior of Matter. -The Gravity of Matter. -Fundamentals of Materials Science. -Rocks and Minerals. -Metals. -Building Materials. -Carbon Earth's Most Versatile Element. -S

  12. Teachers' perceptions of the frequency and seriousness of violations of ethical standards. (United States)

    Barrett, David E; Headley, Kathy Neal; Stovall, Bonnie; Witte, James C


    Despite nationwide efforts to professionalize public-school teaching, little attention has been given to the matter of standards of professional conduct for teachers. The authors examined teachers' perceptions of the frequency and seriousness of different categories of teacher misconduct. They administered a 34-item questionnaire to 235 school professionals in northwestern South Carolina. For each item, respondents rated the extent to which they agreed or disagreed that the behavior occurred frequently and represented a serious violation of professional ethics. Factor analysis of the ratings of seriousness yielded 3 domains of ethical concerns: (a) student-teacher boundary violations, (b) carelessness in behavior, and (c) subjectivity in grading and instruction. Teachers rated boundary violations as the most serious but least common violations and carelessness in behavior as the most frequent but least serious violation. Problems of subjectivity in grading were rated as moderately frequent and moderately serious. The authors found no differences between male and female teachers or between elementary and secondary teachers in their ratings of the seriousness or frequency of any of the 3 groups of ethical concerns. The authors discuss implications for development of a national code of teacher conduct.

  13. Speech Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasse Jørgensen, Stina


    About Speech Matters - Katarina Gregos, the Greek curator's exhibition at the Danish Pavillion, the Venice Biannual 2011.......About Speech Matters - Katarina Gregos, the Greek curator's exhibition at the Danish Pavillion, the Venice Biannual 2011....

  14. Concepts of matter in science education

    CERN Document Server

    Sevian, Hannah


    Bringing together a wide collection of ideas, reviews, analyses and new research on particulate and structural concepts of matter, Concepts of Matter in Science Education informs practice from pre-school through graduate school learning and teaching and aims to inspire progress in science education. The expert contributors offer a range of reviews and critical analyses of related literature and in-depth analysis of specific issues, as well as new research. Among the themes covered are learning progressions for teaching a particle model of matter, the mental models of both students and teachers of the particulate nature of matter, educational technology, chemical reactions and chemical phenomena, chemical structure and bonding, quantum chemistry and the history and philosophy of science relating to the particulate nature of matter. The book will benefit a wide audience including classroom practitioners and student teachers at every educational level, teacher educators and researchers in science education.

  15. Dark Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    matter and that it must be of some exotic type. Before we discuss the evidences for dark matter in clusters of galaxies, let us point out that it is not just spiral galaxies which are thought to contain dark matter, although the evidences from them are the strongest. Other types of galaxies, like elliptical galaxies, are often seen to ...

  16. Human Resource Subjects Allocation and Students' Academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated human resource subjects' allocation and students' academic performance in Secondary Schools in Obudu, Nigeria. The relevant variables of teachers subject was used as independent variable while the dependent variables were students' academic performance. Six hundred teachers from 20 ...

  17. Teachers interact with radio in Nepal. (United States)

    Sedlak, P A


    The Nepal Radio Education Teacher Training Project (RETT) is an interactive program for upgrading underqualified primary school teachers, 27% of whom lack the 10th grade school leaving certificate. Nepal is so mountainous that reaching rural areas is too expensive to train teachers effectively. This program uses curriculum principles such as systematic planning, distributed learning, cyclical instruction, and radio techniques such as intensive broadcasting, interactive learning, immediate reinforcement and an engaging instructional pace for this adult audience. With the help of USAID, Radio Nepal operates a 100,000 watt shortwave transmitter from a studio in suburban Kathmandu. As of August 1980, 5593 teachers from 72 of 75 districts have enrolled, and 2944 have been certified. The 1st phase of the program taught Nepali, mathematics, social studies, health, physical education and art. The 2nd phase emphasizes the content taught in years 7-10, added English, mathematics, science and Nepali. There are major differences in this interactive program compared to those instituted in Kenya, Nicaragua, the Dominican Republic and Thailand, with young audiences. These adults are teachers, unmonitored, individual listeners, in a home setting, usually studying in the evenings in competition with other radio programming, and learning secondary school subject matter. In contrast, prior programs elsewhere have had captive children in primary school monitored by teachers. Incentives are being provided to keep teachers in the courses, such as discounted radios, job security, pay increments and certification. The use of repetition and rapid feedback inherent in interactive radio programming helps to meet the challenges in voluntary participation.

  18. Students' Perceptions of Their Science Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge (United States)

    Halim, Lilia; Abdullah, Sharifah Intan Sharina Syed; Meerah, T. Subahan Mohd


    Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) is a type of teacher knowledge to be developed by a teacher. PCK is said to contribute to effective teaching. Most studies investigated the development of PCK and its influence on students' learning from the teachers' perspectives. Only a limited number of studies have investigated the components of science teachers' PCK that helped students' learning from the perspective of students. Thus, it is the aim of this study to investigate the level of science teachers' PCK from students' perspective, in particular whether or not students of different achieving ability had different views of teachers' PCK in assisting their learning and understanding. Based on the PCK research literature, six components of PCK have been identified, which were as follows: (1) subject matter knowledge, (2) knowledge of teaching strategies, (3) knowledge of concept representation, (4) knowledge of teaching context, (5) knowledge of students, and (6) knowledge of assessment in learning science. A questionnaire consisting of 56 items on a five-point Likert-type scale were used for data collection from 316 Form Four students (16 years old). One-way analysis of variance revealed that the differences in science teachers' PCK identified by students of different achieving abilities were statistically significant. Overall, students of various academic achieving abilities considered all the components of PCK as important. The low-achieving students viewed all the components of PCK as being less important compared to the high and moderate achievers. In particular, low-achieving students do not view `knowledge of concept representation' as important for effective teaching. They valued the fact that teachers should be alert to their needs, such as being sensitive to students' reactions and preparing additional learning materials. This study has revealed that PCK of science teachers should be different for high and low-achieving students and knowledge of students

  19. Digital media promoting new approaches to subject specific didactics in visual arts education in primary school, high school, teacher education and university education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie; Örtegren, Hans; Haïkö, Tarja

    The symposium discusses eventual paradigmatic shift within Art Education at different levels when new tools for creation are applied in educational settings. The symposium addresses current developments in visual arts education based on empirical projects from different levels of the educational...... system. The purpose is to discuss to which extend digital media can be seen as an integrated part of existing theory mainly based on developments from analog media or rather give rise to think subject specific didactics differently. Recent developments like visual culture, contemporary arts, social...... aesthetics, community art and co-creation all represent an approach to art production and appreciation where content, media and visual expressions unfold in societal, digital, collaborative, and transgressive constellations involving the art maker and audiences in social and relational projects processes...

  20. A Study of Alternative English Teacher Certification Practices in Turkey (United States)

    Seferoglu, Golge


    For several years the number of teachers trained in several subject areas through regular teacher education programs in Turkey has been insufficient to meet the demands in the country. As a result, to combat teacher shortages in many subjects alternative routes to teacher certification have been sought. Here we examine teacher candidates'…

  1. Exploring the dynamic relationship between the Accelerative Integrated Method (AIM and the core French teachers who use it: Why agency and experience matter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Arnott


    Full Text Available Abstract Over the last decade, almost 4,000 Canadian schools have moved to using the Accelerative Integrated Method (AIM for core French (CF instruction. Following researchers’ recommendations (Brumfit, 1984; Lapkin, Mady, & Arnott, 2009; Larsen-Freeman, 1996, 2000; Prahbu, 1990, I am shifting the focus in this case study from product to process. In other words, investigating how AIM teachers use and shape the method during implementation instead of comparing AIM and non-AIM student outcomes (Bourdages & Vignola, 2009; Carr, 2001; Mady, Arnott, & Lapkin, 2009; Maxwell, 2001; Michels, 2008;. Four interviews and observation sessions were conducted with eight elementary-level CF teachers. Findings showed that while some AIM routines and strategies were used by all, teachers exercised their agency in supplementing recommended AIM activities and materials, especially those with more AIM and CF teaching experience. Establishing that using AIM engaged teachers’ senses of plausibility (Prahbu, 1990 also exposed important implications for future AIM research and board-level policy. Résumé Depuis les années 2000, plus de 4000 écoles canadiennes ont decidé d’utiliser une forme d’enseignement qui s’appelle AIM (Accelerative Integrated Method pour leurs programmes de français de base (Core French. Selon les recommandations des chercheurs suivants (Brumfit, 1984; Lapkin, Mady, & Arnott, 2009; Larsen-Freeman, 1996, 2000; Prahbu, 1990, au lieu d’étudier les résultats, l’objectif de cette étude de cas était d’examiner la mise en œuvre de AIM. Huit enseignants de français de base ont passé quatre entrevues individuelles. Ils ont eu quatre sessions d’observation de pratique de AIM . Selon les résultats, quoiqu’ils aient employé des stratégies et routines de AIM de la même façon, tous les enseignants ont aussi décidé d’ajouter leurs propres activités et ressources à AIM, surtout ceux experts dans l’enseignement du fran

  2. A nonpedagogical teacher education?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvols, Anja Madsen; Madsen, Peter Hougaard; Beck, Mette Holdsendorf


    regarding changes in education – which seem to come from evaluations more than from educational and pedagogical theories (Gruschka, 2011). Moreover, the teacher education has increased its focus on both research-based academic training and professional training at the same time. Our study is double – 1...... characterizes teacher professionalism? (Subject studies? Pedagogical studies? Professional training? Academic studies? Bildung studies? Etc.) - What characterizes ‘pedagogy of teacher education’ (Darling-Hammond, 2006; Loughran, 2008; Zeichner, 2005)?...

  3. The Subjectivity of Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Morten

    What is a 'we' – a collective – and how can we use such communal self-knowledge to help people? This book is about collectivity, participation, and subjectivity – and about the social theories that may help us understand these matters. It also seeks to learn from the innovative practices and ideas...... practices. Through this dialogue, it develops an original trans-disciplinary critical theory and practice of collective subjectivity for which the ongoing construction and overcoming of common sense, or ideology, is central. It also points to ways of relating discourse with agency, and fertilizing insights...... from interactionism and ideology theories in a cultural-historical framework....

  4. Enhancing Teacher Preparation and Improving Faculty Teaching Skills: Lessons Learned from Implementing ``Science That Matters'' a Standards Based Interdisciplinary Science Course Sequence (United States)

    Potter, Robert; Meisels, Gerry


    In a highly collaborative process we developed an introductory science course sequence to improve science literacy especially among future elementary and middle school education majors. The materials and course features were designed using the results of research on teaching and learning to provide a rigorous, relevant and engaging, standard based science experience. More than ten years of combined planning, development, implementation and assessment of this college science course sequence for nonmajors/future teachers has provided significant insights and success in achieving our goal. This paper describes the history and iterative nature of our ongoing improvements, changes in faculty instructional practice, strategies used to overcome student resistance, significant student learning outcomes, support structures for faculty, and the essential and informative role of assessment in improving the outcomes. Our experience with diverse institutions, students and faculty provides the basis for the lessons we have learned and should be of help to others involved in advancing science education.

  5. What we see when we look in the mirror: Conceptions of and intentions for reflection by science teacher educators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick L. Nelson


    Full Text Available In this naturalistic study, I examined science teacher educators’ ideas and plans for pre-service teachers’ development of reflection. Participants espoused different ideas about influences, values, and strategies, but consistently emphasized the outcome of effective decision-making by pre-service teachers. Differences were found concerning stimuli, content, processes, and other outcomes such as issues of personal growth and equity. External influences of students, subject matter, and the milieu of learning contributed to how participants framed the value of reflection and designed curriculum for its development. The study provides a meaningful framework for teacher education faculty to examine their own practice. Results suggest further inquiry into (1 reflection in the enacted curriculum, (2 reflective practice of teacher educators and how that is modeled for their pre-service teachers, and (3 changes in components and orientations from accountability influences.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Strokova


    Full Text Available The purpose of the publication is to draw attention of educatorsof all levels to the need of improving quality of teacher training in research field.Methods. Based on the results of observations, interviews and surveys of teachers aged between 23 and 30 years with teaching experience of 1 to 5–6 years, and analysis of teacher practice, the assessment of the current state of innovation processes in public school and quality of university training of pre-service teachers in research field is given.Results. Insufficient training of young teachers for independent research has been revealed. It was established that the research experience acquired by them while writing the final qualifying work is non-demanded in modern educational work, where innovation is pushed out due to mismatch of educational policy and the actual educational practice. The reasons of reluctance of young professionals to combine educational activities and research are the following: lack of innovation environment, academic overload, household and personal problems, and, most importantly, unwillingness and inability to carry out independent scientific and pedagogical search. Also, the problems of final qualifying works supervision and management of pedagogical practice of students have been found out.Scientific novelty. Self-assessment of young teachers, concerning their research activities, has been conducted; it included a cluster of research activities that constitute its subject matter. The point for the need to abandon the narrow,  focused specialization in high school training of pre-service teachers and enhance their methodological preparation has been developed. Practical significance. Different ways of organizing work with in-service teachers concerning combination of subject specific and research specific aspects of their professional activities have been presented.

  7. Roll Call: The Importance of Teacher Attendance (United States)

    Joseph, Nithya; Waymack, Nancy; Zielaski, Daniel


    While policymakers have been directing considerable attention to teacher effectiveness, one basic aspect of effectiveness has received relatively little attention: teacher attendance. No matter how engaging or talented teachers may be, they can only have an impact on student learning if they are in the classroom. This paper asks a simple question:…

  8. A museum-based urban teacher residency program's approach to strengthening the STEM pipeline: Channeling highly qualified Earth Science teachers into high needs schools (United States)

    Ustunisik, G. K.; Zirakparvar, N. A.


    Channeling better prepared Earth Science teachers into secondary schools with low achievement rates in STEM subjects is essential to ensuring that the students attending these schools are ultimately afforded the opportunity to take advantage of projected growth in the global geoscience workforce. Here, a museum-based urban teacher residency (UTR) program's approach to building subject specific content knowledge and research experience in Earth Science teacher candidates is described. In the museum-based program, graduate-level science courses and research experiences are designed and implemented specifically for the UTR by active Earth and Space research scientists that account for almost half of the program's faculty. Because these courses and research experiences are designed specifically for the teacher candidates, they are different than many science courses and research experiences available to pre-service teachers in a university setting. At the same time, the museum-based program is the only UTR to incorporate such a rigorous science curriculum, and some possible advantages and disadvantages of the program's approach are also considered here. While the impact of the program's approach on student achievement rates has yet to be evaluated, there is promise in the well documented links between a teacher's own experience with the practice of science and that teacher's ability to leverage effective pedagogical content knowledge in the teaching of science. Because the museum-based program's science curriculum is balanced against the educational coursework and teaching residencies that necessarily form the program's backbone, the museum's approach to strengthening the teacher candidate's science background may also inform the faculty and administration of other UTRs in cases where one of their program goals is to further expand their teacher candidate's content knowledge and practical subject matter experience.

  9. Origem da vida: como licenciandos em Ciências Biológicas lidam com este tema? Life's origin: how do pre-service Biology teachers deal with this subject?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Baptista Nicolini


    Full Text Available A presente pesquisa identificou e analisou a representação social do tema origem da vida entre estudantes da licenciatura em Ciências Biológicas de uma universidade federal do Rio de Janeiro. A coleta de dados foi realizada por meio de questionário, e seus resultados analisados qualitativamente, de acordo com a metodologia do Discurso do Sujeito Coletivo (DSC. A análise e discussão dos resultados permitiram concluir que a representação social dos licenciandos, em relação ao tema proposto, apresenta elementos de uma cultura religiosa e de uma cultura científica. A análise dos elementos científicos nos permitiu identificar algumas deficiências nos conhecimentos expressos por esses sujeitos; apresentamos indícios de que essas deficiências derivam basicamente de duas fontes: (a a ausência de abordagem específica do tema no curso de graduação da universidade pesquisada e (b o conteúdo dos livros didáticos do Ensino Médio.This research identified and analyzed social representations about the life origin among preservice Biology teachers from a Rio de Janeiro federal university. Data were collected through questionnaires and the outcomes were analyzed in a qualitatively basis, according to the Collective Subject Discourse (CSD approach. Data analysis and discussion allowed concluding that pre-service social representations about this subject, shows elements of a religious culture and the scientific ones. The scientific elements' analysis allowed identifying some deficiencies in the knowledge expressed by them; the outcomes provided evidences that those deficiencies come from two main sources: (a lack of a approach to the origin of life subject, while in the undergraduate program; and (b High School didactic books contents.

  10. Teacher Race and School Discipline (United States)

    Lindsay, Constance A.; Hart, Cassandra M. D.


    Does having a teacher of the same race make it more or less likely that students are subject to exclusionary school discipline? In this study, the authors analyze a unique set of student and teacher demographic and discipline data from North Carolina elementary schools to examine whether being matched to a same-race teacher affects the rate at…

  11. Teachers, Arts Practice and Pedagogy (United States)

    Franks, Anton; Thomson, Pat; Hall, Chris; Jones, Ken


    What are possible overlaps between arts practice and school pedagogy? How is teacher subjectivity and pedagogy affected when teachers engage with arts practice, in particular, theatre practices? We draw on research conducted into the Learning Performance Network (LPN), a project that involved school teachers working with the Royal Shakespeare…

  12. A voxel-based morphometric magnetic resonance imaging study of the brain detects age-related gray matter volume changes in healthy subjects of 21–45 years old (United States)

    El-Beltagi, Ahmed; Cherian, Jigi; Gejo, Grace; Al-Jazzaf, Abrar; Ismail, Mohammad


    Previous and more recent work of analyzing structural changes in the brain suggest that certain brain regions such as the frontal lobe are among the brain regions profoundly affected by the aging process across males and females. Also, a unified model of structural changes in a normally aging brain is still lacking. The present study investigated age-related structural brain changes in gray matter from young to early middle-age adulthood for males and females. Magnetic resonance images of 215 normal and healthy participants between the ages of 21–45 years were acquired. Changes in gray matter were assessed using voxel-based morphometry and gray matter volumetric analysis. The results showed significant decrease in gray matter volume between the youngest and oldest groups in the following brain regions: frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes. Grey matter loss in the frontal lobe was among the most widespread of all brain regions across the comparison groups that showed significant age-related changes in grey matter for both males and females. This work provides a unique pattern of age-related decline of normal and healthy adult males and females that can aid in the future development of a unified model of normal brain aging. PMID:26306927

  13. A voxel-based morphometric magnetic resonance imaging study of the brain detects age-related gray matter volume changes in healthy subjects of 21-45 years old. (United States)

    Bourisly, Ali K; El-Beltagi, Ahmed; Cherian, Jigi; Gejo, Grace; Al-Jazzaf, Abrar; Ismail, Mohammad


    Previous and more recent work of analyzing structural changes in the brain suggest that certain brain regions such as the frontal lobe are among the brain regions profoundly affected by the aging process across males and females. Also, a unified model of structural changes in a normally aging brain is still lacking. The present study investigated age-related structural brain changes in gray matter from young to early middle-age adulthood for males and females. Magnetic resonance images of 215 normal and healthy participants between the ages of 21-45 years were acquired. Changes in gray matter were assessed using voxel-based morphometry and gray matter volumetric analysis. The results showed significant decrease in gray matter volume between the youngest and oldest groups in the following brain regions: frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes. Grey matter loss in the frontal lobe was among the most widespread of all brain regions across the comparison groups that showed significant age-related changes in grey matter for both males and females. This work provides a unique pattern of age-related decline of normal and healthy adult males and females that can aid in the future development of a unified model of normal brain aging. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Pre-Service Teachers Methods of Teaching Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Raquel C. Pambid


    Full Text Available The study described the teaching methods used by pre-service teachers in Science. It focused on the strategies, techniques, materials, innovative methods and pattern of teaching science used by the pre-service teachers as described in their lesson plans. The qualitative and quantitative design was used in the study. The books, teacher hand-outs from classroom lectures were the sources of methods, strategies and techniques. The chalkboard and self-made drawings and charts were the materials often used. Conventional methods like lecture, open class discussion and demonstration were commonly employed. The strategies included group discussion, use of motivating questions and stories to arouse the interest of students. The direct eye contact, body expressions, jokes and news/trivia were frequent techniques. Integration of values in the lesson became less as the year level increases. The pattern of teaching drawn followed the formal style: I Objectives, II Subject matter, III Learning Tasks, IV Synthesis of the lesson, V Assessment and VI Enrichment. The conventional method and pattern of teaching by the pre-service teachers of PSU suggest that students in the College of Teacher Education should be trained to be more innovative and open in trying out more advanced teaching methods. Furthermore, PSU science pre-service teachers should use methods which can develop higher order thinking skills among high school students.

  15. Nauczyciel (filozofii na studiach pedagogicznych [The teacher (of philosophy at pedagogy studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Kamiński


    Full Text Available Attitude of students to the subject taught depends on a lecturer to a great extent. The mentioned rule seems to be confirmed especially in teaching philosophy at pedagogy studies. The teacher of philosophy at pedagogy studies, similarly to other teachers, presents matters important to both theory and practice, refers to the effec- tive methodology but in the sphere of interdisciplinary arguments it is associated with the sphere of a reviving idea. It defines educational aims and it is an insight into their essence, bearing in mind various anthropological concepts. It would be hard to imagine pedagogy without its philosophical connotations. Thinking about significance and the rank of philosophy among pedagogy students it can be assumed that the key factor is the personality of the teacher of philosophy. The teachers should represent all the features which they want to see in their students.

  16. Science teachers' meaning-making of teaching practice, collaboration and professional development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birgitte Lund

    international research and 3) a research methodological perspective: to adapt, and discuss the use of a specific tool for analysis and representation of the teachers’ meaning-making. A mixed method approach is taken: The empirical research includes a cohort-survey of graduating science teachers repeated...... inquiries. Two of those are followed until their 2nd year in practice. Findings across papers point to an activity-orientation towards science teaching being widespread among the Danish science teachers. They focus on the students, but on their activities and engagement, not their learning. Furthermore...... a lack of confidence in having sufficient subject matter knowledge to teach science is widespread. There are significant variations between teachers with various science specializations, but nearly a third of the cohort teachers do not teach science in their 2nd year in practice among other things due...

  17. Selected Aspects of Conditions in the Use of New Media as an Important Part of the Training of Teachers in the Czech Republic and Poland--Differences, Risks and Threats (United States)

    Tomczyk, Lukasz; Szotkowski, Rene; Fabis, Artur; Wasinski, Arkadiusz; Chudý, Štefan; Neumeister, Pavel


    The paper presents the complex problems of preparation of pedagogy students to work as teachers in the context of their readiness to use ICT in the didactic process. The complexity of this subject matter has been proved by the current, ongoing, discussion about the direction of the expected transformations of contemporary schools and the…

  18. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen


    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool to understa...

  19. Dark Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In Part 11 of this article we learnt that there are compelling evidences from dynamics of spiral galaxies, like our own, that there must be non-luminous matter in them. In this second part we will see that even clusters of galaxies must harbour dark matter. As if this was not enough, it turns out that if our knowledge of the ...

  20. Describing Matter (United States)

    Adams, Krista; Feagin, Shannon


    This article presents a lesson that was designed to explore the scientific descriptions of matter through both the intensive and extensive properties that students successfully added to their vocabulary. Students' examples demonstrated that there were places where their reasoning about matter faltered as related to how the material is the same…

  1. Condensed matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Isihara, A


    More than a graduate text and advanced research guide on condensed matter physics, this volume is useful to plasma physicists and polymer chemists, and their students. It emphasizes applications of statistical mechanics to a variety of systems in condensed matter physics rather than theoretical derivations of the principles of statistical mechanics and techniques. Isihara addresses a dozen different subjects in separate chapters, each designed to be directly accessible and used independently of previous chapters. Topics include simple liquids, electron systems and correlations, two-dimensional

  2. Subject (of documents)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger


    such as concepts, aboutness, topic, isness and ofness are also briefly presented. The conclusion is that the most fruitful way of defining “subject” (of a document) is the documents informative or epistemological potentials, that is, the documents potentials of informing users and advance the development......This article presents and discuss the concept “subject” or subject matter (of documents) as it has been examined in library and information science (LIS) for more than 100 years. Different theoretical positions are outlined and it is found that the most important distinction is between document......-oriented views versus request-oriented views. The document-oriented view conceive subject as something inherent in documents, whereas the request-oriented view (or the policy based view) understand subject as an attribution made to documents in order to facilitate certain uses of them. Related concepts...

  3. New Teacher Functions in Cyberspace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie


    Information technology allows the education system to do its job in new ways.  Conceptions of what it means to be educated are changing both for teachers and for students.  A teacher's professional duties are not limited to acting as a disseminator of knowledge and facilitating learning processes...... into other positions.  Information technology exposes the teacher's performative choice in how teachers act in certain situations, which intensifies reflexivity.  This article is about how teachers must meet increasing expectations to perform on the premises of mass media and how this displaces the premises...... for the student.  Teachers must also relate their position to new constructions of time and space.  However, these new constructions of what it is to be an actor in time and space mean that some of the functions that have as a matter of course been assembled in the person of the teacher have been displaced...

  4. Curricular adaptations: Case studies of two exemplary elementary science teachers (United States)

    Harris, Mary Sadama

    This research sought to determine whether and how current local and national curricular mandates affect the science instruction of two exemplary Alabama elementary teachers. The study provides a description of the contextual backdrop of elementary teaching in Alabama and the curricular mandates resulting from federal legislation entitled The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 that have been enacted across the state of Alabama. This study centers on the evolution of reform initiatives that impact the teaching of science in elementary schools. These reforms focus on student achievement, teacher accountability, subject matter testing, and federal legislation. The emphasis on accountability has created situations where teachers are, in any given year, faced with multiple program innovations focused on subject matter tested leaving other subjects areas such as science excluded from the curricula. Reform initiatives influential to this research were the Alabama Reading Initiative and Alabama's State Department of Education's mandated testing and progress monitoring of the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) and how these reforms impact the elementary day and science instruction. The purpose of this research, which utilized a qualitative multiple case study design, was to understand how exemplary elementary science teachers in Alabama teach science given the curricular mandates that marginalize science instructional time. The central phenomenon centered on the curricular adaptations and negotiations teachers made in order to teach science. Data collected included classroom observations, semi-structured interviews, and artifacts. An inductive, interpretative approach to data analysis was used to allow for exploration of the sociocultural and sociopolitical influences on science teaching of these exemplary elementary teachers. Findings were constructed as narrative portraitures of each teacher and their science teaching bounded within their unique


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keysy S. C. Nogueira


    Full Text Available This research sought to analyze the reliability of an instrument to measure teacher knowledge of a group of pre-service chemistry teachers participating in the Institutional Program for Scholarships for Beginner Teachers in Brazil (PIBID.. Thus, it was analyzed the evaluation of a group of students about the Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK of five pre-service chemistry teachers from the program. Accordingly, an instrument containing 28 statements and an open question was applied to a group of 70 students from a public school to whom the pre-service teachers had applied their didactic proposals. The purpose of the instrument was to measure the perception of the students' about the components of the teacher knowledge (Subject Matter Knowledge - SMK, Instructional Representation and Strategies - IRS, Instructional Objective and Context - IOC and Knowledge of Students’ Understanding - KSU of the pre-service teachers. The results of the analysis revealed that the instrument about teacher’s knowledge has a high reliability based on the alpha Cronbach values. The results of the alpha coefficient for the pre-service teachers were all above 0.9 suggesting that the instrument is reliable and has consistent measurements. Regarding to the exploratory analysis, the main scale in the PCK evaluation of the undergraduates was four which means that the students consider that the aspects related to the SMK, IRS, IOC and KSU are frequently present in the classes of the future teachers.

  6. Gaseous Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A


    aseous Matter focuses on the many important discoveries that led to the scientific interpretation of matter in the gaseous state. This new, full-color resource describes the basic characteristics and properties of several important gases, including air, hydrogen, helium, oxygen, and nitrogen. The nature and scope of the science of fluids is discussed in great detail, highlighting the most important scientific principles upon which the field is based. Chapters include:. Gaseous Matter An Initial Perspective. Physical Characteristics of Gases. The Rise of the Science of Gases. Kinetic Theory of

  7. The Relationship between Dry Matter Increase of Seed and Shoot during the Seed-Filling Period in Three Kinds of Soybeans with Different Growth Habits Subjected to Shading and Thinning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kakiuchi, Jin; Kobata, Tohru


    The ratio of dry-matter increase in seed (S) to that in shoot (W), referred to as RS/W, during the seed-filling period may reflect the balance between the assimilate supply and the sink capacity of harvest organs...

  8. Teacher Quality and Teacher Mobility (United States)

    Feng, Li; Sass, Tim R.


    There is growing concern among policy makers over the quality of the teacher workforce in general, and the distribution of effective teachers across schools. The impact of teacher attrition on overall teacher quality will depend on the effectiveness of teachers who leave the profession. Likewise, teacher turnover may alleviate or worsen inequities…

  9. Dirac matter

    CERN Document Server

    Rivasseau, Vincent; Fuchs, Jean-Nöel


    This fifteenth volume of the Poincare Seminar Series, Dirac Matter, describes the surprising resurgence, as a low-energy effective theory of conducting electrons in many condensed matter systems, including graphene and topological insulators, of the famous equation originally invented by P.A.M. Dirac for relativistic quantum mechanics. In five highly pedagogical articles, as befits their origin in lectures to a broad scientific audience, this book explains why Dirac matters. Highlights include the detailed "Graphene and Relativistic Quantum Physics", written by the experimental pioneer, Philip Kim, and devoted to graphene, a form of carbon crystallized in a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice, from its discovery in 2004-2005 by the future Nobel prize winners Kostya Novoselov and Andre Geim to the so-called relativistic quantum Hall effect; the review entitled "Dirac Fermions in Condensed Matter and Beyond", written by two prominent theoreticians, Mark Goerbig and Gilles Montambaux, who consider many other mater...

  10. Antimatter Matters

    CERN Multimedia



    This video is a teaser-introduction to the Antimatter Matters exhibtion at the Royal Society's Summer Science exhibition July 4-10 2016. The exhibition is jointly organised and hosted by UK members of the ALPHA and LHCb collaborations.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakob Metboki


    Full Text Available English Language Teaching (ELT in the Indonesian education curriculum falls in two subject areas, compulsory subject and supplementary subject. Significantly, the developing programs are highly prioritized in terms of familiarizing teachers with new teaching documents in English as a compulsory subject. Despite its success, there are still teachers who have a number of problems in delivering it as one of the supplementary subjects at various disciplines. This paper reviews the data gained from a group of students at one university in Indonesia, whose observational reports showed that teachers have very little opportunity to project their academic competencies in developing a comprehensive teaching document. This leads into question on how to derive the essence of teaching English at the center of teaching and learning practices. One of the most significant current discussions reveals that teaching practices is simply a matter of figuring the necessary conditions to achieve the goal formally. Taken together, the result of the study is expected to bring about influential implication for education practitioners to provide compatible answers to the controversies among teachers before implementing English as one of the supplementary subjects for various disciplines.


    CERN Multimedia


    The English Language Programme of the Lycée International de Ferney-Voltaire has two teaching posts available for la rentrée 2001. 1. Part-time teacher of Primary-level English Candidates for the post need to be mother-tongue English speakers. They should have a relevant degree and teaching qualification. The post involves teaching the English curriculum to pupils who are within the French educational system. Classes take place on Tuesday afternoons at the Lycée. Team spirit necessary as teachers work as a team. Induction & training are offered. 2. Part-time teacher of Secondary-level history-geography Candididates for the post need to be mother-tongue English speakers. They should have a relevant degree in history or geography and also a strong interest in the other subject. They should have a relevant teaching qualification and be confident classroom practioners. For more information on either of these posts please contact the school office on

  13. Factors affecting student achievement in science: A study of teacher beliefs (United States)

    Hayes, Jonathan

    This study employed a mixed methods and mixed model research design to explore secondary science teachers' beliefs. Specifically, this study focused on factors that secondary science teachers believe affect student achievement in science, and the extent to which teacher beliefs transfer to teacher practice. This study is significant because the outcomes may inform professional development and policy decisions at the school, district, and provincial level. Results from self-reporting data of 82 secondary science teachers indicate that teacher beliefs in each of the fourteen topics surveyed (Classroom Management, Learning Styles, Inclusion, Equity, Science-Technology-Society (STS), Formative Assessment, Summative Assessment, Constructivism, Thematic Approach, Hands-On/Minds-On Activities, The Nature of Science, Science Subject Matter, Electronic Learning and Cooperative Learning) are positive for most Prince Edward Island (P.E.I.) secondary science teachers. Furthermore, secondary science teachers reported having strong beliefs in their ability to affect student learning (self-efficacy beliefs). However, it is apparent from the survey and interview data that teachers believe there are other influential factors that are preventing some students from learning despite the teachers' best efforts and ability. Regarding implementation, this study indicates that beliefs and the enactment of beliefs in classroom practice are positively correlated. The data also shows that at least seventy percent of teachers reported that they implement practices consistent with all but two topics -- The Nature of Science and Electronic Learning -- at least once a week. The findings of this study are discussed in the context of the P.E.I. secondary science setting. Limitations and implications of this study are also addressed.

  14. Exploring the use of lesson study with six Canadian middle-school science teachers (United States)

    Bridges, Terry James

    This qualitative case study explores the use of lesson study over a ten-week period with six Ontario middle school science teachers. The research questions guiding this study were: (1) How does participation in science-based lesson study influence these teachers': (a) science subject matter knowledge (science SMK), (b) science pedagogical content knowledge (science PCK), and (c) confidence in teaching science?, and (2) What benefits and challenges do they associate with lesson study? Data sources for this study were: teacher questionnaires, surveys, reflections, pre- and post- interviews, and follow-up emails; researcher field notes and reflections; pre- and post- administration of the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument; and audio recordings of group meetings. The teachers demonstrated limited gains in science SMK. There was evidence for an overall improvement in teacher knowledge of forces and simple machines, and two teachers demonstrated improvement in over half of the five scenarios assessing teacher science SMK. Modest gains in teacher science PCK were found. One teacher expressed more accurate understanding of students' knowledge of forces and a better knowledge of effective science teaching strategies. The majority of teachers reported that they would be using three-part lessons and hands-on activities more in their science teaching. Gains in teacher pedagogical knowledge (PK) were found in four areas: greater emphasis on anticipation of student thinking and responses, recognition of the importance of observing students, more intentional teaching, and anticipated future use of student video data. Most teachers reported feeling more confident in teaching structures and mechanisms, and attributed this increase in confidence to collaboration and seeing evidence of student learning and engagement during the lesson teachings. Teacher benefits included: learning how to increase student engagement and collaboration, observing students, including video data


    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subject Index. Variation of surface electric field during geomagnetic disturbed period at Maitri, Antarctica. 1721. Geomorphology. A simple depression-filling method for raster and irregular elevation datasets. 1653. Decision Support System integrated with Geographic. Information System to target restoration actions in water-.

  16. Development of Web Based Learning Material in Physics Subject for Kalor and Temperature Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatwa Aji Kurniawan


    Full Text Available It has been done, the research which aims to develop a web-based teaching materials on the subjects of physics subject with subject mater of temperature and heat. This study using a modified model of the 4D development by eliminating the deployment phase. The validation of product development conducted by validator media experts and experts matter of physics, whereas small-scale trials conducted by physics teacher and 10 students. Validator review results stating that the quality of the product development were included in the category very well with the average percentage rating of 83.93%. The percentage value assigned by media expert by 75% in the good category and the percentage of the value provided by a matter expert 92.85% were in the very good category. Experiments by physics teacher to obtain result of equal to 94.44% were in the very good category and the average percentage of the test results by the students of 90.5% were in the very good category. The characteristics of the products developed include material composition using the curriculum in 2013, there was a recording facility and the results of evaluation of students' activities, there were feedback evaluation results were immediately known by the students and there were some links related to the material either youtube or other learning website.

  17. An Investigation of Primary School Teachers’ PCK towards Science Subjects Using an Inquiry-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In this study, the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK of four experienced primary school teachers was investigated within the “Let’s Solve the Riddle of Our Body Unit”. The PCK investigation adopted a learning approach based on inquiry, content representation and pedagogical and professional-experience repertoires (PaP-eRs, and interview forms were used as data collection tools. During the course of the research, the findings obtained from observations made during a total of 18 course hours formed the basic data source of the study. According to the results of the study, in which descriptive and content analysis were used concurrently, primary school teachers lack subject matter knowledge, do not interrogate the pre-knowledge of students and some misconceptions exist regarding about blood moves and exercise with pulse. Additionally, some deficiencies were detected in the curriculum, i.e., it offers non-inquisitional knowledge. Furthermore, teachers employee assessment methods with traditional teaching methods and techniques. In the context of an inquiry-based learning approach, teachers appeared to believe that classroom activities were adversely affected by the physical conditions (class size, lack of laboratory etc., students’ cognitive levels and parent profiles. The result of this study revealed that PCK components affect one another. The PCK findings pertaining to primary school teachers as it concerns the unit are briefly discussed and some suggestions about the development of PCK are submitted.

  18. The Reform of the Inservice Teacher Education System in Poland. (United States)

    Zawadoska, Janina


    Poland is in the midst of sweeping educational reform, including reform of inservice teacher education. The system is abandoning totalitarianism for democracy. Most Polish teachers are specialized in only one subject, and there are surpluses of teachers in some subjects, so inservice education is focusing on helping teachers change specialties.…

  19. A voxel-based morphometric magnetic resonance imaging study of the brain detects age-related gray matter volume changes in healthy subjects of 21–45 years old


    Bourisly, Ali K; El-Beltagi, Ahmed; Cherian, Jigi; Gejo, Grace; Al-Jazzaf, Abrar; Ismail, Mohammad


    Previous and more recent work of analyzing structural changes in the brain suggest that certain brain regions such as the frontal lobe are among the brain regions profoundly affected by the aging process across males and females. Also, a unified model of structural changes in a normally aging brain is still lacking. The present study investigated age-related structural brain changes in gray matter from young to early middle-age adulthood for males and females. Magnetic resonance images of 215...

  20. Supplying Disadvantaged Schools with Effective Teachers: Experimental Evidence on Secondary Math Teachers from Teach For America (United States)

    Chiang, Hanley S.; Clark, Melissa A.; McConnell, Sheena


    Teach For America (TFA) is an important but controversial source of teachers for hard-to-staff subjects in high-poverty U.S. schools. We present findings from the first large-scale experimental study of secondary math teachers from TFA. We find that TFA teachers are more effective than other math teachers in the same schools, increasing student…

  1. Cooperating Teacher Perceptions of Music Student Teacher Preparedness for the Elementary Music Classroom (United States)

    Hester, Charlotte V.


    The present study investigated the strengths and areas of improvement for elementary music teacher preparation from the perspective of multiple members of a single body of music teachers. Subjects for the study were elementary music teachers from an urban school district in the southern United States. All elementary music teachers in the school…

  2. The Roles of Teachers' Work Motivation and Teachers' Job Satisfaction in the Organizational Commitment in Extraordinary Schools (United States)

    Tentama, Fatwa; Pranungsari, Dessy


    Teachers' work motivation and teachers' job satisfaction are the factors influencing the organizational commitment. This research is aimed to empirically examine the roles of teachers' work motivation and teachers' job satisfaction in the commitment of the organization in extraordinary schools. The subjects of the research are the teachers in…

  3. Children's Differentiation between Beliefs about Matters of Fact and Matters of Opinion (United States)

    Banerjee, Robin; Yuill, Nicola; Larson, Christina; Easton, Kate; Robinson, Elizabeth; Rowley, Martin


    Two experiments investigated children's implicit and explicit differentiation between beliefs about matters of fact and matters of opinion. In Experiment 1, 8- to 9-year-olds' (n = 88) explicit understanding of the subjectivity of opinions was found to be limited, but their conformity to others' judgments on a matter of opinion was considerably…

  4. Perceptions on the importance of gerontological education by teachers and students of undergraduate health sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Correa-Muñoz Elsa


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main challenge of higher education institutions throughout the world is to develop professionals capable of understanding and responding to the current social priorities of our countries. Given the utmost importance of addressing the complex needs of an increasingly elderly population in Mexico, the National Autonomous University of Mexico has systematically incorporated modules dealing with primary gerontological health care into several of its undergraduate programs in health sciences. The objective of this study was to analyze teacher's and student's perceptions about the current educational practices on gerontology. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out with a sample of 26 teachers and 122 undergraduate students. Subjects were administered interviews and responded survey instrument. Results A vast proportion of the teachers (42% reported students' attitudes towards their academic training as the most important factor affecting learning in the field of gerontology, whereas students reported that the main problems of education in gerontology were theoretical (32% and methodological (28%. In addition, 41% of students considered education on ageing matters as an essential element for their professional development, as compared to 19% of teachers (p Conclusion Our findings suggest that the teachers' perceptions about the low importance of education on ageing matters for the professional practice of health sciences could be a negative factor for gerontology teaching.

  5. Bridging the language gap: Exploring science teachers' dual role as teachers of content and English literacy (United States)

    Arnold, Suzanne C.

    Responsibility for educating English language learners is increasingly falling on the shoulders of content specialists at the secondary level, as students are mainstreamed into classes. Therefore, providing these students an opportunity to achieve academic success depends largely on the quality of mainstream instruction (Cornell, 1995). Most teachers receive little or no preparation in how to work with English language learners. In my study, I address the instructional issues confronting three white, monolingual English-speaking middle school science teachers who must meet the demands of an increasing English language learner population. Specifically, this study explores teacher beliefs and enactment of reform-oriented science and sheltered instructional approaches to develop English language learners scientific and English literacy skills. I also explore the relationships that exist between these two dynamics in an effort to determine the extent to which teachers take on a dual role as teachers promoting English language and science proficiency. Using a participant observation case study method and my adaptation of Schwab's commonplaces heuristic, I analyzed the relationship between teacher beliefs, milieu, subject matter, and enactment in bridging the language gap in the science classroom for English language learners. The most noteworthy finding of this study was the significant role of milieu in enacting lessons that bridge the language gap and foster the development of English language learners science and English literacy skills. The findings suggest that greater attention be given to helping teachers establish a relationship-driven classroom milieu. You can provide all kinds of courses or professional learning experiences to improve teachers' instructional practices, but they must also recognize the importance of establishing relationships with their students; the coursework they take will not supplant the need to foster a warm and safe environment for all

  6. Relationships Matter (United States)

    Stipek, Deborah


    An era of high-stakes testing and accountability may be producing classroom conditions that undermine student learning. When teachers must focus their energies on preparing students for the test, they have less time to get to know students personally or make them feel valued, respected, and supported. The author reviews research showing that…

  7. Bootstrapping white matter segmentation, Eve++ (United States)

    Plassard, Andrew; Hinton, Kendra E.; Venkatraman, Vijay; Gonzalez, Christopher; Resnick, Susan M.; Landman, Bennett A.


    Multi-atlas labeling has come in wide spread use for whole brain labeling on magnetic resonance imaging. Recent challenges have shown that leading techniques are near (or at) human expert reproducibility for cortical gray matter labels. However, these approaches tend to treat white matter as essentially homogeneous (as white matter exhibits isointense signal on structural MRI). The state-of-the-art for white matter atlas is the single-subject Johns Hopkins Eve atlas. Numerous approaches have attempted to use tractography and/or orientation information to identify homologous white matter structures across subjects. Despite success with large tracts, these approaches have been plagued by difficulties in with subtle differences in course, low signal to noise, and complex structural relationships for smaller tracts. Here, we investigate use of atlas-based labeling to propagate the Eve atlas to unlabeled datasets. We evaluate single atlas labeling and multi-atlas labeling using synthetic atlases derived from the single manually labeled atlas. On 5 representative tracts for 10 subjects, we demonstrate that (1) single atlas labeling generally provides segmentations within 2mm mean surface distance, (2) morphologically constraining DTI labels within structural MRI white matter reduces variability, and (3) multi-atlas labeling did not improve accuracy. These efforts present a preliminary indication that single atlas labels with correction is reasonable, but caution should be applied. To purse multi-atlas labeling and more fully characterize overall performance, more labeled datasets would be necessary.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovan Stamatović


    Full Text Available The authors of this paper is directed to physical education in elementary school younger and the role of teachers in the implementation of this subject. The first part discusses the importance of physical education for physical and mental development of younger school children of primary school In the second part the authors indicate the quality and organization of physical education in elementary grades, referring to a large number of studies in this field. The third part talks about education and preparing teachers for teaching and learning. Indicated a need for training of teachers in the field of physical education and are given specific proposals.

  9. Dark Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The study of gas clouds orbiting in the outer regions of spiral galaxies has revealed that their gravitational at- traction is much larger than the stars alone can provide. Over the last twenty years, astronomers have been forced to postulate the presence of large quantities of 'dark matter' to explain their observations. They are ...

  10. Molecule Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fluorescence usually originates from the lowest excited electronic state (singlet) irrespective of the excitation and hence, the fluorescence spectrum of a molecule is characterized by a single band. However, what makes DMABN a very special molecule is that it exhibits dual fluorescence (i.e. emission of. Molecule Matters.

  11. Molecule Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 4. Molecule Matters – van der Waals Molecules - History and Some Perspectives on Intermolecular Forces. E Arunan. Feature Article Volume 14 Issue 4 April 2009 pp 346-356 ...

  12. Molecule Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 9. Molecule Matters - A Chromium Compound with a Quintuple Bond. K C Kumara Swamy. Feature Article Volume 11 Issue 9 September 2006 pp 72-75. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  13. Science Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 2. Science Matters A Book for Curious Minds. Rohini Godbole. Book Review Volume 2 Issue 2 February 1997 pp 94-95. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: ...

  14. Molecule Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 5. Molecule Matters - N-Heterocyclic Carbenes - The Stable Form of R2 C: Anil J Elias. Feature Article Volume 13 Issue 5 May 2008 pp 456-467. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  15. Molecule Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 11. Molecule Matters - Carbon Dioxide: Molecular States and Beyond. T P Radhakrishnan. Feature Article Volume 11 Issue 11 November 2006 pp 88-92. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  16. Using action research for teacher professional development: Research in science and technology education (United States)

    van Oostveen, Roland Harry

    Initial plans for this project called for collaborative action research to be used as a means of providing authenticity to the teacher development process by: (1) giving teacher opportunities to improve their understanding of their subject matter, (2) allowing teachers to improve their own practice, and (3) determining factors which may affect this type of professional development. After some time it became apparent that the collaborative nature of the action research engaged in by the participating teachers needed to be modified. The modified collaboration, termed purposeful action research, was employed through the remainder of the project. Purposeful action reaction can be viewed as a community of teachers who engage in professional development using 'purposeful' action research as a means of progressive knowledge building around science (and technology) education. Action research holds the promise of offering science and technology teachers more control of their growth as pedagogical practitioners. However, it appears that teachers need to be exposed to issues that extend beyond the reach of the government imposed curriculum guidelines. During the course of this research project it became clear that purposeful action research was necessary in order to address these issues. This thesis provides a detailed account and a description of the characteristics of purposeful action research in action. Two teams of elementary and secondary science and technology teachers were formed to work within collaborative communities. These teams identified common pedagogical problems that they agreed to use as the focus of their work. Over the four months duration of the project, the teachers worked together to prepare unit plans, organize lessons and share resources. The thesis concludes with a reiteration of the aims of the project and a brief discussion of the implications of the findings for science and technology education, teacher professional development, and educational


    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jesús Valverde Berrocoso; María Rosa Fernández Sánchez; Francisco Ignacio Revuelta Domínguez


    .... In a sample of innovative teachers (N=41) of schools selected for their good practice with ICT, a questionnaire was used to measure how motivations, emotions and skills are present in an innovative practice with technology, and the degree of...

  18. The Learning Assistant Model for Science Teacher Recruitment and Preparation (United States)

    Otero, Valerie


    There is a shortage of high quality physical science teachers in the United States. In 2001, less than 50% of teachers who taught physics held a major or minor in physics or physics education (Neuschatz & McFarling, 2003). Studies point to content knowledge as one of the two factors that is positively correlated with teacher quality. However, those directly responsible for the science content preparation of teachers, specifically science research faculty, are rarely involved in focused efforts to improve teacher quality or to create alternative paths for becoming a teacher. What role should science research faculty play in the recruitment and preparation of science teachers? How might teacher recruitment and preparation be conceived so that science research faculty members' participation in these efforts is not at odds with the traditional scientific research foci of science research departments? To address this issue, we have coupled our teacher recruitment and preparation efforts with our efforts for transforming our large-enrollment, undergraduate science courses. This is achieved through the undergraduate Learning Assistant (LA) program, where talented mathematics and science majors are hired to assist in transforming large enrollment courses to student-centered, collaborative environments. These LAs are the target of our teacher recruitment efforts. Science research faculty, in collaboration with faculty from the school of education have established a community that supports LAs in making decisions to explore K12 teaching as a career option. Fifteen percent of the LAs who have participated in this program have entered teaching credential programs and now plan to become K12 teachers. An added effect of this program is that research faculty have developed skills and knowledge regarding inquiry-based and student-centered pedagogy and theories of student learning. The Learning Assistant program has led to increased subject matter knowledge among learning

  19. Choose Health Action Teens: A Review of a Teens as Teachers Nutritional Education Training Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M. Flesch


    Full Text Available This review draws from published research related to the best practices for the utilization of teens as teachers to examine Choose Health Action Teens (CHAT, a teen’s as teachers (TAT training curriculum.  Research shows that there are various components necessary to build a high quality TAT program.  Most of these components fall under four areas in which training is necessary for teens and adults: Teaching strategies, youth/child development, subject matter to be taught, and youth-adult partnerships.  These four areas provide a framework to review the Choose Health Action Teens (CHAT (Crosiar & Wolfe, 2013 teens as teachers training program curriculum.

  20. A cohort of novice Danish science teachers: Background in science and argumentation about science teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitte Lund Nielsen


    Full Text Available A survey on science background and argumentation about science teaching was conducted on a local cohort of newly qualified Danish science teachers. The survey was administered before the novice teachers began their first jobs in primary and lower secondary schools and focused on their reflections on specific scenarios of science teaching and themselves as teachers in various science fields. Three areas of concern were identified: There was evidence of reflection upon and argumentation for the practice of science teaching being stundent centred, but many respondents showed a tendency to focus on students’ activities as a goal in themselves, few considered what the students learned through the activities. Results furthermore suggest that the teachers’ own assessment of their subject matter knowledge in the physics field may, for a large subgroup in the cohort, affect their approach to teaching science.

  1. Practical Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Birgitte

    -up research made use of notions of decentredness in the ‘situated learning theory’ (Lave & Wenger) and of ‘communities of practice’ (Wenger), and this theoretical basis was further expanded with the notions of power relations and de-naturalised perspectives, (Foucault), and neo-liberalism (Rose). The follow......, which concluded in the autumn of 2010, and for which I was responsible. This research analyses the possibilities and dilemmas in the interplay between the university college, the trainee jobs and the learning processes of the students. The theoretical and methodological framework for the follow......Denmark has recently on a small scale tried new initiatives and ways of thinking teacher education out, which implied the students simultaneous trainee employment at a school, and their maintaining of the study activities at the teacher university college. This Danish initiative differs from other...

  2. Maths4Stats: Educating teachers


    Blignaut, Renette J.; Retha Luus; Ronell Lombard; Abduraghiem Latief; Danelle Kotze


    The inadequate nature of the education infrastructure in South Africa has led to poor academic performance at public schools. Problems within schools such as under-qualified teachers and poor teacher performance arise due to the poorly constructed education system in our country. The implementation in 2012 of the Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement (CAPS) at public schools in South Africa saw the further crippling of some teachers, as they were unfamiliar with parts of the CAPS subject...

  3. Design and validation of a standards-based science teacher efficacy instrument (United States)

    Kerr, Patricia Reda

    National standards for K--12 science education address all aspects of science education, with their main emphasis on curriculum---both science subject matter and the process involved in doing science. Standards for science teacher education programs have been developing along a parallel plane, as is self-efficacy research involving classroom teachers. Generally, studies about efficacy have been dichotomous---basing the theoretical underpinnings on the work of either Rotter's Locus of Control theory or on Bandura's explanations of efficacy beliefs and outcome expectancy. This study brings all three threads together---K--12 science standards, teacher education standards, and efficacy beliefs---in an instrument designed to measure science teacher efficacy with items based on identified critical attributes of standards-based science teaching and learning. Based on Bandura's explanation of efficacy being task-specific and having outcome expectancy, a developmental, systematic progression from standards-based strategies and activities to tasks to critical attributes was used to craft items for a standards-based science teacher efficacy instrument. Demographic questions related to school characteristics, teacher characteristics, preservice background, science teaching experience, and post-certification professional development were included in the instrument. The instrument was completed by 102 middle level science teachers, with complete data for 87 teachers. A principal components analysis of the science teachers' responses to the instrument resulted in two components: Standards-Based Science Teacher Efficacy: Beliefs About Teaching (BAT, reliability = .92) and Standards-Based Science Teacher Efficacy: Beliefs About Student Achievement (BASA, reliability = .82). Variables that were characteristic of professional development activities, science content preparation, and school environment were identified as members of the sets of variables predicting the BAT and BASA

  4. Teacher Effectiveness through Self-Efficacy, Collaboration and Principal Leadership (United States)

    Sehgal, Prachee; Nambudiri, Ranjeet; Mishra, Sushanta Kumar


    Purpose: Teacher effectiveness has been a matter of concern not only for the parents and students but also for the policy makers, researchers, and educationists. Drawing from the "self-efficacy" theory (Bandura, 1977), the purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between teacher self-efficacy and teacher effectiveness. In…

  5. Subject knowledge for teaching and continuing professional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This short discussion article outlines a range of theoretical issues underpinning the formation of subject knowledge for teaching. It suggests a number of practical needs that secondary school teachers of English may be seeking to address in the way of subject knowledge development and how this may relate to the ...

  6. The Connotations of Language Teacher Autonomy (United States)

    Han, Ligang


    With the research on the development of learner autonomy in foreign language education, teacher autonomy has become a hot topic in the research of foreign language teacher education. However, it is the most difficult question to define language teacher autonomy and any answer to it is likely to be subjective. On the basis of expounding upon the…

  7. Teacher Education and "Politics of Humanity" (United States)

    Waghid, Y.


    Since the demise of apartheid education, the development of policy in relation to teacher education in South Africa has undergone major adjustments. By far the most poignant conceptual and pragmatic change that teacher education has been subjected to points towards the cultivation of teachers who can enact their professions as democratic citizens.…

  8. Gray matter and white matter abnormalities in online game addiction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weng, Chuan-Bo, E-mail: [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); School of Neurosurgery, Anhui Medical University, 81 Meishang Road, Hefei, Anhui Province 230032 (China); Qian, Ruo-Bing, E-mail: [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Anhui Provincial Institute of Stereotactic Neurosurgery, 9 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Fu, Xian-Ming, E-mail: [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Anhui Provincial Institute of Stereotactic Neurosurgery, 9 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Lin, Bin, E-mail: [School of Neurosurgery, Anhui Medical University, 81 Meishang Road, Hefei, Anhui Province 230032 (China); Han, Xiao-Peng, E-mail: [Department of Psychology, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Niu, Chao-Shi, E-mail: [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Anhui Provincial Institute of Stereotactic Neurosurgery, 9 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Wang, Ye-Han, E-mail: [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Anhui Provincial Institute of Stereotactic Neurosurgery, 9 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China)


    Online game addiction (OGA) has attracted greater attention as a serious public mental health issue. However, there are only a few brain magnetic resonance imaging studies on brain structure about OGA. In the current study, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to investigate the microstructural changes in OGA and assessed the relationship between these morphology changes and the Young's Internet Addiction Scale (YIAS) scores within the OGA group. Compared with healthy subjects, OGA individuals showed significant gray matter atrophy in the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula, and right supplementary motor area. According to TBSS analysis, OGA subjects had significantly reduced FA in the right genu of corpus callosum, bilateral frontal lobe white matter, and right external capsule. Gray matter volumes (GMV) of the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula and FA values of the right external capsule were significantly positively correlated with the YIAS scores in the OGA subjects. Our findings suggested that microstructure abnormalities of gray and white matter were present in OGA subjects. This finding may provide more insights into the understanding of the underlying neural mechanisms of OGA.

  9. Gray matter and white matter abnormalities in online game addiction. (United States)

    Weng, Chuan-Bo; Qian, Ruo-Bing; Fu, Xian-Ming; Lin, Bin; Han, Xiao-Peng; Niu, Chao-Shi; Wang, Ye-Han


    Online game addiction (OGA) has attracted greater attention as a serious public mental health issue. However, there are only a few brain magnetic resonance imaging studies on brain structure about OGA. In the current study, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to investigate the microstructural changes in OGA and assessed the relationship between these morphology changes and the Young's Internet Addiction Scale (YIAS) scores within the OGA group. Compared with healthy subjects, OGA individuals showed significant gray matter atrophy in the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula, and right supplementary motor area. According to TBSS analysis, OGA subjects had significantly reduced FA in the right genu of corpus callosum, bilateral frontal lobe white matter, and right external capsule. Gray matter volumes (GMV) of the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula and FA values of the right external capsule were significantly positively correlated with the YIAS scores in the OGA subjects. Our findings suggested that microstructure abnormalities of gray and white matter were present in OGA subjects. This finding may provide more insights into the understanding of the underlying neural mechanisms of OGA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effective Field Theory of Majorana Dark Matter


    Han, Huayong; WU, HONGYAN; Zheng, Sibo


    Thermal Majorana dark matter is explored from the viewpoint of effective field theory. Completely analytic result for dark matter annihilation into standard model background is derived in order to account relic density. The parameter space subject to the latest LUX, PandaX-II and Xenon-1T limits is shown in a model-independent way. For illustration, applications to singlet-doublet and neutralino dark matter are work out.

  11. Initial teacher education and continuing professional development for science teachers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolin, Jens; Evans, Robert Harry


    , and belong to various cultures, both educationally and socially. Section 1 presents a review of the research literature across these dimensions and looks at the knowledge, skills and competences needed for teaching science, specific issues within science teacher education, and strategies for educating......Research into ways of improving the initial education and continuing professional development of science teachers is closely related to both common and unique strands. The field is complex since science teachers teach at different educational levels, are often educated in different science subjects...... and developing science teachers....

  12. Early-Years Teachers' Professional Upgrading in Science: a Long-Term Programme (United States)

    Kallery, Maria


    In this paper, we present a professional development/upgrading programme in science for early-years teachers and investigate its impact on the teachers' competencies in relation to their knowledge and teaching of science. The basic idea of the programme was to motivate the teachers by making them members of an action research group aimed at developing and implementing curriculum activities to which they would contribute and thus meaningfully engaging them in their own learning. The programme used a `collaborative partnership' model for the development of the activities. In this model, the collaborative notion is defined as an act of `shared creation': partners share a goal and members bring their expertise to the partnership. Within this context, the partners were a researcher in science education with a background in physics, who also served as a facilitator, and six in-service early-years teachers with a background in early-years pedagogy and developmental sciences, who had many years of experience (classroom experts). These teachers participated in the programme as co-designers, but were involved to a significantly lesser degree than the researcher. The programme procedures comprised group work and individual teachers' class work. Data sources included teachers' essays, field-notes, lesson recordings and group-work records. Data were qualitatively analysed. The main results indicate improvement of teachers' `transformed' knowledge of the subject matter, development/improvement of knowledge of instructional strategies, including factors related to quality of implementation of the activities, knowledge of the pupils and improvement of the teachers' efficacy.

  13. Play Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sicart (Vila), Miguel Angel

    ? In Play Matters, Miguel Sicart argues that to play is to be in the world; playing is a form of understanding what surrounds us and a way of engaging with others. Play goes beyond games; it is a mode of being human. We play games, but we also play with toys, on playgrounds, with technologies and design......, but not necessarily fun. Play can be dangerous, addictive, and destructive. Along the way, Sicart considers playfulness, the capacity to use play outside the context of play; toys, the materialization of play--instruments but also play pals; playgrounds, play spaces that enable all kinds of play; beauty...

  14. Active matter (United States)

    Ramaswamy, Sriram


    The study of systems with sustained energy uptake and dissipation at the scale of the constituent particles is an area of central interest in nonequilibrium statistical physics. Identifying such systems as a distinct category—Active matter—unifies our understanding of autonomous collective movement in the living world and in some surprising inanimate imitations. In this article I present the active matter framework, briefly recall some early work, review our recent results on single-particle and collective behaviour, including experiments on active granular monolayers, and discuss new directions for the future.

  15. A nonpedagogical teacher education?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvols, Anja Madsen; Madsen, Peter Hougaard; Beck, Mette Holdsendorf

    of the students and thereby it seems to contribute to a change of this pedagogical an educational paradigm. In 2013 Danish teacher education was latest reformed into a model of performance assessment and a general focus on learning outcomes. Increased attention paid to output and assessment raises issues...... regarding changes in education – which seem to come from evaluations more than from educational and pedagogical theories (Gruschka, 2011). Moreover, the teacher education has increased its focus on both research-based academic training and professional training at the same time. Our study is double – 1...... characterizes teacher professionalism? (Subject studies? Pedagogical studies? Professional training? Academic studies? Bildung studies? Etc.) - What characterizes ‘pedagogy of teacher education’ (Darling-Hammond, 2006; Loughran, 2008; Zeichner, 2005)?...

  16. An investigation of primary school teachers’ PCK towards science subjects using an ınquiry-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menşure Alkış Küçükaydın


    Full Text Available In this study, the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK of four experienced primary school teachers was investigated within the “Let’s Solve the Riddle of Our Body Unit”. The PCK investigation adopted a learning approach based on inquiry, content representation and pedagogical and professional-experience repertoires (PaP-eRs, and interview forms were used as data collection tools. During the course of the research, the findings obtained from observations made during a total of 18 course hours formed the basic data source of the study. According to the results of the study, in which descriptive and content analysis were used concurrently, primary school teachers lack subject matter knowledge, do not interrogate the pre-knowledge of students and some misconceptions exist regarding about blood moves and exercise with pulse. Additionally, some deficiencies were detected in the curriculum, i.e., it offers non-inquisitional knowledge. Furthermore, teachers employee assessment methods with traditional teaching methods and techniques. In the context of an inquiry-based learning approach, teachers appeared to believe that classroom activities were adversely affected by the physical conditions (class size, lack of laboratory etc., students’ cognitive levels and parent profiles. The result of this study revealed that PCK components affect one another. The PCK findings pertaining to primary school teachers as it concerns the unit are briefly discussed and some suggestions about the development of PCK are submitted.

  17. Metabolic syndrome and occupation: Any association? Prevalence among auto technicians and school teachers in South West Nigeria. (United States)

    Akintunde, Adeseye A; Oloyede, Taiwo W


    To determine occupational association with metabolic syndrome among auto technicians and school teachers. One hundred and sixty six subjects were selected for this study. Clinical data was obtained while laboratory investigations including plasma glucose and lipid profile were performed. Statistical analysis was done with SPSS 20.0. Pauto technicians. Mean serum triglycerides was significantly higher among auto-technicians compared to school teachers in this study. The prevalence of some conventional cardiovascular risk factors was significantly higher among auto-technicians compared to school teachers: Impaired blood glucose (9.6% vs. 1.2%, pauto-technicians. Based on the WHO and the Harmonized criteria, metabolic syndrome was more frequent among auto-technicians compared to school teachers. (8.4% vs. 1.2% and 19.3% vs. 7.2% respectively, pauto technicians despite their high level of physical activity, exertion and education compared to teachers. This may be related to the increased occupational exposure to organic and inorganic materials from dust particles, oil and oil related matter and particulate matter among auto technicians. Prompt definitive evaluation of this concept and appropriate health education to encourage safety mechanism can reduce this burden of metabolic syndrome among auto technicians in Nigeria. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Teachers of high ability pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cándido Genovard


    Full Text Available In this article we analyze the characteristics of gifted and talented students’ expert teachers. The subject background and the specific proprieties of the instructional process to meet gifted students’ educational needs are analyzed. The value of teacher-student interactions and of teaching and learning styles are highlighted. Also, we include different action guidelines and instructional resources to use in the classroom to teach these students. There is not an ideal teacher for high ability students. However, teachers must know what the teaching-learning processes are and how these work, and the diverse psychological, content and contextual variables involved in such processes.

  19. Teaching Evolution: Do State Standards Matter? (United States)

    Moore, Randy


    Explores the relationship of state standards for the teaching of evolution to the actual teaching of that subject. Compares a grading of states for their performance and discusses the question of whether state standards matter. (MM)

  20. Topic-Specific Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TSPCK) in Redox and Electrochemistry of Experienced Teachers (United States)

    O'Brien, Stephanie

    Topic specific pedagogical content knowledge (TSPCK) is the basis by which knowledge of subject matter of a particular topic is conveyed to students. This includes students' prior knowledge, curricular saliency, what makes a topic easy or difficult to teach, representations, and teaching strategies. The goal of this study is to assess the pedagogical content knowledge of chemistry teachers in a professional learning community in the areas of redox and electrochemistry, as this has been regarded in previous literature as conceptually challenging for students to learn. By acquiring information regarding the PCK development of experienced chemistry teachers, the education and practice of all science teachers can be advanced. This study builds upon previous research that developed validated instruments to evaluate TSPCK. The research questions sought to determine which components of TSPCK were evidenced by the instructional design decisions teachers made, what shared patterns and trends were evident, and how TSPCK related to student learning outcomes. To answer the research questions subjects completed a background questionnaire, a TSPCK assessment, and interview tasks to elicit information about pedagogical decision making and processes that influenced student learning in their classrooms. The TSPCK exam and interview responses were coded to align with thematic constructs. To determine the effect of TSPCK on student learning gains, pre/post-assessment data on redox and electrochemistry were compared to teachers' TSPCK. The chemistry teachers displayed varying levels of TSPCK in redox and electrochemistry, as evidenced by their knowledge of student learning obstacles, curricular saliency, and teaching methodologies. There was evidence of experienced teachers lacking in certain areas of TSPCK, such as the ability to identify student misconceptions, suggesting the need for programmatic improvements in pre-service and in-service training to address the needs of current