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  1. Using Topic Models to Interpret MEDLINE's Medical Subject Headings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, David; Karimi, Sarvnaz; Cavedon, Lawrence

    We consider the task of interpreting and understanding a taxonomy of classification terms applied to documents in a collection. In particular, we show how unsupervised topic models are useful for interpreting and understanding MeSH, the Medical Subject Headings applied to articles in MEDLINE. We introduce the resampled author model, which captures some of the advantages of both the topic model and the author-topic model. We demonstrate how topic models complement and add to the information conveyed in a traditional listing and description of a subject heading hierarchy.

  2. Accuracy of medical subject heading indexing of dental survival analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Danielle M; Clarke, Michael

    2014-01-01

    To assess the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) indexing of articles that employed time-to-event analyses to report outcomes of dental treatment in patients. Articles published in 2008 in 50 dental journals with the highest impact factors were hand searched to identify articles reporting dental treatment outcomes over time in human subjects with time-to-event statistics (included, n = 95), without time-to-event statistics (active controls, n = 91), and all other articles (passive controls, n = 6,769). The search was systematic (kappa 0.92 for screening, 0.86 for eligibility). Outcome-, statistic- and time-related MeSH were identified, and differences in allocation between groups were analyzed with chi-square and Fischer exact statistics. The most frequently allocated MeSH for included and active control articles were "dental restoration failure" (77% and 52%, respectively) and "treatment outcome" (54% and 48%, respectively). Outcome MeSH was similar between these groups (86% and 77%, respectively) and significantly greater than passive controls (10%, P indexed as such. Significantly more time-related MeSH were allocated to the included than the active controls (92% and 79%, respectively, P = .02), or to the passive controls (22%, P < .001). MeSH allocation within MEDLINE to time-to-event dental articles was inaccurate and inconsistent. Statistical MeSH were omitted from 30% of the included articles and incorrectly allocated to 15% of active controls. Such errors adversely impact search accuracy.

  3. METHODICAL ENSURING ELECTRONIC SUBJECT ANALYSIS OF DOCUMENTS: FEATURES OF EDITING SUBJECT HEADINGS IN ABIS ABSOTHEQUE UNICODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. М. Бикова

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our article is consideration of questions of electronic subject analysis of documents and methodical ensuring editing subject headings in the electronic catalog. The main objective of our article – to show a technique of editing the dictionary of subject headings, to study and apply this technique in work of libraries of higher education institutions. Object of research is the thesaurus of subject headings of the electronic catalog of the Scientific Library of Odessa I. I. Mechnikov National University. To improve the efficiency and quality of the search capabilities of the electronic catalog needs constant work on its optimization, that is, technical editing of subject headings, the opening of new subject headings and subheadings.  In Scientific library the instruction, which regulates a technique of edition of subject headings, was developed and put into practice and establishes rationing of this process. The main finding of the work should be to improve the level of bibliographic service users and rationalization systematizer. The research findings have the practical value for employees of libraries.

  4. User's guide to Sears List of subject headings

    CERN Document Server

    Satija, Mohinder P

    2008-01-01

    This book is a companion to the 19th edition of the Sears List and a complete course in the theory and practice of the List for practitioners, teachers, and learners. The object of this small, practical introduction is to be simple, clear, and illustrative, assuming the reader has little prior knowledge either of the Sears List or of subject headings work in general.

  5. Characterization of the Medical Subject Headings thesaurus for pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguet, Fernando; Van Den Boogerd, Lucienne; Salgado, Teresa M; Correr, Cassyano J; Fernandez-Llimos, Fernando

    2014-11-15

    The completeness and utility of pharmacy-oriented Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) relative to MeSH terminology pertaining to other healthcare professions (dentistry and nursing) are evaluated. The 2013 version of the MeSH thesaurus-the standard vocabulary used by the National Library of Medicine (NLM) to index articles in PubMed and MEDLINE-was searched for dentistry-, nursing-, and pharmacy-specific terms using a truncation strategy (search terms: nurs*, dent*, and pharm*); the hierarchical level of each term and the number of descendant terms (an indication of the granularity of the associated NLM-indexed content) were determined. PubMed searches were conducted to identify areas of the MeSH hierarchy containing dentistry- and nursing-specific terms but no equivalent pharmacy-specific term. The search of the MeSH thesaurus identified 145 terms representing dentistry-specific activities and 94 and 26 terms specific to nursing and pharmacy practice, respectively. Analysis of the three sets of MeSH terms indicated that dentistry-oriented MeSH terms were generally situated more prominently within the MeSH hierarchy than terms for nursing- and pharmacy-oriented research; the MeSH terminology oriented toward nursing or dentistry practice was relatively more granular, allowing for increased specificity and power of information retrieval during PubMed and MEDLINE searches. Seventeen proposed new MeSH terms describing key areas of pharmacy practice were identified; the inclusion of these terms in the MeSH hierarchy could substantially expand and improve the retrievability of NLM-indexed literature. Imbalances and gaps were found in MeSH coverage of pharmacy concepts and terminology relative to MeSH terminology specific to the nursing and dentistry professions. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Developing a biomedical expert finding system using medical subject headings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harpreet; Singh, Reema; Malhotra, Arjun; Kaur, Manjit

    2013-12-01

    Efficient identification of subject experts or expert communities is vital for the growth of any organization. Most of the available expert finding systems are based on self-nomination, which can be biased, and are unable to rank experts. Thus, the objective of this work was to develop a robust and unbiased expert finding system which can quantitatively measure expertise. Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a controlled vocabulary developed by the National Library of Medicine (NLM) for indexing research publications, articles and books. Using the MeSH terms associated with peer-reviewed articles published from India and indexed in PubMed, we developed a Web-based program which can be used to identify subject experts and subjects associated with an expert. We have extensively tested our system to identify experts from India in various subjects. The system provides a ranked list of experts where known experts rank at the top of the list. The system is general; since it uses information available with the PubMed, it can be implemented for any country. The expert finding system is able to successfully identify subject experts in India. Our system is unique because it allows the quantification of subject expertise, thus enabling the ranking of experts. Our system is based on peer-reviewed information. Use of MeSH terms as subjects has standardized the subject terminology. The system matches requirements of an ideal expert finding system.

  7. Subject Headings for Church or Synagogue Libraries. 2nd Revised Edition. CSLA Guide No. 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, Dorothy B.

    This guide to subject headings for church or synagogue libraries begins by providing guidelines for the subject cataloging process. These guidelines are presented under seven headings: (1) Selecting the Subject Heading (by names of persons, religious congregations and orders, sects and denominations, places, holidays, and new subjects); (2)…

  8. CINAHL list of subject headings: a nursing thesaurus revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishel, C C; Graham, K E; Greer, D M; Gupta, A D; Lockwood, D K; Prime, E E

    1985-04-01

    The rationale and methods for revising the thesaurus of one of the major health sciences indexing tools are discussed. Computer production of the Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature and the possibility of online access mandated a revision of the list of subject headings. CINAHL has maintained a policy of responding to user needs and to changes in the nursing and allied health literature, and user input was encouraged during revision of the thesaurus. The methods of structural revision are described, and major changes in the thesaurus are detailed. Modification of the thesaurus is expected to have a far-reaching impact on the retrieval of information in nursing and allied health. Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL) is now available online through DIALOG (file 218) and BRS (access code NAHL).

  9. Searching the literature using medical subject headings versus text word with PubMed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Angela A; Heskett, Karen M; Davidson, Terence M

    2006-02-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the performance of two search strategies in the retrieval of information from the National Library of Medicine (NLM) on otolaryngology-head and neck surgery related conditions and diagnoses using PubMed. Two search strategies-one based on the use of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and the second based on text word searching-were compared. The MeSH search provided a more efficient search than the text word search. Head and neck surgeons can most efficiently search the NLM using PubMed as a search engine by initiating the search with MeSH terms. Once a key article is identified, the searcher should use the "Related Articles" feature.

  10. PHYSIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF HEAD-OUT AQUATIC EXERCISES IN HEALTHY SUBJECTS: A QUALITATIVE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago M Barbosa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades head-out aquatic exercises became one of the most important physical activities within the health system. Massive research has been produced throughout these decades in order to better understand the role of head-out aquatic exercises in populations' health. Such studies aimed to obtain comprehensive knowledge about the acute and chronic response of subjects performing head-out aquatic exercises. For that, it is assumed that chronic adaptations represent the accumulation of acute responses during each aquatic session. The purpose of this study was to describe the "state of the art" about physiological assessment of head-out aquatic exercises based on acute and chronic adaptations in healthy subjects based on a qualitative review. The main findings about acute response of head-out aquatic exercise according to water temperature, water depth, type of exercise, additional equipment used, body segments exercising and music cadence will be described. In what concerns chronic adaptations, the main results related to cardiovascular and metabolic adaptations, muscular strength, flexibility and body composition improvements will be reported

  11. Gastrointestinal Physiology During Head Down Tilt Bedrest in Human Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaksman, Z.; Guthienz, J.; Putcha, L.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Gastrointestinal (GI) motility plays a key role in the physiology and function of the GI tract. It directly affects absorption of medications and nutrients taken by mouth, in addition to indirectly altering GI physiology by way of changes in the microfloral composition and biochemistry of the GI tract. Astronauts have reported nausea, loss of appetite and constipation during space flight all of which indicate a reduction in GI motility and function similar to the one seen in chronic bed rest patients. The purpose of this study is to determine GI motility and bacterial proliferation during -6 degree head down tilt bed rest (HTD). Methods: Healthy male and female subjects between the ages of 25-40 participated in a 60 day HTD study protocol. GI transit time (GITT) was determined using lactulose breath hydrogen test and bacterial overgrowth was measured using glucose breath hydrogen test. H. Pylori colonization was determined using C13-urea breath test (UBIT#). All three tests were conducted on 9 days before HDT, and repeated on HDT days 2, 28, 58, and again on day 7 after HDT. Results: GITT increased during HTD compared to the respective ambulatory control values; GITT was significantly lower on day 7 after HTD. A concomitant increase in bacterial colonization was also noticed during HDT starting after approximately 28 days of HDT. However, H. Pylori proliferation was not recorded during HDT as indicated by UBIT#. Conclusion: GITT significantly decreased during HDT with a concomitant increase in the proliferation of GI bacterial flora but not H. pylori.

  12. SPARED RECOGNITION CAPACITY IN ELDERLY AND CLOSED-HEAD-INJURY SUBJECTS WITH CLINICAL MEMORY DEFICITS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spikman, J.M.; Berg, I.J.; Deelman, B.G.

    This study describes the performance of three groups of subjects on a pictorial forced-recognition task, the Hundred Pictures Test. The aim was to determine whether subjects with memory deficits (elderly and closed-head-injured subjects) would perform as well as healthy young subjects, both on

  13. Correlation between Trunk Posture and Neck Reposition Sense among Subjects with Forward Head Neck Postures

    OpenAIRE

    Han Suk Lee; Hyung Kuk Chung; Sun Wook Park

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To assess the correlation of abnormal trunk postures and reposition sense of subjects with forward head neck posture (FHP). Methods. In all, postures of 41 subjects were evaluated and the FHP and trunk posture including shoulder, scapular level, pelvic side, and anterior tilting degrees were analyzed. We used the head repositioning accuracy (HRA) test to evaluate neck position senses of neck flexion, neck extension, neck right and left side flexion, and neck right and left rotation...

  14. Activation of rectus capitis posterior major muscles during voluntary retraction of the head in asymptomatic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallgren, Richard C; Rowan, Jacob J; Bai, Peng; Pierce, Steven J; Shafer-Crane, Gail A; Prokop, Lawrence L

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess levels of electromyographic activity measured from rectus capitis posterior major (RCPM) muscles of asymptomatic subjects as their heads moved from a self-defined neutral position to a retracted position. A 2 × 2 within-subjects factorial research design was used. Disposable, intramuscular electrodes were used to collect electromyographic data from asymptomatic subjects between the ages of 20 and 40 years old. Data analysis was performed using mixed effects β regression models. Activation of RCPM muscles was found to significantly increase (P < .0001) as the head moved from a self-defined neutral position to a retracted position. Rectus capitis posterior major muscle activation levels, measured as a function of head position, have not been previously reported. The findings from this study showed that RCPM muscle activation significantly increases during voluntary retraction of the head. Copyright © 2014 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Ulnar Head Replacement and Related Biomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerbier, Michael; Arsalan-Werner, Annika; Enderle, Elena; Vetter, Miriam; Vonier, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    A stable distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) is mandatory for the function and load transmission in the wrist and forearm. Resectional salvage procedures such as the Darrach procedure, Bowers arthroplasty, and Sauvé-Kapandji procedure include the potential risk of radioulnar instability and impingement, which can lead to pain and weakness. Soft tissue stabilizing techniques have only limited success rates in solving these problems. In an attempt to stabilize the distal forearm mechanically following ulnar head resection, various endoprostheses have been developed to replace the ulnar head. The prostheses can be used for secondary treatment of failed ulnar head resection, but they can also achieve good results in the primary treatment of osteoarthritis of the DRUJ. Our experience consists of twenty-five patients (follow-up 30 months) with DRUJ osteoarthritis who were treated with an ulnar head prosthesis, with improvement in pain, range of motion, and grip strength. An ulnar head prosthesis should be considered as a treatment option for a painful DRUJ. PMID:24436786

  16. Effect of Head Elevation on Passive Upper Airway Collapsibility in Normal Subjects under Propofol Anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Masato; Ayuse, Takao; Hoshino, Yuko; Kurata, Shinji; Moromugi, Shunji; Schneider, Hartmut; Kirkness, Jason P.; Schwartz, Alan R.; Oi, Kumiko

    2011-01-01

    Background Head elevation can restore airway patency during anesthesia, although its effect may be offset by concomitant bite opening or accidental neck flexion. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of head elevation on the passive upper airway collapsibility during propofol anesthesia. Method Twenty male subjects were studied, randomized to one of two experimental groups: Fixed-jaw or Free-jaw. Propofol infusion was used for induction and to maintain blood concentration constant at a target level between 1.5 and 2.0 μg/ml. Nasal mask pressure (PN) was intermittently reduced to evaluate the upper airway collapsibility (passive PCRIT) and upstream resistance (RUS) at each level of head elevation (0, 3, 6, & 9 cm). We measured the Frankfort plane (head flexion) and the mandible plane (jaw opening) angles at each level of head elevation. Analysis of variance was used to determine effect of head elevation on PCRIT, head flexion and jaw opening within each group. Results In both groups the Frankfort plane and mandible plane angles increased as with head elevation (P elevation decreased upper airway collapsibility (PCRIT ~ −7 cmH2O at greater than 6 cm elevation) compared to the baseline position (PCRIT ~ −3 cmH2O at 0 cm elevation; P elevating the head position by 6 cm while ensuring mouth closure (centric occlusion) produces substantial decreases in upper airway collapsibility and maintains upper airway patency during anesthesia. PMID:21701378

  17. Effect of head elevation on passive upper airway collapsibility in normal subjects during propofol anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Masato; Ayuse, Takao; Hoshino, Yuko; Kurata, Shinji; Moromugi, Shunji; Schneider, Hartmut; Kirkness, Jason P; Schwartz, Alan R; Oi, Kumiko

    2011-08-01

    Head elevation can restore airway patency during anesthesia, although its effect may be offset by concomitant bite opening or accidental neck flexion. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of head elevation on the passive upper airway collapsibility during propofol anesthesia. Twenty male subjects were studied, randomized to one of two experimental groups: fixed-jaw or free-jaw. Propofol infusion was used for induction and to maintain blood at a constant target concentration between 1.5 and 2.0 μg/ml. Nasal mask pressure (PN) was intermittently reduced to evaluate the upper airway collapsibility (passive PCRIT) and upstream resistance (RUS) at each level of head elevation (0, 3, 6, and 9 cm). The authors measured the Frankfort plane (head flexion) and the mandible plane (jaw opening) angles at each level of head elevation. Analysis of variance was used to determine the effect of head elevation on PCRIT, head flexion, and jaw opening within each group. In both groups the Frankfort plane and mandible plane angles increased with head elevation (P elevation decreased upper airway collapsibility (PCRIT ~ -7 cm H₂O at greater than 6 cm elevation) compared with the baseline position (PCRIT ~ -3 cm H₂O at 0 cm elevation; P Elevating the head position by 6 cm while ensuring mouth closure (centric occlusion) produces substantial decreases in upper airway collapsibility and maintains upper airway patency during anesthesia.

  18. Japanese internally headed relatives: Their distinctness from potentially homophonous constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Grosu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper pursues two closely inter-related goals. One goal is to clarify and systematize the ways in which each of four distinct Japanese constructions, in particular, internally headed relatives, adverbial clauses, complement clauses, and gapless externally light-headed relatives, can be distinguished from the others in cases of homophony. The other goal is to use the results obtained in the pursuit of the former goal for the purpose of refuting earlier challenges to the theses that Japanese internally headed relatives are island-sensitive, get invariably construed as definite descriptions, disallow definite referential internal heads, and exhibit a ‘change’ sub-variety that is not reducible to gapless externally light-headed relatives. The paper assumes the correctness of the analytical approach outlined in Grosu & Landman (2012, and – crucially – that of the conceptual and technical refinements to the latter proposed in Landman (2016, some of which rely on the results of this paper.

  19. Comparative Study between the "Lista de Encabezamientos de Materia" by Gloria Escamilla and the "Library of Congress Subject Heading" List.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Fernando

    This study shows to what extent Gloria Escamilla's "Lista de Encabezamientos de Materia," the only published Mexican subject heading list, is equivalent to the Library of Congress subject headings (LCSH). A LCSH heading sample is obtained from OCLC's Online Union Catalog. Using the EPIC search from OCLC, 1947 bibliographic records were…

  20. Internal Lymphedema Correlates with Subjective and Objective Measures of Dysphagia in Head and Neck Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Leanne K; Ridner, Sheila H; Deng, Jie; Bartow, Carmin; Mannion, Kyle; Niermann, Ken; Gilbert, Jill; Dietrich, Mary S; Cmelak, Anthony J; Murphy, Barbara A

    2016-09-01

    Tumor/treatment-related internal lymphedema (IL) and/or external lymphedema (EL) are associated with functional deficits and increased symptom burden in head and neck cancer patients (HNCP). Previously, we noted association between EL/IL and patient-reported dysphagia using the Vanderbilt Head and Neck Symptom Survey (VHNSS) version 1.0. To determine the relationship between IL/EL and subjective and objective measures of swallowing function. Eighty-one HNCP completed: (1) VHNSS version 2.0, including 13 swallowing/nutrition-related questions grouped into three clusters: swallow solids (ss), swallow liquids (sl), and nutrition(nt); (2) physical assessment of EL using Foldi scale; (3) endoscopic assessment of IL using Patterson scale (n = 56); and (4) modified barium swallow study rated by dysphagia outcome and severity scale (DOSS) and in conjunction with a swallow evaluation by National Outcomes Measurement System (NOMS). Examinations were performed at varied time points to assess lymphedema spectrum, from baseline (n = 15, 18.1%) to 18 months post-therapy (n = 20, 24.1%). VHNSS swallow/nutrition items scores correlated with NOMS/DOSS ratings (p nutrition scores correlated with maximum grade of swelling for any single structure on Patterson scale: ss (0.43; p = 0.001); sl (0.38; p = 0.004); nt (0.41; p = 0.002). IL of aryepiglottic/pharyngoepiglottic folds, epiglottis, and pyriform sinus were most strongly correlated with VHNSS and NOMS ratings. NOMS/DOSS ratings correlated with EL (> = -0.34; p nutrition items and EL ( 0.20). IL correlated with subjective and objective measures of swallow dysfunction. Longitudinal analysis of trajectory and impact of IL/EL on dysphagia is ongoing.

  1. Cumulating the Supplements to the Seventh Edition of LC Subject Headings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy B. Torkington

    1973-12-01

    Full Text Available A description is presented of the project of the University of California Library Automation Program to cumulate the 1966 through 1971 supplements to the Library of Congress Subject Headings. The University of California Institute of Library Research MARC processing software, BIBCON, was used, with specially written programs. The resulting cumulation was edited, printed in book form, and made available to libraries. The final task involved merging six MARC files into one file of over 125,000 records and then printing that file in a format similar to that of LC Subject Headings. The project was a cooperative effort with participation by people from several UC campuses.

  2. On the subject-predicate relation and subject agreement in SiSwati ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper also argues that subject agreement is a purely syntactic phenomenon that takes place in a spec-head relationship. It proposes that subject agreement is triggered by verbs, and that multiple subject agreement within a clause occurs when auxiliary verbs iterate. The theoretical consequences of the analysis ...

  3. Bibliometric perspectives on medical innovation using the medical subject headings of PubMed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Rotolo, D.; Rafols, I.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple perspectives on the nonlinear processes of medical innovations can be distinguished and combined using the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) of the MEDLINE database. Focusing on three main branches—"diseases," "drugs and chemicals," and "techniques and equipment"—we use base maps and overlay

  4. Analysing the Role of the Subject Head of Department in Secondary Schools in England and Wales: Towards a Theoretical Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Chris; Bolam, Ray

    1998-01-01

    Argues that contingency theory offers a useful basis for considering the work of subject heads of department in (British) secondary schools, particularly if heads are actively trying to influence the quality of teaching and learning in their curriculum areas. Develops a provisional model to shed light on how department heads actually work with…

  5. Neck kinematics and sternocleidomastoid muscle activation during neck rotation in subjects with forward head posture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Man-Sig

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study investigated differences in the kinematics of the neck and activation of the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle during neck rotation between subjects with and without forward head posture (FHP). [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight subjects participated in the study (14 with FHP, 14 without FHP). Subjects performed neck rotation in two directions, left and right. The kinematics of rotation-lateral flexion movement patterns were recorded using motion analysis. Activity in the bilateral SCM muscles was measured using surface electromyography. Differences in neck kinematics and activation of SCM between the groups were analyzed by independent t-tests. [Results] Maintaining FHP increased the rotation-lateral flexion ratio significantly in both directions. The FHP group had significantly faster onset time for lateral flexion movement in both directions during neck rotation. Regarding the electromyography of the SCM muscles during neck rotation in both directions, the activity values of subjects with FHP were greater than those of subjects without FHP for the contralateral SCM muscles. [Conclusion] FHP can induce changes in movement in the frontal plane and SCM muscle activation during neck rotation. Thus, clinicians should consider movement in the frontal plane as well as in the sagittal plane when assessing and treating patients with forward head posture. PMID:26696712

  6. Mapping of medical acronyms and initialisms to Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) across selected systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Mary

    2006-10-01

    Given the common use of acronyms and initialisms in the health sciences, searchers may be entering these abbreviated terms rather than full phrases when searching online systems. The purpose of this study is to evaluate how various MEDLINE Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) interfaces map acronyms and initialisms to the MeSH vocabulary. The interfaces used in this study were: the PubMed MeSH database, the PubMed Automatic Term Mapping feature, the NLM Gateway Term Finder, and Ovid MEDLINE. Acronyms and initialisms were randomly selected from 2 print sources. The test data set included 415 randomly selected acronyms and initialisms whose related meanings were found to be MeSH terms. Each acronym and initialism was entered into each MEDLINE MeSH interface to determine if it mapped to the corresponding MeSH term. Separately, 46 commonly used acronyms and initialisms were tested. While performance differed widely, the success rates were low across all interfaces for the randomly selected terms. The common acronyms and initialisms tested at higher success rates across the interfaces, but the differences between the interfaces remained. Online interfaces do not always map medical acronyms and initialisms to their corresponding MeSH phrases. This may lead to inaccurate results and missed information if acronyms and initialisms are used in search strategies.

  7. Quantitative biomedical annotation using medical subject heading over-representation profiles (MeSHOPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheung Warren A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MEDLINE®/PubMed® indexes over 20 million biomedical articles, providing curated annotation of its contents using a controlled vocabulary known as Medical Subject Headings (MeSH. The MeSH vocabulary, developed over 50+ years, provides a broad coverage of topics across biomedical research. Distilling the essential biomedical themes for a topic of interest from the relevant literature is important to both understand the importance of related concepts and discover new relationships. Results We introduce a novel method for determining enriched curator-assigned MeSH annotations in a set of papers associated to a topic, such as a gene, an author or a disease. We generate MeSH Over-representation Profiles (MeSHOPs to quantitatively summarize the annotations in a form convenient for further computational analysis and visualization. Based on a hypergeometric distribution of assigned terms, MeSHOPs statistically account for the prevalence of the associated biomedical annotation while highlighting unusually prevalent terms based on a specified background. MeSHOPs can be visualized using word clouds, providing a succinct quantitative graphical representation of the relative importance of terms. Using the publication dates of articles, MeSHOPs track changing patterns of annotation over time. Since MeSHOPs are quantitative vectors, MeSHOPs can be compared using standard techniques such as hierarchical clustering. The reliability of MeSHOP annotations is assessed based on the capacity to re-derive the subset of the Gene Ontology annotations with equivalent MeSH terms. Conclusions MeSHOPs allows quantitative measurement of the degree of association between any entity and the annotated medical concepts, based directly on relevant primary literature. Comparison of MeSHOPs allows entities to be related based on shared medical themes in their literature. A web interface is provided for generating and visualizing MeSHOPs.

  8. Quantitative biomedical annotation using medical subject heading over-representation profiles (MeSHOPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Warren A; Ouellette, B F Francis; Wasserman, Wyeth W

    2012-09-27

    MEDLINE®/PubMed® indexes over 20 million biomedical articles, providing curated annotation of its contents using a controlled vocabulary known as Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). The MeSH vocabulary, developed over 50+ years, provides a broad coverage of topics across biomedical research. Distilling the essential biomedical themes for a topic of interest from the relevant literature is important to both understand the importance of related concepts and discover new relationships. We introduce a novel method for determining enriched curator-assigned MeSH annotations in a set of papers associated to a topic, such as a gene, an author or a disease. We generate MeSH Over-representation Profiles (MeSHOPs) to quantitatively summarize the annotations in a form convenient for further computational analysis and visualization. Based on a hypergeometric distribution of assigned terms, MeSHOPs statistically account for the prevalence of the associated biomedical annotation while highlighting unusually prevalent terms based on a specified background. MeSHOPs can be visualized using word clouds, providing a succinct quantitative graphical representation of the relative importance of terms. Using the publication dates of articles, MeSHOPs track changing patterns of annotation over time. Since MeSHOPs are quantitative vectors, MeSHOPs can be compared using standard techniques such as hierarchical clustering. The reliability of MeSHOP annotations is assessed based on the capacity to re-derive the subset of the Gene Ontology annotations with equivalent MeSH terms. MeSHOPs allows quantitative measurement of the degree of association between any entity and the annotated medical concepts, based directly on relevant primary literature. Comparison of MeSHOPs allows entities to be related based on shared medical themes in their literature. A web interface is provided for generating and visualizing MeSHOPs.

  9. Blind estimation of a ship's relative wave heading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik Dam; Iseki, Toshio

    2012-01-01

    This article proposes a method to estimate a ship’s relative heading against the waves. The procedure relies purely on ship- board measurements of global responses such as motion components, accelerations and the bending moment amidships. There is no particular (mathematical) model connected...

  10. Correlation between Trunk Posture and Neck Reposition Sense among Subjects with Forward Head Neck Postures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Han Suk; Chung, Hyung Kuk; Park, Sun Wook

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To assess the correlation of abnormal trunk postures and reposition sense of subjects with forward head neck posture (FHP). Methods. In all, postures of 41 subjects were evaluated and the FHP and trunk posture including shoulder, scapular level, pelvic side, and anterior tilting degrees were analyzed. We used the head repositioning accuracy (HRA) test to evaluate neck position senses of neck flexion, neck extension, neck right and left side flexion, and neck right and left rotation and calculated the root mean square error in trials for each subject. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients and regression analysis were used to assess the degree of correlation between the trunk posture and HRA value, and a significance level of α = 0.05 was considered. Results. There were significant correlations between the HRA value of right side neck flexion and pelvic side tilt angle (p postures. Conclusion. Verifying pelvic postures should be prioritized when movement is limited due to the vitiation of the proprioceptive sense of neck caused by FHP. PMID:26583125

  11. Correlation between Trunk Posture and Neck Reposition Sense among Subjects with Forward Head Neck Postures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Suk Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the correlation of abnormal trunk postures and reposition sense of subjects with forward head neck posture (FHP. Methods. In all, postures of 41 subjects were evaluated and the FHP and trunk posture including shoulder, scapular level, pelvic side, and anterior tilting degrees were analyzed. We used the head repositioning accuracy (HRA test to evaluate neck position senses of neck flexion, neck extension, neck right and left side flexion, and neck right and left rotation and calculated the root mean square error in trials for each subject. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients and regression analysis were used to assess the degree of correlation between the trunk posture and HRA value, and a significance level of α = 0.05 was considered. Results. There were significant correlations between the HRA value of right side neck flexion and pelvic side tilt angle (p<0.05. If pelvic side tilting angle increases by 1 degree, right side neck flexion increased by 0.76 degrees (p=0.026. However, there were no significant correlations between other neck motions and trunk postures. Conclusion. Verifying pelvic postures should be prioritized when movement is limited due to the vitiation of the proprioceptive sense of neck caused by FHP.

  12. Trismus following different treatment modalities for head and neck cancer: a systematic review of subjective measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Sook Y; Mcleod, Robert W J; Elhassan, Hassan A

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this review was to compare systematically the subjective measure of trismus between different interventions to treat head and neck cancer, particularly those of the oropharynx. Using The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) Guidelines, Six databases were searched for the text using various terms which include "oropharyngeal/head and neck cancer", "trismus/mouth opening" and the various treatment modalities. Included in the review were clinical studies (> or =10 patients). Three observers independently assessed the papers identified. Among the six studies reviewed, five showed a significantly worst outcome with regard to the quality-of-life questionnaire scores for a radiotherapy or surgery and radiotherapy (RT) ± chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy when compared to surgery alone. Only one study showed no significant difference between surgery alone and other treatment modalities. Subjective quality-of-life measures are a concurrent part of modern surgical practice. Although subjective measures were utilised to measure post operative trismus successfully, there was no consensus as to which treatment modality had overall better outcomes, with conflicting studies in keeping with the current debate in this field. Larger and higher quality studies are needed to compare all three treatment modalities.

  13. Correlation between Trunk Posture and Neck Reposition Sense among Subjects with Forward Head Neck Postures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Han Suk; Chung, Hyung Kuk; Park, Sun Wook

    2015-01-01

    To assess the correlation of abnormal trunk postures and reposition sense of subjects with forward head neck posture (FHP). In all, postures of 41 subjects were evaluated and the FHP and trunk posture including shoulder, scapular level, pelvic side, and anterior tilting degrees were analyzed. We used the head repositioning accuracy (HRA) test to evaluate neck position senses of neck flexion, neck extension, neck right and left side flexion, and neck right and left rotation and calculated the root mean square error in trials for each subject. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients and regression analysis were used to assess the degree of correlation between the trunk posture and HRA value, and a significance level of α = 0.05 was considered. There were significant correlations between the HRA value of right side neck flexion and pelvic side tilt angle (p neck flexion increased by 0.76 degrees (p = 0.026). However, there were no significant correlations between other neck motions and trunk postures. Verifying pelvic postures should be prioritized when movement is limited due to the vitiation of the proprioceptive sense of neck caused by FHP.

  14. Redefining the pharmacology and pharmacy subject category in the journal citation reports using medical subject headings (MeSH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguet, Fernando; Salgado, Teresa M; Santopadre, Claudio; Fernandez-Llimos, Fernando

    2017-10-01

    Background The Journal Citation Reports (JCR) Pharmacology and Pharmacy subject category is heterogeneous. The inclusion of journals with basic and clinical scopes, which have different citation patterns, compromises comparability of impact factors among journals within the category. Objective To subdivide the Pharmacology and Pharmacy category into basic pharmacology, clinical pharmacology, and pharmacy based on the analyses of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) as a proxy of journals' scopes. Setting JCR. Method All articles, and respective MeSH, published in 2013, 2014, and 2015 in all journals included in the 2014 JCR Pharmacology and Pharmacy category were retrieved from PubMed. Several models using a combination of the 14 MeSH categories and specific MeSH tree branches were tested using hierarchical cluster analysis. Main outcome measure Distribution of journals across the subcategories of the JCR Pharmacology and Pharmacy subject category. Results A total of 107,847 articles from 214 journals were included. Nine different models combining the MeSH categories M (Persons) and N (Health Care) with specific MeSH tree branches (selected ad-hoc) and Pharmacy-specific MeSH (identified in previous research) consistently grouped 142 journals (66.4%) in homogeneous groups reflecting their basic and clinical pharmacology, and pharmacy scopes. Ultimately, journals were clustered into: 150 in basic pharmacology, 43 in clinical pharmacology, 16 in basic pharmacology and clinical pharmacology, and 5 in pharmacy. Conclusion The reformulation of the Pharmacology and Pharmacy category into three categories was demonstrated by the consistent results obtained from testing nine different clustering models using the MeSH terms assigned to their articles.

  15. Current topics in sports-related head injuries: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahiro, Shinji; Mizobuchi, Yoshifumi

    2014-01-01

    We review the current topic in sports-related head injuries including acute subdural hematoma (ASDH), concussion, and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Sports-related ASDH is a leading cause of death and severe morbidity in popular contact sports like American football in the USA and judo in Japan. It is thought that rotational acceleration is most likely to produce not only cerebral concussion but also ASDH due to the rupture of a parasagittal bridging vein, depending on the severity of the rotational acceleration injury. Repeated sports head injuries increase the risk for future concussion, cerebral swelling, ASDH or CTE. To avoid fatal consequences or CTE resulting from repeated concussions, an understanding of the criteria for a safe post-concussion return to play (RTP) is essential. Once diagnosed with a concussion, the athlete must not be allowed to RTP the same day and should not resume play before the concussion symptoms have completely resolved. If brain damage has been confirmed or a subdural hematoma is present, the athlete should not be allowed to participate in any contact sports. As much remains unknown regarding the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of sports-related concussion, ASDH, and CTE, basic and clinical studies are necessary to elucidate the crucial issues in sports-related head injuries.

  16. Japanese internally headed relatives: A hybrid analysis with Kuroda functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Landman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that the analysis of Japanese internally headed relatives must steer a course between the Scylla and Charybdis of reduction to externally headed relatives and reduction to discourse anaphora. The analysis given here is based on that of Grosu & Landman (2012, but the present paper reconsiders some of the central data in Grosu & Landman (2012 in the light of the diagnostic tests given in Grosu & Hoshi (2016, and argues for a simplification of the basic analysis, which actually strengthens the theory considerably. The paper then extends the analysis given with an analytic tool – a Lombardian presupposition mechanism for Kuroda functions – which allows the implementation of the Kuroda relevancy condition (Kuroda 1976–77. It is further shown how the improved analysis can provide a semantics for so-called 'change relatives', which were mentioned but not analyzed in Hoshi (1995 and Kim (2007. An appendix recapitulates and refines the discussion of scope phenomena in internally headed relatives from Grosu & Landman (2012.

  17. A Review of Sport-Related Head Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizobuchi, Yoshifumi; Nagahiro, Shinji

    2016-04-01

    We review current topics in sport-related head injuries including acute subdural hematoma (ASDH), traumatic cerebrovascular disease, cerebral concussion, and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Sports-related ASDH is a leading cause of death and severe morbidity in popular contact sports like American football and Japanese judo. Rotational acceleration can cause either cerebral concussion or ASDH due to rupture of a parasagittal bridging vein. Although rare, approximately 80% of patients with cerebral infarction due to sport participation are diagnosed with ischemia or infarction due to arterial dissection. Computed tomography angiography, magnetic resonance angiography, and ultrasound are useful for diagnosing arterial dissection; ultrasound is particularly useful for detecting dissection of the common and internal carotid arteries. Repeated sports head injuries increase the risks of future concussion, cerebral swelling, ASDH, and CTE. To avoid fatal consequences of CTE, it is essential to understand the criteria for safe post-concussion sports participation. Once diagnosed with a concussion, an athlete should not be allowed to return to play on the same day and should not resume sports before the concussion symptoms have completely resolved. Information about the risks and management of head injuries in different sports should be widely disseminated in educational institutions and by sport organization public relations campaigns.

  18. Impact of head models in N170 component source imaging: results in control subjects and ADHD patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrachini, L.; Blenkmann, A.; von Ellenrieder, N.; Petroni, A.; Urquina, H.; Manes, F.; Ibáñez, A.; Muravchik, C. H.

    2011-12-01

    The major goal of evoked related potential studies arise in source localization techniques to identify the loci of neural activity that give rise to a particular voltage distribution measured on the surface of the scalp. In this paper we evaluate the effect of the head model adopted in order to estimate the N170 component source in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients and control subjects, considering faces and words stimuli. The standardized low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography algorithm (sLORETA) is used to compare between the three shell spherical head model and a fully realistic model based on the ICBM-152 atlas. We compare their variance on source estimation and analyze the impact on the N170 source localization. Results show that the often used three shell spherical model may lead to erroneous solutions, specially on ADHD patients, so its use is not recommended. Our results also suggest that N170 sources are mainly located in the right occipital fusiform gyrus for faces stimuli and in the left occipital fusiform gyrus for words stimuli, for both control subjects and ADHD patients. We also found a notable decrease on the N170 estimated source amplitude on ADHD patients, resulting in a plausible marker of the disease.

  19. The video head impulse test (vHIT of semicircular canal function – age dependent normative values of VOR gain in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh Andrew McGarvie

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Hypothesis. The video Head Impulse Test (vHIT is now widely used to test the function of each of the six semicircular canals individually by measuring the eye rotation response to an abrupt head rotation in the plane of the canal. The main measure of canal adequacy is the ratio of the eye movement response to the head movement stimulus i.e. the gain of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR. However there is a need for normative data about how VOR gain is affected by age and also by head velocity, to allow the response of any particular patient to be compared to response of healthy subjects in their age range. In this study we determined for all six semicircular canals, normative values of VOR gain, for each canal across a range of head velocities, for healthy subjects in each decade of life.Study Design. The VOR gain was measured for all canals across a range of head velocities for at least 10 healthy subjects in decade age bands: 10-19, 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, 70-79, 80-89. Methods. The compensatory eye movement response to a small, unpredictable, abrupt head rotation (head impulse was measured by the ICS Impulse prototype system. The same operator delivered every impulse to every subject. Results. VOR gain decreased at high head velocities, but was largely unaffected by age into the 80-89 year age group. There were some small but systematic differences between the two directions of head rotation, which appear to be largely due to the fact that in this study only the right eye was measured. The results are considered in relation to recent evidence about the effect of age on VOR performance.Conclusion. These normative values allow the results of any particular patient to be compared to the values of healthy people in their age range and so allow, for example, detection of whether a patient has a bilateral vestibular loss. VOR gain, as measured directly by the eye movement response to head rotation, seems largely unaffected by

  20. A case study: using social tagging to engage students in learning Medical Subject Headings*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresnahan, Megan; Flynn, David B.; Harzbecker, Joseph; Blanchard, Mary; Ginn, David

    2009-01-01

    In exploring new ways of teaching students how to use Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), librarians at Boston University's Alumni Medical Library (AML) integrated social tagging into their instruction. These activities were incorporated into the two-credit graduate course, “GMS MS 640: Introduction to Biomedical Information,” required for all students in the graduate medical science program. Hands-on assignments and in-class exercises enabled librarians to present MeSH and the concept of a controlled vocabulary in a familiar and relevant context for the course's Generation Y student population and provided students the opportunity to actively participate in creating their education. At the conclusion of these activities, students were surveyed regarding the clarity of the presentation of the MeSH vocabulary. Analysis of survey responses indicated that 46% found the concept of MeSH to be the clearest concept presented in the in-class intervention. PMID:19404497

  1. Effects of suboccipital release with craniocervical flexion exercise on craniocervical alignment and extrinsic cervical muscle activity in subjects with forward head posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bo-Been; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Jeong, Hyo-Jung; Cynn, Heon-Seock

    2016-10-01

    Forward head posture is a head-on-trunk malalignment, which results in musculoskeletal dysfunction and neck pain. To improve forward head posture, both the craniocervical flexion exercise and the suboccipital release technique have been used. The purpose of this study was to compare the immediate effects of craniocervical flexion exercise and suboccipital release combined with craniocervical flexion exercise on craniovertebral angle, cervical flexion and extension range of motion, and the muscle activities of the sternocleidomastoid, anterior scalene, and splenius capitis during craniocervical flexion exercise in subjects with forward head posture. In total, 19 subjects (7 males, 12 females) with forward head posture were recruited using G-power software. Each subject performed craniocervical flexion exercise and suboccipital release combined with craniocervical flexion exercise in random order. After one intervention was performed, the subject took a 20min wash out period to minimize any carry-over effect between interventions. Craniovertebral angle, cervical flexion and extension range of motion, and the muscle activities of the sternocleidomastoid, anterior scalene, and splenius capitis were measured. A one-way, repeated-measures ANOVA was used to assess differences between the effects of the craniocervical flexion exercise and suboccipital release combined with craniocervical flexion exercise interventions in the same group. Craniovertebral angle (pflexion range of motion (pflexion exercise compared to craniocervical flexion exercise alone. The muscle activities of the sternocleidomastoid, anterior scalene, and splenius capitis were significantly lower during suboccipital release combined with craniocervical flexion exercise than during craniocervical flexion exercise alone across all craniocervical flexion exercise phases except the first (all pflexion exercise provided superior benefits relative to craniocervical flexion exercise alone as an intervention for

  2. The multi-modal responses of a physical head model subjected to various blast exposure conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouellet, S.; Phillippens, M.

    2017-11-01

    The local and global biomechanical response of the body to a blast wave is the first step of a sequence that leads to the development of stresses and strains which can exceed the tolerance of brain tissue. These stresses and strains may then lead to neuro-physical changes in the brain and contribute to initiate a cascade of events leading to injury. The specific biomechanical pathways by which the blast energy is transmitted through the head structure are, however, not clearly understood. Multiple transmission mechanisms have been proposed to explain the generation of brain stresses following the impingement of a blast wave on the head. With the use of a physical head model, the work presented here aims at demonstrating that the proposed transmission mechanisms are not mutually exclusive. They are part of a continuum of head responses where, depending on the exposure conditions, a given mechanism may or may not dominate. This article presents the joint analysis of previous blast test results generated with the brain injury protection evaluation device (BIPED) headform under four significantly different exposure conditions. The focus of the analysis is to demonstrate how the nature of the recorded response is highly dependent on the exposure characteristics and consequently, on the method used to reproduce blast exposure in a laboratory environment. The timing and magnitude of the variations in intra-cranial pressures (ICP) were analysed relative to the external pressure field in order to better understand the wave dynamics occurring within the brain structure of the headform. ICP waveforms were also analysed in terms of their energy spectral density to better identify the energy partitioning between the different modes of response. It is shown that the BIPED response is multi-modal and that the energy partitioning between its different modes of response is greatly influenced by exposure characteristics such as external peak overpressure, impulse, blast wave

  3. Subject-Object Asymmetry in the Second Language Acquisition of English Relatives and Embedded Wh-Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun-Sook

    2016-12-01

    This study examined subject-object asymmetry and developmental sequence in the second language (L2) acquisition of three types of wh-extraction, i.e., English headed relatives, headless relatives, and embedded wh-questions. Sixty-four L1 Korean learners of English completed an elicited imitation task and a grammaticality judgment task. The learners demonstrated a subject advantage in the headed RCs and headless RCs, but an object advantage in the embedded wh-questions, which suggests that they treat embedded wh-questions differently from headed relatives and headless relatives despite the similarities in surface forms. The learners further demonstrated the order of developing headless RCs followed by embedded wh-questions, and subsequently headed RCs, which supports the primacy of headless relatives as a simple nominal in L2 development.

  4. Subject related teaching in udeskole (outdoor school)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Karen Seierøe

    ’ in Teaching mother tongue in the outdoors, to read and teach literature on places in secondary and high school (Eggersen, 2016). Secondly, Art and aesthetics learning in the outdoors, how can place based art and relational aesthetics as selected artistic practices be an inspiration and a role model...

  5. Transforming the Medical Subject Headings into Linked Data: Creating the Authorized Version of MeSH in RDF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushman, Barbara; Anderson, David; Fu, Gang

    In February 2014 the National Library of Medicine formed the Linked Data Infrastructure Working Group to investigate the potential for publishing linked data, determine best practices for publishing linked data, and prioritize linked data projects, beginning with transforming the Medical Subject Headings as a linked data pilot. This article will review the pilot project to convert the Medical Subject Headings from XML to RDF. It will discuss the collaborative process, the technical and organizational issues tackled, and the future of linked data at the library.

  6. Biomechanical aspects of sports-related head injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Min S; Levy, Michael L

    2008-02-01

    With the increased conditioning, size, and speed of professional athletes and the increase in individuals engaging in sports and recreational activities, there is potential for rising numbers of traumatic brain injuries in sports. Fortunately, parallel strides in basic research technology and improvements in computer and video technology have created a new era of discovery in the study of the biomechanical aspects of sports-related head injuries. Although prevention will always be the most important factor in reducing the incidence of sports-related traumatic brain injuries, ongoing studies will lead to the development of newer protective equipment, improved recognition and management of concussions on the field of play, and modification of rules and guidelines to make these activities safer and more enjoyable.

  7. Leveraging output term co-occurrence frequencies and latent associations in predicting medical subject headings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavuluru, Ramakanth; Lu, Yuan

    2014-11-01

    Trained indexers at the National Library of Medicine (NLM) manually tag each biomedical abstract with the most suitable terms from the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terminology to be indexed by their PubMed information system. MeSH has over 26,000 terms and indexers look at each article's full text while assigning the terms. Recent automated attempts focused on using the article title and abstract text to identify MeSH terms for the corresponding article. Most of these approaches used supervised machine learning techniques that use already indexed articles and the corresponding MeSH terms. In this paper, we present a new indexing approach that leverages term co-occurrence frequencies and latent term associations computed using MeSH term sets corresponding to a set of nearly 18 million articles already indexed with MeSH terms by indexers at NLM. The main goal of our study is to gauge the potential of output label co-occurrences, latent associations, and relationships extracted from free text in both unsupervised and supervised indexing approaches. In this paper, using a novel and purely unsupervised approach, we achieve a micro-F-score that is comparable to those obtained using supervised machine learning techniques. By incorporating term co-occurrence and latent association features into a supervised learning framework, we also improve over the best results published on two public datasets.

  8. Improving information retrieval using Medical Subject Headings Concepts: a test case on rare and chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmoni, Stéfan J; Soualmia, Lina F; Letord, Catherine; Jaulent, Marie-Christine; Griffon, Nicolas; Thirion, Benoît; Névéol, Aurélie

    2012-07-01

    As more scientific work is published, it is important to improve access to the biomedical literature. Since 2000, when Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Concepts were introduced, the MeSH Thesaurus has been concept based. Nevertheless, information retrieval is still performed at the MeSH Descriptor or Supplementary Concept level. The study assesses the benefit of using MeSH Concepts for indexing and information retrieval. Three sets of queries were built for thirty-two rare diseases and twenty-two chronic diseases: (1) using PubMed Automatic Term Mapping (ATM), (2) using Catalog and Index of French-language Health Internet (CISMeF) ATM, and (3) extrapolating the MEDLINE citations that should be indexed with a MeSH Concept. Type 3 queries retrieve significantly fewer results than type 1 or type 2 queries (about 18,000 citations versus 200,000 for rare diseases; about 300,000 citations versus 2,000,000 for chronic diseases). CISMeF ATM also provides better precision than PubMed ATM for both disease categories. Using MeSH Concept indexing instead of ATM is theoretically possible to improve retrieval performance with the current indexing policy. However, using MeSH Concept information retrieval and indexing rules would be a fundamentally better approach. These modifications have already been implemented in the CISMeF search engine.

  9. Distancing, self-esteem, and subjective well-being in head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devins, Gerald M; Wong, Janice C; Payne, Ada Y M; Lebel, Sophie; Lee, Ruth N F; Mah, Kenneth; Irish, Jonathan; Rodin, Gary

    2015-11-01

    Distancing (i.e. construing oneself as dissimilar to a negatively-stereotyped group) preserves self-esteem and may benefit other domains of subjective well-being. Head and neck cancer (HNC) is stigmatized because major risk factors include avoidable lifestyle variables (smoking, alcohol consumption, and human papilloma virus). Because the benefits of coping efforts, such as distancing, are most evident when people are under stress, we hypothesize that the psychosocial benefits of distancing will be most pronounced when cancer and its treatment interfere substantially with participation in valued activities and interests (i.e. high illness intrusiveness). To test whether distancing preserves self-esteem and other domains of subjective well-being (SWB) in HNC, especially when illness intrusiveness is high. Five hundred and twenty-two HNC outpatients completed a semantic-differential measure of perceived similarity to the 'cancer patient' and measures of illness intrusiveness, self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and psychological well-being in structured interviews. Evaluations of the 'cancer patient' reflected cancer stereotypes. A statistically significant interaction supported the central hypothesis: When people held negative stereotypes, those who construed themselves as similar to the 'cancer patient' reported lower self-esteem than those who construed themselves as dissimilar. Distancing did not benefit other SWB variables. Some results were counter-intuitive: e.g. Emotional distress increased with increasing illness intrusiveness when people did not hold negative cancer stereotypes, but when they held highly negative stereotypes, distress decreased with increasing illness intrusiveness. Overall, distancing preserved self-esteem in people with HNC and was associated with benefits in other SWB domains. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Citation analysis with medical subject Headings (MeSH) using the Web of Knowledge: A new routine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Opthof, T.

    2013-01-01

    Citation analysis of documents retrieved from the Medline database (at the Web of Knowledge) has been possible only on a case-by-case basis. A technique is presented here for citation analysis in batch mode using both Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) at the Web of Knowledge and the Science Citation

  11. Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) annotations illuminate maize genetics and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beissinger, Timothy M; Morota, Gota

    2017-01-01

    High-density marker panels and/or whole-genome sequencing, coupled with advanced phenotyping pipelines and sophisticated statistical methods, have dramatically increased our ability to generate lists of candidate genes or regions that are putatively associated with phenotypes or processes of interest. However, the speed with which we can validate genes, or even make reasonable biological interpretations about the principles underlying them, has not kept pace. A promising approach that runs parallel to explicitly validating individual genes is analyzing a set of genes together and assessing the biological similarities among them. This is often achieved via gene ontology analysis, a powerful tool that involves evaluating publicly available gene annotations. However, additional resources such as Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) can also be used to evaluate sets of genes to make biological interpretations. In this manuscript, we describe utilizing MeSH terms to make biological interpretations in maize. MeSH terms are assigned to PubMed-indexed manuscripts by the National Library of Medicine, and can be directly mapped to genes to develop gene annotations. Once mapped, these terms can be evaluated for enrichment in sets of genes or similarity between gene sets to provide biological insights. Here, we implement MeSH analyses in five maize datasets to demonstrate how MeSH can be leveraged by the maize and broader crop-genomics community. We demonstrate that MeSH terms can be effectively leveraged to generate hypotheses and make biological interpretations in maize, and we provide a pipeline that enables the use of MeSH terms in other plant species.

  12. Subjective well-being, reference groups and relative standing in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous studies on the determinants of subjective well-being concur on the importance of relative income, i.e., the fact that individuals' subjective well-being is dependent on how well they are doing in relation to their reference group. Using South African data from 1993, Kingdon and Knight (2006, 2007) found that in ...

  13. Subjective Relational Experiences and Employee Innovative Behaviors in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinarski-Peretz, Hedva; Binyamin, Galy; Carmeli, Abraham

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents two studies that explore the implications of subjective relational experiences (positive regard, mutuality and vitality) on employee engagement in innovative behaviors at work. Data collected at two points in time were used to test two mediation models that link subjective relational experiences and innovative behaviors. The…

  14. Two Similarity Metrics for Medical Subject Headings (MeSH): An Aid to Biomedical Text Mining and Author Name Disambiguation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalheiser, Neil R; Bonifield, Gary

    2016-04-06

    In the present paper, we have created and characterized several similarity metrics for relating any two Medical Subject Headings (MeSH terms) to each other. The article-based metric measures the tendency of two MeSH terms to appear in the MEDLINE record of the same article. The author-based metric measures the tendency of two MeSH terms to appear in the body of articles written by the same individual (using the 2009 Author-ity author name disambiguation dataset as a gold standard). The two metrics are only modestly correlated with each other (r = 0.50), indicating that they capture different aspects of term usage. The article-based metric provides a measure of semantic relatedness, and MeSH term pairs that co-occur more often than expected by chance may reflect relations between the two terms. In contrast, the author metric is indicative of how individuals practice science, and may have value for author name disambiguation and studies of scientific discovery. We have calculated article metrics for all MeSH terms appearing in at least 25 articles in MEDLINE (as of 2014) and author metrics for MeSH terms published as of 2009. The dataset is freely available for download and can be queried at http://arrowsmith.psych.uic.edu/arrowsmith_uic/mesh_pair_metrics.html. Handling editor: Elizabeth Workman, MLIS, PhD.

  15. Subject-Object Asymmetry in the Second Language Acquisition of English Relatives and Embedded "Wh"-Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun-Sook

    2016-01-01

    This study examined subject-object asymmetry and developmental sequence in the second language (L2) acquisition of three types of "wh"-extraction, i.e., English headed relatives, headless relatives, and embedded "wh"-questions. Sixty-four L1 Korean learners of English completed an elicited imitation task and a grammaticality…

  16. Relations between subjective evaluations of memory and objective memory performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, I.W; Berg, I.J; Deelman, B.G

    2001-01-01

    Several explanations for the weak relations between subjective memory judgments and objective memory performance were investigated in two groups of normal older adults. Group 1 sampled a general population (mean age 61.6 yr., range 46-891, while Group 2 sampled subjects who were on a waiting Est for

  17. Health-related quality of life among people with epilepsy with mild seizure-related head injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, David E; Islam, Shahidul; Ettinger, Alan B

    2013-06-01

    Seizure-related head injury (SRHI) is an under-recognized condition frequently experienced by people with epilepsy (PWE). The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential impact of SRHI on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among PWE receiving care in a tertiary epilepsy center. Consecutive adult PWE receiving care at the Baylor Comprehensive Epilepsy Center (BCEC) were recruited for the study. After their informed consent was obtained, patients were administered the QOLIE-31 to measure HRQOL and the NDDI-E to screen for depression. Simple linear regression was used to identify clinical variables associated with HRQOL and that included SRHI obtained systematically at each clinic visit. Data were also compared between the SRHI and non-SRHI groups. Participants included 172 subjects. Recurrent mild SRHI occurred in 50 (29%) subjects. Factors with a negative effect on HRQOL included depression (slope=-19.99 [95% CI -25.16, -14.81]; panalysis. With stepwise multiple regression, depression and recurrent SRHI significantly impacted HRQOL with slopes (95% CI; p-value) of (-17.53 [-22.34, -12.73]; p<.0001) and (-14.03 [-18.78, -9.28]; p<.0001), respectively. Patient-derived HRQOL is negatively associated with depression and recurrent SRHI, independently. There has been a justifiable increased awareness of the potential effects of head injuries among healthy individuals. Our data suggest that head injuries can certainly be detrimental among PWE, and greater efforts should be made to recognize and formulate prevention strategies for SRHI. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Minding the gap: Subjective relative deprivation and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshai, Shadi; Mishra, Sandeep; Meadows, Tyler J S; Parmar, Priya; Huang, Vivian

    2017-01-01

    Substantial evidence has linked depressive symptoms to various indices of societal-level inequality and relative deprivation. A larger literature has also addressed cognitive vulnerability and correlates of depression. Despite this evidence, little research to date has examined the relationship of depressive symptoms with such downstream individual-level consequences of inequality as subjective relative deprivation, or whether relative deprivation is associated with cognitive vulnerability in depression. We conducted two investigations among four separate samples (total N = 2999) to examine associations between subjective relative deprivation and depressive symptoms and cognitions. Across our studies and four different self-report measures of depressive symptoms, we found consistent significant positive associations between subjective relative deprivation and depression symptoms. Further, we found that subjective relative deprivation was predictive of depressive symptoms over and above other known vulnerability factors. Finally, we found that the relationship between subjective relative deprivation and depressive symptoms was fully mediated by negative automatic thoughts about self. These results provide further evidence of the importance of subjective deprivation in maintaining negative mental health outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. THE SHORT-TERM EFFECT OF A HOME-BASED PROGRAM TO CORRECT FORWARD HEAD POSTURE IN ASYMPTOMATIC SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Omar Abdelnaeem

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neck pain and dysfunction may be the consequence of adopting sustained non-neutral spinal postures. Such postures are associated with increased activation of the neck-shoulder stabilizer muscles, which eventually increase the loading of cervical spine. Forward head posture is a common postural dysfunction that has been associated with many musculoskeletal disorders. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of deep cervical flexor muscles training on the severity of forward head posture in asymptomatic subjects. Methods: Forty-one asymptomatic subjects volunteered in this study. Participants were randomly assigned into an intervention group (n= 20that received a home-based training of deep cervical flexor muscles for 6-weeks, and a control group(n= 21 that received only the assessment procedure. Subjects were assessed at baseline and 6weeks later with regards to the severity of forward head as indicated by the cranio-vertebral angle. Also, the strength and endurance of the deep flexor muscles were assessed. Results: After six weeks, participants in the intervention group showed significant improvement in all measured variables compared to the control group. Furthermore, participants in the intervention group showed significant difference in all measured variables after 6-weeks of training compared to baseline, whereas those in the control group remained the same. Conclusion: Six-weeks of deep cervical training improves forward head posture and deep flexors strength and endurance in asymptomatic subjects. Thus, this exercise could be used as a preventive measure against the development of neck dysfunction in at risk population even before the onset of any symptoms.

  20. Hyoid bone position and head posture comparison in skeletal Class I and Class II subjects: A retrospective cephalometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawankumar Dnyandeo Tekale

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the hyoid bone position and the head posture using lateral cephalograms in subjects with skeletal Class I and skeletal Class II pattern and to investigate the gender differences. Materials and Methods: The study used lateral cephalograms of 40 subjects (20 skeletal Class I pattern; 20 skeletal Class II pattern. Lateral cephalograms were traced and analyzed for evaluation of the hyoid bone position and the head posture using 34 parameters. Independent sample t-test was performed to compare the differences between the two groups and between genders in each group. Statistical tests were performed using NCSS 2007 software (NCSST, Kaysville, Utah, USA. Results: The linear measurements between the hyoid bone (H and cervical spine (CV2ia, the nasion-sella line, palatal line nasion line, the anterior nasal spine (ANS to perpendicular projection of H on the NLP (NLP- Nasal Linear Projection (H-NLP/ANS as well as the posterior cranial points (Bo, Ar and S points were found to be less in skeletal Class II subjects. The measurement H-CV2ia was found to be less in males with skeletal Class I pattern and H-CV4ia was found to be less in males with skeletal Class II pattern. The natural head posture showed no significant gender differences. Conclusion: The position of hyoid bone was closer to the cervical vertebra horizontally in skeletal Class II subjects when compared with skeletal Class I subjects. In males, the hyoid bone position was closer to the cervical vertebra horizontally both in skeletal Class I and skeletal Class II subjects.

  1. Analysis on perceptual sensitivity to head-related impulse responses in the median plane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Sung Mok [Samsung Heavy Industries, Geoje (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young Jin; Park, Youn Sik [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    This study deals with the perceptual sensitivity to Head-Related Impulse Responses (HRIRs) in the median plane based on a series of subjective listening tests using a pair of headphones. First, the non-individualized HRIRs were modeled from 12 principal components (PCs) extracted from Principal Components Analysis (PCA) of the CIPIC HRTF database. The Just Noticeable Difference (JND) in weight of PCs (PCWs) at each elevation was estimated. It was not observed the common elevation-dependent tendency or PCW-dependent tendency of JND in PCWs across the five subjects who participated in the tests, and the inter-subject variation of JND in PCWs was large. The JND in HRIRs can be estimated indirectly from the JND in PCWs because the HRIRs can be represented by a linear summation of the PCs weighted by PCWs. The common elevation-dependent tendency of JND in Directional Impulse Responses (DIRs), which are the mean-subtracted HRIRs, across the five subjects can be found. The change in PCWs does not seem to contribute to our perception of sound source characteristics; however, the resulting change in HRIRs due to the change in PCWs seems to contribute. The subjects showed larger JND in DIRs in the frontal region than in the rear region. This means that our perception of sound source characteristics is more sensitive for frontal sources than rear sources

  2. Revision of the Wayne State University Medical Library subject catalog using the 1966 Medical Subject Heading system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pings, V M; Ferrario, J A

    1967-01-01

    Wayne State University Medical Library (WSUML) revised its monograph subject catalog in 1961 utilizing the 1960 edition of MeSH as an authority list. With the introduction of MEDLARS in 1963 by NLM, all topical subheadings were omitted from MeSH. Inasmuch as this omission could not accommodate the needs of WSUML, the 1960 edition of MeSH was retained as a guideline. In January 1966, when MeSH resumed the incorporation of topical subheadings, WSUML was faced with a decision whether to continue the current policy or to adopt the form as presented in the latest edition of MeSH. This report describes the methodology employed in adopting a new policy, the findings which resulted from the change, and an evaluation of this reorganization.

  3. Bovine Related Head Trauma in Tema- A Case Report. | Andrews ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clinical Presentation: We report the case of a 47-year old man who presented with mental status changes and a scalp laceration. A head CT scan revealed a left temporal bone non-depressed skull fracture, pneumocephalus, an intraaxial temporal lobe hematoma and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Intervention: The patient ...

  4. Attrition tendinitis of long head of biceps brachii in relation to humeral head osteonecrosis: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesler, Ethan R; Sarlikiotis, Thomas; Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Kokkalis, Zinon T

    2013-01-01

    This case report identifies a 41-year-old male patient who developed anterior shoulder pain in the setting of humeral head osteonecrosis. As a consequence of the cartilage degeneration, multiple loose bodies formed and migrated into the bicipital tendon sheath, causing attrition tendinitis, which was a feature of the clinical presentation. The patient was treated by a combination of arthroscopic glenohumeral joint debridement and open tenodesis of the biceps using a suture anchor. Follow-up revealed asymptomatic shoulder function by 18 months. This is the first report in the literature of bicipital tendinitis in the context of avascular necrosis of the shoulder.

  5. EmptyHeaded: A Relational Engine for Graph Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberger, Christopher R; Tu, Susan; Olukotun, Kunle; Ré, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    There are two types of high-performance graph processing engines: low- and high-level engines. Low-level engines (Galois, PowerGraph, Snap) provide optimized data structures and computation models but require users to write low-level imperative code, hence ensuring that efficiency is the burden of the user. In high-level engines, users write in query languages like datalog (SociaLite) or SQL (Grail). High-level engines are easier to use but are orders of magnitude slower than the low-level graph engines. We present EmptyHeaded, a high-level engine that supports a rich datalog-like query language and achieves performance comparable to that of low-level engines. At the core of EmptyHeaded's design is a new class of join algorithms that satisfy strong theoretical guarantees but have thus far not achieved performance comparable to that of specialized graph processing engines. To achieve high performance, EmptyHeaded introduces a new join engine architecture, including a novel query optimizer and data layouts that leverage single-instruction multiple data (SIMD) parallelism. With this architecture, EmptyHeaded outperforms high-level approaches by up to three orders of magnitude on graph pattern queries, PageRank, and Single-Source Shortest Paths (SSSP) and is an order of magnitude faster than many low-level baselines. We validate that EmptyHeaded competes with the best-of-breed low-level engine (Galois), achieving comparable performance on PageRank and at most 3× worse performance on SSSP.

  6. 'Goats that stare at men': dwarf goats alter their behaviour in response to human head orientation, but do not spontaneously use head direction as a cue in a food-related context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawroth, Christian; von Borell, Eberhard; Langbein, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Recently, comparative research on the mechanisms and species-specific adaptive values of attributing attentive states and using communicative cues has gained increased interest, particularly in non-human primates, birds, and dogs. Here, we investigate these phenomena in a farm animal species, the dwarf goat (Capra aegagrus hircus). In the first experiment, we investigated the effects of different human head and body orientations, as well as human experimenter presence/absence, on the behaviour of goats in a food-anticipating paradigm. Over a 30-s interval, the experimenter engaged in one of four different postures or behaviours (head and body towards the subject-'Control', head to the side, head and body away from the subject, or leaving the room) before delivering a reward. We found that the level of subjects' active anticipatory behaviour was highest in the control condition and decreased with a decreasing level of attention paid to the subject by the experimenter. Additionally, goats 'stared' (i.e. stood alert) at the experimental set-up for significantly more time when the experimenter was present but paid less attention to the subject ('Head' and 'Back' condition) than in the 'Control' and 'Out' conditions. In a second experiment, the experimenter provided different human-given cues that indicated the location of a hidden food reward in a two-way object choice task. Goats were able to use both 'Touch' and 'Point' cues to infer the correct location of the reward but did not perform above the level expected by chance in the 'Head only' condition. We conclude that goats are able to differentiate among different body postures of a human, including head orientation; however, despite their success at using multiple physical human cues, they fail to spontaneously use human head direction as a cue in a food-related context.

  7. Gender-related dissociations of categorical fluency in normal subjects and in subjects with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Camillo; Ferraccioli, Monica; Gainotti, Guido

    2007-03-01

    Semantic fluency tasks, with the categories of birds and furniture as stimuli, were administered to normal subjects and patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Normal subjects showed a gender-related double dissociation consistent with the literature data because men were more fluent with the birds category and women with the furniture category. Also, patients with AD showed a Gender x Category interaction, but the double dissociation between birds and furniture was not present because of a prevalent impairment of the living category birds that was irrespective of gender. This pattern of impairment in patients with AD was independent from the disease stage. The authors conclude that (a) gender-related categorical effects cannot be considered as inborn, sex-related cognitive differences but as familiarity effects and (b) both lesion-related and familiarity-related factors must be taken into account to explain category-specific effects of patients with brain damage and patients with AD.

  8. Teacher Related Factors Influencing Students' Enrollment in Biology Subject in Public Secondary Schools in Meru Central Sub County in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirima, Teresia Mugure; Kinyua, Susan Muthoni

    2016-01-01

    This study examined teacher related factors influencing students' enrollment in Biology subject in public secondary schools in Meru Central Sub County in Kenya. The study utilized the descriptive survey research design on a target population of 9,859 respondents consisting of 9,748 Biology students, 62 trained Biology teachers and 49 Heads of…

  9. [Predict factors associated with malnutrition from patient generated subjective global assessment (PG-SGA) in head and neck cancer patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arribas, L; Hurtós, L; Milà, R; Fort, E; Peiró, I

    2013-01-01

    Patient Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) is a validated tool for nutrition evaluation in patients with cancer. The aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence of malnutrition in head and neck cancer patients at diagnosis and evaluate the independent prognostic factors for malnutrition from PG-SGA. All outpatients attending at the Head and Neck Cancer Multidisciplinary Meeting for primary diagnosis, staging and treatment were evaluated by an oncology dietitian using the patient generated subjective global assessment (PG-SGA). Patients with recurrences or secondary tumours will be excluded. 64 patients were evaluated (55 men and 9 women) with an average age of 63 years and body mass index (BMI) of 25.3 kg/m(2) (SD ± 5.18). After the nutritional assessment we observed that 43.8% of patients were malnourished or at risk of malnutrition. The most frequent symptom at diagnosis was dysphagia (48.4%) and anorexia (26.6%). From PG-SGA, the main prognostic factors (p<0,001) were the percentage of weight loss, serum albumin levels, BMI and the presence of dysphagia or/and anorexia prior diagnosis. Parameters as BMI, weight loss and low albumin levels at the time of diagnosis in head and neck cancer patients are independent predictors for malnutrition as well as the presence of anorexia or dysphagia.reaffirms the need for sustainability of interventions over time. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  10. Subjective performance evaluations and reciprocity in principal-agent relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sebald, Alexander Christopher; Walzl, Markus

    2014-01-01

    . In contrast to existing models of reciprocity, we find that agents tend to sanction whenever the feedback of principals is below their subjective self-evaluations even if agents' pay-offs are independent of it. In turn, principals provide more positive feedback (relative to their actual performance assessment......We conduct a laboratory experiment with agents working on, and principals benefiting from, a real effort task in which the agents' performance can only be evaluated subjectively. Principals give subjective performance feedback to agents, and agents have an opportunity to sanction principals...

  11. Working memory capacity among collegiate student athletes: effects of sport-related head contacts, concussions, and working memory demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayers, Lester B; Redick, Thomas S; Chiffriller, Sheila H; Simone, Ashley N; Terraforte, Keith R

    2011-06-01

    To measure working memory capacity among a cohort of collegiate athletes and to compare results between athletes competing in head-contact-prone sports with those not subject to repeated head contacts. A secondary objective was to determine the effect of sport-related concussion on working memory capacity. Ambidirectional cohort study. Athletics department at an American university. Student athletes competing in various sports. None. Automated operation span test scores. Working memory capacity is not impaired in student athletes who participate in head-contact-prone sports or in student athletes with a history of diagnosed concussion, even those who are multiconcussed. Our results suggest that athletes competing in sports that impose significant working memory loading score higher on the automated operation span test than do other athletes. Further research is required to determine the value of measuring working memory capacity in acutely concussed, symptomatic athletes.

  12. Head Related Transfer Function Approximation Using Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Matthew had five dimensions, x and y visually and frequency, timbre and amplitude phonically . Smith, Bergeron and Grinstein also combined auditory...specific, direction-dependent acoustic effects imposed on an incoming signal by the pinnae (3:361-362)." It should be noted that not only 26 the...Interaural Delay of a Progressive Sound Wave Caused by the Human Head," Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 58:693-700 (September 1975). 2. Begault

  13. Subject Extraction out of Free Relatives in Norwegian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anya Hogoboom

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines an anomalous construction in Norwegian that appears to be leftward extraction of a subject out of a wh island. This extraction seems to be allowed out of a free relative clause in adjunct position, under certain semantic conditions. The range of this construction is tested and reported on. It is found that this extraction is only allowed when the matrix verb and the free relative verb fall into certain categories. In addition, there are also restrictions on the extracted subject. An explanation as to why the components of the sentence in such extractions are restricted in the way they are is put forth.

  14. Dental needs in Brazilian patients subjected to head and neck radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales, Ana Carolina de Mesquita Netto; Jorge, Jacks; Almeida, Oslei Paes de; Lopes, Marcio Ajudarte [University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Piracicaba Dental School. Dept. of Oral Diagnosis], e-mail: malopes@fop.unicamp.br; Esteves, Sergio Carlos Barros [Center of Oncology, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    In spite of its recognized benefits in the treatment of malignant tumors, radiation therapy have several side effects in the head and neck region. The evaluation of oral conditions by a dentist is important to prevent or minimize these problems. The aim of this retrospective review was to analyze the dental needs in 357 patients who received radiotherapy in the head and neck region and were treated at Orocentro/FOP/UNICAMP, between January 1990 and December 2004. Review of patient files showed that dental examination before radiotherapy was not performed in 148 patients (41.5%) and was done in 209 patients (58.5%). From the total of examined patients, 94 (45%) did not require dental procedures at the moment of examination, while 115 (55%) presented some sort of dental need. Following the patients after the radiotherapy, it was observed that the group of patients that was evaluated before radiation presented less need of restorations, root canal filling and dental extractions than those who were not evaluated. The results of this study confirm that the evaluation of oral conditions prior to radiotherapy is essential to minimize the dental needs, emphasizing the importance of the dentist in the multidisciplinary team that treats cancer patients. (author)

  15. State Confessional Relations: Problem of the Subject Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra A. Dorskaya

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article various existing definitions of the concept "state and confessional relations" are analyzed, also author's definition is offered. Three levels of the state and confessional relations are revealed: conceptual, legislative and administrative-managerial. In the article it is shown that in Russia a tradition of only two subjects of the state and confessional relations – government bodies and the religious organizations allocation exists. It is revealed that at the present stage many researchers are dissatisfied with such situation. Scientific sources of the problem of the state and church relations within the psychological school of the law, which are addressed to the personality and experiences in the legal sphere are studied and revealed. Special attention is paid to scientific heritage of the M.A. Reysner, who was one of the first to begin study of this problem. In the article the question of the school of three subjects of the state and confessional relations allocation formation, what adds the faithful or faithless personality in addition to two traditional subjects is analyzed. The state and confessional relations are considered in the context of the human rights development. The question of new type of the believer possessing high education level and knowledge formation is considered. In the article it is shown that at the present stage relations of any regulation between the state and religious organizations is based on the basis of international legal standards, domestic legislation and norms of canon law.

  16. Dairy intake-related intentions, attitudes, subjective norms and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: An electronic survey (Qualtrics Online Survey Software) of conveniently sampled Association for Dietetics in South Africa (ADSA) and Nutrition Society of South Africa (NSSA) members determined their dairy-related behaviour, intentions, attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control regarding ...

  17. Neck rigidity in Parkinson's disease patients is related to incomplete suppression of reflexive head stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasopoulos, Dimitri; Maurer, Christoph; Nasios, Gregory; Mergner, Thomas

    2009-06-01

    Muscle rigidity in PD (Parkinson's disease) patients represents an involuntary increase in muscle tone that stands out upon passive rotation of a joint. The pathophysiology of rigidity is still not well understood. We measured head-trunk torque in PD patients and normal controls during transient passive head rotations by means of servomotors under the instruction to the subjects to relax the neck muscles. We observed that rotation onset was followed by an initial rapid rise in resistive torque, similarly in both subject groups. It then leveled off or declined in controls. With PD patients, in contrast, the rise continued roughly proportional to head eccentricity almost until the end of the rotation. These observations led us to the hypothesis that the initial rise in torque represents reflexive head stabilization that normal subjects in the course of the rotational stimulus are able to suppress, whereas PD patients are less effective in doing so. The hypothesis was implemented into a dynamic control model of active and passive head rotation. Model simulations successfully reproduced the torque responses of normal subjects and PD patients in the present and previous studies.

  18. Smartphone Restriction and its Effect on Subjective Withdrawal Related Scores

    OpenAIRE

    Aarestad, Sarah Helene; Eide, Tine Almenning

    2017-01-01

    Smartphone overuse is associated with a number of negative consequences for the individual and the environment. In the right end of the distribution of smartphone usage, concepts such as smartphone addiction seem warranted. An area that so far lacks research concerns the effect of smartphone restriction generally and specifically on subjective withdrawal related scores across different degrees of smartphone usage. The present study examined withdrawal related scores on the Smartphone Withdraw...

  19. Against information structure heads: A relational analysis of German scrambling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Struckmeier

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article argues against cascades of information-structural functional heads in the German middle field as an explanation for scrambling movements. Instead, we argue, some instances of scrambling correlate with sentence-level semantic effects, whereas other word order changes are affected by prosody and do not have any interpretative effects. An alternative architecture for scrambling is developed, which takes into account the clear empirical differences between these different subtypes of what is summarily called ‘scrambling’. In this architecture, syntax underspecifies word order and is ignorant of information structure. The apparent interaction of word order, semantic interpretations and discourse is explained by an interface architecture that licenses word orders on the basis of their syntactic, semantic and prosodic (but not information structural properties.

  20. Comparison of Medical Subject Headings and text-word searches in MEDLINE to retrieve studies on sleep in healthy individuals*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenuwine, Elizabeth S.; Floyd, Judith A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to investigate the performance of two search strategies in the retrieval of primary research papers containing descriptive information on the sleep of healthy people from MEDLINE. Methodology: Two search strategies—one based on the use of only Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), the second based on text-word searching—were evaluated as to their specificity and sensitivity in retrieving a set of relevant research papers published in the journal Sleep from 1996 to 2001 that were preselected by a hand search. Results: The subject search provided higher specificity than the text-word search (66% and 47%, respectively) but lower sensitivity (78% for the subject search versus 88% for the text-word search). Each search strategy gave some unique relevant hits. Conclusions: The two search strategies complemented each other and should be used together for maximal retrieval. No combination of MeSH terms could provide comprehensive yet reasonably precise retrieval of relevant articles. The text-word searching had sensitivity and specificity comparable to the subject search. In addition, use of text words “normal,” “healthy,” and “control” in the title or abstract fields to limit the final sets provided an efficient way to increase the specificity of both search strategies. PMID:15243641

  1. Three-Way Catalog Division Combined with Conversion to Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) in a Medium-sized Medical Library *†

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNutt, Eleanor M.; Poland, Ursula H.

    1974-01-01

    Conversion to MeSH and other reasons are enumerated for the division of an undivided dictionary card catalog into a three-way divided catalog, consisting of Proper Names, Titles, and Topical Subjects sections. Methodology of division is described. Conversion from Library of Congress Subject Headings to Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) as an authority list stimulated such concurrent changes as (1) the introduction of a guide card system that eliminates typing of subject headings on catalog cards and (2) the adoption of a filing system that employs reverse chronological order for all types of sequential material in the Proper Names and Titles sections and for all material in the Topical Subjects section. The ancillary decisions, procedures, and methods necessitated by these major conversions are also described. PMID:4462686

  2. Competition Between ‘Who’ and ‘Which’ in Slavic Light-Headed Relative Clauses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. Kholodilova

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The relativization systems of most Slavic languages include relative pronouns that can be conventionally labelled as ‘who’ and ‘which’ and differ in a number of logically independent parameters (etymology, animacy, grammaticality of attributive contexts, and morphological distinction for number and gender. Prior research has shown that the choice between ‘who’ and ‘which’ in Slavic languages is largely dependent on the head type. Some of the languages allow the ‘who’ pronouns to be used with pronominal heads, but not with nouns in the head, while in others, the pronominal heads in the plural are also ungrammatical with the pronoun ‘who.’ The present study aims to complement the available qualitative data on the distribution of the relativizers with quantitative data and to propose a unified account for all the observed tendencies. A corpus-based study was conducted in order to establish language-internal statistical tendencies comparable to the known grammaticality restrictions. The results show much agreement between the qualitative and quantitative tendencies. Thus, the head ‘those,’ unlike the head ‘that,’ is incompatible with the relativizer ‘who’ in Slovak, Polish, Upper Sorbian, and Lower Sorbian languages, while the same tendency is quantitative in Czech, Slovene, Serbo-Croatian, Ukrainian, Belarusian, and the older varieties of Russian. Corpus data suggest that there is also a stronger tendency for the relative pronoun ‘who’ to be avoided with the head ‘those’ than with the head ‘all.’ One more relevant parameter is the semantic type of the clause, maximalizing semantics being the preferred option for ‘who.’ I suggest that all these and some other tendencies can be subsumed under a macro-parameter of the extent to which the head is integrated into the relative clause.

  3. Image quality analysis of high-density diffuse optical tomography incorporating a subject-specific head model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxuan eZhan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available High-density diffuse optical tomography (HD-DOT methods have shown significant improvement in localization accuracy and image resolution compared to traditional topographic near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS of the human brain. In this work we provide a comprehensive evaluation of image quality in visual cortex mapping via a simulation study with the use of an anatomical head model derived from MRI data of a human subject. A model of individual head anatomy provides the surface shape and internal structure that allow for the construction of a more realistic physical model for the forward problem, as well as the use of a structural constraint in the inverse problem. The HD-DOT model utilized here incorporates multiple source-detector separations with continuous-wave data with added noise based on experimental results. To evaluate image quality we quantify the localization error and localized volume at half maximum (LVHM throughout a region of interest (ROI within the visual cortex and systematically analyze the use of whole brain tissue spatial constraint within image reconstruction. Our results demonstrate that an image quality with less than 10 mm in localization error and 1000 m3 in LVHM can be obtained up to 13 mm below the scalp surface with a typical unconstrained reconstruction and up to 18 mm deep when a spatial constraint based on the brain tissue is utilized.

  4. Bibliometric Perspectives on Medical Innovation using the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) of PubMed

    CERN Document Server

    Leydesdorff, Loet; Rafols, Ismael

    2012-01-01

    Multiple perspectives on the nonlinear processes of medical innovations can be distinguished and combined using the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) of the Medline database. Focusing on three main branches-"diseases," "drugs and chemicals," and "techniques and equipment"-we use base maps and overlay techniques to investigate the translations and interactions and thus to gain a bibliometric perspective on the dynamics of medical innovations. To this end, we first analyze the Medline database, the MeSH index tree, and the various options for a static mapping from different perspectives and at different levels of aggregation. Following a specific innovation (RNA interference) over time, the notion of a trajectory which leaves a signature in the database is elaborated. Can the detailed index terms describing the dynamics of research be used to predict the diffusion dynamics of research results? Possibilities are specified for further integration between the Medline database, on the one hand, and the Science Citati...

  5. Directional resolution of head-related transfer functions required in binaural synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minnaar, Pauli; Plogsties, Jan; Christensen, Flemming

    2005-01-01

    In binaural synthesis a virtual sound source is implemented by convolving an anechoic signal with a pair of head-related transfer functions (HRTFs). In order to represent all possible directions of the sound source with respect to the listener a discrete number of HRTFs are measured...... and moving sound sources. A criterion was found that predicts the experimental results. This criterion was used to estimate the directional resolution required in binaural synthesis for all directions on the sphere around the head....

  6. PERSONALITY AS SUBJECT OF THE RELATION TO THE STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Aleksandrovna Klenova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this scientific article results of the empirical research devoted to studying of the personality as the subject of the relation to a stress are presented. The understanding of a phenomenon of a stress not only taking into account social and psychological features of the personality, but also with inclusion of such category as representations of a stress and the relation towards him for the first time is considered by authors. In empirical research it is established that there are five types of the personality, as subjects of the relation to a stress according to their social and psychological features and ideas of a stress. «Destructive persons» – differ in the reduced level of social and psychological adaptation, they are motivated on failure, and the stress is perceived by them as emotional excitement. «Constructive persons» possess the high level of social and psychological adaptation, are focused on success, for them emotional burning out isn’t characteristic, and their representations and the relation to a stress is based on acceptance of existence of eustressor. «Emotional and intense persons» differ in uneasiness, high level of emotional burning out, and their ideas of a stress are based only on negative characteristics. «Sensitive persons» are characterized by the high level of sensitivity, and their relation to a stress can be defined as «mental anguish». For «rational persons» cognitive approach to a situation of a stress and idea of it as about response of an organism to negative emotions is peculiar. Thus, this scientific article represents results of original research of the personality from a position of its relation to a stress.Purpose: to study social and psychological features of the personality with inclusion of such category as «representations and the relation to a stress».Method or methodology of research it is based on the concept of social representations of S.Moskovichi, and also on the subject

  7. The immunity-related GTPase Irga6 dimerizes in a parallel head-to-head fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Kathrin; Pawlowski, Nikolaus; Faelber, Katja; Fröhlich, Chris; Howard, Jonathan; Daumke, Oliver

    2016-03-02

    The immunity-related GTPases (IRGs) constitute a powerful cell-autonomous resistance system against several intracellular pathogens. Irga6 is a dynamin-like protein that oligomerizes at the parasitophorous vacuolar membrane (PVM) of Toxoplasma gondii leading to its vesiculation. Based on a previous biochemical analysis, it has been proposed that the GTPase domains of Irga6 dimerize in an antiparallel fashion during oligomerization. We determined the crystal structure of an oligomerization-impaired Irga6 mutant bound to a non-hydrolyzable GTP analog. Contrary to the previous model, the structure shows that the GTPase domains dimerize in a parallel fashion. The nucleotides in the center of the interface participate in dimerization by forming symmetric contacts with each other and with the switch I region of the opposing Irga6 molecule. The latter contact appears to activate GTP hydrolysis by stabilizing the position of the catalytic glutamate 106 in switch I close to the active site. Further dimerization contacts involve switch II, the G4 helix and the trans stabilizing loop. The Irga6 structure features a parallel GTPase domain dimer, which appears to be a unifying feature of all dynamin and septin superfamily members. This study contributes important insights into the assembly and catalytic mechanisms of IRG proteins as prerequisite to understand their anti-microbial action.

  8. A heads up on concussions: are there sex-related differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Emily M; Luo, Xuan; Curry, Emily J; Matzkin, Elizabeth G

    2016-01-01

    Head injuries are a major concern for physicians in athletes of all ages. Specifically, sports-related concussions are becoming an all-too-common injury among female athletes. The incidence of concussions among female athletes has likely increased over the past few decades because of an increase in sports participation afforded by Title IX. It would be useful for physicians to have general knowledge of concussions and their potential sex-related differences. This review article summarizes the current body of research concerning sex-related differences in concussion epidemiology and outcomes. A literature search was performed using PubMed and included all articles published from 1993 to present, with a predominant focus on research conducted over the past fifteen years. Additional articles were found using the bibliography from articles found through the PubMed search. Several articles have compared incidence, severity of neurological deficit, constellation of symptoms, and length of recovery post-concussion in males and females. However, the literature does not unanimously support a significant sex-related difference in concussions. Lack of consensus in the literature can be attributed to differences between patient populations, different tools used to study concussions, including subjective or objective measures, and differences in mechanisms of injury. We conclude that concussions are a serious injury in both male and female athletes, and physicians should have a very high index of suspicion regardless of sex, because there currently is not sufficient consensus in the literature to institute sex-related changes to concussion management. Current research may suggest a sex-related difference pertaining to sports-related concussions, but further evaluation is needed on this topic.

  9. Female-headed households contending with AIDS-related hardship in rural South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, Enid; Madhavan, Sangeetha; Williams, Jill

    2011-01-01

    Mainstream research and the popular media often equate female-headship with household vulnerability, crisis, and disorganization. Epidemic levels of HIV/AIDS in some parts of sub-Saharan Africa compound this portrait of hopelessness. In South Africa, the impact of HIV/AIDS on households depends on race, class, and place. As female-headed households increase in number, we need to better understand how female-heads in poor rural areas contend with AIDS related challenges. We analyze qualitative interviews with 16 female heads and the members of their households in a rural community to examine the response to AIDS-related illness, death, or caring for orphaned children. Our analysis examines female-heads' financial and social resources and how these resources buffer against hardship in households affected by AIDS. We find considerable heterogeneity among rural female-headed households and their access to resources to combat AIDS-related hardship. Our findings have important policy implications both in terms of identifying individual and household vulnerabilities as well as leveraging the potential for resilience for female-heads in rural South African communities. PMID:21292533

  10. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  11. Head-to-toe whole-body MRI in psoriatic arthritis, axial spondyloarthritis and healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poggenborg, René Panduro; Pedersen, Susanne Juhl; Eshed, Iris

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: By whole-body MRI (WBMRI), we aimed to examine the frequency and distribution of inflammatory and structural lesions in PsA patients, SpA patients and healthy subjects (HSs), to introduce global WBMRI inflammation/damage scores, and to assess WBMRI's reproducibility and correlation...... of inflammation and structural damage were constructed, and WBMRI findings were compared with clinical measures and convMRI (SpA/HS: spine and SI joints; PsA/HS: hand). RESULTS: The readability (92-100%) and reproducibility (intrareader intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.62-1.0) were high in spine/SI joint......-15]} and SpA [8 (IQR 2-14)] than in HSs [2.5 (IQR 1-4.5)], both P structural damage scores (erosion, fat infiltration and ankylosis) were higher in SpA [7 (IQR 3-12)] than HSs [1.5 (IQR 0-4.5)], P = 0.012. Correlations between WBMRI and convMRI spine and SI joint scores were ρ = 0...

  12. Activation of biceps femoris long head reduces tibiofemoral anterior shear force and tibial internal rotation torque in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Nur Liyana; Ding, Ziyun; Xu, Rui; Bull, Anthony M J

    2018-01-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) provides resistance to tibial internal rotation torque and anterior shear at the knee. ACL deficiency results in knee instability. Optimisation of muscle contraction through functional electrical stimulation (FES) offers the prospect of mitigating the destabilising effects of ACL deficiency. The hypothesis of this study is that activation of the biceps femoris long head (BFLH) reduces the tibial internal rotation torque and the anterior shear force at the knee. Gait data of twelve healthy subjects were measured with and without the application of FES and taken as inputs to a computational musculoskeletal model. The model was used to investigate the optimum levels of BFLH activation during FES gait in reducing the anterior shear force to zero. This study found that FES significantly reduced the tibial internal rotation torque at the knee during the stance phase of gait (p = 0.0322) and the computational musculoskeletal modelling revealed that a mean BFLH activation of 20.8% (±8.4%) could reduce the anterior shear force to zero. At the time frame when the anterior shear force was zero, the internal rotation torque was reduced by 0.023 ± 0.0167 Nm/BW, with a mean 188% reduction across subjects (p = 0.0002). In conclusion, activation of the BFLH is able to reduce the tibial internal rotation torque and the anterior shear force at the knee in healthy control subjects. This should be tested on ACL deficient subject to consider its effect in mitigating instability due to ligament deficiency. In future clinical practice, activating the BFLH may be used to protect ACL reconstructions during post-operative rehabilitation, assist with residual instabilities post reconstruction, and reduce the need for ACL reconstruction surgery in some cases.

  13. Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) for indexing and retrieving open-source healthcare data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marc, David T; Khairat, Saif S

    2014-01-01

    The US federal government initiated the Open Government Directive where federal agencies are required to publish high value datasets so that they are available to the public. Data.gov and the community site Healthdata.gov were initiated to disperse such datasets. However, data searches and retrieval for these sites are keyword driven and severely limited in performance. The purpose of this paper is to address the issue of extracting relevant open-source data by proposing a method of adopting the MeSH framework for indexing and data retrieval. A pilot study was conducted to compare the performance of traditional keywords to MeSH terms for retrieving relevant open-source datasets related to "mortality". The MeSH framework resulted in greater sensitivity with comparable specificity to the keyword search. MeSH showed promise as a method for indexing and retrieving data, yet future research should conduct a larger scale evaluation of the performance of the MeSH framework for retrieving relevant open-source healthcare datasets.

  14. Scored Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment, albumin and transferrin for nutritional assessment of gastrostomy fed head or neck cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correira Pereira, Marta Alexandra; Santos, Carla Adriana; Almeida Brito, José; Fonseca, Jorge

    2014-02-01

    Gastrostomy fed head or neck cancer patients frequently have impaired speech capacities. Enteral feeding teams frequently depend on laboratorial or anthropometrical parameters for nutritional assessment. In these patients, this study aimed to evaluate: (1) the practicability of Scored - Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA); (2) their nutritional status using the Scored-PG-SGA; (3) association of serum albumin and transferrin values to the nutritional status rating using PG-SGA. On adult outpatients with head or neck cancer under prolonged (> 1 month) gastrostomy feeding, Scored-PGSGA, albumin and transferrin were evaluated during the same appointment. Scored-PG-SGA was easily feasible in 42 patients, even in patients with speech difficulties. Twenty-five patients were moderately/severely undernourished (PG-SGA/B+C). Scored-PG-SGA rated 41 patients as ≥ 2, thus needing nutritional/ pharmacologic intervention. Albumin was low in 13 patients. Transferrin was low in 19 patients. Average albumin and transferrin in moderately/severely undernourished patients (PG-SGA/B+C) was significantly lower than in well-nourished (PG-SGA/A). There was association between Scored- PG-SGA rating, albumin and transferrin. In PEG fed head or neck cancer patients, PGSGA was practicable and useful, even in patients with impaired speaking skills. Most patients displayed moderate/severe malnutrition (PG-SGA/B+C). Scored-PG-SGA rated 41 patients as needing for nutritional/pharmacological intervention. Scored-PG-SGA should be systematically included in the evaluation of these patients. In these patients, albumin and transferrin levels showed relation with Scored-PG-SGA and should be considered as nutritional biomarkers. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  15. Survey of keyword adjustment of published articles medical subject headings in journal of mazandaran university of medical sciences (2009-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabirzadeh, Azar; Siamian, Hasan; Abadi, Ebrahim Bagherian Farah; Saravi, Benyamin Mohseni

    2013-01-01

    NONE DECLARED. Keywords are the most important tools for Information retrieval. They are usually used for retrieval of articles based on contents of information reserved from printed and electronic resources. Retrieval of appropriate keywords from Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) can impact with exact, correctness and short time on information retrieval. Regarding the above mentioned matters, this study was done to compare the Latin keywords was in the articles published in the Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. This is a descriptive study. The data were extracted from the key words of Englsih abstracts of articles published in the years 2009-2010 in the Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences by census method. Checklist of data collection is designed, based on research objectives and literature review which has face validity. Compliance rate in this study was to determine if the keywords cited in this article as a full subject of the main subject headings in a MeSH (Bold and the selected word) is a perfect adjustment. If keywords were cited in the article but the main heading is not discussed in the following main topics to be discussed with reference to See and See related it has considered has partial adjustment. Out of 148 articles published in 12 issues in proposed time of studying, 72 research papers were analyzed. The average numbers of authors in each article were 4 ± 1. Results showed that most of specialty papers 42 (58. 4%), belonging to the (Department of Clinical Sciences) School of Medicine, 11 (15.3%) Basic Science, 6(8.4%) Pharmacy, Nursing and Midwifery 5(6.9%), 4(5.5%) Health, paramedical Sciences 3(4.2%), and non medical article 1(1.3%) school of medicine. In general, results showed that 80 (30%) of key words have been used to complete the adjustment. Also, only 1(1.4%) had complete adjustment with all the MeSH key words and in 8 articles(11.4%) key words of had no adjustment with MeSH. The results showed that only

  16. Directional loudness in an anechoic sound field, head-related transfer functions, and binaural summation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivonen, Ville Pekka; Ellermeier, Wolfgang

    2006-05-01

    The effect of sound incidence angle on loudness was investigated using real sound sources positioned in an anechoic chamber. Eight normal-hearing listeners produced loudness matches between a frontal reference location and seven sources placed at other directions, both in the horizontal and median planes. Matches were obtained via a two-interval, adaptive forced-choice (2AFC) procedure for three center frequencies (0.4, 1, and 5 kHz) and two overall levels (45 and 65 dB SPL). The results showed that loudness is not constant over sound incidence angles, with directional sensitivity varying over a range of up to 10 dB, exhibiting considerable frequency dependence, but only minor effects of overall level. The pattern of results varied substantially between subjects, but was largely accounted for by variations in individual head-related transfer functions. Modeling of binaural loudness based on the at-ear signals favored a sound-power summation model, according to which the maximum binaural gain is only 3 dB, over competing models based on larger gains, or on the summation of monaural loudness indices.

  17. Infinite-impulse-response models of the head-related transfer function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Abhijit; Colburn, H. Steven

    2004-04-01

    Head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) measured from human subjects were approximated using infinite-impulse-response (IIR) filter models. Models were restricted to rational transfer functions (plus simple delays) so that specific models are characterized by the locations of poles and zeros in the complex plane. The all-pole case (with no nontrivial zeros) is treated first using the theory of linear prediction. Then the general pole-zero model is derived using a weighted-least-squares (WLS) formulation of the modified least-squares problem proposed by Kalman (1958). Both estimation algorithms are based on solutions of sets of linear equations and result in efficient computational schemes to find low-order model HRTFs. The validity of each of these two low-order models was assessed in psychophysical experiments. Specifically, a four-interval, two-alternative, forced-choice paradigm was used to test the discriminability of virtual stimuli constructed from empirical and model HRTFs for corresponding locations. For these experiments, the stimuli were 80 ms, noise tokens generated from a wideband noise generator. Results show that sounds synthesized through model HRTFs were indistinguishable from sounds synthesized from original HRTF measurements for the majority of positions tested. The advantages of the techniques described here are the computational efficiencies achieved for low-order IIR models. Properties of the all-pole and pole-zero estimators are discussed in the context of low-order HRTF representations, and implications for basic and applied contexts are considered.

  18. Analysis of Blunt Trauma-Related Optic Nerve Head Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Özgönül

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: To investigate the clinical and laboratory features of patients with traumatic optic disk pallor. Ma te ri al and Met hod: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 45 patients (47 eyes, who were diagnosed with traumatic optic disc pallor in our clinic between 2005-2010. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA, biomicroscopic and fundoscopic findings were recorded. Analysis of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL and macular thickness maps, computerized visual field tests and visual evoked potentials (VEP were evaluated. We compared the data of pathologic eyes with the data of healthy eyes. Re sults: The mean age was 22.3±3.8 (20-37 years. Twenty (44.4% patients had traffic accident history, 9 (20% - object trauma, 8 (17.8% experienced work accident, and 8 (17.8% had home accident history. BCVA was at the level of 20/40 (0.5 and above in seven eyes, between 20/200 (0.1 and 20/50 (0.4 in 20 eyes, counting fingers in 15 eyes, hand motion and light perception in three eyes, and no light perception in two eyes. There was thinning of RNFL in pathologic eyes at all quadrants (p<0.05. Dis cus si on: Traumatic optic disc pallor is associated with permanent loss of visual acuity and visual field. Relative afferent pupillary defect, prolonged VEP latency, and low amplitudes are useful for the evaluation of the cases. RNFL and macular thickness map analysis are important methods to evaluate the damage objectively. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 103-6

  19. Best practice guidelines in the psychosocial management of HPV-related head and neck cancer: recommendations from the European Head and Neck Cancer Society's Make Sense Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, M; Licitra, L; Vermorken, J B; Bernier, J; Parmar, S; Golusinski, W; Castellsagué, X; Leemans, C R

    2016-10-01

    Over the past three decades, oral human papillomavirus (HPV) has been associated with an increase in the incidence of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) in several countries. Specialist oncologists in head and neck cancer are observing a wider range of demographics, sexual behaviours, and survival outcomes with their patients. Additionally, there are fewer smokers, consumers of alcohol, or people of lower socioeconomic status than in previous decades. In order to support patients, the European Head and Neck Society's Make Sense Campaign aims to promote best practice in the management of head and neck cancer through the delivery of counselling, psychological assessment, support with the patient experience following HPV-related cancer diagnosis, sexual impact (in terms of communication, behaviour and prevention), facilitating access to educational resources about HPV in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and OPSCC, and early referral if necessary. New concerns about psychosocial distress and unmet psychosocial needs following diagnosis, therefore, exist throughout the disease and treatment periods. Oncologists treating patients with HPV-related head and neck cancer must integrate new parameters focused on infection risk transmission and sexual topics. The development and dissemination of best practice guidelines through The European Head and Neck Cancer Society Make Sense Campaign will help healthcare professionals to be more confident and resourceful in supporting patients with HPV-related head and neck cancer. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Do recurrent seizure-related head injuries affect seizures in people with epilepsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, David E; Chiang, Sharon; Tobias, Ronnie S

    2012-02-01

    Seizure-related head injuries (SRHIs) are among the most commonly encountered injuries in people with epilepsy (PWE). Whether head injury has an effect on preexisting epilepsy is not known. The purpose of this study was to systematically assess for any possible effects of SRHIs on seizure frequency and seizure semiology over a 2-year period. We identified 204 patients who have been followed at the Baylor Comprehensive Epilepsy Center from 2008 to 2010. SRHI occurred in 18.1% of the cohort. Most injuries (91%) were classified as mild. Though seizure frequency varied following head injury, overall seizure frequency was not significantly impacted by presence or absence of SRHI over the 2-year study period. Changes in seizure semiology were not observed in those with SRHIs. Although mild SRHI is common among PWE, it does not appear to have an effect on seizure characteristics over a relatively short period. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Do recurrent seizure-related head injuries affect seizures in people with epilepsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, David E.; Chiang, Sharon; Tobias, Ronnie S.

    2015-01-01

    Seizure-related head injuries (SRHIs) are among the most commonly encountered injuries in people with epilepsy (PWE). Whether head injury has an effect on preexisting epilepsy is not known. The purpose of this study was to systematically assess for any possible effects of SRHIs on seizure frequency and seizure semiology over a 2-year period. We identified 204 patients who have been followed at the Baylor Comprehensive Epilepsy Center from 2008 to 2010. SRHI occurred in 18.1% of the cohort. Most injuries (91%) were classified as mild. Though seizure frequency varied following head injury, overall seizure frequency was not significantly impacted by presence or absence of SRHI over the 2-year study period. Changes in seizure semiology were not observed in those with SRHIs. Although mild SRHI is common among PWE, it does not appear to have an effect on seizure characteristics over a relatively short period. PMID:22227592

  2. [Relation between shoulder impingement syndrome and club head velocity in high-performance amateur golfers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostreicher, M; Schwarz, M

    2013-05-01

    Joint structure damages due to overstrain often occur even in commonly not injury-prone golfing. Triggered by the golf swing's repetitive movement pattern and technique deficits of the player these structural damages are most likely to affect the lumbar spine as well as shoulder and elbow joint. As a synonym for shoulder impingement symptoms in golfers the term golf shoulder has been established in medical terminology. Despite this fact, currently there exist no studies addressing the relation between shoulder impingement syndrome and club head velocity. The aim of this study was to highlight the relation between club head velocity deficits of high-performance amateur golfers and persisting shoulder impingement syndrome. All of the 31 high-performance amateur golfers included in this study were male, active tournament players and right hander. Each golfer was examined for shoulder impingement syndrome using the Neer test, the Hawkins-Kennedy test, the painful arc and the functional test of the M. infraspinatus. Based on the test results the participants were allocated to an impingement group or a non-impingement group. Additionally, each golfer's club head velocity was determined. Between the two groups a significant difference concerning the club head velocity has been reported. A persisting shoulder impingement syndrome can have a negative effect on club head velocity. In many shoulder studies predominantly the influence of pathological muscular balance alterations (myofascial dysfunction) is not taken into consideration. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Head repositioning accuracy in patients with neck pain and asymptomatic subjects: concurrent validity, influence of motion speed, motion direction and target distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugailly, Pierre-Michel; De Santis, Roberta; Tits, Mathieu; Sobczak, Stéphane; Vigne, Anna; Feipel, Véronique

    2015-12-01

    Cervicocephalic kinesthetic deficiencies have been demonstrated in patients with chronic neck pain (NP). On the other hand, authors emphasized the use of different motion speeds for assessing functional impairment of the cervical spine. The objectives of this study were (1) to investigate the head repositioning accuracy in NP patients and control subjects and (2) to assess the influence of target distance, motion speed, motion direction and pain. Seventy-one subjects (36 healthy subjects and 35 NP patients; age 30-55 years) performed the head repositioning test (HRT) at two different speeds for horizontal and vertical movements and at two different distances. For each condition, six consecutive trials were sampled. The study showed the validity and reproducibility of the HRT, confirming a dysfunctional threshold of 4.5°. Normative values of head repositioning error up to 3.6° and 7.1° were identified for healthy and NP subjects, respectively. A distance of 180 cm from the target and a natural motion speed increased HRT accuracy. Repositioning after extension movement showed a significantly larger error in both groups. Intensity, duration of pain as well as pain level did not significantly alter head repositioning error. The assessment of proprioceptive performance in healthy and NP subjects allowed the validation of the HRT. The HRT is a simple, not expensive and fast test, easily implementable in daily practice to assess and monitor treatment and evolution of proprioceptive cervical deficits.

  4. Time of elevation of head of bed for patients receiving mechanical ventilation and its related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí-Hereu, L; Arreciado Marañón, A

    The semirecumbent position is a widespread recommendation for the prevention of pneumonia associated with mechanical ventilation. To identify the time of elevation of head of bed for patients under mechanical ventilation and the factors related to such elevation in an intensive care unit. An observational, descriptive cross-sectional study. Conducted in an intensive care unit of a tertiary hospital from April to June 2015. The studied population were mechanically ventilated patients. Daily hours in which patients remained with the head of the bed elevated (≥30°), socio-demographic data and clinical variables were recorded. 261 head elevation measurements were collected. The average daily hours that patients remained at ≥30° was 16h28' (SD ±5h38'), equivalent to 68.6% (SD ±23.5%) of the day. Factors related to elevations ≥30° for longer were: enteral nutrition, levels of deep sedation, cardiac and neurocritical diagnostics. Factors that hindered the position were: sedation levels for agitation and abdominal pathologies. Sex, age and ventilation mode did not show a significant relationship with bed head elevation. Although raising the head of the bed is an easy to perform, economical and measurable preventive measure, its compliance is low due to specific factors specific related o the patient's clinical condition. Using innovations such as continuous measurement of the head position helps to evaluate clinical practice and allows to carry out improvement actions whose impact is beneficial to the patient. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Enfermería Intensiva y Unidades Coronarias (SEEIUC). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Quality of life related to oral function in edentulous head and neck cancer patients posttreatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoen, Pieter J.; Reintsema, Harry; Bouma, Jelte; Roodenburg, Jan L. N.; Vissink, Arjan; Raghoebar, Gerry M.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Surgical treatment of malignancies in the oral cavity and subsequent radiotherapy often result in an oral condition unfavorable for prosthodontic rehabilitation. This study assessed the quality of life related to oral function in edentulous head and neck cancer patients following oncology

  6. Compression of head-related transfer function using autoregressive-moving-average models and Legendre polynomials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shekarchi, Sayedali; Hallam, John; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    -moving-average (ARMA) filters whose coefficients are calculated using Prony's method. Such filters are specified by a few coefficients which can generate the full head-related impulse responses (HRIRs). Next, Legendre polynomials (LPs) are used to compress the ARMA filter coefficients. LPs are derived on the sphere...

  7. The Evolvement of International Secretariats, Executive Heads and Leadership in Inter-Organizational Relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinalda, B.; Kille, K.J.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter discusses inter-organizational relations (IORs) from the perspective of the international Secretariat of an International Governmental Organization (IGO) and the organization’s Executive Head. IORs are a long-standing phenomenon that resulted from the evolution of IGOs, the increase in

  8. Do recurrent seizure-related head injuries affect seizures in people with epilepsy?

    OpenAIRE

    Friedman, David E.; Chiang, Sharon; Tobias, Ronnie S.

    2012-01-01

    Seizure-related head injuries (SRHIs) are among the most commonly encountered injuries in people with epilepsy (PWE). Whether head injury has an effect on preexisting epilepsy is not known. The purpose of this study was to systematically assess for any possible effects of SRHIs on seizure frequency and seizure semiology over a 2-year period. We identified 204 patients who have been followed at the Baylor Comprehensive Epilepsy Center from 2008 to 2010. SRHI occurred in 18.1% of the cohort. Mo...

  9. Work-related penetrating head trauma caused by industrial grinder tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoli, Ali; Amirjamshidi, Abbass

    2009-09-01

    Nonmissile low-velocity penetrating brain injuries are unusual among civilian population. Work-related penetrating head wounds are rarer among this group. Here, we report two rare cases of penetrating head wounds caused by industrial grinder tool. The patients (both men) were struck to the head by detached blades of the grinder tool. Depressed fractures, penetrated bone fragments, and dural lacerations were all treated by the routine fashion. Paranasal sinus damage and further cerebrospinal fluid leakage were also treated conservatively. The reported cases are unexpected variants of injuries that neurosurgeons may come across and their management is still beyond the scope of textbooks. Skill and experience of the general neurosurgeons can handle the cases properly but prevention of such incidents using safer and guarded instruments should be stressed to manufacturers.

  10. Transcending Library Catalogs: A Comparative Study of Controlled Terms in Library of Congress Subject Headings and User-Generated Tags in LibraryThing for Transgender Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    Perhaps the greatest power of folksonomies, especially when set against controlled vocabularies like the Library of Congress Subject Headings, lies in their capacity to empower user communities to name their own resources in their own terms. This article analyzes the potential and limitations of both folksonomies and controlled vocabularies for…

  11. Cited References and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) as Two Different Knowledge Representations : Clustering and Mappings at the Paper Level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Comins, J.A.; Sorensen, A.A.; Bornmann, L.; Hellsten, I.

    2016-01-01

    For the biomedical sciences, the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) make available a rich feature which cannot currently be merged properly with widely used citing/cited data. Here, we provide methods and routines that make MeSH terms amenable to broader usage in the study of science indicators: using

  12. Comparison of optic area measurement using fundus photography and optical coherence tomography between optic nerve head drusen and control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Rodríguez, Patricia; Gili, Pablo; Martín-Ríos, María Dolores; Grifol-Clar, Eulalia

    2013-03-01

    To compare optic disc area measurement between optic nerve head drusen (ONHD) and control subjects using fundus photography, time-domain optical coherence tomography (TD-OCT) and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). We also made a comparison between each of the three techniques. We performed our study on 66 eyes (66 patients) with ONHD and 70 healthy control subjects (70 controls) with colour ocular fundus photography at 20º (Zeiss FF 450 IR plus), TD-OCT (Stratus OCT) with the Fast Optic Disc protocol and SD-OCT (Cirrus OCT) with the Optic Disc Cube 200 × 200 protocol for measurement of the optic disc area. The measurements were made by two observers and in each measurement a correction of the image magnification factor was performed. Measurement comparison using the Student's t-test/Mann-Whitney U test, the intraclass correlation coefficient, Pearson/Spearman rank correlation coefficient and the Bland-Altman plot was performed in the statistical analysis. Mean and standard deviation (SD) of the optic disc area in ONHD and in controls was 2.38 (0.54) mm(2) and 2.54 (0.42) mm(2), respectively with fundus photography; 2.01 (0.56) mm(2) and 1.66 (0.37) mm(2), respectively with TD-OCT, and 2.03 (0.49) mm(2) and 1.75 (0.38) mm(2), respectively with SD-OCT. In ONHD and controls, repeatability of optic disc area measurement was excellent with fundus photography and optical coherence tomography (TD-OCT and SD-OCT), but with a low degree of agreement between both techniques. Optic disc area measurement is smaller in ONHD compared to healthy subjects with fundus photography, unlike time-domain and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in which the reverse is true. Both techniques offer good repeatability, but a low degree of correlation and agreement, which means that optic disc area measurement is not interchangeable or comparable between techniques. Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2013 The College of Optometrists.

  13. Compensating for literature annotation bias when predicting novel drug-disease relationships through Medical Subject Heading Over-representation Profile (MeSHOP) similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Warren A; Ouellette, B F Francis; Wasserman, Wyeth W

    2013-01-01

    Using annotations to the articles in MEDLINE®/PubMed®, over six thousand chemical compounds with pharmacological actions have been tracked since 1996. Medical Subject Heading Over-representation Profiles (MeSHOPs) quantitatively leverage the literature associated with biological entities such as diseases or drugs, providing the opportunity to reposition known compounds towards novel disease applications. A MeSHOP is constructed by counting the number of times each medical subject term is assigned to an entity-related research publication in the MEDLINE database and calculating the significance of the count by comparing against the count of the term in a background set of publications. Based on the expectation that drugs suitable for treatment of a disease (or disease symptom) will have similar annotation properties to the disease, we successfully predict drug-disease associations by comparing MeSHOPs of diseases and drugs. The MeSHOP comparison approach delivers an 11% improvement over bibliometric baselines. However, novel drug-disease associations are observed to be biased towards drugs and diseases with more publications. To account for the annotation biases, a correction procedure is introduced and evaluated. By explicitly accounting for the annotation bias, unexpectedly similar drug-disease pairs are highlighted as candidates for drug repositioning research. MeSHOPs are shown to provide a literature-supported perspective for discovery of new links between drugs and diseases based on pre-existing knowledge.

  14. Persistent, long-term cerebral white matter changes after sports-related repetitive head impacts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey J Bazarian

    Full Text Available Repetitive head impacts (RHI sustained in contact sports are thought to be necessary for the long-term development of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE. Our objectives were to: 1 characterize the magnitude and persistence of RHI-induced white matter (WM changes; 2 determine their relationship to kinematic measures of RHI; and 3 explore their clinical relevance.Prospective, observational study of 10 Division III college football players and 5 non-athlete controls during the 2011-12 season. All subjects underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI, physiologic, cognitive, and balance testing at pre-season (Time 1, post-season (Time 2, and after 6-months of no-contact rest (Time 3. Head impact measures were recorded using helmet-mounted accelerometers. The percentage of whole-brain WM voxels with significant changes in fractional anisotropy (FA and mean diffusivity (MD from Time 1 to 2, and Time 1 to 3 was determined for each subject and correlated to head impacts and clinical measures.Total head impacts for the season ranged from 431-1,850. No athlete suffered a clinically evident concussion. Compared to controls, athletes experienced greater changes in FA and MD from Time 1 to 2 as well as Time 1 to 3; most differences at Time 2 persisted to Time 3. Among athletes, the percentage of voxels with decreased FA from Time 1 to 2 was positively correlated with several helmet impact measures. The persistence of WM changes from Time 1 to 3 was also associated with changes in serum ApoA1 and S100B autoantibodies. WM changes were not consistently associated with cognition or balance.A single football season of RHIs without clinically-evident concussion resulted in WM changes that correlated with multiple helmet impact measures and persisted following 6 months of no-contact rest. This lack of WM recovery could potentially contribute to cumulative WM changes with subsequent RHI exposures.

  15. Persistent, long-term cerebral white matter changes after sports-related repetitive head impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazarian, Jeffrey J; Zhu, Tong; Zhong, Jianhui; Janigro, Damir; Rozen, Eric; Roberts, Andrew; Javien, Hannah; Merchant-Borna, Kian; Abar, Beau; Blackman, Eric G

    2014-01-01

    Repetitive head impacts (RHI) sustained in contact sports are thought to be necessary for the long-term development of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Our objectives were to: 1) characterize the magnitude and persistence of RHI-induced white matter (WM) changes; 2) determine their relationship to kinematic measures of RHI; and 3) explore their clinical relevance. Prospective, observational study of 10 Division III college football players and 5 non-athlete controls during the 2011-12 season. All subjects underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), physiologic, cognitive, and balance testing at pre-season (Time 1), post-season (Time 2), and after 6-months of no-contact rest (Time 3). Head impact measures were recorded using helmet-mounted accelerometers. The percentage of whole-brain WM voxels with significant changes in fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) from Time 1 to 2, and Time 1 to 3 was determined for each subject and correlated to head impacts and clinical measures. Total head impacts for the season ranged from 431-1,850. No athlete suffered a clinically evident concussion. Compared to controls, athletes experienced greater changes in FA and MD from Time 1 to 2 as well as Time 1 to 3; most differences at Time 2 persisted to Time 3. Among athletes, the percentage of voxels with decreased FA from Time 1 to 2 was positively correlated with several helmet impact measures. The persistence of WM changes from Time 1 to 3 was also associated with changes in serum ApoA1 and S100B autoantibodies. WM changes were not consistently associated with cognition or balance. A single football season of RHIs without clinically-evident concussion resulted in WM changes that correlated with multiple helmet impact measures and persisted following 6 months of no-contact rest. This lack of WM recovery could potentially contribute to cumulative WM changes with subsequent RHI exposures.

  16. Differentiation chronic post traumatic stress disorder patients from healthy subjects using objective and subjective sleep-related parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasian, Masoud; Jamalabadi, Hamidreza; Abedini, Mina; Ghadami, Mohammad R; Sepehry, Amir A; Knight, David C; Khazaie, Habibolah

    2017-05-22

    Sleep disturbance is common in chronic post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, prior work has demonstrated that there are inconsistencies between subjective and objective assessments of sleep disturbance in PTSD. Therefore, we investigated whether subjective or objective sleep assessment has greater clinical utility to differentiate PTSD patients from healthy subjects. Further, we evaluated whether the combination of subjective and objective methods improves the accuracy of classification into patient versus healthy groups, which has important diagnostic implications. We recruited 32 chronic war-induced PTSD patients and 32 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects to participate in this study. Subjective (i.e. from three self-reported sleep questionnaires) and objective sleep-related data (i.e. from actigraphy scores) were collected from each participant. Subjective, objective, and combined (subjective and objective) sleep data were then analyzed using support vector machine classification. The classification accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for subjective variables were 89.2%, 89.3%, and 89%, respectively. The classification accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for objective variables were 65%, 62.3%, and 67.8%, respectively. The classification accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for the aggregate variables (combination of subjective and objective variables) were 91.6%, 93.0%, and 90.3%, respectively. Our findings indicate that classification accuracy using subjective measurements is superior to objective measurements and the combination of both assessments appears to improve the classification accuracy for differentiating PTSD patients from healthy individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Subjective well-being related to satisfaction with daily travel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakobsson Bergstad, C.; Gamble, A.; Gärling, T.; Hagman, O.; Polk, M.; Ettema, D.F.; Friman, M.; Olsson, L.E.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research demonstrates an impact on subjective well-being (SWB) of affect associated with routine performance of out-of-home activities. A primary aim of the present study is to investigate whether satisfaction with daily travel has a positive impact on SWB, either directly or indirectly

  18. Generating a non-English subjectivity lexicon: relations that matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jijkoun, V.; Hofmann, K.

    2009-01-01

    We describe a method for creating a non-English subjectivity lexicon based on an English lexicon, an online translation service and a general purpose thesaurus: Wordnet. We use a PageRank-like algorithm to bootstrap from the translation of the English lexicon and rank the words in the thesaurus by

  19. Electroretinography in healthy subjects in relation to systemic glucocorticoid intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kappelgaard, Per; Hansen, Katrine B; Vilsbøll, Tina

    2012-01-01

    This study examined electroretinographic function in healthy subjects before and after prednisolone intake. To separate the effect of prednisolone on the retina from the potentially confounding hyperglycemia-inducing effect of prednisolone, electroretinography was made while fasting and at a pre-...

  20. A comparative syntax of internally-headed relative clauses in Gur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Hiraiwa

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Gur (or Mabia languages which are spoken in West Africa have so-called internally-headed relative clauses (IHRCs, but they have not received serious attention in syntactic and typological research on IHRCs. In this article, building on detailed first-hand data, we describe the syntax and semantics of IHRCs in five Gur languages: Buli, Dagaare, Dagbani, Gurene, and Kabiyé. It is demonstrated that their IHRCs refute the syntactic and semantic generalizations proposed in the literature (Gorbet 1976; Cole 1987; Grosu 2002; Watanabe 1991; 2004. We also compare IHRCs in Gur and Japanese and argue that the existing semantic typology of IHRCs must be reconsidered, showing that properties of two types of IHRCs—restrictive and maximalizing IHRCS—do not necessarily show predicated correlations. This article is part of the special collection:Internally-headed RelativeClauses

  1. Geriatric oncology: comparing health related quality of life in head and neck cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Silveira, Augusta P; Gonçalves, Joaquim; Sequeira,Teresa; Ribeiro, Cláudia; Lopes, Carlos; Monteiro, Eurico; Pimentel, Francisco L

    2011-01-01

    Background Population ageing is increasing the number of people annually diagnosed with cancer worldwide, once most types of tumours are age-dependent. High-quality healthcare in geriatric oncology requires a multimodal approach and should take into account stratified patient outcomes based on factors other than chronological age in order to develop interventions able to optimize oncology care. This study aims to evaluate the Health Related Quality of Life in head and neck cancer patients and...

  2. Subjective well-being related to satisfaction with daily travel

    OpenAIRE

    Jakobsson Bergstad, C.; Gamble, A; Gärling, T.; Hagman, O.; Polk, M.; Ettema, D.F.; Friman, M.; Olsson, L.E.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research demonstrates an impact on subjective well-being (SWB) of affect associated with routine performance of out-of-home activities. A primary aim of the present study is to investigate whether satisfaction with daily travel has a positive impact on SWB, either directly or indirectly through facilitating the performance of out-of-home activities. A secondary aim is to determine whether emotional-symbolic or instrumental reasons for car use results in higher satisfaction with daily...

  3. Comprehension of Subject and Object Relative Clauses in a Trilingual Acquisition Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Chan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Chinese relative clauses (RCs have word order properties that are distinctly rare across languages of the world; such properties provide a good testing ground to tease apart predictions regarding the relative complexity of subject and object RCs in acquisition and processing. This study considers these special word order properties in a multilingual acquisition context, examining how Cantonese(L1-English(L2-Mandarin(L3 trilingual children process RCs in two Chinese languages differing in exposure conditions. Studying in an English immersion international school, these trilinguals are also under intensive exposure to English. Comparisons of the trilinguals with their monolingual counterparts are made with a focus on the directionality of cross-linguistic influence. The study considers how various factors such as language exposure, structural overlaps in the target languages, typological distance, and language dominance can account for the linguistic abilities and vulnerabilities exhibited by a group of children in a trilingual acquisition context. Twenty-one trilingual 5- to 6-year-olds completed tests of subject- and object- RC comprehension in all three languages. Twenty-four age-matched Cantonese monolinguals and 24 age-matched Mandarin monolinguals served as comparison groups. Despite limited exposure to Mandarin, the trilinguals performed comparable to the monolinguals. Their Cantonese performance uniquely predicts their Mandarin performance, suggesting positive transfer from L1 Cantonese to L3 Mandarin. In Cantonese, however, despite extensive exposure from birth, the trilinguals comprehended object RCs significantly worse than the monolinguals. Error analyses suggested an English-based head-initial analysis, implying negative transfer from L2 English to L1 Cantonese. Overall, we identified a specific case of bi-directional influence between the first and second/third languages. The trilinguals experience facilitation in processing Mandarin

  4. Comprehension of Subject and Object Relative Clauses in a Trilingual Acquisition Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Angel; Chen, Si; Matthews, Stephen; Yip, Virginia

    2017-01-01

    Chinese relative clauses (RCs) have word order properties that are distinctly rare across languages of the world; such properties provide a good testing ground to tease apart predictions regarding the relative complexity of subject and object RCs in acquisition and processing. This study considers these special word order properties in a multilingual acquisition context, examining how Cantonese(L1)-English(L2)-Mandarin(L3) trilingual children process RCs in two Chinese languages differing in exposure conditions. Studying in an English immersion international school, these trilinguals are also under intensive exposure to English. Comparisons of the trilinguals with their monolingual counterparts are made with a focus on the directionality of cross-linguistic influence. The study considers how various factors such as language exposure, structural overlaps in the target languages, typological distance, and language dominance can account for the linguistic abilities and vulnerabilities exhibited by a group of children in a trilingual acquisition context. Twenty-one trilingual 5- to 6-year-olds completed tests of subject- and object- RC comprehension in all three languages. Twenty-four age-matched Cantonese monolinguals and 24 age-matched Mandarin monolinguals served as comparison groups. Despite limited exposure to Mandarin, the trilinguals performed comparable to the monolinguals. Their Cantonese performance uniquely predicts their Mandarin performance, suggesting positive transfer from L1 Cantonese to L3 Mandarin. In Cantonese, however, despite extensive exposure from birth, the trilinguals comprehended object RCs significantly worse than the monolinguals. Error analyses suggested an English-based head-initial analysis, implying negative transfer from L2 English to L1 Cantonese. Overall, we identified a specific case of bi-directional influence between the first and second/third languages. The trilinguals experience facilitation in processing Mandarin RCs, because

  5. Comprehension of Subject and Object Relative Clauses in a Trilingual Acquisition Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Angel; Chen, Si; Matthews, Stephen; Yip, Virginia

    2017-01-01

    Chinese relative clauses (RCs) have word order properties that are distinctly rare across languages of the world; such properties provide a good testing ground to tease apart predictions regarding the relative complexity of subject and object RCs in acquisition and processing. This study considers these special word order properties in a multilingual acquisition context, examining how Cantonese(L1)-English(L2)-Mandarin(L3) trilingual children process RCs in two Chinese languages differing in exposure conditions. Studying in an English immersion international school, these trilinguals are also under intensive exposure to English. Comparisons of the trilinguals with their monolingual counterparts are made with a focus on the directionality of cross-linguistic influence. The study considers how various factors such as language exposure, structural overlaps in the target languages, typological distance, and language dominance can account for the linguistic abilities and vulnerabilities exhibited by a group of children in a trilingual acquisition context. Twenty-one trilingual 5- to 6-year-olds completed tests of subject- and object- RC comprehension in all three languages. Twenty-four age-matched Cantonese monolinguals and 24 age-matched Mandarin monolinguals served as comparison groups. Despite limited exposure to Mandarin, the trilinguals performed comparable to the monolinguals. Their Cantonese performance uniquely predicts their Mandarin performance, suggesting positive transfer from L1 Cantonese to L3 Mandarin. In Cantonese, however, despite extensive exposure from birth, the trilinguals comprehended object RCs significantly worse than the monolinguals. Error analyses suggested an English-based head-initial analysis, implying negative transfer from L2 English to L1 Cantonese. Overall, we identified a specific case of bi-directional influence between the first and second/third languages. The trilinguals experience facilitation in processing Mandarin RCs, because

  6. A review on auditory space adaptations to altered head-related cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina eMendonça

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present a review of current literature on adaptations to altered head-related auditory localization cues. Localization cues can be altered through ear blocks, ear molds, electronic hearing devices and altered head-related transfer functions. Three main methods have been used to induce auditory space adaptation: sound exposure, training with feedback, and explicit training. Adaptations induced by training, rather than exposure, are consistently faster. Studies on localization with altered head-related cues have reported poor initial localization, but improved accuracy and discriminability with training. Also, studies that displaced the auditory space by altering cue values reported adaptations in perceived source position to compensate for such displacements. Auditory space adaptations can last for a few months even without further contact with the learned cues. In most studies, localization with the subject’s own unaltered cues remained intact despite the adaptation to a second set of cues. Generalization is observed from trained to untrained sound source positions, but there is mixed evidence regarding cross-frequency generalization. Multiple brain areas might be involved in auditory space adaptation processes, but the auditory cortex may play a critical role. Auditory space plasticity may involve context-dependent cue reweighting.

  7. Quality of pharmacy-specific Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) assignment in pharmacy journals indexed in MEDLINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguet, Fernando; Salgado, Teresa M; van den Boogerd, Lucienne; Fernandez-Llimos, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is the National Library of Medicine (NLM) controlled vocabulary for indexing articles. Inaccuracies in the MeSH thesaurus have been reported for several areas including pharmacy. To assess the quality of pharmacy-specific MeSH assignment to articles indexed in pharmacy journals. The 10 journals containing the highest number of articles published in 2012 indexed under the MeSH 'Pharmacists' were identified. All articles published over a 5-year period (2008-2012) in the 10 previously selected journals were retrieved from PubMed. MeSH terms used to index these articles were extracted and pharmacy-specific MeSH terms were identified. The frequency of use of pharmacy-specific MeSH terms was calculated across journals. A total of 6989 articles were retrieved from the 10 pharmacy journals, of which 328 (4.7%) were articles not fully indexed and therefore did not contain any MeSH terms assigned. Among the 6661 articles fully indexed, the mean number of MeSH terms was 10.1 (SD = 4.0), being 1.0 (SD = 1.3) considered as Major MeSH. Both values significantly varied across journals. The mean number of pharmacy-specific MeSH terms per article was 0.9 (SD = 1.2). A total of 3490 (52.4%) of the 6661 articles were indexed in pharmacy journals without a single pharmacy-specific MeSH. Of the total 67193 MeSH terms assigned to articles, on average 10.5% (SD = 13.9) were pharmacy-specific MeSH. A statistically significant different pattern of pharmacy-specific MeSH assignment was identified across journals (Kruskal-Wallis P MeSH terms to articles indexed in pharmacy journals can be improved to further enhance evidence gathering in pharmacy. Over half of the articles published in the top-10 journals publishing pharmacy literature were indexed without a single pharmacy-specific MeSH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. 28 October 2013- Former US Vice President A. Gore signing the guest book with Technology Department Head F. Bordry, Head of International Relations R. Voss, Director for Research and Scientific Computing S. Bertolucci and CMS Collaboration Spokesperson J. Incandela.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2013-01-01

    28 October 2013- Former US Vice President A. Gore signing the guest book with Technology Department Head F. Bordry, Head of International Relations R. Voss, Director for Research and Scientific Computing S. Bertolucci and CMS Collaboration Spokesperson J. Incandela.

  9. Tesauros y listas de epígrafes: ¿hacia una integración? Thesauri and list of subject headings: towards an integration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Martínez

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Se analizan las semejanzas y diferencias entre los tesauros y las listas de epígrafes, tomando en cuenta el plan de revisión 2003 de la norma estadounidense Z39.19. Esta norma pretende establecer nuevas directrices para todo tipo de vocabulario controlado, en relación con su utilización con nuevas tecnologías. Se concluye que, en efecto, es muy importante revisar toda la normativa referida a los vocabularios controlados, particularmente las de alcance internacional, pero al mismo tiempo se hace necesario tener sumo cuidado en mantener un riguroso control de la terminología, una correcta definición de las relaciones jerárquicas y asociativas y promover la poscoordinación gestionada, en lo posible, mediante sistemas facetados y computarizados.The similarities and differences between thesauri and the lists of subject headings are analyzed, taking into account the work plan for the 2003 revision of the US standard Z39.19. This standard pretends to establish new guidelines for all types of controlled vocabulary in relation to their use with new technologies. We conclude that it is very important to review all the standards for controlled vocabulary, particularly those with international scope, but at the same time, it is necessary to be very careful in maintaining a rigorous control of terminology; a correct definition of hierarchical and associative relationships, and to promote the postcordination, managed, if possible, in faceted and computerized systems.

  10. On the detection of dispersion in the head-related transfer function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constan, Zachary A; Hartmann, William M

    2003-08-01

    Because of dispersion in head-related transfer functions (HRTFs), the interaural time difference (ITD) varies with frequency. This physical effect ought to have consequences for the size or shape of the auditory image of broadband noise because different frequency regions of the noise have different ITDs. However, virtual reality experiments suggest that human listeners are insensitive to head-related dispersion. The experiments of this article test that suggestion by experiments that isolate dispersion from amplitude effects in the HRTF and attempt to optimize the opportunity for detecting it. Nevertheless, the experiments find that the only effect of dispersion is to shift the lateralization of the auditory image. This negative result is explained in terms of the cross-correlation function for head-dispersed noise. Although the broad-band cross-correlation function differs considerably from 1.0, the cross-correlation functions within bands characteristic of auditory filters do not. A detailed study of the lateralization shifts show that the experimental shifts can be successfully calculated as an average of stimulus ITDs as weighted by Raatgever's frequency-weighting function (Thesis, Delft, The Netherlands, 1980).

  11. Relationships among head posture, pain intensity, disability and deep cervical flexor muscle performance in subjects with postural neck pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun V. Subbarayalu, PhD

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Information Technology (IT professionals working with computers gradually develop forward head posture and, as a result, these professionals are susceptible to several neck disorders. This study intended to reveal the relationships between pain intensity, disability, head posture and deep cervical flexor (DCF muscle performance in patients with postural neck pain. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 84 IT professionals who were diagnosed with postural neck pain. The participants were recruited with a random sampling approach. A Visual Analogue Scale (VAS, the Northwick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire (NPQ, the Modified Head Posture Spinal Curvature Instrument (MHPSCI, and the Stabilizer Pressure Biofeedback Unit were used to measure neck pain intensity, neck disability, head posture, and DCF muscle performance, respectively. Results: The Pearson correlation coefficient revealed a significantly strong positive relationship between the VAS and the NPQ (r = 0.734. The cranio-vertebral (CV angle was found to have a significantly negative correlation with the VAS (r = −0.536 and a weak negative correlation with the NPQ (r = −0.389. Conclusion: This study concluded that a smaller CV angle corresponded to greater neck pain intensity and disability. Furthermore, there is no significant relationship between CV angle and DCF muscle performance, indicating that head posture re-education through postural correction exercises would not completely correct the motor control deficits in DCF muscles. In addition, a suitable exercise regimen that exclusively targets the deep cervical flexor muscle to improve its endurance is warranted. Keywords: Craniovertebral angle, Disability deep cervical flexors muscle performance, Head posture, Postural neck pain

  12. Global visibility for global health: Is it time for a new descriptor in Medical Subject Heading (MeSH of MEDLINE/PubMed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Marušic´

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite a large body of research in global health (almost 9000 articles published in PubMed until 2012, the term “global health” is not included in the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH of the NLM – its controlled vocabulary thesaurus which NLM uses to index articles in MEDL INE. There are only 6 journals currently covered by PubMed which specialize in global health, including Journal of Global Health.

  13. Dairy intake-related intentions, attitudes, subjective norms and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Intake of dairy-related nutrients of South Africans is low. Nutrition professionals may influence dietary behaviour. Their own disposition related to dairy is unknown, yet important in promoting the “have milk, maas or yoghurt every day” guideline. Aim: Guided by the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), this study ...

  14. Electroretinography in healthy subjects in relation to systemic glucocorticoid intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kappelgaard, Per; Hansen, Katrine B; Vilsbøll, Tina

    2012-01-01

    to clamped hyperglycemia, neither before, nor after prednisolone (P > 0.05). The stability of ffERG performance in the face of shifting glycemia levels, which differs from what has been found in diabetes, was not influenced by the mild diabetogenic effect of the intervention on insulin resistance (P = 0......-caloric diet and by the reduction of physical activity. Full-field electroretinography (ffERG) demonstrated no significant change (P ....011) and post-prandial glycemia (P = 0.023). We conclude that prednisolone had no detectable effect on the ffERG in healthy lean men in this study. Retinal function may be less sensitive to changes in glycemia in healthy subjects than in people with diabetes, a characteristic that was unchanged by a short...

  15. Hyperfiltration of potassium nitrate through clay membranes under relatively low-head conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Megan; Whitworth, Thomas Michael

    2005-10-01

    Much like reverse osmosis membranes, clays have been shown to exhibit reverse osmosis properties at high hydraulic heads. To determine if reverse osmosis was possible at lower hydraulic heads, potassium nitrate solutions were passed through thin clay layers at heads of 1.30 to 1.42 m. In each experiment, concentrations significantly increased due to partial solute rejection by the clay membranes. Concentration increases within the experimental cells were between 131% and 184%. Calculated values of the reflection coefficient ranged between 0.55 to 0.70, suggesting that these thin clay layers exhibited membrane effects. The results of these experiments suggest hyperfiltration may concentrate some dissolved contaminants from below to above regulatory limits in shallow aquifers bounded by a membrane-functioning aquitard or relatively low hydraulically conductive geologic strata. Hyperfiltration may also control nutrient distributions, creating subsurface microbial "hotspots". Consideration of hyperfiltration effects may ultimately lead to a clearer understanding of many subsurface processes, both shallow and deep, including contaminant fate and transport, subsurface microbiology, natural bioremediation and attenuation, redox, rock-water interaction, and groundwater chemistry.

  16. A Remote-Controlled Airbag Device Can Improve Upper Airway Collapsibility by Producing Head Elevation With Jaw Closure in Normal Subjects Under Propofol Anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizaka, Satoru; Moromugi, Shunji; Kobayashi, Masato; Kajihara, Hiroki; Koga, Kazuya; Sugahara, Hirofumi; Ishimatsu, Takakazu; Kurata, Shinji; Kirkness, Jason P; Oi, Kumiko; Ayuse, Takao

    2014-01-01

    Continuous maintenance of an appropriate position of the mandible and head purely by manual manipulation is difficult, although the maneuver can restore airway patency during sleep and anesthesia. The aim of this paper was to examine the effect of head elevation with jaw closure using a remote-controlled airbag device, such as the airbag system, on passive upper airway collapsibility during propofol anesthesia. Seven male subjects were studied. Propofol infusion was used for anesthesia induction and maintenance, with a target blood propofol concentration of 1.5-2 [Formula: see text]g/ml. Nasal mask pressure ([Formula: see text]) was intermittently reduced to evaluate upper airway collapsibility (passive [Formula: see text]) and upstream resistance ([Formula: see text]) at three different head and jaw positions, jaw opening position in the supine position, jaw opening position in the sniffing position with 6-cm head elevation, and jaw closure at a 6-cm height sniffing position. The 6-cm height sniffing position with jaw closure was achieved by an airbag device that was attached to the subject's head-like headgear. Patient demographics, [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] in each condition were compared using one-way ANOVA with a post hoc Tukey test. [Formula: see text] was considered significant. We also confirmed the effects of our airbag device on improvement of upper airway collapsibility in three obstructive sleep apnea patients in a clinical study. The combination of 6-cm head elevation with jaw closure using the air-inflatable robotic airbag system decreased upper airway collapsibility ([Formula: see text]-cm H[Formula: see text]O) compared with the baseline position ([Formula: see text]-cm H[Formula: see text]O, [Formula: see text]). In the clinical study, there was improvement of upper airway obstruction in sleep apnea patients, including decreased apnea and hypopnea duration and increased the lowest level of oxygen saturation. We demonstrated that

  17. Effects of repeated snowboard exercise in virtual reality with time lags of visual scene behind body rotation on head stability and subjective slalom run performance in healthy young subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Yoshiro; Nishiike, Suetaka; Kitahara, Tadashi; Yamanaka, Toshiaki; Imai, Takao; Ito, Taeko; Sato, Go; Matsuda, Kazunori; Kitamura, Yoshiaki; Takeda, Noriaki

    2016-11-01

    After repeated snowboard exercises in the virtual reality (VR) world with increasing time lags in trials 3-8, it is suggested that the adaptation to repeated visual-vestibulosomatosensory conflict in the VR world improved dynamic posture control and motor performance in the real world without the development of motion sickness. The VR technology was used and the effects of repeated snowboard exercise examined in the VR world with time lags between visual scene and body rotation on the head stability and slalom run performance during exercise in healthy subjects. Forty-two healthy young subjects participated in the study. After trials 1 and 2 of snowboard exercise in the VR world without time lag, trials 3-8 were conducted with 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, and 0.6 s time lags of the visual scene that the computer creates behind board rotation, respectively. Finally, trial 9 was conducted without time lag. Head linear accelerations and subjective slalom run performance were evaluated. The standard deviations of head linear accelerations in inter-aural direction were significantly increased in trial 8, with a time lag of 0.6 s, but significantly decreased in trial 9 without a time lag, compared with those in trial 2 without a time lag. The subjective scores of slalom run performance were significantly decreased in trial 8, with a time lag of 0.6 s, but significantly increased in trial 9 without a time lag, compared with those in trial 2 without a time lag. Motion sickness was not induced in any subjects.

  18. Subjective sleepiness and sleep quality in adolescents are related to objective and subjective measures of school performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschloo, Annemarie; Krabbendam, Lydia; Dekker, Sanne; Lee, Nikki; De Groot, Renate; Jolles, Jelle

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between sleep and school performance in a large sample of 561 adolescents aged 11–18 years. Three subjective measures of sleep were used: sleepiness, sleep quality, and sleep duration. They were compared to three measures of school performance: objective school

  19. Subjective sleepiness and sleep quality in adolescents are related to objective and subjective measures of school performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschloo, Annemarie; Krabbendam, Lydia; Dekker, Sanne; Lee, Nikki; De Groot, Renate; Jolles, Jelle

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between sleep and school performance in a large sam- ple of 561 adolescents aged 11–18 years. Three subjective measures of sleep were used: sleepiness, sleep quality, and sleep duration. They were compared to three measures of school performance: objective school

  20. Subjective sleepiness and sleep quality in adolescents are related to objective and subjective measures of school performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschloo, A.; Krabbendam, L.; Dekker, S.; Lee, N.; Groot, R. de; Jolles, J.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between sleep and school performance in a large sample of 561 adolescents aged 11-18 years. Three subjective measures of sleep were used: sleepiness, sleep quality, and sleep duration. They were compared to three measures of school performance: objective school

  1. Geriatric oncology: comparing health related quality of life in head and neck cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Augusta P; Gonçalves, Joaquim; Sequeira, Teresa; Ribeiro, Cláudia; Lopes, Carlos; Monteiro, Eurico; Pimentel, Francisco L

    2011-01-13

    Population ageing is increasing the number of people annually diagnosed with cancer worldwide, once most types of tumours are age-dependent. High-quality healthcare in geriatric oncology requires a multimodal approach and should take into account stratified patient outcomes based on factors other than chronological age in order to develop interventions able to optimize oncology care.This study aims to evaluate the Health Related Quality of Life in head and neck cancer patients and compare the scores in geriatric and younger patients. Two hundred and eighty nine head and neck cancer patients from the Oncology Portuguese Institute participated in the Health Related Quality of Life assessment. Two patient groups were considered: the geriatric (≥ 65 years old, n = 115) and the younger (45-60 years old, n= 174). The EORTC QLQ-C30 and EORTC QLQ-H&N35 questionnaires were used. Head and neck cancer patients were mostly males, 77.4% within geriatric group and 91.4% among younger patients group.The most frequent tumour locations were similar in both groups: larynx, oral cavity and oropharynx - base of the tongue.At the time of diagnosis, most of younger male patients were at disease stage III/IV (55.9%) whereas the majority of younger female patients were at disease stage I/II (83.4%). The geriatric patient distribution was found to be similar in any of the four disease stages and no gender differences were observed.We found that age (geriatrics scored generally worse), gender (females scored generally worse), and tumour site (larynx tumours denounce more significant problems between age groups) clearly influences Health Related Quality of Life perceptions. Geriatric oncology assessments signalize age-independent indicators that might guide oncologic geriatric care optimization. Decision-making in geriatric oncology must be based on tumour characteristics and chronological age but also on performance status evaluation, co-morbidity, and patient reported outcomes assessment.

  2. List-Mode PET Motion Correction Using Markerless Head Tracking: Proof-of-Concept With Scans of Human Subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Oline Vinter; Sullivan, Jenna M.; Mulnix, Tim

    2013-01-01

    was time-varying with long drift motions of up to 18 mm and regular step-wise motion of 1–6 mm. The evaluated measures were significantly better for motion-corrected images compared to no MC. The demonstrated system agreed with a commercial integrated system. Motion-corrected images were improved......A custom designed markerless tracking system was demonstrated to be applicable for positron emission tomography (PET) brain imaging. Precise head motion registration is crucial for accurate motion correction (MC) in PET imaging. State-of-the-art tracking systems applied with PET brain imaging rely...... on markers attached to the patient's head. The marker attachment is the main weakness of these systems. A healthy volunteer participating in a cigarette smoking study to image dopamine release was scanned twice for 2 h with $^{11}{\\rm C}$-racolopride on the high resolution research tomograph (HRRT) PET...

  3. Pathologic Fractures Extended to the Metacarpal Head Related with Enchondromas at the Metacarpal Neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Hiroyoshi; Nishimura, Takahiro; Yamamura, Mayu; Miyamoto, Osamu; Nakama, Sueo; Sugimoto, Naoya; Ajiki, Takashi; Takeshita, Katsushi

    2017-09-01

    We present two cases of pathologic fractures extended to the metacarpal head related with enchondromas at the metacarpal neck treated by surgery. The timing of surgery varied between the two cases. The first was operated without delay, using tumor curettage and β-TCP (tricalcium phosphate) packing in the cavity, followed by internal fixation of the fracture using a screw and Kirshner wires. In the second case, tumor curettage and β-TCP packing was performed after fracture union. Favorable clinical outcomes were obtained for both cases.

  4. Semi-blind Source Separation Using Head-Related Transfer Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Syskind; Hansen, Lars Kai; Kjems, Ulrik

    2004-01-01

    are known, the source separation algorithm has been geometrically constrained. Since the separation takes place in a non free-field, a head-related transfer function (HRTF) is used to simulate the response between microphones placed at the two ears. The use of a HRTF instead of assuming free-field improves...... the separation with approximately 1 dB compared to when free-field is assumed. This indicates that the permutation ambiguity is solved more accurate compared to when free-field is assumed....

  5. Enoxaparin Prevents Steroid-Related Avascular Necrosis of the Femoral Head

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Beckmann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nontraumatic osteonecrosis of the femoral head is still a challenging problem in orthopedic surgery. It is responsible for 10% of the 500,000 hip replacement surgeries in the USA and affects relatively young, active patients in particular. Main reasons for nontraumatic osteonecrosis are glucocorticoid use, alcoholism, thrombophilia, and hypofibrinolysis (Glueck et al., 1997; Orth and Anagnostakos, 2013. One pathomechanism of steroid-induced osteonecrosis is thought to be impaired blood flow to the femoral head caused by increased thrombus formation and vasoconstriction. To investigate the preventive effect of enoxaparin on steroid-related osteonecrosis, we used male New Zealand white rabbits. Osteonecrosis was induced by methylprednisolone-injection (1×20 mg/kg body weight. Control animals were treated with phosphate-buffered saline. Treatment consisted of an injection of 11.7 mg/kg body weight of enoxaparin per day (Clexane in addition to methylprednisolone. Four weeks after methylprednisolone-injection the animals were sacrificed. Histology (hematoxylin-eosin and Ladewig staining was performed, and empty lacunae and histological signs of osteonecrosis were quantified. Histomorphometry revealed a significant increase in empty lacunae and necrotic changed osteocytes in glucocorticoid-treated animals as compared with the glucocorticoid- and Clexane-treated animals and with the control group. No significant difference was detected between the glucocorticoid and Clexane group and the control group. This finding suggests that cotreatment with enoxaparin has the potential to prevent steroid-associated osteonecrosis.

  6. A data mining approach to selecting herbs with similar efficacy: Targeted selection methods based on medical subject headings (MeSH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yea, Sang-Jun; Seong, BoSeok; Jang, Yunji; Kim, Chul

    2016-04-22

    Natural products have long been the most important source of ingredients in the discovery of new drugs. Moreover, since the Nagoya Protocol, finding alternative herbs with similar efficacy in traditional medicine has become a very important issue. Although random selection is a common method of finding ethno-medicinal herbs of similar efficacy, it proved to be less effective; therefore, this paper proposes a novel targeted selection method using data mining approaches in the MEDLINE database in order to identify and select herbs with a similar degree of efficacy. From among sixteen categories of medical subject headings (MeSH) descriptors, three categories containing terms related to herbal compounds, efficacy, toxicity, and the metabolic process were selected. In order to select herbs of similar efficacy in a targeted way, we adopted the similarity measurement method based on MeSH. In order to evaluate the proposed algorithm, we built up three different validation datasets which contain lists of original herbs and corresponding medicinal herbs of similar efficacy. The average area under curve (AUC) of the proposed algorithm was found to be about 500% larger than the random selection method. We found that the proposed algorithm puts more hits at the front of the top-10 list than the random selection method, and precisely discerns the efficacy of the herbs. It was also found that the AUC of the experiments either remained the same or increased slightly in all three validation datasets as the search range was increased. This study reveals and proves that the proposed algorithm is significantly more accurate and efficient in finding alternative herbs of similar efficacy than the random selection method. As such, it is hoped that this approach will be used in diverse applications in the ethno-pharmacology field. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Helmet legislation and admissions to hospital for cycling related head injuries in Canadian provinces and territories: interrupted time series analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Tim; Turgeon, Alexis F; Zarychanski, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between helmet legislation and admissions to hospital for cycling related head injuries among young people and adults in Canada. Design Interrupted time series analysis using data from the National Trauma Registry Minimum Data Set. Setting Canadian provinces and territories; between 1994 and 2003, six of 10 provinces implemented helmet legislation. Participants All admissions (n=66 716) to acute care hospitals in Canada owing to cycling related injury between 1994 and 2008. Main outcome measure Rate of admissions to hospital for cycling related head injuries before and after the implementation of provincial helmet legislation. Results Between 1994 and 2008, 66 716 hospital admissions were for cycling related injuries in Canada. Between 1994 and 2003, the rate of head injuries among young people decreased by 54.0% (95% confidence interval 48.2% to 59.8%) in provinces with helmet legislation compared with 33.1% (23.3% to 42.9%) in provinces and territories without legislation. Among adults, the rate of head injuries decreased by 26.0% (16.0% to 36.3%) in provinces with legislation but remained constant in provinces and territories without legislation. After taking baseline trends into consideration, however, we were unable to detect an independent effect of legislation on the rate of hospital admissions for cycling related head injuries. Conclusions Reductions in the rates of admissions to hospital for cycling related head injuries were greater in provinces with helmet legislation, but injury rates were already decreasing before the implementation of legislation and the rate of decline was not appreciably altered on introduction of legislation. While helmets reduce the risk of head injuries and we encourage their use, in the Canadian context of existing safety campaigns, improvements to the cycling infrastructure, and the passive uptake of helmets, the incremental contribution of provincial helmet legislation to reduce

  8. Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders in Patients With Tumors in the Head and Neck Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, Diwakar; Hessel, Amy C.; Lei, Xiudong; Beadle, Beth M.; William, William N.; Bashoura, Lara

    2014-01-01

    Background. Sleep disturbance is a prominent complaint of cancer patients. Most studies have focused on insomnia and cancer-related fatigue. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been reported in small studies and case reports. Methods. In a retrospective review of patients who underwent formal sleep evaluation and polysomnography (PSG) from 2006 to 2011, 56 patients with tumors in the head and neck region were identified. Clinical characteristics, sleep-related history, and PSG data were reviewed. Results. Most patients had active cancer (80%), and the majority had squamous pathology (68%). Prominent symptoms included daytime fatigue (93%), daytime sleepiness (89%), and snoring (82%). Comorbid conditions primarily included hypertension (46%) and hypothyroidism (34%). Significant sleep-related breathing disorder was noted in 93% of patients, and 84% met clinical criteria for OSA. A male predominance (77%) was noted, and patients were not obese (body mass index <30 kg/m2 in 52%). The majority of patients (79%) underwent radiation prior to sleep study, of which 88% had OSA, and in the group without prior radiation, 67% had OSA. Adherence to positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy was slightly better when compared with the general population. A subset of patients with persistent hypoxia despite advanced forms of PAP required tracheostomy. Multivariate analysis revealed that patients with active disease and radiation prior to PSG were more likely to have OSA. Conclusion. Sleep-related breathing disorder was common in patients with tumors in the head and neck region referred for evaluation of sleep disruption, and most met clinical criteria for OSA. Daytime fatigue and sleepiness were the most common complaints. OSA was prevalent in male patients, and most with OSA were not obese. Architectural distortion from the malignancy and/or treatment may predispose these patients to OSA by altering anatomic and neural factors. A heightened clinical suspicion for sleep-related

  9. Parotid gland sparing IMRT for head and neck cancer improves xerostomia related quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balm AJM

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose To assess the impact of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT versus conventional radiation on late xerostomia and Quality of Life aspects in head and neck cancer patients. Patients and nethods Questionnaires on xerostomia in rest and during meals were sent to all patients treated between January 1999 and December 2003 with a T1-4, N0-2 M0 head and neck cancer, with parotid gland sparing IMRT or conventional bilateral neck irradiation to a dose of at least 60 Gy, who were progression free and had no disseminated disease (n = 192. Overall response was 85% (n = 163; 97% in the IMRT group (n = 75 and 77% in the control group (n = 88 the median follow-up was 2.6 years. The prevalence of complaints was compared between the two groups, correcting for all relevant factors at multivariate ordinal regression analysis. Results Patients treated with IMRT reported significantly less difficulty transporting and swallowing their food and needed less water for a dry mouth during day, night and meals. They also experienced fewer problems with speech and eating in public. Laryngeal cancer patients in general had fewer complaints than oropharynx cancer patients but both groups benefited from IMRT. Within the IMRT group the xerostomia scores were better for those patients with a mean parotid dose to the "spared" parotid below 26 Gy. Conclusion Parotid gland sparing IMRT for head and neck cancer patients improves xerostomia related quality of life compared to conventional radiation both in rest and during meals. Laryngeal cancer patients had fewer complaints but benefited equally compared to oropharyngeal cancer patients from IMRT.

  10. OK-432 sclerotherapy of lymphatic malformation in the head and neck: factors related to outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Wook

    2014-07-01

    No previous study to the best of our knowledge has examined the multiple factors related to the outcome of OK-432 sclerotherapy of lymphatic malformations. This study aimed to assess factors related to the successful outcome of OK-432 sclerotherapy for lymphatic malformations in the head and neck region. During a 6-year period, OK-432 sclerotherapy was performed in 26 patients with lymphatic malformations. Several factors related to the efficacy of OK-432 sclerotherapy were evaluated, including the type (macrocystic or microcystic), the maximum lesion diameter, amount and hemorrhagic cytology of the aspirate, degree of aspiration, injected dose of OK-432 and post-therapy inflammation-related symptom. In all cases, ultrasound (US) follow-up was performed. Of the 26 cases, 13 (50%) showed successful elimination of the lymphatic malformations in the follow-up US after the initial session, and all successful cases were of the macrocystic type. The type of lymphatic malformation and the success of OK-432 sclerotherapy were significantly related (P = 0.0149). Of the 16 cases of complete aspiration, 11 (68.8%) showed a successful outcome. Further, of the 17 cases with inflammation-related symptom, 13 (76.5%) showed a successful outcome. While the degree of aspiration and presence of inflammation-related symptom showed a significant relationship with the success of OK-432 sclerotherapy (P lymphatic malformations, and that inflammation-related symptom was a predictor of a successful outcome.

  11. Alcohol-associated acute head trauma in human subjects is associated with early deficits in serum ionized Mg and Ca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altura, B M; Memon, Z S; Altura, B T; Cracco, R Q

    1995-01-01

    Acute head trauma (AHT) (caused by motor vehicle accidents that did not produce loss of consciousness or observed brain lesions on CT scan, or falls) was found to result in early (1-8 h after injury) serum deficits in ionized magnesium (IMg2+) and ionized calcium (ICa2+) assessed with ion-selective electrodes (ISEs). Total Mg (TMg) and other electrolytes as well as serum biochemical analytes were all within the normal reference ranges. AHT patients with acute alcohol intoxication (BAC > or = 150 mg/dl) or alcohol abuse (BAC > 200 mg/dl) demonstrated deficits (15-35% less than normal) in IMg2+, but serum TMg levels were normal as were electrolytes and serum biochemical analytes. AHT patients with alcohol intoxication or alcohol abuse required hospitalization for 1-3 days prior to release, whereas AHT patients without alcohol intoxication were released in less than 24 h. The ICa2+/IMg2+ ratio, a sign of increased vascular tone and vascular reactivity, was significantly elevated in AHT patients with alcohol intoxication but not in AHT patients without alcohol intoxication or abuse. These serum divalent cation changes early after traumatic brain injury could be of considerable practicable diagnostic value in the assessment of alcohol-associated head injury. Use of ion-selective electrodes to accurately measure IMg2+ could serve as a logical basis for monitoring the response of the body to AHT.

  12. 38 CFR 17.85 - Treatment of research-related injuries to human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-related injuries to human subjects. 17.85 Section 17.85 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Research-Related Injuries § 17.85 Treatment of research-related injuries... apply to: (1) Treatment for injuries due to noncompliance by a subject with study procedures, or (2...

  13. Subjective sleepiness and sleep quality in adolescents are related to objective and subjective measures of school performance

    OpenAIRE

    Annemarie eBoschloo; Lydia eKrabbendam; Sanne eDekker; Lee, Nikki C.; Renate ede Groot; Jelle eJolles

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between sleep and school performance in a large sample of 561 adolescents aged 11-18 years. Three subjective measures of sleep were used: sleepiness, sleep quality and sleep duration. They were compared to three measures of school performance: objective school grades, self-reported school performance, and parent-reported school performance. Sleepiness – ‘I feel sleepy during the first hours at school’ – appeared to predict both school grades and self-repor...

  14. Smoking has a negative impact upon health related quality of life after treatment for head and neck cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kenneth; Jensen, Anders Bonde; Grau, Cai

    2006-01-01

    To examine the influence of smoking on observer based morbidity scores and patient assessed health related quality of life after treatment for head and neck cancer. The results of EORTC C30 and H&N35 questionnaires and DAHANCA morbidity scores were studied according to smoking status in 114...... recurrence free head and neck cancer patients. In contrast to observer based toxicity scoring, smoking had a significantly negative influence on 20 of the 33 quality of life scales. Previous smokers had quality of life scores in between never smokers and continuous smokers. Smoking after treatment of head...

  15. 75 FR 57469 - Guidance on Withdrawal of Subjects From Research: Data Retention and Other Related Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Guidance on Withdrawal of Subjects From Research: Data Retention and Other Related Issues... availability of a guidance document entitled, ``Guidance on Withdrawal of Subjects From Research: Data... guidance document entitled, ``Guidance on Withdrawal of Subjects From Research: Data Retention and Other...

  16. Genetic polymorphisms of smoking-related carcinogen detoxifying enzymes and head and neck cancer susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacko, Martin; Oude Ophuis, Michael B; Peters, Wilbert H M; Manni, Johannes J

    2009-02-01

    Smoking and the consumption of alcohol are the main risk factors for head and neck cancer. However, interindividual variation in the activity of enzymes involved in the detoxification of tobacco smoke (pro)carcinogens, such as microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH), glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs) and uridine 5'-diphosphate (UDP)-glucuronosyltransferase (UGTs), may influence the process of carcinogenesis. Genetic polymorphisms of these enzymes may alter their activity and may thus modulate the risk for squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck (SCCHN). A literature review on the role of mEH, GSTs and UGTs polymorphisms in relation to SCCHN was performed and the results summarized. For mEH polymorphisms, some of the studies revealed a relationship between genetic polymorphisms of these enzymes and an altered risk for SCCHN, whereas others did not. The presence of null polymorphisms in GSTM1 or GSTT1 were associated with an increased risk for SCCHN. For the UGTs, only variants in UGT1A7 and UGT1A10 have been studied, both of which were associated with an altered risk for SCCHN.

  17. Subjective food intake ability related to oral health-related quality of life and psychological health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, S-H; Kim, J-S; Cha, J-Y; Lee, K-J; Yu, H-S; Hwang, C-J

    2016-09-01

    Reduced food intake ability can restrict an individual's choice of foods and might have a significant impact on the individual's quality of life and mental health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlations between self-reported masticatory ability and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQOL) and psychological health. The study included 72 (26 men, 46 women) adults with a mean age of 26·4 ± 8·6 years. Each participant completed the key subjective food intake ability (KFIA) test for five key foods, the Korean version of the Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14K) and three questionnaires for measuring anxiety, depression and self-esteem. The participants were distributed into two groups by sex (a mean age of 23·9 ± 5·2 for men and 27·9 ± 9·8 for women) and by the median KFIA score. There were no significant differences in any of the variables according to sex. Thirty-two participants (12 men, 20 women) in the lower KFIA group had a higher total OHIP-14K (P food intake ability is associated with a poor oral health-related quality of life and higher depression level. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Acoustical simulation based on head-tracked auralization and measured high-resolution head related transfer function (HRTF) and impulse responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahnert, Wolfgang; Feistel, Stefan; Moldrzyk, Christoph

    2004-10-01

    A very desirable feature of modern acoustical simulation programs is the easy, fast and reliable auralization of the prediction results. In this paper we consider a new auralization method, based on a head-tracked headphone system with high spatial resolution and real-time convolution. We discuss the way to measure the directional head-related transfer functions, the calculation of the directional binaural impulse responses and the realization as a real-time convolution software. Furthermore, high-resolution impulse responses have been measured to compare reality, measurement and prediction results of an example room. The measurements were performed with a newly developed software tool EASERA. We conclude that, using this new method, auralization results are obtained equivalent to the human perception in reality.

  19. Amplitudes of head movements during putative eye-only saccades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oommen, Brian S; Stahl, John S

    2005-12-14

    The mechanisms allowing humans and other primates to dissociate head and eye movements during saccades are poorly understood. A more precise knowledge of head movement behavior during apparent eye-only saccades may provide insight into those mechanisms. We studied the distributions of head amplitude in normal humans. In half of the subjects, these distributions indicated the presence of a population of minor ("residual") head movements during eye-only saccades, distinct from the continuum of head movements generated during frank eye-head saccades. Like full-sized head movements, the residual movements grew in proportion to target eccentricity, indicating their drive is derived from the premotor command for the saccade. Furthermore, their amplitudes related most strongly to the head amplitudes obtained when subjects produced full-sized head movements and were reduced when subjects were instructed to perform exclusively eye-only saccades. Both observations suggest that the drive for residual head movements originates downstream of the point in which the head movement command diverges from the generalized gaze shift command. The results are consistent with a model of head control in which a neural gate prevents the common gaze shift command from reaching the head premotor circuitry whenever an eye-only saccade is desired. However, the gate is either imperfect or the multiple pathways that relay gaze shift signals to the head motor circuitry allow for the gate to be circumvented. The results underscore the need for physiological studies to probe neuronal activity related to neck activation during eye-only saccades.

  20. Subjective Sleepiness and Sleep Quality in Adolescents are Related to Objective and Subjective Measures of School Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Boschloo, Annemarie; Krabbendam, Lydia; Dekker, Sanne; Lee, Nikki; De Groot, Renate; Jolles, Jelle

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between sleep and school performance in a large sample of 561 adolescents aged 11–18 years. Three subjective measures of sleep were used: sleepiness, sleep quality, and sleep duration. They were compared to three measures of school performance: objective school grades, self-reported school performance, and parent-reported school performance. Sleepiness – “I feel sleepy during the first hours at school” – appeared to predict both school grades and self-repo...

  1. Development and validation of a numerical model of the swine head subjected to open-field blasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, A.; Zhu, F.; Feng, K.; Saif, T.; Kallakuri, S.; Jin, X.; Yang, K.; King, A.

    2017-11-01

    A finite element model of the head of a 55-kg Yucatan pig was developed to calculate the incident pressure and corresponding intracranial pressure due to the explosion of 8 lb (3.63 kg) of C4 at three different distances. The results from the model were validated by comparing findings with experimentally obtained data from five pigs at three different blast overpressure levels: low (150 kPa), medium (275 kPa), and high (400 kPa). The peak values of intracranial pressures from numerical model at different locations of the brain such as the frontal, central, left temporal, right temporal, parietal, and occipital regions were compared with experimental values. The model was able to predict the peak pressure with reasonable percentage differences. The differences for peak incident and intracranial pressure values between the simulation results and the experimental values were found to be less than 2.2 and 29.3%, respectively, at all locations other than the frontal region. Additionally, a series of parametric studies shows that the intracranial pressure was very sensitive to sensor locations, the presence of air bubbles, and reflections experienced during the experiments. Further efforts will be undertaken to correlate the different biomechanical response parameters, such as the intracranial pressure gradient, stress, and strain results obtained from the validated model with injured brain locations once the histology data become available.

  2. Age related outcome in acute subdural haematoma following traumatic head injury.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hanif, S

    2009-09-01

    Acute subdural haematoma (ASDH) is one of the conditions most strongly associated with severe brain injury. Reports prior to 1980 describe overall mortality rates for acute subdural haematomas (SDH\\'s) ranging from 40% to 90% with poor outcomes observed in all age groups. Recently, improved results have been reported with rapid diagnosis and surgical treatment. The elderly are predisposed to bleeding due to normal cerebral atrophy related to aging, stretching the bridging veins from the dura. Prognosis in ASDH is associated with age, time from injury to treatment, presence of pupillary abnormalities, Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) or motor score on admission, immediate coma or lucid interval, computerized tomography findings (haematoma volume, degree of midline shift, associated intradural lesion, compression of basal cisterns), post-operative intracranial pressure and type of surgery. Advancing age is known to be a determinant of outcome in head injury. We present the results of a retrospective study carried out in Beaumont Hospital, Dublin, Ireland\\'s national neurosurgical centre. The aim of our study was to examine the impact of age on outcome in patients with ASDH following severe head injury. Only cases with acute subdural haematoma requiring surgical evacuation were recruited. Mortality was significantly higher in older patients (50% above 70 years, 25.6% between 40 and 70 years and 26% below 40 years). Overall poor outcome (defined as Glasgow outcome scores 3-5) was also higher in older patients; 74.1% above 70 years, 48% between 40 and 70 years and 30% below 40 years. Poor outcome in traumatic acute subdural haematoma is higher in elderly patients even after surgical intervention.

  3. Indices of slowness of information processing in head injury patients : Tests for selective attention related to ERP latencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spikman, Jacoba M.; Naalt, van der Joukje; Weerden , van Tiemen; Zomeren , van Adriaan H.

    2004-01-01

    We explored the relation between neuropsychological (attention tests involving time constraints) and neurophysiological (N2 and P3 event-related potential (ERP) latencies) indices of slowness of information processing after closed head injury (CHI). A group of 44 CHI patients performed worse than

  4. Age Related Pattern And Outcome Of Head Injury In Indigenous Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Road traffic injury was the commonest cause of trauma to the head. Children were most often injured as pedestrians while adults and older patients were more often victims of passenger vehicular accidents. Older patients had the poorest outcome with a mortality rate of 48.7%. They were more prone to severe head injury ...

  5. Which CSR-Related Headings Do "Fortune" 500 Companies Use on Their Websites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Katherine Taken; Alexander, Julie J.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines website headings used by "Fortune" 500 companies in their efforts to inform stakeholders about corporate social responsibility (CSR). Instead of using "Corporate Social Responsibility" as a heading, companies often use specific terms to identify various CSR initiatives. The purpose of this article is to identify common…

  6. Objective and subjective image quality of primary and recurrent squamous cell carcinoma on head and neck low-tube-voltage 80-kVp computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholtz, Jan-Erik; Kaup, Moritz; Kraft, Johannes; Noeske, Eva-Maria; Schulz, Boris; Burck, Iris; Kerl, J.M.; Bauer, Ralf W.; Lehnert, Thomas; Vogl, Thomas J.; Wichmann, Julian L. [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany); Scheerer, Friedrich [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Cranio-Maxillofacial and Plastic Facial Surgery, Frankfurt (Germany); Wagenblast, Jens [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Frankfurt (Germany)

    2015-03-26

    To investigate low-tube-voltage 80-kVp computed tomography (CT) of head and neck primary and recurrent squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) regarding objective and subjective image quality. We retrospectively evaluated 65 patients (47 male, 18 female; mean age: 62.1 years) who underwent head and neck dual-energy CT (DECT) due to biopsy-proven primary (n = 50) or recurrent (n = 15) SCC. Eighty peak kilovoltage and standard blended 120-kVp images were compared. Attenuation and noise of malignancy and various soft tissue structures were measured. Tumor signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were calculated. Subjective image quality was rated by three reviewers using 5-point grading scales regarding overall image quality, lesion delineation, image sharpness, and image noise. Radiation dose was assessed as CT dose index volume (CTDI{sub vol}). Interobserver agreement was calculated using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Mean tumor attenuation (153.8 Hounsfield unit (HU) vs. 97.1 HU), SNR (10.7 vs. 8.3), CNR (8.1 vs. 4.8), and subjective tumor delineation (score, 4.46 vs. 4.13) were significantly increased (all P < 0.001) with 80-kVp acquisition compared to standard blended 120-kVp images. Noise of all measured structures was increased in 80-kVp acquisition (P < 0.001). Overall interobserver agreement was good (ICC, 0.86; 95 % confidence intervals: 0.82-0.89). CTDI{sub vol} was reduced by 48.7 % with 80-kVp acquisition compared to standard DECT (4.85 ± 0.51 vs. 9.94 ± 0.81 mGy cm, P < 0.001). Head and neck CT with low-tube-voltage 80-kVp acquisition provides increased tumor delineation, SNR, and CNR for CT imaging of primary and recurrent SCC compared to standard 120-kVp acquisition with an accompanying significant reduction of radiation exposure. (orig.)

  7. Subjective relative deprivation is associated with poorer physical and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sandeep; Carleton, R Nicholas

    2015-12-01

    Substantial epidemiological evidence has shown that income inequality and objective measures of relative deprivation are associated with poorer health outcomes. However, surprisingly little research has examined whether subjective feelings of relative deprivation are similarly linked with poorer health outcomes. The relative deprivation hypothesis suggests that inequality affects health at the individual level through negative consequences of social comparison. We directly examined the relationship between subjective feelings of personal relative deprivation and self-reported physical and mental health in a diverse community sample (n = 328). Results demonstrated that subjective feelings of personal relative deprivation are associated with significantly poorer physical and mental health. These relationships held even when accounting for covariates that have been previously associated with both relative deprivation and health. These results further support the link between relative deprivation and health outcomes and suggest that addressing root causes of relative deprivation may lead to greater individual health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Incidence of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma among subjects at high risk of lung cancer: results from the Pittsburgh Lung Screening Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Ronak; Weissfeld, Joel L; Wilson, David O; Balogh, Paula; Sufka, Pamela; Siegfried, Jill M; Grandis, Jennifer R; Diergaarde, Brenda

    2015-05-01

    Earlier detection and diagnosis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) should lead to improved outcomes. However, to the authors' knowledge, no effective screening strategy has been identified to date. In the current study, the authors evaluated whether it would be useful to screen subjects targeted for lung cancer screening for HNSCC as well. Medical records, death certificates, and cancer registry and questionnaire data were used to determine the number of observed incident HNSCC cases in the Pittsburgh Lung Screening Study (PLuSS), a cohort of current and former smokers aged ≥50 years with a ≥12.5 pack-year smoking history. The expected number of cases was estimated using stratum-specific incidence rates obtained from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data for 2000 through 2011. The standardized incidence ratio was calculated to examine the difference between the observed and expected number of cases. Of the 3587 at-risk participants in the PLuSS, 23 (0.64%) developed HNSCC over a total of 32,201 person-years of follow-up. This finding was significantly higher than expected based on incidence rates obtained from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program (13.70 cases expected; standardized incidence ratio, 1.68 [95% confidence interval, 1.06-2.52]). The excess burden of HNSCC in the PLuSS was 28.9 cases per 100,000 person-years. Observed incident cases were significantly more often male, had started smoking at a younger age, smoked more per day, and had more pack-years of smoking than the rest of the PLuSS at-risk participants. The results of the current study provide a rationale for offering head and neck cancer screening along with computed tomography screening for lung cancer. Randomized controlled trials that assess the effectiveness of adding examination of the head and neck area to lung cancer screening programs are warranted. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  9. Concussive head injury in children and adolescents related to sports and other leisure physical activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, G J; Lam, L T

    2006-02-01

    To compare the characteristics of children and adolescents with concussive head injury (CHI) sustained during organised sports or other leisure physical activity. This was a case series study reviewing the medical records retrospectively over a four year period of children 6-16 years presenting to the emergency department with a CHI after participating in sport and/or recreation activity. There were 592 cases of sport and recreation related concussion over the study period (2000-2003). Most of the patients (n = 424, 71.6%) were male, with half (n = 304, 51.4%) being older than 10 years of age. A total of 152 (25.7%) cases of CHI were related to playing sports. Most cases (71.2%) were mild concussion. The cause of injury was a fall (n = 322, 54.4%) or a collision. Nearly a quarter of the children (n = 143, 24.2%) were admitted to hospital, with imaging performed in 134 (22.7%). Most children were treated appropriately and no adverse events were reported. A severe CHI in a child is six times more likely to have resulted from organised sport than from other leisure physical activities. Outcomes for CHI in children is excellent, although their management places a considerable burden on emergency services. The need for activity restriction and the benefits of this in reducing long term cognitive effects of CHI are uncertain.

  10. Word Memory Test Predicts Recovery in Claimants With Work-Related Head Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colangelo, Annette; Abada, Abigail; Haws, Calvin; Park, Joanne; Niemeläinen, Riikka; Gross, Douglas P

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the predictive validity of the Word Memory Test (WMT), a verbal memory neuropsychological test developed as a performance validity measure to assess memory, effort, and performance consistency. Cohort study with 1-year follow-up. Workers' compensation rehabilitation facility. Participants included workers' compensation claimants with work-related head injury (N=188; mean age, 44y; 161 men [85.6%]). Not applicable. Outcome measures for determining predictive validity included days to suspension of wage replacement benefits during the 1-year follow-up and work status at discharge in claimants undergoing rehabilitation. Analysis included multivariable Cox and logistic regression. Better WMT performance was significantly but weakly correlated with younger age (r=-.30), documented brain abnormality (r=.28), and loss of consciousness at the time of injury (r=.25). Claimants with documented brain abnormalities on diagnostic imaging scans performed better (∼9%) on the WMT than those without brain abnormalities. The WMT predicted days receiving benefits (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.13; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.24) and work status outcome at program discharge (adjusted odds ratio, 1.62; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-2.34). Our results provide evidence for the predictive validity of the WMT in workers' compensation claimants. Younger claimants and those with more severe brain injuries performed better on the WMT. It may be that financial incentives or other factors related to the compensation claim affected the performance. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Experimental Investigation of Cavitation as a Possible Damage Mechanism in Blast-Induced Traumatic Brain Injury in Post-Mortem Human Subject Heads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzar, Robert S; Treichler, Derrick; Wardlaw, Andrew; Weiss, Greg; Goeller, Jacques

    2017-04-15

    The potential of blast-induced traumatic brain injury from the mechanism of localized cavitation of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is investigated. While the mechanism and criteria for non-impact blast-induced traumatic brain injury is still unknown, this study demonstrates that local cavitation in the CSF layer of the cranial volume could contribute to these injuries. The cranial contents of three post-mortem human subject (PMHS) heads were replaced with both a normal saline solution and a ballistic gel mixture with a simulated CSF layer. Each were instrumented with multiple pressure transducers and placed inside identical shock tubes at two different research facilities. Sensor data indicates that cavitation may have occurred in the PMHS models at pressure levels below those for a 50% risk of blast lung injury. This study points to skull flexion, the result of the shock wave on the front of the skull leading to a negative pressure in the contrecoup, as a possible mechanism that contributes to the onset of cavitation. Based on observation of intracranial pressure transducer data from the PMHS model, cavitation onset is thought to occur from approximately a 140 kPa head-on incident blast.

  12. Reduced Sympathetic Response to Head-Up Tilt in Subjects with Mild Cognitive Impairment or Mild Alzheimer's Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marte Rognstad Mellingsæter

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hemodynamic control was compared in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI or mild Alzheimer's dementia (AD as well as in healthy elderly subjects. Methods: Noninvasive, continuous hemodynamic recordings were obtained from 14 patients and 48 controls during supine rest (tilt of 30 and 70°. Cardiac output, end-diastolic volume, total peripheral resistance, heart rate variability (HRV, systolic blood pressure variability (SBPV, and baroreceptor sensitivity were calculated. Results: At 70° tilt, the HRV indices differed significantly, with higher high-frequency (HF variability as well as lower low-frequency (LF variability and LF/HF ratios in the patients. The patients had significantly lower SBPV in the LF range at 30° tilt. Conclusions: The results indicate a poorer sympathetic response to orthostatic stress in MCI and mild AD.

  13. The recognition of facial affect in autistic and schizophrenic subjects and their first-degree relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bölte, Sven; Poustka, Fritz

    2003-07-01

    Autism and schizophrenia are considered to be substantially influenced by genetic factors. The endophenotype of both disorders probably also includes deficits in affect perception. The objective of this study was to examine the capacity to detect facially expressed emotion in autistic and schizophrenic subjects, their parents and siblings. Thirty-five subjects with autism and 102 of their relatives, 21 schizophrenic subjects and 46 relatives from simplex (one child affected) and multiplex (more than one child affected) families, as well as an unaffected control sample consisting of 22 probands completed a 50-item computer-based test to assess the ability to recognize basic emotions. The autistic subjects showed a poorer performance on the facial recognition test than did the schizophrenic and the unaffected individuals. In addition, there was a tendency for subjects from multiplex families with autistic loading to score lower on the test than individuals from simplex families with autistic loading. Schizophrenic subjects and their relatives as well as siblings and parents of autistic subjects did not differ from the sample of unaffected subjects in their ability to judge facial affect. Findings corroborate the assumption that emotion detection deficits are part of the endophenotype of autism. In families with autistic children, the extent of facial recognition deficits probably indexes an elevation in familial burden. It seems unlikely that problems in emotion perception form a consistent part of the endophenotype of schizophrenia or the broader phenotype in relatives of patients with psychosis or autism.

  14. Early Head Start, Pediatric Dental Use, and Oral Health-Related Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgette, J M; Preisser, J S; Weinberger, M; King, R S; Rozier, R G

    2017-10-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the mediating effect of child dental use on the effectiveness of North Carolina Early Head Start (EHS) in improving oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). In total, 479 parents of children enrolled in EHS and 699 parents of Medicaid-matched children were interviewed at baseline when children were approximately 10 mo old and 24 mo later. In this quasi-experimental study, mediation analysis was performed using the counterfactual framework analysis, which employed 2 logit models with random effects: 1) for the mediator as a function of the treatment and covariates and 2) for the outcome as a function of the treatment, mediator, and covariates. The covariates were baseline dental OHRQoL, dental need, survey language, and a propensity score. We used in-person computer-assisted, structured interviews to collect information on demographic characteristics and dental use and to administer the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale, a measure of OHRQoL. Dental use had a mediation effect in the undesired direction with a 2-percentage point increase in the probability of any negative impact to OHRQoL (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.3%-3.9%). Even with higher dental use by EHS participants, the probability of any negative impact to OHRQoL was approximately 8 percentage points lower if an individual were moved from the non-EHS group to the EHS group (95% CI, -13.9% to -1.2%). EHS increases child dental use, which worsens family OHRQoL. However, EHS is associated with improved OHRQoL overall. Knowledge Transfer Statement: Study results can inform policy makers that comprehensive early childhood education programs improve oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) for disadvantaged families with young children in pathways outside of clinical dental care. This awareness and its promotion can lead to greater resource investments in early childhood education programs. Information about the negative impacts of dental use on OHRQo

  15. Analysis by NASA's VESGEN Software of Retinal Blood Vessels in Human Subjects Undergoing Head-Down Tilt During 70-Day Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Ruchi J.; Murray, Matthew C.; Predovic, Marina; Lim, Shiyin; Askin, Kayleigh N.; Vizzeri, Gianmarco; Taibbi, Giovanni; Mason, Sara Stroble; Zanello, Susana B.; Young, Millenia; hide

    2017-01-01

    Significant risks for visual impairment associated with increased intracranial pressure (VIIP) are incurred by microgravity spaceflight, especially long-duration missions [1]. We hypothesize that microgravity-induced fluid shifts result in pathological changes within blood vessels of the retina that precede development of visual and other ocular impairments. Potential contributions of retinal vascular remodeling to VIIP etiology are therefore being investigated for two studies in 30deg infrared (IR) Heidelberg Spectralis(Registered Trademark) images with NASA's innovative VESsel GENeration Analysis (VESGEN) software [2,3]. The retrospective studies include: (1) before, during and after (pre, mid and post) 6º head-down tilt (HDT) in human subjects during 70 days of bed rest, and (2) before and after missions to the International Space Station (ISS) by U.S. crew members. Results for both studies are almost complete. A preliminary example for HDT is described below.

  16. Citation Analysis using the Medline Database at the Web of Knowledge: Searching "Times Cited" with Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)

    CERN Document Server

    Leydesdorff, Loet

    2012-01-01

    Citation analysis of documents retrieved from the Medline database (at the Web of Knowledge) has been possible only on a case-by-case basis. A technique is here developed for citation analysis in batch mode using both Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) at the Web of Knowledge and the Science Citation Index at the Web of Science. This freeware routine is applied to the case of "Brugada Syndrome," a specific disease and field of research (since 1992). The journals containing these publications are attributed to Web-of-Science Categories other than "Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems"), perhaps because of the possibility of genetic testing for this syndrome in the clinic. With this routine, all the instruments available for citation analysis can be used on the basis of MeSH terms.

  17. A qualitative exploration of work-related head injury: vulnerability at the intersection of workers' decision making and organizational values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontos, P; Grigorovich, A; Nowrouzi, B; Sharma, B; Lewko, J; Mollayeva, T; Colantonio, A

    2017-10-18

    Work-related head injury is a critical public health issue due to its rising prevalence; the association with profound disruption of workers' lives; and significant economic burdens in terms of medical costs and lost wages. Efforts to understand and prevent these types of injuries have largely been dominated by epidemiological research and safety science, which has focused on identifying risk at the level of the individual worker, population group, or organizational sector. Limited research has focused on the perspectives of the workers, a key stakeholder group for informing understanding of vulnerability to work-related head injury. This study explored workers' perspectives to better understand their decision-making and how and why their injuries occurred. We conducted a qualitative study using in-depth semi-structured interviews with thirty-two adult workers who had sustained a work-related head injury. Workers were recruited from an urban clinic in central Ontario, Canada. Labour Process Theory informed the thematic analysis. Three hazardous work conditions were identified: insufficient training; inadequate staffing; and inattention to the physical environment. In addition, professional and organizational norms were implicated in vulnerability to head injury including putting the client before the worker and the pressure to work unsafely. The findings also highlight a complex interrelationship between workers' decision-making and professional and organizational norms that produces vulnerability to head injury, a vulnerability which oftentimes is reproduced by workers' decisions to work despite hazardous conditions. Our findings suggest that, beyond the need to redress the inattention to hazards in the physical environment, there is a need to address norms that influence worker decision-making to improve the safety of workers. Using Labour Process Theory highlights an important social dynamic within workplace sectors that could inform future development and

  18. A qualitative exploration of work-related head injury: vulnerability at the intersection of workers’ decision making and organizational values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kontos

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Work-related head injury is a critical public health issue due to its rising prevalence; the association with profound disruption of workers’ lives; and significant economic burdens in terms of medical costs and lost wages. Efforts to understand and prevent these types of injuries have largely been dominated by epidemiological research and safety science, which has focused on identifying risk at the level of the individual worker, population group, or organizational sector. Limited research has focused on the perspectives of the workers, a key stakeholder group for informing understanding of vulnerability to work-related head injury. This study explored workers’ perspectives to better understand their decision-making and how and why their injuries occurred. Methods We conducted a qualitative study using in-depth semi-structured interviews with thirty-two adult workers who had sustained a work-related head injury. Workers were recruited from an urban clinic in central Ontario, Canada. Labour Process Theory informed the thematic analysis. Results Three hazardous work conditions were identified: insufficient training; inadequate staffing; and inattention to the physical environment. In addition, professional and organizational norms were implicated in vulnerability to head injury including putting the client before the worker and the pressure to work unsafely. The findings also highlight a complex interrelationship between workers’ decision-making and professional and organizational norms that produces vulnerability to head injury, a vulnerability which oftentimes is reproduced by workers’ decisions to work despite hazardous conditions. Conclusions Our findings suggest that, beyond the need to redress the inattention to hazards in the physical environment, there is a need to address norms that influence worker decision-making to improve the safety of workers. Using Labour Process Theory highlights an important social

  19. Importance to include the term superficial musculoaponeurotic system in medical subject headings and in the international anatomical nomenclature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Lydia Massako; Locali, Rafael Fagionato; Lapin, Guilherme Abbud Franco; Hochman, Bernardo

    2011-06-01

    To investigate the relevance of the term superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) and demonstrate that this term is important enough to be added to the MeSH database and listed in International Anatomical Nomenclature. Terms related to SMAS were selected from original articles retrieved from the ISI Web of Science and MEDLINE (PubMed) databases. Groups of terms were created to define a search strategy with high-sensitivity and restricted to scientific periodicals devoted to plastic surgery. This study included articles between January 1996 and May 2009, whose titles, abstracts, and keywords were searched for SMAS-related terms and all occurrences were recorded. A total of 126 original articles were retrieved from the main periodicals related to plastic surgery in the referred databases. Of these articles, 51.6% had SMAS-related terms in the abstract only, and 25.4% had SMAS-related terms in both the title and abstract. The term 'superficial musculoaponeurotic system' was present as a keyword in 19.8% of the articles. The most frequent terms were 'SMAS' (71.4%) and superficial musculoaponeurotic system (62.7%). The term SMAS refers to a structure relevant enough to start a discussion about indexing it as a keyword and as an official term in Terminologia Anatomica: International Anatomical Terminology.

  20. Relationship between Income and Subjective Economic Well-Being: Absolute or Relative?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V A Khashchenko

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the role of the absolute and relative income in determining the subjective economic well-being. It is shown that the relationship of the income to SEB is curvilinear with the increase of marginal utility for a higher income. At low income levels its effect on SEB is determined not by its absolute, but by its relative value based on the comparisons with the subjective standards of well-being.

  1. Head Start.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenman, Geri

    2000-01-01

    Discusses an art project in which students created drawings of mop heads. Explains that the approach of drawing was more important than the subject. States that the students used the chiaroscuro technique, used by Rembrandt and Caravaggio, in which light appears out of the darkness. (CMK)

  2. Relationships of Impulsivity and Subjective Response to Alcohol Use and Related Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berey, Benjamin L; Leeman, Robert F; Pittman, Brian; O'Malley, Stephanie S

    2017-11-01

    Impulsivity and subjective response to alcohol are predictors of alcohol use disorder. The purpose of this study was to replicate and extend prior research examining relationships between impulsivity and subjective response patterns. In addition, impulsivity and initial subjective response patterns were examined in relation to current heavy episodic drinking and alcohol-related problems. Data were cross-sectional, retrospective self-reports, obtained from baseline assessments from five studies affiliated with the Yale Center for the Translational Neuroscience of Alcoholism. Analyses were conducted in a sample restricted to nondependent, young adults (n = 186) and in a larger, more heterogeneous sample (n = 363). Data were analyzed using hierarchical regression in three separate types of models. In the young adult, nondependent sample, impulsivity was a statistically significant predictor of lower recent sedative subjective response. Impulsivity and initial sedative subjective response patterns were statistically significant predictors of past-year heavy drinking. Impulsivity, but not initial subjective response patterns, was a statistically significant predictor of past-year alcohol-related problems. Findings in the larger sample were similar. More-impulsive individuals may perceive less sedation from alcohol, which is associated with increased heavy drinking. However, higher levels of impulsivity may be more responsible than diminished subjective response for poor decision making that results in negative drinking consequences. These results suggest that high impulsivity and certain subjective response patterns are worthy intervention targets.

  3. Epistemological Dizziness in the Psychology Laboratory: Lively Subjects, Anxious Experimenters, and Experimental Relations, 1950-1970.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawski, Jill

    2015-09-01

    Since the demise of introspective techniques in the early twentieth century, experimental psychology has largely assumed an administrative arrangement between experimenters and subjects wherein subjects respond to experimenters' instructions and experimenters meticulously constrain that relationship through experimental controls. During the postwar era this standard arrangement came to be questioned, initiating reflections that resonated with Cold War anxieties about the nature of the subjects and the experimenters alike. Albeit relatively short lived, these interrogations of laboratory relationships gave rise to unconventional testimonies and critiques of experimental method and epistemology. Researchers voiced serious concerns about the honesty and normality of subjects, the politics of the laboratory, and their own experimental conduct. Their reflective commentaries record the intimacy of subject and experimenter relations and the plentiful cultural materials that constituted the experimental situation, revealing the permeable boundaries between laboratory and everyday life.

  4. Properties of low-frequency head-related transfer functions in the barn owl (Tyto alba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, Laura; von Campenhausen, Mark; Wagner, Hermann

    2010-09-01

    The barn owl (Tyto alba) possesses several specializations regarding auditory processing. The most conspicuous features are the directionally sensitive facial ruff and the asymmetrically arranged ears. The frequency-specific influence of these features on sound has consequences for sound localization that might differ between low and high frequencies. Whereas the high-frequency range (>3 kHz) is well investigated, less is known about the characteristics of head-related transfer functions for frequencies below 3 kHz. In the present study, we compared 1/3 octaveband-filtered transfer functions of barn owls with center frequencies ranging from 0.5 to 9 kHz. The range of interaural time differences was 600 micros at frequencies above 4 kHz, decreased to 505 micros at 3 kHz and increased again to about 615 micros at lower frequencies. The ranges for very low (0.5-1 kHz) and high frequencies (5-9 kHz) were not statistically different. Interaural level differences and monaural gains increased monotonically with increasing frequency. No systematic influence of the body temperature on the measured localization cues was observed. These data have implications for the mechanism underlying sound localization and we suggest that the barn owl's ears work as pressure receivers both in the high- and low-frequency ranges.

  5. A Dome-Headed Stem Archosaur Exemplifies Convergence among Dinosaurs and Their Distant Relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Michelle R; Nesbitt, Sterling J; Criswell, Katharine E; Parker, William G; Witmer, Lawrence M; Rowe, Timothy B; Ridgely, Ryan; Brown, Matthew A

    2016-10-10

    Similarities in body plan evolution, such as wings in pterosaurs, birds, and bats or limblessness in snakes and amphisbaenians, can be recognized as classical examples of convergence among animals [1-3]. We introduce a new Triassic stem archosaur that is unexpectedly and remarkably convergent with the "dome-headed" pachycephalosaur dinosaurs that lived over 100 million years later. Surprisingly, numerous additional taxa in the same assemblage (the Otis Chalk assemblage from the Dockum Group of Texas) demonstrate the early acquisition of morphological novelties that were later convergently evolved by post-Triassic dinosaurs. As one of the most successful clades of terrestrial vertebrates, dinosaurs came to occupy an extensive morphospace throughout their diversification in the Mesozoic Era [4, 5], but their distant relatives were first to evolve many of those "dinosaurian" body plans in the Triassic Period [6-8]. Our analysis of convergence between archosauromorphs from the Triassic Period and post-Triassic archosaurs demonstrates the early and extensive exploration of morphospace captured in a single Late Triassic assemblage, and we hypothesize that many of the "novel" morphotypes interpreted to occur among archosaurs later in the Mesozoic already were in place during the initial Triassic archosauromorph, largely non-dinosaurian, radiation and only later convergently evolved in diverse dinosaurian lineages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Design theory for binaural synthesis: Combining microphone array recordings and head-related transfer function datasets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Salvador, César D; Sakamoto, Shuichi; Treviño, Jorge; Suzuki, Yôiti

    2017-01-01

    .... This paper reviews the current methods and focuses on a promising class of these methods that rely on combining the spatial information available in microphone array recordings and datasets of head...

  7. Subjective sleepiness and sleep quality in adolescents are related to objective and subjective measures of school performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemarie eBoschloo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relation between sleep and school performance in a large sample of 561 adolescents aged 11-18 years. Three subjective measures of sleep were used: sleepiness, sleep quality and sleep duration. They were compared to three measures of school performance: objective school grades, self-reported school performance, and parent-reported school performance. Sleepiness – ‘I feel sleepy during the first hours at school’ – appeared to predict both school grades and self-reported school performance. Sleep quality on the other hand – as a measure of (uninterrupted sleep and/or problems falling asleep or waking up – predicted parent-reported school performance. Self- and parent-reported school performance correlated only moderately with school grades. So it turns out that the measures used to measure either sleep or school performance impacts whether or not a relation is found. Further research on sleep and school performance should take this into account. The findings do underscore the notion that sleep in adolescence can be important for learning. They are compatible with the hypothesis that a reduced sleep quality can give rise to sleepiness in the first hours at school which results in lower school performance. This notion could have applied value in counseling adolescents and their parents in changing adolescents’ sleep behavior.

  8. Subjective Sleepiness and Sleep Quality in Adolescents are Related to Objective and Subjective Measures of School Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschloo, Annemarie; Krabbendam, Lydia; Dekker, Sanne; Lee, Nikki; de Groot, Renate; Jolles, Jelle

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between sleep and school performance in a large sample of 561 adolescents aged 11-18 years. Three subjective measures of sleep were used: sleepiness, sleep quality, and sleep duration. They were compared to three measures of school performance: objective school grades, self-reported school performance, and parent-reported school performance. Sleepiness - "I feel sleepy during the first hours at school" - appeared to predict both school grades and self-reported school performance. Sleep quality on the other hand - as a measure of (un)interrupted sleep and/or problems falling asleep or waking up - predicted parent-reported school performance. Self- and parent-reported school performance correlated only moderately with school grades. So it turns out that the measures used to measure either sleep or school performance impacts whether or not a relation is found. Further research on sleep and school performance should take this into account. The findings do underscore the notion that sleep in adolescence can be important for learning. They are compatible with the hypothesis that a reduced sleep quality can give rise to sleepiness in the first hours at school which results in lower school performance. This notion could have applied value in counseling adolescents and their parents in changing adolescents' sleep behavior.

  9. Is sexual size dimorphism in relative head size correlated with intersexual dietary divergence in West African forest cobras, Naja melanoleuca?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiselli, Luca; Akani, Godfrey C.; Corti, Claudia; Angelici, Francesco M.

    2002-01-01

    Sex-biased differences in dietary habits of snakes are often linked to pronounced sexual size dimorphism in absolute body size or in relative head size. We studied the food habits of free-ranging forest cobras (Naja melanoleuca) in southern Nigeria to find whether any intersexual dietary divergence

  10. Posttraumatic Cerebellar Infarction after Repeated Sport-related Minor Head Injuries in a Young Adult: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    MATSUMOTO, Hiroaki; YOSHIDA, Yasuhisa

    2015-01-01

    A healthy 23-year-old man suffered helmet-to-helmet collisions with an opponent during American football game twice within 3 days. He then experienced continuous vomiting and dizziness. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed acute infarction in the right cerebellar hemisphere, and magnetic resonance angiography revealed transient stenosis of the right superior cerebellar artery. Although minor head injury is not usually accompanied by complications, posttraumatic ischemic stroke has been reported on rare occasions. We report a case of cerebellar infarction after repeated sports-related minor head injuries in a young adult and discuss the etiology. PMID:25746313

  11. Cervical vertebral column morphology related to craniofacial morphology and head posture in preorthodontic children with Class II malocclusion and horizontal maxillary overjet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arntsen, Torill; Sonnesen, Ane Liselotte

    2011-01-01

    In preorthodontic children with Class II malocclusion and horizontal maxillary overjet, cervical column morphology was examined and related to craniofacial morphology and head posture for the first time....

  12. The association of subjective orthodontic treatment need with oral health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kragt, Lea; Jaddoe, Vincent; Wolvius, Eppo; Ongkosuwito, Edwin

    2017-08-01

    The existing body of evidence reports an inconsistent association between subjective and objective orthodontic treatment need. The concept of oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) might help to explain the differences in subjective and objective orthodontic treatment need. Our aim was to investigate the association of subjective orthodontic treatment with OHRQoL in children. This cross-sectional study was embedded in the Generation R Study, a population-based prospective cohort study. OHRQoL and subjective orthodontic treatment need were assessed by parental questionnaires. Questionnaire items were individually compared among children with no, borderline and definite subjective orthodontic need. The association between subjective orthodontic treatment need and OHRQoL was investigated in multivariate regression analysis with weighted least squares. Differences by sex and levels of objective orthodontic treatment need were evaluated. In total, 3774 children were included in the analysis. Children with borderline subjective orthodontic treatment need and those with definite subjective orthodontic treatment need had significantly poorer OHRQoL based on the fully adjusted model (adjusted regression coefficient (aβ)=-0.49, 95% CI: -0.75, -0.30; (aβ)=-1.58, 95% CI: -1.81, -1.58, respectively). The association between subjective orthodontic treatment need and OHRQoL was stronger in girls than in boys and stronger in children with objective orthodontic treatment need than in those with none. Oral health-related quality of life is poorer in children with subjective orthodontic treatment need. This has not been investigated before in such a large-population-based study and clearly offers an explanation for the lack of concurrence between objective and subjective orthodontic treatment need. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Subject Combination and Electrode Selection in Cooperative Brain-Computer Interface Based on Event Related Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Cecotti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available New paradigms are required in Brain-Computer Interface (BCI systems for the needs and expectations of healthy people. To solve this issue, we explore the emerging field of cooperative BCIs, which involves several users in a single BCI system. Contrary to classical BCIs that are dependent on the unique subject’s will, cooperative BCIs are used for problem solving tasks where several people shall be engaged by sharing a common goal. Similarly as combining trials over time improves performance, combining trials across subjects can significantly improve performance compared with when only a single user is involved. Yet, cooperative BCIs may only be used in particular settings, and new paradigms must be proposed to efficiently use this approach. The possible benefits of using several subjects are addressed, and compared with current single-subject BCI paradigms. To show the advantages of a cooperative BCI, we evaluate the performance of combining decisions across subjects with data from an event-related potentials (ERP based experiment where each subject observed the same sequence of visual stimuli. Furthermore, we show that it is possible to achieve a mean AUC superior to 0.95 with 10 subjects and 3 electrodes on each subject, or with 4 subjects and 6 electrodes on each subject. Several emerging challenges and possible applications are proposed to highlight how cooperative BCIs could be efficiently used with current technologies and leverage BCI applications.

  14. Subjective cognitive failures after stroke in young adults: prevalent but not related to cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maaijwee, Noortje A M M; Schaapsmeerders, Pauline; Rutten-Jacobs, Loes C A; Arntz, Renate M; Schoonderwaldt, Hennie C; van Dijk, Ewoud J; Kessels, Roy P C; de Leeuw, Frank-Erik

    2014-07-01

    Few studies exist on subjective cognitive failures after a stroke in young adults (≤50 years) and their relation to objective cognitive performance is unknown. Therefore, we investigated the prevalence of subjective cognitive failures in patients with a stroke in young adulthood and their relation with objective cognitive impairment. This study is part of the "Follow-Up of Transient ischemic attack and stroke patients and Unelucidated Risk factor Evaluation"-study (FUTURE study), including patients, aged 18-50 years, admitted to our hospital between 1980 and 2010 with a first-ever TIA or ischemic stroke. The prevalence of subjective cognitive failures in patients was determined and compared with 146 age- and sex-matched stroke-free controls. The relation of subjective failures with objective cognitive performance was investigated with linear and logistic regression analysis. 160 patients with a TIA and 277 with an ischemic stroke were included. After a mean follow-up of 10.1 (SD 8.3) years, the prevalence of subjective memory failures was 86.4% and that of subjective executive failures was 67.4% in patients, versus 69.7% (p = 0.008) and 41.4% (p = 0.002) in controls. A weak association between subjective memory failures and objective immediate (beta -0.12, p = 0.011) and delayed memory performance (beta -0.13, p = 0.010) was observed in patients. Subjective cognitive failures are prevalent after stroke in young adults, but not strongly related to objective cognitive impairment. Therefore, extensive neuropsychological assessment is essential for determination of objective cognitive impairment. However, it is important that subjective cognitive failures are recognized as they may indicate underlying psychosocial problems.

  15. Is investigator background related to outcome in head to head trials of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy for adult depression? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristea, Ioana A; Gentili, Claudio; Pietrini, Pietro; Cuijpers, Pim

    2017-01-01

    The influence of factors related to the background of investigators conducting trials comparing psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy has remained largely unstudied. Specializations emphasizing biological determinants of mental disorders, like psychiatry, might favor pharmacotherapy, while others stressing psychosocial factors, like psychology, could promote psychotherapy. Yet financial conflict of interest (COI) could be a confounding factor as authors with a medical specialization might receive more sponsoring from the pharmaceutical industry. We conducted a meta-analysis with subgroup and meta-regression analysis examining whether the specialization and affiliation of trial authors were associated to outcomes in the direct comparison of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy for the acute treatment of depression. Meta-regression analysis also included trial risk of bias and author conflict of interest in relationship to the pharmaceutical industry. We included 45 trials. In half, the first author was psychologist. The last author was psychiatrist/MD in half of the trials, and a psychologist or statistician/other technical in the rest. Most lead authors had medical affiliations. Subgroup analysis indicated that studies with last authors statisticians favored pharmacotherapy. Univariate analysis showed a negative relationship between the presence of statisticians and outcomes favoring psychotherapy. Multivariate analysis showed that trials including authors with financial COI reported findings more favorable to pharmacotherapy. We report the first detailed overview of the background of authors conducting head to head trials for depression. Trials co-authored by statisticians appear to subtly favor pharmacotherapy. Receiving funding from the industry is more closely related to finding better outcomes for the industry's elective treatment than are factors related to authors' background. For a minority of authors we could not retrieve background information. The number of

  16. Is investigator background related to outcome in head to head trials of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy for adult depression? A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentili, Claudio; Pietrini, Pietro; Cuijpers, Pim

    2017-01-01

    Background The influence of factors related to the background of investigators conducting trials comparing psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy has remained largely unstudied. Specializations emphasizing biological determinants of mental disorders, like psychiatry, might favor pharmacotherapy, while others stressing psychosocial factors, like psychology, could promote psychotherapy. Yet financial conflict of interest (COI) could be a confounding factor as authors with a medical specialization might receive more sponsoring from the pharmaceutical industry. Method We conducted a meta-analysis with subgroup and meta-regression analysis examining whether the specialization and affiliation of trial authors were associated to outcomes in the direct comparison of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy for the acute treatment of depression. Meta-regression analysis also included trial risk of bias and author conflict of interest in relationship to the pharmaceutical industry. Results We included 45 trials. In half, the first author was psychologist. The last author was psychiatrist/MD in half of the trials, and a psychologist or statistician/other technical in the rest. Most lead authors had medical affiliations. Subgroup analysis indicated that studies with last authors statisticians favored pharmacotherapy. Univariate analysis showed a negative relationship between the presence of statisticians and outcomes favoring psychotherapy. Multivariate analysis showed that trials including authors with financial COI reported findings more favorable to pharmacotherapy. Discussion We report the first detailed overview of the background of authors conducting head to head trials for depression. Trials co-authored by statisticians appear to subtly favor pharmacotherapy. Receiving funding from the industry is more closely related to finding better outcomes for the industry’s elective treatment than are factors related to authors’ background. Limitations For a minority of authors we could

  17. Is investigator background related to outcome in head to head trials of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy for adult depression? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana A Cristea

    Full Text Available The influence of factors related to the background of investigators conducting trials comparing psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy has remained largely unstudied. Specializations emphasizing biological determinants of mental disorders, like psychiatry, might favor pharmacotherapy, while others stressing psychosocial factors, like psychology, could promote psychotherapy. Yet financial conflict of interest (COI could be a confounding factor as authors with a medical specialization might receive more sponsoring from the pharmaceutical industry.We conducted a meta-analysis with subgroup and meta-regression analysis examining whether the specialization and affiliation of trial authors were associated to outcomes in the direct comparison of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy for the acute treatment of depression. Meta-regression analysis also included trial risk of bias and author conflict of interest in relationship to the pharmaceutical industry.We included 45 trials. In half, the first author was psychologist. The last author was psychiatrist/MD in half of the trials, and a psychologist or statistician/other technical in the rest. Most lead authors had medical affiliations. Subgroup analysis indicated that studies with last authors statisticians favored pharmacotherapy. Univariate analysis showed a negative relationship between the presence of statisticians and outcomes favoring psychotherapy. Multivariate analysis showed that trials including authors with financial COI reported findings more favorable to pharmacotherapy.We report the first detailed overview of the background of authors conducting head to head trials for depression. Trials co-authored by statisticians appear to subtly favor pharmacotherapy. Receiving funding from the industry is more closely related to finding better outcomes for the industry's elective treatment than are factors related to authors' background.For a minority of authors we could not retrieve background information

  18. Clinical encounter and the logic of relationality: Reconfiguring bodies and subjectivities in clinical relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazimierczak, Karolina A

    2017-01-01

    This article critically examines the significance of relational approaches for sociological understandings of clinical interactions, relations and practices, by exploring the ways in which relational theories and concepts have been employed in the recent sociological accounts of clinical encounters to trouble the classical dyadic models of clinical interaction and the related atomistic conceptions of agency and accountability. Reading this work through the theoretical contributions from feminist science studies scholarship, and particularly the work of Donna Haraway and Karen Barad, the article proposes an alternative understanding of clinical interactions, relations and practices, where relations are conceived as constitutive of individuals (objects/bodies and their attributes/identities), rather than being constituted by encounters between individuals. Key for this understanding is the reconceptualisation of clinical encounter as an apparatus of bodily production through which different agents (patients, clinicians, diseases and healthcare services) are materialised and enacted.

  19. Cited references and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) as two different knowledge representations: clustering and mappings at the paper level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leydesdorff, Loet; Comins, Jordan A; Sorensen, Aaron A; Bornmann, Lutz; Hellsten, Iina

    2016-01-01

    For the biomedical sciences, the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) make available a rich feature which cannot currently be merged properly with widely used citing/cited data. Here, we provide methods and routines that make MeSH terms amenable to broader usage in the study of science indicators: using Web-of-Science (WoS) data, one can generate the matrix of citing versus cited documents; using PubMed/MEDLINE data, a matrix of the citing documents versus MeSH terms can be generated analogously. The two matrices can also be reorganized into a 2-mode matrix of MeSH terms versus cited references. Using the abbreviated journal names in the references, one can, for example, address the question whether MeSH terms can be used as an alternative to WoS Subject Categories for the purpose of normalizing citation data. We explore the applicability of the routines in the case of a research program about the amyloid cascade hypothesis in Alzheimer's disease. One conclusion is that referenced journals provide archival structures, whereas MeSH terms indicate mainly variation (including novelty) at the research front. Furthermore, we explore the option of using the citing/cited matrix for main-path analysis as a by-product of the software.

  20. Subjective Reactions to International Research Participation: An Illustration of Ethical Considerations With Women Heading Households in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Jessica E; Banford Witting, Alyssa; Ponnamperuma, Lakmal; Wickrama, Thulitha

    2017-06-19

    here are unique ethical considerations in conducting international research with war and disaster-affected populations that are important for ensuring adequate protection of participants. Of particular importance is the distress that participants may experience as a result of being asked about traumatic stressors, psychological symptoms, and life problems. In this study, trauma-affected Tamil women in Eastern Sri Lanka were asked to report on their research-participation experience after taking part in a larger study on risk and resiliency. Results indicated that most participants experienced emotional upset as a result of taking part in the study. However, the degree of distress was generally not more than they anticipated, and most participants reported they would have participated had they known in advance how they would feel. Most participants perceived some benefit as a result of participating and agreed that items were personally relevant. Emotional distress from participation positively correlated with culturally specific symptoms of anxiety and depression. Contextual stressors and social support were not associated with participation-related distress. We discuss these findings as well as general issues that might arise in international research with trauma-affected populations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Influence of subjective intoxication, breath alcohol concentration, and expectancies on the alcohol-aggression relation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giancola, Peter R

    2006-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of subjective intoxication, alcohol-aggression expectancies, and breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) on intoxicated aggression in men and women while controlling for dispositional aggressivity. Subjects were 328 (163 men and 165 women) healthy social drinkers between 21 and 35 years of age. Following the consumption of either an alcohol or an active placebo beverage, subjects were tested on a modified version of the Taylor Aggression Paradigm in which mild electric shocks were received from, and administered to, a fictitious opponent during a competitive task. Levels of subjective intoxication and BrAC were measured immediately before subjects began the aggression task. Aggressive behavior was operationalized as the shock intensities administered to the fictitious opponent under conditions of low and high provocation. Subjective intoxication ratings were not related to aggressive behavior for either men or women. Alcohol-aggression expectancies were related to aggression for men, but this effect was rendered nonsignificant when controlling for dispositional aggressivity, which in turn, was significantly related to the dependent variables for both men and women. Finally, BrAC was also related to aggression above and beyond the effects of dispositional aggressivity, yet only for men. Taken as a whole, this study suggests that intoxicated aggression is primarily the result of alcohol's pharmacological properties in conjunction with an aggressive disposition.

  2. Some syntactic and semantic aspects of the chiShona subject relation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main aim of this article is to present some syntactic and semantic characteristics of the chiShona subject relation, with specific reference to its behaviour in the passive, reflexive and wh-question transformational rules. It evaluates the state and nature of the relation's freedom in the language. In each example, the ...

  3. Subjective Evaluations of Alcohol-Related Consequences among College Students: Experience with Consequences Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavens, Eleanor L.; Leffingwell, Thad R.; Miller, Mary Beth; Brett, Emma I.; Lombardi, Nathaniel

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Research suggests college students rate some alcohol-related consequences less negatively than others, yet it is unclear how or when these differences in perception develop. The current study compared college students' subjective evaluations of alcohol-related consequences that they had and had not experienced in order to test the…

  4. Body composition in normal subjects: relation to lipid and glucose variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenfalck, A M; Almdal, Thomas Peter; Gotfredsen, A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe sex- and age-dependent values of total and regional body composition as determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in normal subjects, and furthermore to relate body composition measurements to blood lipids, glucose and insulin concentrations. DESIGN: A cross...... subjects. In 87 of the subjects fasting blood glucose, S-insulin and lipid profile were measured. RESULTS: The study population was for each sex divided into five decades for which results on body composition and blood lipids are presented. Body weight increased 2 kg per age decade, representing...

  5. Tinnitus: distinguishing between subjectively perceived loudness and tinnitus-related distress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Wallhäusser-Franke

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Overall success of current tinnitus therapies is low, which may be due to the heterogeneity of tinnitus patients. Therefore, subclassification of tinnitus patients is expected to improve therapeutic allocation, which, in turn, is hoped to improve therapeutic success for the individual patient. The present study aims to define factors that differentially influence subjectively perceived tinnitus loudness and tinnitus-related distress. METHODS: In a questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey, the data of 4705 individuals with tinnitus were analyzed. The self-report questionnaire contained items about subjective tinnitus loudness, type of onset, awareness and localization of the tinnitus, hearing impairment, chronic comorbidities, sleep quality, and psychometrically validated questionnaires addressing tinnitus-related distress, depressivity, anxiety, and somatic symptom severity. In a binary step-wise logistic regression model, we tested the predictive power of these variables on subjective tinnitus loudness and tinnitus-related distress. RESULTS: The present data contribute to the distinction between subjective tinnitus loudness and tinnitus-related distress. Whereas subjective loudness was associated with permanent awareness and binaural localization of the tinnitus, tinnitus-related distress was associated with depressivity, anxiety, and somatic symptom severity. CONCLUSIONS: Subjective tinnitus loudness and the potential presence of severe depressivity, anxiety, and somatic symptom severity should be assessed separately from tinnitus-related distress. If loud tinnitus is the major complaint together with mild or moderate tinnitus-related distress, therapies should focus on auditory perception. If levels of depressivity, anxiety or somatic symptom severity are severe, therapies and further diagnosis should focus on these symptoms at first.

  6. Tinnitus: Distinguishing between Subjectively Perceived Loudness and Tinnitus-Related Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallhäusser-Franke, Elisabeth; Brade, Joachim; Balkenhol, Tobias; D'Amelio, Roberto; Seegmüller, Andrea; Delb, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Overall success of current tinnitus therapies is low, which may be due to the heterogeneity of tinnitus patients. Therefore, subclassification of tinnitus patients is expected to improve therapeutic allocation, which, in turn, is hoped to improve therapeutic success for the individual patient. The present study aims to define factors that differentially influence subjectively perceived tinnitus loudness and tinnitus-related distress. Methods In a questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey, the data of 4705 individuals with tinnitus were analyzed. The self-report questionnaire contained items about subjective tinnitus loudness, type of onset, awareness and localization of the tinnitus, hearing impairment, chronic comorbidities, sleep quality, and psychometrically validated questionnaires addressing tinnitus-related distress, depressivity, anxiety, and somatic symptom severity. In a binary step-wise logistic regression model, we tested the predictive power of these variables on subjective tinnitus loudness and tinnitus-related distress. Results The present data contribute to the distinction between subjective tinnitus loudness and tinnitus-related distress. Whereas subjective loudness was associated with permanent awareness and binaural localization of the tinnitus, tinnitus-related distress was associated with depressivity, anxiety, and somatic symptom severity. Conclusions Subjective tinnitus loudness and the potential presence of severe depressivity, anxiety, and somatic symptom severity should be assessed separately from tinnitus-related distress. If loud tinnitus is the major complaint together with mild or moderate tinnitus-related distress, therapies should focus on auditory perception. If levels of depressivity, anxiety or somatic symptom severity are severe, therapies and further diagnosis should focus on these symptoms at first. PMID:22529921

  7. Demographic, clinical, lifestyle-related, and social-cognitive correlates of physical activity in head and neck cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffart, Laurien M; de Bree, Remco; Altena, Martine; van der Werff, Sophie; Drossaert, Constance H C; Speksnijder, Caroline M; van den Brekel, Michiel W; Jager-Wittenaar, Harriët; Aaronson, Neil K; Stuiver, Martijn M

    2017-11-18

    The purpose of the study is to identify demographic, clinical, lifestyle-related, and social-cognitive correlates of physical activity (PA) intention and behavior in head and neck cancer (HNC) survivors using the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Data from two cross-sectional studies on correlates of PA in HNC survivors were pooled. Both studies used self-reports to assess PA and social-cognitive correlates. Potential correlates were collected via self-report or medical records. Univariable and multivariable multilevel linear mixed-effects models were built to identify correlates of PA intention and PA behavior (Z scores). Structural equation model analyses were conducted to study the full TPB model in one analysis, taking into account relevant covariates. In total, 416 HNC survivors were surveyed. Their mean (SD) age was 66.6 (9.4) years; 64% were men, and 78% were diagnosed with laryngeal cancer. The structural equation model showed that PA intention was significantly higher in HNC survivors with a history of exercising, who had a more positive attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control. Patients with higher PA intention, higher PBC, a lower age, and without unintentional weight loss or comorbidities had higher PA behavior. The model explained 22.9% of the variance in PA intention and 16.1% of the variance in PA behavior. Despite significant pathways of the TPB model, the large proportion variance in PA intention and behavior remaining unexplained suggests the need for better PA behavior (change) models to guide the development of PA promotion programs, particularly for the elderly. Such programs should be tailored to comorbidities and nutritional status.

  8. Parotid gland sparing IMRT for head and neck cancer improves xerostomia related quality of life

    OpenAIRE

    Balm AJM; Lamers EA; Ackerstaff AH; Oughlane-Heemsbergen WD; van Rij CM; Rasch CRN

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background and purpose To assess the impact of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) versus conventional radiation on late xerostomia and Quality of Life aspects in head and neck cancer patients. Patients and nethods Questionnaires on xerostomia in rest and during meals were sent to all patients treated between January 1999 and December 2003 with a T1-4, N0-2 M0 head and neck cancer, with parotid gland sparing IMRT or conventional bilateral neck irradiation to a dose of at least 60...

  9. Exploring the newborn head diameters in relation to current obstetric forceps' dimensions: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    T Ismail, Abdul-Qader; Yates, Derick; Chester, Jonathan; Ismail, Khaled M K

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically search the literature for studies that reported term neonate head size and shape, in an attempt to determine the most appropriate dimensions for the obstetric forceps. We searched the Ovid Medline, Ovid Embase and Ebscohost CINAHL databases from inception to February 2016. We predefined inclusion criteria to identify studies in which head width and length of asymptomatic, term neonates were measured soon after birth using direct, non-photographic methods A bespoke quality assessment score was used to evaluate the identified studies. Seven studies were identified which measured head width (biparietal diameter) in 551 neonates; giving a mean value of 94.0mm (range 90.7mm-95.5mm). We identified one study which measured head length (mentovertical diameter) in 38 neonates; which gave a mean value of 134.5mm (range 129mm-139mm). This data, in conjunction with measurements of Neville Barnes' and Wrigley's forceps from our previous study, indicates current obstetric forceps' blades are too long, and close together. Potentially, this could be contributing to neonatal and maternal injuries associated with operational vaginal deliveries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Parotid gland sparing IMRT for head and neck cancer improves xerostomia related quality of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rij, C. M.; Oughlane-Heemsbergen, W. D.; Ackerstaff, A. H.; Lamers, E. A.; Balm, A. J. M.; Rasch, C. R. N.

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Background and purpose: To assess the impact of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) versus conventional radiation on late xerostomia and Quality of Life aspects in head and neck cancer patients. Patients and methods: Questionnaires on xerostomia in rest and during meals were sent to

  11. Parotid gland sparing IMRT for head and neck cancer improves xerostomia related quality of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. van Rij (Caroline); W.D. Oughlane-Heemsbergen; A.H. Ackerstaff; E.A. Lamers; A.J.M. Balm (Alfons); C.R.N. Rasch (Coen)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground and purpose: To assess the impact of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) versus conventional radiation on late xerostomia and Quality of Life aspects in head and neck cancer patients. Patients and nethods: Questionnaires on xerostomia in rest and during meals were sent to

  12. Injury patterns and mortality rates of motorcycle-related head injuries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Motorcycles are an emerging means of public transportation in many developing countries and has a poor safety record when compared to other road users. Subsequently, motorcycle injuries have been on the rise and head injuries are the leading cause of death, severe injury and disability globally.

  13. Relation Between Age, Comorbidity, and Complications in Patients Undergoing Major Surgery for Head and Neck Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Thomas T. A.; van Dijk, Boukje A. C.; Roodenburg, Jan L. N.; van der Laan, Bernard F. A. M.; Halmos, Gyorgy B.

    Background. Multiple factors have been identified as predictors of complication after head and neck surgery. However, little is known about the exact role of different comorbid conditions in the development of postoperative complications. This question is especially interesting in the elderly

  14. A multilevel approach to relating subjective workload to performance after shifts in task demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mracek, Derek L; Arsenault, Matthew L; Day, Eric Anthony; Hardy, Jay H; Terry, Robert A

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this laboratory experiment was to demonstrate how taking a longitudinal, multilevel approach can be used to examine the dynamic relationship between subjective workload and performance over a given period of activity involving shifts in task demand. Subjective workload and conditions of the performance environment are oftentimes examined via cross-sectional designs without distinguishing within-from between-person effects. Given the dynamic nature of performance phenomena, multilevel designs coupled with manipulations of task demand shifts are needed to better model the dynamic relationships between state and trait components of subjective workload and performance. With a sample of 75 college students and a computer game representing a complex decision-making environment, increases and decreases in task demand were counterbalanced and subjective workload and performance were measured concurrently in regular intervals within performance episodes. Data were analyzed using hierarchical linear modeling. Both between- and especially within-person effects were dynamic. Nevertheless, at both levels of analysis, higher subjective workload reflected performance problems, especially more downstream from increases in task demand. As a function of cognitive-energetic processes, shifts in task demand are associated with changes in how subjective workload is related to performance over a given period of activity. Multilevel, longitudinal approaches are useful for distinguishing and examining the dynamic relationships between state and trait components of subjective workload and performance. The findings of this research help to improve the understanding of how a sequence of demands can exceed a performer's capability to respond to further demands.

  15. Functional studies of heading date-related gene TaPRR73, a paralog of Ppd1 in common wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenping eZhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Photoperiod response-related genes play a crucial role in duration of the plant growth. In this study, we focused on TaPRR73, a paralog of Green Revolution gene Ppd1 (TaPRR37. We found that overexpression of the truncated TaPRR73 form lacking part of the N-terminal PR domain in transgenic rice promoted heading under long day conditions. Association analysis in common wheat verified that TaPRR73 was an important agronomic photoperiod response gene that significantly affected heading date and plant height; expression analysis proved that specific alleles of TaPRR73-A1 had highly expressed levels in earlier heading lines; the distribution of haplotypes indicated that one of these alleles had been selected in breeding programs. Our results demonstrated that TaPRR73 contributed to regulation of heading date in wheat and could be useful in wheat breeding and in broadening adaptation of the crop to new regions.

  16. Time Perspective and Emotion Regulation as Predictors of Age-Related Subjective Passage of Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Marc; Rudolph, Tina; Linares Gutierrez, Damisela; Winkler, Isabell

    2015-12-17

    Hardly any empirical work exists concerning the relationship between the intra-individually stable time perspective relating to the past, present, and future and the subjective speed of time passing in everyday life. Moreover, studies consistently show that the subjective passage of time over the period of the last ten years speeds up as we get older. Modulating variables influencing this phenomenon are still unknown. To investigate these two unresolved issues, we conducted an online survey with n = 423 participants ranging in age between 17 and 81 assessing trait time perspective of the past, present, and future, and relating these subscales with a battery of measures pertaining to the subjective passage of time. Moreover, the subjective passage of time as an age-dependent variable was probed in relationship to emotion awareness, appraisal and regulation. Results show how present hedonism is linked with having fewer routines in life and a faster passage of the last week; the past negative perspective is related to time pressure, time expansion and more routine; a pronounced future perspective is related to a general faster passage of time. Importantly, increased emotion regulation and a balanced time perspective are related to a slower passage of the last ten years. These novel findings are discussed within models of time perception and the time perspective.

  17. Time Perspective and Emotion Regulation as Predictors of Age-Related Subjective Passage of Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Marc; Rudolph, Tina; Linares Gutierrez, Damisela; Winkler, Isabell

    2015-01-01

    Hardly any empirical work exists concerning the relationship between the intra-individually stable time perspective relating to the past, present, and future and the subjective speed of time passing in everyday life. Moreover, studies consistently show that the subjective passage of time over the period of the last ten years speeds up as we get older. Modulating variables influencing this phenomenon are still unknown. To investigate these two unresolved issues, we conducted an online survey with n = 423 participants ranging in age between 17 and 81 assessing trait time perspective of the past, present, and future, and relating these subscales with a battery of measures pertaining to the subjective passage of time. Moreover, the subjective passage of time as an age-dependent variable was probed in relationship to emotion awareness, appraisal and regulation. Results show how present hedonism is linked with having fewer routines in life and a faster passage of the last week; the past negative perspective is related to time pressure, time expansion and more routine; a pronounced future perspective is related to a general faster passage of time. Importantly, increased emotion regulation and a balanced time perspective are related to a slower passage of the last ten years. These novel findings are discussed within models of time perception and the time perspective. PMID:26694439

  18. Signal processing related to the vestibulo-ocular reflex during combined angular rotation and linear translation of the head

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrea, R. A.; Chen-Huang, C.; Peterson, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    The contributions of vestibular nerve afferents and central vestibular pathways to the angular (AVOR) and linear (LVOR) vestibulo-ocular reflex were studied in squirrel monkeys during fixation of near and far targets. Irregular vestibular afferents did not appear to be necessary for the LVOR, since when they were selectively silenced with galvanic currents the LVOR was essentially unaffected during both far- and near-target viewing. The linear translation signals generated by secondary AVOR neurons in the vestibular nuclei were, on average, in phase with head velocity, inversely related to viewing distance, and were nearly as strong as AVOR-related signals. We suggest that spatial-temporal transformation of linear head translation signals to angular eye velocity commands is accomplished primarily by the addition of viewing distance multiplied, centrally integrated, otolith regular afferent signals to angular VOR pathways.

  19. A model of head-related transfer functions based on a state-space analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Norman Herkamp

    This dissertation develops and validates a novel state-space method for binaural auditory display. Binaural displays seek to immerse a listener in a 3D virtual auditory scene with a pair of headphones. The challenge for any binaural display is to compute the two signals to supply to the headphones. The present work considers a general framework capable of synthesizing a wide variety of auditory scenes. The framework models collections of head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) simultaneously. This framework improves the flexibility of contemporary displays, but it also compounds the steep computational cost of the display. The cost is reduced dramatically by formulating the collection of HRTFs in the state-space and employing order-reduction techniques to design efficient approximants. Order-reduction techniques based on the Hankel-operator are found to yield accurate low-cost approximants. However, the inter-aural time difference (ITD) of the HRTFs degrades the time-domain response of the approximants. Fortunately, this problem can be circumvented by employing a state-space architecture that allows the ITD to be modeled outside of the state-space. Accordingly, three state-space architectures are considered. Overall, a multiple-input, single-output (MISO) architecture yields the best compromise between performance and flexibility. The state-space approximants are evaluated both empirically and psychoacoustically. An array of truncated FIR filters is used as a pragmatic reference system for comparison. For a fixed cost bound, the state-space systems yield lower approximation error than FIR arrays for D>10, where D is the number of directions in the HRTF collection. A series of headphone listening tests are also performed to validate the state-space approach, and to estimate the minimum order N of indiscriminable approximants. For D = 50, the state-space systems yield order thresholds less than half those of the FIR arrays. Depending upon the stimulus uncertainty, a

  20. Multimorbidity and its relation to subjective memory complaints in a large general population of older adults.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.R. Verhey; M.P. van Boxtel; K.J. Hajema; M. van den Akker; Dr. Sil Aarts; J.F. Metsemakers; A.M. van Ingen

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Multimorbidity has been suggested to be associated with a variety of negative health-related outcomes. The present study was designed to evaluate the association between multimorbidity and subjective memory complaints. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was based on data obtained from a

  1. Relation between subjective and objective scores on the active straight leg raising test.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pool-Goudzwaard, A.L.; Mens, Jan M A; Beekmans, RE; Tijhuis, MT

    2010-01-01

    DESIGN: Cross sectional. OBJECTIVE: To fill a gap in the validation of the active straight leg raising (ASLR) test concerning the relation between a patient's subjective score on the ASLR test and the objective measured force. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The ASLR test is used to classify patients

  2. Objective Versus Subjective Measurement of Stress and Social Support: Combat-Related Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Zahava; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Studied combat intensity, social support, and related stress reactions among soldiers who fought in the 1982 Israeli-Lebanon War, comparing those who experienced combat stress reaction (N=382) and those who did not (N=344). Subjective indicators were found to be stronger predictors than were objective indicators. Combat stress reaction was clearly…

  3. Reciprocal relations between physical disability, subjective health, and atrial fibrillation : The Framingham Heart Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rienstra, Michiel; Lyass, Asya; Murabito, Joanne M; Magnani, Jared W; Lubitz, Steven A; Massaro, Joseph M; Ellinor, Patrick T; Benjamin, Emelia J

    BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF)-related symptoms and physical performance are relied upon to guide therapeutic management of patients with AF. We sought to understand whether AF predisposes to or is a result of physical disability and poor subjective health in the community. METHODS: We studied

  4. [Coping and subjective burden in primary caregivers of dependent elderly relatives in Andalusia, Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Cruz, Margarita; Muñoz-Martínez, M Ángeles; Parra-Anguita, Laura; Del-Pino-Casado, Rafael

    To analyse the relationship between the type of coping and subjective burden in caregivers of dependent elderly relatives in Andalusia (Spain). Cross-sectional study. Primary Health Care (autonomous community of Andalusia, Spain). A convenience sample of 198 primary caregivers of dependent elderly relatives. Coping (Brief COPE), subjective burden (caregiver stress index), objective burden (functional capacity [Barthel Index], cognitive impairment [Pfeiffer Test], behavioural problems of the care recipient [Neuropsychiatric Inventory], and caregivers' dedication to caring), gender and kinship. Most caregivers were women (89.4%), daughters of the care recipient (57.1%), and shared home with him/her (69.7%). On controlling for objective burden, gender and kinship, it was found that subjective burden was positively associated with dysfunctional coping (β=0.28; P<.001) and negatively with emotion-focused coping (β=-0.25; P=.001), while no association was found with problem-focused coping. Dysfunctional coping may be a risk factor for subjective burden, and emotion-focused coping may be a protective factor for that subjective burden regardless of the objective burden, and gender and kinship of the caregivers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Recent studies related to head-end fuel processing at the Hanford PUREX plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, J.L.

    1988-08-01

    This report presents the results of studies addressing several problems in the head-end processing (decladding, metathesis, and core dissolution) of N Reactor fuel elements in the Hanford PUREX plant. These studies were conducted over 2 years: FY 1986 and FY 1987. The studies were divided into three major areas: 1) differences in head-end behavior of fuels having different histories, 2) suppression of /sup 106/Ru volatilization when the ammonia scrubber solution resulting from decladding is decontaminated by distillation prior to being discharged, and 3) suitability of flocculating agents for lowering the amount of transuranic (TRU) element-containing solids that accompany the decladding solution to waste. 16 refs., 43 figs.

  6. Frequency of head-impact-related outcomes by position in NCAA division I collegiate football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugh, Christine M; Kiernan, Patrick T; Kroshus, Emily; Daneshvar, Daniel H; Montenigro, Philip H; McKee, Ann C; Stern, Robert A

    2015-03-01

    Concussions and subconcussive impacts sustained in American football have been associated with short- and long-term neurological impairment, but differences in head impact outcomes across playing positions are not well understood. The American Medical Society for Sports Medicine has identified playing position as a key risk factor for concussion in football and one for which additional research is needed. This study examined variation in head impact outcomes across primary football playing positions in a group of 730 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Football Championship Series athletes, using a self-report questionnaire. Although there were no significant differences between position groups in the number of diagnosed concussions during the 2012 football season, there were significant differences between groups in undiagnosed concussions (p=0.008) and "dings" (pfootball season, with offensive linemen reporting significantly more symptoms compared to most other groups. There were also positional differences in frequency of returning to play while symptomatic (p<0.001) and frequency of participating in full-contact practice (p<0.001). Offensive linemen reported having returned to play while experiencing symptoms more frequently and participating in more full-contact practices than other groups. These findings suggest that offensive linemen, a position group that experiences frequent, but low-magnitude, head impacts, develop more postimpact symptoms than other playing positions, but do not report these symptoms as a concussion.

  7. Frequency of Head-Impact–Related Outcomes by Position in NCAA Division I Collegiate Football Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiernan, Patrick T.; Kroshus, Emily; Daneshvar, Daniel H.; Montenigro, Philip H.; McKee, Ann C.; Stern, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Concussions and subconcussive impacts sustained in American football have been associated with short- and long-term neurological impairment, but differences in head impact outcomes across playing positions are not well understood. The American Medical Society for Sports Medicine has identified playing position as a key risk factor for concussion in football and one for which additional research is needed. This study examined variation in head impact outcomes across primary football playing positions in a group of 730 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Football Championship Series athletes, using a self-report questionnaire. Although there were no significant differences between position groups in the number of diagnosed concussions during the 2012 football season, there were significant differences between groups in undiagnosed concussions (p=0.008) and “dings” (pfootball season, with offensive linemen reporting significantly more symptoms compared to most other groups. There were also positional differences in frequency of returning to play while symptomatic (p<0.001) and frequency of participating in full-contact practice (p<0.001). Offensive linemen reported having returned to play while experiencing symptoms more frequently and participating in more full-contact practices than other groups. These findings suggest that offensive linemen, a position group that experiences frequent, but low-magnitude, head impacts, develop more postimpact symptoms than other playing positions, but do not report these symptoms as a concussion. PMID:25155288

  8. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy: a potential late effect of sport-related concussive and subconcussive head trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavett, Brandon E; Stern, Robert A; McKee, Ann C

    2011-01-01

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a form of neurodegeneration believed to result from repeated head injuries. Originally termed dementia pugilistica because of its association with boxing, the neuropathology of CTE was first described by Corsellis in 1973 in a case series of 15 retired boxers. CTE has recently been found to occur after other causes of repeated head trauma, suggesting that any repeated blows to the head, such as those that occur in American football, hockey, soccer, professional wrestling, and physical abuse, can also lead to neurodegenerative changes. These changes often include cerebral atrophy, cavum septi pellucidi with fenestrations, shrinkage of the mammillary bodies, dense tau immunoreactive inclusions (neurofibrillary tangles, glial tangles, and neuropil neurites), and, in some cases, a TDP-43 proteinopathy. In association with these pathologic changes, disordered memory and executive functioning, behavioral and personality disturbances (eg, apathy, depression, irritability, impulsiveness, suicidality), parkinsonism, and, occasionally, motor neuron disease are seen in affected individuals. No formal clinical or pathologic diagnostic criteria for CTE currently exist, but the distinctive neuropathologic profile of the disorder lends promise for future research into its prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Cannabis-related episodic memory deficits and hippocampal morphological differences in healthy individuals and schizophrenia subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew J; Cobia, Derin J; Reilly, James L; Gilman, Jodi M; Roberts, Andrea G; Alpert, Kathryn I; Wang, Lei; Breiter, Hans C; Csernansky, John G

    2015-09-01

    Cannabis use has been associated with episodic memory (EM) impairments and abnormal hippocampus morphology among both healthy individuals and schizophrenia subjects. Considering the hippocampus' role in EM, research is needed to evaluate the relationship between cannabis-related hippocampal morphology and EM among healthy and clinical groups. We examined differences in hippocampus morphology between control and schizophrenia subjects with and without a past (not current) cannabis use disorder (CUD). Subjects group-matched on demographics included 44 healthy controls (CON), 10 subjects with a CUD history (CON-CUD), 28 schizophrenia subjects with no history of substance use disorders (SCZ), and 15 schizophrenia subjects with a CUD history (SCZ-CUD). Large-deformation, high-dimensional brain mapping with MRI produced surface-based representations of the hippocampus that were compared across all four groups and correlated with EM and CUD history. Surface maps of the hippocampus were generated to visualize morphological differences. CON-CUD and SCZ-CUD were characterized by distinct cannabis-related hippocampal shape differences and parametric deficits in EM performance. Shape differences observed in CON-CUD were associated with poorer EM performance, while shape differences observed in SCZ-CUD were associated with a longer duration of CUD and shorter duration of CUD remission. A past history of CUD may be associated with notable differences in hippocampal morphology and EM impairments among adults with and without schizophrenia. Although the results may be compatible with a causal hypothesis, we must consider that the observed cannabis-related shape differences in the hippocampus could also be explained as biomarkers of a neurobiological susceptibility to poor memory or the effects of cannabis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Systematic analysis of head-to-head gene organization: evolutionary conservation and potential biological relevance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Yuan Li

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Several "head-to-head" (or "bidirectional" gene pairs have been studied in individual experiments, but genome-wide analysis of this gene organization, especially in terms of transcriptional correlation and functional association, is still insufficient. We conducted a systematic investigation of head-to-head gene organization focusing on structural features, evolutionary conservation, expression correlation and functional association. Of the present 1,262, 1,071, and 491 head-to-head pairs identified in human, mouse, and rat genomes, respectively, pairs with 1- to 400-base pair distance between transcription start sites form the majority (62.36%, 64.15%, and 55.19% for human, mouse, and rat,respectively of each dataset, and the largest group is always the one with a transcription start site distance of 101 to 200 base pairs. The phylogenetic analysis among Fugu, chicken, and human indicates a negative selection on the separation of head-to-head genes across vertebrate evolution, and thus the ancestral existence of this gene organization. The expression analysis shows that most of the human head-to-head genes are significantly correlated,and the correlation could be positive, negative, or alternative depending on the experimental conditions. Finally, head to-head genes statistically tend to perform similar functions, and gene pairs associated with the significant cofunctions seem to have stronger expression correlations. The findings indicate that the head-to-head gene organization is ancient and conserved, which subjects functionally related genes to correlated transcriptional regulation and thus provides an exquisite mechanism of transcriptional regulation based on gene organization. These results have significantly expanded the knowledge about head-to-head gene organization. Supplementary materials for this study are available at http://www.scbit.org/h2h.

  11. Glenohumeral contact forces and muscle forces evaluated in wheelchair-related activities of daily living in able-bodied subjects versus subjects with paraplegia and tetraplegia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Drongelen, S.; van der Woude, L.H.V.; Janssen, T.W.J.; Angenot, E.D.L.; Chadwick, E.K.J.; Veeger, H.E.J.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the differences in glenohumeral contact forces and shoulder muscle forces between able-bodied subjects and subjects with paraplegia and tetraplegia during wheelchair-related activities of daily living (ADLs). Design: Kinematics and external forces were measured during

  12. Glenohumeral contact forces and muscle forces evaluated in wheelchair-related activities of daily living in able-bodied subjects versus subjects with paraplegia and tetraplegia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Drongelen, S; van der Woude, LH; Janssen, Thomas W. J.; Angenot, EL; Chadwick, EK; Veeger, DirkJan (H. E. J.)

    Objective: To estimate the differences in glenohumeral contact forces and shoulder muscle forces between able-bodied subjects and subjects with paraplegia and tetraplegia during wheelchair-related activities of daily living (ADLs). Design: Kinematics and external forces were measured during

  13. Glenohumeral contact forces and muscle forces evaluated in wheelchair-related activities of daily living in able-bodied subjects versus subjects with paraplegia and tetraplegia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Drongelen, Stefan; van der Woude, Lucas H; Janssen, Thomas W; Angenot, Edmond L; Chadwick, Edward K; Veeger, Dirkjan H

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the differences in glenohumeral contact forces and shoulder muscle forces between able-bodied subjects and subjects with paraplegia and tetraplegia during wheelchair-related activities of daily living (ADLs). DESIGN: Kinematics and external forces were measured during

  14. [Subjective difficulties in young people related to extensive loud music listening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budimcić, Milenko; Ignatović, Snezana; Zivić, Ljubica

    2010-01-01

    For human ear, noise represents every undesirable and valueless sound. In disco clubs, as in some other places with loud music mostly attended by young people, the level of noise sometimes attains over 100 dB. As reported by numerous studies, a high noise level could induce subjective difficulties (ear buzzing, audition loss, vertigo and palpitations, anxiety, high blood pressure, decreased concentration, lowered memory storing). Assessment of subjective difficulties occurring in young people when staying in places with a high noise level (cafes, disco clubs, rock concerts), which can produce health problems, due to loud music, in association with demographic data, addictions and personal life style data. One of the goals is to find factors leading to subjective difficulties, which would be objectively studied in the second stage of the research and marked as early predictors of possible health problems. The study was conducted among 780 students of the Higher Healthcare School of Professional Studied in Belgrade. We used a questionnaire with 20 questions, divided into four categories: demographic data, case-history data, subjective problems and addictions of the subjects. In the statistical data processing we used the methods of descriptive and exploratory analysis, chi-square tests, correlation tests and Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio. After listening loud music, 54.0% of examined subjects felt ear buzzing, and 4.6% had hearing damage. The habit of visiting places with loud music, mostly once a week in duration of 2-3 hours per visit had 80.4% of subjects. The presence of subjective complaints after listening of loud music was in association with loud music listening and disco clubs visits.The major reasons of the present subjective difficulties could be predicated by listening of loud music and club visits (r = 0.918 and r = 0.857). A relative risk for subjective difficulties presentation was 1.599. According to the results of our study, over half of children

  15. Subjective difficulties in young people related to extensive loud music listening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budimčić Milenko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. For human ear, noise represents every undesirable and valueless sound. In disco clubs, as in some other places with loud music mostly attended by young people, the level of noise sometimes attains over 100 dB. As reported by numerous studies, a high noise level could induce subjective difficulties (ear buzzing, audition loss, vertigo and palpitations, anxiety, high blood pressure, decreased concentration, lowered memory storing. Objective. Assessment of subjective difficulties occurring in young people when staying in places with a high noise level (cafes, disco clubs, rock concerts, which can produce health problems, due to loud music, in association with demographic data, addictions and personal life style data. One of the goals is to find factors leading to subjective difficulties, which would be objectively studied in the second stage of the research and marked as early predictors of possible health problems. Methods. The study was conducted among 780 students of the Higher Healthcare School of Professional Studied in Belgrade. We used a questionnaire with 20 questions, divided into four categories: demographic data, case-history data, subjective problems and addictions of the subjects. In the statistical data processing we used the methods of descriptive and exploratory analysis, chi-square tests, correlation tests and Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio. Results. After listening loud music, 54.0% of examined subjects felt ear buzzing, and 4.6% had hearing damage. The habit of visiting places with loud music, mostly once a week in duration of 2-3 hours per visit had 80.4% of subjects. The presence of subjective complaints after listening of loud music was in association with loud music listening and disco clubs visits. The major reasons of the present subjective difficulties could be predicated by listening of loud music and club visits (r=0.918 and r=0.857. A relative risk for subjective difficulties presentation was 1.599. Conclusion

  16. [Sense of coherence and subjective overload, anxiety and depression in caregivers of elderly relatives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Martínez, Catalina; Frías-Osuna, Antonio; Del-Pino-Casado, Rafael

    2017-11-23

    To analyze the relationship between the sense of coherence and subjective overload, anxiety and depression in caregivers of dependent elderly relatives. Cross-sectional study in an area of the province of Jaén (Andalusia, Spain) with a probabilistic sample of 132 caregivers of dependent elderly. sense of coherence (Life Orientation Questionnaire), subjective burden (Caregiver Strain Index), anxiety and depression (Goldberg Scale), objective burden (Dedication to Care Scale), sex and kinship. Main analyses: bivariate analysis using the Pearson correlation coefficient and multivariate analysis using multiple linear regression. Most of the caregivers studied were women (86.4%), daughter or son of the care recipient (74.2%) and shared home with the latter (69.7%). When controlling for objective burden, sex and kinship, we found that the sense of coherence was inversely related to subjective burden (β = -0.46; p <0.001), anxiety (β = -0.57; p = 0.001) and depression (β = -0.66; p <0.001). The sense of coherence might be an important protective factor of subjective burden, anxiety and depression in caregivers of dependent elderly relatives. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Community, family, and subjective socioeconomic status: Relative status and adolescent health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quon, Elizabeth C; McGrath, Jennifer J

    2015-06-01

    Relative socioeconomic status (SES) may be an important social determinant of health. The current study aimed to examine how relative SES, as measured by subjective SES, income inequality, and individual SES relative to others in the community, is associated with a wide range of adolescent health outcomes, after controlling for objective family SES. Adolescents (13-16 years; N = 2,199) from the Quebec Child and Adolescent Health and Social Survey were included. Socioeconomic measures included adolescents' subjective SES; parental education and household income; community education/employment, income, and poverty rate; and community income inequality. Health outcomes included self-rated health, mental health problems, dietary and exercise health behaviors, substance-related health behaviors, reported physical health, and biomarkers of health. Best-fitting multilevel regression models (participants nested within schools) were used to test associations. Findings indicated that lower subjective SES was associated with poorer health outcomes. After accounting for family SES, lower community education/employment had an additional negative effect on health, while lower community income had a protective effect for certain health outcomes. There was less evidence for an independent effect of income inequality. Findings highlight the importance of measures of relative SES that span across a number of levels and contexts, and provide further understanding into the socioeconomic gradient in adolescence. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Symptom Experience and Quality of Life in Children after Sport-Related Head Injuries: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilyadi, Michael; Macartney, Gail; Barrowman, Nick; Anderson, Peter; Dube, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Sports are a major cause of concussions, and little is known about the symptom experience and health-related quality of life (HRQL) in children who remain symptomatic for over 3 months following such head injuries. A cross-sectional study of children aged 10-18 years was performed who were referred to the Neurosurgery Clinic at our centre following a head injury. Symptom experience was measured using the modified Concussion Symptom Scale, and HRQL was measured using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL). The Immediate Postconcussion Assessment and Cognitive Test (ImPACT) was administered to assess neurocognitive and neurobehavioural sequelae. Symptoms with the highest mean symptom scores on a Likert scale of 0-6 in 35 children at the time of assessment included headaches (3.1), poor concentration (2.7), memory problems (2.1), fatigue (2.1) and sensitivity to noise (2.0). Compared with normative data, children in this study had ImPACT summary scores between the 28th and 38th percentiles and a comparably low Cognitive Efficiency Index score. Mean scores for females were consistently statistically significantly lower (p Children continue to experience many symptoms at least 3 months following sport-related head injuries that significantly impact their HRQL and neurocognitive abilities. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Oral sex and human papilloma virus-related head and neck squamous cell cancer: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ankit; Malik, Akshat; Garg, Apurva; Mair, Manish; Nair, Sudhir; Chaturvedi, Pankaj

    2017-11-01

    Head neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality all around the world. Just like tobacco and alcohol, Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection is now recognized to play a role in the pathogenesis of a subset of HNSCCs. Unprotected sexual behaviours with the HPV carrier plays an important role in transmission of this virus. The global incidence of head and neck cancers is declining, but the incidence of HPV related head and neck cancers is rapidly increasing over the last few decades. However, most institutions do not mandate documentation of sexual history or counselling of patients regarding sexual practices like they do for tobacco and alcohol addictions in HNSCC patients. The aim of this review of literature is to analyse if there is a strong evidence to correlate oral sex with HPV related HNSCC and counsel the patient's regarding sexual behaviours. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Relation of mucous membrane alterations to oral intake during the first year after treatment for head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauloski, Barbara Roa; Rademaker, Alfred W; Logemann, Jerilyn A; Lundy, Donna; Bernstein, Michelle; McBreen, Carrie; Santa, Daphne; Campanelli, Angela; Kelchner, Lisa; Klaben, Bernice; Discekici-Harris, Muveddet

    2011-06-01

    Acute oral mucositis is associated with pain and impaired swallowing. Little information is available on the effects of chronic mucositis on swallowing. Sixty patients treated for cancer of the head and neck were examined during the first year after their cancer treatment. Oral mucosa was rated with the Oral Mucositis Assessment Scale. Stimulated whole-mouth saliva, oral pain rating, percent of oral intake, and 2 subscales of the Performance Status Scale for Head and Neck (PSS-HN) cancer were also collected. Mucositis scores and pain ratings decreased over time while functional measures of eating improved over time. Reduction in chronic mucositis was correlated with improved oral intake and diet. Lack of association with pain was attributed to the absence of ulcerations. Continued impairment of oral intake during the first year posttreatment may be related to oral mucosal changes and other factors. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. RELATION OF MUCOUS MEMBRANE ALTERATIONS TO ORAL INTAKE DURING THE FIRST YEAR AFTER TREATMENT FOR HEAD AND NECK CANCER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rademaker, Alfred W.; Logemann, Jerilyn A.; Lundy, Donna; Bernstein, Michelle; McBreen, Carrie; Santa, Daphne; Campanelli, Angela; Kelchner, Lisa; Klaben, Bernice; Discekici-Harris, Muveddet

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute oral mucositis is associated with pain and impaired swallowing. Little information is available on the effects of chronic mucositis on swallowing. Methods Sixty patients treated for cancer of the head and neck were examined during the first year after their cancer treatment. Oral mucosa was rated with the Oral Mucositis Assessment Scale. Stimulated whole-mouth saliva, oral pain rating, percent of oral intake, and 2 subscales of the Performance Status Scale for Head and Neck (PSS-HN) cancer were also collected. Results Mucositis scores and pain ratings decreased over time while functional measures of eating improved over time. Reduction in chronic mucositis was correlated with improved oral intake and diet. Conclusion Lack of association with pain was attributed to the absence of ulcerations. Continued impairment of oral intake during the first year posttreatment may be related to oral mucosal changes and other factors. PMID:20737496

  2. Multiculturalism and subjective happiness as mediated by cultural and relational variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thao N; Lai, Mary H; Wallen, Judy

    2009-07-01

    A diverse ethnic context and an increasing immigrant youth population will soon become the reality across the entire U.S. demographic landscape. Research has suggested that a multicultural context positively influences ethnic minority and immigrant youth by fostering ethnic identity and psychosocial development. However, it is unknown whether and how perceived multiculturalism can affect positive youth outcomes such as life satisfaction and subjective happiness. This study explored perceived school multiculturalism among 338 ethnic minority and immigrant youth, and found a positive relation between perceived school multiculturalism and subjective happiness with full mediation by ethnocultural empathy for African Americans, Asians, males, and females. Although school multiculturalism was also predictive of ethnocultural empathy for Hispanics, ethnocultural empathy in turn, was not significantly predictive of subjective happiness. Taken together, these results suggest that one way to facilitate psychological growth and flourishing among ethnic minority youth is to encourage multiculturalism in school settings.

  3. Identification of cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants in subjects reporting work-related respiratory symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Wiszniewska

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The role of cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCDs in diagnostics of occupational allergy remains unclarified and its clinical relevance is still questioned. The aim of the study was to assess the frequency of positive response to CCDs in the subjects with suspected occupational allergy and the relationship between other diagnostic test results and final diagnosis. Material and methods The study group included 201 patients. They underwent clinical examination, skin prick test (SPT to common and occupational allergens, specific serum immunoglobulin (sIgE determinations, spirometry and specific inhalation challenge test. Moreover, sIgE to CCDs from bromelain was assessed in all subjects. Results Occupational respiratory allergy was recognized in 64.3% of CCD-positive and 52.4% of CCD-negative patients. Positive SPT results to common and occupational allergens were found in 64.3% and 35.7% of CCD-positive subjects, respectively. In all subjects with CCDs, the sIgE to grass pollens as well as to occupational allergens were detected. The total IgE level > 100 kU/l was significantly associated with the presence of sIgE to CCDs. Conclusions sIgE to CCDs were found in 7% of subjects suspected to suffer from occupational respiratory allergy. The presence of CCDs is not significantly associated with occupational respiratory allergy. It is also not more frequent in subjects reporting work-related respiratory symptoms in whom occupational allergy was not confirmed. The elevated total IgE level was related with CCD positivity. In patients with suspected occupational allergy, the presence of sIgE to CCDs in serum did not indicate the irrelevance of positive sIgE to occupational allergens.

  4. Acoustic signal localization through the use of Head Related Transfer Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaka Sodnik

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available An acoustic image of space is an acoustically described visual image intended to help blind people orient themselves in space. Description is made with the aid of spatial sounds created using HRTF filters. HRTF filters are empirically acquired FIR filter sets that describe changes to the sound as it travels from its source towards the human eardrum. They include changes related to body shape, ears, ear canal, etc. Our research focused on finding the maximum resolution of the human auditory system when determining the location of a sound source in space. This is also the maximum resolution for creating an acoustic image. We were interested in minimum azimuth and elevation change resolution – we tried to establish the minimum angle between two sources that could still be detected. Resolution dependence on signal bandwidth was also measured. The results were encouraging, especially in the horizontal plane, where most of subjects were able to tell the difference between two sources only 5° apart. Edge resolution, with 80° – 90° azimuth, was still satisfactory if a wide bandwidth signal was used. If elevation is increased, the resolution deteriorates quickly and is no longer satisfactory. To address this problem, different coding should be used to create an acoustic image of elevation.

  5. Development of head and trunk mesoderm in the dogfish, Scyliorhinus torazame: I. Embryology and morphology of the head cavities and related structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Noritaka; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2012-01-01

    Vertebrate head segmentation has attracted the attention of comparative and evolutionary morphologists for centuries, given its importance for understanding the developmental body plan of vertebrates and its evolutionary origin. In particular, the segmentation of the mesoderm is central to the problem. The shark embryo has provided a canonical morphological scheme of the head, with its epithelialized coelomic cavities (head cavities), which have often been regarded as head somites. To understand the evolutionary significance of the head cavities, the embryonic development of the mesoderm was investigated at the morphological and histological levels in the shark, Scyliorhinus torazame. Unlike somites and some enterocoelic mesodermal components in other vertebrates, the head cavities in S. torazame appeared as irregular cyst(s) in the originally unsegmented mesenchymal head mesoderm, and not via segmentation of an undivided coelom. The mandibular cavity appeared first in the paraxial part of the mandibular mesoderm, followed by the hyoid cavity, and the premandibular cavity was the last to form. The prechordal plate was recognized as a rhomboid roof of the preoral gut, continuous with the rostral notochord, and was divided anteroposteriorly into two parts by the growth of the hypothalamic primordium. Of those, the posterior part was likely to differentiate into the premandibular cavity, and the anterior part disappeared later. The head cavities and somites in the trunk exhibited significant differences, in terms of histological appearance and timing of differentiation. The mandibular cavity developed a rostral process secondarily; its homology to the anterior cavity reported in some elasmobranch embryos is discussed. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Does Positivity Mediate the Relation of Extraversion and Neuroticism with Subjective Happiness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauriola, Marco; Iani, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Recent theories suggest an important role of neuroticism, extraversion, attitudes, and global positive orientations as predictors of subjective happiness. We examined whether positivity mediates the hypothesized relations in a community sample of 504 adults between the ages of 20 and 60 years old (females = 50%). A model with significant paths from neuroticism to subjective happiness, from extraversion and neuroticism to positivity, and from positivity to subjective happiness fitted the data (Satorra–Bentler scaled chi-square (38) = 105.91; Comparative Fit Index = .96; Non-Normed Fit Index = .95; Root Mean Square Error of Approximation = .060; 90% confidence interval = .046, .073). The percentage of subjective happiness variance accounted for by personality traits was only about 48%, whereas adding positivity as a mediating factor increased the explained amount of subjective happiness to 78%. The mediation model was invariant by age and gender. The results show that the effect of extraversion on happiness was fully mediated by positivity, whereas the effect of neuroticism was only partially mediated. Implications for happiness studies are also discussed. PMID:25781887

  7. Does positivity mediate the relation of extraversion and neuroticism with subjective happiness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauriola, Marco; Iani, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Recent theories suggest an important role of neuroticism, extraversion, attitudes, and global positive orientations as predictors of subjective happiness. We examined whether positivity mediates the hypothesized relations in a community sample of 504 adults between the ages of 20 and 60 years old (females = 50%). A model with significant paths from neuroticism to subjective happiness, from extraversion and neuroticism to positivity, and from positivity to subjective happiness fitted the data (Satorra-Bentler scaled chi-square (38) = 105.91; Comparative Fit Index = .96; Non-Normed Fit Index = .95; Root Mean Square Error of Approximation = .060; 90% confidence interval = .046, .073). The percentage of subjective happiness variance accounted for by personality traits was only about 48%, whereas adding positivity as a mediating factor increased the explained amount of subjective happiness to 78%. The mediation model was invariant by age and gender. The results show that the effect of extraversion on happiness was fully mediated by positivity, whereas the effect of neuroticism was only partially mediated. Implications for happiness studies are also discussed.

  8. Eye-Head Coordination for Visual Cognitive Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yu; Nakashima, Ryoichi; Matsumiya, Kazumichi; Kuriki, Ichiro; Shioiri, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    We investigated coordinated movements between the eyes and head (“eye-head coordination”) in relation to vision for action. Several studies have measured eye and head movements during a single gaze shift, focusing on the mechanisms of motor control during eye-head coordination. However, in everyday life, gaze shifts occur sequentially and are accompanied by movements of the head and body. Under such conditions, visual cognitive processing influences eye movements and might also influence eye-head coordination because sequential gaze shifts include cycles of visual processing (fixation) and data acquisition (gaze shifts). In the present study, we examined how the eyes and head move in coordination during visual search in a large visual field. Subjects moved their eyes, head, and body without restriction inside a 360° visual display system. We found patterns of eye-head coordination that differed those observed in single gaze-shift studies. First, we frequently observed multiple saccades during one continuous head movement, and the contribution of head movement to gaze shifts increased as the number of saccades increased. This relationship between head movements and sequential gaze shifts suggests eye-head coordination over several saccade-fixation sequences; this could be related to cognitive processing because saccade-fixation cycles are the result of visual cognitive processing. Second, distribution bias of eye position during gaze fixation was highly correlated with head orientation. The distribution peak of eye position was biased in the same direction as head orientation. This influence of head orientation suggests that eye-head coordination is involved in gaze fixation, when the visual system processes retinal information. This further supports the role of eye-head coordination in visual cognitive processing. PMID:25799510

  9. Relationship between macular pigment and visual function in subjects with early age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akuffo, Kwadwo Owusu; Nolan, John M; Peto, Tunde; Stack, Jim; Leung, Irene; Corcoran, Laura; Beatty, Stephen

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the relationship between macular pigment (MP) and visual function in subjects with early age-related macular degeneration (AMD). 121 subjects with early AMD enrolled as part of the Central Retinal Enrichment Supplementation Trial (CREST; ISRCTN13894787) were assessed using a range of psychophysical measures of visual function, including best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), letter contrast sensitivity (CS), mesopic and photopic CS, mesopic and photopic glare disability (GD), photostress recovery time (PRT), reading performance and subjective visual function, using the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire-25 (NEI VFQ-25). MP was measured using customised heterochromatic flicker photometry. Letter CS, mesopic and photopic CS, photopic GD and mean reading speed were each significantly (p0.05, for all). MP relates positively to many measures of visual function in unsupplemented subjects with early AMD. The CREST trial will investigate whether enrichment of MP influences visual function among those afflicted with this condition. ISRCTN13894787. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. Relationship between macular pigment and visual function in subjects with early age-related macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, John M; Peto, Tunde; Stack, Jim; Leung, Irene; Corcoran, Laura; Beatty, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the relationship between macular pigment (MP) and visual function in subjects with early age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods 121 subjects with early AMD enrolled as part of the Central Retinal Enrichment Supplementation Trial (CREST; ISRCTN13894787) were assessed using a range of psychophysical measures of visual function, including best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), letter contrast sensitivity (CS), mesopic and photopic CS, mesopic and photopic glare disability (GD), photostress recovery time (PRT), reading performance and subjective visual function, using the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire-25 (NEI VFQ-25). MP was measured using customised heterochromatic flicker photometry. Results Letter CS, mesopic and photopic CS, photopic GD and mean reading speed were each significantly (p0.05, for all). Conclusions MP relates positively to many measures of visual function in unsupplemented subjects with early AMD. The CREST trial will investigate whether enrichment of MP influences visual function among those afflicted with this condition. Trial registration number ISRCTN13894787. PMID:27091854

  11. Health-Related Quality of Life and Quality of Sexual Life in Obese Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Poggiogalle

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased prevalence of obesity represents, currently, one of the major public health issues, due to its consequences on physical and psychological health status as well as on the psychosocial functioning. As defined by the World Health Organization, sexual health is “a state of physical, emotional, mental, and social well-being in relation to sexuality.” The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between sexual life in obese subjects and quality of life, psychological status, and disability. Methods. 95 obese subjects were recruited from June 2012 to February 2013 and underwent physical examination and measures for the assessment of quality of life, sexual life, psychological status, and disability. Results. In obese subjects sexual life was related to gender, age, psychological status, disability, and quality of life. Conclusion. As obesity is a multifactorial disease, and is accompanied by multiple comorbidities, it is difficult to identify a single causative factor responsible for the impairment of sexual life in obese subjects; thus, a thorough, multidimensional evaluation including sexual function assessment should be performed in obese people.

  12. Using MeSH (medical subject headings) to enhance PubMed search strategies for evidence-based practice in physical therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Randy R; Austin, Tricia M

    2012-01-01

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) is an important paradigm in health care. Physical therapists report lack of knowledge and time constraints as barriers to EBP. The purpose of this technical report is to illustrate how Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), a controlled vocabulary thesaurus of indexing terms, is used to efficiently search MEDLINE, the largest component of PubMed. Using clinical questions, this report illustrates how search terms common to physical therapist practice do or do not map to appropriate MeSH terms. A PubMed search strategy that takes advantage of text words and MeSH terms is provided. A search of 139 terms and 13 acronyms was conducted to determine whether they appropriately mapped to a MeSH term. The search results were categorized into 1 of 5 outcomes. Nearly half (66/139) of the search terms mapped to an appropriate MeSH term (outcome 1). When a search term did not appropriately map to a MeSH term, it was entered into the MeSH database to search for an appropriate MeSH term. Twenty-one appropriate MeSH terms were found (outcomes 2 and 4), and there were 52 search terms for which an appropriate MeSH term was not found (outcomes 3 and 5). Nearly half of the acronyms did not map to an appropriate MeSH term, and an appropriate MeSH term was not found in the database. The results are based on a limited number of search terms and acronyms. Understanding how search terms map to MeSH terms and using the PubMed search strategy can enable physical therapists to take full advantage of available MeSH terms and should result in more-efficient and better-informed searches.

  13. Calculation of Head Related Transfer Functions of bats using the Boundary Element Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Peter Møller; Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Vanderelst, Dieter

    2009-01-01

    Overskrift: ChiRoPing (Chiroptera, Robots, and Sonar) is an EU-funded research project aimed at understanding how bats use their echolocation perception ability and apply this knowledge to the design of new robotic senses. Four species of bats are selected for the study and models of their heads...... including minute details of ears, mouth and nose are obtained through CT scans. The project involves, among other things, the use of numerical methods on such scanned models to study the role of their features in the bat sensorial performance. As the bats operate at very high frequencies and as their ears...

  14. Intracranial hemorrhage alters scalp potential distribution in bioimpedance cerebral monitoring: Preliminary results from FEM simulation on a realistic head model and human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atefi, Seyed Reza; Seoane, Fernando; Kamalian, Shervin; Rosenthal, Eric S; Lev, Michael H; Bonmassar, Giorgio

    2016-02-01

    Current diagnostic neuroimaging for detection of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is limited to fixed scanners requiring patient transport and extensive infrastructure support. ICH diagnosis would therefore benefit from a portable diagnostic technology, such as electrical bioimpedance (EBI). Through simulations and patient observation, the authors assessed the influence of unilateral ICH hematomas on quasisymmetric scalp potential distributions in order to establish the feasibility of EBI technology as a potential tool for early diagnosis. Finite element method (FEM) simulations and experimental left-right hemispheric scalp potential differences of healthy and damaged brains were compared with respect to the asymmetry caused by ICH lesions on quasisymmetric scalp potential distributions. In numerical simulations, this asymmetry was measured at 25 kHz and visualized on the scalp as the normalized potential difference between the healthy and ICH damaged models. Proof-of-concept simulations were extended in a pilot study of experimental scalp potential measurements recorded between 0 and 50 kHz with the authors' custom-made bioimpedance spectrometer. Mean left-right scalp potential differences recorded from the frontal, central, and parietal brain regions of ten healthy control and six patients suffering from acute/subacute ICH were compared. The observed differences were measured at the 5% level of significance using the two-sample Welch t-test. The 3D-anatomically accurate FEM simulations showed that the normalized scalp potential difference between the damaged and healthy brain models is zero everywhere on the head surface, except in the vicinity of the lesion, where it can vary up to 5%. The authors' preliminary experimental results also confirmed that the left-right scalp potential difference in patients with ICH (e.g., 64 mV) is significantly larger than in healthy subjects (e.g., 20.8 mV; P potential distributions. Pilot clinical observations with the authors

  15. Database of Multichannel In-Ear and Behind-the-Ear Head-Related and Binaural Room Impulse Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kayser

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An eight-channel database of head-related impulse responses (HRIRs and binaural room impulse responses (BRIRs is introduced. The impulse responses (IRs were measured with three-channel behind-the-ear (BTEs hearing aids and an in-ear microphone at both ears of a human head and torso simulator. The database aims at providing a tool for the evaluation of multichannel hearing aid algorithms in hearing aid research. In addition to the HRIRs derived from measurements in an anechoic chamber, sets of BRIRs for multiple, realistic head and sound-source positions in four natural environments reflecting daily-life communication situations with different reverberation times are provided. For comparison, analytically derived IRs for a rigid acoustic sphere were computed at the multichannel microphone positions of the BTEs and differences to real HRIRs were examined. The scenes' natural acoustic background was also recorded in each of the real-world environments for all eight channels. Overall, the present database allows for a realistic construction of simulated sound fields for hearing instrument research and, consequently, for a realistic evaluation of hearing instrument algorithms.

  16. An Event-Level Examination of Sex Differences and Subjective Intoxication in Alcohol-Related Aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Quinn, Patrick D.; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.; Fromme, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory-based experimental research has demonstrated that the pharmacological effects of alcohol can increase aggressive responding. Given mixed findings and concerns regarding task validity, however, it remains uncertain whether this effect holds constant across men and women and whether variability in subjective alcohol intoxication contributes to alcohol-related aggression. In the present investigation, we used four years of event-level data in a sample of 1,775 college students (140,61...

  17. Multi-modal analysis of genetically-related subjects using SIFT descriptors in brain MRI

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Kuldeep; Chauvin, Laurent; Toews, Mathew; Colliot, Olivier; Desrosiers, Christian

    2017-01-01

    International audience; So far, fingerprinting studies have focused on identifying features from single-modality MRI data, which capture individual characteristics in terms of brain structure, function, or white matter microstruc-ture. However, due to the lack of a framework for comparing across multiple modalities, studies based on multi-modal data remain elusive. This paper presents a multi-modal analysis of genetically-related subjects to compare and contrast the information provided by va...

  18. Health-Related Quality of Life and Quality of Sexual Life in Obese Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Eleonora Poggiogalle; Luca Di Lazzaro; Alessandro Pinto; Silvia Migliaccio; Andrea Lenzi; Lorenzo M Donini

    2014-01-01

    The increased prevalence of obesity represents, currently, one of the major public health issues, due to its consequences on physical and psychological health status as well as on the psychosocial functioning. As defined by the World Health Organization, sexual health is “a state of physical, emotional, mental, and social well-being in relation to sexuality.” The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between sexual life in obese subjects and quality of life, psychological s...

  19. Tinnitus: Distinguishing between Subjectively Perceived Loudness and Tinnitus-Related Distress

    OpenAIRE

    Wallhäusser-Franke, Elisabeth; Brade, Joachim; Balkenhol, Tobias; D'Amelio, Roberto; Seegmüller, Andrea; Delb, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Overall success of current tinnitus therapies is low, which may be due to the heterogeneity of tinnitus patients. Therefore, subclassification of tinnitus patients is expected to improve therapeutic allocation, which, in turn, is hoped to improve therapeutic success for the individual patient. The present study aims to define factors that differentially influence subjectively perceived tinnitus loudness and tinnitus-related distress. METHODS: In a questionnaire-based cross-section...

  20. Morphology and morphometry of the ulnar head of the pronator teres muscle in relation to median nerve compression at the proximal forearm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurses, I A; Altinel, L; Gayretli, O; Akgul, T; Uzun, I; Dikici, F

    2016-12-01

    The pronator syndrome is a rare compression neuropathy of the median nerve. Ulnar head of the pronator teres muscle may cause compression at proximal forearm. Detailed morphologic and morphometric studies on the anatomy of the ulnar head of pronator teres is scarce. We dissected 112 forearms of fresh cadavers. We evaluated the morphology and morphometry of the ulnar head of pronator teres muscle. The average ulnar head width was 16.3±8.2mm. The median nerve passed anterior to the ulnar head at a distance of 50.4±10.7mm from the interepicondylar line. We classified the morphology of the ulnar head into 5 types. In type 1, the ulnar head was fibromuscular in 60 forearms (53.6%). In type 2, it was muscular in 23 forearms (20.5%). In type 3, it was just a fibrotic band in 18 forearms (16.1%). In type 4, it was absent in 9 forearms (8%). In type 5, the ulnar head had two arches in 2 forearms (1.8%). In 80 forearms (71.5%: types 1, 3, and 5), the ulnar head was either fibromuscular or a fibrotic band. Although the pronator syndrome is a rare compression syndrome, the ulnar head of pronator teres is reported as the major cause of entrapment in the majority of the cases. The location of the compression of the median nerve in relation to the ulnar head of pronator teres muscle and the morphology of the ulnar head is important for open or minimally-invasive surgical treatment. Sectional study. Basic science study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Relation of allium vegetables intake with head and neck cancers: evidence from the INHANCE consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeone, Carlotta; Turati, Federica; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Guercio, Valentina; Tavani, Alessandra; Serraino, Diego; Brennan, Paul; Fabianova, Eleonora; Lissowska, Jola; Mates, Dana; Rudnai, Peter; Shangina, Oxana; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Vaughan, Thomas L; Kelsey, Karl; McClean, Michael; Levi, Fabio; Hayes, Richard B; Purdue, Mark P; Bosetti, Cristina; Brenner, Hermann; Pelucchi, Claudio; Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Hashibe, Mia; Boffetta, Paolo; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2015-09-01

    Only a few studies analyzed the role of allium vegetables with reference to head and neck cancers (HNC), with mixed results. We investigated the potential favorable role of garlic and onion within the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) Consortium. We analyzed pooled individual-level data from eight case-control studies, including 4590 cases and 7082 controls. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between garlic and onion intakes and HNC risk. Compared with no or low garlic use, the ORs of HNC were 0.95 (95% CI 0.71-1.27) for intermediate and 0.74 (95% CI 0.55-0.99) for high garlic use (p for trend = 0.02). The ORs of HNC for increasing categories of onion intake were 0.91 (95% CI 0.68-1.21) for >1 to ≤3 portions per week, and 0.83 (95% CI 0.60-1.13) for >3 portions per week (p for trend = 0.02), as compared to laryngeal cancer risk (OR = 0.69; 95% CI 0.54-0.88), but no significant association for other subsites. The results of this pooled-analysis support a possible moderate inverse association between garlic and onion intake and HNC risk. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Examining subjective wellbeing and health-related quality of life in women with endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, Georgia; Misajon, RoseAnne

    2017-11-02

    The purpose of this study was to explore the subjective wellbeing, health-related quality of life and lived experience of women living with endometriosis. In 2015 five hundred participants between the ages of 18-63 (M = 30.5, SD = 7.46) were recruited through Endometriosis Australia and social media, completing an online questionnaire comprising the Personal Wellbeing Index, the Endometriosis Health Profile-30 and various open-ended questions. Results found that women with endometriosis reported low levels of subjective wellbeing (mean PWI total scores of 51.5 ± 2.03), considerably below the normative range of 70-80 for western populations. The mean Endometriosis Health Profile total score indicated a very low health-related quality of life amongst the women in this sample (78.9, ±13.14). There was also a significant relationship between scores on the Endometriosis Health Profile and Personal Wellbeing Index. The findings from the qualitative data suggest that endometriosis impacts negatively on women's lives in several areas such as; social life, relationships and future plans, this in turn affects women's overall life quality. The study highlights the strong negative impact that endometriosis can have on women's subjective wellbeing and health related quality of life, contributing to productivity issues, relationship difficulties and social dissatisfaction and increasing the risk of psychological comorbidities.

  3. LEARNING-RELATED SOCIAL SKILLS AS A MEDIATOR BETWEEN TEACHER INSTRUCTION AND CHILD ACHIEVEMENT IN HEAD START.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Arya; Gershoff, Elizabeth

    2015-11-01

    Using a subsample of the Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES) 2006, this study examined the associations between the amount of teacher instruction in 292 Head Start classrooms with changes in young children's (n = 936) early academic achievement and learning-related social skills from ages 3 to 5. In general, during the early years, children exhibited relatively stable academic and learning-related social skills. Although the amount of teacher instruction did not predict children's short-term academic growth directly, it did predict it indirectly through improvements in learning-related social skills, with benefits lasting through the end of kindergarten. These findings demonstrate that gains in children's learning-related social skills may be necessary before academic gains can be realized.

  4. LEARNING-RELATED SOCIAL SKILLS AS A MEDIATOR BETWEEN TEACHER INSTRUCTION AND CHILD ACHIEVEMENT IN HEAD START

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershoff, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Using a subsample of the Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES) 2006, this study examined the associations between the amount of teacher instruction in 292 Head Start classrooms with changes in young children’s (n = 936) early academic achievement and learning-related social skills from ages 3 to 5. In general, during the early years, children exhibited relatively stable academic and learning-related social skills. Although the amount of teacher instruction did not predict children’s short-term academic growth directly, it did predict it indirectly through improvements in learning-related social skills, with benefits lasting through the end of kindergarten. These findings demonstrate that gains in children’s learning-related social skills may be necessary before academic gains can be realized. PMID:26692657

  5. Vestibulopathy and age effects on head stability during chair rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGibbon, C A; Krebs, D E; Scarborough, D M

    2001-01-01

    It is unknown how vestibular dysfunction and age differentially affect balance control during functional activities. The objective of this study was to gain insight into the effects of age and vestibulopathy on head control when rising from a chair. Head relative to trunk (head-on-trunk) sagittal plane angular and linear control strategies were studied in patients with bilateral vestibular hypofunction (BVH) and in healthy subjects aged 30-80 years. A two-way analysis of variance was used to compare head-on-trunk kinematics by age (young vs elderly) and diagnosis (healthy vs BVH) at the time of liftoff from the seat. Angular control strategies differed with age but not diagnosis: young (healthy and BVH) subjects stabilized head rotations in space while elderly (healthy and BVH) subjects stabilized head rotations on the trunk. In contrast, linear control strategies differed by diagnosis but not age: BVH subjects (young and old) allowed a greater rate of head-on-trunk translation while healthy subjects (young and old) inhibited such translations. Young BVH subjects stabilized head-in-space rotations (as did young healthy subjects) without a functioning vestibular system, suggesting cervicocollic reflex and/or other sensory compensation for vestibular loss. Elderly BVH subjects stabilized head rotation with respect to the trunk, as did healthy elders, but did not stabilize head-on-trunk translations, suggesting a reliance on passive mechanical responses of the neck to sense head movements. We conclude that compensation strategies used by patients with vestibulopathy are age-dependent and appear to be more tractable in the younger BVH patient.

  6. Relational Goods and Their Subjects: The Ferment of a New Civil Society and Civil Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierpaolo Donati

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available 96 Normal 0 21 false false false ES-TRAD JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} From some years now, the social sciences have been highlighting the existence of a type of goods that are neither material things, nor ideas, nor functional performances but consist, instead, of social relations and, for this reason, are called relational goods. This contribution proposes to clarify this concept from the viewpoint of relational sociology, which avoids both methodological individualism and holism. Subsequently, it argues that such goods can be produced only by specific social subjects, which the Author calls ‘relational subjects’. Relying upon many theoretical and empirical researches, the paper explains in which sense and in which way relational subjects, and the goods they generate, can contribute to making civil society more robust: that is, no longer the typically capitalist society of the market, but an ‘associational’ society able to sustain a mature democracy.  

  7. Subjective health complaints, work-related stress and self-efficacy in Norwegian aircrew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omholt, M L; Tveito, T H; Ihlebæk, C

    2017-03-01

    The European civilian aviation industry has undergone major changes in the last decade. Despite this, there is little knowledge about work-related stress and subjective health complaints (SHCs) affecting Norwegian aircrew. To investigate the relationships between work-related stress, self-efficacy and SHCs in commercial aircrew in Norway and to explore differences between cockpit and cabin crew. Aircrew members from the three major airlines operating from Norway completed an electronically distributed questionnaire. Linear regression analyses were used to investigate the association between work-related stress, self-efficacy and SHCs. There was a 21% response rate. Among the 843 study subjects, tiredness, sleep problems, bloating, low back pain, headaches and neck pain were the most prevalent SHCs. Cabin crew reported significantly higher numbers, prevalences and mean values for all SHCs compared with cockpit crew (P stress levels. High levels of work-related stress were significantly associated with all SHC factors in both groups. Self-efficacy partly moderated the relationship between stress and psychological complaints in both cockpit and cabin crew, and for musculoskeletal complaints in cockpit crew. The model explained 23 and 32% of the variance in psychological complaints for cockpit and cabin crew, respectively. Commercial aircrew in Norway reported high numbers of SHCs, and high levels of work-related stress were associated with high numbers of SHC. More knowledge is needed on the physical, organizational and psychosocial stressors affecting cockpit and cabin crew in order to create a healthier work environment for these groups.

  8. A Prediction of Response of the Head and Neck of the U.S. Adult Military Population to Dynamic Impact Acceleration from Selected Dynamic Test Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-05-01

    It noceeawy and )Aettfi O haack mombe) Dynamic Response of Head and Neck Physical Characteristics of Head and NecK Mathematical Model Simulationj...response of these volunteers to -Gx sled acca’eratioa at 6 and 15 G’s. Procedures used for comuting the various prameter vilues w-4 coeprisons between...may be used with . mathematical modeling techniques in order to extend and project the NAMRL dynamic response results to the general adult U.S

  9. The relation between xerostomia and hyposalivation in subjects with rheumatoid arthritis or fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nederfors, Tommy; Holmström, Gunilla; Paulsson, Gun; Sahlberg, Dick

    2002-01-01

    Aim of this study was to evaluate the relation between xerostomia and hyposalivation in 100 subjects with either rheumatoid arthritis or fibromyalgia, and further, to evaluate the predictive value of xerostomia on hyposalivation. Unstimulated and chewing stimulated whole saliva was collected in the morning with the subjects in a strict fasting condition and then about 2 hours later, after intake of a standardised breakfast. All participants filled in a questionnaire, mainly dealing with xerostomia. Forty subjects demonstrated a pathological fasting unstimulated whole saliva secretion rate, the corresponding number for fasting stimulated secretion being 39. For unstimulated, but not for stimulated saliva, the fasting secretion rate was significantly lower than the non-fasting. Xerostomia was reported by 74 subjects, this group having significantly lower both unstimulated and stimulated secretion rates than the non-xerostomic group. On the individual level, the predictive value of xerostomia on hyposalivation showed high sensitivity but unsatisfactory specificity. In conclusion, this study underlines the importance of applying strictly standardised procedures when collecting saliva, and that fasting unstimulated whole saliva is the diagnostic salivary secretion of choice. Finally, xerostomia was found to predict hyposalivation on a group, but not on an individual level.

  10. Poor postdischarge head growth is related to a 10% lower intelligence quotient in very preterm infants at the chronological age of five years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Vera; Fuchs, Teresa; Griesmaier, Elke; Kager, Katrin; Pupp-Peglow, Ulrike; Kiechl-Kohlendorfer, Ursula

    2016-05-01

    This study examined the relationship between head growth and cognitive outcome at the age of five years in preterm infants born at less than 32 weeks of gestation from 2003 to 2009, as previous research has mostly focused on outcomes in toddlers. The head circumference of 273 very preterm infants born in Tyrol, Austria, was measured at birth, discharge, the corrected ages of three, 12 and 24 months and the chronological age of five years. Suboptimal head size was defined as a head circumference of more than one standard deviation below the mean. Full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ) at five years was determined using Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scales of Intelligence, third edition. Infants with a suboptimal head size at the age of three months had a significantly lower median IQ than those with a normal head size (90 [20-122] versus 98 [20-138], p = 0.001) and from three months onwards they were more likely to exhibit cognitive delay. A suboptimal head size from the age of three months was consistently related to a 10% lower IQ, and this study adds further evidence that head growth failure, especially during the early postdischarge period, is related to impaired cognitive abilities. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Chemoprevention targets for tobacco-related head and neck cancer: past lessons and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Siddharth H; Johnson, Daniel E; Kensler, Thomas W; Bauman, Julie E

    2015-06-01

    Progress toward identifying an effective chemopreventive agent to reduce the incidence of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) has been limited by poor efficacy and intolerable toxicity profiles. In this review, we summarize the biological basis of HNSCC chemoprevention, and outline challenges associated with identifying appropriate high-risk HNSCC populations for chemoprevention studies. We discuss findings and lessons learned from clinical trials that have investigated micronutrient and molecular targeting interventions. Finally, we introduce the concept of green chemoprevention, interventions based upon whole plant foods or simple extracts that may represent a safe and cost-conscious option for the next generation of studies. As our scientific understanding of HNSCC reaches new levels, the field is poised to develop chemoprevention studies based on rigorous biological validation with accessibility to all affected individuals regardless of socioeconomic barriers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Identifying the null subject: evidence from event-related brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demestre, J; Meltzer, S; García-Albea, J E; Vigil, A

    1999-05-01

    Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded during spoken language comprehension to study the on-line effects of gender agreement violations in controlled infinitival complements. Spanish sentences were constructed in which the complement clause contained a predicate adjective marked for syntactic gender. By manipulating the gender of the antecedent (i.e., the controller) of the implicit subject while holding constant the gender of the adjective, pairs of grammatical and ungrammatical sentences were created. The detection of such a gender agreement violation would indicate that the parser had established the coreference relation between the null subject and its antecedent. The results showed a complex biphasic ERP (i.e., an early negativity with prominence at anterior and central sites, followed by a centroparietal positivity) in the violating condition as compared to the non-violating conditions. The brain reacts to NP-adjective gender agreement violations within a few hundred milliseconds of their occurrence. The data imply that the parser has properly coindexed the null subject of an infinitive clause with its antecedent.

  13. Fetal lung-head ratio is not related to outcome for antenatal diagnosed congenital diaphragmatic hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkovitz, Marc S; Russo, Mark; Devine, Patricia; Budhorick, Nancy; Stolar, Charles J H

    2007-01-01

    We asked if fetal lung-to-head ratio (LHR) of 1.0 or lower or liver herniation had a statistical effect on survival or need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), compared with LHR above 1.0 in patients with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). Antenatal records of all patients diagnosed with CDH from January of 2002 to June of 2005 were examined. Inclusion criteria were isolated left-sided CDH and absence of significant cardiac or other anomalies/syndromes, treated solely at this institution. Lung-to-head ratio values were compared based on the value currently proposed for fetal intervention: LHR of 1.0 or lower vs LHR above 1.0. Outcome was assessed as survival (discharge to home) or need for ECMO. Twenty-eight patients met inclusion criteria. Overall survival was 86% (24/28). Postnatal survival in fetuses with LHR of 1.0 or lower (8/11) was not statistically different from LHR above 1.0 (16/17) (73% vs 94%, P = .114). The need for ECMO in the group with LHR of 1.0 or lower (3/11) was not significantly different from those with LHR above 1.0 (1/17) (27% vs 6%, P = .114). Herniation of the fetal liver into the chest did not affect survival or need for ECMO (P = .228). Neither LHR of 1.0 or lower nor liver herniation identified a risk factor significant enough to warrant fetal intervention. Multicenter studies may be more appropriate to investigate this clinical problem.

  14. [Study of the relation between transformational leadership of the head nurse and supplementary efforts of nursing personnel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouimet, G; Tourigny, L

    1997-01-01

    The present study proposes to show that the ethos of the Head Nursing staff is related to the practice of transformational leadership, and to additional efforts displayed by the treatment staff. Using a sampling of 57 nurses, it was established that transformational leadership presented a positive influence on additional efforts which were superior to that produced by transactional leadership. Contrary to transactional leadership, transformational leadership was shown to exert a positive effect on the ethos of the leader who in turn, had a positive influence on the extra care supplied by the nursing staff.

  15. Subjective sleep quality in relation to inhibition and heart rate variability in patients with panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovland, Anders; Pallesen, Ståle; Hammar, Asa; Hansen, Anita Lill; Thayer, Julian F; Sivertsen, Børge; Tarvainen, Mika P; Nordhus, Inger Hilde

    2013-08-15

    Patients with panic disorder (PD) are known to report impaired sleep quality and symptoms of insomnia. PD is an anxiety disorder characterised by deficient physiological regulation as measured by heart rate variability (HRV), and reduced HRV, PD and insomnia have all been related to impaired inhibitory ability. The present study aimed to investigate the interrelationships between subjectively reported sleep impairment, cognitive inhibition and vagally mediated HRV in a sample characterised by variability on measures of all these constructs. Thirty-six patients with PD with or without agoraphobia were included. Cognitive inhibition was assessed with the Color-Word Interference Test from the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS), HRV was measured using high frequency (HF) power (ms(2)), and subjectively reported sleep quality was measured with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Cognitive inhibition was related to both Sleep latency and Sleep disturbances, whereas HRV was only related to Sleep disturbances. These relationships were significant also after controlling for depression. Correlational design. Cognitive inhibition is related to key insomnia symptoms: sleep initiation and sleep maintenance. The data supports the psychobiological inhibition model of insomnia, and extends previous findings. Possible clinical implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Examining complexity across domains: relating subjective and objective measures of affective environmental scenes, paintings and music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Manuela M; Leder, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    Subjective complexity has been found to be related to hedonic measures of preference, pleasantness and beauty, but there is no consensus about the nature of this relationship in the visual and musical domains. Moreover, the affective content of stimuli has been largely neglected so far in the study of complexity but is crucial in many everyday contexts and in aesthetic experiences. We thus propose a cross-domain approach that acknowledges the multidimensional nature of complexity and that uses a wide range of objective complexity measures combined with subjective ratings. In four experiments, we employed pictures of affective environmental scenes, representational paintings, and Romantic solo and chamber music excerpts. Stimuli were pre-selected to vary in emotional content (pleasantness and arousal) and complexity (low versus high number of elements). For each set of stimuli, in a between-subjects design, ratings of familiarity, complexity, pleasantness and arousal were obtained for a presentation time of 25 s from 152 participants. In line with Berlyne's collative-motivation model, statistical analyses controlling for familiarity revealed a positive relationship between subjective complexity and arousal, and the highest correlations were observed for musical stimuli. Evidence for a mediating role of arousal in the complexity-pleasantness relationship was demonstrated in all experiments, but was only significant for females with regard to music. The direction and strength of the linear relationship between complexity and pleasantness depended on the stimulus type and gender. For environmental scenes, the root mean square contrast measures and measures of compressed file size correlated best with subjective complexity, whereas only edge detection based on phase congruency yielded equivalent results for representational paintings. Measures of compressed file size and event density also showed positive correlations with complexity and arousal in music, which is

  17. Integration of high-risk human papillomavirus into cellular cancer-related genes in head and neck cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walline, Heather M; Goudsmit, Christine M; McHugh, Jonathan B; Tang, Alice L; Owen, John H; Teh, Bin T; McKean, Erin; Glover, Thomas W; Graham, Martin P; Prince, Mark E; Chepeha, Douglas B; Chinn, Steven B; Ferris, Robert L; Gollin, Susanne M; Hoffmann, Thomas K; Bier, Henning; Brakenhoff, Ruud; Bradford, Carol R; Carey, Thomas E

    2017-05-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive oropharyngeal cancer is generally associated with excellent response to therapy, but some HPV-positive tumors progress despite aggressive therapy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate viral oncogene expression and viral integration sites in HPV16- and HPV18-positive squamous cell carcinoma lines. E6/E7 alternate transcripts were assessed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Detection of integrated papillomavirus sequences (DIPS-PCR) and sequencing identified viral insertion sites and affected host genes. Cellular gene expression was assessed across viral integration sites. All HPV-positive cell lines expressed alternate HPVE6/E7 splicing indicative of active viral oncogenesis. HPV integration occurred within cancer-related genes TP63, DCC, JAK1, TERT, ATR, ETV6, PGR, PTPRN2, and TMEM237 in 8 head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) lines but UM-SCC-105 and UM-GCC-1 had only intergenic integration. HPV integration into cancer-related genes occurred in 7 of 9 HPV-positive cell lines and of these 6 were from tumors that progressed. HPV integration into cancer-related genes may be a secondary carcinogenic driver in HPV-driven tumors. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 39: 840-852, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The role of perceived sleep norms in subjective sleep appraisals and sleep-related illness behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulla, Mazheruddin M; Lewis, Jerome A; Hamilton, James C; Tutek, Joshua; Emert, Sarah E; Witte, Tricia H; Lichstein, Kenneth L

    2017-06-23

    The present investigation sought to extend extant research on subjective sleep complaints by examining their relation to perceived sleep norms. Results from two studies showed that individuals' distress and illness behavior in response to symptoms of fatigue and non-restorative sleep was influenced by their perceptions of peer norms for those symptoms. Individuals who believed they experienced a greater degree of fatigue and non-restorative sleep than their peers reported more distress arising from those symptoms, and were also more likely to seek social support and medical treatment for them. Furthermore, participants who scored higher in neuroticism were more likely to believe they experienced worse fatigue and non-restorative sleep than their peers, and thus reported higher symptom-related distress, and higher likelihood of engaging in illness behaviors. These results provide preliminary evidence of the clinical relevance of perceived norms in the way individuals respond to and manage sleep related problems.

  19. 45 CFR 261.54 - Is a State subject to any other penalty relating to its work program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Is a State subject to any other penalty relating to its work program? 261.54 Section 261.54 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... Work Requirements? § 261.54 Is a State subject to any other penalty relating to its work program? (a...

  20. The role of the posterior vermis of monkey cerebellum in smooth-pursuit eye movement control. I. Eye and head movement-related activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, D A; Keller, E L

    1988-01-01

    1. The observation of smooth-pursuit eye and retinal image velocity signals in lobules VI and VII of the vermis has given rise to the hypothesis that a neural correlate of a target velocity signal exists in this region of the cerebellum (29). However, activity signaling head velocity is also required to regenerate a target velocity signal. Vermal Purkinje cell activity was, therefore, recorded during the performance of paradigms designed to dissociate head movement-related responses. 2. The activity of 107 Purkinje cells was found to be related to horizontal head velocity. Of these, 52% increased their discharge rate for ipsilaterally directed passive head movement (type I), and 48% were excited by contralateral head movements (type II). 3. In five Purkinje cells in which sufficient data were obtained, cell discharge rate increased monotonically with head velocity over the range of 5-40 deg/s. The sensitivity to head velocity at 0.4 Hz +/- 25 deg/s averaged approximately 0.5 spikes.s-1/deg.s-1 in a larger sample of cells (n = 39). The sensitivities to head velocity, at this same frequency and velocity, of type I and type II Purkinje cells were comparable at 0.44 and 0.51 spikes.s-1/deg.s-1, respectively. 4. The Purkinje cell responses led head velocity by an average of 12 degrees at 0.4 Hz +/- 25 deg/s of passive head rotation. The phase shifts associated with type I and II responses were similar with phase leads of 13 and 9 degrees with respect to head velocity, respectively. 5. A linear interaction of smooth-pursuit eye and head velocity signals was observed during the performance of a variety of antiphase and inphase eye and head movement paradigms. The results support the conclusion that some Purkinje cells in lobules VI and VII of the cerebellar vermis encode a gaze velocity signal. Contributions of the head velocity signal to the regeneration of target velocity are considered in a companion paper (32).

  1. Violence against women: a relation between subjective dimensions and the production of information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana de Lima Campos

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The violence against women is considered a social issue and affects the lives of millions of women in their different areas of acting. An important mechanism to identify and diagnose incidents related to this phenomenon are the information and communication systems in the public sector because allow the mapping of cases, the construction of indicators and an idea of the magnitude of the problem, allowing therefore , building more effective initiatives related to its combat. The point to be emphasized is about data produced and inserted in these systems, keeping in mind the influence of subjective dimensions derived values, beliefs, meanings and meanings attributed to violence against women. Through a literature review and documentary on the subject, the analysis refers to the inclusion of data in the Sistema de Informações de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN, the Ministry of Health. It is believed that values  established culturally in society are reflected in the information produced and higher level, the existence of underreporting, establishing itself as one of the negative aspects related to data entry into the system and to combat with violence against women. It is understood that these facts refer to a historical and cultural vision marked by evaluative concepts regarding hierarchical gender patterns impacting on the procedures of the systems and commitment of professionals with the purposes established for their services.

  2. The Adequacy of the Q Methodology for Clinical Validation of Nursing Diagnoses Related to Subjective Foci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Susana; Caldeira, Sílvia; Vieira, Margarida

    2016-11-17

    This article describes the adequacy of the Q methodology as a new option for the validation of nursing diagnoses related to subjective foci. Discussion paper about the characteristics of the Q methodology. This method has been used in nursing research particularly related to subjective concepts and includes both a quantitative and qualitative dimension. The Q methodology seems to be an adequate and innovative method for the clinical validation of nursing diagnoses. The validation of nursing diagnoses related to subjective foci using the Q methodology could improve the level of evidence and provide nurses with clinical indicators for clinical reasoning and for the planning of effective interventions. Descrever a adequação da metodologia Q como uma nova opção para a validação clínica de diagnósticos de enfermagem relacionados com focos subjetivos. MÉTODOS: Artigo de discussão sobre as características da metodologia Q. Este método tem sido utilizado na pesquisa em enfermagem relacionada com conceitos subjetivos e inclui em simultâneo uma vertente qualitativa e quantitativa. CONCLUSÕES: A metodologia Q parece ser uma opção metodológica adequada para a validação clínica de diagnósticos de enfermagem. IMPLICAÇÕES PARA A PRÁTICA: A utilização da metodologia Q na validação clínica de diagnósticos de enfermagem relacionados com focos subjetivos pode melhorar o nível e evidência e facilitar o raciocínio clínico dos enfermeiros, ao providenciar indicadores clínicos também necessários ao desenvolvimento de intervenções efetivas. © 2016 NANDA International, Inc.

  3. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Computed tomography (CT) of the head uses special x-ray equipment to help assess head injuries, severe headaches, dizziness, and other symptoms of ... content. Related Articles and Media Radiation Dose in X-Ray and CT ... Perfusion of the Head CT Angiography (CTA) Stroke Brain Tumors Computer Tomography ( ...

  4. 2 March 2011 - Swedish State Secretary to the Minister for Enterprise and Energy C. Håkansson Boman signing the guest book wit Head of International Relations F. Pauss; in the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with Technology Department Head F. Bordry; in the ATLAS visitor centre with P. Grafstrom; troughout accompanied by Deparment Head T. Pettersson.

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Gadmer

    2011-01-01

    She was welcomed to CERN by Felicitas Pauss, head of international relations. The visit included a presentation about the LHC Computing Grid project and a tour of the LHC superconducting magnet test hall and the ATLAS visitor centre.

  5. Relation between uric acid and metabolic syndrome in subjects with cardiometabolic risk

    OpenAIRE

    da Silva, Hellen Abreu; Carraro, J?lia Cristina Cardoso; Bressan, Josefina; Hermsdorff, Helen Hermana Miranda

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify possible relations between serum uric acid levels and metabolic syndrome and its components in a population with cardiometabolic risk. Methods This cross-sectional study included 80 subjects (46 women), with mean age of 48±16 years, seen at the Cardiovascular Health Program. Results The prevalence of hyperuricemia and metabolic syndrome was 6.3% and 47.1%, respectively. Uric acid level was significantly higher in individuals with metabolic syndrome (5.1±1.6mg/dL), a...

  6. Association of copy number variations in complement factor H-Related genes among age-related macular degenerative subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norshakimah Md Bakri

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is the most widely recognised cause of irreversible vision loss and previous studies have suggested that the advancement of wet AMD is influenced by both modifiable and non-modifiable elements. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs and copy number of variations (CNVs have been associated with AMD in various populations, however the results are conflicting. Our aim is to determine the CNVs of Complement Factor H-Related genes among Malaysian subjects with wet AMD. 130 patients with wet AMD and 120 healthy controls were included in this research. DNA was extracted from all subjects and CNVs of CFH, CFHR1 and CFHR3 genes; determined using quantitative real-time PCR and were compared between the two groups. A consistent association was observed between CFH gene and wet AMD susceptibility (P < 0.05. The age-adjusted data suggests a possible increased risk of AMD disease (P < 0.05. No correlation was detected between CNVs and wet AMD for the remaining genes after we compared the frequencies of mean for that gene. An association was observed between CFH CNVs and wet AMD in the Malaysian population, however, strong evidence of a link with wet AMD was not found. Further investigative studies are needed using larger sample sizes to elucidate the role of CNVs in AMD pathogenesis.

  7. Health-related quality of life of subjects with Barrett's esophagus in a Chinese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou-Wu Lee

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate health-related quality of life (HRQoL of a Chinese population with Barrett's esophagus (BE.Data from subjects with BE from a single hospital were prospectively collected from October 2012 to December 2014. The exclusion criteria included total esophagectomy, severe cardiopulmonary deficiency, malignancy, or other unsuitable conditions for scope. All the enrolled cases were asked to complete the Reflux Disease Questionnaire (RDQ, the short form-12, (SF-12, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS.In total, 139 subjects were enrolled, and the mean age of the cases was 61.85 years old. Most subjects had short-segment BE (SSBE (92.8% and non-dysplastic BE tissue (94.2%. The mean physical and mental composite scores, PCS and MCS, of SF-12 were 44.14 and 45.53, respectively. The SF-12 scores in BE individuals were similar in men and women, elderly and non-elderly, LSBE and SSBE, coexisting EE and no-EE, and dysplastic and non-dysplastic. The appearance of reflux symptoms tended to decrease SF-12 scores in affected individuals, especially heartburn. The rates of anxiety and depression accounted for 25.2% and 17.3% of these cases, respectively.Our study found HRQoL in BE patients was strongly associated with presentation of reflux symptoms.

  8. Subjective and objective assessment of physical activity in multiple sclerosis and their relation to health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Theresa; Behrens, Janina R; Grobelny, Anuschka; Otte, Karen; Mansow-Model, Sebastian; Kayser, Bastian; Bellmann-Strobl, Judith; Brandt, Alexander U; Paul, Friedemann; Schmitz-Hübsch, Tanja

    2017-01-13

    Physical activity (PA) is frequently restricted in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) and aiming to enhance PA is considered beneficial in this population. We here aimed to explore two standard methods (subjective plus objective) to assess PA reduction in PwMS and to describe the relation of PA to health-related quality of life (hrQoL). PA was objectively measured over a 7-day period in 26 PwMS (EDSS 1.5-6.0) and 30 matched healthy controls (HC) using SenseWear mini® armband (SWAmini) and reported as step count, mean total and activity related energy expenditure (EE) as well as time spent in PA of different intensities. Measures of EE were also derived from self-assessment with IPAQ (International Physical Activity Questionnaire) long version, which additionally yielded information on the context of PA and a classification into subjects' PA levels. To explore the convergence between both types of assessment, IPAQ categories (low, moderate, high) were related to selected PA parameters from objective assessment using ANOVA. Group differences and associated effect sizes for all PA parameters as well as their relation to clinical and hrQoL measures were determined. Both, SWAmini and IPAQ assessment, captured differences in PA between PwMS and HC. IPAQ categories fit well with common cut-offs for step count (p = 0.002) and mean METs (p = 0.004) to determine PA levels with objective devices. Correlations between specifically matched pairs of IPAQ and SWAmini parameters ranged between r .288 and r .507. Concerning hrQoL, the lower limb mobility subscore was related to four PA measures, while a relation with patients' report of general contentment was only seen for one. Both methods of assessment seem applicable in PwMS and able to describe reductions in daily PA at group level. Whether they can be used to track individual effects of interventions to enhance PA levels needs further exploration. The relation of PA measures with hrQoL seen with lower limb

  9. The influence of headform orientation and flooring systems on impact dynamics during simulated fall-related head impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Alexander D; Laing, Andrew C

    2012-10-01

    Novel compliant flooring systems are a promising approach for reducing fall-related injuries in seniors, as they may provide up to 50% attenuation in peak force during simulated hip impacts while eliciting only minimal influences on balance. This study aimed to determine the protective capacity of novel compliant floors during simulated 'high severity' head impacts compared to common flooring systems. A headform was impacted onto a common Commercial-Carpet at 1.5, 2.5, and 3.5 m/s in front, back, and side orientations using a mechanical drop tower. Peak impact force applied to the headform (F(max)), peak linear acceleration of the headform (g(max)) and Head Injury Criterion (HIC) were determined. For the 3.5 m/s trials, backwards-oriented impacts were associated with the highest F(max) and HIC values (pfloors (Resilient Rubber, Residential-Loop Carpet, Berber Carpet) and six novel compliant floors at each impact velocity. ANOVAs indicated that flooring type was associated with all parameters at each impact velocity (pfloors (pfloors can substantially reduce the forces and accelerations applied to a headform compared to common floors including carpet and resilient rubber. In combination with reports of minimal balance impairments, these findings support the promise of novel compliant floors as a biomechanically effective strategy for reducing fall-related injuries including traumatic brain injuries and skull fractures. Copyright © 2011 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Design and analysis of a smart optical storage read head for relational database applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyette, Fred R., Jr.; Tang, Jianjing; Lee, Boon K.; Chi, Robert C. J.; Steckl, Andrew J.

    2000-11-01

    The commercialization of CD ROM drives has clearly demonstrated the ability of optical storage devices to meet the growing demand for archival data storage. However, with the continued expansion of electronic information resources, storage capacity requirements are expected to approach the terabit level for personal users and exceed the petabit level for databases and data warehouse systems. Further, many data intensive applications will also require real time access data access rates. Thus, designers for the next generation of archival storage systems have the challenging task of providing storage capacities several orders of magnitude larger than existing systems while maintaining current data access times. To meet this challenge, we have been developing a 'smart' read-head device for large capacity, page-oriented optical storage systems. Further the device is designed to operate as a data filter that will pass only valid data between the optical storage system and the host computer. Based on a photonic VLSI device technology, our data filter monolithically integrates optical detectors, photoreceivers circuits, data manipulation logic, and filter control circuitry onto a single CMOS chip that can be readily fabricated using a standard VLSI fabrication facility. Thus, our device is compatible with existing electronic device manufacturing technology and shares all of the reliability, uniformity, and manufacturability benefits associated with current, electronic hardware. This paper will present an evaluation of our latest smart pixel circuits and detail our performance expectations for a 32 X 32 bit data filter chip currently under development.

  11. Current trends in the etiology and diagnosis of HPV-related head and neck cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Ryan C; Lambie, Duncan; Verma, Mukesh; Punyadeera, Chamindie

    2015-01-01

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection is a major risk factor for a distinct subset of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). The current review summarizes the epidemiology of HNSCC and the disease burden, the infectious cycle of HPV, the roles of viral oncoproteins, E6 and E7, and the downstream cellular events that lead to malignant transformation. Current techniques for the clinical diagnosis of HPV-associated HNSCC will also be discussed, that is, the detection of HPV DNA, RNA, and the HPV surrogate marker, p16 in tumor tissues, as well as HPV-specific antibodies in serum. Such methods do not allow for the early detection of HPV-associated HNSCC and most cases are at an advanced stage upon diagnosis. Novel noninvasive approaches using oral fluid, a clinically relevant biological fluid, allow for the detection of HPV and cellular alterations in infected cells, which may aid in the early detection and HPV-typing of HNSCC tumors. Noninvasive diagnostic methods will enable early detection and intervention, leading to a significant reduction in mortality and morbidity associated with HNSCC. PMID:25644715

  12. A relation between calculated human body exergy consumption rate and subjectively assessed thermal sensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Kolarik, Jakub; Iwamatsu, Toshiya

    2011-01-01

    occupants, it is reasonable to consider both the exergy flows in building and those within the human body. Until now, no data have been available on the relation between human-body exergy consumption rates and subjectively assessed thermal sensation. The objective of the present work was to relate thermal...... sensation data, from earlier thermal comfort studies, to calculated human-body exergy consumption rates. The results show that the minimum human body exergy consumption rate is associated with thermal sensation votes close to thermal neutrality, tending to the slightly cool side of thermal sensation....... Generally, the relationship between air temperature and the exergy consumption rate, as a first approximation, shows an increasing trend. Taking account of both convective and radiative heat exchange between the human body and the surrounding environment by using the calculated operative temperature, exergy...

  13. Subjective and objective binge eating in relation to eating disorder symptomatology, negative affect, and personality dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownstone, Lisa M; Bardone-Cone, Anna M; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Printz, Katherine S; Le Grange, Daniel; Mitchell, James E; Crow, Scott J; Peterson, Carol B; Crosby, Ross D; Klein, Marjorie H; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Joiner, Thomas E

    2013-01-01

    The current study explored the clinical meaningfulness of distinguishing subjective (SBE) from objective binge eating (OBE) among individuals with threshold/subthreshold bulimia nervosa (BN). We examined relations between OBEs and SBEs and eating disorder symptoms, negative affect, and personality dimensions using both a group comparison and a continuous approach. Participants were 204 adult females meeting criteria for threshold/subthreshold BN who completed questionnaires related to disordered eating, affect, and personality. Group comparisons indicated that SBE and OBE groups did not significantly differ on eating disorder pathology or negative affect, but did differ on two personality dimensions (cognitive distortion and attentional impulsivity). Using the continuous approach, we found that frequencies of SBEs (not OBEs) accounted for unique variance in weight/shape concern, diuretic use frequency, depressive symptoms, anxiety, social avoidance, insecure attachment, and cognitive distortion. SBEs in the context of BN may indicate broader areas of psychopathology. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. An event-level examination of sex differences and subjective intoxication in alcohol-related aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Patrick D; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Fromme, Kim

    2013-04-01

    Laboratory-based experimental research has demonstrated that the pharmacological effects of alcohol can increase aggressive responding. Given mixed findings and concerns regarding task validity, however, it remains uncertain whether this effect holds constant across men and women and whether variability in subjective alcohol intoxication contributes to alcohol-related aggression. In this investigation, the authors used 4 years of event-level data in a sample of 1,775 college students (140,618 total observations) to provide a test of laboratory-derived findings on the link between alcohol and aggression in an alternative methodology. They found support for several such findings: (a) Within-person increases in alcohol intoxication, as assessed by estimated blood alcohol concentrations (eBACs), were associated with increases in the probability of aggression at the drinking-episode level; (b) this association was significantly stronger among men than among women; and (c) within-person variability and between-persons individual differences in levels of subjective alcohol intoxication were associated with aggression over and beyond eBACs. Cross-methodological replication can reduce the impact of constraints specific to experimental studies on conclusions regarding alcohol's relation with aggression.

  15. Intention, Subjective Norms, and Cancer Screening in the Context of Relational Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasick, Rena J.; Barker, Judith C.; Otero-Sabogal, Regina; Burke, Nancy J.; Joseph, Galen; Guerra, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    Research targeting disparities in breast cancer detection has mainly utilized theories that do not account for social context and culture. Most mammography promotion studies have used a conceptual framework centered in the cognitive constructs of intention (commonly regarded as the most important determinant of screening behavior), self-efficacy, perceived benefit, perceived susceptibility, and/or subjective norms. The meaning and applicability of these constructs in diverse communities are unknown. The purpose of this study is to inductively explore the social context of Filipina and Latina women (the sociocultural forces that shape people’s day-to-day experiences and that directly and indirectly affect health and behavior) to better understand mammography screening behavior. One powerful aspect of social context that emerged from the findings was relational culture, the processes of interdependence and interconnectedness among individuals and groups and the prioritization of these connections above virtually all else. The authors examine the appropriateness of subjective norms and intentions in the context of relational culture and identify inconsistencies that suggest varied meanings from those intended by behavioral theorists. PMID:19805793

  16. An Event-Level Examination of Sex Differences and Subjective Intoxication in Alcohol-Related Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Patrick D.; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.; Fromme, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory-based experimental research has demonstrated that the pharmacological effects of alcohol can increase aggressive responding. Given mixed findings and concerns regarding task validity, however, it remains uncertain whether this effect holds constant across men and women and whether variability in subjective alcohol intoxication contributes to alcohol-related aggression. In the present investigation, we used four years of event-level data in a sample of 1,775 college students (140,618 total observations) to provide a test of laboratory-derived findings on the link between alcohol and aggression in an alternative methodology. We found support for several such findings: 1) Within-person increases in alcohol intoxication, as assessed by estimated blood alcohol concentrations (eBACs), were associated with increases in the probability of aggression at the drinking-episode level; 2) This association was significantly stronger among men than among women; and 3) Within-person variability and between-persons individual differences in levels of subjective alcohol intoxication were associated with aggression over and beyond eBACs. Cross-methodological replication can reduce the impact of constraints specific to experimental studies on conclusions regarding alcohol’s relation with aggression. PMID:23421356

  17. Reading in schizophrenic subjects and their nonsymptomatic first-degree relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Eryl O; Proudlock, Frank A; Martin, Kate; Reveley, Michael A; Al-Uzri, Mohammed; Gottlob, Irene

    2013-07-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated eye movement abnormalities during smooth pursuit and antisaccadic tasks in schizophrenia. However, eye movements have not been investigated during reading. The purpose of this study was to determine whether schizophrenic subjects and their nonsymptomatic first-degree relatives show eye movement abnormalities during reading. Reading rate, number of saccades per line, amplitudes of saccades, percentage regressions (reverse saccades), and fixation durations were measured using an eye tracker (EyeLink, SensoMotoric Instruments, Germany) in 38 schizophrenic volunteers, 14 nonaffected first-degree relatives, and 57 control volunteers matched for age and National Adult Reading Test scores. Parameters were examined when volunteers read full pages of text and text was limited to progressively smaller viewing areas around the point of fixation using a gaze-contingent window. Schizophrenic volunteers showed significantly slower reading rates (P = .004), increase in total number of saccades (P ≤ .001), and a decrease in saccadic amplitude (P = .025) while reading. Relatives showed a significant increase in total number of saccades (P = .013) and decrease in saccadic amplitude (P = .020). Limitation of parafoveal information by reducing the amount of visible characters did not change the reading rate of schizophrenics but controls showed a significant decrease in reading rate with reduced parafoveal information (P reading of schizophrenic volunteers and their first-degree relatives suggest that visual integration of foveal and parafoveal information may be reduced in schizophrenia. Reading abnormalities in relatives suggest a genetic influence in reading ability in schizophrenia and rule out confounding effects of medication.

  18. Cannabis-Related Working Memory Deficits and Associated Subcortical Morphological Differences in Healthy Individuals and Schizophrenia Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Matthew J.; Cobia, Derin J.; Wang, Lei; Alpert, Kathryn I.; Cronenwett, Will J.; Goldman, Morris B.; Mamah, Daniel; Barch, Deanna M.; Breiter, Hans C.; Csernansky, John G.

    2013-01-01

    Cannabis use is associated with working memory (WM) impairments; however, the relationship between cannabis use and WM neural circuitry is unclear. We examined whether a cannabis use disorder (CUD) was associated with differences in brain morphology between control subjects with and without a CUD and between schizophrenia subjects with and without a CUD, and whether these differences related to WM and CUD history. Subjects group-matched on demographics included 44 healthy controls, 10 subject...

  19. Beyond chronological age. Examining perceived future time and subjective health as age-related mediators in relation to work-related motivations and well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paul Jansen; Dorien Kooij; Annet de Lange; Josje Dikkers

    2013-01-01

    Since workforces across the world are aging, researchers and organizations need more insight into how and why occupational well-being, together with work-related attitudes and motivations, change with age. Lifespan theories point to subjective health and future time perspective (i.e. an individual's

  20. Beyond chronological age : Examining perceived future time and subjective health as age-related mediators in relation to work-related motivations and well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, T.A.M.; de Lange, A.H.; Jansen, P.G.W.; Dikkers, J.S.E.

    2013-01-01

    Since workforces across the world are aging, researchers and organizations need more insight into how and why occupational well-being, together with work-related attitudes and motivations, change with age. Lifespan theories point to subjective health and future time perspective (i.e. an individual's

  1. Effects of eye-glasses, hair, headgear, and clothing on measured head-related transfer functions Part Ib

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riederer, Klaus A. J.

    2003-10-01

    Extensive head-related transfer function (HRTF) measurements show high HRTF repeatability, consequences of different measurement methods, and conditions covering the whole three-dimensional space [Riederer, J. Audio Eng. Soc. (Abstracts) 46, 1036 (1998), preprint 4846]. This study concentrates on specific effects on HRTFs carefully re-measured on the same Cortex dummy head applying Sennheiser KE4-211-2 microphones at its silicone putty blocked ear-canal entrances, employing 252 sound incidents including seven elevations. The effects of five different wigs (synthetic, natural, thick, thin, long and short hair) with varied hairstyles, four hats (cap, bicycle helmet, mens and womens trilby), clothes (alpaca pullover, bicycling drymax-jacket) and spectacles were investigated under 28 combinations. The influences are highly dependent on direction, frequency, and case. Clothes and eye-glasses affect minimally HRTF; hair has a stronger effect, depending on the actual hairdo (typically above 7 kHz). Hats alter intensively HRTFs (typically above 5 kHz), depending on the model. The measurements give deeper insight to the development of idiosyncratic features in binaural localization cues. The second part of the study addresses their perceptual effects [Riederer, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., this issue]. [Work supported by Graduate School of Electronics, Telecommunication and Automation; thanks to Finnish Broadcasting Company, Mr. Hellstrom; Mrs. Chen.

  2. Determinants of treatment waiting times for head and neck cancer in the Netherlands and their relation to survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Harten, Michel C; Hoebers, Frank J P; Kross, Kenneth W; van Werkhoven, Erik D; van den Brekel, Michiel W M; van Dijk, Boukje A C

    2015-03-01

    Waiting to start treatment has been shown to be associated with tumor progression and upstaging in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs). This diminishes the chance of cure and might lead to unnecessary mortality. We investigated the association between waiting times and survival in the Netherlands and assessed which factors were associated to longer waiting times. Patient (age, sex, socioeconomic status (SES), tumor (site, stage) and treatment (type, of institute of diagnosis/treatment) characteristics for patients with HNSCC who underwent treatment were extracted from the Netherlands Cancer Registry (NCR) for 2005-2011. Waiting time was defined as the number of days between histopathological diagnosis and start of treatment. Univariable and multivariable Cox regression was used to evaluate survival. In total, 13,140 patients were included, who had a median waiting time of 37days. Patients who were more likely to wait longer were men, patients with a low SES, oropharynx tumors, stage IV tumors, patients to be treated with radiotherapy or chemoradiation, and patients referred for treatment to a Head and Neck Oncology Center (HNOC) from another hospital. The 5-year overall survival was 58% for all patients. Our multivariable Cox regression model showed that longer waiting time, was significantly related to a higher hazard of dying (p<0.0001). This is the first large population-based study showing that longer waiting time for surgery, radiotherapy or chemoradiation is a significant negative prognostic factor for HNSCC patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Copper-Induced Spermatozoa Head Malformation Is Related to Oxidative Damage to Testes in CD-1 Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuo-Wei; Zhi-GangTan; Qiao, Na; Kang, Zhen-Long; Chen, Zhi-Ling; Hu, Lian-Mei; Yang, Zeng-Ming; Li, Ying

    2016-10-01

    The molecular mechanism for copper toxicity on spermatozoa quality in mice is not well understood. In a 4-week experiment, we challenged 24, 6-week-old male CD-1 mice with twice-a-week intraperitoneal copper chloride injections and evaluated spermatozoa quality, copper levels in the testes, serum testosterone, the expression of key antioxidant glutathione peroxidase 5 (GPx5), and the regulated androgen receptor (AR) in the mice testes. We compared these outcomes for four groups of six mice given doses of 0, 1.25, 2.5, 5.0 mg/kg weight copper chloride twice a week for 4 weeks. The mice demonstrated a copper increase spermatozoa head malformation in a dose-response manner. However, we observed no changes in spermatozoa viability and acrosome integrity in the ratio of mouse body weight to testes weight or in the histomorphology of the testes as the average copper level increased. Results of our RT-PCR assays, immunohistochemical tests, ELISA, and histochemistry analyses indicated that testis GPx5 expression was increased, AR expression in the testes was decreased, serum testosterone was decreased, and the activity of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase was decreased as the copper dose increased. In conclusion, these data show that sublethal exposure to copper induces spermatozoa head malformation and influences both mRNA and protein levels of GPx5 and AR which is related to copper resides in the testes.

  4. Distinguishing Relational Aspects of Character Strengths with Subjective and Psychological Well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Hausler

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that character strengths are positively linked with well-being in general. However, there has not been a fine-grained analysis up to date. This study examines the individual relational aspects between the 24 character strengths, subjective well-being (SWB, and different aspects of psychological well-being (PWB at two times of measurement (N = 117. Results showed that overall the “good character” was significantly stronger related with PWB than with SWB. The character strength “hope” was at least moderately correlated with the PWB aspects meaning, optimism and autonomy, and “zest” with the PWB aspects relationships and engagement. “Persistence” showed the highest correlation with the PWB aspect mastery. Out of the 24 character strengths, the happiness-related strengths (hope, zest, gratitude, curiosity, and love were more likely to correlate with PWB and SWB than any other character strength. This study offers a more fine-grained and thorough understanding of specific relational aspects between the 24 character strengths and a broad range of well-being aspects. Future studies should take up a detailed strategy when exploring relationships between character strengths and well-being.

  5. Foveal slope measurements in subjects with high-risk of age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Raman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent reports indicated that the slope of the foveal depression influences the macular pigment (MP spatial profile. MP has been shown to confer possible protection against age-related macular degeneration (ARMD because of its antioxidant properties. Aims: To study the configuration of foveal slope and the foveal thickness in fellow eyes of subjects with unilateral neovascular ARMD. Settings and design: Case-control series. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 30 cases aged >50, who had unilateral choroidal neovascular membrane (CNVM or disciform scar in the fellow eye and 29 controls aged >50, who had no sign of ARMD in the either eye. Using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, foveal thickness at different locations including the central subfield foveal thickness (CSFT was noted. The foveal slopes were calculated in the six radial scans (between 0.25° and 1° retinal eccentricity as well as the 3D scan. Results: Cases had a significantly higher CSFT when compared to controls (215.1 ± 36.19 μ vs. 193.0 ± 17.38 μ, P = 0.004. On the 3D scan, the cases had shallower superior (cases 1.32 ± 0.32 vs. controls 1.45 ± 0.13, P = 0.04 and temporal slopes (cases 1.27 ± 0.21 vs. controls 1.39 ± 0.12, P = 0.01 in comparison to the controls. Conclusions: We noted a shallower superior and temporal foveal slope and a higher CSFT in the fellow eyes of subjects with a unilateral neovascular ARMD. Prospective studies observing the development of CNVM in subjects with altered foveal slope might provide more information on this optical coherence tomography finding.

  6. EEG oscillatory power dissociates between distress- and depression-related psychopathology in subjective tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Martin; Neff, Patrick; Grest, Angelina; Hemsley, Colette; Weidt, Steffi; Kleinjung, Tobias

    2017-05-15

    Recent research has used source estimation approaches to identify spatially distinct neural configurations in individuals with chronic, subjective tinnitus (TI). The results of these studies are often heterogeneous, a fact which may be partly explained by an inherent heterogeneity in the TI population and partly by the applied EEG data analysis procedure and EEG hardware. Hence this study was performed to re-enact a formerly published study (Joos et al., 2012) to better understand the reason for differences and overlap between studies from different labs. We re-investigated the relationship between neural oscillations and behavioral measurements of affective states in TI, namely depression and tinnitus-related distress by recruiting 45 TI who underwent resting-state EEG. Comprehensive psychopathological (depression and tinnitus-related distress scores) and psychometric data (including other tinnitus characteristics) were gathered. A principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to unveil independent factors that predict distinct aspects of tinnitus-related pathology. Furthermore, we correlated EEG power changes in the standard frequency bands with the behavioral scores for both the whole-brain level and, as a post hoc approach, for selected regions of interest (ROI) based on sLORETA. Behavioral data revealed significant relationships between measurements of depression and tinnitus-related distress. Notably, no significant results were observed for the depressive scores and modulations of the EEG signal. However, akin to the former study we evidenced a significant relationship between a power increase in the β-bands and tinnitus-related distress. In conclusion, it has emerged that depression and tinnitus-related distress, even though they are assumed not to be completely independent, manifest in distinct neural configurations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Slipping and holding minds: A psychosocial analysis of maternal subjectivity in relation to childhood disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Lisa Saville; Berry, Jessie

    2016-01-01

    This paper elucidates a methodological approach to interview text that tries to acknowledge the psychosocial nature of disability and thereby ensuring that empirical work in disability studies complements theoretical arguments already developed. The aim of this study is to outline a psychosocial conceptualisation of maternal subjectivity in relation to childhood disability and to apply this conceptualisation as an analytic tool to segments of an interview with a mother of a child with physical and developmental disabilities. Drawing on psychoanalysis and attachment literature alongside critical social psychology we take readers through the analysis of an interview extract with a particular mother. Through a fine grained analysis, we demonstrate the value of attending to the affective processes in and around the text rooted in the particular intersubjective exchange ('here and how') of the interview and the particular socio-historical context ('there and then') in which the mother, child and researcher are located. The reading draws attention to discourses that position this particular mother and her children in particular ways while also pointing to investments in these discourses such that these discourses are not purely social but play affective functions. This paper demonstrates the value of using multiple lenses to read the text, seeking to understand what is going on from within each lens (discursive/social, interpersonal, intrapsychic), while also seeking to disrupt this understanding as we take up the position of a different lens. This approach enables us to hold onto the complexity and locatedness of maternal subjectivity for mothers of children with disabilities.

  8. [Clinical approach to work-related subjective processes: The perspective of psychodinamic of work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wlosko, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Under what conditions the work activity may be structuring health and in which ones can become a source of disease and suffering? How explain the current situation of deterioration and increased mental pathology in relation to work? The job must be conceived as a trigger among others, or could play a specific role in the etiology of various psychological and psychosomatic pictures? This article addresses these questions from the perspective of Psychodynamic of work. Based on the theory of living labor developed by C. Dejours, the article analyzes the dynamic pleasure-suffering in relation to work and the role of defensive mechanisms in those dynamics. In turn, it characterized the current epidemiological situation, describing the prevalent pathologies related to mental health and work. Finally, the article exposes the thesis of Psychodynamic of work regarding the increase and aggravation of these pathologies. The article aims to present the main axes of Psychodynamics of Work, which is a theory and clinical practice whose object is the psychodynamic analysis of subjective and intersubjective processes mobilized by work situations.

  9. Distinct pattern of TP53 mutations in human immunodeficiency virus-related head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleber-Netto, Frederico O; Zhao, Mei; Trivedi, Sanchit; Wang, Jiping; Jasser, Samar; McDowell, Christina; Kadara, Humam; Zhang, Jiexin; Wang, Jing; William, William N; Lee, J Jack; Nguyen, Minh Ly; Pai, Sara I; Walline, Heather M; Shin, Dong M; Ferris, Robert L; Carey, Thomas E; Myers, Jeffrey N; Pickering, Curtis R

    2018-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals (HIVIIs) have a higher incidence of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), and clinical and histopathological differences have been observed in their tumors in comparison with those of HNSCC patients without a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The reasons for these differences are not clear, and molecular differences between HIV-related HNSCC and non-HIV-related HNSCC may exist. This study compared the mutational patterns of HIV-related HNSCC and non-HIV-related HNSCC. The DNA of 20 samples of HIV-related HNSCCs and 32 samples of non-HIV-related HNSCCs was sequenced. DNA libraries covering exons of 18 genes frequently mutated in HNSCC (AJUBA, CASP8, CCND1, CDKN2A, EGFR, FAT1, FBXW7, HLA-A, HRAS, KEAP1, NFE2L2, NOTCH1, NOTCH2, NSD1, PIK3CA, TGFBR2, TP53, and TP63) were prepared and sequenced on an Ion Personal Genome Machine sequencer. DNA sequencing data were analyzed with Ion Reporter software. The human papillomavirus (HPV) status of the tumor samples was assessed with in situ hybridization, the MassARRAY HPV multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay, and p16 immunostaining. Mutation calls were compared among the studied groups. HIV-related HNSCC revealed a distinct pattern of mutations in comparison with non-HIV-related HNSCC. TP53 mutation frequencies were significantly lower in HIV-related HNSCC. Mutations in HIV+ patients tended to be TpC>T nucleotide changes for all mutated genes but especially for TP53. HNSCC in HIVIIs presents a distinct pattern of genetic mutations, particularly in the TP53 gene. HIV-related HNSCC may have a distinct biology, and an effect of the HIV virus on the pathogenesis of these tumors should not be ruled out. Cancer 2018;124:84-94. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  10. «Bases of social regulation and public relations» subject: MGSU teaching experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreev Igor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The report presents the author’s teaching experience in Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU in 2014 – 2017 of a new subject aimed to consolidate the information which is usually «dispersed» between courses of public relations, management, philosophy, sociology, etc. In particular, the author expresses his point of view concerning the most optimal structural organization of a training material for this discipline, considers the most successful, in his opinion, methodical practices, marks some features of the discipline understanding by students and their achieved results in study. Considering the training material provided in the first part of this discipline – «Bases of social regulation», – the author suggests to make the central, «recurrent» problem of the section the question of social planning in urban policy and especially – the social aspects in development and implementation of the smart city concept. In the second part of the discipline – «Public relations» – the author considers reasonable to pay special attention (apart from the general-theoretical communication problems reviewing to practical questions of establishment of trust relationships between town-planners and social groups similar to different components of a creative class. The author comes to a conclusion that the teaching methods of this subject in construction higher education institutions should create for students an integral view of the democratically understanding processes for social planning in town-planning, inseparably connected with different forms and methods of social communication.

  11. Infield masticatory muscle activity in subjects with pain-related temporomandibular disorders diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, S N; McCall, W; Dunford, R; Nickel, J C; Iwasaki, L R; Crow, H C; Gonzalez, Y

    2015-04-01

    Pain-related temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) are the most prevalent conditions among TMDs. There is contrasting evidence available for association of pain-related TMD and masticatory muscle activity (MMA). The present investigation assesses the associations between MMA levels of masseter and temporalis muscles during awake and sleep among pain-related TMD diagnostic groups. The department of Oral Diagnostic Sciences, University at Buffalo. Twenty females and six males participated in this study. Using the diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders (DC-TMDs), participants were diagnostically categorized. Subjects used a custom monitoring system, which recorded infield muscle activities. A factorial model tested for association between independent variable (muscle, time period, MMA level, and diagnostic group) effects and the logarithm of MMA. Greenhouse-Geisser test was used to determine any statistically significant associations (p≤0.003). No statistically significant association was found between four-way, three-way, and two-way analyses. However, among the main effects, range of magnitudes was the only variable to be statistically significant. Although the data suggest a trend of increased masseter MMA in the pain-related TMD diagnoses group both during awake and sleep time periods, such observation is not maintained for the temporalis muscle. In addition, temporalis MMA was found to be higher in the pain-related TMD diagnoses group only at extreme activity levels (<25 and ≥80% ranges). This data support the association between masticatory muscle hyperactivity and painful TMD conditions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. In-field masticatory muscle activity in subjects with pain-related TMD diagnoses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, S.N.; McCall, W.; Dunford, R.; Nickel, J.C.; Iwasaki, L.R.; Crow, H.C.; Gonzalez, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Pain-related Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) are the most prevalent conditions among TMDs. There is contrasting evidence available for association of pain-related TMD and masticatory muscle activity (MMA). The present investigation assesses the associations between MMA levels of masseter and temporalis muscles during awake and sleep among pain-related TMD diagnostic groups. Setting and Sample Population The department of Oral Diagnostic Sciences, University at Buffalo. Twenty females and 6 males participated in this study. Material & Methods Using the Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (DC-TMD), participants were diagnostically categorized. Subjects used a custom monitoring system, which recorded in–field muscle activities. A factorial model tested for association between independent variable (muscle, time period, MMA level, diagnostic group) effects and the logarithm of MMA. Greenhouse–Geisser test was used to determine any statistically significant associations (p ≤ 0.003). Results No statistically significant association was found among four-way, three-way, and two-way analyses. However, among the main effects, range of magnitudes was the only variable to be statistically significant. Although the data suggest a trend of increased masseter MMA in the pain-related TMD diagnoses group both during awake and sleep time periods, such observation is not maintained for the temporalis muscle. In addition, temporalis MMA was found to be higher in the pain-related TMD diagnoses group only at extreme activity levels (<25% and ≥80% ranges). Conclusion This data support the association between masticatory muscle hyperactivity and painful-TMD conditions. PMID:25865542

  13. Shoulder pain, functional status, and health-related quality of life after head and neck cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsiao-Lan; Keck, Juanita F; Weaver, Michael T; Mikesky, Alan; Bunnell, Karen; Buelow, Janice M; Rawl, Susan M

    2013-01-01

    Head and neck cancer (HNC) patients experience treatment-related complications that may interfere with health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The purpose of this study was to describe the symptom experience (shoulder pain) and functional status factors that are related to global and domain-specific HRQOL at one month after HNC surgery. In this exploratory study, we examined 29 patients. The outcome variables included global HRQOL as well as physical, functional, emotional, and social well-being. Symptom experience and functional status factors were the independent variables. In the symptom experience variables, shoulder pain distress was negatively associated with physical well-being (R (2) = 0.24). Among the functional status variables, eating impairment was negatively related to global HRQOL (R (2) = 0.18) and physical well-being (R (2) = 0.21). Speaking impairment and impaired body image explained a large amount of the variance in functional well-being (R (2) = 0.45). This study provided initial results regarding symptom experience and functional status factors related to poor HRQOL in the early postoperative period for HNC patients.

  14. Shoulder Pain, Functional Status, and Health-Related Quality of Life after Head and Neck Cancer Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Lan Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Head and neck cancer (HNC patients experience treatment-related complications that may interfere with health-related quality of life (HRQOL. The purpose of this study was to describe the symptom experience (shoulder pain and functional status factors that are related to global and domain-specific HRQOL at one month after HNC surgery. In this exploratory study, we examined 29 patients. The outcome variables included global HRQOL as well as physical, functional, emotional, and social well-being. Symptom experience and functional status factors were the independent variables. In the symptom experience variables, shoulder pain distress was negatively associated with physical well-being (R2=0.24. Among the functional status variables, eating impairment was negatively related to global HRQOL (R2=0.18 and physical well-being (R2=0.21. Speaking impairment and impaired body image explained a large amount of the variance in functional well-being (R2=0.45. This study provided initial results regarding symptom experience and functional status factors related to poor HRQOL in the early postoperative period for HNC patients.

  15. Resting-state networks in healthy adult subjects: a comparison between a 32-element and an 8-element phased array head coil at 3.0 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolini, Marco; Keeser, Daniel; Ingrisch, Michael; Werner, Natalie; Kindermann, Nicole; Reiser, Maximilian; Blautzik, Janusch

    2015-05-01

    Little research exists on the influence of a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) head coil's channel count on measured resting-state functional connectivity. To compare a 32-element (32ch) and an 8-element (8ch) phased array head coil with respect to their potential to detect functional connectivity within resting-state networks. Twenty-six healthy adults (mean age, 21.7 years; SD, 2.1 years) underwent resting-state functional MRI at 3.0 Tesla with both coils using equal standard imaging parameters and a counterbalanced design. Independent component analysis (ICA) at different model orders and a dual regression approach were performed. Voxel-wise non-parametric statistical between-group contrasts were determined using permutation-based non-parametric inference. Phantom measurements demonstrated a generally higher image signal-to-noise ratio using the 32ch head coil. However, the results showed no significant differences between corresponding resting-state networks derived from both coils (p coil does not offer any significant advantages in detecting ICA-based functional connectivity within RSNs. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  16. The relations between China and the European Union heading into the new century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan Chengyuan

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available After giving a brief historical review of the political and economic relations between the People’s Republic of China and the European Union, the author focuses on the present state of these relations and on their future prospects. In this sense, the author highlights the good state of bilateral contacts and common ground between both geographical areas, mainly in their view of the current international context, post-September 11 and with China’s entry into the World Trade Organisation.

  17. Dietary pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) alters indicators of inflammation and mitochondrial-related metabolism in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Calliandra B; Chowanadisai, Winyoo; Mishchuk, Darya O; Satre, Mike A; Slupsky, Carolyn M; Rucker, Robert B

    2013-12-01

    Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) influences energy-related metabolism and neurologic functions in animals. The mechanism of action involves interactions with cell signaling pathways and mitochondrial function. However, little is known about the response to PQQ in humans. Using a crossover study design, 10 subjects (5 females, 5 males) ingested PQQ added to a fruit-flavored drink in two separate studies. In study 1, PQQ was given in a single dose (0.2 mg PQQ/kg). Multiple measurements of plasma and urine PQQ levels and changes in antioxidant potential [based on total peroxyl radical-trapping potential and thiobarbituric acid reactive product (TBAR) assays] were made throughout the period of 48 h. In study 2, PQQ was administered as a daily dose (0.3 mg PQQ/kg). After 76 h, measurements included indices of inflammation [plasma C-reactive protein, interleukin (IL)-6 levels], standard clinical indices (e.g., cholesterol, glucose, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, etc.) and (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance estimates of urinary metabolites related in part to oxidative metabolism. The standard clinical indices were normal and not altered by PQQ supplementation. However, dietary PQQ exposure (Study 1) resulted in apparent changes in antioxidant potential based on malonaldehyde-related TBAR assessments. In Study 2, PQQ supplementation resulted in significant decreases in the levels of plasma C-reactive protein, IL-6 and urinary methylated amines such as trimethylamine N-oxide, and changes in urinary metabolites consistent with enhanced mitochondria-related functions. The data are among the first to link systemic effects of PQQ in animals to corresponding effects in humans. © 2013.

  18. Relative Efficacy of Behavioral Interventions in Preschool Children Attending Head Start

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellone, Katherine M.; Dufrene, Brad A.; Tingstrom, Daniel H.; Olmi, D. Joe; Barry, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the relative efficacy of two interventions for children referred for consultation services due to problem behavior in the classroom. Teachers nominated children for participation due to frequent disruptive behaviors, such as inappropriate vocalizations and off-task behavior. Four Black males from 3 to 4 years old who attended…

  19. Subjective Poverty and Its Relation to Objective Poverty Concepts in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandori, Eszter Siposne

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyzes subjective poverty in Hungary and compares it to the objective poverty concepts. Subjective poverty is defined by examining who people consider to be poor. Based on the Easterlin paradox, the initial hypothesis states that subjective and absolute poverty concepts are highly correlated. Taking into account that Hungary is a…

  20. A long life in good health: subjective expectations regarding length and future health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappange, David R; Brouwer, Werner B F; van Exel, Job

    2016-06-01

    Subjective life expectancy is considered relevant in predicting mortality and future demand for health services as well as for explaining peoples' decisions in several life domains, such as the perceived impact of health behaviour changes on future health outcomes. Such expectations and in particular subjective expectations regarding future health-related quality of life remain understudied. The purpose of this study was to investigate individuals' subjective quality adjusted life years (QALYs) expectation from age 65 onwards in a representative sample of the Dutch generic public. A web-based questionnaire was administered to a sample of the adult population from the Netherlands. Information on subjective expectations regarding length and future health-related quality of life were combined into one single measure of subjective expected QALYs from age 65 onwards. This subjective QALY expectation was related to background, health and lifestyle variables. The implications of using different methods to construct our main outcome measure were addressed. Mean subjective expected QALYs from age 65 onwards was 11 QALYs (range -9 to 40 QALYs). Individuals with unhealthier lifestyles, chronic diseases, severe disorders or lower age of death of next of kin reported lower QALY expectations. Indicators were varyingly associated with either subjective life expectancy or future health-related quality of life, or both. Extending the concept of subjective life expectancy by correcting for expected quality of life appears to generate important additional information contributing to our understanding of people's perceptions regarding ageing and lifestyle choices.

  1. Relation between uric acid and metabolic syndrome in subjects with cardiometabolic risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Hellen Abreu da; Carraro, Júlia Cristina Cardoso; Bressan, Josefina; Hermsdorff, Helen Hermana Miranda

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify possible relations between serum uric acid levels and metabolic syndrome and its components in a population with cardiometabolic risk. Methods This cross-sectional study included 80 subjects (46 women), with mean age of 48±16 years, seen at the Cardiovascular Health Program. Results The prevalence of hyperuricemia and metabolic syndrome was 6.3% and 47.1%, respectively. Uric acid level was significantly higher in individuals with metabolic syndrome (5.1±1.6mg/dL), as compared to those with no syndrome or with pre-syndrome (3.9±1.2 and 4.1±1.3mg/dL, respectively; puric acid levels were significantly higher in men presenting abdominal obesity, and among women with abdominal obesity, lower HDL-c levels and higher blood pressure (pUric acid concentrations were positively related to the occurrence of metabolic syndrome and its components, and there were differences between genders. Our results indicate serum uric acid as a potential biomarker for patients with cardiometabolic risk.

  2. Head Nurse Leadership Style and Staff Nurse Job Satisfaction: Are They Related.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Bass, 1981). Zaleznik (1977) describes managers as those who view work as an enabling process involving some interaction of people and ideas to... Zaleznik views leaders striving to develop fresh approaches to long-standing problems and to open issues for new options. Vroom and Yetton have developed an...the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, Industrial Relations Center. Zaleznik , A. (1977, May-June). Managers

  3. Age-related changes of salivary IgA among healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayeda Fatima Khan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The major immunoglobulin present in mucosal secretions (e.g. saliva is secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA. The potential functions of this secretory IgA include prevention of microbial attachment to surfaces by agglutination, blockage of receptor-mediated attachment, and altering surface hydrophobicity. IgA in saliva is detected early in life as the mucosal immune system develops and the oral cavity is exposed to microbes that make up the normal ecology, as well as to potential pathogens. Lower concentration of IgA in saliva is associated with increased risk for periodontal disease and caries. The secretory IgA is the first line of defense against pathogens that invade the mucosal surfaces. The immune system exhibits profound changes with age and this fact has been well documented. Aims and Objectives: To investigate and re-confirm that salivary IgA concentration undergoes changes with advancing age, and further, to find if there is any probable difference in salivary IgA levels between men and women. Materials and Methods: Saliva samples were taken from 120 healthy subjects aged 1-60 years who were divided into the following age groups: 1-10 years, 11-20 years, 21-30 years, 31-40 years, 41-50 years, and 51-60 years. The salivary IgA concentrations were measured by use of single radial immune diffusion technique and analyzed using the paired and unpaired Student′s t-test, and coefficient test as appropriate, and P values of less than 0.5 were considered significant. Results: The mean salivary IgA levels showed significant changes in each decade of the subjects selected. The mean salivary IgA levels were significantly higher in adults than those observed in children. Conclusion: These results showed that the salivary IgA levels exhibit age-related changes.

  4. Slipping and holding minds: A psychosocial analysis of maternal subjectivity in relation to childhood disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Jessie

    2016-01-01

    Background This paper elucidates a methodological approach to interview text that tries to acknowledge the psychosocial nature of disability and thereby ensuring that empirical work in disability studies complements theoretical arguments already developed. Objectives The aim of this study is to outline a psychosocial conceptualisation of maternal subjectivity in relation to childhood disability and to apply this conceptualisation as an analytic tool to segments of an interview with a mother of a child with physical and developmental disabilities. Method Drawing on psychoanalysis and attachment literature alongside critical social psychology we take readers through the analysis of an interview extract with a particular mother. Through a fine grained analysis, we demonstrate the value of attending to the affective processes in and around the text rooted in the particular intersubjective exchange (‘here and how’) of the interview and the particular socio-historical context (‘there and then’) in which the mother, child and researcher are located. Findings The reading draws attention to discourses that position this particular mother and her children in particular ways while also pointing to investments in these discourses such that these discourses are not purely social but play affective functions. Conclusion This paper demonstrates the value of using multiple lenses to read the text, seeking to understand what is going on from within each lens (discursive/social, interpersonal, intrapsychic), while also seeking to disrupt this understanding as we take up the position of a different lens. This approach enables us to hold onto the complexity and locatedness of maternal subjectivity for mothers of children with disabilities. PMID:28730059

  5. Slipping and holding minds: A psychosocial analysis of maternal subjectivity in relation to childhood disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Saville Young

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper elucidates a methodological approach to interview text that tries to acknowledge the psychosocial nature of disability and thereby ensuring that empirical work in disability studies complements theoretical arguments already developed.Objectives: The aim of this study is to outline a psychosocial conceptualisation of maternal subjectivity in relation to childhood disability and to apply this conceptualisation as an analytic tool to segments of an interview with a mother of a child with physical and developmental disabilities.Method: Drawing on psychoanalysis and attachment literature alongside critical social psychology we take readers through the analysis of an interview extract with a particular mother. Through a fine grained analysis, we demonstrate the value of attending to the affective processes in and around the text rooted in the particular intersubjective exchange (‘here and how’ of the interview and the particular socio-historical context (‘there and then’ in which the mother, child and researcher are located.Findings: The reading draws attention to discourses that position this particular mother and her children in particular ways while also pointing to investments in these discourses such that these discourses are not purely social but play affective functions.Conclusion: This paper demonstrates the value of using multiple lenses to read the text, seeking to understand what is going on from within each lens (discursive/social, interpersonal, intrapsychic, while also seeking to disrupt this understanding as we take up the position of a different lens. This approach enables us to hold onto the complexity and locatedness of maternal subjectivity for mothers of children with disabilities.

  6. Subjective disease perception and symptoms of depression in relation to healthcare-seeking behaviour in patients with rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abram, Kristi; Silm, Helgi; Maaroos, Heidi-Ingrid; Oona, Marje

    2009-01-01

    Many patients with rosacea do not seek medical care. The aim of this study was to find predictors for healthcare-seeking behaviour among patients with rosacea. The study subjects were 70 consecutive patients attending a dermatologist (seekers) and 56 subjects with rosacea symptoms selected randomly from among the working population (non-seekers). All subjects completed an Estonian Mood Scale questionnaire, a screening instrument for depressive symptoms, and evaluated their subjective disease perception on a visual analogue scale (VAS). Multivariate analysis showed that the independent predictors for healthcare-seeking behaviour were VAS scores >5 and the presence of advanced forms of rosacea. Higher mean VAS scores were not related to severity of rosacea, but were associated with the presence of depressive symptoms among seekers. In conclusion, healthcare-seeking behaviour is associated with higher subjective disease perception. The presence of depressive symptoms is not related to severity of the disease, but to the subjective disease perception of rosacea patients.

  7. FDG-PET imaging in HIV-infected subjects: relation with therapy and immunovirological variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucignani, Giovanni; Orunesu, Eva [Neurological Institute Milan, Laboratory of Cellular Neurophysiology, IRCCS Foundation, Milan (Italy); Cesari, Miriam [Univ. of Milan (Italy). Dept. of Clinical Science; Marzo, Katia; Chiti, Arturo [IRCCS Humanitas, Milan (Italy). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Pacei, Michela [Milan Univ. (Italy). Lab. of Immunology; Bechi, Giulia [IRCCS Foundation, Milan (Italy). Lab. of Cellular Neurophysiology; Gori, Andrea [Univ. of Milan Biococca, Monza (Italy). Inst. of Infectious Disseases; Gaito, Sabrina [Milan Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Computer Science; Clerici, Mario [Milan Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Biomedical Sciences and Technologies

    2009-04-15

    To characterise tissue sites of immune activation and HIV replication we performed FDG-PET in ART-treated and ART-naive HIV-infected individuals. Specific aims were to establish whether HIV-infected patients can be differentiated on the basis of the detection of specific locations of viral replication, even in the presence of an apparently optimal immunovirological response to ART, and whether these FDG-PET findings can be related to immunovirological variables and AIDS history status. Patients were divided into five groups as follows: subgroup A1 (full responders, n=8): current ART treatment, CD4+ T lymphocytes >500/mL, viral load <50 copies/mL; subgroup A2 (full responders, n=5): same criteria as A-1, but with a previous history of AIDS; subgroup A3 (immunological non responders, n=5): current ART treatment, viral load <50 copies/mL, low CD4+ T lymphocytes (<200/mL); group B (virological non responders, n = 2): current ART treatment, CD4+ T lymphocytes around 500/mL, viral load >50,000 copies/mL; group C (ART-naive, n=5): no current or previous ART treatment, increased viral load. PET images revealed different patterns of FDG uptake. All ART-treated patients with either suppressed (<50 copies/mL; Group A) or high viremia (group B) showed a normal pattern of FDG uptake. On the contrary, the ART-naive subjects with high viraemia (group C) displayed multiple foci of increased glucose metabolism in the lymph nodes. In the ART-naive subjects, FDG uptake, apparently related to viraemia level, was observed in the upper torso mainly in the axillary nodes bilaterally in patients with viraemia below 100,000 copies/mL; in those with viraemia higher than 100,000 copies/mL, FDG uptake was also observed in the inguinal lymph nodes. The emergence, in our study, of a correlation between the percentage of CD8+/CD38+/RO+ T cells (well established markers of progression to AIDS independently of CD4+ T lymphocytes) and positive FDG-PET in ART-naive patients is a novel finding that

  8. The Radio-X-ray Relation in Cool Stars: Are We Headed Toward a Divorce?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbrich, J.; Wolk, S. J.; Güdel, M.; Benz, A.; Osten, R.; Linsky, J. L.; McLean, M.; Loinard, L.; Berger, E.

    2011-12-01

    This splinter session was devoted to reviewing our current knowledge of correlated X-ray and radio emission from cool stars in order to prepare for new large radio observatories such as the EVLA. A key interest was to discuss why the X-ray and radio luminosities of some cool stars are in clear breach of a correlation that holds for other active stars, the so-called Güdel-Benz relation. This article summarizes the contributions whereas the actual presentations can be accessed on the splinter website.

  9. 22 May 2012 - Turkey Minister of Health R. AKDAĞ signing the guest book with Head of International Relations Office F. Pauss.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2012-01-01

    CERN-HI-1205102 tirage 45 (from left to right) front row: T. Akyol, Hürriet (daily Newspaper) G. Unel, ATLAS Collaboration; Minister Akdag; Head of International Relations Office F. Pauss, CERN Adviser for Life Sciences M. Dosanjh back row:F. Gianotti, ATLAS Collaboration Spokesperson;S. Erhan, CMS Collaboration; International Relations Office Adviser T. Kurtyka.

  10. The impact of late treatment-toxicity on generic health-related quality of life in head and neck cancer patients after radiotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramaekers, Bram L. T.; Joore, Manuela A.; Grutters, Janneke P. C.; van den Ende, Piet; de Jong, Jos; Houben, Ruud; Lambin, Philippe; Christianen, Miranda; Beetz, Ivo; Pijls-Johannesma, Madelon; Langendijk, Johannes A.

    To examine the impact of late treatment-related xerostomia and dysphagia on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients after radiotherapy. A multi-center cross-sectional survey was performed. Patients with a follow-up of at least 6 months after curative

  11. Risk of maltreatment-related injury: a cross-sectional study of children under five years old admitted to hospital with a head or neck injury or fracture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Jonathan Lee

    Full Text Available To determine the predictive value and sensitivity of demographic features and injuries (indicators for maltreatment-related codes in hospital discharge records of children admitted with a head or neck injury or fracture.Population-based, cross sectional study.NHS hospitals in England.Children under five years old admitted acutely to hospital with head or neck injury or fracture.Hospital Episodes Statistics, 1997 to 2009.Maltreatment-related injury admissions, defined by ICD10 codes, were used to calculate for each indicator (demographic feature and/or type of injury: i the predictive value (proportion of injury admissions that were maltreatment-related; ii sensitivity (proportion of all maltreatment-related injury admissions with the indicator.Of 260,294 childhood admissions for fracture or head or neck injury, 3.2% (8,337 were maltreatment-related. With increasing age of the child, the predictive value for maltreatment-related injury declined but sensitivity increased. Half of the maltreatment-related admissions occurred in children older than one year, and 63% occurred in children with head injuries without fractures or intracranial injury.Highly predictive injuries accounted for very few maltreatment-related admissions. Protocols that focus on high-risk injuries may miss the majority of maltreated children.

  12. Effect of 1% Inspired CO2 During Head-Down Tilt on Ocular Structures, Cerebral Blood Flow, and Visual Acuity in Healthy Human Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurie, S. S.; Hu, X.; Lee, S. M. C.; Martin, D. S.; Phillips, T. R.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Smith, S. M.; Stenger, M. B.; Taibbi, G.; Zwart, S. R.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The cephalad fluid shift induced by microgravity has been hypothesized to elevate intracranial pressure (ICP) and contribute to the development of the visual impairment/intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome experienced by many astronauts during and after long-duration space flight. In addition, elevated ambient partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2) on the International Space Station (ISS) has also been hypothesized to contribute to the development of VIIP. We seek to determine if an acute, mild CO2 exposure, similar to that occurring on the ISS, combined with the cephalad fluid shift induced by head-down tilt will induce ophthalmic and ICP changes consistent with the VIIP syndrome.

  13. Analysis by computed tomography of bone changes in the mandibular head and mandibular fossa in relation to clinical findings in patients with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamamoto, Yoshioki; Nakajima, Tamio; Hayashi, Takafumi [Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Dentistry

    1994-12-01

    Bone changes in the mandibular head and mandibular fossa in 33 patients with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders were studied with axial computed tomography in relation to clinical findings to clarify possible factors leading to bone changes in this phenomenon. Bone changes of the mandibular head were observed in 45 (68%) of the 66 TMJs. The mandibular head was juxtaposed to the mandibular fossa in 13 (29%) of the 45 joints in centric occlusion and in 29 joints (64%) in the anterior position on CT, whereas the mandibular head with no pathological bone change was juxtaposed to the mandibular fossa in none of the 21 joints in centric occlusion and in only 1 joint (5%) in the anterior position. In the two groups of patients with and without juxtaposition of the mandibular head and mandibular fossa with bone changes, the incidence of the initial symptoms such as pain, crepitus, and difficulty in opening the mouth was increased compared with the symptoms at presentation. However, the former group had severer symptoms than the latter group. These findings suggest that bony degeneration of the TMJ is accelerated by juxtaposition of the head and fossa. (author).

  14. Signs and symptoms related to temporomandibular disorders--Follow-up of subjects with shortened and complete dental arches.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witter, D.J.; Kreulen, C.M.; Mulder, J.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess prevalence of cardinal signs and symptoms related to temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in subjects with shortened dental arches and to clarify the individual course of these signs and symptoms. METHODS: In this 9-year follow-up study, subjects with shortened dental arches (n=74)

  15. Health-related behaviors associated with subjective sleep insufficiency in Japanese workers: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Makoto; Odagiri, Keiichi; Mizuta, Isagi; Yamamoto, Makoto; Yamaga, Keiko; Hirano, Takako; Onoue, Kazue; Uehara, Akihiko

    2017-03-28

    Sleep disturbances are related to somatic and mental disorders, industrial accidents, absenteeism, and retirement because of disability. We aimed to identify health-related behaviors associated with subjective sleep insufficiency in Japanese workers. This cross-sectional study included 5,297 employees (mean age: 43.6±11.3 years; 4,039 men). Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify health-related behaviors associated with subjective sleep insufficiency. Overall, 28.2% of participants experienced subjective sleep insufficiency. There was a significant difference between the genders in the proportion of participants with subjective sleep insufficiency (male: 26.4%; female: 34.3%; psubjective sleep insufficiency. After stratifying by gender, age ≥40 years, not exercising regularly, and eating a late-evening or fourth meal were significantly associated with subjective sleep insufficiency in both genders. Not walking quickly, experiencing a weight change, and eating quickly were positively associated with subjective sleep insufficiency only for males. Females who did not engage in physical activity were more likely to have experienced subjective sleep insufficiency, but this relationship was not observed in males. The results indicated that certain health-related behaviors, specifically not exercising regularly and nocturnal eating habits, were associated with subjective sleep insufficiency in a group of Japanese workers.

  16. Examining the Relations between Subjective Social Class, Academics, and Well-Being in First-Generation College Student Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbow, Alexander James

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relations between aspects of subjective social class, academic performance, and subjective wellbeing in first-generation and veteran students. In recent years, both student veterans and first-generation students have become topics of interest for universities, counselors, and researchers, as they are…

  17. The Role of Personality in Relation to Gender Differences in School Subject Choices in Pre-University Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korpershoek, H.; Kuyper, H.; Van der Werf, M.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    Boys and girls to some extent differ in personality characteristics while they also prefer different school subjects in secondary education. This study has attempted to unravel the relations among gender, personality, and students' subject choices. The study was based on a sample of 1,740 9th grade

  18. Associations of Home and Classroom Environments with Head Start Children's Code-Related and Oral Language Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jisu; Schlieber, Marisa; Gregory, Bradley

    2017-01-01

    This study used data from the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES) 2009 4-year-old cohort to examine associations among family characteristics, home and classroom environments, and the emergent literacy skills of Head Start children. Results from hierarchical linear models suggest that both family and classroom contexts play a…

  19. Subject-specific increases in serum S-100B distinguish sports-related concussion from sports-related exertion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Kiechle

    Full Text Available The on-field diagnosis of sports-related concussion (SRC is complicated by the lack of an accurate and objective marker of brain injury.To compare subject-specific changes in the astroglial protein, S100B, before and after SRC among collegiate and semi-professional contact sport athletes, and compare these changes to differences in S100B before and after non-contact exertion.Longitudinal cohort study.From 2009-2011, we performed a prospective study of athletes from Munich, Germany, and Rochester, New York, USA. Serum S100B was measured in all SRC athletes at pre-season baseline, within 3 hours of injury, and at days 2, 3 and 7 post-SRC. Among a subset of athletes, S100B was measured after non-contact exertion but before injury. All samples were collected identically and analyzed using an automated electrochemiluminescent assay to quantify serum S100B levels.Forty-six athletes (30 Munich, 16 Rochester underwent baseline testing. Thirty underwent additional post-exertion S100B testing. Twenty-two athletes (16 Rochester, 6 Munich sustained a SRC, and 17 had S100B testing within 3 hours post-injury. The mean 3-hour post-SRC S100B was significantly higher than pre-season baseline (0.099±0.008 µg/L vs. 0.058±0.006 µg/L, p = 0.0002. Mean post-exertion S100B was not significantly different than the preseason baseline. S100B levels at post-injury days 2, 3 and 7 were significantly lower than the 3-hour level, and not different than baseline. Both the absolute change and proportional increase in S100B 3-hour post-injury were accurate discriminators of SRC from non-contact exertion without SRC (AUC 0.772 and 0.904, respectively. A 3-hour post-concussion S100B >0.122 µg/L and a proportional S100B increase of >45.9% over baseline were both 96.7% specific for SRC.Relative and absolute increases in serum S100B can accurately distinguish SRC from sports-related exertion, and may be a useful adjunct to the diagnosis of SRC.

  20. Tuning to the Positive: Age-Related Differences in Subjective Perception of Facial Emotion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochelle Picardo

    Full Text Available Facial expressions aid social transactions and serve as socialization tools, with smiles signaling approval and reward, and angry faces signaling disapproval and punishment. The present study examined whether the subjective experience of positive vs. negative facial expressions differs between children and adults. Specifically, we examined age-related differences in biases toward happy and angry facial expressions. Young children (5-7 years and young adults (18-29 years rated the intensity of happy and angry expressions as well as levels of experienced arousal. Results showed that young children-but not young adults-rated happy facial expressions as both more intense and arousing than angry faces. This finding, which we replicated in two independent samples, was not due to differences in the ability to identify facial expressions, and suggests that children are more tuned to information in positive expressions. Together these studies provide evidence that children see unambiguous adult emotional expressions through rose-colored glasses, and suggest that what is emotionally relevant can shift with development.

  1. Analysis of investigations and practice-related backgrounds of preschool educational program Head Start (USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.L. Kuzmishina

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to investigation of practice-related experience of preschool education abroad. It regards various aspects of preschool education and professional activities of educators in preschool educational settlements. The author analyzes the criteria of efficiency of preschool education as depending on duration of child education, preschoolers’ family backgrounds, peculiarities of family upbringing, professional quality of educators, professional and personal motivation of educators. The article touches upon the question of utilization of preschool educational programs for the purpose of diagnostics and intervention in case of child behavioral disorders. The article touches upon interrelations between child academic achievements, child self- regulation capacities and influence of parental close control on child self-dependence. Much attention is paid to the problem of social competence in present-day preschooler sand its development in preschool educational settlements. The conclusion, made in the article, states the importance of educator’s professional qualification and its influence on his/her professional efficiency and satisfaction.

  2. The relative influence of attitudes and subjective norms from childhood to adolescence: between-participant and within-participant analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trafimow, David; Brown, Jennie; Grace, Kristen; Thompson, Laura A; Sheeran, Paschal

    2002-01-01

    Children and adolescents (ages 8-16) were asked to indicate their behavioral intentions, attitudes, and subjective norms for 34 behaviors. Between-participant and within-participant analyses demonstrated that attitudes and subjective norms were good predictors of behavioral intentions both singly and in combination. In addition, attitudes generally were better predictors than were subjective norms both across behaviors and across participants. Most importantly, however, there were no differences in the relative importance of attitudes and subjective norms in predicting behavioral intentions across age groups.

  3. Urinary albumin excretion is related to cardiovascular risk indicators, not to flow-mediated vasodilation, in apparently healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diercks, GFH; Stroes, ESG; van Boven, AJ; van Roon, AM; Hillege, HL; de Jong, PE; Smit, AJ; Gans, ROB; Crijns, HJGM; Rabelink, TJ; van Gilst, WH

    Based on studies in diabetic and hypertensive populations it has been postulated that early endothelial dysfunction is the mechanism responsible for the increased cardiovascular risk in microalbuminuric Subjects. We evaluated the relation between microalbuminuria and endothelial dysfunction,

  4. Fasting Ghrelin Levels Are Decreased in Obese Subjects and Are Significantly Related With Insulin Resistance and Body Mass Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Papandreou

    2017-10-01

    CONCLUSION: Obese subjects have low fasting ghrelin levels that they are significantly related to insulin resistance and body mass index. More prospective studies are needed to establish the role of ghrelin in the pathogenesis of human obesity.

  5. Age-related different relationships between ectopic adipose tissues and measures of central obesity in sedentary subjects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guglielmi, Valeria; Maresca, Luciano; D'Adamo, Monica; Di Roma, Mauro; Lanzillo, Chiara; Federici, Massimo; Lauro, Davide; Preziosi, Paolo; Bellia, Alfonso; Sbraccia, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    ... (SAT) were simultaneously measured by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and related to waist circumference measurements and age in 32 sedentary subjects without cardiovascular disease (18 men; 14 women; mean age 48.5 ± 14 years...

  6. Unsupervised exercise in survivors of human papillomavirus related head and neck cancer: how many can go it alone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauml, Joshua; Kim, Jiyoung; Zhang, Xiaochen; Aggarwal, Charu; Cohen, Roger B; Schmitz, Kathryn

    2017-08-01

    Patients with human papillomavirus (HPV)-related head and neck cancer (HNC) have a better prognosis relative to other types of HNC, making survivorship an emerging and critical issue. Exercise is a core component of survivorship care, but little is known about how many survivors of HPV-related HNC can safely be advised to start exercising on their own, as opposed to needing further evaluation or supervised exercise. We utilized guidelines to identify health issues that would indicate value of further evaluation prior to being safely prescribed unsupervised exercise. We performed a retrospective chart review of 150 patients with HPV-related HNC to assess health issues 6 months after completing definitive therapy. Patients with at least one health issue were deemed appropriate to receive further evaluation prior to prescription for unsupervised exercise. We utilized logistic regression to identify clinical and demographic factors associated with the need for further evaluation, likely performed by outpatient rehabilitation clinicians. In this cohort of patients, 39.3% could safely be prescribed unsupervised exercise 6 months after completing definitive therapy. On multivariable regression, older age, BMI >30, and receipt of radiation were associated with an increased likelihood for requiring further evaluation or supervised exercise. Over half of patients with HPV-related HNC would benefit from referral to physical therapy or an exercise professional for further evaluation to determine the most appropriate level of exercise supervision, based upon current guidelines. Development of such referral systems will be essential to enhance survivorship outcomes for patients who have completed treatment.

  7. Sleep after mobile phone exposure in subjects with mobile phone-related symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowden, Arne; Akerstedt, Torbjörn; Ingre, Michael; Wiholm, Clairy; Hillert, Lena; Kuster, Niels; Nilsson, Jens P; Arnetz, Bengt

    2011-01-01

    Several studies show increases in activity for certain frequency bands (10-14 Hz) and visually scored parameters during sleep after exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. A shortened REM latency has also been reported. We investigated the effects of a double-blind radiofrequency exposure (884 MHz, GSM signaling standard including non-DTX and DTX mode, time-averaged 10 g psSAR of 1.4 W/kg) on self-evaluated sleepiness and objective EEG measures during sleep. Forty-eight subjects (mean age 28 years) underwent 3 h of controlled exposure (7:30-10:30 PM; active or sham) prior to sleep, followed by a full-night polysomnographic recording in a sleep laboratory. The results demonstrated that following exposure, time in Stages 3 and 4 sleep (SWS, slow-wave sleep) decreased by 9.5 min (12%) out of a total of 78.6 min, and time in Stage 2 sleep increased by 8.3 min (4%) out of a total of 196.3 min compared to sham. The latency to Stage 3 sleep was also prolonged by 4.8 min after exposure. Power density analysis indicated an enhanced activation in the frequency ranges 0.5-1.5 and 5.75-10.5 Hz during the first 30 min of Stage 2 sleep, with 7.5-11.75 Hz being elevated within the first hour of Stage 2 sleep, and bands 4.75-8.25 Hz elevated during the second hour of Stage 2 sleep. No pronounced power changes were observed in SWS or for the third hour of scored Stage 2 sleep. No differences were found between controls and subjects with prior complaints of mobile phone-related symptoms. The results confirm previous findings that RF exposure increased the EEG alpha range in the sleep EEG, and indicated moderate impairment of SWS. Furthermore, reported differences in sensitivity to mobile phone use were not reflected in sleep parameters.

  8. Examining Associations Between Effortful Control and Teacher-Child Relationships in Relation to Head Start Children's Socioemotional Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Sonya S; Morris, Amanda Sheffield

    2009-07-01

    The current project examined the unique and interactive relations of child effortful control and teacher-child relationships to low-income preschoolers' socioemotional adjustment. One hundred and forty Head Start children (77 boys and 63 girls), their parents, lead teachers, and teacher assistants participated in this study. Parents provided information on child effortful control, whereas lead teachers provided information on their relationships with students. Teacher assistants provided information on children's socioemotional adjustment (emotional symptoms, peer problems, conduct problems, prosocial behaviors) in the preschool classroom. Both teacher-child closeness and conflict were significantly related to low-income preschoolers' socioemotional adjustment (i.e., emotional symptoms, peer problems, conduct problems, and prosocial behaviors) in expected directions. In addition, teacher-child conflict was significantly associated with emotional symptoms and peer problems among children with low effortful control; however, teacher-child conflict was not significantly associated with socioemotional difficulties among children with high effortful control. Teacher-child closeness, on the other hand, was associated with fewer socioemotional difficulties regardless of children's level of effortful control. Results are discussed in terms of (a) the utility of intervention efforts focusing on promoting positive teacher-child interactions and enhancing child self-regulatory abilities and (b) the implications for children's socioemotional adjustment.

  9. Effect of 21-day head down bed rest on urine proteins related to endothelium: Correlations with changes in carbohydrate metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashirina, D.; Pastushkova, L.; Custaud, M. A.; Dobrokhotov, I.; Brzhozovsky, A.; Navasiolava, N.; Nosovsky, A.; Kononikhin, A.; Nikolaev, E.; Larina, I.

    2017-08-01

    We performed liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric study of the urine proteome in 8 healthy volunteers aged between 20 and 44 y.o. who have completed 21-day head-down bed rest. ANDSystem software which builds associative networks was used to identify the urinary proteins functionally related to the endothelium. We identified 7 endothelium-related biological processes, directly linked to 13 urine proteins. We performed manual annotation of the proteins which were the most important in terms of endothelial functions. Analysis of the correlations with biochemical variables revealed a positive correlation between fasting blood glucose and the following urine proteins: albumin, CD44 antigen, endothelial protein C receptor, mucin-1, osteopontin, receptor tyrosine kinase. As well, we found a positive correlation between HOMA-insulin resistance index and the following urine proteins: endothelial protein C receptor and syndecan-4. These results might suggest the involvement of above-mentioned proteins in glucose metabolism and their participation in the response to changes in blood glucose level.

  10. RELATION OF IDENTITY AND SUBJECTIVE PICTURE OF THE COURSE OF LIFE OF THE PERSONALITY AT TEENAGERS AND YOUNG MEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Yuryevich Kuzmin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the problem of relation between identity and subjective picture of a personality’s life line in subjects -adolescents and young people. In the course of theoretical analysis of the problem in native (Kulesh, Burovihina, Vechkanova and foreign sources the authors come to the conclusion that the type of the relation between identity and subjective picture of life line in the subjects of different age remains debatable. The empiric research was conducted on the sample of 150 subjects with the help of LifeLine by Cronic, SJeI-test bt Soldatova and Semantic differential methods. As a result the authors found out that there exists specific relation between identity and life line picture different in adolescents and young people. The higher the subjects-young people esteem themselves on the scales of Semantic differential method, the less attention they pay to their past. In general, it is typical for the subjects undergoing the crisis stages of identity forming and having low self-esteem to direct much attention to their past. And on the contrary, the subjects with mature, formed identity typically pay attention to their future.

  11. Subjective Performance Evaluations, Self-esteem, and Ego-threats in Principal-agent Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sebald, Alexander Christopher; Walzl, Markus

    find that agents sanction whenever the feedback of principals is below their subjective self-evaluations even if the agents' payoff is independent of the principals' feedback. Based on our experimental analysis we propose a principal-agent model with subjective performance evaluations that accommodates...

  12. Subject-specific increases in serum S-100B distinguish sports-related concussion from sports-related exertion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kiechle, Karin; Bazarian, Jeffrey J; Merchant-Borna, Kian; Stoecklein, Veit; Rozen, Eric; Blyth, Brian; Huang, Jason H; Dayawansa, Samantha; Kanz, Karl; Biberthaler, Peter

    2014-01-01

    .... To compare subject-specific changes in the astroglial protein, S100B, before and after SRC among collegiate and semi-professional contact sport athletes, and compare these changes to differences...

  13. Coordinates of Human Visual and Inertial Heading Perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Thomas Crane

    Full Text Available Heading estimation involves both inertial and visual cues. Inertial motion is sensed by the labyrinth, somatic sensation by the body, and optic flow by the retina. Because the eye and head are mobile these stimuli are sensed relative to different reference frames and it remains unclear if a perception occurs in a common reference frame. Recent neurophysiologic evidence has suggested the reference frames remain separate even at higher levels of processing but has not addressed the resulting perception. Seven human subjects experienced a 2s, 16 cm/s translation and/or a visual stimulus corresponding with this translation. For each condition 72 stimuli (360° in 5° increments were delivered in random order. After each stimulus the subject identified the perceived heading using a mechanical dial. Some trial blocks included interleaved conditions in which the influence of ±28° of gaze and/or head position were examined. The observations were fit using a two degree-of-freedom population vector decoder (PVD model which considered the relative sensitivity to lateral motion and coordinate system offset. For visual stimuli gaze shifts caused shifts in perceived head estimates in the direction opposite the gaze shift in all subjects. These perceptual shifts averaged 13 ± 2° for eye only gaze shifts and 17 ± 2° for eye-head gaze shifts. This finding indicates visual headings are biased towards retina coordinates. Similar gaze and head direction shifts prior to inertial headings had no significant influence on heading direction. Thus inertial headings are perceived in body-centered coordinates. Combined visual and inertial stimuli yielded intermediate results.

  14. Impaired cognitive performance in subjects with methamphetamine dependence during exposure to neutral versus methamphetamine-related cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolliver, Bryan K; Price, Kimber L; Baker, Nathaniel L; LaRowe, Steven D; Simpson, Annie N; McRae-Clark, Aimee L; Saladin, Michael E; DeSantis, Stacia M; Chapman, Elizabeth; Garrett, Margaret; Brady, Kathleen T

    2012-05-01

    Chronic methamphetamine abuse is associated with cognitive deficits that may impede treatment in methamphetamine-dependent patients. Exposure to methamphetamine-related cues can elicit intense craving in chronic users of the drug, but the effects of exposure to drug cues on cognitive performance in these individuals are unknown. This study assessed whether exposure to methamphetamine-related visual cues can elicit craving and/or alter dual task cognitive performance in 30 methamphetamine-dependent subjects and 30 control subjects in the laboratory. Reaction time, response errors, and inhibition errors were assessed on an auditory Go-No Go task performed by adult participants (total N = 60) while watching neutral versus methamphetamine-related video cues. Craving was assessed with the Within-Session Rating Scale modified for methamphetamine-dependent subjects. Exposure to methamphetamine-related cues elicited craving only in methamphetamine-dependent subjects. Even in the absence of methamphetamine cues, methamphetamine-dependent subjects exhibited slower reaction times and higher rates of both inhibition and response errors than control subjects did. Upon exposure to methamphetamine cues, rates of both response errors and inhibition errors increased significantly in methamphetamine-dependent subjects. Control subjects exhibited no increase in inhibition errors and only slightly increased rates of response errors upon exposure to methamphetamine cues. Response error rates, but not inhibition error rates or reaction times, during methamphetamine cue exposure were significantly associated with craving scores in methamphetamine-dependent subjects. Methamphetamine-dependent individuals exhibit cognitive performance deficits that are more pronounced during exposure to methamphetamine-related cues. Interventions that reduce cue reactivity may have utility in the treatment of methamphetamine dependence.

  15. Temporal dynamics of the face familiarity effect: bootstrap analysis of single-subject event-related potential data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Prieto, Esther; Pancaroglu, Raika; Dalrymple, Kirsten A; Handy, Todd; Barton, Jason J S; Oruc, Ipek

    2015-01-01

    Prior event-related potential studies using group statistics within a priori selected time windows have yielded conflicting results about familiarity effects in face processing. Our goal was to evaluate the temporal dynamics of the familiarity effect at all time points at the single-subject level. Ten subjects were shown faces of anonymous people or celebrities. Individual results were analysed using a point-by-point bootstrap analysis. While familiarity effects were less consistent at later epochs, all subjects showed them between 130 and 195 ms in occipitotemporal electrodes. However, the relation between the time course of familiarity effects and the peak latency of the N170 was variable. We concluded that familiarity effects between 130 and 195 ms are robust and can be shown in single subjects. The variability of their relation to the timing of the N170 potential may lead to underestimation of familiarity effects in studies that use group-based statistics.

  16. The Impact of Relative Poverty on Norwegian Adolescents’ Subjective Health: A Causal Analysis with Propensity Score Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Ivar Elstad

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies have revealed that relative poverty is associated with ill health, but the interpretations of this correlation vary. This article asks whether relative poverty among Norwegian adolescents is causally related to poor subjective health, i.e., self-reported somatic and mental symptoms. Data consist of interview responses from a sample of adolescents (N = 510 and their parents, combined with register data on the family’s economic situation. Relatively poor adolescents had significantly worse subjective health than non-poor adolescents. Relatively poor adolescents also experienced many other social disadvantages, such as parental unemployment and parental ill health. Comparisons between the relatively poor and the non-poor adolescents, using propensity score matching, indicated a negative impact of relative poverty on the subjective health among those adolescents who lived in families with relatively few economic resources. The results suggest that there is a causal component in the association between relative poverty and the symptom burden of disadvantaged adolescents. Relative poverty is only one of many determinants of adolescents’ subjective health, but its role should be acknowledged when policies for promoting adolescent health are designed.

  17. Subjective cognitive complaints and functional disability in patients with borderline personality disorder and their nonaffected first-degree relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruocco, Anthony C; Lam, Jaeger; McMain, Shelley F

    2014-06-01

    To examine the contributions of subjective cognitive complaints to functional disability in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and their nonaffected relatives. Patients with BPD (n = 26), their first-degree biological relatives (n = 17), and nonpsychiatric control subjects (n = 31) completed a self-report measure of cognitive difficulties and rated the severity of their functional disability on the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0. After accounting for group differences in age and severity of depressive symptoms, patients and relatives endorsed more inattention and memory problems than control subjects. Whereas probands reported greater disability than relatives and control subjects across all functional domains, relatives described more difficulties than control subjects in managing multiple life activities, including domestic activities and occupational and academic functioning, and participating in society. For both probands and relatives, inattention and memory problems were linked primarily to difficulties with life activities, independent of depression and other comorbid psychiatric disorders. Problems with inattention and forgetfulness may lead to difficulties carrying out activities of daily living and occupational or academic problems in patients with BPD, as well as their nonaffected first-degree relatives.

  18. Subjective Cognitive Complaints and Functional Disability in Patients With Borderline Personality Disorder and Their Nonaffected First-Degree Relatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruocco, Anthony C; Lam, Jaeger; McMain, Shelley F

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine the contributions of subjective cognitive complaints to functional disability in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and their nonaffected relatives. Method: Patients with BPD (n = 26), their first-degree biological relatives (n = 17), and nonpsychiatric control subjects (n = 31) completed a self-report measure of cognitive difficulties and rated the severity of their functional disability on the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0. Results: After accounting for group differences in age and severity of depressive symptoms, patients and relatives endorsed more inattention and memory problems than control subjects. Whereas probands reported greater disability than relatives and control subjects across all functional domains, relatives described more difficulties than control subjects in managing multiple life activities, including domestic activities and occupational and academic functioning, and participating in society. For both probands and relatives, inattention and memory problems were linked primarily to difficulties with life activities, independent of depression and other comorbid psychiatric disorders. Conclusions: Problems with inattention and forgetfulness may lead to difficulties carrying out activities of daily living and occupational or academic problems in patients with BPD, as well as their nonaffected first-degree relatives. PMID:25007408

  19. Cannabis-related working memory deficits and associated subcortical morphological differences in healthy individuals and schizophrenia subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew J; Cobia, Derin J; Wang, Lei; Alpert, Kathryn I; Cronenwett, Will J; Goldman, Morris B; Mamah, Daniel; Barch, Deanna M; Breiter, Hans C; Csernansky, John G

    2014-03-01

    Cannabis use is associated with working memory (WM) impairments; however, the relationship between cannabis use and WM neural circuitry is unclear. We examined whether a cannabis use disorder (CUD) was associated with differences in brain morphology between control subjects with and without a CUD and between schizophrenia subjects with and without a CUD, and whether these differences related to WM and CUD history. Subjects group-matched on demographics included 44 healthy controls, 10 subjects with a CUD history, 28 schizophrenia subjects with no history of substance use disorders, and 15 schizophrenia subjects with a CUD history. Large-deformation high-dimensional brain mapping with magnetic resonance imaging was used to obtain surface-based representations of the striatum, globus pallidus, and thalamus, compared across groups, and correlated with WM and CUD history. Surface maps were generated to visualize morphological differences. There were significant cannabis-related parametric decreases in WM across groups. Similar cannabis-related shape differences were observed in the striatum, globus pallidus, and thalamus in controls and schizophrenia subjects. Cannabis-related striatal and thalamic shape differences correlated with poorer WM and younger age of CUD onset in both groups. Schizophrenia subjects demonstrated cannabis-related neuroanatomical differences that were consistent and exaggerated compared with cannabis-related differences found in controls. The cross-sectional results suggest that both CUD groups were characterized by WM deficits and subcortical neuroanatomical differences. Future longitudinal studies could help determine whether cannabis use contributes to these observed shape differences or whether they are biomarkers of a vulnerability to the effects of cannabis that predate its misuse.

  20. Cannabis-Related Working Memory Deficits and Associated Subcortical Morphological Differences in Healthy Individuals and Schizophrenia Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Cannabis use is associated with working memory (WM) impairments; however, the relationship between cannabis use and WM neural circuitry is unclear. We examined whether a cannabis use disorder (CUD) was associated with differences in brain morphology between control subjects with and without a CUD and between schizophrenia subjects with and without a CUD, and whether these differences related to WM and CUD history. Subjects group-matched on demographics included 44 healthy controls, 10 subjects with a CUD history, 28 schizophrenia subjects with no history of substance use disorders, and 15 schizophrenia subjects with a CUD history. Large-deformation high-dimensional brain mapping with magnetic resonance imaging was used to obtain surface-based representations of the striatum, globus pallidus, and thalamus, compared across groups, and correlated with WM and CUD history. Surface maps were generated to visualize morphological differences. There were significant cannabis-related parametric decreases in WM across groups. Similar cannabis-related shape differences were observed in the striatum, globus pallidus, and thalamus in controls and schizophrenia subjects. Cannabis-related striatal and thalamic shape differences correlated with poorer WM and younger age of CUD onset in both groups. Schizophrenia subjects demonstrated cannabis-related neuroanatomical differences that were consistent and exaggerated compared with cannabis-related differences found in controls. The cross-sectional results suggest that both CUD groups were characterized by WM deficits and subcortical neuroanatomical differences. Future longitudinal studies could help determine whether cannabis use contributes to these observed shape differences or whether they are biomarkers of a vulnerability to the effects of cannabis that predate its misuse. PMID:24342821

  1. Experimental Study on Subjective Evaluation for Visual Information by Event-Related Potential: Evaluation of Food and its Appearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoshi Tanaka

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating subjective judgment for visual information by event-related potential (ERP quantitatively was studied. Pictures of food were displayed as visual information. And P300 component of the ERP was focused. The P300 is related to cognition and/or judgment, and has the latency in the range from 250 to 500 ms. As a fundamental study, the ERP was measured when subjectively judging food and its appearance by three-grade scale with the opinion “like”, “favorite” and “more favorite”. Sushi and cooked rice were selected as typical foods. And bottles which had almost the same shape without labels, but the colors were different, were used for an opinion test of the food appearance. Five pictures for each food were chosen by subjects before measurements. And no food which the subjects disliked was chosen because almost the same P300 amplitude appeared in both cases where the subjects judged as “like” and “dislike”. In results, the P300 amplitude by each subject's opinion was different, and the P300 area (surrounded by ERP waveform from the latency 250 to 500 ms became larger when the subjects judged as “more favorite”. These results indicate the feasibility of quantitative evaluation of subjective judgment by the ERP.

  2. A STUDY OF SOCIAL INTELLIGENCE AMONG COLLEGE STUDENTS IN RELATION TO THEIR SUBJECT STREAM IN GHADIABAD

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Snehlata; Triygee Narayan

    2013-01-01

    ... walks of life.The present study was conducted to know the social intelligence of male and female undergraduate students of science and Arts subject streams studying in various degree colleges of NCR region GZB...

  3. Relational identity and displacement. Nomadic subjectivity from contemporary art and philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    Feliu Fabra, Mireia

    2016-01-01

    In the contemporary globalization process context, access to dominant mobility today acts as a mark of social hierarchy and cultural homogenization. Nomadic subjectivity is conceived as a critical strategy that proposes a mobility based on experience, breaking with the centralized, normative and no-situated organization of modern tradition. From contemporary art and philosophy, as well as from an itinerant awareness, nomad subjectivity puts on movement certain concepts that were considered un...

  4. Subjective difficulties in young people related to extensive loud music listening

    OpenAIRE

    Budimčić Milenko; Ignjatović Snežana; Živić Ljubica

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. For human ear, noise represents every undesirable and valueless sound. In disco clubs, as in some other places with loud music mostly attended by young people, the level of noise sometimes attains over 100 dB. As reported by numerous studies, a high noise level could induce subjective difficulties (ear buzzing, audition loss, vertigo and palpitations, anxiety, high blood pressure, decreased concentration, lowered memory storing). Objective. Assessment of subjective difficulties ...

  5. Relations between contents from teaching subjects mathematics and physical and health education in primary education

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanova-Mitkovska, Snezana; Popeska, Biljana

    2015-01-01

    Considering modern educational tendency in the system of primary education that refers to the possibilities to establish integration - correlation relationships between educational contents from different teaching subjects in primary education, in this paper we made a theoretical elaboration of contents from two teaching subjects: math and physical and health education as an approach that allows efficient acquisition of knowledge and their efficient application in everyday life. The analyses ...

  6. Predictors of health-related quality of life in patients treated with neck dissection for head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gane, Elise M; McPhail, Steven M; Hatton, Anna L; Panizza, Benedict J; O'Leary, Shaun P

    2017-12-01

    Patients with head and neck cancer can report reduced health-related quality of life several years after treatment. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for reduced quality of life in patients up to 5 years following neck dissection. This cross-sectional study was conducted at two hospitals in Brisbane, Australia. Patients completed two measures of quality of life: the Neck Dissection Impairment Index (NDII), a region- and disease-specific tool, and the Assessment of Quality of Life-4 Domains, a general tool. Generalised linear modelling was used to determine which demographic and clinical variables were associated with quality of life. The cohort included n = 129 patients (71% male, median age 61, median 3 years since surgery). Positive nodal disease was associated with better quality of life on the NDII [e.g. N2 vs N0 coeff (95% CI) = 22.84 (7.33, 38.37)]. Worse quality of life was associated with adjuvant treatment [e.g. Independent Living domain model: surgery with chemoradiation vs surgery only coeff (95% CI) = -0.11 (-0.22, -0.01)]. Positive nodal disease was associated with better quality of life, which may be a reflection of response shift. Multimodality treatment leads to worse quality of life compared with surgery only.

  7. Porcine head response to blast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay eShridharani

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown an increase in the frequency of traumatic brain injuries related to blast exposure. However, the mechanisms that cause blast neurotrauma are unknown. Blast neurotrauma research using computational models has been one method to elucidate that response of the brain in blast, and to identify possible mechanical correlates of injury. However, model validation against experimental data is required to ensure that the model output is representative of in vivo biomechanical response. This study exposed porcine subjects to primary blast overpressures generated using a compressed-gas shock tube. Shock tube blasts were directed to the unprotected head of each animal while the lungs and thorax were protected using ballistic protective vests similar to those employed in theater. The test conditions ranged from 110-740 kPa peak incident overpressure with scaled durations from 1.3-6.9 ms and correspond approximately with a 50% injury risk for brain bleeding and apnea in a ferret model scaled to porcine exposure. The bulk head acceleration and the pressure at the surface of the head and in the cranial cavity were measured. Immediately after the blast, 5 of the 20 animals tested were apneic. Three subjects recovered without intervention within thirty seconds and the remaining two recovered within 8 minutes following bagging and administration of the respiratory stimulant doxapram. Gross examination of the brain revealed no indication of bleeding. Intracranial pressures ranged from 80-685 kPa as a result of the blast and were notably lower than the shock tube reflected pressures of 300-2830 kPa, indicating pressure attenuation by the skull up to a factor of 8.4. Peak head accelerations were measured from 385-3845 G’s and were well correlated with peak incident overpressure (R2=0.90. One standard deviation corridors for the surface pressure, intracranial pressure, and head acceleration are presented to provide experimental data for

  8. Adult Daughters' Influence on Mothers' Health-Related Decision Making: An Expansion of the Subjective Norms Construct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Pamela K.; Burke, Nancy J.; Joseph, Galen; Guerra, Claudia; Pasick, Rena J.

    2009-01-01

    This study of mother-adult daughter communication uses qualitative methods to explore the appropriateness of including adult daughters as referents in the measurement of subjective norms (a behavioral theory construct) related to the use of mammography and other health-related tests and services. The methods were chosen to approximate as closely…

  9. Association of Enjoyable Childhood Mealtimes with Adult Eating Behaviors and Subjective Diet-Related Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainuki, Tomomi; Akamatsu, Rie; Hayashi, Fumi; Takemi, Yukari

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study examined whether the experience of enjoyable mealtimes at home during childhood was related to eating behaviors and subjective diet-related quality of life in adulthood. Methods: The study used data (n = 2,936) obtained from a research program about "Shokuiku" (food and nutrition education) conducted by the Cabinet…

  10. Training-related brain plasticity in subjects at risk of developing Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belleville, Sylvie; Clément, Francis; Mellah, Samira; Gilbert, Brigitte; Fontaine, Francine; Gauthier, Serge

    2011-06-01

    Subjects with mild cognitive impairment are at risk of developing Alzheimer's disease. Cognitive stimulation is an emerging intervention in the field of neurology and allied sciences, having already been shown to improve cognition in subjects with mild cognitive impairment. Yet no studies have attempted to unravel the brain mechanisms that support such improvement. This study uses functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure the effect of memory training on brain activation in older adults with mild cognitive impairment and to assess whether it can reverse the brain changes associated with mild cognitive impairment. Brain activation associated with verbal encoding and retrieval was recorded twice prior to training and once after training. In subjects with mild cognitive impairment, increased activation was found after training within a large network that included the frontal, temporal and parietal areas. Healthy controls showed mostly areas of decreased activation following training. Comparison with pre-training indicated that subjects with mild cognitive impairment used a combination of specialized areas; that is, areas activated prior to training and new alternative areas activated following training. However, only activation of the right inferior parietal lobule, a new area of activation, correlated with performance. Furthermore, the differences between the brain activation patterns of subjects with mild cognitive impairment and those of healthy controls were attenuated by training in a number of brain regions. These results indicate that memory training can result in significant neural changes that are measurable with brain imaging. They also show that the brains of people with mild cognitive impairment remain highly plastic.

  11. Single-subject prediction of response inhibition behavior by event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Popescu, Florin; Neuhaus, Andres H; Beste, Christian

    2016-03-01

    Much research has been devoted to investigating response inhibition and the neuronal processes constituting this essential cognitive faculty. However, the nexus between cognitive subprocesses, behavior, and electrophysiological processes remains associative in nature. We therefore investigated whether neurophysiological correlates of inhibition subprocesses merely correlate with behavioral performance or actually provide information expedient to the prediction of behavior on a single-subject level. Tackling this question, we used different data-driven classification approaches in a sample of n = 262 healthy young subjects who completed a standard Go/Nogo task while an EEG was recorded. On the basis of median-split response inhibition performance, subjects were classified as "accurate/slow" and "less accurate/fast." Even though these behavioral group differences were associated with significant amplitude variations in classical electrophysiological correlates of response inhibition (i.e., N2 and P3), they were not predictive for group membership on a single-subject level. Instead, amplitude differences in the Go-P2 originating in the precuneus (BA7) were shown to predict group membership on a single-subject level with up to 64% accuracy. These findings strongly suggest that the behavioral outcome of response inhibition greatly depends on the amount of cognitive resources allocated to early stages of stimulus-response activation during responding. This suggests that research should focus more on early processing steps during responding when trying to understand the origin of interindividual differences in response inhibition processes. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Self-related and other-related pathways to subjective well-being in Japan and the United States.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Novin, S.; Tso, I.F.; Konrath, S.

    2013-01-01

    Cross-cultural comparisons demonstrate that subjective well-being (SWB) is rated lower among East Asian than Western individuals. Regardless of such cultural differences, however, factors that predict SWB among people from various cultures may be similar. In the current study we demonstrate the

  13. Cam deformity and the omega angle, a novel quantitative measurement of femoral head-neck morphology: a 3D CT gender analysis in asymptomatic subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mascarenhas, Vasco V.; Gaspar, Augusto [Hospital da Luz, MSK imaging Unit (UIME), Imaging Center, Lisbon (Portugal); Rego, Paulo [Hospital da Luz, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Lisbon (Portugal); Dantas, Pedro [Hospital CUF Descobertas, Lisbon (Portugal); Soldado, Francisco [Universitat de Barcelona, Hospital Sant Joan de Deu, Barcelona (Spain); Consciencia, Jose G. [NOVA Medical School, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2017-05-15

    Our objectives were to use 3D computed tomography (CT) to define head-neck morphologic gender-specific and normative parameters in asymptomatic individuals and use the omega angle (Ω ) to provide quantification data on the location and radial extension of a cam deformity. We prospectively included 350 individuals and evaluated 188 asymptomatic hips that underwent semiautomated CT analysis. Different thresholds of alpha angle (α ) were considered in order to analyze cam morphology and determine Ω . We calculated overall and gender-specific parameters for imaging signs of cam morphology (Ω and circumferential α ). The 95 % reference interval limits were beyond abnormal thresholds found in the literature for cam morphology. Specifically, α at 3/1 oclock were 46.9 /60.8 overall, 51.8 /65.4 for men and 45.7 /55.3 for women. Cam prevalence, magnitude, location, and epicenter were significantly gender different. Increasing α correlated with higher Ω , meaning that higher angles correspond to larger cam deformities. Hip morphometry measurements in this cohort of asymptomatic individuals extended beyond current thresholds used for the clinical diagnosis of cam deformity, and α was found to vary both by gender and measurement location. These results suggest that α measurement is insufficient for the diagnosis of cam deformity. Enhanced morphometric evaluation, including 3D imaging and Ω , may enable a more accurate diagnosis. (orig.)

  14. Quantifying the Dynamics of Field Cancerization in Tobacco-Related Head and Neck Cancer: A Multiscale Modeling Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryser, Marc D; Lee, Walter T; Ready, Neal E; Leder, Kevin Z; Foo, Jasmine

    2016-12-15

    High rates of local recurrence in tobacco-related head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) are commonly attributed to unresected fields of precancerous tissue. Because they are not easily detectable at the time of surgery without additional biopsies, there is a need for noninvasive methods to predict the extent and dynamics of these fields. Here, we developed a spatial stochastic model of tobacco-related HNSCC at the tissue level and calibrated the model using a Bayesian framework and population-level incidence data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registry. Probabilistic model analyses were performed to predict the field geometry at time of diagnosis, and model predictions of age-specific recurrence risks were tested against outcome data from SEER. The calibrated models predicted a strong dependence of the local field size on age at diagnosis, with a doubling of the expected field diameter between ages at diagnosis of 50 and 90 years, respectively. Similarly, the probability of harboring multiple, clonally unrelated fields at the time of diagnosis was found to increase substantially with patient age. On the basis of these findings, we hypothesized a higher recurrence risk in older than in younger patients when treated by surgery alone; we successfully tested this hypothesis using age-stratified outcome data. Further clinical studies are needed to validate the model predictions in a patient-specific setting. This work highlights the importance of spatial structure in models of epithelial carcinogenesis and suggests that patient age at diagnosis may be a critical predictor of the size and multiplicity of precancerous lesions. Cancer Res; 76(24); 7078-88. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. Endogenous incretin hormone augmentation of acute insulin secretion in normoglycemic relatives of type 2 diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alford, Frank P; Rantzau, Christian; Henriksen, Jan-Erik

    2014-01-01

    were calculated in 19 REL and 18 CON subjects by cross-correlation linear regression slope analyses of the OGTT (0-30 min) matched insulin/glucose profiles vs the early (0-5 min) and delayed (10-30 min) IVGTT profiles. RESULTS: At 0 year, REL and CON IGIOGTT and IGIIVGTT were similar, but the REL 2...... glucose and a reduced IVGTT insulin/glucose slope, but the RELDGT IHA was similar to normoglycemic REL (RELNGT) and CON. By 10 years, RELDGT OGTT insulin/glucose slopes were reduced (P = .03-.01), but more so for the early (P slopes, compared...... to the normoglycaemic REL and CON subjects. CONCLUSIONS: IHA on acute insulin release is maintained in normoglycemic REL and CON subjects over 10 years. The apparent deterioration in IHA in RELDGT is consistent with a progressive failure of acute β-cell function over 10 years....

  16. Significant differe nces in demographic, clinical, and pathological features in relation to smoking and alcohol consumption among 1,633 head and neck cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Ajub Moyses

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: As a lifestyle-related disease, social and cultural disparities may influence the features of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck in different geographic regions. We describe demographic, clinical, and pathological aspects of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck according to the smoking and alcohol consumption habits of patients in a Brazilian cohort. METHODS: We prospectively analyzed the smoking and alcohol consumption habits of 1,633 patients enrolled in five São Paulo hospitals that participated in the Brazilian Head and Neck Genome Project - Gencapo. RESULTS: The patients who smoked and drank were younger, and those who smoked were leaner than the other patients, regardless of alcohol consumption. The non-smokers/non-drinkers were typically elderly white females who had more differentiated oral cavity cancers and fewer first-degree relatives who smoked. The patients who drank presented significantly more frequent nodal metastasis, and those who smoked presented less-differentiated tumors. CONCLUSIONS: The patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck demonstrated demographic, clinical, and pathological features that were markedly different according to their smoking and drinking habits. A subset of elderly females who had oral cavity cancer and had never smoked or consumed alcohol was notable. Alcohol consumption seemed to be related to nodal metastasis, whereas smoking correlated with the degree of differentiation.

  17. Head Start in Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Clara M. D.; Epps, Frances M. J.

    Records and observations from a summer Head Start program, conducted in Los Angeles by Delta Sigma Theta, are delineated in this book. It relates firsthand experiences of the participating personnel as they developed and implemented a Head Start program for some 300 children. The book is divided into three sections. Section I,…

  18. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... content. Related Articles and Media MR Angiography (MRA) Magnetic Resonance, Functional (fMRI) - Brain Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Brain Tumor Treatment Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety Alzheimer's Disease Head Injury Brain ...

  19. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Articles and Media MR Angiography (MRA) Magnetic Resonance, Functional (fMRI) - Brain Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Brain Tumor Treatment Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety Alzheimer's Disease Head Injury Brain Tumors Images related to ...

  20. Enthesitis in patients with psoriatic arthritis, axial spondyloarthritis and healthy subjects assessed by ‘head-to-toe’ whole-body MRI and clinical examination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poggenborg, René Panduro; Eshed, Iris; Østergaard, Mikkel

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the ability of whole-body MRI (WBMRI) to detect axial and peripheral enthesitis in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA), and in healthy subjects (HS). Furthermore, to develop MRI enthesitis indices based on WBMRI and validate...... and patient global (ρ=0.29-0.31, pimaging modality for evaluation of enthesitis in patients with PsA and axSpA, but requires further investigation before clinical use....

  1. Talking off the top of your head: toward a mental prosthesis utilizing event-related brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farwell, L A; Donchin, E

    1988-12-01

    This paper describes the development and testing of a system whereby one can communicate through a computer by using the P300 component of the event-related brain potential (ERP). Such a system may be used as a communication aid by individuals who cannot use any motor system for communication (e.g., 'locked-in' patients). The 26 letters of the alphabet, together with several other symbols and commands, are displayed on a computer screen which serves as the keyboard or prosthetic device. The subject focuses attention successively on the characters he wishes to communicate. The computer detects the chosen character on-line and in real time. This detection is achieved by repeatedly flashing rows and columns of the matrix. When the elements containing the chosen character are flashed, a P300 is elicited, and it is this P300 that is detected by the computer. We report an analysis of the operating characteristics of the system when used with normal volunteers, who took part in 2 experimental sessions. In the first session (the pilot study/training session) subjects attempted to spell a word and convey it to a voice synthesizer for production. In the second session (the analysis of the operating characteristics of the system) subjects were required simply to attend to individual letters of a word for a specific number of trials while data were recorded for off-line analysis. The analyses suggest that this communication channel can be operated accurately at the rate of 0.20 bits/sec. In other words, under the conditions we used, subjects can communicate 12.0 bits, or 2.3 characters, per min.

  2. Fat distribution of overweight persons in relation to morbidity and subjective health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seidell, J C; Bakx, J C; De Boer, E; Deurenberg, P.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.

    1985-01-01

    The association between fat distribution, morbidity and subjective health was studied in 95 overweight adult men and 210 overweight adult women. Retrospective morbidity data were taken from a continuous morbidity registration made by general practitioners over a period of maximally 17 years. In

  3. How Is Gender Self-Confidence Related to Subjective Well-Being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Rose Marie

    2006-01-01

    This study of ethnically diverse participants explored the relationship of gender self-confidence to subjective well-being. The 2 components of gender self-confidence (gender self-definition and gender self-acceptance) were assessed using the Hoffman Gender Scale (R. M. Hoffman, 1996; R. M. Hoffman, L. D. Borders, & J. A. Hattie, 2000). The…

  4. Visceral fat accumulation in obese subjects : relation to energy expenditure and response to weight loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenen, R; van der Kooy, K; Deurenberg, P.; Seidell, J C; Weststrate, J A; Schouten, F J; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.

    1992-01-01

    Seventy-eight healthy obese subjects, 40 premenopausal women and 38 men aged 27-51 yr received a 4.2 MJ/day energy-deficit diet for 13 wk. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) and diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) were measured by indirect calorimetry. Abdominal subcutaneous and visceral fat areas were

  5. The relation between postural stability and weight distribution in healthy subjects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anker, L.C.; Weerdesteijn, V.G.M.; Nes, I.J.W. van; Nienhuis, B.; Straatman, H.; Geurts, A.C.H.

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of the effects of leg-loading asymmetry on postural control and control asymmetry during quiet upright standing in healthy young and middle-aged subjects is necessary before these relationships in patients with lateralized disorders can be assessed and understood. A posturographic

  6. Characterizing the Vertical Distribution of Hydraulic Conductivity Using the Multilevel Slug Test Subject to Skin Effects: Comparison of the Uniform-head and Uniform-flux Wellbore Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    wei-Chiang, C.; Chen, C. S.

    2016-12-01

    The multilevel slug test (MLST) is an in-well technique in characterizing the vertical distribution of hydraulic conductivity K(z) in granular or fractured formations. In modeling MLST, the well screen is either simulated as a uniform-flux (UF) or a uniform head (UH) condition. This study investigates the impact of the skin effect, positive or negative, on the UH and UF models. The positive skin effect, as associated with a reduced hydraulic conductivity surrounding the well due to drilling mud invasion, is taken into account by making use of a skin factor, Sk.The negative skin effect, as associated with an increased hydraulic conductivity due to overdeveloping of the well, is modeled by using an effective well radius, re, which is greater than or equal to the well radius, rw. The UF and UH models are compared using different values of Sk and re for a variety of the partial penetration ratio of screen length to aquifer thickness, φ, the vertical anisotropy ratio of hydraulic conductivity, κ, and the aspect ratio of rw to the screen length, α. It is found that (1) the two models yield results of negligible difference when the well fully penetrates the aquifer (i.e., φ=1) regardless of the values of α,κ, Sk or re, (2) the two models yield essentially the same results for negative skin for all α and κ, (3) the difference between the two models decreases as Sk gets larger, regardless of the values of α, φ, or κ, yet it becomes negligible for Sk is greater than unity, and (4) when the skin effect is absent, the maximum difference between the two models is within 3-5%. As a result, it is suggested the UF model be used since it is mathematically easier to solve than the UH model, with or without skin effects.

  7. Measured adiposity in relation to head and neck cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Heather A; Wark, Petra A; Muller, David C; Steffen, Annika; Johansson, Mattias; Norat, Teresa; Gunter, Marc J; Overvad, Kim; Dahm, Christina C; Halkjær, Jytte; Tjønneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Mesrine, Sylvie; Brennan, Paul; Freisling, Heinz; Li, Kuanrong; Kaaks, Rudolf; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Panico, Salavatore; Grioni, Sara; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Palli, Domenico; Peeters, Petra HM; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.Bas.; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Agudo, Antonio; Quirós, Jose Ramón; Larrañaga, Nerea; Ardanaz, Eva; Huerta, José María; Sánchez, María-José; Laurell, Göran; Johansson, Ingegerd; Westin, Ulla; Wallström, Peter; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Wareham, Nicholas J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Pearson, Clare

    2017-01-01

    Background Emerging evidence from cohort studies indicates that adiposity is associated with greater incidence of head and neck cancer (HNC). However, most studies have used self-reported anthropometry which is prone to error. Methods Among 363 094 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study (EPIC) with measured anthropometry, there were 837 incident cases of HNC. HNC risk was examined in relation to body mass index (BMI) [lean: < 22.5 kg/m2, normal weight (reference): 22.5-24.9 kg/m2, overweight 25-29.9 kg/m2, obese: ≥ 30 kg/m2], waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC) and waist to hip ratio (WHR) using Cox proportional hazards models. Results Among men, a BMI < 22.5 kg/m2 was associated with higher HNC risk [hazard ratio (HR) 1.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.23 – 2.12)]; BMI was not associated with HNC among women. WC and WHR were associated with greater risk of HNC among women, (WC per 5 cm: HR 1.08, 95% CI 1.02 – 1.15; WHR per 0.1 unit: HR 1.64, 95% CI 1.38 – 1.93). After stratification by smoking status, the association for WHR was present only among smokers (p interaction 0.004). Among men, WC and WHR were associated with HNC only upon additional adjustment for BMI (WC per 5 cm: HR 1.16, 95% CI 1.07 – 1.26; WHR per 0.1 unit: HR 1.42, 95% CI 1.21 – 1.65). Conclusion Central adiposity, particularly among women, may have a stronger association with HNC risk than previously estimated. Impact Strategies to reduce obesity may beneficially impact HNC incidence. PMID:28183827

  8. The Effect of Eight Weeks of Global Postural Corrective Exercises on Kyphosis and Forward Head Angle in Elderly Women with Age-Related Hyperkyphosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnaz Bahrekazemi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies reported that, thoracic Hyperkyphosis may have negative effects in health status and postures of elderly women. The aim or current research was to evaluate the effect of eight weeks of global postural corrective exercises on kyphosis and forward head angle in elderly women with age-related hyperkyphosis. The mean age, height, and weight of the experimental group (n=16 were 68.5 years, 151.6 cm, and 55.4 kg respectively, whereas the values in the control group (n=16 were 69.1 years, 154.3 cm, and 54.6 kg, respectively, with no statistical differences between the groups. Forward head posture was measured lateral view photogrammetry and also thoracic kyphosis was measured using 2 gravity-dependent inclinometers placed over the spinal processes of T1 and T2 and over the T12 and L1 vertebrae before and after 8 weeks global postural corrective exercises. Results indicated that global postural corrective exercises significantly improved thoracic kyphosis (p=0.002 and forward head angle (p=0.003. It is concluded that the global postural corrective exercises developed in the present study can be recommended for improving the hyperkyphosis and forward head postures through specialized exercises focused on global postural corrective exercises in elderly women with age-related hyperkyphosis.

  9. Snow sports related head and spinal injuries: an eight-year survey from the neurotrauma centre for the Snowy Mountains, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, T L T; Chandran, K N; Newcombe, R L; Fuller, J W; Pik, J H T

    2004-04-01

    Neurotrauma from snow-sports related injuries is infrequently documented in the literature. In Australia no collective data has ever been published. The aim of this study is to document the injury pattern of snow sports related neurotrauma admissions to The Canberra Hospital, the regional trauma centre for the Snowy Mountains. A computerised hospital record search conducted between January 1994 and July 2002 revealed 25 head and 66 spinal injury admissions. The incidence of severe injuries requiring referral to tertiary trauma hospital was estimated to be 7.4 per 100,000 skier-days and for head and spinal injury 1.8 per 1,000,000 skier-days and 5.6 per 1,000,000 skier-days, respectively. Collision with a stationary object was disproportionately associated with head injury ( [Formula: see text] ) and falling forward with spinal injury ( [Formula: see text] ). Snowboarders tended to sustain cervical fractures more often than skiers ( [Formula: see text] ). The importance of helmet usage in buffering the impact of head-on collision and the proposition of having both feet fastened to a snowboard in leading to cervical injury were highlighted.

  10. Piloting a deceased subject integrated data repository and protecting privacy of relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huser, Vojtech; Kayaalp, Mehmet; Dodd, Zeyno A; Cimino, James J

    2014-01-01

    Use of deceased subject Electronic Health Records can be an important piloting platform for informatics or biomedical research. Existing legal framework allows such research under less strict de-identification criteria; however, privacy of non-decedent must be protected. We report on creation of the decease subject Integrated Data Repository (dsIDR) at National Institutes of Health, Clinical Center and a pilot methodology to remove secondary protected health information or identifiable information (secondary PxI; information about persons other than the primary patient). We characterize available structured coded data in dsIDR and report the estimated frequencies of secondary PxI, ranging from 12.9% (sensitive token presence) to 1.1% (using stricter criteria). Federating decedent EHR data from multiple institutions can address sample size limitations and our pilot study provides lessons learned and methodology that can be adopted by other institutions.

  11. The interaction of subjective experience and attitudes towards specific antipsychotic-related adverse effects in schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischel, T; Krivoy, A; Kotlarov, M; Zemishlany, Z; Loebstein, O; Jacoby, H; Weizman, A

    2013-08-01

    Discontinuation of antipsychotic drugs in schizophrenia patients is a major concern, since it results in relapse and re-hospitalizations. Non-adherence is strongly associated with negative-subjective response to antipsychotics, which is composed of the subjective experience of negative drug effects and attitude towards the treatment. To investigate the elements of subjective experience and subjective attitude towards specific drug-related adverse effects, leading to a generally negative-subjective attitude towards antipsychotics. Schizophrenia inpatients (n=84) were administered a questionnaire measuring attitude and experience on eight subscales: weight gain, sedation, sexual anhedonia, extra-pyramidal syndrome, affective flattening, excessive sleep, diminished sociability and metabolic syndrome. DAI-30 was used to measure attitude towards drugs, and PANSS to assess psychopathology. Weak correlation was found between subjective experience and attitude on most of the subscales. The only strong, albeit inverse, correlation between experience and attitude that was found was with regard to affective flattening, experienced by 37% of the sample, and it also predicted negative drug attitude as measured by the DAI-30, RR: 1.87 (95% CI: 1.06-3.3, df=1, χ(2)=4.525, Pattitude towards most adverse drug effects did not correlate with personal experience. Drug-related affective flattening should be evaluated routinely, since experiencing it may predict negative attitude towards drugs, potentially leading to poor compliance and relapse. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. The level of job satisfaction and its relation to midwives' subjective quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Babiarczyk

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to the so called Transactional Model of Quality of Life, job satisfaction is a part of subjective well-being. The aim of this study was to explore the relationships between professional commitment, expressed as job satisfaction or dissatisfaction, consideration of leaving the profession or/and workplace, and subjective assessment of well-being among midwives working at hospitals. Materials and Methods: The study was a part of the international research project, coordinated by the University of Ostrava. The group of respondents consisted of 176 midwives working at selected hospitals in the Silesian region. The study was conducted using the method of diagnostic survey, questionnaire techniques and standardized research tools, such as McCloskey/Mueller Satisfaction Scale (MMSS, Personal Wellbeing Index-Adult (PWI-A and Subjective Emotional Habitual Wellbeing Scale (SEHP. Results: The overall midwives' job satisfaction was found to be at a medium level. Respondents less satisfied with various aspects of work (interaction, co-workers, professional opportunities, praise/recognition, control/responsibility and life (standard of living and achievements in life were significantly more often considering changing their jobs. Dissatisfaction with the extrinsic rewards (salary, vacation, benefits package had additionally influenced the frequency of considering changing the profession. The respondents were characterized by much lower sense of present and future security than that observed in Western countries, as well as by low satisfaction with standard of living and feeling part of the society. Conclusions: Job satisfaction and subjective well-being remain in strong relationship, and although it is difficult to determine the direction of these relationships, they seem to have a significant impact on each other. Med Pr 2014;65(1:99–108

  13. Characterizing “fibrofog”: Subjective appraisal, objective performance, and task-related brain activity during a working memory task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Walitt

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The subjective experience of cognitive dysfunction (“fibrofog” is common in fibromyalgia. This study investigated the relation between subjective appraisal of cognitive function, objective cognitive task performance, and brain activity during a cognitive task using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Sixteen fibromyalgia patients and 13 healthy pain-free controls completed a battery of questionnaires, including the Multiple Ability Self-Report Questionnaire (MASQ, a measure of self-perceived cognitive difficulties. Participants were evaluated for working memory performance using a modified N-back working memory task while undergoing Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD fMRI measurements. Fibromyalgia patients and controls did not differ in working memory performance. Subjective appraisal of cognitive function was associated with better performance (accuracy on the working memory task in healthy controls but not in fibromyalgia patients. In fibromyalgia patients, increased perceived cognitive difficulty was positively correlated with the severity of their symptoms. BOLD response during the working memory task did not differ between the groups. BOLD response correlated with task accuracy in control subjects but not in fibromyalgia patients. Increased subjective cognitive impairment correlated with decreased BOLD response in both groups but in different anatomic regions. In conclusion, “fibrofog” appears to be better characterized by subjective rather than objective impairment. Neurologic correlates of this subjective experience of impairment might be separate from those involved in the performance of cognitive tasks.

  14. Age-related MRI changes at 0. 1 T in cervical discs in asymptomatic subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehto, I.J. (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Turku Univ. (Finland)); Tertti, M.O. (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Turku Univ. (Finland)); Komu, M.E. (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Turku Univ. (Finland)); Paajanen, H.E.K. (Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery, Tampere Univ. Hospital (Finland)); Tuominen, J. (Dept. of Biostatistics, Turku Univ. (Finland)); Kormano, M.J. (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Turku Univ. (Finland))

    1994-01-01

    The age-dependent occurrence of cervical degenerative changes was studies using 0.1 T MRI in 89 asymptomatic volunteers aged 9 to 63 years. The degree of DD (disc darkening on T2[sup *]-weighted images), disc protrusions and prolapses, narrowing of disc spaces, dorsal osteophytes and spinal canal stenosis were assessed. Abnormalities were commoner in older subjects, 62% of being seen in those over 40 years old. In subjects aged less than 30 years there were virtually no abnormalities. DD was the most common abnormality, seen in 10% of discs; 57% DD was in subjects aged over 40. DD at the C5/6 level was the most common finding. No differences in abnormal findings between males and females was observed, nor any statistically significant association between DD and other abnormalities. Thus, DD begins later age in the cervical spine than in the lumbar region. Asymptomatic degenerative changes are common on MRI in the cervical spine after 30 years of age. (orig.)

  15. Glycemic markers and relation with arterial stiffness in Caucasian subjects of the MARK study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Gomez-Sanchez

    Full Text Available Effect of prediabetes and normal glucose on arterial stiffness remains controversial. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of fasting plasma glucose (FPG, postprandial glucose (PG and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c with brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV and cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI in Caucasian adults. The secondary aim was to analyse this relationship by glycaemic status.Cross-sectional study. Setting: Primary care. Participants: 2,233 subjects, 35-74 years. Measures: FPG (mg/dL and HbA1c (% of all subjects were measured using standard automated enzymatic methods. PG (mg/dL was self-measured at home two hours after meals (breakfast, lunch and dinner for one day using an Accu-chek ® glucometer. CAVI was measured using a VaSera VS-1500® device (Fukuda Denshi, and baPWV was calculated using a validated equation.CAVI and baPWV values were significantly higher in subjects with diabetes mellitus than in glucose normal and prediabetes groups (p<0.001. FPG, PG and HbA1c were positively associated with CAVI and baPWV. The β regression coefficient for: HbA1c was 0.112 (CI 95% 0.068 to 0.155 with CAVI, 0.266 (CI 95% 0.172 to 0.359 with baPWV; for PG was 0.006 (CI 95% 0.004 to 0.009 and for FPG was 0.005 (CI 95% 0.002 to 0.008 with baPWV; and for PG was 0.002 (CI 95% 0.001 to 0.003 and 0.003 (CI 95% 0.002 to 0.004 with CAVI (p<0.01 in all cases. When analysing by hyperglycaemic status, FPG, PG and HbA1c were positively associated with CAVI and baPWV in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus.FPG, PG and HbA1c show a positive association with CAVI and baPWV, in Caucasian adults with intermediate cardiovascular risk factors. When analysing by hyperglycaemic status, the association is only maintained in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus.Clinical Trials.gov Identifier: NCT01428934. Registered 2 September 2011. Retrospectively registered. Last updated September 8, 2016.

  16. Effect of Time Management Program on Job Satisfaction for Head Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsabahy, Hanan ELsayed; Sleem, Wafaa Fathi; El Atroush, Hala Gaber

    2015-01-01

    Background: Time management and job satisfaction all related to each other and greatly affect success of organization. Subjects and Methods: The study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a designed program of time management on job satisfaction for head nurses. A Quasi-experimental design was used for a total number of head nurses participated. Two…

  17. Head nurses as middle managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, P F

    1983-11-01

    The relationship between head nurses and their staff nurses influences staff turnover rates and job satisfaction. In this article the author describes the measures taken by the management of Greater Southeast Community Hospital in response to an increasing turnover rate among staff RNs. In recognition of the head nurse role vis-d-vis attrition rates and job satisfaction, head nurses were upgraded to department head status and rigorous head nurse performance standards were developed. These standards required clinical expertise, managerial competence, and accountability. It is the author's contention that clinical practice and staff morale are directly related to a clearly defined head nurse role.

  18. The Impact of Supplemental Antioxidants on Visual Function in Nonadvanced Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Head-to-Head Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akuffo, Kwadwo Owusu; Beatty, Stephen; Peto, Tunde; Stack, Jim; Stringham, Jim; Kelly, David; Leung, Irene; Corcoran, Laura; Nolan, John M

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of supplemental macular carotenoids (including versus not including meso-zeaxanthin) in combination with coantioxidants on visual function in patients with nonadvanced age-related macular degeneration. In this study, 121 participants were randomly assigned to group 1 (Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 formulation with a low dose [25 mg] of zinc and an addition of 10 mg meso-zeaxanthin; n = 60) or group 2 (Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 formulation with a low dose [25 mg] of zinc; n = 61). Visual function was assessed using best-corrected visual acuity, contrast sensitivity (CS), glare disability, retinal straylight, photostress recovery time, reading performance, and the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire-25. Macular pigment was measured using customized heterochromatic flicker photometry. There was a statistically significant improvement in the primary outcome measure (letter CS at 6 cycles per degree [6 cpd]) over time (P = 0.013), and this observed improvement was statistically comparable between interventions (P = 0.881). Statistically significant improvements in several secondary outcome visual function measures (letter CS at 1.2 and 2.4 cpd; mesopic and photopic CS at all spatial frequencies; mesopic glare disability at 1.5, 3, and 6 cpd; photopic glare disability at 1.5, 3, 6, and 12 cpd; photostress recovery time; retinal straylight; mean and maximum reading speed) were also observed over time (P 0.05, for all). Statistically significant increases in macular pigment at all eccentricities were observed over time (P 0.05). Antioxidant supplementation in patients with nonadvanced age-related macular degeneration results in significant increases in macular pigment and improvements in CS and other measures of visual function. (Clinical trial, http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN13894787).

  19. Carotenoid intake and head and neck cancer: a pooled analysis in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium

    OpenAIRE

    Leoncini, Emanuele; Edefonti, Valeria; Hashibe, Mia; Parpinel, Maria; Cadoni, Gabriella; FERRARONI, MONICA; Serraino, Diego; Matsuo, Keitaro; Olshan, Andrew F.; Zevallos, Jose P.; Winn, Deborah M.; Moysich, Kirsten; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Morgenstern, Hal; Levi, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Food and nutrition play an important role in head and neck cancer (HNC) etiology; however, the role of carotenoids remains largely undefined. We explored the relation of HNC risk with the intake of carotenoids within the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium. We pooled individual-level data from 10 case–control studies conducted in Europe, North America, and Japan. The analysis included 18,207 subjects (4414 with oral and pharyngeal cancer, 1545 with laryngeal cancer, and...

  20. Self-esteem and subjective well-being revisited: The roles of personal, relational, and collective self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hongfei; King, Ronnel B; Chi, Peilian

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that self-esteem is an important predictor of subjective well-being. However, the majority of research has focused on self-esteem at the individual and the collective level, but has mostly ignored self-esteem at the relational level. According to social identity theory, individuals can maintain and enhance self-esteem through personal traits (personal self-esteem, PSE), relationships with significant others (relational self-esteem, RSE), and relationships with larger groups (collective self-esteem, CSE). The current research investigated whether RSE and CSE can predict subjective well-being beyond PSE among Chinese college students. With four cross-sectional studies and one longitudinal study (N = 847), we found that, when controlling for PSE, RSE was associated with greater life satisfaction, positive affect, meaning in life, happiness, and subjective vitality (Studies 1-5), but CSE was not (Studies 2-5). Implications are discussed.

  1. Self-esteem and subjective well-being revisited: The roles of personal, relational, and collective self-esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hongfei; King, Ronnel B.; Chi, Peilian

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that self-esteem is an important predictor of subjective well-being. However, the majority of research has focused on self-esteem at the individual and the collective level, but has mostly ignored self-esteem at the relational level. According to social identity theory, individuals can maintain and enhance self-esteem through personal traits (personal self-esteem, PSE), relationships with significant others (relational self-esteem, RSE), and relationships with larger groups (collective self-esteem, CSE). The current research investigated whether RSE and CSE can predict subjective well-being beyond PSE among Chinese college students. With four cross-sectional studies and one longitudinal study (N = 847), we found that, when controlling for PSE, RSE was associated with greater life satisfaction, positive affect, meaning in life, happiness, and subjective vitality (Studies 1–5), but CSE was not (Studies 2–5). Implications are discussed. PMID:28841716

  2. Self-esteem and subjective well-being revisited: The roles of personal, relational, and collective self-esteem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongfei Du

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that self-esteem is an important predictor of subjective well-being. However, the majority of research has focused on self-esteem at the individual and the collective level, but has mostly ignored self-esteem at the relational level. According to social identity theory, individuals can maintain and enhance self-esteem through personal traits (personal self-esteem, PSE, relationships with significant others (relational self-esteem, RSE, and relationships with larger groups (collective self-esteem, CSE. The current research investigated whether RSE and CSE can predict subjective well-being beyond PSE among Chinese college students. With four cross-sectional studies and one longitudinal study (N = 847, we found that, when controlling for PSE, RSE was associated with greater life satisfaction, positive affect, meaning in life, happiness, and subjective vitality (Studies 1-5, but CSE was not (Studies 2-5. Implications are discussed.

  3. Relation between food intake and visual analogue scale ratings of appetite and other sensations in healthy older and young subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, B A; Sturm, K; MacIntosh, C G; Feinle, C; Horowitz, M; Chapman, I M

    2004-02-01

    Visual analogue scales are widely used in appetite research, yet the validity of these scales to evaluate appetite and mood has not been assessed in older subjects. The aim of this study was to determine the relations between food intake and visual analogue scale (VAS) ratings of appetite and nonappetite sensations in healthy older and young subjects. Retrospective combined analysis of four single-blind, randomised, controlled appetite studies. All studies were conducted in the University of Adelaide, Department of Medicine, Adelaide, Australia. A total of 45 healthy young men (n=24) and women (n=21) aged 18-35 y and 45 healthy older men (n=24) and women (n=21) aged 65-85 y were recruited by advertisement. Oral, intraduodenal or intravenous administration of treatments which suppressed food intake were compared to control. Up to 90 min after treatment, a test meal was offered and subjects ate freely for between 30 and 60 min. Perceptions were assessed by 100-mm visual analogue scales administered at regular intervals. Food intake at the test meal was positively related to perceptions of hunger, drowsiness, and calmness at both baseline and premeal (r>0.16, P 0.2, P<0.05) in both older and young subjects. Food intake was related to VAS ratings at least as strongly, if not more so, in older as in young subjects. These observations (i) confirm that food intake is related to perceptions of hunger and fullness as assessed by VAS in healthy older and young subjects, and (ii) suggest that sensations, not obviously associated with appetite, including 'drowsiness' and 'calmness', are also associated with food intake.

  4. Head Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ATV) Safety Balance Disorders Knowing Your Child's Medical History First Aid: Falls First Aid: Head Injuries Preventing Children's Sports Injuries Getting Help: Know the Numbers Concussions Stay ...

  5. Relative Effects of a Comprehensive versus Reduced Training for Head Start Teachers Who Serve Spanish-Speaking English Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solari, Emily J.; Zucker, Tricia A.; Landry, Susan H.; Williams, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    With increased demand for improved early childhood education services, it is important to better understand the essential professional development resources that have the greatest impact on both teacher and child outcomes. This study compared the effectiveness of two teacher-training models in bilingual Migrant and Seasonal Head Start and Head…

  6. The effect of trauma and patient related factors on radial head fractures and associated injuries in 440 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kodde, Izaäk F.; Kaas, Laurens; van Es, Nick; Mulder, Paul G. H.; van Dijk, C. Niek; Eygendaal, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Radial head fractures are commonly interpreted as isolated injuries, and it is assumed that the energy transferred during trauma has its influence on the risk on associated ipsilateral upper limb injuries. However, relationships between Mason classification, mechanism of injury, and associated

  7. Survivors' Experiences of Dysphagia-Related Services Following Head and Neck Cancer: Implications for Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nund, Rebecca L.; Ward, Elizabeth C.; Scarinci, Nerina A.; Cartmill, Bena; Kuipers, Pim; Porceddu, Sandro V.

    2014-01-01

    Background: It is known that people with dysphagia experience a number of negative consequences as a result of their swallowing difficulties following head and neck cancer management (HNC). However their perceptions and experiences of adjusting to dysphagia in the post-treatment phase, and the services received to assist this process, has not been…

  8. Head-and-neck paragangliomas are associated with sleep-related complaints, especially in the presence of carotid body tumors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havekes, B.; Kastelein, F.; Klaauw, A.A. van der; Duinen, N. van; Jansen, J.C.; Smit, J.W.A.; Kralingen, K.W. van; Vriends, A.H.; Romijn, J.A.; Corssmit, E.P.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The carotid body functions as a chemoreceptor. We hypothesized that head-and-neck paragangliomas (HNP) may disturb the function of these peripheral chemoreceptors and play a role in sleep-disordered breathing. DESIGN: This is a case-control study. SETTING: This study was conducted in a

  9. Physical and psychosocial disability in elderly subjects in relation to pain in the hip and/or knee

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopman-Rock, M.; Odding, E.; Hofman, A.; Kraaimaat, F. W.; Bijlsma, J. W.

    1996-01-01

    To determine physical and psychosocial disability in subjects aged 55 to 74 years living in the community, in relation to pain in the hip and/or knee, and to explore the relationships between pain, physical and psychosocial disability, and selected background variables. A subsample from a community

  10. Physical and psychosocial disability in elderly subjects in relation to pain in the hip and/or knee

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopman-Rock, M.; Odding, E.; Hofman, A.; Kraaimaat, F.W.; Bijlsma, J.W.J.

    1996-01-01

    Objective. To determine physical and psychosocial disability in subjects aged 55 to 74 years living in the community, in relation to pain in the hip and/or knee, and to explore the relationships between pain, physical and psychosocial disability, and selected background variables. Methods. A

  11. Child Physical Abuse and the Related PTSD in Taiwan: The Role of Chinese Cultural Background and Victims' Subjective Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chia-Ying; Su, Yi-Jen; Wu, Ho-Mao; Chen, Sue-Huei

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to investigate child physical abuse (CPA) while taking into account the more rigorous definitions of CPA in the Chinese societies. The prevalence of CPA and CPA-related PTSD were estimated, together with the examination of peri-traumatic subjective reactions and their impacts on PTSD. Methods: In a Taiwanese sample of…

  12. Learning with LinkedIn: Students' Perceptions of Incorporating Subject-Related Blogging in an International Marketing Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galan, Nataliya; Khodabandehloo, Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to report the results of implementation of blogging within a LinkedIn discussion group in an international marketing course for a multicultural group of students focusing on the students' perceptions of the subject-related blogging. Design/Methodology/ Approach: This study adopts a qualitative approach; data have been…

  13. It matters how old you feel: Antecedents and performance consequences of average relative subjective age in organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunze, Florian; Raes, Anneloes M L; Bruch, Heike

    2015-09-01

    This article extends the conceptual knowledge of average relative subjective age in organizations by exploring organizational-level antecedents and consequences of employees, on average, feeling younger than their chronological age. We draw from the theories of selection-optimization-compensation and socioemotional selectivity to build a theoretical framework for relative subjective age in organizations. We hypothesize that companies in which employees, on average, perceive themselves to be younger than they actually are have a higher average individual goal accomplishment and, in turn, experience higher company performance. We further hypothesize that employees' average experience of high work-related meaning relates to a lower subjective age in organizations. In addition, we assess the role of environmental dynamism and age-inclusive human resource management as moderators in this theoretical model. Through empirically testing this model in a multisource dataset, including 107 companies with 15,164 participating employees, we received support for the hypothesized relationships. Our results contribute to current debates in the scientific literature on age and have important practical implications in light of the demographic changes faced by many companies. This research indicates to both researchers and practitioners that it is not employees' chronological age but their subjective age, a factor that can be influenced, which drives organizational performance outcomes. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Effects of Immediate and Cumulative Syntactic Experience in Language Impairment: Evidence from Priming of Subject Relatives in Children with SLI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garraffa, Maria; Coco, Moreno I.; Branigan, Holly P.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the production of subject relative clauses (SRc) in Italian pre-school children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and age-matched typically-developing children (TD) controls. In a structural priming paradigm, children described pictures after hearing the experimenter produce a bare noun or an SRc description, as part of a…

  15. The Relationship between Teacher-Related Factors and Students' Attitudes towards Secondary School Chemistry Subject in Bureti District, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chepkorir, Salome; Cheptonui, Edna Marusoi; Chemutai, Agnes

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between teacher-related factors and student's attitudes towards Chemistry subject in secondary schools in Kenya. The paper is based on a study conducted in Bureti District in Kericho County, Kenya. This paper highlights issues on the teaching methods used by chemistry teachers, the teachers' availability to…

  16. The relation between overweight and subjective health according to age, social class, slimming behavior and smoking habits in Dutch adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seidell, J C; Bakx, K C; Deurenberg, P.; Burema, J; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.; Huygen, F J

    1986-01-01

    Subjective health status was assessed in relation to overweight by administering a list of 51 health complaints to adult men and women who were either chronically overweight as defined by Body Mass Index (BMI) or not overweight, in a continuous morbidity registration in four general practices during

  17. Relations between muscle endurance and subjectively reported fatigue, walking capacity, and participation in mildly affected adolescents with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eken, Maaike M.; Houdijk, Han; Doorenbosch, Caroline A. M.; Kiezebrink, Francisca E. M.; van Bennekom, Coen A. M.; Harlaar, Jaap; Dallmeijer, Annet J.

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the relation between muscle endurance and subjectively reported fatigue, walking capacity, and participation in mildly affected adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) and peers with typical development. In this case-control study, knee extensor muscle endurance was estimated from

  18. Examining relations between locus of control, loneliness, subjective well-being, and preference for online social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yinghua; Lin, Lin

    2015-02-01

    The unprecedented popularity of online communication has raised interests and concerns among the public as well as in scholarly circles. Online communications have pushed people farther away from one another. This study is a further examination of the effects of online communications on well-being, in particular: Locus of control, Loneliness, Subjective well-being, and Preference for online social interaction. Chinese undergraduate students (N = 260; 84 men, 176 women; M age = 20.1 yr., SD = 1.2) were questioned about demographic information and use of social media as well as four previously validated questionnaires related to well-being. Most participants used QQ, a popular social networking program, as the major channel for online social interactions. Locus of control was positively related to Loneliness and Preference for online social interaction, but negatively related to Subjective well-being; Loneliness (positively) and Subjective well-being (negatively) were related to Preference for online social interaction; and Loneliness and Subjective well-being had a full mediating effect between the relationships of Locus of control and Preference for online social interaction. The findings of the study showed that more lonely, unhappy, and externally controlled students were more likely to be engaged in online social interaction. Improving students' locus of control, loneliness, and happiness may help reduce problematic Internet use.

  19. High cardiac vagal control is related to better subjective and objective sleep quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Gabriela G.; Ford, Brett Q.; Mauss, Iris B.; Schabus, Manuel; Blechert, Jens; Wilhelm, Frank H.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac vagal control (CVC) has been linked to both physical and mental health. One critical aspect of health, that has not received much attention, is sleep. We hypothesized that adults with higher CVC – operationalized by high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV) – will exhibit better sleep quality assessed both subjectively (i.e., with Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) and objectively (i.e., with polysomnography). HF-HRV was measured in 29 healthy young women during an extended neutral film clip. Participants then underwent full polysomnography to obtain objective measures of sleep quality and HF-HRV during a night of sleep. As expected, higher resting HF-HRV was associated with higher subjective and objective sleep quality (i.e., shorter sleep latency and fewer arousals). HF-HRV during sleep (overall or separated by sleep phases) showed less consistent relationships with sleep quality. These findings indicate that high waking CVC may be a key predictor of healthy sleep. PMID:25709072

  20. Self-esteem and subjective well-being revisited: The roles of personal, relational, and collective self-esteem

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Hongfei; King, Ronnel B.; Chi, Peilian

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that self-esteem is an important predictor of subjective well-being. However, the majority of research has focused on self-esteem at the individual and the collective level, but has mostly ignored self-esteem at the relational level. According to social identity theory, individuals can maintain and enhance self-esteem through personal traits (personal self-esteem, PSE), relationships with significant others (relational self-esteem, RSE), and relationships with larg...

  1. Resident-to-resident relational aggression and subjective well-being in assisted living facilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trompetter, H.R.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Westerhof, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Research in settings similar to assisted living facilities suggests that relational aggression, an indirect and mature form of aggression, might occur in assisted living facilities. This empirical study investigates the existence of relational aggression in a sample of residents and the

  2. Effects of food-related stimuli on visual spatial attention in fasting and nonfasting normal subjects: Behavior and electrophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leland, D S; Pineda, J A

    2006-01-01

    Attention biases toward food-related stimuli were examined as mediators of normal, healthy motivated behavior. Reaction times (RTs) and event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to assess the impact of food-related words on normal food-deprived individuals when used as spatial cues that frequently predicted the location of targets in a simple detection task (75% validity). In Experiment 1, fasting and nonfasting subjects showed a magnified cost/benefit of invalid/valid cueing by food words relative to a neutral category of words. In Experiment 2, the RT effect was replicated in a group of fasting subjects. The amplitude of a P3-like positivity (P420) was enhanced in response to food words, as was that of a prominent early anterior negativity (AN). These findings demonstrate that food-related stimuli can bias spatial attention in normal subjects and that electrophysiological markers can index the motivational salience of food words and/or their effect on attentional capture in food-deprived individuals. Even when the motivational salience of spatial cues is irrelevant to task demands, it can have an observable effect on attention. This design allows for the behavioral and electrophysiological study of motivation-attention interactions through loading of spatial cues with motivation-related semantic properties.

  3. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you! Do you have a personal story about radiology? Share your patient story here Images × Image Gallery ... Pregnancy Head and Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety Images related to ...

  4. Prevalence of troublesome symptoms related to temporomandibular disorders and awareness of bruxism in 65- and 75-year-old subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unell, Lennart; Johansson, Anders; Ekbäck, Gunnar; Ordell, Sven; Carlsson, Gunnar E

    2012-06-01

    To assess the prevalence of three troublesome temporomandibular disorder (TMD) symptoms and awareness of bruxism in two cohorts of subjects aged 65 and 75 years. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated varying prevalence of TMD symptoms. The results concerning elderly people are inconclusive. In 2007 identical questionnaires were sent to all subjects born in 1942 and 1932 living in two Swedish counties. The response rate was 73.1% for the 65- and 71.9% for the 75-year-old subjects, totally 9093 subjects. The great majority reported no or only a few TMD problems. Less than 4% considered their TMD symptoms to be rather great or severe. The mean prevalence of TMD-related symptoms and bruxism was greater in women than in men in both age groups. The 75-year-old women reported a marked lower prevalence of TMD symptoms and bruxism than the 65-year-old women, whereas the age differences were small among the men. Self-reported bruxism was associated with a higher prevalence of TMD symptoms. The great majority of the subjects did not report any troublesome TMD related symptoms. However, 5.4% of the 65-year-old women and 3.8% of the 75-year-old women considered their symptoms severe or rather severe. © 2011 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Relations between muscle endurance and subjectively reported fatigue, walking capacity, and participation in mildly affected adolescents with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eken, Maaike M; Houdijk, Han; Doorenbosch, Caroline A M; Kiezebrink, Francisca E M; van Bennekom, Coen A M; Harlaar, Jaap; Dallmeijer, Annet J

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the relation between muscle endurance and subjectively reported fatigue, walking capacity, and participation in mildly affected adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) and peers with typical development. In this case-control study, knee extensor muscle endurance was estimated from individual load-endurance curves as the load corresponding to a 15-repetition maximum in 17 adolescents with spastic CP (six males, 11 females; age 12-19y) and 18 adolescents with typical development (eight males, 10 females; age 13-19y). Questionnaires were used to assess subjectively reported fatigue (Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Multidimensional Fatigue Scale) and participation (Life-Habits questionnaire). Walking capacity was assessed using the 6-minute walk test. Relations were determined using multiple regression analyses. Muscle endurance related significantly to subjectively reported fatigue and walking capacity in adolescents with CP, while no relations were found for adolescents with typical development (subjectively reported fatigue: regression coefficient β [95% confidence intervals] for CP=23.72 [6.26 to 41.18], for controls=2.72 [-10.26 to 15.69]; walking capacity β for CP=125m [-87 to 337], for controls=2m [-86 to 89]). The 15-repetition maximum did not relate to participation in adolescents with CP. Subjectively reported fatigue and reduced walking capacity in adolescents with CP are partly caused by lower muscle endurance of knee extensors. Training of muscle endurance might contribute to reducing the experience of fatigue and improving walking capacity. Reduced muscle endurance seems to have no effect on participation. © 2016 Mac Keith Press.

  6. Normative values of spino-pelvic sagittal alignment, balance, age, and health-related quality of life in a cohort of healthy adult subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Kazuhiro; Okamoto, Masashi; Hatsushikano, Shun; Shimoda, Haruka; Ono, Masatoshi; Watanabe, Kei

    2016-11-01

    To elucidate the normative values of whole body sagittal alignment and balance of a healthy population in the standing position; and to clarify the relationship among the alignment, balance, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and age. Healthy Japanese adult volunteers [n = 126, mean age 39.4 years (20-69), M/F = 30/96] with no history of spinal disease were enrolled in a cross-sectional cohort study. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) questionnaire was administered and subjects were scanned from the center of the acoustic meati (CAM) to the feet while standing on a force plate to determine the gravity line (GL), and the distance between CAM and GL (CAM-GL) was measured in the sagittal plane. Standard X-ray parameters were measured from the head to the lower extremities. ODI was compared among age groups stratified by decade. Correlations were investigated by simple linear regression analysis. Ideal lumbar lordosis was investigated using the least squares method. The present study yielded normative values for whole standing sagittal alignment including head and lower extremities in a cohort of 126 healthy adult volunteers, comparable to previous reports and thus a formula for ideal lumbar lordosis was deduced: LL = 32.9 + 0.60 × PI - 0.23 × age. There was a tendency of positive correlation between McGregor slope, thoracic kyphosis, PT, and age. SVA, T1 pelvic angle, sacrofemoral angle, knee flexion angle, and ankle flexion angle, but not CAM-GL, increased with age, suggesting that the spinopelvic alignment changes with age, but standing whole body alignment is compensated for to preserve a horizontal gaze. ODI tended to increase from the 40s in the domain of pain intensity, personal care, traveling, and total score. ODI weakly, but significantly positively correlated with age and PI-LL. Whole body standing alignment even in healthy subjects gradually deteriorates with age, but is compensated to preserve a horizontal gaze. HRQOL is also

  7. Baroreflex Sensitivity in Relation to Clinical Characteristics in Subject Aged 40 to 80 Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinth, Louise Schouborg; Pors, Kirsten; Latif, Tabassam

    2014-01-01

    women) with a mean age of 59 ± 11 years (range 41-79 years) were included. Baroreceptor activity was quantified through the Valsalva manoeuvre (VM) and as a spontaneous function. BRS was tested against age, gender, smoking status, body size and predicted risk of coronary heart disease based......Baroreflex function measured as baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) mirrors an integrated capacity of the autonomic nervous system. We aimed to assess the relationship between measures of BRS and age and relevant clinical characteristics. 80 subjects participating in the Copenhagen City Heart study (43...... breathing and VM. We could not demonstrate any correlation between BRS, smoking status, and body size when adjusting for age and gender, whereas spontaneous BRS was reduced with increasing Framingham risk score. Principal component analysis revealed three component explaining 69% of the total variance...

  8. Subjective social status and shaming experiences in relation to adolescent depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslund, Cecilia; Leppert, Jerzy; Starrin, Bengt; Nilsson, Kent W

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the associations among social status, shaming experiences, and adolescent depression using a status-shaming model. Population-based, self-report cohort study. Västmanland, Sweden. A cohort of 5396 students in grade 9 (age 15-16 years) and the second year of high school (age 17-18 years). Intervention Participants completed the anonymous questionnaire Survey of Adolescent Life in Västmanland-2006 during class hours. We investigated the prevalence of depression according to the Depression Self-Rating Scale of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition, Text Revision), A-criterion, regarding subjective social status, shaming experiences, and social background. Social status was measured as (1) attributed status of a family's socioeconomic and social standing and (2) acquired status of peer group and school. Binary logistic regressions were used for the analyses. Shaming experiences and low social status interacted with depression. If shaming experiences were present, participants with both high and low attributed status were at increased risk for depression (odds ratio [low and high groups, respectively], 5.4-6.9), whereas medium status seemed to have a protective function. For acquired status, the highest elevated risk was found in participants with low status (odds ratio [girls and boys, respectively], 6.7-8.6). Social status may influence the risk for depression when an individual is subjected to shaming experiences. The present study contributes to the mapping of the influence of social status on health and may have essential implications for understanding, preventing, and treating adolescent depression.

  9. Advanced constitutive relations for modeling thermo-viscoplastic behaviour of metallic alloys subjected to impact loading

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Martínez, José Antonio

    2010-01-01

    In this doctoral Thesis the thermo-viscoplastic behaviour of metallic alloys used for structural protection purposes has been analyzed. The study includes the proposition of advanced constitutive relations and their integration into numerical models. These numerical models are validated for impact problems within the low-intermediate range of impact velocities (until 85 m/s). The advanced constitutive relations derived are based on the Rusinek-Klepaczko model whose validity is extended to met...

  10. Biomarkers of nutrition and stress in pregnant women with a history of eating disorders in relation to head circumference and neurocognitive function of the offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Koubaa, Saloua; Hallstrom, Tore; Brismar, Kerstin; Hellström, Per M; Hirschberg, Angelica Linden

    2015-01-01

    Background Eating disorders during pregnancy can affect fetal growth and the child?s early development, but the underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate serum biomarkers of nutrition and stress in pregnant women with previous eating disorders compared to controls and in relation to head circumference and early neurocognitive development of the offspring. Methods In a longitudinal cohort study, pregnant nulliparous non-smoking women with a...

  11. Non-albuminuric renal disease among subjects with advanced stages of chronic kidney failure related to type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boronat, Mauro; García-Cantón, César; Quevedo, Virginia; Lorenzo, Dionisio L; López-Ríos, Laura; Batista, Fátima; Riaño, Marta; Saavedra, Pedro; Checa, María D

    2014-03-01

    Urinary albumin excretion has been consistently found to be normal in a significant number of subjects with early stages of diabetic kidney disease. This study was aimed to estimate the prevalence and characteristics of non-albuminuric chronic kidney disease associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus among subjects who reach advanced stages of renal failure. Study population was composed of incident patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (glomerular filtration rate chronic kidney disease, characteristically women, have normal urinary albumin excretion. HbA1c and polyneuropathy are inversely related to this non-albuminuric form of nephropathy.

  12. Posttraumatic growth is related to subjective well-being of aid workers exposed to cumulative trauma in Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronese, Guido; Pepe, Alessandro; Massaiu, Irene; De Mol, Ann-Sophie; Robbins, Ian

    2017-06-01

    The present study examined how stress reactions after traumatic events influence subjective well-being (SWB) via the indirect effect of posttraumatic growth (PTG) in two samples of Palestinian professional helpers from the Gaza Strip and West Bank ( n = 201). Using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) as a dependent measure of well-being, and PTGI-10, PANAS-20, WHO-5 BREF, and IES-13 questionnaires as independent variables, structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to examine whether: (a) cumulative trauma was negatively and directly related to subjective well-being; (b) levels of trauma were positively and directly related to posttraumatic growth; and (c) PTG was positively and directly related to subjective well-being. The findings suggest that posttraumatic growth contributes to mitigating and buffering (on the order of approximately 10%) the effect of trauma on subjective well-being. PTG seems to be a resource that can help aid workers deal with the consequences of stressful life events. Clinical implications and directions for supervision and training are discussed.

  13. 17 January 2014 - Y. Sakurada Japanese Senior Vice Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology signing the Guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer and visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 1 with Technology Department Head J.M. Jiménez. Head of International Relations R. Voss present throughout.

    CERN Multimedia

    Pantelia, Anna

    2014-01-01

    17 January 2014 - Y. Sakurada Japanese Senior Vice Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology signing the Guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer and visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 1 with Technology Department Head J.M. Jiménez. Head of International Relations R. Voss present throughout.

  14. 14th March 2011 - Australian Senator the Hon. K. Carr Minister for Innovation, Industry, Science and Research in the ATLAS Visitor Centre with Collaboration Spokesperson F. Gianotti,visiting the SM18 area with G. De Rijk,the Computing centre with Department Head F. Hemmer, signing the guest book with Director-General R. Heuer with Head of International relations F. Pauss

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-claude Gadmer

    2011-01-01

    14th March 2011 - Australian Senator the Hon. K. Carr Minister for Innovation, Industry, Science and Research in the ATLAS Visitor Centre with Collaboration Spokesperson F. Gianotti,visiting the SM18 area with G. De Rijk,the Computing centre with Department Head F. Hemmer, signing the guest book with Director-General R. Heuer with Head of International relations F. Pauss

  15. 1st September 2010 - British Vice-Chancellor, Liverpool University Sir Newby and Lady Newby signing the Guest Book with Head of International Relations F. Pauss; visiting the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with P. Cruikshank; accompanied by Beams Department Head P. Collier and Liverpool University T. Bowcock and P. Allport.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2010-01-01

    1st September 2010 - British Vice-Chancellor, Liverpool University Sir Newby and Lady Newby signing the Guest Book with Head of International Relations F. Pauss; visiting the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with P. Cruikshank; accompanied by Beams Department Head P. Collier and Liverpool University T. Bowcock and P. Allport.

  16. 5 December 2011 - Chilean President of the Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica J. M. Aguilera in the ATLAS visitor centre with Adviser J. Salicio Diez and ATLAS Collaboration G. Mikenberg; signing the guest book with Head of International Relations F. Pauss; visiting the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with Department Head F. Bordry.

    CERN Multimedia

    VMO Team

    2011-01-01

    5 December 2011 - Chilean President of the Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica J. M. Aguilera in the ATLAS visitor centre with Adviser J. Salicio Diez and ATLAS Collaboration G. Mikenberg; signing the guest book with Head of International Relations F. Pauss; visiting the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with Department Head F. Bordry.

  17. 30th November 2010 - Norwegian Ministry of Government Administration, Reform and Church Affairs State Secretary R. Valle signing the guest book with Head of International Relations F. Pauss and Director for Research and Scientific Computing S. Bertolucci; visiting CERN Computer Centre with Information Technology Department Head F. Hemmer.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2010-01-01

    30th November 2010 - Norwegian Ministry of Government Administration, Reform and Church Affairs State Secretary R. Valle signing the guest book with Head of International Relations F. Pauss and Director for Research and Scientific Computing S. Bertolucci; visiting CERN Computer Centre with Information Technology Department Head F. Hemmer.

  18. Gender differences in response to emotional stress: an assessment across subjective, behavioral, and physiological domains and relations to alcohol craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Tara M; Hong, Kwangik; Bergquist, Keri; Sinha, Rajita

    2008-07-01

    Women and men are at risk for different types of stress-related disorders, with women at greater risk for depression and anxiety and men at greater risk for alcohol-use disorders. The present study examines gender differences in emotional and alcohol craving responses to stress that may relate to this gender divergence in disorders. Healthy adult social drinkers (27 men, 27 women) were exposed to individually developed and calibrated stressful, alcohol-related, and neutral-relaxing imagery, 1 imagery per session, on separate days and in random order. Subjective emotions, behavioral/bodily responses, cardiovascular arousal [heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP)], and self-reported alcohol craving were assessed. Women reported and displayed greater sadness and anxiety following stress than men and men had greater diastolic BP response than women. No gender differences in alcohol craving, systolic BP or HR were observed. Subjective, behavioral, and cardiovascular measures were correlated in both genders. However, for men, but not women, alcohol craving was associated with greater subjective emotion and behavioral arousal following stress and alcohol cues. These data suggest that men and women respond to stress differently, with women experiencing greater sadness and anxiety, while men show a greater integration of reward motivation (craving) and emotional stress systems. These findings have implications for the gender-related divergence in vulnerability for stress-related disorders, with women at greater risk for anxiety and depression than men, and men at greater risk for alcohol-use disorders than women.

  19. Conventional oil and natural gas infrastructure increases brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater) relative abundance and parasitism in mixed-grass prairie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernath-Plaisted, Jacy; Nenninger, Heather; Koper, Nicola

    2017-07-01

    The rapid expansion of oil and natural gas development across the Northern Great Plains has contributed to habitat fragmentation, which may facilitate brood parasitism of ground-nesting grassland songbird nests by brown-headed cowbirds ( Molothrus ater ), an obligate brood parasite, through the introduction of perches and anthropogenic edges. We tested this hypothesis by measuring brown-headed cowbird relative abundance and brood parasitism rates of Savannah sparrow ( Passerculus sandwichensis ) nests in relation to the presence of infrastructure features and proximity to potential perches and edge habitat. The presence of oil and natural gas infrastructure increased brown-headed cowbird relative abundance by a magnitude of four times, which resulted in four times greater brood parasitism rates at infrastructure sites. While the presence of infrastructure and the proximity to roads were influential in predicting brood parasitism rates, the proximity of perch sites was not. This suggests that brood parasitism associated with oil and natural gas infrastructure may result in additional pressures that reduce productivity of this declining grassland songbird.

  20. Head injuries, heading, and the use of headgear in soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedfeldt, Mark W

    2011-01-01

    Soccer has more than 265 million players around the world and is the only contact sport with purposeful use of the head for controlling and advancing the ball. Head contact in soccer has the potential to cause acute traumatic brain injury including concussion or, potentially, a pattern of chronic brain injury. Although early retrospective research on the effects of soccer heading seemed to suggest that purposeful heading may contribute to long-term cognitive impairment, prospective controlled studies do not support this and, in fact, suggest that purposeful heading may not be a risk factor for cognitive impairment. Headgear has not been shown to be effective in reducing ball impact but may be helpful in reducing the force of non-ball-related impacts to the head. There are concerns that universal use of headgear may cause more aggressive heading and head challenges, leading to increased risk of injury.

  1. Umbilical Cord Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations and Relation to Birthweight, Head Circumference and Infant Length at Age 14 Days

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgård, Christine; Petersen, Maria Skaalum; Steuerwald, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    linear regression models with adjustment for pre-pregnancy BMI, sex, parity, gestational age, or infant age at examination, season of birth, smoking, gestational diabetes, examiner, and cohort identity, we found no relationship between birthweight or head circumference and UC 25(OH)D. However, infants...... but not with birthweight and head circumference. Although the paediatric relevance of the observed association is unclear, the possible long-term consequences of late-pregnancy hypovitaminosis D deserve attention.......BACKGROUND: Insufficient supply of vitamin D during early development may negatively affect offspring growth. METHODS: We examined the association between umbilical cord (UC) serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations and infant size in a study of two Faroese birth cohorts of 1038 singleton...

  2. Reproducibility of axon reflex-related vasodilation assessed by dynamic thermal imaging in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.D. Nieuwenhoff (Mariska D.); Y. Wu; F.J.P.M. Huygen (Frank); A.C. Schouten (A.); F.C.T. van der Helm (Frans); S.P. Niehof (Sjoerd)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction Small nerve fiber dysfunction is an early feature of diabetic neuropathy. There is a strong clinical need for a non-invasive method to assess small nerve fiber function. Small nerve fibers mediate axon reflex-related vasodilation and play an important role in

  3. Reproducibility of axon reflex-related vasodilation assessed by dynamic thermal imaging in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhoff, MD; Wu, Y.; Huygen, F.J.P.M.; Schouten, A.C.; van der Helm, F.C.T.; Niehof, SP

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Small nerve fiber dysfunction is an early feature of diabetic neuropathy. There is a strong clinical need for a non-invasive method to assess small nerve fiber function. Small nerve fibers mediate axon reflex-related vasodilation and play an important role in thermoregulation.

  4. Age-Related Changes in Objective and Subjective Speech Perception in Complex Listening Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfer, Karen S.; Merchant, Gabrielle R.; Wasiuk, Peter A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: A frequent complaint by older adults is difficulty communicating in challenging acoustic environments. The purpose of this work was to review and summarize information about how speech perception in complex listening situations changes across the adult age range. Method: This article provides a review of age-related changes in speech…

  5. Subjective symptoms related to GSM radiation from mobile phone base stations: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Perretta, Claudio; Navarro, Enrique A; Segura, Jaume; Portolés, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Objectives We performed a re-analysis of the data from Navarro et al (2003) in which health symptoms related to microwave exposure from mobile phone base stations (BSs) were explored, including data obtained in a retrospective inquiry about fear of exposure from BSs. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting La Ñora (Murcia), Spain. Participants Participants with known illness in 2003 were subsequently disregarded: 88 participants instead of 101 (in 2003) were analysed. Since weather circumstances can influence exposure, we restricted data to measurements made under similar weather conditions. Outcomes and methods A statistical method indifferent to the assumption of normality was employed: namely, binary logistic regression for modelling a binary response (eg, suffering fatigue (1) or not (0)), and so exposure was introduced as a predictor variable. This analysis was carried out on a regular basis and bootstrapping (95% percentile method) was used to provide more accurate CIs. Results The symptoms most related to exposure were lack of appetite (OR=1.58, 95% CI 1.23 to 2.03); lack of concentration (OR=1.54, 95% CI 1.25 to 1.89); irritability (OR=1.51, 95% CI 1.23 to 1.85); and trouble sleeping (OR=1.49, 95% CI 1.20 to 1.84). Changes in –2 log likelihood showed similar results. Concerns about the BSs were strongly related with trouble sleeping (OR =3.12, 95% CI 1.10 to 8.86). The exposure variable remained statistically significant in the multivariate analysis. The bootstrapped values were similar to asymptotic CIs. Conclusions This study confirms our preliminary results. We observed that the incidence of most of the symptoms was related to exposure levels—independently of the demographic variables and some possible risk factors. Concerns about adverse effects from exposure, despite being strongly related with sleep disturbances, do not influence the direct association between exposure and sleep. PMID:24381254

  6. Dopamine D2-receptor affinity of antipsychotics in relation to subjective well-being in patients with a psychotic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, Iris E; van Dijk, Floor A; Meijer, Carin J; van Tricht, Mirjam J; de Haan, Lieuwe

    2017-09-01

    Dopamine D2-receptor blockade by antipsychotic medication reduces psychotic symptoms, but may reduce subjective well-being. The current study aims to further explore the relation between dopamine D2-receptor affinity and subjective well-being within a large sample of patients with psychotic disorders. Patients participated in a longitudinal naturalistic cohort study: the Genetic Risk and Outcome of Psychosis (GROUP) study. Three groups of antipsychotic medication were created on the basis of their affinity for the D2-receptor: (i) loose or partial agonistic binding, (ii) moderate binding, and (iii) tight binding. Subjective well-being was assessed using the Subjective Well-being under Neuroleptics scale (SWN) at baseline and the 3-year follow-up. In addition, we compared changes in SWN scores when switching to a more 'loose or partial agonistic' binding agent or to a 'tighter' binding agent between baseline and the 3-year follow-up. The final group included 388 patients at baseline and 290 at the 3-year follow-up. No significant differences in the SWN scores were found between the three affinity groups at baseline and the 3-year follow-up. In addition, analyses yielded no significant changes in SWN scores after switching to a more 'loose or partial agonistic' or more 'tight' binding antipsychotic agent. We did not find further support for the hypothesis that subjective well-being is associated with antipsychotics affinity for dopamine D2-receptors. This might imply that the effect of antipsychotic D2-receptors binding on subjective well-being is not large enough to be detected in this cross-sectional study. Other factors besides dopamine antagonism are probably more relevant for subjective well-being.

  7. Sports involvement following ACL reconstruction is related to lower extremity neuromuscular adaptations, subjective knee function and health locus of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyland, J; Mauser, N; Caborn, D N M

    2013-09-01

    This retrospective study compared the influence of perceived sports involvement on lower extremity neuromuscular adaptations during single-leg countermovement jumping (CMJ), perceived knee function and internal health locus of control (HLOC) scores at a minimum 2-year post-anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The hypothesis was that subjects with higher-level sports involvement would display significant differences compared to subjects with lower-level sports involvement. Uninvolved and involved lower extremity EMG amplitude (1,000 Hz), vertical ground reaction force (VGRF) (500 Hz) and kinematic (60 Hz) displacement differences were determined during single-leg CMJ. These data and International Knee Documentation Committee subjective knee survey scores, Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Survey internal HLOC subscale scores and sports activity characteristics were compared by sports involvement level. Subjects that regarded themselves as only sporting sometimes (Group 3, n = 26) had lower IKDC survey and internal HLOC scores, were more likely to decrease sports activities by two intensity levels than highly competitive (Group 1, n = 20) and well-trained/frequently sporting (Group 2, n = 24) subjects, and had greater peak landing VGRF differences suggesting decreased involved lower extremity loading compared to Group 2. During propulsion, Group 1 had greater gluteus maximus (GM) and gastrocnemius (G) EMG differences than Groups 2 and 3. Groups 1 and 2 had decreased vastus medialis (VM) EMG differences during propulsion than Group 3. During landing, Group 1 had greater GM and G EMG differences than Group 3. Subjects with higher-level sports involvement up-regulated involved lower extremity GM and G activation and down-regulated VM activation. This adaptation may enable continued higher-level sports participation while minimizing knee joint forces. Perceived higher-level sports involvement was related to neuromuscular adaptations, better subjective knee

  8. Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy: A Potential Late Effect of Sport-Related Concussive and Subconcussive Head Trauma1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavett, Brandon E.; Stern, Robert A.; McKee, Ann C.

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a form of neurodegeneration that is believed to result from repeated head injuries. Originally termed dementia pugilistica due to its association with boxing, the neuropathology of CTE was first described by Corsellis in 1973 in a case series of 15 retired boxers. CTE has recently been found to occur following other causes of repeated head trauma, suggesting that any repeated blows to the head, such as those that occur due to American football, hockey, soccer, professional wrestling, and physical abuse, can also lead to neurodegenerative changes. These changes often include cerebral atrophy, cavum septum pellucidum with fenestrations, shrinkage of the mammillary bodies, dense tau immunoreactive inclusions (neurofibrillary tangles, glial tangles, and neuropil neurites), diffuse axonal injury, and, in some cases, a TDP-43 proteinopathy. In association with these pathological changes, affected individuals often exhibit disordered memory and executive functioning, behavioral and personality disturbances (e.g., apathy, depression, irritability, impulsiveness, suicidality), parkinsonism, and, occasionally, motor neuron disease. At the present time, there are no formal clinical or pathological diagnostic criteria for CTE, but the distinctive neuropathological profile of the disorder lends promise for future research into its prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. PMID:21074091

  9. Umbilical Cord Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations and Relation to Birthweight, Head Circumference and Infant Length at Age 14 Days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalgård, Christine; Petersen, Maria Skaalum; Steuerwald, Ulrike; Weihe, Pál; Grandjean, Philippe

    2016-05-01

    Insufficient supply of vitamin D during early development may negatively affect offspring growth. We examined the association between umbilical cord (UC) serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations and infant size in a study of two Faroese birth cohorts of 1038 singleton infants. In the third trimester, the pregnant women completed questionnaires, and clinical examination included birthweight, head circumference, and infant length at age 14 days. Fifty-three percent of the newborn population had UC 25(OH)D pregnancy BMI, sex, parity, gestational age, or infant age at examination, season of birth, smoking, gestational diabetes, examiner, and cohort identity, we found no relationship between birthweight or head circumference and UC 25(OH)D. However, infants with vitamin D status 50 nmol/L in models further adjusted for birthweight. Our data suggest that umbilical cord serum 25(OH)D concentrations are positively associated with infant length but not with birthweight and head circumference. Although the paediatric relevance of the observed association is unclear, the possible long-term consequences of late-pregnancy hypovitaminosis D deserve attention. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Cognitive Event-Related Potential, an Early Diagnosis Biomarker in Frail Elderly Subjects: The ERP-MAPT-PLUS Ancillary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennys, Karim; Gabelle, Audrey; Berr, Claudine; De Verbizier, Delphine; Andrieu, Sandrine; Vellas, Bruno; Touchon, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    By analyzing brain synaptic function, cognitive event-related potentials (ERPs) could provide powerful and innovative tools for early Alzheimer's disease (AD) diagnosis. We investigated the relevance of the ERP-P300 component as a potential diagnosis marker in elderly subjects at risk of developing AD. ERP-P300 was analyzed on 85 subjects recruited from the Multidomain Alzheimer Preventive Trial (MAPT). PET-AV45 brain imaging was available from 36 subjects. Two ERP-P300 subgroups were identified according to their PET-AV45 status: PET-Aβ positive (n = 15) and PET-Aβ negative (n = 21). In the amyloid positive group, we observed a highly significant increase in P3b latency in parietal brain regions (p = 0.0052). P3b in parietal regions correctly categorized 69.4% elderly subjects from the P300-PET Aβ positive group. Combined analysis of parietal P3b latencies and category fluency correctly classified 75% subjects from the P300-PET Aβ positive group. The P300 ERP presents good predictive measure of brain amyloid load and has the potential to be used as a screening instrument for preclinical AD. The incorporation of P3b latency may be used as an adjunctive tool with neuropsychological assessment (i.e., verbal category fluency) as a specific and sensitive method for preclinical assessment of AD.

  11. The relation between overweight and subjective health according to age, social class, slimming behavior and smoking habits in Dutch adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidell, J C; Bakx, K C; Deurenberg, P; Burema, J; Hautvast, J G; Huygen, F J

    1986-01-01

    Subjective health status was assessed in relation to overweight by administering a list of 51 health complaints to adult men and women who were either chronically overweight as defined by Body Mass Index (BMI) or not overweight, in a continuous morbidity registration in four general practices during the period 1967-83. Responses were received from 455 men (182 overweight) and 790 women (386 overweight), ages 26-66 years. Response rate (71 per cent) and age distribution (mean age 48) were similar in overweight and non-overweight groups of both sexes. BMI was correlated with the total number of complaints in women (r = 0.15) but not in men (r = 0.07). Multiple regression analysis revealed, however, that age was an effect modifier in this relation, there being a negative association between BMI and subjective health in younger men and a positive association in older men, whereas in women the association between BMI and subjective health was much more pronounced at younger ages than at older ages. In addition, current smoking habits and social class (in men and women) and reported slimming behavior (in women) had an independent relation to the total number of health complaints. BMI was also related to specific complaints and groups of complaints, particularly in women. PMID:3777287

  12. Explaining Differences in Subjective Well-Being Across 33 Nations Using Multilevel Models: Universal Personality, Cultural Relativity, and National Income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Cecilia; Cheung, Mike W-L; Montasem, Alex

    2016-02-01

    This multinational study simultaneously tested three prominent hypotheses--universal disposition, cultural relativity, and livability--that explained differences in subjective well-being across nations. We performed multilevel structural equation modeling to examine the hypothesized relationships at both individual and cultural levels in 33 nations. Participants were 6,753 university students (2,215 men; 4,403 women; 135 did not specify), and the average age of the entire sample was 20.97 years (SD = 2.39). Both individual- and cultural-level analyses supported the universal disposition and cultural relativity hypotheses by revealing significant associations of subjective well-being with Extraversion, Neuroticism, and independent self-construal. In addition, interdependent self-construal was positively related to life satisfaction at the individual level only, whereas aggregated negative affect was positively linked with aggregate levels of Extraversion and interdependent self-construal at the cultural level only. Consistent with the livability hypothesis, gross national income (GNI) was related to aggregate levels of negative affect and life satisfaction. There was also a quadratic relationship between GNI and aggregated positive affect. Our findings reveal that universal disposition, cultural self-construal, and national income can elucidate differences in subjective well-being, but the multilevel analyses advance the literature by yielding new findings that cannot be identified in studies using individual-level analyses alone. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Dopamine-related deficit in reward learning after catecholamine depletion in unmedicated, remitted subjects with bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grob, Simona; Pizzagalli, Diego A; Dutra, Sunny J; Stern, Jair; Mörgeli, Hanspeter; Milos, Gabriella; Schnyder, Ulrich; Hasler, Gregor

    2012-07-01

    Disturbances in reward processing have been implicated in bulimia nervosa (BN). Abnormalities in processing reward-related stimuli might be linked to dysfunctions of the catecholaminergic neurotransmitter system, but findings have been inconclusive. A powerful way to investigate the relationship between catecholaminergic function and behavior is to examine behavioral changes in response to experimental catecholamine depletion (CD). The purpose of this study was to uncover putative catecholaminergic dysfunction in remitted subjects with BN who performed a reinforcement-learning task after CD. CD was achieved by oral alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine (AMPT) in 19 unmedicated female subjects with remitted BN (rBN) and 28 demographically matched healthy female controls (HC). Sham depletion administered identical capsules containing diphenhydramine. The study design consisted of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover, single-site experimental trial. The main outcome measures were reward learning in a probabilistic reward task analyzed using signal-detection theory. Secondary outcome measures included self-report assessments, including the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire. Relative to healthy controls, rBN subjects were characterized by blunted reward learning in the AMPT--but not in placebo--condition. Highlighting the specificity of these findings, groups did not differ in their ability to perceptually distinguish between stimuli. Increased CD-induced anhedonic (but not eating disorder) symptoms were associated with a reduced response bias toward a more frequently rewarded stimulus. In conclusion, under CD, rBN subjects showed reduced reward learning compared with healthy control subjects. These deficits uncover disturbance of the central reward processing systems in rBN related to altered brain catecholamine levels, which might reflect a trait-like deficit increasing vulnerability to BN.

  14. Relation of dietary inorganic arsenic exposure and urinary inorganic arsenic metabolites excretion in Japanese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguri, Tomoko; Yoshinaga, Jun; Suzuki, Yayoi; Tao, Hiroaki; Nakazato, Tetsuya

    2017-06-03

    Inorganic arsenic (InAs) is a ubiquitous metalloid that has been shown to exert multiple adverse health outcomes. Urinary InAs and its metabolite concentration has been used as a biomarker of arsenic (As) exposure in some epidemiological studies, however, quantitative relationship between daily InAs exposure and urinary InAs metabolites concentration has not been well characterized. We collected a set of 24-h duplicated diet and spot urine sample of the next morning of diet sampling from 20 male and 19 female subjects in Japan from August 2011 to October 2012. Concentrations of As species in duplicated diet and urine samples were determined by using liquid chromatography-ICP mass spectrometry with a hydride generation system. Sum of the concentrations of urinary InAs and methylarsonic acid (MMA) was used as a measure of InAs exposure. Daily dietary InAs exposure was estimated to be 0.087 µg kg-1 day-1 (Geometric mean, GM), and GM of urinary InAs+MMA concentrations was 3.5 ng mL-1. Analysis of covariance did not find gender-difference in regression coefficients as significant (P > 0.05). Regression equation Log 10 [urinary InAs+MMA concentration] = 0.570× Log 10 [dietary InAs exposure level per body weight] + 1.15 was obtained for whole data set. This equation would be valuable in converting urinary InAs concentration to daily InAs exposure, which will be important information in risk assessment.

  15. Traits related to species persistence and dispersal explain changes in plant communities subjected to habitat loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marini, Lorenzo; Bruun, Hans Henrik; Heikkinen, Risto

    2012-01-01

    Aim Habitat fragmentation is a major driver of biodiversity loss but it is insufficiently known how much its effects vary among species with different life-history traits; especially in plant communities, the understanding of the role of traits related to species persistence and dispersal...... of habitat loss on plant species richness was pervasive across different regions, whereas the effect of habitat isolation on species richness was not evident. This area effect was, however, not equal for all the species, and life-history traits related to both species persistence and dispersal modified plant...... sensitivity to habitat loss, indicating that both landscape and local processes determined large-scale dynamics of plant communities. High competitive ability for light, annual life cycle and animal dispersal emerged as traits enabling species to cope with habitat loss. Main conclusions In highly fragmented...

  16. Deformations of the vacuum solutions of general relativity subjected to linear constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, C.

    2013-12-01

    The problem of deforming geometries is particularly important in the context of constructing new exact solutions of Einstein’s equation. This issue often appears when extensions of the general relativity are treated, for instance in brane world scenarios. In this paper we investigate spacetimes in which the energy-momentum tensor obeys a linear constraint. Extensions of the usual vacuum and electrovacuum solutions of general relativity are derived and an exact solution is presented. The classes of geometries obtained include a wide variety of compact objects, among them black holes and wormholes. The general metric derived in this work generalizes several solutions already published in the literature. Perturbations around the exact solution are also considered.

  17. Task-related oxygen uptake and symptoms during activities of daily life in CHF patients and healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruit, Martijn A; Wouters, Emiel F M; Eterman, Rose-Mieke A; Meijer, Kenneth; Wagers, Scott S; Stakenborg, Koen H P; Uszko-Lencer, Nicole H M K

    2011-08-01

    Patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) have a significantly lower peak aerobic capacity compared to healthy subjects, and, may therefore experience more inconvenience during the performance of domestic activities of daily life (ADLs). To date, the extent to which task-related oxygen uptake, heart rate, ventilation and symptoms during the performance of ADLs in CHF patients is different than in healthy subjects remains uncertain. General demographics, pulmonary function, body composition and peak aerobic capacity were assessed in 23 CHF outpatients and 20 healthy peers. In addition, the metabolic requirement of five simple self-paced domestic ADLs was assessed using a mobile oxycon. Task-related oxygen uptake (ml/min) was similar or lower in CHF patients compared to healthy subjects. In contrast, patients with CHF performing ADLs consumed oxygen at a higher proportion of their peak aerobic capacity than healthy subjects (p CHF experience use a higher proportion of their peak aerobic capacity, peak ventilation and peak heart rate during the performance of simple self-paced domestic ADL than their healthy peers. These findings represent a necessary step in improving our understanding of improving what troubles patients the most-not being able to do the things that they could when they were healthy.

  18. Biomarkers of nutrition and stress in pregnant women with a history of eating disorders in relation to head circumference and neurocognitive function of the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koubaa, Saloua; Hällström, Tore; Brismar, Kerstin; Hellström, Per M; Hirschberg, Angelica Lindén

    2015-11-27

    Eating disorders during pregnancy can affect fetal growth and the child's early development, but the underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate serum biomarkers of nutrition and stress in pregnant women with previous eating disorders compared to controls and in relation to head circumference and early neurocognitive development of the offspring. In a longitudinal cohort study, pregnant nulliparous non-smoking women with a history of anorexia nervosa (n = 20), bulimia nervosa (n = 17) and controls (n = 59) were followed during pregnancy and their children's growth and neurocognitive development were followed up to five years of age. We investigated maternal serum biomarkers of nutrition and stress (ferritin, cortisol, thyroid-stimulating hormone, free thyroxine, insulin, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and IGF binding protein 1) in blood samples collected during early pregnancy and compared between groups (ANOVA, LSD post-hoc test). The results were related to previous data on head circumference at birth and neurocognitive development at five years of age of the offspring (Spearman rank correlation or Pearson correlation test). Serum levels of ferritin in the women with previous anorexia nervosa, but not in those with a history of bulimia nervosa, were significantly lower than in the controls (p eating disorders are positively associated with fetal head growth.

  19. Core subjects at the end of primary school: identifying and explaining relative strengths of children with specific language impairment (SLI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, Kevin; Mok, Pearl L H; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2015-01-01

    In general, children with specific language impairment (SLI) tend to fall behind their typically developing (TD) peers in educational attainment. Less is known about how children with SLI fare in particular areas of the curriculum and what predicts their levels of performance. To compare the distributions of performance of children with SLI in three core school subjects (English, Mathematics and Science); to test the possibility that performance would vary across the core subjects; and to examine the extent to which language impairment predicts performance. This study was conducted in England and reports historical data on educational attainments. Teacher assessment and test scores of 176 eleven-year-old children with SLI were examined in the three core subjects and compared with known national norms. Possible predictors of performance were measured, including language ability at ages 7 and 11, educational placement type, and performance IQ. Children with SLI, compared with national norms, were found to be at a disadvantage in core school subjects. Nevertheless, some children attained the levels expected of TD peers. Performance was poorest in English; relative strengths were indicated in Science and, to a lesser extent, in Mathematics. Language skills were significant predictors of performance in all three core subjects. PIQ was the strongest predictor for Mathematics. For Science, both early language skills at 7 years and PIQ made significant contributions. Language impacts on the school performance of children with SLI, but differentially across subjects. English for these children is the most challenging of the core subjects, reflecting the high levels of language demand it incurs. Science is an area of relative strength and mathematics appears to be intermediate, arguably because some tasks in these subjects can be performed with less reliance on verbal processing. Many children with SLI do have the potential to reach or exceed educational targets that are set

  20. Changes in salivary microbiota increase volatile sulfur compounds production in healthy male subjects with academic-related chronic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nani, Bruno Dias; Lima, Patricia Oliveira de; Marcondes, Fernanda Klein; Groppo, Francisco Carlos; Rolim, Gustavo Sattolo; Moraes, Antonio Bento Alves de; Cogo-Müller, Karina; Franz-Montan, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the associations among salivary bacteria, oral emanations of volatile sulfur compounds, and academic-related chronic stress in healthy male subjects. Seventy-eight healthy male undergraduate dental students were classified as stressed or not by evaluation of burnout, a syndrome attributed to academic-related chronic stress. This evaluation was carried out using the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey questionnaire. Oral emanations of hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, and dimethyl sulfide were measured using an Oral Chroma™ portable gas chromatograph. The amounts in saliva of total bacteria and seven bacteria associated with halitosis were quantified by qPCR. The in vitro production of H2S by S. moorei and/or F. nucleatum was also measured with the Oral Chroma™ instrument. The stressed students group showed increased oral emanations of hydrogen sulfide and dimethyl sulfide, together with higher salivary Solobacterium moorei levels (p stressed group (p stressed subjects.

  1. Advances and trends of head-up and head-down display systems in automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancur, J. Alejandro; Osorio-Gomez, Gilberto; Agudelo, J. David

    2014-06-01

    Currently, in the automotive industry the interaction between drivers and Augmented Reality (AR) systems is a subject of analysis, especially the identification of advantages and risks that this kind of interaction represents. Consequently, this paper attempts to put in evidence the potential applications of Head-Up (Display (HUD) and Head-Down Display (HDD) systems in automotive vehicles, showing applications and trends under study. In general, automotive advances related to AR devices suggest the partial integration of the HUD and HDD in automobiles; however, the right way to do it is still a moot point.

  2. Eating-related concerns, mood, and personality traits in recovered bulimia nervosa subjects: a replication study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, D; Kaye, W H; Matsunaga, H; Orbach, I; Har-Even, D; Frank, G; McConaha, C W; Rao, R

    2002-09-01

    Limited data suggest that eating-related concerns and behaviors, disturbances in mood, and altered temperament persist following recovery from bulimia nervosa (BN). In order to replicate and extend such findings, 11 women who were long-term recovered from BN (>1 year with no binging, purging, or restricting behaviors, normal weight, and regular menstrual cycles) were compared with 15 healthy volunteer women on the Eating Disorders Invertory-2 (EDI-2), the Beck Depression Inventory, the State Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ). Compared with the control women, the recovered BN women showed elevated levels of the EDI-2 subscales of Drive for Thinness, Body Dissatisfaction, Ineffectiveness, Perfectionism, and Social Insecurity, greater depression and anxiety, elevated levels of the MPQ Stress Reaction dimension and the higher-order factor of Negative Emotionality, and lower levels of the MPQ Well Being and Closeness dimensions. Core eating and weight-related concerns, dysphoric affect, social discomfort, and personality traits indicative of perfectionism persist following long-term recovery from BN. Copyright 2002 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Pharmacokinetics of nebulized and oral procaterol in asthmatic and non-asthmatic subjects in relation to doping analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Nanna; Backer, Vibeke; Rzeppa, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate pharmacokinetics of procaterol in asthmatics and non-asthmatics after nebulized and oral administration in relation to doping. Ten asthmatic and ten non-asthmatic subjects underwent two pharmacokinetic trials. At first trial, 4 μg procaterol was...... after nebulized administration. For doping control purposes, our observations indicate that it is possible to differentiate therapeutic nebulized administration of procaterol from proh ib ited use of oral procaterol....

  4. Cancer fear and fatalism: how African American participants construct the role of research subject in relation to clinical cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somayaji, Darryl; Cloyes, Kristin Gates

    2015-01-01

    Lack of African American participation in cancer clinical trials has been identified as a critical problem. Historical interactions related to race, identity, and power may contribute to continued inequity in healthcare and research participation. The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions of African Americans regarding cancer and research and how these perceptions shape their beliefs about participating as cancer research subjects. Three African American focus groups were conducted including people who had never participated in cancer research, those who had, and those who were asked but refused (n = 16). Discussion focused on their perceptions of cancer research and actual or potential participation as research subjects. Data were coded using both structured and inductive coding methods. Fear and fatalism emerged in relation to research, race, power, and identity and were related to larger historical and social issues rather than only individual thoughts or feelings. Participants described fears of the unknown, death, mistrust, conspiracy, and discrimination together with positive/negative tensions between self, family, and community responsibilities. Complex identities linked perceptions of cancer and cancer research with broader historical and cultural issues. Fear, fatalism, and current and historical relationships influence how people perceive themselves as research subjects and may influence their decisions to participate in cancer research. Acknowledging how complex factors including race and racism contribute to health disparities may give nurses and other healthcare providers a better appreciation of how historical, social, and cultural dynamics at individual, community, and organizational levels influence access to and participation in cancer research.

  5. Objective-subjective disparity in cancer-related cognitive impairment: does the use of change measures help reconcile the difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Farrell, Erin; Smith, Andra; Collins, Barbara

    2017-10-01

    Studies to date have found little correlation between subjective and objective measures of cognitive function in cancer patients, making it difficult to interpret the significance of their cognitive complaints. The purpose of this study was to determine if a stronger correlation would be obtained using measures of cognitive change rather than static scores. Sixty women with early stage breast cancer underwent repeated cognitive assessment over the course of chemotherapy with a neuropsychological test battery (objective measure) and with the FACT-Cog (subjective measure). Their results were compared to 60 healthy women matched on age and education and assessed at similar intervals. We used multilevel modeling, with FACT-Cog as the dependent measure and ordinary least squares slopes of a neuropsychological summary score as the independent variable, to evaluate the co-variation between the subjective and objective measures over time RESULTS: Measures of both objective and subjective cognitive function declined over the course of chemotherapy in the breast cancer patients but there was no significant relationship between them, even when using change measures. Change in objective cognitive function was not related to change in anxiety or fatigue scores but the decline in perceived cognitive function was associated with greater anxiety and fatigue. The discrepancy in objective and subjective measures of cognition in breast cancer patients cannot be accounted for in terms of a failure to use change measures. Although the results are negative, we contend that this is the more appropriate methodology for analyzing cancer-related changes in cognition. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Intercultural relations in Kabardino-Balkaria: Does integration always lead to subjective well-being?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lepshokova Z. Kh.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The project Mutual Intercultural Research in Plural Societies was designed to examine three hypotheses of intercultural relations: the multiculturalism hypothesis, the integration hypothesis, and the contact hypothesis. These hypotheses were derived from the Canadian multiculturalism policy (Berry, 1984, and their validity has been assessed in a number of countries. Our goal was to evaluate these hypotheses in Russia (Moscow and Latvia (Riga. We used sociopsychological surveys of two dominant groups (Russian Muscovites and Latvians in Riga and two nondominant groups (migrants from the Caucasus in Moscow and the Russian minority in Riga employing structural equation modeling. A sense of perceived security promoted tolerance toward other cultural groups in three of the samples. Perceived security was related significantly to multicultural ideology in Riga, but there was no significant relationship to multicultural ideology in the Moscow samples. A preference for the integration strategy among the migrants in Moscow as well as among the Russians in Latvia promoted their better sociocultural adaptation and had a significant impact on the life satisfaction of the Muscovites but had no impact on the Latvian sample in Riga. Our results provided some support for the effect of intercultural contact on the acceptance of others in three of the groups: the migrants in Moscow, the Russian minority in Riga, and the dominant group in Moscow. However, among the Russians in Riga, the relationship between contacts and perceived security was negative. The multiculturalism hypothesis was confirmed with the dominant group in Riga and was partly confirmed with both the dominant and the nondominant groups in Moscow and with the Russian minority in Riga. The contact hypothesis received partial support with both groups in Moscow and the Russian minority in Riga but was not confirmed with the Latvians in Riga. There was partial support for the role of the integration

  7. Damage assessment of bridge infrastructure subjected to flood-related hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalis, Panagiotis; Cahill, Paul; Bekić, Damir; Kerin, Igor; Pakrashi, Vikram; Lapthorne, John; Morais, João Gonçalo Martins Paulo; McKeogh, Eamon

    2017-04-01

    Transportation assets represent a critical component of society's infrastructure systems. Flood-related hazards are considered one of the main climate change impacts on highway and railway infrastructure, threatening the security and functionality of transportation systems. Of such hazards, flood-induced scour is a primarily cause of bridge collapses worldwide and one of the most complex and challenging water flow and erosion phenomena, leading to structural instability and ultimately catastrophic failures. Evaluation of scour risk under severe flood events is a particularly challenging issue considering that depth of foundations is very difficult to evaluate in water environment. The continual inspection, assessment and maintenance of bridges and other hydraulic structures under extreme flood events requires a multidisciplinary approach, including knowledge and expertise of hydraulics, hydrology, structural engineering, geotechnics and infrastructure management. The large number of bridges under a single management unit also highlights the need for efficient management, information sharing and self-informing systems to provide reliable, cost-effective flood and scour risk management. The "Intelligent Bridge Assessment Maintenance and Management System" (BRIDGE SMS) is an EU/FP7 funded project which aims to couple state-of-the art scientific expertise in multidisciplinary engineering sectors with industrial knowledge in infrastructure management. This involves the application of integrated low-cost structural health monitoring systems to provide real-time information towards the development of an intelligent decision support tool and a web-based platform to assess and efficiently manage bridge assets. This study documents the technological experience and presents results obtained from the application of sensing systems focusing on the damage assessment of water-hazards at bridges over watercourses in Ireland. The applied instrumentation is interfaced with an open

  8. Head Lice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1044-1047. Canyon, DV, Speare R, et al . “Spatial and kinetic factors for the transfer of head ... for children. Natural products can give parents false sense of safety If using a natural product or ...

  9. Peer-review process in journals dealing with chemistry and related subjects published in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dekanski Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted among editors of journals publishing in the field of chemistry, chemical technology and related topics in Serbia, aiming to collect information on their experience, problems and difficulties during peer-review process. Editors from 22 journals out of 27 which regularly published during 2015 replied. General data on journals were collected from responses obtained from editors-in-chief, whereas all editors (including sub-editors and section editors participated in a questionnaire concerning peer-review procedure. Additionally, they were asked to evaluate quality of reports and attitude of reviewers, discuss present situation and suggest measures to improve peer-review process. Greatest problems encountered by editors in peer-review process can be summarized as follows: low rate of acceptance to review, low quality of reports, sometimes due to reviewer’s bias or his/her inability to properly understand review process. A method used to search for reviewers does not substantially influence quality of reports. Editors agree that introduction of On-Line process and creation of precise instructions for reviewers, education of potential reviewers, as well as social, public and professional recognition and appreciation of reviewers’ work, are the most important measures to improve quality of peer-review process and, consecutively, quality of published articles and journals.

  10. Arithmetical calculation and related neuropsychological skills in subjects with isolated oral clefts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Jon W; Conrad, Amy L; Ansley, Timothy; Nopoulos, Peg

    2017-10-01

    The current study examined whether the arithmetical calculation skills of children, adolescents, and young adults with isolated cleft of the lip and/or palate (iCL/P) differ significantly from unaffected control participants. Comparisons of potential neuropsychological predictors of arithmetical calculation were also conducted to determine whether these variables differ significantly for participants with iCL/P. Participants (N = 176; 93 iCL/P and 83 Control) ranged in age from 7 to 26 years old. A standardized battery of achievement and neuropsychological skills was administered. Between group differences on math achievement was assessed through a univariate analysis of covariance. Relationships between neuropsychological measures and math achievement were analyzed separately for participants with iCL/P and controls through hierarchical linear regressions. Arithmetical calculation was significantly lower for the iCL/P group. Rapid naming, sustained attention, and visual-spatial organization were significant predictors for the iCL/P group; rapid naming was the lone variable that was significantly more predictive of arithmetical calculation for the iCL/P group than for control participants. These results suggest that inefficient verbal label retrieval related to short-term memory (STM) deficits underlie the calculation difficulties of individuals with iCL/P. These findings have implications for approaches to remediation, as well as future research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. An experiential thinking style: its facets and relations with objective and subjective criterion measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Paul; Epstein, Seymour

    2011-10-01

    In Study 1, an experiential factor divided into the following 3 factors when 3 or more factors were extracted: intuition, emotionality, and imagination; whereas a rational factor retained its coherence. In Study 2, an experiential but not a rational thinking style was positively associated with performance measures of creativity, humor, aesthetic judgment, and intuition and with self-report measures of empathy and social popularity. A rational thinking style was associated with several measures of adjustment. Both thinking styles were positively related to personal growth. Support was provided from several sources for the discriminant validity of the experiential facets. In a third study, the independence of the 2 thinking styles and of gender differences in self-reported data were verified by observations by others of participants' thinking styles. The importance of identifying facets of an experiential thinking style and of discovering previously unrecognized favorable attributes of this thinking style was discussed. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Personality © 2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Selected biomarkers of age-related diseases in older subjects with different nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajcovicova-Kudlackova, M; Babinska, K; Blazicek, P; Valachovicova, M; Spustova, V; Mislanova, C; Paukova, V

    2011-01-01

    The nutritionists introduce on the base of epidemiological and clinical studies that appropriately planned vegetarian diets are healthful, and may provide health benefits in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases. Aging belongs to the main risks of cardiovascular disease. Markers of age-related diseases (cardiovascular, metabolic syndrome, diabetes) were assessed in two nutritional groups of older apparently healthy non-obese non-smoking women aged 60-70 years, 45 vegetarians (lacto-ovo-vegetarians and semi-vegetarians) and 38 non-vegetarians (control group on a traditional mixed diet, general population). Vegetarian values of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triacylglycerols, C-reactive protein, glucose, insulin and insulin resistance are significantly reduced. Non-vegetarian average values of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and C-reactive protein are risk. Vegetarians have a better antioxidative status (significantly increased vitamin C, lipid-standardized vitamine E and beta-carotene plasma concentrations). Favourable values of cardiovascular risk markers in older vegetarian women document a beneficial effect of vegetarian nutrition in prevention of this disease as well as the vegetarian diet can be an additional factor in therapy. Vegetarians suffer from mild hyperhomocysteinemia; it is due to the lower vitamin B12 concentration. Vitamin B12 supplements are inevitable for the hyperhomocysteinemia prevention (Tab. 2, Ref. 26).

  13. Subjective health expectations of patients with age-related macular degeneration treated with antiVEGF drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péntek, Márta; Brodszky, Valentin; Biró, Zsolt; Kölkedi, Zsófia; Dunai, Árpád; Németh, János; Baji, Petra; Rencz, Fanni; Gulácsi, László; Resch, Miklós D

    2017-10-10

    Subjective expectations regarding future health may influence patients' judgement of current health and treatment effects, as well as adherence to therapies in chronic diseases. We aimed to explore subjective expectations on longevity and future health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) treated with antiVEGF injections and analyse the influencing factors. Consecutive AMD patients in two ophthalmology centres were included. Demographics, clinical characteristics and informal care utilisation were recorded. Current health was evaluated by the EQ-5D generic health status questionnaire and time trade-off (TTO) methods. Happiness was measured on a visual analogue scale (VAS). Subjective life-expectancy and expected EQ-5D status at ages 70, 80 and 90 were surveyed. T-test was applied to compare subgroups and Pearson correlations were performed to analyse relationships between variables. One hundred twenty two patients were involved (females 62%) with a mean (SD) age of 75.2 (7.9) years and disease duration of 2.9 (2.5) years. The majority were in AREDS-4 state, the better eye's ETDRS was 64.7 (15.4). EQ-5D and TTO revealed moderate deterioration of health (0.66 vs. 0.72, p = 0.131), happiness VAS was 6.3 (2.2). Correlation between EQ-5D and ETDRS was moderate (R = 0.242, p Subjective life-expectancy did not differ significantly from statistical life-expectancy and had no significant impact on TTO. The self-estimated mean EQ-5D score was 0.60, 0.40 and 0.24 for ages 70, 80 and 90 which is lower than the population norm of age-groups 65-74, 75-84 and 85+ (0.77, 0.63 and 0.63, respectively). Age, gender, current EQ-5D, need for informal care and happiness were deterministic factors of subjective health expectations. AMD patients with antiVEGF treatment have comparable HRQOL as the age-matched general public but expect a more severe deterioration of health with age. Older patients with worse HRQOL have worse

  14. Analysis of relative kinematic index with normalized standing time between subjects with and without recurrent low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Paul S; Danial, Pamela

    2017-02-01

    Although subjects with recurrent low back pain (LBP) demonstrate altered postural control, their postural steadiness during one leg standing is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate postural steadiness based on relative kinematic index of the lower limbs and trunk with normalized standing time in subjects with recurrent LBP during dominant and non-dominant leg standing. Sixty individuals participated in the study, including 29 subjects in the control group (18 male, 11 female) and 31 subjects with recurrent LBP (21 male, 10 female). The outcome measures included relative kinematic index of the body regions and normalized standing time during the one leg standing test. The relative kinematic index was the ratio between standstill time and successful standing time. The normalized standing time was defined as a ratio between the successful standing time and the requested standing time. The control group demonstrated significantly longer normalized standing time on the dominant (t = -2.57, p = 0.013) and non-dominant (t = -2.78, p = 0.007) legs than the LBP group. The relative kinematic index of the core spine model significantly decreased for the dominant (t = -3.01, p = 0.004) and non-dominant (t = -3.06, p = 0.003) legs in the LBP group. In addition, the kinematic index indicated pelvis and non-dominant shank during dominant leg standing (R 2 = 0.97) in the LBP group. In the control group, the pelvis was significantly correlated with the core spine model during standing on the dominant (R 2 = 0.95) and non-dominant (R 2 = 0.97) legs. The relative kinematic index of the pelvis was found to be most significant for longer standing durations in both groups. In the LBP group, the shank and foot were significantly higher in addition to the pelvis due to possible compensatory motion. The control group took advantage of pelvic control with the core spine to minimize lower limb movements. Clinicians need to consider the core spine for

  15. Metabolic effects of dark chocolate consumption on energy, gut microbiota, and stress-related metabolism in free-living subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Francois-Pierre J; Rezzi, Serge; Peré-Trepat, Emma; Kamlage, Beate; Collino, Sebastiano; Leibold, Edgar; Kastler, Jürgen; Rein, Dietrich; Fay, Laurent B; Kochhar, Sunil

    2009-12-01

    Dietary preferences influence basal human metabolism and gut microbiome activity that in turn may have long-term health consequences. The present study reports the metabolic responses of free living subjects to a daily consumption of 40 g of dark chocolate for up to 14 days. A clinical trial was performed on a population of 30 human subjects, who were classified in low and high anxiety traits using validated psychological questionnaires. Biological fluids (urine and blood plasma) were collected during 3 test days at the beginning, midtime and at the end of a 2 week study. NMR and MS-based metabonomics were employed to study global changes in metabolism due to the chocolate consumption. Human subjects with higher anxiety trait showed a distinct metabolic profile indicative of a different energy homeostasis (lactate, citrate, succinate, trans-aconitate, urea, proline), hormonal metabolism (adrenaline, DOPA, 3-methoxy-tyrosine) and gut microbial activity (methylamines, p-cresol sulfate, hippurate). Dark chocolate reduced the urinary excretion of the stress hormone cortisol and catecholamines and partially normalized stress-related differences in energy metabolism (glycine, citrate, trans-aconitate, proline, beta-alanine) and gut microbial activities (hippurate and p-cresol sulfate). The study provides strong evidence that a daily consumption of 40 g of dark chocolate during a period of 2 weeks is sufficient to modify the metabolism of free living and healthy human subjects, as per variation of both host and gut microbial metabolism.

  16. Anxiety sensitivity and subjective social status in relation to anxiety and depressive symptoms and disorders among Latinos in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Bakhshaie, Jafar; Garza, Monica; Valdivieso, Jeanette; Ortiz, Mayra; Bogiaizian, Daniel; Robles, Zuzuky; Vujanovic, Anka

    2015-05-01

    The present investigation examined the interactive effects of anxiety sensitivity and subjective social status in relation to anxiety and depressive symptoms and psychopathology among 143 Latinos (85.7% female; Mage=39.0, SD=10.9; 97.2% used Spanish as their first language) who attended a community-based primary healthcare clinic. Results indicated that the interaction between anxiety sensitivity and subjective social status was significantly associated with number of mood and anxiety disorders, panic, social anxiety, and depressive symptoms. The form of the significant interactions indicated that individuals reporting co-occurring higher levels of anxiety sensitivity and lower levels of subjective social status evidenced the greatest levels of psychopathology and panic, social anxiety, and depressive symptoms. The present findings suggest that there is merit in focusing further scientific attention on the interplay between anxiety sensitivity and subjective social status in regard to understanding, and thus, better intervening to reduce anxiety/depressive vulnerability among Latinos in primary care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Head First Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, Dawn

    2009-01-01

    Wouldn't it be great if there were a statistics book that made histograms, probability distributions, and chi square analysis more enjoyable than going to the dentist? Head First Statistics brings this typically dry subject to life, teaching you everything you want and need to know about statistics through engaging, interactive, and thought-provoking material, full of puzzles, stories, quizzes, visual aids, and real-world examples. Whether you're a student, a professional, or just curious about statistical analysis, Head First's brain-friendly formula helps you get a firm grasp of statistics

  18. Predicting self-rated mental and physical health: the contributions of subjective socioeconomic status and personal relative deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callan, Mitchell J; Kim, Hyunji; Matthews, William J

    2015-01-01

    Lower subjective socioeconomic status (SSS) and higher personal relative deprivation (PRD) relate to poorer health. Both constructs concern people's perceived relative social position, but they differ in their emphasis on the reference groups people use to determine their comparative disadvantage (national population vs. similar others) and the importance of resentment that may arise from such adverse comparisons. We investigated the relative utility of SSS and PRD as predictors of self-rated physical and mental health (e.g., self-rated health, stress, health complaints). Across six studies, self-rated physical and mental health were on the whole better predicted by measures of PRD than by SSS while controlling for objective socioeconomic status (SES), with SSS rarely contributing unique variance over and above PRD and SES. Studies 4-6 discount the possibility that the superiority of PRD over SSS in predicting health is due to psychometric differences (e.g., reliability) or response biases between the measures.

  19. Is loss of fixation following locked plating of proximal humeral fractures related to the number of screws and their positions in the humeral head?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Maddah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine the correlation between the chosen position of screws and the complications observed in patients who underwent locked plating of proximal humeral fractures. We evaluated radiographs of 367 patients treated by locked-plating for proximal humeral fractures. Radiographs were taken at one day, 6 weeks, 3 months and 6 months after surgery, and were analyzed for secondary fracture displacement, loss of fixation, cutting out of screws and necrosis of the humeral head. Secondary loss of fixation occurred in 58 cases (15.8% and among those cutting out of screws was observed in 25 cases (6.8%. In cases of secondary loss of fixation a mean of 6.7 screws were used to fix the fracture (vs 6.6, P=0.425. There was neither significant correlation between position of screws and the occurrence of postoperative loss of fixation in Spearman correlation nor relationship from backward logistic regression analysis. Loss of fixation following locked plating of proximal humeral fractures does not relate to the number of screws and their positions in the humeral head. In consequence, anatomic fracture reduction and restoration of the humeral head-shaft angle are still important factors and should not be disregarded.

  20. [Concordance between a head circumference growth function and intellectual disability in relation with the cause of microcephaly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado, R; Macaya Ruíz, A; Giraldo Arjonilla, J; Roig-Quilis, M

    2015-08-01

    Our aim was to investigate the correlations between patterns of head growth and intellectual disability among distinct aetiological presentations of microcephaly. 3,269 head circumference (HC) charts of patients from a tertiary neuropediatric unit were reviewed and 136 microcephalic participants selected. Using the Z-scores of registered HC measurements we defined the variables: HC Minimum, HC Drop and HC Catch-up. We classified patients according to the presence or absence of intellectual disability (IQ below 71) and according to the cause of microcephaly (idiopathic, familial, syndromic, symptomatic and mixed). Using Discriminant Analysis a C-function was defined as C=HC Minimum + HC Drop with a cut-off level of C=-4.32 Z-score. In our sample 95% of patients scoring below this level, severe microcephaly, were classified in the disabled group while the overall concordance was 66%. In the symptomatic-mixed group the concordance between HC function and outcome reached 82% in contrast to only 54% in the idiopathic-syndromic group (P-value=0.0002). We defined a HC growth function which discriminates intellectual disability of microcephalic patients better than isolated HC measurements, especially for those with secondary and mixed aetiologies. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. The impact of oral rehabilitation on oral health-related quality of life in patients receiving radiotherapy for the treatment of head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweyen, Ramona; Kuhnt, Thomas; Wienke, Andreas; Eckert, Alexander; Hey, Jeremias

    2017-05-01

    To analyze the influence of dental treatment on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in head and neck cancer patients. This study included the data of 116 patients who underwent radiotherapy (RT) because of head and neck cancer. For each patient, the variables age, sex, tumor site, irradiation technique, dose on the spared parotid gland, concomitant chemotherapy, and denture status were documented. OHRQoL was determined using the OHIP-G14 questionnaire. Patients were divided into subgroups according to denture status: none or fixed partial dentures (none/FPD), removable partial dentures (RPD), and full dentures (CD). OHIP summary scores were determined and tested for clinical relevant differences with respect to the different variables. The association between OHRQol and the variables was assessed using linear regression. No clinically relevant influence on OHRQoL was found for gender, irradiation technique, and chemotherapy. Patients with tumors located in the oral cavity had a significantly higher OHIP score than patients with other tumor sites (p < 0.001). None/FPD and RPD patients had higher values than those found in a normal population, but did not differ significantly from each other (p = 0.387). In contrast to tumor site, teeth and type of denture seem to have a limited effect on OHRQoL in head and neck cancer patients. Prosthetic treatment in head and neck cancer patients do not lead to the same improvement in OHRQoL as found in the normal population. This might be taken into account especially if extensive dental treatment is intended.

  2. The impact of emotion regulation and illness-focused coping strategies on the relation of illness-related negative emotions to subjective health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karademas, Evangelos C; Tsalikou, Calliope; Tallarou, Maria-Christina

    2011-04-01

    In this study we examined whether emotion regulation and illness-focused coping strategies mediate and/ or moderate the relation of illness-related negative emotions to patients' subjective health. One hundred and thirty-five cardiac patients participated in the study. Illness-focused coping strategies were found to mediate the relation of emotions to physical functioning, whereas emotion regulation strategies mediated the relation to psychological well-being. Moreover, an emotion regulation strategy (i.e. emotion suppression) and two illness-focused coping strategies (instrumental coping and adherence) moderated the two relationships. These findings suggest that both emotion regulation and illness-focused coping strategies are integral parts of the illness-related negative emotions-health relationship.

  3. Task value profiles across subjects and aspirations to physical and IT-related sciences in the United States and Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Angela; Eccles, Jacquelynne S; Salmela-Aro, Katariina

    2012-11-01

    Two independent studies were conducted to extend previous research by examining the associations between task value priority patterns across school subjects and aspirations toward the physical and information technology- (IT-) related sciences. Study 1 measured task values of a sample of 10th graders in the United States (N = 249) across (a) physics and chemistry, (b) math, and (c) English. Study 2 measured task values of a sample of students in the second year of high school in Finland (N = 351) across (a) math and science, (b) Finnish, and (c) the arts and physical education. In both studies, students were classified into groups according to how they ranked math and science in relation to the other subjects. Regression analyses indicated that task value group membership significantly predicted subsequent aspirations toward physical and IT-related sciences measured 1-2 years later. The task value groups who placed the highest priority on math and science were significantly more likely to aspire to physical and IT-related sciences than were the other groups. These findings provide support for the theoretical assumption regarding the predictive role of intraindividual hierarchical patterns of task values for subsequent preferences and choices suggested by the Eccles [Parsons] (1983) expectancy-value model.

  4. Age-related cutoffs for cervical movement behaviour to distinguish chronic idiopathic neck pain patients from unimpaired subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederer, Daniel; Vogt, Lutz; Wilke, Jan; Rickert, Marcus; Banzer, Winfried

    2015-03-01

    The present study aims to develop age-dependent cutoff values in a quasi-experimental, cross-sectional diagnostic test study. One hundred and twenty (120) asymptomatic subjects (n = 100, 36♀, 18 75 years, for normative values; n = 20, 23-75 years, 15♀, for selectivity analyses) and 20 patients suffering from idiopathic neck pain (selectivity analyses, 22-71 years, 15♀) were included. Subjects performed five repetitive maximal cervical flexion/extension movements in an upright sitting position. Cervical kinematic characteristics (maximal range of motion (ROM), coefficient of variation (CV) and mean conjunct movements in rotation and flexion (CM)) were calculated from raw 3D ultrasonic data. Regression analyses were conducted to reveal associations between kinematic characteristics and age and gender and thus to determine normative values for healthy subjects. Age explains 53 % of the variance in ROM (decrease 10.2° per decade), 13 % in CV (increase 0.003 per decade) and 9 % in CM (increase 0.57° per decade). Receivers operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were conducted for differences between individual values of the kinematic characteristics and normative values to optimise cutoff values for distinguishing patients from unimpaired subjects (20 patients and 20 healthy). Cutoff values distinguished asymptomatic subjects' and chronic nonspecific neck patient's movement characteristics with sufficient quality (sensitivity 70-80 %, specificity 65-70 %). By including such classifications, the present findings expand actual research stating an age-related decrease in kinematic behaviour only using categorising span widths across decades. Future study is warranted to reveal our results' potential applicability for intervention onset decision making for idiopathic neck pain patients.

  5. Resting state cortical electroencephalographic rhythms are related to gray matter volume in subjects with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiloni, Claudio; Carducci, Filippo; Lizio, Roberta; Vecchio, Fabrizio; Baglieri, Annalisa; Bernardini, Silvia; Cavedo, Enrica; Bozzao, Alessandro; Buttinelli, Carla; Esposito, Fabrizio; Giubilei, Franco; Guizzaro, Antonio; Marino, Silvia; Montella, Patrizia; Quattrocchi, Carlo C; Redolfi, Alberto; Soricelli, Andrea; Tedeschi, Gioacchino; Ferri, Raffaele; Rossi-Fedele, Giancarlo; Ursini, Francesca; Scrascia, Federica; Vernieri, Fabrizio; Pedersen, Torleif Jan; Hardemark, Hans-Goran; Rossini, Paolo M; Frisoni, Giovanni B

    2013-06-01

    Cortical gray matter volume and resting state cortical electroencephalographic rhythms are typically abnormal in subjects with amnesic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we tested the hypothesis that in amnesic MCI and AD subjects, abnormalities of EEG rhythms are a functional reflection of cortical atrophy across the disease. Eyes-closed resting state EEG data were recorded in 57 healthy elderly (Nold), 102 amnesic MCI, and 108 AD patients. Cortical gray matter volume was indexed by magnetic resonance imaging recorded in the MCI and AD subjects according to Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative project (http://www.adni-info.org/). EEG rhythms of interest were delta (2-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha1 (8-10.5 Hz), alpha2 (10.5-13 Hz), beta1 (13-20 Hz), beta2 (20-30 Hz), and gamma (30-40 Hz). These rhythms were indexed by LORETA. Compared with the Nold, the MCI showed a decrease in amplitude of alpha 1 sources. With respect to the Nold and MCI, the AD showed an amplitude increase of delta sources, along with a strong amplitude reduction of alpha 1 sources. In the MCI and AD subjects as a whole group, the lower the cortical gray matter volume, the higher the delta sources, the lower the alpha 1 sources. The better the score to cognitive tests the higher the gray matter volume, the lower the pathological delta sources, and the higher the alpha sources. These results suggest that in amnesic MCI and AD subjects, abnormalities of resting state cortical EEG rhythms are not epiphenomena but are strictly related to neurodegeneration (atrophy of cortical gray matter) and cognition. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Factors related to physicians' willingness to vaccinate girls against HPV: the importance of subjective norms and perceived behavioral control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askelson, Natoshia M; Campo, Shelly; Lowe, John B; Dennis, Leslie K; Smith, Sandi; Andsager, Julie

    2010-03-01

    This study assessed factors related to physicians' intentions to vaccinate patients against human papillomavirus. A random sample of physicians was surveyed. The survey questions focused on the constructs of the Theory of Planned Behavior. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate the relationship of theoretical constructs to intention to vaccinate. Of the 207 physicians who responded, intentions to vaccinate were very high (86.5%). On a scale of 1 to 7 (strongly disagree to strongly agree) physicians had positive attitudes toward the vaccine. Physicians reported the vaccine was a good idea (M = 6.65, SD = 0.79), beneficial (M = 6.64, SD = 0.76), and protected against cervical cancer (M = 6.63, SD = 0.77). Intention to vaccinate was driven by subjective norms (provided by guidelines or standards of practice by important professional and general referent groups) (beta = 1.00, p subjective norms, such as those provided by professional organizations.

  7. Unsteady-state human-body exergy consumption rate and its relation to subjective assessment of dynamic thermal environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schweiker, Marcel; Kolarik, Jakub; Dovjak, Mateja

    2016-01-01

    Few examples studied applicability of exergy analysis on human thermal comfort. These examples relate the human-body exergy consumption rate with subjectively obtained thermal sensation votes and had been based on steady-state calculation methods. However, humans are rarely exposed to steady...... between the human-body exergy consumption rate and subjective assessment of thermal environment represented by thermal sensation as well as to extend the investigation towards thermal acceptability votes. Comparison of steady-state and unsteady-state model showed that results from both models were...... of the present study confirmed previously indicated trends that lowest human body exergy consumption rate is associated with thermal sensation close to neutrality. Moreover, higher acceptability was in general associated with lower human body exergy consumption rate. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  8. School Achievement and Performance in Chilean High Schools: The Mediating Role of Subjective Wellbeing in School-Related Evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica López

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available School achievement gaps and school failure are problematic issues in Latin America, and are mainly explained by the socio-economic status (SES of the students. What schools can do to improve school achievement and reduce school failure is a critical issue, both for school management and teacher training. In this study, we present the association of individual and school-related socio-emotional variables with school achievement and performance, controlling for the effects of SES. A probabilistic sample of 4,964 students, drawn from 191 schools enrolled in year 10 in urban areas of Chile, answered questionnaires assessing subjective wellbeing, social wellbeing in school, school climate, school social wellbeing and students’ perceptions of teachers’ wellbeing. Using structural equation modeling, and controlling for SES, we modeled subjective wellbeing as a mediator of the relationship between school-related variables, such as school climate and perception of teacher’s wellbeing, and (a school achievement, and (b school performance. School achievement was computed as a product of (a the probability of passing the school year, and (b the percentage of yearly attendance at school. Data on school achievement was drawn from administrative registries from the Chilean Ministry of Education. School performance was computed as the estimated grade point average (GPA at the end of the school year, based on the students’ previous 5-year GPAs, and was also obtained through administrative data of the last 5 years. Findings reveal the mediating role of subjective wellbeing in the relationship between school-related evaluations (students’ social wellbeing at school, their perception of teachers’ wellbeing and school climate and school achievement. For school achievement, two variables were mediated (students’ social wellbeing at school and school climate. However, for school performance, no significant mediations were found. We conclude that, on the

  9. School Achievement and Performance in Chilean High Schools: The Mediating Role of Subjective Wellbeing in School-Related Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Verónica; Oyanedel, Juan C.; Bilbao, Marian; Torres, Javier; Oyarzún, Denise; Morales, Macarena; Ascorra, Paula; Carrasco, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    School achievement gaps and school failure are problematic issues in Latin America, and are mainly explained by the socio-economic status (SES) of the students. What schools can do to improve school achievement and reduce school failure is a critical issue, both for school management and teacher training. In this study, we present the association of individual and school-related socio-emotional variables with school achievement and performance, controlling for the effects of SES. A probabilistic sample of 4,964 students, drawn from 191 schools enrolled in year 10 in urban areas of Chile, answered questionnaires assessing subjective wellbeing, social wellbeing in school, school climate, school social wellbeing and students’ perceptions of teachers’ wellbeing. Using structural equation modeling, and controlling for SES, we modeled subjective wellbeing as a mediator of the relationship between school-related variables, such as school climate and perception of teacher’s wellbeing, and (a) school achievement, and (b) school performance. School achievement was computed as a product of (a) the probability of passing the school year, and (b) the percentage of yearly attendance at school. Data on school achievement was drawn from administrative registries from the Chilean Ministry of Education. School performance was computed as the estimated grade point average (GPA) at the end of the school year, based on the students’ previous 5-year GPAs, and was also obtained through administrative data of the last 5 years. Findings reveal the mediating role of subjective wellbeing in the relationship between school-related evaluations (students’ social wellbeing at school, their perception of teachers’ wellbeing and school climate) and school achievement. For school achievement, two variables were mediated (students’ social wellbeing at school and school climate). However, for school performance, no significant mediations were found. We conclude that, on the one hand

  10. School Achievement and Performance in Chilean High Schools: The Mediating Role of Subjective Wellbeing in School-Related Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Verónica; Oyanedel, Juan C; Bilbao, Marian; Torres, Javier; Oyarzún, Denise; Morales, Macarena; Ascorra, Paula; Carrasco, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    School achievement gaps and school failure are problematic issues in Latin America, and are mainly explained by the socio-economic status (SES) of the students. What schools can do to improve school achievement and reduce school failure is a critical issue, both for school management and teacher training. In this study, we present the association of individual and school-related socio-emotional variables with school achievement and performance, controlling for the effects of SES. A probabilistic sample of 4,964 students, drawn from 191 schools enrolled in year 10 in urban areas of Chile, answered questionnaires assessing subjective wellbeing, social wellbeing in school, school climate, school social wellbeing and students' perceptions of teachers' wellbeing. Using structural equation modeling, and controlling for SES, we modeled subjective wellbeing as a mediator of the relationship between school-related variables, such as school climate and perception of teacher's wellbeing, and (a) school achievement, and (b) school performance. School achievement was computed as a product of (a) the probability of passing the school year, and (b) the percentage of yearly attendance at school. Data on school achievement was drawn from administrative registries from the Chilean Ministry of Education. School performance was computed as the estimated grade point average (GPA) at the end of the school year, based on the students' previous 5-year GPAs, and was also obtained through administrative data of the last 5 years. Findings reveal the mediating role of subjective wellbeing in the relationship between school-related evaluations (students' social wellbeing at school, their perception of teachers' wellbeing and school climate) and school achievement. For school achievement, two variables were mediated (students' social wellbeing at school and school climate). However, for school performance, no significant mediations were found. We conclude that, on the one hand, after

  11. Porcine head response to blast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shridharani, Jay K; Wood, Garrett W; Panzer, Matthew B; Capehart, Bruce P; Nyein, Michelle K; Radovitzky, Raul A; Bass, Cameron R 'dale'

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown an increase in the frequency of traumatic brain injuries related to blast exposure. However, the mechanisms that cause blast neurotrauma are unknown. Blast neurotrauma research using computational models has been one method to elucidate that response of the brain in blast, and to identify possible mechanical correlates of injury. However, model validation against experimental data is required to ensure that the model output is representative of in vivo biomechanical response. This study exposes porcine subjects to primary blast overpressures generated using a compressed-gas shock tube. Shock tube blasts were directed to the unprotected head of each animal while the lungs and thorax were protected using ballistic protective vests similar to those employed in theater. The test conditions ranged from 110 to 740 kPa peak incident overpressure with scaled durations from 1.3 to 6.9 ms and correspond approximately with a 50% injury risk for brain bleeding and apnea in a ferret model scaled to porcine exposure. Instrumentation was placed on the porcine head to measure bulk acceleration, pressure at the surface of the head, and pressure inside the cranial cavity. Immediately after the blast, 5 of the 20 animals tested were apneic. Three subjects recovered without intervention within 30 s and the remaining two recovered within 8 min following respiratory assistance and administration of the respiratory stimulant doxapram. Gross examination of the brain revealed no indication of bleeding. Intracranial pressures ranged from 80 to 390 kPa as a result of the blast and were notably lower than the shock tube reflected pressures of 300-2830 kPa, indicating pressure attenuation by the skull up to a factor of 8.4. Peak head accelerations were measured from 385 to 3845 G's and were well correlated with peak incident overpressure (R(2) = 0.90). One SD corridors for the surface pressure, intracranial pressure (ICP), and head acceleration are

  12. Attitudes, subjective norms and perception of behavioural control as predictors of sun-related behaviour in Swedish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bränström, Richard; Ullén, Henrik; Brandberg, Yvonne

    2004-11-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is the major preventable cause of skin cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the explanatory value of attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control on behaviours related to UV exposure. A random population-based sample (n = 1752, 18-37 years of age) in the Stockholm County, Sweden, answered a questionnaire with items on sun related behaviours and beliefs. The items concerned issues influenced by the Theory of Planned Behaviour, that is, attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations between behaviours and beliefs. Positive attitudes towards being tanned and being in the sun were both strongly associated with time spent in the sun, intentional tanning, sunbed use, going on vacation to a sunny resort, intention to decrease sunbathing and use of protection against the sun. Perceiving sunbathing as risky was associated with using different ways to protect and intending to reduce sun exposure. Having people around oneself who frequently sunbathe was related to intentional tanning and vacations to sunny resorts. Finally, perceived behavioural control was associated with use of sunscreen and use of other ways to protect from the sun among women. The study identified factors on which primary preventive interventions towards decreasing sun exposure should be focused.

  13. Wisdom at the End of Life: An Analysis of Mediating and Moderating Relations Between Wisdom and Subjective Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardelt, Monika; Edwards, Carladenise A

    2016-05-01

    Several studies have shown that wisdom, measured as an integration of cognitive, reflective, and compassionate dimensions, is positively related to subjective well-being in old age. This study investigated whether wisdom might be particularly beneficial for people at the end of life, when extrinsic means to increase well-being largely disappear, and whether the association between wisdom and well-being is mediated by mastery and purpose in life. Samples of 156 older community residents (M = 71 years) and 41 older hospice patients and nursing home residents (M = 77 years) were analyzed, using a moderated and mediated path model. (a) Wisdom was positively related to subjective well-being in the later years, even after controlling for physical health, socioeconomic status, financial situation, social involvement, age, gender, race, and marital status. (b) The association between wisdom and well-being was significantly stronger in the nursing home and hospice sample than the community sample. (c) The relation between wisdom and well-being was partially mediated by purpose in life, both directly and via a sense of mastery. Aging well at the end of life might depend to a larger extent on psychosocial growth across the life course than on present circumstances. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Abnormal white matter integrity related to head impact exposure in a season of high school varsity football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Elizabeth M; Whitlow, Christopher T; Urban, Jillian E; Espeland, Mark A; Jung, Youngkyoo; Rosenbaum, Daryl A; Gioia, Gerard A; Powers, Alexander K; Stitzel, Joel D; Maldjian, Joseph A

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the cumulative effects of head impacts from a season of high school football produce magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measureable changes in the brain in the absence of clinically diagnosed concussion. Players from a local high school football team were instrumented with the Head Impact Telemetry System (HITS™) during all practices and games. All players received pre- and postseason MRI, including diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) was also conducted. Total impacts and risk-weighted cumulative exposure (RWE), including linear (RWELinear), rotational (RWERotational), and combined components (RWECP), were computed from the sensor data. Fractional, linear, planar, and spherical anisotropies (FA, CL, CP, and CS, respectively), as well as mean diffusivity (MD), were used to determine total number of abnormal white matter voxels defined as 2 standard deviations above or below the group mean. Delta (post-preseason) ImPACT scores for each individual were computed and compared to the DTI measures using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. None of the players analyzed experienced clinical concussion (N=24). Regression analysis revealed a statistically significant linear relationship between RWECP and FA. Secondary analyses demonstrated additional statistically significant linear associations between RWE (RWECP and RWELinear) and all DTI measures. There was also a strong correlation between DTI measures and change in Verbal Memory subscore of the ImPACT. We demonstrate that a single season of football can produce brain MRI changes in the absence of clinical concussion. Similar brain MRI changes have been previously associated with mild traumatic brain injury.

  15. A Pilot Study of the Head Extension Swallowing Exercise: New Method for Strengthening Swallowing-Related Muscle Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jong-Chi

    2016-10-01

    This pilot study examined the effect of a new head extension swallowing exercise (HESE) on submental muscle activity and tongue strength in healthy volunteers. Fifteen young adults (10 females and 5 males) were instructed to extend their head backwards as much as possible, and while watching the ceiling, swallowed their saliva every 10 s for a duration of 20 min. Twenty-four treatments were performed over 8 weeks. The outcome variables evaluated at baseline, 4 and 8 weeks of training, and 12-week follow-up included mean and peak submental muscle activation amplitudes during normal and effortful swallowing measured via surface electromyography, and anterior and posterior isometric tongue pressures were measured with the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument. Results indicated that the muscle activation amplitudes during effortful swallowing increased significantly at 4 and 8 weeks compared to baseline (p < 0.025). However, the increases in amplitudes during normal swallowing were minor (nonsignificant) after 8 weeks compared to baseline. The isometric pressures of the tongue tip and the posterior part of the oral tongue were significantly higher at 8 weeks compared to baseline (p < 0.025). Thus, the 8-week HESE protocol significantly improved suprahyoid muscle activity during effortful swallowing as well as the isometric tongue pressures. The HESE appears effective in exercising and strengthening the suprahyoid muscles and tongue muscles in healthy participants. Although encouraging, these results need to be replicated in clinical trials for testing the therapeutic effects of the HESE in older adults and patients with dysphagia who present with decreased hyolaryngeal elevation.

  16. 14th September 2011 - US Under Secretary for Science, Department of Energy S. Koonin signing the guest book with Head of International Relations F. Pauss.

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    CERN-HI-1109234 48, from left to right: ALICE Collaboration USA National Coordination J. Harris, ATLAS Collaboration Deputy Spokesperson A. Lankford, Head of International Relations F. Pauss, Under Secretary for Science, Department of Energy S. Koonin, Adviser for the US R. Voss, Special Assistant to Under Secretary for Science C. Lin, CMS Collaboration Deputy Spokesperson and Spokesperson elect 2012-2013 J. Incandela and LHC Collaboration S. Stone.During his tour of the LHC superconducting magnet test hall he saw one of the superconducting inner-triplet magnets contributed by Fermilab to the LHC. His visit also included the CMS, ATLAS and ALICE experiments as well as the CERN Control Centre.

  17. 25 February 2013- President A. Acar of the Turkish Middle East Technical University signing the guest book with Engineering Department Head R. Saban and Adviser for Relations with Turkey E. Tsesmelis.

    CERN Multimedia

    Samuel Morier-Genoud

    2013-01-01

    25 February 2013- President A. Acar of the Turkish Middle East Technical University signing the guest book with Engineering Department Head R. Saban and Adviser for Relations with Turkey E. Tsesmelis.

  18. 8 May 2012 - Germany Rector of the University of Freiburg H.-J. Schiewer in the ATLAS visitor centre with Collaboration Spokesperson F. Gianotti and signing the guest book with CERN Head of International relations F. Pauss.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2012-01-01

    8 May 2012 - Germany Rector of the University of Freiburg H.-J. Schiewer in the ATLAS visitor centre with Collaboration Spokesperson F. Gianotti and signing the guest book with CERN Head of International relations F. Pauss.

  19. P. Gluckman Chief Science Advisor to the Prime Minister, New Zealand signing the Guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer and Head of International Relations R. Voss. Accompanied by A. Bell throughout.

    CERN Multimedia

    Anna Pantelia

    2013-01-01

    P. Gluckman Chief Science Advisor to the Prime Minister, New Zealand signing the Guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer and Head of International Relations R. Voss. Accompanied by A. Bell throughout.

  20. 9 August 2011 - United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights N. Pillay signing the guest book with Head of International Relations F. Pauss; in the ATLAS visitor centre with Collaboration Former Spokesperson P. Jenni.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2011-01-01

    9 August 2011 - United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights N. Pillay signing the guest book with Head of International Relations F. Pauss; in the ATLAS visitor centre with Collaboration Former Spokesperson P. Jenni.