WorldWideScience

Sample records for subject heading language

  1. Language, Subject, Ideology

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    German A. Ivanov

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the problem of interdependence between power and language is viewed. The authors point out that the problem may be investigated in two aspects: from the point of view of a conscious use of language as a political instrument and from the point of view of an unconscious dependence of an individual on language and ideology. In this context, the authors investigate the ideas expressed by Louis Althusser and Michel Pźcheux. The theory of Ideological State Apparatuses by Althusser is represented here as one of possible conceptual bases for defining gender distribution of power. In this paper the specificity of the Pźcheux’s  discourse analysis is revealed: discourse is viewed by Pźcheux as a sphere of intersection of language and extra-linguistic restrictions created by ideology. 

  2. Subjects, Models, Languages, Transformations

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    Rensink, Arend; Bézivin, J.; Heckel, R.

    2005-01-01

    Discussions about model-driven approaches tend to be hampered by terminological confusion. This is at least partially caused by a lack of formal precision in defining the basic concepts, including that of "model" and "thing being modelled" - which we call subject in this paper. We propose a minimal

  3. Teaching vocational subjects in a foreign language

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    Ticha Eva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the main aspects and problems of teaching vocational subjects in a foreign language (English at various degrees of education focusing mainly on secondary and concisely on tertiary learning. The main principles and methods have been outlined, supported by longstanding experience in teaching under the CLIL mode. The answers to both language-related and subject-related questions are sought.

  4. Compensatory strategies in the language of closed head injured patients.

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    Penn, C; Cleary, J

    1988-01-01

    The study reported here examined the nature and effectiveness of compensatory strategies appearing in the conversational discourse of six closed head injured patients. Subject performance on a range of communication measures was compared with their judged abilities on a taxonomy of 32 compensatory strategies. Results indicated that all subjects employed a wide range of strategies but to differential effect. The overall effectiveness of these strategies correlated strongly with performance on the oral language subtest of the Western Aphasia Battery, the Communicative Abilities in Daily Living Test and a pragmatic protocol. The development of compensation following brain injury is viewed as a process of equilibration, determined in part by neurological and subject variables, and in part by ecologic variables. The implications for therapeutic management are discussed.

  5. A comparative study of the origin, structure, and indexing language of the Persian and English keywords of articles indexed in the IranMedex database and their compliance with the Persian medical thesaurus and Medical Subject Headings.

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    Parsaei-Mohammadi, Parastoo; Ghasemi, Ali Hossein; Hassanzadeh-Beheshtabad, Raziyeh

    2017-01-01

    In the present era, thesauri as tools in indexing play an effective role in integrating retrieval preventing fragmentation as well as a multiplicity of terminologies and also in providing information content of documents. This study aimed to investigate the keywords of articles indexed in IranMedex in terms of origin, structure and indexing situation and their Compliance with the Persian Medical Thesaurus and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). This study is an applied research, and a survey has been conducted. Statistical population includes 32,850 Persian articles which are indexed in the IranMedex during the years 1385-1391. 379 cases were selected as sample of the study. Data collection was done using a checklist. In analyzing the findings, the SPSS Software were used. Although there was no significant difference in terms of indexing origin between the proportion of different types of the Persian and English keywords of articles indexed in the IranMedex, the compliance rates of the Persian and English keywords with the Persian medical thesaurus and MeSH were different in different years. In the meantime, the structure of keywords is leaning more towards phrase structure, and a single word structure and the majority of keywords are selected from the titles and abstracts. The authors' familiarity with the thesauri and controlled tools causes homogeneity in assigning keywords and also provides more precise, faster, and easier retrieval of the keywords. It's suggested that a mixture of natural and control languages to be used in this database in order to reach more comprehensive results.

  6. Preverbal subjects in null subject languages are not necessarily dislocated

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    João Costa

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent work on null subject languages it has been claimed that preverbal subjects are always (clitic-left dislocated. In this paper, we argue against this claim, on the grounds of empirical evidence from European Portuguese concerning agreement facts, asymmetries between preverbal subjects and clitic-left dislocated XPs with respect to minimality effects, the existence of languages with a mixed system (null expletive subjects and full referential ones, language acquisition data, the behavior of negative QPs and interpretation facts, and propose a non-uniform analysis of preverbal subjects and clitic-left dislocated XPs that derives their topic interpretation from a predication rule stated configurationally (section 2. Our account of the SVO and VSO orders displayed in European Portuguese relies on a specific formulation of the EPP parameter, on the locality constraint Attract Closest X and on the independently motivated claim that V-movement targets T in European Portuguese (section 3. Under our analysis, the computational system generates equally economical SVO and VSO derivations and discourse considerations, at the appropriate interface, rule out the unfelicitous ones.

  7. Spanish Instruction in Head Start and Dual Language Learners' Achievement

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    Miler, Elizabeth B.

    2016-01-01

    Prior research suggests that Spanish-speaking Dual Language Learners (DLLs)--young children who must master two languages simultaneously, their home language and English (Espinosa, 2013)--differentially benefit from quality Early Childhood Education (ECE), and in particular from Head Start, compared with children of other subgroups and…

  8. Parents' Role in the Early Head Start Children's Language Development

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    Griswold, Cecelia Smalls

    2014-01-01

    The development of language during a child's early years has been linked to parental involvement. While Early Head Start (EHS) researchers have theorized that parental involvement is an important factor in language development, there has been little research on how parents view their roles in the language development process. The purpose of this…

  9. Using Topic Models to Interpret MEDLINE's Medical Subject Headings

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    Newman, David; Karimi, Sarvnaz; Cavedon, Lawrence

    We consider the task of interpreting and understanding a taxonomy of classification terms applied to documents in a collection. In particular, we show how unsupervised topic models are useful for interpreting and understanding MeSH, the Medical Subject Headings applied to articles in MEDLINE. We introduce the resampled author model, which captures some of the advantages of both the topic model and the author-topic model. We demonstrate how topic models complement and add to the information conveyed in a traditional listing and description of a subject heading hierarchy.

  10. METHODICAL ENSURING ELECTRONIC SUBJECT ANALYSIS OF DOCUMENTS: FEATURES OF EDITING SUBJECT HEADINGS IN ABIS ABSOTHEQUE UNICODE

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    Т. М. Бикова

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our article is consideration of questions of electronic subject analysis of documents and methodical ensuring editing subject headings in the electronic catalog. The main objective of our article – to show a technique of editing the dictionary of subject headings, to study and apply this technique in work of libraries of higher education institutions. Object of research is the thesaurus of subject headings of the electronic catalog of the Scientific Library of Odessa I. I. Mechnikov National University. To improve the efficiency and quality of the search capabilities of the electronic catalog needs constant work on its optimization, that is, technical editing of subject headings, the opening of new subject headings and subheadings.  In Scientific library the instruction, which regulates a technique of edition of subject headings, was developed and put into practice and establishes rationing of this process. The main finding of the work should be to improve the level of bibliographic service users and rationalization systematizer. The research findings have the practical value for employees of libraries.

  11. User's guide to Sears List of subject headings

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    Satija, Mohinder P

    2008-01-01

    This book is a companion to the 19th edition of the Sears List and a complete course in the theory and practice of the List for practitioners, teachers, and learners. The object of this small, practical introduction is to be simple, clear, and illustrative, assuming the reader has little prior knowledge either of the Sears List or of subject headings work in general.

  12. Classifications of subjects with the language PROLOG.

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    Buzzi, R

    1989-03-01

    The logical language PROLOG is used for the definition and characterization of groups of subjects. The groups are firstly defined by sets of variables with comparable scales. Secondly, the single members of the groups are characterized by logically structured combinations of variables which do not necessarily have comparable scales. The performance of the characterizations is estimated by determining the rates sensitivity and specificity. The new classification method is applied in a follow-up study including the assessment of the activity of 76 healthy subjects during two controlled experiments. The classification with PROLOG is then compared with the methods of logistic regression and with discriminant analysis. The comparisons demonstrate that, under similar conditions, the results of a classification with PROLOG parallel the results of statistically based classification procedures. In addition, PROLOG permits characterizations of single subjects based on variables from different scientific disciplines.

  13. Developing a biomedical expert finding system using medical subject headings.

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    Singh, Harpreet; Singh, Reema; Malhotra, Arjun; Kaur, Manjit

    2013-12-01

    Efficient identification of subject experts or expert communities is vital for the growth of any organization. Most of the available expert finding systems are based on self-nomination, which can be biased, and are unable to rank experts. Thus, the objective of this work was to develop a robust and unbiased expert finding system which can quantitatively measure expertise. Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a controlled vocabulary developed by the National Library of Medicine (NLM) for indexing research publications, articles and books. Using the MeSH terms associated with peer-reviewed articles published from India and indexed in PubMed, we developed a Web-based program which can be used to identify subject experts and subjects associated with an expert. We have extensively tested our system to identify experts from India in various subjects. The system provides a ranked list of experts where known experts rank at the top of the list. The system is general; since it uses information available with the PubMed, it can be implemented for any country. The expert finding system is able to successfully identify subject experts in India. Our system is unique because it allows the quantification of subject expertise, thus enabling the ranking of experts. Our system is based on peer-reviewed information. Use of MeSH terms as subjects has standardized the subject terminology. The system matches requirements of an ideal expert finding system.

  14. The language-ready head: Evolutionary considerations.

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    Boeckx, Cedric

    2017-02-01

    This article offers a succinct overview of the hypothesis that the evolution of cognition could benefit from a close examination of brain changes reflected in the shape of the neurocranium. I provide both neurological and genetic evidence in support of this hypothesis, and conclude that the study of language evolution need not be regarded as a mystery.

  15. Subject Headings for Church or Synagogue Libraries. 2nd Revised Edition. CSLA Guide No. 8.

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    Kersten, Dorothy B.

    This guide to subject headings for church or synagogue libraries begins by providing guidelines for the subject cataloging process. These guidelines are presented under seven headings: (1) Selecting the Subject Heading (by names of persons, religious congregations and orders, sects and denominations, places, holidays, and new subjects); (2)…

  16. Language Teacher Subjectivities in Japan's Diaspora Strategies: Teaching My Language as Someone's Heritage Language

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    Motobayashi, Kyoko

    2016-01-01

    This study demonstrates the ways in which discourses in a state-sponsored volunteer program incited transformations of individual subjectivities, focusing on a group of Japanese language teacher volunteers training in Japan to become teachers of Japanese as a heritage language for the country's diaspora (Nikkei) population in South America. As…

  17. Creating Subjects: The Language of the Stage 6 English Syllabus

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    Anson, Daniel W. J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the language of the 2009 NSW Stage 6 English Syllabus. I argue that the language of the syllabus aims to create two distinct subjects: Subject English, that is, what students learn; and the subject position of its students, that is, what students are expected to become. Analysis reveals themes of personal development and…

  18. CINAHL list of subject headings: a nursing thesaurus revised.

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    Fishel, C C; Graham, K E; Greer, D M; Gupta, A D; Lockwood, D K; Prime, E E

    1985-04-01

    The rationale and methods for revising the thesaurus of one of the major health sciences indexing tools are discussed. Computer production of the Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature and the possibility of online access mandated a revision of the list of subject headings. CINAHL has maintained a policy of responding to user needs and to changes in the nursing and allied health literature, and user input was encouraged during revision of the thesaurus. The methods of structural revision are described, and major changes in the thesaurus are detailed. Modification of the thesaurus is expected to have a far-reaching impact on the retrieval of information in nursing and allied health. Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL) is now available online through DIALOG (file 218) and BRS (access code NAHL).

  19. Performance pinned down: studying subjectivity and the language of performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedemaekers, C.; Keegan, A.

    2010-01-01

    We draw on Lacan’s notion of language to study employee subjectivity in a public sector organization (Publica) in the Netherlands. Our main contribution lies in using Lacan’s theorization of language and subjectivity as a basis for a detailed textual analysis of how local organizational discourses

  20. Accuracy of medical subject heading indexing of dental survival analyses.

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    Layton, Danielle M; Clarke, Michael

    2014-01-01

    To assess the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) indexing of articles that employed time-to-event analyses to report outcomes of dental treatment in patients. Articles published in 2008 in 50 dental journals with the highest impact factors were hand searched to identify articles reporting dental treatment outcomes over time in human subjects with time-to-event statistics (included, n = 95), without time-to-event statistics (active controls, n = 91), and all other articles (passive controls, n = 6,769). The search was systematic (kappa 0.92 for screening, 0.86 for eligibility). Outcome-, statistic- and time-related MeSH were identified, and differences in allocation between groups were analyzed with chi-square and Fischer exact statistics. The most frequently allocated MeSH for included and active control articles were "dental restoration failure" (77% and 52%, respectively) and "treatment outcome" (54% and 48%, respectively). Outcome MeSH was similar between these groups (86% and 77%, respectively) and significantly greater than passive controls (10%, P indexed as such. Significantly more time-related MeSH were allocated to the included than the active controls (92% and 79%, respectively, P = .02), or to the passive controls (22%, P < .001). MeSH allocation within MEDLINE to time-to-event dental articles was inaccurate and inconsistent. Statistical MeSH were omitted from 30% of the included articles and incorrectly allocated to 15% of active controls. Such errors adversely impact search accuracy.

  1. Language and Composition: Does the Subject Matter?

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    Alexis, Gerhard T.

    1968-01-01

    Attempts to combine language and composition in the freshman English course at Gustavus Adolphus College (St. Peter, Minnesota) should interest all teachers of English. One project utilized a single key word for several assignments. Students were asked to (1) think through the meaning of the word for a week and write definitions and associations,…

  2. Extrapolating Subjectivity Research to Other Languages

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    Banea, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Socrates articulated it best, "Speak, so I may see you." Indeed, language represents an invisible probe into the mind. It is the medium through which we express our deepest thoughts, our aspirations, our views, our feelings, our inner reality. From the beginning of artificial intelligence, researchers have sought to impart human like…

  3. Gastrointestinal Physiology During Head Down Tilt Bedrest in Human Subjects

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    Vaksman, Z.; Guthienz, J.; Putcha, L.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Gastrointestinal (GI) motility plays a key role in the physiology and function of the GI tract. It directly affects absorption of medications and nutrients taken by mouth, in addition to indirectly altering GI physiology by way of changes in the microfloral composition and biochemistry of the GI tract. Astronauts have reported nausea, loss of appetite and constipation during space flight all of which indicate a reduction in GI motility and function similar to the one seen in chronic bed rest patients. The purpose of this study is to determine GI motility and bacterial proliferation during -6 degree head down tilt bed rest (HTD). Methods: Healthy male and female subjects between the ages of 25-40 participated in a 60 day HTD study protocol. GI transit time (GITT) was determined using lactulose breath hydrogen test and bacterial overgrowth was measured using glucose breath hydrogen test. H. Pylori colonization was determined using C13-urea breath test (UBIT#). All three tests were conducted on 9 days before HDT, and repeated on HDT days 2, 28, 58, and again on day 7 after HDT. Results: GITT increased during HTD compared to the respective ambulatory control values; GITT was significantly lower on day 7 after HTD. A concomitant increase in bacterial colonization was also noticed during HDT starting after approximately 28 days of HDT. However, H. Pylori proliferation was not recorded during HDT as indicated by UBIT#. Conclusion: GITT significantly decreased during HDT with a concomitant increase in the proliferation of GI bacterial flora but not H. pylori.

  4. The Subject of Ezdad (Antonyms i n Arabic Language

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    Abdulmuttalip I ŞIDAN

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available As in other languages there ar e many issues which cause debate among linguists in Arabis Language. One of the issues that is constantly the subject of debate among linguists in the Arabic language is the Ezdad topic. Ezdad is to use the two words interchangeably for the same word. Ezda d in other words antonyms available in all languages but it varies in Arabic Language. Ezdad subject is discussed in studies related to Quran studies, fiqh studies and worship studies and also tafseer area benefited from this subject. The importance of Ezd ad is hidden in the implementation of Holy Quran words. The linguists fell into disagreement on Ezdad subject. Some linguists think that Ezdad is the beauty of Arabic Language while the other think it moves away from Fusha Language. The concept of Ezdad an d the şmportance of Arabic Language will be discussed in the introduction of this study. And then definition of Ezdad and differences between old and new definition of Ezdad. After that the views of the linguists who accepts and who rejects the concept of Ezdad. Then the requirements of a word to be Ezdad will be discussed. Then the reasons of occurence Ezdad will be discussed. And at the end the opinions about Ezdad subject will be presented.

  5. Characterization of the Medical Subject Headings thesaurus for pharmacy.

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    Minguet, Fernando; Van Den Boogerd, Lucienne; Salgado, Teresa M; Correr, Cassyano J; Fernandez-Llimos, Fernando

    2014-11-15

    The completeness and utility of pharmacy-oriented Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) relative to MeSH terminology pertaining to other healthcare professions (dentistry and nursing) are evaluated. The 2013 version of the MeSH thesaurus-the standard vocabulary used by the National Library of Medicine (NLM) to index articles in PubMed and MEDLINE-was searched for dentistry-, nursing-, and pharmacy-specific terms using a truncation strategy (search terms: nurs*, dent*, and pharm*); the hierarchical level of each term and the number of descendant terms (an indication of the granularity of the associated NLM-indexed content) were determined. PubMed searches were conducted to identify areas of the MeSH hierarchy containing dentistry- and nursing-specific terms but no equivalent pharmacy-specific term. The search of the MeSH thesaurus identified 145 terms representing dentistry-specific activities and 94 and 26 terms specific to nursing and pharmacy practice, respectively. Analysis of the three sets of MeSH terms indicated that dentistry-oriented MeSH terms were generally situated more prominently within the MeSH hierarchy than terms for nursing- and pharmacy-oriented research; the MeSH terminology oriented toward nursing or dentistry practice was relatively more granular, allowing for increased specificity and power of information retrieval during PubMed and MEDLINE searches. Seventeen proposed new MeSH terms describing key areas of pharmacy practice were identified; the inclusion of these terms in the MeSH hierarchy could substantially expand and improve the retrievability of NLM-indexed literature. Imbalances and gaps were found in MeSH coverage of pharmacy concepts and terminology relative to MeSH terminology specific to the nursing and dentistry professions. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Speech, Language and Hearing Program: A Guide for Head Start Personnel.

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    Child Development Services Bureau (DHEW/OCD), Washington, DC. Project Head Start.

    This guide is designed to assist Head Start personnel in effectively approaching communication problems of children. The sections of the guide are as follows: (1) Introduction, (2) Development of Speech and Language (Normal Development of Speech and Language; Factors; Influencing Speech and Language Development), (3) Goals of the Speech, Language,…

  7. The Power of Students’ Subjectivity Processes in Foreign Language acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    and degrees and diplomas in particular foreign languages. However in this case, the students are not inscribed as students of foreign languages. Their subjectivity process is thus not that of a student of French or German, but rather of pedagogy, cultural studies, economics, development studies or other...... educational programmes situated within the two faculties. As a consequence, we are trying to meet and influence the subjectivity processes that the students go through as they enter university. This article offers a presentation of how we work with the notion of subjectivity and interlanguage in the ongoing...

  8. Interaction Between Syntactic Structure and Information Structure in the Processing of a Head-Final Language.

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    Koizumi, Masatoshi; Imamura, Satoshi

    2017-02-01

    The effects of syntactic and information structures on sentence processing load were investigated using two reading comprehension experiments in Japanese, a head-final SOV language. In the first experiment, we discovered the main effects of syntactic and information structures, as well as their interaction, showing that interaction of these two factors is not restricted to head-initial languages. The second experiment revealed that the interaction between syntactic structure and information structure occurs at the second NP (O of SOV and S of OSV), which, crucially, is a pre-head position, suggesting the incremental nature of the processing of both syntactic structure and information structure in head-final languages.

  9. SPARED RECOGNITION CAPACITY IN ELDERLY AND CLOSED-HEAD-INJURY SUBJECTS WITH CLINICAL MEMORY DEFICITS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spikman, J.M.; Berg, I.J.; Deelman, B.G.

    This study describes the performance of three groups of subjects on a pictorial forced-recognition task, the Hundred Pictures Test. The aim was to determine whether subjects with memory deficits (elderly and closed-head-injured subjects) would perform as well as healthy young subjects, both on

  10. Subject-Object Asymmetry in the Second Language Acquisition of English Relatives and Embedded "Wh"-Questions

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    Kang, Hyun-Sook

    2016-01-01

    This study examined subject-object asymmetry and developmental sequence in the second language (L2) acquisition of three types of "wh"-extraction, i.e., English headed relatives, headless relatives, and embedded "wh"-questions. Sixty-four L1 Korean learners of English completed an elicited imitation task and a grammaticality…

  11. Correlation between Trunk Posture and Neck Reposition Sense among Subjects with Forward Head Neck Postures

    OpenAIRE

    Han Suk Lee; Hyung Kuk Chung; Sun Wook Park

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To assess the correlation of abnormal trunk postures and reposition sense of subjects with forward head neck posture (FHP). Methods. In all, postures of 41 subjects were evaluated and the FHP and trunk posture including shoulder, scapular level, pelvic side, and anterior tilting degrees were analyzed. We used the head repositioning accuracy (HRA) test to evaluate neck position senses of neck flexion, neck extension, neck right and left side flexion, and neck right and left rotation...

  12. Subject-Object Asymmetry in the Second Language Acquisition of English Relatives and Embedded Wh-Questions.

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    Kang, Hyun-Sook

    2016-12-01

    This study examined subject-object asymmetry and developmental sequence in the second language (L2) acquisition of three types of wh-extraction, i.e., English headed relatives, headless relatives, and embedded wh-questions. Sixty-four L1 Korean learners of English completed an elicited imitation task and a grammaticality judgment task. The learners demonstrated a subject advantage in the headed RCs and headless RCs, but an object advantage in the embedded wh-questions, which suggests that they treat embedded wh-questions differently from headed relatives and headless relatives despite the similarities in surface forms. The learners further demonstrated the order of developing headless RCs followed by embedded wh-questions, and subsequently headed RCs, which supports the primacy of headless relatives as a simple nominal in L2 development.

  13. [Subjectivity sense, language and subject: a new postrationalist perspective in psychotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Rey, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the philosophical roots of the concept of sense in Russian philosophy and linguistic, analyzing its consequences for the social sciences, in particular for psychology. Starting from the relevance of the Vygotsky's definition of sense, through which that concept became psychological, is discussed its relevance for advancing forward in a proposal about subjectivity from a cultural historical approach. Advancing on this proposal, the concept of subjective sense is defined as a subjective unity whose focus, rather than being on the unity between word and psychological elements, as Vygotsky stated, is on the unity between symbolical processes and emotions. This theoretical account leads to a different representation of the relation between language, subject and subjectivity, which support a non rationalistic reductionism concerning subjectivity. Finally, on the basis of this non individualistic and non essentialist definition of subjectivity are discussed some of its implications for the development of a non rationalistic approach in psychotherapy.

  14. Activation of rectus capitis posterior major muscles during voluntary retraction of the head in asymptomatic subjects.

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    Hallgren, Richard C; Rowan, Jacob J; Bai, Peng; Pierce, Steven J; Shafer-Crane, Gail A; Prokop, Lawrence L

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess levels of electromyographic activity measured from rectus capitis posterior major (RCPM) muscles of asymptomatic subjects as their heads moved from a self-defined neutral position to a retracted position. A 2 × 2 within-subjects factorial research design was used. Disposable, intramuscular electrodes were used to collect electromyographic data from asymptomatic subjects between the ages of 20 and 40 years old. Data analysis was performed using mixed effects β regression models. Activation of RCPM muscles was found to significantly increase (P < .0001) as the head moved from a self-defined neutral position to a retracted position. Rectus capitis posterior major muscle activation levels, measured as a function of head position, have not been previously reported. The findings from this study showed that RCPM muscle activation significantly increases during voluntary retraction of the head. Copyright © 2014 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Mixing Languages during Learning? Testing the One Subject-One Language Rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antón, Eneko; Thierry, Guillaume; Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni

    2015-01-01

    In bilingual communities, mixing languages is avoided in formal schooling: even if two languages are used on a daily basis for teaching, only one language is used to teach each given academic subject. This tenet known as the one subject-one language rule avoids mixing languages in formal schooling because it may hinder learning. The aim of this study was to test the scientific ground of this assumption by investigating the consequences of acquiring new concepts using a method in which two languages are mixed as compared to a purely monolingual method. Native balanced bilingual speakers of Basque and Spanish-adults (Experiment 1) and children (Experiment 2)-learnt new concepts by associating two different features to novel objects. Half of the participants completed the learning process in a multilingual context (one feature was described in Basque and the other one in Spanish); while the other half completed the learning phase in a purely monolingual context (both features were described in Spanish). Different measures of learning were taken, as well as direct and indirect indicators of concept consolidation. We found no evidence in favor of the non-mixing method when comparing the results of two groups in either experiment, and thus failed to give scientific support for the educational premise of the one subject-one language rule.

  16. Mixing Languages during Learning? Testing the One Subject-One Language Rule.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eneko Antón

    Full Text Available In bilingual communities, mixing languages is avoided in formal schooling: even if two languages are used on a daily basis for teaching, only one language is used to teach each given academic subject. This tenet known as the one subject-one language rule avoids mixing languages in formal schooling because it may hinder learning. The aim of this study was to test the scientific ground of this assumption by investigating the consequences of acquiring new concepts using a method in which two languages are mixed as compared to a purely monolingual method. Native balanced bilingual speakers of Basque and Spanish-adults (Experiment 1 and children (Experiment 2-learnt new concepts by associating two different features to novel objects. Half of the participants completed the learning process in a multilingual context (one feature was described in Basque and the other one in Spanish; while the other half completed the learning phase in a purely monolingual context (both features were described in Spanish. Different measures of learning were taken, as well as direct and indirect indicators of concept consolidation. We found no evidence in favor of the non-mixing method when comparing the results of two groups in either experiment, and thus failed to give scientific support for the educational premise of the one subject-one language rule.

  17. Improving information retrieval using Medical Subject Headings Concepts: a test case on rare and chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmoni, Stéfan J; Soualmia, Lina F; Letord, Catherine; Jaulent, Marie-Christine; Griffon, Nicolas; Thirion, Benoît; Névéol, Aurélie

    2012-07-01

    As more scientific work is published, it is important to improve access to the biomedical literature. Since 2000, when Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Concepts were introduced, the MeSH Thesaurus has been concept based. Nevertheless, information retrieval is still performed at the MeSH Descriptor or Supplementary Concept level. The study assesses the benefit of using MeSH Concepts for indexing and information retrieval. Three sets of queries were built for thirty-two rare diseases and twenty-two chronic diseases: (1) using PubMed Automatic Term Mapping (ATM), (2) using Catalog and Index of French-language Health Internet (CISMeF) ATM, and (3) extrapolating the MEDLINE citations that should be indexed with a MeSH Concept. Type 3 queries retrieve significantly fewer results than type 1 or type 2 queries (about 18,000 citations versus 200,000 for rare diseases; about 300,000 citations versus 2,000,000 for chronic diseases). CISMeF ATM also provides better precision than PubMed ATM for both disease categories. Using MeSH Concept indexing instead of ATM is theoretically possible to improve retrieval performance with the current indexing policy. However, using MeSH Concept information retrieval and indexing rules would be a fundamentally better approach. These modifications have already been implemented in the CISMeF search engine.

  18. Effect of Head Elevation on Passive Upper Airway Collapsibility in Normal Subjects under Propofol Anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Masato; Ayuse, Takao; Hoshino, Yuko; Kurata, Shinji; Moromugi, Shunji; Schneider, Hartmut; Kirkness, Jason P.; Schwartz, Alan R.; Oi, Kumiko

    2011-01-01

    Background Head elevation can restore airway patency during anesthesia, although its effect may be offset by concomitant bite opening or accidental neck flexion. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of head elevation on the passive upper airway collapsibility during propofol anesthesia. Method Twenty male subjects were studied, randomized to one of two experimental groups: Fixed-jaw or Free-jaw. Propofol infusion was used for induction and to maintain blood concentration constant at a target level between 1.5 and 2.0 μg/ml. Nasal mask pressure (PN) was intermittently reduced to evaluate the upper airway collapsibility (passive PCRIT) and upstream resistance (RUS) at each level of head elevation (0, 3, 6, & 9 cm). We measured the Frankfort plane (head flexion) and the mandible plane (jaw opening) angles at each level of head elevation. Analysis of variance was used to determine effect of head elevation on PCRIT, head flexion and jaw opening within each group. Results In both groups the Frankfort plane and mandible plane angles increased as with head elevation (P elevation decreased upper airway collapsibility (PCRIT ~ −7 cmH2O at greater than 6 cm elevation) compared to the baseline position (PCRIT ~ −3 cmH2O at 0 cm elevation; P elevating the head position by 6 cm while ensuring mouth closure (centric occlusion) produces substantial decreases in upper airway collapsibility and maintains upper airway patency during anesthesia. PMID:21701378

  19. Effect of head elevation on passive upper airway collapsibility in normal subjects during propofol anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Masato; Ayuse, Takao; Hoshino, Yuko; Kurata, Shinji; Moromugi, Shunji; Schneider, Hartmut; Kirkness, Jason P; Schwartz, Alan R; Oi, Kumiko

    2011-08-01

    Head elevation can restore airway patency during anesthesia, although its effect may be offset by concomitant bite opening or accidental neck flexion. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of head elevation on the passive upper airway collapsibility during propofol anesthesia. Twenty male subjects were studied, randomized to one of two experimental groups: fixed-jaw or free-jaw. Propofol infusion was used for induction and to maintain blood at a constant target concentration between 1.5 and 2.0 μg/ml. Nasal mask pressure (PN) was intermittently reduced to evaluate the upper airway collapsibility (passive PCRIT) and upstream resistance (RUS) at each level of head elevation (0, 3, 6, and 9 cm). The authors measured the Frankfort plane (head flexion) and the mandible plane (jaw opening) angles at each level of head elevation. Analysis of variance was used to determine the effect of head elevation on PCRIT, head flexion, and jaw opening within each group. In both groups the Frankfort plane and mandible plane angles increased with head elevation (P elevation decreased upper airway collapsibility (PCRIT ~ -7 cm H₂O at greater than 6 cm elevation) compared with the baseline position (PCRIT ~ -3 cm H₂O at 0 cm elevation; P Elevating the head position by 6 cm while ensuring mouth closure (centric occlusion) produces substantial decreases in upper airway collapsibility and maintains upper airway patency during anesthesia.

  20. Bilingual children's language abilities and early reading outcomes in Head Start and kindergarten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Carol Scheffner; Lawrence, Frank R; Miccio, Adele W

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between Head Start children's receptive language development and their kindergarten reading outcomes. Eighty-eight bilingual children who were eligible to attend Head Start for 2 years participated in the study. Growth curve models were used to examine the relationship between children's language abilities during 2 years in Head Start and end-of-kindergarten reading outcomes. The results revealed that children's English and Spanish receptive language abilities increased during Head Start, and children's early reading abilities in English were within the typical range of monolingual norms at the end of kindergarten. Children's early reading abilities in Spanish were nearly 1 SD below the test mean or lower. The results also showed that children's growth in their English and Spanish language abilities during Head Start predicted their early reading abilities in English and Spanish. The findings imply that preschool programs are needed that target children's growth in language and not their performance measured at a particular point in time. Also, the results demonstrate the importance of early and regular evaluation of bilingual children's development in both languages in order to monitor children's growth in their two languages.

  1. Bilingual Children’s Language Abilities and Early Reading Outcomes in Head Start and Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Carol Scheffner; Lawrence, Frank R.; Miccio, Adele W.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between Head Start children’s receptive language development and their kindergarten reading outcomes. Method Eighty-eight bilingual children who were eligible to attend Head Start for 2 years participated in the study. Growth curve models were used to examine the relationship between children’s language abilities during 2 years in Head Start and end-of-kindergarten reading outcomes. Results The results revealed that children’s English and Spanish receptive language abilities increased during Head Start, and children’s early reading abilities in English were within the typical range of monolingual norms at the end of kindergarten. Children’s early reading abilities in Spanish were nearly 1 SD below the test mean or lower. The results also showed that children’s growth in their English and Spanish language abilities during Head Start predicted their early reading abilities in English and Spanish. Implications The findings imply that preschool programs are needed that target children’s growth in language and not their performance measured at a particular point in time. Also, the results demonstrate the importance of early and regular evaluation of bilingual children’s development in both languages in order to monitor children’s growth in their two languages. PMID:17625050

  2. The relationship between executive functioning and language: Examining vocabulary, syntax, and language learning in preschoolers attending Head Start.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Lisa J; Alexander, Alexandra; Greenfield, Daryl B

    2017-12-01

    Early childhood marks a time of dynamic development within language and cognitive domains. Specifically, a body of research focuses on the development of language as related to executive functions, which are foundational cognitive skills that relate to both academic achievement and social-emotional development during early childhood and beyond. Although there is evidence to support the relationship between language and executive functions, existing studies focus mostly on vocabulary and fail to examine other components of language such as syntax and language learning skills. To address this gap, this study examined the relationship between executive functioning (EF) and three aspects of language: syntax, vocabulary, and language learning. A diverse sample of 182 children (67% Latino and 33% African American) attending Head Start were assessed on both EF and language ability. Findings demonstrated that EF related to a comprehensive latent construct of language composed of vocabulary, syntax, and language learning. EF also related to each individual component of language. This study furthers our understanding of the complex relationship between language and cognitive development by measuring EF as it relates to various components of language in a sample of preschoolers from low-income backgrounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Towards a typology of tail-head linkage in Papuan languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, L.J.

    2005-01-01

    In this article a typological overview of tail-head linkage (THL) in Papuan languages is presented. There are two types of THL, chained THL and thematized THL. The chained type is the default type and its morphosyntactic form follows from the basic clause linkage type in a given Papuan language, for

  4. Comparative Study between the "Lista de Encabezamientos de Materia" by Gloria Escamilla and the "Library of Congress Subject Heading" List.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Fernando

    This study shows to what extent Gloria Escamilla's "Lista de Encabezamientos de Materia," the only published Mexican subject heading list, is equivalent to the Library of Congress subject headings (LCSH). A LCSH heading sample is obtained from OCLC's Online Union Catalog. Using the EPIC search from OCLC, 1947 bibliographic records were…

  5. Native language influence on the distributive effect in producing second language subject-verb agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaoyan; Chen, Baoguo; Liang, Lijuan; Dunlap, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to investigate the distributive effect when producing subject-verb agreement in English as a second language (L2) when the participant's first language either does or does not require subject-verb agreement. Both Chinese-English and Uygur-English bilinguals were included in Experiment 1. Chinese has no required subject-verb agreement, whereas Uygur does. Results showed that the distributive effect was observed in Uygur-English bilinguals but not in Chinese-English bilinguals, indicating that this particular first language (L1) syntactic feature is one significant factor affecting the distributive effect in the production of subject-verb agreement in L2. Experiment 2 further investigated the matter by choosing Chinese-English participants with higher L2 proficiency. Still, no distributive effect was observed, suggesting that the absence of distributive effect in Chinese-English bilinguals in Experiment 1 was not due to low proficiency in the target language. Experiment 3 changed the way the stimuli were presented, highlighting the singular or distributive nature of the subject noun phrases, and the distributive effect was observed in Chinese-English bilinguals. Altogether, the results show that the L1 syntactic feature of subject-verb agreement is one significant factor affecting the distributive effect in the production of subject-verb agreement in L2. More specifically, distributive effects rarely occur in L2 when L1 has no requirement on subject-verb agreement, whereas distributive effects are more likely to occur in L2 when the L1 also has required subject-verb agreement.

  6. Cumulating the Supplements to the Seventh Edition of LC Subject Headings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy B. Torkington

    1973-12-01

    Full Text Available A description is presented of the project of the University of California Library Automation Program to cumulate the 1966 through 1971 supplements to the Library of Congress Subject Headings. The University of California Institute of Library Research MARC processing software, BIBCON, was used, with specially written programs. The resulting cumulation was edited, printed in book form, and made available to libraries. The final task involved merging six MARC files into one file of over 125,000 records and then printing that file in a format similar to that of LC Subject Headings. The project was a cooperative effort with participation by people from several UC campuses.

  7. Spanish Instruction in Head Start and Dual Language Learners' Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elizabeth B

    2017-09-01

    Data from the Head Start Impact Study ( N = 1,141) and the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey, 2009 Cohort ( N = 825) were used to investigate whether Spanish instruction in Head Start differentially increased Spanish-speaking Dual Language Learners' (DLLs) academic achievement. Although hypothesized that Spanish instruction would be beneficial for DLLs' early literacy and math skills, results from residualized growth models showed there were no such positive associations. Somewhat surprisingly, DLL children instructed in Spanish had higher English receptive vocabulary skills at the end of the Head Start year than those not instructed, with children randomly assigned to Head Start and instructed in Spanish having the highest scores. Policy implications for Head Start-eligible Spanish-speaking DLLs are discussed.

  8. Bibliometric perspectives on medical innovation using the medical subject headings of PubMed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Rotolo, D.; Rafols, I.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple perspectives on the nonlinear processes of medical innovations can be distinguished and combined using the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) of the MEDLINE database. Focusing on three main branches—"diseases," "drugs and chemicals," and "techniques and equipment"—we use base maps and overlay

  9. PHYSIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF HEAD-OUT AQUATIC EXERCISES IN HEALTHY SUBJECTS: A QUALITATIVE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago M Barbosa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades head-out aquatic exercises became one of the most important physical activities within the health system. Massive research has been produced throughout these decades in order to better understand the role of head-out aquatic exercises in populations' health. Such studies aimed to obtain comprehensive knowledge about the acute and chronic response of subjects performing head-out aquatic exercises. For that, it is assumed that chronic adaptations represent the accumulation of acute responses during each aquatic session. The purpose of this study was to describe the "state of the art" about physiological assessment of head-out aquatic exercises based on acute and chronic adaptations in healthy subjects based on a qualitative review. The main findings about acute response of head-out aquatic exercise according to water temperature, water depth, type of exercise, additional equipment used, body segments exercising and music cadence will be described. In what concerns chronic adaptations, the main results related to cardiovascular and metabolic adaptations, muscular strength, flexibility and body composition improvements will be reported

  10. Analysing the Role of the Subject Head of Department in Secondary Schools in England and Wales: Towards a Theoretical Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Chris; Bolam, Ray

    1998-01-01

    Argues that contingency theory offers a useful basis for considering the work of subject heads of department in (British) secondary schools, particularly if heads are actively trying to influence the quality of teaching and learning in their curriculum areas. Develops a provisional model to shed light on how department heads actually work with…

  11. Searching the literature using medical subject headings versus text word with PubMed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Angela A; Heskett, Karen M; Davidson, Terence M

    2006-02-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the performance of two search strategies in the retrieval of information from the National Library of Medicine (NLM) on otolaryngology-head and neck surgery related conditions and diagnoses using PubMed. Two search strategies-one based on the use of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and the second based on text word searching-were compared. The MeSH search provided a more efficient search than the text word search. Head and neck surgeons can most efficiently search the NLM using PubMed as a search engine by initiating the search with MeSH terms. Once a key article is identified, the searcher should use the "Related Articles" feature.

  12. Language, History and Culture in Bessie Head's "a Question of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Language, culture and history in a given text are regulated by the episteme of time the author endeavours to recreate. The paper sets out to establish through the theory of New Historicism, that a text is a social document that reflects and responds to the historical situation. It also asserts that the interpretation of a text will be ...

  13. Teaching English as a Language Not Subject by Employing Formative Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandio, Muhammad Tufail; Jafferi, Saima

    2015-01-01

    English is a second language (L2) in Sindh, Pakistan. Most of the public sector schools in Sindh teach English as a subject rather than a language. Besides, they do not distinguish between generic pedagogy and distinctive approaches used for teaching English as a first language (L1) and second language (L2). In addition, the erroneous traditional…

  14. Neck kinematics and sternocleidomastoid muscle activation during neck rotation in subjects with forward head posture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Man-Sig

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study investigated differences in the kinematics of the neck and activation of the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle during neck rotation between subjects with and without forward head posture (FHP). [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight subjects participated in the study (14 with FHP, 14 without FHP). Subjects performed neck rotation in two directions, left and right. The kinematics of rotation-lateral flexion movement patterns were recorded using motion analysis. Activity in the bilateral SCM muscles was measured using surface electromyography. Differences in neck kinematics and activation of SCM between the groups were analyzed by independent t-tests. [Results] Maintaining FHP increased the rotation-lateral flexion ratio significantly in both directions. The FHP group had significantly faster onset time for lateral flexion movement in both directions during neck rotation. Regarding the electromyography of the SCM muscles during neck rotation in both directions, the activity values of subjects with FHP were greater than those of subjects without FHP for the contralateral SCM muscles. [Conclusion] FHP can induce changes in movement in the frontal plane and SCM muscle activation during neck rotation. Thus, clinicians should consider movement in the frontal plane as well as in the sagittal plane when assessing and treating patients with forward head posture. PMID:26696712

  15. Interaction between Syntactic Structure and Information Structure in the Processing of a Head-Final Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Masatoshi; Imamura, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    The effects of syntactic and information structures on sentence processing load were investigated using two reading comprehension experiments in Japanese, a head-final SOV language. In the first experiment, we discovered the main effects of syntactic and information structures, as well as their interaction, showing that interaction of these two…

  16. Associations among Head Start Fathers' Involvement with Their Preschoolers and Child Language Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Jay; Iglesias, Aquiles; Kaufman, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the associations among child language competence during father-child play interactions, fathers' time spent volunteering in their preschool-age child's Head Start classroom over the course of one school year, amount of father play and reading to the child at home, and fathers' positive control during play. The sample of 68…

  17. The subject genitive in the standard Serbian language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonić Ivana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a review of syntactic-semantic structures with the so-called subject genitive, it describes and in a specific way compares all syntactic-semantic models with this type of genitive and discusses the necessary syntactic-semantic conditions which influence its appearance with the comment on the necessary pragmatic conditions where it is relevant. In comparison with the interpretations existing so far, this category is somewhat extended, and the appearance of genitive in specific models mentioned by other authors, too - is explicitly classified into this category, which has not been the case before. Subject genitive, as an exponent of the grammatical subject in the deep predication (full verbal lexeme [condensed by the deverbal noun] or copulative with the adjective as a semantic core [condensed by the deadjectival noun], or the predication of the reduced relative clause in the function of the restrictive identifier of the basic noun of the type nomina loci and nomina collectiva or as a denotator of the semantic subject, in both cases with the meaning of agent - the direct performer of the activity or an intermediary, but also a pseudo-agent, e.g. the indicator of a characteristic, of existence, objects instrument, of the entity created in the process of the verb activity possessor, causer, indicator of a state or feeling, disponent (temporary possessor - is realized equally in nominal and verbal structures, and in a particular instance also in the occasional variant of the sentence with one type of modal particles (evo, eto, eno, gle in a specific pragmatic situation. In the Standard Serbian Language the subject genitive is the element of the secondary syntactic-semantic structures - generated from the basic deep, prototypical, structures (all models except the model with the personal and the model with the medial predication, or the element of the basic syntactic-semantic structures but so-called converse structures (the model

  18. Topic Centred Subject/Language Learning Materials and Their Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rado, Marta

    Social bilinguals (second language learners in a linguistic minority) and cultural bilinguals (foreign language learners) often learn side by side in the same classroom, making syllabus planning and choice of teaching methodology difficult. Adopting a bilingual approach and exploring the semantic and discourse aspects of language can overcome the…

  19. The Notion of Subject in South Asian Languages. South Asian Studies Publication Series, Number 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Manindra K., Ed.

    The following papers on subject in South Asian languages are compiled here: (1) "Subject in Sanskrit" by George Cardona; (2) "Is Sinhala a Subject Language? (or, How Restricted is Your PNP?)" by James W. Gair; (3) "Some Syntactic Reflexes of Sub-Categories of Agent in Hindi" by Peter Edwin Hook; (4) "The Notion…

  20. Connecting second language learning and nonlinguistic subjects mission impossible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Retelj, Karmen Pižorn

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Content based language learning as a second language learning approach that has spread in Europe and in several countries became a part of the national curriculum, has in Slovenia not yet been formally established and is present only in the form of pilot projects. It includes a set of different teaching approaches and methods which combine two objec tives: focus on language and focus on content. Such ways of second language learning not only increase the student's language skills, but also affect his cognitive development. Given the added value that these approaches provide to the student, from practical use of second language to familiarizing with language diversity through all his schooling, we should find solutions for its implementation in Slovenian school system.

  1. The Phonetics of Head and Body Movement in the Realization of American Sign Language Signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrone, Martha E; Mauk, Claude E

    2016-01-01

    Because the primary articulators for sign languages are the hands, sign phonology and phonetics have focused mainly on them and treated other articulators as passive targets. However, there is abundant research on the role of nonmanual articulators in sign language grammar and prosody. The current study examines how hand and head/body movements are coordinated to realize phonetic targets. Kinematic data were collected from 5 deaf American Sign Language (ASL) signers to allow the analysis of movements of the hands, head and body during signing. In particular, we examine how the chin, forehead and torso move during the production of ASL signs at those three phonological locations. Our findings suggest that for signs with a lexical movement toward the head, the forehead and chin move to facilitate convergence with the hand. By comparison, the torso does not move to facilitate convergence with the hand for signs located at the torso. These results imply that the nonmanual articulators serve a phonetic as well as a grammatical or prosodic role in sign languages. Future models of sign phonetics and phonology should take into consideration the movements of the nonmanual articulators in the realization of signs. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. The Chinese and Kazakh Languages Comparative Study: Subject-Predicate Sentence Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhalyk Abdurakyn

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article compares subject-predicate sentence and subject-predicate-object sentence forms with extended sentence of the Kazakh language. It compares Chinese and Kazakh sentences with subject-predicate sentence structure and studies differences of verb-predicate sentences word order. Detailed comparative study of Chinese and Kazakh language differences and characteristics. Morphology structure of Chinese language belongs to radical language, and Kazakh language belongs to the type of adhesive language, syntax of Chinese and Kazakh Languages in the same syntactic structure often used in different ways, the morphological role in Chinese and Kazakh language is also not the same, and even the same kind of grammatical means in Chinese and Kazakh languages are various. According to the analysis of languages, the different positions of word order, the function of words and grammatical word order are different too. The same syntax is very considerable, and lead to different syntactic structures. Chinese thinking reflects the realities as follows: subject - action- object. It is reflected in the grammatical structure: Subject - predicate - object. Kazakh thinking reflects the realities as follows: subject - object - action. It is reflected in the grammatical structure: Subject - object - predicate. Chinese and Kazakh predicate and object places in a sentence are different, but their dominance relationship is the same.

  3. Correlation between Trunk Posture and Neck Reposition Sense among Subjects with Forward Head Neck Postures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Han Suk; Chung, Hyung Kuk; Park, Sun Wook

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To assess the correlation of abnormal trunk postures and reposition sense of subjects with forward head neck posture (FHP). Methods. In all, postures of 41 subjects were evaluated and the FHP and trunk posture including shoulder, scapular level, pelvic side, and anterior tilting degrees were analyzed. We used the head repositioning accuracy (HRA) test to evaluate neck position senses of neck flexion, neck extension, neck right and left side flexion, and neck right and left rotation and calculated the root mean square error in trials for each subject. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients and regression analysis were used to assess the degree of correlation between the trunk posture and HRA value, and a significance level of α = 0.05 was considered. Results. There were significant correlations between the HRA value of right side neck flexion and pelvic side tilt angle (p postures. Conclusion. Verifying pelvic postures should be prioritized when movement is limited due to the vitiation of the proprioceptive sense of neck caused by FHP. PMID:26583125

  4. Correlation between Trunk Posture and Neck Reposition Sense among Subjects with Forward Head Neck Postures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Suk Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the correlation of abnormal trunk postures and reposition sense of subjects with forward head neck posture (FHP. Methods. In all, postures of 41 subjects were evaluated and the FHP and trunk posture including shoulder, scapular level, pelvic side, and anterior tilting degrees were analyzed. We used the head repositioning accuracy (HRA test to evaluate neck position senses of neck flexion, neck extension, neck right and left side flexion, and neck right and left rotation and calculated the root mean square error in trials for each subject. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients and regression analysis were used to assess the degree of correlation between the trunk posture and HRA value, and a significance level of α = 0.05 was considered. Results. There were significant correlations between the HRA value of right side neck flexion and pelvic side tilt angle (p<0.05. If pelvic side tilting angle increases by 1 degree, right side neck flexion increased by 0.76 degrees (p=0.026. However, there were no significant correlations between other neck motions and trunk postures. Conclusion. Verifying pelvic postures should be prioritized when movement is limited due to the vitiation of the proprioceptive sense of neck caused by FHP.

  5. Trismus following different treatment modalities for head and neck cancer: a systematic review of subjective measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Sook Y; Mcleod, Robert W J; Elhassan, Hassan A

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this review was to compare systematically the subjective measure of trismus between different interventions to treat head and neck cancer, particularly those of the oropharynx. Using The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) Guidelines, Six databases were searched for the text using various terms which include "oropharyngeal/head and neck cancer", "trismus/mouth opening" and the various treatment modalities. Included in the review were clinical studies (> or =10 patients). Three observers independently assessed the papers identified. Among the six studies reviewed, five showed a significantly worst outcome with regard to the quality-of-life questionnaire scores for a radiotherapy or surgery and radiotherapy (RT) ± chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy when compared to surgery alone. Only one study showed no significant difference between surgery alone and other treatment modalities. Subjective quality-of-life measures are a concurrent part of modern surgical practice. Although subjective measures were utilised to measure post operative trismus successfully, there was no consensus as to which treatment modality had overall better outcomes, with conflicting studies in keeping with the current debate in this field. Larger and higher quality studies are needed to compare all three treatment modalities.

  6. Correlation between Trunk Posture and Neck Reposition Sense among Subjects with Forward Head Neck Postures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Han Suk; Chung, Hyung Kuk; Park, Sun Wook

    2015-01-01

    To assess the correlation of abnormal trunk postures and reposition sense of subjects with forward head neck posture (FHP). In all, postures of 41 subjects were evaluated and the FHP and trunk posture including shoulder, scapular level, pelvic side, and anterior tilting degrees were analyzed. We used the head repositioning accuracy (HRA) test to evaluate neck position senses of neck flexion, neck extension, neck right and left side flexion, and neck right and left rotation and calculated the root mean square error in trials for each subject. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients and regression analysis were used to assess the degree of correlation between the trunk posture and HRA value, and a significance level of α = 0.05 was considered. There were significant correlations between the HRA value of right side neck flexion and pelvic side tilt angle (p neck flexion increased by 0.76 degrees (p = 0.026). However, there were no significant correlations between other neck motions and trunk postures. Verifying pelvic postures should be prioritized when movement is limited due to the vitiation of the proprioceptive sense of neck caused by FHP.

  7. Head First Programming A learner's guide to programming using the Python language

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, David

    2009-01-01

    Looking for a reliable way to learn how to program on your own, without being overwhelmed by confusing concepts? Head First Programming introduces the core concepts of writing computer programs -- variables, decisions, loops, functions, and objects -- which apply regardless of the programming language. This book offers concrete examples and exercises in the dynamic and versatile Python language to demonstrate and reinforce these concepts. Learn the basic tools to start writing the programs that interest you, and get a better understanding of what software can (and cannot) do. When you're fi

  8. Redefining the pharmacology and pharmacy subject category in the journal citation reports using medical subject headings (MeSH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguet, Fernando; Salgado, Teresa M; Santopadre, Claudio; Fernandez-Llimos, Fernando

    2017-10-01

    Background The Journal Citation Reports (JCR) Pharmacology and Pharmacy subject category is heterogeneous. The inclusion of journals with basic and clinical scopes, which have different citation patterns, compromises comparability of impact factors among journals within the category. Objective To subdivide the Pharmacology and Pharmacy category into basic pharmacology, clinical pharmacology, and pharmacy based on the analyses of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) as a proxy of journals' scopes. Setting JCR. Method All articles, and respective MeSH, published in 2013, 2014, and 2015 in all journals included in the 2014 JCR Pharmacology and Pharmacy category were retrieved from PubMed. Several models using a combination of the 14 MeSH categories and specific MeSH tree branches were tested using hierarchical cluster analysis. Main outcome measure Distribution of journals across the subcategories of the JCR Pharmacology and Pharmacy subject category. Results A total of 107,847 articles from 214 journals were included. Nine different models combining the MeSH categories M (Persons) and N (Health Care) with specific MeSH tree branches (selected ad-hoc) and Pharmacy-specific MeSH (identified in previous research) consistently grouped 142 journals (66.4%) in homogeneous groups reflecting their basic and clinical pharmacology, and pharmacy scopes. Ultimately, journals were clustered into: 150 in basic pharmacology, 43 in clinical pharmacology, 16 in basic pharmacology and clinical pharmacology, and 5 in pharmacy. Conclusion The reformulation of the Pharmacology and Pharmacy category into three categories was demonstrated by the consistent results obtained from testing nine different clustering models using the MeSH terms assigned to their articles.

  9. The Discursive Construction of Power in Teacher Partnerships: Language and Subject Specialists in Mainstream Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creese, Angela

    2002-01-01

    Shows how language and subject teachers in London secondary schools are positioned differently through their discursive performance of pedagogues and knowledge and how members of classroom communities view language and subject teachers as unequal. Data analysis dew on ethnography of communication and semiotic functional approaches to explain the…

  10. A case study: using social tagging to engage students in learning Medical Subject Headings*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresnahan, Megan; Flynn, David B.; Harzbecker, Joseph; Blanchard, Mary; Ginn, David

    2009-01-01

    In exploring new ways of teaching students how to use Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), librarians at Boston University's Alumni Medical Library (AML) integrated social tagging into their instruction. These activities were incorporated into the two-credit graduate course, “GMS MS 640: Introduction to Biomedical Information,” required for all students in the graduate medical science program. Hands-on assignments and in-class exercises enabled librarians to present MeSH and the concept of a controlled vocabulary in a familiar and relevant context for the course's Generation Y student population and provided students the opportunity to actively participate in creating their education. At the conclusion of these activities, students were surveyed regarding the clarity of the presentation of the MeSH vocabulary. Analysis of survey responses indicated that 46% found the concept of MeSH to be the clearest concept presented in the in-class intervention. PMID:19404497

  11. The Relationship of Head Start Teachers' Academic Language Use and Children's Receptive Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Erica M.; Dickinson, David K.

    2017-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examines lexical- and sentence-level dimensions of academic language to describe teachers' natural use of academic language and its association with vocabulary growth in 489 at-risk 4-year-olds enrolled in Head Start preschool classrooms. Using transcripts derived from video recordings of book-reading sessions in 52…

  12. Lacan's subject: the imaginary, language, the real and philosophy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The extent to which the imaginary or realm of images is construed by Lacan as being the order of identification and a (spurious) sense of unity of the ego or self, is contrasted with the symbolic (or linguistic) order as that of the subject and of desire, in fact, of the subject of desire. The place and meaning of the enigmatic third ...

  13. Internal Lymphedema Correlates with Subjective and Objective Measures of Dysphagia in Head and Neck Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Leanne K; Ridner, Sheila H; Deng, Jie; Bartow, Carmin; Mannion, Kyle; Niermann, Ken; Gilbert, Jill; Dietrich, Mary S; Cmelak, Anthony J; Murphy, Barbara A

    2016-09-01

    Tumor/treatment-related internal lymphedema (IL) and/or external lymphedema (EL) are associated with functional deficits and increased symptom burden in head and neck cancer patients (HNCP). Previously, we noted association between EL/IL and patient-reported dysphagia using the Vanderbilt Head and Neck Symptom Survey (VHNSS) version 1.0. To determine the relationship between IL/EL and subjective and objective measures of swallowing function. Eighty-one HNCP completed: (1) VHNSS version 2.0, including 13 swallowing/nutrition-related questions grouped into three clusters: swallow solids (ss), swallow liquids (sl), and nutrition(nt); (2) physical assessment of EL using Foldi scale; (3) endoscopic assessment of IL using Patterson scale (n = 56); and (4) modified barium swallow study rated by dysphagia outcome and severity scale (DOSS) and in conjunction with a swallow evaluation by National Outcomes Measurement System (NOMS). Examinations were performed at varied time points to assess lymphedema spectrum, from baseline (n = 15, 18.1%) to 18 months post-therapy (n = 20, 24.1%). VHNSS swallow/nutrition items scores correlated with NOMS/DOSS ratings (p nutrition scores correlated with maximum grade of swelling for any single structure on Patterson scale: ss (0.43; p = 0.001); sl (0.38; p = 0.004); nt (0.41; p = 0.002). IL of aryepiglottic/pharyngoepiglottic folds, epiglottis, and pyriform sinus were most strongly correlated with VHNSS and NOMS ratings. NOMS/DOSS ratings correlated with EL (> = -0.34; p nutrition items and EL ( 0.20). IL correlated with subjective and objective measures of swallow dysfunction. Longitudinal analysis of trajectory and impact of IL/EL on dysphagia is ongoing.

  14. Reversing the Approach to Null Subjects: A Perspective from Language Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duguine, Maia

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a new model for null subjects, and focuses on its implications for language development. The literature on pro-drop generally considers that not allowing null subjects is, informally speaking, the "default" option in natural languages, and appeals to particular morphosyntactic mechanisms in order to account for those languages in which the subject can be omitted. Shifting the perspective, the inverse approach postulates that pro-drop is (almost) a default grammatical setting, and that non-pro-drop results from the intervention of independent factors that block pro-drop in the derivation. The paper explores the consequences of the inverse approach in the domain of language acquisition, arguing that this model allows to account for a number of properties of child languages. It opens an avenue of research worth exploring, one that could give new solutions to old problems.

  15. The Effects of CLIL Education on the Subject Matter (Mathematics) and the Target Language (English)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouazizi, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of Content and Language Integrated Learning, CLIL for short, on both the attainment of the subject matter, mathematics in our case, hence the content aspect of CLIL. The second axes of research focuses on the effect of CLIL on the learners' proficiency vis-à-vis the language of instruction, epitomized here by…

  16. Theoretical Linguistics Meets Pedagogical Practice: Pronominal Subject Use in Spanish as a Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Jason

    2010-01-01

    This article attempts to highlight the importance of theoretical linguistics and empirical cognitive linguistics studies for the practical teaching of Spanish as a second language. Looking at the domain of subject pronominal use as an example, I endeavor to show how formal linguistics can be useful to language instructors. This is a significant…

  17. On subject use in English as a second language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbu Revencu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present article addresses the issue of syntactic transfer in child L2 acquisition, by presenting a two-part study in which Romanian monolinguals are compared to Romanian-Hebrew balanced bilinguals in two spontaneous production tasks. The main research question concerns the influence of Hebrew as a second L1 on the (resetting of the Null Subject Parameter in English-L2, as Hebrew exhibits the same subject and verb morphology pattern as English for certain persons and tenses. The collected data provide evidence in favour of both access to UG and syntactic transfer, supporting the Full Access Full Transfer Hypothesis.

  18. Transforming the Medical Subject Headings into Linked Data: Creating the Authorized Version of MeSH in RDF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushman, Barbara; Anderson, David; Fu, Gang

    In February 2014 the National Library of Medicine formed the Linked Data Infrastructure Working Group to investigate the potential for publishing linked data, determine best practices for publishing linked data, and prioritize linked data projects, beginning with transforming the Medical Subject Headings as a linked data pilot. This article will review the pilot project to convert the Medical Subject Headings from XML to RDF. It will discuss the collaborative process, the technical and organizational issues tackled, and the future of linked data at the library.

  19. Mapping of medical acronyms and initialisms to Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) across selected systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Mary

    2006-10-01

    Given the common use of acronyms and initialisms in the health sciences, searchers may be entering these abbreviated terms rather than full phrases when searching online systems. The purpose of this study is to evaluate how various MEDLINE Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) interfaces map acronyms and initialisms to the MeSH vocabulary. The interfaces used in this study were: the PubMed MeSH database, the PubMed Automatic Term Mapping feature, the NLM Gateway Term Finder, and Ovid MEDLINE. Acronyms and initialisms were randomly selected from 2 print sources. The test data set included 415 randomly selected acronyms and initialisms whose related meanings were found to be MeSH terms. Each acronym and initialism was entered into each MEDLINE MeSH interface to determine if it mapped to the corresponding MeSH term. Separately, 46 commonly used acronyms and initialisms were tested. While performance differed widely, the success rates were low across all interfaces for the randomly selected terms. The common acronyms and initialisms tested at higher success rates across the interfaces, but the differences between the interfaces remained. Online interfaces do not always map medical acronyms and initialisms to their corresponding MeSH phrases. This may lead to inaccurate results and missed information if acronyms and initialisms are used in search strategies.

  20. Leveraging output term co-occurrence frequencies and latent associations in predicting medical subject headings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavuluru, Ramakanth; Lu, Yuan

    2014-11-01

    Trained indexers at the National Library of Medicine (NLM) manually tag each biomedical abstract with the most suitable terms from the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terminology to be indexed by their PubMed information system. MeSH has over 26,000 terms and indexers look at each article's full text while assigning the terms. Recent automated attempts focused on using the article title and abstract text to identify MeSH terms for the corresponding article. Most of these approaches used supervised machine learning techniques that use already indexed articles and the corresponding MeSH terms. In this paper, we present a new indexing approach that leverages term co-occurrence frequencies and latent term associations computed using MeSH term sets corresponding to a set of nearly 18 million articles already indexed with MeSH terms by indexers at NLM. The main goal of our study is to gauge the potential of output label co-occurrences, latent associations, and relationships extracted from free text in both unsupervised and supervised indexing approaches. In this paper, using a novel and purely unsupervised approach, we achieve a micro-F-score that is comparable to those obtained using supervised machine learning techniques. By incorporating term co-occurrence and latent association features into a supervised learning framework, we also improve over the best results published on two public datasets.

  1. Distancing, self-esteem, and subjective well-being in head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devins, Gerald M; Wong, Janice C; Payne, Ada Y M; Lebel, Sophie; Lee, Ruth N F; Mah, Kenneth; Irish, Jonathan; Rodin, Gary

    2015-11-01

    Distancing (i.e. construing oneself as dissimilar to a negatively-stereotyped group) preserves self-esteem and may benefit other domains of subjective well-being. Head and neck cancer (HNC) is stigmatized because major risk factors include avoidable lifestyle variables (smoking, alcohol consumption, and human papilloma virus). Because the benefits of coping efforts, such as distancing, are most evident when people are under stress, we hypothesize that the psychosocial benefits of distancing will be most pronounced when cancer and its treatment interfere substantially with participation in valued activities and interests (i.e. high illness intrusiveness). To test whether distancing preserves self-esteem and other domains of subjective well-being (SWB) in HNC, especially when illness intrusiveness is high. Five hundred and twenty-two HNC outpatients completed a semantic-differential measure of perceived similarity to the 'cancer patient' and measures of illness intrusiveness, self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and psychological well-being in structured interviews. Evaluations of the 'cancer patient' reflected cancer stereotypes. A statistically significant interaction supported the central hypothesis: When people held negative stereotypes, those who construed themselves as similar to the 'cancer patient' reported lower self-esteem than those who construed themselves as dissimilar. Distancing did not benefit other SWB variables. Some results were counter-intuitive: e.g. Emotional distress increased with increasing illness intrusiveness when people did not hold negative cancer stereotypes, but when they held highly negative stereotypes, distress decreased with increasing illness intrusiveness. Overall, distancing preserved self-esteem in people with HNC and was associated with benefits in other SWB domains. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. A Conflict between Experience and Professional Learning: Subject Teachers' Beliefs about Teaching English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, Margaret; Davison, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Secondary schools in Australia have long benefited from state policies aiming to increase the academic success of English language learners (ELLs). Complementary pre-service and in-service teacher education programmes have been implemented to raise the expertise of subject teachers who teach ELL students. However, subject teachers may not be…

  3. Citation analysis with medical subject Headings (MeSH) using the Web of Knowledge: A new routine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Opthof, T.

    2013-01-01

    Citation analysis of documents retrieved from the Medline database (at the Web of Knowledge) has been possible only on a case-by-case basis. A technique is presented here for citation analysis in batch mode using both Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) at the Web of Knowledge and the Science Citation

  4. The use of the language made by students taking English language as a subject at the UOC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar Gutiérrez-Colon Plana

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses the use of English in the e-mail messages of students taking English language as a subject at the UOC. The study is based mainly on the hedges (a strategy by which the learners mitigate and tone down their discourse appearing in their texts. The article begins by describing the general theoretical framework of the study and the objective of the research carried out. A description is then given of the taxonomy used in the research, along with a description of the subjects studied. The results obtained from the study of the messages are shown, and the conclusions drawn from all the research data are then explained in detail. Essentially, after evaluating all the data obtained from this research, it can be said that the UOC fosters and boosts the process of English language learning, due to the nature of the messages in the subject, as these promote the autonomy and critical awareness of the students.

  5. The root infinitive stage in a null subject language: Romance in the Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Avram

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper is to determine which early non-finite verbal form is the Root Infinitive analogue in Romanian, an Inflection-licensed null subject language. In particular, we investigate whether the RI-analogue is the imperative, as predicted by Salustri and Hyams’s (2003 hypothesis, or whether it is a language specific underspecified form, overused during the early stages of acquisition, as predicted by Wexler et al. (2004.

  6. Quantitative biomedical annotation using medical subject heading over-representation profiles (MeSHOPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheung Warren A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MEDLINE®/PubMed® indexes over 20 million biomedical articles, providing curated annotation of its contents using a controlled vocabulary known as Medical Subject Headings (MeSH. The MeSH vocabulary, developed over 50+ years, provides a broad coverage of topics across biomedical research. Distilling the essential biomedical themes for a topic of interest from the relevant literature is important to both understand the importance of related concepts and discover new relationships. Results We introduce a novel method for determining enriched curator-assigned MeSH annotations in a set of papers associated to a topic, such as a gene, an author or a disease. We generate MeSH Over-representation Profiles (MeSHOPs to quantitatively summarize the annotations in a form convenient for further computational analysis and visualization. Based on a hypergeometric distribution of assigned terms, MeSHOPs statistically account for the prevalence of the associated biomedical annotation while highlighting unusually prevalent terms based on a specified background. MeSHOPs can be visualized using word clouds, providing a succinct quantitative graphical representation of the relative importance of terms. Using the publication dates of articles, MeSHOPs track changing patterns of annotation over time. Since MeSHOPs are quantitative vectors, MeSHOPs can be compared using standard techniques such as hierarchical clustering. The reliability of MeSHOP annotations is assessed based on the capacity to re-derive the subset of the Gene Ontology annotations with equivalent MeSH terms. Conclusions MeSHOPs allows quantitative measurement of the degree of association between any entity and the annotated medical concepts, based directly on relevant primary literature. Comparison of MeSHOPs allows entities to be related based on shared medical themes in their literature. A web interface is provided for generating and visualizing MeSHOPs.

  7. Quantitative biomedical annotation using medical subject heading over-representation profiles (MeSHOPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Warren A; Ouellette, B F Francis; Wasserman, Wyeth W

    2012-09-27

    MEDLINE®/PubMed® indexes over 20 million biomedical articles, providing curated annotation of its contents using a controlled vocabulary known as Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). The MeSH vocabulary, developed over 50+ years, provides a broad coverage of topics across biomedical research. Distilling the essential biomedical themes for a topic of interest from the relevant literature is important to both understand the importance of related concepts and discover new relationships. We introduce a novel method for determining enriched curator-assigned MeSH annotations in a set of papers associated to a topic, such as a gene, an author or a disease. We generate MeSH Over-representation Profiles (MeSHOPs) to quantitatively summarize the annotations in a form convenient for further computational analysis and visualization. Based on a hypergeometric distribution of assigned terms, MeSHOPs statistically account for the prevalence of the associated biomedical annotation while highlighting unusually prevalent terms based on a specified background. MeSHOPs can be visualized using word clouds, providing a succinct quantitative graphical representation of the relative importance of terms. Using the publication dates of articles, MeSHOPs track changing patterns of annotation over time. Since MeSHOPs are quantitative vectors, MeSHOPs can be compared using standard techniques such as hierarchical clustering. The reliability of MeSHOP annotations is assessed based on the capacity to re-derive the subset of the Gene Ontology annotations with equivalent MeSH terms. MeSHOPs allows quantitative measurement of the degree of association between any entity and the annotated medical concepts, based directly on relevant primary literature. Comparison of MeSHOPs allows entities to be related based on shared medical themes in their literature. A web interface is provided for generating and visualizing MeSHOPs.

  8. Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) annotations illuminate maize genetics and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beissinger, Timothy M; Morota, Gota

    2017-01-01

    High-density marker panels and/or whole-genome sequencing, coupled with advanced phenotyping pipelines and sophisticated statistical methods, have dramatically increased our ability to generate lists of candidate genes or regions that are putatively associated with phenotypes or processes of interest. However, the speed with which we can validate genes, or even make reasonable biological interpretations about the principles underlying them, has not kept pace. A promising approach that runs parallel to explicitly validating individual genes is analyzing a set of genes together and assessing the biological similarities among them. This is often achieved via gene ontology analysis, a powerful tool that involves evaluating publicly available gene annotations. However, additional resources such as Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) can also be used to evaluate sets of genes to make biological interpretations. In this manuscript, we describe utilizing MeSH terms to make biological interpretations in maize. MeSH terms are assigned to PubMed-indexed manuscripts by the National Library of Medicine, and can be directly mapped to genes to develop gene annotations. Once mapped, these terms can be evaluated for enrichment in sets of genes or similarity between gene sets to provide biological insights. Here, we implement MeSH analyses in five maize datasets to demonstrate how MeSH can be leveraged by the maize and broader crop-genomics community. We demonstrate that MeSH terms can be effectively leveraged to generate hypotheses and make biological interpretations in maize, and we provide a pipeline that enables the use of MeSH terms in other plant species.

  9. Teaching English as a Language not Subject by Employing Formative Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Tufail Chandio

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available English is a second language (L2 in Sindh, Pakistan. Most of the public sector schools in Sindh teach English as a subject rather than a language. Besides, they do not distinguish between generic pedagogy and distinctive approaches used for teaching English as a first language (L1 and second language (L2. In addition, the erroneous traditional assessment focuses on only writing and reading skills and the listening and speaking skills of L2 remain excluded. There is a great emphasis on summative assessments, which contribute to a qualification; however, formative assessments, which provide timely and continuous appraisal and feedback, remain ignored. Summative assessment employs only paper-and- pencil based test, while the other current means of alternative assessments like self-assessment, peer-assessment, and portfolio assessment have not been incorporated, and explored yet. Teaching English as a subject not as a language, employing summative assessment not formative, depending on paper-and-pencil based test, and not using the alternative modes of assessment are some of the questions this study will deal with. The study under discussion suggests that current approaches employed for teaching English are misplaced as these take a subject teaching approach rather than a language teaching approach. It also argues for the paradigm shift from a product to process approach to assessment by administering modern alternative assessments.

  10. Bilingual Infant/Toddler Environments: Supporting Language & Learning in Our Youngest Children. A Guide for Migrant & Seasonal Head Start Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stechuk, Robert A.; Burns, M. Susan; Yandian, Sharon E.

    2006-01-01

    This Guide is specifically intended for staff in Migrant and Seasonal Head Start (MSHS) programs, which are funded to provide comprehensive child development services to the children of migrant farm workers from birth through compulsory school age. The authors attempt to navigate the research on first and second language acquisition and…

  11. Neuroplasticity associated with tactile language communication in a deaf-blind subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souzana Obretenova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A longstanding debate in cognitive neuroscience pertains to the innate nature of language development and the underlying factors that determine this faculty. We explored the neural correlates associated with language processing in a unique individual who is early blind, congenitally deaf, and possesses a high level of language function. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, we compared the neural networks associated with the tactile reading of words presented in Braille, Print on Palm (POP, and a haptic form of American Sign Language (haptic ASL or hASL. With all three modes of tactile communication, indentifying words was associated with robust activation within occipital cortical regions as well as posterior superior temporal and inferior frontal language areas (lateralized within the left hemisphere. In a normally sighted and hearing interpreter, identifying words through hASL was associated with left-lateralized activation of inferior frontal language areas however robust occipital cortex activation was not observed. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI-based tractography revealed differences consistent with enhanced occipital-temporal connectivity in the deaf-blind subject. Our results demonstrate that in the case of early onset of both visual and auditory deprivation, tactile-based communication is associated with an extensive cortical network implicating occipital as well as posterior superior temporal and frontal associated language areas. The cortical areas activated in this deaf-blind subject are consistent with characteristic cortical regions previously implicated with language. Finally, the resilience of language function within the context of early and combined visual and auditory deprivation may be related to enhanced connectivity between relevant cortical areas.

  12. Longitudinal measurement equivalence of subjective language brokering experiences scale in Mexican American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Yeong; Hou, Yang; Shen, Yishan; Zhang, Minyu

    2017-04-01

    Language brokering occurs frequently in immigrant families and can have significant implications for the well-being of family members involved. The present study aimed to develop and validate a measure that can be used to assess multiple dimensions of subjective language brokering experiences among Mexican American adolescents. Participants were 557 adolescent language brokers (54.2% female, Mage.wave1 = 12.96, SD = .94) in Mexican American families. Using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, we were able to identify 7 reliable subscales of language brokering: linguistic benefits, socioemotional benefits, efficacy, positive parent-child relationships, parental dependence, negative feelings , and centrality . Tests of factorial invariance show that these subscales demonstrate, at minimum, partial strict invariance across time and across experiences of translating for mothers and fathers, and in most cases, also across adolescent gender, nativity, and translation frequency. Thus, in general, the means of the subscales and the relations among the subscales with other variables can be compared across these different occasions and groups. Tests of criterion-related validity demonstrated that these subscales correlated, concurrently and longitudinally, with parental warmth and hostility, parent-child alienation, adolescent family obligation, depressive symptoms, resilience, and life meaning. This reliable and valid subjective language brokering experiences scale will be helpful for gaining a better understanding of adolescents' language brokering experiences with their mothers and fathers, and how such experiences may influence their development. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Between freedom and self-subjection: the dilemma of writing in an African language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Maake

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is an analysis of the dilemmas that confront an author who chooses to write in an African language. (Language choice remains a particularly vexing issue in African literature. On the one hand a language that he is a master of gives him the freedom to assert himself and oppose the imperial way of thinking, which is liberating. On the other hand choice of language confines his work to a specific audience and a particular set of literary canons. Sometimes certain influential gatekeepers overtly prescribe boundaries and limit the possibilities of transcending them. On the other hand, as a case study of Sesotho literature shows, the literature itself manifests generic and thematic propensities that limit the freedom of literary expression. From the subjective and privileged position of being a writer in Sesotho himself the author in the end makes a number of suggestions on how to overcome this stifling status quo.

  14. Tasting Words and Letting Them Hang in the Air. About Subject-Oriented Language in Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askeland, Norunn; Maagero, Eva

    2010-01-01

    In the first part of this article we will briefly point out the learning areas in the Norwegian Framework plan for contents and tasks in kindergartens from 2006, and argue that the introduction of these areas means a large potential for focusing on different kinds of subject-oriented language in kindergarten. We will present some features of…

  15. THE SHORT-TERM EFFECT OF A HOME-BASED PROGRAM TO CORRECT FORWARD HEAD POSTURE IN ASYMPTOMATIC SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Omar Abdelnaeem

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neck pain and dysfunction may be the consequence of adopting sustained non-neutral spinal postures. Such postures are associated with increased activation of the neck-shoulder stabilizer muscles, which eventually increase the loading of cervical spine. Forward head posture is a common postural dysfunction that has been associated with many musculoskeletal disorders. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of deep cervical flexor muscles training on the severity of forward head posture in asymptomatic subjects. Methods: Forty-one asymptomatic subjects volunteered in this study. Participants were randomly assigned into an intervention group (n= 20that received a home-based training of deep cervical flexor muscles for 6-weeks, and a control group(n= 21 that received only the assessment procedure. Subjects were assessed at baseline and 6weeks later with regards to the severity of forward head as indicated by the cranio-vertebral angle. Also, the strength and endurance of the deep flexor muscles were assessed. Results: After six weeks, participants in the intervention group showed significant improvement in all measured variables compared to the control group. Furthermore, participants in the intervention group showed significant difference in all measured variables after 6-weeks of training compared to baseline, whereas those in the control group remained the same. Conclusion: Six-weeks of deep cervical training improves forward head posture and deep flexors strength and endurance in asymptomatic subjects. Thus, this exercise could be used as a preventive measure against the development of neck dysfunction in at risk population even before the onset of any symptoms.

  16. Hyoid bone position and head posture comparison in skeletal Class I and Class II subjects: A retrospective cephalometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawankumar Dnyandeo Tekale

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the hyoid bone position and the head posture using lateral cephalograms in subjects with skeletal Class I and skeletal Class II pattern and to investigate the gender differences. Materials and Methods: The study used lateral cephalograms of 40 subjects (20 skeletal Class I pattern; 20 skeletal Class II pattern. Lateral cephalograms were traced and analyzed for evaluation of the hyoid bone position and the head posture using 34 parameters. Independent sample t-test was performed to compare the differences between the two groups and between genders in each group. Statistical tests were performed using NCSS 2007 software (NCSST, Kaysville, Utah, USA. Results: The linear measurements between the hyoid bone (H and cervical spine (CV2ia, the nasion-sella line, palatal line nasion line, the anterior nasal spine (ANS to perpendicular projection of H on the NLP (NLP- Nasal Linear Projection (H-NLP/ANS as well as the posterior cranial points (Bo, Ar and S points were found to be less in skeletal Class II subjects. The measurement H-CV2ia was found to be less in males with skeletal Class I pattern and H-CV4ia was found to be less in males with skeletal Class II pattern. The natural head posture showed no significant gender differences. Conclusion: The position of hyoid bone was closer to the cervical vertebra horizontally in skeletal Class II subjects when compared with skeletal Class I subjects. In males, the hyoid bone position was closer to the cervical vertebra horizontally both in skeletal Class I and skeletal Class II subjects.

  17. Revision of the Wayne State University Medical Library subject catalog using the 1966 Medical Subject Heading system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pings, V M; Ferrario, J A

    1967-01-01

    Wayne State University Medical Library (WSUML) revised its monograph subject catalog in 1961 utilizing the 1960 edition of MeSH as an authority list. With the introduction of MEDLARS in 1963 by NLM, all topical subheadings were omitted from MeSH. Inasmuch as this omission could not accommodate the needs of WSUML, the 1960 edition of MeSH was retained as a guideline. In January 1966, when MeSH resumed the incorporation of topical subheadings, WSUML was faced with a decision whether to continue the current policy or to adopt the form as presented in the latest edition of MeSH. This report describes the methodology employed in adopting a new policy, the findings which resulted from the change, and an evaluation of this reorganization.

  18. [Predict factors associated with malnutrition from patient generated subjective global assessment (PG-SGA) in head and neck cancer patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arribas, L; Hurtós, L; Milà, R; Fort, E; Peiró, I

    2013-01-01

    Patient Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) is a validated tool for nutrition evaluation in patients with cancer. The aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence of malnutrition in head and neck cancer patients at diagnosis and evaluate the independent prognostic factors for malnutrition from PG-SGA. All outpatients attending at the Head and Neck Cancer Multidisciplinary Meeting for primary diagnosis, staging and treatment were evaluated by an oncology dietitian using the patient generated subjective global assessment (PG-SGA). Patients with recurrences or secondary tumours will be excluded. 64 patients were evaluated (55 men and 9 women) with an average age of 63 years and body mass index (BMI) of 25.3 kg/m(2) (SD ± 5.18). After the nutritional assessment we observed that 43.8% of patients were malnourished or at risk of malnutrition. The most frequent symptom at diagnosis was dysphagia (48.4%) and anorexia (26.6%). From PG-SGA, the main prognostic factors (p<0,001) were the percentage of weight loss, serum albumin levels, BMI and the presence of dysphagia or/and anorexia prior diagnosis. Parameters as BMI, weight loss and low albumin levels at the time of diagnosis in head and neck cancer patients are independent predictors for malnutrition as well as the presence of anorexia or dysphagia.reaffirms the need for sustainability of interventions over time. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  19. Recognition of American Sign Language (ASL) Classifiers in a Planetarium Using a Head-Mounted Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintz, Eric G.; Jones, Michael; Lawler, Jeannette; Bench, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    A traditional accommodation for the deaf or hard-of-hearing in a planetarium show is some type of captioning system or a signer on the floor. Both of these have significant drawbacks given the nature of a planetarium show. Young audience members who are deaf likely don't have the reading skills needed to make a captioning system effective. A signer on the floor requires light which can then splash onto the dome. We have examined the potential of using a Head-Mounted Display (HMD) to provide an American Sign Language (ASL) translation. Our preliminary test used a canned planetarium show with a pre-recorded sound track. Since many astronomical objects don't have official ASL signs, the signer had to use classifiers to describe the different objects. Since these are not official signs, these classifiers provided a way to test to see if students were picking up the information using the HMD.We will present results that demonstrate that the use of HMDs is at least as effective as projecting a signer on the dome. This also showed that the HMD could provide the necessary accommodation for students for whom captioning was ineffective. We will also discuss the current effort to provide a live signer without the light splash effect and our early results on teaching effectiveness with HMDs.This work is partially supported by funding from the National Science Foundation grant IIS-1124548 and the Sorenson Foundation.

  20. Agent-patient similarity affects sentence structure in language production: evidence from subject omissions in Mandarin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Yaling; Gao, Yannan; MacDonald, Maryellen C.

    2014-01-01

    Interference effects from semantically similar items are well-known in studies of single word production, where the presence of semantically similar distractor words slows picture naming. This article examines the consequences of this interference in sentence production and tests the hypothesis that in situations of high similarity-based interference, producers are more likely to omit one of the interfering elements than when there is low semantic similarity and thus low interference. This work investigated language production in Mandarin, which allows subject noun phrases to be omitted in discourse contexts in which the subject entity has been previously mentioned in the discourse. We hypothesize that Mandarin speakers omit the subject more often when the subject and the object entities are conceptually similar. A corpus analysis of simple transitive sentences found higher rates of subject omission when both the subject and object were animate (potentially yielding similarity-based interference) than when the subject was animate and object was inanimate. A second study manipulated subject-object animacy in a picture description task and replicated this result: participants omitted the animate subject more often when the object was also animate than when it was inanimate. These results suggest that similarity-based interference affects sentence forms, particularly when the agent of the action is mentioned in the sentence. Alternatives and mechanisms for this effect are discussed. PMID:25278915

  1. The multi-modal responses of a physical head model subjected to various blast exposure conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouellet, S.; Phillippens, M.

    2017-11-01

    The local and global biomechanical response of the body to a blast wave is the first step of a sequence that leads to the development of stresses and strains which can exceed the tolerance of brain tissue. These stresses and strains may then lead to neuro-physical changes in the brain and contribute to initiate a cascade of events leading to injury. The specific biomechanical pathways by which the blast energy is transmitted through the head structure are, however, not clearly understood. Multiple transmission mechanisms have been proposed to explain the generation of brain stresses following the impingement of a blast wave on the head. With the use of a physical head model, the work presented here aims at demonstrating that the proposed transmission mechanisms are not mutually exclusive. They are part of a continuum of head responses where, depending on the exposure conditions, a given mechanism may or may not dominate. This article presents the joint analysis of previous blast test results generated with the brain injury protection evaluation device (BIPED) headform under four significantly different exposure conditions. The focus of the analysis is to demonstrate how the nature of the recorded response is highly dependent on the exposure characteristics and consequently, on the method used to reproduce blast exposure in a laboratory environment. The timing and magnitude of the variations in intra-cranial pressures (ICP) were analysed relative to the external pressure field in order to better understand the wave dynamics occurring within the brain structure of the headform. ICP waveforms were also analysed in terms of their energy spectral density to better identify the energy partitioning between the different modes of response. It is shown that the BIPED response is multi-modal and that the energy partitioning between its different modes of response is greatly influenced by exposure characteristics such as external peak overpressure, impulse, blast wave

  2. Dental needs in Brazilian patients subjected to head and neck radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales, Ana Carolina de Mesquita Netto; Jorge, Jacks; Almeida, Oslei Paes de; Lopes, Marcio Ajudarte [University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Piracicaba Dental School. Dept. of Oral Diagnosis], e-mail: malopes@fop.unicamp.br; Esteves, Sergio Carlos Barros [Center of Oncology, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    In spite of its recognized benefits in the treatment of malignant tumors, radiation therapy have several side effects in the head and neck region. The evaluation of oral conditions by a dentist is important to prevent or minimize these problems. The aim of this retrospective review was to analyze the dental needs in 357 patients who received radiotherapy in the head and neck region and were treated at Orocentro/FOP/UNICAMP, between January 1990 and December 2004. Review of patient files showed that dental examination before radiotherapy was not performed in 148 patients (41.5%) and was done in 209 patients (58.5%). From the total of examined patients, 94 (45%) did not require dental procedures at the moment of examination, while 115 (55%) presented some sort of dental need. Following the patients after the radiotherapy, it was observed that the group of patients that was evaluated before radiation presented less need of restorations, root canal filling and dental extractions than those who were not evaluated. The results of this study confirm that the evaluation of oral conditions prior to radiotherapy is essential to minimize the dental needs, emphasizing the importance of the dentist in the multidisciplinary team that treats cancer patients. (author)

  3. Cross-linguistic gestures reflect typological universals: a subject-initial, verb-final bias in speakers of diverse languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futrell, Richard; Hickey, Tina; Lee, Aldrin; Lim, Eunice; Luchkina, Elena; Gibson, Edward

    2015-03-01

    In communicating events by gesture, participants create codes that recapitulate the patterns of word order in the world's vocal languages (Gibson et al., 2013; Goldin-Meadow, So, Ozyurek, & Mylander, 2008; Hall, Mayberry, & Ferreria, 2013; Hall, Ferreira, & Mayberry, 2014; Langus & Nespor, 2010; and others). Participants most often convey simple transitive events using gestures in the order Subject-Object-Verb (SOV), the most common word order in human languages. When there is a possibility of confusion between subject and object, participants use the order Subject-Verb-Object (SVO). This overall pattern has been explained by positing an underlying cognitive preference for subject-initial, verb-final orders, with the verb-medial order SVO order emerging to facilitate robust communication in a noisy channel (Gibson et al., 2013). However, whether the subject-initial and verb-final biases are innate or the result of languages that the participants already know has been unclear, because participants in previous studies all spoke either SVO or SOV languages, which could induce a subject-initial, verb-late bias. Furthermore, the exact manner in which known languages influence gestural orders has been unclear. In this paper we demonstrate that there is a subject-initial and verb-final gesturing bias cross-linguistically by comparing gestures of speakers of SVO languages English and Russian to those of speakers of VSO languages Irish and Tagalog. The findings show that subject-initial and verb-final order emerges even in speakers of verb-initial languages, and that interference from these languages takes the form of occasionally gesturing in VSO order, without an additional bias toward other orders. The results provides further support for the idea that improvised gesture is a window into the pressures shaping language formation, independently of the languages that participants already know. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Production and processing of subject-verb agreement in monolingual Dutch children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Elma; Vasic, Nada; de Jong, Jan

    2014-06-01

    In this study, the authors investigated whether errors with subject-verb agreement in monolingual Dutch children with specific language impairment (SLI) are influenced by verb phonology. In addition, the productive and receptive abilities of Dutch acquiring children with SLI regarding agreement inflection were compared. An SLI group (6-8 years old), an age-matched group with typical development, and a language-matched, younger, typically developing (TD) group participated in the study. Using an elicitation task, the authors tested use of third person singular inflection after verbs that ended in obstruents (plosive, fricative) or nonobstruents (sonorant). The authors used a self-paced listening task to test sensitivity to subject-verb agreement violations. Omission was more frequent after obstruents than nonobstruents; the younger TD group used inflection less often after plosives than fricatives, unlike the SLI group. The SLI group did not detect subject-verb agreement violations if the ungrammatical structure contained a frequent error (omission), but if the ungrammatical structure contained an infrequent error (substitution), subject-verb agreement violations were noticed. The use of agreement inflection by children with TD or SLI is affected by verb phonology. Differential effects in the 2 groups are consistent with a delayed development in Dutch SLI. Parallels between productive and receptive abilities point to weak lexical agreement inflection representations in Dutch SLI.

  5. The sentence verification task: a reliable fMRI protocol for mapping receptive language in individual subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanjuan, Ana; Avila, Cesar [Universitat Jaume I, Departamento de Psicologia Basica, Clinica y Psicobiologia, Castellon de la Plana (Spain); Hospital La Fe, Unidad de Epilepsia, Servicio de Neurologia, Valencia (Spain); Forn, Cristina; Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Rodriguez-Pujadas, Aina; Garcia-Porcar, Maria [Universitat Jaume I, Departamento de Psicologia Basica, Clinica y Psicobiologia, Castellon de la Plana (Spain); Belloch, Vicente [Hospital La Fe, Eresa, Servicio de Radiologia, Valencia (Spain); Villanueva, Vicente [Hospital La Fe, Unidad de Epilepsia, Servicio de Neurologia, Valencia (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    To test the capacity of a sentence verification (SV) task to reliably activate receptive language areas. Presurgical evaluation of language is useful in predicting postsurgical deficits in patients who are candidates for neurosurgery. Productive language tasks have been successfully elaborated, but more conflicting results have been found in receptive language mapping. Twenty-two right-handed healthy controls made true-false semantic judgements of brief sentences presented auditorily. Group maps showed reliable functional activations in the frontal and temporoparietal language areas. At the individual level, the SV task showed activation located in receptive language areas in 100% of the participants with strong left-sided distributions (mean lateralisation index of 69.27). The SV task can be considered a useful tool in evaluating receptive language function in individual subjects. This study is a first step towards designing the fMRI task which may serve to presurgically map receptive language functions. (orig.)

  6. Fostering Literal and Inferential Language Skills in Head Start Preschoolers with Language Impairment Using Scripted Book-Sharing Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kleeck, Anne; Vander Woude, Judith; Hammett, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Preschoolers with language impairment have difficulties with both literal and inferential language, both of which are critical to later reading comprehension. Because these children are known to be at risk for later reading comprehension difficulties, it is important to design and test interventions that foster both literal and…

  7. Impact of head models in N170 component source imaging: results in control subjects and ADHD patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrachini, L.; Blenkmann, A.; von Ellenrieder, N.; Petroni, A.; Urquina, H.; Manes, F.; Ibáñez, A.; Muravchik, C. H.

    2011-12-01

    The major goal of evoked related potential studies arise in source localization techniques to identify the loci of neural activity that give rise to a particular voltage distribution measured on the surface of the scalp. In this paper we evaluate the effect of the head model adopted in order to estimate the N170 component source in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients and control subjects, considering faces and words stimuli. The standardized low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography algorithm (sLORETA) is used to compare between the three shell spherical head model and a fully realistic model based on the ICBM-152 atlas. We compare their variance on source estimation and analyze the impact on the N170 source localization. Results show that the often used three shell spherical model may lead to erroneous solutions, specially on ADHD patients, so its use is not recommended. Our results also suggest that N170 sources are mainly located in the right occipital fusiform gyrus for faces stimuli and in the left occipital fusiform gyrus for words stimuli, for both control subjects and ADHD patients. We also found a notable decrease on the N170 estimated source amplitude on ADHD patients, resulting in a plausible marker of the disease.

  8. Language of textbooks in narrative subjects: Understanding words in the seventh grade of primary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Emilija

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hermetic textbook language poses a significant problem in education of the young in our country. The goal of this paper is to point out to the complexity of vocabulary in textbooks, which contributes to students' lack of understanding of what they are reading. Since we established that textbooks in narrative subjects - history, geography and biology - are mostly used during studying and that students mark them as especially difficult for understanding, the subject of this research is precisely the analysis of words which seventh-grade students from primary school state as unfamiliar on a randomly selected, but balanced in terms of length, textbook text of those subjects. The results of frequency analysis indicate that there are a lot of unfamiliar expert words, and frequently the same number, or even more, of common Serbian words in textbook texts, especially in history. Approximately the same or even larger number of unfamiliar words occurs in familiar texts when compared to unfamiliar, which indicates that the previous usage of texts does not contribute to their understanding. Based on correlation analysis referring to the number of unfamiliar words, frequency of textbook usage, perception of difficulty of the text in textbook, general and the achievement in the particular subject, it was determined that unfamiliar words are not only mentioned by students with low grades, although they do it more often, nor that only these students are the ones complaining how difficult textbooks are to them. Based on regression analysis, the number of unfamiliar words, especially in the history textbook, even figures as a predictor of success, which seems contradictory and can be interpreted differently. The results point out to the fact that inaccessibility of textbook language mostly does not guide the students to learn new words, but causes revolt and thus disables the development of language, scientific concepts and acquiring professional terminology

  9. [Imagery norms and subjective frequency of 1,760 monosyllabic words in the French language].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonthier, Isabelle; Desrochers, Alain; Thompson, Glenn; Landry, Dominique

    2009-06-01

    This study aimed at providing subjective frequency and imageability norms for a sample of 1,760 monosyllabic French words and thereby, increasing the pool of normative data available for research in cognitive science and language processing. The results indicate that the reliability of the estimates is high, with coefficients ranging between .93 and .99 for the frequency and imageability ratings. External validity was investigated by calculating correlations with ratings drawn from all similar studies and for which the number of shared items was sufficient. These coefficients vary between .73 and .88 for subjective frequency and between .64 and .97 for imageability. The correlation between subjective frequency and imageability in the present study was significant and relatively high (r = .64). The implications of these results for the selection of experimental stimuli for research are discussed.

  10. Materiality, Language and the Production of Knowledge: Art, Subjectivity and Indigenous Ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estelle Barrett

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Since all theories of knowing deal with the being of subjects, objects, instruments and environments, they can be viewed as onto-epistemological.  This chapter examines key ideas that emerge from the work of Julia Kristeva – 'the speaking subject', 'materiality of language' and 'heterogeneity' – to demonstrate how ontology and epistemology are inextricably entwined in knowledge production. Kristeva also affirms both the agency of matter and  the dimension of human/subjective agency implicated in cultural production. This is contrasted with Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari’s account creative practice. The article also draws on the artistic work of researcher-practitioner Brian Martin, and his account of the relationship between Indigenous Australian art and culture to demonstrate that in an Indigenous world view, the real, the immaterial, the imaginary and the representational occur concurrently.

  11. Cross-Lagged Cross-Subject Bidirectional Predictions among Achievements in Mathematics, English Language and Chinese Language of School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching; Zhu, Jinxin; Law, Cecilia Lai Kwan

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the cross-lagged association of achievements in mathematics and languages. While the effect of language on achievements in mathematics is well-documented, few studies have examined the reciprocal relationships among mathematics, the Chinese language and the English language in the same study. This study conducted a…

  12. Rhetorical meta-language to promote the development of students' writing skills and subject matter understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelger, Susanne; Sigrell, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Background: Feedback is one of the most significant factors for students' development of writing skills. For feedback to be successful, however, students and teachers need a common language - a meta-language - for discussing texts. Not least because in science education such a meta-language might contribute to improve writing training and feedback-giving. Purpose: The aim of this study was to explore students' perception of teachers' feedback given on their texts in two genres, and to suggest how writing training and feedback-giving could become more efficient. Sample: In this study were included 44 degree project students in biology and molecular biology, and 21 supervising teachers at a Swedish university. Design and methods: The study concerned students' writing about their degree projects in two genres: scientific writing and popular science writing. The data consisted of documented teacher feedback on the students' popular science texts. It also included students' and teachers' answers to questionnaires about writing and feedback. All data were collected during the spring of 2012. Teachers' feedback, actual and recalled - by students and teachers, respectively - was analysed and compared using the so-called Canons of rhetoric. Results: While the teachers recalled the given feedback as mainly positive, most students recalled only negative feedback. According to the teachers, suggested improvements concerned firstly the content, and secondly the structure of the text. In contrast, the students mentioned language style first, followed by content. Conclusions: The disagreement between students and teachers regarding how and what feedback was given on the students texts confirm the need of improved strategies for writing training and feedback-giving in science education. We suggest that the rhetorical meta-language might play a crucial role in overcoming the difficulties observed in this study. We also discuss how training of writing skills may contribute to

  13. Comparison of Medical Subject Headings and text-word searches in MEDLINE to retrieve studies on sleep in healthy individuals*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenuwine, Elizabeth S.; Floyd, Judith A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to investigate the performance of two search strategies in the retrieval of primary research papers containing descriptive information on the sleep of healthy people from MEDLINE. Methodology: Two search strategies—one based on the use of only Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), the second based on text-word searching—were evaluated as to their specificity and sensitivity in retrieving a set of relevant research papers published in the journal Sleep from 1996 to 2001 that were preselected by a hand search. Results: The subject search provided higher specificity than the text-word search (66% and 47%, respectively) but lower sensitivity (78% for the subject search versus 88% for the text-word search). Each search strategy gave some unique relevant hits. Conclusions: The two search strategies complemented each other and should be used together for maximal retrieval. No combination of MeSH terms could provide comprehensive yet reasonably precise retrieval of relevant articles. The text-word searching had sensitivity and specificity comparable to the subject search. In addition, use of text words “normal,” “healthy,” and “control” in the title or abstract fields to limit the final sets provided an efficient way to increase the specificity of both search strategies. PMID:15243641

  14. Three-Way Catalog Division Combined with Conversion to Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) in a Medium-sized Medical Library *†

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNutt, Eleanor M.; Poland, Ursula H.

    1974-01-01

    Conversion to MeSH and other reasons are enumerated for the division of an undivided dictionary card catalog into a three-way divided catalog, consisting of Proper Names, Titles, and Topical Subjects sections. Methodology of division is described. Conversion from Library of Congress Subject Headings to Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) as an authority list stimulated such concurrent changes as (1) the introduction of a guide card system that eliminates typing of subject headings on catalog cards and (2) the adoption of a filing system that employs reverse chronological order for all types of sequential material in the Proper Names and Titles sections and for all material in the Topical Subjects section. The ancillary decisions, procedures, and methods necessitated by these major conversions are also described. PMID:4462686

  15. Image quality analysis of high-density diffuse optical tomography incorporating a subject-specific head model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxuan eZhan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available High-density diffuse optical tomography (HD-DOT methods have shown significant improvement in localization accuracy and image resolution compared to traditional topographic near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS of the human brain. In this work we provide a comprehensive evaluation of image quality in visual cortex mapping via a simulation study with the use of an anatomical head model derived from MRI data of a human subject. A model of individual head anatomy provides the surface shape and internal structure that allow for the construction of a more realistic physical model for the forward problem, as well as the use of a structural constraint in the inverse problem. The HD-DOT model utilized here incorporates multiple source-detector separations with continuous-wave data with added noise based on experimental results. To evaluate image quality we quantify the localization error and localized volume at half maximum (LVHM throughout a region of interest (ROI within the visual cortex and systematically analyze the use of whole brain tissue spatial constraint within image reconstruction. Our results demonstrate that an image quality with less than 10 mm in localization error and 1000 m3 in LVHM can be obtained up to 13 mm below the scalp surface with a typical unconstrained reconstruction and up to 18 mm deep when a spatial constraint based on the brain tissue is utilized.

  16. Bibliometric Perspectives on Medical Innovation using the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) of PubMed

    CERN Document Server

    Leydesdorff, Loet; Rafols, Ismael

    2012-01-01

    Multiple perspectives on the nonlinear processes of medical innovations can be distinguished and combined using the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) of the Medline database. Focusing on three main branches-"diseases," "drugs and chemicals," and "techniques and equipment"-we use base maps and overlay techniques to investigate the translations and interactions and thus to gain a bibliometric perspective on the dynamics of medical innovations. To this end, we first analyze the Medline database, the MeSH index tree, and the various options for a static mapping from different perspectives and at different levels of aggregation. Following a specific innovation (RNA interference) over time, the notion of a trajectory which leaves a signature in the database is elaborated. Can the detailed index terms describing the dynamics of research be used to predict the diffusion dynamics of research results? Possibilities are specified for further integration between the Medline database, on the one hand, and the Science Citati...

  17. Evaluating fMRI methods for assessing hemispheric language dominance in healthy subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baciu, Monica [Laboratoire de Psychologie et NeuroCognition, UMR 5105 CNRS, Universite Pierre Mendes-France, F38040 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France)]. E-mail: mbaciu@upmf-grenoble.fr; Juphard, Alexandra [Laboratoire de Psychologie et NeuroCognition, UMR 5105 CNRS, Universite Pierre Mendes-France, F38040 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Cousin, Emilie [Laboratoire de Psychologie et NeuroCognition, UMR 5105 CNRS, Universite Pierre Mendes-France, F38040 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Bas, Jean Francois Le [Unite IRM, CHU Grenoble (France)

    2005-08-01

    We evaluated two methods for quantifying the hemispheric language dominance in healthy subjects, by using a rhyme detection (deciding whether couple of words rhyme) and a word fluency (generating words starting with a given letter) task. One of methods called 'flip method' (FM) was based on the direct statistical comparison between hemispheres' activity. The second one, the classical lateralization indices method (LIM), was based on calculating lateralization indices by taking into account the number of activated pixels within hemispheres. The main difference between methods is the statistical assessment of the inter-hemispheric difference: while FM shows if the difference between hemispheres' activity is statistically significant, LIM shows only that if there is a difference between hemispheres. The robustness of LIM and FM was assessed by calculating correlation coefficients between LIs obtained with each of these methods and manual lateralization indices MLI obtained with Edinburgh inventory. Our results showed significant correlation between LIs provided by each method and the MIL, suggesting that both methods are robust for quantifying hemispheric dominance for language in healthy subjects. In the present study we also evaluated the effect of spatial normalization, smoothing and 'clustering' (NSC) on the intra-hemispheric location of activated regions and inter-hemispheric asymmetry of the activation. Our results have shown that NSC did not affect the hemispheric specialization but increased the value of the inter-hemispheric difference.

  18. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  19. Head-to-toe whole-body MRI in psoriatic arthritis, axial spondyloarthritis and healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poggenborg, René Panduro; Pedersen, Susanne Juhl; Eshed, Iris

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: By whole-body MRI (WBMRI), we aimed to examine the frequency and distribution of inflammatory and structural lesions in PsA patients, SpA patients and healthy subjects (HSs), to introduce global WBMRI inflammation/damage scores, and to assess WBMRI's reproducibility and correlation...... of inflammation and structural damage were constructed, and WBMRI findings were compared with clinical measures and convMRI (SpA/HS: spine and SI joints; PsA/HS: hand). RESULTS: The readability (92-100%) and reproducibility (intrareader intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.62-1.0) were high in spine/SI joint......-15]} and SpA [8 (IQR 2-14)] than in HSs [2.5 (IQR 1-4.5)], both P structural damage scores (erosion, fat infiltration and ankylosis) were higher in SpA [7 (IQR 3-12)] than HSs [1.5 (IQR 0-4.5)], P = 0.012. Correlations between WBMRI and convMRI spine and SI joint scores were ρ = 0...

  20. Cross-language diversity, head-direction and grammars. Comment on "Dependency distance: A new perspective on syntactic patterns in natural languages" by Haitao Liu et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Richard

    2017-07-01

    This paper [4] - referred to below as 'LXL' - is an excellent example of cross-disciplinary work which brings together three very different disciplines, each with its different methods: quantitative computational linguistics (exploring big data), psycholinguistics (using experiments with human subjects) and theoretical linguistics (building models based on language descriptions). The measured unit is the dependency between two words, as defined by theoretical linguistics, and the question is how the length of this dependency affects the choices made by writers, as revealed in big data from a wide range of languages.

  1. Activation of biceps femoris long head reduces tibiofemoral anterior shear force and tibial internal rotation torque in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Nur Liyana; Ding, Ziyun; Xu, Rui; Bull, Anthony M J

    2018-01-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) provides resistance to tibial internal rotation torque and anterior shear at the knee. ACL deficiency results in knee instability. Optimisation of muscle contraction through functional electrical stimulation (FES) offers the prospect of mitigating the destabilising effects of ACL deficiency. The hypothesis of this study is that activation of the biceps femoris long head (BFLH) reduces the tibial internal rotation torque and the anterior shear force at the knee. Gait data of twelve healthy subjects were measured with and without the application of FES and taken as inputs to a computational musculoskeletal model. The model was used to investigate the optimum levels of BFLH activation during FES gait in reducing the anterior shear force to zero. This study found that FES significantly reduced the tibial internal rotation torque at the knee during the stance phase of gait (p = 0.0322) and the computational musculoskeletal modelling revealed that a mean BFLH activation of 20.8% (±8.4%) could reduce the anterior shear force to zero. At the time frame when the anterior shear force was zero, the internal rotation torque was reduced by 0.023 ± 0.0167 Nm/BW, with a mean 188% reduction across subjects (p = 0.0002). In conclusion, activation of the BFLH is able to reduce the tibial internal rotation torque and the anterior shear force at the knee in healthy control subjects. This should be tested on ACL deficient subject to consider its effect in mitigating instability due to ligament deficiency. In future clinical practice, activating the BFLH may be used to protect ACL reconstructions during post-operative rehabilitation, assist with residual instabilities post reconstruction, and reduce the need for ACL reconstruction surgery in some cases.

  2. FORMING PRIMARY SCHOOLCHILDREN’S FOREIGN LANGUAGE COMPETENCE BY MEANS OF THE SUBJECT “ECONOMICS”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Losieva

    2017-04-01

    at other classes, the material of which concern the studied subjects at integrated specified rate An integrated approach in object-language direction has great advantages comparing with the communicative one, because there is a complete immersion of students into foreign language environment, enriching vocabulary through terminology. The most valuable is the fact that children get a complete picture of the world which is necessary for successful socialization of young learners.

  3. The use of subject-verb agreement and verb argument structure in monolingual and bilingual children with specific language impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoelman, Marianne; Bol, Gerard W.

    This study investigates the use of subject-verb agreement and verb argument structure in the spoken Dutch of monolingual Dutch children with specific language impairment (SLI) and bilingual Frisian-Dutch children with SLI. Both SLI groups appeared to be less efficient in their use of subject-verb

  4. The Use of Subject-Verb Agreement and Verb Argument Structure in Monolingual and Bilingual Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoelman, Marianne; Bol, Gerard W.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the use of subject-verb agreement and verb argument structure in the spoken Dutch of monolingual Dutch children with specific language impairment (SLI) and bilingual Frisian-Dutch children with SLI. Both SLI groups appeared to be less efficient in their use of subject-verb agreement and verb argument structure than the…

  5. The video head impulse test (vHIT of semicircular canal function – age dependent normative values of VOR gain in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh Andrew McGarvie

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Hypothesis. The video Head Impulse Test (vHIT is now widely used to test the function of each of the six semicircular canals individually by measuring the eye rotation response to an abrupt head rotation in the plane of the canal. The main measure of canal adequacy is the ratio of the eye movement response to the head movement stimulus i.e. the gain of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR. However there is a need for normative data about how VOR gain is affected by age and also by head velocity, to allow the response of any particular patient to be compared to response of healthy subjects in their age range. In this study we determined for all six semicircular canals, normative values of VOR gain, for each canal across a range of head velocities, for healthy subjects in each decade of life.Study Design. The VOR gain was measured for all canals across a range of head velocities for at least 10 healthy subjects in decade age bands: 10-19, 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, 70-79, 80-89. Methods. The compensatory eye movement response to a small, unpredictable, abrupt head rotation (head impulse was measured by the ICS Impulse prototype system. The same operator delivered every impulse to every subject. Results. VOR gain decreased at high head velocities, but was largely unaffected by age into the 80-89 year age group. There were some small but systematic differences between the two directions of head rotation, which appear to be largely due to the fact that in this study only the right eye was measured. The results are considered in relation to recent evidence about the effect of age on VOR performance.Conclusion. These normative values allow the results of any particular patient to be compared to the values of healthy people in their age range and so allow, for example, detection of whether a patient has a bilateral vestibular loss. VOR gain, as measured directly by the eye movement response to head rotation, seems largely unaffected by

  6. The effects of psychoactive drugs and neuroleptics on language in normal subjects and schizophrenic patients: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomé, F; Boyer, P; Fayol, M

    2000-12-01

    The aim of this survey is to present an overview of research into psychopharmacology as regards the effects of different psychoactive drugs and neuroleptics (NL) on language in normal subjects and schizophrenic patients. Eighteen studies that have investigated the effects of different drugs (alcohol, amphetamines, secobarbital, L-dopa, psilocybin, ketamine, fenfluramine) and neuroleptics (conventional and atypical) on language are reviewed. There are no studies concerning the effects of neuroleptics on language in healthy subjects. The results of the effects of other molecules indicate that language production can be increased (alcohol, amphetamine, secobarbital), rendered more complex (d-amphetamine), more focused (L-dopa) or more unfocused (psilocybin) and clearly impaired (ketamine). For schizophrenic patients, most studies show that conventional neuroleptic treatments, at a therapeutic dosage and in acute or chronic mode, reduce language disorders at all levels (clinic, linguistic, psycholinguistic). In conjunction with other molecules, the classical NL, when administered at a moderate dosage and in chronic mode, modify language in schizophrenia, either by improving the verbal flow and reducing pauses and positive thought disorder (NL + amphetamine) or by inducing an impairment in the language measurements (NL + fenfluramine). Clinical, methodological and theoretical considerations of results are debated in the framework of schizophrenic language disorders.

  7. Gender Differences in Natural Language Factors of Subjective Intoxication in College Students: An Experimental Vignette Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Ash; Schlauch, Robert C.; Bartholow, Bruce D.; Sher, Kenneth J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Examining the natural language college students use to describe various levels of intoxication can provide important insight into subjective perceptions of college alcohol use. Previous research (Levitt et al., 2009) has shown that intoxication terms reflect moderate and heavy levels of intoxication, and that self-use of these terms differs by gender among college students. However, it is still unknown whether these terms similarly apply to other individuals and, if so, whether similar gender differences exist. Method To address these issues, the current study examined the application of intoxication terms to characters in experimentally manipulated vignettes of naturalistic drinking situations within a sample of university undergraduates (N = 145). Results Findings supported and extended previous research by showing that other-directed applications of intoxication terms are similar to self-directed applications, and depend on the gender of both the target and the user. Specifically, moderate intoxication terms were applied to and from women more than men, even when the character was heavily intoxicated, whereas heavy intoxication terms were applied to and from men more than women. Conclusions The findings suggest that gender differences in the application of intoxication terms are other-directed as well as self-directed, and that intoxication language can inform gender-specific prevention and intervention efforts targeting problematic alcohol use among college students. PMID:23841828

  8. Gender differences in natural language factors of subjective intoxication in college students: an experimental vignette study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Ash; Schlauch, Robert C; Bartholow, Bruce D; Sher, Kenneth J

    2013-12-01

    Examining the natural language college students use to describe various levels of intoxication can provide important insight into subjective perceptions of college alcohol use. Previous research (Levitt et al., Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2009; 33: 448) has shown that intoxication terms reflect moderate and heavy levels of intoxication and that self-use of these terms differs by gender among college students. However, it is still unknown whether these terms similarly apply to other individuals and, if so, whether similar gender differences exist. To address these issues, the current study examined the application of intoxication terms to characters in experimentally manipulated vignettes of naturalistic drinking situations within a sample of university undergraduates (n = 145). Findings supported and extended previous research by showing that other-directed applications of intoxication terms are similar to self-directed applications and depend on the gender of both the target and the user. Specifically, moderate intoxication terms were applied to and from women more than men, even when the character was heavily intoxicated, whereas heavy intoxication terms were applied to and from men more than women. The findings suggest that gender differences in the application of intoxication terms are other-directed as well as self-directed and that intoxication language can inform gender-specific prevention and intervention efforts targeting problematic alcohol use among college students. Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  9. Home Literacy Environment and Head Start Children's Language Development: The Role of Approaches to Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined whether approaches to learning moderate the association between home literacy environment and English receptive vocabulary development. The Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (2003 cohort) was used for analysis. Latent growth curve modeling was utilized to test a quadratic model of English…

  10. Subject oriented and problem based text materials as a subject of flexible foreign language reading in research projects

    OpenAIRE

    SEROVA TAMARA S.; PIPCHENKO ELENA L.

    2014-01-01

    The article introduces the academic research work of students within the competence based approach, the models of academic problem based research projects taken up as a means to develop flexible foreign language reading skills. The authors reveal selection principles and corpus didactic design of text materials in the form of a macrotext, hypertext, and video course.

  11. Head repositioning accuracy in patients with neck pain and asymptomatic subjects: concurrent validity, influence of motion speed, motion direction and target distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugailly, Pierre-Michel; De Santis, Roberta; Tits, Mathieu; Sobczak, Stéphane; Vigne, Anna; Feipel, Véronique

    2015-12-01

    Cervicocephalic kinesthetic deficiencies have been demonstrated in patients with chronic neck pain (NP). On the other hand, authors emphasized the use of different motion speeds for assessing functional impairment of the cervical spine. The objectives of this study were (1) to investigate the head repositioning accuracy in NP patients and control subjects and (2) to assess the influence of target distance, motion speed, motion direction and pain. Seventy-one subjects (36 healthy subjects and 35 NP patients; age 30-55 years) performed the head repositioning test (HRT) at two different speeds for horizontal and vertical movements and at two different distances. For each condition, six consecutive trials were sampled. The study showed the validity and reproducibility of the HRT, confirming a dysfunctional threshold of 4.5°. Normative values of head repositioning error up to 3.6° and 7.1° were identified for healthy and NP subjects, respectively. A distance of 180 cm from the target and a natural motion speed increased HRT accuracy. Repositioning after extension movement showed a significantly larger error in both groups. Intensity, duration of pain as well as pain level did not significantly alter head repositioning error. The assessment of proprioceptive performance in healthy and NP subjects allowed the validation of the HRT. The HRT is a simple, not expensive and fast test, easily implementable in daily practice to assess and monitor treatment and evolution of proprioceptive cervical deficits.

  12. Effects of suboccipital release with craniocervical flexion exercise on craniocervical alignment and extrinsic cervical muscle activity in subjects with forward head posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bo-Been; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Jeong, Hyo-Jung; Cynn, Heon-Seock

    2016-10-01

    Forward head posture is a head-on-trunk malalignment, which results in musculoskeletal dysfunction and neck pain. To improve forward head posture, both the craniocervical flexion exercise and the suboccipital release technique have been used. The purpose of this study was to compare the immediate effects of craniocervical flexion exercise and suboccipital release combined with craniocervical flexion exercise on craniovertebral angle, cervical flexion and extension range of motion, and the muscle activities of the sternocleidomastoid, anterior scalene, and splenius capitis during craniocervical flexion exercise in subjects with forward head posture. In total, 19 subjects (7 males, 12 females) with forward head posture were recruited using G-power software. Each subject performed craniocervical flexion exercise and suboccipital release combined with craniocervical flexion exercise in random order. After one intervention was performed, the subject took a 20min wash out period to minimize any carry-over effect between interventions. Craniovertebral angle, cervical flexion and extension range of motion, and the muscle activities of the sternocleidomastoid, anterior scalene, and splenius capitis were measured. A one-way, repeated-measures ANOVA was used to assess differences between the effects of the craniocervical flexion exercise and suboccipital release combined with craniocervical flexion exercise interventions in the same group. Craniovertebral angle (pflexion range of motion (pflexion exercise compared to craniocervical flexion exercise alone. The muscle activities of the sternocleidomastoid, anterior scalene, and splenius capitis were significantly lower during suboccipital release combined with craniocervical flexion exercise than during craniocervical flexion exercise alone across all craniocervical flexion exercise phases except the first (all pflexion exercise provided superior benefits relative to craniocervical flexion exercise alone as an intervention for

  13. Core subjects at the end of primary school: identifying and explaining relative strengths of children with specific language impairment (SLI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, Kevin; Mok, Pearl L H; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2015-01-01

    In general, children with specific language impairment (SLI) tend to fall behind their typically developing (TD) peers in educational attainment. Less is known about how children with SLI fare in particular areas of the curriculum and what predicts their levels of performance. To compare the distributions of performance of children with SLI in three core school subjects (English, Mathematics and Science); to test the possibility that performance would vary across the core subjects; and to examine the extent to which language impairment predicts performance. This study was conducted in England and reports historical data on educational attainments. Teacher assessment and test scores of 176 eleven-year-old children with SLI were examined in the three core subjects and compared with known national norms. Possible predictors of performance were measured, including language ability at ages 7 and 11, educational placement type, and performance IQ. Children with SLI, compared with national norms, were found to be at a disadvantage in core school subjects. Nevertheless, some children attained the levels expected of TD peers. Performance was poorest in English; relative strengths were indicated in Science and, to a lesser extent, in Mathematics. Language skills were significant predictors of performance in all three core subjects. PIQ was the strongest predictor for Mathematics. For Science, both early language skills at 7 years and PIQ made significant contributions. Language impacts on the school performance of children with SLI, but differentially across subjects. English for these children is the most challenging of the core subjects, reflecting the high levels of language demand it incurs. Science is an area of relative strength and mathematics appears to be intermediate, arguably because some tasks in these subjects can be performed with less reliance on verbal processing. Many children with SLI do have the potential to reach or exceed educational targets that are set

  14. Two Similarity Metrics for Medical Subject Headings (MeSH): An Aid to Biomedical Text Mining and Author Name Disambiguation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalheiser, Neil R; Bonifield, Gary

    2016-04-06

    In the present paper, we have created and characterized several similarity metrics for relating any two Medical Subject Headings (MeSH terms) to each other. The article-based metric measures the tendency of two MeSH terms to appear in the MEDLINE record of the same article. The author-based metric measures the tendency of two MeSH terms to appear in the body of articles written by the same individual (using the 2009 Author-ity author name disambiguation dataset as a gold standard). The two metrics are only modestly correlated with each other (r = 0.50), indicating that they capture different aspects of term usage. The article-based metric provides a measure of semantic relatedness, and MeSH term pairs that co-occur more often than expected by chance may reflect relations between the two terms. In contrast, the author metric is indicative of how individuals practice science, and may have value for author name disambiguation and studies of scientific discovery. We have calculated article metrics for all MeSH terms appearing in at least 25 articles in MEDLINE (as of 2014) and author metrics for MeSH terms published as of 2009. The dataset is freely available for download and can be queried at http://arrowsmith.psych.uic.edu/arrowsmith_uic/mesh_pair_metrics.html. Handling editor: Elizabeth Workman, MLIS, PhD.

  15. The Role of Access to Head Start and Quality Ratings for Spanish-Speaking Dual Language Learners’ (DLLs) Participation in Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Data from the Head Start Impact Study (N = 4,442) were used to test for differences between Spanish-speaking Dual Language Learners (DLLs) and monolingual English-speaking children in: (1) Head Start attendance rates when randomly assigned admission; and (2) quality ratings of other early childhood education (ECE) programs attended when not randomly assigned admission to Head Start. Logistic regressions showed that Spanish-speaking DLL children randomly assigned a spot in Head Start were more likely than monolingual-English learners to attend. Further, Spanish-speaking DLLs not randomly assigned a spot in Head Start were more likely to attend higher-quality ECE centers than non-DLL children. Policy implications are discussed, suggesting that, if given access, Spanish-speaking DLL families will take advantage of quality ECE programs. PMID:25018585

  16. The head of Verb+Noun compounds in the Romance languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroten, J.D.W.

    2010-01-01

    Verb+Noun compounds in Spanish and the other Romance languages have well-known curious properties: (i) lack of nominalizing affix on the Verb; (ii) obligatory presence of the Noun, interpreted as the direct object of the Verb; (iii) interpretation as referring to persons or instruments able to

  17. Transcending Library Catalogs: A Comparative Study of Controlled Terms in Library of Congress Subject Headings and User-Generated Tags in LibraryThing for Transgender Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    Perhaps the greatest power of folksonomies, especially when set against controlled vocabularies like the Library of Congress Subject Headings, lies in their capacity to empower user communities to name their own resources in their own terms. This article analyzes the potential and limitations of both folksonomies and controlled vocabularies for…

  18. Cited References and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) as Two Different Knowledge Representations : Clustering and Mappings at the Paper Level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Comins, J.A.; Sorensen, A.A.; Bornmann, L.; Hellsten, I.

    2016-01-01

    For the biomedical sciences, the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) make available a rich feature which cannot currently be merged properly with widely used citing/cited data. Here, we provide methods and routines that make MeSH terms amenable to broader usage in the study of science indicators: using

  19. The Measurement of Relevance Amount of Documents That By Using of Google cross-language retrieval About Agriculture Subject Area are Retrieved

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fatemeh Jamshidi Ghahfarokhi

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the relevance amount of documents has been investigated by using google cross-language retrieval tools about a agriculture subject area in cross-language retrieval form, are retrieved...

  20. Comparison of optic area measurement using fundus photography and optical coherence tomography between optic nerve head drusen and control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Rodríguez, Patricia; Gili, Pablo; Martín-Ríos, María Dolores; Grifol-Clar, Eulalia

    2013-03-01

    To compare optic disc area measurement between optic nerve head drusen (ONHD) and control subjects using fundus photography, time-domain optical coherence tomography (TD-OCT) and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). We also made a comparison between each of the three techniques. We performed our study on 66 eyes (66 patients) with ONHD and 70 healthy control subjects (70 controls) with colour ocular fundus photography at 20º (Zeiss FF 450 IR plus), TD-OCT (Stratus OCT) with the Fast Optic Disc protocol and SD-OCT (Cirrus OCT) with the Optic Disc Cube 200 × 200 protocol for measurement of the optic disc area. The measurements were made by two observers and in each measurement a correction of the image magnification factor was performed. Measurement comparison using the Student's t-test/Mann-Whitney U test, the intraclass correlation coefficient, Pearson/Spearman rank correlation coefficient and the Bland-Altman plot was performed in the statistical analysis. Mean and standard deviation (SD) of the optic disc area in ONHD and in controls was 2.38 (0.54) mm(2) and 2.54 (0.42) mm(2), respectively with fundus photography; 2.01 (0.56) mm(2) and 1.66 (0.37) mm(2), respectively with TD-OCT, and 2.03 (0.49) mm(2) and 1.75 (0.38) mm(2), respectively with SD-OCT. In ONHD and controls, repeatability of optic disc area measurement was excellent with fundus photography and optical coherence tomography (TD-OCT and SD-OCT), but with a low degree of agreement between both techniques. Optic disc area measurement is smaller in ONHD compared to healthy subjects with fundus photography, unlike time-domain and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in which the reverse is true. Both techniques offer good repeatability, but a low degree of correlation and agreement, which means that optic disc area measurement is not interchangeable or comparable between techniques. Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2013 The College of Optometrists.

  1. Subject cataloguing of the works of fiction at the National and University Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Kovač

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the principles of construction and policies of application of subject headings to works of fiction at the National and University Library in Ljubljana, Slovenia. The records are created in COMARC format, and the literary type, genre and the language of a document are each assigned a code, whereas literature is also indexed by using UDC class numbers. The principles for constructing and assigning subject headings for fiction are in accordance with the IFLA Principles Underlying Subject Heading Languages, and the rules of the Slovenian General List of Subject Headings (2002. The author presents the general and more specific rules and procedures for the construction of subject headings. Most frequently used subject headings for the works of fiction are name, topical or geographic headings.

  2. Rhetorical Meta-Language to Promote the Development of Students' Writing Skills and Subject Matter Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelger, Susanne; Sigrell, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Background: Feedback is one of the most significant factors for students' development of writing skills. For feedback to be successful, however, students and teachers need a common language--a meta-language--for discussing texts. Not least because in science education such a meta-language might contribute to improve writing training and…

  3. Implementation of motivational strategies between head teachers and foreign language teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pisoňová Mária

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt these days that knowledge of different forms of motivation and its implementation in the work environment is a prerequisite for improving the quality of work results and subsequent achievement of organizational goals. Every head teacher meets this phenomenon. A lack of motivation is behind a number of unfulfilled tasks, unwillingness to look for efficient work practices, absence, disloyalty to their own society, refusing overtime, not accepting necessary changes, ignoring requests for assistance, and more. It is not easy to find a way to solve these problems. However, theory and practice go hand in hand and together it creates the perfect symbiosis which looks at the ailments mentioned and gradually finds answers. Where to start in order to be successful in this quest? We should first recognize the meaning and importance of motivation in the work process. The role of the head teacher is to know teachers to have a positive impact on their behaviour and entrust them with such tasks corresponding to their knowledge and skills. Work motivation is focused on carrying out a work obligation and should lead to the required working behaviour. Motivation to work is also connected to the work environment and climate in which teachers work. In general, we can say that teachers’ satisfaction at work determines their personal relationships outside the workplace as well.

  4. The value of the acoustic voice quality index as a measure of dysphonia severity in subjects speaking different languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryn, Youri; De Bodt, Marc; Barsties, Ben; Roy, Nelson

    2014-06-01

    The Acoustic Voice Quality Index (AVQI) is a relatively new clinical method to quantify dysphonia severity. Since it partially relies on continuous speech, its performance may vary with voice-related phonetic differences and thus across languages. The present investigation therefore assessed the AVQI's performance in English, Dutch, German, and French. Fifty subjects were recorded reading sentences in the four languages, as well as producing a sustained vowel. These recordings were later edited to calculate the AVQI. The samples were also perceptually rated on overall dysphonia severity by three experienced voice clinicians. The AVQI's cross-linguistic concurrent validity and diagnostic precision were assessed. The results support earlier data, and confirm good cross-linguistic validity and diagnostic accuracy. Although no statistical differences were observed between languages, the AVQI performed better in English and German and less well in French. These results validate the AVQI as a potentially robust and objective dysphonia severity measure across languages.

  5. Effects of Immediate and Cumulative Syntactic Experience in Language Impairment: Evidence from Priming of Subject Relatives in Children with SLI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garraffa, Maria; Coco, Moreno I.; Branigan, Holly P.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the production of subject relative clauses (SRc) in Italian pre-school children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and age-matched typically-developing children (TD) controls. In a structural priming paradigm, children described pictures after hearing the experimenter produce a bare noun or an SRc description, as part of a…

  6. ERPs Reveal Atypical Processing of Subject versus Object "Wh"-Questions in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Baila; Hestvik, Arild; Shafer, Valerie L.; Schwartz, Richard G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children with specific language impairment (SLI) show particular difficulty comprehending and producing object ("Who did the bear follow?") relative to subject ("Who followed the tiger?") "wh"-questions. Aims: To determine if school-age children with SLI, relative to children with typical development (TD),…

  7. Common Core State Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects for English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Luciana C., Ed.

    2016-01-01

    This volume in the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) for English Language Learners series was designed to deepen teacher's knowledge and provides instructional approaches and practices for supporting grades 6-12 ELLs as they meet the ambitious expectations of the CCSS for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects. This…

  8. Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common Core State Standards Initiative, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects ("the Standards") are the culmination of an extended, broad-based effort to fulfill the charge issued by the states to create the next generation of K-12 standards in order to help ensure that all students…

  9. Cross-Modal Recruitment of Auditory and Orofacial Areas During Sign Language in a Deaf Subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Juan; Velasquez, Carlos; Vázquez-Bourgon, Javier; de Lucas, Enrique Marco; Gomez, Elsa

    2017-09-01

    Modern sign languages used by deaf people are fully expressive, natural human languages that are perceived visually and produced manually. The literature contains little data concerning human brain organization in conditions of deficient sensory information such as deafness. A deaf-mute patient underwent surgery of a left temporoinsular low-grade glioma. The patient underwent awake surgery with intraoperative electrical stimulation mapping, allowing direct study of the cortical and subcortical organization of sign language. We found a similar distribution of language sites to what has been reported in mapping studies of patients with oral language, including 1) speech perception areas inducing anomias and alexias close to the auditory cortex (at the posterior portion of the superior temporal gyrus and supramarginal gyrus); 2) speech production areas inducing speech arrest (anarthria) at the ventral premotor cortex, close to the lip motor area and away from the hand motor area; and 3) subcortical stimulation-induced semantic paraphasias at the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus at the temporal isthmus. The intraoperative setup for sign language mapping with intraoperative electrical stimulation in deaf-mute patients is similar to the setup described in patients with oral language. To elucidate the type of language errors, a sign language interpreter in close interaction with the neuropsychologist is necessary. Sign language is perceived visually and produced manually; however, this case revealed a cross-modal recruitment of auditory and orofacial motor areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Subjective Experiences of Speech and Language Therapy in Patients with Parkinson's Disease: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Spurgeon, Laura; Clarke, Carl E.; Sackley, Cath

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Parkinson’s disease can produce a range of speech-language pathologies, which may require intervention. While evaluations of speech-language therapy have been undertaken, no work has been undertaken to capture patients’ experiences of therapy. This was the aim of the present study. Methods. Semistructured interviews, using themes derived from the literature, were conducted with nine Parkinson’s disease patients, all of whom had undergone speech-language therapy. Participants’ respons...

  11. Increased automatic spreading activation in healthy subjects with elevated scores in a scale assessing schizophrenic language disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, S; Andresen, B; Domin, F; Martin, T; Probsthein, E; Kretschmer, G; Krausz, M; Naber, D; Spitzer, M

    1999-01-01

    Previous studies on semantic priming have suggested that schizophrenic patients with language disturbances demonstrate enhanced semantic and indirect semantic priming effects relative to controls. However, the interpretation of semantic priming studies in schizophrenic patients is obscured by methological problems and several artefacts (such as length of illness). We, therefore, used a psychometric high-risk approach to test whether healthy subjects reporting language disturbances resembling those of schizophrenics (as measured by the Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire subscale 'language') display increased priming effects. In addition, the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire was used to cover symptoms of schizotypal personality. Enhanced priming was expected to occur under conditions favouring automatic processes. One hundred and sixty healthy subjects performed a lexical decision semantic priming task containing two different stimulus onset asynchronicities (200 ms and 700 ms) with two experimental conditions (semantic priming and indirect semantic priming) each. Analyses of variance revealed that the Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire-' language' high scorers significantly differed from low scorers in three of the four priming conditions indicating increased automatic spreading activation. No significant results were obtained for the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire total and subscales scores. In line with Maher and Spitzer it is suggested that increased automatic spreading activation underlies schizophrenia-typical language disturbances which in our study cannot be attributed to confounding variables such as different reaction time baselines, medication or length of illness. Finally, results confirm that the psychometric high-risk approach is an important tool for investigating issues relevant to schizophrenia.

  12. Te Reo Maori as a Subject: The Impact of Language Ideology, Language Practice, and Language Management on Secondary School Students' Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeurissen, Maree

    2014-01-01

    Te reo Maori, the Indigenous language of Aotearoa (New Zealand), remains 'endangered' despite concentrated ongoing efforts to reverse declining numbers of speakers. Most of these efforts have focused on te reo Maori immersion education settings as these were considered the most effective means to ensure the survival of the language (May &…

  13. Geometry, Subjectivity and the Seduction of Language: The Regulation of Spatial Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tony; Heywood, David

    2011-01-01

    Following Husserl's speculations on how geometry originated, we suggest that spatial perception is "seduced" by language as a result of human attempts to capture, signify and share its concepts. And this language traps geometry and humans themselves in to the forms that have guided and regulated past practices, thereby obscuring possibilities for…

  14. Post-Structuralist Potentialities for Studies of Subjectivity and Second Language Learning in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Katie A.

    2016-01-01

    The past two decades have seen a proliferation of studies investigating, complicating, and reimagining the relationship between second language learning and identity. Yet, with only a handful of exceptions, these studies are limited to adolescent and adult second language learners. In this article, the author proposes that identity research with…

  15. English language-in-education: A lesson planning model for subject ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African learners perform poorly in national and international tests aimed at measuring literacy and numeracy skills. One of the reasons for their performance is a lack of critical academic language skills in English as the Language of Learning and Teaching (LOLT). This is noted against the background of previously ...

  16. Quality of pharmacy-specific Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) assignment in pharmacy journals indexed in MEDLINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguet, Fernando; Salgado, Teresa M; van den Boogerd, Lucienne; Fernandez-Llimos, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is the National Library of Medicine (NLM) controlled vocabulary for indexing articles. Inaccuracies in the MeSH thesaurus have been reported for several areas including pharmacy. To assess the quality of pharmacy-specific MeSH assignment to articles indexed in pharmacy journals. The 10 journals containing the highest number of articles published in 2012 indexed under the MeSH 'Pharmacists' were identified. All articles published over a 5-year period (2008-2012) in the 10 previously selected journals were retrieved from PubMed. MeSH terms used to index these articles were extracted and pharmacy-specific MeSH terms were identified. The frequency of use of pharmacy-specific MeSH terms was calculated across journals. A total of 6989 articles were retrieved from the 10 pharmacy journals, of which 328 (4.7%) were articles not fully indexed and therefore did not contain any MeSH terms assigned. Among the 6661 articles fully indexed, the mean number of MeSH terms was 10.1 (SD = 4.0), being 1.0 (SD = 1.3) considered as Major MeSH. Both values significantly varied across journals. The mean number of pharmacy-specific MeSH terms per article was 0.9 (SD = 1.2). A total of 3490 (52.4%) of the 6661 articles were indexed in pharmacy journals without a single pharmacy-specific MeSH. Of the total 67193 MeSH terms assigned to articles, on average 10.5% (SD = 13.9) were pharmacy-specific MeSH. A statistically significant different pattern of pharmacy-specific MeSH assignment was identified across journals (Kruskal-Wallis P MeSH terms to articles indexed in pharmacy journals can be improved to further enhance evidence gathering in pharmacy. Over half of the articles published in the top-10 journals publishing pharmacy literature were indexed without a single pharmacy-specific MeSH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Relationships among head posture, pain intensity, disability and deep cervical flexor muscle performance in subjects with postural neck pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun V. Subbarayalu, PhD

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Information Technology (IT professionals working with computers gradually develop forward head posture and, as a result, these professionals are susceptible to several neck disorders. This study intended to reveal the relationships between pain intensity, disability, head posture and deep cervical flexor (DCF muscle performance in patients with postural neck pain. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 84 IT professionals who were diagnosed with postural neck pain. The participants were recruited with a random sampling approach. A Visual Analogue Scale (VAS, the Northwick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire (NPQ, the Modified Head Posture Spinal Curvature Instrument (MHPSCI, and the Stabilizer Pressure Biofeedback Unit were used to measure neck pain intensity, neck disability, head posture, and DCF muscle performance, respectively. Results: The Pearson correlation coefficient revealed a significantly strong positive relationship between the VAS and the NPQ (r = 0.734. The cranio-vertebral (CV angle was found to have a significantly negative correlation with the VAS (r = −0.536 and a weak negative correlation with the NPQ (r = −0.389. Conclusion: This study concluded that a smaller CV angle corresponded to greater neck pain intensity and disability. Furthermore, there is no significant relationship between CV angle and DCF muscle performance, indicating that head posture re-education through postural correction exercises would not completely correct the motor control deficits in DCF muscles. In addition, a suitable exercise regimen that exclusively targets the deep cervical flexor muscle to improve its endurance is warranted. Keywords: Craniovertebral angle, Disability deep cervical flexors muscle performance, Head posture, Postural neck pain

  18. Global visibility for global health: Is it time for a new descriptor in Medical Subject Heading (MeSH of MEDLINE/PubMed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Marušic´

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite a large body of research in global health (almost 9000 articles published in PubMed until 2012, the term “global health” is not included in the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH of the NLM – its controlled vocabulary thesaurus which NLM uses to index articles in MEDL INE. There are only 6 journals currently covered by PubMed which specialize in global health, including Journal of Global Health.

  19. Subjective Experiences of Speech and Language Therapy in Patients with Parkinson's Disease: A Pilot Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Spurgeon, Laura; Clarke, Carl E; Sackley, Cath

    2015-01-01

    .... This was the aim of the present study. Methods. Semistructured interviews, using themes derived from the literature, were conducted with nine Parkinson's disease patients, all of whom had undergone speech-language therapy...

  20. Application of telepractice for head and neck cancer management: a review of speech language pathology service models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Elizabeth C; Wall, Laurelie R; Burns, Clare L; Cartmill, Bena; Hill, Anne J

    2017-06-01

    Head and neck cancer (HNC) is a complex and heterogeneous disease, requiring specialist intervention from a multidisciplinary team including speech language pathology (SLP). Unfortunately, multiple patient and service-related challenges exist which currently limit equitable access to SLP support for all individuals. This review highlights the existing evidence for different telepractice models designed to help patients and services optimize management of swallowing and communication disorders arising from HNC. Emerging evidence exists for using computerized screening to enhance the identification of treatment-related toxicities and assist referrals to services, including SLP. Asynchronous telepractice applications are being used to assist delivery of intensive home-based dysphagia therapy, whereas videoconferencing can offer a feasible and effective method to support ongoing management for patients with limited access to local specialist SLP services. Patient and clinician satisfaction with all models has been high. SLP services can be redesigned to incorporate a range of telepractice models to optimize clinical care at different stages of the HNC survivorship pathway. Early evidence supports telepractice can improve patient access to services, enhance outcomes, and optimize health service efficiency; however, further systematic research is needed into these models, particularly relating to large-scale implementation and costs/economic analyses.

  1. A Remote-Controlled Airbag Device Can Improve Upper Airway Collapsibility by Producing Head Elevation With Jaw Closure in Normal Subjects Under Propofol Anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizaka, Satoru; Moromugi, Shunji; Kobayashi, Masato; Kajihara, Hiroki; Koga, Kazuya; Sugahara, Hirofumi; Ishimatsu, Takakazu; Kurata, Shinji; Kirkness, Jason P; Oi, Kumiko; Ayuse, Takao

    2014-01-01

    Continuous maintenance of an appropriate position of the mandible and head purely by manual manipulation is difficult, although the maneuver can restore airway patency during sleep and anesthesia. The aim of this paper was to examine the effect of head elevation with jaw closure using a remote-controlled airbag device, such as the airbag system, on passive upper airway collapsibility during propofol anesthesia. Seven male subjects were studied. Propofol infusion was used for anesthesia induction and maintenance, with a target blood propofol concentration of 1.5-2 [Formula: see text]g/ml. Nasal mask pressure ([Formula: see text]) was intermittently reduced to evaluate upper airway collapsibility (passive [Formula: see text]) and upstream resistance ([Formula: see text]) at three different head and jaw positions, jaw opening position in the supine position, jaw opening position in the sniffing position with 6-cm head elevation, and jaw closure at a 6-cm height sniffing position. The 6-cm height sniffing position with jaw closure was achieved by an airbag device that was attached to the subject's head-like headgear. Patient demographics, [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] in each condition were compared using one-way ANOVA with a post hoc Tukey test. [Formula: see text] was considered significant. We also confirmed the effects of our airbag device on improvement of upper airway collapsibility in three obstructive sleep apnea patients in a clinical study. The combination of 6-cm head elevation with jaw closure using the air-inflatable robotic airbag system decreased upper airway collapsibility ([Formula: see text]-cm H[Formula: see text]O) compared with the baseline position ([Formula: see text]-cm H[Formula: see text]O, [Formula: see text]). In the clinical study, there was improvement of upper airway obstruction in sleep apnea patients, including decreased apnea and hypopnea duration and increased the lowest level of oxygen saturation. We demonstrated that

  2. Effects of repeated snowboard exercise in virtual reality with time lags of visual scene behind body rotation on head stability and subjective slalom run performance in healthy young subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Yoshiro; Nishiike, Suetaka; Kitahara, Tadashi; Yamanaka, Toshiaki; Imai, Takao; Ito, Taeko; Sato, Go; Matsuda, Kazunori; Kitamura, Yoshiaki; Takeda, Noriaki

    2016-11-01

    After repeated snowboard exercises in the virtual reality (VR) world with increasing time lags in trials 3-8, it is suggested that the adaptation to repeated visual-vestibulosomatosensory conflict in the VR world improved dynamic posture control and motor performance in the real world without the development of motion sickness. The VR technology was used and the effects of repeated snowboard exercise examined in the VR world with time lags between visual scene and body rotation on the head stability and slalom run performance during exercise in healthy subjects. Forty-two healthy young subjects participated in the study. After trials 1 and 2 of snowboard exercise in the VR world without time lag, trials 3-8 were conducted with 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, and 0.6 s time lags of the visual scene that the computer creates behind board rotation, respectively. Finally, trial 9 was conducted without time lag. Head linear accelerations and subjective slalom run performance were evaluated. The standard deviations of head linear accelerations in inter-aural direction were significantly increased in trial 8, with a time lag of 0.6 s, but significantly decreased in trial 9 without a time lag, compared with those in trial 2 without a time lag. The subjective scores of slalom run performance were significantly decreased in trial 8, with a time lag of 0.6 s, but significantly increased in trial 9 without a time lag, compared with those in trial 2 without a time lag. Motion sickness was not induced in any subjects.

  3. List-Mode PET Motion Correction Using Markerless Head Tracking: Proof-of-Concept With Scans of Human Subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Oline Vinter; Sullivan, Jenna M.; Mulnix, Tim

    2013-01-01

    was time-varying with long drift motions of up to 18 mm and regular step-wise motion of 1–6 mm. The evaluated measures were significantly better for motion-corrected images compared to no MC. The demonstrated system agreed with a commercial integrated system. Motion-corrected images were improved......A custom designed markerless tracking system was demonstrated to be applicable for positron emission tomography (PET) brain imaging. Precise head motion registration is crucial for accurate motion correction (MC) in PET imaging. State-of-the-art tracking systems applied with PET brain imaging rely...... on markers attached to the patient's head. The marker attachment is the main weakness of these systems. A healthy volunteer participating in a cigarette smoking study to image dopamine release was scanned twice for 2 h with $^{11}{\\rm C}$-racolopride on the high resolution research tomograph (HRRT) PET...

  4. Subjective Experiences of Speech and Language Therapy in Patients with Parkinson's Disease: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurgeon, Laura; Clarke, Carl E; Sackley, Cath

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Parkinson's disease can produce a range of speech-language pathologies, which may require intervention. While evaluations of speech-language therapy have been undertaken, no work has been undertaken to capture patients' experiences of therapy. This was the aim of the present study. Methods. Semistructured interviews, using themes derived from the literature, were conducted with nine Parkinson's disease patients, all of whom had undergone speech-language therapy. Participants' responses were analysed in accordance with Thematic Network Analysis. Results. Four themes emerged: emotional reactions (frustration, embarrassment, lack of confidence, disappointment, and anxiety); physical impact (fatigue, breathing and swallowing, and word production); practical aspects (cost of treatment, waiting times, and the actual clinical experience); and expectations about treatment (met versus unmet). Conclusions. While many benefits of speech-language therapy were reported, several negative issues emerged which could impact adversely on rehabilitation. Parkinson's disease is associated with a range of psychological and physical sequelae, such as fatigue and depression; recognising any individual experiences which could exacerbate the existing condition and incorporating these into treatment planning may improve rehabilitation outcomes.

  5. Promoting autonomous learning in English through the implementation of Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL in science and maths subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriani Putu Fika

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous learning is a concept in which the learner has the ability to take charge of their own learning. It becomes a notable aspect that should be perceived by students. The aim of this research is for finding out the strategies used by grade two teachers in Bali Kiddy Primary School to promote autonomous learning in English through the implementation of Content and Language Integrated Learning in science and maths subjects. This study was designed in the form of descriptive qualitative study. The data were collected through observation, interview, and document study. The result of the study shows that there are some strategies of promoting autonomous learning in English through the implementation of CLIL in Science and Maths subjects. Those strategies are table of content training, questioning & presenting, journal writing, choosing activities, and using online activity. Those strategies can be adopted or even adapted as the way to promote autonomous learning in English subject.

  6. Rethinking Taiwanese Nationality and Subjectivity: Implications from Language Issues in Colonial Taiwan in the 1920s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsuan-Yi

    2017-01-01

    This historical study reflects on history curriculum debates over the last 20 years in Taiwan. To open up possibilities for contemporary Taiwanese to rethink themselves in terms of national culture and subjectivity, this paper explores the construction of Taiwanese subjectivity in the past. It focuses on the history of Taiwan under Japanese…

  7. Alcohol-associated acute head trauma in human subjects is associated with early deficits in serum ionized Mg and Ca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altura, B M; Memon, Z S; Altura, B T; Cracco, R Q

    1995-01-01

    Acute head trauma (AHT) (caused by motor vehicle accidents that did not produce loss of consciousness or observed brain lesions on CT scan, or falls) was found to result in early (1-8 h after injury) serum deficits in ionized magnesium (IMg2+) and ionized calcium (ICa2+) assessed with ion-selective electrodes (ISEs). Total Mg (TMg) and other electrolytes as well as serum biochemical analytes were all within the normal reference ranges. AHT patients with acute alcohol intoxication (BAC > or = 150 mg/dl) or alcohol abuse (BAC > 200 mg/dl) demonstrated deficits (15-35% less than normal) in IMg2+, but serum TMg levels were normal as were electrolytes and serum biochemical analytes. AHT patients with alcohol intoxication or alcohol abuse required hospitalization for 1-3 days prior to release, whereas AHT patients without alcohol intoxication were released in less than 24 h. The ICa2+/IMg2+ ratio, a sign of increased vascular tone and vascular reactivity, was significantly elevated in AHT patients with alcohol intoxication but not in AHT patients without alcohol intoxication or abuse. These serum divalent cation changes early after traumatic brain injury could be of considerable practicable diagnostic value in the assessment of alcohol-associated head injury. Use of ion-selective electrodes to accurately measure IMg2+ could serve as a logical basis for monitoring the response of the body to AHT.

  8. The Measurement of Relevance Amount of Documents That By Using of Google cross-language retrieval About Agriculture Subject Area are Retrieved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Jamshidi Ghahfarokhi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the relevance amount of documents has been investigated by using google cross-language retrieval tools about a agriculture subject area in cross-language retrieval form, are retrieved. For this purpose, by using Persian journals articles that have had English abstracts, Persian phrases and subject terms with their English equivalent were extracted. In three class us, thirty number of phrases and subject terms of agriculture area were extracted: First class, subject phrases that only in agriculture are used; Secondary, agriculture subject terms that in other fields are used too; Third class, agriculture subject terms that out of this field are considered as public term. Then by these phrases and terms, documents were searched, and relevance amount of search results are investigated. Results of study showed that google cross-language retrieval tools for two classes of phrases and terms, in cross-language retrieval of relevance document about agriculture subject area, aren`t succeed: one class, agriculture subject terms that in other fields are used too. other class, agriculture subject terms that out of agriculture field are considered as public term. Google cross-language retrieval tools about subject phrase and terms that only in agriculture field are used, are performance rather desirable than other two class of phrase and terms

  9. Mapping of cortical language function by functional magnetic resonance imaging and repetitive navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation in 40 healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollmann, Nico; Ille, Sebastian; Boeckh-Behrens, Tobias; Ringel, Florian; Meyer, Bernhard; Krieg, Sandro M

    2016-07-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is considered to be the standard method regarding non-invasive language mapping. However, repetitive navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) gains increasing importance with respect to that purpose. However, comparisons between both methods are sparse. We performed fMRI and rTMS language mapping of the left hemisphere in 40 healthy, right-handed subjects in combination with the tasks that are most commonly used in the neurosurgical context (fMRI: word-generation = WGEN task; rTMS: object-naming = ON task). Different rTMS error rate thresholds (ERTs) were calculated, and Cohen's kappa coefficient and the cortical parcellation system (CPS) were used for systematic comparison of the two techniques. Overall, mean kappa coefficients were low, revealing no distinct agreement. We found the highest agreement for both techniques when using the 2-out-of-3 rule (CPS region defined as language positive in terms of rTMS if at least 2 out of 3 stimulations led to a naming error). However, kappa for this threshold was only 0.24 (kappa of <0, 0.01-0.20, 0.21-0.40, 0.41-0.60, 0.61-0.80 and 0.81-0.99 indicate less than chance, slight, fair, moderate, substantial and almost perfect agreement, respectively). Because of the inherent differences in the underlying physiology of fMRI and rTMS, the different tasks used and the impossibility of verifying the results via direct cortical stimulation (DCS) in the population of healthy volunteers, one must exercise caution in drawing conclusions about the relative usefulness of each technique for language mapping. Nevertheless, this study yields valuable insights into these two mapping techniques for the most common language tasks currently used in neurosurgical practice.

  10. Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: – The purpose of this paper is to analyse the consequences of globalisation in the area of corporate communication, and investigate how language may be managed as a strategic resource. Design/methodology/approach: – A review of previous studies on the effects of globalisation on corporate...... communication and the implications of language management initiatives in international business. Findings: – Efficient language management can turn language into a strategic resource. Language needs analyses, i.e. linguistic auditing/language check-ups, can be used to determine the language situation...... of a company. Language policies and/or strategies can be used to regulate a company’s internal modes of communication. Language management tools can be deployed to address existing and expected language needs. Continuous feedback from the front line ensures strategic learning and reduces the risk of suboptimal...

  11. Knowledge, language and subjectivities in a discourse community: Ideas we can learn from elementary children about science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, Lori Ann

    2000-10-01

    In light of continuing poor performance by American students in school science, feminists and sociocultural researchers have demonstrated that we need to look beyond content to address the science needs of all school children. In this study I examined issues of discourse norms, knowledge, language and subjectivities (meaning personal and social observations and characteristics) in elementary science. Over a two-year period, I used an interpretive methodological approach to investigate science experiences in two first-second and second grade classrooms. I first established some of the norms and characteristics of the discourse communities through case studies of new students attempting to gain entry to whole class conversations. I then examined knowledge, a central focus of science education addressed by a variety of theoretical approaches. In these classrooms students co-constructed and built knowledge in their whole class science conversations sometimes following convergent (similar knowledge) and, at other times, divergent (differing knowledge) paths allowing for broader discourse. In both paths, there was gendered construction of knowledge in which same gender students elaborated the reasoning of previous speakers. In conjunction with these analyses, I examined what knowledge sources the students used in their science conversations. Students drew on a variety of informal and formal knowledge sources including personal experiences, other students, abstract logic and thought experiments, all of which were considered valid. In using sources from both in and out of school, students' knowledge bases were broader than traditional scientific content giving greater access and richness to their conversations. The next analysis focused on students' use of narrative and paradigmatic language forms in the whole class science conversations. Traditionally, only paradigmatic language forms have been used in science classrooms. The students in this study used both narrative and

  12. Understanding Influences of Play on Second Language Learning: A Microethnographic View in One Head Start Preschool Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piker, Ruth A.

    2013-01-01

    With dual language learners falling behind their same-age peers at the beginning of kindergarten, understanding how school experiences can enhance language learning is critical. This study demonstrates how play among preschool-aged children can foster English language learning. Using an ethnographic approach, one classroom composed of two teachers…

  13. P600 alteration of syntactic language processing in patients with bipolar mania: Comparison to schizophrenic patients and healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang Woo; Kim, Sung Hwa; Shim, Miseon; Ryu, Vin; Ha, Ra Yeon; Lee, Su Jin; Cho, Hyun-Sang

    2016-09-01

    Disturbances in thought, speech, and linguistic processing are frequently observed in bipolar manic patients, but the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms are not well understood. P600 is a distinct, positive event-related potential component elicited by syntactic violations. Using the P600 ERP, we examined neural processing of syntactic language comprehension in patients with bipolar mania compared to patients with schizophrenia and healthy people. P600s were recorded from 21 manic patients with bipolar disorder, 26 patients with schizophrenia, and 29 healthy subjects during the presentation of 120 auditory sentences with syntactic violations or non-violations. Subjects were asked to judge whether each sentence was correct or incorrect. Patients with mania and schizophrenia had significantly smaller P600 amplitudes associated with syntactic violations compared with healthy subjects. There was no difference in P600 amplitude between patient groups. For behavioral performance, patients with schizophrenia had significantly less accurate rates and longer reaction times compared with healthy subjects, whereas manic patients exhibited no significant differences in accuracy and only showed increased reaction times in comparison with healthy subjects. Psychotropic drug usage and small sample size. Patients with bipolar mania have reduced P600 amplitude, comparable to patients with schizophrenia. Our findings may represent the first neurophysiological evidence of abnormal syntactic linguistic processing in bipolar mania. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. ROLE OF EXPERIENCE OF SUBJECTIVE INTERRELATIONS OF THE CHILD WITH THE PARENT AND THE TEACHER IN FORMATION OF THE LANGUAGE COMPETENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Nikolayevich Chernov

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Studying of role of «the parent – the child» and «the teacher – the child» generalities, developing as the collective subject, in formation of the language competence of the senior preschooler is the research purpose. Research is executed in a paradigm of the subject-activity approach. The Heidelbergtest of the child language development was applied to studying of the language competence. Experimental procedure of diagnostics of language learning and its results with use of the Vygotskian principle of a zone of the proximal development is offered. Procedure allows to form a generality «the teacher – the child» as the collective subject. For studying of a child-parental generality as collective subject the special methodical complex consisting of seven techniques was used.Essential component of structure of child-parental relations is formation of collective subject «parent – child» with the style of parental relation «the indulging hyperpatronage». This generality positively causes development of speech-linguistic competence spheres. The collective subject «the teacher – the child», generated on the basis of realization of a principle of a zone of the proximal development, allows to create psychological-pedagogical conditions for adequate learning diagnostics and, simultaneously, for achievement of high level language competence. Experience of the subject-subject interrelations with the parent is the precondition of formation the subject-subject interrelations with the teacher in a situation of formation of the language competence.Results can be used for the organization and carrying out of correction-preventive work on formation optimum sociocultural situation of child development for formation of the language competence of the senior preschool child.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-8-30

  15. Associations of Home and Classroom Environments with Head Start Children's Code-Related and Oral Language Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jisu; Schlieber, Marisa; Gregory, Bradley

    2017-01-01

    This study used data from the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES) 2009 4-year-old cohort to examine associations among family characteristics, home and classroom environments, and the emergent literacy skills of Head Start children. Results from hierarchical linear models suggest that both family and classroom contexts play a…

  16. Development and validation of a numerical model of the swine head subjected to open-field blasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, A.; Zhu, F.; Feng, K.; Saif, T.; Kallakuri, S.; Jin, X.; Yang, K.; King, A.

    2017-11-01

    A finite element model of the head of a 55-kg Yucatan pig was developed to calculate the incident pressure and corresponding intracranial pressure due to the explosion of 8 lb (3.63 kg) of C4 at three different distances. The results from the model were validated by comparing findings with experimentally obtained data from five pigs at three different blast overpressure levels: low (150 kPa), medium (275 kPa), and high (400 kPa). The peak values of intracranial pressures from numerical model at different locations of the brain such as the frontal, central, left temporal, right temporal, parietal, and occipital regions were compared with experimental values. The model was able to predict the peak pressure with reasonable percentage differences. The differences for peak incident and intracranial pressure values between the simulation results and the experimental values were found to be less than 2.2 and 29.3%, respectively, at all locations other than the frontal region. Additionally, a series of parametric studies shows that the intracranial pressure was very sensitive to sensor locations, the presence of air bubbles, and reflections experienced during the experiments. Further efforts will be undertaken to correlate the different biomechanical response parameters, such as the intracranial pressure gradient, stress, and strain results obtained from the validated model with injured brain locations once the histology data become available.

  17. Sensitivity to subject-verb agreement in spoken language in children with developmental dyslexia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rispens, J; Roeleven, S; Koster, C

    The principle aim of this paper was to investigate sensitivity to subject-verb agreement morphology in children with developmental dyslexia. An auditory grammaticality judgement task was used to compare morphosyntactic abilities of primary school dyslexic children relative to normally developing

  18. Language production and working memory: The case of subject-verb agreement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartsuiker, R.J.; Barkhuysen, Pashiera

    2006-01-01

    In order to study the role of working memory in sentence formulation, we elicited errors of subject-verb agreement in spoken sentence completion, while speakers did or did not maintain an extrinsic memory load (a word list). We compared participants with low and high speaking spans (a measure of

  19. Learners' Language Needs Analysis of English Subject in Azkia Integrated Islamic Primary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neneng Sunengsih

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the writer analyzed the objective of English learning at Azkia Integrated Islamic Primary School and the pupils’ needs in learning English. The paper described pupils’ needs, which are divided into the target needs and the learning needs. The study employed qualitative method, which used phenomenology approach. The data were collected from classroom observations, interviews, and documentary analysis, and then were analyzed and classified into the target needs and the learning needs. The findings showed that the pupils’ needs to be fulfilled in learning English are introducing English at the early stage, coping English language in the classroom and the daily lives, emphasizing vocabulary building and its development, applying recognizable topics to support vocabulary mastery, giving a wide range of instruments which stimulates the pupils using English in their daily lives. Further, learning English can be easier for the pupils when the concrete objects  are utilized well and visual aids are made available.

  20. Educational advantatges in the application of PLEs in language and literature subjects. Five experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Martín García

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the experiences, projects and activities conducted by three teachers with their students of Literature and Language, and based on the construction and use of PLEs.The construction of the virtual spaces and the activities they designed and took into practice were relatively simple, and took advantage of free, user-friendly tools available on the Internet. All the activities explained in this article had been previously performed using “traditional techniques”; when the PLE concept was applied on the classroom and the academic activities were taken into virtual environments, there were important changes in the student's learning process and approach, on intellectual, social, and integrative levels, related both to the technological skills and to the information management. We conclude that the use of PLEs in this context helps both teachers and students realize the potential and importance of these tools when applied to their learning process, and that guidance is needed to implement this approach in the classroom

  1. Objective and subjective image quality of primary and recurrent squamous cell carcinoma on head and neck low-tube-voltage 80-kVp computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholtz, Jan-Erik; Kaup, Moritz; Kraft, Johannes; Noeske, Eva-Maria; Schulz, Boris; Burck, Iris; Kerl, J.M.; Bauer, Ralf W.; Lehnert, Thomas; Vogl, Thomas J.; Wichmann, Julian L. [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany); Scheerer, Friedrich [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Cranio-Maxillofacial and Plastic Facial Surgery, Frankfurt (Germany); Wagenblast, Jens [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Frankfurt (Germany)

    2015-03-26

    To investigate low-tube-voltage 80-kVp computed tomography (CT) of head and neck primary and recurrent squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) regarding objective and subjective image quality. We retrospectively evaluated 65 patients (47 male, 18 female; mean age: 62.1 years) who underwent head and neck dual-energy CT (DECT) due to biopsy-proven primary (n = 50) or recurrent (n = 15) SCC. Eighty peak kilovoltage and standard blended 120-kVp images were compared. Attenuation and noise of malignancy and various soft tissue structures were measured. Tumor signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were calculated. Subjective image quality was rated by three reviewers using 5-point grading scales regarding overall image quality, lesion delineation, image sharpness, and image noise. Radiation dose was assessed as CT dose index volume (CTDI{sub vol}). Interobserver agreement was calculated using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Mean tumor attenuation (153.8 Hounsfield unit (HU) vs. 97.1 HU), SNR (10.7 vs. 8.3), CNR (8.1 vs. 4.8), and subjective tumor delineation (score, 4.46 vs. 4.13) were significantly increased (all P < 0.001) with 80-kVp acquisition compared to standard blended 120-kVp images. Noise of all measured structures was increased in 80-kVp acquisition (P < 0.001). Overall interobserver agreement was good (ICC, 0.86; 95 % confidence intervals: 0.82-0.89). CTDI{sub vol} was reduced by 48.7 % with 80-kVp acquisition compared to standard DECT (4.85 ± 0.51 vs. 9.94 ± 0.81 mGy cm, P < 0.001). Head and neck CT with low-tube-voltage 80-kVp acquisition provides increased tumor delineation, SNR, and CNR for CT imaging of primary and recurrent SCC compared to standard 120-kVp acquisition with an accompanying significant reduction of radiation exposure. (orig.)

  2. Survey of keyword adjustment of published articles medical subject headings in journal of mazandaran university of medical sciences (2009-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabirzadeh, Azar; Siamian, Hasan; Abadi, Ebrahim Bagherian Farah; Saravi, Benyamin Mohseni

    2013-01-01

    NONE DECLARED. Keywords are the most important tools for Information retrieval. They are usually used for retrieval of articles based on contents of information reserved from printed and electronic resources. Retrieval of appropriate keywords from Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) can impact with exact, correctness and short time on information retrieval. Regarding the above mentioned matters, this study was done to compare the Latin keywords was in the articles published in the Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. This is a descriptive study. The data were extracted from the key words of Englsih abstracts of articles published in the years 2009-2010 in the Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences by census method. Checklist of data collection is designed, based on research objectives and literature review which has face validity. Compliance rate in this study was to determine if the keywords cited in this article as a full subject of the main subject headings in a MeSH (Bold and the selected word) is a perfect adjustment. If keywords were cited in the article but the main heading is not discussed in the following main topics to be discussed with reference to See and See related it has considered has partial adjustment. Out of 148 articles published in 12 issues in proposed time of studying, 72 research papers were analyzed. The average numbers of authors in each article were 4 ± 1. Results showed that most of specialty papers 42 (58. 4%), belonging to the (Department of Clinical Sciences) School of Medicine, 11 (15.3%) Basic Science, 6(8.4%) Pharmacy, Nursing and Midwifery 5(6.9%), 4(5.5%) Health, paramedical Sciences 3(4.2%), and non medical article 1(1.3%) school of medicine. In general, results showed that 80 (30%) of key words have been used to complete the adjustment. Also, only 1(1.4%) had complete adjustment with all the MeSH key words and in 8 articles(11.4%) key words of had no adjustment with MeSH. The results showed that only

  3. Scored Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment, albumin and transferrin for nutritional assessment of gastrostomy fed head or neck cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correira Pereira, Marta Alexandra; Santos, Carla Adriana; Almeida Brito, José; Fonseca, Jorge

    2014-02-01

    Gastrostomy fed head or neck cancer patients frequently have impaired speech capacities. Enteral feeding teams frequently depend on laboratorial or anthropometrical parameters for nutritional assessment. In these patients, this study aimed to evaluate: (1) the practicability of Scored - Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA); (2) their nutritional status using the Scored-PG-SGA; (3) association of serum albumin and transferrin values to the nutritional status rating using PG-SGA. On adult outpatients with head or neck cancer under prolonged (> 1 month) gastrostomy feeding, Scored-PGSGA, albumin and transferrin were evaluated during the same appointment. Scored-PG-SGA was easily feasible in 42 patients, even in patients with speech difficulties. Twenty-five patients were moderately/severely undernourished (PG-SGA/B+C). Scored-PG-SGA rated 41 patients as ≥ 2, thus needing nutritional/ pharmacologic intervention. Albumin was low in 13 patients. Transferrin was low in 19 patients. Average albumin and transferrin in moderately/severely undernourished patients (PG-SGA/B+C) was significantly lower than in well-nourished (PG-SGA/A). There was association between Scored- PG-SGA rating, albumin and transferrin. In PEG fed head or neck cancer patients, PGSGA was practicable and useful, even in patients with impaired speaking skills. Most patients displayed moderate/severe malnutrition (PG-SGA/B+C). Scored-PG-SGA rated 41 patients as needing for nutritional/pharmacological intervention. Scored-PG-SGA should be systematically included in the evaluation of these patients. In these patients, albumin and transferrin levels showed relation with Scored-PG-SGA and should be considered as nutritional biomarkers. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  4. Incidence of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma among subjects at high risk of lung cancer: results from the Pittsburgh Lung Screening Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Ronak; Weissfeld, Joel L; Wilson, David O; Balogh, Paula; Sufka, Pamela; Siegfried, Jill M; Grandis, Jennifer R; Diergaarde, Brenda

    2015-05-01

    Earlier detection and diagnosis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) should lead to improved outcomes. However, to the authors' knowledge, no effective screening strategy has been identified to date. In the current study, the authors evaluated whether it would be useful to screen subjects targeted for lung cancer screening for HNSCC as well. Medical records, death certificates, and cancer registry and questionnaire data were used to determine the number of observed incident HNSCC cases in the Pittsburgh Lung Screening Study (PLuSS), a cohort of current and former smokers aged ≥50 years with a ≥12.5 pack-year smoking history. The expected number of cases was estimated using stratum-specific incidence rates obtained from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data for 2000 through 2011. The standardized incidence ratio was calculated to examine the difference between the observed and expected number of cases. Of the 3587 at-risk participants in the PLuSS, 23 (0.64%) developed HNSCC over a total of 32,201 person-years of follow-up. This finding was significantly higher than expected based on incidence rates obtained from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program (13.70 cases expected; standardized incidence ratio, 1.68 [95% confidence interval, 1.06-2.52]). The excess burden of HNSCC in the PLuSS was 28.9 cases per 100,000 person-years. Observed incident cases were significantly more often male, had started smoking at a younger age, smoked more per day, and had more pack-years of smoking than the rest of the PLuSS at-risk participants. The results of the current study provide a rationale for offering head and neck cancer screening along with computed tomography screening for lung cancer. Randomized controlled trials that assess the effectiveness of adding examination of the head and neck area to lung cancer screening programs are warranted. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  5. Linguagem escrita e subjetividade: implicações do trabalho grupal Writing language and subjective quality: implications of group work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Letícia Cautela de Almeida Machado

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available TEMA: linguagem escrita e subjetividade no grupo fonoaudiológico. PROCEDIMENTOS: este relato de caso tem por objetivo analisar como sujeitos, que participam de um grupo fonoaudiológico, significam suas histórias com a linguagem escrita e como tal grupo pode constituir-se como um espaço para a ressignificação de tais histórias. O material do estudo clínico foi coletado a partir do atendimento grupal envolvendo nove adolescentes, inseridos no Ensino Fundamental da Rede Pública de Curitiba, encaminhados pela escola para tratamento fonoaudiológico, com queixa de distúrbio de leitura e escrita. Tal atendimento foi realizado, durante um ano, na Clínica Fonoaudiológica da Universidade Tuiuti do Paraná. Os encontros eram semanais, com duração de duas horas, totalizando 48 sessões. A coleta de dados foi realizada a partir de vídeo-gravações e do registro diário das sessões. Foram selecionados seis episódios considerados significativos para a análise da temática. RESULTADOS: a pesquisa indicou que os sujeitos estabeleciam uma relação de sofrimento com a escrita a partir da qual assumiam uma posição de incompetência em ler e escrever. A partir do processo terapêutico foi possível ressignificar as relações dos adolescentes com essa modalidade de linguagem, de forma que puderam assumir diferentes posições e um lugar de autoria e de interlocutor capaz. CONCLUSÃO: o grupo fonoaudiológico construiu-se como um espaço de troca para que os sujeitos estabelecessem uma relação significativa com a leitura e a escrita, propiciando condições fundamentais para a ressignificação dos sintomas e para a interação com diversos textos escritos, promovendo, assim, mudanças na relação do sujeito com sua linguagem.BACKGROUND: written language and subjectivity in a speech language therapy group. PROCEDURES: this paper aims to analyze how individuals that participate in a speech language therapy group, signify their stories by

  6. Experimental Investigation of Cavitation as a Possible Damage Mechanism in Blast-Induced Traumatic Brain Injury in Post-Mortem Human Subject Heads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzar, Robert S; Treichler, Derrick; Wardlaw, Andrew; Weiss, Greg; Goeller, Jacques

    2017-04-15

    The potential of blast-induced traumatic brain injury from the mechanism of localized cavitation of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is investigated. While the mechanism and criteria for non-impact blast-induced traumatic brain injury is still unknown, this study demonstrates that local cavitation in the CSF layer of the cranial volume could contribute to these injuries. The cranial contents of three post-mortem human subject (PMHS) heads were replaced with both a normal saline solution and a ballistic gel mixture with a simulated CSF layer. Each were instrumented with multiple pressure transducers and placed inside identical shock tubes at two different research facilities. Sensor data indicates that cavitation may have occurred in the PMHS models at pressure levels below those for a 50% risk of blast lung injury. This study points to skull flexion, the result of the shock wave on the front of the skull leading to a negative pressure in the contrecoup, as a possible mechanism that contributes to the onset of cavitation. Based on observation of intracranial pressure transducer data from the PMHS model, cavitation onset is thought to occur from approximately a 140 kPa head-on incident blast.

  7. Lexical learning of the English language: a PET study in healthy French subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raboyeau, Gaëlle; Marie, Nathalie; Balduyck, Sébastien; Gros, Hélène; Démonet, Jean-François; Cardebat, Dominique

    2004-08-01

    To investigate the neural correlates of word learning in adults, 10 right-handed French subjects who had learned English without mastering it performed an English and a French naming task during two PET sessions, one before (PET1) and the second after (PET2) a 4-week lexical training in English. Behavioral performance was collected during the two PET exams and 2 months after (T3). At T2, performance on English naming increased in all subjects; this improvement persisted at T3, with no correlation between English performance at T2 and T3. Cerebral activation during French naming mainly showed a left frontal temporal network. The pattern specifically associated with English lexical learning included, in addition to the anterior cingulate cortex involved in attentional processing and BAs 4/6 reflecting speech output, the right cerebellum and the left insular cortex that are linked to speech gesture learning, and the right medial temporal regions, likely to reflect the involvement of episodic memory during verbal learning. Correlations between English T2/T1 performance and English T2/T1 rCBF changes reinforced the hypothesis of intervention of episodic memory since they interested right frontal, hippocampal, and lateral temporal regions. 'Predictive' correlations between English T3/T2 performance and English T2/T1 rCBF changes showed, in good reminders, increased activities in the left posterior superior temporal sulcus and middle temporal cortex probably related to efficient semantic storage of learned words.

  8. Reduced Sympathetic Response to Head-Up Tilt in Subjects with Mild Cognitive Impairment or Mild Alzheimer's Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marte Rognstad Mellingsæter

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hemodynamic control was compared in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI or mild Alzheimer's dementia (AD as well as in healthy elderly subjects. Methods: Noninvasive, continuous hemodynamic recordings were obtained from 14 patients and 48 controls during supine rest (tilt of 30 and 70°. Cardiac output, end-diastolic volume, total peripheral resistance, heart rate variability (HRV, systolic blood pressure variability (SBPV, and baroreceptor sensitivity were calculated. Results: At 70° tilt, the HRV indices differed significantly, with higher high-frequency (HF variability as well as lower low-frequency (LF variability and LF/HF ratios in the patients. The patients had significantly lower SBPV in the LF range at 30° tilt. Conclusions: The results indicate a poorer sympathetic response to orthostatic stress in MCI and mild AD.

  9. Temporal reliability of ultra-high field resting-state MRI for single-subject sensorimotor and language mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Paulo; Seixas, Daniela; Castro, São Luís

    2016-11-15

    Resting-state fMRI is a well-suited technique to map functional networks in the brain because unlike task-based approaches it requires little collaboration from subjects. This is especially relevant in clinical settings where a number of subjects cannot comply with task demands. Previous studies using conventional scanner fields have shown that resting-state fMRI is able to map functional networks in single subjects, albeit with moderate temporal reliability. Ultra-high resolution (7T) imaging provides higher signal-to-noise ratio and better spatial resolution and is thus well suited to assess the temporal reliability of mapping results, and to determine if resting-state fMRI can be applied in clinical decision making including preoperative planning. We used resting-state fMRI at ultra-high resolution to examine whether the sensorimotor and language networks are reliable over time - same session and one week after. Resting-state networks were identified for all subjects and sessions with good accuracy. Both networks were well delimited within classical regions of interest. Mapping was temporally reliable at short and medium time-scales as demonstrated by high values of overlap in the same session and one week after for both networks. Results were stable independently of data quality metrics and physiological variables. Taken together, these findings provide strong support for the suitability of ultra-high field resting-state fMRI mapping at the single-subject level. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Analysis by NASA's VESGEN Software of Retinal Blood Vessels in Human Subjects Undergoing Head-Down Tilt During 70-Day Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Ruchi J.; Murray, Matthew C.; Predovic, Marina; Lim, Shiyin; Askin, Kayleigh N.; Vizzeri, Gianmarco; Taibbi, Giovanni; Mason, Sara Stroble; Zanello, Susana B.; Young, Millenia; hide

    2017-01-01

    Significant risks for visual impairment associated with increased intracranial pressure (VIIP) are incurred by microgravity spaceflight, especially long-duration missions [1]. We hypothesize that microgravity-induced fluid shifts result in pathological changes within blood vessels of the retina that precede development of visual and other ocular impairments. Potential contributions of retinal vascular remodeling to VIIP etiology are therefore being investigated for two studies in 30deg infrared (IR) Heidelberg Spectralis(Registered Trademark) images with NASA's innovative VESsel GENeration Analysis (VESGEN) software [2,3]. The retrospective studies include: (1) before, during and after (pre, mid and post) 6º head-down tilt (HDT) in human subjects during 70 days of bed rest, and (2) before and after missions to the International Space Station (ISS) by U.S. crew members. Results for both studies are almost complete. A preliminary example for HDT is described below.

  11. Citation Analysis using the Medline Database at the Web of Knowledge: Searching "Times Cited" with Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)

    CERN Document Server

    Leydesdorff, Loet

    2012-01-01

    Citation analysis of documents retrieved from the Medline database (at the Web of Knowledge) has been possible only on a case-by-case basis. A technique is here developed for citation analysis in batch mode using both Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) at the Web of Knowledge and the Science Citation Index at the Web of Science. This freeware routine is applied to the case of "Brugada Syndrome," a specific disease and field of research (since 1992). The journals containing these publications are attributed to Web-of-Science Categories other than "Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems"), perhaps because of the possibility of genetic testing for this syndrome in the clinic. With this routine, all the instruments available for citation analysis can be used on the basis of MeSH terms.

  12. Curriculum guidelines, standards and skills in spanish language. from untamed industrial objectivity to student’s harmless subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Yessid Arias Bedoya

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Competency Based Education is a curricular approach that, in addition to the controversy it arises, establishes practices and specific thoughts in schools: its origin from behavioral theories and their connection to the economic field disclose formation objectives that highlight the need of thinking about teaching practices and institutional curricula. These goals linked to projects such as work-oriented education and the propaedeutic cycles reveal the implicit intentions in the education system, where students’ specific characteristics yield to national economic imperatives. This reflection paper seeks to explore and define the ‘conceptual gap’ between an education based on the ideals of trade logic, and one directed to the aesthetic and socio-political formation of the subject, on the basis of legal documents as the Curricular Guidelines, Skill Standards for Spanish Language, Law 39 of 1903, General Law of Education and texts by various educational theorists such as Paulo Freire and Gimeno Sacristan.

  13. Head Start.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenman, Geri

    2000-01-01

    Discusses an art project in which students created drawings of mop heads. Explains that the approach of drawing was more important than the subject. States that the students used the chiaroscuro technique, used by Rembrandt and Caravaggio, in which light appears out of the darkness. (CMK)

  14. Improving speech-in-noise recognition for children with hearing loss: Potential effects of language abilities, binaural summation, and head shadow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nittrouer, Susan; Caldwell-Tarr, Amanda; Tarr, Eric; Lowenstein, Joanna H.; Rice, Caitlin; Moberly, Aaron C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study examined speech recognition in noise for children with hearing loss, compared it to recognition for children with normal hearing, and examined mechanisms that might explain variance in children’s abilities to recognize speech in noise. Design: Word recognition was measured in two levels of noise, both when the speech and noise were co-located in front and when the noise came separately from one side. Four mechanisms were examined as factors possibly explaining variance: vocabulary knowledge, sensitivity to phonological structure, binaural summation, and head shadow. Study sample: Participants were 113 eight-year-old children. Forty-eight had normal hearing (NH) and 65 had hearing loss: 18 with hearing aids (HAs), 19 with one cochlear implant (CI), and 28 with two CIs. Results: Phonological sensitivity explained a significant amount of between-groups variance in speech-in-noise recognition. Little evidence of binaural summation was found. Head shadow was similar in magnitude for children with NH and with CIs, regardless of whether they wore one or two CIs. Children with HAs showed reduced head shadow effects. Conclusion: These outcomes suggest that in order to improve speech-in-noise recognition for children with hearing loss, intervention needs to be comprehensive, focusing on both language abilities and auditory mechanisms. PMID:23834373

  15. THEORY OF SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIVISM AS THE BASIS OF INTEGRATION OF THE FOREIGN LANGUAGE AND SUBJECT CONTENTS OF THE STUDIED DISCIPLINES IN TECHNICAL INSTITUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Л Л Салехова

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently there is a need for training of the competitive experts of a technical profile capable to carry out oral and written communication within professional communication. Training of this sort of experts can be carried out on the basis of the integrated subject and language training - Content and LanguageIntegrated Learning. In article the essence of this concept reveals, its social and constructivist orientation is considered, examples of use of information and communication technologies are given.

  16. Compensating for literature annotation bias when predicting novel drug-disease relationships through Medical Subject Heading Over-representation Profile (MeSHOP) similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Warren A; Ouellette, B F Francis; Wasserman, Wyeth W

    2013-01-01

    Using annotations to the articles in MEDLINE®/PubMed®, over six thousand chemical compounds with pharmacological actions have been tracked since 1996. Medical Subject Heading Over-representation Profiles (MeSHOPs) quantitatively leverage the literature associated with biological entities such as diseases or drugs, providing the opportunity to reposition known compounds towards novel disease applications. A MeSHOP is constructed by counting the number of times each medical subject term is assigned to an entity-related research publication in the MEDLINE database and calculating the significance of the count by comparing against the count of the term in a background set of publications. Based on the expectation that drugs suitable for treatment of a disease (or disease symptom) will have similar annotation properties to the disease, we successfully predict drug-disease associations by comparing MeSHOPs of diseases and drugs. The MeSHOP comparison approach delivers an 11% improvement over bibliometric baselines. However, novel drug-disease associations are observed to be biased towards drugs and diseases with more publications. To account for the annotation biases, a correction procedure is introduced and evaluated. By explicitly accounting for the annotation bias, unexpectedly similar drug-disease pairs are highlighted as candidates for drug repositioning research. MeSHOPs are shown to provide a literature-supported perspective for discovery of new links between drugs and diseases based on pre-existing knowledge.

  17. Cited references and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) as two different knowledge representations: clustering and mappings at the paper level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leydesdorff, Loet; Comins, Jordan A; Sorensen, Aaron A; Bornmann, Lutz; Hellsten, Iina

    2016-01-01

    For the biomedical sciences, the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) make available a rich feature which cannot currently be merged properly with widely used citing/cited data. Here, we provide methods and routines that make MeSH terms amenable to broader usage in the study of science indicators: using Web-of-Science (WoS) data, one can generate the matrix of citing versus cited documents; using PubMed/MEDLINE data, a matrix of the citing documents versus MeSH terms can be generated analogously. The two matrices can also be reorganized into a 2-mode matrix of MeSH terms versus cited references. Using the abbreviated journal names in the references, one can, for example, address the question whether MeSH terms can be used as an alternative to WoS Subject Categories for the purpose of normalizing citation data. We explore the applicability of the routines in the case of a research program about the amyloid cascade hypothesis in Alzheimer's disease. One conclusion is that referenced journals provide archival structures, whereas MeSH terms indicate mainly variation (including novelty) at the research front. Furthermore, we explore the option of using the citing/cited matrix for main-path analysis as a by-product of the software.

  18. An automated method for identifying an independent component analysis-based language-related resting-state network in brain tumor subjects for surgical planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Junfeng; Zhang, Han; Hameed, N U Farrukh; Zhang, Jie; Yuan, Shiwen; Qiu, Tianming; Shen, Dinggang; Wu, Jinsong

    2017-10-23

    As a noninvasive and "task-free" technique, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) has been gradually applied to pre-surgical functional mapping. Independent component analysis (ICA)-based mapping has shown advantage, as no a priori information is required. We developed an automated method for identifying language network in brain tumor subjects using ICA on rs-fMRI. In addition to standard processing strategies, we applied a discriminability-index-based component identification algorithm to identify language networks in three different groups. The results from the training group were validated in an independent group of healthy human subjects. For the testing group, ICA and seed-based correlation were separately computed and the detected language networks were assessed by intra-operative stimulation mapping to verify reliability of application in the clinical setting. Individualized language network mapping could be automatically achieved for all subjects from the two healthy groups except one (19/20, success rate = 95.0%). In the testing group (brain tumor patients), the sensitivity of the language mapping result was 60.9%, which increased to 87.0% (superior to that of conventional seed-based correlation [47.8%]) after extending to a radius of 1 cm. We established an automatic and practical component identification method for rs-fMRI-based pre-surgical mapping and successfully applied it to brain tumor patients.

  19. The "Comprehensive ICF Core Set for Head and Neck Cancer": a Delphi consensus survey among German speaking speech and language therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbarts, Matthias; Schuster, Vanessa; Kisser, Ulrich; Sabariego, Carla; Stier-Jarmer, Marita; Coenen, Michaela; Ernst, Benjamin Philipp; Strieth, Sebastian; Harréus, Ulrich; Becker, Sven

    2017-06-01

    The "Comprehensive ICF Core Set for Head and Neck Cancer" (ICF-HNC) is an application of the "International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health" (ICF), representing the characteristic spectrum of issues in patients with head and neck cancer (HNC). Our primary aim was to evaluate which categories of the ICF-HNC are dealt with by speech and language therapists (SLTs) in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland. The secondary aim was to identify outcome measures used by SLTs to measure the categories of the ICF-HNC in clinical practice. SLTs experienced in the treatment of HNC patients evaluated the categories of the ICF-HNC in a three-round Delphi survey. They were asked whether the listed categories represented issues treated by SLTs in HNC patients, and what outcome measures were used to assess them. Altogether, 31 SLTs completed the survey. 47 of 108 previously selected categories of the ICF-HNC achieved the cut-off value. Out of these, 40.4% were derived from the component "Body Functions", 36.2% from "Body Structures", 12.8% from "Environmental Factors", and 10.6% from "Activities and Participation". Altogether, 82 of the mentioned outcome measures were considered as reasonable from the perspective of SLTs. Of these, only 37 achieved more than 50% approval. This study emphasises the importance of "Body Structures" and "Body Functions" for SLTs in Germany and Switzerland in treating patients with HNC. Moreover, the results highlighted the need to agree on evidence-based outcome measures in speech and language therapy.

  20. Tesauros y listas de epígrafes: ¿hacia una integración? Thesauri and list of subject headings: towards an integration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Martínez

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Se analizan las semejanzas y diferencias entre los tesauros y las listas de epígrafes, tomando en cuenta el plan de revisión 2003 de la norma estadounidense Z39.19. Esta norma pretende establecer nuevas directrices para todo tipo de vocabulario controlado, en relación con su utilización con nuevas tecnologías. Se concluye que, en efecto, es muy importante revisar toda la normativa referida a los vocabularios controlados, particularmente las de alcance internacional, pero al mismo tiempo se hace necesario tener sumo cuidado en mantener un riguroso control de la terminología, una correcta definición de las relaciones jerárquicas y asociativas y promover la poscoordinación gestionada, en lo posible, mediante sistemas facetados y computarizados.The similarities and differences between thesauri and the lists of subject headings are analyzed, taking into account the work plan for the 2003 revision of the US standard Z39.19. This standard pretends to establish new guidelines for all types of controlled vocabulary in relation to their use with new technologies. We conclude that it is very important to review all the standards for controlled vocabulary, particularly those with international scope, but at the same time, it is necessary to be very careful in maintaining a rigorous control of terminology; a correct definition of hierarchical and associative relationships, and to promote the postcordination, managed, if possible, in faceted and computerized systems.

  1. Analyse du langage spontane de sujets atteints d'aphasie sensorielle (An Analysis of Spontaneous Language in Subjects Afflicted with Aphasia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremin, Helgard

    1977-01-01

    A report on a study of a large number of subjects afflicted with sensory aphasia. Topics covered are: the distributional pattern of grammatical categories; paraphasia; a statistical analysis of associated syndromes; possible relationship to the location of the lesion. Some examples of spontaneous language are included. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

  2. The Older Second Language Learner: A Bibliographic Essay

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Elaine

    1992-01-01

    It is difficult to find research concentrating on second language acquisition by older adults, since most studies differentiate only between children and adults, accepting puberty as the division between the two language learning stages. In an effort to locate studies on the older adult second language learner, one online and three compact disk databases were searched, using search strategies and subject headings appropriate to each particular file.

  3. Context-sensitive neural responses to conflict resolution: electrophysiological evidence from subject-object ambiguities in language comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesewsky, Matthias; Bornkessel, Ina

    2006-07-07

    Reanalysis in language comprehension provides a window on how superficially similar processes of conflict resolution may differ depending on the context in which they are initiated. Thus, previous ERP studies have shown that reanalyses towards object-initial orders in German sentences with dative-active verbs (e.g., folgen, 'to follow') engender N400 effects, while reanalyses with accusative verbs (e.g., besuchen, 'to visit') elicit P600 effects. This difference appears surprising since these two verb classes are both associated with a subject-initial base order. The present paper reports two ERP experiments designed to shed further light on the nature of the conflict resolution processes involved in each case by examining structures in which word order disambiguation is separated from verb class disambiguation. Experiment 1 contrasted dative-active verbs with accusative verbs, while Experiment 2 compared dative-active and dative object-experiencer verbs (which are associated with an object-initial base order). Our results show that the reanalysis pattern for dative-active constructions is context-dependent: when verb class disambiguation precedes word order disambiguation, an N400-P600 pattern results. By contrast, the reanalysis patterns for the other two verb types are context independent: object-experiencer verbs invariably show an N400 and accusative verbs invariably show a P600. We argue that (a) the N400 is a general marker of reanalysis in dative sentences, reflecting an argument reindexation, while (b) the P600 in accusative sentences reflects a structural recomputation. The variable pattern for dative-active sentences reflects the (in)applicability of "good-enough" representations during conflict resolution in garden path sentences.

  4. The Influence of Subject Knowledge and Second Language Proficiency on the Reading Comprehension of Scientific and Technical Discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Tim; Berry, Vivien

    2000-01-01

    Examined the effect of background knowledge and second language proficiency in relation to two sets of specific reading materials. One came from an IELTS reading module related to science and technology; the other was from a highly-specific popular science text. Results showed that both language proficiency and background knowledge predicted…

  5. A data mining approach to selecting herbs with similar efficacy: Targeted selection methods based on medical subject headings (MeSH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yea, Sang-Jun; Seong, BoSeok; Jang, Yunji; Kim, Chul

    2016-04-22

    Natural products have long been the most important source of ingredients in the discovery of new drugs. Moreover, since the Nagoya Protocol, finding alternative herbs with similar efficacy in traditional medicine has become a very important issue. Although random selection is a common method of finding ethno-medicinal herbs of similar efficacy, it proved to be less effective; therefore, this paper proposes a novel targeted selection method using data mining approaches in the MEDLINE database in order to identify and select herbs with a similar degree of efficacy. From among sixteen categories of medical subject headings (MeSH) descriptors, three categories containing terms related to herbal compounds, efficacy, toxicity, and the metabolic process were selected. In order to select herbs of similar efficacy in a targeted way, we adopted the similarity measurement method based on MeSH. In order to evaluate the proposed algorithm, we built up three different validation datasets which contain lists of original herbs and corresponding medicinal herbs of similar efficacy. The average area under curve (AUC) of the proposed algorithm was found to be about 500% larger than the random selection method. We found that the proposed algorithm puts more hits at the front of the top-10 list than the random selection method, and precisely discerns the efficacy of the herbs. It was also found that the AUC of the experiments either remained the same or increased slightly in all three validation datasets as the search range was increased. This study reveals and proves that the proposed algorithm is significantly more accurate and efficient in finding alternative herbs of similar efficacy than the random selection method. As such, it is hoped that this approach will be used in diverse applications in the ethno-pharmacology field. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Using MeSH (medical subject headings) to enhance PubMed search strategies for evidence-based practice in physical therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Randy R; Austin, Tricia M

    2012-01-01

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) is an important paradigm in health care. Physical therapists report lack of knowledge and time constraints as barriers to EBP. The purpose of this technical report is to illustrate how Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), a controlled vocabulary thesaurus of indexing terms, is used to efficiently search MEDLINE, the largest component of PubMed. Using clinical questions, this report illustrates how search terms common to physical therapist practice do or do not map to appropriate MeSH terms. A PubMed search strategy that takes advantage of text words and MeSH terms is provided. A search of 139 terms and 13 acronyms was conducted to determine whether they appropriately mapped to a MeSH term. The search results were categorized into 1 of 5 outcomes. Nearly half (66/139) of the search terms mapped to an appropriate MeSH term (outcome 1). When a search term did not appropriately map to a MeSH term, it was entered into the MeSH database to search for an appropriate MeSH term. Twenty-one appropriate MeSH terms were found (outcomes 2 and 4), and there were 52 search terms for which an appropriate MeSH term was not found (outcomes 3 and 5). Nearly half of the acronyms did not map to an appropriate MeSH term, and an appropriate MeSH term was not found in the database. The results are based on a limited number of search terms and acronyms. Understanding how search terms map to MeSH terms and using the PubMed search strategy can enable physical therapists to take full advantage of available MeSH terms and should result in more-efficient and better-informed searches.

  7. Intracranial hemorrhage alters scalp potential distribution in bioimpedance cerebral monitoring: Preliminary results from FEM simulation on a realistic head model and human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atefi, Seyed Reza; Seoane, Fernando; Kamalian, Shervin; Rosenthal, Eric S; Lev, Michael H; Bonmassar, Giorgio

    2016-02-01

    Current diagnostic neuroimaging for detection of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is limited to fixed scanners requiring patient transport and extensive infrastructure support. ICH diagnosis would therefore benefit from a portable diagnostic technology, such as electrical bioimpedance (EBI). Through simulations and patient observation, the authors assessed the influence of unilateral ICH hematomas on quasisymmetric scalp potential distributions in order to establish the feasibility of EBI technology as a potential tool for early diagnosis. Finite element method (FEM) simulations and experimental left-right hemispheric scalp potential differences of healthy and damaged brains were compared with respect to the asymmetry caused by ICH lesions on quasisymmetric scalp potential distributions. In numerical simulations, this asymmetry was measured at 25 kHz and visualized on the scalp as the normalized potential difference between the healthy and ICH damaged models. Proof-of-concept simulations were extended in a pilot study of experimental scalp potential measurements recorded between 0 and 50 kHz with the authors' custom-made bioimpedance spectrometer. Mean left-right scalp potential differences recorded from the frontal, central, and parietal brain regions of ten healthy control and six patients suffering from acute/subacute ICH were compared. The observed differences were measured at the 5% level of significance using the two-sample Welch t-test. The 3D-anatomically accurate FEM simulations showed that the normalized scalp potential difference between the damaged and healthy brain models is zero everywhere on the head surface, except in the vicinity of the lesion, where it can vary up to 5%. The authors' preliminary experimental results also confirmed that the left-right scalp potential difference in patients with ICH (e.g., 64 mV) is significantly larger than in healthy subjects (e.g., 20.8 mV; P potential distributions. Pilot clinical observations with the authors

  8. On subject agreement in isiNdebele | Khumalo | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agreement lies at the core of sentence structure. A verb typically must enter into a syntactic agreement relationship with a nominal. This article presents an analysis of the subject marker in the isiNdebele language. The focus of the article is on agreement between the verb and its arguments. Agreement between a head ...

  9. A Prediction of Response of the Head and Neck of the U.S. Adult Military Population to Dynamic Impact Acceleration from Selected Dynamic Test Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-05-01

    It noceeawy and )Aettfi O haack mombe) Dynamic Response of Head and Neck Physical Characteristics of Head and NecK Mathematical Model Simulationj...response of these volunteers to -Gx sled acca’eratioa at 6 and 15 G’s. Procedures used for comuting the various prameter vilues w-4 coeprisons between...may be used with . mathematical modeling techniques in order to extend and project the NAMRL dynamic response results to the general adult U.S

  10. Integrating Language, Pragmatics, and Social Intervention in a Single-Subject Case Study of a Child With a Developmental Social Communication Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Catherine; Gaile, Jacqueline; Lockton, Elaine; Freed, Jenny

    2015-10-01

    This clinical focus article presents an illustration of a complex communication intervention, the Social Communication Intervention Programme (SCIP), as delivered to a child who has a social communication disorder (SCD). The SCIP intervention combined language processing and pragmatic and social understanding therapies in a program of individualized therapy activities and in close liaison with families. The study used an enhanced AB single-subject design in which an 8-year-old child with an SCD participated in 20 therapy sessions with a specialist speech-language pathologist. A procedure of matching assessment findings to intervention choices was followed to construct an individualized treatment program. Examples of intervention content and the embedded structure of SCIP are illustrated. Observational and formal measurements of receptive and expressive language, conversation, and parent-teacher ratings of social communication were completed before therapy, after therapy, and at a 6-month follow-up session. Outcomes revealed change in total and receptive language scores but not in expressive language. Conversation showed marked improvement in responsiveness, appreciation of listener knowledge, turn taking, and adaptation of discourse style. Teacher-reported outcomes included improved classroom behavior and enhanced literacy skills. Parent-reported outcomes included improved verbal interactions with family members and personal narratives. This clinical focus article demonstrates the complexity of needs in a child with an SCD and how these can be addressed in individualized intervention. Findings are discussed in relation to the essential nature of language support including pragmatic therapy for children with SCDs. Discussion of the role of formal and functional outcome measurement as well as the proximity of chosen outcomes to the intervention is included.

  11. Core Subjects at the End of Primary School: Identifying and Explaining Relative Strengths of Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, Kevin; Mok, Pearl L. H.; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2015-01-01

    Background: In general, children with specific language impairment (SLI) tend to fall behind their typically developing (TD) peers in educational attainment. Less is known about how children with SLI fare in particular areas of the curriculum and what predicts their levels of performance. Aims: To compare the distributions of performance of…

  12. Weak language lateralization affects both verbal and spatial skills: an fMRI study in 297 subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellet, E; Zago, L; Jobard, G; Crivello, F; Petit, L; Joliot, M; Mazoyer, B; Tzourio-Mazoyer, N

    2014-12-01

    The present study reappraised the relationship between hemispheric specialization strength and cognitive skills in a sample of 297 individuals including 153 left-handers. It additionally assessed the interaction with manual laterality factors, such as handedness, asymmetry of hand motor skills, and familial sinistrality. A Hemispheric Functional Lateralization Index (HFLI) for language was derived from fMRI. Through mixture Gaussian modeling, three types of language hemispheric lateralization were defined: typical (left hemisphere dominance with clear positive HFLI), ambilateral (no dominant hemisphere with HFLI values close to 0), and strongly-atypical (right-hemisphere dominance with clear negative HFLI values). Three cognitive scores were derived from 12 tests covering various aspects of verbal and spatial cognition. Compared to both typical and strongly-atypical participants, those ambilateral for language production had lower performances in verbal and non-verbal domains, indicating that hemispheric specialization and cognitive skills are related in adults. Furthermore, this relationship was independent from handedness and asymmetry for motor skills, as no interaction was observed between these factors. On the other hand, the relationship between familial sinistrality and cognitive skills tended to differ according to language lateralization type. In contrast to previous reports in children, in the present adult population, we found no linear correlation between HFLI and cognitive skills, regardless of lateralization type. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Reconceptualizing Study Abroad: American and Japanese University Students' Subjective Construction of Identity through Language Learning Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda Nuske, Tomoko

    2017-01-01

    Study abroad is an under-researched domain of language learning. Moreover, most investigations of this phenomenon adopt traditional structuralist approaches, wherein outcomes of study abroad are assessed solely in terms of proficiency gains as measured through conventional exams. The present study builds upon an emerging body of poststructuralist…

  14. Subject oriented and problem based text materials as an object of a flexible foreign language reading in research projects

    OpenAIRE

    SEROVA TAMARA S.; PIPCHENKO ELENA L.

    2015-01-01

    The article introduces the academic research work of students within competence based approach, the models of academic problem based research projects taken up as means to develop flexible foreign language reading skills; reveals selection principles and corpus didactic design of text materials in a form of a macrotext, hypertext, and video course.

  15. Resting-state networks in healthy adult subjects: a comparison between a 32-element and an 8-element phased array head coil at 3.0 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolini, Marco; Keeser, Daniel; Ingrisch, Michael; Werner, Natalie; Kindermann, Nicole; Reiser, Maximilian; Blautzik, Janusch

    2015-05-01

    Little research exists on the influence of a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) head coil's channel count on measured resting-state functional connectivity. To compare a 32-element (32ch) and an 8-element (8ch) phased array head coil with respect to their potential to detect functional connectivity within resting-state networks. Twenty-six healthy adults (mean age, 21.7 years; SD, 2.1 years) underwent resting-state functional MRI at 3.0 Tesla with both coils using equal standard imaging parameters and a counterbalanced design. Independent component analysis (ICA) at different model orders and a dual regression approach were performed. Voxel-wise non-parametric statistical between-group contrasts were determined using permutation-based non-parametric inference. Phantom measurements demonstrated a generally higher image signal-to-noise ratio using the 32ch head coil. However, the results showed no significant differences between corresponding resting-state networks derived from both coils (p coil does not offer any significant advantages in detecting ICA-based functional connectivity within RSNs. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  16. Effect of 1% Inspired CO2 During Head-Down Tilt on Ocular Structures, Cerebral Blood Flow, and Visual Acuity in Healthy Human Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurie, S. S.; Hu, X.; Lee, S. M. C.; Martin, D. S.; Phillips, T. R.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Smith, S. M.; Stenger, M. B.; Taibbi, G.; Zwart, S. R.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The cephalad fluid shift induced by microgravity has been hypothesized to elevate intracranial pressure (ICP) and contribute to the development of the visual impairment/intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome experienced by many astronauts during and after long-duration space flight. In addition, elevated ambient partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2) on the International Space Station (ISS) has also been hypothesized to contribute to the development of VIIP. We seek to determine if an acute, mild CO2 exposure, similar to that occurring on the ISS, combined with the cephalad fluid shift induced by head-down tilt will induce ophthalmic and ICP changes consistent with the VIIP syndrome.

  17. Rethinking Childhood Subjectivity: The Psycho-Politics of Socialization, Private-Language Formation, and the Case of Bosnian Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selimovic, Adnan

    2010-01-01

    Under the guise of socialization, the child-subject born into the modern society is subjugated by a familial childhood trauma that appropriates the infantile psychosis caused by the incommunicability of early childhood. This appropriation, put to instrumental ends, results in a psychology of commodified object relations. In fact, there is a close…

  18. Subject-Verb Agreement and Verbal Short-Term Memory: A Perspective from Greek Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalioti, Marina; Stavrakaki, Stavroula; Manouilidou, Christina; Talli, Ioanna

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the performance of school age Greek-speaking children with SLI on verbal short-term memory (VSTM) and Subject-Verb (S-V) agreement in comparison to chronological age controls and younger typically developing children. VSTM abilities were assessed by means of a non-word repetition task (NRT) and an elicited production task,…

  19. Teaching and Learning using Software “Let’s Reading” for Malay Language Subjects for Students with Learning Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Wahida Md Hassan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The process of teaching and learning that is active and can attract many students to learn. Especially those with learning difficulties who require special methods for helping their learning process to make it more interesting. Therefore, this study is more focused on teaching and learning courseware ‘Let’s Reading’ methods using reading method called syllables have features that can help students with learning disabilities to learn Malay Language. The respondents comprised of six students with learning disabilities moderate levels studying in a secondary school in Kuala Lumpur. A monitoring form adaptation course from Davis et al. (2007 and (Sidek et al., 2014 with some modifications has been used as an instrument to evaluate the study. The findings were analyzed using quatitative methods. In addition, the oral test is carried out before and after the use of the software is run. The study found software has been developed according to the development ASSURE model is able to attract pupils with learning disabilities to learn Malay Language. In addition, these children also showed improvements in reading. Proses pembelajaran dan pengajaran yang aktif dan pelbagai dapat menarik minat murid untuk belajar. Terutamanya murid bermasalah pembelajaran yang memerlukan kaedah khusus bagi membantu proses pembelajaran mereka agar lebih menarik. Oleh itu, kajian ini dijalankan yang lebih tertumpu kepada pengajaran dan pembelajaran menggunakan perisian kursus ‘Jom Bacalah’ yang menggunakan kaedah membaca menggunakan kaedah sebut suku kata yang mempunyai ciri-ciri yang dapat membantu murid bermasalah pembelajaran untuk belajar Bahasa Melayu. Responden kajian terdiri daripada enam murid bermasalah pembelajaran aras sederhana yang sedang belajar di sebuah sekolah menengah di Kuala Lumpur. Satu borang pemantauan kursus adaptasi daripada kajian Davis et al. (2007 dan Sidek et al. (2014 dengan sedikit pengubahsuaian telah digunakan sebagai instrumen bagi

  20. Avaliação da linguagem oral e escrita em sujeitos com Síndrome de Asperger Language assessment in subjects with Asperger Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Ziliotto Dias

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar e caracterizar provas fonoaudiológicas de linguagem oral e escrita de sujeitos com Síndrome de Asperger comparativamente a um grupo de sujeitos com desenvolvimento típico. MÉTODOS: avaliou-se 44 sujeitos que constituíram dois grupos: o grupo Asperger, composto por 22 sujeitos diagnosticados por equipe multidisciplinar como portadores de Síndrome de Asperger, conforme os critérios do DSM-IV; e o grupo de comparação, denominado grupo de baixo risco para alterações do desenvolvimento, também com 22 participantes, pareados com os sujeitos do grupo Asperger segundo a idade cronológica. Todos os sujeitos eram do sexo masculino, com idade cronológica entre 10 e 30 anos e quociente intelectual maior ou igual a 68 e foram submetidos à Prova de Consciência Fonológica, Teste de Vocabulário por Imagem Peabody, Prova de Leitura de Palavras e Pseudopalavras, Prova de Compreensão de Leitura, Prova de Escrita sob Ditado de Palavras e Pseudopalavras, Prova de Escrita Semidirigida de Textos. RESULTADOS: a análise estatística revelou diferenças estaticamente significantes entre as medianas da prova de consciência fonológica e entre as médias do teste de vocabulário por imagem Peabody e prova de compreensão de leitura nos dois grupos estudados (pPURPOSE: to evaluate and characterize the oral and written language of subjects with Asperger Syndrome and compare them with a group of subjects with typical development. METHODS: a total of 44 subjects were assessed and divided in two groups. The Asperger group was composed by 22 subjects diagnosed with Asperger Syndrome by an expert clinical team following the DSM-IV criteria. The comparison group, referred to as low risk for developmental disorders was also composed by 22 subjects matched with the subjects in Asperger group by chronological age. All the assessed subjects were right-handed males, with chronological ages between 10 and 30 years and intelligence quotients above

  1. Cam deformity and the omega angle, a novel quantitative measurement of femoral head-neck morphology: a 3D CT gender analysis in asymptomatic subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mascarenhas, Vasco V.; Gaspar, Augusto [Hospital da Luz, MSK imaging Unit (UIME), Imaging Center, Lisbon (Portugal); Rego, Paulo [Hospital da Luz, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Lisbon (Portugal); Dantas, Pedro [Hospital CUF Descobertas, Lisbon (Portugal); Soldado, Francisco [Universitat de Barcelona, Hospital Sant Joan de Deu, Barcelona (Spain); Consciencia, Jose G. [NOVA Medical School, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2017-05-15

    Our objectives were to use 3D computed tomography (CT) to define head-neck morphologic gender-specific and normative parameters in asymptomatic individuals and use the omega angle (Ω ) to provide quantification data on the location and radial extension of a cam deformity. We prospectively included 350 individuals and evaluated 188 asymptomatic hips that underwent semiautomated CT analysis. Different thresholds of alpha angle (α ) were considered in order to analyze cam morphology and determine Ω . We calculated overall and gender-specific parameters for imaging signs of cam morphology (Ω and circumferential α ). The 95 % reference interval limits were beyond abnormal thresholds found in the literature for cam morphology. Specifically, α at 3/1 oclock were 46.9 /60.8 overall, 51.8 /65.4 for men and 45.7 /55.3 for women. Cam prevalence, magnitude, location, and epicenter were significantly gender different. Increasing α correlated with higher Ω , meaning that higher angles correspond to larger cam deformities. Hip morphometry measurements in this cohort of asymptomatic individuals extended beyond current thresholds used for the clinical diagnosis of cam deformity, and α was found to vary both by gender and measurement location. These results suggest that α measurement is insufficient for the diagnosis of cam deformity. Enhanced morphometric evaluation, including 3D imaging and Ω , may enable a more accurate diagnosis. (orig.)

  2. Enthesitis in patients with psoriatic arthritis, axial spondyloarthritis and healthy subjects assessed by ‘head-to-toe’ whole-body MRI and clinical examination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poggenborg, René Panduro; Eshed, Iris; Østergaard, Mikkel

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the ability of whole-body MRI (WBMRI) to detect axial and peripheral enthesitis in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA), and in healthy subjects (HS). Furthermore, to develop MRI enthesitis indices based on WBMRI and validate...... and patient global (ρ=0.29-0.31, pimaging modality for evaluation of enthesitis in patients with PsA and axSpA, but requires further investigation before clinical use....

  3. Characterizing the Vertical Distribution of Hydraulic Conductivity Using the Multilevel Slug Test Subject to Skin Effects: Comparison of the Uniform-head and Uniform-flux Wellbore Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    wei-Chiang, C.; Chen, C. S.

    2016-12-01

    The multilevel slug test (MLST) is an in-well technique in characterizing the vertical distribution of hydraulic conductivity K(z) in granular or fractured formations. In modeling MLST, the well screen is either simulated as a uniform-flux (UF) or a uniform head (UH) condition. This study investigates the impact of the skin effect, positive or negative, on the UH and UF models. The positive skin effect, as associated with a reduced hydraulic conductivity surrounding the well due to drilling mud invasion, is taken into account by making use of a skin factor, Sk.The negative skin effect, as associated with an increased hydraulic conductivity due to overdeveloping of the well, is modeled by using an effective well radius, re, which is greater than or equal to the well radius, rw. The UF and UH models are compared using different values of Sk and re for a variety of the partial penetration ratio of screen length to aquifer thickness, φ, the vertical anisotropy ratio of hydraulic conductivity, κ, and the aspect ratio of rw to the screen length, α. It is found that (1) the two models yield results of negligible difference when the well fully penetrates the aquifer (i.e., φ=1) regardless of the values of α,κ, Sk or re, (2) the two models yield essentially the same results for negative skin for all α and κ, (3) the difference between the two models decreases as Sk gets larger, regardless of the values of α, φ, or κ, yet it becomes negligible for Sk is greater than unity, and (4) when the skin effect is absent, the maximum difference between the two models is within 3-5%. As a result, it is suggested the UF model be used since it is mathematically easier to solve than the UH model, with or without skin effects.

  4. ANÁLISIS DEL DESEMPEÑO DEL LENGUAJE EN SUJETOS CON DEMENCIA TIPO ALZHEIMER (DTA Analysis of the language performance in subjects with Alzheimer type dementia (ATD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Malagón M

    2005-01-01

    features of alzheimer disease are essentially: memory deficits and changes in language, behavior, attention and loss of visuospatial skills. Objetive: to make a descriptive analysis of the performance in language skills in 23 Alzheimer disease subjects. Methods: subjects were included if: meet Alzheimer disease criteria; right handed; a minimal of five years of formal school and were able to complete the language tests. We dichotomize the group in mild and moderate according to global deterioration scale (GDS and clinical dementia rating (CDR classification. The performance in the subtests of language of the Minimal Mental State Examination (MMSE, denomination, semantic and phonological fluency was compared between groups. The linguistic deterioration was analyzed in both steps of DTA. Results: in the mild stadium, light deficits are demonstrated in all the tests. Nevertheless dominium with poorer performance were phonological and semantic fluency. In moderate state differences in performance were observed. Tasks on denomination, and semantic and phonological fluency had the poorer performance. Conclusion: language is a compromised neuropsychological dominium in Alzheimer disease. Our results reflect a progressive deterioration of linguistic skills, noted in a wide range of frequency between the mild and the moderated level of dementia and suggests a similar profile of deterioration in mild and moderate levels but with different patterns in specific tasks.

  5. Head First Python

    CERN Document Server

    Barry, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Ever wished you could learn Python from a book? Head First Python is a complete learning experience for Python that helps you learn the language through a unique method that goes beyond syntax and how-to manuals, helping you understand how to be a great Python programmer. You'll quickly learn the language's fundamentals, then move onto persistence, exception handling, web development, SQLite, data wrangling, and Google App Engine. You'll also learn how to write mobile apps for Android, all thanks to the power that Python gives you. We think your time is too valuable to waste struggling with

  6. Brain correlates of constituent structure in sign language comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Antonio; Limousin, Fanny; Dehaene, Stanislas; Pallier, Christophe

    2017-11-21

    During sentence processing, areas of the left superior temporal sulcus, inferior frontal gyrus and left basal ganglia exhibit a systematic increase in brain activity as a function of constituent size, suggesting their involvement in the computation of syntactic and semantic structures. Here, we asked whether these areas play a universal role in language and therefore contribute to the processing of non-spoken sign language. Congenitally deaf adults who acquired French sign language as a first language and written French as a second language were scanned while watching sequences of signs in which the size of syntactic constituents was manipulated. An effect of constituent size was found in the basal ganglia, including the head of the caudate and the putamen. A smaller effect was also detected in temporal and frontal regions previously shown to be sensitive to constituent size in written language in hearing French subjects (Pallier et al., 2011). When the deaf participants read sentences versus word lists, the same network of language areas was observed. While reading and sign language processing yielded identical effects of linguistic structure in the basal ganglia, the effect of structure was stronger in all cortical language areas for written language relative to sign language. Furthermore, cortical activity was partially modulated by age of acquisition and reading proficiency. Our results stress the important role of the basal ganglia, within the language network, in the representation of the constituent structure of language, regardless of the input modality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Head Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ATV) Safety Balance Disorders Knowing Your Child's Medical History First Aid: Falls First Aid: Head Injuries Preventing Children's Sports Injuries Getting Help: Know the Numbers Concussions Stay ...

  8. Relações entre processamento fonológico e linguagem escrita nos sujeitos com distúrbio específico de linguagem Relations between phonological processing and written language in subjects with specific language impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paola Nicolielo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: verificar a ocorrência de alterações nas habilidades da linguagem escrita e nas habilidades do PF em criança com DEL; comparar o desempenho entre crianças com DEL e com DTL quanto às diferentes habilidades do PF; verificar se há associação entre as habilidades do Processamento Fonológico e as de linguagem escrita em crianças com DEL. MÉTODO: 40 sujeitos, sendo 20 com diagnóstico de DEL (GE e 20 com DTL (GC com idades entre 7 e 10 anos de ambos os sexos. Para avaliação das habilidades do PF foram aplicados os seguintes procedimentos: prova de repetição de não palavras para avaliação da Memória de Trabalho Fonológica, Teste de Nomeação Automatizada Rápida para avaliação do Acesso Lexical e Perfil de Habilidades Fonológicas para avaliação da Consciência Fonológica. A escrita e a leitura foram avaliadas por meio dos subtestes presentes no Teste de Análise de Leitura e Escrita (ditado e escrita espontânea; leitura de texto e de compreensão de texto, respectivamente. Para analise estatística foi utilizado o teste Qui Quadrado, sendo adotado nível de significância estatística PURPOSE: to check the occurrence of alterations in language skills and writing skills of Phonological Processing (PP in children with SLI, compare the performance between children with SLI and Typical Language Development on the different abilities of PP; check for association between PP and skills of written language in children with SLI. METHOD: 40 subjects, 20 with SLI (EG and 20 with TLD (CG aged between 7 and 10 year old for both genders. To assess the abilities of PP we applied the following tests: proof of non word repetitions to assess phonological working memory (PWM, Rapid Automated Naming test (RAN for evaluating Lexical Access (LA and Phonological Abilities Profile for assessing phonological awareness (PA. Writing and reading were evaluated using the subtests present in Test for Análising Reading and Writing Skills

  9. Superior temporal gyrus, language function, and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigler, Erin D; Mortensen, Sherstin; Neeley, E Shannon; Ozonoff, Sally; Krasny, Lori; Johnson, Michael; Lu, Jeffrey; Provencal, Sherri L; McMahon, William; Lainhart, Janet E

    2007-01-01

    Deficits in language are a core feature of autism. The superior temporal gyrus (STG) is involved in auditory processing, including language, but also has been implicated as a critical structure in social cognition. It was hypothesized that subjects with autism would display different size-function relationships between the STG and intellectual-language-based abilities when compared to controls. Intellectual ability was assessed by either the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III) or Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III), where three intellectual quotients (IQ) were computed: verbal (VIQ), performance (PIQ), and full-scale (FSIQ). Language ability was assessed by the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Third Edition (CELF-3), also divided into three index scores: receptive, expressive, and total. Seven to 19-year-old rigorously diagnosed subjects with autism (n = 30) were compared to controls (n = 39; 13 of whom had a deficit in reading) of similar age who were matched on education, PIQ, and head circumference. STG volumes were computed based on 1.5 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). IQ and CELF-3 performance were highly interrelated regardless of whether subjects had autism or were controls. Both IQ and CELF-3 ability were positively correlated with STG in controls, but a different pattern was observed in subjects with autism. In controls, left STG gray matter was significantly (r = .42, p receptive language on the CELF-3; in contrast, a zero order correlation was found with autism. When plotted by age, potential differences in growth trajectories related to language development associated with STG were observed between controls and those subjects with autism. Taken together, these findings suggest a possible failure in left hemisphere lateralization of language function involving the STG in autism.

  10. Examining Effects of Poverty, Maternal Depression, and Children's Self-Regulation Abilities on the Development of Language and Cognition in Early Childhood: An Early Head Start Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkins, Kimberly A.; Leger, Sarah E.; Ernest, James M.

    2017-01-01

    Early childhood poverty is a prevalent social issue, both in the United States and in the wider international community. It has been well established that factors associated with poverty, including familial income and parental education level, can negatively affect children's language and cognitive development, which can result in academic…

  11. Buffering Boys and Boosting Girls: The Protective and Promotive Effects of Early Head Start for Children's Expressive Language in the Context of Parenting Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallotton, C. D.; Harewood, T.; Ayoub, C. A.; Pan, B.; Mastergeorge, A. M.; Brophy-Herb, H.

    2012-01-01

    Children's characteristics, including gender, influence their development by eliciting differential responses from their environments, and by influencing differential responses to their environments. Parenting-related stress, associated with poverty environments, negatively influences children's language, likely through its impact on parent-child…

  12. Exploration of How Spanish and English Noneliciting Questions Affect the Novel Vocabulary Acquisition of Hispanic Dual Language Learners Enrolled in Head Start

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Bridget A.; Rose, Katherine Kensinger; Sanchez, Claudia; Burnham, Melissa M.

    2012-01-01

    Novel word learning in the context of shared storybook reading has been primarily investigated with monolingual children, while experiments with Hispanic dual language learners (DLLs) are less prevalent. This exploratory study investigated the extratextual stylistic behaviors of storybook reading that promote novel word learning in DLL…

  13. Head Lice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1044-1047. Canyon, DV, Speare R, et al . “Spatial and kinetic factors for the transfer of head ... for children. Natural products can give parents false sense of safety If using a natural product or ...

  14. French MeSH Browser: a cross-language tool to access MEDLINE/PubMed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirion, Benoit; Pereira, Susanne; Névéol, Aurélie; Dahamna, Badisse; Darmoni, Stéfan

    2007-10-11

    When searching the medical literature, health professionals and lay people strongly prefer to use their native language. Therefore, Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) translations would be helpful to those who are not fluent in English to access scientific papers indexed in the MEDLINE bibliographic database. Furthermore, medical terminologies such as MeSH are challenging in any language. In this context, a French MeSH Browser was developed.

  15. Head First Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, Dawn

    2009-01-01

    Wouldn't it be great if there were a statistics book that made histograms, probability distributions, and chi square analysis more enjoyable than going to the dentist? Head First Statistics brings this typically dry subject to life, teaching you everything you want and need to know about statistics through engaging, interactive, and thought-provoking material, full of puzzles, stories, quizzes, visual aids, and real-world examples. Whether you're a student, a professional, or just curious about statistical analysis, Head First's brain-friendly formula helps you get a firm grasp of statistics

  16. Shyness-Anxiousness and Receptive Language Skills Development in Spanish- and English-Speaking Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Paul S.; Pula, Kacy; Parks, Craig D.; Cerna, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    The present study utilized a short-term longitudinal research design to model the relationship between shyness-anxiousness and receptive language skills. Hypotheses regarding the direction of the causal relationship, mediation, and moderation were evaluated. Subjects included 340 Head Start attendees from primarily English- and Spanish-speaking…

  17. Matching Medline/PubMed data with Web of Science: a routine in R language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rotolo, D.; Leydesdorff, L.

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel routine, namely medlineR, based on the R language, that allows the user to match data from Medline/PubMed with records indexed in the ISI Web of Science (WoS) database. The matching allows exploiting the rich and controlled vocabulary of medical subject headings (MeSH) of

  18. The Role of Language Dominance in Cross-Linguistic Syntactic Influence: A Korean Child's Use of Null Subjects in Attriting English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sang-Gu

    2013-01-01

    While Hulk and Muller (2000) predict that the direction of cross-linguistic syntactic influence is unidirectional when the construction involves syntax-pragmatics interface and surface overlap between two languages, they explicitly rule out language dominance as a factor involved. This study questions their latter claim and argues that the syntax…

  19. Cerebral and cerebellar language organization in a right-handed subject with a left temporal porencephalic cyst : An fMRI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Coninck, Mattias; Van Hecke, Wim; Crols, Roe; van Dun, Kim; Van Dam, Debby; De Deyn, Peter P.; Brysbaert, Marc; Marien, Peter

    To test the hypothesis of crossed cerebro-cerebellar language dominance (Marien, Engelborghs, Fabbro, & De Deyn, 2001) in atypical populations, the pattern of cerebral and cerebellar language organization in a right-handed woman with a large porencephalic cyst in the left temporal lobe with no

  20. Head first C#

    CERN Document Server

    Stellman, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    You want to learn C# programming, but you're not sure you want to suffer through another tedious technical book. You're in luck: Head First C# introduces this language in a fun, visual way. You'll quickly learn everything from creating your first program to learning sophisticated coding skills with C# 4.0, Visual Studio 2010 and .NET 4, while avoiding common errors that frustrate many students. The second edition offers several hands-on labs along the way to help you build and test programs using skills you've learned up to that point. In the final lab, you'll put everything together. From o

  1. Head first C#

    CERN Document Server

    Stellman, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Head First C# is a complete learning experience for object-oriented programming, C#, and the Visual Studio IDE. Built for your brain, this book covers C# 3.0 and Visual Studio 2008, and teaches everything from language fundamentals to advanced topics including garbage collection, extension methods, and double-buffered animation. You'll also master C#'s hottest and newest syntax, LINQ, for querying SQL databases, .NET collections, and XML documents. By the time you're through, you'll be a proficient C# programmer, designing and coding large-scale applications. Every few chapters you will come

  2. The Lozanov Language Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancroft, W. Jane

    In Sofia, Bulgaria, at the Institute of Suggestology headed by Dr. Georgi Lozanov, yoga relaxation has been combined with the Mauger oral method to produce a unique system of foreign language teaching: Suggestopedia. In a pleasant classroom, 12 students sit in specail chairs in front of a teacher individually trained in the foreign language and in…

  3. THE СREATIVE TASKS DURING THE PRACTICAL SESSIONS OF LITERARY SUBJECTS AS THE MEANS OF DEVELOPMENT OF CREATIVITY OF FUTURE LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoria Shcherbatiuk

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The author of the article analyzes the methodology of using a number of creative tasks for working with students of Philology Department during the practical sessions of literary subjects. The tasks are focused on designing the creative qualities of future language and literature teachers: imagination, inspiration, initiative, noncommonality, extraordinary nature, his/her own point of view. At present, the students perceive the learning process as something fixed, which necessarily must be studied and passed. They will not think critically, as long as the teacher does not create creative atmosphere to facilitate the active involvement of students into the learning process. And one should allow them to freely speculate, dream up. Each person has the potential of skills, and the tasks of modern teacher are developing these skills and managing the process of the development. Therefore, the main purpose of organization of practical session is to be able to encounter the students’ intellectual forces, to cause them to work, to create a favorable pedagogical environment for their formation and simultaneously to shape the identity of a young person, his/her outlook. Organizing the practical training one should find a way to students’ minds and doesn`t give them ready knowledge but to ensure them to acquire knowledge themselves trying to search, establish dependences, and patterns. They should be engaged in creative dialogue with cultural texts and nourish their own personal position. The problem of creativity is complex and multifaceted. Since ancient times it has been in the scholars’ and philosophers’ field of view (Plato, Aristotle, Hegel, Pestalozzi, etc.. Basic issues of a creative individual are disclosed in the works by A. Luk, Ia. Ponomarev, A. Matiushkin, P. Enhelmeier, V. Moliako, O. Amatev, E. Belkina, A. Bohush, N. Vetluhina, N. Havrish, O. Dronova and others. However, the growing relevance and educational significance of this issue

  4. Language Literacy in Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeideh Ahangari

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the ways in which the transfer of assumptions from first language (L1 writing can help the process of writing in second language (L2. In learning second language writing skills, learners have two primary sources from which they construct a second language system: knowledge and skills from first language and input from second language. To investigate the relative impact of first language literacy skills on second language writing ability, 60 EFL students from Tabriz Islamic Azad University were chosen as participants of this study, based on their language proficiency scores. The subjects were given two topics to write about: the experimental group subjects were asked to write in Persian and then translate their writing into English. The control group wrote in English. The results obtained in this study indicate that the content and vocabulary components of the compositions were mostly affected by the use of first language.

  5. Give Your Child a Head Start = Dele a Su Hijo la Ventaja Educativa Inicial de Head Start.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC. Head Start Bureau.

    This pamphlet, in English- and Spanish-language versions, offers information to parents on the functioning and benefits of Head Start, a federal program for preschool children from low-income families. The pamphlet's sections answer the following questions: (1) "What Is Head Start?" (2) "What Can the Head Start Program Offer to Your…

  6. Primeira língua e constituição do sujeito: uma transformação social/First language and constitution of the subject: a social transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia Balieiro Lodi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute a importância da língua de sinais como primeira língua (L1 para surdos e para o ensino-aprendizagem da língua majoritária como segunda (L2, focalizando, em particular, sujeitos que tiveram acesso tardio a língua de sinais. Tendo como base uma pesquisa realizada por uma das autoras, verificou-se o desconhecimento de sujeitos surdos quanto à diferença existente entre a língua brasileira de sinais (LIBRAS e a língua portuguesa, embora todos fossem usuários da primeira. Concluiu-se que há a necessidade de que movimentos sejam realizados para que uma real transformação dos sujeitos possa ser empreendida, principalmente no que se refere ao reconhecimento da LIBRAS em seu valor social, pois se este processo não for realizado, aos surdos cabe, apenas, a submissão ao português, na medida em que esta língua continua a ocupar um papel sócio-ideológico central na constituição dos processos lingüísticos e da subjetividade desses sujeitos. Esta mudança só poderá ocorrer se uma transformação nas relações estabelecidas por estes sujeitos nas diversas esferas sociais for objetivada. Desse modo, a LIBRAS poderá assumir o lugar de L1 dos sujeitos, independente do período de vida em que ela for desenvolvida, determinando uma transformação quanto aos lugares assumidos pelos surdos na sociedade. This article discusses the importance of sign language as the first language (L1 for deaf people and the teaching-learning of the dominant language as the second (L2, focusing in particular on subjects that had delayed access to Sign Language. Having as its foundation a research made by one of the authors, deaf subjects’ lack of knowledge was pointed as regards the difference between the Brazilian Sign Language (LIBRAS and the Portuguese language, although all were users of the first one. One concluded that there is a need to take measures so that a real transformation of these subjects can be undertaken, mainly

  7. Second language acquisition after traumatic brain injury: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Połczyńska-Fiszer, M; Mazaux, J M

    2008-01-01

    Post-traumatic language and memory impairment, as well as a subsequent recovery in monolinguals have been widely documented in the literature, yet little is known about learning the second language after a severe head trauma followed by coma, as well as the relationship of this process with cognitive recovery, psychological status and quality of life. The present study investigates the relationship of learning the second language (English) in the process of rehabilitation, with quality of life in a Polish female university student who, as a result of a car accident, suffered a major closed-head injury and was comatose for a month. The subject was enrolled in an English learning program nine months after the trauma. The experiment lasted six months and comprised monthly meetings. The patient improved the major components of the second language, including vocabulary. Within the 6 months, the subject was gradually capable of learning additional and more complex lexical items. Learning the second language after traumatic brain injury may positively influence emotional well-being, self-esteem, and, perhaps, recovery of quality of life. A long-term beneficial effect of learning L2 was a consequential improvement of the patient's memory.

  8. Integrating Language, Pragmatics, and Social Intervention in a Single-Subject Case Study of a Child with a Developmental Social Communication Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Catherine; Gaile, Jacqueline; Lockton, Elaine; Freed, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This clinical focus article presents an illustration of a complex communication intervention, the Social Communication Intervention Programme (SCIP), as delivered to a child who has a social communication disorder (SCD). The SCIP intervention combined language processing and pragmatic and social understanding therapies in a program of…

  9. Comparing the Internet Usage of Pre-Service Language Teachers with Teachers of Other Subjects: Distance Learning vs. On-Campus Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firat, Mehmet; Serpil, Harun

    2017-01-01

    Teachers play a crucial role in helping individuals gain adequate Internet competency, which requires teachers themselves to be Internet-literate. The purpose of this study is to investigate the Internet use of the distance and on-campus pre-service teachers of language and other disciplines by multiple parameters. A total of 789 teacher…

  10. The Effects of Verb Argument Complexity on Verb Production in Persons with Aphasia: Evidence from a Subject-Object-Verb Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Jee Eun

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of verb argument complexity on verb production in individuals with aphasia using a verb-final language. The verb-argument complexity was examined by the number of arguments (1-, 2-, and 3-place) and the types of arguments (unaccusative vs. unergative comparisons). Fifteen Korean-speaking…

  11. The impact of verb form, sentence position, home language and proficiency on subject-verb agreement in child L2 Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, E.; Baayen, H.R.

    2013-01-01

    It has been argued that children learning a second language (L2) omit agreement inflection because of communication demands. The conclusion of these studies is that L2 children know the morphological and syntactic properties of agreement inflection, but sometimes insert an inflectional default form

  12. Is HEADS in our heads?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boisen, Kirsten A; Hertz, Pernille Grarup; Blix, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Outpatient clinic visits are a window of opportunity to address health risk behaviors and promote a healthier lifestyle among young people. The HEADS (Home, Education, Eating, Activities, Drugs [i.e. substance use including tobacco, alcohol, and illegal drugs], Sexuality [including...... contraception], Safety, Self-harm) interview is a feasible way of exploring health risk behaviors and resilience. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate how often HEADS topics were addressed according to young patients and staff in pediatric and adult outpatient clinics. METHODS: We conducted...... care professionals participated. We found only small reported differences between staff and young patients regarding whether home, education, and activity were addressed. However, staff reported twice the rate of addressing smoking, alcohol, illegal drugs, sexuality, and contraception compared to young...

  13. Estilo-subjetividade: o tema da criação nos estudos da psicologia da linguagem Style-subjectivity: the theme of creation in the psychology of language studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Tedesco

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho localiza-se no campo de estudos da Psicologia da Linguagem e objetiva discutir a natureza do elo, tradicionalmente afirmado, entre linguagem e subjetividade. Distante da visão tradicional, defensora da natureza representacionalista do elo, o texto propõe reconhecê-lo nos procedimentos estilísticos, pelos quais ambos os termos exercem sua natureza mais íntima, esclarecida no processo de criação contínua de si e de mundos.This paper on psychology of language has the purpose to discuss the nature of the bond, traditionally acclaimed, between language and subjectivity. Far from the traditional view, which defends the representational nature of this bond, the text proposes to recognize it in the stylistics procedures, by which both terms exert its innermost nature, elucidated by the continuous process of creation of worlds and itself.

  14. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the Head? What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT scanning of the head is typically ...

  15. Effectiveness of Language Intervention with the Language/Learning Disabled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, Chad; And Others

    1987-01-01

    A total of 43 studies, involving 1,703 subjects with a mean age of 6:11, were analyzed to assess the effectiveness of language intervention with language/learning disabled children. Results suggested that the average language-disordered child moved from the 50th percentile to the 85th as a result of language intervention. (Author/JDD)

  16. Identidades, sujeitos e línguas indígenas: “entre o corte do excesso e o semear da falta”/Identities, subject and indigenous languages:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adria Simone Duarte de Souza

    2008-06-01

    case, discuss how are organizated the practices’school in the natives communities of the border who don’t speak one language only, but more than five languages, including the indigenous languages of the other neighboring countries. What to do if all these realities are subject to “reductionist model” by law of the bilingual native school education.

  17. Towards a definition of SUBJECT in binding domains and subject ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Towards a definition of SUBJECT in binding domains and subject-oriented anaphors 27 and it holds little explanatory value. At best, EPP ensures that the highest argument will move to subject position. The final property I will discuss here is the fact that, in some languages (e.g. Icelandic and. Dutch), there is a subset of ...

  18. Amplitudes of head movements during putative eye-only saccades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oommen, Brian S; Stahl, John S

    2005-12-14

    The mechanisms allowing humans and other primates to dissociate head and eye movements during saccades are poorly understood. A more precise knowledge of head movement behavior during apparent eye-only saccades may provide insight into those mechanisms. We studied the distributions of head amplitude in normal humans. In half of the subjects, these distributions indicated the presence of a population of minor ("residual") head movements during eye-only saccades, distinct from the continuum of head movements generated during frank eye-head saccades. Like full-sized head movements, the residual movements grew in proportion to target eccentricity, indicating their drive is derived from the premotor command for the saccade. Furthermore, their amplitudes related most strongly to the head amplitudes obtained when subjects produced full-sized head movements and were reduced when subjects were instructed to perform exclusively eye-only saccades. Both observations suggest that the drive for residual head movements originates downstream of the point in which the head movement command diverges from the generalized gaze shift command. The results are consistent with a model of head control in which a neural gate prevents the common gaze shift command from reaching the head premotor circuitry whenever an eye-only saccade is desired. However, the gate is either imperfect or the multiple pathways that relay gaze shift signals to the head motor circuitry allow for the gate to be circumvented. The results underscore the need for physiological studies to probe neuronal activity related to neck activation during eye-only saccades.

  19. Head Impact Laboratory (HIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The HIL uses testing devices to evaluate vehicle interior energy attenuating (EA) technologies for mitigating head injuries resulting from head impacts during mine/...

  20. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Head Computed tomography (CT) of the head uses special x-ray ... Head? What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT ...

  1. Systematic analysis of head-to-head gene organization: evolutionary conservation and potential biological relevance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Yuan Li

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Several "head-to-head" (or "bidirectional" gene pairs have been studied in individual experiments, but genome-wide analysis of this gene organization, especially in terms of transcriptional correlation and functional association, is still insufficient. We conducted a systematic investigation of head-to-head gene organization focusing on structural features, evolutionary conservation, expression correlation and functional association. Of the present 1,262, 1,071, and 491 head-to-head pairs identified in human, mouse, and rat genomes, respectively, pairs with 1- to 400-base pair distance between transcription start sites form the majority (62.36%, 64.15%, and 55.19% for human, mouse, and rat,respectively of each dataset, and the largest group is always the one with a transcription start site distance of 101 to 200 base pairs. The phylogenetic analysis among Fugu, chicken, and human indicates a negative selection on the separation of head-to-head genes across vertebrate evolution, and thus the ancestral existence of this gene organization. The expression analysis shows that most of the human head-to-head genes are significantly correlated,and the correlation could be positive, negative, or alternative depending on the experimental conditions. Finally, head to-head genes statistically tend to perform similar functions, and gene pairs associated with the significant cofunctions seem to have stronger expression correlations. The findings indicate that the head-to-head gene organization is ancient and conserved, which subjects functionally related genes to correlated transcriptional regulation and thus provides an exquisite mechanism of transcriptional regulation based on gene organization. These results have significantly expanded the knowledge about head-to-head gene organization. Supplementary materials for this study are available at http://www.scbit.org/h2h.

  2. Head movement is an artefact of optimal solutions to linearization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... a child acquiring the language to infer the original syntactic information from the signal and the system would become unlearnable. Linearization is the strategy of choosing an optimal ordering and head movement is a logical response to an optimization puzzle. Keywords: Linearization, head movement, optimality, LCA, ...

  3. Reversible multi-head finite automata characterize reversible logarithmic space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsen, Holger Bock

    2012-01-01

    Deterministic and non-deterministic multi-head finite automata are known to characterize the deterministic and non- deterministic logarithmic space complexity classes, respectively. Recently, Morita introduced reversible multi-head finite automata (RMFAs), and posed the question of whether RMFAs...... characterize reversible logarithmic space as well. Here, we resolve the question affirmatively, by exhibiting a clean RMFA simulation of logarithmic space reversible Turing machines. Indirectly, this also proves that reversible and deterministic multi-head finite automata recognize the same languages....

  4. Host language, integration language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José dos Reis Grosso

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available With the development of language research within the Council of Europe and in a context of a stronger multilingual and multicultural Europe, we are witnessing the emergence of terms that are imposed by the frequency of their usage or that (recreate and set re-interpreted concepts according to new social and educational situations. Such is the case of the host language, a concept which is object of analysis in this paper. The relevance of the issue is preceded by other issues related to concepts like native language, second language and foreign language, already comprised in Applied Linguistics and the Teaching of Modern Languages. Nowadays, the indispensability of studying these concepts is fundamental to the pedagogic practice as well as to the language syllabus and its planning. This idea is totally supported by the proposal of the "Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching Assessment (CEFR", which provides the appropriate guidelines at the discourse level.

  5. Interrogative constructions in Danish Sign Language (DSL)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Julie

    question words can vary, though they usually appear sentence finally. The nonmanual signals include specific facial expressions, head posture and mouthing. Some of the features are shared with other sign languages. Furthermore, although it has not been investigated in detail it seems that the nonmanual...... to the understanding of the linguistic variation and similarities existing not only among sign languages but among languages in general....... of languages and the theoretical conclusions about how language works have primarily been based on studies of spoken languages. I believe that the study of DSL can provide additional and valuable insight into the possible structures of human language. Furthermore, this study will contribute...

  6. 34 CFR 300.10 - Core academic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.10 Core academic subjects. Core academic subjects means English, reading or language arts, mathematics, science, foreign languages, civics and government...

  7. Two ways of constructing the reader`s subject position: a discursive analysis of the newspaper language of the newspapers Diário Catarinense and Hora de Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Braga

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We analyze, based on French Discourse Analysis, how the newspapers Diário Catarinense and Hora de Santa Catarina produce different reader`s subject positions. This research is justified by the fact that both newspapers are products of the same media company. The starting point was the hypothesis that there would be in the market two types of readers, thus the two products do not compete with each other, but they would complement each other in the coverage of a reading area. Reading here is treated as a process of production of sense effects. The work is based on Orlandi`s thinking about the conception of reading, as well as in the distinction between real and virtual reader. We do also present the clues included in the statements which inferences are essential to apprehend the said and the unsaid which, by means of a comparative analysis, was used to understand the production of different reader’s subject position. The analysis points out that the newspapers DC and Hora present similar characteristics in regard to the process of transmitting information, howevereach newspaper interrelates with its target public in a different way through the use of language and in the manner of production of news. It leads to the construction of different positions of these readers in relation to the information which is transmitted, because, making use of uttering strategies, these newspapers ideologically mark the readers of DC as being more lettered than the ones of Hora.

  8. Tolerance of the Head and Neck to -Gx Inertial Loading of the Head

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-09

    cervical muscles reduced the inci- dence of "concussion" symptons produced in this animal, Collars on monkeys subjected to flexion producing occipital...muscles reduced the incidence of "concussion" symptoms produced in this animal. Collars on monkeys subjected to flexion producing occipital impacts, were...4 In a repeat run to determine what caused the losA of un- consciousness in Run 133, Stapp, with head held down to aviod amplification of head

  9. Head injury - first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000028.htm Head injury - first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... a concussion can range from mild to severe. First Aid Learning to recognize a serious head injury and ...

  10. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the head is typically used to detect: bleeding, brain injury and skull fractures in patients with head injuries. ... hard time staying still, are claustrophobic or have chronic pain, you may find a CT exam to ...

  11. Head and face reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002980.htm Head and face reconstruction To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Head and face reconstruction is surgery to repair or reshape deformities ...

  12. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the limitations of CT Scanning of the Head? What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, ... than regular radiographs (x-rays). top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT ...

  13. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer Others American Stroke Association National Stroke Association ... Computer Tomography (CT) Safety During Pregnancy Head and Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine ...

  14. Newborn head molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newborn cranial deformation; Molding of the newborn's head; Neonatal care - head molding ... The bones of a newborn baby's skull are soft and flexible, with gaps between the plates of bone. The spaces between the bony plates of ...

  15. Porcine head response to blast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay eShridharani

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown an increase in the frequency of traumatic brain injuries related to blast exposure. However, the mechanisms that cause blast neurotrauma are unknown. Blast neurotrauma research using computational models has been one method to elucidate that response of the brain in blast, and to identify possible mechanical correlates of injury. However, model validation against experimental data is required to ensure that the model output is representative of in vivo biomechanical response. This study exposed porcine subjects to primary blast overpressures generated using a compressed-gas shock tube. Shock tube blasts were directed to the unprotected head of each animal while the lungs and thorax were protected using ballistic protective vests similar to those employed in theater. The test conditions ranged from 110-740 kPa peak incident overpressure with scaled durations from 1.3-6.9 ms and correspond approximately with a 50% injury risk for brain bleeding and apnea in a ferret model scaled to porcine exposure. The bulk head acceleration and the pressure at the surface of the head and in the cranial cavity were measured. Immediately after the blast, 5 of the 20 animals tested were apneic. Three subjects recovered without intervention within thirty seconds and the remaining two recovered within 8 minutes following bagging and administration of the respiratory stimulant doxapram. Gross examination of the brain revealed no indication of bleeding. Intracranial pressures ranged from 80-685 kPa as a result of the blast and were notably lower than the shock tube reflected pressures of 300-2830 kPa, indicating pressure attenuation by the skull up to a factor of 8.4. Peak head accelerations were measured from 385-3845 G’s and were well correlated with peak incident overpressure (R2=0.90. One standard deviation corridors for the surface pressure, intracranial pressure, and head acceleration are presented to provide experimental data for

  16. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... limitations of CT Scanning of the Head? What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a ... top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT scanning of the head is ...

  17. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Computed tomography (CT) of the head uses special x-ray equipment to help assess head injuries, severe headaches, dizziness, and other symptoms of ... content. Related Articles and Media Radiation Dose in X-Ray and CT ... Perfusion of the Head CT Angiography (CTA) Stroke Brain Tumors Computer Tomography ( ...

  18. Vestibulopathy and age effects on head stability during chair rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGibbon, C A; Krebs, D E; Scarborough, D M

    2001-01-01

    It is unknown how vestibular dysfunction and age differentially affect balance control during functional activities. The objective of this study was to gain insight into the effects of age and vestibulopathy on head control when rising from a chair. Head relative to trunk (head-on-trunk) sagittal plane angular and linear control strategies were studied in patients with bilateral vestibular hypofunction (BVH) and in healthy subjects aged 30-80 years. A two-way analysis of variance was used to compare head-on-trunk kinematics by age (young vs elderly) and diagnosis (healthy vs BVH) at the time of liftoff from the seat. Angular control strategies differed with age but not diagnosis: young (healthy and BVH) subjects stabilized head rotations in space while elderly (healthy and BVH) subjects stabilized head rotations on the trunk. In contrast, linear control strategies differed by diagnosis but not age: BVH subjects (young and old) allowed a greater rate of head-on-trunk translation while healthy subjects (young and old) inhibited such translations. Young BVH subjects stabilized head-in-space rotations (as did young healthy subjects) without a functioning vestibular system, suggesting cervicocollic reflex and/or other sensory compensation for vestibular loss. Elderly BVH subjects stabilized head rotation with respect to the trunk, as did healthy elders, but did not stabilize head-on-trunk translations, suggesting a reliance on passive mechanical responses of the neck to sense head movements. We conclude that compensation strategies used by patients with vestibulopathy are age-dependent and appear to be more tractable in the younger BVH patient.

  19. Interpretation and comprehension of linguistic humour by adolescents with head injury: a group analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docking, K; Murdoch, B E; Jordan, F M

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the ability of adolescents with a head injury to interpret and comprehend linguistic humour. Nine adolescents with head injury aged between 12 years 1 month and 15 years 4 months, and nine individually matched adolescents aged between 12 years 1 month and 16 years 1 month were administered a humour test, a standard language battery, the CELF-3, and the Self-Esteem Index. The test of humour abilities required each subject to recognize and select an explanation from a group of three, as to what made each item funny. Items were based on morphological, semantic and syntactic humour elements. Comparison at a group level demonstrated that adolescents with head injury performed significantly poorer in the interpretation and comprehension of linguistic humour than a group of individually matched peers. Contrary to expectations, a relationship between the level of self-esteem and humour comprehension did not exist. The findings of the present study suggest that further research into the effects of head injury on linguistic humour in adolescents is warranted, particularly from a case-by-case perspective.

  20. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head ... limitations of MRI of the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is ...

  1. Effects of translation and performance on memory of words of Sign Language as a second language

    OpenAIRE

    松見, 法男

    2004-01-01

    An experiment was designed to investigate the effects of translation and performance on memory of words of Sign Language as a second language. An intermediate class of Sign Language learners, whose first language was Japanese, was required to carried out four tasks : translating from Japanese word into Sign Language word, oral reading of Japanese word, translating from Sign Language word into Japanese word, and performing (expressing) of Sign Language word. The subjects were then asked unexpe...

  2. Eye-Head Coordination for Visual Cognitive Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yu; Nakashima, Ryoichi; Matsumiya, Kazumichi; Kuriki, Ichiro; Shioiri, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    We investigated coordinated movements between the eyes and head (“eye-head coordination”) in relation to vision for action. Several studies have measured eye and head movements during a single gaze shift, focusing on the mechanisms of motor control during eye-head coordination. However, in everyday life, gaze shifts occur sequentially and are accompanied by movements of the head and body. Under such conditions, visual cognitive processing influences eye movements and might also influence eye-head coordination because sequential gaze shifts include cycles of visual processing (fixation) and data acquisition (gaze shifts). In the present study, we examined how the eyes and head move in coordination during visual search in a large visual field. Subjects moved their eyes, head, and body without restriction inside a 360° visual display system. We found patterns of eye-head coordination that differed those observed in single gaze-shift studies. First, we frequently observed multiple saccades during one continuous head movement, and the contribution of head movement to gaze shifts increased as the number of saccades increased. This relationship between head movements and sequential gaze shifts suggests eye-head coordination over several saccade-fixation sequences; this could be related to cognitive processing because saccade-fixation cycles are the result of visual cognitive processing. Second, distribution bias of eye position during gaze fixation was highly correlated with head orientation. The distribution peak of eye position was biased in the same direction as head orientation. This influence of head orientation suggests that eye-head coordination is involved in gaze fixation, when the visual system processes retinal information. This further supports the role of eye-head coordination in visual cognitive processing. PMID:25799510

  3. The Language for Learning project: Developing language-sensitive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Language for Learning project is an initiative in the Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal which aims to help secondary school subject teachers to take account of language and learning. It operates in schools with varied patterns of intake and in a range of secondary school subjects. Teachers involved conduct small-scale ...

  4. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool to understa...

  5. Variations in the Presentation of Aphasia in Patients with Closed Head Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Kavanagh, Dara Oliver; Lynam, Conor; Düerk, Thorsten; Casey, Mary; Eustace, Paul W.

    2010-01-01

    Impairments of speech and language are important consequences of head injury as they compromise interaction between the patient and others. A large spectrum of communication deficits can occur. There are few reports in the literature of aphasia following closed head injury despite the common presentation of closed head injury. Herein we report two cases of closed head injuries with differing forms of aphasia. We discuss their management and rehabilitation and present a detailed literature rev...

  6. Language matters: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leap, William L; Provencher, Denis M

    2011-01-01

    That language and sexuality are closely connected is one of the enduring themes in human sexuality research. The articles in this special issue of the Journal of Homosexuality explore some of these language-centered insights as they apply to same-sex related desires, identities, and practices and to other dimensions of non-normative sexual experiences. The articles address language use over a range of geographic and social locations. The linguistic practices discussed are diverse, including the language associated with Santería, comments viewers make about gay pornography, homophobic discourse, coming out stories, stories where declarations of sexual identity are tacitly withheld, sexual messages in Black hip hop culture, assessments of urban AIDS ministries, and policies that limit transgender subjects' access to urban space. Taken together, these articles demonstrate that language matters in the everyday experience of sexual sameness and they model some of the approaches that are now being explored in language and sexuality studies.

  7. Relevance of Subject Descriptions in an Online Public Access Catalogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Klemen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose:  The aim of the article is to identify the relevance of subject headings in the online library catalogue (OPAC and to verify the hypothesis that the database structure and the search language is more in favour of natural and technology sciences researchers than to researchers in the field of humanities.    Methodology/approach:  The study was held in a controlled environment. It took place between autumn 2009 and spring 2010. 13 undergraduate and 7 graduate students of chemistry and psychology participated. A stratified sample was used. Data were collected by the system log. We also recorded the entire screen imageand sound. Participants also answered a survey questionnaire. Content analysis was carried out. Linking of the identified categories and the theoretical framework of the research context followed.  Results:  The survey results showed no significant difference between the information seekers of the scientific fields considered. However, they showed the importance of the user's knowledge of information systems and the availability of resources. A lack of confidence in these results, the strong influence of internet search engine Google, and the lack of awareness on the existence of subject headings were identified. Consequently, it was impossible to test the hypothesis.   Research limitation:  Unrepresentative sampling, inability to generalize the findings.

  8. Head Injuries in Soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrick, Karen M

    2016-07-01

    Soccer is currently the most popular and fastest growing sport worldwide, with approximately 265 million registered soccer players existing around the world. The popularity of the sport, coupled with the high incidence of 18.8-21.5 head injuries per 1,000 player hours reported, make it essential that clinicians, coaches, and the athletes, have a solid understanding of head injuries. The successful rehabilitation of athletes with head injuries relies upon early and accurate identification strategies and implementation of appropriate return to play measures across all areas in the continuum of care. Soccer is a frequently played sport, and head injuries are common. Therefore, it is imperative that clinicians, coaches, and the athletes themselves have a solid understanding of head injury prevention, diagnosis, and treatment options. The purpose of this article was to provide rehabilitation nurses with current information regarding frequently occurring head injuries in the widespread sport of soccer. © 2015 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.

  9. Head and Neck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, Liselotte; Berthelsen, Anne Kiil; Loft, Annika

    2014-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography with FDG of the head and neck region is mainly used for the diagnosis of head and neck cancer, for staging, treatment evaluation, relapse, and planning of surgery and radio therapy. This article is a practical guide of imaging techniques......, including a detailed protocol for FDG PET in head and neck imaging, physiologic findings, and pitfalls in selected case stories....

  10. Probing the mechanism of saccade-associated head movements through observations of head movement propensity and cognition in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thumser, Zachary C; Adams, Nancy L; Lerner, Alan J; Stahl, John S

    2010-05-01

    Humans may accomplish gaze shifts by eye-only saccades or combined eye-head saccades. The mechanisms that determine whether the head moves remain poorly understood. Many observations can be explained if phylogenetically ancient circuits generate eye-head saccades by default and frontal cerebral structures interrupt this synergy when eye-only saccades are preferable. Saccade-associated head movements have been reported to increase in the elderly. To test the hypothesis of frontal inhibition of head movements, we investigated whether the increase is associated with a decline in frontal cognitive function. We measured head movement tendencies and cognition in volunteers aged 61-80. Measures of head movement tendency included the customary range of eye eccentricity, customary range of head eccentricity, range of target eccentricities evoking predominantly eye-only saccades, and two measures of head amplitude variation as a function of target eccentricity. Cognitive measures encompassed verbal fluency, verbal memory, non-verbal memory, and executive function. There was no correlation between cognition and any measure of head movement tendency. We combined these elderly data with measurements of head movements in a group aged 21-67 and found mildly reduced, not increased, head movement tendencies with age. However, when confronted with a task that could be accomplished without moving the head, young subjects were more likely to cease all head movements. While inconclusive regarding the hypothesis of inhibition of saccade-associated head movements by cerebral structures, the results indicate the need to distinguish between mechanisms that define head movement tendencies and mechanisms that adapt head motion to the geometry of a specific task.

  11. Head-to-toe whole-body MRI in psoriatic arthritis, axial spondyloarthritis and healthy subjects: first steps towards global inflammation and damage scores of peripheral and axial joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggenborg, René Panduro; Pedersen, Susanne Juhl; Eshed, Iris; Sørensen, Inge Juul; Møller, Jakob M; Madsen, Ole Rintek; Thomsen, Henrik S; Østergaard, Mikkel

    2015-06-01

    By whole-body MRI (WBMRI), we aimed to examine the frequency and distribution of inflammatory and structural lesions in PsA patients, SpA patients and healthy subjects (HSs), to introduce global WBMRI inflammation/damage scores, and to assess WBMRI's reproducibility and correlation with conventional MRI (convMRI). WBMRI (3.0-T) of patients with peripheral PsA (n = 18) or axial SpA (n = 18) and of HS (n = 12) was examined for proportion of evaluable features (readability) and the presence and pattern of lesions in axial and peripheral joints. Furthermore, global WBMRI scores of inflammation and structural damage were constructed, and WBMRI findings were compared with clinical measures and convMRI (SpA/HS: spine and SI joints; PsA/HS: hand). The readability (92-100%) and reproducibility (intrareader intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.62-1.0) were high in spine/SI joint, but lower in the distal peripheral joints. Wrists, shoulders, knees, ankles and MTP joints were most commonly involved, with frequency of synovitis > bone marrow oedema (BMO) > erosion. WBMRI global BMO scores of peripheral and axial joints were higher in PsA {median 7 [interquartile range (IQR) 3-15]} and SpA [8 (IQR 2-14)] than in HSs [2.5 (IQR 1-4.5)], both P joint scores were ρ = 0.20-0.78. WBMRI allows simultaneous assessment of peripheral and axial joints in PsA and SpA, and the distribution of inflammatory and structural lesions and global scores can be determined. The study strongly encourages further development and longitudinal testing of WBMRI techniques and assessment methods in PsA and SpA. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Identity, Language Learning, and Social Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Bonny; Toohey, Kelleen

    2011-01-01

    In this review article on identity, language learning, and social change, we argue that contemporary poststructuralist theories of language, identity, and power offer new perspectives on language learning and teaching, and have been of considerable interest in our field. We first review poststructuralist theories of language, subjectivity, and…

  13. Teaching Language in Context. Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derewianka, Beverly; Jones, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    Language is at the heart of the learning process. We learn through language. Our knowledge about the world is constructed in language-the worlds of home and the community, the worlds of school subjects, the worlds of literature, the worlds of the workplace, and so on. It is through language that we interact with others and build our identities.…

  14. Amenager la langue francaise (French Language Planning).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbeil, Jean-Claude

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of French language planning focuses on two different roles: official, cherished language of France and international language subject to outside influence. Three areas of concern are discussed: borrowing from English; lexical variation outside France; and influence of computer science on language, particularly the use of spell-checking…

  15. AFRREV LALIGENS: An International Journal of Language ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LALIGENS is a peer-reviewed journal by International Association of African Researchers and Reviewers (IAARR). It is published three times a year. Three topical issues are to be addressed by this journal – language, literature and gender with the following sub-headings among others: the relationship between language ...

  16. Reframing Teachers' Language Knowledge through Metaphor Analysis of Language Portraits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Simon

    2015-01-01

    As theoretical developments in applied linguistics challenge the dominant mentalist framing of cognition as knowledge residing in the head, new ways of understanding and recording teachers' and students' engagement with languages are needed. Structural and competence-based formats for measuring proficiency posit an incremental model of learning as…

  17. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Computed tomography (CT) of the head uses special x-ray equipment to help assess head injuries, severe headaches, ... is a diagnostic medical test that, like traditional x-rays, produces multiple images or pictures of the inside ...

  18. Head Injuries in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    School nurses play a crucial role in injury prevention and initial treatment when injuries occur at school. The role of school nurses includes being knowledgeable about the management of head injuries, including assessment and initial treatment. The school nurse must be familiar with the outcomes of a head injury and know when further evaluation…

  19. Abnormal Head Position

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... non-ocular causes of an abnormal head position? Congenital shortening of the neck muscles (sternocleidomastoid) can cause a head tilt. This is ... amblyopia) are other treatment alternatives. Physical therapy helps congenital torticollis from tight neck muscles. Updated ... Terms & Conditions Most Common ...

  20. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the limitations of CT Scanning of the Head? What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT scan, is a diagnostic medical test that, like traditional x-rays, produces multiple images or pictures of the inside of ...

  1. Head Start in Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Clara M. D.; Epps, Frances M. J.

    Records and observations from a summer Head Start program, conducted in Los Angeles by Delta Sigma Theta, are delineated in this book. It relates firsthand experiences of the participating personnel as they developed and implemented a Head Start program for some 300 children. The book is divided into three sections. Section I,…

  2. Porcine head response to blast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shridharani, Jay K; Wood, Garrett W; Panzer, Matthew B; Capehart, Bruce P; Nyein, Michelle K; Radovitzky, Raul A; Bass, Cameron R 'dale'

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown an increase in the frequency of traumatic brain injuries related to blast exposure. However, the mechanisms that cause blast neurotrauma are unknown. Blast neurotrauma research using computational models has been one method to elucidate that response of the brain in blast, and to identify possible mechanical correlates of injury. However, model validation against experimental data is required to ensure that the model output is representative of in vivo biomechanical response. This study exposes porcine subjects to primary blast overpressures generated using a compressed-gas shock tube. Shock tube blasts were directed to the unprotected head of each animal while the lungs and thorax were protected using ballistic protective vests similar to those employed in theater. The test conditions ranged from 110 to 740 kPa peak incident overpressure with scaled durations from 1.3 to 6.9 ms and correspond approximately with a 50% injury risk for brain bleeding and apnea in a ferret model scaled to porcine exposure. Instrumentation was placed on the porcine head to measure bulk acceleration, pressure at the surface of the head, and pressure inside the cranial cavity. Immediately after the blast, 5 of the 20 animals tested were apneic. Three subjects recovered without intervention within 30 s and the remaining two recovered within 8 min following respiratory assistance and administration of the respiratory stimulant doxapram. Gross examination of the brain revealed no indication of bleeding. Intracranial pressures ranged from 80 to 390 kPa as a result of the blast and were notably lower than the shock tube reflected pressures of 300-2830 kPa, indicating pressure attenuation by the skull up to a factor of 8.4. Peak head accelerations were measured from 385 to 3845 G's and were well correlated with peak incident overpressure (R(2) = 0.90). One SD corridors for the surface pressure, intracranial pressure (ICP), and head acceleration are

  3. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subject Index. Variation of surface electric field during geomagnetic disturbed period at Maitri, Antarctica. 1721. Geomorphology. A simple depression-filling method for raster and irregular elevation datasets. 1653. Decision Support System integrated with Geographic. Information System to target restoration actions in water-.

  4. On the subject-predicate relation and subject agreement in SiSwati ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper also argues that subject agreement is a purely syntactic phenomenon that takes place in a spec-head relationship. It proposes that subject agreement is triggered by verbs, and that multiple subject agreement within a clause occurs when auxiliary verbs iterate. The theoretical consequences of the analysis ...

  5. Fusing a Transformation Language with an Open Compiler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalleberg, K.T.; Visser, E.

    2007-01-01

    Program transformation systems provide powerful analysis and transformation frameworks as well as concise languages for language processing, but instantiating them for every subject language is an arduous task, most often resulting in halfcompleted frontends. Compilers provide mature frontends with

  6. Integrating inquiry science and language development for English language learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddart, Trish; Pinal, America; Latzke, Marcia; Canaday, Dana

    2002-10-01

    The traditional approach to the education of language minority students separates English language development from content instruction because it is assumed that English language proficiency is a prerequisite for subject matter learning. The authors of this article take the alternate view that the integration of inquiry science and language acquisition enhances learning in both domains. The report describes a conceptual framework for science-language integration and the development of a five-level rubric to assess teachers' understanding of curricular integration. The science-language integration rubric describes the growth of teacher expertise as a continuum from a view of science and language as discreet unrelated domains to the recognition of the superordinate processes that create a synergistic relationship between inquiry science and language development. Examples from teacher interviews are used to illustrate teacher thinking at each level.

  7. Driving with head-slaved camera system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oving, A.B.; Erp, J.B.F. van

    2001-01-01

    In a field experiment, we tested the effectiveness of a head-slaved camera system for driving an armoured vehicle under armour. This system consists of a helmet-mounted display (HMD), a headtracker, and a motion platform with two cameras. Subjects performed several driving tasks on paved and in

  8. COMMON LANGUAGE VERSUS SPECIALIZED LANGUAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Coancă

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the presentation of the common language and the specialized one. We also highlighted the relations and the differences between them. The specialized language is a vector of specialized knowledge, but sometimes it contains units from the common language. The common language is unmarked and it is based on the daily non-specialized exchange. The specialized languages are different from the common languages, regarding their usage and the information they convey. The communic...

  9. Subject to Form: Research Interviews, Performative Subjectivity, Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarigianides, Sophia Tatiana

    2010-01-01

    In this dissertation, I analyze teacher, literacy coach and researcher subjectivities in a five-year study of on-site professional development with middle-grade Language Arts teachers in a school designated by its district and state as severely underperforming. Interested in the role of research interviews as both research method and cultural…

  10. 1 CFR 21.19 - Composition of part headings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Composition of part headings. 21.19 Section 21.19 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PREPARATION, TRANSMITTAL, AND PROCESSING OF DOCUMENTS PREPARATION OF DOCUMENTS SUBJECT TO CODIFICATION General Headings § 21.19 Composition...

  11. Learning people's names following severe closed-head injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milders, M.V.

    Although problems remembering people's names rank highly among the subjective complaints of patients with closed-head injuries, very few studies have examined their memory for people's names by objective measurements. An experiment is reported in which patients with severe closed-head injuries and

  12. Parental determinants of offspring head circumference using a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The baby's head circumference was measured immediately after birth. The data were subjected to multivariate analysis. Results: The parental variables that were most predictive of babies' head circumference were mid-parental weight, maternal height, maternal weight gain during pregnancy and maternal age. Conclusion: ...

  13. Language and Recursion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenthal, Francis

    2010-11-01

    This paper examines whether the recursive structure imbedded in some exercises used in the Non Verbal Communication Device (NVCD) approach is actually the factor that enables this approach to favor language acquisition and reacquisition in the case of children with cerebral lesions. For that a definition of the principle of recursion as it is used by logicians is presented. The two opposing approaches to the problem of language development are explained. For many authors such as Chomsky [1] the faculty of language is innate. This is known as the Standard Theory; the other researchers in this field, e.g. Bates and Elman [2], claim that language is entirely constructed by the young child: they thus speak of Language Acquisition. It is also shown that in both cases, a version of the principle of recursion is relevant for human language. The NVCD approach is defined and the results obtained in the domain of language while using this approach are presented: young subjects using this approach acquire a richer language structure or re-acquire such a structure in the case of cerebral lesions. Finally it is shown that exercises used in this framework imply the manipulation of recursive structures leading to regular grammars. It is thus hypothesized that language development could be favored using recursive structures with the young child. It could also be the case that the NVCD like exercises used with children lead to the elaboration of a regular language, as defined by Chomsky [3], which could be sufficient for language development but would not require full recursion. This double claim could reconcile Chomsky's approach with psychological observations made by adherents of the Language Acquisition approach, if it is confirmed by researches combining the use of NVCDs, psychometric methods and the use of Neural Networks. This paper thus suggests that a research group oriented towards this problematic should be organized.

  14. WWC Quick Review of the Article "Promoting Academic and Social-Emotional School Readiness: The Head Start REDI Program"

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether the Head Start Research-based Developmentally Informed (REDI) program is more effective than the standard Head Start program at improving the language, emergent literacy, and social-emotional skills of preschoolers. Head Start centers in three Pennsylvania counties were randomly assigned either to use the REDI program…

  15. Baseline head in Olkiluoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahokas, H.; Tammisto, E.; Lehtimaeki, T. (Poeyry Environment Oy, Vantaa (Finland))

    2008-11-15

    As part of the programme for the final disposal of the spent nuclear fuel, Posiva Oy investigates the prevailing hydrological conditions on Olkiluoto island. The hydrological investigations have included several kinds of hydrological tests such as measurements of hydraulic conductivity by flow logging and a double-packer tool as well as interference tests by pumping, in order to study the hydraulic connections between the drillholes. In addition, long-term monitoring of groundwater level and groundwater head as well as measurements of flow conditions in open drillholes, groundwater salinity (in situ EC), precipitation (including snow), sea-water level, surface flow (runoff) etc. have been part of the investigation programme aiming at the characterization of the bedrock. The data have been used in the compilation of deterministic hydro-zones and hydraulic properties for numerical flow modelling to study the flow pattern on Olkiluoto island. In addition, the compiled bedrock models have been used in the planning of the repository layout and in the analyses of the transport of radionuclides and the functionality of engineered barriers. This report focuses on the measurements of groundwater head by means of multi-packers and in connection with flow loggings. The determination of the undisturbed groundwater head (baseline head) in terms of the in situ fresh water head is the main goal of this report. The density of groundwater is strongly dependent on salinity and due to the saline groundwater deep in the bedrock in Olkiluoto the term fresh water head is used instead of hydraulic head. Taking the density of groundwater into account, the gradient of the residual pressure, which actually causes groundwater flow can be calculated. The measured and calculated heads are converted into corresponding in situ fresh water heads, which correspond to the water level (metres above sea level) in the hose that runs from the packed-off section to the ground surface. This means that

  16. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the limitations of MRI of the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive ... top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? MR imaging of the head is ...

  17. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MRI of the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? MR imaging of the head is performed ...

  18. Ulnar head replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Timothy J; van Schoonhoven, Joerg

    2007-03-01

    Recent years have seen an increasing awareness of the anatomical and biomechanical significance of the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ). With this has come a more critical approach to surgical management of DRUJ disorders and a realization that all forms of "excision arthroplasty" can only restore forearm rotation at the expense of forearm stability. This, in turn, has led to renewed interest in prosthetic replacement of the ulnar head, a procedure that had previously fallen into disrepute because of material failures with early implants, in particular, the Swanson silicone ulnar head replacement. In response to these early failures, a new prosthesis was developed in the early 1990s, using materials designed to withstand the loads across the DRUJ associated with normal functional use of the upper limb. Released onto the market in 1995 (Herbert ulnar head prosthesis), clinical experience during the last 10 years has shown that this prosthesis is able to restore forearm function after ulnar head excision and that the materials (ceramic head and noncemented titanium stem), even with normal use of the limb, are showing no signs of failure in the medium to long term. As experience with the use of an ulnar head prosthesis grows, so does its acceptance as a viable and attractive alternative to more traditional operations, such as the Darrach and Sauve-Kapandji procedures. This article discusses the current indications and contraindications for ulnar head replacement and details the surgical procedure, rehabilitation, and likely outcomes.

  19. Language Awareness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    White, Lana; Maylath, J. Bruce; Adams, Anthony; Couzijn, Michel

    2000-01-01

    Language Awareness: A History and Implementations offers teachers of mother tongue and foreign languages a view of the beginnings and the ramifications of the language-teaching movement called Language Awareness. The philosophy held in common among the teachers in this international movement is

  20. Base Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekhar, A.

    1978-01-01

    A brief discussion of the role of contrastive linguistics and transformational generative grammar in studying transfer and interference in language learning. The base language is not necessarily the mother tongue. It is the language known by the learner which most closely resembles the new language being learned. (AMH)

  1. Grammatical awareness in the spoken and written language of language-disabled children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, H; Kantor, M; Macnab, J

    1990-12-01

    Experiments examined grammatical judgement, and error-identification deficits in relation to expressive language skills and to morphemic errors in writing. Language-disabled subjects did not differ from language-matched controls on judgement, revision, or error identification. Age-matched controls represented more morphemes in elicited writing than either of the other groups, which were equivalent. However, in spontaneous writing, language-disabled subjects made more frequent morphemic errors than age-matched controls, but language-matched subjects did not differ from either group. Proficiency relative to academic experience and oral language status and to remedial implications are discussed.

  2. Language dominance assessment in a bilingual population: validity of fMRI in the second language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centeno, Maria; Koepp, Matthias J; Vollmar, Christian; Stretton, Jason; Sidhu, Meneka; Michallef, Caroline; Symms, Mark R; Thompson, Pamela J; Duncan, John S

    2014-10-01

    Assessment of language dominance using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a standard tool to estimate the risk of language function decline after epilepsy surgery. Although there has been considerable research in the characterization of language networks in bilingual individuals; little is known about the clinical usefulness of language mapping in a secondary language in patients with epilepsy, and how language lateralization assessed by fMRI may differ by the use of native or a secondary language paradigms. In this study we investigate language representation in a population of nonnative English speakers to assess differences in fMRI language lateralization between the first (native) and second language (English). Sixteen nonnative English-speaking patients with focal drug-resistant epilepsy underwent language fMRI in their first (native) language (L1) and in English (L2). Differences between language maps using L1 and L2 paradigms were examined at the single subject level by comparing within-subject lateralization indexes obtained for each language. Differences at the group level were examined for each of the tasks and languages. Group maps for the second language (English) showed overlapping areas of activation with the native language, but with larger clusters, and more bilaterally distributed than for the first language. However, at the individual level, lateralization indexes were concordant between the two languages, except for one patient with bilateral hippocampal sclerosis who was left dominant in English and showed bilateral dominance for verb generation and right dominance for verbal fluency in his native tongue. Language lateralization can generally be reliably derived from fMRI tasks in a second language provided that the subject can follow the task. Subjects with greater likelihood of atypical language representation should be evaluated more carefully, using more than one language paradigm. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 International

  3. Subject-verb number (disagreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Isac

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses cases of number mismatches between subjects and verbs. The main proposal is that subject-verb agreement is not in number but in a different feature, that we call Cardinality. Cardinality is a feature of DPs that is computed on the basis of number features and collectivity features carried by various heads in the DP. The “computation” of the Cardinality feature proceeds internal to the feature matrix of one lexical item - the D. The values of the number and collectivity features carried by various heads in the DP are transferred to the D by means of a feature checking mechanism and the value of the Cardinality feature is then derived from these.

  4. The Subject Headings of the Morris Swett Library, USAFAS. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-15

    Sparrow) S7 (Sparrow I) S71 (Sparrow II) S72 (Sparrow III) S73 ( Sprint ) S78 (Talos-W) T2 (Terrier) T3 (Terrier iB) T31 (TOW) (Typhoon) T9 (XSSM-A-1... VOLLEYBALL (GV 1017) VOLTAGE DIVIDERS VOLTOHMETER (TK 7879.2) VOLTURNO, BATTLE OF THE, 1943 (D 763.161 V7) VOLUNTEERS, MILITARY (UB 323) VOODOOISM

  5. Generating Language Activities in Real-Time for English Learners Using Language Muse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstein, Jill; Madnani, Nitin; Sabatini, John; McCaffrey, Dan; Biggers, Kietha; Dreier, Kelsey

    2017-01-01

    K-12 education standards in the U.S. require all students to read complex texts across many subject areas. The "Language Muse™ Activity Palette" is a web-based language-instruction application that uses NLP algorithms and lexical resources to automatically generate language activities and support English language learners' content…

  6. Approaching Pedagogical Language Knowledge through Student Teachers: Assessment of Second Language Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalto, Eija; Tarnanen, Mirja

    2015-01-01

    The article examines student teachers' pedagogical language knowledge. The analysis is based on data from an applied task in which Finnish student teachers (n = 221) of 16 school subjects assessed second language (SL) learners' writing skills. First, we briefly discuss subject teachers' role in language and literacy teaching in the multilingual…

  7. Variation in Subject Pronominal Expression in L2 Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoshi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates subject pronominal expression in second language Chinese and compares learner usage with patterns found in their first language. The results show that (a) overt pronouns are used more for singular, +animate subjects than plural, -animate ones; (b) switch in subject surface form favors overt pronouns; (c) English and Russian…

  8. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you! Do you have a personal story about radiology? Share your patient story here Images × Image Gallery ... Pregnancy Head and Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety Images related to ...

  9. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tomography (CT) Safety During Pregnancy Head and Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear ... or other physician. To locate a medical imaging or radiation oncology provider in your community, you can search the ...

  10. Overview of Head Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... brain. If the head injury is very severe, mechanical ventilation may be used. Doctors control blood pressure and minimize the amount of brain swelling by adjusting the amount of intravenous fluids given and sometimes by giving intravenous drugs that ...

  11. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... headaches, dizziness, and other symptoms of aneurysm, bleeding, stroke and brain tumors. It also helps your doctor ... scanning provides more detailed information on head injuries, stroke , brain tumors and other brain diseases than regular ...

  12. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be necessary. Your doctor will explain the exact reason why another exam is requested. Sometimes a follow- ... limitations of CT Scanning of the Head? A person who is very large may not fit into ...

  13. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... medically necessary because of potential risk to the baby. This risk is, however, minimal with head CT ... intravenous contrast indicate mothers should not breastfeed their babies for 24-48 hours after contrast medium is ...

  14. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... assess head injuries, severe headaches, dizziness, and other symptoms of aneurysm, bleeding, stroke and brain tumors. It ... within the brain shortly after a patient exhibits symptoms of a stroke. a stroke, especially with a ...

  15. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... scans in children should always be done with low-dose technique. top of page What are the ... page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and ...

  16. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... this tunnel. Rotating around you, the x-ray tube and electronic x-ray detectors are located opposite ... medically necessary because of potential risk to the baby. This risk is, however, minimal with head CT ...

  17. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... microphone. top of page How does the procedure work? In many ways CT scanning works very much ... head CT scanning. Manufacturers of intravenous contrast indicate mothers should not breastfeed their babies for 24-48 ...

  18. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... special x-ray equipment to help assess head injuries, severe headaches, dizziness, and other symptoms of aneurysm, ... cancer. In emergency cases, it can reveal internal injuries and bleeding quickly enough to help save lives. ...

  19. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... traditional x-rays, particularly of soft tissues and blood vessels. CT scanning provides more detailed information on head injuries, stroke , brain tumors and other brain diseases than regular radiographs (x-rays). top of page ...

  20. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... used to detect: bleeding, brain injury and skull fractures in patients with head injuries. bleeding caused by ... a few seconds, and even faster in small children. Such speed is beneficial for all patients but ...

  1. TCGA head Neck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Investigators with The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network have discovered genomic differences – with potentially important clinical implications – in head and neck cancers caused by infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV).

  2. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... microphone. top of page How does the procedure work? In many ways CT scanning works very much ... for Head and Neck Cancer Others American Stroke Association National Stroke Association top of page This page ...

  3. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... images of internal organs, bones, soft tissue and blood vessels provide greater detail than traditional x-rays, particularly of soft tissues and blood vessels. CT scanning provides more detailed information on head ...

  4. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sometimes compared to looking into a loaf of bread by cutting the loaf into thin slices. When ... for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer Others American Stroke Association National Stroke Association ...

  5. Early Head Start Evaluation

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Longitudinal information from an evaluation where children were randomly assigned to Early Head Start or community services as usual;direct assessments and...

  6. Head Start Impact Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Nationally representative, longitudinal information from an evaluation where children were randomly assigned to Head Start or community services as usual;direct...

  7. Head CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be: Stored Viewed on a monitor Printed on film Three-dimensional models of the head area can ... when you have certain other signs or symptoms Hearing loss (in some people) Symptoms of damage to ...

  8. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and other symptoms of aneurysm, bleeding, stroke and brain tumors. It also helps your doctor to evaluate your ... provides more detailed information on head injuries, stroke , brain tumors and other brain diseases than regular radiographs (x- ...

  9. Head and Neck Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... increase the risk of head and neck cancer. Environmental or occupational inhalants. Inhaling asbestos, wood dust, paint ... from the American Society of Clinical Oncology. Review dictionary articles to help understand medical phrases and terms ...

  10. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... used to detect: bleeding, brain injury and skull fractures in patients with head injuries. bleeding caused by ... are present in the paranasal sinuses. plan radiation therapy for cancer of the brain or other tissues. ...

  11. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... used to detect: bleeding, brain injury and skull fractures in patients with head injuries. bleeding caused by ... is also performed to: evaluate the extent of bone and soft tissue damage in patients with facial ...

  12. Professional Language in Language Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zascerinska, Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. The use of 3-5 languages where professional language is one of them is of the greatest importance in order to form varied cooperative networks for the creation of new knowledge. The Aim of the Study. To identify and analyze professional language on the pedagogical discourse in language education. Materials and Methods. The search for…

  13. A scheme for training effective English Second Language medium of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effective second language medium of instruction refers to an instructional approach that differs from that of regular, first language content instruction or a language across the curriculum approach. This approach uses language teaching strategies in subjects other than the formal language classes, to promote both ...

  14. Comprehension of Subject and Object Relative Clauses in a Trilingual Acquisition Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Chan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Chinese relative clauses (RCs have word order properties that are distinctly rare across languages of the world; such properties provide a good testing ground to tease apart predictions regarding the relative complexity of subject and object RCs in acquisition and processing. This study considers these special word order properties in a multilingual acquisition context, examining how Cantonese(L1-English(L2-Mandarin(L3 trilingual children process RCs in two Chinese languages differing in exposure conditions. Studying in an English immersion international school, these trilinguals are also under intensive exposure to English. Comparisons of the trilinguals with their monolingual counterparts are made with a focus on the directionality of cross-linguistic influence. The study considers how various factors such as language exposure, structural overlaps in the target languages, typological distance, and language dominance can account for the linguistic abilities and vulnerabilities exhibited by a group of children in a trilingual acquisition context. Twenty-one trilingual 5- to 6-year-olds completed tests of subject- and object- RC comprehension in all three languages. Twenty-four age-matched Cantonese monolinguals and 24 age-matched Mandarin monolinguals served as comparison groups. Despite limited exposure to Mandarin, the trilinguals performed comparable to the monolinguals. Their Cantonese performance uniquely predicts their Mandarin performance, suggesting positive transfer from L1 Cantonese to L3 Mandarin. In Cantonese, however, despite extensive exposure from birth, the trilinguals comprehended object RCs significantly worse than the monolinguals. Error analyses suggested an English-based head-initial analysis, implying negative transfer from L2 English to L1 Cantonese. Overall, we identified a specific case of bi-directional influence between the first and second/third languages. The trilinguals experience facilitation in processing Mandarin

  15. Comprehension of Subject and Object Relative Clauses in a Trilingual Acquisition Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Angel; Chen, Si; Matthews, Stephen; Yip, Virginia

    2017-01-01

    Chinese relative clauses (RCs) have word order properties that are distinctly rare across languages of the world; such properties provide a good testing ground to tease apart predictions regarding the relative complexity of subject and object RCs in acquisition and processing. This study considers these special word order properties in a multilingual acquisition context, examining how Cantonese(L1)-English(L2)-Mandarin(L3) trilingual children process RCs in two Chinese languages differing in exposure conditions. Studying in an English immersion international school, these trilinguals are also under intensive exposure to English. Comparisons of the trilinguals with their monolingual counterparts are made with a focus on the directionality of cross-linguistic influence. The study considers how various factors such as language exposure, structural overlaps in the target languages, typological distance, and language dominance can account for the linguistic abilities and vulnerabilities exhibited by a group of children in a trilingual acquisition context. Twenty-one trilingual 5- to 6-year-olds completed tests of subject- and object- RC comprehension in all three languages. Twenty-four age-matched Cantonese monolinguals and 24 age-matched Mandarin monolinguals served as comparison groups. Despite limited exposure to Mandarin, the trilinguals performed comparable to the monolinguals. Their Cantonese performance uniquely predicts their Mandarin performance, suggesting positive transfer from L1 Cantonese to L3 Mandarin. In Cantonese, however, despite extensive exposure from birth, the trilinguals comprehended object RCs significantly worse than the monolinguals. Error analyses suggested an English-based head-initial analysis, implying negative transfer from L2 English to L1 Cantonese. Overall, we identified a specific case of bi-directional influence between the first and second/third languages. The trilinguals experience facilitation in processing Mandarin RCs, because

  16. Comprehension of Subject and Object Relative Clauses in a Trilingual Acquisition Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Angel; Chen, Si; Matthews, Stephen; Yip, Virginia

    2017-01-01

    Chinese relative clauses (RCs) have word order properties that are distinctly rare across languages of the world; such properties provide a good testing ground to tease apart predictions regarding the relative complexity of subject and object RCs in acquisition and processing. This study considers these special word order properties in a multilingual acquisition context, examining how Cantonese(L1)-English(L2)-Mandarin(L3) trilingual children process RCs in two Chinese languages differing in exposure conditions. Studying in an English immersion international school, these trilinguals are also under intensive exposure to English. Comparisons of the trilinguals with their monolingual counterparts are made with a focus on the directionality of cross-linguistic influence. The study considers how various factors such as language exposure, structural overlaps in the target languages, typological distance, and language dominance can account for the linguistic abilities and vulnerabilities exhibited by a group of children in a trilingual acquisition context. Twenty-one trilingual 5- to 6-year-olds completed tests of subject- and object- RC comprehension in all three languages. Twenty-four age-matched Cantonese monolinguals and 24 age-matched Mandarin monolinguals served as comparison groups. Despite limited exposure to Mandarin, the trilinguals performed comparable to the monolinguals. Their Cantonese performance uniquely predicts their Mandarin performance, suggesting positive transfer from L1 Cantonese to L3 Mandarin. In Cantonese, however, despite extensive exposure from birth, the trilinguals comprehended object RCs significantly worse than the monolinguals. Error analyses suggested an English-based head-initial analysis, implying negative transfer from L2 English to L1 Cantonese. Overall, we identified a specific case of bi-directional influence between the first and second/third languages. The trilinguals experience facilitation in processing Mandarin RCs, because

  17. Effects of Soccer Heading on Brain Structure and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ana Carolina; Lasmar, Rodrigo Pace; Caramelli, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Soccer is the most popular sport in the world, with more than 265 million players worldwide, including professional and amateur ones. Soccer is unique in comparison to other sports, as it is the only sport in which participants purposely use their head to hit the ball. Heading is considered as an offensive or defensive move whereby the player’s unprotected head is used to deliberately impact the ball and direct it during play. A soccer player can be subjected to an average of 6–12 incidents of heading the ball per competitive game, where the ball reaches high velocities. Moreover, in practice sessions, heading training, which involves heading the ball repeatedly at low velocities, is common. Although the scientific community, as well as the media, has focused on the effects of concussions in contact sports, the role of subconcussive impacts, as it can occur during heading, has recently gained attention, considering that it may represent an additional mechanism of cumulative brain injury. The purpose of this study is to review the existing literature regarding the effects of soccer heading on brain structure and function. Only in the last years, some investigations have addressed the impact of heading on brain structure, by using neuroimaging techniques. Similarly, there have been some recent studies investigating biochemical markers of brain injury in soccer players. There is evidence of association between heading and abnormal brain structure, but the data are still preliminary. Also, some studies have suggested that subconcussive head impacts, as heading, could cause cognitive impairment, whereas others have not corroborated this finding. Questions persist as to whether or not heading is deleterious to cognitive functioning. Further studies, especially with longitudinal designs, are needed to clarify the clinical significance of heading as a cause of brain injury and to identify risk factors. Such investigations might contribute to the establishment of safety

  18. Effects of soccer heading on brain structure and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Oliveira Rodrigues

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Soccer is the most popular sport in the world, with more than 265 million players worldwide, including professional and amateur ones. Soccer is unique in comparison to other sports, as it is the only sport in which participants purposely use their head to hit the ball. Heading is considered an offensive or defensive move whereby the player’s unprotected head is used to deliberately impact the ball and direct it during play. A soccer player can be subjected to an average of six to twelve incidents of heading the ball per competitive game, where the ball reaches high velocities. Moreover, in practice sessions, heading training, which involves heading the ball repeatedly at low velocities, is common. Although the scientific community, as well as the media, has focused on the effects of concussions in contact sports, the role of subconcussive impacts, as it can occur during heading, has recently gained attention, considering that it may represent an additional mechanism of cumulative brain injury. The purpose of this study is to review the existing literature regarding the effects of soccer heading on brain structure and function. Only in the last years some investigations have addressed the impact of heading on brain structure, by using neuroimaging techniques. Similarly, there have been some recent studies investigating biochemical markers of brain injury in soccer players. There is evidence of association between heading and abnormal brain structure, but the data are still preliminary. Also, some studies have suggested that subconcussive head impacts, as heading, could cause cognitive impairment, whereas others have not corroborated this finding. Questions persist as to whether or not heading is deleterious to cognitive functioning. Further studies, especially with longitudinal designs, are needed to clarify the clinical significance of heading as a cause of brain injury and to identify risk factors. Such investigations might contribute to the

  19. language and identity: a case of igbo language, nigeria igbokwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    time-table, while Igbo language teachers should shun shyness in their discipline, and teach the subject with utmost dedication. Teachers should desist from punishing those children who speak Igbo language in their classroom. •. Students on their own part should have interest in the speaking, reading, writing and study of ...

  20. Second Language Retention: Language Use as a Contributing Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducharme, Daphne A.; Wesche, Marjorie B.; Bourdages, Johanne S.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the effect of the use of French as a second language on the performance of subjects in receptive skills (listening and reading comprehension) and productive skills (speaking and writing). Results establish a link between the use of the language after learning has occurred and the difference between pre- and post-test measures. (Author/VWL)

  1. Coordinates of Human Visual and Inertial Heading Perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Thomas Crane

    Full Text Available Heading estimation involves both inertial and visual cues. Inertial motion is sensed by the labyrinth, somatic sensation by the body, and optic flow by the retina. Because the eye and head are mobile these stimuli are sensed relative to different reference frames and it remains unclear if a perception occurs in a common reference frame. Recent neurophysiologic evidence has suggested the reference frames remain separate even at higher levels of processing but has not addressed the resulting perception. Seven human subjects experienced a 2s, 16 cm/s translation and/or a visual stimulus corresponding with this translation. For each condition 72 stimuli (360° in 5° increments were delivered in random order. After each stimulus the subject identified the perceived heading using a mechanical dial. Some trial blocks included interleaved conditions in which the influence of ±28° of gaze and/or head position were examined. The observations were fit using a two degree-of-freedom population vector decoder (PVD model which considered the relative sensitivity to lateral motion and coordinate system offset. For visual stimuli gaze shifts caused shifts in perceived head estimates in the direction opposite the gaze shift in all subjects. These perceptual shifts averaged 13 ± 2° for eye only gaze shifts and 17 ± 2° for eye-head gaze shifts. This finding indicates visual headings are biased towards retina coordinates. Similar gaze and head direction shifts prior to inertial headings had no significant influence on heading direction. Thus inertial headings are perceived in body-centered coordinates. Combined visual and inertial stimuli yielded intermediate results.

  2. Modelling language

    CERN Document Server

    Cardey, Sylviane

    2013-01-01

    In response to the need for reliable results from natural language processing, this book presents an original way of decomposing a language(s) in a microscopic manner by means of intra/inter‑language norms and divergences, going progressively from languages as systems to the linguistic, mathematical and computational models, which being based on a constructive approach are inherently traceable. Languages are described with their elements aggregating or repelling each other to form viable interrelated micro‑systems. The abstract model, which contrary to the current state of the art works in int

  3. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head ... limitations of MRI of the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is ...

  4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head uses a powerful ... Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical test that ...

  5. The Importance of Properly Compensating for Head Movements During MEG Acquisition Across Different Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Eric; Taulu, Samu

    2017-03-01

    Unlike EEG sensors, which are attached to the head, MEG sensors are located outside the head surface on a fixed external device. Subject head movements during acquisition thus distort the magnetic field distributions measured by the sensors. Previous studies have looked at the effect of head movements, but no study has comprehensively looked at the effect of head movements across age groups, particularly in infants. Using MEG recordings from subjects ranging in age from 3 months through adults, here we first quantify the variability in head position as a function of age group. We then combine these measured head movements with brain activity simulations to determine how head movements bias source localization from sensor magnetic fields measured during movement. We find that large amounts of head movement, especially common in infant age groups, can result in large localization errors. We then show that proper application of head movement compensation techniques can restore localization accuracy to pre-movement levels. We also find that proper noise covariance estimation (e.g., during the baseline period) is important to minimize localization bias following head movement compensation. Our findings suggest that head position measurement during acquisition and compensation during analysis is recommended for researchers working with subject populations or age groups that could have substantial head movements. This is especially important in infant MEG studies.

  6. Actors with Multi-Headed Message Receive Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulzmann, Martin; Lam, Edmund Soon Lee; Van Weert, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The actor model provides high-level concurrency abstractions to coordinate simultaneous computations by message passing. Languages implementing the actor model such as Erlang commonly only support single-headed pattern matching over received messages. We propose and design an extension of Erlang ...

  7. Rethinking Language Education in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maslihatul Umami Umami

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Language education in Indonesia may be discussed by over viewing the nature of the three language categories in the country: Indonesian language, indigenous languages, and foreign languages. From the picture of how the three groups of languages work and function, the problem raised in this paper is based on two fundamental assumptions. Language education in this multilingual and multicultural country is not done on the context of literacy, on the one hand, and it is not yet considered important in comparison with that of the subjects related to basic science and technology, on the other. After reviewing a number of models of bilingual education and comparing them with what has been done in Indonesia, a preferred model will be offered. Finally, it will also be suggested that language education in Indonesia should be associated with literacy development in a wider sense. Furthermore, meanwhile language education should be given an adequate room; language teaching should be based on the functional use of the existing languages in the country and should be done in tandem with the teaching of content since content is delivered through the medium of language.

  8. Beavis and Butt-head: Two More White Males for the Canon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skretta, John

    1997-01-01

    Discusses a high school unit involving the cartoon characters "Beavis" and "Butt-head." Examines how social values and social conflicts affect and mirror language use. Describes Beavis and Butt-head projects, and objections to the unit. Argues that schools must embrace nonprint texts to help students become skilled, literate,…

  9. 76 FR 47078 - Make Inoperative Exemptions; Vehicle Modifications To Accommodate People With Disabilities, Head...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ..., posture vests, body supports, lumbar supports, and specialized head positioning devices devised by..., cerebral palsy, or hydrocephalus and can require specialized alterations or replacement head restraints as..., the agency has examined the nature (e.g., the language and structure of the regulatory text) and...

  10. Visual prosody and speech intelligibility: head movement improves auditory speech perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munhall, K G; Jones, Jeffery A; Callan, Daniel E; Kuratate, Takaaki; Vatikiotis-Bateson, Eric

    2004-02-01

    People naturally move their heads when they speak, and our study shows that this rhythmic head motion conveys linguistic information. Three-dimensional head and face motion and the acoustics of a talker producing Japanese sentences were recorded and analyzed. The head movement correlated strongly with the pitch (fundamental frequency) and amplitude of the talker's voice. In a perception study, Japanese subjects viewed realistic talking-head animations based on these movement recordings in a speech-in-noise task. The animations allowed the head motion to be manipulated without changing other characteristics of the visual or acoustic speech. Subjects correctly identified more syllables when natural head motion was present in the animation than when it was eliminated or distorted. These results suggest that nonverbal gestures such as head movements play a more direct role in the perception of speech than previously known.

  11. O professor intérprete de língua de sinais em sala de aula: ponto de partida para se repensar a relação ensino, sujeito e linguagem/The sign language teacher/interpreter in the classroom: the starting point for a re-evaluation of teaching, subject and language relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Maria de Souza

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho discute a necessária participação educativa do intérprete de língua de sinais em sala de aula. A partir da teoria do Acontecimento Didático sobre o ensino e das idéias de Derrida sobre o ato interpretativo, defende a tese de que tentar estabelecer limites para a atuação do intérprete educacional - na tentativa de fazer com que não se confunda com a figura do/a professor/a em sala de aula - é submeter-se a uma formação discursiva de ensino que o reduz ou ao currículo, ou ao método (técnicas ou a intervenções que consideram tão somente a “capacidade” cognitiva do sujeito. The present paper discusses the necessary educational participation by the sign language interpreter in the classroom. Based on the Didactic Event teaching theory and Derrida´s ideas on the interpretive act, we argue that by setting limits for the educational interpreter’s performance – in an attempt to prevent him/her from being mistaken for a teacher in the classroom –, a discursive position about teaching is adopted, which restricts him/her to the curriculum, to the (technical method or to the interventions that take into account only the cognitive “capacity” of the subject.

  12. Assumptions behind Singapore's Language-in-Education Policy: Implications for Language Planning and Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, L. Quentin

    2009-01-01

    Singapore's officially bilingual education policy, in which the majority of children are schooled through a non-native medium with their "Mother Tongue" (an ethnic heritage language that is not necessarily spoken in the home) as a single school subject only, has resulted in dramatic language shifts in the population and high academic…

  13. Language As Social Event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harste, Jerome C.

    A taxonomy developed for the study of the growth and development of written language from the perspective of social event was tested with a group of 68 children, aged three to six years. The subjects were presented with a wide variety of environmental print messages (road signs, toys, fast food signs, and household products) and were questioned…

  14. Mathematical picture language program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Arthur M; Liu, Zhengwei

    2018-01-02

    We give an overview of our philosophy of pictures in mathematics. We emphasize a bidirectional process between picture language and mathematical concepts: abstraction and simulation. This motivates a program to understand different subjects, using virtual and real mathematical concepts simulated by pictures. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  15. Antifunctionality in language change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seuren, P.A.M.; Hamans, C.

    2010-01-01

    The main thesis of the article is that language change is only partially subject to criteria of functionality and that, as a rule, opposing forces are also at work which often correlate directly with psychological and sociopsychological parameters reflecting themselves in all areas of linguistic

  16. Endangered Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Ken; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Endangered languages, or languages on the verge of becoming extinct, are discussed in relation to the larger process of loss of cultural and intellectual diversity. This article summarizes essays presented at the 1991 Linguistic Society of America symposium, "Endangered Languages and Their Preservation." (11 references) (LB)

  17. Language Two.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulay, Heidi; And Others

    In this course text on second language acquisition, the latest research of Halle and Chomsky, Lenneberg, Hatch, Larsen-Freeman, Dulay and Burt, and Krashen is presented. The text covers such topics as the effects of environment, age, and personality on second language acquisition; the role of the first language; and error analysis. Enough has been…

  18. Pediatric head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulipan, N

    1998-01-01

    Pediatric head injury is a public health problem that exacts a high price from patients, their families and society alike. While much of the brain damage in head-injured patients occurs at the moment of impact, secondary injuries can be prevented by aggressive medical and surgical intervention. Modern imaging devices have simplified the task of diagnosing intracranial injuries. Recent advances in monitoring technology have made it easier to assess the effectiveness of medical therapy. These include intracranial pressure monitoring devices that are accurate and safe, and jugular bulb monitoring which provides a continuous, qualitative measure of cerebral blood flow. The cornerstones of treatment remain hyperventilation and osmotherapy. Despite maximal treatment, however, the mortality and morbidity associated with pediatric head injury remains high. Reduction of this mortality and morbidity will likely depend upon prevention rather than treatment.

  19. Head and Neck Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Shannon; Melin, Alyson; Reilly, Debra

    2017-10-01

    Management of head and neck burns involves acute and intermediate phases. Acutely, the goals are establish a secure airway and treat life-threatening injuries. Then, optimize nutrition, assess extent of the burn, perform local wound care, and provide eye protection. Management depends on the degree of the head and neck burn. Postinjury splinting and rehabilitation are vital to healing. After the acute inflammation has resolved and the scars have matured, reconstruction begins with the goals of restoring both function and aesthetics. Reconstruction ranges from simple scar release, to skin grafting, and possibly free flap reconstruction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Head first Ajax

    CERN Document Server

    Riordan, Rebecca M

    2008-01-01

    Ajax is no longer an experimental approach to website development, but the key to building browser-based applications that form the cornerstone of Web 2.0. Head First Ajax gives you an up-to-date perspective that lets you see exactly what you can do -- and has been done -- with Ajax. With it, you get a highly practical, in-depth, and mature view of what is now a mature development approach. Using the unique and highly effective visual format that has turned Head First titles into runaway bestsellers, this book offers a big picture overview to introduce Ajax, and then explores the use of ind

  1. A Review of Instrumented Equipment to Investigate Head Impacts in Sport

    OpenAIRE

    PATTON, Declan A.

    2016-01-01

    Contact, collision, and combat sports have more head impacts as compared to noncontact sports; therefore, such sports are uniquely suited to the investigation of head impact biomechanics. Recent advances in technology have enabled the development of instrumented equipment, which can estimate the head impact kinematics of human subjects in vivo. Literature pertaining to head impact measurement devices was reviewed and usage, in terms of validation and field studies, of such devices was discuss...

  2. Clinical measurement of compensatory torsional eye movement during head tilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Han Woong; Kim, Ji Hong; Park, Seung Hun; Oh, Sei Yeul

    2017-03-01

    To measure the degree of compensatory torsional eye movement during head tilt using a fundus photography method. We enrolled 55 healthy subjects who were 20-66 years of age. Fundus photographs were obtained in the presumed baseline position and in stepwise head tilt positions to evaluate ocular torsion using a non-mydriatic fundus camera. Horizontal marks on the nose were photographed simultaneously to evaluate head tilt. Images were analysed using Photoshop to measure the degree of ocular torsion and head tilt. A consistent compensatory torsional eye movement was observed in all subjects during head tilt. The degree of compensatory torsional eye movement showed a positive correlation with the angle of head tilt. Ocular torsional disconjugacy was observed during head tilt, with larger excycloductional eye movement than incycloductional eye movement (4.88 ± 2.91° versus 4.50 ± 2.76°, p eye movement was significantly associated with the degree of head tilt (β = 0.191, p eye movement. Considering the availability of fundus photography in clinical ophthalmology practice, the proposed method can be used as a clinical tool to measure compensatory torsional eye movement. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. A survey of functional programming language principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, C. M.

    1986-01-01

    Research in the area of functional programming languages has intensified in the 8 years since John Backus' Turing Award Lecture on the topic was published. The purpose of this paper is to present a survey of the ideas of functional programming languages. The paper assumes the reader is comfortable with mathematics and has knowledge of the basic principles of traditional programming languages, but does not assume any prior knowledge of the ideas of functional languages. A simple functional language is defined and used to illustrate the basic ideas. Topics discussed include the reasons for developing functional languages, methods of expressing concurrency, the algebra of functional programming languages, program transformation techniques, and implementations of functional languages. Existing functional languages are also mentioned. The paper concludes with the author's opinions as to the future of functional languages. An annotated bibliography on the subject is also included.

  4. The Connotations of Language Teacher Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ligang

    2017-01-01

    With the research on the development of learner autonomy in foreign language education, teacher autonomy has become a hot topic in the research of foreign language teacher education. However, it is the most difficult question to define language teacher autonomy and any answer to it is likely to be subjective. On the basis of expounding upon the…

  5. Normative Language Policy: Interface and Interfences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peled, Yael

    2014-01-01

    The emerging interdisciplinary work in language politics and language policy and planning studies demonstrates a rising interest among researchers in the interface between sociolinguistics, political science and philosophy. Much of the resulting cross-disciplinary work, however, tends to focus on the subject matters (politics, language) themselves…

  6. Foreign Languages in the Age of Aquarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippman, Jane Neustein

    1971-01-01

    The role of language instruction in a changing society is scrutinized in this article. Enrollment trends in several subject areas are compared and reasons for the decline in English, mathematics, science, and languages are related to current student attitudes. Instructional objectives of language programs are criticized particularly for their…

  7. A Field Guide for Sign Language Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokoe, William; Kuschel, Rolf

    Field researchers of sign language are the target of this methodological guide. The prospective researcher is briefed on the rationale of sign language study as language study and as distinct from the study of kinesics. Subjects covered include problems of translating, use of interpreters, and ethics. Instruments for obtaining social and language…

  8. OF LANGUAGE EDUCATION POLICY AND CHILD FOREIGN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Foreign language education, particularly in French, has taken root in Kenyan education institutions namely in secondary schools, universities, language schools and in other tertiary institutions. The subject has also, as it is, penetrated the learning system in primary schools in Kenya. However, learning of foreign languages ...

  9. Developmental Asynchrony in the Acquisition of Subject Properties in Child L2 English and Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pladevall-Ballester, Elisabet

    2016-01-01

    Given that L1A of subject properties in non-null subject languages emerges later than that of null subject languages, this study aims at determining to what extent the same pattern of acquisition is observed in early child L2A in bilingual immersion settings where English and Spanish are both source and target languages. Using an elicited oral…

  10. Head and neck position sense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Bridget; McNair, Peter; Taylor, Denise

    2008-01-01

    Traumatic minor cervical strains are common place in high-impact sports (e.g. tackling) and premature degenerative changes have been documented in sports people exposed to recurrent impact trauma (e.g. scrummaging in rugby) or repetitive forces (e.g. Formula 1 racing drivers, jockeys). While proprioceptive exercises have been an integral part of rehabilitation of injuries in the lower limb, they have not featured as prominently in the treatment of cervical injuries. However, head and neck position sense (HNPS) testing and re-training may have relevance in the management of minor sports-related neck injuries, and play a role in reducing the incidence of ongoing pain and problems with function. For efficacious programmes to be developed and tested, fundamental principles associated with proprioception in the cervical spine should be considered. Hence, this article highlights the importance of anatomical structures in the cervical spine responsible for position sense, and how their interaction with the CNS affects our ability to plan and execute effective purposeful movements. This article includes a review of studies examining position sense in subjects with and without pathology and describes the effects of rehabilitation programmes that have sought to improve position sense. In respect to the receptors providing proprioceptive information for the CNS, the high densities and complex arrays of spindles found in cervical muscles suggest that these receptors play a key role. There is some evidence suggesting that ensemble encoding of discharge patterns from muscle spindles is relayed to the CNS and that a pattern recognition system is used to establish joint position and movement. Sensory information from neck proprioceptive receptors is processed in tandem with information from the vestibular system. There are extensive anatomical connections between neck proprioceptive inputs and vestibular inputs. If positional information from the vestibular system is inaccurate or

  11. Language Acquisition and Language Revitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, William; Hattori, Ryoko

    2016-01-01

    Intergenerational transmission, the ultimate goal of language revitalization efforts, can only be achieved by (re)establishing the conditions under which an imperiled language can be acquired by the community's children. This paper presents a tutorial survey of several key points relating to language acquisition and maintenance in children,…

  12. The Intonation of Noun Phrase Subjects and Clause- Modifying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    (eds.), Papers from the Sixteenth Regional Meeting of the Chicago. Linguistic Society. Chicago Illinois: University Press. Atoye, R. (1989). African Languages as just tone and not intonation languages? Epasa Moto: A Bilingual Journal of Language, Letters and Culture, 1(1), 1-14. The Intonation of Noun Phrase Subjects and ...

  13. The effect of head movement and head positioning on sound field audiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Paul; Greenwood, Hannah

    2012-06-01

    Positioning and maintaining the subject's head at the calibration point (CP) of the sound field (SF) during SF assessment remains a challenge. The purpose of this study was to investigate the sound pressure level (SPL) at head positions likely to be encountered in routine audiological practice. Eight National Health Service SF clinics were used to obtain SPL measurements. Part 1 of the study investigated SPL variability at positions around the CP (0.15 m and 0.30 m). Parts 2 and 3 of the study, investigated the SPL at two typical head heights of the infant population. Only sound field measures were obtained. Part 1: 32% and 40% of measurements of SPL around the CP were >2 dB different from the SPL at the CP (0.15 m and 0.30 m). Parts 2 and 3: 55% and 38% of measurements of SPL, at the two infant head heights, were >2 dB from the SPL at the CP. Variability in SPL, due to head movement, is to be expected when performing SF audiometry. Furthermore, the typical head heights of infants will introduce additional variability, unless the position of the CP is chosen carefully.

  14. Enhancement of subject description of fiction with annotations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Šauperl

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In Slovenia, subject description of fiction was traditionally limited to the Universal Decimal Classification number, which was mainly assigned for shelving. Readers found their books by browsing the library shelves, while librarians had to rely on their personal familiarity with the library collection if they wanted to advise readers on the selection of books. Subject description, such as is often associated with non-literary works, would require a lot of time. Therefore, we wanted to know whether reading book reviews in newspapers could replace reading the entire literary work. We analysed a small sample of book reviews written by literary critics and published in Slovenian newspapers and compared them to the reviews, written by librarians for the same literary works (in the »Priporočamo!« project. We realized that the content is different. However, they could be used for identification of additional subject headings. The same findings resulted from a similar analysis of literary works written for children. Concepts, that seemed potentially appropriate subject headings, often actually do not appear in the Slovenian subject headings or subject headings from the Pionirska knjižnica of Ljubljana. Both subject heading lists should include a larger number of abstract concepts, which more often appear in literary than in non-literary works. Both subject heading lists should also be coordinated.

  15. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos ... head injuries, stroke , brain tumors and other brain diseases than regular radiographs (x-rays). top of page ...

  16. Lubricating the swordfish head

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Videler, John J.; Haydar, Deniz; Snoek, Roelant; Hoving, Henk-Jan T.; Szabo, Ben G.

    The swordfish is reputedly the fastest swimmer on Earth. The concave head and iconic sword are unique characteristics, but how they contribute to its speed is still unknown. Recent computed tomography scans revealed a poorly mineralised area near the base of the rostrum. Here we report, using

  17. Waco Head Start Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Para

    The Economic Opportunity Act of 1964 led to the formation of three separate Head Start Programs in Waco, Texas. The first year, 1,500 children were involved. Of these, 40 percent were Negro, 30 percent Latin American, and 30 percent white. All teachers received a week of preparatory study at the University of Texas. The program involved four areas…

  18. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Head ...

  19. Ultrasound: Head (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a safe and painless test that uses sound waves to make images of the brain. During the examination, an ultrasound machine sends sound ... The fontanel provides an opening for the sound waves to get through and reach the brain. Why It's Done Doctors order head ultrasounds when ...

  20. Silva as the Head

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie

    2015-01-01

    The head of the performance design programme is substituted by a sister's academy delegate. this performance situation formed part of a week of semesterstart where the students and professors visited Sister's Academy, Malmø. I participated in the Sister's Academy as visiting researcher and here...

  1. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Radiation Dose in X-Ray and CT Exams Blood Clots CT Perfusion of the Head CT Angiography ( ...

  2. Children's Behavior during Teacher-Directed and Child-Directed Activities in Head Start

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Cathy Huaqing; Kaiser, Ann P.; Milan, Stephanie

    2006-01-01

    The social/behavioral characteristics of 63 preschool children with low and high language abilities were observed for 60 min during teacher-directed structured activities and 60 min during child-directed unstructured activities in Head Start classrooms. Children with low language were observed to have significantly higher rates of disruptive…

  3. Head nurses as middle managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, P F

    1983-11-01

    The relationship between head nurses and their staff nurses influences staff turnover rates and job satisfaction. In this article the author describes the measures taken by the management of Greater Southeast Community Hospital in response to an increasing turnover rate among staff RNs. In recognition of the head nurse role vis-d-vis attrition rates and job satisfaction, head nurses were upgraded to department head status and rigorous head nurse performance standards were developed. These standards required clinical expertise, managerial competence, and accountability. It is the author's contention that clinical practice and staff morale are directly related to a clearly defined head nurse role.

  4. Head injuries, heading, and the use of headgear in soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedfeldt, Mark W

    2011-01-01

    Soccer has more than 265 million players around the world and is the only contact sport with purposeful use of the head for controlling and advancing the ball. Head contact in soccer has the potential to cause acute traumatic brain injury including concussion or, potentially, a pattern of chronic brain injury. Although early retrospective research on the effects of soccer heading seemed to suggest that purposeful heading may contribute to long-term cognitive impairment, prospective controlled studies do not support this and, in fact, suggest that purposeful heading may not be a risk factor for cognitive impairment. Headgear has not been shown to be effective in reducing ball impact but may be helpful in reducing the force of non-ball-related impacts to the head. There are concerns that universal use of headgear may cause more aggressive heading and head challenges, leading to increased risk of injury.

  5. Radial Head Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Robert W.; Jones, Alistair DR.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Radial head fractures are common elbow injuries in adults and are frequently associated with additional soft tissue and bone injuries. Methods: A literature search was performed and the authors’ personal experiences are reported. Results: Mason type I fractures are treated non-operatively with splinting and early mobilisation. The management of Mason type II injuries is less clear with evidence supporting both non-operative treatment and internal fixation. The degree of intra-articular displacement and angulation acceptable for non-operative management has yet to be conclusively defined. Similarly the treatment of type III and IV fractures remain controversial. Traditional radial head excision is associated with valgus instability and should be considered only for patients with low functional demands. Comparative studies have shown improved results from internal fixation over excision. Internal fixation should only be attempted when anatomic reduction and initiation of early motion can be achieved. Authors have reported that results from fixation are poorer and complication rates are higher if more than three fragments are present. Radial head arthroplasty aims to reconstruct the native head and is indicated when internal fixation is not feasible and in the presence of complex elbow injuries. Overstuffing of the radiocapitellar joint is a frequent technical fault and has significant adverse effects on elbow biomechanics. Modular design improves the surgeon’s ability to reconstruct the native joint. Two randomised controlled trials have shown improved clinical outcomes and lower complication rate following arthroplasty when compared to internal fixation. Conclusion: We have presented details regarding the treatment of various types of radial head fractures - further evidence, however, is still required to provide clarity over the role of these different management strategies. PMID:29290880

  6. Matilda, where are you: subject description of juvenile fiction in the Slovenian catalogue and catalogues of neighbouring countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Šauperl

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Differences in subject description of juvenile fiction was investigated on five examples of international classics in five library catalogues: Oton Župančič Public Library (Knjižnica Otona Župančiča in Ljubljana, Slovenia, Stadtbibliothek public library in Graz, Austria, integrated catalogues of libraries in the Gorizia region in Italy (Sistema bibliotecario della Provincia di Gorizia and the Karlovac region in Croatia (Skupni katalog knjižnica Karlovačke županije in September 2008. As Slovenian youth rarely speaks languages of neighbouring countries, British Library catalogue was added.Results show that catalogue records are inconsistent within an individual library as well as in comparision with other libraries in the sample. Librarians do not make consistent subject descriptions. Class number, which is present in all catalogues except in the Austrian one, usually represents: the author’s country, language and/or nationality,the literary genre, and the target audience.Subject headings in the sample bring information on the subject (aboutness, author’s country, language and/or nationality, the literary genre, and target audience. Summaries tell more on the story. But they can also bring information on emotional experience of the reader, information on the author or history of the literary work. It would be economically beneficial if subject description could be more consistent. But uniform subject description is not possible because of diverse library collections and users.The solution might be in the use of multiple levels of subject description regarding to the type of the libraries.

  7. Subject in Tractatus according to David Pears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Hoseinzadeh Yazdi

    2013-03-01

    Considering the centrality of subjectivism in modern philosophy, this article attempts to explain subject in Tractatus according to David Pears. A review of Wittgenstein’s earlier teachings reveals that he considers a fundamental limitation for language. The subject serves as a point of view from which the language can be understood. The subject is the presupposition of understanding. Another way of putting this would be to say that any experience is understood from a point of view which is not represented in that experience. Regarding this, it seems that earlier Wittgenstein is somehow subjectivist. This specific form of subjectivism is different from Kantian subjectivism.

  8. Advances and trends of head-up and head-down display systems in automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancur, J. Alejandro; Osorio-Gomez, Gilberto; Agudelo, J. David

    2014-06-01

    Currently, in the automotive industry the interaction between drivers and Augmented Reality (AR) systems is a subject of analysis, especially the identification of advantages and risks that this kind of interaction represents. Consequently, this paper attempts to put in evidence the potential applications of Head-Up (Display (HUD) and Head-Down Display (HDD) systems in automotive vehicles, showing applications and trends under study. In general, automotive advances related to AR devices suggest the partial integration of the HUD and HDD in automobiles; however, the right way to do it is still a moot point.

  9. [Subjective cognition in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, S; Aubin, G; Stip, E

    2017-02-01

    . Visual learning performance was the most consistent predictor of most SSTICS subscores (e.g. episodic memory, attention, executive functioning, language and praxis). Modest associations were found between the PANSS cognitive factor and objective cognition (e.g. Stroop interference, visual learning, and working memory). Finally, the factor analysis revealed a 6-factor solution that echoes the classification of the items of the SSTICS based on the neuropsychological literature. Using a scale having good internal validity, as shown by the factor analysis, the current study highlighted modest associations between subjective and objective cognitive performance, which suggests that schizophrenia patients are only partially aware of their own cognitive deficits. The results also showed a lack of correspondence between the impaired cognitive domain and the domain of cognitive awareness. It should be noted that clinicians were not better than patients at evaluating their cognitive deficits. Future research will need to determine if the observations reported here are schizophrenia-specific or not. Copyright © 2016 L'Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessments of adolescent language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiig, E H

    1995-02-01

    I have stressed that language and learning disabilities that are exhibited in the preschool or elementary school years often persist into adolescence but that the characteristics and implications of these disabilities change with the preadolescent and adolescent transitions to metalinguistic maturity. As the student with language disabilities matures and as educational demands increase in complexity and in level of abstractness, the interactions between language and cognition become more apparent. Language disabilities of adolescents are often described in relation to observed deficits in the acquisition of content (semantics), form (morphology and syntax), and use (pragmatics). I have broadened this perspective to consider identification of metalinguistic strengths and/or deficits, deficits in the integration and organization of communication, reasoning and problem solving, and in conceptualization and creativity. Several assessment options were discussed, among them, norm-and criterion- referenced testing, language sample analysis, portfolio assessments of integrated communication, observational checklists and interviews, classroom language probes, and self-assessments. The perspectives taken for assessment have been that no single assessment option can satisfy all assessment objectives and/or constraints. I have also stressed that all tests are subject to measurement error and how to account for this error. Last, but not least, I have shared some of the voices of adolescents which express their perspectives and priorities.

  11. Antiplatelet therapy and the outcome of subjects with intracranial injury: the Italian SIMEU study

    OpenAIRE

    Fabbri, Andrea; Servadei, Franco; Marchesini, Giulio; Bronzoni, Carolina; Montesi, Danilo; Arietta, Luca

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Pre-injury antithrombotic therapy might influence the outcome of subjects with head injuries and positive computed tomography (CT) scans. We aimed to determine the potential risk of pre-injury antiplatelet drug use on short- and long-term outcome of head injured subjects admitted to emergency departments (EDs) in Italy for extended observation. Methods A total of 1,558 adult subjects with mild, moderate and severe head injury admitted to Italian EDs were studied. In multivariable...

  12. Voluntary head stabilization in space during trunk movements in weightlessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amblard, B.; Assaiante, C.; Fabre, J.-C.; Martin, N.; Massion, J.; Mouchnino, L.; Vernazza, S.

    The ability to voluntarily stabilize the head in space during lateral rhythmic oscillations of the trunk has been investigated during parabolic flights. Five healthy young subjects, who gave informed consent, were examined. The movements were performed with eyes open or eyes closed, either during phases of microgravity or phases of normal gravity. The main result to emerge from this study is that the head may be stabilized in space about the roll axis under microgravity conditions with, as well as without vision, despite the reduction of the vestibular afferent and the muscle proprioceptive inputs. Moreover, the absence of head stabilization about the yaw axis confirms that the degrees of freedom of the neck can be independently controlled, as it was previously shown [1]. These results seem to indicate that voluntary head stabilization does not depend crucially upon static vestibular afferents. Head stabilization in space may be in fact organized on the basis of either dynamic vestibular afferents or a postural body scheme.

  13. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head uses a powerful magnetic field, radio waves and a computer to produce ...

  14. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... content. Related Articles and Media MR Angiography (MRA) Magnetic Resonance, Functional (fMRI) - Brain Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Brain Tumor Treatment Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety Alzheimer's Disease Head Injury Brain ...

  15. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Articles and Media MR Angiography (MRA) Magnetic Resonance, Functional (fMRI) - Brain Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Brain Tumor Treatment Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety Alzheimer's Disease Head Injury Brain Tumors Images related to ...

  16. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are the limitations of MRI of the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging ( ... brain) in routine clinical practice. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? MR ...

  17. Childhood Head and Neck Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thyroid Association ® www.thyroid.org Childhood Head & Neck Irradiation What is the thyroid gland? The thyroid gland ... Thyroid Association ® www.thyroid.org Childhood Head & Neck Irradiation Thyroid nodules (see Thyroid Nodule brochure) • Thyroid nodules ...

  18. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer Others : American Stroke Association National Stroke Association ... MRA) Magnetic Resonance, Functional (fMRI) - Brain Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Brain Tumor Treatment Magnetic Resonance Imaging ( ...

  19. A Semantics-based Communication System for Dysphasic Subjects

    CERN Document Server

    Vaillant, P

    1997-01-01

    Dysphasic subjects do not have complete linguistic abilities and only produce a weakly structured, topicalized language. They are offered artificial symbolic languages to help them communicate in a way more adapted to their linguistic abilities. After a structural analysis of a corpus of utterances from children with cerebral palsy, we define a semantic lexicon for such a symbolic language. We use it as the basis of a semantic analysis process able to retrieve an interpretation of the utterances. This semantic analyser is currently used in an application designed to convert iconic languages into natural language; it might find other uses in the field of language rehabilitation.

  20. The Points Of Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Richard P.; Lillo-Martin, Diane

    2017-01-01

    Signed languages display a variety of pointing signs that serve the functions of deictic and anaphoric pronouns, possessive and reflexive pronouns, demonstratives, locatives, determiners, body part labels, and verb agreement. We consider criteria for determining the linguistic status of pointing signs. Among those criteria are conventionality, indexicality, phonological compositionality, being subject to grammatical constraints, and marking the kinds of grammatical distinctions expected of pronouns. We conclude that first-person points meet all these proposed criteria, but that nonfirst person points are in part gestural. Lastly, we review evidence for the grammaticization over time of systems of pointing signs within signed languages. PMID:28603596

  1. Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Health Info » Voice, Speech, and Language Specific Language Impairment On this page: What is specific language ... percent of children in kindergarten. What is specific language impairment? Specific language impairment (SLI) is a language ...

  2. Complementary Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preisler, Bent

    2009-01-01

    The Danish language debate is dominated by two key concepts: ‘domain loss' and its opposite, ‘parallel languages' (parallelsproglighed). The under­stood reference is to the relationship between Danish and English - i.e. the spread of English at the expense of Danish vs. the coexistence of Danish...... society is everywhere unproblematic. A case in point is Higher Education. I will also argue that the recently proposed solution to ‘domain loss' - Danish and English used ‘in parallel', ‘parallel languages' - because it is unrealistic as well as undesirable as a consistent principle - should be replaced...... by an alternative concept that more adequately describes the realities of what adherents of ‘parallel languages' can hope for. The new concept I have dubbed ‘complementary languages' (komplementær­sproglighed). I will explain this concept in the following and contrast it both with ‘parallel languages...

  3. Specialized languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousten, Birthe; Laursen, Anne Lise

    2016-01-01

    Across different fields of research, one feature is often overlooked: the use of language for specialized purposes (LSP) as a cross-discipline. Mastering cross-disciplinarity is the precondition for communicating detailed results within any field. Researchers in specialized languages work cross......-disciplinarily, because they work with both derivative and contributory approaches. Derivative, because specialized language retrieves its philosophy of science as well as methods from both the natural sciences, social sciences and humanistic sciences. Contributory because language results support the communication...... science fields communicate their findings. With this article, we want to create awareness of the work in this special area of language studies and of the inherent cross-disciplinarity that makes LSP special compared to common-core language. An acknowledgement of the importance of this field both in terms...

  4. Variations in the Presentation of Aphasia in Patients with Closed Head Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara Oliver Kavanagh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Impairments of speech and language are important consequences of head injury as they compromise interaction between the patient and others. A large spectrum of communication deficits can occur. There are few reports in the literature of aphasia following closed head injury despite the common presentation of closed head injury. Herein we report two cases of closed head injuries with differing forms of aphasia. We discuss their management and rehabilitation and present a detailed literature review on the topic. In a busy acute surgical unit one can dismiss aphasia following head injury as behaviour related to intoxication. Early recognition with prolonged and intensive speech and language rehabilitation therapy yields a favourable outcome as highlighted in our experience. These may serve as a reference for clinicians faced with this unusual outcome.

  5. Variations in the presentation of aphasia in patients with closed head injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Dara Oliver; Lynam, Conor; Düerk, Thorsten; Casey, Mary; Eustace, Paul W

    2010-01-01

    Impairments of speech and language are important consequences of head injury as they compromise interaction between the patient and others. A large spectrum of communication deficits can occur. There are few reports in the literature of aphasia following closed head injury despite the common presentation of closed head injury. Herein we report two cases of closed head injuries with differing forms of aphasia. We discuss their management and rehabilitation and present a detailed literature review on the topic. In a busy acute surgical unit one can dismiss aphasia following head injury as behaviour related to intoxication. Early recognition with prolonged and intensive speech and language rehabilitation therapy yields a favourable outcome as highlighted in our experience. These may serve as a reference for clinicians faced with this unusual outcome.

  6. Variations in the presentation of aphasia in patients with closed head injuries.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kavanagh, Dara Oliver

    2012-01-31

    Impairments of speech and language are important consequences of head injury as they compromise interaction between the patient and others. A large spectrum of communication deficits can occur. There are few reports in the literature of aphasia following closed head injury despite the common presentation of closed head injury. Herein we report two cases of closed head injuries with differing forms of aphasia. We discuss their management and rehabilitation and present a detailed literature review on the topic. In a busy acute surgical unit one can dismiss aphasia following head injury as behaviour related to intoxication. Early recognition with prolonged and intensive speech and language rehabilitation therapy yields a favourable outcome as highlighted in our experience. These may serve as a reference for clinicians faced with this unusual outcome.

  7. Head circumference in Iranian infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Esmaeili

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Head circumference (HC measurement is one of the important parameter for diagnosis of neurological, developmental disorders and dysmorphic syndromes. Recognition of different disorders requires an understanding of normal variation for HC size, in particular, in infancy period with most rapid growth of the brain. Because of international and interracial standard chart differences about anthropometric indices, some differences from local to local, generation to generation and changes in ethnic mix of population and socioeconomic factors, periodic revolution of HC size is suggested. The aims of our study were presenting local HC standard for an Iranian infant population and comparison with the American national center of health statistics (NCHS charts accepted by WHO. Methods: 1003 subjects aged from birth to 24 months apparently healthy normal children enrolled randomly in this cross sectional study. HC size were measured and recorded. Tables and graphs were depicted by Excel Microsoft Office 2007. We use two tailed t-student test for statistical analysis. Results: The mean of HC size in boys was larger than girls. The curves were followed a similar pattern to NCHS based on a visual comparison. Overall our subjects in both sexes at birth time had smaller HC size than NCHS. In other ages our children had larger HC size than those of NCHS. Conclusion: Because of international and interracial difference of HC size. We recommend in each area of the world, local anthropometric indices are constructed and used clinically. In addition more extensive and longitudinally design comprehensive studies is suggested.

  8. Competition Between ‘Who’ and ‘Which’ in Slavic Light-Headed Relative Clauses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. Kholodilova

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The relativization systems of most Slavic languages include relative pronouns that can be conventionally labelled as ‘who’ and ‘which’ and differ in a number of logically independent parameters (etymology, animacy, grammaticality of attributive contexts, and morphological distinction for number and gender. Prior research has shown that the choice between ‘who’ and ‘which’ in Slavic languages is largely dependent on the head type. Some of the languages allow the ‘who’ pronouns to be used with pronominal heads, but not with nouns in the head, while in others, the pronominal heads in the plural are also ungrammatical with the pronoun ‘who.’ The present study aims to complement the available qualitative data on the distribution of the relativizers with quantitative data and to propose a unified account for all the observed tendencies. A corpus-based study was conducted in order to establish language-internal statistical tendencies comparable to the known grammaticality restrictions. The results show much agreement between the qualitative and quantitative tendencies. Thus, the head ‘those,’ unlike the head ‘that,’ is incompatible with the relativizer ‘who’ in Slovak, Polish, Upper Sorbian, and Lower Sorbian languages, while the same tendency is quantitative in Czech, Slovene, Serbo-Croatian, Ukrainian, Belarusian, and the older varieties of Russian. Corpus data suggest that there is also a stronger tendency for the relative pronoun ‘who’ to be avoided with the head ‘those’ than with the head ‘all.’ One more relevant parameter is the semantic type of the clause, maximalizing semantics being the preferred option for ‘who.’ I suggest that all these and some other tendencies can be subsumed under a macro-parameter of the extent to which the head is integrated into the relative clause.

  9. Language Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Karen M.

    2008-01-01

    Like any other text, instructive texts function within a given cultural and situational setting and may only be available in one language. However, the end users may not be familiar with that language and therefore unable to read and understand the instructions. This article therefore argues...... that instructive texts should always be available in a language that is understood by the end users, and that a corporate communication policy which includes a language policy should ensure that this is in fact the case for all instructive texts....

  10. Genetic parameters for subjectively assessed wool and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    The only noteworthy maternal correlation among wool traits was estimated between QUAL and COL at 0.39 ± 0.18 (Table 6). Table 5 Genetic (rg), phenotypic (rp), environmental (re) and maternal (rm) correlations (± s.e.) among subjectively assessed conformation traits. Trait rg re rp rm. General head conformation (GEN) X.

  11. Where are we heading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noto, L.A. [Mobil Corporation, (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The present paper deals with different aspects connected to the global petroleum industry by discussing the way of heading. The aspects cover themes like new frontiers, new relationships, sanctions, global climate change, new alliances and new technology. New frontiers and relationships concern domestic policy affecting the industry, and sanctions are discussed in connection with trade. The author discusses the industry`s participation in the global environmental policy and new alliances to provide greater opportunity for developing new technology

  12. Radial Head Fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, Robert W.; Jones, Alistair DR.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Radial head fractures are common elbow injuries in adults and are frequently associated with additional soft tissue and bone injuries. Methods: A literature search was performed and the authors’ personal experiences are reported. Results: Mason type I fractures are treated non-operatively with splinting and early mobilisation. The management of Mason type II injuries is less clear with evidence supporting both non-operative treatment and internal fixation. The degree of intra-arti...

  13. Specific Language Impairment Across Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Laurence B

    2014-03-01

    Children with specific language impairment (SLI) have a significant and longstanding deficit in spoken language ability that adversely affects their social and academic well-being. Studies of children with SLI in a wide variety of languages reveal diverse symptoms, most of which seem to reflect weaknesses in grammatical computation and phonological short-term memory. The symptoms of the disorder are sensitive to the type of language being acquired, with extraordinary weaknesses seen in those areas of language that are relatively challenging for younger typically developing children. Although these children's deficits warrant clinical and educational attention, their weaknesses might reflect the extreme end of a language aptitude continuum rather than a distinct, separable condition.

  14. LADO as a Language Test: Issues of Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Tim; Van Den Hazelkamp, Carolien; Verrips, Maaike

    2016-01-01

    This article brings together the theoretical field of language testing and the practical field of language analysis for the determination of the origin of asylum seekers. It considers what it would mean to think of language analysis as a form of language test, subject to the same validity constraints, and proposes a research agenda.

  15. Language Status and Use in Dilling City, the Nuba Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugaddam, Abdel Rahim Hamid

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the status and use of language in the Nuba Mountains, Sudan. It is based on responses to 1496 questionnaires administered to people belonging to 37 different ethnic groups. Subjects were asked about language proficiency, language use in different domains and language attitudes. Factors such as sex, generation, intermarriage,…

  16. Head injuries in helmeted child bicyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimard, G.; Nolan, T.; Carlin, J. B.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the characteristics and the severity of head and facial injuries to helmeted child bicyclists, and whether the helmet contributed to the injury, and to study factors related to bicycle accidents. DESIGN: Retrospective review of two case series. Children sustaining head injury while not wearing helmets were studied as a form of reference group. SETTING: Large paediatric teaching hospital. SUBJECTS: 34 helmeted child bicyclists and 155 non-helmeted bicyclists, aged 5-14 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number of injuries, type of injuries, injury severity score, deaths, and accident circumstances. RESULTS: 79% of the head injuries of the helmeted child group were mild and two thirds of these had facial injuries. Children in the helmet group were in a greater proportion of bike-car collisions than the no helmet group and at least 15% of the helmets were lost on impact. There were no injuries secondary to the helmet. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the head injuries sustained by the helmeted children were of mild severity and there was no evidence to suggest that the helmet contributed to injury. Nevertheless, consideration should be given to designing a facial protector for the bicycle helmet and to improvement of the fastening device. PMID:9345988

  17. On the subject marker in Kinyarwanda | Zeller | Southern African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines the morphosyntactic representation of the subject agreement marker (SM) in null subject constructions in the Bantu language Kinyarwanda. Three prominent analyses are compared. The first analysis treats the SM in null subject constructions as a pronoun which receives the subject theta role in the ...

  18. Carotenoid intake and head and neck cancer: a pooled analysis in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium

    OpenAIRE

    Leoncini, Emanuele; Edefonti, Valeria; Hashibe, Mia; Parpinel, Maria; Cadoni, Gabriella; FERRARONI, MONICA; Serraino, Diego; Matsuo, Keitaro; Olshan, Andrew F.; Zevallos, Jose P.; Winn, Deborah M.; Moysich, Kirsten; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Morgenstern, Hal; Levi, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Food and nutrition play an important role in head and neck cancer (HNC) etiology; however, the role of carotenoids remains largely undefined. We explored the relation of HNC risk with the intake of carotenoids within the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium. We pooled individual-level data from 10 case–control studies conducted in Europe, North America, and Japan. The analysis included 18,207 subjects (4414 with oral and pharyngeal cancer, 1545 with laryngeal cancer, and...

  19. Specialized languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousten, Birthe; Laursen, Anne Lise

    2016-01-01

    Across different fields of research, one feature is often overlooked: the use of language for specialized purposes (LSP) as a cross-discipline. Mastering cross-disciplinarity is the precondition for communicating detailed results within any field. Researchers in specialized languages work cross-d...... of more empirical studies and in terms of a greater application of the results would give language specialists in trade and industry a solid and updated basis for communication and language use....... science fields communicate their findings. With this article, we want to create awareness of the work in this special area of language studies and of the inherent cross-disciplinarity that makes LSP special compared to common-core language. An acknowledgement of the importance of this field both in terms......Across different fields of research, one feature is often overlooked: the use of language for specialized purposes (LSP) as a cross-discipline. Mastering cross-disciplinarity is the precondition for communicating detailed results within any field. Researchers in specialized languages work cross...

  20. Beside the point: Mothers' head nodding and shaking gestures during parent-child play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusaro, Maria; Vallotton, Claire D; Harris, Paul L

    2014-05-01

    Understanding the context for children's social learning and language acquisition requires consideration of caregivers' multi-modal (speech, gesture) messages. Though young children can interpret both manual and head gestures, little research has examined the communicative input that children receive via parents' head gestures. We longitudinally examined the frequency and communicative functions of mothers' head nodding and head shaking gestures during laboratory play sessions for 32 mother-child dyads, when the children were 14, 20, and 30 months of age. The majority of mothers produced head nods more frequently than head shakes. Both gestures contributed to mothers' verbal attempts at behavior regulation and dialog. Mothers' head nods primarily conveyed agreement with, and attentiveness to, children's utterances, and accompanied affirmative statements and yes/no questions. Mothers' head shakes primarily conveyed prohibitions and statements with negations. Changes over time appeared to reflect corresponding developmental changes in social and communicative dimensions of caregiver-child interaction. Directions for future research are discussed regarding the role of head gesture input in socialization and in supporting language development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. References on Foreign Languages in the Elementary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keesee, Elizabeth, Comp.

    A list of materials for use in foreign language instruction in the elementary school groups these materials by language with subgroupings under such headings as: (1) teacher materials; (2) student texts and readers; (3) children's books for native speakers; (4) disc and tape recordings; (5) film materials; and (6) songs, games and charts. The…

  2. "Languaging the Worker: Globalized Governmentalities in/of Language in Peripheral Spaces"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlaske, Kati; Barakos, Elisabeth; Motobayashi, Kyoko; McLaughlin, Mireille

    2016-01-01

    In the introduction to the special issue "Languaging the worker: globalized governmentalities in/of language in peripheral spaces", we take up the notion of governmentality as a means to interrogate the complex relationship between language, labor, power, and subjectivity in peripheral multilingual spaces. Our aim here is to argue for…

  3. Learning to read words in a new language shapes the neural organization of the prior languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Leilei; Xue, Gui; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Chen, Chuansheng; Zhang, Mingxia; He, Qinghua; Wei, Miao; Dong, Qi

    2014-12-01

    Learning a new language entails interactions with one׳s prior language(s). Much research has shown how native language affects the cognitive and neural mechanisms of a new language, but little is known about whether and how learning a new language shapes the neural mechanisms of prior language(s). In two experiments in the current study, we used an artificial language training paradigm in combination with an fMRI to examine (1) the effects of different linguistic components (phonology and semantics) of a new language on the neural process of prior languages (i.e., native and second languages), and (2) whether such effects were modulated by the proficiency level in the new language. Results of Experiment 1 showed that when the training in a new language involved semantics (as opposed to only visual forms and phonology), neural activity during word reading in the native language (Chinese) was reduced in several reading-related regions, including the left pars opercularis, pars triangularis, bilateral inferior temporal gyrus, fusiform gyrus, and inferior occipital gyrus. Results of Experiment 2 replicated the results of Experiment 1 and further found that semantic training also affected neural activity during word reading in the subjects׳ second language (English). Furthermore, we found that the effects of the new language were modulated by the subjects׳ proficiency level in the new language. These results provide critical imaging evidence for the influence of learning to read words in a new language on word reading in native and second languages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Interpreters' notes. On the choice of language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Helle Vrønning

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on a small-scale empirical study on note-taking in consecutive interpreting. As data, the study draws on the notes produced by four subjects while interpreting one Spanish source text consecutively into Danish, on the one hand, and one Danish source text into Spanish......, on the other. The aim of the study is to explore what governs conference interpreters' choice of language for their notes. The categories traditionally used to discuss, describe and explain this choice are those of 'source language' and 'target language', and these categories are therefore subject...... to particular scrutiny here. However, somewhat surprisingly, the results of the analyses indicate that the choice of language in note-taking is governed mainly by the status of the language in the interpreters' language combination, i.e. whether it is an A- or a B-language, and much less by its status...

  5. Perceived Conventionality in Co-speech Gestures Involves the Fronto-Temporal Language Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Dhana; Rekittke, Linn-Marlen; Mittelberg, Irene; Klasen, Martin; Mathiak, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Face-to-face communication is multimodal; it encompasses spoken words, facial expressions, gaze, and co-speech gestures. In contrast to linguistic symbols (e.g., spoken words or signs in sign language) relying on mostly explicit conventions, gestures vary in their degree of conventionality. Bodily signs may have a general accepted or conventionalized meaning (e.g., a head shake) or less so (e.g., self-grooming). We hypothesized that subjective perception of conventionality in co-speech gestures relies on the classical language network, i.e., the left hemispheric inferior frontal gyrus (IFG, Broca's area) and the posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG, Wernicke's area) and studied 36 subjects watching video-recorded story retellings during a behavioral and an functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment. It is well documented that neural correlates of such naturalistic videos emerge as intersubject covariance (ISC) in fMRI even without involving a stimulus (model-free analysis). The subjects attended either to perceived conventionality or to a control condition (any hand movements or gesture-speech relations). Such tasks modulate ISC in contributing neural structures and thus we studied ISC changes to task demands in language networks. Indeed, the conventionality task significantly increased covariance of the button press time series and neuronal synchronization in the left IFG over the comparison with other tasks. In the left IFG, synchronous activity was observed during the conventionality task only. In contrast, the left pSTG exhibited correlated activation patterns during all conditions with an increase in the conventionality task at the trend level only. Conceivably, the left IFG can be considered a core region for the processing of perceived conventionality in co-speech gestures similar to spoken language. In general, the interpretation of conventionalized signs may rely on neural mechanisms that engage during language comprehension. PMID:29249945

  6. English for Speakers of Other Languages in Scotland's Colleges: A Subject-Based Aspect Report on Provision in Scotland's Colleges by Education Scotland on Behalf of the Scottish Funding Council. Transforming Lives through Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Scotland, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Education Scotland's publication, "External Quality Arrangements for Scotland's Colleges, Updated August 2013", specifies that HM Inspectors (HMI) will produce a number of subject aspect reports over the four-year period 2012-16. Colleges should act on the recommendations contained in these reports. College inspectors will monitor action…

  7. Chiropractic diagnosis and treatment of closed head trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalby, B J

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this article is to review the current literature relating to the chiropractic diagnosis and treatment of closed head trauma. It outlines the clinical exam, offers a diagnostic protocol and describes current chiropractic management and treatment of acute and chronic closed head trauma. Particular importance is placed on the need to differentiate between mild, moderate and severe head injury. Treatment protocols are elucidated for cerebral concussion and a rationale proposed for the management and treatment of posttraumatic concussion syndrome. Information was obtained from English language chiropractic, medical and scientific journals as well as chiropractic and medical textbooks. The CHIROLARS data retrieval system was used (year 0-1992) as was the MEDLINE data base (1988-1992). Head trauma, head injury, headache, concussion, vertigo, posttraumatic syndrome and whiplash injury were the indexing terms used. The doctor of chiropractic is often the first practitioner a patient will see following a motor vehicle accident, sports injury or other acute trauma. The chiropractor is also the practitioner a patient seeks for help after suffering for months with chronic posttraumatic concussion syndrome. It is important that we have a protocol for effectively managing both acute and chronic closed head injury.

  8. Learning Sign Language: A Whole Language Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, Daniel D.; Teller, Henry

    1996-01-01

    Applies principles of whole-language instruction to the teaching of sign language skills. Emphasis is on the holistic use of sign language in natural communicative situations. Some materials for this approach to sign language instruction are suggested. (DB)

  9. Head First Web Design

    CERN Document Server

    Watrall, Ethan

    2008-01-01

    Want to know how to make your pages look beautiful, communicate your message effectively, guide visitors through your website with ease, and get everything approved by the accessibility and usability police at the same time? Head First Web Design is your ticket to mastering all of these complex topics, and understanding what's really going on in the world of web design. Whether you're building a personal blog or a corporate website, there's a lot more to web design than div's and CSS selectors, but what do you really need to know? With this book, you'll learn the secrets of designing effecti

  10. "E" Heating Head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Robert L.; Swaim, Robert J.; Johnson, Samuel D.; Coultrip, Robert H.; Phillips, W. Morris; Copeland, Carl E.

    1994-01-01

    Two separate areas heated inductively for adhesive bonding in single operation. "E" heating head developed to satisfy need for fast-acting and reliable induction heating device. Used in attaching "high-hat" stiffeners to aircraft panels. Incorporates principles and circuitry of toroid joining gun. Width and length configured to provide variously sized heat zones, depending on bonding requirements. Lightweight, portable and provides rapid, reliable heating of dual areas in any environment. Well suited for flight-line and depot maintenance, and battlefield repair. Also useful in automotive assembly lines to strengthen automobile panels.

  11. Head First Mobile Web

    CERN Document Server

    Gardner, Lyza; Grigsby, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Despite the huge number of mobile devices and apps in use today, your business still needs a website. You just need it to be mobile. Head First Mobile Web walks you through the process of making a conventional website work on a variety smartphones and tablets. Put your JavaScript, CSS media query, and HTML5 skills to work-then optimize your site to perform its best in the demanding mobile market. Along the way, you'll discover how to adapt your business strategy to target specific devices. Navigate the increasingly complex mobile landscapeTake both technical and strategic approaches to mobile

  12. Logic and declarative language

    CERN Document Server

    Downward, M

    2004-01-01

    Logic has acquired a reputation for difficulty, perhaps because many of the approaches adopted have been more suitable for mathematicians than computer scientists. This book shows that the subject is not inherently difficult and that the connections between logic and declarative language are straightforward. Many exercises have been included in the hope that these will lead to a much greater confidence in manual proofs, therefore leading to a greater confidence in automated proofs.

  13. Antifunctionality in language change

    OpenAIRE

    Seuren, P.; Hamans, C.

    2010-01-01

    The main thesis of the article is that language change is only partially subject to criteria of functionality and that, as a rule, opposing forces are also at work which often correlate directly with psychological and sociopsychological parameters reflecting themselves in all areas of linguistic competence. We sketch a complex interplay of horizontal versus vertical, deliberate versus nondeliberate, functional versus antifunctional linguistic changes, which, through a variety of processes hav...

  14. Language acquisition is language change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Stephen; Goro, Takuya; Thornton, Rosalind

    2006-01-01

    According to the theory of Universal Grammar, the primary linguistic data guides children through an innately specified space of hypotheses. On this view, similarities between child-English and adult-German are as unsurprising as similarities between cousins who have never met. By contrast, experience-based approaches to language acquisition contend that child language matches the input, with nonadult forms being simply less articulated versions of the forms produced by adults. This paper reports several studies that provide support for the theory of Universal grammar, and resist explanation on experience-based accounts. Two studies investigate English-speaking children's productions, and a third examines the interpretation of sentences by Japanese speaking children. When considered against the input children are exposed to, the findings of these and other studies are consistent with the continuity hypothesis, which supposes that child language can differ from the language spoken by adults only in ways that adult languages can differ from each other.

  15. Scaling head-neck response data and derivation of 5th percentile female side-impact dummy head-neck response requirements in NBDL test conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, R.; Wisgerhof, R.P.; Wismans, J.S.H.M.; Been, B.W.

    2009-01-01

    The head-neck biofidelity of side-impact dummies can be assessed according to the response requirements for the head-neck system based on mid-size male human subjects as published in ISO TR9790. These criteria are largely based on volunteer tests performed at the Naval Biodynamics Laboratory (NBDL)

  16. Effects of Verbal Components in 3D Talking-Head on Pronunciation Learning among Non-Native Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ahmad Zamzuri Mohamad; Segaran, Kogilathah; Hoe, Tan Wee

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the benefit of inclusion of various verbal elements in 3D talking-head on pronunciation learning among non-native speakers. In particular, the study examines the effects of three different multimedia presentation strategies in 3D talking-head Mobile-Assisted-Language-Learning (MALL) on the learning…

  17. LEARNING ASSESMENT IN THE SUBJECT SPANISH LANGUAGE SINCE THE INTEGRATION OF THE LINGUISTIC COMPONENTS / LA EVALUACIÓN DEL APRENDIZAJE EN LA ASIGNATURA LENGUA ESPAÑOLA DESDE LA INTEGRACIÓN DE LOS COMPONENTES LINGUÍSTICOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Marrero Silva

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the most recognizable components to manage the quality of education is evaluation, which objects in the field of education, have expanded considerably. Learning assessment is the component that allows knowing achievements and shortcomings, as well as to value judgments that permit accurate decisions to transform the state found into an ideal state, resulting in a high level of quality. Hence, the relevant importance of this process. The Spanish language is the basis of the rest of the course curriculum of primary education and also through the entire curriculum of teaching. It is the one that ensures an adequate development of communicative competence. That is to say, schoolchildren learn to use oral and written language correctly, and to establish effective communication in different communicative situations. The paper presents methodological considerations on how to approach the evaluation of learning the Spanish language course from the integration of linguistic components, a process that should be aimed at assessing the level of development of cognitive competence, communicative and sociocultural school, taking into account the specificity of the degree, which is based on the concepts of the Historical-Cultural School and the DiscursiveResumenUno de los componentes más reconocidos para gestionar la calidad educacional es la evaluación, cuyos objetos en el ámbito educativo, se han ampliado considerablemente. La evaluación del aprendizaje, es el componente que permite conocer logros y deficiencias, así como emitir juicios de valor certeros que permitan tomar decisiones para transformar el estado constatado en un estado ideal, que se traduce en un elevado nivel de calidad, de ahí la relevante importancia de este proceso. La Lengua Española es asignatura base del resto del currículo de la Educación Primaria y además atraviesa todo el currículo de la enseñanza, es la que asegura el desarrollo de una adecuada competencia

  18. American Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Info » Voice, Speech, and Language American Sign Language On this page: What is American Sign Language? ... signs "I love you." What is American Sign Language? American Sign Language (ASL) is a complete, complex ...

  19. Effect of Different Positions of the Head on Tympanometry Results: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indranil Chatterjee

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Tympanometry is an objective measure of middle ear function that has been an integral part of the audiological evaluation test battery, for nearly three decades. The parameters of the tympanogram obtained are influenced with many factors such as introduction of positive or negative air pressure, speed of recording tympanogram, etc. This study was aimed to explore the influence of head positioning on tympanometric findings in normal ears. Materials and Methods Thirty ears of fifteen normal hearing subjects (mean age 22.8 years and five ears of subjects (mean age 23 years with high negative middle ear pressure were selected for the study. Tympanometry was done in four postures: head erect, head bent forward (chin touching the chest, head in supine and head lateralized towards one side. Results Two different results were obtained. It was interesting to note that the results significantly changed when the tympanogram was recorded after ten minutes in different head positions compared to those taken immediately after changing the head position. Discussion The possible explanation for the effect of duration in different head positions on tympanogram is discussed. Conclusion No significant changes were observed on static compliance, middle ear pressure, ear canal volume and pressure gradient when the tympanogram were recorded immediately bringing head in the particular posture. When head was held in the changed position for ten minutes, significant reduction in the pressure gradient was observed. Further extensive studies may be required to document the relationship between head positioning and tympanometric results.

  20. Building Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can help parents and children, each emphasizing different language learning skills. Here are the five programs, and the skills that are sometimes included in each of them: Auditory-Oral — Natural Gestures, Listening, Speech (Lip) Reading, Speech Auditory- ...

  1. Storytelling, behavior planning, and language evolution in context

    OpenAIRE

    McBride, Glen

    2014-01-01

    An attempt is made to specify the structure of the hominin bands that began steps to language. 8 Storytelling could evolve without need for language yet be strongly subject to natural selection 9 and could provide a major feedback process in evolving language. A storytelling model is 10 examined, including its effects on the evolution of consciousness and the possible timing of 11 language evolution. Behavior planning is presented as a model of language evolution from 12 storytelling. The beh...

  2. HEADS UP : Sensorimotor control of the head-neck system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forbes, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    Head-neck stabilization is inherently challenging even when stationary, requiring constant vigilance to counter the downward pull of gravity. It involves a highly complex biomechanical system comprised of a large mass (the head) balanced on top of seven vertebrae (the neck), that are in turn

  3. Subjectivity, individuality and singularity in children: a socially constituted subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Del Ré

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Considering the hypothesis that Bakhtin and his Circle‟s reflections can help us think about issues involving the field of Language Acquisition, in addition to the fact that there are only a few works developed within this perspective in Brazil, in this article, we intend to discuss the notions of “subject”, “subjectivity”,“individuality” and “singularity”, drawing on Bakhtin‟s theory. Thus, in order to make this discussion clearer, we bring data from the speech of young children, from 1.8 to 3 years old, who were filmed in natural contexts interacting with their parents and relatives. From these data, we could verify, among other things, that children, as individuals who constitute themselves as subjects in and throughlanguage, bring marks to their discourse, revealing their subjectivity (through lexical, morphological, syntactic or genre choices.

  4. Writing otorhinolaryngology head & neck surgery operative reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laccourreye, O; Rubin, F; Villeneuve, A; Bonfils, P

    2017-09-01

    Only about ten articles devoted to operative reports have been published in the medical literature, but this document is essential, both medically and legally, to ensure optimal management of operated patients. In this technical note, based on published studies on this subject, the authors describe the key features of operating reports after otorhinolaryngology head & neck surgery and emphasize the need to write this document during the minutes after the end of the operation, the importance of standardization and its teaching role during surgical training. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Syntactic Survey of Determiners in Mo/Deg Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anto Sylvester Kwabena

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study is descriptive, and it is set out to primarily investigate the use and order of determiners in the Mo/Deg language. The study finds answers to the questions, “What determiner types are there in the Mo/Deg language, and in what order do they collocate with the head of the noun phrase?” Using purposive sampling, the study gathered data from forty (40 literate native speakers of the Mo/Deg language who were also very proficient in English. Short simple English sentences containing noun phrases with pre-determiners of all kind, central determiners of all types, and post-determiners of all kind were designed and given to the respondents to rewrite in Mo/Deg. This was to observe the order of determiners in the language. Also, some of these sentences were given to some staff of the Mo/Deg project of the Ghana Institute of Linguistics, Literacy and Bible Translation (GILLBT to translate into Mo/Deg since they are deemed to have deeper knowledge of the language. This was to ensure further correctness of the use and order of determiners in the language. The translations comprised the data which was analysed using the Systemic Grammar principles of the NG structure. The results showed that the Mo/Deg language has pre-determiner items and that these pre-determiners are not followed by any other words like adjectives. It further showed that it is permissible for some members of the same pre-determiner class to co-occur. The study further found out that the Mo/Deg language has three types of post-head determiners: the post-head post-determiners, the post-head central determiners, and the post-head pre-determiners. It therefore concluded that the Mo/Deg language has a very complex determiner structure.

  6. Ratings of age of acquisition of 299 words across 25 languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magdalena, Luniewska,; Haman, Ewa; Armon Lotem, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    We present a new set of subjective age-of acquisition (AoA) ratings for 299 words (158 nouns, 141 verbs) in 25 languages from five language families (Afro- Asiatic: Semitic languages; Altaic: one Turkic language: Indo-European: Baltic, Celtic, Germanic, Hellenic, Slavic, and Romance languages; Ni...

  7. Assessment of cardiovascular regulation during head-up tilt and suspension in swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifuku, Hirotoshi; Shiraishi, Yumiko

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare cardiovascular responses in competitive swimmers with those in track and field (T and F) athletes during head-up tilt with engagement of the antigravity muscles in the lower extremities and during passive head-up suspension without the engagement of the antigravity muscles. Blood pressure and heart rate during head-up tilt were compared among T and F athletes (N = 11), competitive swimmers (N = 15), and untrained subjects (N = 11). Moreover, stroke volume, cardiac output, and total peripheral resistance during head-up tilt and head-up suspension were also measured in T and F athletes and competitive swimmers. The heart rate increased significantly in all subject groups during head-up tilt; however, the MBP decreased in untrained subjects but did not change significantly in T and F athletes or competitive swimmers. Moreover, the DBP did not change significantly in untrained subjects or T and F athletes but increased significantly in swimmers. As with the head-up tilt, during the head-up suspension, the SBP decreased significantly and the heart rate increased significantly in both types of athletes, though the MBP decreased significantly. The ratios of decrease in stroke volume and cardiac output were significantly larger in swimmers than in T and F athletes during head-up tilt, but no significant difference was noted during head-up suspension. In T and F athletes, the ratios of decrease in stroke volume and cardiac output were significantly larger during head-up suspension than during head-up tilt, but no significant difference was noted in swimmers. The action of the antigravity muscles on cardiovascular regulation during upright standing is smaller in competitive swimmers than in T and F athletes.

  8. Womanhood in Bessie Head's fiction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    confronted with gender discrimination in addition ;to the racial and ethnic marginality she had suffered since childhood. When the discovery of. Margaret's Basarwa origins culminate in the decision to get rid of her, Head points to the multiplicity of her problems. Head demonstrates that Margaret's womanhood comes into ...

  9. Analytical modelling of soccer heading

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Heading occur frequently in soccer games and studies have shown that repetitive heading of the soccer ball could result in degeneration of brain cells and lead to mild traumatic brain injury. This study proposes a two degree-of-freedom linear mathematical model to study the impact of the soccer ball on the brain. The model ...

  10. The head-mounted microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Dailey, Seth H; Naze, Sawyer A; Jiang, Jack J

    2012-04-01

    Microsurgical equipment has greatly advanced since the inception of the microscope into the operating room. These advancements have allowed for superior surgical precision and better post-operative results. This study focuses on the use of the Leica HM500 head-mounted microscope for the operating phonosurgeon. The head-mounted microscope has an optical zoom from 2× to 9× and provides a working distance from 300 mm to 700 mm. The headpiece, with its articulated eyepieces, adjusts easily to head shape and circumference, and offers a focus function, which is either automatic or manually controlled. We performed five microlaryngoscopic operations utilizing the head-mounted microscope with successful results. By creating a more ergonomically favorable operating posture, a surgeon may be able to obtain greater precision and success in phonomicrosurgery. Phonomicrosurgery requires the precise manipulation of long-handled cantilevered instruments through the narrow bore of a laryngoscope. The head-mounted microscope shortens the working distance compared with a stand microscope, thereby increasing arm stability, which may improve surgical precision. Also, the head-mounted design permits flexibility in head position, enabling operator comfort, and delaying musculoskeletal fatigue. A head-mounted microscope decreases the working distance and provides better ergonomics in laryngoscopic microsurgery. These advances provide the potential to promote precision in phonomicrosurgery. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  11. Predictive Compensator Optimization for Head Tracking Lag in Virtual Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelstein, Barnard D.; Jung, Jae Y.; Ellis, Stephen R.

    2001-01-01

    We examined the perceptual impact of plant noise parameterization for Kalman Filter predictive compensation of time delays intrinsic to head tracked virtual environments (VEs). Subjects were tested in their ability to discriminate between the VE system's minimum latency and conditions in which artificially added latency was then predictively compensated back to the system minimum. Two head tracking predictors were parameterized off-line according to cost functions that minimized prediction errors in (1) rotation, and (2) rotation projected into translational displacement with emphasis on higher frequency human operator noise. These predictors were compared with a parameterization obtained from the VE literature for cost function (1). Results from 12 subjects showed that both parameterization type and amount of compensated latency affected discrimination. Analysis of the head motion used in the parameterizations and the subsequent discriminability results suggest that higher frequency predictor artifacts are contributory cues for discriminating the presence of predictive compensation.

  12. Influence of additional language learning on first language learning in children with language disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Carol K S; Law, Thomas; Li, Xin-xin

    2012-01-01

    Multilingualism can bring about various positive outcomes to typically developing children. Its effect on children with language difficulties is not yet clear. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of multilingual learning as a medium of instruction (MOI) on first language (L1) acquisition of children with language disorders (LD). Nineteen Cantonese-speaking students aged 5;8-6;8 who were diagnosed with LD were recruited from a school that used Putonghua (an alternative Chinese dialect) as the MOI when learning Chinese language and were compared with 18 age-and-gender-matched Cantonese-speaking students with LD from a school that used Cantonese as the MOI when learning Chinese language. All the students also learned English (L2) as a subject at school. Proficiency in Cantonese was tested at the beginning and the end of the semester in Grade One in terms of: (1) grammar, (2) expressive vocabulary, (3) auditory textual comprehension, (4) word definition and (5) narration. Mixed-model ANOVAs revealed an effect of time on language proficiency indicating positive gains in both groups. Interaction effects between time and group were not significant. There was a trend that children learning Putonghua showed slightly more improvement in auditory textual comprehension. Proficiency gains were similar across groups. The study found no evidence that a multilingual learning environment hinders the language proficiency in L1 in students who have LD. © 2011 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  13. Will New Metal Heads Restore Mechanical Integrity of Corroded Trunnions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derasari, Aditya; Gold, Jonathan E; Ismaily, Sabir; Noble, Philip C; Incavo, Stephen J

    2017-04-01

    Metal wear and corrosion from modular junctions in total hip arthroplasty can lead to further unwanted surgery. Trunnion tribocorrosion is recognized as an important contributor to failure. This study was performed to determine if new metal heads restore mechanical integrity of the original modular junction after impaction on corroded trunnions, and assess which variables affect stability of the new interface created at revision total hip arthroplasty. Twenty-two trunnions, cobalt-chromium (CoCr) and titanium alloy (TiAIV), (CoCr, n = 12; TiAIV, n = 10) and new metal heads were used, 10 trunnions in pristine condition and 12 with corrosion damage. Test states were performed using an MTS Machine and included the following: 1, Assembly; 2, Disassembly; 3, Assembly; 4, Toggling; and 5, Disassembly. During loading, three-dimensional motion of the head-trunnion junction was measured using a custom jig. There were no statistical differences in the tested mechanical properties between corroded and pristine trunnions implanted with a new metal femoral head. Average micromotion of the head versus trunnion interface was greatest at the start of loading, stabilizing after approximately 50 loading cycles at an average of 30.6 ± 3.2 μm. Corrosion at the trunnion does not disrupt mechanical integrity of the junction when a CoCr head is replaced with a CoCr trunnion. However, increased interface motion of a new metal head on a corroded titanium trunnion requires additional study. The evaluation of ball head size on mechanical integrity of trunnions would also be a potential subject of future investigation, as increasing the ball head size at the time of revision is not uncommon in revisions today. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. 49 CFR 572.112 - Head assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Head assembly. 572.112 Section 572.112... 50th Percentile Male § 572.112 Head assembly. The head assembly consists of the head (drawing 78051-61X...) accelerometers that are mounted in conformance to § 572.36 (c). (a) Test procedure. (1) Soak the head assembly in...

  15. 49 CFR 572.192 - Head assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Head assembly. 572.192 Section 572.192... Dummy, Small Adult Female § 572.192 Head assembly. (a) The head assembly consists of the head (180-1000...) of this section, the head assembly shall meet performance requirements specified in paragraph (c) of...

  16. Coordination of eye and head movements during smooth pursuit in patients with vestibular failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterston, J A; Barnes, G R; Grealy, M A; Luxon, L M

    1992-12-01

    During pursuit of smoothly moving targets with combined eye and head movements in normal subjects, accurate gaze control depends on successful interaction of the vestibular and head movement signals with the ocular pursuit mechanisms. To investigate compensation for loss of the vestibulo-ocular reflex during head-free pursuit in labyrinthine-deficient patients, pursuit performance was assessed and compared under head-fixed and head-free conditions in five patients with isolated bilateral loss of vestibular function. Target motion consisted of predictable and unpredictable pseudo-random waveforms containing the sum of three or four sinusoids. Comparison of slow-phase gaze velocity gains under head-free and head-fixed conditions revealed no significant differences during pursuit of any of the three pseudo-random waveforms. The finding of significant compensatory eye movement during active head movements in darkness in labyrinthine-deficient patients, which were comparable in character and gain to the vestibular eye movement elicited in normal subjects, probably explains the similarity of the head-fixed and head-free responses. In two additional patients with cerebellar degeneration and vestibular failure, no compensatory eye movement response was observed, implying that the cerebellum is necessary for the generation of such responses in labyrinthine-deficient patients.

  17. Complementary Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preisler, Bent

    2009-01-01

    The Danish language debate is dominated by two key concepts: ‘domain loss' and its opposite, ‘parallel languages' (parallelsproglighed). The under­stood reference is to the relationship between Danish and English - i.e. the spread of English at the expense of Danish vs. the coexistence of Danish...... society is everywhere unproblematic. A case in point is Higher Education. I will also argue that the recently proposed solution to ‘domain loss' - Danish and English used ‘in parallel', ‘parallel languages' - because it is unrealistic as well as undesirable as a consistent principle - should be replaced...... and English within relevant ‘domains' of Danish society. In this article I am going to argue that the concept of ‘domain loss' is not theoretically tenable - its usual depiction ranging from the vague to the nonsensical - which is not to say that the relationship between English and Danish within Danish...

  18. Balance Toward Language Mastery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Virginia R Heslinga

    2017-01-01

    .... Augmentative, alternative, interactive, accommodating, and enriching strategies using sign language aid learners in balancing the skills needed to mastery of one language or multiple languages...

  19. Psychometric Assessment of Stereoscopic Head-Mounted Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-29

    environments applicable to both research and training . 15. SUBJECT TERMS Stereo vision, stereoacuity, stereoacuity test, stereoacuity assessment, Head...research and training . INTRODUCTION In 2015, the U.S. Air Force (USAF) School of Aerospace Medicine Operational Based Vision Assessment (OBVA...may be set for primarily aesthetic or computational performance reasons, without regard to specific stereo cues, which may affect the achievable

  20. Goal-directed arm movements change eye-head coordination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, Jeroen B J; Hayhoe, Mary M.; Ballard, Dana H.

    1996-01-01

    We compared the head movements accompanying gaze shifts while our subjects executed different manual operations, requiring gaze shifts of about 30°. The different tasks yielded different latencies between gaze shifts and hand movements, and different maximum velocities of the hand. These changes in

  1. Head Circumferences in Twins with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, Wendy; Cleveland, Sue; Torres, Andrea; Phillips, Jennifer; Cohen, Brianne; Torigoe, Tiffany; Miller, Janet; Fedele, Angie; Collins, Jack; Smith, Karen; Lotspeich, Linda; Croen, Lisa A.; Ozonoff, Sally; Lajonchere, Clara; Grether, Judith K.; Hallmayer, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    To determine the genetic relationship between head circumference (HC) and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). Twin pairs with at least one twin with an ASD were assessed. HCs in affected and unaffected individuals were compared, as were HC correlations in monozygotic and dizygotic pairs. 404 subjects, ages 4-18, were included. 20% of males and 27%…

  2. Computerised tomographic patterns in patients with head injury at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-04-15

    Apr 15, 2011 ... modality in the investigation of these cases. However, literature on this subject ... Materials and Methods: A prospective study involving patients with head injury referred for CT scan from the Accident and Emergency Unit of .... restricted access due to cost, distance to facility/location, and lack of awareness of ...

  3. Sex determination from femoral head diameters in black Malawians ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the sex of black Malawians from femoral head diameters. Design: A retrospective study on patients investigated in three x-ray departments. Setting: Radiographs were collected from the archives of Queen Elizabeth Central, Chikwawa and Balaka hospitals. Subject: X-ray films of 496 pelves of adult ...

  4. Computerised tomographic patterns in patients with head injury at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Head injuries rank high among morbidities due to trauma. Computerised tomography is an important modality in the investigation of these cases. However, literature on this subject in the south.south geopolitical zone of Nigeria is sparse. This study therefore aimed to document the computerized tomographic ...

  5. 28 CFR 0.135 - Functions common to heads of organizational units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... organizational units. 0.135 Section 0.135 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE... Disqualification to Act § 0.135 Functions common to heads of organizational units. Subject to the general supervision and direction of the Attorney General, the head of each organizational unit within the Department...

  6. Effect of Time Management Program on Job Satisfaction for Head Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsabahy, Hanan ELsayed; Sleem, Wafaa Fathi; El Atroush, Hala Gaber

    2015-01-01

    Background: Time management and job satisfaction all related to each other and greatly affect success of organization. Subjects and Methods: The study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a designed program of time management on job satisfaction for head nurses. A Quasi-experimental design was used for a total number of head nurses participated. Two…

  7. Electromyographic activity of rectus capitis posterior minor muscles associated with voluntary retraction of the head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallgren, Richard C; Pierce, Steven J; Prokop, Lawrence L; Rowan, Jacob J; Lee, Angela S

    2014-01-01

    The functional role of rectus capitis posterior minor (RCPm) muscles is not well defined. To the best of our knowledge, electromyographic (EMG) data from RCPm muscles in humans have never been collected and analyzed. To test the null hypothesis that there will be no difference in normalized levels of EMG activity measured from RCPm muscles with the head in a neutral position and with the head in a retracted position. A repeated measures design intended to quantify normalized levels of EMG activity measured from RCPm muscles. Disposable 25-gauge, bipolar fine wire hooked electrodes were used to collect EMG data from both right and left RCPm muscles from 17 asymptomatic subjects. Data were collected while subjects performed five trials with the head maintained in a neutral position; performed three maximal voluntary isometric contraction efforts; performed four trials with the head maintained in a retracted position. Mixed effects beta regression models were used to analyze the data. Normalized EMG activity of RCPm muscles collected with the subject's head held in a retracted position was significantly higher (p<.0001) than normalized EMG activity collected with the subject's head held in a self-selected, neutral position. Rectus capitis posterior minor muscles are active when the head is held in a neutral position and show a significant increase in activity when the head is held in a retracted position. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Kinematical characterization of a basic head-out aquatic exercise during an incremental protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, C.; Teixeira, Genoveva; Costa, M.J.; Marinho, D.A.; Silva, A.J.; Barbosa, Tiago M.

    2010-01-01

    Massive research has been produced throughout the last decades in order to better understand the role of head-out aquatic exercises in populations’ health (Barbosa et al, 2009). Indeed, such studies aimed to characterize the physiological acute and/or chronic response of subjects performing head-out aquatic exercises.

  9. The biological and cultural foundations of language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Morten H; Chater, Nick; Reali, Florencia

    2009-05-01

    A key challenge for theories of language evolution is to explain why language is the way it is and how it came to be that way. It is clear that how we learn and use language is governed by genetic constraints. However, the nature of these innate constraints has been the subject of much debate. Although many accounts of language evolution have emphasized the importance of biological adaptations specific to language, we discuss evidence from computer simulations pointing to strong restrictions on such adaptations. Instead, we argue that processes of cultural evolution have been the primary factor affecting the evolution of linguistic structure, suggesting that the genetic constraints on language largely predate the emergence of language itself.

  10. The Motivational Dimension of Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Motivation is recognized as a vital component in successful second language learning, and has been the subject of intensive research in recent decades. This review focuses on a growing branch of this research effort, that which examines the motivational effects of language teaching. This is pertinent because, despite enhanced mobility and…

  11. Programming language concepts for software developers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sestoft, Peter

    2008-01-01

    languages, and will study the implementation of Java and C# with their underlying platforms, the Java Virtual Machine and .NET Common Language Runtime. We emphasize implementation exercises and experiments. This comes at the expense of classical compiler course subjects such as register allocation...

  12. Neologisms and Idiosyncratic Language in Autistic Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volden, Joanne; Lord, Catherine

    1991-01-01

    This study of 80 autistic (ages 6-18), mentally handicapped, and normal children found that more autistic subjects used neologisms and idiosyncratic language than age- and language-skill-matched control groups. More autistic children used words inappropriately that were neither phonologically nor conceptually related to intended English words than…

  13. Language Muse: Automated Linguistic Activity Generation for English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitin, Madnani; Jill, Burstein; John, Sabatini; Kietha, Biggers; Slava, Andreyev

    2016-01-01

    Current education standards in the U.S. require school students to read and understand complex texts from different subject areas (e.g., social studies). However, such texts usually contain figurative language, complex phrases and sentences, as well as unfamiliar discourse relations. This may present an obstacle to students whose native language…

  14. Native language, spoken language, translation and trade

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Melitz, Jacques; Toubal, Farid

    2014-01-01

    We construct new series for common native language and common spoken language for 195 countries, which we use together with series for common official language and linguistic proximity in order to draw inferences about (1...

  15. Language pedagogy: foreign language teachers’ professional skills

    OpenAIRE

    Коряковцева, Н.

    2013-01-01

    This article looks into foreign language teacher education in plurilingual and pluricultural context; defines the notion and focuses on the characteristics of skills in language pedagogy as part of foreign language teacher professional competence.

  16. Language Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC. Educational Equity Group. Multicultural/Bilingual Div.

    This annotated bibliography which includes all entries into the ERIC system dealing with language maintenance was compiled to show the type of information available to users of the system. The citations deal principally with bilingualism and bilingual education in the United States, Canada, Israel, Ireland, the Pacific islands and Southeast Asia.…

  17. Shared Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochicchio, Daniel; Cole, Shelbi; Ostien, Deborah; Rodriguez, Vanessa; Staples, Megan; Susla, Patricia; Truxaw, Mary

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a process by which seven educators collaboratively engaged in developing a shared language to describe the mathematics pedagogy used to guide whole-class discussions as well as the products of their work. Suggestions are made for how others might engage in similarly productive professional development activities. (Contains 3…

  18. Local language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monique Turkenburg

    2002-01-01

    Original title: Taal lokaal. Children of immigrants living in the Netherlands have for years had the opportunity to receive lessons in their mother tongue at primary school. Since 1998 this has been referred to as minority language teaching (OALT in Dutch), and has been the responsibility

  19. language teachers

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The Le Rosey Institute at Rolle (autumn and spring) and Gstaad (winter) is looking for part-time language teachers of 
Bulgarian, Farsi, Hindi, Korean and Romanian for the start of the autumn term in September 2007. For further details, please contact : www.rosey.ch Please send applications with CVs to job@rosey.ch

  20. Language sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan; Bakker, Dik

    1998-01-01

    This article has two aims: [1] to present a revised version of the sampling method that was originally proposed in 1993 by Rijkhoff, Bakker, Hengeveld and Kahrel, and [2] to discuss a number of other approaches to language sampling in the light of our own method. We will also demonstrate how our...