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Sample records for subject heading gamma

  1. Implementation of a Detailed List of Subject Headings on Mormons and Mormonism within the Library of Congress Subject Heading System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkinshaw, Scott B.; Chang, Stella

    Libraries in Utah have collected large numbers of materials on Mormonism and related topics and have a need to provide more detailed subject headings for these materials which the Library of Congress has lumped together under "Mormons and Mormonism." A list of subject headings which was developed for this purpose by a Committee of the…

  2. User's guide to Sears List of subject headings

    CERN Document Server

    Satija, Mohinder P

    2008-01-01

    This book is a companion to the 19th edition of the Sears List and a complete course in the theory and practice of the List for practitioners, teachers, and learners. The object of this small, practical introduction is to be simple, clear, and illustrative, assuming the reader has little prior knowledge either of the Sears List or of subject headings work in general.

  3. Monte Carlo simulation for dual head gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, Yousif Bashir Soliman

    2015-12-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) simulation technique was used widely in medical physics applications. In nuclear medicine MC was used to design new medical imaging devices such as positron emission tomography (PET), gamma camera and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Also it can be used to study the factors affecting image quality and internal dosimetry, Gate is on of monte Carlo code that has a number of advantages for simulation of SPECT and PET. There is a limit accessibilities in machines which are used in clinics because of the work load of machines. This makes it hard to evaluate some factors effecting machine performance which must be evaluated routinely. Also because of difficulties of carrying out scientific research and training of students, MC model can be optimum solution for the problem. The aim of this study was to use gate monte Carlo code to model Nucline spirit, medico dual head gamma camera hosted in radiation and isotopes center of Khartoum which is equipped with low energy general purpose LEGP collimators. This was used model to evaluate spatial resolution and sensitivity which is important factor affecting image quality and to demonstrate the validity of gate by comparing experimental results with simulation results on spatial resolution. The gate model of Nuclide spirit, medico dual head gamma camera was developed by applying manufacturer specifications. Then simulation was run. In evaluation of spatial resolution the FWHM was calculated from image profile of line source of Tc 99m gammas emitter of energy 140 KeV at different distances from modeled camera head at 5,10,15,20,22,27,32,37 cm and for these distances the spatial resolution was founded to be 5.76, 7.73, 10.7, 13.8, 14.01,16.91, 19.75 and 21.9 mm, respectively. These results showed a decrement of spatial resolution with increase of the distance between object (line source) and collimator in linear manner. FWHM calculated at 10 cm was compared with experimental results. The

  4. Gastrointestinal Physiology During Head Down Tilt Bedrest in Human Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaksman, Z.; Guthienz, J.; Putcha, L.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Gastrointestinal (GI) motility plays a key role in the physiology and function of the GI tract. It directly affects absorption of medications and nutrients taken by mouth, in addition to indirectly altering GI physiology by way of changes in the microfloral composition and biochemistry of the GI tract. Astronauts have reported nausea, loss of appetite and constipation during space flight all of which indicate a reduction in GI motility and function similar to the one seen in chronic bed rest patients. The purpose of this study is to determine GI motility and bacterial proliferation during -6 degree head down tilt bed rest (HTD). Methods: Healthy male and female subjects between the ages of 25-40 participated in a 60 day HTD study protocol. GI transit time (GITT) was determined using lactulose breath hydrogen test and bacterial overgrowth was measured using glucose breath hydrogen test. H. Pylori colonization was determined using C13-urea breath test (UBIT#). All three tests were conducted on 9 days before HDT, and repeated on HDT days 2, 28, 58, and again on day 7 after HDT. Results: GITT increased during HTD compared to the respective ambulatory control values; GITT was significantly lower on day 7 after HTD. A concomitant increase in bacterial colonization was also noticed during HDT starting after approximately 28 days of HDT. However, H. Pylori proliferation was not recorded during HDT as indicated by UBIT#. Conclusion: GITT significantly decreased during HDT with a concomitant increase in the proliferation of GI bacterial flora but not H. pylori.

  5. SPARED RECOGNITION CAPACITY IN ELDERLY AND CLOSED-HEAD-INJURY SUBJECTS WITH CLINICAL MEMORY DEFICITS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spikman, J.M.; Berg, I.J.; Deelman, B.G.

    This study describes the performance of three groups of subjects on a pictorial forced-recognition task, the Hundred Pictures Test. The aim was to determine whether subjects with memory deficits (elderly and closed-head-injured subjects) would perform as well as healthy young subjects, both on

  6. Verification of gamma knife based fractionated radiosurgery with newly developed head-thorax phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisht, Raj Kishor; Kale, Shashank Sharad; Natanasabapathi, Gopishankar; Singh, Manmohan Jit; Agarwal, Deepak; Garg, Ajay; Rath, Goura Kishore; Julka, Pramod Kumar; Kumar, Pratik; Thulkar, Sanjay; Sharma, Bhawani Shankar

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Purpose of the study is to verify the Gamma Knife Extend™ system (ES) based fractionated stereotactic radiosurgery with newly developed head-thorax phantom. Methods: Phantoms are extensively used to measure radiation dose and verify treatment plan in radiotherapy. A human upper body shaped phantom with thorax was designed to simulate fractionated stereotactic radiosurgery using Extend™ system of Gamma Knife. The central component of the phantom aids in performing radiological precision test, dosimetric evaluation and treatment verification. A hollow right circular cylindrical space of diameter 7.0 cm was created at the centre of this component to place various dosimetric devices using suitable adaptors. The phantom is made of poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA), a transparent thermoplastic material. Two sets of disk assemblies were designed to place dosimetric films in (1) horizontal (xy) and (2) vertical (xz) planes. Specific cylindrical adaptors were designed to place thimble ionization chamber inside phantom for point dose recording along xz axis. EBT3 Gafchromic films were used to analyze and map radiation field. The focal precision test was performed using 4 mm collimator shot in phantom to check radiological accuracy of treatment. The phantom head position within the Extend™ frame was estimated using encoded aperture measurement of repositioning check tool (RCT). For treatment verification, the phantom with inserts for film and ion chamber was scanned in reference treatment position using X-ray computed tomography (CT) machine and acquired stereotactic images were transferred into Leksell Gammaplan (LGP). A patient treatment plan with hypo-fractionated regimen was delivered and identical fractions were compared using EBT3 films and in-house MATLAB codes. Results: RCT measurement showed an overall positional accuracy of 0.265 mm (range 0.223 mm–0.343 mm). Gamma index analysis across fractions exhibited close agreement between LGP and film

  7. Flow rates in the head and neck lymphatics after food stimulation in healthy subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thommesen, P.; Buhl, J.; Jansen, K.; Funch-Jensen, P.

    1981-02-01

    In 22 healthy subjects lymph transport flow rates was studied in the head lymphatics after food stimulation, mastication (chewing) and taste. After food stimulation there was a significantly higher transport rate (0.67 meter/hour) than after taste (0.57 meter/hour) and mastication (0.55 meter/hour). The calculation of transport flow rate was independent of quantitative distribution of radioactivity in the head and neck lymphatics, and it could therefore perhaps be of clinical value.

  8. Comparative Study between the "Lista de Encabezamientos de Materia" by Gloria Escamilla and the "Library of Congress Subject Heading" List.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Fernando

    This study shows to what extent Gloria Escamilla's "Lista de Encabezamientos de Materia," the only published Mexican subject heading list, is equivalent to the Library of Congress subject headings (LCSH). A LCSH heading sample is obtained from OCLC's Online Union Catalog. Using the EPIC search from OCLC, 1947 bibliographic records were…

  9. Cumulating the Supplements to the Seventh Edition of LC Subject Headings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy B. Torkington

    1973-12-01

    Full Text Available A description is presented of the project of the University of California Library Automation Program to cumulate the 1966 through 1971 supplements to the Library of Congress Subject Headings. The University of California Institute of Library Research MARC processing software, BIBCON, was used, with specially written programs. The resulting cumulation was edited, printed in book form, and made available to libraries. The final task involved merging six MARC files into one file of over 125,000 records and then printing that file in a format similar to that of LC Subject Headings. The project was a cooperative effort with participation by people from several UC campuses.

  10. Recycling of chlorobutyl rubber compounds subjected of gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scagliusi, Sandra R.; Cardoso, Elizabeth C.L.; Santos, Renato G. dos; Lugao, Ademar B.

    2015-01-01

    In Brazil, as in the world, the correct destination of solid waste and its impacts on the environment are so worrying that have been treated as public policy of the State, leading to behavioral change on the part of business and society. Polymeric materials (plastics and rubbers) comprise a growing proportion of urban and industrial waste sent to landfills. Development of technologies for reducing polymeric residues that are acceptable from an environmental point of view, and which are effective in terms of cost, has proven a difficult challenge due to the inherent complexities of all reuse polymers. To establish more efficient processes for reuse / recycling of polymeric materials remains a challenge throughout the world. Due to ionizing radiation ability to alter the structure and properties of materials and the fact that it is applicable to all types of polymers, irradiation is promising and effective for the management of solid waste which can be used as raw materials or additives chemicals. Halogenated polymers have been used on a large scale in a broad variety of applications, such as tires, spare parts (tubes, tire liners, etc.) and various artifacts (covers, gaskets, etc.). Due to the low unsaturation of chlorobutyl rubber (about 3%), shows significant levels of degradation upon exposure to radiation. The main effect of gamma rays on butyl polymers is the formation of free radicals and the chain scission. This paper aims to introduce a rubber recovery technique chlorobutyl rubber the characterization of non-irradiated and irradiated samples based on the following properties: tensile strength and elongation at break, hardness, and rheological properties. The radiation doses used in the study were degradation range: 0 kGy, 25 kGy, 50 kGy, 100 kGy, 150 kGy and 200 kGy, in order to confirm the feasibility of recycling chlorobutyl rubber. It was observed that doses greater than 100 kGy, the material exhibits a high degree of degradation. Research on rubber

  11. Bibliometric perspectives on medical innovation using the medical subject headings of PubMed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Rotolo, D.; Rafols, I.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple perspectives on the nonlinear processes of medical innovations can be distinguished and combined using the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) of the MEDLINE database. Focusing on three main branches—"diseases," "drugs and chemicals," and "techniques and equipment"—we use base maps and overlay

  12. Flow rates in the head and neck lymphatics after food stimulation in healthy subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thommesen, P.; Buhl, J.; Jansen, K.; Funch-Jensen, P.; Central Hospital Randers; Municipal Hospital Aarhus

    1981-01-01

    In 22 healthy subjects lymph transport flow rates was studied in the head lymphatics after food stimulation, mastication (chewing) and taste. After food stimulation there was a significantly higher transport rate (0.67 meter/hour) than after taste (0.57 meter/hour) and mastication (0.55 meter/hour). The calculation of transport flow rate was independent of quantitative distribution of radioactivity in the head and neck lymphatics, and it could therefore perhaps be of clinical value. (orig.) [de

  13. Blind links, a big challenge in the linked data idea: Analysis of Persian Subject Headings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Sharif

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this survey, Linked data concept as exposing, sharing, and connecting pieces of data, information, and knowledge on the Semantic Web and some potential problems in converting Persian subject headings (PSHs Records into linked data were discussed. A data set (11233 records of PSHs was searched in three information retrieval systems including National Library of Iran (NLI online catalog, Library of Congress (LC online catalog and NOSA books. Correct links between Persian and English subject headings in the 9519 common records of two catalogs were recorded. The results indicate that the links between Persian and English subjects in 20% of records were failed. The maximum error was associated with the anonymous databases (6/7 % in NLI online catalog. It is recommended to preprocess the PSHs records before any conversion projects. It seems that, during the preprocessing, the potential errors could be identified and corrected.

  14. Vestibulo-ocular reflex gain values in the suppression head impulse test of healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey-Martinez, Jorge; Thomas-Arrizabalaga, Izaskun; Espinosa-Sanchez, Juan Manuel; Batuecas-Caletrio, Angel; Trinidad-Ruiz, Gabriel; Matiño-Soler, Eusebi; Perez-Fernandez, Nicolas

    2018-02-15

    To assess whether there are differences in vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) gain for suppression head impulse (SHIMP) and head impulse (HIMP) video head impulse test paradigms, and if so, what are their causes. Prospective multicenter observational double-blind nonrandomized clinical study was performed by collecting 80 healthy subjects from four reference hospitals. SHIMP data was postprocessed to eliminate impulses in which early SHIMP saccades were detected. Differences between HIMP and SHIMP VOR gain values were statistically evaluated. Head impulse maximum velocity, gender, age, direction of impulse, and hospital center were considered as possible influential factors. A small significant statistical difference between HIMP and SHIMP VOR gain values was found on repeated measures analysis of variance (-0.05 ± 0.006, P gain values and did not find influence between gain values differences and maximum head impulse velocity. Both HIMP and SHIMP VOR gain values were significant lower (-0.09, P gain values not adequately explained by known gain modification factors. The persistence of this slight but significant difference indicates that there are more factors causing lower SHIMP VOR gain values. This difference must to be considered in further studies as well as in the clinical SHIMP testing protocols. We hypothesized that VOR phasic response inhibition could be the underlying cause of this difference. IIb. Laryngoscope, 2018. © 2018 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  15. Statistical Analysis of the Association Between Subject Headings and Their Corresponding Class Notations in Science and Technology Monographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosh-khui, Abolghasem

    This study investigates the degree of relationship between scientific and technical subject headings and their corresponding class notations in the Dewey Decimal (DDC) and Library of Congress Classification (LCC) systems. The degree of association between a subject heading and its corresponding class of notation or notations is measured by…

  16. F-18 FDG PET with coincidence detection, dual-head gamma camera, initial experience in oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, J.M.G.; Pocock, N.; Quach, T.; Camden, B.M.C. [Liverpool Health Services, Liverpool, NSW (Australia). Department of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Ultrasound

    1998-06-01

    Full text: The development of Co-incidence Detection (CD) in gamma camera technology has allowed the use of positron radiopharmaceuticals in clinical practice without dedicated PET facilities. We report our initial experience of this technology in Oncological applications. All patients were administered 200 MBq of F- 18 FDG intravenously in a fasting state, with serum glucose below 8.9 mmol/L., and hydration well maintained. Tomography was performed using an ADAC Solus Molecular Co-incidence Detection (MCD) dual-head gamma camera, 60 minutes after administration and immediately after voiding. Tomography of the torso required up to three collections depending on the length of the patient, with each collection requiring 32 steps of 40 second duration, and a 50% overlap. Tomography of the brain required a single collection with 32 steps of 80 seconds. Patients were scanned in the supine position. An iterative reconstruction algorithm was employed without attenuation correction. All patients had histologically confirmed malignancy. Scan findings were correlated with results of all conventional diagnostic imaging procedures that were pertinent to the evaluation and management of each individual patient`s disease. Correlation with tumour type and treatment status was also undertaken. F-18 FDG uptake as demonstrated by CD-PET was increased in tumour bearing sites. The degree of increased uptake varied with tumour type and with treatment status. Our initial experience with CD-PET has been very encouraging, and has led us to undertake prospective short and long term studies to define its role in oncology

  17. Thermoluminescent response of aluminium oxide thin films subject to gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrieta, A.; Escobar A, L.; Camps, E.; Villagran, E.; Gonzalez, P.R

    2006-07-01

    The thermoluminescent (TL) properties of amorphous aluminium oxide thin films (thicknesses as low as 0.3 {mu}m) subjected to gamma (Co-60) irradiation are reported. Aluminium oxide thin films were prepared by laser ablation from an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} target using a Nd: YAG laser with emission at the fundamental line. The films were exposed to gamma radiation (Co-60) in order to study their TL response. Thermoluminescence glow curves exhibited two peaks at 110 and 176 C. The high temperature peak shows good stability and 30% fading in the first 5 days after irradiation. A linear relationship between absorbed dose and the thermoluminescent response for doses span from 150 mGy to 100 Gy was observed. These results suggest that aluminium oxide thin films are suitable for detection and monitoring of gamma radiation. (Author)

  18. Channel heads in mountain catchments subject to human impact - The Skrzyczne range in Southern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrońska-Wałach, Dominika; Żelazny, Mirosław; Małek, Stanisław; Krakowian, Katarzyna; Dąbek, Natalia

    2018-05-01

    Channel heads in mountain catchments are increasingly influenced by human activity. The disturbance of mountain headwater areas in moderate latitudes by the clearing of trees and the associated logging, road building and hydrotechnical constructions contribute to changes in the water cycle and consequently may induce a change in channel head development. Here we examine channel heads in the Beskid Śląski Mts., one of the areas most affected by ecological disaster in the Polish Flysch Carpathians. An ecological disaster associated with the decline of spruce trees in the 1980s and 1990s caused a substantial decrease (of about 50%) in the land area occupied by spruce forest in the Beskid Śląski Mts. As a result, headwater areas were subject to multidirectional changes in the environment. The purpose of this paper is to determine the detailed characteristics of channel heads currently developing in the analyzed headwater areas, as well as to identify independent factors that affect the evolution of channel heads. Geomorphological mapping was conducted in 2012 in the vicinity of springs in the study area. One-way ANOVA was used to determine the significance of differences between mean values calculated for groups identified based on: i) geomorphologic processes (hollows with rock veneer - h, spring niches - sn, gullies - g), ii) location vs. transformation of channel heads (forested areas vs., deforested areas with road constructions). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to determine the structure and general patterns associated with relationships between the parameters of a channel head and its contribution area, as well as to identify and interpret new (orthogonal) spaces defined using distinct factors. As far as we know, this kind of approach has been never applied before. A total of 80 channel heads surrounding 104 springs were surveyed close to the main ridge in the study area. A total of 14 morphometric parameters were taken into account in this study

  19. Trismus following different treatment modalities for head and neck cancer: a systematic review of subjective measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Sook Y; Mcleod, Robert W J; Elhassan, Hassan A

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this review was to compare systematically the subjective measure of trismus between different interventions to treat head and neck cancer, particularly those of the oropharynx. Using The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) Guidelines, Six databases were searched for the text using various terms which include "oropharyngeal/head and neck cancer", "trismus/mouth opening" and the various treatment modalities. Included in the review were clinical studies (> or =10 patients). Three observers independently assessed the papers identified. Among the six studies reviewed, five showed a significantly worst outcome with regard to the quality-of-life questionnaire scores for a radiotherapy or surgery and radiotherapy (RT) ± chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy when compared to surgery alone. Only one study showed no significant difference between surgery alone and other treatment modalities. Subjective quality-of-life measures are a concurrent part of modern surgical practice. Although subjective measures were utilised to measure post operative trismus successfully, there was no consensus as to which treatment modality had overall better outcomes, with conflicting studies in keeping with the current debate in this field. Larger and higher quality studies are needed to compare all three treatment modalities.

  20. PET with a dual-head coincidence gamma camera in head and neck cancer: A comparison with computed tomography and dedicated PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimny, M.

    2001-01-01

    Positron emission tomography with 18 F-fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG PET) is a promising imaging tool for detecting and staging of primary or recurrent head and neck cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate a dual-head gamma camera modified for coincidence detection (KGK-PET) in comparison to computed tomography (CT) and dedicated PET (dPET). 50 patients with known or suspected primary or recurrent head and neck cancer were enrolled. 32 patients underwent KGK-PET and dPET using a one-day protocol. The sensitivity for the detection of primary/ recurrent head and neck cancer for KGK-PET and CT was 80% and 54%, respectively, specificity was 73% and 82%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity for the detection of lymph node metastases based on neck sides with KGK-PET was 71% (CT: 65%) and 88% (CT: 89%) respectively. In comparison to dPET, KGK-PET revealed concordant results in 32/32 patients with respect to primary tumor/recurrent disease and in 55/60 evaluated neck sides. All involved neck sides that were missed by KGK-PET were also negative with dPET. These results indicate that in patients with head and neck cancer KGK-PET reveals information, that are similar to dPET and complementary to CT. (orig.) [de

  1. Brain Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography in Anosmic Subjects Ater Closed Head Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roozbeh Banan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Anosmia following head trauma is relatively common and in many cases is persistent and irreversible. The ability to objectively measure such a decline in smelling, for both clinical and medicolegal goals, is very important. The aim of this study was to find results of brain Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT in anosmic subjects after closed head trauma. This case-control cross sectional study was conducted in a tertiary referral University Hospital. The brain perfusion state of nineteen anosmic patients and thirteen normal controls was evaluated by means of the SPECT with 99mtc- ECD infusion- before and after olfactory stimulation. The orbitofrontal lobe of the brain was assumed as the region of interest and changes in perfusion of this area before and after the stimulations were compared in two groups. The mean of brain perfusion in controls before and after the stimulation was 8.26% ± 0.19% and 9.89% ± 0.54%, respectively (P < 0.0001. Among patients group, these quantities were 7.97% ± 1.05% and 8.49% ± 1.5%, respectively (P < 0.004. The difference between all the measures in cases and controls were statistically significant (P < 0.0001. There were no differences in age and sex between two groups. The brain SPECT is an objective technique suitable for evaluating anosmia following the head trauma and it may be used with other diagnostic modalities

  2. Value of coincidence gamma camera PET for diagnosing head and neck tumors: functional imaging and image coregistration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresel, S.; Brinkbaeumer, K.; Schmid, R.; Hahn, K.

    2001-01-01

    54 patients suffering from head and neck tumors (30 m, 24 f, age: 32-67 years) were examined using dedicated PET and coincidence gamma camera PET after injection of 185-350 MBq [ 18 F]FDG. Examinations were carried out on the dedicated PET first (Siemens ECAT Exact HR+) followed by a scan on the coincidence gamma camera PET (Picker Prism 2000 XP-PCD, Marconi Axis g-PET 2 AZ). Dedicated PET was acquired in 3D mode, coincidence gamma camera PET was performed in list mode using an axial filter. Reconstruction of data was performed iteratively on both, dedicated PET and coincidence gamma camera PET. All patients received a CT scan in multislice technique (Siemens Somatom Plus 4, Marconi MX 8000). Image coregistration was performed on an Odyssey workstation (Marconi). All findings have been verified by the gold standard histology or in case of negative histology by follow-up. Results: Using dedicated PET the primary or recurrent lesion was correctly diagnosed in 47/48 patients, using coincidence gamma camera PET in 46/48 patients and using CT in 25/48 patients. Metastatic disease in cervical lymph nodes was diagnosed in 17/18 patients with dedicated PET, in 16/18 patients with coincidence gamma camera PET and in 15/18 with CT. False-positive results with regard to lymph node metastasis were seen with one patient for dedicated PET and hybrid PET, respectively, and with 18 patients for CT. In a total of 11 patients unknown metastatic lesions were seen with dedicated PET and with coincidence gamma camera PET elsewhere in the body (lung: n = 7, bone: n = 3, liver: n = 1). Additional malignant disease other than the head and neck tumor was found in 4 patients. (orig.) [de

  3. Evaluation of DVH-based treatment plan verification in addition to gamma passing rates for head and neck IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, Ruurd; Wauben, David J.L.; Groot, Martijn de; Steenbakkers, Roel J.H.M.; Bijl, Henk P.; Godart, Jeremy; Veld, Aart A. van’t; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Korevaar, Erik W.

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose: Treatment plan verification of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is generally performed with the gamma index (GI) evaluation method, which is difficult to extrapolate to clinical implications. Incorporating Dose Volume Histogram (DVH) information can compensate for this. The aim of this study was to evaluate DVH-based treatment plan verification in addition to the GI evaluation method for head and neck IMRT. Materials and methods: Dose verifications of 700 subsequent head and neck cancer IMRT treatment plans were categorised according to gamma and DVH-based action levels. Fractionation dependent absolute dose limits were chosen. The results of the gamma- and DVH-based evaluations were compared to the decision of the medical physicist and/or radiation oncologist for plan acceptance. Results: Nearly all treatment plans (99.7%) were accepted for treatment according to the GI evaluation combined with DVH-based verification. Two treatment plans were re-planned according to DVH-based verification, which would have been accepted using the evaluation alone. DVH-based verification increased insight into dose delivery to patient specific structures increasing confidence that the treatment plans were clinically acceptable. Moreover, DVH-based action levels clearly distinguished the role of the medical physicist and radiation oncologist within the Quality Assurance (QA) procedure. Conclusions: DVH-based treatment plan verification complements the GI evaluation method improving head and neck IMRT-QA

  4. Effect of gamma irradiation on the long headed flour beetle latheticus oryzae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Z A

    1986-12-31

    The application of gamma radiation for controlling insects infesting grain and grain products appears promising and has some advantages over conventional insect control methods. The results arrived at from these studies could be summarized in the following points: A- Effect of gamma irradiation on the different developmental stages of L. oryzae.B-Effect of gamma irradiation on mating competitiveness.C- The effect of gamma radiation on restoration of sperm viability. 16 tabs., 10 figs., 92 refs.

  5. Experimental strength evaluation of cylinders with a flat head subjected to internal pressure at elevated temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Mitsuru; Makino, Yutaka

    1978-01-01

    The experiments using component test models such as a cylinder with a flat head and F.E.M. elastic analyses to investigate the secondary stress, peak stress and creep-fatigue interaction effect are described. The comparison of uniaxial stress with multiaxial stress about deformation and strength at elevated temperatures are also described here. The results of experiments and analysis are summarized as follows: (1) The maximum stress as the equivalent stress is the most suitable for the prediction of the creep failure life of cylinders subjected to internal pressure using the uniaxial creep test results. And the Mises's equivalent stress is the suitable for this prediction using the data of the onset of the uniaxial tertiary creep. (2) In the creep characteristics of the cylinder there, is no tertiary creep stage, and the rupture elongation of the cylinder accords with the elongation of the onset of the uniaxial tertiary creep. (3) It was recognized that the secondary stress occurred at the corner of the cylinder with a flat head has a little effect on creep and creep-fatigue life. (4) The life reduction effect due to the creep-fatigue interaction around the corner was recognized by the linear damage rule and compared with the value of Code Case 1592. (5) A difference of failure modes by imposed conditions for vessel with the size-discontinuity section was recognized by the cyclic internal pressure tests with hold time. (author)

  6. Gastric emptying time in normal subjects using /sup 51/Cr and a gamma camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claure, H [Hospital del Salvador, Santiago de Chile; Calderon, C; Braunschweig, T; Diaz, G

    1974-12-01

    Gastric emptying time of a meal consisting of 2 eggs, 50 g of white bread, and 300 ml of milk, was measured in 10 normal subjects, 5 males and 5 females, with an average age of 34.7 years. 200 uCi of Cr-51 were added to the meal and external counting was performed using a ..gamma.. camera. The rate of gastric emptying was estimated by the decrease in radiation counts over the gastric area. In 68.6 percent of the subjects the mean gastric emptying time was 60 min. The average curve showed a complex exponential slope with 2 distinct phases: a fast one between 0 and 35 min and a slow one between 40 and 60 min. These results suggest that a normal gastric emptying time consists of 2 different rate phases when a meal of mixed consistency (liquid and solid) is ingested.

  7. Metab2MeSH: annotating compounds with medical subject headings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartor, Maureen A; Ade, Alex; Wright, Zach; States, David; Omenn, Gilbert S; Athey, Brian; Karnovsky, Alla

    2012-05-15

    Progress in high-throughput genomic technologies has led to the development of a variety of resources that link genes to functional information contained in the biomedical literature. However, tools attempting to link small molecules to normal and diseased physiology and published data relevant to biologists and clinical investigators, are still lacking. With metabolomics rapidly emerging as a new omics field, the task of annotating small molecule metabolites becomes highly relevant. Our tool Metab2MeSH uses a statistical approach to reliably and automatically annotate compounds with concepts defined in Medical Subject Headings, and the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary for biomedical concepts. These annotations provide links from compounds to biomedical literature and complement existing resources such as PubChem and the Human Metabolome Database.

  8. Buckling calculations with the CEASEMT system for elliptical heads subjected to an internal pressure. Comparison with the Saclay experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bung, Hariddh; Alix, Michel; Hoffmann, Alain.

    1980-06-01

    In this paper, Buckling calculations with the CEASEMT System (INCA) are compared with experimental results obtained on elliptical heads subjected to an internal pressure. Tests were performed with 18 ellipsoidal heads welded on cylinders made of carbon steel A 36-401, stainless steel Z6CN18-09 and aluminium-magnesium alloys (AG3). Experimental data are higher than calculated data, this leads to a good safety factor [fr

  9. Characterizing head motion in three planes during combined visual and base of support disturbances in healthy and visually sensitive subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshner, E A; Dhaher, Y

    2008-07-01

    Multiplanar environmental motion could generate head instability, particularly if the visual surround moves in planes orthogonal to a physical disturbance. We combined sagittal plane surface translations with visual field disturbances in 12 healthy (29-31 years) and 3 visually sensitive (27-57 years) adults. Center of pressure (COP), peak head angles, and RMS values of head motion were calculated and a three-dimensional model of joint motion was developed to examine gross head motion in three planes. We found that subjects standing quietly in front of a visual scene translating in the sagittal plane produced significantly greater (pplane of platform motion significantly increased (phistory of vestibular disorder produced large, delayed compensatory head motion. Orthogonal head motions were significantly greater in visually sensitive than in healthy subjects in the dark (pplanes orthogonal to the direction of a physical perturbation. These results suggest that the mechanisms controlling head orientation in space are distinct from those that control trunk orientation in space. These behaviors would have been missed if only COP data were considered. Data suggest that rehabilitation training can be enhanced by combining visual and mechanical perturbation paradigms.

  10. Interpretation of Gamma Index for Quality Assurance of Simultaneously Integrated Boost (SIB) IMRT Plans for Head and Neck Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiq, Maria; Atiq, Atia; Iqbal, Khalid; Shamsi, Quratul ain; Andleeb, Farah; Buzdar, Saeed Ahmad

    2017-12-01

    Objective: The Gamma Index is prerequisite to estimate point-by-point difference between measured and calculated dose distribution in terms of both Distance to Agreement (DTA) and Dose Difference (DD). This study aims to inquire what percentage of pixels passing a certain criteria assure a good quality plan and suggest gamma index as efficient mechanism for dose verification of Simultaneous Integrated Boost Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy plans. Method: In this study, dose was calculated for 14 head and neck patients and IMRT Quality Assurance was performed with portal dosimetry using the Eclipse treatment planning system. Eclipse software has a Gamma analysis function to compare measured and calculated dose distribution. Plans of this study were deemed acceptable when passing rate was 95% using tolerance for Distance to agreement (DTA) as 3mm and Dose Difference (DD) as 5%. Result and Conclusion: Thirteen cases pass tolerance criteria of 95% set by our institution. Confidence Limit for DD is 9.3% and for gamma criteria our local CL came out to be 2.0% (i.e., 98.0% passing). Lack of correlation was found between DD and γ passing rate with R2 of 0.0509. Our findings underline the importance of gamma analysis method to predict the quality of dose calculation. Passing rate of 95% is achieved in 93% of cases which is adequate level of accuracy for analyzed plans thus assuring the robustness of SIB IMRT treatment technique. This study can be extended to investigate gamma criteria of 5%/3mm for different tumor localities and to explore confidence limit on target volumes of small extent and simple geometry.

  11. Dual-head gamma camera system for intraoperative localization of radioactive seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenali, B; Viergever, M A; Gilhuijs, K G A; De Jong, H W A M; Beijst, C; Dickerscheid, D B M

    2015-01-01

    Breast-conserving surgery is a standard option for the treatment of patients with early-stage breast cancer. This form of surgery may result in incomplete excision of the tumor. Iodine-125 labeled titanium seeds are currently used in clinical practice to reduce the number of incomplete excisions. It seems likely that the number of incomplete excisions can be reduced even further if intraoperative information about the location of the radioactive seed is combined with preoperative information about the extent of the tumor. This can be combined if the location of the radioactive seed is established in a world coordinate system that can be linked to the (preoperative) image coordinate system. With this in mind, we propose a radioactive seed localization system which is composed of two static ceiling-suspended gamma camera heads and two parallel-hole collimators. Physical experiments and computer simulations which mimic realistic clinical situations were performed to estimate the localization accuracy (defined as trueness and precision) of the proposed system with respect to collimator-source distance (ranging between 50 cm and 100 cm) and imaging time (ranging between 1 s and 10 s). The goal of the study was to determine whether or not a trueness of 5 mm can be achieved if a collimator-source distance of 50 cm and imaging time of 5 s are used (these specifications were defined by a group of dedicated breast cancer surgeons). The results from the experiments indicate that the location of the radioactive seed can be established with an accuracy of 1.6 mm  ±  0.6 mm if a collimator-source distance of 50 cm and imaging time of 5 s are used (these experiments were performed with a 4.5 cm thick block phantom). Furthermore, the results from the simulations indicate that a trueness of 3.2 mm or less can be achieved if a collimator-source distance of 50 cm and imaging time of 5 s are used (this trueness was achieved for all 14 breast phantoms which

  12. Combined effect of head down tilt (HDT) and gamma radiation on the higher nervous activity of the rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shtemberg, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    The paper deals with a combined effect of 30-day head down tilt (HDT) and gamma-radiation at a dose of 3 Gy on the higher nervous activity of the rats. The 30-day HDT disturbs the process of forming the motor-drinking differentiated conditioned reflex coming to a reduction of internal inhibition, generalization and sluggishness of a stimulation process. Functionally, these processes are reflected by a behavioral pattern shifting to stable stereotype impeding the formation of differentiated inhibition. Against HDT the unidirectional gamma-radiation exposure increases this effects. In some cases, it leads to blocking the adaptational procesess showing in the development of neurotic responses or deep, beyond the limits, inhibition

  13. Protective role of coriandrum sativum oily extracts on ehrlich tumour bearing mice subjected to gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sayed Aly, S.M.

    2000-01-01

    This study was planned to evaluate the potency of coriandrum, sativum oily extract [in a dose of 1 mg/kg body weight; for six successive doses] as a chemopreventive agent against solid ehrlich tumour transplanted to the thigh of the left leg of mice subjected or not to gamma irradiation. The protective role of coriander oil was assessed through studying the level of serum phosphorus, calcium, prostaglandins, and anti-thyroid antibodies levels. Meanwhile, the content of cholesterol and triacylglycerols both in hepatic and tumor tissues were also measured. The levels of serum calcium ions revealed significant decline in the tested groups as compared with the control ones. Measurements of serum PGE 2 and anti-thyroid antibodies levels exhibited significant fluctuated changes as compared with the control levels. Serum phosphorus levels induced only non-significant changes. The contents of cholesterol both in hepatic and tumor tissues induced significant decline in the tested proups as compared with the control ones

  14. Rapid evaluation of FDG imaging alternatives using head-to-head comparisons of full ring and gamma camera based PET scanners- a systematic review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haslinghuis-Bajan, L.M.; Lingen, A. van; Mijnhout, G.S.; Teule, G.J.J. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Vrije Univ. Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hooft, L. [Dept. of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Vrije Univ. Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Tulder, M. van [Dept. of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Vrije Univ. Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Inst. for Research in Extramural Medicine, Vrije Univ., Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Deville, W. [Inst. for Research in Extramural Medicine, Vrije Univ., Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hoekstra, O.S. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Vrije Univ. Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Dept. of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Vrije Univ. Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2002-10-01

    Aim: While FDG full ring PET (FRPET) has been gradually accepted in oncology, the role of the cheaper gamma camera based alternatives (GCPET) is less clear. Since technology is evolving rapidly, ''tracker trials'' would be most helpful to provide a first approximation of the relative merits of these alternatives. As difference in scanner sensitivity is the key variable, head-to-head comparison with FRPET is an attractive study design. This systematic review summarises such studies. Methods: Nine studies were identified until July 1, 2000. Two observers assessed the methodological quality (Cochrane criteria), and extracted data. Results: The studies comprised a variety of tumours and indications. The reported GC- and FRPET agreement for detection of malignant lesions ranged from 55 to 100%, but with methodological limitations (blinding, standardisation, limited patient spectrum). Mean lesion diameter was 2.9 cm (SD 1.8), with only about 20% <1.5 cm. The 3 studies with the highest quality reported concordances of 74-79%, for the studied lesion spectrum. Contrast at GCPET was lower than that of FRPET, contrast and detection agreement were positively related. Logistic regression analysis suggested that pre-test indicators might be used to predict FRPET-GCPET concordance. Conclusion: In spite of methodological limitations, ''first generation'' GCPET devices detected sufficient FRPET positive lesions to allow prospective evaluation in clinical situations where the impact of FRPET is not confined to detection of small lesions (<1.5 cm). The efficiency of head-to-head comparative studies would benefit from application in a clinically relevant patient spectrum, with proper blinding and standardisation of acquisition procedures. (orig.)

  15. Transforming the Medical Subject Headings into Linked Data: Creating the Authorized Version of MeSH in RDF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushman, Barbara; Anderson, David; Fu, Gang

    In February 2014 the National Library of Medicine formed the Linked Data Infrastructure Working Group to investigate the potential for publishing linked data, determine best practices for publishing linked data, and prioritize linked data projects, beginning with transforming the Medical Subject Headings as a linked data pilot. This article will review the pilot project to convert the Medical Subject Headings from XML to RDF. It will discuss the collaborative process, the technical and organizational issues tackled, and the future of linked data at the library.

  16. Improving information retrieval using Medical Subject Headings Concepts: a test case on rare and chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmoni, Stéfan J; Soualmia, Lina F; Letord, Catherine; Jaulent, Marie-Christine; Griffon, Nicolas; Thirion, Benoît; Névéol, Aurélie

    2012-07-01

    As more scientific work is published, it is important to improve access to the biomedical literature. Since 2000, when Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Concepts were introduced, the MeSH Thesaurus has been concept based. Nevertheless, information retrieval is still performed at the MeSH Descriptor or Supplementary Concept level. The study assesses the benefit of using MeSH Concepts for indexing and information retrieval. Three sets of queries were built for thirty-two rare diseases and twenty-two chronic diseases: (1) using PubMed Automatic Term Mapping (ATM), (2) using Catalog and Index of French-language Health Internet (CISMeF) ATM, and (3) extrapolating the MEDLINE citations that should be indexed with a MeSH Concept. Type 3 queries retrieve significantly fewer results than type 1 or type 2 queries (about 18,000 citations versus 200,000 for rare diseases; about 300,000 citations versus 2,000,000 for chronic diseases). CISMeF ATM also provides better precision than PubMed ATM for both disease categories. Using MeSH Concept indexing instead of ATM is theoretically possible to improve retrieval performance with the current indexing policy. However, using MeSH Concept information retrieval and indexing rules would be a fundamentally better approach. These modifications have already been implemented in the CISMeF search engine.

  17. Comparison of techniques for morphologic evaluation of glycerol-preserved human skim subjected to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bringel, Fabiana de A.; Isaac, Cesar; Herson, Marisa R.; Freitas, Anderson Z. de; Martinho Junior, Antonio C.; Mathor, Monica B.

    2011-01-01

    Extensive skin lesions expose the body to damaging agents, which makes spontaneous regeneration difficult and, in many cases, leads patient to death. In such cases, if there are no donating areas for auto graft, allografts can be used. In this type of graft, tissue is processed in tissue banks, where it can be subjected to radiosterilization. According to in vitro studies, gamma radiation, in doses higher than 25 kGy, causes breakdown of collagen I fibrils in the skin preserved in glycerol at 85% and this change influences fibroblast migration and deposition of new collagen. In order to assess if the alterations observed in vitro, would compromise in vivo use, transplants of human tissue, irradiated or not, were performed in Nude mice. After the surgery the skins of the mice was subjected to macroscopic analysis on the 3 rd , 7 th , 21 st and 90 th days; optical coherence tomography on the 90 th day and histological assay on the 3 rd , 7 th , 21 st days to compare the results of the repair process among the techniques, considering that the OCT allows in vivo and not destructive morphological analysis. According to the results obtained through OCT it was possible to observe a more organized repair process in the animals which received irradiated grafts (25 and 50 kGy) if compared to unirradiated grafts. It was not possible to observe such phenomena through macroscopic or histological evaluation. (author)

  18. Comparison of techniques for morphologic evaluation of glycerol-preserved human skim subjected to gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bringel, Fabiana de A. [Faculty of Humanities, Economic and Health Sciences of Araguaina ITPAC (FAHESA/ITPAC/TO) Araguaina, TO (Brazil); Isaac, Cesar [Faculty of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo (FMUSP/SP) Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Herson, Marisa R., E-mail: marisah@vifm.org [Tissue Bank of Victoria, Victoria (Australia); Freitas, Anderson Z. de; Martinho Junior, Antonio C.; Mathor, Monica B., E-mail: azanardi@ipen.br, E-mail: mathor@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Radiation Technology Centre; Oliveira, Sergio F. de [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo (ICB-USP/SP), SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Extensive skin lesions expose the body to damaging agents, which makes spontaneous regeneration difficult and, in many cases, leads patient to death. In such cases, if there are no donating areas for auto graft, allografts can be used. In this type of graft, tissue is processed in tissue banks, where it can be subjected to radiosterilization. According to in vitro studies, gamma radiation, in doses higher than 25 kGy, causes breakdown of collagen I fibrils in the skin preserved in glycerol at 85% and this change influences fibroblast migration and deposition of new collagen. In order to assess if the alterations observed in vitro, would compromise in vivo use, transplants of human tissue, irradiated or not, were performed in Nude mice. After the surgery the skins of the mice was subjected to macroscopic analysis on the 3{sup rd}, 7{sup th}, 21{sup st} and 90{sup th} days; optical coherence tomography on the 90{sup th} day and histological assay on the 3{sup rd}, 7{sup th}, 21{sup st} days to compare the results of the repair process among the techniques, considering that the OCT allows in vivo and not destructive morphological analysis. According to the results obtained through OCT it was possible to observe a more organized repair process in the animals which received irradiated grafts (25 and 50 kGy) if compared to unirradiated grafts. It was not possible to observe such phenomena through macroscopic or histological evaluation. (author)

  19. Different event-related patterns of gamma-band power in brain waves of fast- and slow-reacting subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokeit, H; Makeig, S

    1994-01-01

    Fast- and slow-reacting subjects exhibit different patterns of gamma-band electroencephalogram (EEG) activity when responding as quickly as possible to auditory stimuli. This result appears to confirm long-standing speculations of Wundt that fast- and slow-reacting subjects produce speeded reactions in different ways and demonstrates that analysis of event-related changes in the amplitude of EEG activity recorded from the human scalp can reveal information about event-related brain processes unavailable using event-related potential measures. Time-varying spectral power in a selected (35- to 43-Hz) gamma frequency band was averaged across trials in two experimental conditions: passive listening and speeded reacting to binaural clicks, forming 40-Hz event-related spectral responses. Factor analysis of between-subject event-related spectral response differences split subjects into two near-equal groups composed of faster- and slower-reacting subjects. In faster-reacting subjects, 40-Hz power peaked near 200 ms and 400 ms poststimulus in the react condition, whereas in slower-reacting subjects, 40-Hz power just before stimulus delivery was larger in the react condition. These group differences were preserved in separate averages of relatively long and short reaction-time epochs for each group. gamma-band (20-60 Hz)-filtered event-related potential response averages did not differ between the two groups or conditions. Because of this and because gamma-band power in the auditory event-related potential is small compared with the EEG, the observed event-related spectral response features must represent gamma-band EEG activity reliably induced by, but not phase-locked to, experimental stimuli or events. PMID:8022783

  20. Effect of fast neutrons and gamma rays treatments on heading date, plant height and tiller number in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arain, M.A.

    1978-01-01

    Homogeneous seeds of six varieties of bread wheat, Triticum aestivum L. (2n = 6x = 42) were treated with fast neutrons and gamma rays. The irradiated seeds along with respective controls were grown in field plots during 1973-74 and heating date, plant height and tiller number studied. Varieties used in the present study varied significantly (P >=0.01) for all the characters. Treatment mean squares were highly significant for plant height and tillers per plant; whereas, the varieties x treatments interaction mean squares were significant only for plant height (P >= 0.05). Irradiated treatments exhibited significant reductions in plant height and tiller number than respective controls. However, heading was delayed among the irradiated material when compared with respective controls. Reduction in plant height was more pronounced after the treatments of gamma rays than the fast neutrons. The maximum and minimum shifts in mean values of these characters were observed in 20 kR (gamma rays) and Nf 300 RADS (fast neutrons) treatments, respectively. (author)

  1. A morphological comparison of the piriform sinuses in head-on and head-rotated views of seated subjects using cone-beam computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashina, Atsushi; Tanimoto, Keiji; Ohtsuka, Masahiko; Nagasaki, Toshikazu; Sutthiprapaporn, Pipop; Iida, Yukihiro; Katsumata, Akitoshi

    2008-01-01

    Food flow in the oropharynx changes when the head is rotated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate morphological differences in the upper and lower piriform sinuses in head-on (HO) versus head-rotated (HR) positions. Ten healthy adult volunteers with no previous history of dysphagia were subjected to cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in the HO and HR positions. Binary CBCT images were created at 50% gray scale to examine morphological changes in the lower piriform sinuses. Upon rotation to the right, the cross-sectional area of the left lower piriform sinus increased significantly (P=0.037). The depth of the right lower piriform sinus also increased significantly (P=0.011) upon rotation. The volume of the lower piriform sinuses increased significantly on both sides (right, P=0.009; left, P=0.013). The upper piriform sinuses acquired a teardrop shape, with the rotated side narrowed and opposite side enlarged. These results suggest that changes in food flow during head rotation result mainly from changes in the size and shape of the upper piriform sinuses. (author)

  2. Gamma Knife radiosurgery of olfactory groove meningiomas provides a method to preserve subjective olfactory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gande, Abhiram; Kano, Hideyuki; Bowden, Gregory; Mousavi, Seyed H; Niranjan, Ajay; Flickinger, John C; Lunsford, L Dade

    2014-02-01

    Anosmia is a common outcome after resection of olfactory groove meningioma(s) (OGM) and for some patients represents a significant disability. To evaluate long term tumor control rates and preservation of subjective olfaction after Gamma Knife (GK) stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) of OGM. We performed a retrospective chart review and telephone assessments of 41 patients who underwent GK SRS between 1987 and 2008. Clinical outcomes were stratified by full, partial or no subjective olfaction, whereas tumor control was assessed by changes in volume greater or lesser than 25%. The median clinical and imaging follow-up were 76 and 65 months, respectively. Prior to SRS, 19 (46%) patients had surgical resections and two (5%) had received fractionated radiation therapy. Twenty four patients (59%) reported a normal sense of smell, 12 (29%) reported a reduced sense of smell and five (12%) had complete anosmia. The median tumor volume was 8.5 cm(3) (range 0.6-56.1), the mean radiation dose at the tumor margin was 13 Gy (range 10-20) and the median estimated dose to the olfactory nerve was 5.1 Gy (range 1.1-18.1). At follow-up, 27 patients (66%) reported intact olfaction (three (7%) described return to a normal sense of smell), nine (22%) described partial anosmia, and five (12%) had complete anosmia. No patient reported deterioration in olfaction after SRS. Thirteen patients (32%) showed significant tumor regression, 26 (63%) had no further growth and two (5%) had progressed. The progression free tumor control rates were 97% at 1 year and 95% at 2, 10 and 20 years. Symptomatic adverse radiation effects occurred in three (7%) patients. Stereotactic radiosurgery provided both long term tumor control and preservation of olfaction.

  3. Measurement of Gamma Radioactivity in a Group of Control Subjects from the Stockholm Area During 1959-1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, I Oe; Nilsson, I; Eckerstig, K

    1963-08-15

    Repeated measurements of the gamma radioactivity in a group of control subjects have been made since June 1959, using a whole body counter scintillation spectrometer. The body contents of cesium-137 and potassium-40 and their trends with time have been determined. The cesium-137 values have been compared with the results from measurements of the fallout rate of cesium-137 and the concentration of cesium-137 in milk. The control group study was carried out to obtain information about the gamma radioactivity situation in the general population. Such an investigation is necessary if one wants to measure occupational contamination at low levels.

  4. Variation in well-head gamma radiation levels at the Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was generally observed that the level of radiation around the well heads is less than 20x 10-12mSv/hr, which is in agreement with the International Atomic Energy Agency\\'s standard on ionizing radiation background level. Keywords: Radiation, crude oil, radionuclide, contaminant, exposure. Nigerian Journal of Physics ...

  5. Experimental tests on buckling of ellipsoidal vessel heads subjected to internal pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, R.L.; Alix, M.

    1980-05-01

    Tests were performed on 17 ellipsoidal vessel heads of three different materials and different geometries. The results include the following: 1) Accurate definition of the geometry and particularly a direct measurement of the thickness along the meridian. 2) The properties of the material of each head, obtained from test specimens cut from the head itself after the test. 3) The recording of deflection/pressure curves with indication of the pressure at which buckling occurred. These results can be used for validation and qualification of methods for calculating the buckling load when plasticity occurs before buckling. It was possible to develop an empirical equation representing the experimental results obtained with satisfactory accuracy. This equation may be useful in pressure vessel design

  6. Biochemical and physiological changes in Egyptian Nile fish subjected to varying levels of gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roushdy, H.M.; El-Kashef, H.S.; Imam, A.E.

    1975-01-01

    Radiation is nowadays to be considered as a new parameter in the ecology of water masses. Aquatic organisms, perhaps more than any other group of organisms, are directly exposed to radiation hazard and may be subjected to continuous low-level exposure from bottom material and from internal sources accumulated within their own bodies, originating partly from radionuclides released from nuclear facilities into the aquatic environment. In recent years, a large number of papers have been published on the uptake, concentration and release of radioactive material by aquatic organisms. However, radiation experiments on fish, a major source of food for human consumption, are still very rare and mostly restricted to studies on the effect of irradiation on eggs and larvae. Since the study of the radiation effect on living aquatic organisms, particularly fish, is important in connection with the problems of preserving water resources for the benefit of mankind, the work presented here has been done to ascertain the effect of varying dose-levels of gamma irradiation on two common Egyptian Nile fish species, the catfish Clarias lazera and the Tilapia nilotica. Investigations carried out on Clarias lazera involved blood and muscle analyses as well as growth rate measurements. The results obtained showed impaired haematological levels, changes in weight of muscle proteins and, chiefly, retardation in growth rate. Investigations carried out on Tilapia nilotica revealed changes in the activity of certain digestive enzyme systems, glucose level in blood and concentration of the glycogen store in liver and muscles. In discussing the results obtained the authors have taken the relevant literature into consideration. (author)

  7. Use of dual-head gamma camera in radionuclide internal contamination monitoring on radiation workers from a nuclear medicine department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Laguna, A.; Brandan, M.E.

    2008-01-01

    As a part of an internal dosimetry program that is performed at the Mexican National Institute of Cancerology - Nuclear Medicine Department, in the present work we suggest a procedure for the routinely monitoring of internal contamination on radiation workers and nuclear medicine staff. The procedure is based on the identification and quantification of contaminating radionuclides in human body by using a dual-head whole-body gamma camera. The results have shown that the procedures described in this study can be used to implement a method to quantify minimal accumulated activity in the main human organs to evaluate internal contamination with radionuclides. The high sensitivity of the uncollimated gamma camera is advantageous for the routinely detection and identification of small activities of internal contamination. But, the null spatial resolution makes impossible the definition of contaminated region of interest. Then, the use of collimators is necessary to the quantification of incorporated radionuclides activities in the main human organs and for the internal doses assessment. (author)

  8. Fluctuation in hematology values in gamma irradiated rats subjected to pesticide ingestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    abdel-Hamid, F M [Radioisotope Department, Nuclear Research Center, Radiation Biology, cairo (Egypt); Roushdy, H M [Department, National Center for Radiation Reasrch and Technology, Cairo (Egypt); Girgis, R B; Abu-Ghadir, A R [Atomic Energy Authority, and Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Cairo (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    Male albino rats were exposed to gamma irradiation alone or after either oral daily administration of 50 or 100 mg kelthane for 3 successive days; or daily administration of 200 mg kelthane mixed with food per kg body weight for 3,6 and 12 weeks. Relative spleen weight and certain hematological values were determined. Significant decrease could be estimated in relative spleen weight due to exposure only to gamma irradiation significant increase was recorded due to treatment with 50 and 100 mg kelthane. The data obtained on hematological levels revealed insignificant changes in erythrocyte counts and hemoglobin concentration due to exposure to gamma irradiation and/.or kelthane treatment. Significant decrease was recorded in hematocrit value either for successive 30 days or due exposure to gamma irradiation after treatment with kelthane for short and long term periods. Leucocyte counts showed significant decrease for all animals groups. 2 tabs.

  9. fluctuation in hematology values in gamma irradiated rats subjected to pesticide ingestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    abdel-Hamid, F.M.; Roushdy, H.M.; Girgis, R.B.; Abu-Ghadir, A.R.

    1995-01-01

    Male albino rats were exposed to gamma irradiation alone or after either oral daily administration of 50 or 100 mg kelthane for 3 successive days; or daily administration of 200 mg kelthane mixed with food per kg body weight for 3,6 and 12 weeks. Relative spleen weight and certain hematological values were determined. Significant decrease could be estimated in relative spleen weight due to exposure only to gamma irradiation significant increase was recorded due to treatment with 50 and 100 mg kelthane. The data obtained on hematological levels revealed insignificant changes in erythrocyte counts and hemoglobin concentration due to exposure to gamma irradiation and/.or kelthane treatment. Significant decrease was recorded in hematocrit value either for successive 30 days or due exposure to gamma irradiation after treatment with kelthane for short and long term periods. Leucocyte counts showed significant decrease for all animals groups. 2 tabs

  10. Fluctuation in haematological values in gamma irradiated rats subjected to pesticide ingestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Hamid, F.M.; Roushdy, H.M.; Abu-Ghadeer, A.R.; Girgis, R.B.

    1995-01-01

    Male albino rats were exposed to gamma irradiation alone or after either oral daily administration of 50 or 100 mg kelthane for 3 successive days; or daily administration of 200 mg kelthane mixed with food per kg body weight for 3,6 and 12 weeks. Relative spleen weight and certain hematological values were determined. Significant decrease could be estimated in relative spleen weight due to exposure to gamma irradiation. Significant increase was recorded due to treatment with 50 and 100 mg kelthane. The data obtained on hematological levels revealed insignificant changes in erythrocyte counts and hemoglobin concentration due to exposure to gamma irradiation and / or kelthane treatment. Significant decrease was recorded in hematocrit value either for successive 30 days or due to exposure to gamma radiation after treatment with kelthane for short and long term periods. Leucocyte counts showed significant decrease for all animal groups. 2 tabs

  11. Hyoid bone position and head posture comparison in skeletal Class I and Class II subjects: A retrospective cephalometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawankumar Dnyandeo Tekale

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the hyoid bone position and the head posture using lateral cephalograms in subjects with skeletal Class I and skeletal Class II pattern and to investigate the gender differences. Materials and Methods: The study used lateral cephalograms of 40 subjects (20 skeletal Class I pattern; 20 skeletal Class II pattern. Lateral cephalograms were traced and analyzed for evaluation of the hyoid bone position and the head posture using 34 parameters. Independent sample t-test was performed to compare the differences between the two groups and between genders in each group. Statistical tests were performed using NCSS 2007 software (NCSST, Kaysville, Utah, USA. Results: The linear measurements between the hyoid bone (H and cervical spine (CV2ia, the nasion-sella line, palatal line nasion line, the anterior nasal spine (ANS to perpendicular projection of H on the NLP (NLP- Nasal Linear Projection (H-NLP/ANS as well as the posterior cranial points (Bo, Ar and S points were found to be less in skeletal Class II subjects. The measurement H-CV2ia was found to be less in males with skeletal Class I pattern and H-CV4ia was found to be less in males with skeletal Class II pattern. The natural head posture showed no significant gender differences. Conclusion: The position of hyoid bone was closer to the cervical vertebra horizontally in skeletal Class II subjects when compared with skeletal Class I subjects. In males, the hyoid bone position was closer to the cervical vertebra horizontally both in skeletal Class I and skeletal Class II subjects.

  12. High-resolution single photon planar and spect imaging of brain and neck employing a system of two co-registered opposed gamma imaging heads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, Stanislaw [Yorktown, VA; Proffitt, James [Newport News, VA

    2011-12-06

    A compact, mobile, dedicated SPECT brain imager that can be easily moved to the patient to provide in-situ imaging, especially when the patient cannot be moved to the Nuclear Medicine imaging center. As a result of the widespread availability of single photon labeled biomarkers, the SPECT brain imager can be used in many locations, including remote locations away from medical centers. The SPECT imager improves the detection of gamma emission from the patient's head and neck area with a large field of view. Two identical lightweight gamma imaging detector heads are mounted to a rotating gantry and precisely mechanically co-registered to each other at 180 degrees. A unique imaging algorithm combines the co-registered images from the detector heads and provides several SPECT tomographic reconstructions of the imaged object thereby improving the diagnostic quality especially in the case of imaging requiring higher spatial resolution and sensitivity at the same time.

  13. In vitro development of buds from tubers of potato (Solanum tuUerosum L.) subjected to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Gonzalez, J.; Garcia Collantes, M.A.

    1976-01-01

    The 'in vitro' development of buds from potato tubers subjected to gamma radiation at doses of 3, 6, 9 and 12 Krad is studied. The effect of radiation was dependent on the dormant stage of the buds. Intermediate doses (6-9 Krad) did inhibit mitotic division but not cellular elongation. When irradication is carried out at the end of the resting period, there is an apparent sprouting due to the elongation of previously formed cells. (author) [es

  14. Efficacy of Positive Thinking Training on the Family Process and Subjective Wellbeing of Female Heads of Household

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    محمد خدایاری فرد

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the efficacy of positive thinking training on family process and subjective wellbeing of female heads of household. The method was a semi-experimental with pretest-posttest and control group; and the study population included all female heads of household residing in Chaharbagh, Alborz province, who have at least one primary school-kid.  Using available sampling method, 50 women were selected among school-students’ mothers, and were randomly assigned into two equal groups of experimental and control groups. Both groups filled Self-Report Family Process Scale (SFPS and Subjective Wellbeing Questionnaire (SWQ. The experimental group received positive thinking training for eight 2-hours-sessions. Then, all participants were assessed again as the posttest. The data were analyzed by covariance analysis method. Findings showed that after the intervention family process scores of experimental group had been significantly improved, while subjective wellbeing scores had not significantly enhanced. Therefore, it can be told that the present program was effective in increasing the family process, though it went ineffective in improving subjective wellbeing in these irritable individuals. Thus, altering and enriching the program and conducting further investigations seems necessary.

  15. Periodontal aspects of patients subjected to the radiotherapy in region of head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira Moreira, Allyson; Bueno, Audrey C.

    2007-01-01

    Mouth cancer is the sixth most frequent type in the world's population, affecting mostly developing countries. The treatment of choice for this neoplasm is the surgery associated with radiotherapy and / or chemotherapy, which often cause mouth adverse effects. The periodontal reaction to the suffering irradiation morphological and histological alterations decreased the ability of repairing and increased vulnerability to infections. The mouth conditions of the patients who will undergo cancer therapy should be assessed prior to initiation of treatment, mainly to prevent complications. This study aimed to do a literature review on the development of periodontal disease in patients undergoing radiotherapy in head and neck region [es

  16. A data acquisition system for coincidence imaging using a conventional dual head gamma camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewellen, T. K.; Miyaoka, R. S.; Jansen, F.; Kaplan, M. S.

    1997-06-01

    A low cost data acquisition system (DAS) was developed to acquire coincidence data from an unmodified General Electric Maxxus dual head scintillation camera. A high impedance pick-off circuit provides position and energy signals to the DAS without interfering with normal camera operation. The signals are pulse-clipped to reduce pileup effects. Coincidence is determined with fast timing signals derived from constant fraction discriminators. A charge-integrating FERA 16 channel ADC feeds position and energy data to two CAMAC FERA memories operated as ping-pong buffers. A Macintosh PowerPC running Labview controls the system and reads the CAMAC memories. A CAMAC 12-channel scaler records singles and coincidence rate data. The system dead-time is approximately 10% at a coincidence rate of 4.0 kHz.

  17. A data acquisition system for coincidence imaging using a conventional dual head gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewellen, T.K.; Miyaoka, R.S.; Kaplan, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    A low cost data acquisition system (DAS) was developed to acquire coincidence data from an unmodified General Electric Maxxus dual head scintillation camera. A high impedance pick-off circuit provides position and energy signals to the DAS without interfering with normal camera operation. The signals are pulse-clipped to reduce pileup effects. Coincidence is determined with fast timing signals derived from constant fraction discriminators. A charge-integrating FERA 16 channel ADC feeds position and energy data to two CAMAC FERA memories operated as ping-pong buffers. A Macintosh PowerPC running Labview controls the system and reads the CAMAC memories. A CAMAC 12-channel scaler records singles and coincidence rate data. The system dead-time is approximately 10% at a coincidence rate of 4.0 kHz

  18. Dental needs in Brazilian patients subjected to head and neck radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales, Ana Carolina de Mesquita Netto; Esteves, Sérgio Carlos Barros; Jorge, Jacks; Almeida, Oslei Paes de; Lopes, Márcio Ajudarte

    2009-01-01

    In spite of its recognized benefits in the treatment of malignant tumors, radiation therapy have several side effects in the head and neck region. The evaluation of oral conditions by a dentist is important to prevent or minimize these problems. The aim of this retrospective review was to analyze the dental needs in 357 patients who received radiotherapy in the head and neck region and were treated at Orocentro/FOP/UNICAMP, between January 1990 and December 2004. Review of patient files showed that dental examination before radiotherapy was not performed in 148 patients (41.5%) and was done in 209 patients (58.5%). From the total of examined patients, 94 (45%) did not require dental procedures at the moment of examination, while 115 (55%) presented some sort of dental need. Following the patients after the radiotherapy, it was observed that the group of patients that was evaluated before radiation presented less need of restorations, root canal filling and dental extractions than those who were not evaluated. The results of this study confirm that the evaluation of oral conditions prior to radiotherapy is essential to minimize the dental needs, emphasizing the importance of the dentist in the multidisciplinary team that treats cancer patients.

  19. Dental needs in Brazilian patients subjected to head and neck radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosales, Ana Carolina de Mesquita Netto; Jorge, Jacks; Almeida, Oslei Paes de; Lopes, Marcio Ajudarte

    2009-01-01

    In spite of its recognized benefits in the treatment of malignant tumors, radiation therapy have several side effects in the head and neck region. The evaluation of oral conditions by a dentist is important to prevent or minimize these problems. The aim of this retrospective review was to analyze the dental needs in 357 patients who received radiotherapy in the head and neck region and were treated at Orocentro/FOP/UNICAMP, between January 1990 and December 2004. Review of patient files showed that dental examination before radiotherapy was not performed in 148 patients (41.5%) and was done in 209 patients (58.5%). From the total of examined patients, 94 (45%) did not require dental procedures at the moment of examination, while 115 (55%) presented some sort of dental need. Following the patients after the radiotherapy, it was observed that the group of patients that was evaluated before radiation presented less need of restorations, root canal filling and dental extractions than those who were not evaluated. The results of this study confirm that the evaluation of oral conditions prior to radiotherapy is essential to minimize the dental needs, emphasizing the importance of the dentist in the multidisciplinary team that treats cancer patients. (author)

  20. Lymphoscintigraphy with intraoperative gamma probe sentinel node detection: clinical impact in patients with head and neck melanomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maccauro, M.; Villano, C.; Aliberti, G.; Ferrani, L.; Castellani, M.R.; Bombardieri, E.; Patuzzo, R.; Santinami, M.; Tshering, D.

    2005-01-01

    Aim. The aims of this paper were to evaluate the clinical relevance of lymphoscintigraphy with intraoperative gamma-probe detection in identifying sentinel nodes (SNs) and to study the prognostic value of SN biopsy in head and neck melanoma patients. Methods. Sixty-one patients had lymphoscintigraphy with intradermal injections of 99m Tc-Nanocoll (40 MBq), 24 h before surgery. Tumor-positive SNs patients underwent total lymph node dissection Postoperative histological examination was performed. Patients were followed up for 1 to 5 years (median 3 years). The tumor relapses and the overall survival were evaluated by means of statistical methods. Results. Lymphoscintigraphy showed lymphatic distribution to more than one basin in 45 patients (74%), in 15 patients one basin was visualized and no basin in 1 patient. In 41 patients the SN was negative for metastases, while in 20 was positive. In a high percentage of patients (30%), metastatic involvement occurred in more than one lymph node basin. During follow-up in the negative SN group, 40 patients remained disease free and 1 relapsed. In the positive SN group, 10 patients remained disease free and 10 relapsed. Recurrence time ranged from 6 to 11 months. The overall survival of the SNs negative group was significantly higher than the positive SN group. Conclusion. This approach was able to distinguish: a) patients with tumor-negative SNs with a favorable clinical course (98% did not relapse, P<0.001); b) patients with tumor-positive SNs with a high rate of tumor relapse (50%, P<0.001). Therefore SN biopsy may give information about prognosis in head and neck melanoma patients

  1. Genomic study and Medical Subject Headings enrichment analysis of early pregnancy rate and antral follicle numbers in Nelore heifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira Junior, G. A.; Perez, B. C.; Cole, J. B.

    2017-01-01

    be considered in a functional enrichment analysis to identify biological mechanisms involved in fertility. Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) were detected using the MESHR package, allowing the extraction of broad meanings from the gene lists provided by the GWAS. The estimated heritability for HP was 0.28 +/- 0...... gains. In this study, we performed a genomewide association study (GWAS) to identify genetic variants associated with reproductive traits in Nelore beef cattle. Heifer pregnancy (HP) was recorded for 1,267 genotyped animals distributed in 12 contemporary groups (CG) with an average pregnancy rate of 0...

  2. Heading assessment by “tunnel vision” patients and control subjects standing or walking in a virtual reality environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    APFELBAUM, HENRY; PELAH, ADAR; PELI, ELI

    2007-01-01

    Virtual reality locomotion simulators are a promising tool for evaluating the effectiveness of vision aids to mobility for people with low vision. This study examined two factors to gain insight into the verisimilitude requirements of the test environment: the effects of treadmill walking and the suitability of using controls as surrogate patients. Ten “tunnel vision” patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) were tasked with identifying which side of a clearly visible obstacle their heading through the virtual environment would lead them, and were scored both on accuracy and on their distance from the obstacle when they responded. They were tested both while walking on a treadmill and while standing, as they viewed a scene representing progress through a shopping mall. Control subjects, each wearing a head-mounted field restriction to simulate the vision of a paired patient, were also tested. At wide angles of approach, controls and patients performed with a comparably high degree of accuracy, and made their choices at comparable distances from the obstacle. At narrow angles of approach, patients’ accuracy increased when walking, while controls’ accuracy decreased. When walking, both patients and controls delayed their decisions until closer to the obstacle. We conclude that a head-mounted field restriction is not sufficient for simulating tunnel vision, but that the improved performance observed for walking compared to standing suggests that a walking interface (such as a treadmill) may be essential for eliciting natural perceptually-guided behavior in virtual reality locomotion simulators. PMID:18167511

  3. Heading assessment by "tunnel vision" patients and control subjects standing or walking in a virtual reality environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apfelbaum, Henry; Pelah, Adar; Peli, Eli

    2007-01-01

    Virtual reality locomotion simulators are a promising tool for evaluating the effectiveness of vision aids to mobility for people with low vision. This study examined two factors to gain insight into the verisimilitude requirements of the test environment: the effects of treadmill walking and the suitability of using controls as surrogate patients. Ten "tunnel vision" patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) were tasked with identifying which side of a clearly visible obstacle their heading through the virtual environment would lead them, and were scored both on accuracy and on their distance from the obstacle when they responded. They were tested both while walking on a treadmill and while standing, as they viewed a scene representing progress through a shopping mall. Control subjects, each wearing a head-mounted field restriction to simulate the vision of a paired patient, were also tested. At wide angles of approach, controls and patients performed with a comparably high degree of accuracy, and made their choices at comparable distances from the obstacle. At narrow angles of approach, patients' accuracy increased when walking, while controls' accuracy decreased. When walking, both patients and controls delayed their decisions until closer to the obstacle. We conclude that a head-mounted field restriction is not sufficient for simulating tunnel vision, but that the improved performance observed for walking compared to standing suggests that a walking interface (such as a treadmill) may be essential for eliciting natural perceptually-guided behavior in virtual reality locomotion simulators.

  4. Total proteins and protein fractions levels in pregnant rats subjected to whole-body gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, M.A.; Roushdy, H.M.; Mazhar, F.M.; Abu-Gabal, H.A.

    1986-01-01

    A total number of 180 mature rats (120 females and 60 males) weighing from 120-140 g were used to study the effect of two doses (2 and 4 Gy) whole-body gamma irradiation on the level of total protein and protein fractions in serum of pregnant rats during the period of organogenesis. It was found that the levels of total protein, albumin and gamma globulins significantly decreased according to the doses of exposure. The levels of alpha and beta globulins significantly increased more in the serum of rats exposed to 2 Gy than in rats exposed to 4 Gy. The level of A/G ratio significantly decreased more in the serum of rats exposed to 2Gy than in those exposed to 4 Gy

  5. Gene expression in Catla catla (Hamilton) subjected to acute and protracted doses of gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anbumani, S., E-mail: aquatox1982@gmail.com; Mohankumar, Mary N., E-mail: marynmk@gmail.com

    2016-09-15

    Highlights: • Gamma radiation induced up- and down- regulation of cell cycle genes. • Protracted dose-rate induced gene up-regulation to facilitate cell survival. • bcl-2 gene facilitates repair at protracted dose and cell death at acute exposures. • gadd45α, cdk1 and bcl-2 genes work in concert to promote ‘repair’ and ‘death’ circuitries in fish blood cells. - Abstract: Studies on transcriptional modulation after gamma radiation exposure in fish are limited. Cell cycle perturbations and expression of apoptotic genes were investigated in the fish, Catla catla after acute and protracted exposures to gamma radiation over a 90 day period. Significant changes in gene expression were observed between day 1 and 90 post-exposure. Gamma radiation induced a significant down-regulation of target genes gadd45α, cdk1 and bcl-2 from day 1 to day 3 after protracted exposure, whereas it persists till day 6 upon acute exposure. From day 12 onwards, Gadd45α, cdk1 and bcl-2 genes were up-regulated following protracted exposure, indicating DNA repair, cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. There exists a linear correlation between these genes (gadd45α – r = 0.85, p = 0.0073; cdk1 – r = 0.86, p = 0.0053; bcl-2 – r = 0.89, p = 0.0026) at protracted exposures. This is the first report on the dual role of bcl-2 gene in fish exposed to acute and protracted radiation and correlation among the aforementioned genes that work in concert to promote ‘repair’ and ‘death’ circuitries in fish blood cells.

  6. Gene expression in Catla catla (Hamilton) subjected to acute and protracted doses of gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anbumani, S.; Mohankumar, Mary N.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Gamma radiation induced up- and down- regulation of cell cycle genes. • Protracted dose-rate induced gene up-regulation to facilitate cell survival. • bcl-2 gene facilitates repair at protracted dose and cell death at acute exposures. • gadd45α, cdk1 and bcl-2 genes work in concert to promote ‘repair’ and ‘death’ circuitries in fish blood cells. - Abstract: Studies on transcriptional modulation after gamma radiation exposure in fish are limited. Cell cycle perturbations and expression of apoptotic genes were investigated in the fish, Catla catla after acute and protracted exposures to gamma radiation over a 90 day period. Significant changes in gene expression were observed between day 1 and 90 post-exposure. Gamma radiation induced a significant down-regulation of target genes gadd45α, cdk1 and bcl-2 from day 1 to day 3 after protracted exposure, whereas it persists till day 6 upon acute exposure. From day 12 onwards, Gadd45α, cdk1 and bcl-2 genes were up-regulated following protracted exposure, indicating DNA repair, cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. There exists a linear correlation between these genes (gadd45α – r = 0.85, p = 0.0073; cdk1 – r = 0.86, p = 0.0053; bcl-2 – r = 0.89, p = 0.0026) at protracted exposures. This is the first report on the dual role of bcl-2 gene in fish exposed to acute and protracted radiation and correlation among the aforementioned genes that work in concert to promote ‘repair’ and ‘death’ circuitries in fish blood cells.

  7. Characterization of a U-Mo alloy subjected to direct hydriding of the gamma phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balart, Silvia N.; Bruzzoni, Pablo; Granovsky, Marta S.

    2003-01-01

    The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program has imposed the need to develop plate-type fuel elements based on high density uranium compounds, such as U-Mo alloys. One of the steps in the fabrication of the fuel elements is the pulverization of the fissile material. In the case of the U-Mo alloys, the pulverization can be accomplished through hydriding - dehydriding. Two alternative methods of the hydriding-dehydriding process, namely the selective hydriding in alpha phase (HS-alpha) and the massive hydriding in gamma phase (HM-gamma) are currently being studied at the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica. The HM-gamma method was reproduced at laboratory scale starting from a U-7 wt % Mo alloy. The hydrided and dehydrided materials were characterized using metallographic techniques, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis and X-ray diffraction. These results are compared with previous results of the HS-alpha method. (author)

  8. Added value of integrated circuit detector in head CT: objective and subjective image quality in comparison to conventional detector design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, Andreas; Bender, Benjamin; Spira, Daniel; Schabel, Christoph; Bhadelia, Rafeeque; Claussen, Claus; Ernemann, Ulrike; Brodoefel, Harald

    2014-12-01

    A new computed tomography (CT) detector with integrated electric components and shorter conducting pathways has recently been introduced to decrease system inherent electronic noise. The purpose of this study was to assess the potential benefit of such integrated circuit detector (ICD) in head CT by comparing objective and subjective image quality in low-dose examinations with a conventional detector design. Using a conventional detector, reduced-dose noncontrast head CT (255 mAs; effective dose, 1.7 mSv) was performed in 25 consecutive patients. Following transition to ICD, 25 consecutive patients were scanned using identical imaging parameters. Images in both groups were reconstructed with iterative reconstruction (IR) and filtered back projection (FBP) and assessed in terms of quantitative and qualitative image quality. Acquisition of head CT using ICD increased signal-to-noise ratio of gray and white matter by 14% (10.0 ± 1.6 vs. 11.4 ± 2.5; P = .02) and 17% (8.2 ± 0.8 vs. 9.6 ± 1.5; P = .000). The associated improvement in contrast-to-noise ratio was 12% (2.0 ± 0.5 vs. 2.2 ± 0.6; P = .121). In addition, there was a 51% increase in objective image sharpness (582 ± 85 vs. 884.5 ± 191; change in HU/Pixel; P < .000). Compared to standard acquisitions, subjective grading of noise and overall image quality scores were significantly improved with ICD (2.1 ± 0.3 vs. 1.6 ± 0.3; P < .000; 2.0 ± 0.5 vs. 1.6 ± 0.3; P = .001). Moreover, streak artifacts in the posterior fossa were substantially reduced (2.3 ± 0.7 vs. 1.7 ± 0.5; P = .004). At the same radiation level, acquisition of head CT with ICD achieves superior objective and subjective image quality and provides potential for significant dose reduction. Copyright © 2014 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of head models in N170 component source imaging: results in control subjects and ADHD patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrachini, L.; Blenkmann, A.; von Ellenrieder, N.; Petroni, A.; Urquina, H.; Manes, F.; Ibáñez, A.; Muravchik, C. H.

    2011-12-01

    The major goal of evoked related potential studies arise in source localization techniques to identify the loci of neural activity that give rise to a particular voltage distribution measured on the surface of the scalp. In this paper we evaluate the effect of the head model adopted in order to estimate the N170 component source in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients and control subjects, considering faces and words stimuli. The standardized low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography algorithm (sLORETA) is used to compare between the three shell spherical head model and a fully realistic model based on the ICBM-152 atlas. We compare their variance on source estimation and analyze the impact on the N170 source localization. Results show that the often used three shell spherical model may lead to erroneous solutions, specially on ADHD patients, so its use is not recommended. Our results also suggest that N170 sources are mainly located in the right occipital fusiform gyrus for faces stimuli and in the left occipital fusiform gyrus for words stimuli, for both control subjects and ADHD patients. We also found a notable decrease on the N170 estimated source amplitude on ADHD patients, resulting in a plausible marker of the disease.

  10. Impact of head models in N170 component source imaging: results in control subjects and ADHD patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltrachini, L; Blenkmann, A; Ellenrieder, N von; Muravchik, C H; Petroni, A; Urquina, H; Manes, F; Ibáñez, A

    2011-01-01

    The major goal of evoked related potential studies arise in source localization techniques to identify the loci of neural activity that give rise to a particular voltage distribution measured on the surface of the scalp. In this paper we evaluate the effect of the head model adopted in order to estimate the N170 component source in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients and control subjects, considering faces and words stimuli. The standardized low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography algorithm (sLORETA) is used to compare between the three shell spherical head model and a fully realistic model based on the ICBM-152 atlas. We compare their variance on source estimation and analyze the impact on the N170 source localization. Results show that the often used three shell spherical model may lead to erroneous solutions, specially on ADHD patients, so its use is not recommended. Our results also suggest that N170 sources are mainly located in the right occipital fusiform gyrus for faces stimuli and in the left occipital fusiform gyrus for words stimuli, for both control subjects and ADHD patients. We also found a notable decrease on the N170 estimated source amplitude on ADHD patients, resulting in a plausible marker of the disease.

  11. Impact of head models in N170 component source imaging: results in control subjects and ADHD patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltrachini, L; Blenkmann, A; Ellenrieder, N von; Muravchik, C H [Laboratory of Industrial Electronics, Control and Instrumentation (LEICI), National University of La Plata (Argentina); Petroni, A [Integrative Neuroscience Laboratory, Physics Department, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Urquina, H; Manes, F; Ibanez, A [Institute of Cognitive Neurology (INECO) and Institute of Neuroscience, Favaloro University, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-12-23

    The major goal of evoked related potential studies arise in source localization techniques to identify the loci of neural activity that give rise to a particular voltage distribution measured on the surface of the scalp. In this paper we evaluate the effect of the head model adopted in order to estimate the N170 component source in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients and control subjects, considering faces and words stimuli. The standardized low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography algorithm (sLORETA) is used to compare between the three shell spherical head model and a fully realistic model based on the ICBM-152 atlas. We compare their variance on source estimation and analyze the impact on the N170 source localization. Results show that the often used three shell spherical model may lead to erroneous solutions, specially on ADHD patients, so its use is not recommended. Our results also suggest that N170 sources are mainly located in the right occipital fusiform gyrus for faces stimuli and in the left occipital fusiform gyrus for words stimuli, for both control subjects and ADHD patients. We also found a notable decrease on the N170 estimated source amplitude on ADHD patients, resulting in a plausible marker of the disease.

  12. Storage behavior of an early garlic (Allium sativum L.) subject to gamma-ray radioinhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croci, C.A.; Curzio, O.A.; Arguello, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Garlic bulbs of an early cultivar (Rosado Paraguayo) were irradiated with a dose of 50 Gy of Co-60 gamma rays at 30 days after harvest. Experimental lots were stored up to 300 days in a commercial warehouse (6-32 degrees C; R.H. 40-50%). The treatment reduced the weight loss of the bulbs and increased the percentage of both marketable bulbs and cloves without affecting organoleptic properties. The results show that both the raw/fresh market for this early cultivar and the garlic processing industry would profit from the radioinhibition process

  13. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  14. Physical-chemical evaluation of wines subjected to gamma irradiation for aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harder, Marcia N.C.; Perina, Vanessa C.S.; Silva, Lucia A.C.S.; Arthur, Valter; Franco, Camilo F.O.; Pires, Juliana A.; Scanholato, Mariana; Bortoleto, Gisele G.; Germek, Hermas A.

    2011-01-01

    Wine is a beverage made from the fermentation of sugars contained in grapes or grape juice, using yeast. Wines can be classified according to the amount of sugar they contain: dry, soft or sweet. Depending on the need for aging, they may be classified as young or aged. Modern methods of aging use gamma irradiation. There are several reasons for this type of procedure in wines, among them are: sterilization of the wort, changes in sensory characteristics of the wine, and accelerated aging. In this study, samples of soft red wine were obtained in the city of Sao Pedro in the local market, all bottles being of the same batch. The samples and the control were directly irradiated with gamma irradiation in polyethylene bags with doses of 1 KGy and 3 KGy, at a rate of 0.396 kGy/h. The evaluation parameters were tartaric acid, brix, pH, alcohol content and color. For statistical purposes, the Tukey test at 5% significance level was used. From the results obtained, it may be concluded that only the 3 KGy dose showed a statistically significant difference for the parameters shown, indicating that from this dose of radiation upwards there is a significant influence on the evaluation parameters. (author)

  15. Prospective subjective evaluation of swallowing function and dietary pattern in head and neck cancers treated with concomitant chemo-radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal Jaiprakash

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : Prospective subjective evaluation of swallowing function and dietary pattern in locally advanced head and neck cancer patients treated with concomitant chemo-radiotherapy (CRT. Materials and Methods : Prospective evaluation of swallowing function with performance status scale for head and neck cancer patients (PSSHN at pre-CRT, CRT completion and at subsequent follow-ups in adult with loco-regionally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC patients. Results : In 47 patients (40 male, seven females; mean age 53; 72% smoker 53%, oropharyngeal cancer, the mean total PSSHN score at pre-CRT was 258.5 and decreased to 225.2 and 219.2 at two and six months respectively. Understandability of speech, normalcy in diet and eating in public at pre-CRT and six months were 91.5 and 84.4; 80.4 and 63.1; 87.3 and 76.6 respectively. In univariate analysis, pre-CRT PSSHN scores were significantly lesser in patients with severe pre-CRT dysphagia (P = 0.001, hypopharyngeal cancer (P = 0.244 and advanced T-stage (T3/4 disease (P = 0.144. At CRT completion, there was significant reduction of PSSHN scores in patients with severe pre-CRT dysphagia (P = 0.008, post-CRT weight loss (>10% and disease progression (P = 0.039. At two months and six months, 17 (57% and 11 (73.5% patients respectively showed change in dietary habit. Mean increase in meal time was 13% and 21% at two and six-month follow-up. Conclusions : HNSCC patients show deterioration in swallowing function after CRT with normalcy of diet in maximum and eating in public least affected. Pre-CRT severity of dysphagia, weight loss> 10% and disease progression have significant correlation with higher swallowing function deterioration after CRT.

  16. Impact of subject head motion on quantitative brain 15O PET and its correction by image-based registration algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubara, Keisuke; Ibaraki, Masanobu; Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Umetsu, Atsushi; Kinoshita, Fumiko; Kinoshita, Toshibumi

    2013-01-01

    Subject head motion during sequential 15 O positron emission tomography (PET) scans can result in artifacts in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and oxygen metabolism maps. However, to our knowledge, there are no systematic studies examining this issue. Herein, we investigated the effect of head motion on quantification of CBF and oxygen metabolism, and proposed an image-based motion correction method dedicated to 15 O PET study, correcting for transmission-emission mismatch and inter-scan mismatch of emission scans. We analyzed 15 O PET data for patients with major arterial steno-occlusive disease (n=130) to determine the occurrence frequency of head motion during 15 O PET examination. Image-based motion correction without and with realignment between transmission and emission scans, termed simple and 2-step method, respectively, was applied to the cases that showed severe inter-scan motion. Severe inter-scan motion (>3 mm translation or >5deg rotation) was observed in 27 of 520 adjacent scan pairs (5.2%). In these cases, unrealistic values of oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) or cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) were observed without motion correction. Motion correction eliminated these artifacts. The volume-of-interest (VOI) analysis demonstrated that the motion correction changed the OEF on the middle cerebral artery territory by 17.3% at maximum. The inter-scan motion also affected cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebral metabolism rate of oxygen (CMRO 2 ) and CBF, which were improved by the motion correction. A difference of VOI values between the simple and 2-step method was also observed. These data suggest that image-based motion correction is useful for accurate measurement of CBF and oxygen metabolism by 15 O PET. (author)

  17. Evaluation gives productivity and quality gives fruit in Aguacate subjected has to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De La Cruz Torres, Eulogio; Garcia Andrade, Juan M.; Ibannez Palacios, Jorge; Mijares Oviedo, Pedro

    1999-01-01

    Evaluation of productivity, post harvest behavior and fruit quality was performed on four years Has avocado trees irradiated with 60 Co gamma rays in doses of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 Gy, established in the La Labor Experimental Center of the Centro de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnologicas del Aguacate en el Estado de Mexico (CICTAMEX) at Temascaltepec Mexico. Productivity had a significant increase in the dose of 15 Gy being the average number of fruits nearly 400 % more than the control at fruit setting, being such difference reduced at fruit harvesting to 300%. In regard to post harvest performance, the respiration index (mg CO2 /kg/hr) did not show significant differences among treatments. Also others variables such as physiological weight losses, texture, maturity pattern, and sensorial tests (color, flavor, aroma, texture) were not different in regard to the control. This means that radiation has altered productivity but not the quality and post harvest behavior of fruits

  18. The clinical sequence of hematological effects in the lizard Uromastix hardwickii subjected to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.; Taqawi, I.H.

    1979-01-01

    Changes of the peripheral RBC levels in the lizard Uromastix hardwickii were studied for a period of six weeks following exposure to 0.774 C/kg, 0.903 C/kg, and 1.032 C/kg gamma rays. The recovery in erythrocyte count was more rapid after exposure to 0.774 C/kg than to 0.903 C/kg. New red cells started appearing in the circulation from the 4th weeks in 0.774 C/kg and the 6th week postradiation in 0.903 C/kg. Anemia developed more severely following a dose of 1.032 C/kg. (author)

  19. Detection of Certain Spices Subjected to Gamma Irradiation By Using Thermal Analysis Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayed, M.S.; Ali, H.G.M.; Abdeldaiem, M.H.

    2013-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to apply a detection method of some irradiated spices using thermal analysis technique. Black pepper, cumin and ginger were irradiated using gamma irradiation at dose levels 5, 10 and 15 kGy and stored for 12 months at room temperature. Thermal analysis techniques TGA and DTA were studied for characterizing irradiated spices. Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) is a method where the measurement of mass as a function of heating is recorded. TGA was used to determine the moisture and ash contents and thermal stabilities. Non-significant changes of the weight loss percent due to the irradiation were occurred on the studied spices up to 10 kGy. The weight loss was decreased at the first step up to 100 degree C due to the release of water of hydration. Another sharp decreasing in weight loss percent at the second step 220-300 degree C may be due to volatilization of the sample. The final weight loss weight loss stage up to 500 degree C may be due to burn out the fixed carbon remaining in the sample. As the irradiation dose increased from control up to 15 kGy, the weight loss percent at the dehydration step was decreased. The kinetics of the spices decomposition were studied in order to ascertain the type of weight loss mechanism and calculate the activation energy (E a ). The differential thermal analysis (DTA) of the studied samples showed two main characteristic peaks; endothermic one due to the dehydration process and the second peak may be due to the partial volatilization of the aromatic compounds of the main constituent of the studied spices. It could be concluded that using gamma irradiation (up to 15.0 kGy) for black pepper, cumin and ginger are thermally stable to human consumption.

  20. Design of a {gamma}-ray analysis system for determination of boron in a patient`s head, during neutron irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbakel, W.F.A.R.

    1997-12-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a new radiation therapy in which thermal neutron capture by {sup 10}B is used for the selective destruction of a cancer tumour. At the High Flux Reactor (HFR) in Petten, Netherlands, a therapy facility is built for the neutron irradiations. In first instance, patients with a brain tumour will be treated. The doses delivered to the tumour and to the healthy tissue depend on the thermal neutron fluence and on the boron concentrations in these regions. Yet, both concentrations change in time after the administration of the tumour-seeking boron compound. An accurate determination of the patient`s dose requires the knowledge of these time dependent concentrations during the therapy. For this reason, a {gamma}-ray telescope system, together with a reconstruction tool, are developed. Two HPGe-detectors measure the 478 keV prompt {gamma}-rays which are emitted at the boron neutron capture reaction, in a large background of {gamma}-rays and neutrons. By using the detectors in a telescope configuration, only {gamma}-rays emitted by a small specific region are detected. The best shielding of the detectors is obtained by performing the measurements through a small hole in the iron roof. A reconstruction tool is developed to calculate absolute boron concentrations using the measured boron {gamma}-ray detection rates. Besides the boron {gamma}-rays, a large component of 2.2 MeV {gamma}-rays emitted at thermal neutron capture in hydrogen is measured. Since the hydrogen distribution is almost homogeneous over the head, this component can serve as a measure of the total number of thermal neutrons in the observed volume. By using the hydrogen {gamma}-line for normalisation of the boron concentration, the reconstruction tool eliminates the greater part of the influence of the inhomogeneity of the thermal neutron distribution. MCNP calculations are used as a tool for the optimisation of the detector configuration. Experiments on a head phantom

  1. Physical chemical evaluation of sugarcane spirit with Anatto subjected to gamma irradiation for aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perina, Vanessa C.S.; Arthur, Valter; Silva, Lucia A.C.S.; Harder, Marcia N.C.; Pires, Juliana A.; Scanholato, Mariana; Santos, Mariana R.; Bortoleto, Gisele G.

    2011-01-01

    The sugarcane spirit beverage has economic and cultural importance in Brazil, and is produced by distilling the fermented sugarcane juice. The aging process, generally done in oak barrels, consists of chemical reactions which occur slowly and continuously, leading to richer and more complex flavours. Annatto, a native fruit from tropical America is used in the production of natural dyes, in the replacement for artificial colorants, especially by the food industry. Also, the beverage industry uses it to make products resembling the natural aged ones. Nowadays, modern methods use irradiation to accelerate the aging process. There are many reasons to use it in sugarcane spirit production: sterilizing the wort, changing sensory characteristics of sugarcane liquor and aging speedup. For this study, samples of sugarcane spirit were obtained at FATEC Piracicaba and annatto was added at a ratio of 3%, when using annatto seeds, and 0.25%, when using annatto extract. The samples, except the controls, were directly irradiated in polyethylene containers with doses of 200 Gy and 300 Gy at a rate of 0.406 Gy/h. The evaluation parameters were soluble solids, pH, acidity and ashes content. For statistical purposes, the Tukey test was used with a 5% significance level. From the obtained results, the gamma radiation ages the sugarcane spirit and parameters as soluble solids and acidity can be used for aging determination. Annatto addition is allowed in the process. (author)

  2. Dosimetric properties of dysprosium doped calcium magnesium borate glass subjected to Co-60 gamma ray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omar, R. S., E-mail: ratnasuffhiyanni@gmail.com; Wagiran, H., E-mail: husin@utm.my; Saeed, M. A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    Thermoluminescence (TL) dosimetric properties of dysprosium doped calcium magnesium borate (CMB:Dy) glass are presented. This study is deemed to understand the application of calcium as the modifier in magnesium borate glass with the presence of dysprosium as the activator to be performed as TL dosimeter (TLD). The study provides fundamental knowledge of a glass system that may lead to perform new TL glass dosimetry application in future research. Calcium magnesium borate glass systems of (70-y) B{sub 2}O{sub 3} − 20 CaO – 10 MgO-(y) Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} with 0.05  mol % ≤ y ≤ 0.7  mol % of dyprosium were prepared by melt-quenching technique. The amorphous structure and TL properties of the prepared samples were determined using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and TL reader; model Harshaw 4500 respectively. The samples were irradiated to Co-60 gamma source at a dose of 50 Gy. Dosimetric properties such as annealing procedure, time temperature profile (TTP) setting, optimization of Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration of 0.5 mol % were determined for thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) reader used.

  3. Starch Digestibility and Functional Properties of Rice Starch Subjected to Gamma Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Fernando Polesi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of gamma radiation on the digestibility and functional properties of rice starch. Rice cultivars IRGA417 and IAC202 were used for isolation of starch by the alkaline method. Starch samples were irradiated with 1, 2 and 5 kGy doses of 60Co at a rate of 0.4 kGy/h. A control sample, which was not irradiated, was used for comparison. Irradiated and control starches were characterized by in vitro starch digestibility, total dietary fiber, color, water absorption index, water solubility index, syneresis, swelling factor, amylose leaching, pasting properties and gel firmness. Irradiations changed starch digestibility differently in either cultivar. Increasing radiation doses promoted increase in the color parameter b* (yellow, elevation in the capacity to absorb water, and solubility in water as well as the amylose leached from granules for both cultivars. Pasting properties showed a decrease that was proportional to the dose applied, caused by the depolymerization of starch molecules. Gel firmness of the starch from IAC202 was inversely proportional to the radiation dose applied, whereas for IRGA417, there was a reduction at 5 kGy dose. Rice starches can be modified by irradiation to exhibit different functional characteristics and they can be used by the food industries in products such as soups, desserts, flans, puddings and others.

  4. Activation of biceps femoris long head reduces tibiofemoral anterior shear force and tibial internal rotation torque in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Nur Liyana; Ding, Ziyun; Xu, Rui; Bull, Anthony M J

    2018-01-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) provides resistance to tibial internal rotation torque and anterior shear at the knee. ACL deficiency results in knee instability. Optimisation of muscle contraction through functional electrical stimulation (FES) offers the prospect of mitigating the destabilising effects of ACL deficiency. The hypothesis of this study is that activation of the biceps femoris long head (BFLH) reduces the tibial internal rotation torque and the anterior shear force at the knee. Gait data of twelve healthy subjects were measured with and without the application of FES and taken as inputs to a computational musculoskeletal model. The model was used to investigate the optimum levels of BFLH activation during FES gait in reducing the anterior shear force to zero. This study found that FES significantly reduced the tibial internal rotation torque at the knee during the stance phase of gait (p = 0.0322) and the computational musculoskeletal modelling revealed that a mean BFLH activation of 20.8% (±8.4%) could reduce the anterior shear force to zero. At the time frame when the anterior shear force was zero, the internal rotation torque was reduced by 0.023 ± 0.0167 Nm/BW, with a mean 188% reduction across subjects (p = 0.0002). In conclusion, activation of the BFLH is able to reduce the tibial internal rotation torque and the anterior shear force at the knee in healthy control subjects. This should be tested on ACL deficient subject to consider its effect in mitigating instability due to ligament deficiency. In future clinical practice, activating the BFLH may be used to protect ACL reconstructions during post-operative rehabilitation, assist with residual instabilities post reconstruction, and reduce the need for ACL reconstruction surgery in some cases.

  5. Self-motion perception and vestibulo-ocular reflex during whole body yaw rotation in standing subjects: the role of head position and neck proprioception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panichi, Roberto; Botti, Fabio Massimo; Ferraresi, Aldo; Faralli, Mario; Kyriakareli, Artemis; Schieppati, Marco; Pettorossi, Vito Enrico

    2011-04-01

    Self-motion perception and vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) were studied during whole body yaw rotation in the dark at different static head positions. Rotations consisted of four cycles of symmetric sinusoidal and asymmetric oscillations. Self-motion perception was evaluated by measuring the ability of subjects to manually track a static remembered target. VOR was recorded separately and the slow phase eye position (SPEP) was computed. Three different head static yaw deviations (active and passive) relative to the trunk (0°, 45° to right and 45° to left) were examined. Active head deviations had a significant effect during asymmetric oscillation: the movement perception was enhanced when the head was kept turned toward the side of body rotation and decreased in the opposite direction. Conversely, passive head deviations had no effect on movement perception. Further, vibration (100 Hz) of the neck muscles splenius capitis and sternocleidomastoideus remarkably influenced perceived rotation during asymmetric oscillation. On the other hand, SPEP of VOR was modulated by active head deviation, but was not influenced by neck muscle vibration. Through its effects on motion perception and reflex gain, head position improved gaze stability and enhanced self-motion perception in the direction of the head deviation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Dynamic Parameter Identification of Subject-Specific Body Segment Parameters Using Robotics Formalism: Case Study Head Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Rodríguez, Miguel; Valera, Angel; Page, Alvaro; Besa, Antonio; Mata, Vicente

    2016-05-01

    Accurate knowledge of body segment inertia parameters (BSIP) improves the assessment of dynamic analysis based on biomechanical models, which is of paramount importance in fields such as sport activities or impact crash test. Early approaches for BSIP identification rely on the experiments conducted on cadavers or through imaging techniques conducted on living subjects. Recent approaches for BSIP identification rely on inverse dynamic modeling. However, most of the approaches are focused on the entire body, and verification of BSIP for dynamic analysis for distal segment or chain of segments, which has proven to be of significant importance in impact test studies, is rarely established. Previous studies have suggested that BSIP should be obtained by using subject-specific identification techniques. To this end, our paper develops a novel approach for estimating subject-specific BSIP based on static and dynamics identification models (SIM, DIM). We test the validity of SIM and DIM by comparing the results using parameters obtained from a regression model proposed by De Leva (1996, "Adjustments to Zatsiorsky-Seluyanov's Segment Inertia Parameters," J. Biomech., 29(9), pp. 1223-1230). Both SIM and DIM are developed considering robotics formalism. First, the static model allows the mass and center of gravity (COG) to be estimated. Second, the results from the static model are included in the dynamics equation allowing us to estimate the moment of inertia (MOI). As a case study, we applied the approach to evaluate the dynamics modeling of the head complex. Findings provide some insight into the validity not only of the proposed method but also of the application proposed by De Leva (1996, "Adjustments to Zatsiorsky-Seluyanov's Segment Inertia Parameters," J. Biomech., 29(9), pp. 1223-1230) for dynamic modeling of body segments.

  7. Supplementation with mixed tocopherols increases serum and blood cell gamma-tocopherol but does not alter biomarkers of platelet activation in subjects with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Michael W; Ward, Natalie C; Wu, Jason H Y; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Puddey, Ian B; Croft, Kevin D

    2006-01-01

    Some studies have shown potential benefit of vitamin E on platelet function, but several clinical trials failed to show improved cardiovascular outcome with alpha-tocopherol supplementation. Gamma-tocopherol, a major dietary form of vitamin E, may have protective properties different from those of alpha-tocopherol. We compared the effects of supplementation with alpha-tocopherol (500 mg) and a gamma-tocopherol-rich compound (500 mg, containing 60% gamma-tocopherol) on serum and cellular tocopherol concentrations, urinary tocopherol metabolite excretion, and in vivo platelet activation in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Fifty-eight subjects were randomly assigned to receive either 500 mg alpha-tocopherol/d, 500 mg mixed tocopherols/d, or matching placebo. Serum, erythrocyte, and platelet tocopherol and urinary metabolite concentrations were measured at baseline and after the 6-wk intervention. Soluble CD40 ligand, urinary 11-dehydro-thromboxane B2, serum thromboxane B2, soluble P-selectin, and von Willebrand factor were measured as biomarkers of in vivo platelet activation. Serum alpha-tocopherol increased with both tocopherol treatments. Serum and cellular gamma-tocopherol increased 4-fold (P tocopherol group, whereas red blood cell gamma-tocopherol decreased significantly after alpha-tocopherol supplementation. Excretion of alpha-carboxyethyl-hydroxychroman increased significantly after supplementation with alpha-tocopherol and mixed tocopherols. Excretion of gamma-carboxyethyl-hydroxychroman increased significantly after supplementation with mixed tocopherols and after that with alpha-tocopherol, which may reflect the displacement of gamma-tocopherol by alpha-tocopherol due to incorporation of the latter into lipoproteins in the liver. Neither treatment had any significant effect on markers of platelet activation. Supplementation with alpha-tocopherol decreased red blood cell gamma-tocopherol, whereas mixed tocopherols increased both serum alpha-tocopherol and

  8. Comparison of optic area measurement using fundus photography and optical coherence tomography between optic nerve head drusen and control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Rodríguez, Patricia; Gili, Pablo; Martín-Ríos, María Dolores; Grifol-Clar, Eulalia

    2013-03-01

    To compare optic disc area measurement between optic nerve head drusen (ONHD) and control subjects using fundus photography, time-domain optical coherence tomography (TD-OCT) and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). We also made a comparison between each of the three techniques. We performed our study on 66 eyes (66 patients) with ONHD and 70 healthy control subjects (70 controls) with colour ocular fundus photography at 20º (Zeiss FF 450 IR plus), TD-OCT (Stratus OCT) with the Fast Optic Disc protocol and SD-OCT (Cirrus OCT) with the Optic Disc Cube 200 × 200 protocol for measurement of the optic disc area. The measurements were made by two observers and in each measurement a correction of the image magnification factor was performed. Measurement comparison using the Student's t-test/Mann-Whitney U test, the intraclass correlation coefficient, Pearson/Spearman rank correlation coefficient and the Bland-Altman plot was performed in the statistical analysis. Mean and standard deviation (SD) of the optic disc area in ONHD and in controls was 2.38 (0.54) mm(2) and 2.54 (0.42) mm(2), respectively with fundus photography; 2.01 (0.56) mm(2) and 1.66 (0.37) mm(2), respectively with TD-OCT, and 2.03 (0.49) mm(2) and 1.75 (0.38) mm(2), respectively with SD-OCT. In ONHD and controls, repeatability of optic disc area measurement was excellent with fundus photography and optical coherence tomography (TD-OCT and SD-OCT), but with a low degree of agreement between both techniques. Optic disc area measurement is smaller in ONHD compared to healthy subjects with fundus photography, unlike time-domain and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in which the reverse is true. Both techniques offer good repeatability, but a low degree of correlation and agreement, which means that optic disc area measurement is not interchangeable or comparable between techniques. Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2013 The College of Optometrists.

  9. Transcending Library Catalogs: A Comparative Study of Controlled Terms in Library of Congress Subject Headings and User-Generated Tags in LibraryThing for Transgender Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    Perhaps the greatest power of folksonomies, especially when set against controlled vocabularies like the Library of Congress Subject Headings, lies in their capacity to empower user communities to name their own resources in their own terms. This article analyzes the potential and limitations of both folksonomies and controlled vocabularies for…

  10. Serum profile of cytokines interferon gamma and interleukin-10 in ewes subjected to artificial insemination by cervical retraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvares, C T G; Cruz, J F; Romano, C C; Brandão, F Z

    2016-04-15

    This study evaluated the influence of artificial insemination (AI) by cervical retraction (CRI) on serum levels of interferon gamma (IFNγ) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) in ewes. Synchronized pluriparous Santa Inês ewes were subjected to natural mating (NM, n = 8) and AI, which was performed for a fixed time (55 ± 1 hour) by CRI (n = 8) or laparoscopy (n = 8). Ewes were classified as pregnant, with return to estrus (RE) or with embryonic loss (EL). Blood samples were collected on Day 0, Day 3, Day 5, Day 12, and Day 17 (Day 0 = AI/NM) for progesterone dosage and cytokines were quantified from Day 0 to Day 12. Progesterone levels were constant, except for a decrease in ewes with RE at Day 17 (P ewes with EL had lower serum levels of IFNγ and IL-10 than pregnant ewes and ewes with RE, regardless of the reproductive method used, with averages of 769.1, 714.9, and 555.7 pg/mL for IFNγ and 713.8, 699.3, and 578.7 pg/mL for IL-10 in pregnant ewes, ewes with RE and EL, respectively (P ewes does not alter the profile of serum cytokines IFNγ and IL-10 and does not induce an inflammatory reaction that can compromise pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Serotonin exerting protection of serum lipid pattern in male albino rat subjected to shot or intermittent whole body gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Dighidy, E.A.M.; El-Kady, M.H.R.

    1995-01-01

    Certain cancer patients are subjected to varying levels of intermittent radiation delivered in certain cases as whole body exposure. Effective control of many haematological complications built up during radiation treatment would necessarily contribute to up-grading of cancer radiotherapy. In the present study, the effect of either shot or intermittent whole body gamma irradiation at cumulative dose levels up to 6 and 10 Gy, have been evaluated on the levels of total lipids and lipid fractions in blood serum of male albino rats. The pharmacological role of serotonin and its potential radioprotective capacity have been assessed on the serum lipid pattern. The results indicated generally significant increases in the levels of blood lipid fractions especially HDL-cholesterol. On the other hand, the level of LDL-cholesterol recorded a significant decrease on the third day post either shot or cumulative dose levels at 6 or 10 Gy and also post 4 successive doses of serotonin administration. The only exceptions were recorded in the case of LDL-cholesterol post administration of single dose of serotonin and serotonin prior to shot dose levels of 6 or 10 Gy. 2 tabs

  12. Quality of pharmacy-specific Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) assignment in pharmacy journals indexed in MEDLINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguet, Fernando; Salgado, Teresa M; van den Boogerd, Lucienne; Fernandez-Llimos, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is the National Library of Medicine (NLM) controlled vocabulary for indexing articles. Inaccuracies in the MeSH thesaurus have been reported for several areas including pharmacy. To assess the quality of pharmacy-specific MeSH assignment to articles indexed in pharmacy journals. The 10 journals containing the highest number of articles published in 2012 indexed under the MeSH 'Pharmacists' were identified. All articles published over a 5-year period (2008-2012) in the 10 previously selected journals were retrieved from PubMed. MeSH terms used to index these articles were extracted and pharmacy-specific MeSH terms were identified. The frequency of use of pharmacy-specific MeSH terms was calculated across journals. A total of 6989 articles were retrieved from the 10 pharmacy journals, of which 328 (4.7%) were articles not fully indexed and therefore did not contain any MeSH terms assigned. Among the 6661 articles fully indexed, the mean number of MeSH terms was 10.1 (SD = 4.0), being 1.0 (SD = 1.3) considered as Major MeSH. Both values significantly varied across journals. The mean number of pharmacy-specific MeSH terms per article was 0.9 (SD = 1.2). A total of 3490 (52.4%) of the 6661 articles were indexed in pharmacy journals without a single pharmacy-specific MeSH. Of the total 67193 MeSH terms assigned to articles, on average 10.5% (SD = 13.9) were pharmacy-specific MeSH. A statistically significant different pattern of pharmacy-specific MeSH assignment was identified across journals (Kruskal-Wallis P journals can be improved to further enhance evidence gathering in pharmacy. Over half of the articles published in the top-10 journals publishing pharmacy literature were indexed without a single pharmacy-specific MeSH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Marrow pattern in the proximal femoral metaphysis of patients with osteonecrosis of femoral head and normal subjects: comparison on MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Ho Jong; Park, Jeong Mi; Kim, Jee Young; Lim, Gye Yeon; Yang, Po Song; Kim, Euy Neyong; Kim, Choon Yul; Shinn, Kyung Sub

    1996-01-01

    To predict early risk of osteonecrosis of the femoral head by comparison of the bone marrow pattern of the proximal femoral metaphysis(PFM) in normal subjects and patients with osteonecrosis of the femoral head on T1-weighted magnetic resonance(MR) images. The authors retrospectively reviewed T1(TR 525/TE 25 msec) weighted coronal MR images of 67 hips with osteonecrosis and 65 normal hips in 39 patients with osteonecrosis of the femoral head and in 27 normal subjects. On the basis of bright signal intensity of fat, the proportion of remaining hematopoietic marrow in PFM was subdivided into 4 grades (0 to 3) by two radiologists. No evidence of remaining hematopoietic marrow was assigned grade 0, and grades 1, 2 and 3 represented scanty, moderate, and prominent hematopoietic marrow, respectively. Grades 0 and 1 were collectively defined as 'predominantly fatty', grades 2 and 3 as 'predominantly hematopoietic'. The frequency of the predominantly fatty marrow in PFM was analyzed in relation to three age groups (<25, 25-50, 50<) and both sexes. The overall frequency of predominantly fatty marrow in PFM was higher in hips with osteonecrosis than in normal hips (p<0.001). Especially in the male population under the age of 50, the frequency was apparently higher in hips with osteonecrosis, compared with normal hips (p<0.0001). However, the male population aged over 50 or female population showed no statistically significant difference in our series. In proximal femoral metaphysis with osteonecrosis of the femoral head, fatty marrow conversion occurs apparently earlier than in normal subject. T1-weighted MR imaging could therefore be useful in predicting early risk of osteonecrosis of the femoral head because of early fatty marrow conversion of the proximal femoral metaphysis

  14. Relationships among head posture, pain intensity, disability and deep cervical flexor muscle performance in subjects with postural neck pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun V. Subbarayalu, PhD

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Information Technology (IT professionals working with computers gradually develop forward head posture and, as a result, these professionals are susceptible to several neck disorders. This study intended to reveal the relationships between pain intensity, disability, head posture and deep cervical flexor (DCF muscle performance in patients with postural neck pain. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 84 IT professionals who were diagnosed with postural neck pain. The participants were recruited with a random sampling approach. A Visual Analogue Scale (VAS, the Northwick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire (NPQ, the Modified Head Posture Spinal Curvature Instrument (MHPSCI, and the Stabilizer Pressure Biofeedback Unit were used to measure neck pain intensity, neck disability, head posture, and DCF muscle performance, respectively. Results: The Pearson correlation coefficient revealed a significantly strong positive relationship between the VAS and the NPQ (r = 0.734. The cranio-vertebral (CV angle was found to have a significantly negative correlation with the VAS (r = −0.536 and a weak negative correlation with the NPQ (r = −0.389. Conclusion: This study concluded that a smaller CV angle corresponded to greater neck pain intensity and disability. Furthermore, there is no significant relationship between CV angle and DCF muscle performance, indicating that head posture re-education through postural correction exercises would not completely correct the motor control deficits in DCF muscles. In addition, a suitable exercise regimen that exclusively targets the deep cervical flexor muscle to improve its endurance is warranted. Keywords: Craniovertebral angle, Disability deep cervical flexors muscle performance, Head posture, Postural neck pain

  15. List-Mode PET Motion Correction Using Markerless Head Tracking: Proof-of-Concept With Scans of Human Subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Oline Vinter; Sullivan, Jenna M.; Mulnix, Tim

    2013-01-01

    A custom designed markerless tracking system was demonstrated to be applicable for positron emission tomography (PET) brain imaging. Precise head motion registration is crucial for accurate motion correction (MC) in PET imaging. State-of-the-art tracking systems applied with PET brain imaging rely...... on markers attached to the patient's head. The marker attachment is the main weakness of these systems. A healthy volunteer participating in a cigarette smoking study to image dopamine release was scanned twice for 2 h with $^{11}{\\rm C}$-racolopride on the high resolution research tomograph (HRRT) PET...... in contrast recovery of small structures....

  16. Global visibility for global health: Is it time for a new descriptor in Medical Subject Heading (MeSH of MEDLINE/PubMed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Marušic´

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite a large body of research in global health (almost 9000 articles published in PubMed until 2012, the term “global health” is not included in the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH of the NLM – its controlled vocabulary thesaurus which NLM uses to index articles in MEDL INE. There are only 6 journals currently covered by PubMed which specialize in global health, including Journal of Global Health.

  17. The role of epidemiology in determining if a simple short fall can cause fatal head injury in an infant: a subject review and reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsani, Johnathon P; Ibrahim, Joseph E; Bugeja, Lyndal; Cordner, Stephen

    2010-09-01

    This article is a subject review summarizing and interpreting the existing knowledge on the question "Can a simple short fall cause fatal head injury in an infant?" It also reflects on the challenges of undertaking a review in the contentious area of pediatric forensic pathology. The authors identified and considered 1055 publications for inclusion. Using explicit selection criteria 27 publications were included in the subject review. The literature suggests that it is rare, but possible, for fatal head injury to occur from a simple short fall. Large population studies of childhood injuries indicate that severe head injury from a short fall is extremely rare. This is counter pointed by a single documented case report that demonstrates it can happen. The question of whether it is a credible claim in a particular case is inextricable from the circumstances of that case.To strengthen the evidence based on fatal potential of simple short falls in infants, future studies addressing this question would ideally be prospective in design and include the key elements of: (1) a large sample size, (2) clearly defined comparison groups, (3) clear and verifiable criteria for causation, (4) specified fall height, (5) specified fall type: vertical free fall or the presence of additional forces, (6) composition of contact surface, and (7) nature of contact point: concentrated to one point or onto a flat surface.We believe subject reviews for forensic pathology require a specific approach because the application of information differs between clinical and courtroom settings.

  18. The effects of A single dose of gamma-rays applied on the head on behavior of rats in Morris's water maze and in the open field test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smajda, B.; Kiskova, J.; Lievajova, K.; Capicikova, M.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of a sublethal dose of gamma-rays applied on the head on selected behavioral parameters were investigated in this study. Adult male Sprague-Dowley rats (n=9) were irradiated with a single dose of 20 Gy of gamma-rays from a 60 Co radiation source. The irradiated animals as well as sham-irradiated controls were tested daily in Morris water maze (MWM) (2 sessions per day) and in the open field test. The ability of spatial learning given by latency time to find the hidden platform was followed in MWM. The horizontal and vertical locomotion, the number of crossings of the center of the field and the washing behavior were recorded during an 8-minute test in the open field. The results obtained show, that radiation didn't altered significantly the dynamic of learning in MWM during the experiment. The level of horizontal and vertical locomotory activity in open field was lower in irradiated group in comparison with controls. The number of the crossings of the field's center, related to the level of anxiozity of animals was non-significantly lower in irradiated animals, whereas no differences in number of washing between both groups were detected. The results point to differences in radiosensitivity in various behavioral parameters in rats, maybe due to different level of their control and coordination in CNS. (authors)

  19. The effects of a head only gamma-irradiation on the learning and spatial memory and on open field behavior in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smajda, B.; Kiskova, J.; Lievajova, K.; Capicikova, M.

    2006-01-01

    The effects or a sublethal dose or gamma-rays applied to the head on selected behavioral parameters were investigated in this study. Adult male Sprague-Dowley rats (n = 9) were irradiated with a single dose or 20 Gy or gamma rays from a 6O Co radiation source. The irradiated animals as well as sham-irradiated controls were tested daily in a Morris water maze (MWM) and in the open field test. The ability of spatial learning given by latency time to find the hidden platform was followed in the MWM. Horizontal and vertical locomotion, the number of crossings or the center of the field and washing behavior were recorded in tests in tbe open field. The results obtained showed, that radiation did not significantly alter the time course of learning in MWM during the experiment. The levels of horizontal and vertical locomotor activity in open field were lower in the irradiated group in comparison with the controls. The number of tbe crossings or the fields center, related to tbe level or anxiety of the animals was not significantly lower in the irradiated animals, whereas no differences in the number of washings between both groups were detected. The results point to differences in radiosensitivity in various behavioral parameters in rats, maybe due to different levels of their control and coordination in the CNS. (authors)

  20. Embodiment and Entangled Subjectivity: A Study of Robin Cook's Coma, Priscille Sibley's The Promise of Stardust and Alexander Beliaev's Professor Dowell's Head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Manali; Parui, Avishek

    2018-03-22

    The essay examines Robin Cook's (1977) Coma and Priscille Sibley's (2013) The Promise of Stardust that dramatize the reified and disposable status of the brain-dead patients who are classified as nonpersons. The essay argues that the man-machine entanglement as depicted in the novels constructs a deterritorialized and entangled form of subjectivity that intervenes in the dominant biomedical understanding of personhood and agency that we notionally associate with a conscious mind. The essay concludes its arguments by discussing Alexander Beliaev's (1925) Professor Dowell's Head which depicts human subjectivity as an essentially embodied and distributive phenomenon and interrogates the Cartesian mind body dualism embedded in the dominant biomedical narratives.

  1. Gamma tomography apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Span, F.J.

    1988-01-01

    The patent concerns a gamma tomography apparatus for medical diagnosis. The apparatus comprises a gamma scintillation camera head and a suspension system for supporting and positioning the camera head with respect for the patient. Both total body scanning and single photon emission tomography can be carried out with the apparatus. (U.K.)

  2. Textural and fluid phase analysis of rock salt subjected to the combined effects of pressure, heat and gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huertas, F.; Major, J.C.; Del Olmo, C.

    1992-01-01

    The formation of colloidal sodium by radiolytic processes is a main concern with respect to the safety of disposal of high-level radioactive waste in salt formations. The research work seeks to assess the irradiation damage in natural rock salt when exposed to a different dose, dose rate, temperature and time of gamma irradiation. The work encompasses four major tasks: (i) detailed characterization of both solid and fluid phases of natural rock salt; (ii) gamma irradiation of salt samples; (iii) determination of the amount of colloidal sodium present in irradiated samples; (iv) calculation of radiation damage. 40 refs., 36 figs., 34 tabs

  3. Development Of 12 Head GAMMA Detection And Graphical Presentation Software Suitable For Industrial Process Investigation By Radiotracer Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saengchantr, Dhanaj; Chueinta, Siripone

    2009-07-01

    Full text: Data logging with prompt graphical presentation software accommodating gamma radiation signals from 12 scintillation detectors through standard RS-232 interface has been developed. Laboratory testing by detection of injected-mixed radioactive tracer in a fluid flowing inside a pipe was conducted. The radioactive mixed fluid passed through the detectors located at several points along the pipe and the generated signals correspond to the mass flow inside the pipe were recorded. Up to 10,000 data points of fast (20 millisecond) dwell time could be accumulated. Graphical presentation allowed fast interpretation while the output data were suitable for more accurate evaluation with standard software e.g. Residence Time Distribution (RTD), Computed Tomography Visualization. Further utilization in the industry, in conjunction with radiotracer techniques, for troubleshooting and process optimization will be further carried out

  4. Evaluation gives productivity and quality gives fruit in Aguacate subjected has to gamma radiation; Evaluacion de productividad y calidad de fruta en aguacate hass sometido a radiacion gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De La Cruz Torres, Eulogio; Garcia Andrade, Juan M [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares. Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Ibannez Palacios, Jorge [Facultad de Ciencias Agricolas. U.A.E., Toluca (Mexico); Mijares Oviedo, Pedro [Fundacion Salvador Sanchez Col CICTAMEX, Coatepec Harina (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    Evaluation of productivity, post harvest behavior and fruit quality was performed on four years Has avocado trees irradiated with 60 Co gamma rays in doses of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 Gy, established in the La Labor Experimental Center of the Centro de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnologicas del Aguacate en el Estado de Mexico (CICTAMEX) at Temascaltepec Mexico. Productivity had a significant increase in the dose of 15 Gy being the average number of fruits nearly 400 % more than the control at fruit setting, being such difference reduced at fruit harvesting to 300%. In regard to post harvest performance, the respiration index (mg CO2 /kg/hr) did not show significant differences among treatments. Also others variables such as physiological weight losses, texture, maturity pattern, and sensorial tests (color, flavor, aroma, texture) were not different in regard to the control. This means that radiation has altered productivity but not the quality and post harvest behavior of fruits.

  5. The Cervical Vestibular-Evoked Myogenic Potentials (cVEMPs) Recorded Along the Sternocleidomastoid Muscles During Head Rotation and Flexion in Normal Human Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashford, Alexander; Huang, Jun; Zhang, Chunming; Wei, Wei; Mustain, William; Eby, Thomas; Zhu, Hong; Zhou, Wu

    2016-08-01

    Tone burst-evoked myogenic potentials recorded from tonically contracted sternocleidomastoid muscles (SCM) (cervical VEMP or cVEMP) are widely used to assess the vestibular function. Since the cVEMP response is mediated by the vestibulo-collic reflex (VCR) pathways, it is important to understand how the cVEMPs are determined by factors related to either the sensory components (vestibular end organs) or the motor components (SCM) of the VCR pathways. Compared to the numerous studies that have investigated effects of sound parameters on the cVEMPs, there are few studies that have examined effects of SCM-related factors on the cVEMPs. The goal of the present study is to fill this knowledge gap by testing three SCM-related hypotheses. The first hypothesis is that contrary to the current view, the cVEMP response is only present in the SCM ipsilateral to the stimulated ear. The second hypothesis is that the cVEMP response is not only dependent on tonic level of the SCM, but also on how the tonic level is achieved, i.e., by head rotation or head flexion. The third hypothesis is that the SCM is compartmented and the polarity of the cVEMP response is dependent on the recording site. Seven surface electrodes were positioned along the left SCMs in 12 healthy adult subjects, and tone bursts were delivered to the ipsilateral or contralateral ear (8 ms plateau, 1 ms rise/fall, 130 dB SPL, 50-4000 Hz) while subjects activated their SCMs by head rotation (HR condition) or chin downward head flexion (CD condition). The first hypothesis was confirmed by the finding that the contralateral cVEMPs were minimal at all recording sites for all the tested tones during both HR and CD conditions. The second hypothesis was confirmed by the finding that the ipsilateral cVEMPs were larger in HR condition than in CD condition at recording sites above and below the SCM midpoint. Finally, the third hypothesis was confirmed by the finding that the cVEMPs exhibit reversed polarities at the sites

  6. Surface and volume three-dimensional displays of Tc-99m HMPAO brain SPECT images in stroke patients with three-head gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, W.J.; Slevin, J.T.; Schleenbaker, R.E.; Mills, B.J.; Magoun, S.L.; Ryo, U.Y.

    1991-01-01

    This paper evaluates volume and surface 3D displays in Tc-99m HMPAO brain SPECT imaging in stroke patients. Using a triple-head gamma camera interfaced with a 64-bit supercomputer, 20 patients with stroke were studied. Each patient was imaged 30-60 minutes after an intravenous injection of 20 mCi of Tc-99m HMPAO. SPECT images as well as planar images were routinely obtained; volume and surface 3D display then proceeded, with the process requiring 5-10 minutes. Volume and surface 3D displays show the brain from all angles; thus the location and extension of lesion(s) in the brain are much easier to appreciate. While a cerebral lesion(s) was more clearly delineated by surface 3D imaging, crossed cerebellar diaschisis in seven patients was clearly exhibited with volume 3D but not with surface 3D imaging. Volume and surface 3D displays enhance continuity of structures and understanding of spatial relationships

  7. Radish juice and corn oil as adjuvants that decrease the destructive alterations in hypoglycemia rats subjected to gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanafy, N.

    2007-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the decrease in different biochemical and histopathological alterations that may occur following the oral administration of aqueous extract of radish at the dose level (50 mg/100 g body weight) and the addition of 10% corn oil to the diet of hypoglycemia rats and /or exposed to 6 Gy of gamma radiation. The experiment included normal male albino rats and hypoglycemia ones.The hypoglycemia rats divided into tow groups; the first group was treated with radish juice or radish juice with diet containing corn oil and the other group was hypoglycemia rats exposed to 6 Gy of gamma radiation then treated also with radish juice or radish juice with diet containing 10% corn oil. Biochemical analysis included levels of blood sugar, total lipids, cholesterol, total protein and albumin, in addition to the activity of AST and ALT were evaluated. The level of TBARs and the histopathological changes in liver and kidney were also investigated. Treatment of irradiated hypoglycemia rats with radish juice either alone or combined with a diet containing 10% corn oil reverse the serum fasting glucose level nearly to the control level. Amelioration in lipid profile was recorded after the treatment of the hypoglycemia rats or those hypoglycemia irradiated then treated with radish juice and fed on a diet containing 10% corn oil. Also, significant amelioration was occurred in liver transaminases, total proteins, albumin and creatinine levels as compared to those of hypoglycemia group. TBARs levels showed remarkable decrease in liver and kidney tissues in comparison with control and hypoglycemia rats and/or gamma irradiated levels when it is treated with radish juice and diet containing corn oil. Also, the histopathological changes of the same tissues revealed the same trend. From the different observations , it is possible to conclude that treatment of rats with radish juice in addition to feeding on diet containing 10% corn oil could reduce the

  8. Development and validation of a numerical model of the swine head subjected to open-field blasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, A.; Zhu, F.; Feng, K.; Saif, T.; Kallakuri, S.; Jin, X.; Yang, K.; King, A.

    2017-11-01

    A finite element model of the head of a 55-kg Yucatan pig was developed to calculate the incident pressure and corresponding intracranial pressure due to the explosion of 8 lb (3.63 kg) of C4 at three different distances. The results from the model were validated by comparing findings with experimentally obtained data from five pigs at three different blast overpressure levels: low (150 kPa), medium (275 kPa), and high (400 kPa). The peak values of intracranial pressures from numerical model at different locations of the brain such as the frontal, central, left temporal, right temporal, parietal, and occipital regions were compared with experimental values. The model was able to predict the peak pressure with reasonable percentage differences. The differences for peak incident and intracranial pressure values between the simulation results and the experimental values were found to be less than 2.2 and 29.3%, respectively, at all locations other than the frontal region. Additionally, a series of parametric studies shows that the intracranial pressure was very sensitive to sensor locations, the presence of air bubbles, and reflections experienced during the experiments. Further efforts will be undertaken to correlate the different biomechanical response parameters, such as the intracranial pressure gradient, stress, and strain results obtained from the validated model with injured brain locations once the histology data become available.

  9. Differing Event-Related Patterns of Gamma-Band Power in Brain Waves of Fast- and Slow-Reacting Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    Wilhelm Wundt proposed that there are two types of subjects in sim- ple RT experiments: fast-reacting subjects, who respond before they fully...quickly as possible to auditory stimuli. This result appears to confirm long-standing speculations of Wundt that fast- and slow-reacting subjects...accord with the hypothesis of Wundt and others that slower ("sensorial") responders wait to fully perceive a stimulus and then react to their perception

  10. ASEP of MIMO System with MMSE-OSIC Detection over Weibull-Gamma Fading Channel Subject to AWGGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keerti Tiwari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ordered successive interference cancellation (OSIC is adopted with minimum mean square error (MMSE detection to enhance the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO system performance. The optimum detection technique improves the error rate performance but increases system complexity. Therefore, MMSE-OSIC detection is used which reduces error rate compared to traditional MMSE with low complexity. The system performance is analyzed in composite fading environment that includes multipath and shadowing effects known as Weibull-Gamma (WG fading. Along with the composite fading, a generalized noise that is additive white generalized Gaussian noise (AWGGN is considered to show the impact of wireless scenario. This noise model includes various forms of noise as special cases such as impulsive, Gamma, Laplacian, Gaussian, and uniform. Consequently, generalized Q-function is used to model noise. The average symbol error probability (ASEP of MIMO system is computed for 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (16-QAM using MMSE-OSIC detection in WG fading perturbed by AWGGN. Analytical expressions are given in terms of Fox-H function (FHF. These expressions demonstrate the best fit to simulation results.

  11. DNA Double-Strand Break Analysis by {gamma}-H2AX Foci: A Useful Method for Determining the Overreactors to Radiation-Induced Acute Reactions Among Head-and-Neck Cancer Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goutham, Hassan Venkatesh; Mumbrekar, Kamalesh Dattaram [Division of Radiobiology and Toxicology, Manipal Life Sciences Centre, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka (India); Vadhiraja, Bejadi Manjunath [Manipal Hospital, Bangalore, Karnataka (India); Fernandes, Donald Jerard; Sharan, Krishna [Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Shiridi Sai Baba Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Kasturba Hospital, Manipal, Karnataka (India); Kanive Parashiva, Guruprasad; Kapaettu, Satyamoorthy [Division of Biotechnology, Manipal Life Sciences Centre, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka (India); Bola Sadashiva, Satish Rao, E-mail: satishraomlsc@gmail.com [Division of Radiobiology and Toxicology, Manipal Life Sciences Centre, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka (India)

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: Interindividual variability in normal tissue toxicity during radiation therapy is a limiting factor for successful treatment. Predicting the risk of developing acute reactions before initiation of radiation therapy may have the benefit of opting for altered radiation therapy regimens to achieve minimal adverse effects with improved tumor cure. Methods and Materials: DNA double-strand break (DSB) induction and its repair kinetics in lymphocytes of head-and-neck cancer patients undergoing chemoradiation therapy was analyzed by counting {gamma}-H2AX foci, neutral comet assay, and a modified version of neutral filter elution assay. Acute normal tissue reactions were assessed by Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria. Results: The correlation between residual DSBs and the severity of acute reactions demonstrated that residual {gamma}-H2AX foci in head-and-neck cancer patients increased with the severity of oral mucositis and skin reaction. Conclusions: Our results suggest that {gamma}-H2AX analysis may have predictive implications for identifying the overreactors to mucositis and skin reactions among head-and-neck cancer patients prior to initiation of radiation therapy.

  12. Immunobiological, biochemical and physico-chemical characteristics of Brucella lipopolysaccharide subjected to various doses of gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dranovskaya, E.A.; Shibaeva, I.V.

    1975-01-01

    A comparative study is presented of toxicity, serological activity, some biochemical and physico-chemical properties of the highly toxic Brucella lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and of preparations obtained as a result of gamma irradiation in doses of 1, 3, and 10 mrad on the antigen. The toxicity of LPS was found to decrease with increasing radiation dose. Irradiation with a dose of 3 mrad produced a marked decrease in the toxicity of the antigen without essentially changing its serological properties. The process of LPS detoxication under the effect of irradiation was accompanied by changes in certain biochemical and physico-chemical indices suggestive of a modification of the primary structure of the LPS molecule and of an impairment especially of its polysaccharide side chains. (author)

  13. Immunobiological, biochemical, and physico-chemical characteristics of Brucella lipopolysaccharide subjected to various doses of gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dranovskaya, E A; Shibaeva, I V [Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Ehpidemiologii i Mikrobiologii; Khabakpasheva, N A; Rostovtseva, N A [Institut Vaktsin i Syvorotok, Moscow (USSR)

    1975-01-01

    A comparative study is presented of toxicity, serological activity, some biochemical and physico-chemical properties of the highly toxic Brucella lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and of preparations obtained as a result of gamma irradiation in doses of 1, 3, and 10 mrad on the antigen. The toxicity of LPS was found to decrease with increasing radiation dose. Irradiation with a dose of 3 mrad produced a marked decrease in the toxicity of the antigen without essentially changing its serological properties. The process of LPS detoxication under the effect of irradiation was accompanied by changes in certain biochemical and physico-chemical indices suggestive of a modification of the primary structure of the LPS molecule and of an impairment especially of its polysaccharide side chains.

  14. Efficacy of Royal Jelly in Modulating Radiation-Induced Liver Damage in Rats Subjected to Low Level of Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, N.K.

    2010-01-01

    Royal Jelly (RJ) is bee product, rich in proteins, vitamins, enzymes, minerals, hormones (trace elements of testosterone), lipids, glucides, niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, inositol and folic acid, which may be beneficial in neutralizing the free oxygen radicals. The present study was carried out evaluate the radio-protective effect of Royal Jelly exposure of male Swiss albino rats to 1 Gy for 5 times day post day. Royal jelly was supplemented by gavage to rats at a dose of 150 mg/ kg body wt/ day for successive 10 days through exposure to gamma radiation 1 Gy x 5 time day post day. The dose of royal jelly is equivalent to daily human nutritional supplementation quantity. The result revealed that whole body gamma-irradiation of rats produced significant decrease in plasma total protein, albumin and globulin contents and significant increase in plasma alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) activity. However, plasma testosterone significantly decrease and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinising hormone (LH) significantly increased. Cholesterol (TC), triacyleglycerol (TAC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione per oxidise (GSHPx) decreased whereas, malondialdehde (MDA) increased. Oral administration of the RJ exerted a noticeable amelioration of the radiation induced hormonal and biochemical changes according to the results of the present study. It could be concluded that RJ possess anti-oxidative potential that may protect the liver against ?-radiation induced acute oxidative toxicity. This protective effect might be mediated, at least in part, by the limitation of culprit free radicals and the amelioration of oxidative stress and also due to the synergistic relationship between the natural components found in RJ

  15. Objective and subjective image quality of primary and recurrent squamous cell carcinoma on head and neck low-tube-voltage 80-kVp computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholtz, Jan-Erik; Kaup, Moritz; Kraft, Johannes; Noeske, Eva-Maria; Schulz, Boris; Burck, Iris; Kerl, J.M.; Bauer, Ralf W.; Lehnert, Thomas; Vogl, Thomas J.; Wichmann, Julian L. [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany); Scheerer, Friedrich [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Cranio-Maxillofacial and Plastic Facial Surgery, Frankfurt (Germany); Wagenblast, Jens [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Frankfurt (Germany)

    2015-03-26

    To investigate low-tube-voltage 80-kVp computed tomography (CT) of head and neck primary and recurrent squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) regarding objective and subjective image quality. We retrospectively evaluated 65 patients (47 male, 18 female; mean age: 62.1 years) who underwent head and neck dual-energy CT (DECT) due to biopsy-proven primary (n = 50) or recurrent (n = 15) SCC. Eighty peak kilovoltage and standard blended 120-kVp images were compared. Attenuation and noise of malignancy and various soft tissue structures were measured. Tumor signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were calculated. Subjective image quality was rated by three reviewers using 5-point grading scales regarding overall image quality, lesion delineation, image sharpness, and image noise. Radiation dose was assessed as CT dose index volume (CTDI{sub vol}). Interobserver agreement was calculated using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Mean tumor attenuation (153.8 Hounsfield unit (HU) vs. 97.1 HU), SNR (10.7 vs. 8.3), CNR (8.1 vs. 4.8), and subjective tumor delineation (score, 4.46 vs. 4.13) were significantly increased (all P < 0.001) with 80-kVp acquisition compared to standard blended 120-kVp images. Noise of all measured structures was increased in 80-kVp acquisition (P < 0.001). Overall interobserver agreement was good (ICC, 0.86; 95 % confidence intervals: 0.82-0.89). CTDI{sub vol} was reduced by 48.7 % with 80-kVp acquisition compared to standard DECT (4.85 ± 0.51 vs. 9.94 ± 0.81 mGy cm, P < 0.001). Head and neck CT with low-tube-voltage 80-kVp acquisition provides increased tumor delineation, SNR, and CNR for CT imaging of primary and recurrent SCC compared to standard 120-kVp acquisition with an accompanying significant reduction of radiation exposure. (orig.)

  16. Survey of keyword adjustment of published articles medical subject headings in journal of mazandaran university of medical sciences (2009-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabirzadeh, Azar; Siamian, Hasan; Abadi, Ebrahim Bagherian Farah; Saravi, Benyamin Mohseni

    2013-01-01

    NONE DECLARED. Keywords are the most important tools for Information retrieval. They are usually used for retrieval of articles based on contents of information reserved from printed and electronic resources. Retrieval of appropriate keywords from Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) can impact with exact, correctness and short time on information retrieval. Regarding the above mentioned matters, this study was done to compare the Latin keywords was in the articles published in the Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. This is a descriptive study. The data were extracted from the key words of Englsih abstracts of articles published in the years 2009-2010 in the Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences by census method. Checklist of data collection is designed, based on research objectives and literature review which has face validity. Compliance rate in this study was to determine if the keywords cited in this article as a full subject of the main subject headings in a MeSH (Bold and the selected word) is a perfect adjustment. If keywords were cited in the article but the main heading is not discussed in the following main topics to be discussed with reference to See and See related it has considered has partial adjustment. Out of 148 articles published in 12 issues in proposed time of studying, 72 research papers were analyzed. The average numbers of authors in each article were 4 ± 1. Results showed that most of specialty papers 42 (58. 4%), belonging to the (Department of Clinical Sciences) School of Medicine, 11 (15.3%) Basic Science, 6(8.4%) Pharmacy, Nursing and Midwifery 5(6.9%), 4(5.5%) Health, paramedical Sciences 3(4.2%), and non medical article 1(1.3%) school of medicine. In general, results showed that 80 (30%) of key words have been used to complete the adjustment. Also, only 1(1.4%) had complete adjustment with all the MeSH key words and in 8 articles(11.4%) key words of had no adjustment with MeSH. The results showed that only

  17. Reduced Sympathetic Response to Head-Up Tilt in Subjects with Mild Cognitive Impairment or Mild Alzheimer's Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marte Rognstad Mellingsæter

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hemodynamic control was compared in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI or mild Alzheimer's dementia (AD as well as in healthy elderly subjects. Methods: Noninvasive, continuous hemodynamic recordings were obtained from 14 patients and 48 controls during supine rest (tilt of 30 and 70°. Cardiac output, end-diastolic volume, total peripheral resistance, heart rate variability (HRV, systolic blood pressure variability (SBPV, and baroreceptor sensitivity were calculated. Results: At 70° tilt, the HRV indices differed significantly, with higher high-frequency (HF variability as well as lower low-frequency (LF variability and LF/HF ratios in the patients. The patients had significantly lower SBPV in the LF range at 30° tilt. Conclusions: The results indicate a poorer sympathetic response to orthostatic stress in MCI and mild AD.

  18. Diagnosis of myocardial viability by dual-head coincidence gamma camera fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography with and without non-uniform attenuation correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, B.; Zimmy, M.; Kaiser, H.-J.; Schaefer, W.; Reinartz, P.; Buell, U.; Schwarz, E.R.; Dahl, J. vom

    2000-01-01

    This study assessed a dual-head coincidence gamma camera (hybrid PET) equipped with single-photon transmission for myocardial fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) imaging by comparing this technique with conventional positron emission tomography (PET) using a dedicated ring PET scanner. Twenty-one patients were studied with dedicated FDG ring PET and FDG hybrid PET for evaluation of myocardial glucose metabolism, as well as technetium-99 m tetrofosmin single-photon emission tomography (SPET) to estimate myocardial perfusion. All patients underwent transmitted attenuation correction using germanium-68 rod sources for ring PET and caesium-137 point sources for hybrid PET. Ring PET and hybrid PET emission scans were started 61±12 and 98±15 min, respectively, after administration of 154±31 MBq FDG. Attenuation-corrected images were reconstructed iteratively for ring PET and hybrid PET (ac-hybrid PET), and non-attenuation-corrected images for hybrid PET (non-ac-hybrid PET) only. Tracer distribution was analysed semiquantitatively using a volumetric vector sampling method dividing the left ventricular wall into 13 segments. FDG distribution in non-ac-hybrid PET and ring PET correlated with r=0.36 (P<0.0001), and in ac-hybrid PET and ring PET with r=0.79 (P<0.0001). Non-ac-hybrid PET significantly overestimated FDG uptake in the apical and supra-apical segments, and underestimated FDG uptake in the remaining segments, with the exception of one lateral segment. Ac-hybrid PET significantly overestimated FDG uptake in the apical segment, and underestimated FDG uptake in only three posteroseptal segments. A three-grade score was used to classify diagnosis of viability by FDG PET in 136 segments with reduced perfusion as assessed by SPET. Compared with ring PET, non-ac-hybrid PET showed concordant diagnoses in 80 segments (59%) and ac-hybrid PET in 101 segments (74%) (P<0.001). Agreement between ring PET and non-ac-hybrid PET was best in the basal lateral wall and in the

  19. [Study of genome instability using DNA fingerprinting of the offspring of male mice subjected to chronic low dose gamma irradiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezlepkin, V G; Vasil'eva, G V; Lomaeva, M G; Sirota, N P; Gaziev, A I

    2000-01-01

    By a polymerase chain reaction with an arbitrary primer (AP-PCR), the possibility of transmission of genome instability to somatic cells of the offspring (F1 generation) from male parents of mice exposed to chronic low-level gamma-radiation was studied. Male BALB/c mice 15 days after exposure to 10-50 cGy were mated with unirradiated females. Biopsies were taken from tale tips of two month-old offspring mice and DNA was isolated. The primer in the AP-PCR was a 20-mer oligonucleotide flanking the microsatellite locus Atp1b2 on chromosome 11 of the mouse. A comparative analysis of individual fingerprints of AP-PCR products on DNA-templates from the offspring of irradiated and unirradiated male mice revealed an increased variability of microsatellite-associated sequences in the genome of the offspring of the males exposed to 25 and 50 cGy. The DNA-fingerprints of the offspring of male mice exposed to chronic irradiation with the doses 10 and 25 cGy 15 days before fertilization (at the post-meiotic stage of spermatogenesis) showed an increased frequency of "non-parent bands". The results of the study point to the possibility of transmission to the offspring somatic cells of changes increasing genome instability from male parents exposed to chronic low-level radiation prior to fertilization.

  20. A study of the exposure of subjects to RF radiation during MRI examinations. Measurement of the SAR of head parts and the evaluation of the measured values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Masayuki; Koga, Sukehiko; Sugie, Masami; Kinoshita, Kazuo; Anno, Hirofumi; Katada, Kazuhiro.

    1996-01-01

    Recently, as the fast spin echo technique has become prevailing among all the techniques in this line, there has been an increasing interest in the exposure of subjects to radiofrequency (RF) radiation during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations. On the other hand, there have been no reports about the safety of the MRI examination in Japan. For this reason, in this study, the authors aimed to evaluate the extent of the exposure of subjects to RF radiation during MRI examinations, and measured the specific absorption rate (SAR) of spherical phantoms, which assumed to be adult heads, by using the procedures set forth in two safety guidelines respectively: the 1988 Guideline of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the 1995 Standards of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). As a result of the measurement, it was found that the highest value of the SAR was 1.361 W/kg, which stayed far below the upper limits set forth by the respective safety guidelines referred to in the above. However, the measured values of the SAR varied depending on the respective measuring procedures. As both the measuring procedures are equivalent theoretically, the authors consider the variance to be very important. (author)

  1. Recycling of chlorobutyl rubber compounds subjected of gamma radiation; Reciclagem de compostos de borracha clorobutilinica por meio de radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scagliusi, Sandra R.; Cardoso, Elizabeth C.L.; Santos, Renato G. dos; Lugao, Ademar B., E-mail: srscagliusi@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    In Brazil, as in the world, the correct destination of solid waste and its impacts on the environment are so worrying that have been treated as public policy of the State, leading to behavioral change on the part of business and society. Polymeric materials (plastics and rubbers) comprise a growing proportion of urban and industrial waste sent to landfills. Development of technologies for reducing polymeric residues that are acceptable from an environmental point of view, and which are effective in terms of cost, has proven a difficult challenge due to the inherent complexities of all reuse polymers. To establish more efficient processes for reuse / recycling of polymeric materials remains a challenge throughout the world. Due to ionizing radiation ability to alter the structure and properties of materials and the fact that it is applicable to all types of polymers, irradiation is promising and effective for the management of solid waste which can be used as raw materials or additives chemicals. Halogenated polymers have been used on a large scale in a broad variety of applications, such as tires, spare parts (tubes, tire liners, etc.) and various artifacts (covers, gaskets, etc.). Due to the low unsaturation of chlorobutyl rubber (about 3%), shows significant levels of degradation upon exposure to radiation. The main effect of gamma rays on butyl polymers is the formation of free radicals and the chain scission. This paper aims to introduce a rubber recovery technique chlorobutyl rubber the characterization of non-irradiated and irradiated samples based on the following properties: tensile strength and elongation at break, hardness, and rheological properties. The radiation doses used in the study were degradation range: 0 kGy, 25 kGy, 50 kGy, 100 kGy, 150 kGy and 200 kGy, in order to confirm the feasibility of recycling chlorobutyl rubber. It was observed that doses greater than 100 kGy, the material exhibits a high degree of degradation. Research on rubber

  2. Head Start.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenman, Geri

    2000-01-01

    Discusses an art project in which students created drawings of mop heads. Explains that the approach of drawing was more important than the subject. States that the students used the chiaroscuro technique, used by Rembrandt and Caravaggio, in which light appears out of the darkness. (CMK)

  3. Lol p I-induced IL-4 and IFN-gamma production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells of atopic and nonatopic subjects during and out of the pollen season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, R; Akoum, A; Hébert, J

    1993-04-01

    The reciprocal effects of IL-4 and IFN-gamma on IgE synthesis have been well established. It has also been shown that these two lymphokines are secreted by different subsets of CD4+ T cells (TH1 and TH2), and that TH2 helper T lymphocytes could be involved in the pathophysiology of allergic diseases. But little is known about the effects of an allergen on the profile of lymphokine synthesis by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of allergic and nonallergic subjects. We studied the production of IL-4 and IFN-gamma by PBMCs of atopic and nonatopic donors after in vitro stimulation by the group 1 allergen from Lolium perenne pollen (Lol p I), during and out of the grass pollen season. On natural exposure to pollen, Lol p I-induced IL-4 production was observed only with atopic donors (6 of 8), whereas the synthesis of IFN-gamma was observed for all nonatopic donors (7 of 7) and most allergic patients (5 of 7). At the time of the study, higher amounts of IFN-gamma were produced by PBMCs of nonatopic donors than by PBMCs of atopic patients. Out of the pollen season the production of IL-4 was not observed either by atopic (n = 11) or by nonatopic subjects (n = 5). On the other hand, IFN-gamma was produced by PBMCs of most subjects (atopic, 10 of 11; nonatopic, 5 of 5), but at the time of the study no difference was observed between the two groups. These results show that Lol p I induces different profiles of IL-4 and IFN-gamma production by PBMCs of atopic and nonatopic subjects. In atopic subjects this profile of lymphokine synthesis is influenced by the natural exposure to pollen, which is in keeping with the seasonal rise of IgE antibodies.

  4. Differences in Pre and Post Vascular Patterning Within Retinas from ISS Crew Members and Head-Down Tilt (HDT) Subjects by VESGEN Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, M. C.; Vizzeri, G.; Taibbi, G.; Mason, S. S.; Young, M.; Zanello, S. B.; Parsons-Wingerter, P.

    2018-01-01

    Accelerated research by NASA has investigated the significant risks incurred during long-duration missions in microgravity for Space Flight-Associated Neuro-ocular Syndrome (SANS, formerly known as Visual Impairments associated with Increased Intracranial Pressure, VIIP) [1]. For our study, NASA's VESsel GENeration Analysis (VESGEN) was used to investigate the role of retinal blood vessels in the etiology of SANS/VIIP. The response of retinal vessels to microgravity was evaluated in astronaut crew members pre and post flight to the International Space Station (ISS), and compared to the response of retinal vessels in healthy volunteers to 6deg head-down tilt during 70 days of bed rest (HDTBR). For the study, we are testing the hypothesis that long-term cephalad fluid shifts resulting in ocular and visual impairments are necessarily mediated in part by retinal blood vessels, and therefore are accompanied by structural adaptations of the vessels. METHODS: Vascular patterns in the retinas of crew members and HDTBR subjects extracted from 30deg infrared (IR) Heidelberg Spectralis images collected pre/postflight and pre/post HDTBR, respectively, were analyzed by VESGEN (patent pending). VESGEN is a mature, automated software developed as a research discovery tool for progressive vascular diseases in the retina and other tissues. The multi-parametric VESGEN analysis generates maps of branching arterial and venous trees quantified by parameters such as the fractal dimension (Df, a modern measure of vascular space-filling capacity), vessel diameters, and densities of vessel length and number classified into specific branching generations according to vascular physiological branching rules. The retrospective study approved by NASA's Institutional Review Board included the analysis of bilateral retinas in eight ISS crew members monitored by routine occupational surveillance and six HDTBR subjects (NASA FARU Campaign 11, for example). The VESGEN analysis was conducted in a

  5. TH-CD-207A-10: Using the Gamma Index to Flag Changes in Anatomy During Radiation Therapy of Head and Neck Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaly, B; Battista, J [London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, Western University, London, Ontario Canada (Canada); Kempe, J; Mitchell, S [London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario (Canada); Venkatesan, V [London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario (Canada); Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: This article presents a fast algorithm for comparing 3-D anatomy from Cone-Beam CT (CBCT) imaging using the gamma comparison index and to demonstrate how this can be used to flag patients for possible re-planning of treatment. Methods: CBCT scans acquired on a Varian linear accelerator during treatment were used as input to the gamma comparator using thresholds of 5 mm distance to agreement and 30 Hounsfield Unit CT number difference. The fraction 1 CBCT study was initially used as the reference. Should there be a re-plan during treatment, the reference resets to the CBCT study acquired on the day 1 of the re-plan. Histograms of failing pixels (γ > 1) were generated from each 3-D gamma map. An indicator of anatomy congruence, the match quality parameter (MQP), was derived from failed pixel histograms using the 90th percentile gamma value. The MQP was plotted versus fraction number and related to actual repeat computed tomography (re-CT) order dates as decided by a radiation oncologist. From this, decision criteria were derived for the algorithm to “trigger” re-CT consideration and predictive power was scored using receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results: The MQP plot generally showed that the on-line match from CBCT image guidance deteriorated as the treatment progressed due to weight loss and tumor regression. The optimized MQP criteria for triggering re-CT consideration demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity, consistent with actual re-CT order dates within ± 3 fractions. Out of 20 patients that were actually re-planned, the algorithm failed to trigger a re-CT recommendation only twice and this was caused by CBCT ring artifacts. Conclusion: We have demonstrated that gamma comparisons can be used to evaluate CBCT-acquired anatomy pairs and, from this, an algorithm can be “trained” to flag patients for possible re-planning in a manner consistent with local radiation oncology practice.

  6. Heads Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Connect with Us HEADS UP Apps Reshaping the Culture Around Concussion in Sports Get HEADS UP on Your Web Site Concussion ... HEADS UP on your web site! Create a culture of safety for young athletes Officials, learn how you can ... UP to Providers HEADS UP to Youth Sports HEADS UP to School Sports HEADS UP to ...

  7. Resting-state networks in healthy adult subjects: a comparison between a 32-element and an 8-element phased array head coil at 3.0 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolini, Marco; Keeser, Daniel; Ingrisch, Michael; Werner, Natalie; Kindermann, Nicole; Reiser, Maximilian; Blautzik, Janusch

    2015-05-01

    Little research exists on the influence of a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) head coil's channel count on measured resting-state functional connectivity. To compare a 32-element (32ch) and an 8-element (8ch) phased array head coil with respect to their potential to detect functional connectivity within resting-state networks. Twenty-six healthy adults (mean age, 21.7 years; SD, 2.1 years) underwent resting-state functional MRI at 3.0 Tesla with both coils using equal standard imaging parameters and a counterbalanced design. Independent component analysis (ICA) at different model orders and a dual regression approach were performed. Voxel-wise non-parametric statistical between-group contrasts were determined using permutation-based non-parametric inference. Phantom measurements demonstrated a generally higher image signal-to-noise ratio using the 32ch head coil. However, the results showed no significant differences between corresponding resting-state networks derived from both coils (p coil does not offer any significant advantages in detecting ICA-based functional connectivity within RSNs. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  8. Gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschunt, E.; Platz, W.; Baer, U.; Heinz, L.

    1978-01-01

    A gamma camera has a plurality of exchangeable collimators, one of which is mounted in the ray inlet opening of the camera, while the others are placed on separate supports. The supports are swingably mounted upon a column one above the other through about 90 0 to a collimator exchange position. Each of the separate supports is swingable to a vertically aligned position, with limiting of the swinging movement and positioning of the support at the desired exchange position. The collimators are carried on the supports by means of a series of vertically disposed coil springs. Projections on the camera are movable from above into grooves of the collimator at the exchange position, whereupon the collimator is turned so that it is securely prevented from falling out of the camera head

  9. Characterization of WO3-doped borophosphate glasses by optical, IR and ESR spectroscopic techniques before and after subjecting to gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouis, M.A.; EI-Batal, H.A.; Azooz, M.A.; Abdelghany, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Borophosphate glasses containing increasing WO 3 within the doping level (0.16-1.33%) have been prepared and investigated by UV-visible, infrared spectral measurements. These glasses have been exposed to gamma rays with a dose of 8 Mrad for studying the effect of gamma radiation on the combined studied spectra of such glasses. The optical spectrum of undoped borophosphate glass reveals strong UV absorption but with no visible bands. This strong UV absorption is related to the presence of unavoidable trace iron impurities within the chemicals used for the preparation of this borophosphate glass. The WO 3 -doped samples show two additional UV and visible bands at about 380 and 740 nm due to the presence of both W 6+ and W 5+ ions in noticeable content. The calculated induced spectra reveal the appearance of an ultraviolet band at 320 nm and two visible bands centered at 390 and 540 nm which are related to the combined presence of W 6+ and W 5+ ions. The FTIR spectra show vibrational bands due to characteristic constitutional phosphate and borate groups but the phosphate groups are predominant due to the high P 2 O 5 content (50%). The effect of the addition of WO 3 with the dopant level reveals limited changes in the IR spectra. Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra show specified signals in the high WO 3 content glass but on gamma irradiation the signals are disappeared. This result confirms the decrease of the W 5+ ions by photochemical oxidation to paired W 6+ ions. This result is also observed in optical absorption of WO 3 doped glasses after gamma irradiation through the disappearance of the visible band at 740 nm. (author)

  10. Head-positioning scintillation camera and head holder therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kay, T.D.

    1976-01-01

    A holder for immobilizing the head of a patient undergoing a vertex brain scan by a Gamma Scintillation Camera is described. The holder has a uniquely designed shape capable of comfortably supporting the head. In addition, this holder can be both adjustably and removably utilized in combination with the scintillation camera so as to enable the brain scan operation to take place while the patient is in the seated position

  11. Histological and histochemical studies on liver of rat subjected to synergistic effect of natural and synthetic food colorants and/or gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, O.; Hafez, M. N.; Abd El Maguid, A.

    2007-01-01

    The present work has been carried out to detect some histological and histochemical changes in the liver of albino rats after oral administration of a mixture of the synthetic food colorants tartrazine and brilliant blue and/ or gamma-irradiation (5 Gy). The possible ameliorative effect of the natural food colorant beta-carotene (30 mg/ kg body wt) orally administered with the synthetic food colorants tartrazine and brilliant blue and irradiation was evaluated. Rats were divided into five groups: 1- Control group. 2- Group received a food colorant mixture of tartrazine and brilliant blue (100 mg/ kg body wt). 3- Group received gamma-irradiation at 5 Gy. 4-Animals received the food colorant mixture for 2 weeks and were irradiated. 5- Animals received beta-carotene (30 mg/ kg body wt) with the food colorant mixture for 2 weeks and were then irradiated (5 Gy). Administration of tartrazine and brilliant blue caused histopathological and histochemical changes in the liver of rat manifested by haemorrhage, vacuolar degeneration of hepatocytes, dilatation of blood sinusoids, scattered necrotic areas and a decrease in the mucopolysaccharides content. The radiation caused infiltration of inflammatory cells in the portal area, necrosis with pyknosis and karyolysis of nuclei and a decrease in the mucopolysaccharide content of hepatic cells 1 and 3 days post-irradiation. The present work also showed that the natural food colorant beta-carotene reduced the toxicity of the synthetic food colorants tartrazine and brilliant blue and gamma-irradiation when the natural pigment was given together with the synthetic dyes used as food additives. In conclusion, synthetic food colours and/ or radiation induced histopathological and histochemical disturbances in rats. On the other hand, administration of the natural food colorant beta-carotene had a significant protective role against the damaging effects induced by these synthetic colours mixture

  12. 18F-FDG imaging with a coincidence dual-headed gamma camera (Co-PET) in the diagnosis, staging and management of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, P.; Chu, J.; Pocock, N.; Quach, T.; Sorensen, B.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: FDG-PET has an established role in the management of lung cancer, while the experience with FDG-Co-PET is limited. Our study aims to demonstrate the feasibility of Co-PET in staging and management of lung cancer. Thirty-nine Co-PET studies were performed on our first 36 patients (pts) with primary lung cancer between November 1997 and October 1998. Tomography of brain and torso with an ADAC Solus MCD gamma camera was performed (60 min after 200 MBq of 18 FFDG and > 6 h fasting). Histology subgroups included squamous (14 pts), small cell (1), adeno-carcinoma (11), broncho-alveolar (1), large cell (8), carcinoid (1). CT/clinical staging subgroups included 18 pts in stage 1, 4 in stage 2, 7 in stage 3a, 2 in stage 3b, 8 in stage 4. Compared with CT/clinical staging, FDG upstaged 5 pts (14%) with regional nodal metastases (mets) and 8 pts (22%) with distant mets (cervical = 2, lung = 1, brain = 3, bone = 3, abdomen = 4). FDG under-staged 2 pts in 3 sites (all < 15 mm). Surgical nodal staging was performed in 14 pts: false-positives occurred in 3 CT and 1 Co-PET studies, and false-negatives in one CT/Co-PET. Site sensitivities for primary (smallest 7 mm) and regional lymph nodes are 100% and 88% respectively. Specificities for primary and regional nodes are 100% and 96% respectively. Co-PET also has impact on management: treatment intent (6 pts), radiotherapy fields (1), diagnosis of lung mets (2) and radiation pneumonitis (1). In conclusion, our initial data demonstrate FDG-Co-PET scanning could provide a valuable addition to conventional imaging studies in diagnosis, staging and management of lung cancer

  13. Performance of a Novel Repositioning Head Frame for Gamma Knife Perfexion and Image-Guided Linac-Based Intracranial Stereotactic Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruschin, Mark; Nayebi, Nazanin; Carlsson, Per; Brown, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the geometric positioning and immobilization performance of a vacuum bite-block repositioning head frame (RHF) system for Perfexion (PFX-SRT) and linac-based intracranial image-guided stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT). Methods and Materials: Patients with intracranial tumors received linac-based image-guided SRT using the RHF for setup and immobilization. Three hundred thirty-three fractions of radiation were delivered in 12 patients. The accuracy of the RHF was estimated for linac-based SRT with online cone-beam CT (CBCT) and for PFX-SRT with a repositioning check tool (RCT) and offline CBCT. The RCT's ability to act as a surrogate for anatomic position was estimated through comparison to CBCT image matching. Immobilization performance was evaluated daily with pre- and postdose delivery CBCT scans and RCT measurements. Results: The correlation coefficient between RCT- and CBCT-reported displacements was 0.59, 0.75, 0.79 (Right, Superior, and Anterior, respectively). For image-guided linac-based SRT, the mean three-dimensional (3D) setup error was 0.8 mm with interpatient (Σ) and interfraction (σ) variations of 0.1 and 0.4 mm, respectively. For PFX-SRT, the initial, uncorrected mean 3D positioning displacement in stereotactic coordinates was 2.0 mm, with Σ = 1.1 mm and σ = 0.8 mm. Considering only RCT setups o in pitch. The mean 3D intrafraction motion was 0.4 ± 0.3 mm. Conclusion: The RHF provides excellent immobilization for intracranial SRT and PFX-SRT. Some small systematic uncertainties in stereotactic positioning exist and must be considered when generating PFX-SRT treatment plans. The RCT provides reasonable surrogacy for internal anatomic displacement.

  14. Periodontal aspects of patients subjected to the radiotherapy in region of head and neck; Aspectos periodontales de pacientes sometidos a la radioterapia en region de cabeza y cuello

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira Moreira, Allyson; Bueno, Audrey C [Buenos Aires Univ. (Argentina). Facultad de Odontologia; Silami de Magalhaes, Claudia; Silva Freire, Addah R. da [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2007-03-15

    Mouth cancer is the sixth most frequent type in the world's population, affecting mostly developing countries. The treatment of choice for this neoplasm is the surgery associated with radiotherapy and / or chemotherapy, which often cause mouth adverse effects. The periodontal reaction to the suffering irradiation morphological and histological alterations decreased the ability of repairing and increased vulnerability to infections. The mouth conditions of the patients who will undergo cancer therapy should be assessed prior to initiation of treatment, mainly to prevent complications. This study aimed to do a literature review on the development of periodontal disease in patients undergoing radiotherapy in head and neck region. [Spanish] El cancer de boca es el sexto tipo mas frecuente en la poblacion mundial, afectando principalmente paises en desarrollo. El tratamiento de eleccion para esta neoplasia es la cirugia asociada a la radioterapia, y/o quimioterapia que muchas veces causan efectos bucales adversos. El periodoncio reacciona a la irradiacion sufriendo alteraciones morfologicas e histologicas, disminucion de la capacidad de reparo y mayor vulnerabilidad a infecciones. Las condiciones bucales de los pacientes que seran sometidas a la terapia oncologica deben ser evaluadas antes del inicio del tratamiento, principalmente para prevenir las complicaciones del mismo. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo hacer una revision de literatura sobre el desarrollo de la enfermedad periodontal en individuos sometidos a la radioterapia en region de cabeza y cuello. (autor)

  15. Cam deformity and the omega angle, a novel quantitative measurement of femoral head-neck morphology: a 3D CT gender analysis in asymptomatic subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mascarenhas, Vasco V.; Gaspar, Augusto [Hospital da Luz, MSK imaging Unit (UIME), Imaging Center, Lisbon (Portugal); Rego, Paulo [Hospital da Luz, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Lisbon (Portugal); Dantas, Pedro [Hospital CUF Descobertas, Lisbon (Portugal); Soldado, Francisco [Universitat de Barcelona, Hospital Sant Joan de Deu, Barcelona (Spain); Consciencia, Jose G. [NOVA Medical School, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2017-05-15

    Our objectives were to use 3D computed tomography (CT) to define head-neck morphologic gender-specific and normative parameters in asymptomatic individuals and use the omega angle (Ω ) to provide quantification data on the location and radial extension of a cam deformity. We prospectively included 350 individuals and evaluated 188 asymptomatic hips that underwent semiautomated CT analysis. Different thresholds of alpha angle (α ) were considered in order to analyze cam morphology and determine Ω . We calculated overall and gender-specific parameters for imaging signs of cam morphology (Ω and circumferential α ). The 95 % reference interval limits were beyond abnormal thresholds found in the literature for cam morphology. Specifically, α at 3/1 oclock were 46.9 /60.8 overall, 51.8 /65.4 for men and 45.7 /55.3 for women. Cam prevalence, magnitude, location, and epicenter were significantly gender different. Increasing α correlated with higher Ω , meaning that higher angles correspond to larger cam deformities. Hip morphometry measurements in this cohort of asymptomatic individuals extended beyond current thresholds used for the clinical diagnosis of cam deformity, and α was found to vary both by gender and measurement location. These results suggest that α measurement is insufficient for the diagnosis of cam deformity. Enhanced morphometric evaluation, including 3D imaging and Ω , may enable a more accurate diagnosis. (orig.)

  16. Cam deformity and the omega angle, a novel quantitative measurement of femoral head-neck morphology: a 3D CT gender analysis in asymptomatic subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mascarenhas, Vasco V.; Gaspar, Augusto; Rego, Paulo; Dantas, Pedro; Soldado, Francisco; Consciencia, Jose G.

    2017-01-01

    Our objectives were to use 3D computed tomography (CT) to define head-neck morphologic gender-specific and normative parameters in asymptomatic individuals and use the omega angle (Ω ) to provide quantification data on the location and radial extension of a cam deformity. We prospectively included 350 individuals and evaluated 188 asymptomatic hips that underwent semiautomated CT analysis. Different thresholds of alpha angle (α ) were considered in order to analyze cam morphology and determine Ω . We calculated overall and gender-specific parameters for imaging signs of cam morphology (Ω and circumferential α ). The 95 % reference interval limits were beyond abnormal thresholds found in the literature for cam morphology. Specifically, α at 3/1 oclock were 46.9 /60.8 overall, 51.8 /65.4 for men and 45.7 /55.3 for women. Cam prevalence, magnitude, location, and epicenter were significantly gender different. Increasing α correlated with higher Ω , meaning that higher angles correspond to larger cam deformities. Hip morphometry measurements in this cohort of asymptomatic individuals extended beyond current thresholds used for the clinical diagnosis of cam deformity, and α was found to vary both by gender and measurement location. These results suggest that α measurement is insufficient for the diagnosis of cam deformity. Enhanced morphometric evaluation, including 3D imaging and Ω , may enable a more accurate diagnosis. (orig.)

  17. Studies of the Gly482Ser polymorphism of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1alpha (PGC-1alpha) gene in Danish subjects with the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambye, L; Rasmussen, S; Fenger, Mogens

    2005-01-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1alpha (PGC-1alpha) is a novel transcriptional co-activator that holds an important role in lipid and glucose metabolism. PGC-1alpha is a candidate gene for the metabolic syndrome (MS) as well as type 2 diabetes. Recent studies...... related to this syndrome. The variant was examined, using PCR-RFLP, in the DanMONICA cohort comprising a population-based sample of 2349 subjects. MS was defined using the National Cholesterol Education Program -- Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII) criteria. The allelic frequency of the Ser482 allele...... and insulin secretion, 24-ambulatory blood pressure or left ventricular mass index. In conclusion, the Gly482Ser polymorphism of the PGC-1alpha gene is not associated with the metabolic syndrome, related quantitative traits or cardiac hypertrophy among Danish Caucasian subjects...

  18. Validating a Method to Assess Lipreading, Audiovisual Gain, and Integration During Speech Reception With Cochlear-Implanted and Normal-Hearing Subjects Using a Talking Head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreitmüller, Stefan; Frenken, Miriam; Bentz, Lüder; Ortmann, Magdalene; Walger, Martin; Meister, Hartmut

    Watching a talker's mouth is beneficial for speech reception (SR) in many communication settings, especially in noise and when hearing is impaired. Measures for audiovisual (AV) SR can be valuable in the framework of diagnosing or treating hearing disorders. This study addresses the lack of standardized methods in many languages for assessing lipreading, AV gain, and integration. A new method is validated that supplements a German speech audiometric test with visualizations of the synthetic articulation of an avatar that was used, for it is feasible to lip-sync auditory speech in a highly standardized way. Three hypotheses were formed according to the literature on AV SR that used live or filmed talkers. It was tested whether respective effects could be reproduced with synthetic articulation: (1) cochlear implant (CI) users have a higher visual-only SR than normal-hearing (NH) individuals, and younger individuals obtain higher lipreading scores than older persons. (2) Both CI and NH gain from presenting AV over unimodal (auditory or visual) sentences in noise. (3) Both CI and NH listeners efficiently integrate complementary auditory and visual speech features. In a controlled, cross-sectional study with 14 experienced CI users (mean age 47.4) and 14 NH individuals (mean age 46.3, similar broad age distribution), lipreading, AV gain, and integration of a German matrix sentence test were assessed. Visual speech stimuli were synthesized by the articulation of the Talking Head system "MASSY" (Modular Audiovisual Speech Synthesizer), which displayed standardized articulation with respect to the visibility of German phones. In line with the hypotheses and previous literature, CI users had a higher mean visual-only SR than NH individuals (CI, 38%; NH, 12%; p < 0.001). Age was correlated with lipreading such that within each group, younger individuals obtained higher visual-only scores than older persons (rCI = -0.54; p = 0.046; rNH = -0.78; p < 0.001). Both CI and NH

  19. Clinical and symptomatological study of pigs subjected to a lethal dose of integral gamma irradiation; Etude clinique et symptomatologique chez le porc soumis a une irradiation gamma totale a dose letale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaiman, M; Guenet, J -L; Maas, J; Nizza, P

    1966-05-01

    Results are reported from a clinical and haematological study on a Corsican species of pigs wholly exposed to an approximately lethal dose of {gamma} radiation. The aim of this work was to examine the changes in the irradiation syndrome of irradiation for pigs to make it thus possible to devise further experiments, in particular in the therapeutic field. The dose received was 285 rads (measured as the absorption in the vertical antero-posterior medial plane). Data are presented on cyto-haematological changes in the blood circulating immediately after irradiation, and followed up to death, and changes in the medullary cytology after irradiation. The clinical picture of lethal radiation injury in swine is described. (authors) [French] Les auteurs rapportent les resultats d'une etude clinique et hematologique chez des porcs de race corse irradies in toto a dose sensiblement letale. Le but de cette etude etait de connaitre l'evolution du syndrome aigu d'irradiation chez le porc et de permettre ainsi le developpement d'experimentations ulterieures, en particulier dans le domaine therapeutique. La dose delivree etait de 285 rad (en dose absorbee au niveau du plan median vertical anteroposterieur. L'etude a porte essentiellement: 1. Sur les modifications cyclo-hematologiques du sang circulant immediatement apres l'irradiation, pour les differentes lignees cellulaires; l'evolution de ces modifications a ete notee jusqu'a la mort; 2. Sur les modifications de la cytologie medullaire apres irradiation (evolution du myelogramme et essai d'evaluation de la cellularite de la moelle osseuse);: 3. Sur les signes cliniques, d'ailleurs tres discrets, observes chez les porcs apres irradiation. (auteurs)

  20. Clinical and symptomatological study of pigs subjected to a lethal dose of integral gamma irradiation; Etude clinique et symptomatologique chez le porc soumis a une irradiation gamma totale a dose letale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaiman, M.; Guenet, J.-L.; Maas, J.; Nizza, P

    1966-05-01

    Results are reported from a clinical and haematological study on a Corsican species of pigs wholly exposed to an approximately lethal dose of {gamma} radiation. The aim of this work was to examine the changes in the irradiation syndrome of irradiation for pigs to make it thus possible to devise further experiments, in particular in the therapeutic field. The dose received was 285 rads (measured as the absorption in the vertical antero-posterior medial plane). Data are presented on cyto-haematological changes in the blood circulating immediately after irradiation, and followed up to death, and changes in the medullary cytology after irradiation. The clinical picture of lethal radiation injury in swine is described. (authors) [French] Les auteurs rapportent les resultats d'une etude clinique et hematologique chez des porcs de race corse irradies in toto a dose sensiblement letale. Le but de cette etude etait de connaitre l'evolution du syndrome aigu d'irradiation chez le porc et de permettre ainsi le developpement d'experimentations ulterieures, en particulier dans le domaine therapeutique. La dose delivree etait de 285 rad (en dose absorbee au niveau du plan median vertical anteroposterieur. L'etude a porte essentiellement: 1. Sur les modifications cyclo-hematologiques du sang circulant immediatement apres l'irradiation, pour les differentes lignees cellulaires; l'evolution de ces modifications a ete notee jusqu'a la mort; 2. Sur les modifications de la cytologie medullaire apres irradiation (evolution du myelogramme et essai d'evaluation de la cellularite de la moelle osseuse);: 3. Sur les signes cliniques, d'ailleurs tres discrets, observes chez les porcs apres irradiation. (auteurs)

  1. Gamma Knife

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Gamma Knife Gamma Knife® is a radiation therapy that uses computerized ... If you're scheduled for radiation therapy using Gamma Knife®, a treatment team consisting of a radiation ...

  2. Head Lice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nits. You should also use hot water to wash any bed linens, towels, and clothing recently worn by the person who had head lice. Vacuum anything that can’t be washed, such as the couch, carpets, your child’s car seat, and any stuffed animals. Because head lice ...

  3. Head Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a severe blow to the head can still knock the brain into the side of the skull ... following certain precautions and taking a break from sports and other activities that make symptoms worse. Playing ...

  4. Head First Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, Dawn

    2009-01-01

    Wouldn't it be great if there were a statistics book that made histograms, probability distributions, and chi square analysis more enjoyable than going to the dentist? Head First Statistics brings this typically dry subject to life, teaching you everything you want and need to know about statistics through engaging, interactive, and thought-provoking material, full of puzzles, stories, quizzes, visual aids, and real-world examples. Whether you're a student, a professional, or just curious about statistical analysis, Head First's brain-friendly formula helps you get a firm grasp of statistics

  5. Gamma-rays from deep inelastic collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, F.S.

    1981-01-01

    My objective in this talk is to consider the question: 'What can be learned about deep inelastic collisions (DIC) from studying the associated gamma-rays'. First, I discuss the origin and nature of the gamma-rays from DIC, then the kinds of information gamma-ray spectra contain, and finally come to the combination of these two subjects. (orig./HSI)

  6. Gamma camera display system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stout, K.J.

    1976-01-01

    A gamma camera having an array of photomultipliers coupled via pulse shaping circuitry and a resistor weighting circuit to a display for forming an image of a radioactive subject is described. A linearizing circuit is coupled to the weighting circuit, the linearizing circuit including a nonlinear feedback circuit with diode coupling to the weighting circuit for linearizing the correspondence between points of the display and points of the subject. 4 Claims, 5 Drawing Figures

  7. Proprioceptive evoked gamma oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnfred, S.M.; Hansen, Lars Kai; Parnas, J.

    2007-01-01

    A proprioceptive stimulus consisting of a weight change of a handheld load has recently been shown to elicit an evoked potential. Previously, somatosensory gamma oscillations have only been evoked by electrical stimuli. We conjectured that a natural proprioceptive stimulus also would be able...... to evoke gamma oscillations. EEG was recorded using 64 channels in 14 healthy subjects. In each of three runs a stimulus of 100 g load increment in each hand was presented in 120 trials. Data were wavelet transformed and runs collapsed. Inter-trial phase coherence (ITPC) was computed as the best measure...

  8. Gamma astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesarsky, C.; Cesarsky, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    This article overviews the gamma astronomy research. Sources already observed, and what causes to give to them; the galactic radiation and its interpretation; techniques already used and current projects [fr

  9. Gamma Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niemantsverdriet, J.W.; Butz, Tilman; Ertl, G.; Knözinger, H.; Schüth, F.

    2008-01-01

    No abstract. The sections in this article are 1 Introduction 2 Mössbauer Spectroscopy 3 Time-Differential Perturbed Angular Correlations (TDPAC) 4 Conclusions and Outlook Keywords: Mössbauer spectroscopy; gamma spectroscopy; perturbed angular correlation; TDPAC

  10. Analyzer for gamma cameras diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oramas Polo, I.; Osorio Deliz, J. F.; Diaz Garcia, A.

    2013-01-01

    This research work was carried out to develop an analyzer for gamma cameras diagnostic. It is composed of an electronic system that includes hardware and software capabilities, and operates from the acquisition of the 4 head position signals of a gamma camera detector. The result is the spectrum of the energy delivered by nuclear radiation coming from the camera detector head. This system includes analog processing of position signals from the camera, digitization and the subsequent processing of the energy signal in a multichannel analyzer, sending data to a computer via a standard USB port and processing of data in a personal computer to obtain the final histogram. The circuits are composed of an analog processing board and a universal kit with micro controller and programmable gate array. (Author)

  11. Economics of gamma irradiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tani, Toshio

    1980-01-01

    The gamma-ray irradiation business started at the Takasaki Laboratory of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The irradiation facilities were constructed thereafter at various sites. The facilities must accept various types of irradiation, and must be constructed as multi-purpose facilities. The cost of irradiation consists of the cost of gamma sources, construction expense, personnel expense, management expense, and bank interest. Most of the expenses are considered to be fixed expense, and the amount of irradiation treatment decides the original costs of work. The relation between the irradiation dose and the construction expense shows the larger facility is more economical. The increase of amount of treatment reduces the original cost. The utilization efficiency becomes important when the amount of treatment and the source intensity exceed some values. The principal subjects of gamma-ray irradiation business are the sterilization of medical tools and foods for aseptic animals, the improvement of quality of plastic goods, and the irradiation of foods. Among them, the most important subject is the sterilization of medical tools. The cost of gamma irradiation per m 3 in still more expensive than that by ethylene oxide gas sterilization. However, the demand of gamma-ray irradiation is increasing. For the improvement of quality of plastic goods, electron irradiation is more favourable than the gamma irradiation. In near future, the economical balance of gamma irradiation can be achieved. (Kato, T.)

  12. Flued head replacement alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smetters, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses flued head replacement options. Section 2 discusses complete flued head replacement with a design that eliminates the inaccessible welds. Section 3 discusses alternate flued head support designs that can drastically reduce flued head installation costs. Section 4 describes partial flued head replacement designs. Finally, Section 5 discusses flued head analysis methods. (orig./GL)

  13. Goniometer head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhazairov-Kakhramanov, V.; Berger, V.D.; Kadyrzhanov, K.K.; Zarifov, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    The goniometer head is an electromechanical instrument that performs the independent transfer of a testing sample on three coordinate axes (X, Y, Z) within limits of ±8 mm and independent rotation relative of these directions. The instrument comprises a sample holder, bellows component and three electrometer drives. The sample holder rotates around the axes X and Y, and is installed on the central arm which rotates around axis Z. One characteristic of this instrument is its independence which allows its use in any camera for researches in the field of radiation physics. 2 figs

  14. Gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berninger, W.H.

    1975-01-01

    The light pulse output of a scintillator, on which incident collimated gamma rays impinge, is detected by an array of photoelectric tubes each having a convexly curved photocathode disposed in close proximity to the scintillator. Electronic circuitry connected to outputs of the phototubes develops the scintillation event position coordinate electrical signals with good linearity and with substantial independence of the spacing between the scintillator and photocathodes so that the phototubes can be positioned as close to the scintillator as is possible to obtain less distortion in the field of view and improved spatial resolution as compared to conventional planar photocathode gamma cameras

  15. Gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschunt, E.; Platz, W.; Baer, Ul; Heinz, L.

    1978-01-01

    A gamma camera has a plurality of exchangeable collimators, one of which is replaceably mounted in the ray inlet opening of the camera, while the others are placed on separate supports. Supports are swingably mounted upon a column one above the other

  16. Gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlosser, P.A.; Steidley, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    The design of a collimation system for a gamma camera for use in nuclear medicine is described. When used with a 2-dimensional position sensitive radiation detector, the novel system can produce superior images than conventional cameras. The optimal thickness and positions of the collimators are derived mathematically. (U.K.)

  17. Gamma-ray transients and related astrophysical phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lingenfelter, R.E.; Hudson, H.S.; Worrall, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    The workshop covered the study of the explosive phenomena responsible for the various gamma ray transients. X-ray burster observations and theories were also reviewed with emphasis on their relationship to gamma ray bursts. Recent observational data, particularly from the SMM, HEAO, and VENERA satellites made the workshop especially timely. Major headings include: gamma-ray transients, x-ray bursts, solar transients, and instrumental concepts. Individual items from the workshop were prepared separately for the data base

  18. Operations manual for the megachannel gamma-ray coincidence system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruhter, W.

    1977-01-01

    To aid in the study of nuclear structures, a megachannel pulse-height coincidence analysis system on a PDP-8 computer was constructed. The system digitizes the energies of coincident gamma-rays and stores the resultant information on a moving-head disk. The system uses a minicomputer to sort and store gamma-gamma coincident information on line. The megachannel system and how to use it are described

  19. Is HEADS in our heads?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boisen, Kirsten A; Hertz, Pernille Grarup; Blix, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    contraception], Safety, Self-harm) interview is a feasible way of exploring health risk behaviors and resilience. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate how often HEADS topics were addressed according to young patients and staff in pediatric and adult outpatient clinics. METHODS: We conducted...... care professionals participated. We found only small reported differences between staff and young patients regarding whether home, education, and activity were addressed. However, staff reported twice the rate of addressing smoking, alcohol, illegal drugs, sexuality, and contraception compared to young...... patients. Young patients reported that smoking, alcohol, illegal drugs, sexuality, and contraception were addressed significantly more at adult clinics in comparison to pediatric clinics. After controlling for age, gender and duration of illness, according to young patients, adjusted odds ratios...

  20. Gamma-ray bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Wijers, Ralph A M J; Woosley, Stan

    2012-01-01

    Cosmic gamma ray bursts (GRBs) have fascinated scientists and the public alike since their discovery in the late 1960s. Their story is told here by some of the scientists who participated in their discovery and, after many decades of false starts, solved the problem of their origin. Fourteen chapters by active researchers in the field present a detailed history of the discovery, a comprehensive theoretical description of GRB central engine and emission models, a discussion of GRB host galaxies and a guide to how GRBs can be used as cosmological tools. Observations are grouped into three sets from the satellites CGRO, BeppoSAX and Swift, and followed by a discussion of multi-wavelength observations. This is the first edited volume on GRB astrophysics that presents a fully comprehensive review of the subject. Utilizing the latest research, Gamma-ray Bursts is an essential desktop companion for graduate students and researchers in astrophysics.

  1. Gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiss, K.H.; Kotschak, O.; Conrad, B.

    1976-01-01

    A gamma camera with a simplified setup as compared with the state of engineering is described permitting, apart from good localization, also energy discrimination. Behind the usual vacuum image amplifier a multiwire proportional chamber filled with trifluorine bromium methane is connected in series. Localizing of the signals is achieved by a delay line, energy determination by means of a pulse height discriminator. With the aid of drawings and circuit diagrams, the setup and mode of operation are explained. (ORU) [de

  2. Gamma irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonet, G.

    1986-09-01

    Fiability of devices set around reactors depends on material resistance under irradiation noticeably joints, insulators, which belongs to composition of technical, safety or physical incasurement devices. The irradiated fuel elements, during their desactivation in a pool, are an interesting gamma irradiation device to simulate damages created in a nuclear environment. The existing facility at Osiris allows to generate an homogeneous rate dose in an important volume. The control of the element distances to irradiation box allows to control this dose rate [fr

  3. Gamma teletopography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonet, G.

    1987-06-01

    The mapping of gamma sources radiation emission in a nuclear plant is an important safety point. A remote gamma ray mapping process was developed in SPS/CEA/SACLAY. It uses the ''pinhole camera'' principle, precursor of photography. It mainly consists of a radiation proof box, with a small orifice, containing sensitive emulsions at the opposite. A first conventional photographic type emulsion photographs the area. A second photographic emulsion shows up the gamma radiations. The superim position of the two shots gives immediate informations of the precise location of each source of radiation in the observed area. To make easier the presentation and to improve the accuracy of the results for radiation levels mapping, the obtained films are digitally processed. The processing assigns a colours scale to the various levels of observed radiations. Taking account physical data and standard parameters, it gets possible to estimate the dose rate. The device is portable. Its compactness and fully independent nature make it suitable for use anywhere. It can be adapted to a remote automatic handling system, robot... so as to avoid all operator exposure when the local dose rate is too high [fr

  4. Head Impact Laboratory (HIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The HIL uses testing devices to evaluate vehicle interior energy attenuating (EA) technologies for mitigating head injuries resulting from head impacts during mine/...

  5. Heading and head injuries in soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkendall, D T; Jordan, S E; Garrett, W E

    2001-01-01

    In the world of sports, soccer is unique because of the purposeful use of the unprotected head for controlling and advancing the ball. This skill obviously places the player at risk of head injury and the game does carry some risk. Head injury can be a result of contact of the head with another head (or other body parts), ground, goal post, other unknown objects or even the ball. Such impacts can lead to contusions, fractures, eye injuries, concussions or even, in rare cases, death. Coaches, players, parents and physicians are rightly concerned about the risk of head injury in soccer. Current research shows that selected soccer players have some degree of cognitive dysfunction. It is important to determine the reasons behind such deficits. Purposeful heading has been blamed, but a closer look at the studies that focus on heading has revealed methodological concerns that question the validity of blaming purposeful heading of the ball. The player's history and age (did they play when the ball was leather and could absorb significant amounts of water), alcohol intake, drug intake, learning disabilities, concussion definition and control group use/composition are all factors that cloud the ability to blame purposeful heading. What does seem clear is that a player's history of concussive episodes is a more likely explanation for cognitive deficits. While it is likely that the subconcussive impact of purposeful heading is a doubtful factor in the noted deficits, it is unknown whether multiple subconcussive impacts might have some lingering effects. In addition, it is unknown whether the noted deficits have any affect on daily life. Proper instruction in the technique is critical because if the ball contacts an unprepared head (as in accidental head-ball contacts), the potential for serious injury is possible. To further our understanding of the relationship of heading, head injury and cognitive deficits, we need to: learn more about the actual impact of a ball on the

  6. Gamma teletopography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonet, G.

    1986-09-01

    To set the gamma activity cartography is an important element of safety in numerous cases: intervention in hot cell, search of a radioactive source, examination of radioactive waste circuit followed by a reprocessing definition of decontamination and decommissioning processes and for all other accidents. The device presented here is like a ''black box'' with an aperture and an emulsion photosensitive to the opposite; a classical film takes photography of the place; a X-ray type emulsion gives a spot more or less contrasted and extensive corresponding to each source. Images can be processed with a microprocessor [fr

  7. Apparatus for gamma radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-06-01

    The aim of the present standard is to fix the rules for the construction of gamma radiography instrumentation without prejudice to the present regulations. These apparatus have to be fitted with only sealed sources conformable to the experimental standard M 61-002. The present standard agrees with the international standard ISO 3999 of 1977 dealing with the same subject. Nevertheless, it is different on the three main following points: it does not accept the same limits of absorbed dose rates in the air calculated on the external surface of projectors; it precribes tightness, bending, crushing and tensile tests for some components of the gamma radiography it prescribes tests of endurance and resistance to breaking for the locking systems of the gamma radiography apparatus. The present standard also specifies the following points: symbols and indications to put on projectors and on the source-holder; identification of the source contained in the projector; and, accompanying documents. The regulation references are given in annexe [fr

  8. Gamma knife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamoto, Shunsuke; Takakura, Kintomo

    1991-01-01

    As to the gamma knife which is the radiation surgery device developed in Sweden a quarter century ago, its principle, structure, treatment techniques, already established clinical effect and the problems being left for hereafter are described. This treatment means supplements the operation under microscopes, and at present it takes the important position in neurosurgery, but hereafter, by the interdisciplinary cooperation of neurosurgery and clinical radiobiology, the more development can be expected. The method of irradiating the radiation of high dose selectively to a target region and breaking its tissue is called radiosurgery, and the device developed for this purpose is the gamma knife. First, it was applied to functional diseases, but good results were obtained by its application to auditory nerve and brain blood vessels, and it establishes the position as the safe treatment method of the morbid state in the deep part of brains, which is difficult to reach by operation. Accompanying the recent progress of the operation of skull base part, attention is paid to its application to various tumors in skull base. On the other hand, the radiosurgery combining a cyclotron or a linear accelerator with stereotaxic brain surgery is actively tried mainly to the deformation of brain blood vessels. (K.I.)

  9. Head Trauma: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Head trauma: First aid Head trauma: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff Most head trauma involves injuries that are minor and don't require ... 21, 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-head-trauma/basics/ART-20056626 . Mayo ...

  10. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool......-Saxon and continental traditions, this special issue provides examples of the use of researcher subjectivity, informed by psychoanalytic thinking, in expanding research understanding....

  11. Advanced system for Gamma Cameras modernization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osorio Deliz, J. F.; Diaz Garcia, A.; Arista Romeu, E. J.

    2015-01-01

    Analog and digital gamma cameras still largely used in developing countries. Many of them rely in old hardware electronics, which in many cases limits their use in actual nuclear medicine diagnostic studies. Consequently, there are different worldwide companies that produce medical equipment engaged into a partial or total Gamma Cameras modernization. Present work has demonstrated the possibility of substitution of almost entire signal processing electronics placed at inside a Gamma Camera detector head by a digitizer PCI card. this card includes four 12 Bits Analog-to-Digital-Converters of 50 MHz speed. It has been installed in a PC and controlled through software developed in Lab View. Besides, there were done some changes to the hardware inside the detector head including redesign of the Orientation Display Block (ODA card). Also a new electronic design was added to the Microprocessor Control Block (MPA card) which comprised a PIC micro controller acting as a tuning system for individual Photomultiplier Tubes. The images, obtained by measurement of 99m Tc point radioactive source, using modernized camera head demonstrate its overall performance. The system was developed and tested in an old Gamma Camera ORBITER II SIEMENS GAMMASONIC at National Institute of Oncology and Radiobiology (INOR) under CAMELUD project supported by National Program PNOULU and IAEA . (Author)

  12. Head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogl, S.E.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 10 chapters. Some of the titles are: Combined Surgical Resection and Irradiation for Head and Neck Cancers; Analysis of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Head and Neck Database: Identification of Prognostic Factors and the Re-evaluation of American Joint Committee Stages; Combined Modality Approach to Head and Neck Cancer; Induction Combination Chemotherapy of Regionally Advanced Head and Neck Cancer; and Outcome after Complete Remission to Induction Chemotherapy in Head and Neck Cancer

  13. Unilateral otolith centrifugation by head tilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Stephanie M; Bos, Jelte E; Klis, Sjaak F L

    2014-01-01

    To test for otolith asymmetries, several studies described horizontal translation of the body and head en bloc during fast vertical axis rotation. This stimulus causes one otolithic organ to rotate on-axis, and the other to experience centripetal acceleration. To test a new, more simple method of unilateral stimulation with head tilt and the body remaining on axis. During stationary and during 360 deg/s rotation, 12 healthy blindfolded subjects had their heads tilted 30 degrees sideways, positioning one otolithic organ on the axis of rotation after the other. The haptic subjective vertical (SV) was recorded several times by means of a manually adjustable rod. It was found that during stationary the SV tilted about 4 degrees on average in the direction of the head. During rotation, the SV tilted about 9 degrees on average. We therefore estimate the effect of eccentric otolith rotation to be 5 degrees on average. Tilt of the subjective vertical induced by head tilt during on-axis body rotation can provide a relatively uncomplicated alternative to test unilateral otolithic function as compared to body and head translation during rotation. Moreover, unlike eccentric rotation of the entire body, somatosensory cues are minimized by keeping the body fixed on axis and by subtracting the effect of head tilt per se.

  14. Gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, B.; Heinzelmann, K.G.

    1975-01-01

    A gamma camera is described which obviates the distortion of locating signals generally caused by the varied light conductive capacities of the light conductors in that the flow of light through each light conductor may be varied by means of a shutter. A balancing of the flow of light through each of the individual light conductors, in effect, collective light conductors may be balanced on the basis of their light conductive capacities or properties, so as to preclude a distortion of the locating signals caused by the varied light conductive properties of the light conductors. Each light conductor has associated therewith two, relative to each other, independently adjustable shutters, of which one forms a closure member and the other an adjusting shutter. In this embodiment of the invention it is thus possible to block all of the light conductors leading to a photoelectric transducer, with the exception of those light conductors which are to be balanced. The balancing of the individual light conductors may then be obtained on the basis of the output signals of the photoelectric transducer. (auth)

  15. Gamma ray generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firestone, Richard B; Reijonen, Jani

    2014-05-27

    An embodiment of a gamma ray generator includes a neutron generator and a moderator. The moderator is coupled to the neutron generator. The moderator includes a neutron capture material. In operation, the neutron generator produces neutrons and the neutron capture material captures at least some of the neutrons to produces gamma rays. An application of the gamma ray generator is as a source of gamma rays for calibration of gamma ray detectors.

  16. Head injury - first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000028.htm Head injury - first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... a concussion can range from mild to severe. First Aid Learning to recognize a serious head injury and ...

  17. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the head uses special x-ray equipment to help assess head injuries, severe headaches, dizziness, and other ... aneurysm, bleeding, stroke and brain tumors. It also helps your doctor to evaluate your face, sinuses, and ...

  18. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer Others American Stroke Association National Stroke Association ... Computer Tomography (CT) Safety During Pregnancy Head and Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine ...

  19. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... When the image slices are reassembled by computer software, the result is a very detailed multidimensional view ... Safety Images related to Computed Tomography (CT) - Head Videos related to Computed Tomography (CT) - Head Sponsored by ...

  20. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the limitations of CT Scanning of the Head? What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, ... than regular radiographs (x-rays). top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT ...

  1. Gender differences in head-neck segment dynamic stabilization during head acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Ryan T; Sitler, Michael R; Swanik, C Buz; Swanik, Kathleen A; Higgins, Michael; Torg, Joseph

    2005-02-01

    Recent epidemiological research has revealed that gender differences exist in concussion incidence but no study has investigated why females may be at greater risk of concussion. Our purpose was to determine whether gender differences existed in head-neck segment kinematic and neuromuscular control variables responses to an external force application with and without neck muscle preactivation. Forty (20 females and 20 males) physically active volunteers participated in the study. The independent variables were gender, force application (known vs unknown), and force direction (forced flexion vs forced extension). The dependent variables were kinematic and EMG variables, head-neck segment stiffness, and head-neck segment flexor and extensor isometric strength. Statistical analyses consisted of multiple multivariate and univariate analyses of variance, follow-up univariate analyses of variance, and t-tests (P Gender differences existed in head-neck segment dynamic stabilization during head angular acceleration. Females exhibited significantly greater head-neck segment peak angular acceleration (50%) and displacement (39%) than males despite initiating muscle activity significantly earlier (SCM only) and using a greater percentage of their maximum head-neck segment muscle activity (79% peak activity and 117% muscle activity area). The head-neck segment angular acceleration differences may be because females exhibited significantly less isometric strength (49%), neck girth (30%), and head mass (43%), resulting in lower levels of head-neck segment stiffness (29%). For our subject demographic, the results revealed gender differences in head-neck segment dynamic stabilization during head acceleration in response to an external force application. Females exhibited significantly greater head-neck segment peak angular acceleration and displacement than males despite initiating muscle activity earlier (SCM only) and using a greater percentage of their maximum head-neck segment

  2. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Head Computed tomography (CT) of the head uses special x-ray ... What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT ...

  3. Studies of the Gly482Ser polymorphism of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1alpha (PGC-1alpha) gene in Danish subjects with the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambye, Louise; Rasmussen, Susanne; Fenger, Mogens

    2005-01-01

    related to this syndrome. The variant was examined, using PCR-RFLP, in the DanMONICA cohort comprising a population-based sample of 2349 subjects. MS was defined using the National Cholesterol Education Program -- Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII) criteria. The allelic frequency of the Ser482 allele...... and insulin secretion, 24-ambulatory blood pressure or left ventricular mass index. In conclusion, the Gly482Ser polymorphism of the PGC-1alpha gene is not associated with the metabolic syndrome, related quantitative traits or cardiac hypertrophy among Danish Caucasian subjects...

  4. Computers in activation analysis and gamma-ray spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, B. S.; D' Agostino, M. D.; Yule, H. P. [eds.

    1979-01-01

    Seventy-three papers are included under the following session headings: analytical and mathematical methods for data analysis; software systems for ..gamma..-ray and x-ray spectrometry; ..gamma..-ray spectra treatment, peak evaluation; least squares; IAEA intercomparison of methods for processing spectra; computer and calculator utilization in spectrometer systems; and applications in safeguards, fuel scanning, and environmental monitoring. Separate abstracts were prepared for 72 of those papers. (DLC)

  5. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ... Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ...

  6. Gamma-ray lasers or grasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, G.V.H.; George, E.P.; Hora, H.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for controlling the emission and direction of gamma rays from excited nuclei contained in a sample source of suitable geometry having its major axis parallel to the proposed direction of gamma ray emission, comprising subjecting said sample source to thermal or dynamic polarization at temperatures approaching absolute zero in the presence of a strong magnetic field, and when a pulse of coherent gamma radiation is required along said major axis rotating the active nuclei through 90 0 by employing a short pulse of radio frequency oscillations in an auxilliary coil around the sample source

  7. Gamma cameras - a method of evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oates, L.; Bibbo, G.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: With the sophistication and longevity of the modern gamma camera it is not often that the need arises to evaluate a gamma camera for purchase. We have recently been placed in the position of retiring our two single headed cameras of some vintage and replacing them with a state of the art dual head variable angle gamma camera. The process used for the evaluation consisted of five parts: (1) Evaluation of the technical specification as expressed in the tender document; (2) A questionnaire adapted from the British Society of Nuclear Medicine; (3) Site visits to assess gantry configuration, movement, patient access and occupational health, welfare and safety considerations; (4) Evaluation of the processing systems offered; (5) Whole of life costing based on equally configured systems. The results of each part of the evaluation were expressed using a weighted matrix analysis with each of the criteria assessed being weighted in accordance with their importance to the provision of an effective nuclear medicine service for our centre and the particular importance to paediatric nuclear medicine. This analysis provided an objective assessment of each gamma camera system from which a purchase recommendation was made. Copyright (2000) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  8. A new type gamma-ray spectrum monitoring system

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng Bo; Zhou Jian Bin; Zhang Zhi Ming; Tong Yun Fu

    2002-01-01

    This new radiation monitoring system can be used to monitor the radiation of building materials and the radiation of atmosphere, to explore and evaluate rock for building in the field, and this system can be used to monitor the gamma irradiation near the nuclear establishments in the average situation and in the serious situation of the radiation incident have happened. The control core of this monitoring system is SCM-AT89C52, and gamma-ray sensing head consists of scintillator phi 50 mm x 50 mm NaI(Tl) and PMT GDB44. This system can be used to measure the whole gamma-ray spectrum of 256 channels

  9. Cosmic gamma bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehstulin, I.V.

    1980-01-01

    A brief consideration is being given to the history of cosmic gamma burst discovery and modern knowledge of their properties. The time dependence of gamma bursts is described and their possible sources are discussed

  10. Gamma and Beta Oscillations in Human MEG Encode the Contents of Vibrotactile Working Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander H. von Lautz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ample evidence suggests that oscillations in the beta band represent quantitative information about somatosensory features during stimulus retention. Visual and auditory working memory (WM research, on the other hand, has indicated a predominant role of gamma oscillations for active WM processing. Here we reconciled these findings by recording whole-head magnetoencephalography during a vibrotactile frequency comparison task. A Braille stimulator presented healthy subjects with a vibration to the left fingertip that was retained in WM for comparison with a second stimulus presented after a short delay. During this retention interval spectral power in the beta band from the right intraparietal sulcus and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG monotonically increased with the to-be-remembered vibrotactile frequency. In contrast, induced gamma power showed the inverse of this pattern and decreased with higher stimulus frequency in the right IFG. Together, these results expand the previously established role of beta oscillations for somatosensory WM to the gamma band and give further evidence that quantitative information may be processed in a fronto-parietal network.

  11. Gamma ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broomhead, Laurent.

    1980-01-01

    The nuclear gamma astronomy is presented, in particular the Gamma Ray Observatory, an enormous eight tonnes machine fitted with gamma telescopes, scheduled for launching around 1985. It is thereby hoped to study the natural nuclear reactions which occur when stars explode [fr

  12. Visual perception of axes of head rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnoldussen, D. M.; Goossens, J.; van den Berg, A. V.

    2013-01-01

    Registration of ego-motion is important to accurately navigate through space. Movements of the head and eye relative to space are registered through the vestibular system and optical flow, respectively. Here, we address three questions concerning the visual registration of self-rotation. (1) Eye-in-head movements provide a link between the motion signals received by sensors in the moving eye and sensors in the moving head. How are these signals combined into an ego-rotation percept? We combined optic flow of simulated forward and rotational motion of the eye with different levels of eye-in-head rotation for a stationary head. We dissociated simulated gaze rotation and head rotation by different levels of eye-in-head pursuit. We found that perceived rotation matches simulated head- not gaze-rotation. This rejects a model for perceived self-rotation that relies on the rotation of the gaze line. Rather, eye-in-head signals serve to transform the optic flow's rotation information, that specifies rotation of the scene relative to the eye, into a rotation relative to the head. This suggests that transformed visual self-rotation signals may combine with vestibular signals. (2) Do transformed visual self-rotation signals reflect the arrangement of the semi-circular canals (SCC)? Previously, we found sub-regions within MST and V6+ that respond to the speed of the simulated head rotation. Here, we re-analyzed those Blood oxygenated level-dependent (BOLD) signals for the presence of a spatial dissociation related to the axes of visually simulated head rotation, such as have been found in sub-cortical regions of various animals. Contrary, we found a rather uniform BOLD response to simulated rotation along the three SCC axes. (3) We investigated if subject's sensitivity to the direction of the head rotation axis shows SCC axes specifcity. We found that sensitivity to head rotation is rather uniformly distributed, suggesting that in human cortex, visuo-vestibular integration is

  13. Head CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... scan - orbits; CT scan - sinuses; Computed tomography - cranial; CAT scan - brain ... head size in children Changes in thinking or behavior Fainting Headache, when you have certain other signs ...

  14. Bottom head assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fife, A.B.

    1998-01-01

    A bottom head dome assembly is described which includes, in one embodiment, a bottom head dome and a liner configured to be positioned proximate the bottom head dome. The bottom head dome has a plurality of openings extending there through. The liner also has a plurality of openings extending there through, and each liner opening aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. A seal is formed, such as by welding, between the liner and the bottom head dome to resist entry of water between the liner and the bottom head dome at the edge of the liner. In the one embodiment, a plurality of stub tubes are secured to the liner. Each stub tube has a bore extending there through, and each stub tube bore is coaxially aligned with a respective liner opening. A seat portion is formed by each liner opening for receiving a portion of the respective stub tube. The assembly also includes a plurality of support shims positioned between the bottom head dome and the liner for supporting the liner. In one embodiment, each support shim includes a support stub having a bore there through, and each support stub bore aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. 2 figs

  15. Reactor gamma spectrometry: status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, R.; Kaiser, B.J.

    1979-01-01

    Current work is described for Compton Recoil Gamma-Ray Spectrometry including developments in experimental technique as well as recent reactor spectrometry measurements. The current status of the method is described concerning gamma spectromoetry probe design and response characteristics. Emphasis is given to gamma spectrometry work in US LWR and BR programs. Gamma spectrometry in BR environments are outlined by focussing on start-up plans for the Fast Test Reactor (FTR). Gamma spectrometry results are presented for a LWR pressure vessel mockup in the Poolside Critical Assembly (PCA) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  16. Effect of different head-neck-jaw postures on cervicocephalic kinesthetic sense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, H; Alghadir, A H; Iqbal, Z A

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the effect of different induced head-neck-jaw postures on head-neck relocation error among healthy subjects. 30 healthy adult male subjects participated in this study. Cervicocephalic kinesthetic sense was measured while standing, habitual sitting, habitual sitting with clenched jaw and habitual sitting with forward head posture during right rotation, left rotation, flexion and extension using kinesthetic sensibility test. Head-neck relocation error was least while standing, followed by habitual sitting, habitual sitting with forward head posture and habitual sitting with jaw clenched. However, there was no significant difference in error between different tested postures during all the movements. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to see the effect of different induced head-neck-jaw postures on head-neck position sense among healthy subjects. Assuming a posture for a short duration of time doesn't affect head-neck relocation error in normal healthy subjects.

  17. Rotational Acceleration during Head Impact Resulting from Different Judo Throwing Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    MURAYAMA, Haruo; HITOSUGI, Masahito; MOTOZAWA, Yasuki; OGINO, Masahiro; KOYAMA, Katsuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Most severe head injuries in judo are reported as acute subdural hematoma. It is thus necessary to examine the rotational acceleration of the head to clarify the mechanism of head injuries. We determined the rotational acceleration of the head when the subject is thrown by judo techniques. One Japanese male judo expert threw an anthropomorphic test device using two throwing techniques, Osoto-gari and Ouchigari. Rotational and translational head accelerations were measured with and without an ...

  18. A new 3-dimensional head fixation device for brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Ryoi; Kawashima, Ryuta; Yoshioka, Seiro; Ono, Shuichi; Ito, Hiroshi; Sato, Kazunori; Akaizawa, Takashi; Koyama, Masamichi; Fukuda, Hiroshi

    1995-01-01

    We have developed a new head fixation device for studies of brain function. This device was designed to immobilize subject's heads during image scanning and to precisely reproduce the head position for two different imaging modalities such as MRI and PET. The device consists of a plastic frame, a pillow filled with beads of styrene foam, and a face mask of thermoplastic resin which was originally intended for application in radiotherapy. A bridge for biting was incorporated into the mask for stable fixation. The device enables immobilization of subject's heads with good reproducibility of position at the practical level. Our results indicate that this head fixation system is useful for fixation of head during activation studies using PET. (author)

  19. Human gamma oscillations during slow wave sleep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Valderrama

    Full Text Available Neocortical local field potentials have shown that gamma oscillations occur spontaneously during slow-wave sleep (SWS. At the macroscopic EEG level in the human brain, no evidences were reported so far. In this study, by using simultaneous scalp and intracranial EEG recordings in 20 epileptic subjects, we examined gamma oscillations in cerebral cortex during SWS. We report that gamma oscillations in low (30-50 Hz and high (60-120 Hz frequency bands recurrently emerged in all investigated regions and their amplitudes coincided with specific phases of the cortical slow wave. In most of the cases, multiple oscillatory bursts in different frequency bands from 30 to 120 Hz were correlated with positive peaks of scalp slow waves ("IN-phase" pattern, confirming previous animal findings. In addition, we report another gamma pattern that appears preferentially during the negative phase of the slow wave ("ANTI-phase" pattern. This new pattern presented dominant peaks in the high gamma range and was preferentially expressed in the temporal cortex. Finally, we found that the spatial coherence between cortical sites exhibiting gamma activities was local and fell off quickly when computed between distant sites. Overall, these results provide the first human evidences that gamma oscillations can be observed in macroscopic EEG recordings during sleep. They support the concept that these high-frequency activities might be associated with phasic increases of neural activity during slow oscillations. Such patterned activity in the sleeping brain could play a role in off-line processing of cortical networks.

  20. GammaWorkshops Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramebaeck, H.; Straelberg, E.; Klemola, S.; Nielsen, Sven P.; Palsson, S.E.

    2012-01-01

    Due to a sparse interaction during the last years between practioners in gamma ray spectrometry in the Nordic countries, a NKS activity was started in 2009. This GammaSem was focused on seminars relevant to gamma spectrometry. A follow up seminar was held in 2010. As an outcome of these activities it was suggested that the 2011 meeting should be focused on practical issues, e.g. different corrections needed in gamma spectrometric measurements. This three day's meeting, GammaWorkshops, was held in September at Risoe-DTU. Experts on different topics relevant for gamma spectrometric measurements were invited to the GammaWorkshops. The topics included efficiency transfer, true coincidence summing corrections, self-attenuation corrections, measurement of natural radionuclides (natural decay series), combined measurement uncertainty calculations, and detection limits. These topics covered both lectures and practical sessions. The practical sessions included demonstrations of tools for e.g. corrections and calculations of the above meantioned topics. (Author)

  1. New nuclear medicine gamma camera systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villacorta, Edmundo V.

    1997-01-01

    The acquisition of the Open E.CAM and DIACAM gamma cameras by Makati Medical Center is expected to enhance the capabilities of its nuclear medicine facilities. When used as an aid to diagnosis, nuclear medicine entails the introduction of a minute amount of radioactive material into the patient; thus, no reaction or side-effect is expected. When it reaches the particular target organ, depending on the radiopharmaceutical, a lesion will appear as a decrease (cold) area or increase (hot) area in the radioactive distribution as recorded byu the gamma cameras. Gamma camera images in slices or SPECT (Single Photon Emission Computer Tomography), increase the sensitivity and accuracy in detecting smaller and deeply seated lesions, which otherwise may not be detected in the regular single planar images. Due to the 'open' design of the equipment, claustrophobic patients will no longer feel enclosed during the procedure. These new gamma cameras yield improved resolution and superb image quality, and the higher photon sensitivity shortens imaging acquisition time. The E.CAM, which is the latest generation gamma camera, is featured by its variable angle dual-head system, the only one available in the Philipines, and the excellent choice for Myocardial Perfusion Imaging (MPI). From the usual 45 minutes, the acquisition time for gated SPECT imaging of the heart has now been remarkably reduced to 12 minutes. 'Gated' infers snap-shots of the heart in selected phases of its contraction and relaxation as triggered by ECG. The DIACAM is installed in a room with access outside the main entrance of the department, intended specially for bed-borne patients. Both systems are equipped with a network of high performance Macintosh ICOND acquisition and processing computers. Added to the hardware is the ICON processing software which allows total simultaneous acquisition and processing capabilities in the same operator's terminal. Video film and color printers are also provided. Together

  2. Airborne gamma ray spectrometer surveying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in its role as collector and disseminator of information on nuclear techniques has long had an interest in gamma ray spectrometer methods and has published a number of Technical Reports on various aspects of the subject. At an Advisory Group Meeting held in Vienna in November 1986 to review appropriate activities the IAEA could take following the Chernobyl accident, it was recommended that preparation begin on a new Technical Report on airborne gamma ray spectrometer surveying, taking into account the use of the technique for environmental monitoring as well as for nuclear emergency response requirements. Shortly thereafter the IAEA became the lead organization in the Radioelement Geochemical Mapping section of the International Geological Correlation Programme/United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Project on International Geochemical Mapping. These two factors led to the preparation of the present Technical Report. 18 figs, 4 tabs

  3. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Head Computed tomography (CT) of the head uses special x-ray equipment ... story here Images × Image Gallery Patient undergoing computed tomography (CT) scan. View full size with caption Pediatric Content ...

  4. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Computed tomography (CT) of the head uses special x-ray equipment to help assess head injuries, severe headaches, ... is a diagnostic medical test that, like traditional x-rays, produces multiple images or pictures of the inside ...

  5. Bottom head failure program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, R.O.

    1989-01-01

    Earlier this year the NRC staff presented a Revised Severe Accident Research Program Plan (SECY-89-123) to the Commission and initiated work on that plan. Two of the near-term issues in that plan involve failure of the bottom head of the reactor pressure vessel. These two issues are (1) depressurization and DCH and (2) BWR Mark I Containment Shell Meltthrough. ORNL has developed models for several competing failure mechanisms for BWRs. INEL has performed analytical and experimental work directly related to bottom head failure in connection with several programs. SNL has conducted a number of analyses and experimental activities to examine the failure of LWR vessels. In addition to the government-sponsored work mentioned above, EPRI and FAI performed studies on vessel failure for the Industry Degraded Core Rulemaking Program (IDCOR). EPRI examined the failure of a PWR vessel bottom head without penetrations, as found in some Combustion Engineering reactors. To give more attention to this subject as called for by the revised Severe Accident Research Plan, two things are being done. First, work previously done is being reviewed carefully to develop an overall picture and to determine the reliability of assumptions used in those studies. Second, new work is being planned for FY90 to try to complete a reasonable understanding of the failure process. The review and planning are being done in close cooperation with the ACRS. Results of this exercise will be presented in this paper

  6. Reactor head shielding apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schukei, G.E.; Roebelen, G.J.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear reactor head shielding apparatus for mounting on spaced reactor head lifting members radially inwardly of the head bolts. It comprises a frame of sections for mounting on the lifting members and extending around the top central area of the head, mounting means for so mounting the frame sections, including downwardly projecting members on the frame sections and complementary upwardly open recessed members for fastening to the lifting members for receiving the downwardly projecting members when the frame sections are lowered thereto with lead shielding supported thereby on means for hanging lead shielding on the frame to minimize radiation exposure or personnel working with the head bolts or in the vicinity thereof

  7. The Subject Headings of the Morris Swett Library, USAFAS. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-15

    Royal Armoured Corps. x Armored force. Armored troops. Armored units. Mechanized force. Mechanized units. Mechanized warfare. Tank companies. Tank...g., U. S. Ary- Physical training. CAMERA MOUNTS. CAMERAS, AERIAL. II I • • ! I CAMOUFLAGE. (U 166.3h) x Air arm - amouflage. - Bibliography. - Drape

  8. Porcine head response to blast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shridharani, Jay K; Wood, Garrett W; Panzer, Matthew B; Capehart, Bruce P; Nyein, Michelle K; Radovitzky, Raul A; Bass, Cameron R 'dale'

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown an increase in the frequency of traumatic brain injuries related to blast exposure. However, the mechanisms that cause blast neurotrauma are unknown. Blast neurotrauma research using computational models has been one method to elucidate that response of the brain in blast, and to identify possible mechanical correlates of injury. However, model validation against experimental data is required to ensure that the model output is representative of in vivo biomechanical response. This study exposes porcine subjects to primary blast overpressures generated using a compressed-gas shock tube. Shock tube blasts were directed to the unprotected head of each animal while the lungs and thorax were protected using ballistic protective vests similar to those employed in theater. The test conditions ranged from 110 to 740 kPa peak incident overpressure with scaled durations from 1.3 to 6.9 ms and correspond approximately with a 50% injury risk for brain bleeding and apnea in a ferret model scaled to porcine exposure. Instrumentation was placed on the porcine head to measure bulk acceleration, pressure at the surface of the head, and pressure inside the cranial cavity. Immediately after the blast, 5 of the 20 animals tested were apneic. Three subjects recovered without intervention within 30 s and the remaining two recovered within 8 min following respiratory assistance and administration of the respiratory stimulant doxapram. Gross examination of the brain revealed no indication of bleeding. Intracranial pressures ranged from 80 to 390 kPa as a result of the blast and were notably lower than the shock tube reflected pressures of 300-2830 kPa, indicating pressure attenuation by the skull up to a factor of 8.4. Peak head accelerations were measured from 385 to 3845 G's and were well correlated with peak incident overpressure (R(2) = 0.90). One SD corridors for the surface pressure, intracranial pressure (ICP), and head acceleration are

  9. A SPECT demonstrator—revival of a gamma camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valastyán, I.; Kerek, A.; Molnár, J.; Novák, D.; Végh, J.; Emri, M.; Trón, L.

    2006-07-01

    A gamma camera has been updated and converted to serve as a demonstrator for educational purposes. The gantry and the camera head were the only part of the system that remained untouched. The main reason for this modernization was to increase the transparency of the gamma camera by partitioning the different logical building blocks of the system and thus providing access for inspection and improvements throughout the chain. New data acquisition and reconstruction software has been installed. By taking these measures, the camera is now used in education and also serves as a platform for tests of new hardware and software solutions. The camera is also used to demonstrate 3D (SPECT) imaging by collecting 2D projections from a rotatable cylindrical phantom. Since the camera head is not attached mechanically to the phantom, the effect of misalignment between the head and the rotation axis of the phantom can be studied.

  10. A SPECT demonstrator-revival of a gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valastyan, I.; Kerek, A.; Molnar, J.; Novak, D.; Vegh, J.; Emri, M.; Tron, L.

    2006-01-01

    A gamma camera has been updated and converted to serve as a demonstrator for educational purposes. The gantry and the camera head were the only part of the system that remained untouched. The main reason for this modernization was to increase the transparency of the gamma camera by partitioning the different logical building blocks of the system and thus providing access for inspection and improvements throughout the chain. New data acquisition and reconstruction software has been installed. By taking these measures, the camera is now used in education and also serves as a platform for tests of new hardware and software solutions. The camera is also used to demonstrate 3D (SPECT) imaging by collecting 2D projections from a rotatable cylindrical phantom. Since the camera head is not attached mechanically to the phantom, the effect of misalignment between the head and the rotation axis of the phantom can be studied

  11. Driving with head-slaved camera system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oving, A.B.; Erp, J.B.F. van

    2001-01-01

    In a field experiment, we tested the effectiveness of a head-slaved camera system for driving an armoured vehicle under armour. This system consists of a helmet-mounted display (HMD), a headtracker, and a motion platform with two cameras. Subjects performed several driving tasks on paved and in

  12. Gamma Splines and Wavelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannu Olkkonen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we introduce a new family of splines termed as gamma splines for continuous signal approximation and multiresolution analysis. The gamma splines are born by -times convolution of the exponential by itself. We study the properties of the discrete gamma splines in signal interpolation and approximation. We prove that the gamma splines obey the two-scale equation based on the polyphase decomposition. to introduce the shift invariant gamma spline wavelet transform for tree structured subscale analysis of asymmetric signal waveforms and for systems with asymmetric impulse response. Especially we consider the applications in biomedical signal analysis (EEG, ECG, and EMG. Finally, we discuss the suitability of the gamma spline signal processing in embedded VLSI environment.

  13. Subject cataloguing of the works of fiction at the National and University Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Kovač

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the principles of construction and policies of application of subject headings to works of fiction at the National and University Library in Ljubljana, Slovenia. The records are created in COMARC format, and the literary type, genre and the language of a document are each assigned a code, whereas literature is also indexed by using UDC class numbers. The principles for constructing and assigning subject headings for fiction are in accordance with the IFLA Principles Underlying Subject Heading Languages, and the rules of the Slovenian General List of Subject Headings (2002. The author presents the general and more specific rules and procedures for the construction of subject headings. Most frequently used subject headings for the works of fiction are name, topical or geographic headings.

  14. Femoral head avascular necrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrysikopoulos, H.; Sartoris, D.J.; Resnick, D.L.; Ashburn, W.; Pretorius, T.

    1988-01-01

    MR imaging has been shown to be more sensitive and specific than planar scintigraphy for avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head. However, experience with single photon emission CT (SPECT) is limited. The authors retrospectively compared 1.5-T MR imaging with SPECT in 14 patients with suspected femoral head AVN. Agreement between MR imaging and SPECT was present in 24 femurs, 14 normal and ten with AVN. MR imaging showed changes of AVN in the remaining four femoral heads. Of these, one was normal and the other three inconclusive for AVN by SPECT. The authors conclude that MR imaging is superior to SPECT for the evaluation of AVN of the hip

  15. Protective head of sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liska, K.; Anton, P.

    1987-01-01

    The discovery concerns the protective heads of diagnostic assemblies of nuclear power plants for conductors of the sensors from the fuel and control parts of the said assemblies. A detailed description is presented of the design of the protective head which, as compared with the previous design, allows quick and simple assembly with reduced risk of damaging the sensors. The protective head may be used for diagnostic assemblies both in power and in research reactors and it will be used for WWER reactor assemblies. (A.K.). 3 figs

  16. Head trauma in female professional wrestlers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomoto, Jun; Seiki, Yoshikatsu; Nemoto, Masaaki

    2007-01-01

    The clinical characteristics of head trauma were evaluated in 18 wrestlers belonging to a female professional wrestling organization, 13 regular members and five trainees aged 15-34 years. Medical examinations for head trauma were performed in all wrestlers, and wrestlers treated at our emergency outpatient department were clinically evaluated. In addition, the relationships of head trauma with duration of the wrestling career of 1-16 years (mean 8 years) in the regular members, and less than 1 year in the five trainees, and body mass index (BMI) of 21.0-32.0 in the 16 subjects, excluding two trainees, was evaluated. Chronic symptoms were noted in four of the 18 wrestlers with long wrestling careers (16 years in 1, 13 years in 1, and 5 years in 2). Three wrestlers with symptoms immediately after head trauma showed recurrent retrograde amnesia and had low BMI (21.6, 21.6, and 23.1). Five wrestlers were treated at our emergency outpatient clinic, three required hospitalization and two showed intracranial traumatic changes on computed tomography (acute subdural hematoma in 1 and diffuse brain swelling in 1). Head trauma in female professional wrestlers is associated with longer wrestling career and low BMI. Periodic medical examinations are recommended to monitor for signs of head trauma. (author)

  17. Gamma ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fichtel, C.E.

    1975-01-01

    The first certain detection of celestial high energy gamma rays came from a satellite experiment flown on the third Orbiting Solar Observatory (OSO-111). A Gamma ray spark chamber telescope with substantively greater sensitivity and angular resolution (a few degrees) flown on the second Small Astronomy Satellite (SAS-II) has now provided a better picture of the gamma ray sky, and particularly the galactic plane and pulsars. This paper will summarize the present picture of gamma ray astronomy as it has developed at this conference from measurements made with experiments carried out on balloons, those remaining on the ground, and ones flown on satellites. (orig.) [de

  18. Gamma knife therapy for craniopharyngioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Kida, Yoshihisa; Tanaka, Takayuki; Yoshida, Kazuo; Yoshimoto, Masayuki; Maezawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Toshinori [Komaki Hospital, Aichi (Japan)

    1997-01-01

    Gamma knife therapy in stereotactic radiosurgery was evaluated as a tool to solve problems raised in therapy for craniopharyngioma. Subjects were 9 childhood patients (<16 y, mean age 9.75 y) and 16 adult patients (mean age 43.9 y), 23 cases of whom had been treated with surgery before gamma knife. Planning of irradiation to the solid part of the tumor was based on their T1-weighted MRI images of 3 mm-thick slice. The mean size of the tumors was 20.7 (9.6-31.2) mm in diameter. The mean central dose of 23.3 (20-30) Gy was irradiated with the mean marginal dose of 11.8 (18-11.3) Gy through the mean shot of 4.8. Results were followed in every 3-6 months by MRI, neurological and endocrinological examinations for 7-52 (mean 23.3) months. Reduction of tumor size including its disappearance (7 cases) were observed in 22 cases (88%) with adverse effects of hypopituitarism (3 cases) and hemianopsia (1). Gamma knife therapy was thus safe and effective. (K.H.)

  19. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you! Do you have a personal story about radiology? Share your patient story here Images × Image Gallery ... Pregnancy Head and Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety Images related to ...

  20. Exploding head syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpless, Brian A

    2014-12-01

    Exploding head syndrome is characterized by the perception of abrupt, loud noises when going to sleep or waking up. They are usually painless, but associated with fear and distress. In spite of the fact that its characteristic symptomatology was first described approximately 150 y ago, exploding head syndrome has received relatively little empirical and clinical attention. Therefore, a comprehensive review of the scientific literature using Medline, PsycINFO, Google Scholar, and PubMed was undertaken. After first discussing the history, prevalence, and associated features, the available polysomnography data and five main etiological theories for exploding head syndrome are summarized. None of these theories has yet reached dominance in the field. Next, the various methods used to assess and treat exploding head syndrome are discussed, as well as the limited outcome data. Finally, recommendations for future measure construction, treatment options, and differential diagnosis are provided. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... medically necessary because of potential risk to the baby. This risk is, however, minimal with head CT ... intravenous contrast indicate mothers should not breastfeed their babies for 24-48 hours after contrast medium is ...

  2. Early Head Start Evaluation

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Longitudinal information from an evaluation where children were randomly assigned to Early Head Start or community services as usual;direct assessments and...

  3. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for ... Tomography (CT) - Head Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please contact your ...

  4. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the Head? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT scan, is a diagnostic ... white on the x-ray; soft tissue, such as organs like the heart or liver, shows up ...

  5. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... microphone. top of page How does the procedure work? In many ways CT scanning works very much ... head CT scanning. Manufacturers of intravenous contrast indicate mothers should not breastfeed their babies for 24-48 ...

  6. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... rays). top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT scanning of the head ... is done because a potential abnormality needs further evaluation with additional views or a special imaging technique. ...

  7. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... rays). top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT scanning of the head ... community, you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The ...

  8. Head Start Impact Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Nationally representative, longitudinal information from an evaluation where children were randomly assigned to Head Start or community services as usual;direct...

  9. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Stroke Brain Tumors Computer Tomography (CT) Safety During Pregnancy Head and Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety Images related to Computed Tomography (CT) - ...

  10. TCGA head Neck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Investigators with The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network have discovered genomic differences – with potentially important clinical implications – in head and neck cancers caused by infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV).

  11. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your doctor to evaluate your face, sinuses, and skull or to plan radiation therapy for brain cancer. ... typically used to detect: bleeding, brain injury and skull fractures in patients with head injuries. bleeding caused ...

  12. GammaSem Proceedings. A Nordic seminar for users of gamma spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straalberg, E. (ed.) (Institute for Energy Technolgy (Norway)); Berg, K. (National Institute of Radiation Protection (Denmark)); Dowdall, M. (Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway)) (and others)

    2010-11-15

    The project GammaSem was proposed to the NKS in 2008. The aim of the project was to arrange two seminars for users of gamma spectrometry, in 2009 and 2010. The seminars were meant to provide a forum for discussions and sharing of information on practical issues concerning gamma spectrometry and initiate a network of gamma spectrometry users in the Nordic countries. Such a Nordic network should strengthen the collaboration between laboratories and improve all participants' competence in practical gamma spectrometry. Both seminars' focus was practical challenges met by the users themselves, rather than theoretical matters. Scientists and users of gamma spectrometry from all five Nordic countries were invited to the seminar, as well as scientist from the Baltic countries. A total of 65 people signed up for GammaSem 2010; representing 30 different universities, commercial companies, research institutes and authorities. The working group concept as presented at last year's GammaSem, has not worked out as intended. The reason for this is probably because most of the laboratories that signed up to join the working groups, signed up because they wanted to learn more about the different subjects. In combination with the fact that no funding was made available for the working groups, it was difficult to establish goals on what to achieve. None of the working groups applied for funding from the NKS (or elsewhere) to establish separate projects. There is a big need for more cooperation and for training within the field of gamma spectrometry. This fact has been proved through these two seminars, both by the many different topics that have been discussed, but also by the huge interest for participating in the suggested series of workshop. The GammaSem seminars have thus provided a much welcomed starting point for a broader Nordic collaboration. (Author)

  13. GammaSem Proceedings. A Nordic seminar for users of gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straelberg, E.; Berg, K.; Dowdall, M.

    2010-11-01

    The project GammaSem was proposed to the NKS in 2008. The aim of the project was to arrange two seminars for users of gamma spectrometry, in 2009 and 2010. The seminars were meant to provide a forum for discussions and sharing of information on practical issues concerning gamma spectrometry and initiate a network of gamma spectrometry users in the Nordic countries. Such a Nordic network should strengthen the collaboration between laboratories and improve all participants' competence in practical gamma spectrometry. Both seminars' focus was practical challenges met by the users themselves, rather than theoretical matters. Scientists and users of gamma spectrometry from all five Nordic countries were invited to the seminar, as well as scientist from the Baltic countries. A total of 65 people signed up for GammaSem 2010; representing 30 different universities, commercial companies, research institutes and authorities. The working group concept as presented at last year's GammaSem, has not worked out as intended. The reason for this is probably because most of the laboratories that signed up to join the working groups, signed up because they wanted to learn more about the different subjects. In combination with the fact that no funding was made available for the working groups, it was difficult to establish goals on what to achieve. None of the working groups applied for funding from the NKS (or elsewhere) to establish separate projects. There is a big need for more cooperation and for training within the field of gamma spectrometry. This fact has been proved through these two seminars, both by the many different topics that have been discussed, but also by the huge interest for participating in the suggested series of workshop. The GammaSem seminars have thus provided a much welcomed starting point for a broader Nordic collaboration. (Author)

  14. The exploding head syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, M W

    2001-06-01

    This article reviews the features of an uncommon malady termed "the exploding head syndrome." Sufferers describe terrorizing attacks of a painless explosion within their head. Attacks tend to occur at the onset of sleep. The etiology of attacks is unknown, although they are considered to be benign. Treatment with clomipramine has been suggested, although most sufferers require only reassurance that the spells are benign in nature.

  15. Gamma camera performance: technical assessment protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolster, A.A.; Waddington, W.A.

    1996-01-01

    This protocol addresses the performance assessment of single and dual headed gamma cameras. No attempt is made to assess the performance of any associated computing systems. Evaluations are usually performed on a gamma camera commercially available within the United Kingdom and recently installed at a clinical site. In consultation with the manufacturer, GCAT selects the site and liaises with local staff to arrange a mutually convenient time for assessment. The manufacturer is encouraged to have a representative present during the evaluation. Three to four days are typically required for the evaluation team to perform the necessary measurements. When access time is limited, the team will modify the protocol to test the camera as thoroughly as possible. Data are acquired on the camera's computer system and are subsequently transferred to the independent GCAT computer system for analysis. This transfer from site computer to the independent system is effected via a hardware interface and Interfile data transfer. (author)

  16. Gamma camera performance: technical assessment protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolster, A.A. [West Glasgow Hospitals NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Clinical Physics; Waddington, W.A. [University College London Hospitals NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom). Inst. of Nuclear Medicine

    1996-12-31

    This protocol addresses the performance assessment of single and dual headed gamma cameras. No attempt is made to assess the performance of any associated computing systems. Evaluations are usually performed on a gamma camera commercially available within the United Kingdom and recently installed at a clinical site. In consultation with the manufacturer, GCAT selects the site and liaises with local staff to arrange a mutually convenient time for assessment. The manufacturer is encouraged to have a representative present during the evaluation. Three to four days are typically required for the evaluation team to perform the necessary measurements. When access time is limited, the team will modify the protocol to test the camera as thoroughly as possible. Data are acquired on the camera`s computer system and are subsequently transferred to the independent GCAT computer system for analysis. This transfer from site computer to the independent system is effected via a hardware interface and Interfile data transfer. (author).

  17. GPK heading machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krmasek, J.; Novosad, K.

    1981-01-01

    This article evaluates performance tests of the Soviet made GPK heading machine carried out in 4 coal mines in Czechoslovakia (Ostrava-Karvina region and Kladno mines). GPK works in coal seams and rocks with compression strength of 40 to 50 MPa. Dimensions of the tunnel are height 1.8 to 3.8 m and width 2.6 to 4.7 m, tunnel gradient plus to minus 10 degrees. GPK weighs 16 t, its conical shaped cutting head equipped with RKS-1 cutting tools is driven by an electric motor with 55 kW capacity. Undercarriage of the GPK, gathering-arm loader, hydraulic system, electric system and dust supression system (water spraying or pneumatic section) are characterized. Specifications of GPK heading machines are compared with PK-3r and F8 heading machines. Reliability, number of failures, dust level, noise, productivity depending on compression strength of rocks, heading rate in coal and in rocks, energy consumption, performance in inclined tunnels, and cutting tool wear are evaluated. Tests show that GPK can be used to drive tunnels in coal with rock constituting up to 50% of the tunnel crosscut, as long as rock compression strength does not exceed 50 MPa. In rocks characterized by higher compression strength cutting tool wear sharply increases. GPK is characterized by higher productivity than that of the PK-3r heading machine. Among the weak points of the GPK are: unsatisfactory reliability and excessive wear of its elements. (4 refs.) (In Czech)

  18. Effects of Soccer Heading on Brain Structure and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ana Carolina; Lasmar, Rodrigo Pace; Caramelli, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Soccer is the most popular sport in the world, with more than 265 million players worldwide, including professional and amateur ones. Soccer is unique in comparison to other sports, as it is the only sport in which participants purposely use their head to hit the ball. Heading is considered as an offensive or defensive move whereby the player’s unprotected head is used to deliberately impact the ball and direct it during play. A soccer player can be subjected to an average of 6–12 incidents of heading the ball per competitive game, where the ball reaches high velocities. Moreover, in practice sessions, heading training, which involves heading the ball repeatedly at low velocities, is common. Although the scientific community, as well as the media, has focused on the effects of concussions in contact sports, the role of subconcussive impacts, as it can occur during heading, has recently gained attention, considering that it may represent an additional mechanism of cumulative brain injury. The purpose of this study is to review the existing literature regarding the effects of soccer heading on brain structure and function. Only in the last years, some investigations have addressed the impact of heading on brain structure, by using neuroimaging techniques. Similarly, there have been some recent studies investigating biochemical markers of brain injury in soccer players. There is evidence of association between heading and abnormal brain structure, but the data are still preliminary. Also, some studies have suggested that subconcussive head impacts, as heading, could cause cognitive impairment, whereas others have not corroborated this finding. Questions persist as to whether or not heading is deleterious to cognitive functioning. Further studies, especially with longitudinal designs, are needed to clarify the clinical significance of heading as a cause of brain injury and to identify risk factors. Such investigations might contribute to the establishment of safety

  19. Effects of soccer heading on brain structure and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Oliveira Rodrigues

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Soccer is the most popular sport in the world, with more than 265 million players worldwide, including professional and amateur ones. Soccer is unique in comparison to other sports, as it is the only sport in which participants purposely use their head to hit the ball. Heading is considered an offensive or defensive move whereby the player’s unprotected head is used to deliberately impact the ball and direct it during play. A soccer player can be subjected to an average of six to twelve incidents of heading the ball per competitive game, where the ball reaches high velocities. Moreover, in practice sessions, heading training, which involves heading the ball repeatedly at low velocities, is common. Although the scientific community, as well as the media, has focused on the effects of concussions in contact sports, the role of subconcussive impacts, as it can occur during heading, has recently gained attention, considering that it may represent an additional mechanism of cumulative brain injury. The purpose of this study is to review the existing literature regarding the effects of soccer heading on brain structure and function. Only in the last years some investigations have addressed the impact of heading on brain structure, by using neuroimaging techniques. Similarly, there have been some recent studies investigating biochemical markers of brain injury in soccer players. There is evidence of association between heading and abnormal brain structure, but the data are still preliminary. Also, some studies have suggested that subconcussive head impacts, as heading, could cause cognitive impairment, whereas others have not corroborated this finding. Questions persist as to whether or not heading is deleterious to cognitive functioning. Further studies, especially with longitudinal designs, are needed to clarify the clinical significance of heading as a cause of brain injury and to identify risk factors. Such investigations might contribute to the

  20. Gamma-sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgren, E.

    1974-01-01

    The author makes a survey of his experience in sterilization and sterility control of medical products. At present three different methods are used, steamsterilization, gassterilizing and gammasterilizing. The investments and costs for gamma radiation is presented and a comparison of the costs for gamma- and gassterilization including sterility control is made. (M.S.)

  1. Gamma-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermsen, W.

    1980-01-01

    Results are presented from an analysis of the celestial gamma-ray fine-scale structure based on over half of the data which may ultimately be available from the COS-B satellite. A catalogue consisting of 25 gamma-ray sources measured at energies above 100 MeV is presented. (Auth.)

  2. Gamma ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillier, R.

    1984-01-01

    The book reviews the development of gamma ray astronomy over the past twenty five years. A large section of the book is devoted to the problems of background radiation and the design of detectors. Gamma rays from the sun, the galactic disc, the galaxy, and extra galactic sources; are also discussed. (U.K.)

  3. The McDonald exponentiated gamma distribution and its statistical properties

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Babtain, Abdulhakim A; Merovci, Faton; Elbatal, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In this paper, we propose a five-parameter lifetime model called the McDonald exponentiated gamma distribution to extend beta exponentiated gamma, Kumaraswamy exponentiated gamma and exponentiated gamma, among several other models. We provide a comprehensive mathematical treatment of this distribution. We derive the moment generating function and the rth moment. We discuss estimation of the parameters by maximum likelihood and provide the information matrix. AMS Subject Classificatio...

  4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head uses a powerful ... the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical test that ...

  5. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head uses a powerful ... the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical test that ...

  6. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... find out more. Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ... find out more. Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ...

  7. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... find out more. Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ... find out more. Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ...

  8. Use of natural gamma radiation in the coal mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wykes, J.S.; Adsley, I.; Cooper, L.R.

    1982-01-01

    The technique of delineating coal seams by the use of natural gamma borehole logging sondes has been known for many years. The principle of the technique is that the gamma fluxes in shales are higher than in coals as the abundance of naturally occurring radionuclides is some twenty times greater in the former. This paper discusses other applications where the differeing natural gamma properties of coals and shales can be used. These are: (a) To distinguish between stone (shale) and run-of-mine coal on conveyor belts. A common situation underground is one in which stone from development headings and normal run-of-mine coal have to be batched along the same conveyor system. A natural gamma device capable of distinguishing between such batches of material, and thus allowing suitable mechanical separation, will be described. (b) To provide an accurate measurement of roof coal thickness by measuring the natural gamma flux penetrating the roof coal. To illustrate this examples will be given where this technique is used to provide automatic controlled steering of Long Wall Shearers and to provide manually assisted steering of In-seam Heading Machines

  9. Enhancement of subject description of fiction with annotations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Šauperl

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In Slovenia, subject description of fiction was traditionally limited to the Universal Decimal Classification number, which was mainly assigned for shelving. Readers found their books by browsing the library shelves, while librarians had to rely on their personal familiarity with the library collection if they wanted to advise readers on the selection of books. Subject description, such as is often associated with non-literary works, would require a lot of time. Therefore, we wanted to know whether reading book reviews in newspapers could replace reading the entire literary work. We analysed a small sample of book reviews written by literary critics and published in Slovenian newspapers and compared them to the reviews, written by librarians for the same literary works (in the »Priporočamo!« project. We realized that the content is different. However, they could be used for identification of additional subject headings. The same findings resulted from a similar analysis of literary works written for children. Concepts, that seemed potentially appropriate subject headings, often actually do not appear in the Slovenian subject headings or subject headings from the Pionirska knjižnica of Ljubljana. Both subject heading lists should include a larger number of abstract concepts, which more often appear in literary than in non-literary works. Both subject heading lists should also be coordinated.

  10. GammaWorkshops Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramebaeck, H. (ed.) (Swedish Defence Research Agency (Sweden)); Straalberg, E. (Institute for Energy Technology, Kjeller (Norway)); Klemola, S. (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, STUK (Finland)); Nielsen, Sven P. (Technical Univ. of Denmark. Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark)); Palsson, S.E. (Icelandic Radiation Safety Authority (Iceland))

    2012-01-15

    Due to a sparse interaction during the last years between practioners in gamma ray spectrometry in the Nordic countries, a NKS activity was started in 2009. This GammaSem was focused on seminars relevant to gamma spectrometry. A follow up seminar was held in 2010. As an outcome of these activities it was suggested that the 2011 meeting should be focused on practical issues, e.g. different corrections needed in gamma spectrometric measurements. This three day's meeting, GammaWorkshops, was held in September at Risoe-DTU. Experts on different topics relevant for gamma spectrometric measurements were invited to the GammaWorkshops. The topics included efficiency transfer, true coincidence summing corrections, self-attenuation corrections, measurement of natural radionuclides (natural decay series), combined measurement uncertainty calculations, and detection limits. These topics covered both lectures and practical sessions. The practical sessions included demonstrations of tools for e.g. corrections and calculations of the above meantioned topics. (Author)

  11. The gamma function

    CERN Document Server

    Artin, Emil

    2015-01-01

    This brief monograph on the gamma function was designed by the author to fill what he perceived as a gap in the literature of mathematics, which often treated the gamma function in a manner he described as both sketchy and overly complicated. Author Emil Artin, one of the twentieth century's leading mathematicians, wrote in his Preface to this book, ""I feel that this monograph will help to show that the gamma function can be thought of as one of the elementary functions, and that all of its basic properties can be established using elementary methods of the calculus."" Generations of teachers

  12. Head first Ajax

    CERN Document Server

    Riordan, Rebecca M

    2008-01-01

    Ajax is no longer an experimental approach to website development, but the key to building browser-based applications that form the cornerstone of Web 2.0. Head First Ajax gives you an up-to-date perspective that lets you see exactly what you can do -- and has been done -- with Ajax. With it, you get a highly practical, in-depth, and mature view of what is now a mature development approach. Using the unique and highly effective visual format that has turned Head First titles into runaway bestsellers, this book offers a big picture overview to introduce Ajax, and then explores the use of ind

  13. Development of non-lodging mutants through gamma irradiation in little millet (Panicum sumatrense Roth.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nirmalakumari, A.; Muthiah, A.R.; Senthil, N.; Souframanien, J.

    2009-01-01

    The little millet is widely cultivated as a millet crop across India, China, Sri Lanka, Nepal and Western Burma. Being the first crop to be harvested in the season, it produces the much needed food grain among the tribals and is the staple food for millions in many parts of the world. It is resilient and can adjust to diverse growing environments differing in soil, rainfall and weather. The grain is a good source of nutrients. Variability in a population decides the scope for selection particularly when it is controlled more by genetic factors rather than by environment. The grain yield of millet and macromutants for high productive tillering, ear head length, compactness, bold grain and non lodging of little millet can be improved through gamma rays. The experimental materials consisted of M6 mutants of CO 3 and CO (samai) 4 varieties irradiated with 300, 400, 500, 600 and 700 Gray of gamma rays from 60 Co, source at BARC, Mumbai and conducted at Millet Breeding Station, Centre for Plant Breeding and Genetics, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore 641003, India. From M6 generation finally six best non- lodging mutants were selected and subjected to multilocation trials for studying their stability. (author)

  14. Basics of Gamma Ray Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinnett, Jacob [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Venkataraman, Ram [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-09-13

    The objective of this training is to explain the origin of x-rays and gamma rays, gamma ray interactions with matter, detectors and electronics used in gamma ray-spectrometry, and features of a gamma-ray spectrum for nuclear material that is safeguarded.

  15. Clinical Study of Extrapulmonary Head and Neck Tuberculosis: A Single-Institute 10-year Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oishi, Masahiro

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Although the incidence of tuberculosis (TB in Japan has been decreasing yearly, Japan remains ranked as an intermediate-burden country for TB. Objective This study aims to investigate the current situation of head and neck extrapulmonary TB (EPTB diagnosed in our department. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of 47 patients diagnosed with EPTB in the head and neck in our department between January 2005 and December 2014. The extracted data included sex and age distribution, development site, chief complaint, presence or absence of concomitant active pulmonary TB (PTB or history of TB, tuberculin skin test (TST results, interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA results, and duration from the first visit to the final diagnosis of EPTB. Results The subjects consisted of 20 men and 27 women, and age ranged from 6 to 84 years. The most common site was the cervical lymph nodes (30 patients, with the supraclavicular nodes being the most commonly affected (60%. Histopathological examination was performed on 28 patients. TST was positive in 9 out of 9 patients and the IGRA was positive in 18 out of 19 patients. We observed concomitant PTB in 15 out of the 47 patients. Mean duration from the first visit to the final diagnosis of EPTB was 56 days. Conclusion The clinical symptoms of TB, especially those in the head and neck region, are varied. Otolaryngologists should be especially aware of the extrapulmonary manifestations of TB to ensure early diagnosis and treatment from the public health viewpoint.

  16. 20-Year Subject and Author Index, Volume 1, 1997-Volume 20, 1996; Subject and Author Index, Volume 21, 1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Robert M.; Pealer, Lisa N.

    1997-01-01

    This index provides readers interested in health behavior, health education, and health promotion ordered access to materials published in Health Values and the American Journal of Health Behavior, 1977-1997. The index includes 115 subject headings and 5 department headings, classifying 918 entries by 1,319 authors and coauthors. (SM)

  17. Gamma knife radiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomida, Mihoko; Hayashi, Motohiro; Kawakami, Yoriko; Ishimaru, Jun-ichi

    2009-01-01

    Gamma knife surgery (GKS) has been employed for treating intractable pain such as trigeminal neuralgia (TN) and pain relief has been gained from the treatment, however, little is understood about the side effects of other sensitivities induced from GKS. We assessed ten patients (four men and six women; mean age 67 years) with TN who were investigated by questionnaire for symptoms and visual analog scale (VAS) of pain, and their threshold of touch sensation was examined using Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments, cold sensation and allodynia before and after GKS. MR and CT images were obtained after a Leksell head frame was applied to the head parallel to the trigeminal nerve. These images were uploaded to a computer system and retro-Gasserian area planned the target was correctly marked on the images of a computer in which gamma planning software was installed. All patients were irradiated with a maximum dose of 90 Gy at retro-Gasserian using a 4 mm collimator. The mean±standard deviation (SD) of VAS of pain was 8.5±1.3 and 8 patients had facial paresthesia before GKS. All patients experienced a significant reduction in pain without side effects such as effect on the peripheral nerves without 6 month after GKS. Allodynia, facial paresthesia or cold sensation numbness occurred in the patients before GKS disappeared according to complete pain relief. These results suggest that GKS is a safe and effective treatment for TN. (author)

  18. Head and neck position sense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Bridget; McNair, Peter; Taylor, Denise

    2008-01-01

    Traumatic minor cervical strains are common place in high-impact sports (e.g. tackling) and premature degenerative changes have been documented in sports people exposed to recurrent impact trauma (e.g. scrummaging in rugby) or repetitive forces (e.g. Formula 1 racing drivers, jockeys). While proprioceptive exercises have been an integral part of rehabilitation of injuries in the lower limb, they have not featured as prominently in the treatment of cervical injuries. However, head and neck position sense (HNPS) testing and re-training may have relevance in the management of minor sports-related neck injuries, and play a role in reducing the incidence of ongoing pain and problems with function. For efficacious programmes to be developed and tested, fundamental principles associated with proprioception in the cervical spine should be considered. Hence, this article highlights the importance of anatomical structures in the cervical spine responsible for position sense, and how their interaction with the CNS affects our ability to plan and execute effective purposeful movements. This article includes a review of studies examining position sense in subjects with and without pathology and describes the effects of rehabilitation programmes that have sought to improve position sense. In respect to the receptors providing proprioceptive information for the CNS, the high densities and complex arrays of spindles found in cervical muscles suggest that these receptors play a key role. There is some evidence suggesting that ensemble encoding of discharge patterns from muscle spindles is relayed to the CNS and that a pattern recognition system is used to establish joint position and movement. Sensory information from neck proprioceptive receptors is processed in tandem with information from the vestibular system. There are extensive anatomical connections between neck proprioceptive inputs and vestibular inputs. If positional information from the vestibular system is inaccurate or

  19. GammaWorkshops Proceedings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strålberg, Elisabeth; Klemola, Seppo; Nielsen, Sven Poul

    to the GammaWorkshops. The topics included efficiency transfer, true coincidence summing corrections, self-attenuation corrections, measurement of natural radionuclides (natural decay series), combined measurement uncertainty calculations, and detection limits. These topics covered both lectures and practical...

  20. FTR europia gamma heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, J.T. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Calculated and experimental gamma heating rates of europia in the Engineering Mockup Critical Assembly (EMC) were correlated. A calculated to experimental (C/E) ratio of 1.086 was established in validating the theoretical approach and computational technique applied in the calculations. Gamma heat deposition rates in the FTR with Eu 2 O 3 control absorbers were determined from three-dimensional calculations. Maximum gamma heating was found to occur near the tip of a half-inserted row 5 control rod assembly--12.8 watts/gm of europia. Gamma heating profiles were established for a single half-inserted europia absorber assembly. Local heat peaking was found not to alter significantly heating rates computed in the FTR core model, where larger mesh interval sizes precluded examination of spatially-limited heating gradients. These computations provide the basis for thermal-hydraulic analyses to ascertain temperature profiles in the FTR under europia control

  1. Beta and Gamma Gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvborg, Leif; Gaffney, C. F.; Clark, P. A.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental and/or theoretical estimates are presented concerning, (i) attenuation within the sample of beta and gamma radiation from the soil, (ii) the gamma dose within the sample due to its own radioactivity, and (iii) the soil gamma dose in the proximity of boundaries between regions...... of differing radioactivity. It is confirmed that removal of the outer 2 mm of sample is adequate to remove influence from soil beta dose and estimates are made of the error introduced by non-removal. Other evaluations include variation of the soil gamma dose near the ground surface and it appears...... that the present practice of avoiding samples above a depth of 0.3 m may be over-cautious...

  2. Gamma spectrometry today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemingway, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews the important advances in gamma spectroscopy made in recent years. Improvements in detectors and other components and the addition of on-line computer control systems is discussed. (UK)

  3. Influence of the temperature in the measurement of the gamma automatic probe Gamma Tracer; Influencia de la temperatura en la medicion de la sonda gamma automatica Gamma Tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caveda R, C.A.; Dominguez L, O.; Alonso A, D. [CPHR, Calle 20 No. 4113 e/41 y 47, Playa, C.P. 11300, A.P. 6195, C.P. 10600 La Habana (Cuba); Montalvan E, A.; Fabelo B, O. [CIAC, Ave. Finlay Km 2 1/2, Rpto. Puerto Principe, Camaguey 70800 (Cuba)]. e-mail: caveda@cphr.edu.cu

    2006-07-01

    In the following work an analysis of the existent relationship among the measurement of the absorbed dose rate in air due to the environmental gamma radiation and the temperature, magnitudes measured to intervals of 10 minutes by the gamma probe Gamma Tracer located in the post of occident of the National Net of Environmental Radiological Surveillance (RNVRA), in the Center of Protection and Hygiene of the Radiations (CPHR) is made. For it its were analyzed near 100,000 measurements corresponding to the period 2004-2005. For a better processing and interpretation of the data, these were analyzed with one frequency time zone and monthly using the Gamma Red software to which was necessary to add it some options. Finally it was submitted the probe to a heating process inside a stove. The results of the carried out experiments confirmed that the absorbed dose rate in air due to the environmental gamma radiation depends potentially of the probe temperature in the range of environmental temperature to which is subjected daily the same one. (Author)

  4. Dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luan Shuang; Swanson, Nathan; Chen Zhe; Ma Lijun

    2009-01-01

    Gamma knife has been the treatment of choice for various brain tumors and functional disorders. Current gamma knife radiosurgery is planned in a 'ball-packing' approach and delivered in a 'step-and-shoot' manner, i.e. it aims to 'pack' the different sized spherical high-dose volumes (called 'shots') into a tumor volume. We have developed a dynamic scheme for gamma knife radiosurgery based on the concept of 'dose-painting' to take advantage of the new robotic patient positioning system on the latest Gamma Knife C(TM) and Perfexion(TM) units. In our scheme, the spherical high dose volume created by the gamma knife unit will be viewed as a 3D spherical 'paintbrush', and treatment planning reduces to finding the best route of this 'paintbrush' to 'paint' a 3D tumor volume. Under our dose-painting concept, gamma knife radiosurgery becomes dynamic, where the patient moves continuously under the robotic positioning system. We have implemented a fully automatic dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery treatment planning system, where the inverse planning problem is solved as a traveling salesman problem combined with constrained least-square optimizations. We have also carried out experimental studies of dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery and showed the following. (1) Dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery is ideally suited for fully automatic inverse planning, where high quality radiosurgery plans can be obtained in minutes of computation. (2) Dynamic radiosurgery plans are more conformal than step-and-shoot plans and can maintain a steep dose gradient (around 13% per mm) between the target tumor volume and the surrounding critical structures. (3) It is possible to prescribe multiple isodose lines with dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery, so that the treatment can cover the periphery of the target volume while escalating the dose for high tumor burden regions. (4) With dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery, one can obtain a family of plans representing a tradeoff between the delivery time and

  5. Dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luan Shuang; Swanson, Nathan; Chen Zhe [Department of Computer Science, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Ma Lijun [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 (United States)], E-mail: sluan@cs.unm.edu, E-mail: nate@cs.unm.edu, E-mail: zchen@cs.unm.edu, E-mail: lijunma@radonc.ucsf.edu

    2009-03-21

    Gamma knife has been the treatment of choice for various brain tumors and functional disorders. Current gamma knife radiosurgery is planned in a 'ball-packing' approach and delivered in a 'step-and-shoot' manner, i.e. it aims to 'pack' the different sized spherical high-dose volumes (called 'shots') into a tumor volume. We have developed a dynamic scheme for gamma knife radiosurgery based on the concept of 'dose-painting' to take advantage of the new robotic patient positioning system on the latest Gamma Knife C(TM) and Perfexion(TM) units. In our scheme, the spherical high dose volume created by the gamma knife unit will be viewed as a 3D spherical 'paintbrush', and treatment planning reduces to finding the best route of this 'paintbrush' to 'paint' a 3D tumor volume. Under our dose-painting concept, gamma knife radiosurgery becomes dynamic, where the patient moves continuously under the robotic positioning system. We have implemented a fully automatic dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery treatment planning system, where the inverse planning problem is solved as a traveling salesman problem combined with constrained least-square optimizations. We have also carried out experimental studies of dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery and showed the following. (1) Dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery is ideally suited for fully automatic inverse planning, where high quality radiosurgery plans can be obtained in minutes of computation. (2) Dynamic radiosurgery plans are more conformal than step-and-shoot plans and can maintain a steep dose gradient (around 13% per mm) between the target tumor volume and the surrounding critical structures. (3) It is possible to prescribe multiple isodose lines with dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery, so that the treatment can cover the periphery of the target volume while escalating the dose for high tumor burden regions. (4) With dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery, one can

  6. Subject search study. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todeschini, C.

    1995-01-01

    The study gathered information on how users search the database of the International Nuclear Information System (INIS), using indicators such as Subject categories, Controlled terms, Subject headings, Free-text words, combinations of the above. Users participated from the Australian, French, Russian and Spanish INIS Centres, that have different national languages. Participants, both intermediaries and end users, replied to a questionnaire and executed search queries. The INIS Secretariat at the IAEA also participated. A protocol of all search strategies used in actual searches in the database was kept. The thought process for Russian and Spanish users is predominantly non-English and also the actual initial search formulation is predominantly non-English among Russian and Spanish users while it tends to be more in English among French users. A total of 1002 searches were executed by the five INIS centres including the IAEA. The search protocols indicate the following search behaviour: 1) free text words represent about 40% of search points on an average query; 2) descriptors used as search keys have the widest range as percentage of search points, from a low of 25% to a high of 48%; 3) search keys consisting of free text that coincides with a descriptor account for about 15% of search points; 4) Subject Categories are not used in many searches; 5) free text words are present as search points in about 80% of all searches; 6) controlled terms (descriptors) are used very extensively and appear in about 90% of all searches; 7) Subject Headings were used in only a few percent of searches. From the results of the study one can conclude that there is a greater reluctance on the part of non-native English speakers in initiating their searches by using free text word searches. Also: Subject Categories are little used in searching the database; both free text terms and controlled terms are the predominant types of search keys used, whereby the controlled terms are used more

  7. Silva as the Head

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie

    2015-01-01

    The head of the performance design programme is substituted by a sister's academy delegate. this performance situation formed part of a week of semesterstart where the students and professors visited Sister's Academy, Malmø. I participated in the Sister's Academy as visiting researcher and here i...

  8. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Head ...

  9. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are present in the paranasal sinuses. plan radiation therapy for cancer of the brain or other tissues. guide the ... RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer Others American Stroke Association National Stroke Association top ...

  10. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Radiation Dose in X-Ray and CT Exams Blood Clots CT Perfusion of the Head CT Angiography ( ...

  11. The Twente humanoid head

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reilink, Rob; Visser, L.C.; Bennik, J.; Carloni, Raffaella; Brouwer, Dannis Michel; Stramigioli, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    This video shows the results of the project on the mechatronic development of the Twente humanoid head. The mechanical structure consists of a neck with four degrees of freedom (DOFs) and two eyes (a stereo pair system) which tilt on a common axis and rotate sideways freely providing a three more

  12. IMEF gamma scanning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Sang Yeol; Park, Dae Kyu; Ahn, Sang Bok; Ju, Yong Sun; Jeon, Yong Bum

    1997-06-01

    The gamma scanning system which is installed in IMEF is the equipment obtaining the gamma ray spectrum from irradiated fuels. This equipment could afford the useful data relating spent fuels like as burn-up measurements. We describe the specifications of the equipment and its accessories, and also described its operation procedure so that an operator can use this report as the operation procedure. (author). 1 tab., 11 figs., 11 refs.

  13. IMEF gamma scanning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Sang Yeol; Park, Dae Kyu; Ahn, Sang Bok; Ju, Yong Sun; Jeon, Yong Bum.

    1997-06-01

    The gamma scanning system which is installed in IMEF is the equipment obtaining the gamma ray spectrum from irradiated fuels. This equipment could afford the useful data relating spent fuels like as burn-up measurements. We describe the specifications of the equipment and its accessories, and also described its operation procedure so that an operator can use this report as the operation procedure. (author). 1 tab., 11 figs., 11 refs

  14. Head injury in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiura, Makoto; Mori, Nobuhiko; Yokosuka, Reiko; Yamamoto, Masaaki; Imanaga, Hirohisa

    1981-01-01

    Findings of computerized tomography (CT) in 183 cases of head injury in children were investigated with special reference to CT findings of mild head injury. As was expected, CT findings of mild head injury fell within the normal range, in almost all cases. However, abnormal findings were noticed in 4 out of 34 cases (12%) in acute stage and 7 out of 76 cases (9%) in chronic stage. They were 3 cases of localized low density area in acute stage and 6 cases of mild cerebral atrophy in chronic stage, etc. There were some cases of mild head injury in which CT findings were normal while EEG examination revealed abnormality. Also in some cases, x-ray study demonstrated linear skull fracture which CT failed to show. These conventional techniques could be still remained as useful adjunct aid in diagnosis of head injury. CT findings of cases of cerebral contusion in their acute stage were divided as follows; normal, low density, small ventricle and ventricular and/or cisternal hemorrhage, frequency of incidence being 38, 17, 22, 11% respectively. These findings were invariably converted to cerebral atrophy from 10 days to 2 months after the impacts. In the cases with intracranial hematoma revealed by CT, only 32% of them showed clinical signs of Araki's type IV in their acute stage and 63% of them showed no neurological defects, that is Araki's type I and II. A case of extreme diffuse cerebral atrophy which followed acute subdural hematoma caused by tear of bridging veins without cortical contusion was presented. (author)

  15. Cancer of the head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leignel, D.; Toledano, A.; Calais, G.; Gardner, M.; Valinta, D.; Halimi, P.; Alberini, J.L.; Plantet, M.M.; Banal, A.; Hans, S.; Floiras, J.L.; Labib, A.; Djemaa, A.; Naoun, L.; Bali, M.; Melais, K.; George, L.; Cazalet, M.; Gross, E.; Padovani, L.; Cowen, D.; Pignon, T.; Bannour, N.; Guedouar, R.; Bouaouina, N.; Mege, A.; Lapeyre, M.; Graff, P.; Marchesi, V.; Aletti, P.; Marchal, C.; Peiffert, D.; Serre, A.; Ailleres, N.; Lemanski, C.; Hay, M.H.; Llacer Moscardo, C.; Allaw, A.; Azria, D.; Dubois, J.B.; Fenoglietto, P.; Maalej, M.; Nasr, C.; Chaari, N.; Hentati, D.; Kochbati, L.; Besbes, M.; Benjelloun, H.; Benchakroun, N.; Houjami, M.; Jouhadi, H.; Tawfiq, N.; Acharki, A.; Sahraoui, S.; Benider, A.; Racadot, S.; Mercier, M.; Dessard-Diana, B.; Bensadoun, R.J.; Martin, M.; Malaurie, E.; Favrel, V.; Housset, M.; Journel, C.; Calais, G.; Huet, J.; Pillet, G.; Hennequin, C.; Haddad, E.; Diana, C.; Blaska-Jaulerry, B.; Henry-Amar, M.; Gehanno, P.; Baillet, F.; Mazeron, J.J.; Chaouache, C.K.; Tebra Mrad, T.M.S.; Bannour, B.N.S.; Bouaouina, B.N.; Favrel, V.; Khodri, M.; Chapet, O.; Nguyen, D.; Ardiet, J.; Romestaing, P.; Thillays, F.; Bardet, E.; Rolland, F.; Maingan, P.; Campion, L.; Mahe, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Thirteen articles are presented in relation with head and neck cancer. Chemoradiotherapy, medical examinations using nuclear techniques such PET scanning, fractionated radiotherapy after a chemotherapy, analysis of dose volume for patients treated by irradiation with a combined chemotherapy, dosimetry, conformal radiotherapy with intensity modulation, dosimetry in brachytherapy, association of radiotherapy and chemotherapy in the treatment of nose pharynx carcinomas, recurrence, are the different subjects treated in this part. (N.C.)

  16. RID-41 gamma flaw detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glebov, V.N.; Zubkov, V.S.; Majorov, A.N.; Murashev, A.I.; Firstov, V.G.; Yampol'skij, V.V.; Goncharov, V.I.; Sakhanov, A.S.

    1978-01-01

    The design is described and the main characteristics are given of a universal stationary hose-type gamma flow detector with a 60 Co source from 3O to 4g0 Ci for high-productive control of thick-walled products from steel and other materials. The principal units of the instrument are a radiation head, a control panel, and a charge-exchange container. The flaw detector may be used both in shield chambers and in shop or mounting conditions on complying with due requirements of radiation protection. The high activity of the source at relatively small dimensions of its active part ensures good detection of defects. The high radioscopy rate permits to use the flaw detector in conditions of increased background radiation, e.g. during routine repairs and inspections at nuclear power plants. The instrument may also be used in radiometric complexes, and produces a considerable economic effect. This flaw-detector corresponds to ISO and IAEA requirements and may be delivered for export

  17. Head and Neck Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Head and neck cancer overview What are my ... and neck cancer. For updated information on new cancer treatments that are available, you should discuss these issues ...

  18. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer Others : American Stroke Association National Stroke Association ... MRA) Magnetic Resonance, Functional (fMRI) - Brain Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Brain Tumor Treatment Magnetic Resonance Imaging ( ...

  19. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are the limitations of MRI of the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging ( ... brain) in routine clinical practice. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? MR ...

  20. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed with ... and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed with ...

  1. Head Lice: Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and General Public. Contact Us Parasites Home Prevention & Control Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... that can be taken to help prevent and control the spread of head lice: Avoid head-to- ...

  2. Advances and trends of head-up and head-down display systems in automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancur, J. Alejandro; Osorio-Gomez, Gilberto; Agudelo, J. David

    2014-06-01

    Currently, in the automotive industry the interaction between drivers and Augmented Reality (AR) systems is a subject of analysis, especially the identification of advantages and risks that this kind of interaction represents. Consequently, this paper attempts to put in evidence the potential applications of Head-Up (Display (HUD) and Head-Down Display (HDD) systems in automotive vehicles, showing applications and trends under study. In general, automotive advances related to AR devices suggest the partial integration of the HUD and HDD in automobiles; however, the right way to do it is still a moot point.

  3. Head movements and postures as pain behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamadi, Ayoub; Limbrecht-Ecklundt, Kerstin; Walter, Steffen; Traue, Harald C.

    2018-01-01

    Pain assessment can benefit from observation of pain behaviors, such as guarding or facial expression, and observational pain scales are widely used in clinical practice with nonverbal patients. However, little is known about head movements and postures in the context of pain. In this regard, we analyze videos of three publically available datasets. The BioVid dataset was recorded with healthy participants subjected to painful heat stimuli. In the BP4D dataset, healthy participants performed a cold-pressor test and several other tasks (meant to elicit emotion). The UNBC dataset videos show shoulder pain patients during range-of-motion tests to their affected and unaffected limbs. In all videos, participants were sitting in an upright position. We studied head movements and postures that occurred during the painful and control trials by measuring head orientation from video over time, followed by analyzing posture and movement summary statistics and occurrence frequencies of typical postures and movements. We found significant differences between pain and control trials with analyses of variance and binomial tests. In BioVid and BP4D, pain was accompanied by head movements and postures that tend to be oriented downwards or towards the pain site. We also found differences in movement range and speed in all three datasets. The results suggest that head movements and postures should be considered for pain assessment and research. As additional pain indicators, they possibly might improve pain management whenever behavior is assessed, especially in nonverbal individuals such as infants or patients with dementia. However, in advance more research is needed to identify specific head movements and postures in pain patients. PMID:29444153

  4. Gamma ray emission from pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvati, M.; Massaro, E.

    1978-01-01

    A model for the production of gamma rays in a pulsar environment is presented, together with numerical computations fitted to the observations of PSR 0833-45. It is assumed that the primary particles are accelerated close to the star surface and then injected along the open field lines, which cause them to emit curvature radiation. The equation describing the particles' braking is integrated exactly up to the first order in the pulsar rotational frequency, and the transfer problem for the curvature photons is solved with the aberration, the Doppler shif, and the pair production absorption being taken into account. The latter effect is due not only to the transverse component of the magnetic field, but also to the electric field induced by the rotation. The synchrotron radiation emitted by the secondary particles is also included, subject to the 'on-the-spot' approximation. It is found that the observed gamma rays originate in the innermost regions of the magnetosphere, where the open lines' bundle is narrow and the geometrical beaming is effective. As shown by the computed pulse profiles, the duty cycle turns out to be equal to a few percent, comparable to the one of PSR 0833-45. The averaged spectra indicate that a substantial fraction of the primary photons do outlive the interaction with the magnetisphere; furthermore, the agreement in shape with the observational curves suggests that the acceleration output is fiarly close to a monoenergetic beam of particles. (orig.) [de

  5. Head circumference in Iranian infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Esmaeili

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Head circumference (HC measurement is one of the important parameter for diagnosis of neurological, developmental disorders and dysmorphic syndromes. Recognition of different disorders requires an understanding of normal variation for HC size, in particular, in infancy period with most rapid growth of the brain. Because of international and interracial standard chart differences about anthropometric indices, some differences from local to local, generation to generation and changes in ethnic mix of population and socioeconomic factors, periodic revolution of HC size is suggested. The aims of our study were presenting local HC standard for an Iranian infant population and comparison with the American national center of health statistics (NCHS charts accepted by WHO. Methods: 1003 subjects aged from birth to 24 months apparently healthy normal children enrolled randomly in this cross sectional study. HC size were measured and recorded. Tables and graphs were depicted by Excel Microsoft Office 2007. We use two tailed t-student test for statistical analysis. Results: The mean of HC size in boys was larger than girls. The curves were followed a similar pattern to NCHS based on a visual comparison. Overall our subjects in both sexes at birth time had smaller HC size than NCHS. In other ages our children had larger HC size than those of NCHS. Conclusion: Because of international and interracial difference of HC size. We recommend in each area of the world, local anthropometric indices are constructed and used clinically. In addition more extensive and longitudinally design comprehensive studies is suggested.

  6. MRI in head trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jin Kyo [Shin Wha Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-02-15

    In the diagnosis of head injury, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), like CT, is an effective method of distinguishing between intracerebral and extracerebral lesions. In our experience of MRI, early hematomas are almost isointense by Saturation Recovery (SR) method, so these must be performed with Spin Echo (SE) method for better visualization of hematomas. Isodense subdural hematomas, which is a diagnostic dilemma on CT images, are clearly seen on MRI. Delayed hematomas or residual parenchymal lesions are better demonstrated on MRI than on CT. Direct cornal, sagittal images and multiplanar facility of MRI provides excellent visualization of the the location and shape of extracerebral collection of hematoma. For the screening of head traumas, SE method is a technique of choice because of its excellent sensitivity within limited time.

  7. Where is Russia heading?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalija Pliskevič

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available The author examines the proceedings from the collection Where is Russia Heading? (= Куда идёт Россия?, published between 1994 and 1998 in connection with the international symposium held under this name each year in Moscow. The symposia and their proceeding, involving leading Russian and foreign experts, were significant in that they encompassed a wide range of themes – social, economic, political, legislative, cultural and other transformations that have been occurring in Russia during the past decades. The author, however, limits her review to contributions dealing with ethno-political and socio-cultural transformations in Russia. She concludes that the question – “Where is Russia heading?” – still remains open to answers.

  8. MRI in head trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Jin Kyo

    1986-01-01

    In the diagnosis of head injury, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), like CT, is an effective method of distinguishing between intracerebral and extracerebral lesions. In our experience of MRI, early hematomas are almost isointense by Saturation Recovery (SR) method, so these must be performed with Spin Echo (SE) method for better visualization of hematomas. Isodense subdural hematomas, which is a diagnostic dilemma on CT images, are clearly seen on MRI. Delayed hematomas or residual parenchymal lesions are better demonstrated on MRI than on CT. Direct cornal, sagittal images and multiplanar facility of MRI provides excellent visualization of the the location and shape of extracerebral collection of hematoma. For the screening of head traumas, SE method is a technique of choice because of its excellent sensitivity within limited time.

  9. "Head versus heart"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Rozin

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Most American respondents give ``irrational,'' magical responses in a variety of situations that exemplify the sympathetic magical laws of similarity and contagion. In most of these cases, respondents are aware that their responses (usually rejections, as of fudge crafted to look like dog feces, or a food touched by a sterilized, dead cockroach are not ``scientifically'' justified, but they are willing to avow them. We interpret this, in some sense, as ``heart over head.'' We report in this study that American adults and undergraduates are substantially less likely to acknowledge magical effects when the judgments involve money (amount willing to pay to avoid an ``unpleasant'' magical contact than they are when using preference or rating measures. We conclude that in ``head-heart'' conflicts of this type, money tips the balance towards the former, or, in other words, that money makes the mind less magical.

  10. [The exploding head syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongers, K M; ter Bruggen, J P; Franke, C L

    1991-04-06

    The case is reported of a 47-year old female suffering from the exploding head syndrome. This syndrome consists of a sudden awakening due to a loud noise shortly after falling asleep, sometimes accompanied by a flash of light. The patient is anxious and experiences palpitations and excessive sweating. Most patients are more than fifty years of age. Further investigations do not reveal any abnormality. The pathogenesis is unknown, and no therapy other than reassurance is necessary.

  11. Where are we heading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noto, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    The present paper deals with different aspects connected to the global petroleum industry by discussing the way of heading. The aspects cover themes like new frontiers, new relationships, sanctions, global climate change, new alliances and new technology. New frontiers and relationships concern domestic policy affecting the industry, and sanctions are discussed in connection with trade. The author discusses the industry's participation in the global environmental policy and new alliances to provide greater opportunity for developing new technology

  12. "Head versus heart"

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Rozin; Heidi Grant; Stephanie Weinberg; Scott Parker

    2007-01-01

    Most American respondents give ``irrational,'' magical responses in a variety of situations that exemplify the sympathetic magical laws of similarity and contagion. In most of these cases, respondents are aware that their responses (usually rejections, as of fudge crafted to look like dog feces, or a food touched by a sterilized, dead cockroach) are not ``scientifically'' justified, but they are willing to avow them. We interpret this, in some sense, as ``heart over head.'' We report in this ...

  13. Head segmentation in vertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Kuratani, Shigeru; Schilling, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Classic theories of vertebrate head segmentation clearly exemplify the idealistic nature of comparative embryology prior to the 20th century. Comparative embryology aimed at recognizing the basic, primary structure that is shared by all vertebrates, either as an archetype or an ancestral developmental pattern. Modern evolutionary developmental (Evo-Devo) studies are also based on comparison, and therefore have a tendency to reduce complex embryonic anatomy into overly simplified patterns. Her...

  14. Effects of gamma radiation on potato meristems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Gonzalez, J.; Garcia Collantes, M.A.

    1976-01-01

    The development of buds in potato tubers subjected to gamma radiation at doses of 3, 6, 8 and 12 Krad is studied at histological level. The irradiation was supplied at the beguining and end of the resting period, and the irradiated buds were observed at different stages of their development. Meristem's sensitivity depends on the state of activity involved at the moment of irradiation. Different parts of the meristem present different radiosensitivity, being the most radioresistant. (author) [es

  15. Gamma-ray bursts: astrophysical puzzle of the century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudec, R.

    1998-01-01

    An overview is given of the problems of gamma-ray bursts /GRB/. As GRB became one of the greatest mysteries in modern astrophysics, this field of astrophysics is a subject of intensive research. The article covers some topical aspects of experiments related to the indentification of gamma-ray bursts. The preparation and results of experiments in the Astronomical Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic are described. (Z.J.)

  16. Failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) for Gamma Knife radiosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Andy Yuanguang; Bhatnagar, Jagdish; Bednarz, Greg; Flickinger, John; Arai, Yoshio; Vacsulka, Jonet; Feng, Wenzheng; Monaco, Edward; Niranjan, Ajay; Lunsford, L Dade; Huq, M Saiful

    2017-11-01

    Gamma Knife radiosurgery is a highly precise and accurate treatment technique for treating brain diseases with low risk of serious error that nevertheless could potentially be reduced. We applied the AAPM Task Group 100 recommended failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) tool to develop a risk-based quality management program for Gamma Knife radiosurgery. A team consisting of medical physicists, radiation oncologists, neurosurgeons, radiation safety officers, nurses, operating room technologists, and schedulers at our institution and an external physicist expert on Gamma Knife was formed for the FMEA study. A process tree and a failure mode table were created for the Gamma Knife radiosurgery procedures using the Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion and 4C units. Three scores for the probability of occurrence (O), the severity (S), and the probability of no detection for failure mode (D) were assigned to each failure mode by 8 professionals on a scale from 1 to 10. An overall risk priority number (RPN) for each failure mode was then calculated from the averaged O, S, and D scores. The coefficient of variation for each O, S, or D score was also calculated. The failure modes identified were prioritized in terms of both the RPN scores and the severity scores. The established process tree for Gamma Knife radiosurgery consists of 10 subprocesses and 53 steps, including a subprocess for frame placement and 11 steps that are directly related to the frame-based nature of the Gamma Knife radiosurgery. Out of the 86 failure modes identified, 40 Gamma Knife specific failure modes were caused by the potential for inappropriate use of the radiosurgery head frame, the imaging fiducial boxes, the Gamma Knife helmets and plugs, the skull definition tools as well as other features of the GammaPlan treatment planning system. The other 46 failure modes are associated with the registration, imaging, image transfer, contouring processes that are common for all external beam radiation therapy

  17. Otolith function in patients with head trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Dae; Park, Moo Kyun; Lee, Byung Don; Park, Ji Yun; Lee, Tae Kyung; Sung, Ki-Bum

    2011-10-01

    This study evaluates the otolith function of patients with head trauma, postulating that otolith dysfunction is a cause of nonspecific dizziness after head trauma. We prospectively enrolled 28 patients referred within 3 months after head trauma between March 2007 and December 2009. Pure tone audiometry, caloric testing and otolith function tests, including cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) and subjective visual vertical (SVV) tests, were performed on all patients. The relationship between otolith function and otologic symptoms was analyzed. Of the 28 patients with head trauma, 18 complained of dizziness and 12 experienced hearing loss, including 6 patients who complained of both. On defining otolith dysfunction as an abnormal cVEMP or abnormal SVV, a significant difference in otolith dysfunction existed between the groups with and without dizziness [72 (13/18) vs. 20% (2/10)]. In contrast, no significant difference in otolith dysfunction was detected between the abnormal and normal hearing groups. A significant number of the patients who complained of nonspecific dizziness after trauma had abnormal otolith function. After trauma, when patients complain of dizziness, vestibular function tests, including otolith function tests, should be considered.

  18. System for gamma-gamma formation density logging while drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paske, W.C.

    1991-01-01

    The patent relates to a system for logging subterranean formations for the determination of formation density by using gamma radiation. Gamma ray source and detection means are disposed within a housing adapted for positioning within a borehole for the emission and detection of gamma rays propagating through earth formations and borehole drilling fluid. The gamma ray detection means comprises first and second gamma radiation sensors geometrically disposed within the housing, the same longitudinal distance from the gamma ray source and diametrically opposed in a common plane. A formation matrix density output signal is produced in proportion to the output signal from each of the gamma ray sensors and in conjunction with certain constants established by the geometrical configuration of the sensors relative to the gamma ray source and the borehole diameter. Formation density is determined without regard to the radial position of the logging probe within the borehole in a measuring while drilling mode. 6 figs

  19. Breathing pattern and head posture: changes in craniocervical angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatucci, A; Raffaeli, F; Mastrovincenzo, M; Luchetta, A; Giannone, A; Ciavarella, D

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the influence of oral breathing on head posture and to establish possible postural changes observing the variation of craniocervical angles NSL/OPT and NSL/CVT between oral breathing subjects and physiological breathing subjects. A cross-sectional study was conducted. The sample included 115 subject, 56 boys and 59 girls, 5-22-year-old. Among these, 80 were classified as oral breathers and 35 as physiological breathers. The diagnosis of oral breathing was carried out thanks to characteristic signs and symptoms evaluated on clinical examination, the analysis of characteristic X-ray images, ENT examination with active anterior rhinomanometric (AAR) test. The structural and postural analysis was carried out, calculating the craniofacial angles NSL/OPT and NSL/CVT. Both NSL/OPT and NSL/CVT appear to be significantly greater to those observed in physiological breathing patients. This means that patients who tend to breathe through the mouth rather than exclusively through the nose show a reduction of cervical lordosis and a proinclination of the head. Our study confirms that the oral breathing modifies head position. The significant increase of the craniocervical angles NSL/OPT and NSL/CVT in patients with this altered breathing pattern suggests an elevation of the head and a greater extension of the head compared with the cervical spine. So, to correct the breathing pattern early, either during childhood or during adolescence, can lead to a progressive normalization of craniofacial morphology and head posture.

  20. Inspection of high density materials by means of X and gamma radiography and X and gamma radioscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deleuze, M.

    1985-11-01

    We present the tests carried out on uranium for a comparative evaluation of the capabilities and limitations of gamma radiography and X and gamma radioscopy. The following comparison subjects are: the exposure and inspection times of uranium pieces from exposure charts, the radiographic contrast, the sensitivity of defect detection, the choice of radiation source. Theses tests made it possible to determine the limiting thicknesses of uranium able to be inspected by these two techniques. Accordingly, we decided to exchange 192 Ir gamma radiography for a 420 kV X radioscopy and radiography

  1. Modular gamma systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millegan, D.R.; Nixon, K.V.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear safeguards requires sensitive, easily operated instruments for rapid inspection of personnel and vehicles to ensure that no uranium or plutonium is being diverted. Two portable gamma-ray detection systems have been developed. The Modular Gamma System (MGS) is very sensitive and two or more systems can be connected for even better performance. The multiunit configuration can be deployed by motor vehicle for search of large areas too extensive to search on foot. The Programmable Rate Monitor (PRM) is less sensitive but much smaller and therefore is more suitable for search of vehicles, personnel, or smaller areas. The PRM is programmable, which implements measurement and alarm algorithms for individual applications

  2. Gamma-Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellizza, L. J.

    Gamma-ray bursts are the brightest transient sources in the gamma-ray sky. Since their discovery in the late 1960s, the investigation of the astrophysical sys- tems in which these phenomena take place, and the physical mechanisms that drive them, has become a vast and prolific area of modern astrophysics. In this work I will briefly describe the most relevant observations of these sources, and the models that describe their nature, emphasizing on the in- vestigations about the progenitor astrophysical systems. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  3. Gamma Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrels, Neil; Meszaros, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are bright flashes of gamma-rays coming from the cosmos. They occur roughly once per day ,last typically lOs of seconds and are the most luminous events in the universe. More than three decades after their discovery, and after pioneering advances from space and ground experiments, they still remain mysterious. The launch of the Swift and Fermi satellites in 2004 and 2008 brought in a trove of qualitatively new data. In this review we survey the interplay between these recent observations and the theoretical models of the prompt GRB emission and the subsequent afterglows.

  4. Digitized video subject positioning and surveillance system for PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picard, Y.; Thompson, C.J.

    1995-01-01

    Head motion is a significant contribution to the degradation of image quality of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) studies. Images from different studies must also be realigned digitally to be correlated when the subject position has changed. These constraints could be eliminated if the subject's head position could be monitored accurately. The authors have developed a video camera-based surveillance system to monitor the head position and motion of subjects undergoing PET studies. The system consists of two CCD (charge-coupled device) cameras placed orthogonally such that both face and profile views of the subject's head are displayed side by side on an RGB video monitor. Digitized images overlay the live images in contrasting colors on the monitor. Such a system can be used to (1) position the subject in the field of view (FOV) by displaying the position of the scanner's slices on the monitor along with the current subject position, (2) monitor head motion and alert the operator of any motion during the study and (3) reposition the subject accurately for subsequent studies by displaying the previous position along with the current position in a contrasting color

  5. CT measurments of cranial growth: normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, F.J.; Chu, W.K.; Cheung, J.Y.

    1984-01-01

    Growth patterns of the cranium measured directly as head circumference have been well documented. With the availability of computed tomography (CT) , cranial dimensions can be obtained easily. The objective of this project was to establish the mean values and their normal variance of CT cranial area of subjects at different ages. Cranial area and its long and short axes were measured on CT scans for 215 neurologic patients of a wide age range who presented no evidence of abnormal growth of head size. Growth patterns of the cranial area as well as the numeric product of it linear dimensions were determined via a curve fitting process. The patterns resemble that of the head circumference growth chart, with the most rapid growth observed in the first 12 months of age and reaching full size during adolescence

  6. Interferon Gamma-1b Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interferon gamma-1b injection is used to reduce the frequency and severity of serious infections in people with chronic ... severe, malignant osteopetrosis (an inherited bone disease). Interferon gamma-1b is in a class of medications called ...

  7. Gamma knife surgery for craniopharyngioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, D.; Steiner, M.; Steiner, L.

    1995-01-01

    We present our results of Gamma Knife surgery for craniopharyngioma in nine patients. The current status of surgery, radiation therapy, intracavitary instillation of radionuclides and Gamma Knife surgery in the management of craniopharyngiomas is discussed. (author)

  8. CKM angle $\\gamma$ from LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Smith, Jackson

    2015-01-01

    Results of the latest $\\gamma$ combination from LHCb are presented, along with the six LHCb measurements used as inputs. In addition, the anticipated precision attainable for measuring $\\gamma$ after the LHCb Upgrade is outlined

  9. Abnormal Metabolite in Alcoholic Subjects,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    this study included alcoholic hepatitis or cirrhosis of the liver in 29. of the alcoholic subjects; diabetes mellitus in 8 and Korsakoff’s syndrome in 6...evidence of -7- Korsakoff’s syndrome and the presence or absence of 2,3-butanediol. There was, however, a suggestive correlation with independently...Gamma GT 193, SGPT 29 b 0 0.023 0.05 51a F.B. 22 M 28 0.029 0.14 b 0 ɘ.01 0.12 77 J.N.S. 52 M 0 0.027 0.11 57 JJ.S 45 m 4. 0.25 .35 Korsakoff ’s

  10. Kinematics of the AM-50 heading machine cutting head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, W; Bak, K; Klich, R [Politechnika Slaska, Gliwice (Poland). Instytut Mechanizacji Gornictwa

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes motion of the cutter head of the AM-50 heading machine. Two types of head motion are comparatively evaluated: planar motion and spatial motion. The spatial motion consists of the head rotational motion and horizontal or vertical feed motion, while planar motion consists of rotational motion and vertical feed motion. Equations that describe head motion under conditions of cutter vertical or horizontal feed motion are derived. The angle between the cutting speed direction and working speed direction is defined. On the basis of these formulae variations of cutting speed depending on the cutting tool position on a cutter head are calculated. Calculations made for 2 extreme cutting tools show that the cutting speed ranges from 1,205 m/s to 3,512 m/s. 4 refs.

  11. Head First Web Design

    CERN Document Server

    Watrall, Ethan

    2008-01-01

    Want to know how to make your pages look beautiful, communicate your message effectively, guide visitors through your website with ease, and get everything approved by the accessibility and usability police at the same time? Head First Web Design is your ticket to mastering all of these complex topics, and understanding what's really going on in the world of web design. Whether you're building a personal blog or a corporate website, there's a lot more to web design than div's and CSS selectors, but what do you really need to know? With this book, you'll learn the secrets of designing effecti

  12. Head first C#

    CERN Document Server

    Stellman, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Head First C# is a complete learning experience for object-oriented programming, C#, and the Visual Studio IDE. Built for your brain, this book covers C# 3.0 and Visual Studio 2008, and teaches everything from language fundamentals to advanced topics including garbage collection, extension methods, and double-buffered animation. You'll also master C#'s hottest and newest syntax, LINQ, for querying SQL databases, .NET collections, and XML documents. By the time you're through, you'll be a proficient C# programmer, designing and coding large-scale applications. Every few chapters you will come

  13. Head first C#

    CERN Document Server

    Stellman, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    You want to learn C# programming, but you're not sure you want to suffer through another tedious technical book. You're in luck: Head First C# introduces this language in a fun, visual way. You'll quickly learn everything from creating your first program to learning sophisticated coding skills with C# 4.0, Visual Studio 2010 and .NET 4, while avoiding common errors that frustrate many students. The second edition offers several hands-on labs along the way to help you build and test programs using skills you've learned up to that point. In the final lab, you'll put everything together. From o

  14. Head First Python

    CERN Document Server

    Barry, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Ever wished you could learn Python from a book? Head First Python is a complete learning experience for Python that helps you learn the language through a unique method that goes beyond syntax and how-to manuals, helping you understand how to be a great Python programmer. You'll quickly learn the language's fundamentals, then move onto persistence, exception handling, web development, SQLite, data wrangling, and Google App Engine. You'll also learn how to write mobile apps for Android, all thanks to the power that Python gives you. We think your time is too valuable to waste struggling with

  15. Head First Mobile Web

    CERN Document Server

    Gardner, Lyza; Grigsby, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Despite the huge number of mobile devices and apps in use today, your business still needs a website. You just need it to be mobile. Head First Mobile Web walks you through the process of making a conventional website work on a variety smartphones and tablets. Put your JavaScript, CSS media query, and HTML5 skills to work-then optimize your site to perform its best in the demanding mobile market. Along the way, you'll discover how to adapt your business strategy to target specific devices. Navigate the increasingly complex mobile landscapeTake both technical and strategic approaches to mobile

  16. Inactivation of RNA viruses by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonomiya, Takashi; Morimoto, Akinori; Iwatsuki, Kazuo; Tsutsumi, Takamasa; Ito, Hitoshi; Yamashiro, Tomio; Ishigaki, Isao.

    1992-01-01

    Four kinds of RNA viruses, Bluetongue virus (BT), Bovine Virus Diarrhea-Mucosal Disease virus (BVD·MD), Bovine Respiratory Syncytial virus (RS), Vesicular Stmatitis virus (VS), were subjected to various doses of gamma irradiation to determine the lethal doses. The D 10 values, which are the dose necessary to decimally reduce infectivity, ranged from 1.5 to 3.4 kGy under frozen condition at dry-ice temperature, and they increased to 2.6 to 5.0 kGy under frozen condition at dry-ice temperature. Serum neutralzing antibody titer of Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR) was not adversely changed by the exposure to 36 kGy of gamma-rays under frozen condition. Analysis of electrophoresis patterns of the bovine serum also reveales that the serum proteins were not remarkably affected, even when exposed to 36 kGy of gamma radiation under frozen condition. The results suggested that gamma irradiation under frozen condition is an effective means for inactivating both DNA and RNA viruses without adversely affecting serum proteins and neutralizing antibody titer. (author)

  17. Inactivation of RNA viruses by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonomiya, Takashi; Morimoto, Akinori; Iwatsuki, Kazuo; Tsutsumi, Takamasa (Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and fisheries, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan). Animal Quarantine Service); Ito, Hitoshi; Yamashiro, Tomio; Ishigaki, Isao

    1992-09-01

    Four kinds of RNA viruses, Bluetongue virus (BT), Bovine Virus Diarrhea-Mucosal Disease virus (BVD[center dot]MD), Bovine Respiratory Syncytial virus (RS), Vesicular Stmatitis virus (VS), were subjected to various doses of gamma irradiation to determine the lethal doses. The D[sub 10] values, which are the dose necessary to decimally reduce infectivity, ranged from 1.5 to 3.4 kGy under frozen condition at dry-ice temperature, and they increased to 2.6 to 5.0 kGy under frozen condition at dry-ice temperature. Serum neutralzing antibody titer of Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR) was not adversely changed by the exposure to 36 kGy of gamma-rays under frozen condition. Analysis of electrophoresis patterns of the bovine serum also reveales that the serum proteins were not remarkably affected, even when exposed to 36 kGy of gamma radiation under frozen condition. The results suggested that gamma irradiation under frozen condition is an effective means for inactivating both DNA and RNA viruses without adversely affecting serum proteins and neutralizing antibody titer. (author).

  18. Reactor vessel head permanent shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hankinson, M.F.; Leduc, R.J.; Richard, J.W.; Malandra, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    A nuclear reactor is described comprising: a nuclear reactor pressure vessel closure head; control rod drive mechanisms (CRDMs) disposed within the closure head so as to project vertically above the closure head; cooling air baffle means surrounding the control rod drive mechanisms for defining cooling air paths relative to the control rod drive mechanisms; means defined within the periphery of the closure head for accommodating fastening means for securing the closure head to its associated pressure vessel; lifting lugs fixedly secured to the closure head for facilitating lifting and lowering movements of the closure head relative to the pressure vessel; lift rods respectively operatively associated with the plurality of lifting lugs for transmitting load forces, developed during the lifting and lowering movements of the closure head, to the lifting lugs; upstanding radiation shield means interposed between the cooling air baffle means and the periphery of the enclosure head of shielding maintenance personnel operatively working upon the closure head fastening means from the effects of radiation which may emanate from the control rod drive mechanisms and the cooling air baffle means; and connecting systems respectively associated with each one of the lifting lugs and each one of the lifting rods for connecting each one of the lifting rods to a respective one of each one of the lifting lugs, and for simultaneously connecting a lower end portion of the upstanding radiation shield means to each one of the respective lifting lugs

  19. Ultrasonography X gamma radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello Campos, A.M. de

    1989-01-01

    The accumulated experience in the last ten years of substitution to essays by gamma radiography to essay by ultrasonography, starting of the systematic comparison and tabulation of the results obtained by both essays applied in welding joints, in field, in steel pipelines of the SABESP. (V.R.B.)

  20. Gamma knife radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Mori, Yohsimasa; Kida, Yoshihisa

    2003-01-01

    Gamma knife radiosurgery has become a new treatment modality in the field of neurosurgery since the first gamma knife was brought into Japan in 1990. Advances in applications of new indications and long-term results have been continued to evolve during the past 12 years. Based on the experience of more than 4,500 cases treated by gamma knife at Komaki City Hospital, long-term results of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), metastatic brain tumors, acoustic neurinomas, meningiomas and trigeminal neuralgias are presented. Radiosurgery has become a novel treatment modality, especially for AVM, acoustic neurinoma and meningioma, which were once only treatable by conventional surgery, and shows a high cure rate in AVM cases and high control rate in benign tumors without major complications. The effects of radiosurgery for metastatic brain tumors have been thought to be superior to fractionated radiotherapy due to high response and control rates, and patients showed improved quality of life although no prolongation of the life span was obtained. Gamma knife treatment for trigeminal neuralgia has been shown to be effective and less invasive than microvascular decompression, and is useful for cases resistant to conventional therapies and as an initial treatment as well. (author)

  1. Automated gamma counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regener, M.

    1977-01-01

    This is a report on the most recent developments in the full automation of gamma counting in RIA, in particular by Messrs. Kontron. The development targets were flexibility in sample capacity and shape of test tubes, the possibility of using different radioisotopes for labelling due to an optimisation of the detector system and the use of microprocessers to substitute software for hardware. (ORU) [de

  2. Gamma cardio 82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itti, R.

    1982-01-01

    New trends in nuclear cardiology are briefly presented supported by a large bibliography. The following topics are reviewed: new tracers of myocardial perfusion and metabolism; quantitative analysis of cardiac function; nuclear stethoscope; gamma emission tomography; diagnostic value of cardiac dynamic tests (at rest and during exercise), pharmacological tests; new clinical applications of cardiovascular nuclear medicine [fr

  3. Marine gamma spectrometric survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostoglodov, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    Presented are theoretical problems physical and geochemical prerequisites and possibilities of practical application of the method of continuous submarine gamma-spectrometric survey and radiometric survey destined for rapid study of the surface layer of marine sediments. Shown is high efficiency and advantages of this method in comparison with traditional and widely spread in marine geology methods of bottom sediments investigation

  4. Industrial radiography. Gamma radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menetrier, J.

    1975-01-01

    Informations are given on gamma radiodefectology regulations, entire references and main dispositions applicable to each state of the European Economic Community. The content includes previous arrangements for source acquisition, holding and use of the sources, transport, accidents, civil liability of the source holder, person insurance against radiation hazards and contamination, property insurance, penal liability of the source holder

  5. Introscopy using gamma sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gromov, Yu.V.; Leonov, B.I.; Najorov, A.N.; Smirnov, N.N.; Firstov, V.G.

    1978-01-01

    A method is described of working with standard 170 Tm, 75 Se, 192 Ir, 137 Cs and 60 Co sources at the activity of 1-4000 Ci, during television gamma introscopy of steel products. Experiments involving the RI-10T introscope are carried out to determine prospects of using various radiation sources. The results of using X-ray instruments for control of steel products are also shown for comparison. In introscopy of X-rayed steel products over 25 mm thick, spreading of the edge of the detected groove image is shown to be comparable when using X radiation and gamma radiation of standard sources. Sensitivity of control by fluorographic introscope in X-raying and gamma irradiation of products over 25 mm thick will presumably be the same owing to the detector storage capacity. The use of commercial gamma flaw detecting instruments together with a television introscope permits to reliably reveal defects of 0.5-2.0 mm in size, eliminating possible instability of operation of X-ray instruments, particularly in field conditions

  6. Gamma apparatuses for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sul'kin, A.G.

    1986-01-01

    Scientific and technical achievements in development and application of gamma therapeutic apparatuses for external and intracavity irradiations are generalized. Radiation-physical parameters of apparatuses providing usability of progressive methods in radiotherapy of onclogical patients are given. Optimization of main apparatus elements, ensurance of its operation reliability, reduction of errors of irradiation plan reproduction are considered. Attention is paid to radiation safety

  7. Gamma ray calibration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosauer, P.J.; Flaherty, J.J.

    1981-01-01

    This invention is in the field of gamma ray inspection devices for tubular products and the like employing an improved calibrating block which prevents the sensing system from being overloaded when no tubular product is present, and also provides the operator with a means for visually detecting the presence of wall thicknesses which are less than a required minimum. (author)

  8. Influence of the temperature in the measurement of the gamma automatic probe Gamma Tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caveda R, C.A.; Dominguez L, O.; Alonso A, D.; Montalvan E, A.; Fabelo B, O.

    2006-01-01

    In the following work an analysis of the existent relationship among the measurement of the absorbed dose rate in air due to the environmental gamma radiation and the temperature, magnitudes measured to intervals of 10 minutes by the gamma probe Gamma Tracer located in the post of occident of the National Net of Environmental Radiological Surveillance (RNVRA), in the Center of Protection and Hygiene of the Radiations (CPHR) is made. For it its were analyzed near 100,000 measurements corresponding to the period 2004-2005. For a better processing and interpretation of the data, these were analyzed with one frequency time zone and monthly using the Gamma Red software to which was necessary to add it some options. Finally it was submitted the probe to a heating process inside a stove. The results of the carried out experiments confirmed that the absorbed dose rate in air due to the environmental gamma radiation depends potentially of the probe temperature in the range of environmental temperature to which is subjected daily the same one. (Author)

  9. Novel Radiobiological Gamma Index for Evaluation of 3-Dimensional Predicted Dose Distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumida, Iori, E-mail: sumida@radonc.med.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Yamaguchi, Hajime; Kizaki, Hisao; Aboshi, Keiko; Tsujii, Mari; Yoshikawa, Nobuhiko; Yamada, Yuji [Department of Radiation Oncology, NTT West Osaka Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Suzuki, Osamu; Seo, Yuji [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Isohashi, Fumiaki [Department of Radiation Oncology, NTT West Osaka Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Yoshioka, Yasuo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Ogawa, Kazuhiko [Department of Radiation Oncology, NTT West Osaka Hospital, Osaka (Japan)

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: To propose a gamma index-based dose evaluation index that integrates the radiobiological parameters of tumor control (TCP) and normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCP). Methods and Materials: Fifteen prostate and head and neck (H&N) cancer patients received intensity modulated radiation therapy. Before treatment, patient-specific quality assurance was conducted via beam-by-beam analysis, and beam-specific dose error distributions were generated. The predicted 3-dimensional (3D) dose distribution was calculated by back-projection of relative dose error distribution per beam. A 3D gamma analysis of different organs (prostate: clinical [CTV] and planned target volumes [PTV], rectum, bladder, femoral heads; H&N: gross tumor volume [GTV], CTV, spinal cord, brain stem, both parotids) was performed using predicted and planned dose distributions under 2%/2 mm tolerance and physical gamma passing rate was calculated. TCP and NTCP values were calculated for voxels with physical gamma indices (PGI) >1. We propose a new radiobiological gamma index (RGI) to quantify the radiobiological effects of TCP and NTCP and calculate radiobiological gamma passing rates. Results: The mean RGI gamma passing rates for prostate cases were significantly different compared with those of PGI (P<.03–.001). The mean RGI gamma passing rates for H&N cases (except for GTV) were significantly different compared with those of PGI (P<.001). Differences in gamma passing rates between PGI and RGI were due to dose differences between the planned and predicted dose distributions. Radiobiological gamma distribution was visualized to identify areas where the dose was radiobiologically important. Conclusions: RGI was proposed to integrate radiobiological effects into PGI. This index would assist physicians and medical physicists not only in physical evaluations of treatment delivery accuracy, but also in clinical evaluations of predicted dose distribution.

  10. Seminar on gamma-gamma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-04-01

    The following subjects have been studied in this seminar: photon pair production, hard scattering processes in photon-photon and electron-photon collisions, radiative corrections, final state interactions

  11. Cosmical sources of gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuchowicz, B [Warsaw Univ. (Poland)

    1974-01-01

    A brief historical outline of the X-ray and ..gamma..-ray astronomies is given first, then a summary of the recent status of X-ray astronomy follows. Further chapters include information on ..gamma..-ray sources in the solar system, in our Galaxy, and beyond it. In discussing linear gamma spectra attention is paid to the possibility of studying explosive nucleo-synthesis by observation of gamma lines from supernova remnants, etc. Questions of the isotropic gamma background are discussed at the end of the survey.

  12. Precise measurement of {gamma}(K{yields}e {nu}({gamma}))/{gamma}(K{yields}{mu} {nu}({gamma})) and study of K{yields}e {nu} {gamma}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosino, F.; Massarotti, P.; Meola, S.; Napolitano, M. [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche dell' Universita ' ' Federico II' ' , Napoli (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Napoli (Italy); Antonelli, A.; Antonelli, M.; Bencivenni, G.; Bloise, C.; Bossi, F.; Capon, G.; Capussela, T.; Ciambrone, P.; De Lucia, E.; De Simone, P.; Dreucci, M.; Felici, G.; Gatti, C.; Giovannella, S.; Jacewicz, M.; Lanfranchi, G.; Miscetti, S.; Moulson, M.; Murtas, F.; Palutan, M.; Santangelo, P.; Sciascia, B.; Sibidanov, A.; Spadaro, T.; Venanzoni, G. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Archilli, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Rome (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy); Beltrame, P.; Denig, A.; Mueller, S. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Mainz (Germany); Bini, C.; De Santis, A.; De Zorzi, G.; Di Domenico, A.; Fiore, S.; Franzini, P.; Gauzzi, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Rome (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Bocchetta, S.; Ceradini, F.; Di Micco, B.; Nguyen, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita ' ' Roma Tre' ' , Rome (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma Tre, Rome (Italy); Branchini, P.; Graziani, E.; Passeri, A.; Tortora, L. [INFN Sezione di Roma Tre, Rome (Italy); Capriotti, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita ' ' Roma Tre' ' , Rome (Italy); Di Donato, C. [INFN Sezione di Napoli, Napoli (Italy); Kulikov, V. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lee-Franzini, J. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); State University of New York, Physics Department, Stony Brook (United States); Martini, M.; Patera, V.; Versaci, R. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Dipartimento di Energetica dell' Universita ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Rome (Italy); Valente, P. [INFN Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy)

    2009-12-15

    We present a precise measurement of the ratio R{sub K}={gamma}(K{yields}e{nu}({gamma}))/{gamma}(K{yields}{mu}{nu}({gamma})) and a study of the radiative process K{yields}e{nu}{gamma}, performed with the KLOE detector. The results are based on data collected at the Frascati e{sup +}e{sup -} collider DA {phi}NE for an integrated luminosity of 2.2 fb{sup -1}. We find R{sub K}=(2.493{+-}0.025{sub stat}{+-}0.019{sub syst}) x 10{sup -5}, in agreement with the Standard Model expectation. This result is used to improve constraints on parameters of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model with lepton flavor violation. We also measured the differential decay rate d {gamma}(K{yields}e{nu}{gamma})/dE{sub {gamma}} for photon energies 10gamma}}<250 MeV. Results are compared with predictions from theory. (orig.)

  13. Retrospective analysis of 'gamma distribution' based IMRT QA criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, C.; Chappell, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: IMRT has been implemented into clinical practice at Royal Hobart Hospital (RHH) since mid 2006 for treating patients with Head and Neck (H and N) or prostate tumours. A local quality assurance (QA) acceptance criteria based on 'gamma distribution' for approving IMRT plan was developed and implemented in early 2007. A retrospective analysis of such criteria over 194 clinical cases will be presented. The RHH IMRT criteria was established with assumption that gamma distribution obtained through inter-comparison of 2 D dose maps between planned and delivered was governed by a positive-hail' normal distribution. A commercial system-MapCheck was used for 2 D dose map comparison with a built-in gamma analysis tool. Gamma distribution histogram was generated and recorded for all cases. By retrospectively analysing those distributions using curve fitting technique, a statistical gamma distribution can be obtained and evaluated. This analytical result can be used for future IMRT planing and treatment delivery. The analyses indicate that gamma distribution obtained through MapCheckTM is well under the normal distribution, particularly for prostate cases. The applied pass/fail criteria is not overly sensitive to identify 'false fails' but can be further tighten-up for smaller field while for larger field found in both H and N and prostate cases, the criteria was correctly applied. Non-uniform distribution of detectors in MapCheck and experience level of planners are two major factors to variation in gamma distribution among clinical cases. This criteria derived from clinical statistics is superior and more accurate than single-valued criteria for lMRT QA acceptance procedure. (author)

  14. Bisensory stimulation increases gamma-responses over multiple cortical regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakowitz, O W; Quiroga, R Q; Schürmann, M; Başar, E

    2001-04-01

    In the framework of the discussion about gamma (approx. 40 Hz) oscillations as information carriers in the brain, we investigated the relationship between gamma responses in the EEG and intersensory association. Auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) and visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were compared with bisensory evoked potentials (BEPs; simultaneous auditory and visual stimulation) in 15 subjects. Gamma responses in AEPs, VEPs and BEPs were assessed by means of wavelet decomposition. Overall maximum gamma-components post-stimulus were highest in BEPs (P < 0.01). Bisensory evoked gamma-responses also showed significant central, parietal and occipital amplitude-increases (P < 0.001, P < 0.01, P < 0.05, respectively; prestimulus interval as baseline). These were of greater magnitude when compared with the unisensory responses. As a correlate of the marked gamma responses to bimodal stimulation we suggest a process of 'intersensory association', i.e. one of the steps between sensory transmission and perception. Our data may be interpreted as a further example of function-related gamma responses in the EEG.

  15. The subject marker in Bantu as an antifocus marker*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KATEVG

    I argue that the class 5 subject noun phrase ikati ("cat") and the ...... that its key mechanism is a well-established phenomenon in the syntax of natural .... If head movement is subject to the familiar extraction constraints, it should not be possible ...

  16. Sensibility and Subjectivity: Levinas’ Traumatic Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmika Pandya

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Levinas’ notions of sensibility and subjectivity are evident in the revision of phenomenological method by current phenomenologists such as Jean-Luc Marion and Michel Henry. The criticisms of key tenants of classical phenomenology, intentionality and reduction, are of a particular note. However, there are problems with Levinas’ characterization of subjectivity as essentially sensible. In “Totality and Infinity” and “Otherwise than Being”, Levinas criticizes and recasts a traditional notion of subjectivity, particularly the notion of the subject as the first and foremost rational subject. The subject in Levinas’ works is characterized more by its sensibility and affectedness than by its capacity to reason or affect its world. Levinas ties rationality to economy and suggests an alternative notion of reason that leads to his analysis of the ethical relation as the face-to-face encounter. The ‘origin’ of the social relation is located not in our capacity to know but rather in a sensibility that is diametrically opposed to the reason understood as economy. I argue that the opposition in Levinas’ thought between reason and sensibility is problematic and essentially leads to a self-conflicted subject. In fact, it would seem that violence characterizes the subject’s self-relation and, thus, is also inscribed at the base of the social relation. Rather than overcoming a problematic tendency to dualistic thought in philosophy Levinas merely reverses traditional hierarchies of reason/emotion, subject/object and self/other. 

  17. Head Injury and Dizziness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... was developed by subject matter experts from the Defense Department and Department of Veterans Affairs. (Revised January 2018) ... to Improve Your Memory Crisis Intervention (24/7) Department of ... Contact Us Terms and Conditions Privacy and Security Freedom of ...

  18. Representation of heading direction in far and near head space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poljac, E.; Berg, A.V. van den

    2003-01-01

    Manipulation of objects around the head requires an accurate and stable internal representation of their locations in space, also during movements such as that of the eye or head. For far space, the representation of visual stimuli for goal-directed arm movements relies on retinal updating, if eye

  19. Avascular necrosis of the femoral head at 2 years after pertrochanteric fracture surgery: Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deleanu, Bogdan; Prejbeanu, Radu; Vermesan, Dinu; Honcea, Lucian; Mioc, Mihail Lazar; Tsiridis, Eleftherios; Predescu, Vlad

    2016-02-01

    The avascular necrosis of the femoral head represents the death of bone tissue due to the lack of blood supply. The disease has a progressive evolution and left untreated leads to femoral head collapse and severe arthritis. We present a case of a pertrochanteric fracture which has been successfully operated with a dynamic interlocking trochanteric gamma nail on the right hip. At 2 years after surgery the patient developed an incipient avascular necrosis of the femoral head. Despite the good positioning of the implant, we considered that the source of the pain was an intolerance of the implant, and thus we removed it. After implant removal, the patient was kept under observation and conservative treatment, to prevent further damage to the right hip and allow the healing to occur. At 6 months after the gamma nail was removed the X-rays revealed advanced avascular necrosis of the femoral head and secondary osteoarthritis on the right hip. The patient underwent surgery with an uncemented total hip arthroplasty. There are a few discussions regarding the avascular necrosis of the femoral head. These discussions may include the predisposing risk factors, the treatment of choice and the postoperative complications. The avascular necrosis of the femoral head is a complication of pertrochanteric fractures that can not be foreseen or avoided. The optimal treatment in these cases is uncemented total hip arthroplasty.

  20. Neutron and gamma irradiation effects on power semiconductor switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarze, G. E.; Frasca, A. J.

    1990-01-01

    The performance characteristics of high power semiconductor switches subjected to high levels of neutron fluence and gamma dose must be known by the designer of the power conditioning, control and transmission subsystem of space nuclear power systems. Location and the allowable shielding mass budget will determine the level of radiation tolerance required by the switches to meet performance and reliability requirements. Neutron and gamma ray interactions with semiconductor materials and how these interactions affect the electrical and switching characteristics of solid state power switches is discussed. The experimental measurement system and radiation facilities are described. Experimental data showing the effects of neutron and gamma irradiation on the performance characteristics are given for power-type NPN Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJTs), and Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MOSFETs). BJTs show a rapid decrease in gain, blocking voltage, and storage time for neutron irradiation, and MOSFETs show a rapid decrease in the gate threshold voltage for gamma irradiation.

  1. Fissile interrogation using gamma rays from oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Donald; Micklich, Bradley J.; Fessler, Andreas

    2004-04-20

    The subject apparatus provides a means to identify the presence of fissionable material or other nuclear material contained within an item to be tested. The system employs a portable accelerator to accelerate and direct protons to a fluorine-compound target. The interaction of the protons with the fluorine-compound target produces gamma rays which are directed at the item to be tested. If the item to be tested contains either a fissionable material or other nuclear material the interaction of the gamma rays with the material contained within the test item with result in the production of neutrons. A system of neutron detectors is positioned to intercept any neutrons generated by the test item. The results from the neutron detectors are analyzed to determine the presence of a fissionable material or other nuclear material.

  2. Head trauma and CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samejima, Kanji; Yoshii, Nobuo; Tobari, Chitoshi

    1979-01-01

    In our cases of acute and subacute subdural hematoma, the use of CT was evaluated. In our department of surgery, acute subdural hematoma was found in 46 of 388 patients of head trauma who underwent CT. Acute subdural hematoma, like epidural hematoma was usually visualized as a high-density area along the cranial inner table, and this was easily differenciated from epidural hematoma because of difference in shape from the other. The picture of acute subdural hematoma was occasionally confused with that of intracerebral hematoma or cerebral contusion. Single use of CT does not differenciate subacute subdural hematoma from chronic subdural hematoma. However, CT usually visualized acute hematoma as a high-density area, showing the extent of hematoma. Comparison of the thickness of hematoma with the axis deviation of the median part such as the 3rd cerebral ventricle suggested severity of cerebral edema. CT also revealed bilateral or multiple lesions of cerebral contusion or intracerebral hematoma. (Ueda, J.)

  3. Chryse 'Alien Head'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    26 January 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows an impact crater in Chryse Planitia, not too far from the Viking 1 lander site, that to seems to resemble a bug-eyed head. The two odd depressions at the north end of the crater (the 'eyes') may have formed by wind or water erosion. This region has been modified by both processes, with water action occurring in the distant past via floods that poured across western Chryse Planitia from Maja Valles, and wind action common occurrence in more recent history. This crater is located near 22.5oN, 47.9oW. The 150 meter scale bar is about 164 yards long. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the left/lower left.

  4. Lower head failure analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rempe, J.L.; Thinnes, G.L.; Allison, C.M.; Cronenberg, A.W.

    1991-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is sponsoring a lower vessel head research program to investigate plausible modes of reactor vessel failure in order to determine (a) which modes have the greatest likelihood of occurrence during a severe accident and (b) the range of core debris and accident conditions that lead to these failures. This paper presents the methodology and preliminary results of an investigation of reactor designs and thermodynamic conditions using analytic closed-form approximations to assess the important governing parameters in non-dimensional form. Preliminary results illustrate the importance of vessel and tube geometrical parameters, material properties, and external boundary conditions on predicting vessel failure. Thermal analyses indicate that steady-state temperature distributions will occur in the vessel within several hours, although the exact time is dependent upon vessel thickness. In-vessel tube failure is governed by the tube-to-debris mass ratio within the lower head, where most penetrations are predicted to fail if surrounded by molten debris. Melt penetration distance is dependent upon the effective flow diameter of the tube. Molten debris is predicted to penetrate through tubes with a larger effective flow diameter, such as a boiling water reactor (BWR) drain nozzle. Ex-vessel tube failure for depressurized reactor vessels is predicted to be more likely for a BWR drain nozzle penetration because of its larger effective diameter. At high pressures (between ∼0.1 MPa and ∼12 MPa) ex-vessel tube rupture becomes a dominant failure mechanism, although tube ejection dominates control rod guide tube failure at lower temperatures. However, tube ejection and tube rupture predictions are sensitive to the vessel and tube radial gap size and material coefficients of thermal expansion

  5. Heading perception in patients with advanced retinitis pigmentosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Peli, Eli; Warren, William H.

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: We investigated whether retinis pigmentosa (RP) patients with residual visual field of < 100 degrees could perceive heading from optic flow. METHODS: Four RP patients and four age-matched normally sighted control subjects viewed displays simulating an observer walking over a ground. In experiment 1, subjects viewed either the entire display with free fixation (full-field condition) or through an aperture with a fixation point at the center (aperture condition). In experiment 2, patients viewed displays of different durations. RESULTS: RP patients' performance was comparable to that of the age-matched control subjects: heading judgment was better in the full-field condition than in the aperture condition. Increasing display duration from 0.5 s to 1 s improved patients' heading performance, but giving them more time (3 s) to gather more visual information did not consistently further improve their performance. CONCLUSIONS: RP patients use active scanning eye movements to compensate for their visual field loss in heading perception; they might be able to gather sufficient optic flow information for heading perception in about 1 s.

  6. Gamma counter calibration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A method and apparatus are described for the calibration of a gamma radiation measurement instrument to be used over any of a number of different absolute energy ranges. The method includes the steps of adjusting the overall signal gain associated with pulses which are derived from detected gamma rays, until the instrument is calibrated for a particular absolute energy range; then storing parameter settings corresponding to the adjusted overall signal gain, and repeating the process for other desired absolute energy ranges. The stored settings can be subsequently retrieved and reapplied so that test measurements can be made using a selected one of the absolute energy ranges. Means are provided for adjusting the overall signal gain and a specific technique is disclosed for making coarse, then fine adjustments to the signal gain, for rapid convergence of the required calibration settings. (C.F.)

  7. Gamma ray camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.-H.; Robbins, C.D.

    1979-01-01

    An Anger gamma ray camera is improved by the substitution of a gamma ray sensitive, proximity type image intensifier tube for the scintillator screen in the Anger camera. The image intensifier tube has a negatively charged flat scintillator screen, a flat photocathode layer, and a grounded, flat output phosphor display screen, all of which have the same dimension to maintain unit image magnification; all components are contained within a grounded metallic tube, with a metallic, inwardly curved input window between the scintillator screen and a collimator. The display screen can be viewed by an array of photomultipliers or solid state detectors. There are two photocathodes and two phosphor screens to give a two stage intensification, the two stages being optically coupled by a light guide. (author)

  8. Gamma camera system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.W.; Gerber, M.S.; Schlosser, P.A.; Steidley, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    A detailed description is given of a novel gamma camera which is designed to produce superior images than conventional cameras used in nuclear medicine. The detector consists of a solid state detector (e.g. germanium) which is formed to have a plurality of discrete components to enable 2-dimensional position identification. Details of the electronic processing circuits are given and the problems and limitations introduced by noise are discussed in full. (U.K.)

  9. Scanning gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engdahl, L.W.; Batter, J.F. Jr.; Stout, K.J.

    1977-01-01

    A scanning system for a gamma camera providing for the overlapping of adjacent scan paths is described. A collimator mask having tapered edges provides for a graduated reduction in intensity of radiation received by a detector thereof, the reduction in intensity being graduated in a direction normal to the scanning path to provide a blending of images of adjacent scan paths. 31 claims, 15 figures

  10. A gamma scintillation spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Symbalisty, S

    1952-07-01

    A scintillation type gamma ray spectrometer employing coincidence counting, designed and built at the Physics Department of the University of Western Ontario is described. The spectrometer is composed of two anthracene and photomultiplier radiation detectors, two pulse analyzing channels, a coincidence stage, three scalers and a high voltage stabilized supply. A preliminary experiment to test the operation of the spectrometer was performed and the results of this test are presented. (author)

  11. Preservation and gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramiere, R.

    1991-01-01

    The paper reviews briefly the application of gamma radiation to preservation of cultural objects for disinsectization, disinfection and strengthening of materials such as wood or stone by impregnation with a liquid resin and in situ polymerization. As heavy equipment is required two facilities are specialized a 1000 T Bq cobalt 60 source at Grenoble (France) and 100 T Bq one at Rostoky (Czechoslovakia). Examples of treated objects are given [fr

  12. Gamma radiation in apartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grindborg, J.-E.

    1983-05-01

    This investigation forms the basis for the description of methods for the detection of gamma radiation. The aim is to control that the dose limit will not exceed 50 μR/h in a room where people reside. The distribution of dose rates in different rooms has been calculated and the results have been compared with experimental data. Various instruments have been calibrated and their specifications are discussed. (G.B.)

  13. Stereotactic gamma radiosurgery of brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Kida, Yoshihisa; Tanaka, Takayuki; Oyama, Hirofumi; Yoshida, Kazuo; Maesawa, Satoshi; Kai, Osamu; Nakamura, Mototoshi; Arahata, Masashige [Komaki City Hospital, Aichi (Japan)

    1996-06-01

    One thousand cases with various head and neck diseases have been treated by gamma radiosurgery at Komaki City Hospital since May 1991. Five hundred and sixty-eight out of 1,000 cases were neoplastic lesions which consisted of 173 cases of neurinoma, 108 of metastatic tumors, 103 of meningioma, 69 of gliomas, 27 of pituitary adenoma, 26 of craniopharyngioma, 13 of pineal tumors, 11 of chordoma, 6 of malignant lymphoma, 5 of hemangioblastoma and so on. The most effective result has been shown in metastatic brain tumors. The complete response (disappearance of the lesion) was obtained in more than 50% of the treated lesions, and the control rate of 85% was maintained for more than 12 months. Next effective results were shown in craniopharyngioma, malignant pineal tumors and malignant lymphoma. There was a group which showed moderate response but no tumor disappearance. Those were pituitary adenoma, acoustic neurinoma, meningioma and chordoma. Gliomas showed less response and even progression of tumor at relatively higher rate. It has been found that malignant gliomas showed difficult control of the tumor and progression rate of 70%, while benign gliomas showed the control rate of more than 90%. Besides intracranial lesions, malignant skull base tumors such as chordoma, naso-pharyngeal cancer, adenoid cystic cancer showed better response to gamma radiosurgery and higher control rate for longer period of time with high QOL compaired to conventional irradiation. (author)

  14. Gamma camera based FDG PET in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, C. H.

    2002-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography(PET) was introduced as a research tool in the 1970s and it took about 20 years before PET became an useful clinical imaging modality. In the USA, insurance coverage for PET procedures in the 1990s was the turning point, I believe, for this progress. Initially PET was used in neurology but recently more than 80% of PET procedures are in oncological applications. I firmly believe, in the 21st century, one can not manage cancer patients properly without PET and PET is very important medical imaging modality in basic and clinical sciences. PET is grouped into 2 categories; conventional (c) and gamma camera based ( CB ) PET. CB PET is more readily available utilizing dual-head gamma cameras and commercially available FDG to many medical centers at low cost to patients. In fact there are more CB PET in operation than cPET in the USA. CB PET is inferior to cPET in its performance but clinical studies in oncology is feasible without expensive infrastructures such as staffing, rooms and equipments. At Ajou university Hospital, CBPET was installed in late 1997 for the first time in Korea as well as in Asia and the system has been used successfully and effectively in oncological applications. Our was the fourth PET operation in Korea and I believe this may have been instrumental for other institutions got interested in clinical PET. The following is a brief description of our clinical experience of FDG CBPET in oncology

  15. Real time monitoring automation of dose rate absorbed in air due to environmental gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez Ley, Orlando; Capote Ferrera, Eduardo; Carrazana Gonzalez, Jorge A.; Manzano de Armas, Jose F.; Alonso Abad, Dolores; Prendes Alonso, Miguel; Tomas Zerquera, Juan; Caveda Ramos, Celia A.; Kalber, Olof; Fabelo Bonet, Orlando; Montalvan Estrada, Adelmo; Cartas Aguila, Hector; Leyva Fernandez, Julio C.

    2005-01-01

    The Center of Radiation Protection and Hygiene (CPHR) as the head institution of the National Radiological Environmental Surveillance Network (RNVRA) has strengthened its detection and response capacity for a radiological emergency situation. The measurements of gamma dose rate at the main point of the RNVRA are obtained in real time and the CPHR receives the data coming from those points in a short time. To achieve the operability of the RNVRA it was necessary to complete the existent monitoring facilities using 4 automatic gamma probes, implementing in this way a real time measurement system. The software, GenitronProbe for obtaining the data automatically from the probe, Data Mail , for sending the data via e-mail, and Gamma Red , for receiving and processing the data in the head institution ,were developed

  16. Writing otorhinolaryngology head & neck surgery operative reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laccourreye, O; Rubin, F; Villeneuve, A; Bonfils, P

    2017-09-01

    Only about ten articles devoted to operative reports have been published in the medical literature, but this document is essential, both medically and legally, to ensure optimal management of operated patients. In this technical note, based on published studies on this subject, the authors describe the key features of operating reports after otorhinolaryngology head & neck surgery and emphasize the need to write this document during the minutes after the end of the operation, the importance of standardization and its teaching role during surgical training. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Gamma surgery for hemangiopericytomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, B.R.; Prasad, D.; Steiner, M.; Steiner, L.

    2000-01-01

    A retrospective analysis of a consecutive series of 12 patients with 15 intracranial hemangiopericytomas treated at the University of Virginia using gamma surgery is presented. Clinical and radiographic follow up of 3 to 56 months is available for 10 patients with 12 tumors. There was one tumor present at the time of initial gamma surgery in each patient. Two new tumors occurred in patients previously treated. Nine of the tumors decreased in volume and three remained stable. Four of the nine tumors that shrank later progressed at an average of 22 months after treatment. Of the tumors that decreased in volume and have not progressed, the response has been for an average of 11 months. The follow-up for two tumors that remained unchanged was 10 and 34 months (average 22 months). A third tumor was unchanged at 42 months but the patient died of new disease adjacent to the treated area in the anterior skull base. There were no complications and the quality of life following the procedure was maintained or improved in every case. Gamma surgery is effective in palliating the patients by decreasing tumor volume and delaying recurrence. (author)

  18. gamma. radiation of ionium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curie, I

    1948-12-08

    Following the work of Ward (Proc Cambridge Phil Soc 35 322(1939)), the ..gamma..-radiation of ionium (from an IoTh preparation) was studied with the aid of Ta and W screens, and an aluminum counter. The screen measurements confirmed Ward's findings of two radiations, of 68 keV and of about 200 keV. The number of quanta per second of each radiation was determined with the counter, which has been calibrated on certain L lines of radium. The global quanta number of L lines of ionium was also determined. The results were as follows: 0.7 quanta ..gamma.. of 68 keV for 100 ..cap alpha..-particles; 0.2 quanta ..gamma.. of 200 keV for 100 ..cap alpha..-particles; 10 quanta L for 100 ..cap alpha..-particles. These data, which show an important internal conversion, agree with the findings of Teillac (Compt Rend 227 1227 (1948)), who investigated the ..beta..-radiation of ionium. It is the radiation 68 keV which is highly converted. On the other hand, these results do no agree with the data on the fine structure of ionium found by Rosenblum, Valadares, and Vial (Compt Rend 227 1088(1948)).

  19. Effect of head rotation on cerebral blood velocity in the prone position

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Jakob; Sandmand, Marie; Sonne, Morten

    2012-01-01

    for cerebral blood flow. We tested in healthy subjects the hypothesis that rotating the head in the prone position reduces cerebral blood flow. Methods. Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), stroke volume (SV), and CO were determined, together with the middle cerebral artery mean blood velocity (MCA V...... V(mean) ~10% in spite of an elevated MAP. Prone positioning with rotated head affects both CBF and cerebrovenous drainage indicating that optimal brain perfusion requires head centering....

  20. The head-mounted microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Dailey, Seth H; Naze, Sawyer A; Jiang, Jack J

    2012-04-01

    Microsurgical equipment has greatly advanced since the inception of the microscope into the operating room. These advancements have allowed for superior surgical precision and better post-operative results. This study focuses on the use of the Leica HM500 head-mounted microscope for the operating phonosurgeon. The head-mounted microscope has an optical zoom from 2× to 9× and provides a working distance from 300 mm to 700 mm. The headpiece, with its articulated eyepieces, adjusts easily to head shape and circumference, and offers a focus function, which is either automatic or manually controlled. We performed five microlaryngoscopic operations utilizing the head-mounted microscope with successful results. By creating a more ergonomically favorable operating posture, a surgeon may be able to obtain greater precision and success in phonomicrosurgery. Phonomicrosurgery requires the precise manipulation of long-handled cantilevered instruments through the narrow bore of a laryngoscope. The head-mounted microscope shortens the working distance compared with a stand microscope, thereby increasing arm stability, which may improve surgical precision. Also, the head-mounted design permits flexibility in head position, enabling operator comfort, and delaying musculoskeletal fatigue. A head-mounted microscope decreases the working distance and provides better ergonomics in laryngoscopic microsurgery. These advances provide the potential to promote precision in phonomicrosurgery. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  1. Effect of gamma-irradiation pretreatment on improvement of anaerobic digestive characteristic of sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mou Yanyan; Yuan Shoujun; Yu Xin; Zheng Zheng; Cui Lei; Zhao Yongfu

    2005-01-01

    A comparative study was made about main anaerobic digestive characteristics of sludge which was subjected to a 60 Co gamma-irradiation pretreatment. The results showed the gamma-irradiation pretreatment can clearly improve anaerobic digestibility of sludge and pick up the anaerobic digestion speed of sludge. (authors)

  2. Frequency of gamma-ray bursts greater than 3 x 10 to the -6th erg/sq cm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Share, G.H.; Wood, K.; Meekins, J.; Yantis, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    Results are presented for gamma-ray burst observations with the Large Area Sky Survey instrument on HEAD-1. It is noted that during the time HEAD-1 was operational, the instrument detected at least 12 confirmed gamma-ray bursts with intensities greater than 3 microerg/sq cm and identified six additional unconfirmed bursts. The rates of gamma-ray bursts are estimated to be about 125 per yr for intensities greater than 3 microserg/sq cm and approximately 50 per yr for intensities preater than 10 microerg/yr. The data are shown to yield a log N - log S relation for gamma-ray bursts that is consistent with a spherical distrubution of sources within the Galaxy and having a broad range of intrinsic luminosities

  3. Head ballistocardiogram based on wireless multi-location sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onizuka, Kohei; Sodini, Charles G

    2015-08-01

    Recently a wearable BCG monitoring technique based on an accelerometer worn at the ear was demonstrated to replace a conventional bulky BCG acquisition system. In this work, a multi-location wireless vital signs monitor was developed, and at least two common acceleration vectors correlating to sitting-BCG were found in the supine position by using head PPG signal as a reference for eight healthy human subjects. The head side amplitude in the supine position is roughly proportional to the sitting amplitude that is in turn proportional to the stroke volume. Signal processing techniques to identify J-waves in a subject having small amplitude was also developed based on the two common vectors at the head side and top.

  4. Modular reactor head shielding system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, E. B.

    1985-01-01

    An improved modular reactor head shielding system is provided that includes a frame which is removably assembled on a reactor head such that no structural or mechanical alteration of the head is required. The shielding system also includes hanging assemblies to mount flexible shielding pads on trolleys which can be moved along the frame. The assemblies allow individual pivoting movement of the pads. The pivoting movement along with the movement allowed by the trolleys provides ease of access to any point on the reactor head. The assemblies also facilitate safe and efficient mounting of the pads directly to and from storage containers such that workers have additional shielding throughout virtually the entire installation and removal process. The flexible shielding pads are designed to interleave with one another when assembled around the reactor head for substantially improved containment of radiation leakage

  5. Estimation of neutron production from accelerator head assembly of 15 MV medical LINAC using FLUKA simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, B.J., E-mail: bjp@physics.unipune.ac.in [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India); Chavan, S.T., E-mail: sharad@sameer.gov.in [SAMEER, IIT Powai Campus, Mumbai 400 076 (India); Pethe, S.N., E-mail: sanjay@sameer.gov.in [SAMEER, IIT Powai Campus, Mumbai 400 076 (India); Krishnan, R., E-mail: krishnan@sameer.gov.in [SAMEER, IIT Powai Campus, Mumbai 400 076 (India); Bhoraskar, V.N., E-mail: vnb@physics.unipune.ac.in [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India); Dhole, S.D., E-mail: sanjay@physics.unipune.ac.in [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India)

    2011-12-15

    For the production of a clinical 15 MeV photon beam, the design of accelerator head assembly has been optimized using Monte Carlo based FLUKA code. The accelerator head assembly consists of e-{gamma} target, flattening filter, primary collimator and an adjustable rectangular secondary collimator. The accelerators used for radiation therapy generate continuous energy gamma rays called Bremsstrahlung (BR) by impinging high energy electrons on high Z materials. The electron accelerators operating above 10 MeV can result in the production of neutrons, mainly due to photo nuclear reaction ({gamma}, n) induced by high energy photons in the accelerator head materials. These neutrons contaminate the therapeutic beam and give a non-negligible contribution to patient dose. The gamma dose and neutron dose equivalent at the patient plane (SSD = 100 cm) were obtained at different field sizes of 0 Multiplication-Sign 0, 10 Multiplication-Sign 10, 20 Multiplication-Sign 20, 30 Multiplication-Sign 30 and 40 Multiplication-Sign 40 cm{sup 2}, respectively. The maximum neutron dose equivalent is observed near the central axis of 30 Multiplication-Sign 30 cm{sup 2} field size. This is 0.71% of the central axis photon dose rate of 0.34 Gy/min at 1 {mu}A electron beam current.

  6. Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-18

    Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck; Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Cancer; Head and Neck Sarcoma; Paraganglioma of Head and Neck; Chordoma of Head and Neck; Chondrosarcoma of Head and Neck; Angiofibroma of Head and Neck

  7. Turbidity Current Head Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, David; Sanchez, Miguel Angel; Medina, Pablo

    2010-05-01

    A laboratory experimental set - up for studying the behaviour of sediment in presence of a turbulent field with zero mean flow is compared with the behaviour of turbidity currents [1] . Particular interest is shown on the initiation of sediment motion and in the sediment lift - off. The behaviour of the turbidity current in a flat ground is compared with the zero mean flow oscilating grid generated turbulence as when wave flow lifts off suspended sediments [2,3]. Some examples of the results obtained with this set-up relating the height of the head of the turbidity current to the equilibrium level of stirred lutoclines are shown. A turbulent velocity u' lower than that estimated by the Shield diagram is required to start sediment motion. The minimum u' required to start sediment lift - off, is a function of sediment size, cohesivity and resting time. The lutocline height depends on u', and the vorticity at the lutocline seems constant for a fixed sediment size [1,3]. Combining grid stirring and turbidty current head shapes analyzed by means of advanced image analysis, sediment vertical fluxes and settling speeds can be measured [4,5]. [1] D. Hernandez Turbulent structure of turbidity currents and sediment transport Ms Thesis ETSECCPB, UPC. Barcelona 2009. [2] A. Sánchez-Arcilla; A. Rodríguez; J.C. Santás; J.M. Redondo; V. Gracia; R. K'Osyan; S. Kuznetsov; C. Mösso. Delta'96 Surf-zone and nearshore measurements at the Ebro Delta. A: International Conference on Coastal Research through large Scale Experiments (Coastal Dynamics '97). University of Plymouth, 1997, p. 186-187. [3] P. Medina, M. A. Sánchez and J. M. Redondo. Grid stirred turbulence: applications to the initiation of sediment motion and lift-off studies Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Part B: Hydrology, Oceans and Atmosphere. 26, Issue 4, 2001, Pages 299-304 [4] M.O. Bezerra, M. Diez, C. Medeiros, A. Rodriguez, E. Bahia., A. Sanchez-Arcilla and J.M. Redondo. Study on the influence of waves on

  8. Lunar based gamma ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haymes, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    Gamma ray astronomy represents the study of the universe on the basis of the electromagnetic radiation with the highest energy. Gamma ray astronomy provides a crucial tool for the understanding of astronomical phenomena, taking into account nucleosynthesis in supernovae, black holes, active galaxies, quasars, the sources of cosmic rays, neutron stars, and matter-antimatter annihilation. Difficulties concerning the conduction of studies by gamma ray astronomy are related to the necessity to perform such studies far from earth because the atmosphere is a source of gamma rays. Studies involving the use of gamma ray instruments in earth orbit have been conducted, and more gamma ray astronomy observations are planned for the future. Imperfections of studies conducted in low earth orbit could be overcome by estalishing an observatory on the moon which represents a satellite orbiting at 60 earth radii. Details concerning such an observatory are discussed. 5 references

  9. Morbidity And Quality Of Life Among Head And Neck Cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the relative frequency of acute radiation morbidity and their perceived effect on quality of life among head and neck cancer patients treated with radical radiotherapy. Design: A cross-sectional study. Setting: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. Subjects: Thirty eight patients comprising 28 males and ...

  10. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TMJ DISORDER AND HEAD AND NECK POSTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sesi R. Puspita Dewi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Temporomandibular joint disorders may be caused by variety of factors; one of which is the posture of head and neck. However, this remains controversial and a subject of debate by experts. The objective of this study was to know whether there was a relation between temporomandibular disorders and the head and neck posture seen radiographically. Subjects were 40 dental students from University of Indonesia who met the inclusion criteria, selected through questionnaire, and subjective examination based on Helkimo’s dysfunction index. Then, lateral cephalometric radiographs were done to all subjects. In the radiogram, a horizontal line was made from the nasion point to the sella tursica, and a vertical line was drawn along the prominent bone of C1 – C5. The angle between the two lines was measured, and used to represent the head and neck posture. The design of the study was cross sectional. Based on statistical analysis, there was no significant relationship between the anamnestic dysfunction index as well as the clinical dysfunction index that represented the temporomandibular joint disorders and the posture of the head and neck seen radiographically.

  11. Recovery versus retest effects in attention after closed head injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spikman, J.M.; Timmerman, M.E.; van Zomeren, A.H; Deelman, B.G.

    1999-01-01

    Recovery in 60 patients with a closed-head injury (CHI) in the first year posttrauma was assessed repeatedly with a series of attention tests. A matched group of healthy subjects was tested at the same intervals to allow us to control for practice effects. The results of a multilevel analysis for

  12. Child-headed households because of the trauma surrounding HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    In 1998 a study by the Department of Health suggested that by 2005 between. 197 000 and 250 ... Child-headed households are not new in the South African society. Although ... subjected to the worst forms of child labour. In 2003 there .... attention, values the information they are giving and respect their view of the world.

  13. Artificial gravity: head movements during short-radius centrifugation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Young, L. R.; Hecht, H.; Lyne, L. E.; Sienko, K. H.; Cheung, C. C.; Kavelaars, J.

    2001-01-01

    Short-radius centrifugation is a potential countermeasure to long-term weightlessness. Unfortunately, head movements in a rotating environment induce serious discomfort, non-compensatory vestibulo-ocular reflexes, and subjective illusions of body tilt. In two experiments we investigated the effects

  14. A Study of Standardized Headings for Warranties. Technical Report No. 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrow, Veda R.; Redish, Janice C.

    A study was conducted (1) to discover whether using standardized headings on warranties would increase or decrease people's speed and accuracy in understanding the terms of warranties and (2) to determine what effect headings would have on people's attitudes toward warranties. Subjects were 48 adult consumers who read groups of four warranties for…

  15. Effect of Time Management Program on Job Satisfaction for Head Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsabahy, Hanan ELsayed; Sleem, Wafaa Fathi; El Atroush, Hala Gaber

    2015-01-01

    Background: Time management and job satisfaction all related to each other and greatly affect success of organization. Subjects and Methods: The study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a designed program of time management on job satisfaction for head nurses. A Quasi-experimental design was used for a total number of head nurses participated. Two…

  16. Sequential Analysis of Gamma Spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayez-Hassan, M.; Hella, Kh.M.

    2009-01-01

    This work shows how easy one can deal with a huge number of gamma spectra. The method can be used for radiation monitoring. It is based on the macro feature of the windows XP connected to QBASIC software. The routine was used usefully in generating accurate results free from human errors. One hundred measured gamma spectra were fully analyzed in 10 minutes using our fast and automated method controlling the Genie 2000 gamma acquisition analysis software.

  17. Femoral head necrosis; Hueftkopfnekrose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, J.; Scheurecker, G.; Scheurecker, A.; Stoeger, A.; Huber, A. [Roentgeninstitut am Schillerpark, Linz (Austria); Hofmann, S. [Orthopaedisches Landeskrankenhaus Stolzalpe (Austria)

    2009-05-15

    The epidemiology and pathohistogenesis of avascular femoral head necrosis has still not been clarified in detail. Because the course of the disease runs in stages and over a long time period nearly always culminates in the necessity for a total hip prosthesis, an exact radiological evaluation is of paramount importance for the treatment. There is a need for a common staging system to enable comparison of different therapy concepts and especially their long-term results. In this article the ARCO staging system is described in full detail, which includes all radiological modalities as well as histopathological alterations. (orig.) [German] Bei der avaskulaeren Femurkopfnekrose handelt es sich um ein Krankheitsbild, dessen Ursachen noch immer nicht vollstaendig geklaert sind. Da die Erkrankung stadienhaft verlaeuft und ueber einen laengeren Zeitraum betrachtet nahezu immer in einem prothetischen Hueftersatz muendet, ist eine genaue radiologische Abklaerung fuer die Behandlung von enormer Bedeutung. Um Langzeiterfolge verschiedener Therapiekonzepte vergleichen zu koennen, sind eine exakte Beschreibung und darauf basierend die Verwendung einer einheitlichen Stadieneinteilung wuenschenswert. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird die ARCO-Stadieneinteilung im Detail beschrieben, die alle bildgebenden Methoden beruecksichtigt und histopathologische Veraenderungen mit einbezieht. (orig.)

  18. Head trauma and CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samejima, Kanji; Yoshii, Nobuo; Tobari, Chitoshi

    1979-01-01

    It has been said that chronic subdural hematoma cannot be diagnosed by CT. In our cases, CT was used, and the results were described. According to the density of the picture, CT findings of chronic subdural hematoma could be classified into 3 types, those of higher density than that of the cerebral paranchyma, those of isodensity, and those of lower density than that of the cerebral parenchyma. The difference among them appeared to be due to variation in the fluid in hematoma, especially that in hemoglobin concentration. Chronic subdural hematoma was found in 27 of 388 cases of head trauma in which CT was undertaken in our department of surgery for last 2 years. It is difficult to differenciate this disease from subdural edema or subarachnoideal retention of the cerebrospinal fluid. In many cases, use of contrast medium added no change to the CT picture. Cerebral angiography is necessary for definite diagnosis of the disease. Chronic subdural hematoma gives more varieties of findings than other intracranial hematomas. However, if the film is very carefully read, CT is still useful for diagnosing this disease in spite of initially remarked difficulties. (Ueda, J.)

  19. Applied gamma-ray spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Dams, R; Crouthamel, Carl E

    1970-01-01

    Applied Gamma-Ray Spectrometry covers real life application of the gamma-ray and the devices used in their experimental studies. This book is organized into 9 chapters, and starts with discussions of the various decay processes, the possible interaction mechanisms of gamma radiation with matter, and the intrinsic and extrinsic variables, which affect the observed gamma-ray and X-ray spectra. The subsequent chapters deal with the properties and fabrication of scintillation detectors, semiconductor detectors, and proportional gas counters. These chapters present some of the most widely utilized

  20. Joining of Gamma Titanium Aluminides

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baeslack, William

    2002-01-01

    .... Although organized and presented by joining process, many of the observations made and relationships developed, particularly those regarding the weldability and welding metallurgy of gamma titanium...

  1. Simultaneous beta and gamma spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsoni, Abdollah T.; Hamby, David M.

    2010-03-23

    A phoswich radiation detector for simultaneous spectroscopy of beta rays and gamma rays includes three scintillators with different decay time characteristics. Two of the three scintillators are used for beta detection and the third scintillator is used for gamma detection. A pulse induced by an interaction of radiation with the detector is digitally analyzed to classify the type of event as beta, gamma, or unknown. A pulse is classified as a beta event if the pulse originated from just the first scintillator alone or from just the first and the second scintillator. A pulse from just the third scintillator is recorded as gamma event. Other pulses are rejected as unknown events.

  2. Subjective randomness as statistical inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Thomas L; Daniels, Dylan; Austerweil, Joseph L; Tenenbaum, Joshua B

    2018-06-01

    Some events seem more random than others. For example, when tossing a coin, a sequence of eight heads in a row does not seem very random. Where do these intuitions about randomness come from? We argue that subjective randomness can be understood as the result of a statistical inference assessing the evidence that an event provides for having been produced by a random generating process. We show how this account provides a link to previous work relating randomness to algorithmic complexity, in which random events are those that cannot be described by short computer programs. Algorithmic complexity is both incomputable and too general to capture the regularities that people can recognize, but viewing randomness as statistical inference provides two paths to addressing these problems: considering regularities generated by simpler computing machines, and restricting the set of probability distributions that characterize regularity. Building on previous work exploring these different routes to a more restricted notion of randomness, we define strong quantitative models of human randomness judgments that apply not just to binary sequences - which have been the focus of much of the previous work on subjective randomness - but also to binary matrices and spatial clustering. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Quantitative assessment of optic nerve head pallor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilser, W; Seifert, B U; Riemer, T; Nagel, E; Weisensee, J; Hammer, M

    2008-01-01

    Ischaemia, loss of neural tissue, glial cell activation and tissue remodelling are symptoms of anterior ischaemic as well as glaucomatous optic neuropathy leading to pallor of the optic nerve head. Here, we describe a simple method for the pallor measurement using a fundus camera equipped with a colour CCD camera and a special dual bandpass filter. The reproducibility of the determined mean pallor value was 11.7% (coefficient of variation for repeated measurements in the same subject); the variation over six healthy subjects was 14.8%. A significant difference between the mean pallor of an atrophic disc and that of the contralateral eye of the same individual was found. However, even the clinically unaffected eye showed a significantly increased pallor compared to the mean of the healthy control group. Thus, optic disc pallor measurement, as described here, may be helpful in the early detection and follow-up of optic neuropathy

  4. Anisotropy in CNT composite fabricated by combining directional freezing and gamma irradiation of acrylic acid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Osička, J.; Ilčíková, M.; Mrlík, M.; Al-Maadeed, M. A. S. A.; Šlouf, Miroslav; Tkac, J.; Kasák, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 97, 5 May (2016), s. 300-306 ISSN 0261-3069 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : directional freezing * gamma irradiation * carbon nanotubes Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.997, year: 2015

  5. Near threshold angular distributions for the H-2(gamma,I >)X reaction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beckford, B.; Bydžovský, Petr; Chiba, A.; Doi, D.; Fujii, T.; Fujii, Y.; Futatsukawa, K.; Gogami, T.; Hashimoto, O.; Han, Y. C.; Hirose, K.; Honda, R.; Hosomi, K.; Ishikawa, T.; Kanda, H.; Kaneta, M.; Kaneko, Y.; Kato, S.; Kawama, D.; Kimura, C.; Kiyokawa, S.; Koike, T.; Maeda, K.; Makabe, K.; Matsubara, M.; Miwa, K.; Nagao, S.; Nakamura, S. N.; Okuyama, A.; Shirotori, K.; Sugihara, K.; Suzuki, K.; Tamae, T.; Tamura, H.; Tsukada, K.; Yamamoto, F.; Yamamoto, T.; Yonemoto, F.; Yamazaki, H.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 2016, č. 6 (2016), 063D01 ISSN 2050-3911 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : neutral Kaon photoproduction * electromagnetic production * gamma Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 2.039, year: 2016

  6. Crisis in Cataloging Revisited: The Year's Work in Subject Analysis, 1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, James Bradford

    1991-01-01

    Reviews the 1990 literature that concerns subject analysis. Issues addressed include subject cataloging, including Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH); classification, including Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC), Library of Congress Classification, and classification in online systems; subject access, including the online use of…

  7. Dosimetry computer module of the gamma irradiator of ININ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledezma F, L. E.; Baldomero J, R.; Agis E, K. A.

    2012-10-01

    This work present the technical specifications for the upgrade of the dosimetry module of the computer system of the gamma irradiator of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) whose result allows the integration and consultation of information in industrial dosimetry subject under an outline client-server. (Author)

  8. CELESTE: an atmospheric Cherenkov telescope for high energy gamma astrophysics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paré, E.; Balauge, B.; Bazer-Bachi, R.; Bergeret, H.; Berny, F.; Briand, N.; Bruel, P.; Cerutti, M.; Collon, J.; Cordier, A.; Cornbise, P.; Debiais, G.; Dezalay, J. P.; Dumora, D.; Durand, E.; Eschstruth, P.; Espigat, P.; Fabre, B.; Fleury, P.; Gilly, J.; Gouillaud, J. C.; Gregory, C.; Hérault, N.; Holder, J.; Hrabovský, Miroslav; Incerti, S.; Jouenne, A.; Kalt, L.; LeGallou, R.; Lott, B.; Manigot, P.; Neveu, J.; Olive, J. F.; Palatka, Miroslav; Perez, A.; Rebii, A.; Rob, L.; Sans, J. L.; Schovánek, Petr; Villard, G.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 490, - (2002), s. 71-89 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A006 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010920 Keywords : gamma-ray astronopy * atmospheric Cherenkov detector Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.167, year: 2002

  9. Program DEIMOS32 for gamma-ray spectra evalution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frána, Jaroslav

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 257, č. 3 (2003), s. 583-587 ISSN 0236-5731. [International Conference Ko-users Workshop /3./. Bruges, 23.09.2001-28.09.2001] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : gamma-ray spectra * software Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.472, year: 2003

  10. Cystathionine .gamma.-lyase: Clinical, metabolic, genetic, and structural studies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kraus, J. P.; Hašek, Jindřich; Kožich, V.; Collard, R.; Venezia, S.; Janošíková, B.; Wang, J.; Stabler, S. P.; Allen, R. H.; Jakobs, C.; Finn, C. T.; Chien, Y. H.; Hwu, W. L.; Hegele, R. A.; Mudd, S. H.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 4 (2009), s. 250-259 ISSN 1096-7192 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/07/1073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : cystathionine gamma-lyase * cystathioninuria * hypercystathioninemia Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.897, year: 2009

  11. GRIPS - Gamma-Ray Imaging, Polarimetry and Spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Greiner, J.; Mannheim, K.; Hudec, René; Mészáros, A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 2 (2012), s. 551-582 ISSN 0922-6435 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : compton and pair creation telescope * gamma-ray bursts * nucleosynthesis Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 2.969, year: 2012

  12. Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Cushing's Disease and Nelson's Syndrome

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marek, J.; Ježková, J.; Hána, V.; Kršek, M.; Liščák, R.; Vladyka, V.; Pecen, Ladislav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 3 (2015), s. 376-384 ISSN 1386-341X Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : Cushing's disease * Nelson's syndrome * Gamma knife surgery * Pituitary adenoma Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 3.407, year: 2015

  13. Gamma irradiation devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foeldiak, Gabor; Stenger, Vilmos.

    1983-01-01

    The main parameters and the preparation procedures of the gamma radiation sources frequently applied for irradiation purposes are discussed. In addition to 60 Co and 137 Cs sources also the nuclear power plants offer further opportunities: spent fuel elements and products of certain (n,γ) reactions can serve as irradiation sources. Laboratory scale equipments, pilot plant facilities for batch or continuous operation, continuous industrial irradiators and special multipurpose, mobile and panorama type facilities are reviewed including those in Canada, USA, India, the Soviet Union, Hungary, UK, Japan and Australia. For irradiator design the source geometry dependence of the spatial distribution of dose rates can be calculated. (V.N.)

  14. Gamma rays for pedestrians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipkin, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear gamma radiation does not have many of the properties taken for granted in atomic or molecular radiation and necessary for lasers. The basic science and technology underlying these differences and the proposed methods of overcoming difficulties resulting from them are not properly understood. Considerable illumination in this interdisciplinary problem could be provided by some back-of-the-envelope calculations and simple experimental surveys by small groups of students and postdocs with an elementary knowledge of the nuclear and solid state physics which is evidently not familiar these days to laser physicists. 3 refs

  15. Gamma-scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desgrez, H.A.

    1960-06-01

    Gamma-scintigraphy is a medical technique making it possible to fix the image of certain organs after the concentration in these of emitting radioactive products. It is already widely used in the case of the thyroid gland with iodine-132 by applying the isotope iodine 131. The study of the liver and gall bladder is carried out using colloidal gold 198 and Bengal pink marked with iodine 131. Serum albumin marked with iodine 131 makes it possible to study rachidian blockages. Other applications can already be foreseen in this direction. (author) [fr

  16. The gamma thermometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beraud, G.; Hourtoulle, F.

    1983-01-01

    The search for a detecting element capable of permanently measuring localised nuclear output which would also be robust straightforward and reliable led EDF to begin development work on a new type of detector in 1976: the gamma thermometer (THG). After briefly summarising the history of the project this article goes on to describe the principle and structure of the equipment used in EDF's PWR reactors. As a result of the extensive test programme carried out it has been possible to qualify analytical and calibration methods together with the thermal and nuclear models. In conclusion, the development prospects and future of such a detecting device are outlined [fr

  17. Anaphylaxis Due to Head Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruner, Heather C.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Both anaphylaxis and head injury are often seen in the emergency department, but they are rarely seen in combination. We present a case of a 30-year-old woman who presented with anaphylaxis with urticaria and angioedema following a minor head injury. The patient responded well to intramuscular epinephrine without further complications or airway compromise. Prior case reports have reported angioedema from hereditary angioedema during dental procedures and maxillofacial surgery, but there have not been any cases of first-time angioedema or anaphylaxis due to head injury. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(3:435–437.

  18. Anaphylaxis due to head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Heather C; Bruner, David I

    2015-05-01

    Both anaphylaxis and head injury are often seen in the emergency department, but they are rarely seen in combination. We present a case of a 30-year-old woman who presented with anaphylaxis with urticaria and angioedema following a minor head injury. The patient responded well to intramuscular epinephrine without further complications or airway compromise. Prior case reports have reported angioedema from hereditary angioedema during dental procedures and maxillofacial surgery, but there have not been any cases of first-time angioedema or anaphylaxis due to head injury.

  19. Boxing-related head injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayarao, Mayur; Chin, Lawrence S; Cantu, Robert C

    2010-10-01

    Fatalities in boxing are most often due to traumatic brain injury that occurs in the ring. In the past 30 years, significant improvements in ringside and medical equipment, safety, and regulations have resulted in a dramatic reduction in the fatality rate. Nonetheless, the rate of boxing-related head injuries, particularly concussions, remains unknown, due in large part to its variability in clinical presentation. Furthermore, the significance of repeat concussions sustained when boxing is just now being understood. In this article, we identify the clinical manifestations, pathophysiology, and management of boxing-related head injuries, and discuss preventive strategies to reduce head injuries sustained by boxers.

  20. Mummified trophy heads from Peru: diagnostic features and medicolegal significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verano, John W

    2003-05-01

    Several forms of mummified human trophy heads were produced by prehistoric and historic native groups in South America. This paper describes the diagnostic features of trophy heads produced by the Nasca culture of ancient Peru. A growing interest in these mummified heads among collectors of Pre-Columbian art and antiquities has led to their illegal exportation from Peru, in violation of national and international antiquities laws. Requests from the Peruvian government to protect its cultural patrimony led the United States in 1997 to declare these heads as items subject to U.S. import restriction, along with six other categories of human remains. Despite such restrictions, Nasca trophy heads continue to reach private collectors outside of Peru and thus may be encountered by local, state, or federal law enforcement officials unfamiliar with their characteristic features and origin. The objective of this paper is to describe the features that allow Nasca trophy heads to be identified and distinguished from other archaeological and forensic specimens that may be submitted to a forensic anthropologist for identification.

  1. Doubly heavy baryon production at {gamma}{gamma} collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Shiyuan [Department of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)]. E-mail: lishy@sdu.edu.cn; Si Zongguo [Department of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)]. E-mail: zgsi@sdu.edu.cn; Yang Zhongjuan [Department of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)]. E-mail: yangzhongjuan@mail.sdu.edu.cn

    2007-05-10

    The inclusive production of doubly heavy baryons {xi}{sub cc} and {xi}{sub bb} at {gamma}{gamma} collider is investigated. It is found that the contribution from the heavy quark pair QQ in color triplet and color sextet are important.

  2. A formalism for independent checking of Gamma Knife dose calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai Jensan; Engler, Mark J.; Rivard, Mark J.; Mahajan, Anita; Borden, Jonathan A.; Zheng Zhen

    2001-01-01

    For stereotactic radiosurgery using the Leksell Gamma Knife system, it is important to perform a pre-treatment verification of the maximum dose calculated with the Leksell GammaPlan[reg] (D LGP ) stereotactic radiosurgery system. This verification can be incorporated as part of a routine quality assurance (QA) procedure to minimize the chance of a hazardous overdose. To implement this procedure, a formalism has been developed to calculate the dose D CAL (X,Y,Z,d av ,t) using the following parameters: average target depth (d av ), coordinates (X,Y,Z) of the maximum dose location or any other dose point(s) to be verified, 3-dimensional (3-dim) beam profiles or off-center-ratios (OCR) of the four helmets, helmet size i, output factor O i , plug factor P i , each shot j coordinates (x,y,z) i,j , and shot treatment time (t i,j ). The average depth of the target d av was obtained either from MRI/CT images or ruler measurements of the Gamma Knife Bubble Head Frame. D CAL and D LGP were then compared to evaluate the accuracy of this independent calculation. The proposed calculation for an independent check of D LGP has been demonstrated to be accurate and reliable, and thus serves as a QA tool for Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery

  3. Effect of. gamma. -irradiation on the crystalline structure of silk fibroin and silk sericin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukada, Masuhiro; Aoki, Akira

    1985-02-01

    Changes in the crystalline structure of silk sericin and silk fibroin induced by gamma-irradiation in the atmosphere described. The crystalline structure of silk sericin which had been subjected to gamma-irradiation remained unchanged. However the decomposition temperature of the specimen decreased to about 230 deg C, when the total dose of ..gamma.. rays exceeded 4.6 Mrad. The structure of the silk 1 type crystal of silk fibroin in the solid state, with a low degree of molecular orientation, changed into the silk 2 type crystal, when the total dose of ..gamma.. rays exceeded 4.6 Mrad. No changes in the crystalline structure were observed in the solid state of the silk 2 type crystal regardless of gamma-irradiation. The decrease in the decomposition temperature of the specimen was attributed to the decrease in the molecular orientation. However, the molecular conformation of silk fibroin with a randomly coiled structure remained unchanged even after gamma-irradiation.

  4. Head and Neck Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Toshiki; Imanishi, Yorihisa

    2008-01-01

    The limitation of concurrent chemo-radiotherapy (CCRT) in head and neck cancer (HNC) as the primary treatment is described based on recent findings. Limits in the application/indication involve factors of age, performance status (PS) and renal function. The first is that, as deaths in >71 years old patients are derived from other causes (41%) than HNC, CCRT is only useful for younger population; the second, patients with PS 0-1 or Karnofsky performance score >60-70 can be indicated; and third, contraindicated are those with creatinine clearance (CCr) <60 mL/min as the key drug cisplatin in CCRT has a high renal toxicity. It should be recognized that completion rates of chemotherapy and RT are as low as 66-85% and 84-92%, respectively, in CCRT. CCRT has such limiting adverse events as mucitis, dry mouth, dysohagia, weight loss, neutropenia, sepsis, etc., which are most important in CCRT application. CCRT is recommended for the primary cancers of larynx and hypopharynx because they are significantly better conserved than middle pharyngeal, oral and upper jaw cancers. Evidence of CCRT is poor for cancers in paranasal sinuses. Planned neck dissection (PND) is for the cervical metastatic lymph nodes and conducted 6-12 weeks after CCRT regardless to its outcome. In fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) negative cases, PND can be omitted. Necessity of PND is possibly inversely proportional to CCRT intensity performed. For control of remote metastasis, CCRT has obvious limits and inductive chemotherapy before it is currently considered. Salvage surgery post CCRT does not always yield a relief because of complication. Patients with advanced laryngeal cancer can be selected either to surgery or CCRT depending on results of the inductive chemotherapy. To predict the sensitivity to CCRT, some biomarkers like HPV, EGFR and VEGF have been suggested to be useful by retrospective studies. Understanding the limitation is as important as knowing the usefulness in

  5. A subjective scheduler for subjective dedicated networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suherman; Fakhrizal, Said Reza; Al-Akaidi, Marwan

    2017-09-01

    Multiple access technique is one of important techniques within medium access layer in TCP/IP protocol stack. Each network technology implements the selected access method. Priority can be implemented in those methods to differentiate services. Some internet networks are dedicated for specific purpose. Education browsing or tutorial video accesses are preferred in a library hotspot, while entertainment and sport contents could be subjects of limitation. Current solution may use IP address filter or access list. This paper proposes subjective properties of users or applications are used for priority determination in multiple access techniques. The NS-2 simulator is employed to evaluate the method. A video surveillance network using WiMAX is chosen as the object. Subjective priority is implemented on WiMAX scheduler based on traffic properties. Three different traffic sources from monitoring video: palace, park, and market are evaluated. The proposed subjective scheduler prioritizes palace monitoring video that results better quality, xx dB than the later monitoring spots.

  6. Dosimetry computer module of the gamma irradiator of ININ; Modulo informatico de dosimetria del irradiador gamma del ININ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledezma F, L. E.; Baldomero J, R. [ININ, Gerencia de Sistemas Informaticos, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Agis E, K. A., E-mail: luis.ledezma@inin.gob.mx [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Facultad de Ingenieria, Cerro de Coatepec s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, 50100 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    This work present the technical specifications for the upgrade of the dosimetry module of the computer system of the gamma irradiator of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) whose result allows the integration and consultation of information in industrial dosimetry subject under an outline client-server. (Author)

  7. Gamma ray beam transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imasaki, K.; Li, D.; Miyamoto, S.; Amano, S.; Motizuki, T.

    2007-01-01

    We have proposed a new approach to nuclear transmutation by a gamma ray beam of Compton scattered laser photon. We obtained 20 MeV gamma ray in this way to obtain transmutation rates with the giant resonance of 1 97Au and 1 29Iodine. The rate of the transmutation agreed with the theoretical calculation. Experiments on energy spectrum of positron, electron and neutron from targets were performed for the energy balance and design of the system scheme. The reaction rate was about 1.5∼4% for appropriate photon energies and neutron production rate was up to 4% in the measurements. We had stored laser photon more than 5000 times in a small cavity which implied for a significant improvement of system efficiency. Using these technologies, we have designed an actual transmutation system for 1 29Iodine which has a 16 million year's activity. In my presentation, I will address the properties of this scheme, experiments results and transmutation system for iodine transmutation

  8. Sports-related Head Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and head gear come in many sizes and styles for many sports and must properly fit to ... to play or practice." The "Concussion Diagnosis and Management" section details circumstances in which an athlete should ...

  9. Heater head for stirling engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, John A.

    1985-07-09

    A monolithic heater head assembly which augments cast fins with ceramic inserts which narrow the flow of combustion gas and obtains high thermal effectiveness with the assembly including an improved flange design which gives greater durability and reduced conduction loss.

  10. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... it may cause some medical devices to malfunction. Most orthopedic implants pose no risk, but you should ... a digital cloud server. Currently, MRI is the most sensitive imaging test of the head (particularly the ...

  11. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and may add approximately 15 minutes to the total exam time. top of page What will I ... the limitations of MRI of the Head? High-quality images are assured only if you are able ...

  12. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the head (particularly the brain) in routine clinical practice. top of page What are some common uses ... gadolinium contrast material except when absolutely necessary for medical treatment. See the MRI Safety page for more ...

  13. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is not harmful, but it may cause some medical devices to malfunction. Most orthopedic implants pose no ... Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical test that physicians use to diagnose medical conditions. ...

  14. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Oral Surgeries Facial Cosmetic Surgery Facial Injury / Trauma Surgery Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Oral, Head and Neck Pathology TMJ and Facial Pain Wisdom Teeth Management Procedures Anesthesia Anesthesia Oral and maxillofacial surgeons are ...

  15. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org : Radiation Therapy for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for ... Imaging (MRI) - Head Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please contact your ...

  16. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... It can also invite bacteria that lead to gum disease. Click here to find out more. Who We ... It can also invite bacteria that lead to gum disease. Click here to find out more. Oral, Head ...

  17. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... the head (particularly the brain) in routine clinical practice. top of page What are some common uses ... may follow your regular daily routine and take food and medications as usual. Some MRI examinations may ...

  18. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... practice. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? MR imaging of the head ... gadolinium contrast, it may still be possible to use it after appropriate pre-medication. Patient consent will ...

  19. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... or headphones during the exam. MRI scanners are air-conditioned and well-lit. Music may be played ... the limitations of MRI of the Head? High-quality images are assured only if you are able ...

  20. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... practice. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? MR imaging of the head ... is done because a potential abnormality needs further evaluation with additional views or a special imaging technique. ...

  1. American Head and Neck Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... research and insights. Comments This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged. This iframe ... and Announcements Copyright ©2016 · American Head and Neck Society · Privacy and Return Policy Managed by BSC Management, ...

  2. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... practice. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? MR imaging of the head ... for immediate assistance. Manufacturers of intravenous contrast indicate mothers should not breastfeed their babies for 24-48 ...

  3. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MRI) of the head uses a powerful magnetic field, radio waves and a computer to produce detailed ... there’s a possibility you are pregnant. The magnetic field is not harmful, but it may cause some ...

  4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by the interpreting radiologist. Frequently, the differentiation of abnormal (diseased) tissue from normal tissues is better with ... Tumor Treatment Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety Alzheimer's Disease Head Injury Brain Tumors Images related to Magnetic ...

  5. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... medically necessary. MRI may not always distinguish between cancer tissue and fluid, known as edema . MRI typically ... Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer Others : American Stroke Association National Stroke Association top ...

  6. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a computer to produce detailed pictures of the brain and other cranial structures that are clearer and ... sensitive imaging test of the head (particularly the brain) in routine clinical practice. top of page What ...

  7. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... practice. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? MR imaging of the head ... community, you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The ...

  8. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MRI scanners are air-conditioned and well-lit. Music may be played through the headphones to help ... page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org : Radiation Therapy for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and ...

  9. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... teeth or become infected. It can also invite bacteria that lead to gum disease. Click here to find out ... and surgically treating cancer of the head, neck and mouth. The Oral Cancer Foundation estimates that close to ...

  10. Eye-based head gestures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardanbegi, Diako; Witzner Hansen, Dan; Pederson, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    A novel method for video-based head gesture recognition using eye information by an eye tracker has been proposed. The method uses a combination of gaze and eye movement to infer head gestures. Compared to other gesture-based methods a major advantage of the method is that the user keeps the gaze...... mobile phone screens. The user study shows that the method detects a set of defined gestures reliably.......A novel method for video-based head gesture recognition using eye information by an eye tracker has been proposed. The method uses a combination of gaze and eye movement to infer head gestures. Compared to other gesture-based methods a major advantage of the method is that the user keeps the gaze...

  11. A dictionary learning approach for human sperm heads classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, Fariba; Monadjemi, S Amirhassan; Alirezaie, Javad; Naghsh-Nilchi, Ahmad Reza

    2017-12-01

    To diagnose infertility in men, semen analysis is conducted in which sperm morphology is one of the factors that are evaluated. Since manual assessment of sperm morphology is time-consuming and subjective, automatic classification methods are being developed. Automatic classification of sperm heads is a complicated task due to the intra-class differences and inter-class similarities of class objects. In this research, a Dictionary Learning (DL) technique is utilized to construct a dictionary of sperm head shapes. This dictionary is used to classify the sperm heads into four different classes. Square patches are extracted from the sperm head images. Columnized patches from each class of sperm are used to learn class-specific dictionaries. The patches from a test image are reconstructed using each class-specific dictionary and the overall reconstruction error for each class is used to select the best matching class. Average accuracy, precision, recall, and F-score are used to evaluate the classification method. The method is evaluated using two publicly available datasets of human sperm head shapes. The proposed DL based method achieved an average accuracy of 92.2% on the HuSHeM dataset, and an average recall of 62% on the SCIAN-MorphoSpermGS dataset. The results show a significant improvement compared to a previously published shape-feature-based method. We have achieved high-performance results. In addition, our proposed approach offers a more balanced classifier in which all four classes are recognized with high precision and recall. In this paper, we use a Dictionary Learning approach in classifying human sperm heads. It is shown that the Dictionary Learning method is far more effective in classifying human sperm heads than classifiers using shape-based features. Also, a dataset of human sperm head shapes is introduced to facilitate future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Gamma Knife treatment of low-grade gliomas in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekşi, Murat Şakir; Yılmaz, Baran; Akakın, Akın; Toktaş, Zafer Orkun; Kaur, Ahmet Cemil; Demir, Mustafa Kemal; Kılıç, Türker

    2015-11-01

    Low-grade gliomas have good overall survival rates in pediatric patients compared to adults. There are some case series that reported the effectiveness and safety of Gamma Knife radiosurgery, yet they are limited in number of patients. We aimed to review the relevant literature for pediatric low-grade glial tumors treated with stereotactic radiosurgery, specifically Gamma Knife radiosurgery, and to present an exemplary case. A 6-year-old boy was admitted to clinic due to head trauma. He was alert, cooperative, and had no obvious motor or sensorial deficit. A head CT scan depicted a hypodense zone at the right caudate nucleus. The brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) depicted a mass lesion at the same location. A stereotactic biopsy was performed. Histopathological diagnosis was low-grade astrocytoma (grade II, World Health Organization (WHO) classification, 2007). Gamma Knife radiosurgery was applied to the tumor bed. Tumor volume was 21.85 cm(3). Fourteen gray was given to 50% isodose segment of the lesion (maximal dose of 28 Gy). The tumor has disappeared totally in 4 months, and the patient was tumor-free 21 months after the initial treatment. The presented literature review represents mostly single-center experiences with different patient and treatment characteristics. Accordingly, a mean/median margin dose of 11.3-15 Gy with Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) is successful in treatment of pediatric and adult low-grade glial tumor patients. However, prospective studies with a large cohort of pediatric patients should be conducted to make a more comprehensive conclusion for effectiveness and safety of GKRS in pediatric low-grade glial tumors.

  13. Determination of kidney function with 99mTc-DTPA renography using a dual-head camera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Claus J; Møller, Michael L; Zerahn, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Single-head gamma camera renography has been used for decades to estimate kidney function. An estimate of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) can be obtained using Tc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Tc-DTPA). However, because of differing attenuation, an error is introduced when the kidney...

  14. Topiramate Responsive Exploding Head Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Palikh, Gaurang M.; Vaughn, Bradley V.

    2010-01-01

    Exploding head syndrome is a rare phenomenon but can be a significant disruption to quality of life. We describe a 39-year-old female with symptoms of a loud bang and buzz at sleep onset for 3 years. EEG monitoring confirmed these events occurred in transition from stage 1 sleep. This patient reported improvement in intensity of events with topiramate medication. Based on these results, topiramate may be an alternative method to reduce the intensity of events in exploding head syndrome.

  15. Topiramate responsive exploding head syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palikh, Gaurang M; Vaughn, Bradley V

    2010-08-15

    Exploding head syndrome is a rare phenomenon but can be a significant disruption to quality of life. We describe a 39-year-old female with symptoms of a loud bang and buzz at sleep onset for 3 years. EEG monitoring confirmed these events occurred in transition from stage 1 sleep. This patient reported improvement in intensity of events with topiramate medication. Based on these results, topiramate may be an alternative method to reduce the intensity of events in exploding head syndrome.

  16. What about getting physiological information into dynamic gamma camera studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiuru, A.; Nickles, R. J.; Holden, J. E.; Polcyn, R. E.

    1976-01-01

    A general technique has been developed for the multiplexing of time dependent analog signals into the individual frames of a gamma camera dynamic function study. A pulse train, frequency-modulated by the physiological signal, is capacitively coupled to the preamplifier servicing anyone of the outer phototubes of the camera head. These negative tail pulses imitate photoevents occuring at a point outside of the camera field of view, chosen to occupy a data cell in an unused corner of the computer-stored square image. By defining a region of interest around this cell, the resulting time-activity curve displays the physiological variable in temporal synchrony with the radiotracer distribution. (author)

  17. Class switch recombination in selective IgA-deficient subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lone Hummelshøj; Ryder, L P; Nielsen, L K

    2006-01-01

    -beta in combination, induced IgA production, albeit lower than found in B cells from controls. The B cells from the IgA-deficient subjects were less effective in differentiating into CD138(+) X-box binding protein 1 (XBP-1)(+) plasma cells when stimulated with TGF-beta, IFN-gamma or IL-10. Interestingly, when adding...

  18. Evaluation of liver marker enzymes in diabetic subjects in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The activity levels of the liver marker enzymes; Aspartate and Alanine amino transferases (AST and ALT), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) and Gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT) in diabetic and non-diabetic subjects within the ages of 25 to 86 were assayed. This study was for two weeks. The results indicated that the plasma ...

  19. Nintendo Wii remote controllers for head posture measurement: accuracy, validity, and reliability of the infrared optical head tracker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongshin; Nam, Kyoung Won; Jang, Ik Gyu; Yang, Hee Kyung; Kim, Kwang Gi; Hwang, Jeong-Min

    2012-03-15

    To evaluate the accuracy, validity, and reliability of a newly developed infrared optical head tracker (IOHT) using Nintendo Wii remote controllers (WiiMote; Nintendo Co. Ltd., Kyoto, Japan) for measurement of the angle of head posture. The IOHT consists of two infrared (IR) receivers (WiiMote) that are fixed to a mechanical frame and connected to a monitoring computer via a Bluetooth communication channel and an IR beacon that consists of four IR light-emitting diodes (LEDs). With the use of the Cervical Range of Motion (CROM; Performance Attainment Associates, St. Paul, MN) as a reference, one- and three-dimensional (1- and 3-D) head postures of 20 normal adult subjects (20-37 years of age; 9 women and 11 men) were recorded with the IOHT. In comparison with the data from the CROM, the IOHT-derived results showed high consistency. The measurements of 1- and 3-D positions of the human head with the IOHT were very close to those of the CROM. The correlation coefficients of 1- and 3-D positions between the IOHT and the CROM were more than 0.99 and 0.96 (P < 0.05, Pearson's correlation test), respectively. Reliability tests of the IOHT for the normal adult subjects for 1- and 3-D positions of the human head had 95% limits of agreement angles of approximately ±4.5° and ±8.0°, respectively. The IOHT showed strong concordance with the CROM and relatively good test-retest reliability, thus proving its validity and reliability as a head-posture-measuring device. Considering its high performance, ease of use, and low cost, the IOHT has the potential to be widely used as a head-posture-measuring device in clinical practice.

  20. Observation of galactic gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, J.A.

    1982-09-01

    A complete and deep survey of the galactic high-energy gamma radiation is now available, thanks to the gamma-ray telescopes on board of the SAS-2 and COS-B spacecrafts. A comparison of the COS-B gamma-ray survey with a fully sampled CO survey together with an Hsub(I) survey is used to show that a simple model, in which uniformly distributed cosmic rays interact with the interstellar gas, can account for almost all the gamma-ray emission observed in the first galactic quadrant. At medium galactic latitudes, it is shown that a relationship exists between the gamma radiation and the interstellar absorption derived from galaxy counts. Therefore gamma rays from the local galactic environment can be used as a valuable probe of the content and structure of the local interstellar medium. The large scale features of the local interstellar gas are revealed, in particular wide concentrations of nearby molecular hydrogen. On a smaller scale, the detection of numerous localized gamma-ray sources focuses the attention on some particular phases of clusters of young and massive stars where diffuse processes of gamma-ray emission may also be at work

  1. Effect of external viscous load on head movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, M.-H.; Lakshminarayanan, V.; Stark, L. W.

    1984-01-01

    Quantitative measurements of horizontal head rotation were obtained from normal human subjects intending to make 'time optimal' trajectories between targets. By mounting large, lightweight vanes on the head, viscous damping B, up to 15 times normal could be added to the usual mechanical load of the head. With the added viscosity, the head trajectory was slowed and of larger duration (as expected) since fixed and maximal (for that amplitude) muscle forces had to accelerate the added viscous load. This decreased acceleration and velocity and longer duration movement still ensued in spite of adaptive compensation; this provided evidence that quasi-'time optimal' movements do indeed employ maximal muscle forces. The adaptation to this added load was rapid. Then the 'adapted state' subjects produced changed trajectories. The adaptation depended in part on the differing detailed instructions given to the subjects. This differential adaptation provided evidence for the existence of preprogrammed controller signals, sensitive to intended criterion, and neurologically ballistic or open loop rather than modified by feedback from proprioceptors or vision.

  2. Modulation of induced gamma band activity in the human EEG by attention and visual information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, M M; Gruber, T; Keil, A

    2000-12-01

    Here we present a series of four studies aimed to investigate the link between induced gamma band activity in the human EEG and visual information processing. We demonstrated and validated the modulation of spectral gamma band power by spatial selective visual attention. When subjects attended to a certain stimulus, spectral power was increased as compared to when the same stimulus was ignored. In addition, we showed a shift in spectral gamma band power increase to the contralateral hemisphere when subjects shifted their attention to one visual hemifield. The following study investigated induced gamma band activity and the perception of a Gestalt. Ambiguous rotating figures were used to operationalize the law of good figure (gute Gestalt). We found increased gamma band power at posterior electrode sites when subjects perceived an object. In the last experiment we demonstrated a differential hemispheric gamma band activation when subjects were confronted with emotional pictures. Results of the present experiments in combination with other studies presented in this volume are supportive for the notion that induced gamma band activity in the human EEG is closely related to visual information processing and attentional perceptual mechanisms.

  3. Ghost Head Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Looking like a colorful holiday card, a new image from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope reveals a vibrant green and red nebula far from Earth. The image of NGC 2080, taken by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, designed and built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is available online at http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/wfpc . Images like this help astronomers investigate star formation in nebulas. NGC 2080, nicknamed 'The Ghost Head Nebula,' is one of a chain of star-forming regions lying south of the 30 Doradus nebula in the Large Magellanic Cloud. 30 Doradus is the largest star-forming complex in the local group of galaxies. This 'enhanced color' picture is composed of three narrow-band-filter images obtained by Hubble on March 28, 2000. The red and blue light come from regions of hydrogen gas heated by nearby stars. The green light on the left comes from glowing oxygen. The energy to illuminate the green light is supplied by a powerful stellar wind, a stream of high-speed particles coming from a massive star just outside the image. The central white region is a combination of all three emissions and indicates a core of hot, massive stars in this star-formation region. Intense emission from these stars has carved a bowl-shaped cavity in surrounding gas. In the white region, the two bright areas (the 'eyes of the ghost') - named A1 (left) and A2 (right) -- are very hot, glowing 'blobs' of hydrogen and oxygen. The bubble in A1 is produced by the hot, intense radiation and powerful stellar wind from one massive star. A2 contains more dust and several hidden, massive stars. The massive stars in A1 and A2 must have formed within the last 10,000 years, since their natal gas shrouds are not yet disrupted by the powerful radiation of the newborn stars. The Space Telescope Science Institute is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., for NASA, under contract with the Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. The

  4. Gamma radiation in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mjoenes, L.

    1981-08-01

    A nationwide investigation has been made into the gamma radiation in Swedish dwellings. The measurements were made with small detectors containing thermoluminescent dosimeters. The detectors were sent to the selected participants by mail. 1300 dwellings were included in the investigation. In each dwelling three measurements were made: one detector was placed in the kitchen, one in the living-room and one in the bedroom. The mean annual absorbed tissue dose in dwellings in Sweden was found to be 0.65 mGy (corresponding to an exposition rate of 12 μR/h) when the contribution from cosmic radiation had been subtracted. That represents an annual collective dose of about 4000 mansieverts to the population of Sweden. From a previous investigation we have calculate the mean value for the gamma radiation in Swedish dwellings for 1950 to be 0.4 mGy/a (8μR/h). The reason for the relatively large increase in the mean value is an increased use of building materials on stone, particularly of lightweight concrete based on alum shale, from 1940 to middle 1960s. The production of this type of lightweight concrete was discontinued in 1975 and the use of other stone-based building materials has decreased. The mean value of gamma radiation in Swedish dwellings is therefore expected to decrease slowly in the future if this tendency holds. Sweden has some 3.5 million dwellings. About 10 % of them have mean values of 1 mGy/a (19 μR/h) or more, 0.2 % have 3 mGy/a (57 μR/h) or more and a couple of hundred 5 mGy/a (95 μR/h or more. The mean value for detached houses was found to be 0.43 mGy/a (8 μR/h) and for dwellings in multi-family houses 0.80 mGy/a (15 μR/h). The investigation dwellings have also been classified according to the building materials, the year of construction and the degree of urbanization of the area. (author)

  5. Head Pose Estimation Using Multilinear Subspace Analysis for Robot Human Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Tonislav; Matthies, Larry; Vasilescu, M. Alex O.

    2009-01-01

    Mobile robots, operating in unconstrained indoor and outdoor environments, would benefit in many ways from perception of the human awareness around them. Knowledge of people's head pose and gaze directions would enable the robot to deduce which people are aware of the its presence, and to predict future motions of the people for better path planning. To make such inferences, requires estimating head pose on facial images that are combination of multiple varying factors, such as identity, appearance, head pose, and illumination. By applying multilinear algebra, the algebra of higher-order tensors, we can separate these factors and estimate head pose regardless of subject's identity or image conditions. Furthermore, we can automatically handle uncertainty in the size of the face and its location. We demonstrate a pipeline of on-the-move detection of pedestrians with a robot stereo vision system, segmentation of the head, and head pose estimation in cluttered urban street scenes.

  6. Gamma Ray Bursts - Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrels, N.; Cannizzo, J. K.

    2010-01-01

    We are in an exciting period of discovery for gamma-ray bursts. The Swift observatory is detecting 100 bursts per year, providing arcsecond localizations and sensitive observations of the prompt and afterglow emission. The Fermi observatory is observing 250 bursts per year with its medium-energy GRB instrument and about 10 bursts per year with its high-energy LAT instrument. In addition, rapid-response telescopes on the ground are providing new capabilities to study optical emission during the prompt phase and spectral signatures of the host galaxies. The combined data set is enabling great advances in our understanding of GRBs including afterglow physics, short burst origin, and high energy emission.

  7. Gamma camera system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.W.; Gerber, M.S.

    1977-01-01

    A gamma camera system having control components operating in conjunction with a solid state detector is described. The detector is formed of a plurality of discrete components which are associated in geometrical or coordinate arrangement defining a detector matrix to derive coordinate signal outputs. These outputs are selectively filtered and summed to form coordinate channel signals and corresponding energy channel signals. A control feature of the invention regulates the noted summing and filtering performance to derive data acceptance signals which are addressed to further treating components. The latter components include coordinate and enery channel multiplexers as well as energy-responsive selective networks. A sequential control is provided for regulating the signal processing functions of the system to derive an overall imaging cycle

  8. Sterilization by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes Frias, L.

    1992-01-01

    Since 1980 the National Institute of Nuclear Research counts with an Industrial Gamma Irradiator, for the sterilization of raw materials and finished products. Through several means has been promoted the use of this technology as alternative to conventional methods of sterilization as well as steam treatment and ethylene oxide. As a result of the made promotion this irradiator has come to its saturation limit being the sterilization irradiation one of the main services that National Institute of Nuclear Research offers to producer enterprises of disposable materials of medical use also of raw materials for the elaboration of cosmetic products and pharmaceuticals as well as dehydrated foods. It is presented the trend to the sterilization service by irradiation showed by the compilation data in a survey made by potential customers. (Author)

  9. Gamma radiolysis of dimethylglyoxime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langguth, H.; Foersterling, H.U.; Schmidt, J.

    1983-01-01

    Because dimethylglyoxime (DMG) is suitable for the selective separation of palladium from nuclear fuel reprocessing waste solutions the radiation resistance of pure DMG and of DMG sorbed on activated charcoal was studied. Irradiation was carried out at 20-40 0 C using a 60 Co gamma source with a dose rate of 0.6 - 1.7 Gy/s in the dose range 2 kGy to 5 MGy. The radiolytic products were determined by different methods and the G values determined. It has been shown that DMG is relatively radiation resistant up to doses of about 100 kGy. At higher doses the reactive NOH-groups of DMG are partially destroyed and cannot react with palladium. However, in the separation process of palladium from radioactive waste solutions these doses will not be reached so that complications due to insufficient radiation resistance of DMG can be excluded. (author)

  10. Gamma spectrometry on MANITU 271-01 gamma scan wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dassel, G.; Buurveld, H.A.; Minkema, J.

    1994-08-01

    A series of irradiation experiments (271-series) is being performed of the sustain programme for material development and characterization of the NET (Next European Torus). In the framework of the first irradiation experiment 271-01, with irradiation up to 0.2 dpa, four gamma scan wires have been examined by gamma scanning. The purpose of the gamma scan wires (GSW) is to get information about the neutron fluence distribution in the capsules during irradiation. In the stainless steel wires the nuclides Co-58, Mu-54, Fe-59 and Co-60 are produced, are characteristic for fast and thermal neutron reactions. (orig./HP)

  11. Stress coarsening of gamma-prime and its influence on creep properties of a single crystal superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, D.D.; Lemkey, F.D.; Kear, B.H.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of stress annealing on the gamma-prime morphology in single crystals of a Ni-13Al-9Mo-2Ta alloy is examined. It is found that a crystal subjected to tensile creep in the 100 line orientation develops platelets, or rafts, of gamma-prime in orientations perpendicular to the applied stress. Due to the large negative gamma/gamma-prime misfit (about 0.7%) in this alloy, the gamma/gamma-prime interfaces feature high-density misfit dislocations. Under a stress of 207 MPa at 1038 C, the rafted gamma-prime structure exhibits a rupture life of over 400 hr as compared with 100 hr for unrafted material

  12. Manual for subject analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document is one in a series of publications known as the ETDE/INIS Joint Reference Series and also constitutes a part of the ETDE Procedures Manual. It presents the rules, guidelines and procedures to be adopted by centers submitting input to the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) or the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE). It is a manual for the subject analysis part of input preparation, meaning the selection, subject classification, abstracting and subject indexing of relevant publications, and is to be used in conjunction with the Thesauruses, Subject Categories documents and the documents providing guidelines for the preparation of abstracts. The concept and structure of the new manual are intended to describe in a logical and efficient sequence all the steps comprising the subject analysis of documents to be reported to INIS or ETDE. The manual includes new chapters on preparatory analysis, subject classification, abstracting and subject indexing, as well as rules, guidelines, procedures, examples and a special chapter on guidelines and examples for subject analysis in particular subject fields. (g.t.; a.n.)

  13. Estimating Subjective Probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.

    2014-01-01

    either construct elicitation mechanisms that control for risk aversion, or construct elicitation mechanisms which undertake 'calibrating adjustments' to elicited reports. We illustrate how the joint estimation of risk attitudes and subjective probabilities can provide the calibration adjustments...... that theory calls for. We illustrate this approach using data from a controlled experiment with real monetary consequences to the subjects. This allows the observer to make inferences about the latent subjective probability, under virtually any well-specified model of choice under subjective risk, while still...

  14. Heading for a fall? Management of head injury in infants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Williamson, M

    2010-09-01

    Head injury is one of the commonest reasons for infants (< 1 year) to attend the Emergency Department (ED). Clinical management varies considerably and concern about non accidental injury results in a high admission rate in some hospitals. Information was obtained on 103 children under one year of age presenting to the ED with head injury in a prospective study. The average age was 6.7 months and 57% of patients were male. Twenty eight babies had skull x rays with 1 skull fracture diagnosed. None required CT brain scan. Ninety eight (94%) were discharged home from the ED. There were no unplanned returns, readmissions or adverse events. The incidence of traumatic brain injury in children under one year of age presenting with head injury is low and the majority can be safely discharged home.

  15. Alterations in taste distinguishing in patients irradiated for malignant tumours of head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimo, J.; Parkanyiova, V.; Polcikova, E.

    1976-01-01

    In 20 patients treated with percutaneous gamma radiotherapy for carcinomas of the head or the neck, alterations were studied in taste following radiation doses of 1,000; 2,000; 3,000; 4,000; 5,000; and 6,000 rads. It was found that with increasing radiation doses the patients lost the ability of distinguishing sweet, salty, sour and bitter qualities, in that order. (L.O.)

  16. Handedness and phenotypic characteristics of the head and face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Milena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Craniofacial characteristics are used to identify similarities and differences between human populations or within a single population. The aim of this study is to provide data on the differences/similarities between two groups of subjects, left-handed and right-handed children, based on the parameters that determine the phenotypic characteristics of the head and face: head dimensions, face dimensions, hair color, eye color and earlobe shape. The study participants included 1354 students aged 7 to 15 years from regular schools of southeastern Serbia. The instruments used include: the Edinburgh Handedness Questionnaire for handedness determination, the cephalometer, and the questionnaire. 135 students (9.97% were identified as left-handed, and the differences in the observed parameters were recorded between left-handed and right-handed girls in relation to the cephalic index, nasal index, head breadth, face breadth, and eye color.

  17. Effects of External Loads on Human Head Movement Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, M. H.; Choi, O. M.

    1984-01-01

    The central and reflexive control strategies underlying movements were elucidated by studying the effects of external loads on human head movement control systems. Some experimental results are presented on dynamic changes weigh the addition of aviation helmet (SPH4) and lead weights (6 kg). Intended time-optimal movements, their dynamics and electromyographic activity of neck muscles in normal movements, and also in movements made with external weights applied to the head were measured. It was observed that, when the external loads were added, the subject went through complex adapting processes and the head movement trajectory and its derivatives reached steady conditions only after transient adapting period. The steady adapted state was reached after 15 to 20 seconds (i.e., 5 to 6 movements).

  18. Apparatus for gamma ray radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Masatoshi; Enomoto, Shigemasa; Oga, Hiroshi

    1979-01-01

    This is the standard of Japan Non-Destructive Inspection Society, NDIS 1101-79, which stipulates on the design, construction and testing method of the apparatuses for gamma ray radiography used for taking industrial radiograms. The gamma ray apparatuses stipulated in this standard are those containing sealed radioactive isotopes exceeding 100 μCi, which emit gamma ray. The gamma ray apparatuses are classified into three groups according to their movability. The general design conditions, the irradiation dose rate and the sealed radiation sources for the gamma ray apparatuses are stipulated. The construction of the gamma ray apparatuses must be in accordance with the notification No. 52 of the Ministry of Labor, and safety devices and collimators must be equipped. The main bodies of the gamma ray apparatuses must pass the vibration test, penetration test, impact test and shielding efficiency test. The method of each test is described. The attached equipments must be also tested. The tests according to this standard are carried out by the makers of the apparatuses. The test records must be made when the apparatuses have passed the tests, and the test certificates are attached. The limit of guarantee by the endurance test must be clearly shown. The items to be shown on the apparatuses are stipulated. (Kako, I.)

  19. Assessment of absorbed dose to thyroid, parotid and ovaries in patients undergoing Gamma Knife radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasanzadeh, H; Sharafi, A; Verdi, M Allah; Nikoofar, A

    2006-01-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery was originally introduced by Lars Leksell in 1951. This treatment refers to the noninvasive destruction of an intracranial target localized stereotactically. The purpose of this study was to identify the dose delivered to the parotid, ovaries, testis and thyroid glands during the Gamma Knife radiosurgery procedure. A three-dimensional, anthropomorphic phantom was developed using natural human bone, paraffin and sodium chloride as the equivalent tissue. The phantom consisted of a thorax, head and neck and hip. In the natural places of the thyroid, parotid (bilateral sides) and ovaries (midline), some cavities were made to place TLDs. Three TLDs were inserted in a batch with 1 cm space between the TLDs and each batch was inserted into a single cavity. The final depth of TLDs was 3 cm from the surface for parotid and thyroid and was 15 cm for the ovaries. Similar batches were placed superficially on the phantom. The phantom was gamma irradiated using a Leksell model C Gamma Knife unit. Subsequently, the same batches were placed superficially over the thyroid, parotid, testis and ovaries in 30 patients (15 men and 15 women) who were undergoing radiosurgery treatment for brain tumours. The mean dosage for treating these patients was 14.48 ± 3.06 Gy (10.5-24 Gy) to a mean tumour volume of 12.30 ± 9.66 cc (0.27-42.4 cc) in the 50% isodose curve. There was no significant difference between the superficial and deep batches in the phantom studies (P-value < 0.05). The mean delivered doses to the parotid, thyroid, ovaries and testis in human subjects were 21.6 ± 15.1 cGy, 9.15 ± 3.89 cGy, 0.47 ± 0.3 cGy and 0.53 ± 0.31 cGy, respectively. The data can be used in making decisions for special clinical situations such as treating pregnant patients or young patients with benign lesions who need radiosurgery for eradication of brain tumours

  20. Comparison of a layered slab and an atlas head model for Monte Carlo fitting of time-domain near-infrared spectroscopy data of the adult head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selb, Juliette; Ogden, Tyler M; Dubb, Jay; Fang, Qianqian; Boas, David A

    2014-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) estimations of the adult brain baseline optical properties based on a homogeneous model of the head are known to introduce significant contamination from extracerebral layers. More complex models have been proposed and occasionally applied to in vivo data, but their performances have never been characterized on realistic head structures. Here we implement a flexible fitting routine of time-domain NIRS data using graphics processing unit based Monte Carlo simulations. We compare the results for two different geometries: a two-layer slab with variable thickness of the first layer and a template atlas head registered to the subject's head surface. We characterize the performance of the Monte Carlo approaches for fitting the optical properties from simulated time-resolved data of the adult head. We show that both geometries provide better results than the commonly used homogeneous model, and we quantify the improvement in terms of accuracy, linearity, and cross-talk from extracerebral layers.

  1. Radiative decay of the eta-, eta'-mesons in the nonlocal quark model. [eta(eta'). --> gamma gamma. ; eta. -->. pi. /sup +/. pi. /sup -/. gamma. ; eta. -->. pi. /sup 0/2. gamma. ; eta'. -->. rho/sup 0/. gamma. ; eta'. -->. omega gamma. ;. pi. /sup 0/. -->. gamma. e/sup +/e/sup -/; eta(eta'). -->. gamma mu. /sup +/. mu. /sup -/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efimov, G V; Ivanov, M A; Nogovitsyn, E A [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (USSR)

    1981-07-01

    P..--> gamma gamma.. (P=..pi../sup 0/, eta, eta'), eta..--> pi../sup +/..pi../sup -/..gamma.., eta..--> pi../sup 0/..gamma gamma.., eta/sup 1/..-->..V..gamma.. (V=rho/sup 0/, ..omega..), p..--> gamma..l/sup +/l/sup -/ (p=..pi../sup 0/, eta, eta') radiation decays are studied for testing the applicability of the non-local quark model for description of the experimental data. The Feynman diagrams of these decays are presented, values of the widths of the Veta..--> gamma gamma.., eta..--> pi../sup +/..pi../sup -/..gamma.., eta..--> pi../sup 0/..gamma gamma.., eta'..--> gamma gamma.., eta'..-->..rho/sup 0/..gamma.., eta'..--> omega gamma.. decays are calculated and given in the form of a table. Calculations are carried out for two values of the eta eta'-crossing angle: THETA=-11 deg and -18 deg. Values of invariant amplitudes of these decays are determined for ..pi../sup 0/..--> gamma..e/sup +/e/sup -/, eta..--> gamma mu../sup +/..mu../sup -/, eta'..--> gamma mu../sup +/..mu../sup -/ decays at THETA=-11 deg and -18 deg. The best agreement with the experimental data is noted to take place at THETA=-11 deg, the determined width of the eta..--> pi../sup 0/..gamma gamma.. decays is underestimated as compared with the experimental one.

  2. Total Cross Section in $\\gamma\\gamma$ Collisions at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Acciarri, M.; Adriani, O.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alcaraz, J.; Alemanni, G.; Allaby, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alviggi, M.G.; Ambrosi, G.; Anderhub, H.; Andreev, Valery P.; Angelescu, T.; Anselmo, F.; Arefev, A.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Bagnaia, P.; Bajo, A.; Baksay, L.; Balandras, A.; Baldew, S.V.; Banerjee, S.; Banerjee, Sw.; Barczyk, A.; Barillere, R.; Bartalini, P.; Basile, M.; Batalova, N.; Battiston, R.; Bay, A.; Becattini, F.; Becker, U.; Behner, F.; Bellucci, L.; Berbeco, R.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Betev, B.L.; Bhattacharya, S.; Biasini, M.; Biland, A.; Blaising, J.J.; Blyth, S.C.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bohm, A.; Boldizsar, L.; Borgia, B.; Bourilkov, D.; Bourquin, M.; Braccini, S.; Branson, J.G.; Brochu, F.; Buffini, A.; Buijs, A.; Burger, J.D.; Burger, W.J.; Cai, X.D.; Capell, M.; Cara Romeo, G.; Carlino, G.; Cartacci, A.M.; Casaus, J.; Castellini, G.; Cavallari, F.; Cavallo, N.; Cecchi, C.; Cerrada, M.; Cesaroni, F.; Chamizo, M.; Chang, Y.H.; Chaturvedi, U.K.; Chemarin, M.; Chen, A.; Chen, G.; Chen, G.M.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, H.S.; Chiefari, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Civinini, C.; Clare, I.; Clare, R.; Coignet, G.; Colino, N.; Costantini, S.; Cotorobai, F.; de la Cruz, B.; Csilling, A.; Cucciarelli, S.; Dai, T.S.; van Dalen, J.A.; D'Alessandro, R.; de Asmundis, R.; Deglon, P.; Degre, A.; Deiters, K.; della Volpe, D.; Delmeire, E.; Denes, P.; DeNotaristefani, F.; De Salvo, A.; Diemoz, M.; Dierckxsens, M.; van Dierendonck, D.; Dionisi, C.; Dittmar, M.; Dominguez, A.; Doria, A.; Dova, M.T.; Duchesneau, D.; Dufournaud, D.; Duinker, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Engler, A.; Eppling, F.J.; Erne, F.C.; Ewers, A.; Extermann, P.; Fabre, M.; Falagan, M.A.; Falciano, S.; Favara, A.; Fay, J.; Fedin, O.; Felcini, M.; Ferguson, T.; Fesefeldt, H.; Fiandrini, E.; Field, J.H.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, P.H.; Fisk, I.; Forconi, G.; Freudenreich, K.; Furetta, C.; Galaktionov, Iouri; Ganguli, S.N.; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gataullin, M.; Gau, S.S.; Gentile, S.; Gheordanescu, N.; Giagu, S.; Gong, Z.F.; Grenier, Gerald Jean; Grimm, O.; Gruenewald, M.W.; Guida, M.; van Gulik, R.; Gupta, V.K.; Gurtu, A.; Gutay, L.J.; Haas, D.; Hasan, A.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hebbeker, T.; Herve, Alain; Hidas, P.; Hirschfelder, J.; Hofer, H.; Holzner, G.; Hoorani, H.; Hou, S.R.; Hu, Y.; Iashvili, I.; Jin, B.N.; Jones, Lawrence W.; de Jong, P.; Josa-Mutuberria, I.; Khan, R.A.; Kafer, D.; Kaur, M.; Kienzle-Focacci, M.N.; Kim, D.; Kim, J.K.; Kirkby, Jasper; Kiss, D.; Kittel, W.; Klimentov, A.; Konig, A.C.; Kopal, M.; Kopp, A.; Koutsenko, V.; Kraber, M.; Kraemer, R.W.; Krenz, W.; Kruger, A.; Kunin, A.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Laktineh, I.; Landi, G.; Lebeau, M.; Lebedev, A.; Lebrun, P.; Lecomte, P.; Lecoq, P.; Le Coultre, P.; Lee, H.J.; Le Goff, J.M.; Leiste, R.; Levtchenko, P.; Li, C.; Likhoded, S.; Lin, C.H.; Lin, W.T.; Linde, F.L.; Lista, L.; Liu, Z.A.; Lohmann, W.; Longo, E.; Lu, Y.S.; Lubelsmeyer, K.; Luci, C.; Luckey, David; Lugnier, L.; Luminari, L.; Lustermann, W.; Ma, W.G.; Maity, M.; Malgeri, L.; Malinin, A.; Mana, C.; Mangeol, D.; Mans, J.; Marian, G.; Martin, J.P.; Marzano, F.; Mazumdar, K.; McNeil, R.R.; Mele, S.; Merola, L.; Meschini, M.; Metzger, W.J.; von der Mey, M.; Mihul, A.; Milcent, H.; Mirabelli, G.; Mnich, J.; Mohanty, G.B.; Moulik, T.; Muanza, G.S.; Muijs, A.J.M.; Musicar, B.; Musy, M.; Napolitano, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Newman, H.; Niessen, T.; Nisati, A.; Kluge, Hannelies; Ofierzynski, R.; Organtini, G.; Oulianov, A.; Palomares, C.; Pandoulas, D.; Paoletti, S.; Paolucci, P.; Paramatti, R.; Park, H.K.; Park, I.H.; Passaleva, G.; Patricelli, S.; Paul, Thomas Cantzon; Pauluzzi, M.; Paus, C.; Pauss, F.; Pedace, M.; Pensotti, S.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Petersen, B.; Piccolo, D.; Pierella, F.; Pieri, M.; Piroue, P.A.; Pistolesi, E.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Pojidaev, V.; Postema, H.; Pothier, J.; Prokofev, D.O.; Prokofiev, D.; Quartieri, J.; Rahal-Callot, G.; Rahaman, M.A.; Raics, P.; Raja, N.; Ramelli, R.; Rancoita, P.G.; Ranieri, R.; Raspereza, A.; Raven, G.; Razis, P.; Ren, D.; Rescigno, M.; Reucroft, S.; Riemann, S.; Riles, Keith; Rodin, J.; Roe, B.P.; Romero, L.; Rosca, A.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Roth, Stefan; Rosenbleck, C.; Roux, B.; Rubio, J.A.; Ruggiero, G.; Rykaczewski, H.; Saremi, S.; Sarkar, S.; Salicio, J.; Sanchez, E.; Sanders, M.P.; Schafer, C.; Schegelsky, V.; Schmidt-Kaerst, S.; Schmitz, D.; Schopper, H.; Schotanus, D.J.; Schwering, G.; Sciacca, C.; Seganti, A.; Servoli, L.; Shevchenko, S.; Shivarov, N.; Shoutko, V.; Shumilov, E.; Shvorob, A.; Siedenburg, T.; Son, D.; Smith, B.; Spillantini, P.; Steuer, M.; Stickland, D.P.; Stone, A.; Stoyanov, B.; Straessner, A.; Sudhakar, K.; Sultanov, G.; Sun, L.Z.; Sushkov, S.; Suter, H.; Swain, J.D.; Szillasi, Z.; Sztaricskai, T.; Tang, X.W.; Tauscher, L.; Taylor, L.; Tellili, B.; Teyssier, D.; Timmermans, Charles; Ting, Samuel C.C.; Ting, S.M.; Tonwar, S.C.; Toth, J.; Tully, C.; Tung, K.L.; Uchida, Y.; Ulbricht, J.; Valente, E.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vetlitsky, I.; Vicinanza, D.; Viertel, G.; Villa, S.; Vivargent, M.; Vlachos, S.; Vodopianov, I.; Vogel, H.; Vogt, H.; Vorobev, I.; Vorobov, A.A.; Vorvolakos, A.; Wadhwa, M.; Wallraff, W.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.L.; Wang, Z.M.; Weber, A.; Weber, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wilkens, H.; Wu, S.X.; Wynhoff, S.; Xia, L.; Xu, Z.Z.; Yamamoto, J.; Yang, B.Z.; Yang, C.G.; Yang, H.J.; Yang, M.; Ye, J.B.; Yeh, S.C.; Zalite, A.; Zalite, Yu.; Zhang, Z.P.; Zhu, G.Y.; Zhu, R.Y.; Zichichi, A.; Zilizi, G.; Zimmermann, B.; Zoller, M.

    2001-01-01

    The reaction e+e- -> e+e- gamma* gamma* -> e+e- hadrons for quasi-real photons is studied using data from root(s) = 183 GeV up to 202 GeV. Results on the total cross sections sigma(e+e- -> e+e- hadrons) and sigma(+e- gamma* gamma* -> e+e- hadrons) are given for the two-photon centre-of-mass energies 5 GeV < Wgammagamma < 185 GeV. The total cross section of two real photons is described by a Regge parametrisation. We observe a steeper rise with the two-photon centre-of-mass energy as compared to the hadron-hadron and the photon-proton cross sections. The data are also compared to the expectations of different theoretical models.

  3. The gamma contamination food factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukoc, A.H.; Anicin, I.V.; Adzic, P.R.

    1992-01-01

    We suggest that radioactive food contamination, as determined solely by a quantitative gamma-ray spectroscopic measurement, may, apart from the total activity per unit mass, be for quick reference conveniently characterized by another single figure which we call the ''Gamma Contamination Food Factor'' (GCFF). This factor may be defined as the ratio of the total specific activity of gamma-ray-emitting radionuclides in the food sample (except that of 40 K) to the specific activity of 40 K either in the sample itself or in an ''average man''. We discuss briefly the meaning and advantages of these definitions. (author)

  4. Advanced HEDL gamma scan system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, F.C.; Olson, R.N.

    1983-01-01

    The design of an advanced state-of-the-art gamma scan system built for the purpose of measuring the point-by-point gamma activity of irradiated fuel rods is described. The emphasis of the system design was to achieve the highest rate of throughput with the minimum per rod cost while maintaining system accuracy and reliability. Preliminary tests demonstrate that all system requirements were met or exceeded. The system provides improved throughput, precision, automation, flexibility, and data processing capability over previous gamma scan systems

  5. Subjective poverty line definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Flik; B.M.S. van Praag (Bernard)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we will deal with definitions of subjective poverty lines. To measure a poverty threshold value in terms of household income, which separates the poor from the non-poor, we take into account the opinions of all people in society. Three subjective methods will be discussed

  6. Position displacement effect on the doses in the peripheral head regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kortesniemi, M.; Seppaelae, T.; Bjugg, H.; Seren, T.; Kotiluoto, P.; Auterinen, I.; Parkkinen, R.; Savolainen, S.

    2000-01-01

    Patient positioning is a challenging task in BNCT-treatments due to the use of multiple fields and a static horizontal beam construction. Positioning accuracy of 5 mm is required for acceptable dose delivery within appropriate limits of dose uncertainty (up to 10% of point dose in target volume). The aim of this study was to determine if a patient head position creating a clear gap between the beam port and the head would have a significant effect on the doses to the peripheral regions of the head, e.g. to the eyes. The gamma dose rates were measured in a water filled ellipsoidal phantom with an ionisation chamber (IC). Mn activation wires were used to determine the Mn-55(n, γ) reaction rates. Twelve measurement points were chosen in the phantom and two phantom positions were applied. According to this study the 35 mm position change and the resulting gap has an obvious effect on the peripheral doses in BNCT. The Mn activation reaction rates were on the average 80% higher in the deviation position than in the reference position. Increasing depth from the surface inside the phantom diminished the gamma dose difference between the two positions. Scattering environment changes with position displacement and resulting gap causes differences in neutron fluences and gamma doses. (author)

  7. EPR structure of the gamma irradiated alanine spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabral P, A; Jimenez D, H; Urena N, F; Galindo, S; Bosch, P

    1992-03-15

    In this study is shown that the broadened five-line EPR pattern of the gamma irradiated alanine possibly decomposes into a more complex pattern when the recorded spectrum is subject to an operation of deconvolution. The EPR powder spectra of gamma irradiated DL- and L-alanine with and without binders are analysed. In all recorded spectra, each observed line is resolved into an asymmetrical triplet when a Gaussian distribution of 8.2 gauss width is removed, by deconvolution, from the observed spectrum. On the other hand, from a simple fitting analysis carried out on the original data, one encounters that some calculated relations between characteristic parameters, such as intensity ratios, deviate consistently from assumed height ratios. Both, from deconvolution and fitting results, a different structure is suggested for the observed broadened five-line EPR pattern of {gamma}-irradiated powder DL- and L-alanine. (Author)

  8. Dosimetry and Shielding of X and Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oncescu, M.; Panaitescu, I.

    1992-01-01

    This book covers the following problems: 1. X and Gamma radiations, 2. Interaction of X-ray and gamma radiations with matter, 3. Interaction of electrons with matter, 4. Principles and basic concepts of dosimetry, 5. Ionization dosimetry, 6. Calorimetric chemical and photographic dosimetry, 7. Solid state dosimetry, 8. Computation of dosimetric quantities, 9. Dosimetry in radiation protection, 10. Shielding of X and gamma radiations. The authors, well-known Romanian experts in Radiation Physics and Engineering, gave an up-dated, complete and readable account of this subject matter. The analyses of physical principles and concepts, of materials and instruments and of computational methods and applications are all well balanced to meat the needs of a broad readership

  9. Neutron and gamma irradiation effects on power semiconductor switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarze, G.E.; Frasca, A.J.

    1990-01-01

    The performance characteristics of high power semiconductor switches subjected to high levels of neutron fluence and gamma dose must be known by the designer of the power conditioning, control and transmission subsystem of space nuclear power systems. Location and the allowable shielding mass budget will determine the level of radiation tolerance required by the switches to meet performance and reliability requirements. Neutron and gamma ray interactions with semiconductor materials and how these interactions affect the electrical and switching characteristics of solid state power switches is discussed. The experimental measurement system and radiation facilities are described. Experimental data showing the effects of neutron and gamma irradiation on the performance characteristics are given for power-type NPN bipolar junction transistors (BJTs), and metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs)

  10. Gamma-gamma angular correlation measurement in the 100 Ru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenchian, G.

    1990-01-01

    An angular correlation automatic spectrometer with two Ge(Li) detectors has been developed. The spectrometer moves automatically, controlled by a microcomputer. The gamma-gamma directional angular correlations of coincidence transitions have been measured in 100 Ru nuclide, following the β + and electron capture of 100 Rh. The 100 Rh source has been produced with 100 Ru(p,n) 100 Rh reaction, using the proton beam of the Cyclotron Accelerator insiding in 100 Ru isotope. (author)

  11. Gamma spectrometry of 285-04 ILAS gamma scan wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dassel, G.; Buurveld, H.A.; Plakman, J.C.

    1996-12-01

    In the frame work of their on-going sustain programme for the material development and characterization of fusion reactors, ECN is investigating the irradiation behaviour of ferritic/martensitic steels. In the fourth irradiation experiment 285-04, 55 steel tensile samples have been irradiated up to 2.5 dpa. Four gamma scan wires from this experiment have been examined by gamma scanning. The results of the measurements have been described in this report. (orig.)

  12. Gamma spectrometry of 285-03 ILAS gamma scan wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dassel, G.; Buurveld, H.A.; Plakman, J.C.

    1996-12-01

    In the frame work of their on-going sustain programme for the material development and characterization of fusion reactors, ECN is investigating the irradiation behaviour of ferritic/martensitic steels. In the third irradiation experiment 285-03, 55 vanadium (V-4Cr-4Ti) tensile samples have been irradiated up to 6 dpa. Four gamma scan wires from this experiment have been examined by gamma scanning. The results of the measurements have been described in this report. (orig.)

  13. Cosmological Gamma-Ray Bursts and Hypernovae Conclusively Linked

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-01

    with the UVES spectrograph at the 8.2-m VLT KUEYEN telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory (Chile). The corresponding distance is about 2,650 million light-years. This is the nearest normal GRB ever detected, therefore providing the long-awaited opportunity to test the many hypotheses and models which have been proposed since the discovery of the first GRBs in the late 1960's. With this specific aim, the ESO-lead team of astronomers [1] now turned to two other powerful instruments at the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT), the multi-mode FORS1 and FORS2 camera/spectrographs. Over a period of one month, until May 1, 2003, spectra of the fading object were obtained at regular rate, securing a unique set of observational data that documents the physical changes in the remote object in unsurpassed detail. The hypernova connection Based on a careful study of these spectra, the astronomers are now presenting their interpretation of the GRB 030329 event in a research paper appearing in the international journal "Nature" on Thursday, June 19. Under the prosaic title "A very energetic supernova associated with the gamma-ray burst of 29 March 2003", no less than 27 authors from 17 research institutes, headed by Danish astronomer Jens Hjorth conclude that there is now irrefutable evidence of a direct connection between the GRB and the "hypernova" explosion of a very massive, highly evolved star. This is based on the gradual "emergence" with time of a supernova-type spectrum, revealing the extremely violent explosion of a star. With velocities well in excess of 30,000 km/sec (i.e., over 10% of the velocity of light), the ejected material is moving at record speed, testifying to the enormous power of the explosion. Hypernovae are rare events and they are probably caused by explosion of stars of the so-called "Wolf-Rayet" type [4]. These WR-stars were originally formed with a mass above 25 solar masses and consisted mostly of hydrogen. Now in their WR-phase, having stripped themselves

  14. Henry Head and the Theatre of Reverie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany Watt-Smith

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In 1903, the neurologist Henry Head (1861-1940 embarked on a painful self-experiment, in which he severed the radial nerve of his left arm, and then charted the gradual and faltering return of sensitivity to the limb over the next four and a half years. To directly experience his own sensations, Head entered into a trance-like state of distraction or reverie he called a ‘negative attitude of attention’. This article explores Head’s peculiar technique for looking within, and argues that while introspection was an established strategy in psychological laboratories, Head’s reverie also resonated with techniques associated with actors and theatrical audiences during this period. Viewing psychological self-experimentation through the lens of theatre, this article makes visible aspects of Head’s embodied, affective laboratory encounters, often obscured in accounts of his experiment. At the same time, it proposes that the broader historical and cultural significance of Head’s experiment lies in his attempt to observe himself by producing states of inattention and reverie at will, mental ‘attitudes’ that were themselves the subject of a rapidly evolving debate in scientific and aesthetic circles at the turn of the twentieth century.

  15. Head Impact Exposure and Neurologic Function of Youth Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munce, Thayne A; Dorman, Jason C; Thompson, Paul A; Valentine, Verle D; Bergeron, Michael F

    2015-08-01

    Football players are subjected to repetitive impacts that may lead to brain injury and neurologic dysfunction. Knowledge about head impact exposure (HIE) and consequent neurologic function among youth football players is limited. This study aimed to measure and characterize HIE of youth football players throughout one season and explore associations between HIE and changes in selected clinical measures of neurologic function. Twenty-two youth football players (11-13 yr) wore helmets outfitted with a head impact telemetry (HIT) system to quantify head impact frequency, magnitude, duration, and location. Impact data were collected for each practice (27) and game (9) in a single season. Selected clinical measures of balance, oculomotor performance, reaction time, and self-reported symptoms were assessed before and after the season. The median individual head impacts per practice, per game, and throughout the entire season were 9, 12, and 252, respectively. Approximately 50% of all head impacts (6183) had a linear acceleration between 10g and 20g, but nearly 2% were greater than 80g. Overall, the head impact frequency distributions in this study population were similar in magnitude and location as in high school and collegiate football, but total impact frequency was lower. Individual changes in neurologic function were not associated with cumulative HIE. This study provides a novel examination of HIE and associations with short-term neurologic function in youth football and notably contributes to the limited HIE data currently available for this population. Whereas youth football players can experience remarkably similar head impact forces as high school players, cumulative subconcussive HIE throughout one youth football season may not be detrimental to short-term clinical measures of neurologic function.

  16. The holistic analysis of gamma-ray spectra in instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaauw, M

    1993-11-15

    The subject is the computerized analysis of the gamma-ray spectra in INAA. This analysis can be separated in three parts: The conversion of the spectra to information on {gamma}-ray energies and their relative intensities (spectrum reduction), the determination of the relation between the intensity of a {gamma}-ray and the amount of the corresponding element present in the sample (standardization) and the attribution of the {gamma}-ray energies to the elements, including the subsequent computation of the amounts of the elements (interpretation). A {gamma}-ray spectrum can be considered to be the linear sum of the {gamma}-ray spectra of the individual radionuclides present in the sample. Knowing the relative activities of the different radionuclides that may be produced by activation of a single element, a {gamma}-ray spectrum in INAA can also be considered to be the linear sum of the spectra of the elements. This principle has hitherto not been used in INAA to analyze the spectra by linear least squares methods, using all {gamma}-ray energies observed in the spectrum. The implementation of this `holistic` approach required that attention be paid to both spectrum reduction, standardization and interpretation. The thesis describes the methods developed for the holistic analysis of {gamma}-ray spectra in INAA, and present results of experimental comparisons between the holistic and other approaches. (orig./HP).

  17. Wheelchair control by head motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajkanović Aleksandar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric wheelchairs are designed to aid paraplegics. Unfortunately, these can not be used by persons with higher degree of impairment, such as quadriplegics, i.e. persons that, due to age or illness, can not move any of the body parts, except of the head. Medical devices designed to help them are very complicated, rare and expensive. In this paper a microcontroller system that enables standard electric wheelchair control by head motion is presented. The system comprises electronic and mechanic components. A novel head motion recognition technique based on accelerometer data processing is designed. The wheelchair joystick is controlled by the system’s mechanical actuator. The system can be used with several different types of standard electric wheelchairs. It is tested and verified through an experiment performed within this paper.

  18. $\\gamma$-$\\gamma$ and $\\gamma$-p events at high energies

    CERN Document Server

    Schuler, Gerhard A.; Gerhard A Schuler; Torbjorn Sjostrand

    1994-01-01

    A real photon has a complicated nature, whereby it may remain unresolved or fluctuate into a vector meson or a perturbative q-qbar pair. Based on this picture, we previously presented a model for gamma-p events that is based on the presence of three main event classes: direct, VMD and anomalous. In gamma-gamma events, a natural generalization gives three-by-three combinations of the nature of the two incoming photons, and thus six distinct event classes. The properties of these classes are constrained by the choices already made, in the gamma-p model, of cut-off procedures and other aspects. It is therefore possible to predict the energy-dependence of the cross section for each of the six components separately. The total cross section thus obtained is in good agreement with data, and also gives support to the idea that a simple factorized ansatz with a pomeron and a reggeon term can be a good approximation. Event properties undergo a logical evolution from p-p to gamma-p to gamma-gamma events, with larger cha...

  19. OCULAR MANIFESTATIONS OF HEAD INJURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanukollu Venkata Madusudana Rao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND This prospective study aimed to evaluate the incidence of ocular manifestations in head injury and their correlation with the intracranial lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 108 consecutive cases of closed head injury admitted in the neurosurgical ward of a tertiary teaching hospital underwent a thorough ophthalmic assessment. Clinical examination, radiological imaging and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS were applied to grade the severity of injury. RESULTS Total number of 108 patients of head injury were examined of which 38 patients had ocular manifestations (35.18%. Of these, 85.18% were males, 84% of injuries were due to road traffic accidents and 16% were due to fall from a height. The ocular manifestations were as follows- Orbital complications were seen in 6 patients (15.8%. Anterior segment manifestations included black eyes seen in 10 patients (26.3%, subconjunctival haemorrhage in 10.5% of patients (4 patients, corneal involvement in 21% of patients (8 patients and pupillary involvement in 50% of patients (19 patients. Posterior segment manifestations were seen in 26.3% of patients (10 patients and were as follows- Purtscher’s retinopathy in 2 patients and optic atrophy in 5 patients. Cranial nerve palsies were seen in 15 patients (39.47% and supranuclear movement disorders were seen in 3 patients (8%. CONCLUSION Even though, neurosurgeons perform comprehensive clinical examination including eye examination, the main purpose is limited to aid topical diagnosis of neurological lesions. This study emphasises the importance of a detailed eye examination by an ophthalmologist to prevent irreversible visual loss in addition to aiding in the neurological diagnosis. Pupillary involvement, papilloedema and ocular motor paresis pointed to a more severe head injury. This observational prospective study helped us to correlate the severity of head injuries in association with ocular findings in patients admitted in neurosurgical ward

  20. Head First 2D Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Fallow), Stray

    2009-01-01

    Having trouble with geometry? Do Pi, The Pythagorean Theorem, and angle calculations just make your head spin? Relax. With Head First 2D Geometry, you'll master everything from triangles, quads and polygons to the time-saving secrets of similar and congruent angles -- and it'll be quick, painless, and fun. Through entertaining stories and practical examples from the world around you, this book takes you beyond boring problems. You'll actually use what you learn to make real-life decisions, like using angles and parallel lines to crack a mysterious CSI case. Put geometry to work for you, and

  1. Ophthalmic manifestations of head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowal, L

    1992-02-01

    Head injuries are frequently associated with ophthalmic problems. The commonest problems seen in this series of 161 patients with head injury were problems with poor accommodation (16% of patients; 58% of these persisted), convergence (14% of patients; 35% of these persisted), pseudomyopia (19%; 55% persisted) and optic atrophy (26% of the patients; 78% of these were mild and easily missed on routine testing, and 22% were severe). Motility disorders were common, especially cranial nerve palsies. Other less frequent motility disturbances included apparent inferior oblique palsy, comitant esotropia, and exotropia which was often of the convergence insufficiency type.

  2. A review of scientific papers about head and neck cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paoli, Severo de; Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da; Paoli, Flavia de; Geller, Mauro [Centro Universitario Serra dos Orgaos, Teresopolis, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: severodepaoli@gmail.com; Presta, Giuseppe Antonio [Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UNIRIO), RJ (Brazil); Santos-Filho, Sebastiao David; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria

    2008-12-15

    Head and neck cancer is one of the 10 most frequent cancers worldwide, with an estimated 500000 new cases diagnosed annually. Treatment of head and neck cancers require a multidisciplinary approach due their complexity and the functional and esthetic alterations that cancer can cause. The interest of the scientific community in a specific subject can be evaluated by analyzing of the number and the quality of published papers on the topic. The information obtained from PubMed (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez) has been used as a tool in various publications to aid the evaluation of the scientific interest in specific research areas The aim of this work is to evaluate, using PubMed, the scientific interest in studies of head and neck cancer treatments such as radiotherapy, chemotherapy and surgery. The searches were performed on PubMed for publications from the period of 1949 to 2008 using the search terms 'head and neck cancer' and 'surgery' or 'radiotherapy' or 'chemotherapy'. The number of publications per year was determined in each search. The percentage of publications was also calculated for each subject in each year. An interest factor in a subject (IFS) was also determined. The number of publications was higher for surgery than chemotherapy or radiotherapy. The calculated 1964 IFS for surgery was 14.79, 12.74 for radiotherapy, and 19.58 for chemotherapy. The 1995 IFS for surgery was 1.99, 2.09 for radiotherapy, and 2.08 for chemotherapy. The relation obtained for 1995 was maintained in the subsequent years. There are more publications related to surgical treatment for head and neck cancer when compared with radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Moreover, in the recent years there has an increased interest in treatments utilizing chemotherapy, or this associated to radiotherapy. (author)

  3. A review of scientific papers about head and neck cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paoli, Severo de; Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da; Paoli, Flavia de; Geller, Mauro; Presta, Giuseppe Antonio; Santos-Filho, Sebastiao David; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

    2008-01-01

    Head and neck cancer is one of the 10 most frequent cancers worldwide, with an estimated 500000 new cases diagnosed annually. Treatment of head and neck cancers require a multidisciplinary approach due their complexity and the functional and esthetic alterations that cancer can cause. The interest of the scientific community in a specific subject can be evaluated by analyzing of the number and the quality of published papers on the topic. The information obtained from PubMed (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez) has been used as a tool in various publications to aid the evaluation of the scientific interest in specific research areas The aim of this work is to evaluate, using PubMed, the scientific interest in studies of head and neck cancer treatments such as radiotherapy, chemotherapy and surgery. The searches were performed on PubMed for publications from the period of 1949 to 2008 using the search terms 'head and neck cancer' and 'surgery' or 'radiotherapy' or 'chemotherapy'. The number of publications per year was determined in each search. The percentage of publications was also calculated for each subject in each year. An interest factor in a subject (IFS) was also determined. The number of publications was higher for surgery than chemotherapy or radiotherapy. The calculated 1964 IFS for surgery was 14.79, 12.74 for radiotherapy, and 19.58 for chemotherapy. The 1995 IFS for surgery was 1.99, 2.09 for radiotherapy, and 2.08 for chemotherapy. The relation obtained for 1995 was maintained in the subsequent years. There are more publications related to surgical treatment for head and neck cancer when compared with radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Moreover, in the recent years there has an increased interest in treatments utilizing chemotherapy, or this associated to radiotherapy. (author)

  4. On the possible effects of gluon number fluctuations on {gamma}{gamma} collisions at high energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, V. P.; De Santana Amaral, J. T. [Instituto de Fisica e Matematica, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Caixa Postal 354, 96010-900, Pelotas, RS (Brazil)

    2013-03-25

    We investigate the effects of the fluctuations on the total {gamma}{gamma}, {gamma}*{gamma}* cross sections and the real photon structure function F{sup {gamma}}{sub 2}(x,Q{sup 2}), considering a saturation phenomenological model for the dipole-dipole cross section and scattering amplitude with fluctuations included.

  5. Study of the $e^+ e^- \\to Z\\gamma\\gamma \\to q\\overline{q}\\gamma\\gamma$ Process at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Acciarri, M.; Adriani, O.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alcaraz, J.; Alemanni, G.; Allaby, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alviggi, M.G.; Ambrosi, G.; Anderhub, H.; Andreev, Valery P.; Angelescu, T.; Anselmo, F.; Arefev, A.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Bagnaia, P.; Bajo, A.; Baksay, L.; Balandras, A.; Baldew, S.V.; Banerjee, S.; Banerjee, Sw.; Barczyk, A.; Barillere, R.; Bartalini, P.; Basile, M.; Batalova, N.; Battiston, R.; Bay, A.; Becattini, F.; Becker, U.; Behner, F.; Bellucci, L.; Berbeco, R.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Betev, B.L.; Bhattacharya, S.; Biasini, M.; Biglietti, M.; Biland, A.; Blaising, J.J.; Blyth, S.C.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bohm, A.; Boldizsar, L.; Borgia, B.; Bourilkov, D.; Bourquin, M.; Braccini, S.; Branson, J.G.; Brochu, F.; Buffini, A.; Buijs, A.; Burger, J.D.; Burger, W.J.; Cai, X.D.; Capell, M.; Cara Romeo, G.; Carlino, G.; Cartacci, A.M.; Casaus, J.; Castellini, G.; Cavallari, F.; Cavallo, N.; Cecchi, C.; Cerrada, M.; Cesaroni, F.; Chamizo, M.; Chang, Y.H.; Chaturvedi, U.K.; Chemarin, M.; Chen, A.; Chen, G.; Chen, G.M.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, H.S.; Chiefari, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Civinini, C.; Clare, I.; Clare, R.; Coignet, G.; Colino, N.; Costantini, S.; Cotorobai, F.; de la Cruz, B.; Csilling, A.; Cucciarelli, S.; Dai, T.S.; van Dalen, J.A.; D'Alessandro, R.; de Asmundis, R.; Deglon, P.; Degre, A.; Deiters, K.; della Volpe, D.; Delmeire, E.; Denes, P.; DeNotaristefani, F.; De Salvo, A.; Diemoz, M.; Dierckxsens, M.; van Dierendonck, D.; Dionisi, C.; Dittmar, M.; Dominguez, A.; Doria, A.; Dova, M.T.; Duchesneau, D.; Dufournaud, D.; Duinker, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Engler, A.; Eppling, F.J.; Erne, F.C.; Ewers, A.; Extermann, P.; Fabre, M.; Falagan, M.A.; Falciano, S.; Favara, A.; Fay, J.; Fedin, O.; Felcini, M.; Ferguson, T.; Fesefeldt, H.; Fiandrini, E.; Field, J.H.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, P.H.; Fisk, I.; Forconi, G.; Freudenreich, K.; Furetta, C.; Galaktionov, Iouri; Ganguli, S.N.; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gataullin, M.; Gau, S.S.; Gentile, S.; Gheordanescu, N.; Giagu, S.; Gong, Z.F.; Grenier, Gerald Jean; Grimm, O.; Gruenewald, M.W.; Guida, M.; van Gulik, R.; Gupta, V.K.; Gurtu, A.; Gutay, L.J.; Haas, D.; Hasan, A.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hebbeker, T.; Herve, Alain; Hidas, P.; Hirschfelder, J.; Hofer, H.; Holzner, G.; Hoorani, H.; Hou, S.R.; Hu, Y.; Iashvili, I.; Jin, B.N.; Jones, Lawrence W.; de Jong, P.; Josa-Mutuberria, I.; Khan, R.A.; Kafer, D.; Kaur, M.; Kienzle-Focacci, M.N.; Kim, D.; Kim, J.K.; Kirkby, Jasper; Kiss, D.; Kittel, W.; Klimentov, A.; Konig, A.C.; Kopal, M.; Kopp, A.; Koutsenko, V.; Kraber, M.; Kraemer, R.W.; Krenz, W.; Kruger, A.; Kunin, A.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Laktineh, I.; Landi, G.; Lebeau, M.; Lebedev, A.; Lebrun, P.; Lecomte, P.; Lecoq, P.; Le Coultre, P.; Lee, H.J.; Le Goff, J.M.; Leiste, R.; Levtchenko, P.; Li, C.; Likhoded, S.; Lin, C.H.; Lin, W.T.; Linde, F.L.; Lista, L.; Liu, Z.A.; Lohmann, W.; Longo, E.; Lu, Y.S.; Lubelsmeyer, K.; Luci, C.; Luckey, David; Lugnier, L.; Luminari, L.; Lustermann, W.; Ma, W.G.; Maity, M.; Malgeri, L.; Malinin, A.; Mana, C.; Mangeol, D.; Mans, J.; Marian, G.; Martin, J.P.; Marzano, F.; Mazumdar, K.; McNeil, R.R.; Mele, S.; Merola, L.; Meschini, M.; Metzger, W.J.; von der Mey, M.; Mihul, A.; Milcent, H.; Mirabelli, G.; Mnich, J.; Mohanty, G.B.; Moulik, T.; Muanza, G.S.; Muijs, A.J.M.; Musicar, B.; Musy, M.; Napolitano, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Newman, H.; Niessen, T.; Nisati, A.; Kluge, Hannelies; Ofierzynski, R.; Organtini, G.; Oulianov, A.; Palomares, C.; Pandoulas, D.; Paoletti, S.; Paolucci, P.; Paramatti, R.; Park, H.K.; Park, I.H.; Passaleva, G.; Patricelli, S.; Paul, Thomas Cantzon; Pauluzzi, M.; Paus, C.; Pauss, F.; Pedace, M.; Pensotti, S.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Petersen, B.; Piccolo, D.; Pierella, F.; Pieri, M.; Piroue, P.A.; Pistolesi, E.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Pojidaev, V.; Postema, H.; Pothier, J.; Prokofev, D.O.; Prokofiev, D.; Quartieri, J.; Rahal-Callot, G.; Rahaman, M.A.; Raics, P.; Raja, N.; Ramelli, R.; Rancoita, P.G.; Ranieri, R.; Raspereza, A.; Raven, G.; Razis, P.; Ren, D.; Rescigno, M.; Reucroft, S.; Riemann, S.; Riles, Keith; Rodin, J.; Roe, B.P.; Romero, L.; Rosca, A.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Roth, Stefan; Rosenbleck, C.; Roux, B.; Rubio, J.A.; Ruggiero, G.; Rykaczewski, H.; Saremi, S.; Sarkar, S.; Salicio, J.; Sanchez, E.; Sanders, M.P.; Schafer, C.; Schegelsky, V.; Schmidt-Kaerst, S.; Schmitz, D.; Schopper, H.; Schotanus, D.J.; Schwering, G.; Sciacca, C.; Seganti, A.; Servoli, L.; Shevchenko, S.; Shivarov, N.; Shoutko, V.; Shumilov, E.; Shvorob, A.; Siedenburg, T.; Son, D.; Smith, B.; Spillantini, P.; Steuer, M.; Stickland, D.P.; Stone, A.; Stoyanov, B.; Straessner, A.; Sudhakar, K.; Sultanov, G.; Sun, L.Z.; Sushkov, S.; Suter, H.; Swain, J.D.; Szillasi, Z.; Sztaricskai, T.; Tang, X.W.; Tauscher, L.; Taylor, L.; Tellili, B.; Teyssier, D.; Timmermans, Charles; Ting, Samuel C.C.; Ting, S.M.; Tonwar, S.C.; Toth, J.; Tully, C.; Tung, K.L.; Uchida, Y.; Ulbricht, J.; Valente, E.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vetlitsky, I.; Vicinanza, D.; Viertel, G.; Villa, S.; Vivargent, M.; Vlachos, S.; Vodopianov, I.; Vogel, H.; Vogt, H.; Vorobev, I.; Vorobov, A.A.; Vorvolakos, A.; Wadhwa, M.; Wallraff, W.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.L.; Wang, Z.M.; Weber, A.; Weber, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wilkens, H.; Wu, S.X.; Wynhoff, S.; Xia, L.; Xu, Z.Z.; Yamamoto, J.; Yang, B.Z.; Yang, C.G.; Yang, H.J.; Yang, M.; Ye, J.B.; Yeh, S.C.; Zalite, A.; Zalite, Yu.; Zhang, Z.P.; Zhu, G.Y.; Zhu, R.Y.; Zichichi, A.; Zilizi, G.; Zimmermann, B.; Zoller, M.

    2001-01-01

    The process e^+e^- -> Z gamma gamma -> q q~ gamma gamma$ is studied in 0.5\\,fb-1$ of data collected with the L3 detector at centre-of-mass energies between 130.1 GeV and 201.7 GeV. Cross sections are measured and found to be consistent with the Standard Model expectations. The study of the least energetic photon constrains the quartic gauge boson couplings to -0.008 GeV-2 < a_0/\\Lambda^2 < 0.005 GeV-2 and -0.007 GeV-2 < a_c/\\Lambda^2 < 0.011 GeV-2, at 95% confidence level.

  6. The Winfrith district gamma survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavell, I.W.; Peabody, C.O.

    1961-09-01

    This report describes the District Gamma Survey carried out around the A.E.E., Winfrith since June, 1959. Its organisation, equipment and techniques are described, and the results obtained up to the 31st December, 1960 are given. (author)

  7. Gamma rays at airplane altitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwai, J.; Koss, T.; Lord, J.; Strausz, S.; Wilkes, J.; Woosley, J.

    1990-01-01

    An examination of the gamma ray flux above 1 TeV in the atmosphere is needed to better understand the anomalous showers from point sources. Suggestions are made for future experiments on board airplanes

  8. Post harvest changes gamma-irradiated banana Prata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilas Boas, E.V. de; Chitarra, A.B.; Chitarra, M.I.F.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of the gamma-irradiation was evaluated at 0.25 and 0.50 kGy, on the development of peel coloration, CO 2 and ethylene evolution, conversion of starch to sugars, pulp-to-peel ratio, pectic solubilization and activities of enzymes of the cell wall, pectin methylesterase (PME), and polygalacturonase (PG), during maturation of 'Prata' bananas. The gamma-irradiation did not affect the normal colour development of the fruits. An increase in the ethylene peak and a decrease in the CO 2 peak was observed. The gamma-irradiation did not affect the degradation of starch, while a delay in soluble sugar accumulation was noted on the 6 and 7 colour grades. The fruits subjected to 0.25 kGy had the highest increase in the pulp-to-peel relation, beginning with colour grade 5, due to a possible stress effect of that dose. An increase of pectin solubilization was observed. Higher PME activities were exhibited by irradiated fruits, although the gamma-irradiation suppressed the PG activity throughout the maturation period. The gamma-irradiation did not extend the post-harvest life of 'Prata' bananas. (author) [pt

  9. Decrease in gamma-band activity tracks sequence learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhavan, Radhika; Millman, Daniel; Tang, Hanlin; Crone, Nathan E.; Lenz, Fredrick A.; Tierney, Travis S.; Madsen, Joseph R.; Kreiman, Gabriel; Anderson, William S.

    2015-01-01

    Learning novel sequences constitutes an example of declarative memory formation, involving conscious recall of temporal events. Performance in sequence learning tasks improves with repetition and involves forming temporal associations over scales of seconds to minutes. To further understand the neural circuits underlying declarative sequence learning over trials, we tracked changes in intracranial field potentials (IFPs) recorded from 1142 electrodes implanted throughout temporal and frontal cortical areas in 14 human subjects, while they learned the temporal-order of multiple sequences of images over trials through repeated recall. We observed an increase in power in the gamma frequency band (30–100 Hz) in the recall phase, particularly in areas within the temporal lobe including the parahippocampal gyrus. The degree of this gamma power enhancement decreased over trials with improved sequence recall. Modulation of gamma power was directly correlated with the improvement in recall performance. When presenting new sequences, gamma power was reset to high values and decreased again after learning. These observations suggest that signals in the gamma frequency band may play a more prominent role during the early steps of the learning process rather than during the maintenance of memory traces. PMID:25653598

  10. RUSSIAN LAW SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Bakhrakh

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The question about the subjects of law branches is concerning the number of most important and difficult in law science. Its right decision influences on the subject of law regulation, precise definition of addressees of law norms, the volume of their rights and duties, the limits of action of norms of Main part of the branch, its principles. Scientific investigations, dedicated to law subjects system, promote the development of recommendations for the legislative and law applying activity; they are needed for scientific work organization and student training, for preparing qualified lawyers.

  11. Writing and the 'Subject'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Charlotte

    /page. It is, moreover, an index pointing to the painting/writing subject; it is a special deictic mode of painting/writing. The handwriting of the Russian avant-garde books, the poetics of handwriting, and the way handwriting is represented in poetry emphasize the way the subject (the speaking and the viewing...... in the early as well as the contemporary avant-garde, it becomes clear that the ‘subject’ is an unstable category that can be exposed to manipulation and play. Handwriting is performing as a signature (as an index), but is at the same time similar to the signature of a subject (an icon) and a verbal construct...

  12. Subject (of documents)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2017-01-01

    This article presents and discuss the concept “subject” or subject matter (of documents) as it has been examined in library and information science (LIS) for more than 100 years. Different theoretical positions are outlined and it is found that the most important distinction is between document......-oriented views versus request-oriented views. The document-oriented view conceive subject as something inherent in documents, whereas the request-oriented view (or the policy based view) understand subject as an attribution made to documents in order to facilitate certain uses of them. Related concepts...

  13. Studies of the Pro12Ala polymorphism of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma2 (PPAR-gamma2) gene in relation to insulin sensitivity among glucose tolerant caucasians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ek, J; Andersen, G; Urhammer, S A

    2001-01-01

    We examined whether the Pro12-Ala polymorphism of the human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma2 (PPAR-gamma2) gene was related to altered insulin sensitivity among glucose-tolerant subjects or a lower accumulated incidence or prevalence of IGT and Type II (non-insulin-dependent) dia......-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus among Scandinavian Caucasians....

  14. Gamma transitions in 127Te

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batista, Wagner Fonseca; Zamboni, Cibele Bugno

    2009-01-01

    This study of the 127 Te β - decay was carried out by means of gamma spectroscopy measurements using high resolution Ge detector, in the region from 150 keV up to 1000 keV, aiming to get a better understanding of the 127 Te nuclear structure. Several gamma transitions were confirmed when compared with those published in the last compilation. These data resulting in lower uncertainty. (author)

  15. About cosmic gamma ray lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Roland

    2017-06-01

    Gamma ray lines from cosmic sources convey the action of nuclear reactions in cosmic sites and their impacts on astrophysical objects. Gamma rays at characteristic energies result from nuclear transitions following radioactive decays or high-energy collisions with excitation of nuclei. The gamma-ray line from the annihilation of positrons at 511 keV falls into the same energy window, although of different origin. We present here the concepts of cosmic gamma ray spectrometry and the corresponding instruments and missions, followed by a discussion of recent results and the challenges and open issues for the future. Among the lessons learned are the diffuse radioactive afterglow of massive-star nucleosynthesis in 26Al and 60Fe gamma rays, which is now being exploited towards the cycle of matter driven by massive stars and their supernovae; large interstellar cavities and superbubbles have been recognised to be of key importance here. Also, constraints on the complex processes making stars explode as either thermonuclear or core-collapse supernovae are being illuminated by gamma-ray lines, in this case from shortlived radioactivities from 56Ni and 44Ti decays. In particular, the three-dimensionality and asphericities that have recently been recognised as important are enlightened in different ways through such gamma-ray line spectroscopy. Finally, the distribution of positron annihilation gamma ray emission with its puzzling bulge-dominated intensity disctribution is measured through spatially-resolved spectra, which indicate that annihilation conditions may differ in different parts of our Galaxy. But it is now understood that a variety of sources may feed positrons into the interstellar medium, and their characteristics largely get lost during slowing down and propagation of positrons before annihilation; a recent microquasar flare was caught as an opportunity to see positrons annihilate at a source.

  16. Notes on the gamma kernel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole E.

    The density function of the gamma distribution is used as shift kernel in Brownian semistationary processes modelling the timewise behaviour of the velocity in turbulent regimes. This report presents exact and asymptotic properties of the second order structure function under such a model......, and relates these to results of von Karmann and Horwath. But first it is shown that the gamma kernel is interpretable as a Green’s function....

  17. Physiological response of marigold (calendula officinalis L.) plants to gamma radiation, gibberellic acid and kinetin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noby, M.F.A.

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out during the two successive seasons of 2005/2006 and 2006/2007 at the Experimental Field of Plant Research Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority at Inshas in a newly reclaimed sandy loam soil. The aim of this work was to study the effect of gamma radiation, gibberellic acid or kinetin and their interaction on the growth, flowering and the productivity of pot-marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) plants. The experimental trials included two factorial experiments; the first one was to study the effect of gamma radiation and gibberellic acid and the interaction between them on pot-marigold plants. Another experiment was conducted to study the effect of gamma radiation and kinetin and the interaction between them on pot-marigold plants. Pot-marigold seeds were irradiated before sowing with gamma rays at 0, 50, 100, 150 or 200 Gray (Gy) of gamma rays. After planting, plants were sprayed with either gibberellic acid (at the concentrations of 0, 50, 100, 150 or 200 ppm) or kinetin (at the concentrations of 0, 10, 20, 30 or 40 ppm). Generally, gamma rays treatments (50, 100 and 150 Gy) increased plant height, branch number/plant, leaf area, vegetative growth and roots fresh and dry weights of pot-marigold plants. Also, the same gamma doses accelerated flowering and decreased the period from sowing until flowering while increased flower head diameter, flower number/plant and flowers fresh and dry weights per plant and per feddan. In addition, gamma rays (50 - 150 Gy) increased volatile oil yield in flowers, leaf chlorophyll content, carotenoids and beta carotene in flowers, total soluble sugars and NPK %. The best values were obtained by 50 Gy dose of gamma rays, whereas the dose of 200 Gy gave the lowest values.

  18. Mining Social Tagging Data for Enhanced Subject Access for Readers and Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Karen G.

    2009-01-01

    Social tagging enables librarians to partner with users to provide enhanced subject access. This paper quantifies and compares LC subject headings from each of 31 different subject divisions with user tags from Amazon.com and LibraryThing assigned to the same titles. The intersection and integration of these schemas is described and evaluated.…

  19. Gamma camera system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.W.; Gerber, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    The invention provides a composite solid state detector for use in deriving a display, by spatial coordinate information, of the distribution or radiation emanating from a source within a region of interest, comprising several solid state detector components, each having a given surface arranged for exposure to impinging radiation and exhibiting discrete interactions therewith at given spatially definable locations. The surface of each component and the surface disposed opposite and substantially parallel thereto are associated with impedence means configured to provide for each opposed surface outputs for signals relating the given location of the interactions with one spatial coordinate parameter of one select directional sense. The detector components are arranged to provide groupings of adjacently disposed surfaces mutually linearly oriented to exhibit a common directional sense of the spatial coordinate parameter. Means interconnect at least two of the outputs associated with each of the surfaces within a given grouping for collecting the signals deriving therefrom. The invention also provides a camera system for imaging the distribution of a source of gamma radiation situated within a region of interest

  20. Gamma irradiation of meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitburn, K.D.; Hoffman, M.Z.; Taub, I.A.

    1982-01-01

    In ''A Re-Evaluation of the Products of Gamma Irradiation of Beef Ferrimyoglobin'', J. Food Sci. 46:1814 (1981), authors Whitburn, Hoffman and Taub state that color pigment myoglobin (Mb) undergoes chemical changes during irradiation that cause color changes in meat. They also state that they are in disagreement with Giddings and Markakis, J. Food Sci. 47:361 (1972) in regard to generation of MbO 2 in deaerated solutions, claiming their analysis demonstrates only Mb and Mb(IV) production. Giddings, in a letter, suggests that Whitburn, et al may have used differing systems and approaches which critically changed the radiation chemistry. He also states that radiation sterilization of aerobically packaged meats affects color only slightly. Whitburn, in a reply, shares Dr. Giddings concern for caution in interpretation of results for this system. The compositional changes are dependent on identity of free radicals, dose, O 2 and the time of analysis after irradiation. The quantification of these parameters in pure systems, sarcoplasma extracts and in meat samples should lead to a better understanding of color change mechanisms and how to minimize them