WorldWideScience

Sample records for subject areas including

  1. Including subjectivity in the teaching of Psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Domont de Serpa Junior

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Current psychopathology studies have often been presented in their descriptive dimension. This perspective is important for teaching because it helps the students to recognize and identify the symptomatology of each psychopathology case. However, subjectivity, the experience of suffering and interpersonal aspects are all lost in this perspective. Coming from another psychopathology tradition - existential anthropology - this paper presents practical psychopathology teaching experience which considers such dimensions as being relevant to the understanding of mental suffering. The features and limitations of such traditions are briefly reviewed to support this teaching experience. Two new modalities of practical teaching, used in the discipline of "Special Psychopathology I" offered by the Department of Psychiatry and Forensic Medicine at the medical school of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro for students of psychology, will be presented according to descriptive case study methodology. With these activities we also expect to change the practice of teaching. Traditionally, interviewing of in-patients by a large group of students who observe passively what is happening is the center of this kind of education. We intend to develop a model of teaching which is closer to the proposal of the Brazilian Psychiatric Reform which views mental illness as a complex phenomenon, always involving the relationship that the subject establishes with the world.

  2. Foveal avascular zone area in normal subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Xu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To measure the foveal avascular zone(FAZarea and to investigate the characteristics of the FAZ area in normal eyes, using optical coherence tomography(OCTangiography.METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study. The FAZ area was measured in 69 participants, for a total of 138 eyes, using RTVue-100 OCT. The relations between the FAZ area and the potential factors were evaluated by univariate and multivariate linear regression analysis. Differences between the right and left eyes were calculated, and values were compared by means of a paired t test. Pearson correlation analysis was performed to assess the relationships of the FAZ area between the right and left eyes. RESULTS: The mean FAZ area was 0.30±0.11mm2 in all subjects. For the male subjects, the mean FAZ area was 0.29±0.13mm2, and for the female subjects 0.31±0.09mm2, with no significant difference(t=-1.346,P=0.180. The FAZ area did not correlate with all the potential factors. The mean FAZ area in the right eye was 0.30±0.11mm2, and in the left eye was 0.30±0.10mm2,with no significant difference(P=0.943. There was a strong correlation between the right and left eyes for the FAZ area. CONCLUSION: OCT angiography is a noninvasive method of visualizing and measuring the FAZ area in normal subjects. The FAZ area does not correlate with old age, sex and other factors. It shows significant interocular symmetry in normal subjects.

  3. Local Development of Subject Area Item Banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Annie W.; Barlow, Gene

    1984-01-01

    It is feasible for school districts to develop and use subject area tests as reliable as those previously available only from commercial publishers. Three projects in local item development in a large school district are described. The first involved only Algebra 1. The second involved life science and career education at the elementary level; and…

  4. Student Motivation in Science Subjects in Tanzania, Including Students' Voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkimbili, Selina Thomas; Ødegaard, Marianne

    2017-12-01

    Fostering and maintaining students' interest in science is an important aspect of improving science learning. The focus of this paper is to listen to and reflect on students' voices regarding the sources of motivation for science subjects among students in community secondary schools with contextual challenges in Tanzania. We conducted a group-interview study of 46 Form 3 and Form 4 Tanzanian secondary school students. The study findings reveal that the major contextual challenges to student motivation for science in the studied schools are limited resources and students' insufficient competence in the language of instruction. Our results also reveal ways to enhance student motivation for science in schools with contextual challenges; these techniques include the use of questioning techniques and discourse, students' investigations and practical work using locally available materials, study tours, more integration of classroom science into students' daily lives and the use of real-life examples in science teaching. Also we noted that students' contemporary life, culture and familiar language can be utilised as a useful resource in facilitating meaningful learning in science in the school. Students suggested that, to make science interesting to a majority of students in a Tanzanian context, science education needs to be inclusive of students' experiences, culture and contemporary daily lives. Also, science teaching and learning in the classroom need to involve learners' voices.

  5. Acquisition in different and special subject areas

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Linda S

    2013-01-01

    Learn how acquisitions librarians successfully serve specialized users! In this book, you'll find profiles, methods, and processes for acquisitions in specialized subject areas, such as local and regional poetry, oceanography, educational information in electronic formats, popular fiction, regional and ethnic materials, and more. Seasoned acquisitions librarians share their experiences in gathering the hard-to-find materials their libraries' highly specialized clients need to access. You'll also examine issues surrounding the acquisition of new reference tools that are vital in today's emergi

  6. Expanding marine protected areas to include degraded coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelson, A; Nelson, P A; Edgar, G J; Shashar, N; Reed, D C; Belmaker, J; Krause, G; Beck, M W; Brokovich, E; France, R; Gaines, S D

    2016-12-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are a commonly applied solution to coral reef degradation, yet coral reefs continue to decline worldwide. We argue that expanding the range of MPAs to include degraded reefs (DR-MPA) could help reverse this trend. This approach requires new ecological criteria for MPA design, siting, and management. Rather than focusing solely on preserving healthy reefs, our approach focuses on the potential for biodiversity recovery and renewal of ecosystem services. The new criteria would help identify sites with the highest potential for recovery and the greatest resistance to future threats (e.g., increased temperature and acidification) and sites that contribute to MPA connectivity. The DR-MPA approach is a compliment rather than a substitute for traditional MPA design approaches. We believe that the DR-MPA approach can enhance the natural, or restoration-assisted, recovery of DRs and their ecosystem services; increase total reef area available for protection; promote more resilient and better-connected MPA networks; and improve conditions for human communities dependent on MPA ecosystem services. © 2016 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  7. Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge Including Stillwater Wildlife Management Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge (Stillwater NWR) and Stillwater Wildlife Management Area (Stillwater WMA) are located in western Nevada within Churchill...

  8. Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge Including Stillwater Wildlife Management Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge (SNWR) and Stillwater Wildlife Management Area (SWMA) are located in western Nevada within Churchill County, approximately 70...

  9. Energy secretary's priorities include San Francisco area research projects

    CERN Multimedia

    Widener, A

    2003-01-01

    "Bay Area research labs got a big boost Monday when the Secretary of Energy unveiled his priorities for major research projects his agency hopes to fund over the next two decades. Among the agency's 28 top priorities are a major computer expansion and an experiment examining the expanding universe that could be housed at Lawrence Berkeley Lab and a powerful X-ray laser planned for the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center" (1 page).

  10. Drilling in areas subject to environmental protection; A perfuracao em area de protecao ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendonca, Ricardo Teixeira; Guimaraes, Antimio Santos [PETROBRAS, XX (Brazil). Distrito de Perfuracao do Nordeste. Div. Tecnica; Santana, Manoel Messias de [PETROBRAS, XX (Brazil). Regiao de Producao do Nordeste. Setor de Seguranca Industrial

    1989-12-31

    This paper presents the practices developed for pollution control in areas subject to environmental protection. This well drilling operation was carried out in the Municipality of Marechal Deodoro, in the State of Alagoas, in locality named Massagueira. We stress the preventive methods for liquid and solid effluent generation and the use of Closed Fluid System or Anti-Dike System. (author) 3 figs.

  11. Subjective Response to Foot-Fall Noise, Including Localization of the Source Position

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunskog, Jonas; Hwang, Ha Dong; Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2011-01-01

    Although an impact noise level is objectively evaluated the same according to current standards, a lightweight floor structure is often subjectively judged more annoying than a heavy homogeneous structure. The hypothesis of the present investigation is that the subjective judgment of impact noise...

  12. Verifying the attenuation of earplugs in situ: method validation on human subjects including individualized numerical simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockstael, Annelies; Van Renterghem, Timothy; Botteldooren, Dick; D'Haenens, Wendy; Keppler, Hannah; Maes, Leen; Philips, Birgit; Swinnen, Freya; Vinck, Bart

    2009-03-01

    The microphone in real ear (MIRE) protocol allows the assessment of hearing protector's (HPD) attenuation in situ by measuring the difference between the sound pressure outside and inside the ear canal behind the HPD. Custom-made earplugs have been designed with an inner bore to insert the MIRE probe containing two microphones, the reference microphone measuring the sound pressure outside and the measurement microphone registering the sound pressure behind the HPD. Previous research on a head and torso simulator reveals a distinct difference, henceforth called transfer function, between the sound pressure at the MIRE measurement microphone and the sound pressure of interest at the eardrum. In the current study, similar measurements are carried out on humans with an extra microphone to measure the sound pressure at the eardrum. The resulting transfer functions confirm the global frequency dependency found earlier, but also show substantial variability between the ears with respect to the exact frequency and amplitude of the transfer functions' extrema. In addition, finite-difference time-domain numerical models of an ear canal with earplug are developed for each individual ear by including its specific geometrical parameters. This approach leads to a good resemblance between the simulations and their corresponding measurements.

  13. Condylar volume and condylar area in class I, class II and class III young adult subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saccucci Matteo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim Aim of this study was to compare the volume and the shape of mandibular condyles in a Caucasian young adult population, with different skeletal pattern. Material and methods 200 Caucasian patients (15–30 years old, 95 male and 105 females were classified in three groups on the base of ANB angle: skeletal class I (65 patients, skeletal class II (70 patients and skeletal class III (65 patients. Left and right TMJs of each subject were evaluated independently with CBCT (Iluma. TMJ evaluation included: condylar volume; condylar area; morphological index (MI. Condylar volumes were calculated by using the Mimics software. The condylar volume, the area and the morphological index (MI were compared among the three groups, by using non-parametric tests. Results The Kruskal-Wallis test and the Mann Whitney test revealed that: no significant difference was observed in the whole sample between the right and the left condylar volume; subjects in skeletal class III showed a significantly higher condylar volume, respect to class I and class II subjects (p 3 in males and 663.5 ± 81.3 mm3 in females; p 2 in males and 389.76 ± 61.15 mm2 in females; p  Conclusion Skeletal class appeared to be associated to the mandibular condylar volume and to the mandibular condylar area in the Caucasian orthodontic population.

  14. Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS). Volume 3, Subject Area reference manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreck, R.I.

    1994-01-14

    The Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS) Subject Area manuals are designed as reference guides, that is, each chapter provides the information needed to make best use of each subject area, its tables, and reporting capabilities. Each subject area is documented in a chapter in one of the subject area manuals. Because these are reference manuals, most of the information is also available in the online help system as well. See Section 5.4.2 of the HEIS User`s Guide (DOE-RL 1994a) for a detailed description of the online help.

  15. More than Beliefs: Subject Areas and Teachers' Integration of Laptops in Secondary Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Sarah K.; Chan, Amy; Caputi, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship of subject areas to teachers' technology integration. Educational technology research has often identified "culture clashes" to explain differences in technology use between subject areas. These clashes are frequently attributed to core features, values and beliefs held in the…

  16. Extent of the availability of Africana resources in subject areas in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the extent of the availability of Africana resources in various subject areas in thirteen first and second generation federal university libraries in Nigeria with the view of suggesting ways to improve the development of the collection in the university libraries that are deficient in the subject areas of any of ...

  17. Condylar volume and condylar area in class I, class II and class III young adult subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccucci, Matteo; D'Attilio, Michele; Rodolfino, Daria; Festa, Felice; Polimeni, Antonella; Tecco, Simona

    2012-12-14

    Aim of this study was to compare the volume and the shape of mandibular condyles in a Caucasian young adult population, with different skeletal pattern. 200 Caucasian patients (15-30 years old, 95 male and 105 females) were classified in three groups on the base of ANB angle: skeletal class I (65 patients), skeletal class II (70 patients) and skeletal class III (65 patients). Left and right TMJs of each subject were evaluated independently with CBCT (Iluma). TMJ evaluation included: condylar volume; condylar area; morphological index (MI). Condylar volumes were calculated by using the Mimics software. The condylar volume, the area and the morphological index (MI) were compared among the three groups, by using non-parametric tests. The Kruskal-Wallis test and the Mann Whitney test revealed that: no significant difference was observed in the whole sample between the right and the left condylar volume; subjects in skeletal class III showed a significantly higher condylar volume, respect to class I and class II subjects (p condylar volume was observed in class II subjects, respect to class I and class III (p condylar volume (699.8 ± 63.07 mm3 in males and 663.5 ± 81.3 mm3 in females; p condylar surface (423.24 ± 63.03 mm2 in males and 389.76 ± 61.15 mm2 in females; p condylar volume and to the mandibular condylar area in the Caucasian orthodontic population.

  18. 40 CFR 165.82 - Scope of pesticide dispensing areas included.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... liquid pesticide or equal to or greater than 4,000 pounds (1,818 kilograms) of dry pesticide for any purpose, including refilling or emptying for cleaning. This applies when pesticide is dispensed from the...) The pesticide dispensing area is used solely for dispensing pesticide from a rail car which does not...

  19. 77 FR 15665 - Cellular Service, Including Changes in Licensing of Unserved Area; Interim Restrictions and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ....) II. Background 3. Brief History of Cellular Service Licensing. The Commission adopted initial rules... COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 1 and 22 Cellular Service, Including Changes in Licensing of Unserved Area; Interim Restrictions and Procedures for Cellular Service Applications AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION...

  20. Subjective cognitive complaints included in diagnostic evaluation of dementia helps accurate diagnosis in a mixed memory clinic cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salem, L C; Vogel, Asmus Mejling; Ebstrup, J

    2015-01-01

    functions were assessed with the Mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and Addenbrooke's cognitive examination (ACE), and symptoms of depression were rated with Major Depression Inventory (MDI). All interviews and the diagnostic conclusion were blinded to the SMC score. RESULTS: We found that young patients......OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to examine the quantity and profile of subjective cognitive complaints in young patients as compared with elderly patients referred to a memory clinic. METHODS: Patients were consecutively recruited from the Copenhagen University Hospital Memory Clinic at Rigshospitalet....... In total, 307 patients and 149 age-matched healthy controls were included. Patients were classified in 4 diagnostic groups: dementia, mild cognitive impairment, affective disorders and no cognitive impairment. Subjective memory was assessed with subjective memory complaints (SMC) scale. Global cognitive...

  1. Numerical Treatment of Two-phase Flow in Porous Media Including Specific Interfacial Area

    KAUST Repository

    El-Amin, Mohamed

    2015-06-01

    In this work, we present a numerical treatment for the model of two-phase flow in porous media including specific interfacial area. For numerical discretization we use the cell-centered finite difference (CCFD) method based on the shifting-matrices method which can reduce the time-consuming operations. A new iterative implicit algorithm has been developed to solve the problem under consideration. All advection and advection-like terms that appear in saturation equation and interfacial area equation are treated using upwind schemes. Selected simulation results such as pc–Sw–awn surface, capillary pressure, saturation and specific interfacial area with various values of model parameters have been introduced. The simulation results show a good agreement with those in the literature using either pore network modeling or Darcy scale modeling.

  2. Retrofitting the Low Impact Development Practices into Developed Urban areas Including Barriers and Potential Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafique Muhammad

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Low impact development (LID/green infrastructure (GI practices have been identified as the sustainable practices of managing the stormwater in urban areas. Due to the increasing population, most of the cities are more developing which results in the change of natural area into impervious areas (roads, buildings etc.. Moreover, urbanization and climate change are causing many water-related problems and making over cities unsafe and insecure. Under these circumstances, there is a need to introduce new stormwater management practices into developed cities to reduce the adverse impacts of urbanization. For this purpose, retrofitting low impact development practices demands more attention to reduce these water-related problems and trying to make our cities sustainable. In developed areas, there is a little space is available for the retrofitting of LID practices for the stormwater management. Therefore, the selection of an appropriate place to retrofitting LID practices needs more concern. This paper describes the successfully applied retrofitting LID practices around the globe. It also includes the process of applying retrofitting LID practices at the suitable place with the suitable combination. Optimal places for the retrofitting of different LID practices are also mentioned. This paper also highlights the barriers and potential solutions of retrofitting LID practices in urban areas.

  3. Retrofitting the Low Impact Development Practices into Developed Urban areas Including Barriers and Potential Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafique, Muhammad; Kim, Reeho

    2017-06-01

    Low impact development (LID)/green infrastructure (GI) practices have been identified as the sustainable practices of managing the stormwater in urban areas. Due to the increasing population, most of the cities are more developing which results in the change of natural area into impervious areas (roads, buildings etc.). Moreover, urbanization and climate change are causing many water-related problems and making over cities unsafe and insecure. Under these circumstances, there is a need to introduce new stormwater management practices into developed cities to reduce the adverse impacts of urbanization. For this purpose, retrofitting low impact development practices demands more attention to reduce these water-related problems and trying to make our cities sustainable. In developed areas, there is a little space is available for the retrofitting of LID practices for the stormwater management. Therefore, the selection of an appropriate place to retrofitting LID practices needs more concern. This paper describes the successfully applied retrofitting LID practices around the globe. It also includes the process of applying retrofitting LID practices at the suitable place with the suitable combination. Optimal places for the retrofitting of different LID practices are also mentioned. This paper also highlights the barriers and potential solutions of retrofitting LID practices in urban areas.

  4. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  5. Increased cortical area and thickness in the distal radius in subjects with SHOX-gene mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, A L; Hansen, S; Brixen, K; Frost, M

    2014-12-01

    Short-stature homeobox (SHOX) gene haploinsufficiency may cause skeletal dysplasia including Léri-Weill Dyschondrosteosis (LWD), a clinical entity characterised by the triad of low height, mesomelic disproportion and Madelung's deformity of the wrist. Bone microarchitecture and estimated strength in adult SHOX mutation carriers have not been examined. Twenty-two subjects with a SHOX mutation including 7 males and 15 females with a median age of 38.8 [21.1-52.2] years were recruited from five unrelated families. The control group consisted of 22 healthy subjects matched on age and sex. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Bone geometry, volumetric density, microarchitecture and finite element estimated (FEA) bone strength were measured using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT). A full region of interest (ROI) image analysis and height-matched ROI analyses adjusting for differences in body height between the two groups were performed. Areal BMD and T-scores showed no significant differences between cases and controls. Total radius area was smaller in cases than controls (207 [176-263] vs. 273 [226-298] mm, pRadius cortical bone area (74 ± 20 vs. 58 ± 17 mm(2), p=0.01) and thickness (1.16 ± 0.30 vs. 0.84 ± 0.26 mm, pRadius trabecular bone area (119 [103-192] vs. 202 [168-247] mm(2), pradius and tibia cortical porosity or FEA failure load between groups. A segment of cortical bone defect was identified in the distal radius adjacent to ulna in five unrelated SHOX mutation carriers. Subjects with a SHOX mutation presented with a different bone geometry in radius and tibia while there were no differences in BMD or failure load compared to controls, suggesting that mutations in SHOX gene may have an impact on bone microarchitecture albeit not bone strength. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The lifetime prevalence, health services utilization and risk of suicide of bipolar spectrum subjects, including subthreshold categories in the São Paulo ECA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Doris Hupfeld; Andrade, Laura Helena

    2005-08-01

    Identifying the bipolar (BP) spectrum, including the classic Bipolar I subtype (BP-I), Bipolar II (BP-II) and subthreshold bipolar disorders not meeting DSM-IV diagnostic criteria has raised growing interest, as these softer expressions of bipolar spectrum have been underdiagnosed in spite of clinical consequences. Data are from the Sao Paulo Epidemiological Catchment Area Study (N=1464). Non-affective controls were compared to BP spectrum groups, based on DSM-IIIR and on the "clinical significance" criteria: Subsyndromal Hypomania (SSH) and Manic Symptoms (MS). The lifetime prevalence of BP subgroups was 8.3% (N=122). All BP-I and -II and around 75% of SSH and MS subjects had a lifetime depressive syndrome. Compared to controls and MS subjects, BP-I, BP-II and SSH groups searched more medical help and mental health services. SSH group displayed higher rates of clinical significance than BP-I subjects, and suicidality was higher in BP groups compared to controls. Even the softer MS group had higher rate of suicide attempts than SSH subjects. This is a cross-sectional study and interviews were conducted by lay personnel. Replication in bigger community samples using a mood spectrum approach is necessary to confirm these findings. However, our findings were very similar to those obtained by other authors. Softer expressions of BP disorders appear in 6.6% of this community sample and have serious clinical consequences, which supports the importance of including these categories in the BP spectrum.

  7. Refractive error study in young subjects: results from a rural area in Paraguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signes-Soler, Isabel; Hernández-Verdejo, José Luis; Estrella Lumeras, Miguel Angel; Tomás Verduras, Elena; Piñero, David P.

    2017-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the distribution of refractive error in young subjects in a rural area of Paraguay in the context of an international cooperation campaign for the prevention of blindness. METHODS A sample of 1466 young subjects (ranging from 3 to 22 years old), with a mean age of 11.21±3.63 years old, were examined to assess their distance visual acuity (VA) and refractive error. The first screening examination performed by trained volunteers, included visual acuity testing, autokeratometry and non-cycloplegic autorefraction. Inclusion criteria for a second complete cycloplegic eye examination by an optometrist were VA <20/25 (0.10 logMAR or 0.8 decimal) and/or corneal astigmatism ≥1.50 D. RESULTS An uncorrected distance VA of 0 logMAR (1.0 decimal) was found in 89.2% of children. VA <20/25 and/or corneal astigmatism ≥1.50 D was found in 3.9% of children (n=57), with a prevalence of hyperopia of 5.2% (0.2% of the total) in this specific group. Furthermore, myopia (spherical equivalent ≤-0.5 D) was found in 37.7% of the refracted children (0.5% of the total). The prevalence of refractive astigmatism (cylinder ≤-1.50 D) was 15.8% (0.6% of the total). Visual impairment (VI) (0.05≤VA≤0.3) was found in 12/114 (0.4%) of the refracted eyes. Main causes for VI were refractive error (58%), retinal problems (17%, 2/12), albinism (17%, 2/12) and unknown (8%, 1/12). CONCLUSION A low prevalence of refractive error has been found in this rural area of Paraguay, with higher prevalence of myopia than of hyperopia. PMID:28393041

  8. Refractive error study in young subjects: results from a rural area in Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Signes-Soler

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the distribution of refractive error in young subjects in a rural area of Paraguay in the context of an international cooperation campaign for the prevention of blindness. METHODS: A sample of 1466 young subjects (ranging from 3 to 22 years old, with a mean age of 11.21±3.63 years old, were examined to assess their distance visual acuity (VA and refractive error. The first screening examination performed by trained volunteers, included visual acuity testing, autokeratometry and non-cycloplegic autorefraction. Inclusion criteria for a second complete cycloplegic eye examination by an optometrist were VA <20/25 (0.10 logMAR or 0.8 decimal and/or corneal astigmatism ≥1.50 D. RESULTS: An uncorrected distance VA of 0 logMAR (1.0 decimal was found in 89.2% of children. VA <20/25 and/or corneal astigmatism ≥1.50 D was found in 3.9% of children (n=57, with a prevalence of hyperopia of 5.2% (0.2% of the total in this specific group. Furthermore, myopia (spherical equivalent ≤-0.5 D was found in 37.7% of the refracted children (0.5% of the total. The prevalence of refractive astigmatism (cylinder ≤-1.50 D was 15.8% (0.6% of the total. Visual impairment (VI (0.05≤VA≤0.3 was found in 12/114 (0.4% of the refracted eyes. Main causes for VI were refractive error (58%, retinal problems (17%, 2/12, albinism (17%, 2/12 and unknown (8%, 1/12. CONCLUSION: A low prevalence of refractive error has been found in this rural area of Paraguay, with higher prevalence of myopia than of hyperopia.

  9. Mastication, EMG activity and occlusal contact area in subjects with different facial types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Simone Guimarães Farias; Custodio, William; Jufer, Juliana Silva Moura; Del Bel, Cury Altair Antoninha; Garcia, Renata Cunha Matheus Rodrigues

    2010-10-01

    Dentofacial morphology may affect orofacial functions, therefore the aim of the current study was to evaluate the influence of craniofacial morphology on masticatory function, occlusal contact area (OCA), and masticatory muscles activity. Seventy-eight (78) subjects were divided into three groups according to vertical facial pattern: 1. mesofacial; 2. brachyfacial; and 3. dolichofacial. Artificial material and the sieving method were used to access masticatory efficiency (ME). OCA was determined by registration of posterior teeth. Electromyographic (EMG) activity of the masseter and anterior temporal (AT) muscles was accessed bilaterally at rest and at maximal vertical clenching (MVC). ME (%) was significantly higher in brachyfacial and lower in dolichofacial subjects. Brachyfacials presented the highest OCA (mm2) followed by meso and dolichofacial subjects. The EMG of the masseter and AT at rest and at MVC showed that dolichofacial subjects presented the lowest activity values, while brachyfacial subjects presented significantly higher measurements. Craniofacial morphology affected masticatory function, OCA, and EMG activity of the masticatory muscles.

  10. Increased BDNF promoter methylation in the Wernicke area of suicide subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Simona; Sarchiapone, Marco; Zarrilli, Federica; Videtic, Alja; Ferraro, Angelo; Carli, Vladimir; Sacchetti, Silvana; Lembo, Francesca; Angiolillo, Antonella; Jovanovic, Nikolina; Pisanti, Francesco; Tomaiuolo, Rossella; Monticelli, Antonella; Balazic, Joze; Roy, Alec; Marusic, Andrej; Cocozza, Sergio; Fusco, Alfredo; Bruni, Carmelo B; Castaldo, Giuseppe; Chiariotti, Lorenzo

    2010-03-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of suicidal behavior and BDNF levels are decreased in the brain and plasma of suicide subjects. So far, the mechanisms leading to downregulation of BDNF expression are poorly understood. To test the hypothesis that alterations of DNA methylation could be involved in the dysregulation of BDNF gene expression in the brain of suicide subjects. Three independent quantitative methylation techniques were performed on postmortem samples of brain tissue. BDNF messenger RNA levels were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Academic medical center. Forty-four suicide completers and 33 nonsuicide control subjects of white ethnicity. The DNA methylation degree at BDNF promoter IV and the genome-wide DNA methylation levels in the brain's Wernicke area. Postmortem brain samples from suicide subjects showed a statistically significant increase of DNA methylation at specific CpG sites in BDNF promoter/exon IV compared with nonsuicide control subjects (P Wernicke area of the postmortem brain of suicide subjects irrespective of genome-wide methylation levels, indicating that a gene-specific increase in DNA methylation could cause or contribute to the downregulation of BDNF expression in suicide subjects. The reported data reveal a novel link between epigenetic alteration in the brain and suicidal behavior.

  11. An investigation on impacts of scheduling configurations on Mississippi biology subject area testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchette, Frances Lenora

    The purpose of this mixed modal study was to compare the results of Biology Subject Area mean scores of students on a 4 x 4 block schedule, A/B block schedule, and traditional year-long schedule for 1A to 5A size schools. This study also reviewed the data to determine if minority or gender issues might influence the test results. Interviews with administrators and teachers were conducted about the type of schedule configuration they use and the influence that the schedule has on student academic performance on the Biology Subject Area Test. Additionally, this research further explored whether schedule configurations allow sufficient time for students to construct knowledge. This study is important to schools, teachers, and administrators because it can assist them in considering the impacts that different types of class schedules have on student performance and if ethnic or gender issues are influencing testing results. This study used the causal-comparative method for the quantitative portion of the study and constant comparative method for the qualitative portion to explore the relationship of school schedules on student academic achievement on the Mississippi Biology Subject Area Test. The aggregate means of selected student scores indicate that the Mississippi Biology Subject Area Test as a measure of student performance reveals no significant difference on student achievement for the three school schedule configurations. The data were adjusted for initial differences of gender, minority, and school size on the three schedule configurations. The results suggest that schools may employ various schedule configurations and expect student performance on the Mississippi Biology Subject Area Test to be unaffected. However, many areas of concern were identified in the interviews that might impact on school learning environments. These concerns relate to effective classroom management, the active involvement of students in learning, the adequacy of teacher education

  12. Building Virtually Free Subject Area Expertise through Social Media: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooy, Brian K.

    2016-01-01

    Central to the ongoing success of the liaison model is the need for liaison librarians to stay informed and up-to-date about recent developments in the subject areas of their assigned academic departments and programs. This article describes an exploratory study conducted to determine whether information obtained from the social media accounts of…

  13. Subject Area Glossary. Arabic-English Vocabulary. Curriculum Bulletin Number 22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicago Board of Education, IL. Dept. of Curriculum.

    A glossary of commonly used and subject-area English words and their Arabic equivalents with romanization was prepared for teachers and Arabic-speaking, limited-English-speaking children in the Chicago public schools. It consists of: (1) a key to Arabic pronunciation of velarized consonants, glottal consonants, and Arabic double-consonants; (2) a…

  14. Ascertaining Activities in a Subject Area Through Bibliometric Analysis; Application to "Library Literature"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracevic, Tefko; Perk, Lawrence J.

    1973-01-01

    A combination of quantitative and qualitative techniques were used to analize the journal articles indexed in one volume of Library Literature.'' This approach, merging bibliometrics and classification, yielded results in such areas as dispersion of articles among journals, frequency of article type and types of subjects covered. (16 references)…

  15. Perceptions of Classroom Assessment Tasks: An Interplay of Gender, Subject Area, and Grade Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkharusi, Hussain Ali; Al-Hosni, Salim

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates students' perceptions of classroom assessment tasks as a function of gender, subject area, and grade level. Data from 2753 students on Dorman and Knightley's (2006) Perceptions of Assessment Tasks Inventory (PATI) were analyzed in a MANOVA design. Results showed that students tended to hold positive perceptions of their…

  16. A Subject-Specificity Analysis of Radio Channels in Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Hao

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of subject-specific radio channels in wireless body area networks (WBANs using a simulation tool based on the parallel finite-difference time-domain (FDTD technique. This technique is well suited to model radio propagations around complex, inhomogeneous objects such as the human body. The impacts of different subjects varying in size on on-body, inter-body, and off-body radio channels are studied. The analysis demonstrates that the characteristics of on-body radio channels are subject-specific and are associated with human gender, height, and body mass index. On the other hand, when waves propagate away from the body, such as in the inter-body and off-body cases, the impacts of different subjects on the channel characteristics are found to be negligible.

  17. Subjective Evaluations of Motion Area and Velocity Characteristics of Dual Manipulator in Young and Elderly People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoda, Mitsumasa; Yoda, Asako; Shiota, Yasuhito

    In this study, we conducted a subjective evaluation experiment of a dual manipulator, which exhibits different motion characteristics. There are three motion characteristics: two of which are age-related, and the third is a robot motion characteristic and is newly added to these two motions. The motions are evaluated from motion areas and motion velocities. Subjects are elderly and young people, and the impressions of the motions are compared in two of the different age groups by the Semantic Differential (SD) method. The obtained results indicate that there are age differences in the evaluation of three manipulator motion areas. The elderly people show a higher reliability and a higher familiarity in a robot motion area than in the other two motions. The elderly people seem to be more affected by the manipulator motion than the young people. Therefore, a careful consideration is required when planning the motion of a manipulator for elderly people.

  18. 30 CFR 785.19 - Surface coal mining and reclamation operations on areas or adjacent to areas including alluvial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... on either available data or field studies submitted by the applicant, or a combination of available data and field studies, the presence or absence of an alluvial valley floor. Studies shall include... premining land use is undeveloped rangeland which is not significant to farming; (ii) Any farming on the...

  19. Chewing side, bite force symmetry, and occlusal contact area of subjects with different facial vertical patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Guimarães Farias Gomes

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Craniofacial dimensions influence oral functions; however, it is not known whether they are associated with function asymmetry. The objective of this study was to evaluate chewing side preference and lateral asymmetry of occlusal contact area and bite force of individuals with different craniofacial patterns. Seventy-eight dentate subjects were divided into 3 groups according to the VERT index as follows: (1 mesofacial, (2 brachyfacial and (3 dolichofacial. Chewing side preference was evaluated using jaw tracking equipment, occlusal contact area was measured by silicon registration of posterior teeth, and bite force was measured unilaterally on molar regions using 2.25 mm-thick sensors. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA on Ranks, Student's t-test, and Mann-Whitney tests at a 5% significance level. Mesofacial, brachyfacial, and dolichofacial subjects presented more occlusal contact area on the left side. Only dolichofacial subjects showed lateral asymmetry for bite force, presenting higher force on the left side. No statistically significant differences were found for chewing side preference among all groups. Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that craniofacial dimensions play a role in asymmetry of bite force. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01286363.

  20. Development of Science and Mathematics Education System Including Teaching Experience of Students in Local Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kage, Hiroyuki

    New reformation project on engineering education, which is supported from 2005 to 2008FY by Support Program for Contemporary Educational Needs of Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, started in Kyushu Institute of Technology. In this project, teaching experience of students is introduced into the curriculum of Faculty of Engineering. In the curriculum students try to prepare teaching materials and to teach local school pupils with them by themselves. Teaching experience is remarkably effective for them to strengthen their self-dependence and learning motivation. Science Education Center, Science Laboratory and Super Teachers College were also organized to promote the area cooperation on the education of science and mathematics.

  1. Including Accident Information in Automatic Bicycle Route Planning for Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex D. Singleton

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Between 2005 and 2007 there were 9071 traffic accidents involving bicycles within London and this paper demonstrates the utility of Geographic Information Systems as a tool for analysing and visualising these occurrences. Through linkage of these spatial locations to a street network dataset it was possible to create a variety of intelligence about the types of street infrastructure where accidents predominantly occur. Additionally, a network routing algorithm was adapted to account for the frequency of accidents within a series of proposed journeys. This pilot routing application compared the quickest route with an accident avoidance weighted route between a series of origins and destinations. The results demonstrated that the routes avoiding areas of high accident volume did not increase journey length significantly; however they did provide a “safer” route based on empirical evidence over the volume of accident locations.

  2. [Characterization of the leadership subject areas in the respiratory field in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Granda-Orive, J I; García-Río, F; Roig-Vázquez, F; Aleixandre-Benavent, R; Valderrama-Zurían, J C; Martínez-Albiach, J M; Callol-Sánchez, L

    2006-11-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the leading topics in respiratory system in Spain through a bibliometric analysis. For identify and characterize the performance of the different research topics in respiratory system in Spain, we compile the production using a journal that turn out representative of a broad group of researcher. In this sense the journal Archivos de Bronconeumología is the most important publication in Spanish language of this field. A total of 2198 articles published in Archivos Bronconeumología from 1970 to 2000 were analyzed. In each three decades, we did not found differences except in the productivity index in oncology in the eighty decade and in respiratory failure and sleep disturbance (RFSD) and oncology areas in the ninetieth decade and in the Price index (consumption indicators) in the diagnostic and therapeutic techniques area in seventy decade. When we compare the productivity index of each subject areas between decades, we found a significant production increase in the ninetieth decade in asthma, RFSD, tuberculosis, non tuberculosis infection, circulation, oncology, pleural disease and interstitial areas versus the same in seventy decade, and also, we found significant differences between ninetieth and eighty decades in the asthma, RFSD, non tuberculosis infection, circulation and pleural disease areas. Tuberculosis area maintains an insularity index higher than the other areas. We also found a progressive increase in the insularity index of RFSD, non tuberculosis infection, oncology and interstitial disease areas. In general all the indicators maintains stable although the more productivity topics were respiratory failure and sleep disturbances, and oncology. The productivity has increased in asthma, respiratory failure and sleep disturbances, tuberculosis, non - tuberculosis respiratory infections, oncology, pulmonary circulation, pleura and interstitial disease.

  3. Comorbid subjective health complaints in patients with sciatica: a prospective study including comparison with the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grøvle, Lars; Haugen, Anne J; Ihlebaek, Camilla M; Keller, Anne; Natvig, Bård; Brox, Jens I; Grotle, Margreth

    2011-06-01

    Chronic nonspecific low back pain is accompanied by high rates of comorbid mental and physical conditions. The aims of this study were to investigate if patients with specific back pain, that is, sciatica caused by lumbar herniation, report higher rates of subjective health complaints (SHCs) than the general population and if there is an association between change in sciatica symptoms and change in SHCs over a 12-month period. A multicenter cohort study of 466 sciatica patients was conducted with follow-up at 3 months and 1 year. Comorbid SHCs were measured by 27 items of the SHC inventory. Odds ratios (ORs) for each SHC were calculated with comparison to a general population sample (n=928) by logistic regression. The SHC number was calculated by summing all complaints present. At baseline, the ORs for reporting SHCs for the sciatica patients were significantly elevated in 15 of the 27 items with a mean (S.D.) SHC number of 7.5 (4.4), compared to 5.2 (4.4) in the general population (Psciatica, the SHC number was reduced to normal levels. Among those with persisting or worsening sciatica, the number increased to a level almost double that of the general population. Compared to the general population, the prevalence of subjective health complaints in sciatica is increased. During follow-up, the number of health complaints increased in patients with persisting or worsening sciatica. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Open retromuscular large mesh reconstruction of lumbar incisional hernias including the atrophic muscular area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, Y; de Mestier, L; Cagniet, A; Demichel, N; Marchand, C; Meffert, J-L; Kianmanesh, R; Palot, J-P

    2017-06-01

    Lumbar incisional hernias (LIH) are a rare wall defect, whose surgical management is challenging because no recommendation exists. Moreover, LIH are frequently associated with flank bulging which should be taken into account during LIH surgical repair. We aimed to describe a cohort of patients operated on for LIH using a homogeneous surgical technique and to report surgical outcomes. The records of all consecutive patients operated on in a specialized surgical center between January 2009 and January 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. The same open technique was performed, i.e., using a mesh into the retroperitoneal space posteriorly, placed with the largest overlap inferiorly and posteriorly, and fixed through the controlateral abdominal wall muscles under strong tension to correct the flank bulging. The cohort included 31 patients, of median age 62, who presented two or more comorbidities in 68% of cases. LIH was recurrent in 45% of patients, and was related to nephrectomy in 61% of patients. The mesh was totally extraperitoneal in 65% of patients. The postoperative mortality rate was null. The rate of specific surgical complications was 32.3%, and the rate of overall postoperative morbidity (Clavien-Dindo classification) was 38.7%. After a median follow-up of 27.5 months, the recurrence rate was 6.5% and 9.7% reported chronic pain. The open approach for LIH repair was safe and enabled treating flank bulging simultaneously in all patients. Due to the paucity of adequate scientific studies, this reproducible open method could help moving toward a standardization of LIH surgical management.

  5. Blood biomonitoring of metals in subjects living near abandoned mining and active industrial areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeddu, Roberto; Tolu, Paola; Asara, Yolande; Farace, Cristiano; Forte, Giovanni; Bocca, Beatrice

    2013-07-01

    A human blood biomonitoring campaign to detect the environmental exposure to metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Mn, Pb and Zn) in 265 subjects was performed in the South-Western part of Sardinia (an Italian island) that is a particular area with a great history of coal and metal mining (Pb/Zn mainly) activities and large industrial structures (as metallurgy). Subjects living near the industrial plant area had geometric means (GM) of blood Cd (0.79 μg/l), Cu (971 μg/l), Mn (12.2 μg/l), and Pb (55.7 μg/l) significantly higher than controls (Cd, 0.47 μg/l; Cu, 900 μg/l; Mn 9.98 μg/l; Pb, 26.5 μg/l) and than people living nearby the past mining sites. Subjects living next to one dismissed mine were statistically higher in blood Cu (GM, 1,022 μg/l) and Pb (GM, 41.4 μg/l) concentrations than controls. No differences were observed in people living in the different mining sites, and this might be related to the decennial disclosure of mines and the adoption of environmental remediation programmes. Some interindividual variables influenced blood biomonitoring data, as smoke and age for Cd, gender for Cu, age, sex and alcohol for Pb, and age for Zn. Moreover, blood metal levels of the whole population were similar to reference values representative of the Sardinian population and acceptably safe according to currently available health guidelines.

  6. 75 FR 26967 - Guidance for Industry: Use of Water by Food Manufacturers in Areas Subject to a Boil-Water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ... Areas Subject to a Boil-Water Advisory; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Use of Water by Food Manufacturers in Areas Subject to a Boil-Water Advisory.'' This guidance is intended to advise food manufacturers that once a boil-water advisory has been...

  7. Academic Majors and Subject-Area Certifications of Health Education Teachers in the United States, 2011-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardina, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify academic preparation and subject-area certifications of K-12 public school staff teaching at least one health education class during 2011-2012 academic year. In general, teachers who are well qualified to teach a subject area are more likely to positively affect student achievement. Methods: Data…

  8. Importance to include the term superficial musculoaponeurotic system in medical subject headings and in the international anatomical nomenclature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Lydia Massako; Locali, Rafael Fagionato; Lapin, Guilherme Abbud Franco; Hochman, Bernardo

    2011-06-01

    To investigate the relevance of the term superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) and demonstrate that this term is important enough to be added to the MeSH database and listed in International Anatomical Nomenclature. Terms related to SMAS were selected from original articles retrieved from the ISI Web of Science and MEDLINE (PubMed) databases. Groups of terms were created to define a search strategy with high-sensitivity and restricted to scientific periodicals devoted to plastic surgery. This study included articles between January 1996 and May 2009, whose titles, abstracts, and keywords were searched for SMAS-related terms and all occurrences were recorded. A total of 126 original articles were retrieved from the main periodicals related to plastic surgery in the referred databases. Of these articles, 51.6% had SMAS-related terms in the abstract only, and 25.4% had SMAS-related terms in both the title and abstract. The term 'superficial musculoaponeurotic system' was present as a keyword in 19.8% of the articles. The most frequent terms were 'SMAS' (71.4%) and superficial musculoaponeurotic system (62.7%). The term SMAS refers to a structure relevant enough to start a discussion about indexing it as a keyword and as an official term in Terminologia Anatomica: International Anatomical Terminology.

  9. Cross-Modal Recruitment of Auditory and Orofacial Areas During Sign Language in a Deaf Subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Juan; Velasquez, Carlos; Vázquez-Bourgon, Javier; de Lucas, Enrique Marco; Gomez, Elsa

    2017-09-01

    Modern sign languages used by deaf people are fully expressive, natural human languages that are perceived visually and produced manually. The literature contains little data concerning human brain organization in conditions of deficient sensory information such as deafness. A deaf-mute patient underwent surgery of a left temporoinsular low-grade glioma. The patient underwent awake surgery with intraoperative electrical stimulation mapping, allowing direct study of the cortical and subcortical organization of sign language. We found a similar distribution of language sites to what has been reported in mapping studies of patients with oral language, including 1) speech perception areas inducing anomias and alexias close to the auditory cortex (at the posterior portion of the superior temporal gyrus and supramarginal gyrus); 2) speech production areas inducing speech arrest (anarthria) at the ventral premotor cortex, close to the lip motor area and away from the hand motor area; and 3) subcortical stimulation-induced semantic paraphasias at the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus at the temporal isthmus. The intraoperative setup for sign language mapping with intraoperative electrical stimulation in deaf-mute patients is similar to the setup described in patients with oral language. To elucidate the type of language errors, a sign language interpreter in close interaction with the neuropsychologist is necessary. Sign language is perceived visually and produced manually; however, this case revealed a cross-modal recruitment of auditory and orofacial motor areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Spatial variability of soil potassium in sugarcane areas subjected to the application of vinasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Carvalho, Laércio A; Meurer, Ismael; Da Silva Junior, Carlos A; Santos, Cristiane F B; Libardi, Paulo L

    2014-12-01

    When deposited on land the vinasse can promote improvement in fertility, however, often fertilizer application occurs in areas considered homogeneous, without taking into account the variability of the soil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of vinasse application on potassium content in two classes of soils cultivated with sugarcane, and characterize the spatial variability of soil using geostatistical techniques. In the 2010 and 2011 crop year, soil samples were collected from an experimental grid at 0-0.2 and 0.2-0.4 m depth in three soils cultivated with sugarcane, totaling 90 samplings in each grid, for the determination of pH, calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), phosphorus (P), aluminum (Al) and potential acidity (H + Al). The data have been submitted to analysis of descriptive statistics and the K attribute was subjected to geostatistical analysis. The coefficient of variation indicated medium and high variability of K for the three soils. The results showed that the spatial dependence of K increased in depth to FRce and decreased to PHlv, indicating that the attribute could have followed the pattern of distribution of clay in depth. The investigation of the spatial variability of K on the surface and subsurface soils provided the definition of management zones with different levels of fertility, which can be organized into sub-areas for a more efficient management of the resources and the environment.

  11. Spatial variability of soil potassium in sugarcane areas subjected to the application of vinasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAÉRCIO A. DE CARVALHO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available When deposited on land the vinasse can promote improvement in fertility, however, often fertilizer application occurs in areas considered homogeneous, without taking into account the variability of the soil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of vinasse application on potassium content in two classes of soils cultivated with sugarcane, and characterize the spatial variability of soil using geostatistical techniques. In the 2010 and 2011 crop year, soil samples were collected from an experimental grid at 0-0.2 and 0.2-0.4 m depth in three soils cultivated with sugarcane, totaling 90 samplings in each grid, for the determination of pH, calcium (Ca, magnesium (Mg, potassium (K, phosphorus (P, aluminum (Al and potential acidity (H + Al. The data have been submitted to analysis of descriptive statistics and the K attribute was subjected to geostatistical analysis. The coefficient of variation indicated medium and high variability of K for the three soils. The results showed that the spatial dependence of K increased in depth to FRce and decreased to PHlv, indicating that the attribute could have followed the pattern of distribution of clay in depth. The investigation of the spatial variability of K on the surface and subsurface soils provided the definition of management zones with different levels of fertility, which can be organized into sub-areas for a more efficient management of the resources and the environment.

  12. Magneto encephalography (MEG: perspectives of speech areas functional mapping in human subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butorina A. V.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the main problems in clinical practice and academic research is how to localize speech zones in the human brain. Two speech areas (Broca and Wernicke areas that are responsible for language production and for understanding of written and spoken language have been known since the past century. Their location and even hemispheric lateralization have a substantial inter-individual variability, especially in neurosurgery patients. Wada test is one of the most frequently used invasive methodology for speech hemispheric lateralization in neurosurgery patients. However, besides relatively high-risk of Wada test for patient's health, it has its own limitation, e. g. low reliability of Wada-based evidence of verbal memory brain lateralization. Therefore, there is an urgent need for non-invasive, reliable methods of speech zones mapping.The current review summarizes the recent experimental evidence from magnitoencephalographic (MEG research suggesting that speech areas are included in the speech processing within the first 200 ms after the word onset. The electro-magnetic response to deviant word, mismatch negativity wave with latency of 100—200 ms, can be recorded from auditory cortex within the oddball-paradigm. We provide the arguments that basic features of this brain response, such as its automatic, pre-attentive nature, high signal to noise ratio, source localization at superior temporal sulcus, make it a promising vehicle for non-invasive MEG-based speech areas mapping in neurosurgery.

  13. Fourier power, subjective distance and object categories all provide plausible models of BOLD responses in scene-selective visual areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Daniel Lescroart

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Perception of natural visual scenes activates several functional areas in the human brain, including the Parahippocampal Place Area (PPA, Retrosplenial Complex (RSC, and the Occipital Place Area (OPA. It is currently unclear what specific scene-related features are represented in these areas. Previous studies have suggested that PPA, RSC, and/or OPA might represent at least three qualitatively different classes of features: (1 2D features related to Fourier power; (2 3D spatial features such as the distance to objects in a scene; or (3 abstract features such as the categories of objects in a scene. To determine which of these hypotheses best describes the visual representation in scene-selective areas, we applied voxel-wise modeling (VM to BOLD fMRI responses elicited by a set of 1,386 images of natural scenes. VM provides an efficient method for testing competing hypotheses by comparing predictions of brain activity based on encoding models that instantiate each hypothesis. Here we evaluated three different encoding models that instantiate each of the three hypotheses listed above. We used linear regression to fit each encoding model to the fMRI data recorded from each voxel, and we evaluated each fit model by estimating the amount of variance it predicted in a withheld portion of the data set. We found that voxel-wise models based on Fourier power or the subjective distance to objects in each scene predicted much of the variance predicted by a model based on object categories. Furthermore, the response variance explained by these three models is largely shared, and the individual models explain little unique variance in responses. Based on an evaluation of previous studies and the data we present here, we conclude that there is currently no good basis to favor any one of the three alternative hypotheses about visual representation in scene-selective areas. We offer suggestions for further studies that may help resolve this issue.

  14. Fourier power, subjective distance, and object categories all provide plausible models of BOLD responses in scene-selective visual areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lescroart, Mark D.; Stansbury, Dustin E.; Gallant, Jack L.

    2015-01-01

    Perception of natural visual scenes activates several functional areas in the human brain, including the Parahippocampal Place Area (PPA), Retrosplenial Complex (RSC), and the Occipital Place Area (OPA). It is currently unclear what specific scene-related features are represented in these areas. Previous studies have suggested that PPA, RSC, and/or OPA might represent at least three qualitatively different classes of features: (1) 2D features related to Fourier power; (2) 3D spatial features such as the distance to objects in a scene; or (3) abstract features such as the categories of objects in a scene. To determine which of these hypotheses best describes the visual representation in scene-selective areas, we applied voxel-wise modeling (VM) to BOLD fMRI responses elicited by a set of 1386 images of natural scenes. VM provides an efficient method for testing competing hypotheses by comparing predictions of brain activity based on encoding models that instantiate each hypothesis. Here we evaluated three different encoding models that instantiate each of the three hypotheses listed above. We used linear regression to fit each encoding model to the fMRI data recorded from each voxel, and we evaluated each fit model by estimating the amount of variance it predicted in a withheld portion of the data set. We found that voxel-wise models based on Fourier power or the subjective distance to objects in each scene predicted much of the variance predicted by a model based on object categories. Furthermore, the response variance explained by these three models is largely shared, and the individual models explain little unique variance in responses. Based on an evaluation of previous studies and the data we present here, we conclude that there is currently no good basis to favor any one of the three alternative hypotheses about visual representation in scene-selective areas. We offer suggestions for further studies that may help resolve this issue. PMID:26594164

  15. DOMAIN-DRIVEN DESIGN APPLICATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS FOR CLIENTS QUEUING SUBJECT AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. P. Oleynik

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with domain-driven design applicability of information systems for client queuing subject areas. The following optimality criteria were put forward for the final implementation: the possibility of automation with a single system both for small institution and a whole network of institutions; advanced graphical interface with support for sensor screens; implementation of multi-users account of orders from clients; flexible application architecture with the ability of future enhancement; ability of integration with a variety of peripherals. The necessity of each criterion definition is shown. For implementability estimation, test information system was designed, automating the queuing system. Unified modeling language UML is used. Description of each class functionality is given and the association with other classes as well. Attention is paid to the design of tree (hierarchical structures and selection procedure of base classes based on the analysis of existing common attributes. For the system implementation, its own development environment SharpArchitect RAD Studio is used, offering MDA approach for implementation of systems based on standardized meta object system. A graphical view of order form developed prototype is presented, composition and structure are described, and notation developed by the author is given simplifying the prototyping process. Approaches to differentiation of access rights for different user roles are shown. Conformity of the received implementation to each selected optimality criterion is determined. Recommendations for further system development are given.

  16. Subject-specific computational modeling of DBS in the PPTg area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitella, Laura M.; Teplitzky, Benjamin A.; Yager, Paul; Hudson, Heather M.; Brintz, Katelynn; Duchin, Yuval; Harel, Noam; Vitek, Jerrold L.; Baker, Kenneth B.; Johnson, Matthew D.

    2015-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) has been proposed to alleviate medically intractable gait difficulties associated with Parkinson's disease. Clinical trials have shown somewhat variable outcomes, stemming in part from surgical targeting variability, modulating fiber pathways implicated in side effects, and a general lack of mechanistic understanding of DBS in this brain region. Subject-specific computational models of DBS are a promising tool to investigate the underlying therapy and side effects. In this study, a parkinsonian rhesus macaque was implanted unilaterally with an 8-contact DBS lead in the PPTg region. Fiber tracts adjacent to PPTg, including the oculomotor nerve, central tegmental tract, and superior cerebellar peduncle, were reconstructed from a combination of pre-implant 7T MRI, post-implant CT, and post-mortem histology. These structures were populated with axon models and coupled with a finite element model simulating the voltage distribution in the surrounding neural tissue during stimulation. This study introduces two empirical approaches to evaluate model parameters. First, incremental monopolar cathodic stimulation (20 Hz, 90 μs pulse width) was evaluated for each electrode, during which a right eyelid flutter was observed at the proximal four contacts (−1.0 to −1.4 mA). These current amplitudes followed closely with model predicted activation of the oculomotor nerve when assuming an anisotropic conduction medium. Second, PET imaging was collected OFF-DBS and twice during DBS (two different contacts), which supported the model predicted activation of the central tegmental tract and superior cerebellar peduncle. Together, subject-specific models provide a framework to more precisely predict pathways modulated by DBS. PMID:26236229

  17. Subject-specific computational modeling of DBS in the PPTg area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M. Zitella

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Deep brain stimulation (DBS in the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg has been proposed to alleviate medically intractable gait difficulties associated with Parkinson’s disease. Clinical trials have shown somewhat variable outcomes, stemming in part from surgical targeting variability, modulating fiber pathways implicated in side effects, and a general lack of mechanistic understanding of DBS in this brain region. Subject-specific computational models of DBS are a promising tool to investigate the underlying therapy and side effects. In this study, a parkinsonian rhesus macaque was implanted unilaterally with an 8-contact DBS lead in the PPTg region. Fiber tracts adjacent to PPTg, including the oculomotor nerve, central tegmental tract, and superior cerebellar peduncle, were reconstructed from a combination of pre-implant 7T MRI, post-implant CT, and post-mortem histology. These structures were populated with axon models and coupled with a finite element model simulating the voltage distribution in the surrounding neural tissue during stimulation. This study introduces two empirical approaches to evaluate model parameters. First, incremental monopolar cathodic stimulation (20Hz, 90µs pulse width was evaluated for each electrode, during which a right eyelid flutter was observed at the proximal four contacts (-1.0 to -1.4mA. These current amplitudes followed closely with model predicted activation of the oculomotor nerve when assuming an anisotropic conduction medium. Second, PET imaging was collected OFF-DBS and twice during DBS (two different contacts, which supported the model predicted activation of the central tegmental tract and superior cerebellar peduncle. Together, subject-specific models provide a framework to more precisely predict pathways modulated by DBS.

  18. A case study of full integration of the arts into core subject area instruction in one East Texas secondary school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leysath, Maggie

    This exploratory phenomenological case study investigated the influence the full integration of the arts into core subject instruction has on classroom environment, student academic achievement, and student engagement as perceived by administrators, teachers, and students in one East Texas secondary school. Participant interviews were analyzed using Creswell's (2012) six-step method for analyzing phenomenological studies. The researcher implemented three learning activities in which ceramics learning objectives were fully integrated with chemistry learning objectives. The first activity combined clay properties and pottery wheel throwing with significant numbers. The second activity combined glaze formulation with moles. The third combined stoichiometry with the increased glaze formula for students to glaze the bowls they made. Findings suggest the full integration of art in core subject area instruction has numerous positive effects. Participants reported improved academic achievement for all students including reluctant learners. Students, teachers, and the administrator reported greater participation in the art integrated activities. Participants perceived a need for further training for teachers and administrators for greater success.

  19. Evaluation of P300 components for emotion-loaded visual event-related potential in elderly subjects, including those with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaumi, Yasue; Morita, Kiichiro; Nakashima, Youko; Muraoka, Akemi; Uchimura, Naohisa

    2014-07-01

    In the present study, the P300 component of the emotion-loaded visual event-related potential in response to photographs of babies crying or smiling was measured to evaluate cognitive function in elderly subjects, including those with dementia. The subjects were 48 elderly people who consulted a memory disorder clinic. The visual event-related potential was measured using oddball tasks. Brain waves were recorded from four sites. We analyzed the P300 amplitude and latency. Subjects were divided into three groups (the dementia with Alzheimer's disease group [ADG]; the intermediate group [MG], and the healthy group [HG]) based on the Revised Hasegawa Dementia Scale, Mini-mental State Examination scores and the Clinical Dementia Rating. For all subjects, there was a significant positive correlation between P300 latency and Z-score of voxel-based specific regional analysis for Alzheimer's disease for crying or smiling faces. There was a negative correlation between P300 amplitude and Z-score for the crying face. MG subjects were divided into two groups (high risk: HRMG, low risk: LRMG) based on Z-scores (HRMG ≥ 2.0). The P300 amplitude of ADG was significantly smaller than that of HG, and the P300 latency of ADG was significantly longer than those of other groups for crying or smiling faces. The P300 latency of HRMG was significantly longer than that of LRMG for the smiling face. Furthermore, the P300 latency for the crying face was significantly shorter than that for the smiling face in HG and ADG. These findings suggest that analysis of P300 components of the emotion-loaded visual event-related potential may be a useful neuropsychological index for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease and high-risk subjects. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  20. Water quality studied in areas of unconventional oil and gas development, including areas where hydraulic fracturing techniques are used, in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susong, David D.; Gallegos, Tanya J.; Oelsner, Gretchen P.

    2012-01-01

    Domestic oil and gas production and clean water are critical for economic growth, public health, and national security of the United States. As domestic oil and gas production increases in new areas and old fields are enhanced, there is increasing public concern about the effects of energy production on surface-water and groundwater quality. To a great extent, this concern arises from the improved hydraulic fracturing techniques being used today, including horizontal drilling, for producing unconventional oil and gas in low-permeability formations.

  1. Intra-Rater Reliability of Rehabilitative Ultrasound Imaging for Multifidus Muscles Thickness and Cross Section Area in Healthy Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Hosseinifar, Mohammad; Akbari, Asghar; Ghiasi, Fateme

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Rehabilitative Ultrasound Imaging (RUSI) must be valuable method for research and rehabilitation. So, the reliability of its measurements must be determined. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the intra-rater reliability of RUSI for measurement of multifidus (MF) muscles cross section areas (CSAs), bladder wall diameter, and thickness of MF muscles between 2 sessions in healthy subjects. Method: Fifteen healthy subjects through simple non-probability sampling participated...

  2. The Difference in Translaminar Pressure Gradient and Neuroretinal Rim Area in Glaucoma and Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Siaudvytyte

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To assess differences in translaminar pressure gradient (TPG and neuroretinal rim area (NRA in patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG, high tension glaucoma (HTG, and healthy controls. Methods. 27 patients with NTG, HTG, and healthy controls were included in the prospective pilot study (each group consisted of 9 patients. Intraocular pressure (IOP, intracranial pressure (ICP, and confocal laser scanning tomography were assessed. TPG was calculated as the difference of IOP minus ICP. ICP was measured using noninvasive two-depth transcranial Doppler device. The level of significance P 0.05. The difference between TPG for healthy (5.4(7.7 mmHg and glaucomatous eyes (NTG 6.3(3.1 mmHg, HTG 15.7(7.7 mmHg was statistically significant (P < 0.001. Higher TPG was correlated with decreased NRA (r = −0.83; P = 0.01 in the NTG group. Conclusion. Translaminar pressure gradient was higher in glaucoma patients. Reduction of NRA was related to higher TPG in NTG patients. Further prospective studies are warranted to investigate the involvement of TPG in glaucoma management.

  3. Most Marketplace Plans Included At Least 25 Percent Of Local-Area Physicians, But Enrollment Disparities Remained.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Aditi P; Chen, Lena M; Cox, Donald F; Epstein, Arnold M

    2017-09-01

    The Affordable Care Act allows commercial insurers participating in the Marketplaces to vary the size of their provider networks as long as the providers are "sufficient" in numbers and types. Concerns have been growing over the increasing use of restricted-provider or narrow networks in Marketplace plans because of their implications for reduced access to care, but little is known about the breadth and stability of these networks over time or what types of enrollees choose such plans. Using national data, we found that in 2016, 60 percent of provider networks in plans offered in the federally facilitated Marketplaces included at least one-quarter of local-area physicians, and that consumers' access to broad-network plans remained stable between 2015 and 2016. Hispanic and low-income people made up a disproportionate share of enrollees in smaller-network plans (those with fewer than one-quarter of local-area physicians). It will be important to monitor the impact of narrow networks on access to and quality of care as well as on health outcomes. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  4. Assessing blood brain barrier dynamics or identifying or measuring selected substances, including ethanol or toxins, in a subject by analyzing Raman spectrum signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, James L. (Inventor); Borchert, Mark S. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A non-invasive method for analyzing the blood-brain barrier includes obtaining a Raman spectrum of a selected portion of the eye and monitoring the Raman spectrum to ascertain a change to the dynamics of the blood brain barrier.Also, non-invasive methods for determining the brain or blood level of an analyte of interest, such as glucose, drugs, alcohol, poisons, and the like, comprises: generating an excitation laser beam at a selected wavelength (e.g., at a wavelength of about 400 to 900 nanometers); focusing the excitation laser beam into the anterior chamber of an eye of the subject so that aqueous humor, vitreous humor, or one or more conjunctiva vessels in the eye is illuminated; detecting (preferably confocally detecting) a Raman spectrum from the illuminated portion of the eye; and then determining the blood level or brain level (intracranial or cerebral spinal fluid level) of an analyte of interest for the subject from the Raman spectrum. In certain embodiments, the detecting step may be followed by the step of subtracting a confounding fluorescence spectrum from the Raman spectrum to produce a difference spectrum; and determining the blood level and/or brain level of the analyte of interest for the subject from that difference spectrum, preferably using linear or nonlinear multivariate analysis such as partial least squares analysis. Apparatus for carrying out the foregoing methods are also disclosed.

  5. Economics of Scholarly Publishing: Exploring the Causes of Subscription Price Variations of Scholarly Journals in Business Subject-Specific Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lewis G.

    2011-01-01

    This empirical research investigates subscription price variations of scholarly journals in five business subject-specific areas using the semilogarithmic regression model. It has two main purposes. The first is to address the unsettled debate over whether or not and to what extent commercial publishers reap monopoly profits by overcharging…

  6. Performance Gaps between Online and Face-to-Face Courses: Differences across Types of Students and Academic Subject Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Di; Jaggars, Shanna S.

    2014-01-01

    Using a dataset containing nearly 500,000 courses taken by over 40,000 community and technical college students in Washington State, this study examines the performance gap between online and face-to-face courses and how the size of that gap differs across student subgroups and academic subject areas. While all types of students in the study…

  7. Problem Solving and Creativity and Design: What Influence Do They Have on Girls' Interest in STEM Subject Areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Robyn; Heaverlo, Carol

    2013-01-01

    For girls there is a distinct loss in interest, lack of confidence, and decline in positive attitudes toward STEM subject areas that begins early on in their academic experience and increases with age. According to the National Academy of Engineering, students need to begin associating the possibilities in STEM fields with the need for creativity…

  8. Cytogenetic analysis chromosomal status of subjects from the regions in the vicinity of uranium-contaminated areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jovicic, D.; Milacie, S.; Kovacevic, R.; Petrovic, I.

    2004-07-01

    The past application of nuclear technology has brought about free emission of numerous Due to the military application of the depleted uranium (DU) in our country, the problem of its radioactivity and hemo toxicity if actualized. Likewise every heavy metal, its is highly toxic and, in addition to it, also radioactive: Interaction of the water-soluble uranium forms with soil is an important effect. In this way, it penetrates into food chain and endangers human health. The study was aimed at determining possible karyotype genotoxic effects in individuals from the regions close to the contaminated areas. Biological dosimetry was performed using modified Moorthead's micromethod. Our studies included the targeted group of 29 patients from the affected regions. The subjects were averagely aged 39.5{+-}2.8 years. Average age of the control group (k), unexposed to the effects of the known genotoxic agents comprising 22 individuals was 28.3{+-}1.2 years. The presented data evidenced that increased incidence of the chromosomal aberrations was found in 6 subjects,accounting for 20.6%. Dicentric type changes were evidence, as well ring chromosomes and eccentric fragments, which are, at the same time the most frequent aberrations. The changes are considered reparable aberrations accounting for 2-3% in metaphases of the unexposed individuals. Statistical data processing evidenced significant difference (p<0.005) between structural chromosomal aberrations in the studied and control groups, as well as in the number of chromatid aberrations (p<0.05).Based on the obtained data it may be concluded that human karyotype changes were present in the studied group, resulting from interaction of ionizing irradiation and other genotoxic agents, with possibility of potent synergistic effects. It is necessary to stress the importance of further monitoring and control of the general population health, particularly due to possible late genetic effects that may affect future generations

  9. Reproducibility and repeatability of foveal avascular zone area measurements using swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastropasqua, Rodolfo; Toto, Lisa; Mattei, Peter A; Di Nicola, Marta; Zecca, Isaia A L; Carpineto, Paolo; Di Antonio, Luca

    2017-05-11

    To assess the reproducibility and repeatability of foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area measurements using swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (SS-OCTA) in healthy subjects. Sixty-four eyes of 64 healthy volunteers were randomly subjected to FAZ area measurements using SS-OCTA by 2 examiners in 2 different sessions. The FAZ areas measured by the first and second observer were 0.269 ± 0.092 mm2 and 0.270 ± 0.090 mm2, respectively. Within subjects, the coefficients of variations were 2.44% (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.95% to 2.93%) and 2.66% (95% CI 2.00% to 3.31%) for the first and second observers, respectively. The coefficient of repeatability average measurements of FAZ area were 0.021 mm2 and 0.024 mm2. The intraclass correlation coefficient values were 0.993 (95% CI 0.989 to 0.996) and 0.991 (95% CI 0.986 to 0.995). Interobserver and intraobserver concordance correlation coefficients ranged from 0.998 (95% CI 0.997 to 0.999) to 0.999 (95% CI 0.998 to 0.999) and from 0.989 (95% CI 0.982 to 0.993) to 0.987 (95% CI 0.979 to 0.992), respectively. The FAZ area measurements by means of SS-OCTA showed high reproducibility and repeatability in healthy eyes.

  10. Condylar volume and condylar area in class I, class II and class III young adult subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Saccucci Matteo; D’Attilio Michele; Rodolfino Daria; Festa Felice; Polimeni Antonella; Tecco Simona

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Aim Aim of this study was to compare the volume and the shape of mandibular condyles in a Caucasian young adult population, with different skeletal pattern. Material and methods 200 Caucasian patients (15–30 years old, 95 male and 105 females) were classified in three groups on the base of ANB angle: skeletal class I (65 patients), skeletal class II (70 patients) and skeletal class III (65 patients). Left and right TMJs of each subject were evaluated independently with CBCT (Iluma). ...

  11. MEG reveals a fast pathway from somatosensory cortex to occipital areas via posterior parietal cortex in a blind subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas A Ioannides

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cross-modal activity in visual cortex of blind subjects has been reported during performance of variety of non-visual tasks. A key unanswered question is through which pathways non-visual inputs are funneled to the visual cortex. Here we used tomographic analysis of single trial magnetoencephalography (MEG data recorded from one congenitally blind and two sighted subjects after stimulation of the left and right median nerves at three intensities: below sensory threshold, above sensory threshold and above motor threshold; the last sufficient to produce thumb twitching. We identified reproducible brain responses in the primary somatosensory (S1 and motor (M1 cortices at around 20 ms post-stimulus, which were very similar in sighted and blind subjects. Time-frequency analysis revealed strong 45 to 70 Hz activity at latencies of 20 to 50 ms in S1 and M1, and posterior parietal cortex Brodmann areas (BA 7 and 40, which compared to lower frequencies, were substantially more pronounced in the blind than the sighted subjects. Critically, at frequencies from α-band up to 100 Hz we found clear, strong and widespread responses in the visual cortex of the blind subject, which increased with the intensity of the somatosensory stimuli. Time-delayed mutual information (MI revealed that in blind subject the stimulus information is funneled from the early somatosensory to visual cortex through posterior parietal BA 7 and 40, projecting first to visual areas V5 and V3, and eventually V1. The flow of information through this pathway occured in stages characterized by convergence of activations into specific cortical regions. In sighted subjects, no linked activity was found that led from the somatosensory to the visual cortex through any of the studied brain regions. These results provide the first evidence from MEG that in blind subjects, tactile information is routed from primary somatosensory to occipital cortex via the posterior parietal cortex.

  12. MEG reveals a fast pathway from somatosensory cortex to occipital areas via posterior parietal cortex in a blind subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannides, Andreas A; Liu, Lichan; Poghosyan, Vahe; Saridis, George A; Gjedde, Albert; Ptito, Maurice; Kupers, Ron

    2013-01-01

    Cross-modal activity in visual cortex of blind subjects has been reported during performance of variety of non-visual tasks. A key unanswered question is through which pathways non-visual inputs are funneled to the visual cortex. Here we used tomographic analysis of single trial magnetoencephalography (MEG) data recorded from one congenitally blind and two sighted subjects after stimulation of the left and right median nerves at three intensities: below sensory threshold, above sensory threshold and above motor threshold; the last sufficient to produce thumb twitching. We identified reproducible brain responses in the primary somatosensory (S1) and motor (M1) cortices at around 20 ms post-stimulus, which were very similar in sighted and blind subjects. Time-frequency analysis revealed strong 45-70 Hz activity at latencies of 20-50 ms in S1 and M1, and posterior parietal cortex Brodmann areas (BA) 7 and 40, which compared to lower frequencies, were substantially more pronounced in the blind than the sighted subjects. Critically, at frequencies from α-band up to 100 Hz we found clear, strong, and widespread responses in the visual cortex of the blind subject, which increased with the intensity of the somatosensory stimuli. Time-delayed mutual information (MI) revealed that in blind subject the stimulus information is funneled from the early somatosensory to visual cortex through posterior parietal BA 7 and 40, projecting first to visual areas V5 and V3, and eventually V1. The flow of information through this pathway occurred in stages characterized by convergence of activations into specific cortical regions. In sighted subjects, no linked activity was found that led from the somatosensory to the visual cortex through any of the studied brain regions. These results provide the first evidence from MEG that in blind subjects, tactile information is routed from primary somatosensory to occipital cortex via the posterior parietal cortex.

  13. Estimating species – area relationships by modeling abundance and frequency subject to incomplete sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaura, Yuichi; Connor, Edward F.; Royle, Andy; Itoh, Katsuo; Sato, Kiyoshi; Taki, Hisatomo; Mishima, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    Models and data used to describe species–area relationships confound sampling with ecological process as they fail to acknowledge that estimates of species richness arise due to sampling. This compromises our ability to make ecological inferences from and about species–area relationships. We develop and illustrate hierarchical community models of abundance and frequency to estimate species richness. The models we propose separate sampling from ecological processes by explicitly accounting for the fact that sampled patches are seldom completely covered by sampling plots and that individuals present in the sampling plots are imperfectly detected. We propose a multispecies abundance model in which community assembly is treated as the summation of an ensemble of species-level Poisson processes and estimate patch-level species richness as a derived parameter. We use sampling process models appropriate for specific survey methods. We propose a multispecies frequency model that treats the number of plots in which a species occurs as a binomial process. We illustrate these models using data collected in surveys of early-successional bird species and plants in young forest plantation patches. Results indicate that only mature forest plant species deviated from the constant density hypothesis, but the null model suggested that the deviations were too small to alter the form of species–area relationships. Nevertheless, results from simulations clearly show that the aggregate pattern of individual species density–area relationships and occurrence probability–area relationships can alter the form of species–area relationships. The plant community model estimated that only half of the species present in the regional species pool were encountered during the survey. The modeling framework we propose explicitly accounts for sampling processes so that ecological processes can be examined free of sampling artefacts. Our modeling approach is extensible and could be applied

  14. Histopathological evaluation including cytokeratin 13 and Ki-67 in the border between Lugol-stained and -unstained areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Kouji; Ogawa, Ikuko; Ono, Shigehiro; Taki, Masaaki; Mizuta, Kuniko; Miyauchi, Miwa; Takechi, Masaaki; Shigeishi, Hideo; Takata, Takashi; Kamata, Nobuyuki

    2010-07-01

    Lugol's iodine staining (Lugol-staining) has been widely used to detect malignant changes in the cervix uteri and esophagus. However, pathological and histochemical changes in the border between Lugol-stained and -unstained areas in oral epithelial dysplastia and malignant lesions are not well understood. We examined the histological appearance of 20 cases of epithelial dysplasia surrounding squamous cell carcinoma using HE and PAS staining in the borders between Lugol-stained and -unstained areas. Subsequently, differences in the expression of cytokeratin 13 (CK13), an epithelium differentiation marker, and Ki-67, a cell proliferative marker, in those areas were investigated by immunohistochemistry. Lugol-stained areas of all cases showed mild dysplasia or normal epithelium appearance, while Lugol-unstained areas in most cases were diagnosed as moderate/severe dysplasia and carcinoma in situ. PAS reactions were limited or not found in the Lugol-unstained areas as compared to intense positivity in Lugol-stained areas. CK13 and Ki-67 protein expression was significantly different between Lugol-stained and -unstained areas. It was confirmed that epithelia showing precancerous or cancerous features were detected as Lugol-unstained boundary areas. A reduction in glycogen production caused by alterations of cell differentiation and proliferation associated with malignant changes may result in a lack of Lugol-staining.

  15. Modelling of E. coli distribution in coastal areas subjected to combined sewer overflows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchis, Mauro; Freni, Gabriele; Napoli, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Rivers, lakes and the sea were the natural receivers of raw urban waste and storm waters for a long time but the low sustainability of such practice, the increase of population and a renewed environmental sensibility increased researcher interest in the analysis and mitigation of the impact of urban waters on receiving water bodies (RWB). In Europe, the integrated modelling of drainage systems and RWB has been promoted as a promising approach for implementing the Water Framework Directive. A particular interest is given to the fate of pathogens and especially of Escherichia coli, in all the cases in which an interaction between population and the RWB is foreseen. The present paper aims to propose an integrated water quality model involving the analysis of several sewer systems (SS) discharging their polluting overflows on the coast in a sensitive marine environment. From a modelling point of view, the proposed application integrated one-dimensional drainage system models with a complex three-dimensional model analysing the propagation in space and time of E. coli in the coastal marine area. The integrated approach was tested in a real case study (the Acicastello bay in Italy) where data were available both for SS model and for RWB propagation model calibration. The analysis shows a good agreement between the model and monitored data. The integrated model was demonstrated to be a valuable tool for investigating the pollutant propagation and to highlight the most impacted areas.

  16. Modelling of real area of contact between tool and workpiece in metal forming processes including the influence of subsurface deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Martins, Paulo A. F.; Bay, Niels Oluf

    2016-01-01

    New equipment for testing asperity deformation at various normal loads and subsurface elongations is presented. Resulting real contact area ratios increase heavily with increasing subsurface expansion due to lowered yield pressure on the asperities when imposing subsurface normal stress parallel ...... for estimating friction in the numerical modelling of metal forming processes.......New equipment for testing asperity deformation at various normal loads and subsurface elongations is presented. Resulting real contact area ratios increase heavily with increasing subsurface expansion due to lowered yield pressure on the asperities when imposing subsurface normal stress parallel...... to the surface. Finite element modelling supports the presentation and contributes by extrapolation of results to complete the mapping of contact area as function of normal pressure and one-directional subsurface strain parallel to the surface. Improved modelling of the real contact area is the basis...

  17. Prevalence and Citation Advantage of Gold Open Access in the Subject Areas of the Scopus Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorta-González, Pablo; Santana-Jiménez, Yolanda

    2018-01-01

    The potential benefit of open access (OA) in relation to citation impact has been discussed in the literature in depth. The methodology used to test the OA citation advantage includes comparing OA vs. non-OA journal impact factors and citations of OA vs. non-OA articles published in the same non-OA journals. However, one problem with many studies…

  18. CO2 sequestration in two mediterranean dune areas subjected to a different level of anthropogenic disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonito, Andrea; Ricotta, Carlo; Iberite, Mauro; Gratani, Loretta; Varone, Laura

    2017-09-01

    Coastal sand dunes are among the most threatened habitats, especially in the Mediterranean Basin, where the high levels of human pressure impair the presence of plant species, putting at risk the maintenance of the ecosystem services, such as CO2 sequestration provided by these habitats. The aim of this study was to analyze how disturbance-induced changes in plant species abundance patterns account for variations in annual CO2 sequestration flow (CS) of Mediterranean sand dune areas. Two sites characterized by a high (site HAD) and a lower (site LAD) anthropogenic disturbance level were selected. At both sites, plant species number, cover, height and CS based on net photosynthesis measurements were sampled. At the plant species level, our results highlighted that Ammophila arenaria and Pancratium maritimum, had a key role in CS. Moreover, the results revealed a patchy species assemblage in both sites. In particular, HAD was characterized by a higher extension of the anthropogenic aphytoic zone (64% of the total transect length) than LAD. In spite of the observed differences in plant species composition, there were not significant differences between HAD and LAD in structural and functional traits, such as plant height and net photosynthesis. As a consequence, HAD and LAD had a similar CS (443 and 421 Mg CO2 ha-1 y-1, respectively). From a monetary point of view, our estimates based on the social costs of carbon revealed that the flow of sequestered CO2 valued on an average 3181 ± 114 ha-1 year-1 (mean value for the two sites). However, considering also the value of the CO2 negative flow related to loss of vegetated area, the annual net benefit arising from CO2 sequestration amounted to 1641 and 1772 for HAD and LAD, respectively. Overall, the results highlighted the importance to maximize the efforts to preserve dune habitats by applying an effective management policy, which could allow maintaining also a regulatory ecosystem service such as CO2 sequestration.

  19. Assessment of five different guideline indication criteria for spirometry, including modified GOLD criteria, in order to detect COPD: data from 5,315 subjects in the PLATINO study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luize, Ana P; Menezes, Ana Maria B; Perez-Padilla, Rogelio; Muiño, Adriana; López, Maria Victorina; Valdivia, Gonzalo; Lisboa, Carmem; Montes de Oca, Maria; Tálamo, Carlos; Celli, Bartolomé; Nascimento, Oliver A; Gazzotti, Mariana R; Jardim, José R

    2014-10-30

    Spirometry is the gold standard for diagnosing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although there are a number of different guideline criteria for deciding who should be selected for spirometric screening, to date it is not known which criteria are the best based on sensitivity and specificity. Firstly, to evaluate the proportion of subjects in the PLATINO Study that would be recommended for spirometry testing according to Global initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD)-modified, American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP), National Lung Health Education Program (NLHEP), GOLD and American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society (ATS/ERS) criteria. Secondly, we aimed to compare the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive and negative predictive values, of these five different criteria. Data from the PLATINO study included information on respiratory symptoms, smoking and previous spirometry testing. The GOLD-modified spirometry indication criteria are based on three positive answers out of five questions: the presence of cough, phlegm in the morning, dyspnoea, age over 40 years and smoking status. Data from 5,315 subjects were reviewed. Fewer people had an indication for spirometry (41.3%) according to the GOLD-modified criteria, and more people had an indication for spirometry (80.4%) by the GOLD and ATS/ERS criteria. A low percentage had previously had spirometry performed: GOLD-modified (14.5%); ACCP (13.2%); NLHEP (12.6%); and GOLD and ATS/ERS (12.3%). The GOLD-modified criteria showed the least sensitivity (54.9) and the highest specificity (61.0) for detecting COPD, whereas GOLD and ATS/ERS criteria showed the highest sensitivity (87.9) and the least specificity (20.8). There is a considerable difference in the indication for spirometry according to the five different guideline criteria. The GOLD-modified criteria recruit less people with the greatest sum of sensitivity and specificity.

  20. Population aging in local areas and subjective well-being of older adults: Findings from two studies in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Tami; Sugisawa, Hidehiro; Harada, Ken; Kai, Ichiro

    2016-05-23

    Subjective well-being (SWB) of older adults could be affected by both individual and community characteristics. However, the effect of community characteristics, such as population aging in local areas, remains unclear. This study examined the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between the area-level population aging and SWB of older individuals from two distinct surveys. Those analyzed were 572 respondents aged 75 years and older for a cross-sectional survey in a metropolitan area in Tokyo, Japan (Study 1) and 1,257 and 859 respondents for a cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis, respectively, for a 2-year longitudinal survey project in urban and rural areas of Fukui Prefecture (Study 2). Area-level population aging was assessed by the number of people aged 65 years or older per 100 residents. SWB was assessed with the Life Satisfaction Index-A (LSIA). Multilevel analysis was performed to examine unconditional and conditional associations between the area-level number of older adults per 100 residents and the individual-level LSIA scores. The area-level number of older adults per 100 residents was significantly and positively associated with the LSIA scores in Study 1 (p = 0.042), even after controlling for the area- and individual-level covariates. In Study 2, we also found a significant effect of the area-level number of older adults per 100 residents on LSIA scores in the longitudinal multivariate analysis (p = 0.049). Findings from two survey projects suggested cross-validity in the positive effect of area-level population aging on older adults' SWB. Policymakers should consider older citizens' SWB in the recent urban-to-rural migration governmental policy as well as in urban renovation planning.

  1. Parallels between Objective Indicators and Subjective Perceptions of Quality of Life: A Study of Metropolitan and County Areas in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Pei-shan

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the consistency between objective indicators and subjective perceptions of quality of life in a ranking of survey data for cities and counties in Taiwan. Data used for analysis included the Statistical Yearbook of Hsiens and Municipalities and the Survey on Living Conditions of Citizens in Taiwan, both given for the year 2000.…

  2. Simulations of sonic boom ray tube area fluctuations for propagation through atmospheric turbulence including caustics via a Monte Carlo method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, Victor W.; Pierce, Allan D.

    1992-01-01

    A theory which gives statistical predictions for how often sonic booms propagating through the earth's turbulent boundary layer will encounter caustics, given the spectral properties of the atmospheric turbulence, is outlined. The theory is simple but approximately accounts for the variation of ray tube areas along ray paths. This theory predicts that the variation of ray tube areas is determined by the product of two similar area factors, psi (x) and phi (x), each satisfying a generic harmonic oscillator equation. If an area factor increases the peak acoustic pressure decreases, and if the factor decreases the peak acoustic pressure increases. Additionally, if an area factor decreases to zero and becomes negative, the ray has propagated through a caustic, which contributes a phase change of 90 degrees to the wave. Thus, it is clear that the number of times that a sonic boom wave passes through a caustic should be related to the distorted boom waveform received on the ground. Examples are given based on a characterization of atmospheric turbulence due to the structure function of Tatarski as modified by Crow.

  3. Revised stratigraphy of Area 123, Koobi Fora, Kenya, and new age estimates of its fossil mammals, including hominins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathogo, Patrick N; Brown, Francis H

    2006-11-01

    Recent geologic study shows that all hominins and nearly all other published mammalian fossils from Paleontological Collection Area 123, Koobi Fora, Kenya, derive from levels between the KBS Tuff (1.87+/-0.02 Ma) and the Lower Ileret Tuff (1.53+/-0.01 Ma). More specifically, the fossils derive from 53 m of section below the Lower Ileret Tuff, an interval in which beds vary markedly laterally, especially those units containing molluscs and algal stromatolites. The upper Burgi Member (approximately 2.00-1.87 Ma) crops out only in the southwestern part of Area 123. Adjacent Area 110 contains larger exposures of the member, and there the KBS Tuff is preserved as an airfall ash in lacustrine deposits and also as a fluvially redeposited ash. We observed no mammalian fossils in situ in this member in Area 123, but surface specimens have been documented in some monographic treatments. Fossil hominins from Area 123 were attributed to strata above the KBS Tuff in the 1970s, but later they were assigned to strata below the KBS Tuff (now called the upper Burgi Member). This study definitively places the Area 123 hominins in the KBS Member. Most of these hominins are between 1.60 and 1.65 myr in age, but the youngest may date to only 1.53 Ma, and the oldest, to 1.75 Ma. All are 0.15-0.30 myr younger than previously estimated. The new age estimates, in conjunction with published taxonomic attributions of fossils, suggest that at least two species of Homo coexisted in the region along with A. boisei until at least 1.65 Ma. Comparison of crania KNM-ER 1813 and KNM-ER 1470, which were believed to be of comparable age, is at the focus of the debate over whether Homo habilis sensu lato is in fact composed of two species: Homo habilis and Homo rudolfensis. These two crania are separated in time by approximately 0.25 myr, and therefore, arguments for their conspecificity no longer need to confront the issue of unusually high contemporaneous variation within a single species.

  4. Expanding the Lessons Learned Program to Include Corps Support Command Commanders and Theater Army Area Command Commanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-10

    INTRODUCTION The Oral History Program’s purpose is to supplement oFficial histories , to isolate successful command, leadership and managerial...of -the program is to capture the experience of senior leaders in the areas of command, leadership , and management . The individual is interviewed...used to gain insight into command and management techniques and to further research in military history . In June of 1984, the Chief of Staff, General

  5. Increased Mortality of Respiratory Diseases, Including Lung Cancer, in the Area with Large Amount of Ashfall from Mount Sakurajima Volcano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenta Higuchi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Mount Sakurajima in Japan is one of the most active volcanoes in the world. This work was conducted to examine the effect of volcanic ash on the chronic respiratory disease mortality in the vicinity of Mt. Sakurajima. Methods. The present work examined the standardized mortality ratios (SMRs of respiratory diseases during the period 1968–2002 in Sakurajima town and Tarumizu city, where ashfall from the volcano recorded more than 10.000 g/m2/yr on average in the 1980s. Results. The SMR of lung cancer in the Sakurajima-Tarumizu area was 1.61 (95% CI = 1.44–1.78 for men and 1.67 (95% CI = 1.39–1.95 for women while it was nearly equal to one in Kanoya city, which neighbors Tarumizu city but located at the further position from Mt. Sakurajima, and therefore has much smaller amounts of ashfall. Sakurajima-Tarumizu area had elevated SMRs for COPDs and acute respiratory diseases while Kanoya did not. Conclusions. Cristobalite is the most likely cause of the increased deaths from those chronic respiratory diseases since smoking is unlikely to explain the increased mortality of respiratory diseases among women since the proportion of smokers in Japanese women is less than 20%, and SPM levels in the Sakurajima-Tarumizu area were not high. Further studies seem warranted.

  6. Sonographic measurements of low-echoic synovial area in the dorsal aspect of metatarsophalangeal joints in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraga, Masao; Ikeda, Kei; Shigeta, Koichiro; Sato, Akito; Yoshitama, Tamami; Hara, Ryota; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2015-05-01

    Assessment of synovitis in the metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joints with ultrasound has been shown to improve the accuracy of assessment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, the presence of intraarticular low-echoic synovial area (LESA) in the MTP joints in healthy subjects complicates the sonographic assessment of these joints. Healthy subjects with no arthritic symptoms in their MTP joints were recruited. All subjects completed a questionnaire and underwent physical examination and sonographic assessment. LESAs in the dorsal aspect of all MTP joints were measured in the longitudinal view. One thousand non-arthritic MTP joints in 100 healthy subjects (female 73, mean age 41.0 years old) were evaluated. Measurable LESAs were identified in all joints assessed. Mean length of LESA in each of the 1st-5th MTP joints was 17.8, 13.9, 11.9, 10.6, and 9.2 mm, respectively, whereas mean thickness was 2.4, 2.4, 1.8, 1.2, and 0.8 mm, respectively. Multivariate linear regression models identified the difference between 1st and 5th MTP joints as the most independently influential factor on the measurement of LESA. Our data provide the normal reference values for the measurements of LESA in Japanese, which should be taken into consideration when the synovitis in MTP joints is evaluated with ultrasound.

  7. Comparison of optic area measurement using fundus photography and optical coherence tomography between optic nerve head drusen and control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Rodríguez, Patricia; Gili, Pablo; Martín-Ríos, María Dolores; Grifol-Clar, Eulalia

    2013-03-01

    To compare optic disc area measurement between optic nerve head drusen (ONHD) and control subjects using fundus photography, time-domain optical coherence tomography (TD-OCT) and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). We also made a comparison between each of the three techniques. We performed our study on 66 eyes (66 patients) with ONHD and 70 healthy control subjects (70 controls) with colour ocular fundus photography at 20º (Zeiss FF 450 IR plus), TD-OCT (Stratus OCT) with the Fast Optic Disc protocol and SD-OCT (Cirrus OCT) with the Optic Disc Cube 200 × 200 protocol for measurement of the optic disc area. The measurements were made by two observers and in each measurement a correction of the image magnification factor was performed. Measurement comparison using the Student's t-test/Mann-Whitney U test, the intraclass correlation coefficient, Pearson/Spearman rank correlation coefficient and the Bland-Altman plot was performed in the statistical analysis. Mean and standard deviation (SD) of the optic disc area in ONHD and in controls was 2.38 (0.54) mm(2) and 2.54 (0.42) mm(2), respectively with fundus photography; 2.01 (0.56) mm(2) and 1.66 (0.37) mm(2), respectively with TD-OCT, and 2.03 (0.49) mm(2) and 1.75 (0.38) mm(2), respectively with SD-OCT. In ONHD and controls, repeatability of optic disc area measurement was excellent with fundus photography and optical coherence tomography (TD-OCT and SD-OCT), but with a low degree of agreement between both techniques. Optic disc area measurement is smaller in ONHD compared to healthy subjects with fundus photography, unlike time-domain and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in which the reverse is true. Both techniques offer good repeatability, but a low degree of correlation and agreement, which means that optic disc area measurement is not interchangeable or comparable between techniques. Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2013 The College of Optometrists.

  8. Should nonalcoholic fatty liver disease be included in the definition of metabolic syndrome? A cross-sectional comparison with Adult Treatment Panel III criteria in nonobese nondiabetic subjects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Musso, Giovanni; Gambino, Roberto; Bo, Simona; Uberti, Barbara; Biroli, Giampaolo; Pagano, Gianfranco; Cassader, Maurizio

    2008-01-01

    The ability of the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria of metabolic syndrome to identify insulin-resistant subjects at increased cardiovascular risk is suboptimal, especially in the absence of obesity and diabetes...

  9. Prevention of urinary tract infections with vitamin D supplementation 20,000 IU per week for five years. Results from an RCT including 511 subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorde, Rolf; Sollid, Stina T; Svartberg, Johan; Joakimsen, Ragnar M; Grimnes, Guri; Hutchinson, Moira Y S

    2016-01-01

    In observational studies vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased risk of infections, whereas the effect of vitamin D supplementation in randomized controlled trials is non-conclusive. Five hundred and eleven subjects with prediabetes were randomized to vitamin D3 (20,000 IU per week) versus placebo for five years. Every sixth month, a questionnaire on respiratory tract infections (RTI) (common cold, bronchitis, influenza) and urinary tract infection (UTI) was filled in. Mean baseline serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) level was 60 nmol/L. Two hundred and fifty-six subjects received vitamin D and 255 placebo. One hundred and sixteen subjects in the vitamin D and 111 in the placebo group completed the five-year study. Eighteen subjects in the vitamin D group and 34 subjects in the placebo group reported UTI during the study (p vitamin D on UTI was unrelated to baseline serum 25(OH)D level. Supplementation with vitamin D might prevent UTI, but confirmatory studies are needed.

  10. Intra-Rater Reliability of Rehabilitative Ultrasound Imaging for Multifidus Muscles Thickness and Cross Section Area in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinifar, Mohammad; Akbari, Asghar; Ghiasi, Fateme

    2015-07-07

    Rehabilitative Ultrasound Imaging (RUSI) must be valuable method for research and rehabilitation. So, the reliability of its measurements must be determined. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the intra-rater reliability of RUSI for measurement of multifidus (MF) muscles cross section areas (CSAs), bladder wall diameter, and thickness of MF muscles between 2 sessions in healthy subjects. Fifteen healthy subjects through simple non-probability sampling participated in this single-group repeated-measures reliability study. MF muscles thickness at rest and during contraction, MF muscles CSAs at rest, and bladder diameters at rest and during pelvic floor muscles (PFM) contraction were measured through RUSI. Pearson's correlation coefficient test was used to determine intra-rater reliability of variables. The results showed that intra-class correlation Coefficient (ICCs) values with 95% confidence interval (CI) and the standard error of the measurement (SEM) were good to excellent agreement for a single investigator between measurement occasions. The intra-rater reliability for the bladder wall displacement was high (ICCs for rest and PFM contraction state: 0.96 and 0.95 respectively), for the MF muscles CSAs at the L4 level was good to high (ICCs 0.75 and 0.91 for right (Rt) and left (Lt) side respectively), and for the thickness of MF muscles at two levels, at rest and during two tasks was moderate to high (ICCs: 0.64 to 0.87). The Trans-Abdominal (TA) method of RUSI is a reliable method to quantify the PFM contraction in healthy subjects. Also, the RUSI is a reliable method to measure the MF muscles CSAs, the MF muscles thickness at rest and during functional tasks in healthy subjects.

  11. Road Bridges and Culverts, Bridge dataset only includes bridges maintained by Johnson County Public Works in the unincorporated areas, Published in Not Provided, Johnson County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Road Bridges and Culverts dataset current as of unknown. Bridge dataset only includes bridges maintained by Johnson County Public Works in the unincorporated areas.

  12. Should nonalcoholic fatty liver disease be included in the definition of metabolic syndrome? A cross-sectional comparison with Adult Treatment Panel III criteria in nonobese nondiabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musso, Giovanni; Gambino, Roberto; Bo, Simona; Uberti, Barbara; Biroli, Giampaolo; Pagano, Gianfranco; Cassader, Maurizio

    2008-03-01

    The ability of the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria of metabolic syndrome to identify insulin-resistant subjects at increased cardiovascular risk is suboptimal, especially in the absence of obesity and diabetes. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with insulin resistance and is emerging as an independent cardiovascular risk factor. We compared the strength of the associations of ATP III criteria and of NAFLD to insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and endothelial dysfunction in nonobese nondiabetic subjects. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) >2, oxidative stress (nitrotyrosine), soluble adhesion molecules (intracellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and E-selectin), and circulating adipokines (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, leptin, adiponectin, and resistin) were cross-sectionally correlated to ATP III criteria and to NAFLD in 197 unselected nonobese nondiabetic subjects. NAFLD more accurately predicted insulin resistance than ATP III criteria: sensitivity 73 vs. 38% (P = 0.0001); positive predictive value: 81 vs. 62% (P = 0.035); negative predictive value 87 vs. 74% (P = 0.012); positive likelihood ratio 4.39 vs. 1.64 (P = 0.0001); and negative likelihood ratio 0.14 vs. 0.35 (P = 0.0001). Adding NAFLD to ATP III criteria significantly improved their diagnostic accuracy for insulin resistance. Furthermore, NAFLD independently predicted HOMA-IR, nitrotyrosine, and soluble adhesion molecules on logistic regression analysis; the presence of NAFLD entailed more severe oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction, independent of adiposity or any feature of the metabolic syndrome in insulin-resistant subjects. NAFLD is more tightly associated with insulin resistance and with markers of oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction than with ATP III criteria in nonobese nondiabetic subjects and may help identify individuals with increased cardiometabolic risk in this population.

  13. Including indigestible carbohydrates in the evening meal of healthy subjects improves glucose tolerance, lowers inflammatory markers, and increases satiety after a subsequent standardized breakfast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Anne C; Ostman, Elin M; Holst, Jens Juul

    2008-01-01

    tolerance and related variables after a subsequent standardized breakfast in healthy subjects (n = 15). At breakfast, blood was sampled for 3 h for analysis of blood glucose, serum insulin, serum FFA, serum triacylglycerides, plasma glucagon, plasma gastric-inhibitory peptide, plasma glucagon-like peptide-1...... (GLP-1), serum interleukin (IL)-6, serum IL-8, and plasma adiponectin. Satiety was subjectively rated after breakfast and the gastric emptying rate (GER) was determined using paracetamol as a marker. Breath hydrogen was measured as an indicator of colonic fermentation. Evening meals with barley kernel......-kernel bread compared with WWB. Breath hydrogen correlated positively with satiety (r = 0.27; P metabolic risk variables at breakfast...

  14. Interval estimation for the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve when data are subject to error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanhong; Koval, John J; Donner, Allan; Zou, G Y

    2010-10-30

    The area (A) under the receiver operating characteristic curve is commonly used to quantify the ability of a biomarker to correctly classify individuals into two populations. However, many markers are subject to measurement error, which must be accounted for to prevent understating their effectiveness. In this paper, we develop a new confidence interval procedure for A which is adjusted for measurement error using either external or internal replicated measurements. Based on the observation that A is a function of normal means and variances, we develop the procedure by recovering variance estimates needed from confidence limits for normal means and variances. Simulation results show that the procedure performs better than the previous ones based on the delta-method in terms of coverage percentage, balance of tail errors and interval width. Two examples are presented. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Including indigestible carbohydrates in the evening meal of healthy subjects improves glucose tolerance, lowers inflammatory markers, and increases satiety after a subsequent standardized breakfast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Anne C; Ostman, Elin M; Holst, Jens J; Björck, Inger M E

    2008-04-01

    Low-glycemic index (GI) foods and foods rich in whole grain are associated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We studied the effect of cereal-based bread evening meals (50 g available starch), varying in GI and content of indigestible carbohydrates, on glucose tolerance and related variables after a subsequent standardized breakfast in healthy subjects (n = 15). At breakfast, blood was sampled for 3 h for analysis of blood glucose, serum insulin, serum FFA, serum triacylglycerides, plasma glucagon, plasma gastric-inhibitory peptide, plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), serum interleukin (IL)-6, serum IL-8, and plasma adiponectin. Satiety was subjectively rated after breakfast and the gastric emptying rate (GER) was determined using paracetamol as a marker. Breath hydrogen was measured as an indicator of colonic fermentation. Evening meals with barley kernel based bread (ordinary, high-amylose- or beta-glucan-rich genotypes) or an evening meal with white wheat flour bread (WWB) enriched with a mixture of barley fiber and resistant starch improved glucose tolerance at the subsequent breakfast compared with unsupplemented WWB (P carbohydrates of the evening meal may affect glycemic excursions and related metabolic risk variables at breakfast through a mechanism involving colonic fermentation. The results provide evidence for a link between gut microbial metabolism and key factors associated with insulin resistance.

  16. The response of teachers to new subject areas in a national science curriculum: The case of the earth science component

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Chris

    2001-11-01

    The National Curriculum for Science (NCS) introduced to schools in England and Wales in 1989 contained an earth science component that was new to many secondary science teachers. Ten years after this introduction, a survey was undertaken to test teacher perception of the effectiveness of their teaching in this subject area that was new to them, and to identify factors that might affect this effectiveness. The information gained has been used in reviewing possible curriculum changes and in developing professional development strategies that would improve the effectiveness of NCS earth science teaching. The data collected from science teachers who are currently teaching this earth science component revealed that their background knowledge of earth science from their own education was generally poor, even though most of them considered their knowledge to be moderate. The teachers indicated that the achievement of their pupils in earth science is moderate, while reports on national testing show it is poor. They reported that their main sources of earth science knowledge and understanding were science textbooks written for 11- to 16-year-old pupils (with their small earth science content of variable quality) and science colleagues (who often have poor earth science backgrounds too). Most teachers indicated that they needed more support in this area. Overall, the data indicated that while teachers consider their teaching in this area to be moderate, other evidence suggests it is poor. If this situation is not to continue it should be addressed. In the longer term the emphasis on the earth science content of the National Science Curriculum could be changed (either enhanced or reduced) within larger scale curriculum changes. Until such curriculum change takes place, effective methods of professional development should be instituted so that teachers have a much improved basis on which to build their earth science teaching. Similar measures would be necessary in other

  17. Postprandial effects of test meals including concentrated arabinoxylan and whole grain rye in subjects with the metabolic syndrome: a randomised study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartvigsen, M L; Lærke, H N; Overgaard, A; Holst, J J; Bach Knudsen, K E; Hermansen, K

    2014-05-01

    Prospective studies have shown an inverse relationship between whole grain consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes, where short chain fatty acids (SCFA) may be involved. Our objective was to determine the effect of isolated arabinoxylan alone or in combination with whole grain rye kernels on postprandial glucose, insulin, free fatty acids (FFA), gut hormones, SCFA and appetite in subjects with the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Fifteen subjects with MetS participated in this acute, randomised, cross-over study. The test meals each providing 50 g of digestible carbohydrate were as follows: semolina porridge added concentrated arabinoxylan (AX), rye kernels (RK) or concentrated arabinoxylan combined with rye kernels (AXRK) and semolina porridge as control (SE). A standard lunch was served 4 h after the test meals. Blood samples were drawn during a 6-h period, and appetite scores and breath hydrogen were assessed every 30 min. The AXRK meal reduced the acute glucose (P=0.005) and insulin responses (P<0.001) and the feeling of hunger (P=0.005; 0-360 min) compared with the control meal. The AX and AXRK meals increased butyrate and acetate concentrations after 6 h. No significant differences were found for the second meal responses of glucose, insulin, FFA, glucagon-like peptide-1 or ghrelin. Our results indicate a stimulatory effect of arabinoxylan on butyrate and acetate production, however, with no detectable effect on the second meal glucose response. It remains to be tested in a long-term study if a beneficial effect on the glucose response of the isolated arabinoxylan will be related to the SCFA production.

  18. The Measurement of Relevance Amount of Documents That By Using of Google cross-language retrieval About Agriculture Subject Area are Retrieved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Jamshidi Ghahfarokhi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the relevance amount of documents has been investigated by using google cross-language retrieval tools about a agriculture subject area in cross-language retrieval form, are retrieved. For this purpose, by using Persian journals articles that have had English abstracts, Persian phrases and subject terms with their English equivalent were extracted. In three class us, thirty number of phrases and subject terms of agriculture area were extracted: First class, subject phrases that only in agriculture are used; Secondary, agriculture subject terms that in other fields are used too; Third class, agriculture subject terms that out of this field are considered as public term. Then by these phrases and terms, documents were searched, and relevance amount of search results are investigated. Results of study showed that google cross-language retrieval tools for two classes of phrases and terms, in cross-language retrieval of relevance document about agriculture subject area, aren`t succeed: one class, agriculture subject terms that in other fields are used too. other class, agriculture subject terms that out of agriculture field are considered as public term. Google cross-language retrieval tools about subject phrase and terms that only in agriculture field are used, are performance rather desirable than other two class of phrase and terms

  19. The Measurement of Relevance Amount of Documents That By Using of Google cross-language retrieval About Agriculture Subject Area are Retrieved

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fatemeh Jamshidi Ghahfarokhi

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the relevance amount of documents has been investigated by using google cross-language retrieval tools about a agriculture subject area in cross-language retrieval form, are retrieved...

  20. [Psychosocial stressors, sense of community, and subjective wellbeing in children and adolescents in urban and rural areas in Northeast Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Desirée Pereira de; Viñas, Ferran; Casas, Ferran; Montserrat, Carme; González-Carrasco, Mònica; Alcantara, Stefania Carneiro de

    2016-09-19

    The study's overall objective was to investigate the relationship between psychosocial stressors, sense of community, and subjective wellbeing in urban and rural schoolchildren in Northeast Brazil, focusing on differences according to territorial context. The sample consisted of 757 participants, 495 from urban schools and 262 from rural schools, enrolled in the 6th and 7th grades (9 to 18 years of age) in 21 municipal and state public schools, of which 13 urban and 8 rural, in 7 municipalities (counties) in Ceará State, Brazil. The study instruments were inventory of stressful events, scale of life satisfaction for students, index of sense of community, and satisfaction indices by life domains (family, material goods, relations, neighborhood/zone, health, time, school, and personal). The results indicate that socioeconomically underprivileged public schoolchildren from urban areas are more exposed to daily stress and score lower on satisfaction in specific domains of life and on sense of community. This latter is an important indicator for evaluating wellbeing in this young population.

  1. Small Ubiquitin-Like Modifier 4 (SUMO4 Gene M55V Polymorphism and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Meta-analysis Including 6,823 Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-yan Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMany studies suggest that the small ubiquitin-like modifier 4 (SUMO4 M55V gene polymorphism (rs237025 may be associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. However, due to other conflicting results, a clear consensus is lacking in the matter.Objective and methodsA meta-analysis consisting of 6,823 subjects from 10 studies was conducted to elucidate relationship between the SUMO4 M55V gene polymorphism and T2DM. Depending on the heterogeneity of the data, either a fixed or random-effects model would be used to assess the combined odds ratio (ORs and their corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI.ResultsSUMO4 gene M55V polymorphism was significantly associated with T2DM in the whole population under allelic (OR: 1.18, 95% CI: 1.10–1.28, P = 1.63 × 10−5, recessive (OR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.14–2.23, P = 0.006, dominant (OR: 0.815, 95% CI: 0.737–0.901, P = 6.89 × 10−5, homozygous (OR: 1.415, 95% CI: 1.170–1.710, P = 0.0003, heterozygous (OR: 1.191, 95% CI: 1.072–1.323, P = 0.001, and additive genetic models (OR: 1.184, 95% CI: 1.097–1.279, P = 1.63 × 10−5. In our subgroup analysis, a significant association was found again in the Chinese population, but not in Japanese or Iranian population.ConclusionSUMO4 gene M55V polymorphism may correlate with increased T2DM risk. Chinese carriers of the V allele of the SUMO4 gene M55V polymorphism may be predisposed to developing T2DM.

  2. Educational role of art history as a school subject area in programmes of formal education in Slovenia: the aspect of vzgoja, according to general European guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjana Dolšina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Programmes of formal education establish a systematic transfer of knowledge as well as universal values from one generation to another. By that, they ensure the survival of social structures, prevent radical disruptions in their continuity, and serve as basis for general development of a society. Their content and didactic arrangements include interweaving of two basic aspects: the cognitive one and the one related to vzgoja (i.e. upbringing, moral/value education etc.. The latter aims to achieve the ideals of a tolerant, just and lifelong learning society, but seems to be facing increasing challenges, mainly emerging from neoliberal capitalist mentality. Art history as a school subject area in elementary and secondary education may provide an insight beneath the surface of historical events. Thus, it helps develop a critical view towards them and consequently towards the present real-life situations, which contributes to ascending the taxonomic scale of conative educational goals.

  3. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity in individuals with psoriasis: associations with body surface area and subjective disease severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, P B

    2013-10-01

    Psoriasis is associated with serious comorbidities such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. These comorbidities are related to low physical activity in the general population. Limited research has evaluated physical activity in psoriasis, and thus, the purpose of this investigation was to compare physical activity between individuals with and without psoriasis as well as explore the associations between measures of psoriasis severity and physical activity. Cross-sectional study using data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Self-reported psoriasis diagnosis and psoriasis severity were regressed on moderate/vigorous physical activity, as measured objectively by accelerometers. Measures of psoriasis severity included rating of psoriasis as a problem in life and body surface area involvement. A total of 4316 individuals had data on psoriasis, moderate/vigorous physical activity, and relevant covariates, with 3.6% (population weighted) of participants (N.=117) reporting a diagnosis of psoriasis. A psoriasis diagnosis was not associated with moderate/vigorous physical activity, and furthermore, body surface area involvement was not associated with moderate/vigorous physical activity among participants with psoriasis. However, every tertile increase in psoriasis as a problem in life was associated with 28% less moderate/vigorous physical activity, which remained significant after adjusting for covariates and removing outliers. While a diagnosis of psoriasis and body surface area involvement do not appear to be associated with less moderate/vigorous physical activity, individuals that rate their psoriasis to be a large problem engage in less moderate/vigorous physical activity.

  4. The perceptions of teachers and principals toward providing additional compensation to teachers in high-need subject areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longing, Jeffrey Lucian

    The purpose of this study was to determine possible differences in the perceptions of teachers teaching in high-need areas (i.e., math, science, special education, etc.) and teachers not teaching in high-need areas, (i.e., business education, physical education, etc.) as defined by the states of Arkansas and Louisiana, regarding higher compensation for high-need teachers. In addition, possible perception differences among principals and teachers were determined. The independent variables consisted of gender, position held, years of certified experience, and certification areas. The dependent variable was the perceptions of the participants on providing higher compensation for high-need teachers in order to attract and retain them. The data for all variables were collected using the Teacher Compensation Survey. The sample for this study was limited to teachers, grades 9 through 12, and principals of public high schools in south Arkansas and north Louisiana. Forty-four school districts in south Arkansas (Arkansas Department of Education, 2008a) and north Louisiana (Louisiana Department of Education, 2008a) met the criteria for this study. Twenty-two superintendents gave permission for their districts to participate in the research. A sample of 849 teachers and 38 principals were identified in these districts. Surveys were returned from 350 teachers, creating a 41% response rate. When the 31 principals that returned surveys were added to the total population, the response rate increased to 43% with 381 of the 887 surveyed responding. However, 42 of the teachers and two of the principals skipped some of the questions on the survey and were not included in the study. The researcher used a One-Way ANOVA and independent t-tests to determine the presence of statistical differences at the .05 level. The data showed that most math and science teachers agreed that high-need teachers should be compensated at a higher rate than teachers not teaching in high-need areas. The data

  5. Measurement of area and personal breathing zone concentrations of diesel particulate matter (DPM) during oil and gas extraction operations, including hydraulic fracturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esswein, Eric J; Alexander-Scott, Marissa; Snawder, John; Breitenstein, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Diesel engines serve many purposes in modern oil and gas extraction activities. Diesel particulate matter (DPM) emitted from diesel engines is a complex aerosol that may cause adverse health effects depending on exposure dose and duration. This study reports on personal breathing zone (PBZ) and area measurements for DPM (expressed as elemental carbon) during oil and gas extraction operations including drilling, completions (which includes hydraulic fracturing), and servicing work. Researchers at the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) collected 104 full-shift air samples (49 PBZ and 55 area) in Colorado, North Dakota, Texas, and New Mexico during a four-year period from 2008-2012. The arithmetic mean (AM) of the full shift TWA PBZ samples was 10 µg/m3; measurements ranged from 0.1-52 µg/m3. The geometric mean (GM) for the PBZ samples was 7 µg/m3. The AM of the TWA area measurements was 17 µg/m3 and ranged from 0.1-68 µg/m3. The GM for the area measurements was 9.5 µg/m3. Differences between the GMs of the PBZ samples and area samples were not statistically different (P > 0.05). Neither the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), NIOSH, nor the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) have established occupational exposure limits (OEL) for DPM. However, the State of California, Department of Health Services lists a time-weighted average (TWA) OEL for DPM as elemental carbon (EC) exposure of 20 µg/m3. Five of 49 (10.2%) PBZ TWA measurements exceeded the 20 µg/m3 EC criterion. These measurements were collected on Sandmover and Transfer Belt (T-belt) Operators, Blender and Chemical Truck Operators, and Water Transfer Operators during hydraulic fracturing operations. Recommendations to minimize DPM exposures include elimination (locating diesel-driven pumps away from well sites), substitution, (use of alternative fuels), engineering controls using advanced emission control technologies

  6. [Subjective Workload, Job Satisfaction, and Work-Life-Balance of Physicians and Nurses in a Municipal Hospital in a Rural Area Compared to an Urban University Hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körber, Michael; Schmid, Klaus; Drexler, Hans; Kiesel, Johannes

    2017-02-15

    Medical and nursing shortages in rural areas represent a current serious public health problem. The healthcare of the rural population is at risk. This study compares perceived workload, job satisfaction and work-life balance of physicians and nurses at a clinic in a rural area with two clinics of a University hospital. Physicians and nurses were interviewed anonymously with a standardized questionnaire (paper and pencil), including questions on job satisfaction, subjective workload and work-life balance. The response rate was almost 50% in the University hospital as well as in the municipal hospital. 32 physicians and 54 nurses from the University hospital and 18 physicians and 137 nurses from the municipal hospital participated in the survey. Nurses at the University hospital assessed the organization of the daily routine with 94.1% as better than those at the municipal hospital (82.4%, p=0.03). Physicians at the University hospital were able to better implement acquired knowledge at a University clinic with 87.5% than their counterparts at the municipal hospital (55.5%, p=0.02). In contrast to their colleagues at the municipal hospital, only 50% of the physicians at the University hospital subjectively considered their workload as just right (83.3% municipal, p=0.02). 96.9% of the physicians at the University hospital were "daily" or "several times a week" under time pressure (municipal 50%, pwork and family life (62.9% University hospital, 72.8% Municipal hospital). In contrast, only 20% of the physicians at the University Hospital but 42.9% of the physicians of the municipal hospital had sufficient opportunities to balance workload and family (p=0.13). The return rate of almost 50% can be described as good. Due to the small number of physicians, especially from the municipal hospital, it can be assumed that some interesting differences could not be detected. There were only slight differences between the nurses from the two hospitals. In contrast, subjective

  7. Concentration and correlations of perfluoroalkyl substances in whole blood among subjects from three different geographical areas in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Chon Rae; Lam, Nguyen Hoang [College of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences, Chonnam National University, Yeosu 550-749 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Byung Mann [Department of Preventive Medicine and Occupational Medicine, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Yangsan 626-770 (Korea, Republic of); Kannan, Kurunthachalam [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health and Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, Empire State Plaza PO Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States); Cho, Hyeon Seo, E-mail: hscho@jnu.ac.kr [College of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences, Chonnam National University, Yeosu 550-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Toxicity and persistence of perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs) in human have raised considerable concern and several biomonitoring studies throughout the world reported the widespread occurrence of these compounds in human tissues. However, information regarding influence of geographic, lifestyle and demographic factor on PFAS levels in human blood tissues is limited. In this study, whole blood samples collected in 2006–2007 from 319 donors from suburban Seoul (Suwon and Yongin), Busan and Yeosu in Korea were analyzed for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA). Blood donors classified into seven age groups with ages ranging from 8 to 82 years, and different lifestyles and socio-economic status. PFOS (median = 4.15 ng/mL) was found at the highest concentration with a maximum concentration of 59.1 ng/mL. The concentrations of other PFASs were in the decreasing order of; PFOA (median = 1.30 ng/mL) > PFNA (median = 0.85 ng/mL) > PFHxS (median = 0.47 ng/mL) > PFOSA (median = 0.12 ng/mL). Geographical differences in the concentrations of five target PFASs were found. Significant positive relationships between PFAS concentrations and the age of the donors were found. Gender-related differences were found in the concentrations of PFOA, PFNA, PFHxS and PFOSA. No association was found between PFAS levels and several lifestyle factors and socio-economic status which included drinking habit, furniture/carpet in an indoor environment and monthly income. Occupation was an important determinant for PFNA and PFHxS concentrations in the whole blood. Except for PFOSA, significant associations were noted between PFASs concentrations and smoking habit. The results of this study provide information for further public health monitoring and safety management for PFASs in Korea. - Highlights: • Significant geographical differences in PFAS levels in whole

  8. MEG reveals a fast pathway from somatosensory cortex to occipital areas via posterior parietal cortex in a blind subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ioannides, Andreas A; Liu, Lichan; Poghosyan, Vahe

    2013-01-01

    magnetoencephalography (MEG) data recorded from one congenitally blind and two sighted subjects after stimulation of the left and right median nerves at three intensities: below sensory threshold, above sensory threshold and above motor threshold; the last sufficient to produce thumb twitching. We identified...... reproducible brain responses in the primary somatosensory (S1) and motor (M1) cortices at around 20 ms post-stimulus, which were very similar in sighted and blind subjects. Time-frequency analysis revealed strong 45-70 Hz activity at latencies of 20-50 ms in S1 and M1, and posterior parietal cortex Brodmann...... of information through this pathway occurred in stages characterized by convergence of activations into specific cortical regions. In sighted subjects, no linked activity was found that led from the somatosensory to the visual cortex through any of the studied brain regions. These results provide the first...

  9. Reproducibility of fat area measurements in young, non-obese subjects by computerized analysis of magnetic resonance images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, J.M.; Haumann, G.; Asscheman, H.; Seidell, J C; Gooren, Louis J G

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess reproducibility, expressed as both inter-observer variability and intra-observer variability, of fat area measurements on images obtained by magnetic resonance (MR); to compare variability between fat area measurements, calculated from a single image per body region and from the

  10. Subjectivity in Education and Health: Research Notes on School Learning Area and Physical Education in Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Marilia; da Costa, Jonatas Maia

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of two studies researching the theory of subjectivity from a cultural-historical perspective. The studies are situated in the fields of education and health and are conducted using Qualitative Epistemology. The first study discusses the pathological movement problems of learning disabilities in Brazilian schools and…

  11. [Left ventricular hypertrophy in black African subjects with artery hypertension: Results of a cross-sectional survey conducted in semi-rural area in Senegal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbaye, A; Dodo, B; Ngaïde, A A; Sy, N F; Babaka, K; Mingou, J S; Faye, M; Niang, K; Sarr, S A; Dioum, M; Bodian, M; Ndiaye, M B; Kane, A D; Ndour-Mbaye, M; Diao, M; Diack, B; Kane, M; Diagne-Sow, D; Thiaw, I; Kane, A

    2017-09-01

    To assess the prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy according to electrocardiographic and echocardiographic criteria among hypertensive patients living in semi-rural Senegalese area. According to the World Health Organization STEPSwise approach, we conducted, in November 2012, a cross-sectional and exhaustive study in the population aged at least 35 years old and living for at least six months in the semi-rural area of Guéoul. We researched electrocardiographic and echocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy in hypertensive subjects. Data were analyzed with SPSS 18.0 software version. The significance level was agreed for a value of P<0.05. We examined 1411 subjects aged on average of 48.5±12.7 years. In total, 654 subjects were hypertensive and screening of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) was effective in 515 of them. According to Sokolow-Lyon index, 86 subjects (16.7%) presented electrocardiographic LVH, more frequently in men (P=0.002). According to Cornell index and Cornell product, LVH was founded respectively in 66 (12.8%) and 52 subjects (10.1%), more frequently in female (P=0.0001; P=0.004). It was more common in grade 3 of hypertension however criteria. In echocardiography, prevalence of LVH was 2.2% (13 cases) according to the left ventricular mass, 9.3% (48 cases) according to the left ventricular mass indexed to body surface area and 8.2% (42 cases) according to the left ventricular mass indexed to height 2.7 . LVH was significantly correlated with the electrocardiographic LVH according to Sokolow-Lyon index (P<0.0001) and the grade 3 of hypertension (P=0.003). Although rare in hypertensive Senegalese living in semi-rural area, left ventricular hypertrophy is correlated with severity of grade of hypertension. Screening by electrocardiogram will allow better follow-up of these hypertensive subjects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. An active power dispatch technique using pseudo spot price of electricity for a power system area including limited energy supply thermal units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadil, Salih [Osmangazi Univ., Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Eskisehir (Turkey); Yasar, Celal [Dumlupnar Univ., Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Kutahya (Turkey)

    2002-02-01

    We propose a new active power dispatch technique using pseudo spot price of electricity for a power system area including limited energy supply thermal units. The dispatch technique considers upper and lower generation limits of the generation units, maximum capability of transmission lines and the fuel constraint of the limited energy supply thermal units in a lossy power system. Calculation of active line flows that are used in the determination of optimal active generations are obtained by means of Newton-Raphson AC load flow calculation. We assume that limited energy supply thermal units are fueled under take-or-pay agreement. The proposed dispatch technique was tested on an example power system. The dispatch problem was also solved by means of another dispatch technique that uses gradient method. Results obtained from both techniques are compared. (Author)

  13. Recommendations for a barrier island breach management plan for Fire Island National Seashore, including the Otis Pike High Dune Wilderness Area, Long Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S. Jeffress; Foley, Mary K.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S Army Corps of Engineers, New York District is developing engineering plans, including economic costs and benefits, for storm damage reduction along an 83 mile stretch of the coastal barrier islands and beaches on the south shore of Long Island, NY from Fire Island Inlet east to the Montauk Point headland. The plan, expected to include various alternatives for storm protection and erosion mitigation, is referred to as the Fire Island to Montauk Point Reformulation Plan (FIMP). These plans are expected to follow the Corps of Engineers’ Environmental Operating Principles striving for long term environmental sustainability and balance between environmental protection and protection of human health and property. Fire Island National Seashore (FIIS), a 19,579 acre unit of the National Park System includes a 32 mile long coastal barrier island located within the FIMP project area. A seven-mile section of the park, Otis Pike Fire Island High Dune Wilderness Area, is also a designated Federal Wilderness Area. The FIIS includes not only the barrier island and sand dunes, but also several islands, sand flats and wetlands landward of the barrier, submerged parts of Great South Bay shoreface, extending approximately 4,000 feet into the bay with the inner shelf region extending approximately 1,000 feet seaward of the Fire Island shoreline. The Fire Island barrier islands, a sand-starved system dominated by highly dynamic processes, are struggling to maintain their integrity in the face of sea-level rise and storms. Adding to the dilemma is that development on the barriers and the mainland has increased greatly during the past 50 years. As such, managers and decision makers in federal agencies, state agencies and local governments are challenged to balance tradeoffs between protection of lives and property, public access and long term conservation of natural habitats and processes and the plants and animals that depend on these habitats. National Park Service (NPS

  14. Intestinal Parasites Coinfection Does Not Alter Plasma Cytokines Profile Elicited in Acute Malaria in Subjects from Endemic Area of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Camilo Sánchez-Arcila

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, malaria is prevalent in the Amazon region and these regions coincide with high prevalence of intestinal parasites but few studies explore the interaction between malaria and other parasites. Therefore, the present study evaluates changes in cytokine, chemokine, C-reactive protein, and nitric oxide (NO concentrations in 264 individuals, comparing plasma from infected individuals with concurrent malaria and intestinal parasites to individuals with either malaria infection alone and uninfected. In the studied population 24% of the individuals were infected with Plasmodium and 18% coinfected with intestinal parasites. Protozoan parasites comprised the bulk of the intestinal parasites infections and subjects infected with intestinal parasites were more likely to have malaria. The use of principal component analysis and cluster analysis associated increased levels of IL-6, TNF-α, IL-10, and CRP and low levels of IL-17A predominantly with individuals with malaria alone and coinfected individuals. In contrast, low levels of almost all inflammatory mediators were associated predominantly with individuals uninfected while increased levels of IL-17A were associated predominantly with individuals with intestinal parasites only. In conclusion, our data suggest that, in our population, the infection with intestinal parasites (mainly protozoan does not modify the pattern of cytokine production in individuals infected with P. falciparum and P. vivax.

  15. Increasing mortality from ischaemic heart disease in China from 2004 to 2010: disproportionate rise in rural areas and elderly subjects. 438 million person-years follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaofei; Khan, Arshad A; Haq, Ehtesham Ul; Rahim, Aadil; Hu, Dayi; Attia, John; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Ma, Xiaoyan; Ding, Rongjing; Boyle, Andrew J

    2017-01-01

    We sought to ascertain the changes in mortality from ischaemic heart disease (IHD) from 2004 to 2010 in China as the sheer size of China's population makes disease patterns relevant globally. Data on IHD mortality were obtained from the Chinese Centre for Disease Control and Prevention National Disease Surveillance Point System, which includes 161 counties and a population of over 73 million-a representative sample of over 6% of the entire population of China. Both crude and World Health Organization (WHO)-standardized IHD mortality increased, in both men and women and in both urban and rural locations, during the study period, demonstrating the effect of urbanization, economic growth, and epidemiological transition on cardiovascular health. WHO-standardized IHD mortality increased for rural males by 9.2% per year (95% CI: 6.7-11.7%; P < 0.0001), and the trend was statistically significantly higher (P = 0.0001) than in urban males by 6.4% per year (95% CI: 3-10%; P = 0.02). WHO-standardized IHD mortality rate increased for rural females by 7.0% per year (95% CI: 4.6-9.4%; P < 0.0001); this was statistically significantly higher than urban females by 4.3% per year (95% CI: 1-8%; P = 0.02). The age group over 80 years showed the greatest increase in IHD mortality. Mortality from IHD is increasing in China, in contrast to decreasing in other countries. This is largely driven by increasing IHD mortality in rural areas and subjects over 80 years old. This needs urgent attention by public health workers and policymakers.

  16. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 165: Areas 25 and 26 Dry Well and Washdown Areas, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (including Record of Technical Change Nos. 1, 2, and 3) (January 2002, Rev. 0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV)

    2002-01-09

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 165 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 165 consists of eight Corrective Action Sites (CASs): CAS 25-20-01, Lab Drain Dry Well; CAS 25-51-02, Dry Well; CAS 25-59-01, Septic System; CAS 26-59-01, Septic System; CAS 25-07-06, Train Decontamination Area; CAS 25-07-07, Vehicle Washdown; CAS 26-07-01, Vehicle Washdown Station; and CAS 25-47-01, Reservoir and French Drain. All eight CASs are located in the Nevada Test Site, Nevada. Six of these CASs are located in Area 25 facilities and two CASs are located in Area 26 facilities. The eight CASs at CAU 165 consist of dry wells, septic systems, decontamination pads, and a reservoir. The six CASs in Area 25 are associated with the Nuclear Rocket Development Station that operated from 1958 to 1973. The two CASs in Area 26 are associated with facilities constructed for Project Pluto, a series of nuclear reactor tests conducted between 1961 to 1964 to develop a nuclear-powered ramjet engine. Based on site history, the scope of this plan will be a two-phased approach to investigate the possible presence of hazardous and/or radioactive constituents at concentrations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and the environment. The Phase I analytical program for most CASs will include volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, total petroleum hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and radionuclides. If laboratory data obtained from the Phase I investigation indicates the presence of contaminants of concern, the process will continue with a Phase II investigation to define the extent of contamination. Based on the

  17. Concentration and correlations of perfluoroalkyl substances in whole blood among subjects from three different geographical areas in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Chon Rae; Lam, Nguyen Hoang; Cho, Byung Mann; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Cho, Hyeon Seo

    2015-04-15

    Toxicity and persistence of perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs) in human have raised considerable concern and several biomonitoring studies throughout the world reported the widespread occurrence of these compounds in human tissues. However, information regarding influence of geographic, lifestyle and demographic factor on PFAS levels in human blood tissues is limited. In this study, whole blood samples collected in 2006-2007 from 319 donors from suburban Seoul (Suwon and Yongin), Busan and Yeosu in Korea were analyzed for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA). Blood donors classified into seven age groups with ages ranging from 8 to 82 years, and different lifestyles and socio-economic status. PFOS (median=4.15 ng/mL) was found at the highest concentration with a maximum concentration of 59.1 ng/mL. The concentrations of other PFASs were in the decreasing order of; PFOA (median=1.30 ng/mL)>PFNA (median=0.85 ng/mL)>PFHxS (median=0.47 ng/mL)>PFOSA (median=0.12 ng/mL). Geographical differences in the concentrations of five target PFASs were found. Significant positive relationships between PFAS concentrations and the age of the donors were found. Gender-related differences were found in the concentrations of PFOA, PFNA, PFHxS and PFOSA. No association was found between PFAS levels and several lifestyle factors and socio-economic status which included drinking habit, furniture/carpet in an indoor environment and monthly income. Occupation was an important determinant for PFNA and PFHxS concentrations in the whole blood. Except for PFOSA, significant associations were noted between PFASs concentrations and smoking habit. The results of this study provide information for further public health monitoring and safety management for PFASs in Korea. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Effect of toe-spread-out exercise on hallux valgus angle and cross-sectional area of abductor hallucis muscle in subjects with hallux valgus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Moon-Hwan; Yi, Chung-Hwi; Weon, Jong-Hyuck; Cynn, Heon-Seock; Jung, Do-Young; Kwon, Oh-Yun

    2015-04-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated whether the toe-spread-out exercise affects the hallux valgus angle, the cross-sectional area of the abductor hallucis muscle, and the hallux valgus angle during active abduction. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-four subjects with hallux valgus were randomly assigned to orthosis and orthosis plus toe-spread-out exercise groups. The orthosis group wore the orthosis for 8 weeks, while the orthosis plus toe-spread-out group also performed the toe-spread-out exercise. The hallux valgus angle, the cross-sectional area of the abductor hallucis muscle, and the hallux valgus angle during active abduction were measured initially and after 8 weeks by radiography and ultrasonography. [Results] While there were no significant changes in the three parameters in the orthosis group, there were significant differences in the orthosis plus toe-spread-out exercise group after 8 weeks. In addition there were significant differences in the three measures between the two groups. [Conclusion] The toe-spread-out exercise reduces the hallux valgus angle and hallux valgus angle during active abduction, and increases the cross-sectional area of the abductor hallucis muscle. The toe-spread-out exercise is recommended for patients with mild to moderate hallux valgus.

  19. An analysis of subject areas and country participation for all health-related projects in the EU's FP5 and FP6 programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galsworthy, Michael J; Irwin, Rachel; Charlesworth, Kate; Ernst, Kelly; Hristovski, Dimitar; Wismar, Matthias; McKee, Martin

    2014-06-01

    Previous analyses concerning health components of European Union (EU)-funded research have shown low project participation levels of the 12 newest member states (EU-12). Additionally, there has been a lack of subject-area analysis. In the Health Research for Europe project, we screened all projects of the EU's Framework Programmes for research FP5 and FP6 (1998-2006) to identify health research projects and describe participation by country and subject area. FP5 and FP6 project databases were acquired and screened by coders to identify health-related projects, which were then categorized according to the 47 divisions of the EU Health Portal (N = 2728 projects) plus an extra group of 'basic/biotech' projects (N = 1743). Country participation and coordination rates for projects were also analyzed. Approximately 20% of the 26 946 projects (value €29.2bn) were health-related (N = 4756. Value €6.04bn). Within the health categories, the largest expenditures were cancer (11.9%), 'other' (i.e. not mental health or cardiovascular) non-communicable diseases (9.5%) and food safety (9.4%). One hundred thirty-two countries participated in these projects. Of the 27 EU countries (and five partner countries), north-western and Nordic states acquired more projects per capita. The UK led coordination with > 20% of projects. EU-12 countries were generally under-represented for participation and coordination. Combining our findings with the associated literature, we comment on drivers determining distribution of participation and funds across countries and subject areas. Additionally, we discuss changes needed in the core EU projects database to provide greater transparency, data exploitation and return on investment in health research. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  20. [Nicotine dependence, smoking-related attitude, and subjective norms across the stages of change for smoking cessation among adults smokers in a rural area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Hee; Seo, Nam Sook; Kang, Hae Young

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify nicotine dependence, smoking-related attitude, and subjective norms across the stages of change for smoking cessation among adult smokers in a rural area. The subjects were 276 current smokers (male=243, female=33). There were 3 stages of change for smoking cessation: pre-contemplation, contemplation, and preparation stage. Data was collected by an interview or self-reporting from February 12th to March 5th 2004, and analyzed with frequency, percentage, chi- square-test, Fisher's exact probability test, ANOVA, and Scheffe test using the SPSS-PC program. According to the stages of change, 114(41.3%) current smokers were in pre-contemplation, 110(39.9%) in contemplation, and 52(18.8%) in the preparation stage. There was a higher percentage of males than females (chi- square=8.99, p=.011) in the preparation stage. The mean score of the smoking-related attitude (F=7.43, p=.001) and subjective norm(F=27.41, p=.001) were both lowest in the pre-contemplation stage and increased positively during the stages of change for smoking cessation. Based on these findings, the authors recommend that community-based smoking cessation programs should be developed by considering the intention or motives of current smokers and should be initiated in the preparation stage and primarily for male groups.

  1. Comparison of options for reduction of noise in the test section of the NASA Langley 4x7m wind tunnel, including reduction of nozzle area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    The acoustically significant features of the NASA 4X7m wind tunnel and the Dutch-German DNW low speed tunnel are compared to illustrate the reasons for large differences in background noise in the open jet test sections of the two tunnels. Also introduced is the concept of reducing test section noise levels through fan and turning vane source reductions which can be brought about by reducing the nozzle cross sectional area, and thus the circuit mass flow for a particular exit velocity. The costs and benefits of treating sources, paths, and changing nozzle geometry are reviewed.

  2. Ukrainian Sanitary and Phytosanitary Laws Approximation to EU Acquis Under Association Agreement Including Agreement on Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area (DCFTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kepych Taras

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the achievements to date in legal approximation in the sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS field in Ukraine. Effective regulatory approximation in the SPS field was critical to anchoring the reform process in Ukraine and to fostering further progress in EU’s relations with this Eastern Partnership (EaP country. This paper highlights three major problems in Ukraine that were hindering reform in the SPS field: inconsistency between Ukrainian and EU food safety legislation, lack of uniformity between animal health law regimes, absence of a single SPS regulator. Legal implementation of approximated legislation still remains as key challenge. The paper offers recommendations to improve the Ukraine’s approach so that the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area (DCFTA is part of the Association Agreement (AA between the EU and the Republic of Ukraine could fulfill its potential.

  3. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 529: Area 25 Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. 0, Including Record of Technical Change No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2003-02-26

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 529, Area 25 Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. CAU 529 consists of one Corrective Action Site (25-23-17). For the purpose of this investigation, the Corrective Action Site has been divided into nine parcels based on the separate and distinct releases. A conceptual site model was developed for each parcel to address the translocation of contaminants from each release. The results of this investigation will be used to support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document.

  4. Immediate Effects of Combining Local Techniques in the Craniomandibular Area and Hamstring Muscle Stretching in Subjects with Temporomandibular Disorders: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Blanco, Cleofás; Cocera-Morata, Francisco Miguel; Heredia-Rizo, Alberto Marcos; Ricard, François; Almazán-Campos, Ginés; Oliva-Pascual-Vaca, Ángel

    2015-08-01

    To assess the immediate effects on vertical mouth opening, orofacial mechanosensitivity, and lumbar and suboccipital mobility after adding a myofascial induction technique to a multimodal protocol in subjects with temporomandibular disorders (TMD). A randomized and double-blind controlled trial was carried out. University-based physical therapy research clinic. Sixty subjects (35±11.22 years) with TMD, and restricted mobility of the mandibular condyles and the first cervical vertebrae, were recruited and randomized to either a control group (CG) (n=30) or an experimental group (EG) (n=30). The CG underwent a neuromuscular technique over the masseter muscles and passive hamstring muscle stretching. A suboccipital muscle inhibition technique was added to this protocol in the EG. Primary measurements were made of vertical mouth opening and pressure pain threshold of the masseter muscles. Secondary outcome measures included pressure algometry of the trigeminal nerve, suboccipital range of motion, and lumbar spine mobility, assessed with the sit-and-reach (SAR) test and lumbar forward bending. All evaluations were collected at baseline and immediately after intervention. In the intragroup comparison, the EG observed an increase in suboccipital flexion (p0.05). The inclusion of a myofascial induction maneuver in a protocol combining local (neuromuscular treatment) and distal techniques (hamstring stretching) in subjects with TMD has no impact on improving mouth opening, suboccipital and lumbar mobility, and orofacial sensitivity to mechanical pressure.

  5. Iodine distribution in natural waters of different chemical composition in relation to water-bearing soils and rocks and water fractions in areas subjected to radioiodine contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmykova, Liudmila; Korobova, Elena

    2017-04-01

    Iodine is an essential microelement required for normal functioning of thyroid gland. Natural deficiency of stable iodine is compensated by its active intake by thyroid and provokes its higher irradiation in case of radiation accidents and contamination of the environment by radioiodine isotopes. The bioavailability of both stable and radioactive iodine and the specificity of its uptake by living organisms largely depends on geochemical parameters of the environment related to natural conditions of water migration. The goal of the study was to investigate spatial distribution of iodine in natural water of different chemical composition in relation to typical water-bearing soils and rocks and water fractions in Bryansk areas subjected to radioiodine contamination after the Chernobyl accident and to evaluate contribution of this factor to the occurrence of endemic thyroid diseases among local population inhabiting geochemically different areas of fluvioglacial and loess-like sedimentary rocks. The highest content of iodine (Me=13.3 µg/l) was observed in surface water of landscapes with H-Ca, Ca and H-Ca-Fe classes of water migration. The lowest microelement level (Me=5.25 µg/l) was noted in groundwater of landscapes with H, H-Fe classes of water migration in areas of Paleogene water bearing rocks. Regardless of the type of source and class of water migration up to 90% of the total content of iodide is present in the fraction membrane filtration). Up to 50% of iodine pass to solution containing particles water in areas of loess-like sedimentary rocks hosts the highest levels of iodine where its associated with calcium mineral aquatic complexes and the suspended particles. The obtained data is believed to be useful in explanation of mobility and intake of iodine and its radioactive analogues by rural population living in different geochemical conditions and using local drinking waters. The data should be accounted of in planning prophylactics of endemic diseases and

  6. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 536: Area 3 Release Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Rev. 0 / June 2003), Including Record of Technical Change No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2003-06-27

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives (CAAs) appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 536: Area 3 Release Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 536 consists of a single Corrective Action Site (CAS): 03-44-02, Steam Jenny Discharge. The CAU 536 site is being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of possible contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives for CAS 03-44-02. The additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation (CAI) prior to evaluating CAAs and selecting the appropriate corrective action for this CAS. The results of this field investigation are to be used to support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document. Record of Technical Change No. 1 is dated 3-2004.

  7. Procyrnea chabaud, 1958 (Nematoda: Habronematoidea: Habronematidae) in birds from the Area de Conservación Guanacaste, Costa Rica, including descriptions of 3 new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luping; Brooks, Daniel R; Causey, Douglas

    2004-04-01

    Four species of Procyrnea were collected in birds from the Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Procyrnea brevicaudata n. sp. in Crypturellus cinnamomeus resembles P. ficheuri, P. murrayi, P. ameerae, P. dollfusi, and P. aptera in lacking lateral alae but differs from all these species in having 2 longitudinal ridges on the left side of the body, in having a sinistral rather than ventral vulvar opening, and in having dorsally bent rather than straight female tails. Procyrnea mawsonae n. sp., in Buteo magnirostris, is similar to P. strialata in body size and in having 2 transverse striated lateral alae, but differs by having longer and differently shaped spicules, and by lacking a single preanal sessile papilla. Procyrnea mclennanae n. sp., in Heliomaster constantii, is similar to P. strialata (Zhang, 1991) and P. mawsonae n. sp. in having 2 transverse striated lateral alae, but it can be distinguished from P. strialata and P. mawsonae in having 4 rather than 3 small teeth on the interior border of the pseudolabia, in having unequal rather than equal lateral alae, and in having longer spicules. Procyrnea sp., on the basis of a single adult male in Campephilus guatemalensis, resembles P. suraiyae, P. tulostoma, and P. unilateralis in possessing a single and long lateral ala, but can be distinguished from P. suraiyae and P. tulostoma in the length of the left spicule, in the left spicule having a bifid distal end, the right spicule having a rounded distal end rather than both spicules having pointed distal ends, and in having the lateral ala beginning at the lip region instead of posterior to the cervical papillae. It differs from P. uncinipenis in having a spicule ratio of 1:3.5 rather than 1:2.5, in the left spicule having a bifid rather than alate distal end, and in the absence of a single preanal papilla.

  8. Chemical composition of drinking water as a possible environment-specific factor modifying the thyroid risk in the areas subjected to radioiodine contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmykova, Lyudmila; Korobova, Elena; Ryzhenko, Boris

    2015-04-01

    Water is one of the main natural agents providing chemical elements' migration in the environment and food chains. In our opinion a study of spatial variation of the essential trace elements in local drinking water is worth considering as the factor that may contribute to variation of the health risk in areas contaminated by radionuclides and radioiodine in particular. Radioiodine was proved to increase the risk of thyroid cancer among children who lived in areas contaminated during the Chernobyl accident. It was also shown that low stable iodine status of the contaminated area and population also contributed to the risk of this disease in case of radionuclide contamination. The goal of the study was to investigate chemical composition of the drinking water in rural settlements of the Bryansk oblast' subjected to radioiodine contamination and to evaluate speciation of stable I and Se on the basis of their total concentration and chemical composition of the real water samples with the help of thermodynamic modelling. Water samples were collected from different aquifers discharging at different depths (dug wells, local private bore holes and water pipes) in rural settlements located in areas with contrasting soil iodine status. Thermodynamic modelling was performed using original software (HCh code of Y.Shvarov, Moscow State University, RUSSIA) incorporating the measured pH, Corg and elements' concentration values. Performed modelling showed possibility of formation of complex CaI+ ion in aqueous phase, I sorption by goethite and transfer of Se to solid phase as FeSe in the observed pH-Eh conditions. It helped to identify environmental conditions providing high I and Se mobility and their depletion from natural waters. Both the experimental data and modeling showed that I and Se migration and deficiency in natural water is closely connected to pH, Eh conditions and the concentration of typomorphic chemical elements (Ca, Mg, Fe) defining the class of water migration

  9. Operational Area Environmental Evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey-White, Brenda Eileen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nagy, Michael David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wagner, Katrina Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Goodman, Thomas Richard [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Herring, Allen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Catechis, Christopher S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kinghorn, Aubrianna Nicole [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johnson, Ellie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Barthel, Michael David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Casaus, Benito [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The Operational Area Environmental Evaluation update provides a description of activities that have the potential to adversely affect natural and cultural resources, including soil, air, water, biological, ecological, and historical resources. The environmental sensitivity of an area is evaluated and summarized, which may facilitate informed management decisions as to where development may be prohibited, restricted, or subject to additional requirements.

  10. A Structural Equation Model Analyzing the Relationship of Student Achievement Motivations and Personality Factors in a Range of Academic Subject-Matter Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempelaar, Dirk T.; Gijselaers, Wim H.; Schim van der Loeff, Sybrand; Nijhuis, Jan F. H.

    2007-01-01

    The question of subject-specificity of achievement motivations is important, both for educational psychology, as well as for educational policy. This study contributes to the investigation of the heterogeneity in achievement motivations in the context of the expectancy-value model. Whereas existing research deals with middle and high school…

  11. Masticatory and cervical muscle tenderness and pain sensitivity in a remote area in subjects with a temporomandibular disorder and neck disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Anelise; Armijo-Olivo, Susan; Gadotti, Inae C; Magee, David

    2014-01-01

    To compare the masticatory and cervical muscle tenderness and pain sensitivity in the hand (remote region) between patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and healthy controls. Twenty female subjects were diagnosed with chronic TMD, and 20 were considered healthy. Subjects completed the Neck Disability Index and Limitations of Daily Functions in a TMD questionnaire. Tenderness of the masticatory and cervical muscles and pain sensitivity in the hand were measured using an algometer. Three-way mixed analysis of variance (ANOVA) evaluated differences in muscle tenderness between groups. One-way ANOVA compared pain sensitivity in the hand between groups. Effect sizes were assessed using Cohen guidelines. Significantly increased masticatory and cervical muscle tenderness and pain sensitivity in the hand were found in subjects with TMD when compared with healthy subjects. Moderate to high effect sizes showed the clinical relevance of the findings. The results of this study have highlighted the importance of assessing TMD patients not only in the craniofacial region but also in the neck and other parts of the body. Future studies should focus on testing the effectiveness of treatments addressing the neck and the pain sensitivity in the hand in patients with TMD.

  12. A comparison of human jaw muscle cross-sectional area and volume in long- and short-face subjects, using MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, H.P.W.; van Spronsen, P.H.; van Ginkel, F.C.; van Schijndel, R.A.; Castelijns, J.A.; Tuinzing, D.B.

    2008-01-01

    Objective In humans, the vertical craniofacial dimensions vary significantly with the size of the jaw muscles, which are regarded as important controlling factors of craniofacial growth. The functional relevance of the maximum cross-sectional area (CSA), indicating maximum muscle strength, is

  13. A comparison of human jaw muscle cross-sectional area and volume in long- and short-face subjects, using MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Spronsena, P. H.; van Ginkel, F. C.; van Schijndel, R. A.; Castelijns, J. A.; Tuinzing, D. B.

    Objective: In humans, the vertical craniofacial dimensions vary significantly with the size of the jaw muscles, which are regarded as important controlling factors of craniofacial growth. The functional relevance of the maximum cross-sectional area (CSA), indicating maximum muscle strength, is

  14. A comparison of human jaw muscle cross-sectional area and volume in long- and short-face subjects, using MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, H.P.; van Spronsen, P.H.; van Ginkel, F.C.; van Schijndel, R.A.; Castelijns, J.A.; Tuinzing, D.B.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: In humans, the vertical craniofacial dimensions vary significantly with the size of the jaw muscles, which are regarded as important controlling factors of craniofacial growth. The functional relevance of the maximum cross-sectional area (CSA), indicating maximum muscle strength, is

  15. Ultrasound screening for asymptomatic carotid stenosis in subjects with calcifications in the area of the carotid arteries on panoramic radiographs: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karp Kjell

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Directed ultrasonic screening for carotid stenosis is cost-effective in populations with > 5% prevalence of the diagnosis. Occasionally, calcifications in the area of the carotid arteries are incidentally detected on odontological panoramic radiographs. We aimed to determine if directed screening for carotid stenosis with ultrasound is indicated in individuals with such calcifications. Methods This was a cross-sectional study. Carotid ultrasound examinations were performed on consecutive persons, with findings of calcifications in the area of the carotid arteries on panoramic radiography that were otherwise eligible for asymptomatic carotid endarterectomy. Results Calcification in the area of the carotid arteries was seen in 176 of 1182 persons undergoing panoramic radiography. Of these, 117 fulfilled the inclusion criterion and were examined with carotid ultrasound. Eight persons (6.8%; 95% CI 2.2-11.5% had a carotid stenosis - not significant over the 5% pre-specified threshold (p = 0.232, Binomial test. However, there was a significant sex difference (p = 0.008, as all stenoses were found in men. Among men, 12.5% (95%CI 4.2-20.8% had carotid stenosis - significantly over the 5% pre-specified threshold (p = 0.014, Binomial test. Conclusions The incidental finding of calcification in the area of the carotid arteries on panoramic radiographs should be followed up with carotid screening in men that are otherwise eligible for asymptomatic carotid endarterectomy. Trial Registration The study was registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov; NCT00514644

  16. Teenagers' Significant Experiences in Areas of Arts: A Study of the Subjectively Felt Impact and Some Qualitative Aspects of Experiences Involving Productive Arts Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnas, Leif

    2012-01-01

    As a part of a larger project, this study focused primarily on Finland-Swedish ninth-graders' "productive" arts experiences (involving music-making, acting, writing, painting/drawing, dancing), as these had been reported when the pupils had been asked to write down descriptions of "strong" experiences in arts areas (music,…

  17. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 254: Area 25 R-MAD Decontamination Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (includes ROTC No. 1, date 01/25/1999)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE/NV

    1999-07-29

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 254 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 254 consists of Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-23-06, Decontamination Facility. Located in Area 25 at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), CAU 254 was used between 1963 through 1973 for the decontamination of test-car hardware and tooling used in the Nuclear Rocket Development Station program. The CAS is composed of a fenced area measuring approximately 119 feet by 158 feet that includes Building 3126, an associated aboveground storage tank, a potential underground storage area, two concrete decontamination pads, a generator, two sumps, and a storage yard. Based on site history, the scope of this plan is to resolve the problem statement identified during the Data Quality Objectives process that decontamination activities at this CAU site may have resulted in the release of contaminants of concern (COCs) onto building surfaces, down building drains to associated leachfields, and to soils associated with two concrete decontamination pads located outside the building. Therefore, the scope of the corrective action field investigation will involve soil sampling at biased and random locations in the yard using a direct-push method, scanning and static radiological surveys, and laboratory analyses of all soil/building samples. Historical information provided by former NTS employees indicates that solvents and degreasers may have been used in the decontamination processes; therefore, potential COCs include volatile/semivolatile organic compounds, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, petroleum hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, asbestos, gamma-emitting radionuclides, plutonium, uranium, and strontium-90. The results of this

  18. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool to understa...

  19. Como poderia a Gerontologia, um campo multidisciplinar do saber, estar presente na Tabela das Áreas do Conhecimento do CNPq? How could Gerontology, a multidisciplinary field of knowledge, be included in CNPq's Table of Knowledge Areas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Donizete Prado

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Discutimos a possibilidade da inserção da Gerontologia na Tabela das Áreas do Conhecimento do CNPq num cenário em essa tabela vem sendo questionada na comunidade científica, particularmente no que se refere à inclusão de áreas multidisciplinares. A partir de Foucault, entendemos a Árvore do Conhecimento como uma taxonomia, um continuum, onde todas as áreas são colocadas lado a lado, mais próximas ou mais afastadas conforme semelhanças e diferenças entre si. Trata-se de um tratamento linear e finito que estabelece que uma determinada área do conhecimento só pode estar situada num ponto da parte da linha que corresponde a uma grande área. A Gerontologia caracteristicamente multidisciplinar não alcançou lugar nessa taxonomia institucionalizada, seja porque haveria problemas em relação a conceitos, interesses e projeto político em sua constituição como área do conhecimento, seja porque a taxonomia seria incompatível com a multidisciplinaridade. Concluímos que é possível conceber uma nova Tabela de Campos de Conhecimentos e de Saberes e proceder visualizações dos estudos sobre o envelhecimento e sobre toda e qualquer região dos conhecimentos e dos saberes na plenitude de sua muldisciplinaridade e de suas transformações ao longo dos tempos.We discuss the possibility of including Gerontology in the CNPq Areas of Knowledge Table, in a scenario where this Table is being questioned by the scientific community, particularly with regard to the inclusion of multidisciplinary areas. Based on Foucault, we view the Tree of Knowledge as taxonomy, a continuum in which all areas are placed side by side, closer together or further apart, depending on their similarities and differences. This finite linear approach establishes that a certain Area of knowledge may be placed only at a point along the line corresponding to a Greater Area. Inherently multidisciplinary, gerontology has not been placed in this institutionalized taxonomy

  20. Factors associated with poor nutritional status among community dwelling Lebanese elderly subjects living in rural areas: results of the AMEL study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulos, C; Salameh, P; Barberger-Gateau, P

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed to assess the nutritional status, measured by MNA, and its association with socio-demographic indicators and health related characteristics of a representative sample of community dwelling elderly subjects. Cross-sectional study. Community dwelling elderly individuals living in rural communities in Lebanon. 1200 elderly individuals aged 65 years or more. Socio-demographic indicators and health related characteristics were recorded during a standardized interview. Nutritional status was assessed through Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). The 5-item GDS score and the WHO-5-A score were used to assess mood, whereas Mini Mental Status (MMS) was applied to evaluate cognitive status. The prevalence of malnutrition and risk of malnutrition was 8.0% respective 29.1% of the study sample. Malnutrition was significantly more frequent in elderly subjects aged more than 85 years, in females, widowed and illiterate people. Moreover, participants who reported lower financial status were more often malnourished or at risk of malnutrition. Regarding health status, poor nutritional status was more common among those reporting more than three chronic diseases, taking more than three drugs daily, suffering from chronic pain and those who had worse oral health status. Also, depressive disorders and cognitive dysfunction were significantly related to malnutrition. After multivariate analysis following variables remained independently associated to malnutrition: living in the governorate of Nabatieh (ORa 2.30, 95% CI 1.35 -3.93), reporting higher income (ORa 0.77, 95% CI 0.61-0.97), higher number of comorbidities (ORa 1.22, 95% CI 1.12-1.32), chronic pain (ORa 1.72, 95% CI 1.24-2.39), and depressive disorders (ORa 1.66, 95% CI 1.47-1.88). On the other hand, better cognitive functioning was strongly associated with decreased nutritional risk (ORa 0.27, 95%CI 0.17-0.43). Our results highlighted the close relationship between health status and malnutrition. The

  1. Psychosocial working conditions, school sense of coherence and subjective health complaints. A multilevel analysis of ninth grade pupils in the Stockholm area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modin, Bitte; Ostberg, Viveca; Toivanen, Susanna; Sundell, Knut

    2011-02-01

    This study explores the psychosocial working conditions of 7930 Swedish 9th grade students, distributed over 475 classes and 130 schools, in relation to their subjective health using multilevel modeling. At the individual level, students with "strained" working conditions in school (i.e. those experiencing a high level of demands in combination with a low level of control) demonstrated significantly worse health compared to students in "low-strain" situations. "Strained" conditions in combination with a weak school-related sense of coherence were especially unfavourable for health. These findings remained significant when support from teachers, school marks, norm-breaking behaviours, family-relations and certain class- and school-contextual conditions were adjusted for. Thus, while demands are an essential part of school work, this study suggests that high levels of control and a strong school-related sense of coherence can protect against the more detrimental effects on health that high demands at school may cause. Copyright © 2010 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Energy data base: subject thesaurus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redford, J.S. (ed.)

    1981-10-01

    The technical staff of the DOE Technical Information Center, during its subject indexing activities, develops and structures a vocabulary that allows consistent machine storage and retrieval of information necessary to the accomplishment of the DOE mission. This thesaurus incorporates that structured vocabulary. The terminology of this thesaurus is used for the subject control of information announced in DOE Energy Research Abstracts, Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis, and various update journals and bulletins in specialized areas. This terminology also facilitates subject searching of the DOE Energy Data Base on the DOE/RECON on-line retrieval system and on other commercial retrieval systems. The rapid expansion of the DOE's activities will result in a commitant thesaurus expansion as information relating to new activities is indexed. Only the terms used in the indexing of documents at the Technical Information Center to date are included. (JSR)

  3. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 214: Bunkers and Storage Areas Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 0, Including Record of Technical Change No. 1 and No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2003-05-16

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 214 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Areas 5, 11, and 25 of the Nevada Test Site, CAU 214 consists of nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 05-99-01, Fallout Shelters; 11-22-03, Drum; 25-99-12, Fly Ash Storage; 25-23-01, Contaminated Materials; 25-23-19, Radioactive Material Storage; 25-99-18, Storage Area; 25-34-03, Motor Dr/Gr Assembly (Bunker); 25-34-04, Motor Dr/Gr Assembly (Bunker); and 25-34-05, Motor Dr/Gr Assembly (Bunker). These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives (CAAs). The suspected contaminants and critical analyte s for CAU 214 include oil (total petroleum hydrocarbons-diesel-range organics [TPH-DRO], polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs]), pesticides (chlordane, heptachlor, 4,4-DDT), barium, cadmium, chronium, lubricants (TPH-DRO, TPH-gasoline-range organics [GRO]), and fly ash (arsenic). The land-use zones where CAU 214 CASs are located dictate that future land uses will be limited to nonresidential (i.e., industrial) activities. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the corrective action decision document.

  4. Multiple biomarker responses in Prochilodus lineatus subjected to short-term in situ exposure to streams from agricultural areas in Southern Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Carlos Eduardo Delfino [Laboratório de Ecofisiologia Animal — Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Paraná (Brazil); Costa, Patrícia Gomes [Laboratório de Microcontaminantes Orgânicos e Ecotoxicologia — Instituto de Oceanografia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Lunardelli, Bruna; Fernandes de Oliveira, Luciana [Laboratório de Ecofisiologia Animal — Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Paraná (Brazil); Costa Cabrera, Liziara da [Laboratório de Análise de Compostos Orgânicos e Metais — Escola de Química e Alimentos, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Risso, Wagner Ezequiel [Laboratório de Ecofisiologia Animal — Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Paraná (Brazil); Primel, Ednei Gilberto [Laboratório de Análise de Compostos Orgânicos e Metais — Escola de Química e Alimentos, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); and others

    2016-01-15

    In order to assess the quality of streams susceptible to contamination by pesticides we apply biochemical and genotoxic biomarkers in the Neotropical fish Prochilodus lineatus submitted to in situ tests. Fish were caged, for 96 h, in two streams located in areas with intensive use of pesticides, the Apertados (AP) and the Jacutinga (JC), and in a small stream (Godoy stream — GD) found inside a forest fragment adjacent to a State Park. Biochemical parameters, such as biotransformation enzymes 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), non-protein thiols (NPSH), lipoperoxidation (LPO), protein carbonylation (PCO) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) were evaluated in various fish organs, as well as genotoxic biomarkers (damage to DNA and occurrence of micronuclei and erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities). Samples of water and sediment were collected for analysis of metals (Cu, Cr, Pb, Ni, Mn, Cd and Zn), organochloride pesticides, and triazine and glyphosate herbicides. We observed an increase in liver GST activity in fish at AP and gill GST activity in fish at JC. An increase in liver LPO was also observed in fish exposed to AP and JC. The same animals also exhibited increased DNA damage and erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities (ENAs) compared to the fish kept in GD. A number of compounds showed concentrations higher than the permitted levels, in particular, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), its metabolites dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCH), heptachloride, diclofluanid and aldrins. These pesticides were detected at higher concentrations in water and sediment samples from AP, followed by JC and GD. The Integrated Biomarker Response Index (IBR) indicated that AP and JC (AP: 21.7 > JC: 18.5 > GD: 12.6) have the worst environmental quality. Integrated biomarker analysis revealed that the alterations observed related well with the levels of environmental contaminants

  5. Hydrogeologic monitoring of the Paraíba do Sul river floodplain area subject to sand mining in the Tremembé municipality, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getulio Teixeira Batista

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To characterize the geological, hydrogeological, hydrochemical, and hydrobacterial aspects of the surface and groundwater in the floodplain of the Paraíba do Sul river in Tremembé municipality, the water levels of the Quaternary sedimentary aquifer experimental site was monitored based on four wells and eight associated piezometers with daily measures of water levels in continuous operation since December 3, 2009. In addition, data from a modular weather station in operation since March 2010 and data from the quality of surface water and groundwater have been analyzed in the period between March 2010 and March 2011. The water balance between April 2010 and March 2011 was estimated to verify the periods of water deficiency and excess. Data loggers installed in the piezometers enabled daily groundwater levels monitoring to establish the influence of the Paraíba do Sul river in the water levels of the Quaternary sedimentary aquifer and also they allowed the determination of the water loss to the atmosphere. A hydrogeological model with simplified equations, based on hydraulics parameters obtained in the wells pump tests, was implemented to calculate the amount of daily evapotranspiration and the average distance of the water loss from the wells to the atmosphere. An evaporation rate of 83.4 m3/h from the open-pit sand mine located at 212.2 m and of 89.2 m3/h for the one at 885.0 m average distance from the monitoring wells were observed. Chemical and bacteriological analysis involving multiple parameters were performed in the period from March 2010 to March 2011 in groundwater collected in wells, in the open-pit mines and in the waters of the Paraíba do Sul river. The results allowed to observe the influences of the Paraíba do Sul river as well as the contamination from fertilizers and pesticides from the agriculture practiced in the floodplain area on the quality of the groundwater.

  6. Searching PubMed for a broad subject area: how effective are palliative care clinicians in finding the evidence in their field?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damarell, Raechel A; Tieman, Jennifer J

    2016-03-01

    Health professionals must be able to search competently for evidence to support practice. We sought to understand how palliative care clinicians construct searches for palliative care literature in PubMed, to quantify search efficacy in retrieving a set of relevant articles and to compare performance against a Palliative CareSearch Filter (PCSF). Included studies from palliative care systematic reviews formed a test set. Palliative care clinicians (n = 37) completed a search task using PubMed. Individual clinician searches were reconstructed in PubMed and combined with the test set to calculate retrieval sensitivity. PCSF performance in the test set was also determined. Many clinicians struggled to create useful searches. Twelve used a single search term, 17 narrowed the search inappropriately and 8 confused Boolean operators. The mean number of test set citations (n = 663) retrieved was 166 (SD = 188), or 25% although 76% of clinicians believed they would find more than 50% of the articles. Only 8 participants (22%) achieved this. Correlations between retrieval and PubMed confidence (r = 0.13) or frequency of use (r = -0.18) were weak. Many palliative care clinicians search PubMed ineffectively. Targeted skills training and PCSF promotion may improve evidence retrieval. © 2015 Health Libraries Group.

  7. 34 CFR 303.15 - Include; including.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Include; including. 303.15 Section 303.15 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH...

  8. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subject Index. Variation of surface electric field during geomagnetic disturbed period at Maitri, Antarctica. 1721. Geomorphology. A simple depression-filling method for raster and irregular elevation datasets. 1653. Decision Support System integrated with Geographic. Information System to target restoration actions in water-.

  9. Enhancement of motor learning by focal intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) of either the primary motor (M1) or somatosensory area (S1) in healthy human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platz, Thomas; Adler-Wiebe, Marija; Roschka, Sybille; Lotze, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Motor rehabilitation after brain damage relies on motor re-learning as induced by specific training. Non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) can alter cortical excitability and thereby has a potential to enhance subsequent training-induced learning. Knowledge about any priming effects of NIBS on motor learning in healthy subjects can help to design targeted therapeutic applications in brain-damaged subjects. To examine whether complex motor learning in healthy subjects can be enhanced by intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) to primary motor or sensory cortical areas. Eighteen young healthy subjects trained eight different arm motor tasks (arm ability training, AAT) once a day for 5 days using their left non-dominant arm. Except for day 1 (baseline), training was performed after applying an excitatory form of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (iTBS) to either (I) right M1 or (II) S1, or (III) sham stimulation to the right M1. Subjects were randomly assigned to conditions I, II, or III. A principal component analysis of the motor behaviour data suggested eight independent motor abilities corresponding to the 8 trained tasks. AAT induced substantial motor learning across abilities with generalisation to a non-trained test of finger dexterity (Nine-Hole-Peg-Test, NHPT). Participants receiving iTBS (to either M1 or S1) showed better performance with the AAT tasks over the period of training compared to sham stimulation as well as a bigger improvement with the generalisation task (NHPT) for the trained left hand after training completion. Priming with an excitatory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation as iTBS of either M1 or S1 can enhance motor learning across different sensorimotor abilities.

  10. Heat stress in urban areas: Indoor and outdoor temperatures in different urban structure types and subjectively reported well-being during a heat wave in the city of Leipzig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Franck

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate projections for Leipzig suggest elevated minimum and maximum temperatures as well as more frequent days with high temperatures. Hence, climate change is threatening human well-being and health. People spend the majority of their time indoors. Therefore, indoor temperatures (especially during the night are of special importance with respect to well-being and health. Indoor air temperature depends on outdoor air temperatures, but is for example modified by type of urban structure, housing area, and may be also influenced by differences in the behavior of the inhabitants. Especially in cities, outdoor air temperatures depend on urban structure e.g. housing density, building arrangement, unpaved areas, types of urban structures, urban green, and other factors. Hence, the questions arise how types of urban structures are related to inner-urban temperature differences and how outdoor air temperatures influence indoor temperatures in dependence on urban housing conditions. This work is a part of a pilot study conducted during the summer 2010 which gathered data from remote sensing, mobile measurements, stationary measurements of air temperatures and relative humidity in areas with different housing structures, and of indoor as well as outdoor temperatures in occupied apartments. Household-survey data reported the subjective perception of heat stress. The study resulted in rather complex relationships between type of housing areas, indoor and outdoor temperatures, morning and evening temperatures, indoor and outdoor temperatures as well as subjective heat perception. Green spaces and types of residential areas are related to air temperatures. More green resulted in lower temperatures. Temperatures have a tendency to increase with increasing story number and are significantly higher in the top floor. An indoor heat island effect corresponding to the outdoor effect could be shown for the homes: Distance to city center is a predicting variable for

  11. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    sensor for methanol determination in the gas phase. 703. Electrochemically active surface area. Platinum-carbon black-titanium dioxide nanocompo- site electrocatalysts for fuel cell applications. 655. Electrochemistry. Synthesis, spectroscopic and redox properties of the mononuclear Ni. II. , Ni. II. (BPh2)2 containing (B–C) ...

  12. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    protected areas of Rajasthan, India. 467. Geochemistry. Geochemical constraints on the evolution of mafic and felsic rocks in the Bathani volcanic and volcano- sedimentary sequence of Chotanagpur Granite Gneiss. Complex. 959. Identification and characterization of tsunami deposits off southeast coast of India from the ...

  13. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 322: Areas 1 and 3 Release Sites and Injection Wells, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 0, Including Record of Technical Change No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2003-07-16

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives (CAAs) appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 322, Areas 1 and 3 Release Sites and Injection Wells, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 322 consists of three Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 01-25-01, AST Release (Area 1); 03-25-03, Mud Plant AST Diesel Release (Area 3); 03-20-05, Injection Wells (Area 3). Corrective Action Unit 322 is being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. The investigation of three CASs in CAU 322 will determine if hazardous and/or radioactive constituents are present at concentrations and locations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and the environment. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document.

  14. International Energy: Subject Thesaurus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raridon, M.H. (ed.)

    1990-01-01

    The International Energy Subject Thesaurus contains the standard vocabulary to indexing terms (descriptors) developed and structured to build and maintain energy information databases. Involved in this cooperative task are (1) the technical staff of the USDOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) in cooperation with the member countries of the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE) and (2) the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) staff representing the more than ninety countries and organizations recording and indexing information for the international nuclear information community. ETDE member countries are also members of the International Nuclear Information System (INIS). Nuclear information indexed and recorded for INIS by these ETDE member countries is also included in the ETDE Energy Data Base, and indexing terminology is therefore cooperatively standardized for use in both information systems. This structured vocabulary reflects the scope of international energy research, development, and technological programs and encompasses terminology derived not only from the basic sciences but also from the areas of energy resources, conservation, safety, environmental impact, and regulation.

  15. Detecting inter-aquifer leakage in areas with limited data using hydraulics and multiple environmental tracers, including 4He, 36Cl/Cl, 14C and 87Sr/86Sr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priestley, Stacey C.; Wohling, Daniel L.; Keppel, Mark N.; Post, Vincent E. A.; Love, Andrew J.; Shand, Paul; Tyroller, Lina; Kipfer, Rolf

    2017-11-01

    The investigation of regionally extensive groundwater systems in remote areas is hindered by a shortage of data due to a sparse observation network, which limits our understanding of the hydrogeological processes in arid regions. The study used a multidisciplinary approach to determine hydraulic connectivity between the Great Artesian Basin (GAB) and the underlying Arckaringa Basin in the desert region of Central Australia. In order to manage the impacts of groundwater abstraction from the Arckaringa Basin, it is vital to understand its connectivity with the GAB (upper aquifer), as the latter supports local pastoral stations and groundwater-dependent springs with unique endemic flora and fauna. The study is based on the collation of available geological information, a detailed analysis of hydraulic data, and data on environmental tracers. Enhanced inter-aquifer leakage in the centre of the study area was identified, as well as recharge to the GAB from ephemeral rivers and waterholes. Throughout the rest of the study area, inter-aquifer leakage is likely controlled by diffuse inter-aquifer leakage, but the coarse spatial resolution means that the presence of additional enhanced inter-aquifer leakage sites cannot be excluded. This study makes the case that a multi-tracer approach along with groundwater hydraulics and geology provides a tool-set to investigate enhanced inter-aquifer leakage even in a groundwater basin with a paucity of data. A particular problem encountered in this study was the ambiguous interpretation of different age tracers, which is attributed to diffusive transport across flow paths caused by low recharge rates.

  16. Detecting inter-aquifer leakage in areas with limited data using hydraulics and multiple environmental tracers, including 4He, 36Cl/Cl, 14C and 87Sr/86Sr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priestley, Stacey C.; Wohling, Daniel L.; Keppel, Mark N.; Post, Vincent E. A.; Love, Andrew J.; Shand, Paul; Tyroller, Lina; Kipfer, Rolf

    2017-06-01

    The investigation of regionally extensive groundwater systems in remote areas is hindered by a shortage of data due to a sparse observation network, which limits our understanding of the hydrogeological processes in arid regions. The study used a multidisciplinary approach to determine hydraulic connectivity between the Great Artesian Basin (GAB) and the underlying Arckaringa Basin in the desert region of Central Australia. In order to manage the impacts of groundwater abstraction from the Arckaringa Basin, it is vital to understand its connectivity with the GAB (upper aquifer), as the latter supports local pastoral stations and groundwater-dependent springs with unique endemic flora and fauna. The study is based on the collation of available geological information, a detailed analysis of hydraulic data, and data on environmental tracers. Enhanced inter-aquifer leakage in the centre of the study area was identified, as well as recharge to the GAB from ephemeral rivers and waterholes. Throughout the rest of the study area, inter-aquifer leakage is likely controlled by diffuse inter-aquifer leakage, but the coarse spatial resolution means that the presence of additional enhanced inter-aquifer leakage sites cannot be excluded. This study makes the case that a multi-tracer approach along with groundwater hydraulics and geology provides a tool-set to investigate enhanced inter-aquifer leakage even in a groundwater basin with a paucity of data. A particular problem encountered in this study was the ambiguous interpretation of different age tracers, which is attributed to diffusive transport across flow paths caused by low recharge rates.

  17. Asbestos as a possible major cause of malignant lung tumors (including small cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma & mesothelioma), brain tumors (i.e. astrocytoma & glioblastoma multiforme), many other malignant tumors, intractable pain including fibromyalgia, & some cardio-vascular pathology: Safe & effective methods of reducing asbestos from normal & pathological areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Yoshiaki

    2006-01-01

    High incidences of Small Cell Carcinoma & Adenocarcinoma of the lung, Astrocytoma & Glioblastoma Multiforme of the brain and Mesothelioma of the lung were found in those who had a high accumulation of Asbestos in the eyes and upper respiratory system (nose, larynx, trachea, etc.). When measured non-invasively using the Bi-Digital O-Ring Test (BDORT), brain tumors had the highest concentration of Asbestos (0.2 approximately 2.1 mg BDORT units). Relatively high levels of Asbestos (0.2 approximately 0.6 mg BDORT units) were found in: Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the lungs & esophagus, Adenocarcinoma of the larynx & breast, myelogenic leukemia, arteries of these cancers, left ventricle of failing heart, myocardial infarction, some of the narrowed arteries, varicose veins, cataracts, balding heads, hot flashes, Alzheimer's Disease and Autism. A small, round or ellipsoidal area, with diameter of 5 mm or less, was found near the center of every cancer tissue with a higher level of Asbestos (1 approximately 3 mg), As, Zn, Cr and Se, than in the rest of the tumor; this small area may be where the cancer initiated. Among areas of intractable pain with frequent recurrence and gradual worsening, about 0.2 approximately 0.5 mg BDORT units (or higher) of Asbestos were found. The author found that in the Astrocytoma and many other cancer patients, the optimal dose of DHEA produced very significant reductions of cancer cell telomere from over 1400 ng in the brain tumors (and over 900 ng in other cancers) to close to or less than 1 yg (=10(-24) g), with circulatory improvement by reduction of TXB2. Unlike the standard, widely used treatment with DHEA 25 approximately 50 mg daily, which is an overdose; we only gave one optimal dose (1.5 approximately 12.5 mg) and the beneficial effects usually lasted anywhere between 3-6 months, unless inhibiting factors were introduced. In addition, once one optimal dose of DHEA was given, the amount of Asbestos from these tumors decreased very

  18. Optical modulator including grapene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  19. Visual Impairment, Including Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Who Knows What? (log-in required) Select Page Visual Impairment, Including Blindness Mar 31, 2017 Links updated, ... doesn’t wear his glasses. Back to top Visual Impairments in Children Vision is one of our ...

  20. Subjects, Models, Languages, Transformations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensink, Arend; Bézivin, J.; Heckel, R.

    2005-01-01

    Discussions about model-driven approaches tend to be hampered by terminological confusion. This is at least partially caused by a lack of formal precision in defining the basic concepts, including that of "model" and "thing being modelled" - which we call subject in this paper. We propose a minimal

  1. Barron's SAT subject test

    CERN Document Server

    Jansen, MA, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Includes one diagnostic test and three complete tests, all questions answered and explained, self-assessment guides, and subject reviews. Also features test strategies, QR codes to short instructional videos, and a detailed appendix with equations, physical constants, and a basic math review.

  2. Listening to Include

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veck, Wayne

    2009-01-01

    This paper attempts to make important connections between listening and inclusive education and the refusal to listen and exclusion. Two lines of argument are advanced. First, if educators and learners are to include each other within their educational institutions as unique individuals, then they will need to listen attentively to each other.…

  3. Analytic device including nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.

    2015-07-02

    A device for detecting an analyte in a sample comprising: an array including a plurality of pixels, each pixel including a nanochain comprising: a first nanostructure, a second nanostructure, and a third nanostructure, wherein size of the first nanostructure is larger than that of the second nanostructure, and size of the second nanostructure is larger than that of the third nanostructure, and wherein the first nanostructure, the second nanostructure, and the third nanostructure are positioned on a substrate such that when the nanochain is excited by an energy, an optical field between the second nanostructure and the third nanostructure is stronger than an optical field between the first nanostructure and the second nanostructure, wherein the array is configured to receive a sample; and a detector arranged to collect spectral data from a plurality of pixels of the array.

  4. Being Included and Excluded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korzenevica, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Following the civil war of 1996–2006, there was a dramatic increase in the labor mobility of young men and the inclusion of young women in formal education, which led to the transformation of the political landscape of rural Nepal. Mobility and schooling represent a level of prestige that rural...... politics. It analyzes how formal education and mobility either challenge or reinforce traditional gendered norms which dictate a lowly position for young married women in the household and their absence from community politics. The article concludes that women are simultaneously excluded and included from...... people regard as a prerequisite for participating in local community politics. Based on a fieldwork in two villages of Panchthar district in eastern Nepal, this article explores how these changes strengthen or weaken women’s political agency and how this is reflected in their participation in community...

  5. This data set represents the estimated percentage of the 1-km grid cell that is covered by or subject to the agricultural conservation practice (CPIS04), Stream, Lagoon or Other Waste Waster (not including tailwater recovery) as an Irrigation Source (LWWIS) on agricultural land by county (nri_is04)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the estimated percentage of the 1-km grid cell that is covered by or subject to the agricultural conservation practice (CPIS04), Stream,...

  6. Social Relationships and Children's Subjective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Haridhan

    2012-01-01

    The quality of relationships is now recognised as an important aspect of children's subjective well-being. This article focuses on both positive and negative quality of relationships. It includes six areas of children's relationships--family, neighbourhood adults, positive affect friendship, negative affect friendship, experiences of being bullied…

  7. Praxis, subjectivity and sense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Gómez-Muller

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A primordial aspect of the Sartrian critique of alienation concerns understanding the analytic ideology as the domination of materiality over the symbolic, in other words as the reification of the human, and therefore as anticulture. In the context of contemporary nihilism, the decoding of the mechanisms which consign praxis to the practico-inert requires a critique of the relations between the social sciences and philosophy, which in its turn implies a new theory of the relation between what Sartre calls the "notion" (the area of subjectivity and the "concept" (objectivity, From this perspective, the deconstruction of the established frontiers between the social sciences and philosophy, and between the conceptual and the narrative, is corelative to a redefinition of the relation between theory and practice.

  8. [Subjective cognition in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, S; Aubin, G; Stip, E

    2017-02-01

    Given the extent, magnitude and functional significance of the neurocognitive deficits of schizophrenia, growing attention has been paid recently to patients' self-awareness of their own deficits. Thus far, the literature has shown either that patients fail to recognize their cognitive deficits or that the association between subjective and objective cognition is weak in schizophrenia. The reasons for this lack of consistency remain unexplained but may have to do, among others, with the influence of potential confounding clinical variables and the choice of the scale used to measure self-awareness of cognitive deficits. In the current study, we sought to examine the relationships between subjective and objective cognitive performance in schizophrenia, while controlling for the influence of sociodemographic and psychiatric variables. Eighty-two patients with a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder (DSM-IV criteria) were recruited. Patients' subjective cognitive complaints were evaluated with the Subjective Scale to Investigate Cognition in Schizophrenia (SSTICS), the most frequently used scale to measure self-awareness of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Neurocognition was evaluated with working memory, planning and visual learning tasks taken from Cambridge Neuropsychological Tests Automated Battery. The Stroop Color-Word test was also administered. Psychiatric symptoms were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia. The relationships between subjective and objective cognition were evaluated with multivariate hierarchic linear regression analyses, taking into consideration potential confounders such as sociodemographic and psychiatric variables. Finally, a factor analysis of the SSTICS was performed. For the SSTICS total score, the regression analysis produced a model including two predictors, namely visual learning and Stoop interference performance, explaining a moderate portion of the variance

  9. Sensibility and Subjectivity: Levinas’ Traumatic Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmika Pandya

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Levinas’ notions of sensibility and subjectivity are evident in the revision of phenomenological method by current phenomenologists such as Jean-Luc Marion and Michel Henry. The criticisms of key tenants of classical phenomenology, intentionality and reduction, are of a particular note. However, there are problems with Levinas’ characterization of subjectivity as essentially sensible. In “Totality and Infinity” and “Otherwise than Being”, Levinas criticizes and recasts a traditional notion of subjectivity, particularly the notion of the subject as the first and foremost rational subject. The subject in Levinas’ works is characterized more by its sensibility and affectedness than by its capacity to reason or affect its world. Levinas ties rationality to economy and suggests an alternative notion of reason that leads to his analysis of the ethical relation as the face-to-face encounter. The ‘origin’ of the social relation is located not in our capacity to know but rather in a sensibility that is diametrically opposed to the reason understood as economy. I argue that the opposition in Levinas’ thought between reason and sensibility is problematic and essentially leads to a self-conflicted subject. In fact, it would seem that violence characterizes the subject’s self-relation and, thus, is also inscribed at the base of the social relation. Rather than overcoming a problematic tendency to dualistic thought in philosophy Levinas merely reverses traditional hierarchies of reason/emotion, subject/object and self/other. 

  10. The Societal Nature of Subjectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Henning Salling

    2013-01-01

    The HSR Focus presents a psycho-societal approach to qualitative empirical research in several areas of everyday social life. It is an approach which integrates a theory of subjectivity and an interpretation methodology which integrates hermeneutic experiences from text analysis and psychoanalysis...

  11. Subjective memory complaints and personality traits in normal elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänninen, T; Reinikainen, K J; Helkala, E L; Koivisto, K; Mykkänen, L; Laakso, M; Pyörälä, K; Riekkinen, P J

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between objectively measured memory functions and subjective complaints of memory disturbance and whether subjective complaints are affected by some personality traits or affective states. Cross-sectional two-group comparison. The city of Kuopio in Eastern Finland, considered representative of the urban elderly population of Finland. Originally 403 subjects aged 67-78 years from the random sample and then two matched study groups initially including eighteen subjects but only ten in the final analysis. Screening and follow-up examinations of subjects with and without subjective memory complaints: (1) Memory functions: Benton's visual retention test and the paired-associated learning subtest of Wechsler Memory Scale. (2) Memory complaints: Memory Complaint Questionnaire. (3) Personality traits and affective state: Two subscales from Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory and Geriatric Depression Scale. Complaints of memory loss did not correlate with the actual memory performance in the tests. However, those subjects who most emphatically complained of memory disturbance had greater tendencies toward somatic complaining, higher feelings of anxiety about their physical health, and more negative feelings of their own competence and capabilities than those who did not complain of memory deterioration associated with aging. The study suggests that subjective feelings of memory impairment are more closely associated with personality traits than with actual memory performance in normal elderly people.

  12. Research Areas: Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Advisors, and committees that coordinate research activities Research Areas Overview of NIDDK activities in each major research area, including research advances, research coordination, and health information ...

  13. 46 CFR 289.2 - Vessels included.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONSTRUCTION-DIFFERENTIAL SUBSIDY VESSELS, OPERATING-DIFFERENTIAL SUBSIDY VESSELS AND OF VESSELS SOLD OR ADJUSTED UNDER THE MERCHANT SHIP SALES ACT 1946 § 289.2 Vessels included. Vessels subject to the provisions of this part are: (a) All vessels which may in the future be constructed or sold with construction...

  14. Atopic asthmatic subjects but not atopic subjects without ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Asthma is a known risk factor for acute ozone-associated respiratory disease. Ozone causes an immediate decrease in lung function and increased airway inflammation. The role of atopy and asthma in modulation of ozone-induced inflammation has not been determined. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether atopic status modulates ozone response phenotypes in human subjects. METHODS: Fifty volunteers (25 healthy volunteers, 14 atopic nonasthmatic subjects, and 11 atopic asthmatic subjects not requiring maintenance therapy) underwent a 0.4-ppm ozone exposure protocol. Ozone response was determined based on changes in lung function and induced sputum composition, including airway inflammatory cell concentration, cell-surface markers, and cytokine and hyaluronic acid concentrations. RESULTS: All cohorts experienced similar decreases in lung function after ozone. Atopic and atopic asthmatic subjects had increased sputum neutrophil numbers and IL-8 levels after ozone exposure; values did not significantly change in healthy volunteers. After ozone exposure, atopic asthmatic subjects had significantly increased sputum IL-6 and IL-1beta levels and airway macrophage Toll-like receptor 4, Fc(epsilon)RI, and CD23 expression; values in healthy volunteers and atopic nonasthmatic subjects showed no significant change. Atopic asthmatic subjects had significantly decreased IL-10 levels at baseline compared with healthy volunteers; IL-10 levels did not significa

  15. Topology optimization with flexible void area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Anders; Aage, Niels; Sigmund, Ole

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for including fixed-area flexible void domains into the minimum compliance topology optimization problem. As opposed to the standard passive elements approach of rigidly specifying void areas within the design domain, the suggested approach allows these areas...... to be flexibly reshaped and repositioned subject to penalization on their moments of inertia, the positions of their centers of mass, and their shapes. The flexible void areas are introduced through a second, discrete design variable field, using the same discretization as the standard field of continuous...... density variables. The formulation is based on a combined approach: The primary sub-problem is to minimize compliance, subject to a volume constraint, with a secondary sub-problem of minimizing the disturbance from the flexible void areas. The design update is performed iteratively between the two...

  16. A subjective scheduler for subjective dedicated networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suherman; Fakhrizal, Said Reza; Al-Akaidi, Marwan

    2017-09-01

    Multiple access technique is one of important techniques within medium access layer in TCP/IP protocol stack. Each network technology implements the selected access method. Priority can be implemented in those methods to differentiate services. Some internet networks are dedicated for specific purpose. Education browsing or tutorial video accesses are preferred in a library hotspot, while entertainment and sport contents could be subjects of limitation. Current solution may use IP address filter or access list. This paper proposes subjective properties of users or applications are used for priority determination in multiple access techniques. The NS-2 simulator is employed to evaluate the method. A video surveillance network using WiMAX is chosen as the object. Subjective priority is implemented on WiMAX scheduler based on traffic properties. Three different traffic sources from monitoring video: palace, park, and market are evaluated. The proposed subjective scheduler prioritizes palace monitoring video that results better quality, xx dB than the later monitoring spots.

  17. Brain correlates of subjective freedom of choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filevich, Elisa; Vanneste, Patricia; Brass, Marcel; Fias, Wim; Haggard, Patrick; Kühn, Simone

    2013-01-01

    The subjective feeling of free choice is an important feature of human experience. Experimental tasks have typically studied free choice by contrasting free and instructed selection of response alternatives. These tasks have been criticised, and it remains unclear how they relate to the subjective feeling of freely choosing. We replicated previous findings of the fMRI correlates of free choice, defined objectively. We introduced a novel task in which participants could experience and report a graded sense of free choice. BOLD responses for conditions subjectively experienced as free identified a postcentral area distinct from the areas typically considered to be involved in free action. Thus, the brain correlates of subjective feeling of free action were not directly related to any established brain correlates of objectively-defined free action. Our results call into question traditional assumptions about the relation between subjective experience of choosing and activity in the brain’s so-called voluntary motor areas. PMID:24021855

  18. Family Medicine in Croatia: Quality Measured by Patients’ Subjective Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Stanić, Arsen; Stevanović, Ranko; Pristaš, Ivan; Tiljak, Hrvoje; Benković, Vanesa; Krčmar, Nevenka; Jovanović, Aleksandar; Jurlina, Nataša; Nott, Teodora

    2007-01-01

    A survey of the subjective assessment of quality in the fi eld of family medicine was conducted on a random sample of 50 family medicine teams distributed proportionally across all Croatian counties, and both rural and urban areas. It measured the satisfaction of insurants/patients, i.e. healthcare service users, on the basis of the completed EUROPEP questionnaire. The survey included 7.271 respondents (the response rate to 15.000 distributed questionnaires was 48.47%). O...

  19. The Subjective Dimension of Nazism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Föllmer, M.

    2013-01-01

    The present historiographical review discusses the subjective dimension of Nazism, an ideology and regime that needed translation into self-definitions, gender roles, and bodily practices to implant itself in German society and mobilize it for racial war. These studies include biographies of some of

  20. Ribcage compressibility in living subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M; Hill, S; Scullin, J

    1994-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the responses of normal living subjects to the application of anteroposterior forces to the ribcage. Seventeen subjects aged between 25 and 37 years were tested during slow oscillatory loading while breath-holding at the end of a normal expiration. The mean stiffness coefficient was found to be 9.4 N mm(-1) (SD 2.9) and the mean gradient of the force-strain relation was 1888 N (SD 646). Comparison with previously published cadaver data indicates that the embalmed cadaver ribcage stiffness is in the order of three times stiffer than living subjects, while fresh cadavers showed comparable stiffness to living subjects. A number of studies have used models to predict and understand the behaviour of the thoracic spine. Validation of the behaviour of models which include the thoracic spine and ribcage depends on comparison of model response predictions with observed responses of human subjects. The present study provides data on the anteroposterior compressibility of the ribcage of living subjects which may be suitable for use in model validation studies. Copyright © 1994. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Estimating Subjective Probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.

    Subjective probabilities play a central role in many economic decisions, and act as an immediate confound of inferences about behavior, unless controlled for. Several procedures to recover subjective probabilities have been proposed, but in order to recover the correct latent probability one must...

  2. Estimating Subjective Probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.

    2014-01-01

    Subjective probabilities play a central role in many economic decisions and act as an immediate confound of inferences about behavior, unless controlled for. Several procedures to recover subjective probabilities have been proposed, but in order to recover the correct latent probability one must ...

  3. Subjective meaning: an introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijnbergen-Huitink, Janneke; van Wijbergen-Huitink, Janneke; Meier, Cécile

    This introductory chapter traces some of the considerations on the basis of which relativistic approaches to subjective meaning became en vogue. In doing so, the chapter provides an overview of the relevant linguistic and philosophical issues when developing a treatment of subjectivity. In addition,

  4. Subjective safety in traffic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    The term ‘subjective safety in traffic’ refers to people feeling unsafe in traffic or, more generally, to anxiety regarding being unsafe in traffic for oneself and/or others. Subjective safety in traffic can lead to road users limiting their mobility and social activities, which is one of the

  5. Subjective poverty line definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Flik; B.M.S. van Praag (Bernard)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we will deal with definitions of subjective poverty lines. To measure a poverty threshold value in terms of household income, which separates the poor from the non-poor, we take into account the opinions of all people in society. Three subjective methods will be discussed

  6. Control Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This feature class represents electric power Control Areas. Control Areas, also known as Balancing Authority Areas, are controlled by Balancing Authorities, who are...

  7. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 168: Areas 25 and 26 Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Rev. 0) includes Record of Technical Change No. 1 (dated 8/28/2002), Record of Technical Change No. 2 (dated 9/23/2002), and Record of Technical Change No. 3 (dated 6/2/2004)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada

    2001-11-21

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit 168 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 168 consists of a group of twelve relatively diverse Corrective Action Sites (CASs 25-16-01, Construction Waste Pile; 25-16-03, MX Construction Landfill; 25-19-02, Waste Disposal Site; 25-23-02, Radioactive Storage RR Cars; 25-23-18, Radioactive Material Storage; 25-34-01, NRDS Contaminated Bunker; 25-34-02, NRDS Contaminated Bunker; CAS 25-23-13, ETL - Lab Radioactive Contamination; 25-99-16, USW G3; 26-08-01, Waste Dump/Burn Pit; 26-17-01, Pluto Waste Holding Area; 26-19-02, Contaminated Waste Dump No.2). These CASs vary in terms of the sources and nature of potential contamination. The CASs are located and/or associated wit h the following Nevada Test Site (NTS) facilities within three areas. The first eight CASs were in operation between 1958 to 1984 in Area 25 include the Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility; the Missile Experiment Salvage Yard; the Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility; the Radioactive Materials Storage Facility; and the Treatment Test Facility Building at Test Cell A. Secondly, the three CASs located in Area 26 include the Project Pluto testing area that operated from 1961 to 1964. Lastly, the Underground Southern Nevada Well (USW) G3 (CAS 25-99-16), a groundwater monitoring well located west of the NTS on the ridgeline of Yucca Mountain, was in operation during the 1980s. Based on site history and existing characterization data obtained to support the data quality objectives process, contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) for CAU 168 are primarily radionuclide; however, the COPCs for several CASs were not defined. To address COPC

  8. Unifying Subjectivity and Objectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murugesan Chandrasekaran

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of modern science to the progress of civilization is immeasurable. Even its tendency toward exclusive concentration on the objective world has had salutary effects of great value. Modern science has wiped away much that was merely superstitious or speculative. Its rejection of unfounded opinions and prejudices has helped the thinking mind question conventional beliefs, shed preferences and prejudices, and challenge established authority. But modern systems thinking inherited from natural science is the suppression of the subjective dimension of reality. Many complex systems are an attempt to define and represent all subjective experience in physical terms. The modern man has a bias towards objectivity. The powerful influence of sense impressions on his mind and thinking makes him ignore the subjective experience and consider only objective facts as a valid, legitimate and representation of reality. Observing objective factors that are physical is easier than observing subjective factors that are subtle. The mechanistic view of reality has led to the rejection of the role of the individual in social development as insignificant. The individuals determine the development of society. Their social power has its roots both in subjective factors and objective factors. Economy, politics, society, and culture are inseparable dimensions of a single integrated reality. Subject and object constitute an integrated whole. The mind sees them as separate and independent. Or it views one as completely subordinate to the other. Unbiased approach to the study of all human experiences may prove that subject and object are interdependent dimensions or elements of reality.

  9. RUSSIAN LAW SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Bakhrakh

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The question about the subjects of law branches is concerning the number of most important and difficult in law science. Its right decision influences on the subject of law regulation, precise definition of addressees of law norms, the volume of their rights and duties, the limits of action of norms of Main part of the branch, its principles. Scientific investigations, dedicated to law subjects system, promote the development of recommendations for the legislative and law applying activity; they are needed for scientific work organization and student training, for preparing qualified lawyers.

  10. Photogrammetry and remote sensing education subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaridou, Maria A.; Karagianni, Aikaterini Ch.

    2017-09-01

    The rapid technologic advances in the scientific areas of photogrammetry and remote sensing require continuous readjustments at the educational programs and their implementation. The teaching teamwork should deal with the challenge to offer the volume of the knowledge without preventing the understanding of principles and methods and also to introduce "new" knowledge (advances, trends) followed by evaluation and presentation of relevant applications. This is of particular importance for a Civil Engineering Faculty as this in Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, as the framework of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing is closely connected with applications in the four educational Divisions of the Faculty. This paper refers to the above and includes subjects of organizing the courses in photogrammetry and remote sensing in the Civil Engineering Faculty of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. A scheme of the general curriculum as well the teaching aims and methods are also presented.

  11. fMRI abnormalities in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during a working memory task in manic, euthymic and depressed bipolar subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Townsend, Jennifer; Bookheimer, Susan Y; Foland, Lara C.; Sugar, Catherine A.; Altshuler, Lori L.

    2010-01-01

    Neuropsychological studies of subjects with bipolar disorder suggest impairment of working memory not only in acute mood states, but also while subjects are euthymic. Using fMRI to probe working memory regions in bipolar subjects in different mood states, we sought to determine the functional neural basis for these impairments. Typical working memory areas in normal populations include dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA9/46) and the posterior parietal cortex (BA40). We evaluated the activatio...

  12. Florida Master Teacher Program: Testing Teacher Subject Matter Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavely, Carolyn; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The efforts of the Florida Institute for Instructional Research and Practice in designing, developing, and analyzing the subject area knowledge tests of the Florida Master Teacher Program are described. A total of 13 subject area examinations was developed in 1984-85, and 5 additional tests were developed the following year. For each subject area…

  13. Energy Data Base: Subject Thesaurus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raridon, M.H. (ed.)

    1987-09-01

    This seventh edition of the subject thesaurus contains the standard vocabulary of indexing terms (descriptors) developed and structured by the technical staff of the Office of Scientific and Technical Information as part of its subject indexing activities for building and maintaining the Energy Data Base (EDB) and other energy information data bases for the Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of this thesaurus is to enhance the efficiency of information retrieval from these data bases. This structured vocabulary reflects the scope of DOE's research, development, and technological programs and encompasses terminology derived not only from the basic sciences for also from areas of energy resources, conservation, safety, environmental impact, and regulation. There are 21,080 valid descriptors and 5683 forbidden terms in this edition of the Thesaurus. These descriptors are listed alphabetically.

  14. Subjectivity and severe psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, John

    2011-01-01

    To have a complete human science in the mental health field it is essential to give adequate attention to both the objective and the subjective data related to people with psychiatric disorders. The tendency in the past has been to ignore or discount one or the other of these data sources. Subjective data are particularly neglected, sometimes considered (only) part of the "art" of medicine since the usual methodologies of the physical sciences in themselves are not adequate to reflect the nature, elusiveness, and complexity of human subjective experience. The complete experience of hallucinated voices, for instance, often includes not only the voices themselves but also terrible anguish and terrifying inability to concentrate. But even such descriptors fall unnecessarily short of reflecting the data of the experience, thus leaving research, theory, and treatment with incomplete information. To represent adequately the subjective data it is essential to recognize that besides the usual discursive knowledge and methods of traditional physical science, a second kind of knowledge and method is required to reflect the depth of human experience. To accomplish this, we must employ approaches to narrative and the arts that are uniquely capable of capturing the nature of these experiences. Only by attending seriously in our research, training, theory, and practice to the unique nature of subjective data is it possible to have a true human science for our field.

  15. [Reproducibility of subjective refraction measurement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grein, H-J; Schmidt, O; Ritsche, A

    2014-11-01

    Reproducibility of subjective refraction measurement is limited by various factors. The main factors affecting reproducibility include the characteristics of the measurement method and of the subject and the examiner. This article presents the results of a study on this topic, focusing on the reproducibility of subjective refraction measurement in healthy eyes. The results of previous studies are not all presented in the same way by the respective authors and cannot be fully standardized without consulting the original scientific data. To the extent that they are comparable, the results of our study largely correspond largely with those of previous investigations: During repeated subjective refraction measurement, 95% of the deviation from the mean value was approximately ±0.2 D to ±0.65 D for the spherical equivalent and cylindrical power. The reproducibility of subjective refraction measurement in healthy eyes is limited, even under ideal conditions. Correct assessment of refraction results is only feasible after identifying individual variability. Several measurements are required. Refraction cannot be measured without a tolerance range. The English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink (under supplemental).

  16. CLASSIFIED BY SUBJECT IN SPORT SCIENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Protić

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available High school and academic libraries users need precise classifi cation and subject access review of printed and electronic resources. In library catalogue since, Universal Decimal Classifi cation (UDC -similar to Dewey system - ex classifi es research and scientifi c areas. in subject areas of 796 Sport and 371 Teaching. Nowadays, users need structure of subjects by disciplines in science. Full-open resources of library must be set for users in subject access catalogue, because on the example of bachelors degree thesis in Faculty of Physical Education in Novi Sad they reaches for disciplines in database with 36 indexes sort by fi rst letters in names (Athletics, Boxing, Cycling, etc. This database have single and multiplied index for each thesis. Users in 80% cases of research according to the subject access catalogue of this library.

  17. The Data Subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blume, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This article considers whether it is fortunate that data protection rules, as a starting point, apply to all physical persons as data subjects, or whether it would be better to differentiate between kinds of persons on grounds of their ability to act as a data subject. In order to protect all...... persons, it is argued that a principle of care should be part of data protection law....

  18. Forested riparian areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolyn T. Hunsaker; Jonathan W. Long

    2014-01-01

    Riparian areas are typically highly productive areas that sustain important socioecological benefits, including the capacity to modulate effects of watershed disturbances on aquatic systems. Recent studies have shown that fire behavior in riparian areas varies with landscape attributes. Smaller, headwater riparian areas often burn similarly to adjacent uplands, whereas...

  19. Subjective response to foot-fall noise, including localization of the source position

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunskog, Jonas; Hwang, Ha Dong; Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2011-01-01

    annoyance, using simulated binaural room impulse responses, with sources being a moving point source or a non-moving surface source, and rooms being a room with a reverberation time of 0.5 s or an anechoic room. The paper concludes that no strong effect of the source localization on the annoyance can...

  20. Aciduric microbial taxa including Scardovia wiggsiae and Bifidobacterium spp. in caries and caries free subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henne, Karsten; Rheinberg, Anke; Melzer-Krick, Beate; Conrads, Georg

    2015-10-01

    Actinobacteria came into focus of being potential caries-associated pathogens and could, together with the established Streptococcus mutans and lactobacilli thus function as caries indicator species. Here we analyzed the role and diagnostic predictive value of the acidogenic-aciduric species Scardovia wiggsiae and Bifidobacterium dentium together with S. mutans, lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in biofilm of non-cavitated (n = 20) and cavitated (n = 6) caries lesions versus controls (n = 30). For the genus Bifidobacterium and for B. dentium new sets of primers were designed. Based on real-time quantitative PCR and confirmed by DNA sequencing we found a higher prevalence (61.5%) of S. wiggsiae in caries lesions than in controls (40%). However, among the controls we found three individuals with both the highest absolute and relative S. wiggsiae numbers. Testing for S. mutans revealed the same prevalence as S. wiggsiae in caries lesions (61.5%) but in controls its prevalence was only 10%. B. dentium was never found in healthy plaque but in 30.8% of clinical cases, with the highest numbers in cavitated lesions. The Bifidobacterium-genus specific PCR had less discriminative power as more control samples were positive. We calculated the relative abundances and applied receiver operating characteristic analyses. The top results of specificity (93% and 87%) and sensitivity (100% and 88%) were found when the constraint set was "Lactobacillus relative abundance ≥0.02%" and "two aciduric species with a relative abundance of each ≥0.007%". Combinatory measurement of several aciduric taxa may be useful to reveal caries activity or even to predict caries progression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Voice, Post-Structural Representation and the Subjectivity of "Included" Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitburn, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Aligned with the broader movement from structuralism to the post-structuralisms [Lather, P. 2013. "Methodology-21: What Do We Do in the Afterward?" "International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education" 26 (6): 634-645; St. Pierre, E. A. 2009. "Afterword: Decentering Voice in Qualitative Inquiry." In "Voice…

  2. [Can men be included in the population subjected to puerperal psychosis? A case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombel, M; Rebillard, C; Nathou, C; Dollfus, S

    2016-08-01

    Puerperal psychosis (PP) is a psychiatric disorder that occurs in 1 out of 1000 pregnancies. Well known since antiquity, its symptoms have often been described in mothers, but few studies have successfully investigated a related disorder in fathers. The characteristic of this pathology is more related to its appearance than to its semiological description which is why its nosographic place is always discussed. The objective here is to focus on the definition of PP and to suggest an entity for both genders. Our case report focused on the clinical description of an eighteen-year-old man suffering from an acute psychosis episode that occurred around the birth of his first child. Delusion followed a sudden decline in mood that lasted for a short period of time during the course of the third trimester of his wife's pregnancy. The delirium was rich with auditory and cenesthesic hallucinations, pregnancy and birth denial, feeling movements and hearing voices in his stomach. The symptoms disappeared after one month of treatment via an antipsychotic drug, risperidone. We can confirm that the symptomatic description of the disorder in this patient fits the classical descriptions of PP. Two elements make the PP different from other acute psychoses: the context of pregnancy and delirium focused on the child which can lead to a child murder. The absence of a framework precisely defining the PP does not improve its prevention and can lead to legal attitudes rather than medical care. Men suffering from acute psychosis in a context of pregnancy are submitted to the same risks as women. It is necessary to emphasize descriptions of PP in men to redefine the disease and consider that this entity involves both men and women. Copyright © 2016 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. A score including ADAM17 substrates correlates to recurring cardiovascular event in subjects with atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizza, Stefano; Copetti, Massimiliano; Cardellini, Marina; Menghini, Rossella; Pecchioli, Chiara; Luzi, Alessio; Di Cola, Giovanni; Porzio, Ottavia; Ippoliti, Arnaldo; Romeo, Franco; Pellegrini, Fabio; Federici, Massimo

    2015-04-01

    Atherosclerosis disease is a leading cause for mortality and morbidity. The narrowing/rupture of a vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque is accountable for acute cardiovascular events. However, despite of an intensive research, a reliable clinical method which may disclose a vulnerable patient is still unavailable. We tested the association of ADAM17 (A Disintegrin and Metallo Protease Domain 17) circulating substrates (sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, sIL6R and sTNFR1) with a second major cardiovascular events [MACEs] (cardiovascular death, peripheral artery surgeries, non-fatal myocardial infarction and non-fatal stroke) in 298 patients belonging to the Vascular Diabetes (AVD) study. To evaluate ADAM17 activity we create ADAM17 score through a RECPAM model. Finally we tested the discrimination ability and the reclassification of clinical models. At follow-up (mean 47 months, range 1-118 months), 55 MACEs occurred (14 nonfatal MI, 14 nonfatal strokes, 17 peripheral artery procedures and 10 cardiovascular deaths) (incidence = 7.8% person-years). An increased risk for incident events was observed among the high ADAM17 score individuals both in univariable (HR 19.20, 95% CI 15.82-63.36, p atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Simulation of Prestressed Concrete Sandwich Panels Subjected to Blast Loads (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    AFRL-RX-TY-TP-2010-0014 PREPRINT SIMULATION OF PRESTRESSED CONCRETE SANDWICH PANELS SUBJECTED TO BLAST LOADS Charles M. Newberry and...NUMBER (Include area code) 01-FEB-2010 Conference Paper PREPRINT 01-JAN-2009-- 31-DEC-2009 Simulation of Prestressed Concrete Sandwich Panels Subjected... concrete , sandwich panels, simulation, LS-DYNA, blast, tilt-up panels U U U UU 14 Paul Sheppard Reset Simulation of Prestressed Concrete Sandwich

  5. INSTRUMENTAL CONCEPTUALIZATION SUBJECT AREA SOCIOLOGY: SOME POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Maslennikov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines some of the possible ways of integrating the deployment tool conceptualizing domains of sociology on the basis of the machine sets of steps3. Substantiates the urgency of the problem of application of structural constructs of mathematics as a structure-formalism domain of sociology as a combination of theoretical knowledge. Formulated understanding of the sociological dimension in a broad sense of the concept of research as a measurement based on the use of instrumental in conceptualizing the methodology of sociological research. Under instrumental conceptualization refers to the construction of complex conceptual (conceptual schema structurally interconnected relationships between their individual elements, which are the units of the consideration related conceptual integrity, derived from interpretation of the properties “Set” construct. The paper proposes a definition based on the properties set in the scale set by the structure of N. Bourbaki4 relations systems in the data sets under the structural dimension of social phenomena to understand the interpretation of the investigated properties of social phenomena in terms of a construct that lies at the basis of the theoretical model that reflects the diversity of these qualities with the help of conceptual schemes that determine the quality of each as a structure of relations systems (ie, property in these qualities. In conclusion, the article lists presented in a number of publications, some preliminary results of the application of the methodology of conceptualizing instrumental in related disciplines from sociology. These works can perform suggestive role in the knowledge and understanding of methods of problem fields and objectives of the work on the conceptualization of theoretical sociology, using the mathematical theory of forms. 

  6. Characteristics of Open Access Journals in Six Subject Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, William H.; Linvill, Anne C.

    2011-01-01

    We examine the characteristics of 663 Open Access (OA) journals in biology, computer science, economics, history, medicine, and psychology, then compare the OA journals with impact factors to comparable subscription journals. There is great variation in the size of OA journals; the largest publishes more than 2,700 articles per year, but half…

  7. Occupational Listings Arranged by Cluster and Subject Matter Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Otto

    Approximately 850 occupations are listed under 27 occupational clusters. The Dictionary of Occupational Title (DOT) number is specified for occupations in the clusters of business training and distributive education, chemistry, general shop and industrial arts, home economics, foreign language, music, social studies, art, agriculture, physics, and…

  8. School Librarians Teach Subject Area 10: Computer and Information Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Mirah J. Ingram

    2010-01-01

    School librarians currently speak about school libraries as the largest classroom in the building. If so, how can these librarians describe what they teach? This article explains the user-centered instructional role of secondary school librarians in teaching information and technology literacy skills, as well as how they can authoritatively ensure…

  9. [Clinical analysis of normal subjects and dizzy patients with postural sway test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yan-hua; Jiang, Zi-Dong; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Lian-Shan; Gao, Zhi-Qiang

    2008-12-01

    To study the characteristics of the normal subjects with postural sway test and discuss the value of postural sway test in the diagnosis of dizzy patients. Totally 112 normal subjects, 72 patients with peripheral vertigo, and 30 patients with central vertigo were examined using a stabilometer (EAB-100, Anima Co., Japan). Items include patterns, length of locus, envelope area, deflection average center displacement, and romberg rate were recorded and compared. The postural sway was classified into the following five patterns: centripetal, forward and backward, right and left, diffuse, and multicentric. Centripetal pattern was the most prominent figure pattern in the normal subjects, while diffuse pattern was the most prominent figure pattern in the patients with central vertigo. When the normal subjects closed their eyes, age was linearly correlated with the length of locus, envelope area, rectangel area, and unit area path length (P < 0.05). Sex was not correlated to all of these parameters. The length of locus and envelope area in the patient groups were significantly increased when compared with the normal subjects (P < 0.0167). Romberg rate was not significantly different between the patients and the normal subjects. The pattern of postural sway is useful for the diagnosis of vertigo. Age is an important factor that affects the balance function. Sex seems has no influence. Visual input plays an important role in maintaining postural balance. Stabilometer is a useful tool for evaluating balance function, and postural sway test may be a valuable assistant examination.

  10. Increased motor cortex excitability during motor imagery in brain-computer interface trained subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesya eMokienko

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Motor imagery (MI is the mental performance of movement without muscle activity. It is generally accepted that MI and motor performance have similar physiological mechanisms.Purpose: To investigate the activity and excitability of cortical motor areas during MI in subjects who were previously trained with an MI-based brain-computer interface (BCI.Subjects and methods: Eleven healthy volunteers without neurological impairments (mean age, 36 years; range: 24–68 years were either trained with an MI-based BCI (BCI-trained, n = 5 or received no BCI training (n = 6, controls. Subjects imagined grasping in a blocked paradigm task with alternating rest and task periods. For evaluating the activity and excitability of cortical motor areas we used functional MRI and navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS.Results: fMRI revealed activation in Brodmann areas 3 and 6, the cerebellum, and the thalamus during MI in all subjects. The primary motor cortex was activated only in BCI-trained subjects. The associative zones of activation were larger in non-trained subjects. During MI, motor evoked potentials recorded from two of the three targeted muscles were significantly higher only in BCI-trained subjects. The motor threshold decreased (median = 17% during MI, which was also observed only in BCI-trained subjects.Conclusion: Previous BCI training increased motor cortex excitability during MI. These data may help to improve BCI applications, including rehabilitation of patients with cerebral palsy.

  11. Hydrologic Areas of Concern

    Data.gov (United States)

    University of New Hampshire — A Hydrologic Area of Concern (HAC) is a land area surrounding a water source, which is intended to include the portion of the watershed in which land uses are likely...

  12. Subject (of documents)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2017-01-01

    such as concepts, aboutness, topic, isness and ofness are also briefly presented. The conclusion is that the most fruitful way of defining “subject” (of a document) is the documents informative or epistemological potentials, that is, the documents potentials of informing users and advance the development......This article presents and discuss the concept “subject” or subject matter (of documents) as it has been examined in library and information science (LIS) for more than 100 years. Different theoretical positions are outlined and it is found that the most important distinction is between document......-oriented views versus request-oriented views. The document-oriented view conceive subject as something inherent in documents, whereas the request-oriented view (or the policy based view) understand subject as an attribution made to documents in order to facilitate certain uses of them. Related concepts...

  13. Theory including future not excluded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagao, K.; Nielsen, H.B.

    2013-01-01

    We study a complex action theory (CAT) whose path runs over not only past but also future. We show that, if we regard a matrix element defined in terms of the future state at time T and the past state at time TA as an expectation value in the CAT, then we are allowed to have the Heisenberg equation......, Ehrenfest's theorem, and the conserved probability current density. In addition,we showthat the expectation value at the present time t of a future-included theory for large T - t and large t - T corresponds to that of a future-not-included theory with a proper inner product for large t - T. Hence, the CAT...

  14. Training-related brain plasticity in subjects at risk of developing Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belleville, Sylvie; Clément, Francis; Mellah, Samira; Gilbert, Brigitte; Fontaine, Francine; Gauthier, Serge

    2011-06-01

    Subjects with mild cognitive impairment are at risk of developing Alzheimer's disease. Cognitive stimulation is an emerging intervention in the field of neurology and allied sciences, having already been shown to improve cognition in subjects with mild cognitive impairment. Yet no studies have attempted to unravel the brain mechanisms that support such improvement. This study uses functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure the effect of memory training on brain activation in older adults with mild cognitive impairment and to assess whether it can reverse the brain changes associated with mild cognitive impairment. Brain activation associated with verbal encoding and retrieval was recorded twice prior to training and once after training. In subjects with mild cognitive impairment, increased activation was found after training within a large network that included the frontal, temporal and parietal areas. Healthy controls showed mostly areas of decreased activation following training. Comparison with pre-training indicated that subjects with mild cognitive impairment used a combination of specialized areas; that is, areas activated prior to training and new alternative areas activated following training. However, only activation of the right inferior parietal lobule, a new area of activation, correlated with performance. Furthermore, the differences between the brain activation patterns of subjects with mild cognitive impairment and those of healthy controls were attenuated by training in a number of brain regions. These results indicate that memory training can result in significant neural changes that are measurable with brain imaging. They also show that the brains of people with mild cognitive impairment remain highly plastic.

  15. Science of the subjective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, R G; Dunne, B J

    2007-01-01

    Over the greater portion of its long scholarly history, the particular form of human observation, reasoning, and technical deployment we properly term "science" has relied at least as much on subjective experience and inspiration as it has on objective experiments and theories. Only over the past few centuries has subjectivity been progressively excluded from the practice of science, leaving an essentially secular analytical paradigm. Quite recently, however, a compounding constellation of newly inexplicable physical evidence, coupled with a growing scholarly interest in the nature and capability of human consciousness, are beginning to suggest that this sterilization of science may have been excessive and could ultimately limit its epistemological reach and cultural relevance. In particular, an array of demonstrable consciousness-related anomalous physical phenomena, a persistent pattern of biological and medical anomalies, systematic studies of mind/brain relationships and the mechanics of human creativity, and a burgeoning catalogue of human factors effects within contemporary information processing technologies, all display empirical correlations with subjective aspects that greatly complicate, and in many cases preclude, their comprehension on strictly objective grounds. However, any disciplined re-admission of subjective elements into rigorous scientific methodology will hinge on the precision with which they can be defined, measured, and represented, and on the resilience of established scientific techniques to their inclusion. For example, any neo-subjective science, while retaining the logical rigor, empirical/theoretical dialogue, and cultural purpose of its rigidly objective predecessor, would have the following requirements: acknowledgment of a proactive role for human consciousness; more explicit and profound use of interdisciplinary metaphors; more generous interpretations of measurability, replicability, and resonance; a reduction of ontological

  16. The Subjectivity of Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Morten

    What is a 'we' – a collective – and how can we use such communal self-knowledge to help people? This book is about collectivity, participation, and subjectivity – and about the social theories that may help us understand these matters. It also seeks to learn from the innovative practices and ideas...... practices. Through this dialogue, it develops an original trans-disciplinary critical theory and practice of collective subjectivity for which the ongoing construction and overcoming of common sense, or ideology, is central. It also points to ways of relating discourse with agency, and fertilizing insights...... from interactionism and ideology theories in a cultural-historical framework....

  17. Subjective Vitality as Mediator and Moderator of the Relationship between Life Satisfaction and Subjective Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Recep; Satici, Seydi Ahmet; Satici, Begüm; Akin, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the mediator and moderator effects of subjective vitality on the relationship between life satisfaction and subjective happiness were investigated. The participants were 378 university students who completed a questionnaire package that included the Subjective Vitality Scale, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Subjective…

  18. Paying Hypertension Research Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casarett, David; Karlawish, Jason; Asch, David A

    2002-01-01

    CONTEXT Cash payments are often used to compensate subjects who participate in research. However, ethicists have argued that these payments might constitute an undue inducement. OBJECTIVES To determine whether potential subjects agree with theoretical arguments that a payment could be an undue inducement. DESIGN/SETTING/PARTICIPANTS Survey of 350 prospective jurors. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Belief that a $500 payment for research participation would impair their own, and others' ability to think carefully about the risks and benefits of a clinical trial. RESULTS Two hundred sixty-one jurors (74.6%) believed that a $500 payment would impair subjects' ability to think carefully about the risks and benefits of research. Ninety-six of 120 (80%) expressed this concern about subjects with a low income ($50,000). In contrast, only 69 (19.7%) of jurors believed that a $500 payment would influence them. Jurors who believed that this payment would influence them reported lower incomes and less education. CONCLUSION Members of the general public share ethical concerns about the influence of payments for research, although they believe that these concerns are more applicable to others than to themselves.

  19. Subjective Duration and Psychophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisler, Hannes

    1975-01-01

    Three models are proposed to describe the strategy applied by a subject when he is confronted with two successive time intervals and is required to deal with some relation between them, for example, by telling which was the longer by adjusting the second to match the first. (Author)

  20. Subjective Response to Alcohol as a Research Domain Criterion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Lara A; Bujarski, Spencer; Roche, Daniel J O

    2016-01-01

    Individual differences in the subjective experience of the pharmacological effects of alcohol have long been implicated in the likelihood that one will drink heavily and develop alcoholism. The theme of this conceptual review and perspective article is to synthesize the literature on subjective responses to alcohol and to set an agenda for the next generation of research in the area. Specifically, we contend that in order for subjective response to alcohol to play a prominent role in alcoholism research, it is critical that it be studied as a multimodal phenotype. First, we review the human research on subjective response to alcohol measured under controlled laboratory conditions and draw recommendations for the application of these findings to understanding alcoholism neurobiology in humans. Second, we highlight multimodal approaches, including studies of the genetic and neural substrates of individual differences in subjective response to alcohol. Third, we review treatment implications with a focus on subjective response to alcohol as an intervention target. Upon review of the research on subjective response to alcohol across levels of analyses, we provide recommendations for leveraging these phenotypes in a systematic and methodologically rigorous fashion that can address central questions about alcoholism etiology, disease progression, and personalized treatment. The approach recommended herein is largely consistent with the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative across the National Institute of Mental Health. The defining feature of such domains is that they inform behavior yet be amenable to examination through multiple units of analysis, such as molecular, genetic, circuit-level, and behavioral measurements. To that end, we contend that subjective response to alcohol represents a behaviorally and biologically plausible phenotype upon which to build using the RDoC framework for understanding alcohol use disorder. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society

  1. We need to include bystander first aid in trauma research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakke, Håkon Kvåle; Wisborg, Torben

    2017-03-23

    The chain of trauma survival is a concept that originated in the area of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) and was adapted to the treatment of trauma. In out-of-hospital cardiac arrest research into bystander first aid has resulted in improved outcome. Whereas, in trauma research the first link of the chain of survival is almost ignored. In OHCA, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) from bystanders has been subject of a vast amount of research, as well as measures and programs to raise the rate of bystander CPR to cardiac arrest victims. These efforts have resulted in improved survival. The research effort has been well grounded in the research community, as demonstrated by its natural inclusion in the uniform reporting template (Utstein) for the treatment of OHCA. In trauma the bystander may contribute by providing an open airway, staunch bleedings, or prevent hypothermia. In trauma however, while the chain of survival has been adopted along with it distinct links, including bystander first aid, the consensus-based uniform reporting template for trauma (the Utstein template) does not include the bystander first aid efforts. There is extremely little research on what first aid measures bystanders provide to trauma victims, and on what impact such measures have on outcome. An important step to improve research on bystander first aid in trauma would be to include this as part of the uniform reporting template for trauma CONCLUSION: The lack of research on bystander first aid makes the first link in the trauma chain of survival the weakest link. We, the trauma research community, should either improve our research and knowledge in this area, or remove the link from the chain of survival.

  2. Objective and subjective sleep quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, Lone; Glenthøj, Birte Yding; Jennum, Poul Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    and subjective sleep quality during benzodiazepine discontinuation and whether sleep variables were associated with benzodiazepine withdrawal. Eligible patients included adults with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder and long-term use of benzodiazepines in combination...... with antipsychotics. All participants gradually tapered the use of benzodiazepines after randomization to add-on treatment with melatonin versus placebo. Here we report a subsample of 23 patients undergoing sleep recordings (one-night polysomnography) and 55 patients participating in subjective sleep quality ratings....... Melatonin had no effect on objective sleep efficiency, but significantly improved self-reported sleep quality. Reduced benzodiazepine dosage at the 24-week follow-up was associated with a significantly decreased proportion of stage 2 sleep. These results indicate that prolonged-release melatonin has some...

  3. Interaction, transference, and subjectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Fieldwork is one of the important methods in educational, social, and organisational research. In fieldwork, the researcher takes residence for a shorter or longer period amongst the subjects and settings to be studied. The aim of this is to study the culture of people: how people seem to make...... sense of their lives and which moral, professional, and ethical values seem to guide their behaviour and attitudes. In fieldwork, the researcher has to balance participation and observation in her attempts at representation. Consequently, the researcher’s academic and life-historical subjectivity...... are important filters for fieldwork. In general, fieldwork can be understood as processes where field reports and field analysis are determined by how the researcher interacts with and experiences the field, the events and informants in it, and how she subsequently develops an ethnography. However, fieldwork...

  4. Writing and the 'Subject'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Charlotte

    /reading subject) manifests itself in the material mark on the page. The study shows how this indexical reference to a ‘subject’ is manipulated and used as a mask through which a writer/painter can perform a certain ‘subject’. Through analyses of the various levels on which the ‘subject’ is represented...... in the early as well as the contemporary avant-garde, it becomes clear that the ‘subject’ is an unstable category that can be exposed to manipulation and play. Handwriting is performing as a signature (as an index), but is at the same time similar to the signature of a subject (an icon) and a verbal construct...

  5. Vibration Response Imaging: evaluation of rater agreement in healthy subjects and subjects with pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makris Demosthenes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We evaluated pulmonologists variability in the interpretation of Vibration response imaging (VRI obtained from healthy subjects and patients hospitalized for community acquired pneumonia. Methods The present is a prospective study conducted in a tertiary university hospital. Twenty healthy subjects and twenty three pneumonia cases were included in this study. Six pulmonologists blindly analyzed images of normal subjects and pneumonia cases and evaluated different aspects of VRI images related to the quality of data aquisition, synchronization of the progression of breath sound distribution and agreement between the maximal energy frame (MEF of VRI (which is the maximal geographical area of lung vibrations produced at maximal inspiration and chest radiography. For qualitative assessment of VRI images, the raters' evaluations were analyzed by degree of consistency and agreement. Results The average value for overall identical evaluations of twelve features of the VRI image evaluation, ranged from 87% to 95% per rater (94% to 97% in control cases and from 79% to 93% per rater in pneumonia cases. Inter-rater median (IQR agreement was 91% (82-96. The level of agreement according to VRI feature evaluated was in most cases over 80%; intra-class correlation (ICC obtained by using a model of subject/rater for the averaged features was overall 0.86 (0.92 in normal and 0.73 in pneumonia cases. Conclusions Our findings suggest good agreement in the interpretation of VRI data between different raters. In this respect, VRI might be helpful as a radiation free diagnostic tool for the management of pneumonia.

  6. Subject Sensitive Invariantism: In Memoriam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauw, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Subject sensitive invariantism is the view that whether a subject knows depends on what is at stake for that subject: the truth-value of a knowledge-attribution is sensitive to the subject's practical interests. I argue that subject sensitive invariantism cannot accept a very plausible principle for

  7. Perisylvian, including insular, childhood epilepsy: Presurgical workup and surgical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freri, Elena; Matricardi, Sara; Gozzo, Francesca; Cossu, Massimo; Granata, Tiziana; Tassi, Laura

    2017-08-01

    To report the presurgical workup, surgical procedures, and outcomes in a series of pediatric patients with drug-resistant epilepsy involving the perisylvian/insular regions. We retrospectively assessed 16 pediatric patients affected by drug-resistant focal epilepsy involving perisylvian/insular regions, who consecutively underwent tailored resective surgery. All patients underwent a detailed presurgical workup, which included the analysis of the anatomoelectroclinical correlations with scalp electroencephalography (EEG) and/or with stereo-electroencephalography (SEEG), brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and comprehensive cognitive and neuropsychological evaluations. After surgery, all patients underwent serial clinical and laboratory evaluations. Focal motor seizures restricted to perioral area, associated with symptoms related to the surrounding areas (as auditory hallucinations, unpleasant paresthesia, fear, and epigastric sensation), characterized the ictal semiology in 75% of patients. In 50%, autonomic manifestations were present and in 56% subjective manifestations were reported. The 50% of the patients underwent SEEG with insular sampling to better define the epileptogenic zone. In all patients, the insular cortex was always part of the epileptogenic zone, and tailored resections also involved, with variable degree, the frontal, parietal, and temporal opercula. Preoperatively, the neuropsychological assessment revealed impairments in specific cognitive functions and mild or moderate cognitive compromise in 88% of the patients. Postoperatively, one patient had permanent slight hemiparesis. At the most recent follow-up (median 39 months), seizure outcome was satisfactory in 69% of patients: seven patients were completely seizure-free (Engel class Ia), two were free of disabling seizure (class Ic), and two had rare disabling seizures (class II). The cognitive functioning remained unchanged in 62%, and improved in 38%. The assessment of perisylvian

  8. A resiliência como objeto de investigação na enfermagem e em outras áreas: uma revisão La resiliencia como objeto de investigación en la enfermería y en otras areas: una revisión Resilience as subject for investigation in nursing and in other areas: a revision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise de Assis Corrêa Sória

    2006-12-01

    in databases, having, as describing, Resilience and Nursing. The data was characterized by the frequency in each area of knowledge. We objectify to search, in the catalogue of the CEPEN and the electronic bases of data BDENF, LILACS, MEDLINE, SCIELO, the resilience as thematic in the productions of the Nursing, between January of 1993 and May of 2004. The incidence was found in Social Sciences. In the MEDLINE, the biggest concentration it was given in the Mental Health. In the BDENF, its boarding is scarce. In the SCIELO, the Psychology concentrated the studies about the thematics. From the 122 analyzed studies, the resilience was object in 6% of the total of the studies. We verify a gap in the use of the concept in the area of the Latin American Nursing, fact that adds value to the study, contributing for a redimensionning of the daily professional.

  9. Cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Thyssen, Jacob P; Zachariae, Claus

    2013-01-01

    Background Epidemiological data have established an association between cardiovascular disease and psoriasis. Only one general population study has so far compared prevalences of cardiovascular risk factors among subjects with psoriasis and control subjects. We aimed to determine the prevalence...... of cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with and without psoriasis in the general population. Methods During 2006-2008, a cross-sectional study was performed in the general population in Copenhagen, Denmark. A total of 3471 subjects participated in a general health examination that included assessment of current...... between subjects with and without psoriasis with regard to traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusions Our results contrast with the hitherto-reported increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome in subjects with psoriasis in the general US population. However, our results agree with those of other...

  10. Cities, Towns and Villages, Sedgwick County subdivision or platted areas. Derived from countywide parcel-lot-block cover. Each polygon represents one or more contiguous parcels or lots having the same plat subdivision code. Legally defined subdivision boundaries are not included., Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Sedgwick County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Cities, Towns and Villages dataset current as of 2008. Sedgwick County subdivision or platted areas. Derived from countywide parcel-lot-block cover. Each polygon...

  11. Del.icio.us Subject Guides: Maintaining Subject Guides Using a Social Bookmarking Site.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward M. Corrado

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available By using Web 2.0 social bookmarking sites, libraries can more easily manage subject guides and other lists of Web resources. Social bookmarking services such as Delicious provide a one-click method to bookmark a Web site, allowing librarians to describe and categorize Web sites. Using a small amount of JavaScript, these bookmarked resources can be dynamically included into subject guides and other Web-based library resources. This paper describes and analyses the use of social bookmarking at a medium-sized comprehensive college library for the creation and maintenance of modern languages subject guides. A brief technical description outlining necessary JavaScript code provides a way for librarians to try this idea elsewhere. This paper examines the initiative at The College of New Jersey (TCNJ Library to utilize the social bookmarking Web site del.icio.us to easily update and maintain modern language subject-specific guides on the library Web site. Previously, the subject guides have proven difficult to maintain and a solution that allowed subject librarians to quickly and easily update subject guides from anywhere was desired. By using del.icio.us, librarians at TCNJ have been able to stream line subject guide maintenance. This paper describes the process used to include resources bookmarked on del.icio.us by librarians from both the subject librarians' and systems librarian's perspectives. Included is a brief technical description that outlines the JavaScript code that needs to be included in the subject guides that other libraries can use as an example if they choose to embark on a similar project. The response from librarians and teaching faculty has been positive. Librarians appreciate the ease of use while teaching faculty appreciate the constantly evolving nature of the subject guides. Recommendations on ways to expand this project, including methods to allowing students and faculty to identify content to be included in subject guides

  12. 76 FR 81359 - European Larch Canker; Expansion of Regulated Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... Management and Budget has waived its review under Executive Order 12866. List of Subjects in 7 CFR Part 301... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 European Larch Canker; Expansion of Regulated... domestic quarantine regulations by expanding the regulated area for European larch canker to include...

  13. Evaluating the Streif index against commercial subjective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Historical physiological data for Golden Delicious and Starking apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) from various orchards in the Ceres area were analysed. Significant correlations were obtained between the SI and subjective predictions of the release date for harvesting, after adapting the local starch breakdown values.

  14. Subjective evaluation of noise from neighbours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Rye; Rindel, Jens Holger; Mortensen, Frank Rysgaard

    1998-01-01

    This publication describes the preparations for and the results obtained in subjective listening tests conducted at the Department of Acoustic Technology. The focus area is the annoyance produced by noise from neighbours and transmitted through different types of constructions with special focus...

  15. Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part II. Sun story. [Includes glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    Magazine articles which focus on the subject of solar energy are presented. The booklet prepared is the second of a four part series of the Solar Energy Reader. Excerpts from the magazines include the history of solar energy, mythology and tales, and selected poetry on the sun. A glossary of energy related terms is included. (BCS)

  16. Naming the Ethological Subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Etienne S

    2016-03-01

    Argument In recent decades, through the work of Jane Goodall and other ethologists, the practice of giving personal names to nonhuman animals who are the subjects of scientific research has become associated with claims about animal personhood and scientific objectivity. While critics argue that such naming practices predispose the researcher toward anthropomorphism, supporters suggest that it sensitizes the researcher to individual differences and social relations. Both critics and supporters agree that naming tends to be associated with the recognition of individual animal rights. The history of the naming of research animals since the late nineteenth century shows, however, that the practice has served a variety of purposes, most of which have raised few ethical or epistemological concerns. Names have been used to identify research animals who play dual roles as pets, workers, or patients, to enhance their market value, and to facilitate their identification in the field. The multifaceted history of naming suggests both that the use of personal names by Goodall and others is less of a radical break with previous practices than it might first appear to be and that the use of personal names to recognize the individuality, sentience, or rights of nonhuman animals faces inherent limits and contradictions.

  17. A Subjective Rational Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradov, G. P.

    2017-01-01

    The problem of constructing a choice model of an agent with endogenous purposes of evolution is under debate. It is demonstrated that its solution requires the development of well-known methods of decision-making while taking into account the relation of action mode motivation to an agent’s ambition to implement subjectively understood interests and the environment state. The latter is submitted for consideration as a purposeful state situation model that exists only in the mind of an agent. It is the situation that is a basis for getting an insight into the agent’s ideas on the possible selected action mode results. The agent’s ambition to build his confidence in the feasibility of the action mode and the possibility of achieving the desired state requires him to use the procedures of forming an idea model based on the measured values of environment state. This leads to the gaming approach for the choice problem and its solution can be obtained on a set of trade-off alternatives.

  18. Laboratory instruction and subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Barolli

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The specific aspects which determined the way some groups of students conducted their work in a university laboratory, made us understand the articulation of these groups´s dynamics, from elements that were beyond the reach of cognition. In more specific terms the conduction and the maintenance of the groups student´s dynamics were explicited based on a intergame between the non conscious strategies, shared anonymously, and the efforts of the individuals in working based on their most objective task. The results and issues we have reached so far, using a reference the work developed by W.R.Bion, with therapeutical groups, gave us the possibility for understanding the dynamics of the student´s experimental work through a new approach that approximates the fields of cognition and subjectivity. This approximation led us to a deeper reflection about the issues which may be involved in the teaching process, particularly in situations which the teacher deals with the class, organised in groups.

  19. Radiotherapy of breast or left wall and of ganglionary areas including the internal mammary chain: dosimetric comparison of different ballistics; Radiotherapie du sein ou de la paroi gauche et des aires ganglionnaires incluant la chaine mammaire interne: comparaison dosimetrique de differentes balistiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regnault de la Mothe, P.; Berger, A.; Bensadoun, R.J. [PRC, 86 - Poitiers (France)

    2010-10-15

    As the irradiation of the mammary chain is still a matter of controversy because of non negligible toxicity risks, the authors report the comparison of three different irradiation ballistics for the breast or left wall as well as for ganglionary areas: short ballistics of internal mammary chains, long ballistics of internal mammary chains, and ballistics in tangential beams. Target volumes and organs at risk have been delineated, and dose-volume histograms have been compared. Short communication

  20. Problematization and Subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamre, Bjørn

    This study originated in an observation of the return of medical and individual-oriented explanations in conceptualizing the problematization of students in Denmark. The study will include analyses of files of 125 Danish students from a ‘helpschool’ that focuses on children with special education...

  1. Estimation of the fluctuating water surface area of the Three Gorges Reservoir in China[Includes the CSCE forum on professional practice and career development : 1. international engineering mechanics and materials specialty conference : 1. international/3. coastal, estuarine and offshore engineering specialty conference : 2. international/8. construction specialty conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, H.R. [Concordia Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering; Chongqing Pharmaceutical Industry Designing Inst., Chongqing (China); Li, S.S. [Concordia Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2009-07-01

    The Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) in China is the largest river-type reservoir in the world. This paper presented a simple methodology to assess the reservoir project impacts. In particular, it determined the variations in the submersion of the TGR's water storage on an annual discharge-storage cycle. A good understanding of the variations is important to investigate channel morphology, sediment transport, ecological changes, geological hazards and relocation of local residents. The surface area of the TGR was calculated from output of HEC-RAS, a 1-D hydrodynamics model developed by the United States Army Corps of Engineers. Mass transfer-based methods were used to estimate evaporation, which required wind and vapour pressure as input. The flow velocities and water levels in the TGR were numerically predicted. The predictions of cross-sectional mean flow velocities and the slope of the water surface were in good agreement with field data. The calibrated model was then run for the design water levels and inflows for each month of the year. The total area of the water surface that fluctuates in time was calculated from model results. The amount of water evaporation loss from the water surface was estimated using the calculated area and climatologic statistics of water and air temperatures, humidity and winds. 15 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

  2. Capitalist Discourse, Subjectivity and Lacanian Psychoanalysis

    OpenAIRE

    Vanheule, Stijn

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies how subjectivity in capitalist culture can be characterized. Building on Lacan's later seminars XVI, XVII, XVIII, and XIX, the author first outlines Lacan's general discourse theory, which includes four characteristic discourses: the discourse of the master, the discourse of the university, the discourse of the hysteric and the discourse of the analyst. Next, the author explores the subjectivity and the mode of dealing with jouissance and semblance, which is entailed in a f...

  3. Corneal Biomechanics Determination in Healthy Myopic Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Kunliang Qiu; Xuehui Lu; Riping Zhang; Geng Wang; Mingzhi Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the corneal biomechanical properties by using the Ocular Response Analyzer? and to investigate potential factors associated with the corneal biomechanics in healthy myopic subjects. Methods. 135 eyes from 135 healthy myopic subjects were included in this cross-sectional observational study. Cornea hysteresis (CH), corneal resistance factor (CRF), cornea-compensated intraocular pressure (IOPcc), and Goldmann-correlated intraocular pressure (IOPg) were determined with the ...

  4. Cities, Towns and Villages, We have the county boundaries including Hephzibah, and Blyth, with roads, parcels, schools, hospitals, fire stations, historic areas.points of interest, etc., Published in 2007, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Augusta-Richmond County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Cities, Towns and Villages dataset current as of 2007. We have the county boundaries including Hephzibah, and Blyth, with roads, parcels, schools, hospitals, fire...

  5. Subjective evaluation of chosen typographical characteristics in marketing materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Talandová

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper concentrates on the problems of marketing materials quality evaluation and their formal aspect and also customers’ marketing materials evaluation. This area has not been concentrated on very much and nor in the literature is described. The paper presents the results of our own research which queries how the customers subjectively perceive and evaluate the marketing materials. The emphasis was put on the materials quality i.e. on what materials are considered as quality materials by the customers and which attributes mainly influence the quality. The results were aggregated on the basis of customers’ responses an also on the basis of practical examples evaluation which included intentional mistakes. The subjects of the evaluation were marketing materials quality as a general feature, the attributes influencing the quality and marketing materials quality and company quality relation. Also the exam­ples including mistakes were evaluated. According to the questioning results, the respondents’ answers vary much. It is not possible to find unambiguously right or wrong marketing materials eva­lua­tion. This area will be developed in further research which will be concentrated mainly on the typographical aspects.The aim of this paper is to delimit and to define the present situation through the research result exa­mi­na­tion, to define ‘quality’ and to describe the way how marketing materials are perceived by the customers.

  6. The origin of the Northern Subject Rule : subject positions and verbal morphosyntax in older English

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, Nynke; van Kemenade, Ans

    This article presents new evidence for the early history of the Northern Subject Rule in the form of an exhaustive corpus study of plural present-tense indicative verb forms in Northern and Northern Midlands early Middle English, analysed in relation to their syntactic context, including subject

  7. Towards a definition of SUBJECT in binding domains and subject ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Towards a definition of SUBJECT in binding domains and subject-oriented anaphors 27 and it holds little explanatory value. At best, EPP ensures that the highest argument will move to subject position. The final property I will discuss here is the fact that, in some languages (e.g. Icelandic and. Dutch), there is a subset of ...

  8. SUBJECT AND AUTHOR INDEXS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IJBE Volume 1

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available SUBJECT INDEX IJBE VOLUME 1EPA, 1Agrotourism, 148AHP, 148balance scorecard, 63batik tulis Rolla Junior, 23Broiler, 90business model canvas, 137business performance,32capital structure, 81cashew industry,158CHAID,106CLI,42coal transportation service,63company’s characteristics, 81competitive advantage, 12competitive strategy, 127consumer satisfaction, 51CSI, 42customer loyalty, 42customer satisfaction,42decision of visitors, 72development strategy, 23development,158entrepreneurship, 32Feasibility studies, 90FEM, 81gap analysis, 1Indonesia Stock Exchange, 177Indosat, 137investor,177Kawah Putih, 72kedai sop durian lodaya (KSDL,51klassen typology, 96leading sector, 96less cash society, 137liquidity ratio, 165location quotient, 96logistic regression, 115market, 177marketing development strategy, 148Marketing mix, 72mobile payment, 137modern and Traditional cage, 90multiple regression analyse,165multiple regression, 177net working capital, 165organic tofu product, 115Padang, 106paired comparison, 63partnership, 1, 32Pecking Order Theory, 81PLS, 81Portfolio, 96power, 32product quality, 51profitability ratio, 165Prol Tape Primadona, 127purchase decision, 115purchase intention, 51purchasing interest,115QSPM, 23, 127refilled drinking water, 106seed,1segmentation, 106SEM, 42, 51service quality, 51SMEs, 96specialty coffee, 12stock,177strategic diagnosis,137strategy, 158Sukorambi Botanic Garden, 148SWOT, 23, 127, 148, 158SWOT-AHP, 12tourists,72UD. Primadona, 127value chain, 12VRIO,12 AUTHOR INDEX IJBE VOLUME 1Adiningsih, Kartika Puspitasari,42Aknesia, Vharessa,12Amalia, Firda Rachma,90Andati, Trias, 177Anggraeni, Lukytawati,23Asriani,158Daryanto, Arief,12, 90Djamaludin, MD., 42Djohar, Setiadi,96Fachrodji, Achmad,72Fahmi, Idqan,1, 63, 127Fasyni, Awisal,106Hubeis, Musa,148Iskandar, Dodi,51Juanda, Bambang, 165Kirbrandoko, 12, 106, 115Lumbantoruan, Dewi Margareth,96Maulana, TB Nur Ahmad,81Muksin, 148Mukti Soleh, Cecep,63Najib, Mukhamad,106Noor, Tajudin,81

  9. Revitalization Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Revitalization areas are HUD-designated neighborhoods in need of economic and community development and where there is already a strong commitment by the local...

  10. 700 Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The 700 Area of the Hanford Site is located in downtown Richland.Called the Federal Office Building, the Richland Operations Site Manager and the Richland Operations...

  11. Subjective wellbeing and income: Empirical patterns in the rural developing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-García, Victoria; Babigumira, Ronnie; Pyhälä, Aili; Wunder, Sven; Zorondo-Rodríguez, Francisco; Angelsen, Arild

    2016-01-01

    A commonality in the economics of happiness literature is that absolute income matters more for the subjective wellbeing of people at low income levels. In this article, we use a large sample of people in rural areas of developing countries with relatively low income levels to test whether subjective wellbeing an increasing function of absolute income in our sample, and to analyze the existence of adaptation and social comparison effects on subjective wellbeing. Our sample includes 6973 rural households in 23 countries throughout Asia, Africa, and Latin America. The average total income per adult equivalent in our sample was US$1555, whereas levels of subjective wellbeing resembled levels found in previous research using cross-country data. We find that, despite low levels of absolute income, levels of subjective wellbeing of our respondents resemble levels found in previous research using cross-country data. We also find remarkable similarities in many of the determinants of subjective wellbeing previously tested. Our data show that absolute income covariates with subjective wellbeing, but -as for richer samples- the magnitude of the association is lower once we control for adaptation and social comparison. Finally, our results suggest that social comparison has a stronger effect than adaptation in explaining the subjective wellbeing of our sample. Our findings highlight the importance of adaptation and social comparison even at low levels of absolute income. PMID:27642259

  12. SUBJECT AND AUTHOR INDEXS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IJBE Volume 2

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available SUBJECT INDEX IJBE VOLUME 2access credit, 93acquisition, 177AHP, 61, 82, 165arena simulation,43BMC, 69Bojonegoro, 69brand choice, 208brand image, 208brand positioning, 208bullwhip effect, 43burger buns, 1business synergy and financial reports, 177capital structure, 130cluster, 151coal reserves, 130coffee plantation, 93competitiveness, 82consumer behaviour, 33consumer complaint behavior, 101cooking spices, 1crackers, 1cross sectional analytical, 139crosstab, 101CSI, 12direct selling, 122discriminant analysis, 33economic value added, 130, 187employee motivation, 112employee performance, 112employees, 139EOQ, 23farmer decisions, 93farmer group, 52financial performance evaluation, 187financial performance, 52, 177financial ratio, 187financial report, 187fiva food, 23food crops, 151horticulture, 151imports, 151improved capital structure, 177IPA, 12leading sector, 151life insurance, 165LotteMart, 43main product, 61marketing mix, 33, 165matrix SWOT, 69MPE, 61multiple linear regression, 122muslim clothing, 197Ogun, 139Pangasius fillet, 82Pati, 93pearson correlation, 101perceived value, 208performance suppy chain, 23PLS, 208POQ, 23portfolio analyzing, 1product, 101PT SKP, 122pulp and papers, 187purchase decision, 165purchase intention, 33remuneration, 112re-purchasing decisions, 197sales performance, 122sawmill, 52SCOR, 23sekolah peternakan rakyat, 69SEM, 112SERVQUAL, 12Sido Makmur farmer groups, 93SI-PUHH Online, 12small and medium industries (IKM, 61socio-demographic, 139sport drink, 208stress, 139supply chain, 43SWOT, 82the mix marketing, 197Tobin’s Q, 130trade partnership, 52uleg chili sauce, 1 AUTHOR INDEX IJBE VOLUME 2Achsani, Noer Azam, 177Andati, Trias, 52, 177Andihka, Galih, 208Arkeman, Yandra, 43Baga, Lukman M, 69Cahyanugroho, Aldi, 112Daryanto, Arief, 12David, Ajibade, 139Djoni, 122Fahmi, Idqan, 1Fattah, Muhammad Unggul Abdul, 61Hakim, Dedi Budiman, 187Harianto, 93Hartoyo, 101Homisah, 1Hubeis, Musa, 112Hutagaol, M. Parulian, 93Jaya, Stevana

  13. Components of the leaf area index of marandu palisadegrass swards subjected to strategies of intermittent stocking Componentes do índice de área foliar de pastos de capim-marandu submetidos a estratégias de lotação intermitente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Aparecida Giacomini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaf area index is the main sward characteristic related to the processes of light interception and competition in plant communities. The objective of this experiment was to quantify and evaluate the composition of the leaf area on tillers of marandu palisadegrass (Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu subjected to strategies of intermittent stocking. The experiment was carried out in Piracicaba, state of São Paulo, Brazil, from October/2004 to December/2005. Swards were grazed at 95 and 100% canopy light interception (LI to post-grazing heights of 10 and 15 cm, following a 2 ' 2 factorial arrangement with four replications in a randomised complete block design. Estimates were made of sward leaf area index, site filling, specific leaf area and the dimensionless ratio between tiller leaf area and volume (R, as well as the relative contribution of basal and aerial tillers to these variables. In early spring, values of leaf area index and specific leaf area were low when compared to the other seasons, and swards grazed at 95% LI presented higher site filling and specific leaf area than those grazed at 100% LI. This resulted in higher tillering activity and increase in leaf area index in late spring, indicating quick recovery and early return of swards grazed at 95% LI to growing conditions. Aerial tillers corresponded to an important morphological adaptation of marandu palisadegrass to increase its competitive ability. Treatment 100/10 resulted in the highest and 95/15 in the lowest R values throughout the experiment, suggesting an allometric pattern of growth of tillers during regrowth in order to compensate low tiller population and optimise the leaf area index. Grazing management practices can benefit from this knowledge by promoting ideal sward conditions to maximise and accelerate growth.O índice de área foliar é a principal característica do dossel relacionada com os processos de interceptação e competição por luz em comunidades de

  14. Immediate Effect of Short-foot Exercise on Dynamic Balance of Subjects with Excessively Pronated Feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Dong-Chul; Kim, Kyoung; Lee, Su-Kyoung

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the immediate effect of short-foot exercise (SFE) on the dynamic balance of subjects with excessively pronated feet. [Subjects] This study included 18 subjects with excessively pronated feet (navicular drop ≥ 10 mm) selected using the navicular drop test. [Methods] The limit of stability (LOS) was measured to determine the changes in the dynamic balance from before and after SFE in the standing and sitting positions. [Result] After the SFE, LOS increased significantly in all areas, namely, the left, right, front, back, and overall. [Conclusion] SFE immediately improved the dynamic balance of subjects with excessively pronated feet. Subsequent studies will be conducted to examine the effects of SFE performed over the long term on postural stability.

  15. Northwest Area Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Tracy L.; van Heeswijk, Marijke; Grossman, Eric E.

    2010-01-01

    Northwest Area Facts * Population about 12 million * 43 federally recognized Tribes * Hydropower provides about two-thirds of electricity supply * 78 federally listed threatened and endangered species * 12 active or potentially active volcanoes * Columbia River system drains more than 260,000 square miles, an area about the size of Texas * More than 175 square miles covered by glaciers * More than 900 miles of Pacific Ocean coastline * More than 2,300 miles of greater Puget Sound coastline * Some forests store more carbon per unit area than any other area in the world, including the tropics * 51 percent federal lands * Significant lead, zinc, silver, and phosphate deposits

  16. Translating Signs, Producing Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Neilson

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper moves between two streets: Liverpool Road in the Sydney suburb of Ashfield and Via Sarpi in the Italian city of Milan. What connects these streets is that both have become important sites for businesses in the Chinese diaspora. Moreover, both are streets on which locals have expressed desires for Chinese signs to be translated into the national lingua franca. The paper argues that the cultural politics inherent in this demand for translation cannot be fully understood in the context of national debates about diversity and integration. It is also necessary to consider the emergence of the official Chinese Putonghua as global language, which competes with English but also colonizes dialects and minority languages. In the case of these dual language signs, the space between languages can neither be reduced to a contact zone of minority and majority cultures nor celebrated as a ‘third space’ where the power relations implied by such differences are subverted. At stake is rather a space characterised by what Naoki Sakai calls the schema of co-figuration, which allows the representation of translation as the passage between two equivalents that resemble each other and thus makes possible their determination as conceptually different and comparable. Drawing on arguments about translation and citizenship, the paper critically interrogates the ethos of interchangeability implied by this regime of translation. A closing argument is made for a vision of the common that implies neither civilisational harmony nor the translation of all values into a general equivalent. Primary sources include government reports, internet texts and media stories. These are analyzed using techniques of discourse analysis and interpreted with the help of secondary literature concerning globalisation, language and migration. The disciplinary matrix cuts and mixes between cultural studies, translation studies, citizenship studies, globalization studies and

  17. Human subjects research handbook: Protecting human research subjects. Second edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-30

    This handbook serves as a guide to understanding and implementing the Federal regulations and US DOE Orders established to protect human research subjects. Material in this handbook is directed towards new and continuing institutional review board (IRB) members, researchers, institutional administrators, DOE officials, and others who may be involved or interested in human subjects research. It offers comprehensive overview of the various requirements, procedures, and issues relating to human subject research today.

  18. Sentence processing selectivity in Broca’s area: evident for structure but not syntactic movement

    OpenAIRE

    Rogalsky, Corianne; Almeida, Diogo; Sprouse, Jon; Hickok, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    The role of Broca’s area in sentence processing is hotly debated. Prominent hypotheses include that Broca’s area supports sentence comprehension via syntax-specific processes (“syntactic movement” in particular), hierarchical structure building or working memory. In the present fMRI study we adopt a within subject, across task approach using targeted sentence-level contrasts and non-sentential comparison tasks to address these hypotheses regarding the role of Broca’s area in sentence processi...

  19. SUBJECTIVE RESOURCESTHE PSYCHOLOGICAL AND ACMEOLOGICAL PHENOMENON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Ivanovna Ilyushina

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the moment the subject – resources of a person. Be caused, “loss” possible resources: lack of personal self-realization, the maladjustment of the individual in a social environment, obstructed line of identity, which in some cases is accompanied by incomplete personal self-actualization and self-sufficiency. The article emphasizes the importance of the subjective component in understanding, identifying, understanding, mobilization, conservation and accumulation of resources of the individual. Man is an active Converter to your reality, where he and reality are the result of the conversion and source conversion. The author proposed the concept of “subjective resource” as a necessary factor for quality of life of the individual, achievement of tops of her self-improvement and self-development, both professionally and personally. Subjective component emphasizes the role of the individual in the conservation, transformation, accumulation, the reallocation of resources. Purpose. The subject of analysis is the awareness, understanding person own resources – the subjective resourcest. The author aims to describe the subjective resourcest as psychological and acmeological phenomenon to reveal its essence and to suggest the methodology of the study of this phenomenon, showing the importance of verbalization resources through associative image without relying on the visibility and relying on her. Methodology. The basis of the study form a General theoretical methods (theoretical analysis, including psychological analysis, generalization, systematization, system description. Results. The results of the work lies in the fact that the author has defined the concept of “subjective resourcesthe” and proposed methodology of the study. The obtained results may be of interest to improve the efficiency of the work to define the resources of the individual. The results and method of determining a subjective resource

  20. An Integrated Biochemistry Laboratory, Including Molecular Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Adele J. Wolfson Mona L.; Branham, Thomas R.

    1996-11-01

    The dilemma of designing an advanced undergraduate laboratory lies in the desire to teach and reinforce basic principles and techniques while at the same time exposing students to the excitement of research. We report here on a one-semester, project-based biochemistry laboratory that combines the best features of a cookbook approach (high success rate, achievement of defined goals) with those of an investigative, discovery-based approach (student involvement in the experimental design, excitement of real research). Individual modules may be selected and combined to meet the needs of different courses and different institutions. The central theme of this lab is protein purification and design. This laboratory accompanies the first semester of biochemistry (Structure and Function of Macromolecules, a course taken mainly by junior and senior chemistry and biological chemistry majors). The protein chosen as the object of study is the enzyme lysozyme, which is utilized in all projects. It is suitable for a student lab because it is easily and inexpensively obtained from egg white and is extremely stable, and its high isoelectric point (pI = 11) allows for efficient separation from other proteins by ion-exchange chromatography. Furthermore, a literature search conducted by the resourceful student reveals a wealth of information, since lysozyme has been the subject of numerous studies. It was the first enzyme whose structure was determined by crystallography (1). Hendrickson et al. (2) have previously described an intensive one-month laboratory course centered around lysozyme, although their emphasis is on protein stability rather than purification and engineering. Lysozyme continues to be the focus of much exciting new work on protein folding and dynamics, structure and activity (3 - 5). This lab course includes the following features: (i) reinforcement of basic techniques, such as preparation of buffers, simple enzyme kinetics, and absorption spectroscopy; (ii

  1. Soft tissue facial morphometry in subjects with Moebius syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sforza, Chiarella; Grandi, Gaia; Pisoni, Luca; Di Blasio, Chiara; Gandolfini, Mauro; Ferrario, Virgilio F

    2009-12-01

    Moebius syndrome is a congenital facial palsy associated with the impairment of ocular abduction. The three-dimensional characteristics of the facial soft tissues of 12 male and 14 female subjects [3-52 yr of age (mean age + standard deviation: 17 + 14 yr)] were measured using a non-invasive, computerized system; facial volumes, areas, angles, and distances were computed and compared with those obtained in reference subjects of the same age and gender. When compared with reference subjects, patients with Moebius syndrome had a more prominent and hyperdivergent face in the sagittal plane, a smaller and more prominent upper facial third; a smaller middle facial width; a smaller nose; smaller mandibular volume, depth, corpus length, and ramus height; and a more posterior positioned mandible, with a less prominent chin. In conclusion, patients with Moebius syndrome had a tendency towards a skeletal Class II pattern. These morphological variations may be the combined effect of a general alteration of the motor and sensitive facial nerves, including the trigeminal nerve, and of a maldevelopment of the brainstem.

  2. Quiet areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rikke Munck

    2016-01-01

    This paper argues that drone filming can substantiate our understanding of multisensorial experiences of quiet areas and urban landscapes. Contrary to the distanced gaze often associated with the drone, this paper discusses drone filming as an intimate performativity apparatus that can affect...... perception as a result of its interrelationships between motion, gaze, and sound. This paper uses four films, one of which is a drone flyover, to launch a discussion concerning a smooth and alluring gaze, a sliding gaze that penetrates landscapes, and site appearance. Films hold the capacity to project both...... and transcendence can facilitate a deeper understanding of intimate sensations, substantiating their role in the future design and planning of urban landscapes. Hence, it addresses the ethics of an intimacy perspective (of drone filming) in the qualification of quiet areas....

  3. Resistance of Concrete Masonry Walls With Membrane Catcher Systems Subjected to Blast Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    are made. sandwich panel, prestressed concrete , composite, test, explosive load U U U UU 22 Paul Sheppard Reset 1 Resistance of...AFRL-RX-TY-TP-2010-0090 RESISTANCE OF CONCRETE MASONRY WALLS WITH MEMBRANE CATCHER SYSTEMS SUBJECTED TO BLAST LOADING...Include area code) 29-DEC-2010 Refereed Journal Article 01-OCT-2008 -- 31-DEC-2009 Resistance of Concrete Masonry Walls With Membrane Catcher Systems

  4. Subjectivity and professional vocational counselling

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Marina

    2004-01-01

    In this work, I shall deal with the psychodynamic approach to subjectivity in P.V.C. To this effect, I want to develop the concept of subject and subjectivity, its variation and historical-social construction and its approach in counselling, from a psychodynamic conceptual framework in P.V.C. with a short reference to the theoretical sources on which this approach is founded. Departamento de Psicología

  5. Patient-generated subjective global assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr Harriët Jager-Wittenaar; Martine J. Sealy; Suzanne Kasenic; Elizabeth Isenring; Faith D. Ottery; Susan P. DeBolt

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA), including the PG-SGA Short Form (SF, aka ‘abridged’), was originally developed in the mid 1990’s as a scored, patient self-report, paperbased instrument and has been widely validated. The PG-SGA (SF) has been used for screening,

  6. The Subject in Cognitive Psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Caro-Gabalda

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the various subjects embedded in cognitive psychotherapy. The cognitive model developed by Beck, considered as a rationalist and modernist model, will exemplify these subjects. Cognitive therapy should be placed in the modernist historical context and related to a subject characterized as having rationality and the ability to observe and detect cognitions, emotions and behaviors. The paper develops this background introducing three main subject types. The first is the introspective and conscious subject, who is able to observe what is within oneself, has free access, and is conscious of one's cognitive world. The second is the cognitive miser that describes the subject who enters into therapy. The final subject identified, is the trained scientist who is able to develop a more objective knowledge, changing faulty schemas and cognitive distortions. This subject is the one most looked for in cognitive therapy. We could connect these subjects to some of the main elements of cognitive therapy such as the concept of ABC, assessment procedures, cognitive techniques or the relevance of schemas. Finally, the paper suggests some issues for study that could contribute to the theoretical and clinical evolution of cognitive psychotherapy.

  7. How to include the variability of TMS responses in simulations: a speech mapping case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Geeter, N.; Lioumis, P.; Laakso, A.; Crevecoeur, G.; Dupré, L.

    2016-11-01

    When delivered over a specific cortical site, TMS can temporarily disrupt the ongoing process in that area. This allows mapping of speech-related areas for preoperative evaluation purposes. We numerically explore the observed variability of TMS responses during a speech mapping experiment performed with a neuronavigation system. We selected four cases with very small perturbations in coil position and orientation. In one case (E) a naming error occurred, while in the other cases (NEA, B, C) the subject appointed the images as smoothly as without TMS. A realistic anisotropic head model was constructed of the subject from T1-weighted and diffusion-weighted MRI. The induced electric field distributions were computed, associated to the coil parameters retrieved from the neuronavigation system. Finally, the membrane potentials along relevant white matter fibre tracts, extracted from DTI-based tractography, were computed using a compartmental cable equation. While only minor differences could be noticed between the induced electric field distributions of the four cases, computing the corresponding membrane potentials revealed different subsets of tracts were activated. A single tract was activated for all coil positions. Another tract was only triggered for case E. NEA induced action potentials in 13 tracts, while NEB stimulated 11 tracts and NEC one. The calculated results are certainly sensitive to the coil specifications, demonstrating the observed variability in this study. However, even though a tract connecting Broca’s with Wernicke’s area is only triggered for the error case, further research is needed on other study cases and on refining the neural model with synapses and network connections. Case- and subject-specific modelling that includes both electromagnetic fields and neuronal activity enables demonstration of the variability in TMS experiments and can capture the interaction with complex neural networks.

  8. Who is the research subject in cluster randomized trials in health research?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brehaut Jamie C

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article is part of a series of papers examining ethical issues in cluster randomized trials (CRTs in health research. In the introductory paper in this series, we set out six areas of inquiry that must be addressed if the CRT is to be set on a firm ethical foundation. This paper addresses the first of the questions posed, namely, who is the research subject in a CRT in health research? The identification of human research subjects is logically prior to the application of protections as set out in research ethics and regulation. Aspects of CRT design, including the fact that in a single study the units of randomization, experimentation, and observation may differ, complicate the identification of human research subjects. But the proper identification of human research subjects is important if they are to be protected from harm and exploitation, and if research ethics committees are to review CRTs efficiently. We examine the research ethics literature and international regulations to identify the core features of human research subjects, and then unify these features under a single, comprehensive definition of human research subject. We define a human research subject as any person whose interests may be compromised as a result of interventions in a research study. Individuals are only human research subjects in CRTs if: (1 they are directly intervened upon by investigators; (2 they interact with investigators; (3 they are deliberately intervened upon via a manipulation of their environment that may compromise their interests; or (4 their identifiable private information is used to generate data. Individuals who are indirectly affected by CRT study interventions, including patients of healthcare providers participating in knowledge translation CRTs, are not human research subjects unless at least one of these conditions is met.

  9. Short- versus long-term prediction of dementia among subjects with low and high educational levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chary, Emilie; Amieva, Hélène; Pérès, Karine; Orgogozo, Jean-Marc; Dartigues, Jean-François; Jacqmin-Gadda, Hélène

    2013-09-01

    Using simple measures of cognition and disability in a prospective community-living cohort of normal elderly persons, the main objectives of our study were to distinguish short- and long-term predictors for dementia according to educational level and to propose a tool for early detection of subjects at high risk of dementia. Data derived from the French cohort study Paquid (Personnes Agées QUID), which included 3777 subjects, older than 65 years of age, who were followed for a 20-year period. The risk of dementia at 3 years and 10 years was estimated by logistic regression for repeated measures combining data from all the 3- and 10-year windows throughout the follow-up. Predictors included disability assessed by the number of dependent items among four instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), four neuropsychological tests, five Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) subtests, and four items of subjective memory complaints. Of the 2882 included subjects, the number of IADLs remained a predictor of short- and long-term conversion to dementia for those with low educational level (combined with only one cognitive test) whereas the best predictors for more educated subjects combined subjective memory complaints and memory and executive function tests. The episodic memory subtest was the only predictive MMSE subtest. In the high-education-level group, the areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curve of the selected models were 0.85 for 3-year prediction and 0.78 for 10-year prediction. Early predictors of dementia are different according to educational level. Among subjects reaching the secondary school level, early detection of those at high risk of dementia is possible with good predictive performance, with a few simple objective and subjective cognitive evaluations. Copyright © 2013 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. On search games that include ambush

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alpern, S.; Fokkink, R.; Gal, S.; Timmer, M.

    2013-01-01

    We present a stochastic game that models ambush/search in a finite region Q which has area but no other structure. The searcher can search a unit area of Q in unit time or adopt an "ambush" mode for a certain period. The searcher "captures" the hider when the searched region contains the hider's

  11. The disease-subject as a subject of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kottow Andrea R

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Based on the distinction between living body and lived body, we describe the disease-subject as representing the impact of disease on the existential life-project of the subject. Traditionally, an individual's subjectivity experiences disorders of the body and describes ensuing pain, discomfort and unpleasantness. The idea of a disease-subject goes further, representing the lived body suffering existential disruption and the possible limitations that disease most probably will impose. In this limit situation, the disease-subject will have to elaborate a new life-story, a new character or way-of-being-in-the-world, it will become a different subject. Health care professionals need to realize that patients are not mere observers of their body, for they are immersed in a reassesment of values, relationships, priorities, perhaps even life-plans. Becoming acquainted with literature's capacity to create characters, modify narratives and depict life-stories in crisis, might sharpen physicians' hermeneutic acumen and make them more receptive to the quandaries of disease-subjects facing major medical and existential decisions in the wake of disruptive disease.

  12. The Object of the Subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Brian Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    The article presents a theory of the subject, based on the work of Jacques Lacan, using the concepts of alienation, separation and liberation.......The article presents a theory of the subject, based on the work of Jacques Lacan, using the concepts of alienation, separation and liberation....

  13. Electromyographic and neuromuscular variables in unstable postpolio subjects, stable postpolio subjects, and control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriquez, A A; Agre, J C; Franke, T M

    1997-09-01

    To compare strength and endurance variables obtained in the quadriceps muscles of postpolio and control subjects over a 7-year interval with macro and single fiber electromyography (EMG) variables. A controlled inception cohort study. Neuromuscular research laboratory of a university hospital. A cohort of 23 postpolio and 14 control subjects. All postpolio subjects had a history, physical examination, and EMG consistent with previous poliomyelitis, and had greater than antigravity strength in the quadriceps muscle tested. Unstable postpolio subjects acknowledged new quadriceps weakness over the 7-year period of the study (n = 11), and stable postpolio subjects denied new weakness of the quadriceps over the same period (n = 12). All subjects had tests of neuromuscular function of the quadriceps muscles at the onset of this study and yearly over a 7-year period. EMG variables were determined on a separate day after the seventh year of neuromuscular measurements. Neuromuscular variables measured were isometric knee extension peak torque, isometric endurance (time to inability to maintain knee extensor contraction at 40% of maximal torque), tension time index (TTI) (product of isometric endurance time and 40% of maximal torque), and recovery of torque at 10 minutes after the endurance test. EMG variables were macro EMG and single fiber EMG (jitter, fiber density, and percent blocking). Unstable postpolio subjects did not lose strength more rapidly than stable postpolio subjects or control subjects. Unstable postpolio subjects were significantly weaker, had decreased TTI, larger macro EMG amplitude, greater jitter, blocking, and fiber density in comparison with stable postpolio subjects (all p postpolio group (p .05) with neuromuscular or EMG variables in control, stable, or unstable postpolio subjects.

  14. A structural analysis of an ocean going patrol boat subjected to planning loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, James H.; Lafreniere, Robert; Stoodt, Robert; Wiedenheft, John

    1987-01-01

    A static structural analysis of an ocean going patrol vessel subjected to hydrodynamic planning loads is discussed. The analysis required the development of a detailed model that included hull plating, five structural bulkheads, longitudinal and transverse stiffners, and a coarse representation of the superstructure. The finite element model was developed from fabrication drawings using the Navy computer aided design system. Various stress and displacement contours are shown for the entire hull. Because several critical areas appeared to be overstressed, these areas were remeshed for detail and are presented for completeness.

  15. Witkacy’s Attempt at a Subject – a Subject for a Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Górska

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article Witkacego próba podmiotu – podmiot na próbę [Witkacy’s Attempt at a Subject – a Subject for a Test] the subjective identity of S.I. Witkiewicz is characterised by means of the widely understood category of a trial. This latter is interpreted from the view of theatrical aesthetics, but also philosophy, enables to show the biography and oeuvre of the artist from Zakopane as a continuous game between constructing and deconstructing of the subjective identity. The category of subjectivity becomes here a tool of revealing of the mechanisms, making it possible to remove boundaries between art and life, reality and fiction, literature and theory. Whereas in the interpretation proposed this attempt appears as a very literally understood experiencing of oneself, “putting oneself to the test”, but also as an attempt at literature (in the area of theory and an attempt at theory (in the area of literature.

  16. Functional MRI of Multilingual Subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jae Min; Ryoo, Jae Wook; Choi, Dae Seob; Shin, Tae Beom; Chung, Sung Hoon; Kim, Ji Eun [Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Han, Heon; Kim, Sam Soo; Jeon, Yong Hwan [Kangwon National University College of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    To evaluate brain activation areas during the processing of languages in multilingual volunteers by functional MRI and to examine the differences between the mother and foreign languages. Nine multilingual (Korean, French, and English speaking) Korean individuals were enrolled in this study. Functional images were acquired during a lexical decision task (LDT) and picture naming task (PNT) in each of the Korean, French and English languages. The areas activated were analyzed topographically in each language and task, and compared between languages. Activation was noted in Broca's area, supramarginal gyrus, fusiform gyrus during the LDT. During the PNT, activation was noted in Broca's area, left prefrontal area, cerebellum, right extrastriated cortex. While Broca's area activation was observed for all languages during LDT, there was more activation in Broca's area and additional activation in the right prefrontal area with foreign languages. During the PNT, there was more activation in the left prefrontal area with foreign languages. Broca's area, which is known as a major language region, was activated by all languages and tasks. The brain activation areas were largely overlapping with the mother and foreign languages. However, there were wider areas of activation and additional different activation areas with foreign languages. These results suggest more cerebral effort during foreign language processing

  17. Differences in phonetogram features between male and female subjects with and without vocal training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulter, A M; Schutte, H K; Miller, D G

    1995-12-01

    Singing not only requires good voluntary control over phonation and a musical ear, it also demands certain capacities of the voice source. These capacities include a desirable range of sound intensity and frequency, which can be measured and represented in a phonetogram. The influence of specific factors on voice capacities may be ascertained by the analysis of phonetograms. To determine the influence of the factors gender and voice training, phonetograms of 224 subjects, subdivided accordingly into four groups, were analyzed in two different ways. One is based on the rescaling of phonetograms, whereas the other derives analytic variables from the features' shape, area, and dynamic range. Analysis showed that, regarding gender, male subjects are able to produce softer phonations, whereas female subjects produced louder phonations at specific parts of their comparable frequency ranges. Trained subjects have a larger enclosed area of the phonetogram, which is primarily based on extended soft voice capabilities in both genders and the significantly larger frequency range in trained female subjects. The shape analysis, performed with Fourier Descriptors, revealed differences for the factors gender and training.

  18. Relations and areas of interaction between landowners in a peri-urban area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richardt, Ann-Sofie

    2016-01-01

    While land management can be a subject of conflict in places where the composition of landowners is socially and culturally diverse, it also holds the potential of bringing landowners together across social groups. This chapter uses the case of a peri-urban area near Copenhagen, Denmark, to examine...... parishes addressed four types of land-based relations: (1) exchange of help and services; (2) debate of farming/management; (3) shared interests and (4) friendship. While the pattern of relations overall supported the idea that people interact more with their own social group, the analysis also showed...... areas of interaction across groups as well. Three overall themes summarise important areas of cohesion/fragmentation: (1) Rented land and contracting, (2) Common interests between landowners including hunting, farming and horses, (3) Urgency and geographic proximity....

  19. Classifications of subjects with the language PROLOG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzi, R

    1989-03-01

    The logical language PROLOG is used for the definition and characterization of groups of subjects. The groups are firstly defined by sets of variables with comparable scales. Secondly, the single members of the groups are characterized by logically structured combinations of variables which do not necessarily have comparable scales. The performance of the characterizations is estimated by determining the rates sensitivity and specificity. The new classification method is applied in a follow-up study including the assessment of the activity of 76 healthy subjects during two controlled experiments. The classification with PROLOG is then compared with the methods of logistic regression and with discriminant analysis. The comparisons demonstrate that, under similar conditions, the results of a classification with PROLOG parallel the results of statistically based classification procedures. In addition, PROLOG permits characterizations of single subjects based on variables from different scientific disciplines.

  20. Is Piaget's epistemic subject dead?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Anton E.

    Niaz (1990) presents arguments in favor of the retention of Piaget's epistemic subject as a theoretical construct to guide research and practice in science education and psychology. The intent of this article is to point out the weaknesses of those arguments and to suggest that the weight of evidence argues against the existence of the logical thinker postulated by Piaget. Therefore, contrary to Niaz's conclusion that the acceptance of Piaget's epistemic subject will facilitate the development of cognitive theories with greater explanatory power, the conclusion is reached that Piaget's epistemic subject is dead and that continued acceptance of this aspect of Piagetian theory would be counterproductive.

  1. International energy: Subject thesaurus supplement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    This is a supplement to International Energy: Subject Thesaurus (ETDE/PUB--2(Rev.1)), which replaced DOE/TIC-7000--the EDB Subject Thesaurus. This supplement is provided periodically to keep International Energy: Subject Thesaurus recipients up-to-date on valid vocabulary terms (descriptors) used in building and maintaining several international energy information databases. Each issue contains all new terms added since the publication of the Thesaurus. Each supplement is a cumulative listing of the new terms, so that each issue replaces the previous one.

  2. Subject Responses to Electrochromic Windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clear, Robert; Inkarojrit, Vorapat; Lee, Eleanor

    2006-03-03

    Forty-three subjects worked in a private office with switchable electrochromic windows, manually-operated Venetian blinds, and dimmable fluorescent lights. The electrochromic window had a visible transmittance range of approximately 3-60%. Analysis of subject responses and physical data collected during the work sessions showed that the electrochromic windows reduced the incidence of glare compared to working under a fixed transmittance (60%) condition. Subjects used the Venetian blinds less often and preferred the variable transmittance condition, but used slightly more electric lighting with it than they did when window transmittance was fixed.

  3. Dynamic Stability of Columns Subjected to Follower Loads: a Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    LANGTHJEM, M. A.; SUGIYAMA, Y.

    2000-12-01

    This paper offers a survey of simple, flexible structural elements subjected to non-conservative follower loads, such as those caused by the thrust of rocket- and jet engines, and by dry friction in automotive disk- and drum-brake systems. Emphasis is on the “canonical problems”, Beck's, Reut's, Leipholz's, and Hauger's columns. Beck's and Reut's columns have been realized experimentally, and very good agreement between theory and experiments has been found. Leipholz's column is basically realized in an automobile brake system, where noise due to dynamic or parametric instability (brake squeal) is a well-known environmental problem. It is attempted to give a broad overview, with emphasis on experimental works and the associated theoretical problems. Structural optimization is also included in the review, as many studies in that area have served an important purpose in the development of optimization techniques for practical, large-scale optimization problems with non-conservative forces, such as in aeroelasticity.

  4. Measurement of visceral fat: should we include retroperitoneal fat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Sheng Hung

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Whether retroperitoneal fat should be included in the measurement of visceral fat remains controversial. We compared the relationships of fat areas in peritoneal, retroperitoneal, and subcutaneous compartments to metabolic syndrome, adipokines, and incident hypertension and diabetes. METHODS: We enrolled 432 adult participants (153 men and 279 women in a community-based cohort study. Computed tomography at the umbilicus level was used to measure the fat areas. RESULTS: Retroperitoneal fat correlated significantly with metabolic syndrome (adjusted odds ratio (OR, 5.651, p<0.05 and the number of metabolic abnormalities (p<0.05. Retroperitoneal fat area was significantly associated with blood pressure, plasma glycemic indices, lipid profile, C-reactive protein, adiponectin (r =  -0.244, P<0.05, and leptin (r = 0.323, p<0.05, but not plasma renin or aldosterone concentrations. During the 2.94 ± 0.84 years of follow-up, 32 participants developed incident hypertension. Retroperitoneal fat area (hazard ration (HR 1.62, p = 0.003 and peritoneal fat area (HR 1.62, p = 0.009, but not subcutaneous fat area (p = 0.14 were associated with incident hypertension. Neither retroperitoneal fat area, peritoneal fat area, nor subcutaneous fat areas was associated with incident diabetes after adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: Retroperitoneal fat is similar to peritoneal fat, but differs from subcutaneous fat, in terms of its relationship with metabolic syndrome and incident hypertension. Retroperitoneal fat area should be included in the measurement of visceral fat for cardio-metabolic studies in human.

  5. Comparison of psychological distress and its associated factors among chronic disease and healthy subjects in rural Puducherry, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthik Laksham Balajee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: There is paucity of data on the comparison of psychological distress among chronic noncommunicable disease (NCD and healthy subjects in developing countries such as India. Objective: To assess and compare psychological distress and its associated factors among chronic disease and healthy subjects. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a rural field practice area attached to a tertiary care medical institution in Puducherry, India. Data were collected from the chronic disease subjects which included those with diabetes and or hypertension registered in the rural health center. Healthy subjects residing nearest to the corresponding case from the respective village were taken as controls. Psychological distress was assessed by General Health Questionnaire 12 (GHQ 12. Results: There were 260 subjects with 130 in each group. Subjects with chronic disease had significantly higher proportion of psychological distress (50.8% compared to healthy subjects (35.4%. The mean ± standard deviation GHQ 12 score of those with chronic disease is also significantly higher than that of healthy subjects (13.35 ± 4.89 vs. 11.15 ± 4.43, P< 0.001. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that subjects with diabetes and/or hypertension had higher psychological distress (adjusted odds ratio = 1.9, 95% confidence interval: 1.1–3.5 compared to healthy subjects. Conclusion: Subjects with diabetes and/or hypertension have higher proportion of psychological distress compared to healthy subjects. Screening subjects with chronic NCD for psychological distress may help to take appropriate measures.

  6. Teaching physics as a service subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, T. L.; Hayes, M.

    1986-07-01

    At South Glamorgan Institute of Higher Education physics is taught over a wide range of courses. In addition to the more conventional courses found in science, technology and education faculties there is a physics input into areas such as beauty therapy, applied biology, catering, chiropody, dental technology, environmental health, food technology, hairdressing, human-movement studies, industrial design, applied life sciences, marine technology, medical laboratory science, physiological measurement, nursing and speech therapy. Due to the fundamental differences in emphasis required when teaching physics as a 'minor' subject on these types of courses, and since the authors have no courses which lead to a 'major' physics qualification, it is necessary to develop a rational strategy for teaching physics as a 'service' subject. If this is not achieved then staff satisfaction and student interest are likely to suffer. They describe their strategy.

  7. Opportunities in the Fusion Energy Sciences Program [Includes Appendix C: Topical Areas Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-06-01

    Recent years have brought dramatic advances in the scientific understanding of fusion plasmas and in the generation of fusion power in the laboratory. Today, there is little doubt that fusion energy production is feasible. The challenge is to make fusion energy practical. As a result of the advances of the last few years, there are now exciting opportunities to optimize fusion systems so that an attractive new energy source will be available when it may be needed in the middle of the next century. The risk of conflicts arising from energy shortages and supply cutoffs, as well as the risk of severe environmental impacts from existing methods of energy production, are among the reasons to pursue these opportunities.

  8. Supporting Student Retention and Success: Including Family Areas in an Academic Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Ian; Rutledge, Lorelei; Mowdood, Alfred; Reed, Jacob; Bigler, Scott; Soehner, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Many universities and colleges focus on student retention and completion as a measure of their success. Publications such as the "Chronicle of Higher Education" carry an increasing number of articles dealing with student retention, success, and completion. Academic libraries support this goal through a wide variety of services, teaching,…

  9. FUNDAMENTAL AREAS OF PHENOMENOLOGY (INCLUDING APPLICATIONS): Mechanism of Current Oscillations in Gallium Arsenide Photoconductive Semiconductor Switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Li-Qiang; Shi, Wei

    2008-07-01

    Semi-insulating photoconductive semiconductor switch with an electrode gap of 4 mm, triggered by a laser pulse with energy of 0.5mJ, and applied bias of 2.5kV, the periodicity current oscillation with a cycle of 12ns is obtained. It is indicated that the current oscillation is one mode of transferred electron effect, namely quenched domain mode. This mode of trans-electron oscillator is obtained when the instantaneous bias electric field drops below the sustaining field (the minimum electric field required to support the domain) before the domain reaches the anode, which leads to the domain disappears somewhere in the bulk of the switch and away from the ohmic contacts. We mainly analyse the time-dependent characteristic of the mode, the theoretical analysis results are in excellent agreement with the experiment.

  10. FUNDAMENTAL AREAS OF PHENOMENOLOGY(INCLUDING APPLICATIONS): An Artificially Garnet Crystal Materials Using In Terahertz Waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qing-Hui; Zhang, Huai-Wu; Liu, Ying-Li; Wen, Qi-Ye; Zha, Jie

    2008-11-01

    A hypothesis is brought forward that the materials with low propagation loss in both optical and microwave band may exhibit good performance in terahertz (THz) band because THz wave band interspaces those two wave bands. For the purpose of exploring a kind of low-loss material for THz waveguide, Lu2.1Bi0.9Fe5O12 (LuBilG) garnet films are prepared by liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) method on a gadolinium gallium garnet (GGG) substrate from lead-free flux because of the good properties in both optical and microwave bands. In microwave band, the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) linewidth of the film 2ΔH = 2.8-5.1 Oe; in optical band, the optical absorption coefficient is 600 cm-1 at visible range and about 100-170 cm-1 when the wavelength is longer than 800nm. In THz range, our hypothesis is well confirmed by a THz-TDS measurement which shows that the absorbance of the him for THz wave is 0.05-0.3 cm-1 and the minimum value appears at 2.3 THz. This artificial ferromagnetic material holds a great promise for magnetic held tunable THz devices such as waveguide, modulator or switch.

  11. Politics of modern muslim subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Dietrich; Petersen, Marie Juul; Sparre, Sara Lei

    Examining modern Muslim identity constructions, the authors introduce a novel analytical framework to Islamic Studies, drawing on theories of successive modernities, sociology of religion, and poststructuralist approaches to modern subjectivity, as well as the results of extensive fieldwork in th...

  12. Politics of modern muslim subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Dietrich; Petersen, Marie Juul; Sparre, Sara Lei

    Examining modern Muslim identity constructions, the authors introduce a novel analytical framework to Islamic Studies, drawing on theories of successive modernities, sociology of religion, and poststructuralist approaches to modern subjectivity, as well as the results of extensive fieldwork...

  13. The Subjective Experience of Punishment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adam J. Kolber

    2009-01-01

    ... laws pay little attention to such differences. I make two central claims: First, a successful justification of punishment must take account of offenders' subjective experiences when assessing punishment severity...

  14. Subjective Illness theory and coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gessmann H.-W.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a view of a problem of subjective illness theory in context of coping behavior. The article compiles the results of the latest studies of coping; discloses the way subjective illness theory affects the illness coping and patient's health; presents the study of differences in coping behaviour of patients at risk of heart attack and oncology. The article is recommended for specialists, concerned with psychological reasons of pathogenic processes and coping strategies of patients.

  15. Inter-relationships between objective and subjective measures of the residential environment among urban African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sealy-Jefferson, Shawnita; Messer, Lynne; Slaughter-Acey, Jaime; Misra, Dawn P

    2017-03-01

    The inter-relationships between objective (census based) and subjective (resident reported) measures of the residential environment is understudied in African American (AA) populations. Using data from the Life Influences on Fetal Environments Study (2009-2011; n = 1387) of AA women, we quantified the area-level variation in subjective reports of residential healthy food availability, walkability, safety, and disorder that can be accounted for with an objective neighborhood disadvantage index (NDI). Two-level generalized linear models estimated associations between objective and subjective measures of the residential environment, accounting for individual-level covariates. In unconditional models, intraclass correlation coefficients for block-group variance in subjective reports ranged from 11% (healthy food availability) to 30% (safety). Models accounting for the NDI (vs. both NDI and individual-level covariates) accounted for more variance in healthy food availability (23% vs. 8%) and social disorder (40% vs. 38%). The NDI and individual-level variables accounted for 39% and 51% of the area-level variation in walkability and safety, respectively. Associations between subjective and objective measures of the residential environment were significant and in the expected direction. Future studies on neighborhood effects on health, especially among AAs, should include a wide range of residential environment measures, including subjective, objective, and spatial contextual variables. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Deliberate Microbial Infection Research Reveals Limitations to Current Safety Protections of Healthy Human Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, David L; Fowler, Carol B; Mason, Jeffrey T; Mimnall, Rebecca K

    2015-08-01

    Here we identify approximately 40,000 healthy human volunteers who were intentionally exposed to infectious pathogens in clinical research studies dating from late World War II to the early 2000s. Microbial challenge experiments continue today under contemporary human subject research requirements. In fact, we estimated 4,000 additional volunteers who were experimentally infected between 2010 and the present day. We examine the risks and benefits of these experiments and present areas for improvement in protections of participants with respect to safety. These are the absence of maximum limits to risk and the potential for institutional review boards to include questionable benefits to subjects and society when weighing the risks and benefits of research protocols. The lack of a duty of medical care by physician-investigators to research subjects is likewise of concern. The transparency of microbial challenge experiments and the safety concerns raised in this work may stimulate further dialogue on the risks to participants of human experimentation.

  17. Preverbal subjects in null subject languages are not necessarily dislocated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Costa

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent work on null subject languages it has been claimed that preverbal subjects are always (clitic-left dislocated. In this paper, we argue against this claim, on the grounds of empirical evidence from European Portuguese concerning agreement facts, asymmetries between preverbal subjects and clitic-left dislocated XPs with respect to minimality effects, the existence of languages with a mixed system (null expletive subjects and full referential ones, language acquisition data, the behavior of negative QPs and interpretation facts, and propose a non-uniform analysis of preverbal subjects and clitic-left dislocated XPs that derives their topic interpretation from a predication rule stated configurationally (section 2. Our account of the SVO and VSO orders displayed in European Portuguese relies on a specific formulation of the EPP parameter, on the locality constraint Attract Closest X and on the independently motivated claim that V-movement targets T in European Portuguese (section 3. Under our analysis, the computational system generates equally economical SVO and VSO derivations and discourse considerations, at the appropriate interface, rule out the unfelicitous ones.

  18. ABOUT THE PREPARATION OF FINAL QUALIFICATION PAPERS OF LOCAL HISTORY SUBJECT BY STUDENTS CARTOGRAPHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Ivliyeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The problems of creation of local history atlases of municipal areas by students cartographers within performance of final qualification papers are considered in the article. The choice of such subject demands from the trained in fact carrying out independent innovative complex research. The technology of creation of local history atlases of certain areas includes design and formation of base of spatial data of GIS, drawing up on its basis all-geographical and thematic maps, development of registration and computer design of maps. Considering this subject through the prism of competence-based approach of modern FGOS, it is possible to notice that the performance of the corresponding final qualification paper promotes development of both common cultural and all-professional competences of students.

  19. Plasma antioxidants and brain glucose metabolism in elderly subjects with cognitive complaints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picco, Agnese; Ferrara, Michela; Arnaldi, Dario; Brugnolo, Andrea; Nobili, Flavio [University of Genoa and IRCCS San Martino-IST, Clinical Neurology, Department of Neuroscience (DINOGMI), Largo P. Daneo, 3, 16132, Genoa (Italy); Polidori, M.C. [University of Cologne, Institute of Geriatrics, Cologne (Germany); Cecchetti, Roberta; Baglioni, Mauro; Bastiani, Patrizia; Mecocci, Patrizia [University of Perugia, Institute of Gerontology and Geriatrics, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Perugia (Italy); Morbelli, Silvia; Bossert, Irene [University of Genoa and IRCCS San Martino-IST, Nuclear Medicine, Department of Health Science (DISSAL), Genoa (Italy); Fiorucci, Giuliana; Dottorini, Massimo Eugenio [Nuclear Medicine, S. M. della Misericordia Hospital, Perugia (Italy)

    2014-04-15

    The role of oxidative stress is increasingly recognized in cognitive disorders of the elderly, notably Alzheimer's disease (AD). In these subjects brain{sup 18}F-FDG PET is regarded as a reliable biomarker of neurodegeneration. We hypothesized that oxidative stress could play a role in impairing brain glucose utilization in elderly subjects with increasing severity of cognitive disturbance. The study group comprised 85 subjects with cognitive disturbance of increasing degrees of severity including 23 subjects with subjective cognitive impairment (SCI), 28 patients with mild cognitive impairment and 34 patients with mild AD. In all subjects brain FDG PET was performed and plasma activities of extracellular superoxide dismutase (eSOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase were measured. Voxel-based analysis (SPM8) was used to compare FDG PET between groups and to evaluate correlations between plasma antioxidants and glucose metabolism in the whole group of subjects, correcting for age and Mini-Mental State Examination score. Brain glucose metabolism progressively decreased in the bilateral posterior temporoparietal and cingulate cortices across the three groups, from SCI to mild AD. eSOD activity was positively correlated with glucose metabolism in a large area of the left temporal lobe including the superior, middle and inferior temporal gyri and the fusiform gyrus. These results suggest a role of oxidative stress in the impairment of glucose utilization in the left temporal lobe structures in elderly patients with cognitive abnormalities, including AD and conditions predisposing to AD. Further studies exploring the oxidative stress-energy metabolism axis are considered worthwhile in larger groups of these patients in order to identify pivotal pathophysiological mechanisms and innovative therapeutic opportunities. (orig.)

  20. Spalling of concrete subjected to blast loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foglar M.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents outcomes of the blast field tests of FRC and reinforced concrete specimens, which were performed in cooperation with the Czech Army corps and Police of the Czech Republic in the military training area Boletice. The numerical evaluation of the experiments focused on the spalling of concrete subjected to blast loading started after the first set of the tests, took almost 3 years and required further small-scale experiments performed in the labs of the Czech Technical University.

  1. Article Including Environmental Barrier Coating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang N. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An enhanced environmental barrier coating for a silicon containing substrate. The enhanced barrier coating may include a bond coat doped with at least one of an alkali metal oxide and an alkali earth metal oxide. The enhanced barrier coating may include a composite mullite bond coat including BSAS and another distinct second phase oxide applied over said surface.

  2. Rare thoracic cancers, including peritoneum mesothelioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siesling, Sabine; Zwan, J.M.V.D.; Izarzugaza, I.; Jaal, J.; Treasure, T.; Foschi, R.; Ricardi, U.; Groen, H.; Tavilla, A.; Ardanaz, E.

    2012-01-01

    Rare thoracic cancers include those of the trachea, thymus and mesothelioma (including peritoneum mesothelioma). The aim of this study was to describe the incidence, prevalence and survival of rare thoracic tumours using a large database, which includes cancer patients diagnosed from 1978 to 2002,

  3. Rare thoracic cancers, including peritoneum mesothelioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siesling, Sabine; van der Zwan, Jan Maarten; Izarzugaza, Isabel; Jaal, Jana; Treasure, Tom; Foschi, Roberto; Ricardi, Umberto; Groen, Harry; Tavilla, Andrea; Ardanaz, Eva

    Rare thoracic cancers include those of the trachea, thymus and mesothelioma (including peritoneum mesothelioma). The aim of this study was to describe the incidence, prevalence and survival of rare thoracic tumours using a large database, which includes cancer patients diagnosed from 1978 to 2002,

  4. Static, Lightweight Includes Resolution for PHP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Hills (Mark); P. Klint (Paul); J.J. Vinju (Jurgen)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractDynamic languages include a number of features that are challenging to model properly in static analysis tools. In PHP, one of these features is the include expression, where an arbitrary expression provides the path of the file to include at runtime. In this paper we present two

  5. 1995 Area 1 bird survey/Zone 1, Operable Unit 2, Robins Air Force Base, Georgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, M.C.

    1995-08-01

    Robins Air Force Base is located in Warner Robins, Georgia, approximately 90 miles southeast of Atlanta, Georgia. As part of the Baseline Investigation (CDM Federal 1994) a two day bird survey was conducted by M. C. Wade (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) and B.A. Beatty (CDM Federal Programs) in May 1995. The subject area of investigation includes the sludge lagoon, Landfill No. 4, and the wetland area east of the landfill and west of Hannah Road (including two ponds). This is known as Area 1. The Area 1 wetlands include bottomland hardwood forest, stream, and pond habitats. The objectives of this survey were to document bird species using the Area I wetlands and to see if the change in hydrology (due to the installation of the Sewage Treatment Plant effluent diversion and stormwater runon control systems) has resulted in changes at Area 1 since the previous survey of May 1992 (CDM Federal 1994).

  6. Cafeterias/Food-Service Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American School & University, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Describes the design of notable school cafeterias and food service areas, including the educational context and design goals. Includes information on architects, suppliers, and cost, as well as photographs. (EV)

  7. 47 CFR 27.6 - Service areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service areas. 27.6 Section 27.6... COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES General Information § 27.6 Service areas. (a) WCS service areas include Economic Areas (EAs), Major Economic Areas (MEAs), Regional Economic Area Groupings (REAGs), cellular markets...

  8. [Syntactic Processing in Broca's Area: Brodmann Areas 44 and 45].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Atora; Sakai, Kuniyoshi L

    2017-04-01

    Brodmann areas 44 and 45 are known as Broca's area; however, their true functional roles are still unknown. Recent developments in neuroimaging techniques revealed the structures and functions of Broca's area in detail. More specifically regarding language functions, sufficient evidence has been accumulated that this region subserves the center of syntactic processing, not necessarily motor functions. Here, we review a role of Broca's area as the grammar center, including other roles in nonlinguistic functions.

  9. MOUNT MORIAH ROADLESS AREA, NEVADA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Robert R.; Wood, Robert H.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey identified the northeastern part of the Mount Moriah Roadless Area in extreme east-central Nevada as an area of probable potential for the occurrence of small, isolated deposits containing lead and zinc. Many active quarries in a unique high-quality decorative building stone occur in the area and have substantiated mineral-resource potential. Further studies in the roadless area might include detailed mapping of exposed Prospect Mountain Quartzite building stone units and notation of their suitability for quarrying. More detailed geochemical studies in the area of probable base-metal resource potential might include additional stream-sediment sampling and sampling along fault zones.

  10. subjective approach to subjective approach to human physiological

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    This study was based on the subjective responses of the masons that are performing physical activity of blocklaying in the outdoor condition in outdoor condition in outdoor condition in Ogun State Nigeria. A total of 204 masons were investigated on the average of seventeen. Ogun State Nigeria. A total of 204 masons were ...

  11. Subject to Form: Research Interviews, Performative Subjectivity, Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarigianides, Sophia Tatiana

    2010-01-01

    In this dissertation, I analyze teacher, literacy coach and researcher subjectivities in a five-year study of on-site professional development with middle-grade Language Arts teachers in a school designated by its district and state as severely underperforming. Interested in the role of research interviews as both research method and cultural…

  12. Subjective quality of life and emotional pain among subjects with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Heart failure (HF) is a common pathology worldwide. Associated emotional pain is an important risk factor of increased morbidity and secondary psychopathology. Methods: Subjects in stable state of HF attending the cardiology clinic of Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH) were recruited into the study.

  13. Psychoanalysis And Politics: Historicising Subjectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I compare three different views of the relation between subjectivity and modernity: one proposed by Elisabeth Young-Bruehl, a second by theorists of institutionalised individualisation, and a third by writers in the Foucaultian tradition of studies of the history of governmentalities. The theorists were chosen because they represent very different understandings of the relation between contemporary history and subjectivity. My purpose is to ground psychoanalytic theory about what humans need in history and so to question what it means to talk ahistorically about what humans need in order to thrive psychologically. Only in so doing can one assess the relation between psychoanalysis and progressive politics. I conclude that while psychoanalysis is a discourse of its time, it can also function as a counter-discourse and can help us understand the effects on subjectivity of a more than thirty year history in the West of repudiating dependency needs and denying interdependence. PMID:23678239

  14. Visual perception of spatial subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osterloh, K.R.S.; Ewert, U. [Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), Berlin (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Principally, any imaging technology consists of two consecutive, though strictly separated processes: data acquisition and subsequent processing to generate an image that can be looked at, either on a monitor screen or printed on paper. Likewise, the physiological process of viewing can be separated into vision and perception, though these processes are much more overlapping. Understanding the appearance of a subject requires the entire sequence from receiving the information carried e.g. by photons up to an appropriate processing leading to the perception of the subject shown. As a consequence, the imagination of a subject is a result of both, technological and physiological processes. Whenever an evaluation of an image is critical, also the physiological part of the processing should be considered. However, an image has two dimensions in the first place and reality is spatial, it has three dimensions. This problem has been tackled on a philosophical level at least since Platon's famous discussion on the shadow image in a dark cave. The mere practical point is which structural details can be perceived and what may remain undetected depending on the mode of presentation. This problem cannot be resolved without considering each single step of visual perception. Physiologically, there are three 'tools' available to understanding the spatial structure of a subject: binocular viewing, following the course of perspective projection and motion to collect multiple aspects. Artificially, an object may be cut in various ways to display the interior or covering parts could be made transparent within a model. Samples will be shown how certain details of a subject can be emphasised or hidden depending on the way of presentation. It needs to be discussed what might help to perceive the true spatial structure of a subject with all relevant details and what could be misleading. (authors)

  15. Harvesting Options for Riparian Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    James A. Mattson; John E. Baumgras; Charles R. Blinn; Michael A. Thompson

    1999-01-01

    As the chapters in this book demonstate, forested riparian areas provide many important functions and values, including wildlife habitat, recreation, water, timber production, and cultural resources. The high soil moisture and nutrient availability in these areas make them highly productive sites for plant and animal life, including trees, and this, coupled with the...

  16. Postprandial effects of test meals including concentrated arabinoxylan and whole grain rye in subjects with the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvigsen, M L; Lærke, H N; Overgaard, A

    2014-01-01

    of digestible carbohydrate were as follows: semolina porridge added concentrated arabinoxylan (AX), rye kernels (RK) or concentrated arabinoxylan combined with rye kernels (AXRK) and semolina porridge as control (SE). A standard lunch was served 4 h after the test meals. Blood samples were drawn during a 6-h...

  17. Grammatical replacements in translation of German advertising texts of utomotive subject including participial constructions with attributive meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Артур Нарманович Мамедов

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Informative capacity of participial construction of source and target languages contributes to a more complex and multi aspect image of an expensive car. Dangling participles and attributive clauses placed after the determined word are being used in translation of extended adjectives with participles I and II. These grammatical transformations connected with reconstruction of semantic structure remain logically rational argumentation of an advertising text of the source language.

  18. Experimental study including subjective evaluations of mixing and displacement ventilation combined with radiant floor heating/cooling system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krajcik, Michal; Tomasi, Roberta; Simone, Angela

    2013-01-01

    heating or by a combination of radiant floor heating and mixing ventilation system. The vertical air temperature distribution was more uniform for floor heating. The discomfort due to cold feet/lower legs was higher for warm air heating, but no significant difference in thermal perceptions between the two...... lower floor temperature, warmer supply air, and less homogeneous vertical temperature profile, but it did not result in thermal discomfort on feet/lower legs or discomfort due to a vertical air temperature difference higher than for a displacement ventilation system alone, where the floor temperature...

  19. Adult Playfulness, Humor Styles, and Subjective Happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiao D; Leung, Chun-Lok; Hiranandani, Neelam A

    2016-12-01

    Playfulness has been referred to as a disposition that involves reframing a situation to amuse others and to make the situation more stimulating and enjoyable. It may serve to shift one's perspective when dealing with environmental threats. Despite all the benefits of playfulness towards psychological well-being, it remains a largely understudied subject in psychology, particularly in Chinese societies. Hence, this study examined the association between adult playfulness, humor styles, and subjective happiness among a sample of 166 university students in Hong Kong and 159 students in Guangzhou, who completed a self-administered questionnaire, including the Short Measure for Adult Playfulness, the Chinese Humor Styles Questionnaire, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. Results showed that adult playfulness was positively correlated with affiliative humor, self-enhancing humor, and subjective happiness in both Hong Kong and Guangzhou samples. By its implication, highly playful Chinese students preferred using affiliative and self-enhancing humor to amuse themselves and others. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. African Journals Online: Humanities (broad subject range)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 55 ... It focuses both on conceptual or theoretical approaches and case studies or essays demonstrating how advanced information technologies further scholarly .... Global Journal of Humanities is aimed at promoting reasearch in all areas of Humanities including philosophy, languages, linguistics, literature, ...

  1. Shared sanitation: to include or to exclude?

    OpenAIRE

    Mara, Duncan

    2016-01-01

    Just over 600 million people used shared sanitation in 2015, but this form of sanitation is not considered ‘improved sanitation’ or, in the current terminology, ‘basic sanitation’ by WHO/UNICEF, principally because they are typically unhygienic. Recent research has shown that neighbour-shared toilets perform much better than large communal toilets. The successful development of community-designed, built and managed sanitation-and-water blocks in very poor urban areas in India should be adapte...

  2. Regional-development problematic of area near Slovene-Croatian border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Pak

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Introductory regional developmental activities in European and also in some other border areas are represented in general on some concrete examples. Analysis is following of regional developmental factors, including position, natural environ-ment, political elements as well as general and cultural development. Most border areas near Slovene-Croatian border are not developed also due to many other factors, and further development of such areas is subject to traffic approachability, development of gravitation centers and innovations in these very areas.

  3. Youth Homelessness and Individualised Subjectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, David

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to contribute to understandings of youth homelessness and subjectivity by analysing identity construction in terms of young people's negotiation of the structural and institutional environment of youth homelessness. I suggest that while existing literature on this topic concentrates mainly on micro-social encounters, the…

  4. Student Pressure Subject of Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses student pressure as a subject of debate. The latest debate about schoolwork is being fueled by three recent books: "The Homework Myth" by Alfie Kohn, "The Case Against Homework" by Sara Bennett and Nancy Kalish, and "The Overachievers", by Alexandra Robbins, which depicts overextended high…

  5. Sexuality: Still a Taboo Subject?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duguay, Lucille

    2011-01-01

    In spite of the fact that we are all bombarded with sexual messages every day, the subject of relationship and sexuality education for students with intellectual and developmental disabilities continues to be a taboo one. Generally speaking, the author has found it is not the parents of those young people who are reluctant to have the discussion,…

  6. Changes in Dictionary Subject Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2003-01-01

    The general content of the three editions of the Duden dictionary has undergone few changes. The most substantial changes are the addition of syllabification and the deletion of antonomy in respect of lemmata in the second and third editions. The concept of dictionary subject matter is questioned...

  7. Russia needs the Subjective Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Z. Gontcharov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the comparative analysis of different kinds of philosophic thinking, the paper reveals the advantages of subjective philosophy – the most adequate universal essentiality of socialized human being, opening the prospects for Russia as the creative society of cultural spontaneous activity. Objective principle of thinking is limited by the logic of outward definition. According to the above logic, people are regarded as tiny parts of social mechanism, the objects of manipulation. Separating action from spontaneous activity, object changes from self-alteration of human subject, executive functions from norm-creating ones brings about alienated practices and such social situation that makes individuals perceive their own existence as alien non- existence, or opposing existence.Subjectivity is a form of social activity regarding individuals and groups according to their ability in self-definition, self-organizing, self-control, norm-creating, as well as their actual rights and duties in social spheres of needs and objectives, and their feasible power over forces of nature and society. Subjective philosophy perceives the material production as the means for cultivating wholesome and spontaneously active individuals due to educational fundamentality and cultural prosperity. Accordingly, accumulation of capital turns into accumulation of culture and personal creativity growth. The results of the undertaken analysis and its conclusions can be implemented in developing creative anthropological bases for philosophy, pedagogy, psychology, economics, political science, as well as the relating discipline teaching. 

  8. Subjectivity, individuality and singularity in children: a socially constituted subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Del Ré

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Considering the hypothesis that Bakhtin and his Circle‟s reflections can help us think about issues involving the field of Language Acquisition, in addition to the fact that there are only a few works developed within this perspective in Brazil, in this article, we intend to discuss the notions of “subject”, “subjectivity”,“individuality” and “singularity”, drawing on Bakhtin‟s theory. Thus, in order to make this discussion clearer, we bring data from the speech of young children, from 1.8 to 3 years old, who were filmed in natural contexts interacting with their parents and relatives. From these data, we could verify, among other things, that children, as individuals who constitute themselves as subjects in and throughlanguage, bring marks to their discourse, revealing their subjectivity (through lexical, morphological, syntactic or genre choices.

  9. Concrete containment analysis including thermal effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeiffer, P.A.; Kennedy, J.M.; Marchertas, A.H.

    1989-01-01

    Pretest predictions were made by the staff of the Engineering Mechanics Program at ANL for the response of the 1:6-scale reinforced concrete containment model that was tested to failure by liner tearing and leakage at the Sandia National Laboratories. Questions have been raised in regard to possible effects of temperature in combination with internal pressure on the behavior of the model. Specifically, if the containment had been subjected to elevated temperature as well as internal pressure, what differences in pressure capacity, failure mechanism and location would have been predicted when compared to the analysis of internal pressure alone. The purpose of this paper is to address these questions. 3 refs., 9 figs.

  10. Working Memory Processing In Normal Subjects and Subjects with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, S. M.; Lajiness-O'Neill, R.; Weiland, B. J.; Mason, K.; Tepley, N.

    2004-10-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) was used to determine the neuroanatomical location of working memory (WM) processes. Differences between subjects with dyslexia (SD; n=5) and normal readers (NR; n=5) were studied during two WM tasks. A spatial WM task (SMW) consisted of blocks visually presented in one of 12 positions for 2 s each. Subjects were to determine if the current position matched the position presented 2 slides earlier (N-Back Test). The verbal task (VMW) consisted of presentation of a single letter. The location of cortical activity during SWM in NR (determined with MR-FOCUSS analysis) was in the right superior temporal gyrus (STG) and right angular gyrus (AG). Similar activation was seen in SD with a slight delay of approximately 20 ms. During VWM activity was seen in LEFT STG and LEFT AG in NR. In contrast for SD, activation was in the RIGHT STG and RIGHT AG. This study demonstrates the possibility to differentiate WM processing in subjects with and without learning disorders.

  11. How Extended Is Wernicke's Area? Meta-Analytic Connectivity Study of BA20 and Integrative Proposal

    OpenAIRE

    Alfredo Ardila; Byron Bernal; Monica Rosselli

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the functions of different brain areas has represented a major endeavor of contemporary neurosciences. The purpose of this paper was to pinpoint the connectivity of Brodmann area 20 (BA20) (inferior temporal gyrus, fusiform gyrus) in language tasks. A meta-analysis was conducted to assess the language network in which BA20 is involved. The DataBase of Brainmap was used; 11 papers corresponding to 12 experimental conditions with a total of 207 subjects were included in this analy...

  12. Urban and Spatial Opposition by the Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saka, Gizem; Kırcı, Nazan

    2017-10-01

    In the production of spaces, an important aspect, that is ‘the subject’ was neglected with the influence of the industrial revolution, modernisation, capitalism and neo-liberalism. While the rationalist reason was standardising and extending production, the relationship between space and its user was broken-off. It initiated a tremendous change when the subject as the user of the spaces, singled out his own existence and needs from the whole and comprehended his self-distinctiveness. Such a split up indicating the act of critical thinking and liberation of the subject also created a demand for diversity. The demands of the subject being the user of the space was not met at the architectural and urban levels for several reasons. The subject feeling the discomfort of such a situation brings into view his criticisms first in his own individual space and then in public space for the purposes of expressing his right to live and his locus standi. Such acts being classified as adversary are being realised in order to provide the adaptability of the subject and the space to changing living conditions using different means. Such adversary touches being provided partly by the urbanites and partly by the professionals draw attention to the issue through by-pass interventions to the architecturally choked urban areas. By taking a stance against the existing situation, the intention is to treat space in a different way than what has been produced by the system, to re-produce it and to render it more democratic. All such alternative spatial situations show us that other production methods and lines of thought, other than what has been defined by the dominant market conditions are also possible. It has been asserted through these adversary instigations that there is a requirement for micro designs towards the daily and changing needs of the subject as a user during the act of design by architects and planners. For this reason, the part played by the designer should be

  13. Lung Disease Including Asthma and Adult Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases Resources Lung Disease including Asthma and Adult Vaccination Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... more about health insurance options. Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Heart Disease, ...

  14. Births and deaths including fetal deaths

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Access to a variety of United States birth and death files including fetal deaths: Birth Files, 1968-2009; 1995-2005; Fetal death file, 1982-2005; Mortality files,...

  15. Including Indigenous Minorities in Decision-Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pristed Nielsen, Helene

    Based on theories of public sphere participation and deliberative democracy, this book presents empirical results from a study of experiences with including Aboriginal and Maori groups in political decision-making in respectively Western Australia and New Zealand......Based on theories of public sphere participation and deliberative democracy, this book presents empirical results from a study of experiences with including Aboriginal and Maori groups in political decision-making in respectively Western Australia and New Zealand...

  16. USE OF THE PICNIC AREA

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2001-01-01

    On the Prévessin site CERN has provided a picnic area which is available for use by persons working on its site subject to prior reservation. The person in charge of this picnic area is Mr Yves CHEVRET ST/TFM. Following a fresh outbreak of incidents (damage to CERN equipment and to trees and plants, privately owned sheep killed or maimed by dogs belonging to users of the picnic area, etc.),   The following measures have been taken: a report on the state of the picnic area will be drawn up before and after use, the cost of any damage noted will be borne by the person making the reservation, dogs and other domestic animals are strictly forbidden in the picnic area.

  17. 300 Area Disturbance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LL Hale; MK Wright; NA Cadoret

    1999-01-07

    The objective of this study was to define areas of previous disturbance in the 300 Area of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site to eliminate these areas from the cultural resource review process, reduce cultural resource monitoring costs, and allow cultural resource specialists to focus on areas where subsurface disturbance is minimal or nonexistent. Research into available sources suggests that impacts from excavations have been significant wherever the following construction activities have occurred: building basements and pits, waste ponds, burial grounds, trenches, installation of subsurface pipelines, power poles, water hydrants, and well construction. Beyond the areas just mentioned, substrates in the' 300 Area consist of a complex, multidimen- sional mosaic composed of undisturbed stratigraphy, backfill, and disturbed sediments; Four Geographic Information System (GIS) maps were created to display known areas of disturbance in the 300 Area. These maps contain information gleaned from a variety of sources, but the primary sources include the Hanford GIS database system, engineer drawings, and historic maps. In addition to these maps, several assumptions can be made about areas of disturbance in the 300 Area as a result of this study: o o Buried pipelines are not always located where they are mapped. As a result, cultural resource monitors or specialists should not depend on maps depicting subsurface pipelines for accurate locations of previous disturbance. Temporary roads built in the early 1940s were placed on layers of sand and gravel 8 to 12 in. thick. Given this information, it is likely that substrates beneath these early roads are only minimally disturbed. Building foundations ranged from concrete slabs no more than 6 to 8 in. thick to deeply excavated pits and basements. Buildings constructed with slab foundations are more numerous than may be expected, and minimally disturbed substrates may be expected in these locations. Historic

  18. On Multidimensional Linear Modelling Including Real Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Nowakova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical background for abstract formalization of vague phenomenon of complex systems is fuzzy set theory. In the paper are defined vague data as specialized fuzzy sets - fuzzy numbers and there is described a fuzzy linear regression model as a fuzzy function with fuzzy numbers as vague regression parameters. To identify the fuzzy coefficients of model the genetic algorithm is used. The linear approximation of vague function together with its possibility area are analytically and graphically expressed. The suitable numerical experiments are performed namely in the task of two-dimensional fuzzy function modelling and the time series fuzzy regression analysis as well.

  19. Retinal Image Simulation of Subjective Refraction Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perches, Sara; Collados, M Victoria; Ares, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Refraction techniques make it possible to determine the most appropriate sphero-cylindrical lens prescription to achieve the best possible visual quality. Among these techniques, subjective refraction (i.e., patient's response-guided refraction) is the most commonly used approach. In this context, this paper's main goal is to present a simulation software that implements in a virtual manner various subjective-refraction techniques--including Jackson's Cross-Cylinder test (JCC)--relying all on the observation of computer-generated retinal images. This software has also been used to evaluate visual quality when the JCC test is performed in multifocal-contact-lens wearers. The results reveal this software's usefulness to simulate the retinal image quality that a particular visual compensation provides. Moreover, it can help to gain a deeper insight and to improve existing refraction techniques and it can be used for simulated training.

  20. Subjective adult identity and casual sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Heidi Ann

    2015-12-01

    A majority of Americans have a casual sexual experience before transitioning to adulthood. Little research has yet to examine how identity influences causal sexual behavior. The current study fills this gap in the literature by examining if subjective adult identity predicts casual sexual behavior net of life course transitions in a national sample of Americans. To answer this research question, the Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health is utilized. Structural equation modeling results show the older and more adult-like individuals feel the less likely they are to report a recent casual sexual partner. Once life course factors are included in the model, subjective identity is no longer associated with casual sex. Practitioners who work with adult populations need to consider how life course transitions influence casual sexual behavior.

  1. [What is the subject of science "bioinformatics"?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaĭlakhian, L M

    2005-01-01

    The paper is concerned with some problems of terminology, in particular the term "bioinformatics". In the last few years, the term "bioinformatics" has been intensively used among molecular biologists to indicate a subject that is only a constituent of genomics and is considered to involve a computer-assisted analysis of all data on nucleotide sequences of DNA. However, a wide circle of scientists, including biologists, physicists, mathematicians, and specialists in the field of cybernetics, informatics, and other disciplines have accepted and accept, as a rule, the "bioinformatics" as a synonym of science cybernetics and as a successor of this science. In this case, the subject of science "bioinformatics" should embrace not only genomics but practically all sections of the biological science. It should involve a study of information processes (storage, transfer, and processing of information, etc.) participating in the regulation and control at all levels of living systems, from macromolecules to the brain of higher animals and human.

  2. A study on gender non-conforming subjects in current society : Self-perception of body and identity

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez, Ariel

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the results of a research to be included in a PhD Thesis on Gender nonconformity. Behind the results there is bibliographic research and fieldwork with 11 subjects over18 years-old from La Plata and La Plata metropolitan area. The theoretical framework doesn’t look into the specific realities of gender non-conforming subjects. I attempted to explore the subjects’ narrations on themselves and their self-perception with a quantitative view. From a diversity standing point,...

  3. Classical mechanics including an introduction to the theory of elasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Hentschke, Reinhard

    2017-01-01

    This textbook teaches classical mechanics as one of the foundations of physics. It describes the mechanical stability and motion in physical systems ranging from the molecular to the galactic scale. Aside from the standard topics of mechanics in the physics curriculum, this book includes an introduction to the theory of elasticity and its use in selected modern engineering applications, e.g. dynamic mechanical analysis of viscoelastic materials. The text also covers many aspects of numerical mechanics, ranging from the solution of ordinary differential equations, including molecular dynamics simulation of many particle systems, to the finite element method. Attendant Mathematica programs or parts thereof are provided in conjunction with selected examples. Numerous links allow the reader to connect to related subjects and research topics. Among others this includes statistical mechanics (separate chapter), quantum mechanics, space flight, galactic dynamics, friction, and vibration spectroscopy. An introductory...

  4. Making Interdisciplinary Subjects Relevant to Students: An Interdisciplinary Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines issues relating to the design/redesign of the pedagogy of interdisciplinary undergraduate subjects. Examples include: (a) law subjects for students in Business Management or Building and Surveying; (b) "English Communication for Business" for students in English; and (c) "Information technology in Business" for students in…

  5. Subjects' experiences of a nutrition education programme: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subjects and outcome measures: The study subjects were adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (n = 41, aged 40–70 years) participating in a nutrition education intervention (one-year randomised controlled trial). The intervention was based on the assessed nutrition education needs of the target group, and included the ...

  6. Subject Teachers as Educators for Sustainability: A Survey Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uitto, Anna; Saloranta, Seppo

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability education (SE) is included in school curricula to integrate the principles, values, and practices of sustainable development (SD) into all education. This study investigates lower secondary school subject teachers as educators for sustainability. A survey was used to study the perceptions of 442 subject teachers from 49 schools in…

  7. Subject-field components as integrated parts of LSP dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Henning; Nielsen, Sandro

    2006-01-01

    the introduction of subject-field components in dictionaries. Dictionary functions are communication-orientated or cognition-orientated, and the lexicographers must identify the relevant functions and select and present the data so that the dictionary satisfies the needs of the users. The optimal dictionary...... contains aided fully integrated subject-field components that supplement and complement the data included in the articles....

  8. Subject-verb number (disagreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Isac

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses cases of number mismatches between subjects and verbs. The main proposal is that subject-verb agreement is not in number but in a different feature, that we call Cardinality. Cardinality is a feature of DPs that is computed on the basis of number features and collectivity features carried by various heads in the DP. The “computation” of the Cardinality feature proceeds internal to the feature matrix of one lexical item - the D. The values of the number and collectivity features carried by various heads in the DP are transferred to the D by means of a feature checking mechanism and the value of the Cardinality feature is then derived from these.

  9. Panoramic findings in 34-year-old subjects with facial pain and pain-free controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huumonen, S; Sipilä, K; Zitting, P; Raustia, A M

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare panoramic radiographic findings between subjects with reported facial pain and pain-free controls in a population-based sample of 34-year olds. The study was a part of a comprehensive medical survey including subjects born in the year 1966 in Northern Finland. A sub-sample of the cohort was formed based on the question concerning facial pain. A panoramic radiograph was taken of 48 subjects with facial pain and 47 pain-free controls. Pathological findings in the dentition, jaws, maxillary sinuses and temporomandibular joints (TMJs) were compared between the groups. The majority of the subjects in both groups did not have pathological findings. Compared with controls, the subjects with facial pain did not show significantly more pathological findings in the teeth, periodontium, maxillary sinuses, TMJs or in the other areas. Radiographic panoramic findings had no association with reported facial pain in the population-based sample of young adults, and have little impact on the diagnosis of facial pain.

  10. Assessment of periodontal status among dental fluorosis subjects using community periodontal index of treatment needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pradeep R; John, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    To determine the periodontal status and treatment needs among dental fluorosis subjects residing in Ennore, Chennai, using Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN). All the subjects with dental fluorosis above 15 years of age, permanent residents of Ennore, were included in the study. Subjects with known systemic diseases and subjects with other intrinsic dental stains were excluded from the study. Periodontal status was estimated using CPITN and Dental fluorosis was recorded using Dean's Dental Fluorosis Index. The total number of study subjects was 1075, of which 489 were males and 586 were females. Males were predominantly affected with periodontal disease than females. This was found to be statistically significant (P=0.000). The association between Degree of Fluorosis and Periodontal Status is statistically significant (P=0.000). There was statistically significant difference in mean number of sextants between the degree of fluorosis in each of the periodontal status (P=0.000). The finding that the lower prevalence of shallow pockets in the study area, where the fluoride level in the drinking water ranges from 1.83 to 2.01 ppm, indicates that the use of fluoride in water is beneficial to the periodontal tissues.

  11. Backward disequilibrium in elderly subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Manckoundia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Patrick Manckoundia1,2, France Mourey1,2, Dominic Pérennou2,3, Pierre Pfitzenmeyer1,21Department of Internal Medicine and Geriatrics, University Hospital, Dijon, France; 2INSERM/ERIT-M 0207 Motricity-Plasticity University of Burgundy, Dijon, France; 3Department of Neurological Rehabilitation, University Hospital, Dijon, FranceAbstract: Backward disequilibrium is observed frequently in daily clinical practice. However, there are no epidemiological data concerning this postural disorder. Defined by a posterior position of the centre of mass with respect to the base of support, backward disequilibrium is abnormal postural behavior, usually characterized by a posterior trunk tilt in standing and sitting positions, which predisposes subjects to backward falls. Many afflictions whether they are somatic (degenerative, ischemic and traumatic brain lesions, psychosomatic (psychomotor disadaptation syndrome, confinement to bed, nonuse situations or psychological (depression can cause backward disequilibrium. A vicious circle of falls, and loss of autonomy can arise and this is the main consequence of backward disequilibrium. Thus, in this paper, we review backward disequilibrium in elderly subjects with regard to the causes, consequences, assessment, and management.Keywords: backward disequilibrium, balance, elderly subject, falls, posture

  12. Electrochemical cell structure including an ionomeric barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Timothy N.; Hibbs, Michael

    2017-06-20

    An apparatus includes an electrochemical half-cell comprising: an electrolyte, an anode; and an ionomeric barrier positioned between the electrolyte and the anode. The anode may comprise a multi-electron vanadium phosphorous alloy, such as VP.sub.x, wherein x is 1-5. The electrochemical half-cell is configured to oxidize the vanadium and phosphorous alloy to release electrons. A method of mitigating corrosion in an electrochemical cell includes disposing an ionomeric barrier in a path of electrolyte or ion flow to an anode and mitigating anion accumulation on the surface of the anode.

  13. Electric Power Monthly, August 1990. [Glossary included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-29

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly summaries of electric utility statistics at the national, Census division, and State level. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data includes generation by energy source (coal, oil, gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear); generation by region; consumption of fossil fuels for power generation; sales of electric power, cost data; and unusual occurrences. A glossary is included.

  14. Transmission line including support means with barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cookson, Alan H.

    1982-01-01

    A gas insulated transmission line includes an elongated outer sheath, a plurality of inner conductors disposed within and extending along the outer sheath, and an insulating gas which electrically insulates the inner conductors from the outer sheath. A support insulator insulatably supports the inner conductors within the outer sheath, with the support insulator comprising a main body portion including a plurality of legs extending to the outer sheath, and barrier portions which extend between the legs. The barrier portions have openings therein adjacent the main body portion through which the inner conductors extend.

  15. Parameterisation of clastic sediments including benthic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobertz, B.; Harff, J.; Bohling, B.

    2009-02-01

    The sediment transport processes in the south-western Baltic Sea are predicted by means of a numerical model in the project DYNAS. There are two sediment parameters that influence the results of modelling remarkably: critical shear stress velocity and bottom roughness. This paper presents the way how to parameterise these factors and extrapolate them into the investigation area. The critical shear stress velocity is parameterised basing on grain size data, combining approximations after Hjulström [Hjulström, F., 1935: Studies in the morphological activity of rivers as illustrated by the river Fyris. Geological Institution of University of Uppsala: Bulletin (25): 221-528.], Shields [Shields, A., 1936: Anwendung der Ähnlichkeits-Mechanik und der Turbulenzforschung auf die Geschiebebewegung. Mitteilungen der Preussischen Versuchsanstalt für Wasserbau und Schiffahrt (26): 26 pp.] and Bohling [Bohling, B., 2003: Untersuchungen zur Mobilität natürlicher und anthropogener Sedimente in der Mecklenburger Bucht. unpublished doctoral thesis, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität Greifswald/Germany, 156 pp.]. The roughness length, in the case of absence of macro zoo-benthos and their structures, is parameterised basing on grain size too employing Soulsby [Soulsby, R.L., 1997: Dynamics of Marine Sands: a Manual for Practical Applications. London, Thomas Telford Publications. 249 pp.], Nielsen [Nielsen, P., 1983: Analytical determination of nearshore wave height variation due to refraction shoaling and friction. Coastal Engineering 7, 233-251.] and Yalin [Yalin, M.S., 1977: Mechanics of Sediment Transport. Pergamon Press, New York. 298 pp.]. No equivalent simple parameterisations for biologically caused bed roughness exist. Here, findings of Friedrichs [Friedrichs, M., 2004: Flow-induced effects of macro zoo-benthic structures on the near-bed sediment transport. Dissertation, Universität Rostock, 80 S.] and estimations by the DYNAS

  16. Perceptual Computing Aiding People in Making Subjective Judgments

    CERN Document Server

    Mendel, Jerry

    2010-01-01

    Explains for the first time how "computing with words" can aid in making subjective judgments. Lotfi Zadeh, the father of fuzzy logic, coined the phrase "computing with words" (CWW) to describe a methodology in which the objects of computation are words and propositions drawn from a natural language. Perceptual Computing explains how to implement CWW to aid in the important area of making subjective judgments, using a methodology that leads to an interactive device—a "Perceptual Computer"—that propagates random and linguistic uncertainties into the subjective judg

  17. Parental Perspectives on a Pediatric Human Non-Subjects Biobank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, Kyle B.; Clayton, Ellen Wright

    2012-01-01

    Background Genomic biorepositories will be important tools to help unravel the effect of common genetic variants on risk for common pediatric diseases. Our objective was to explore how parents would respond to the inclusion of children in an opt-out model biobank. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews with parents in hospital-based pediatric clinics. Participants responded to a description of a biorepository already collecting samples from adults. Two coders independently analyzed and coded interviews using framework analysis. Opt-out forms were later piloted in a clinic area. Parental opt-out choices were recorded electronically, with opt-out rates reported here. Results Parents strongly supported medical research in general and expressed a high level of trust that Vanderbilt University would keep their child’s medical information private. Parents were more likely to allow their child’s sample to be included in the biorepository than to allow their child to participate in a hypothetical study that would not help or harm their child, but might help other children. Only a minority were able to volunteer a concern raised by the description of the biobank. The opt-out rate was initially high compared with the opt-out rate in the adult biorepository, but after the first week decreased to near the baseline in adult clinics. Conclusion Parents in our study generally support an opt-out model biobank in children. Most would allow their own child’s sample to be included. Institutions seeking to build pediatric biobanks may consider the human non-subjects model as a viable alternative to traditional human-subjects biobanks. PMID:23181193

  18. BIOLOGIC AND ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF INCLUDING DIFFERENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biologic and economic effects of including three agro-industrial by-products as ingredients in turkey poult diets were investigated using 48 turkey poults in a completely randomised design experiment. Diets were formulated to contain the three by-products – wheat offal, rice husk and palm kernel meal, each at 20% level ...

  19. Numerical simulation of spark ignition including ionization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiele, M; Selle, S; Riedel, U; Warnatz, J; Maas, U

    2000-01-01

    A detailed understanding of the processes associated Midi spark ignition, as a first step during combustion, is of great importance fur clean operation of spark ignition engines. In the past 10 years. a growing concern for environmental protection, including low emission of pollutants, has increased

  20. Extending flood damage assessment methodology to include ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimal and sustainable flood plain management, including flood control, can only be achieved when the impacts of flood control measures are considered for both the man-made and natural environments, and the sociological aspects are fully considered. Until now, methods/models developed to determine the influences ...

  1. Including Students with Visual Impairments: Softball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian, Ali; Haegele, Justin A.

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that while students with visual impairments are likely to be included in general physical education programs, they may not be as active as their typically developing peers. This article provides ideas for equipment modifications and game-like progressions for one popular physical education unit, softball. The purpose of these…

  2. 34 CFR 300.20 - Include.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Include. 300.20 Section 300.20 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES...

  3. Diversification of Smallholder Tobacco Systems to include ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Diversification of Smallholder Tobacco Systems to include Groundnut (Malawi). Tobacco is the mainstay of the economy of Malawi, accounting for over 70% of export earnings. Of the 100 000 members of the National Smallholder Farmers' Association of Malawi (NASFAM), 60% rely on tobacco for their sole source of ...

  4. Foil bearing lubrication theory including compressibility effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorla, Rama Subba Reddy; Catalano, Daniel A.

    1987-01-01

    An analysis is presented to determine the film thickness in a foil bearing. Using the Reynolds equation and including the compressibility effects of the gas, an equation was developed applicable to the film thickness in a foil bearing. The bearing was divided into three regions, namely, the entrance region, middle region and exit region. Solutions are obtained for the film thickness in each region.

  5. Nuclear Chemistry: Include It in Your Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Charles H.; Sheline, R. K.

    1989-01-01

    Some of the topics that might be included in a nuclear chemistry section are explored. Offers radioactivity, closed shells in nuclei, energy of nuclear processes, nuclear reactions, and fission and fusion as topics of interest. Provided are ideas and examples for each. (MVL)

  6. 28 CFR 20.32 - Includable offenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Exchange of Criminal History Record Information § 20.32 Includable offenses. (a) Criminal history record... vehicular manslaughter, driving under the influence of drugs or liquor, and hit and run), when unaccompanied by a § 20.32(a) offense. These exclusions may not be applicable to criminal history records...

  7. Shared sanitation: to include or to exclude?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara, Duncan

    2016-05-01

    Just over 600 million people used shared sanitation in 2015, but this form of sanitation is not considered 'improved sanitation' or, in the current terminology, 'basic sanitation' by WHO/UNICEF, principally because they are typically unhygienic. Recent research has shown that neighbour-shared toilets perform much better than large communal toilets. The successful development of community-designed, built and managed sanitation-and-water blocks in very poor urban areas in India should be adapted and adopted throughout urban slums in developing countries, with a caretaker employed to keep the facilities clean. Such shared sanitation should be classified as 'basic', sometimes as 'safely-managed', sanitation, so contributing to the achievement of the sanitation target of the Sustainable Development Goals. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Catchment areas for public transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær; Landex, Alex

    2008-01-01

    In the planning of public transport catchment areas of stops are often included to estimate potential number of travellers. There are different approaches to GIS-based catchment area analyses depending on the desired level of detail. The Circular Buffer approach is the fundamental, but also....../from stations. The article also shows how the refinement of the Service Area approach with additional time resistance results in smaller catchment areas when the feeder routes cross stairs. It is concluded that GIS-based catchment area analyses are a multiple decision support tool for planning of public...

  9. THE MULTIATTRIBUTE CONSTRUCTION OF THE SUBJECT OF MODERN MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kalynychenko

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research marketing subject as an object of scientific knowledge. Existing definitions of the subject marketing in modern specialized literature were systematized. The essence of the main characteristics and attributes (structure of the subject of marketing is determined; the features of marketing are highlighted in the narrow and broad sense. The author's definition of marketing subject is given including within the process and system approaches. It considers also the set of characteristics and attributes which reflect all possible objects of knowledge in marketing.

  10. [Biophysical Characterization of Biopharmaceuticals, Including Antibody Drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Susumu

    2016-01-01

    Biopharmaceuticals, including antibody drugs, are now popular because of their high specificity with low adverse effects, especially in the treatment of cancer and autoimmune diseases. However, because the active pharmaceutical ingredients of biopharmaceuticals are proteins, biophysical characterization of these therapeutic proteins should be required. In this manuscript, methods of chemical and physical characterization of therapeutic proteins are described. In terms of chemical characterization, analysis of chemical modifications of the constituent amino acids is explained. Physical characterization includes higher order structural analysis and assessment of protein aggregates. Quantification methods of aggregates with different sizes, recently encouraged by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), are introduced. As for the stability of therapeutic proteins, the importance of chemical and physical stability is explained. Finally, the contribution of colloidal and structural stability to the production of an antibody drug less prone to aggregation is introduced.

  11. Dynamic Analyses Including Joints Of Truss Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belvin, W. Keith

    1991-01-01

    Method for mathematically modeling joints to assess influences of joints on dynamic response of truss structures developed in study. Only structures with low-frequency oscillations considered; only Coulomb friction and viscous damping included in analysis. Focus of effort to obtain finite-element mathematical models of joints exhibiting load-vs.-deflection behavior similar to measured load-vs.-deflection behavior of real joints. Experiments performed to determine stiffness and damping nonlinearities typical of joint hardware. Algorithm for computing coefficients of analytical joint models based on test data developed to enable study of linear and nonlinear effects of joints on global structural response. Besides intended application to large space structures, applications in nonaerospace community include ground-based antennas and earthquake-resistant steel-framed buildings.

  12. Nuclear reactor shield including magnesium oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, Carl A.; Simnad, Massoud T.

    1981-01-01

    An improvement in nuclear reactor shielding of a type used in reactor applications involving significant amounts of fast neutron flux, the reactor shielding including means providing structural support, neutron moderator material, neutron absorber material and other components as described below, wherein at least a portion of the neutron moderator material is magnesium in the form of magnesium oxide either alone or in combination with other moderator materials such as graphite and iron.

  13. Electric power monthly, September 1990. [Glossary included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-17

    The purpose of this report is to provide energy decision makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues. The power plants considered include coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear power plants. Data are presented for power generation, fuel consumption, fuel receipts and cost, sales of electricity, and unusual occurrences at power plants. Data are compared at the national, Census division, and state levels. 4 figs., 52 tabs. (CK)

  14. Subject Orientation of Teaching and Academic Subjects in the Context of Different Didactic Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Osmolovskaya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the research findings concerning the didactic characteristics and means of subject-oriented teaching. The research question includes the content of the general secondary education regarded as the design object. The process of selecting and structuring materials is reviewed from the theoretical standpoint, and the attempt is made to identify the ways of selecting materials for students’ learning from the social experience reflected in culture. The author introduces the concept of subject-orientation as a tool providing pedagogic adaptation of social experience in the process of teaching content development. Subject-oriented teaching is defined in the context of traditional knowledge, as well as the competence and student-oriented didac- tic approaches; the forms and means of its realization being indicated providing the new ways for introducing and understanding the educational subject. The research results can be used by the specialists in didactic, curricula developers, authors of textbooks in various subjects

  15. Subjectivity and intersubjectivity between semiotics and phenomenology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Marsciani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A semiotic theory of subjectivity cannot prescind from a radical consideration of the intersubjective dimension, which, from the phenomenological perspective, represents the constitutive instance of the meaning of the world. The theory of signification has yet to come to terms with this fundamental option: the theory of enunciation, for example, is still tied to the alternative between an egological perception of the production of meaning and a truly intersubjective conception. A radically intersubjective understanding of the constitution of meaning must, in the theory of enunciation, include an authentic theory of alterity in which the production of communicative intentions can be described based on a more fundamental transcendental intentionality.

  16. Content analysis of subjective experiences in partial epileptic seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johanson, Mirja; Valli, Katja; Revonsuo, Antti; Wedlund, Jan-Eric

    2008-01-01

    A new content analysis method for systematically describing the phenomenology of subjective experiences in connection with partial epileptic seizures is described. Forty patients provided 262 descriptions of subjective experience relative to their partial epileptic seizures. The results revealed that subjective experiences during seizures consist mostly of sensory and bodily sensations, hallucinatory experiences, and thinking. The majority of subjective experiences during seizures are bizarre and distorted; nevertheless, the patients are able to engage in adequate behavior. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study for which detailed subjective seizure descriptions were collected immediately after each seizure and the first study in which the content of verbal reports of subjective experiences during seizures, including both the ictal and postictal experiences, has been analyzed in detail.

  17. Energy information data base: subject thesaurus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-01

    The technical staff of the DOE Technical Information Center, during its subject indexing activities, develops and structures a vocabulary that allows consistent machine storage and retrieval of information necessary to the accomplishment of the DOE mission. This thesaurus incorporates that structured vocabulary. The terminology of this thesaurus is used for the subject control of information announced in DOE Energy Research Abstracts, Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis, Solar Energy Update, Geothermal Energy Update, Fossil Energy Update, Fusion Energy Update, and Energy Conservation Update. This terminology also facilitates subject searching of the DOE energy information data base, a research in progress data base, a general and practical energy information data base, power reactor docket information data base, nuclear science abstracts data base, and the federal energy information data base on the DOE on-line retrieval system, RECON. The rapid expansion of the DOE's activities will result in a concomitant thesaurus expansion as information relating to new activities is indexed. Only the terms used in the indexing of documents at the Technical Information Center to date are included. (RWR)

  18. Energy information data base. Subject thesaurus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-06-01

    The technical staff of the DOE Technical Information Center, during its subject indexing activities, develops and structures a vocabulary that allows consistent machine storage and retrieval of information necessary to the accomplishment of the DOE mission. This thesaurus incorporates that structured vocabulary. The terminology of this thesaurus is used for the subject control of information announced in DOE Energy Research Abstracts, Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis, Solar Energy Update, Geothermal Energy Update, Fossil Energy Update, Fusion Energy Update, Energy Conservation Update, and Power Reactor Docket Information (published for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission). This terminology also facilitates subject searching of the DOE technical information data base, a research in progress data base describing energy-related research, and a general and practical energy information data base on the DOE on-line retrieval system, RECON. The rapid expansion of DOE's activities will result in a concomitant thesaurus expansion as information relating to new activities is indexed. Only the terms used in indexing documents at the Technical Information Center to date are included. (RWR)

  19. Increased Selenoprotein P Levels in Subjects with Visceral Obesity and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae Yoon Choi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundSelenoprotein P (SeP has recently been reported as a novel hepatokine that regulates insulin resistance and systemic energy metabolism in rodents and humans. We explored the associations among SeP, visceral obesity, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD.MethodsWe examined serum SeP concentrations in subjects with increased visceral fat area (VFA or liver fat accumulation measured with computed tomography. Our study subjects included 120 nondiabetic individuals selected from participants of the Korean Sarcopenic Obesity Study. In addition, we evaluated the relationship between SeP and cardiometabolic risk factors, including homeostasis model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP, adiponectin values, and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV.ResultsSubjects with NAFLD showed increased levels of HOMA-IR, hsCRP, VFA, and several components of metabolic syndrome and decreased levels of adiponectin and high density lipoprotein cholesterol than those of controls. Serum SeP levels were positively correlated with VFA, hsCRP, and baPWV and negatively correlated with the liver attenuation index. Not only subjects with visceral obesity but also those with NAFLD exhibited significantly increased SeP levels (P<0.001. In multiple logistic regression analysis, the subjects in the highest SeP tertile showed a higher risk for NAFLD than those in the lowest SeP tertile, even after adjusting for potential confounding factors (odds ratio, 7.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.72 to 32.60; P=0.007.ConclusionCirculating SeP levels were increased in subjects with NAFLD as well as in those with visceral obesity and may be a novel biomarker for NAFLD.

  20. Teacher Autonomy and Subject Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeon, Frankie

    2004-01-01

    The National Primary Strategy (DfES, 2004) is encouraging schools to design "broad and rich curricula" which make the most of links between different areas, building on literacy and numeracy and developing speaking and listening skills. Primary teachers' confidence with, and understanding of, science will be crucial to the effectiveness…

  1. The subjective experience of solitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher Long; Thomas A. More; James R. Averill

    2007-01-01

    Solitude is a frequently cited motive for visiting parks, forests, and wilderness areas. But while visitors frequently say they achieve their solitude goals, most visit in groups of two or more, suggesting a conception that differs from the classical ideal of being profoundly alone with the universe. Moreover, solitude often can be experienced negatively, surrounded by...

  2. Questionnaire on Corporate Income Tax Subjects - Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis Hansen, Søren; Nielsen, Jacob Graff

    In terms of tax policy, tax harmonization or coordination of corporate taxation in the EU is usually considered from two complementary points of view: tax base and tax rate. These two perspectives structure the debate whether EU Member States, and more broadly States belonging to the same economic...... area, should harmonize or coordinate their policies in tax matters. However, little attention has been paid so far to a more basic question: who are corporate taxpayers? Are they defined in the same way over Europe? This may be explained by the fact that the vast majority of tax systems accept the same...... fundamental idea: while companies limited by shares and limited liability companies should be subject to corporate income tax (CIT), partnerships should be considered fully or partly transparent for tax purposes. This general statement is nevertheless an oversimplification of reality. Comparative law indeed...

  3. Implementing economics subjects within the context of economic kinanthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Hobza

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: For more than fifteen years, courses on "Sports Economics" and "Sportkönomie" or "Economics of Sport" - which deal with the interdisciplinary contexts of economics, economics and sport sciences - have been part of a cluster of economic subjects at sport-oriented universities and colleges in EU countries. As of yet, with only a few exceptions, this subject has not appeared in the study programs of Czech universities. This subject is taught at Czech universities in various specific forms only on selected faculties - VŠE Praha, UK in Praha, MU in Brno and UP in Olomouc. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this paper is to describe a new subject, its design, targeting and content. The secondary objective is to highlight the factual reasons for its creation as an immediate response to the many unresolved questions and problems arising from the interdisciplinary relationship between kinanthropology (in the strict sense of the word "movement", and economics considering theoretical and practical aspects of evaluating the cost-effectiveness of sports activities, grant programs, the effectiveness of the grant process, the effectiveness of sports projects etc. METHODS: The proposal for the course "Economics of Sport" methodically builds on the division of kinanthropology into subspecialties, specifically the subfield of "economic kinanthropology" (Hodaň, 2006. The syllabus of the course is based on an analysis of domestic and foreign literature, analysis of the Czech environment, analyzing primary and secondary data from the sports environment of the country - region - municipality (towns, villages - sports movements (sport associations and clubs, including analysis of sports bodies and the business environment of sports. RESULTS: The course syllabus prepared is focused on the following priority areas: micro-economic aspects of sport, macro-economic aspects of sport, public economics in sports, the interdisciplinary model of the productive aspect of

  4. System and method for acquisition management of subject position information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrender, Curt

    2005-12-13

    A system and method for acquisition management of subject position information that utilizes radio frequency identification (RF ID) to store position information in position tags. Tag programmers receive position information from external positioning systems, such as the Global Positioning System (GPS), from manual inputs, such as keypads, or other tag programmers. The tag programmers program each position tag with the received position information. Both the tag programmers and the position tags can be portable or fixed. Implementations include portable tag programmers and fixed position tags for subject position guidance, and portable tag programmers for collection sample labeling. Other implementations include fixed tag programmers and portable position tags for subject route recordation. Position tags can contain other associated information such as destination address of an affixed subject for subject routing.

  5. System and method for acquisition management of subject position information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrender, Curt (Morgan Hill, CA)

    2007-01-23

    A system and method for acquisition management of subject position information that utilizes radio frequency identification (RF ID) to store position information in position tags. Tag programmers receive position information from external positioning systems, such as the Global Positioning System (GPS), from manual inputs, such as keypads, or other tag programmers. The tag programmers program each position tag with the received position information. Both the tag programmers and the position tags can be portable or fixed. Implementations include portable tag programmers and fixed position tags for subject position guidance, and portable tag programmers for collection sample labeling. Other implementations include fixed tag programmers and portable position tags for subject route recordation. Position tags can contain other associated information such as destination address of an affixed subject for subject routing.

  6. The subjective importance of noise spectral content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Donald; Phillips, Jonathan; Denman, Hugh

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents secondary Standard Quality Scale (SQS2) rankings in overall quality JNDs for a subjective analysis of the 3 axes of noise, amplitude, spectral content, and noise type, based on the ISO 20462 softcopy ruler protocol. For the initial pilot study, a Python noise simulation model was created to generate the matrix of noise masks for the softcopy ruler base images with different levels of noise, different low pass filter noise bandwidths and different band pass filter center frequencies, and 3 different types of noise: luma only, chroma only, and luma and chroma combined. Based on the lessons learned, the full subjective experiment, involving 27 observers from Google, NVIDIA and STMicroelectronics was modified to incorporate a wider set of base image scenes, and the removal of band pass filtered noise masks to ease observer fatigue. Good correlation was observed with the Aptina subjective noise study. The absence of tone mapping in the noise simulation model visibly reduced the contrast at high levels of noise, due to the clipping of the high levels of noise near black and white. Under the 34-inch viewing distance, no significant difference was found between the luma only noise masks and the combined luma and chroma noise masks. This was not the intuitive expectation. Two of the base images with large uniform areas, `restaurant' and `no parking', were found to be consistently more sensitive to noise than the texture rich scenes. Two key conclusions are (1) there are fundamentally different sensitivities to noise on a flat patch versus noise in real images and (2) magnification of an image accentuates visual noise in a way that is non-representative of typical noise reduction algorithms generating the same output frequency. Analysis of our experimental noise masks applied to a synthetic Macbeth ColorChecker Chart confirmed the color-dependent nature of the visibility of luma and chroma noise.

  7. Autism spectrum disorders in institutionalized subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anckarsäter, Henrik; Nilsson, Thomas; Saury, Jean-Michel; Råstam, Maria; Gillberg, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    What do we know about the prevalence and the specific features of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) among subjects in forensic psychiatry and special youth centres? A clinical case series consisting of 42 subjects with ASD, recruited from three well-characterized populations in forensic psychiatry and special youth care, was used to determine: 1) the prevalence of ASD in these institutions (at least 13%), 2) the distribution of diagnostic criteria in this special population (mostly social interaction and communication problems, few or atypical flexibility problems), 3) the degree of comorbidity (the rule rather than the exception), 4) neuropsychological test profiles (lowered IQ with uneven profiles), 5) types of crimes and offences (very heterogeneous, often stress-related with dissociated features), 6) mental health care needs (high), and 7) special clinical features (especially expressions of flexibility deficits in non-classical areas and proneness to dissociation). This descriptive study indicates that ASD is a clinically relevant problem among forensic populations that has to be considered in diagnostics, assessments of needs and treatment planning.

  8. Nation, Identity, and Subjectivity in Globalizing Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasue Arimitsu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the end of the 20th century, particularly after the Cold War ended, national borderlines have been redrawn many times in the areas of the Eastern Europe, the Middle East, and a wide range of Asia, and people started crossing national borderlines to immigrate to other countries. As a result, the definition of a modern nation with one ethnicity, one language, and one culture collapsed. Under the policy of multiculturalism, Australia accepts immigrants from all over the world, and Australian literature at present is characterized as being ethnically, culturally, and linguistically hybrid. In this paper I look at Australian writers such as Brian Castro and Nam Le and compare them with other writers who are considered post-colonial writers, such as Salman Rushdie, V.S. Naipaul and Kazuo Ishiguro. I focus on how these writers attempt to present their identities along with their subjectivities. I also compare them with a Japanese writer, Haruki Murakami, whose literary works are widely read throughout the world, crossing cultural, ethnic, and language barriers, even though he writes in Japanese and has a mono-cultural background. I investigate the reason why Murakami’s works are accepted by many contemporary readers worldwide. I finally explore the meaning of national identity and subjectivity in the globalizing world, and clarify the transformation of modern literature.

  9. 77 FR 3499 - FCI USA, LLC Corporate Administrative Division Including On-Site Leased Workers From JFC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... have occurred involving employees of the subject firm who telework from off-site locations throughout... amending this certification to include employees of the subject firm who telework and report to the Etters...

  10. Musculoskeletal ultrasound including definitions for ultrasonographic pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakefield, RJ; Balint, PV; Szkudlarek, Marcin

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) has great potential as an outcome in rheumatoid arthritis trials for detecting bone erosions, synovitis, tendon disease, and enthesopathy. It has a number of distinct advantages over magnetic resonance imaging, including good patient tolerability and ability to scan multiple joints...... pathologies. This article presents the first report from the OMERACT ultrasound special interest group, which has compared US against the criteria of the OMERACT filter. Also proposed for the first time are consensus US definitions for common pathological lesions seen in patients with inflammatory arthritis....

  11. Drug delivery device including electrolytic pump

    KAUST Repository

    Foulds, Ian G.

    2016-03-31

    Systems and methods are provided for a drug delivery device and use of the device for drug delivery. In various aspects, the drug delivery device combines a “solid drug in reservoir” (SDR) system with an electrolytic pump. In various aspects an improved electrolytic pump is provided including, in particular, an improved electrolytic pump for use with a drug delivery device, for example an implantable drug delivery device. A catalytic reformer can be incorporated in a periodically pulsed electrolytic pump to provide stable pumping performance and reduced actuation cycle.

  12. The Physics of Semiconductors An Introduction Including Devices and Nanophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Grundmann, Marius

    2006-01-01

    The Physics of Semiconductors provides material for a comprehensive upper-level-undergrauate and graduate course on the subject, guiding readers to the point where they can choose a special topic and begin supervised research. The textbook provides a balance between essential aspects of solid-state and semiconductor physics, on the one hand, and the principles of various semiconductor devices and their applications in electronic and photonic devices, on the other. It highlights many practical aspects of semiconductors such as alloys, strain, heterostructures, nanostructures, that are necessary in modern semiconductor research but typically omitted in textbooks. For the interested reader some additional advanced topics are included, such as Bragg mirrors, resonators, polarized and magnetic semiconductors are included. Also supplied are explicit formulas for many results, to support better understanding. The Physics of Semiconductors requires little or no prior knowledge of solid-state physics and evolved from ...

  13. Neurofunctional areas related to food appetency in anorexia nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juán José Cervantes-Navarrete

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In Anorexia Nervosa the observable phenomenon is the suppression of appetite. Little is known about the biological and psychological (top-down bases that maintain this pathological state. However, Anorexia Nervosa is a biological, psychological and social model where the main behavioral characteristic is the inhibition of eating behavior; not by bottom-up but top-down regulation. Objective: To explore the areas of the brain associated with food appetency through functional magnetic resonance in women with anorexia nervosa. Methods: The subjects include 5 female with Restrictive type of Anorexia Nervosa and five controls female with similar in age and low weigh. The subjects were within the MRI scanner and while took fMRI they saw food images that would generate appetite. The subjects were in fasting state and mentally prepare by instruction “imagine you are eating the food presented in the following images”. Results: Compared differences in the activation between subjects four regions were found significant: the anterior cingulate, left front medial region and the left and right midbrain. Conclusions: The patients with Anorexia Nervosa present different activated cerebral areas to those of the controls during the visual exposition to food in hungry state and with evoke cognitions associated with eat food; those regions may be implicated in reward and self-control.

  14. Comparison of static postural balance between healthy subjects and those with low back pain

    OpenAIRE

    Braga, Alice Bernardi; Rodrigues, Ana Carolina de Mello Alves; de Lima, Giliane Vanessa Moraes Pereira; Melo, Larissa Rabello de; Carvalho, Alberito Rodrigo de; Bertolini,Gladson Ricardo Flor

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare the static postural balance between women suffering from chronic low back pain and healthy subjects, by moving the center of pressure. Methods The study included 15 women with low back pain (LBP group) and 15 healthy women (healthy group). They were instructed to remain in standing on the force platform for 30 seconds. We analyzed the area and the speed of displacement of center of pressure of both groups. Data analysis was performed using the Student's t-test, with signi...

  15. The ascending aortic elasticity feature in normotensive subjects: evaluation with coronary CT angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wenqian; Chen, Dandan; Chen, Weicui; Cheng, Guanxun

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the ascending aortic elasticity feature, 118 normotensive subjects who underwent coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) were enrolled. Two groups of parameters assessing elasticity were calculated based on the measurements of volume and area of ascending aorta. Multivariate analysis revealed that some factors including age, systolic BP, diastolic BP, heart rate, smoking status and hyperlipidemia independently related to decreased aortic elasticity. Both measuring methods are applicable for evaluation of aortic elasticity. As the prevalence of CCTA, it is meaningful that CCTA can provide not only the structural details of ascending aorta but also functional information of the vessel elasticity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. 2000 survey of window manufacturers on the subject of switchable glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPointe, Michael R.; Sottile, Gregory M.

    2001-11-01

    The results of a 2000 survey of United States window manufacturers on the subject of switchable glass are discussed. The areas covered in this paper include awareness of the overall product category of switchable glass and various types of switchable glass, attitudes toward specific features of switchable glass, expectations for manufacturer production of such products, expectations for market penetration rates among end-product consumers, levels of price sensitivity among window manufacturers regarding switchable glass, and expectations for the pace of new product development within the window industry over the next five years.

  17. Cortical hypermetabolism in MCI subjects: a compensatory mechanism?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashraf, A.; Fan, Z.; Brooks, D.J.; Edison, P. [Imperial College London, Neurology Imaging Unit, Division of Brain Sciences, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-30

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with amyloid accumulation that takes place decades before symptoms appear. Cognitive impairment in AD is associated with reduced glucose metabolism. However, neuronal plasticity/compensatory mechanisms might come into play before the onset of dementia. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is evidence of cortical hypermetabolism as a compensatory mechanism before amyloid deposition takes place in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Nine AD subjects and ten aMCI subjects had both [{sup 11}C]PIB and [{sup 18}F]FDG PET scans with arterial input in order to quantify the amyloid deposition and glucose metabolism in vivo in comparison with healthy control subjects who underwent either [{sup 11}C]PIB or [{sup 18}F]FDG PET scans. The [{sup 11}C]PIB PET scans were quantified using [{sup 11}C]PIB target region to cerebellum uptake ratio images created by integrating the activity collected from 60 to 90 min, and regional cerebral glucose metabolism was quantified using spectral analysis. In MCI subjects, cortical hypermetabolism was observed in four amyloid-negative subjects and one amyloid-positive subject, while hypometabolism was seen in five other MCI subjects with high amyloid load. Subjects with hypermetabolism and low amyloid did not convert to AD during clinical follow-up for 18 months in contrast to four amyloid-positive hypometabolic subjects who did convert to AD. This preliminary study suggests that compensatory hypermetabolism can occur in aMCI subjects, particularly in those who are amyloid-negative. The increase in metabolic rate in different cortical regions with predominance in the occipital cortex may be a compensatory response to the neuronal damage occurring early in the disease process. It may also reflect recruitment of relatively minimally affected cortical regions to compensate for reduced function in the temporoparietal cortical association areas. (orig.)

  18. Subsurface contaminants focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites.

  19. Protected areas in mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton, L. S.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The importance of a global Protected Areas Network in sustaining appropriate mountain development is presented in this paper. Present status of the world’s “official” Protected Areas in the UN List, and the proportion that are in mountain areas, and including international designations (World Heritage and Biosphere Reserves. Current and future challenges in the management of these special areas are also commented.



    El autor destaca la importancia de una Red Mundial de Espacios Protegidos para el desarrollo sostenible de las montañas. Comenta luego el estatus actual de las Áreas Protegidas “oficiales” del Mundo en la Lista de las Naciones Unidas y qué proporción de ellas forma parte de las montañas, sin olvidar las figuras internacionales de protección como Patrimonio de la Humanidad y Reservas de Biosfera. Para terminar, se discuten los problemas de gestión actuales y futuros de estas áreas tan especiales

  20. Fire in a contaminated area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, G.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-28

    This document supports the development and presentation of the following accident scenario in the TWRS Final Safety Analysis Report: Fire in Contaminated Area. The calculations needed to quantify the risk associated with this accident scenario are included within.

  1. Models of bovine babesiosis including juvenile cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad-Roy, C M; Shuai, Zhisheng; van den Driessche, P

    2015-03-01

    Bovine Babesiosis in cattle is caused by the transmission of protozoa of Babesia spp. by ticks as vectors. Juvenile cattle (Bovine Babesiosis, rarely show symptoms, and acquire immunity upon recovery. Susceptibility to the disease varies between breeds of cattle. Models of the dynamics of Bovine Babesiosis transmitted by the cattle tick that include these factors are formulated as systems of ordinary differential equations. Basic reproduction numbers are calculated, and it is proved that if these numbers are below the threshold value of one, then Bovine Babesiosis dies out. However, above the threshold number of one, the disease may approach an endemic state. In this case, control measures are suggested by determining target reproduction numbers. The percentage of a particular population (for example, the adult bovine population) needed to be controlled to eradicate the disease is evaluated numerically using Columbia data from the literature.

  2. CLIC expands to include the Southern Hemisphere

    CERN Multimedia

    Roberto Cantoni

    2010-01-01

    Australia has recently joined the CLIC collaboration: the enlargement will bring new expertise and resources to the project, and is especially welcome in the wake of CERN budget redistributions following the recent adoption of the Medium Term Plan.   The countries involved in CLIC collaboration With the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding on 26 August 2010, the ACAS network (Australian Collaboration for Accelerator Science) became the 40th member of in the multilateral CLIC collaboration making Australia the 22nd country to join the collaboration. “The new MoU was signed by the ACAS network, which includes the Australian Synchrotron and the University of Melbourne”, explains Jean-Pierre Delahaye, CLIC Study Leader. “Thanks to their expertise, the Australian institutes will contribute greatly to the CLIC damping rings and the two-beam test modules." Institutes from any country wishing to join the CLIC collaboration are invited to assume responsibility o...

  3. The surgery of peripheral nerves (including tumors).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugleholm, Kåre

    2013-01-01

    Surgical pathology of the peripheral nervous system includes traumatic injury, entrapment syndromes, and tumors. The recent significant advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology and cellular biology of peripheral nerve degeneration and regeneration has yet to be translated into improved surgical techniques and better outcome after peripheral nerve injury. Decision making in peripheral nerve surgery continues to be a complex challenge, where the mechanism of injury, repeated clinical evaluation, neuroradiological and neurophysiological examination, and detailed knowledge of the peripheral nervous system response to injury are prerequisite to obtain the best possible outcome. Surgery continues to be the primary treatment modality for peripheral nerve tumors and advances in adjuvant oncological treatment has improved outcome after malignant peripheral nerve tumors. The present chapter provides background knowledge of surgical peripheral nerve disease and some general and practical guidance toward its clinical management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The surgery of peripheral nerves (including tumors)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fugleholm, Kåre

    2013-01-01

    Surgical pathology of the peripheral nervous system includes traumatic injury, entrapment syndromes, and tumors. The recent significant advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology and cellular biology of peripheral nerve degeneration and regeneration has yet to be translated into improved...... nervous system response to injury are prerequisite to obtain the best possible outcome. Surgery continues to be the primary treatment modality for peripheral nerve tumors and advances in adjuvant oncological treatment has improved outcome after malignant peripheral nerve tumors. The present chapter...... surgical techniques and better outcome after peripheral nerve injury. Decision making in peripheral nerve surgery continues to be a complex challenge, where the mechanism of injury, repeated clinical evaluation, neuroradiological and neurophysiological examination, and detailed knowledge of the peripheral...

  5. AMS at the ANU including biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fifield, L.K.; Allan, G.L.; Cresswell, R.G.; Ophel, T.R. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia); King, S.J.; Day, J.P. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry

    1993-12-31

    An extensive accelerator mass spectrometry program has been conducted on the 14UD accelerator at the Australian National University since 1986. In the two years since the previous conference, the research program has expanded significantly to include biomedical applications of {sup 26}Al and studies of landform evolution using isotopes produced in situ in surface rocks by cosmic ray bombardment. The system is now used for the measurement of {sup 10}Be, {sup 14}C, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 59}Ni and {sup 129}I, and research is being undertaken in hydrology, environmental geochemistry, archaeology and biomedicine. On the technical side, a new test system has permitted the successful off-line development of a high-intensity ion source. A new injection line to the 14UD has been established and the new source is now in position and providing beams to the accelerator. 4 refs.

  6. ACCREDITATION FOR TECHNICAL ABILITIES INCLUDING COMPUTER SKILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halit Hami OZ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sector Skills are defined by state-sponsored, employer-led organizations that cover specific economic sectors in the European Union and other countries in the world to reduce skills gaps and shortages, improve productivity, boost the skills of their sector workforces and improve learning supply. The accreditation and registration systems used by professional bodies raise the profile of the profession. In many countries including the European Union, professional associations are beginning to accept practice-based accreditation, generally as an alternative to their mainstream systems. Besides studying the certain agencies in the European Union for assessing/accreditating practical abilities , Accreditation for practical abilities of Information Communication Technology and Business Management/Language domains developed by Accreditation Council for Practical abilities are also studied in detail as an example to establish a similar agency in Turkey.

  7. CERN Technical Training: LABVIEW courses include RADE

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The contents of the "LabView Basic I" and "LabView Intermediate II" courses have recently been changed to include, respectively, an introduction to and expert training in the Rapid Application Development Environment (RADE). RADE is a LabView-based application developed at CERN to integrate LabView in the accelerator and experiment control infrastructure. It is a suitable solution to developing expert tools, machine development analysis and independent test facilities. The course names have also been changed to "LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" and "LabVIEW Intermediate II with Advanced RADE Application". " LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" is designed for: Users preparing to develop applications using LabVIEW, or NI Developer Suite; users and technical managers evaluating LabVIEW or NI Developer Suite in purchasing decisions; users pursuing the Certified LabVIEW Developer certification. The course prepares participants to develop test and measurement, da...

  8. CERN Technical Training: LABVIEW courses include RADE

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The contents of the "LabView Basic I" and "LabView Intermediate II" courses have recently been changed to include, respectively, an introduction to and expert training in the Rapid Application Development Environment (RADE). RADE is a LabView-based application developed at CERN to integrate LabView in the accelerator and experiment control infrastructure. It is a suitable solution to developing expert tools, machine development analysis and independent test facilities. The course names have also been changed to "LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" and "LabVIEW Intermediate II with Advanced RADE Application". " LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" is designed for: Users preparing to develop applications using LabVIEW, or NI Developer Suite; users and technical managers evaluating LabVIEW or NI Developer Suite in purchasing decisions; users pursuing the Certified LabVIEW Developer certification. The course pr...

  9. CERN Technical Training: LABVIEW courses include RADE

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The contents of "LabView Basic I" and "LabView Intermediate II" trainings have been recently changed to include, respectively, an introduction and an expert training on the Rapid Application Development Environment (RADE). RADE is a LabView-based application developed at CERN to integrate LabView in the accelerator and experiment control infrastructure. It is a suitable solution to develop expert tools, machine development analysis and independent test facilities. The course names have also been changed to "LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" and "LabVIEW Intermediate II with Advanced RADE Application". " LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" is designed for: Users preparing to develop applications using LabVIEW, or NI Developer Suite; users and technical managers evaluating LabVIEW or NI Developer Suite in purchasing decisions; users pursuing the Certified LabVIEW Developer certification. The course prepare...

  10. Education Program on Fossil Resources Including Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usami, Masahiro

    Fossil fuels including coal play a key role as crucial energies in contributing to economic development in Asia. On the other hand, its limited quantity and the environmental problems causing from its usage have become a serious global issue and a countermeasure to solve such problems is very much demanded. Along with the pursuit of sustainable development, environmentally-friendly use of highly efficient fossil resources should be therefore, accompanied. Kyushu-university‧s sophisticated research through long years of accumulated experience on the fossil resources and environmental sectors together with the advanced large-scale commercial and empirical equipments will enable us to foster cooperative research and provide internship program for the future researchers. Then, this program is executed as a consignment business from the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry from 2007 fiscal year to 2009 fiscal year. The lecture that uses the textbooks developed by this program is scheduled to be started a course in fiscal year 2010.

  11. Consanguinity and associated perinatal outcomes, including stillbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapurubandara, Supuni; Melov, Sarah; Shalou, Evangeline; Alahakoon, Indika

    2016-12-01

    Consanguinity defined as the sexual union between two related individuals has been previously an infrequent practice in Australia, but recently there has been migration from countries with widespread practice of consanguinity. There is limited and conflicting evidence in the literature that suggests consanguinity to be associated with adverse obstetric outcomes. To assess the effect of consanguinity on perinatal outcomes. A retrospective analysis of singleton births over a ten-year period at an Australian tertiary hospital. The data were extracted from the hospital obstetric database and analysed for an association between consanguinity and perinatal outcomes, including stillbirth. Main outcome measures were stillbirth, threatened premature labour, fetal congenital abnormality, perinatal mortality and neonatal outcomes. There were 46 399 singleton births recorded over the ten-year study period, and 44 004 had consanguinity data available. The overall consanguinity rate was 5.5% (n = 2565), which remained consistent over the study period at our institution. Consanguinity was associated with higher rate of threatened premature labour (5.6% vs 4.7%, P = 0.003), fetal congenital abnormality (4.2% vs 3.1%, P = 0.004), perinatal mortality (2.4% vs 1.0%, P Consanguinity was an independent risk factor for stillbirth with a relative risk of 2.88 (P consanguineous relationships are at higher risk of adverse perinatal outcomes, including stillbirth. Given the 5% prevalence of consanguinity in our obstetric population, these findings have significant implications for preconception counselling, obstetric care and health resource allocation. © 2016 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  12. Subjective wellbeing, health, and ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steptoe, Andrew; Deaton, Angus; Stone, Arthur A

    2015-02-14

    Subjective wellbeing and health are closely linked to age. Three aspects of subjective wellbeing can be distinguished-evaluative wellbeing (or life satisfaction), hedonic wellbeing (feelings of happiness, sadness, anger, stress, and pain), and eudemonic wellbeing (sense of purpose and meaning in life). We review recent advances in the specialty of psychological wellbeing, and present new analyses about the pattern of wellbeing across ages and the association between wellbeing and survival at older ages. The Gallup World Poll, a continuing survey in more than 160 countries, shows a U-shaped relation between evaluative wellbeing and age in high-income, English speaking countries, with the lowest levels of wellbeing in ages 45-54 years. But this pattern is not universal. For example, respondents from the former Soviet Union and eastern Europe show a large progressive reduction in wellbeing with age, respondents from Latin America also shows decreased wellbeing with age, whereas wellbeing in sub-Saharan Africa shows little change with age. The relation between physical health and subjective wellbeing is bidirectional. Older people with illnesses such as coronary heart disease, arthritis, and chronic lung disease show both increased levels of depressed mood and impaired hedonic and eudemonic wellbeing. Wellbeing might also have a protective role in health maintenance. In an analysis of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, we identify that eudemonic wellbeing is associated with increased survival; 29·3% of people in the lowest wellbeing quartile died during the average follow-up period of 8·5 years compared with 9·3% of those in the highest quartile. Associations were independent of age, sex, demographic factors, and baseline mental and physical health. We conclude that the wellbeing of elderly people is an important objective for both economic and health policy. Present psychological and economic theories do not adequately account for the variations in patterns

  13. FHFA Underserved Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Federal Housing Finance Agency's (FHFA) Underserved Areas establishes underserved area designations for census tracts in Metropolitan Areas (MSAs), nonmetropolitan...

  14. Vehicle handling: relationships between subjective and objective measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuren, R.M.A.F.; Hogema, J.H.

    2003-01-01

    TNO Human Factors and TNO Automotive are investigating relationships between subjective and objective measures in the area of vehicle handling. This paper presents a driving simulator study and a field experiment in which these relationships were investigated. First, in the driving simulator

  15. Factors influencing the enrolment of students for science subjects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aimed at identifying the factors that influence the enrolment of students for science subjects and strategies that can be used to improve the enrolment with the view of improving the population of science students in Oluyole Local Government Area, Ibadan. Descriptive survey research design was employed in the ...

  16. Preservice History Teachers' Perceptions of Subject Matter Competency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Tercan; Yazici, Fatih

    2017-01-01

    Teachers should be able to understand conceptual constructs, viewpoints, and principles related to their field and organize teaching process accordingly. This is valid also for history teachers. They are expected to comprehend the basic conceptions related to subject areas and reflect them on classroom practices. The association between subject…

  17. Intelligence obtained by applying data mining to a database of French theses on the subject of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kira Tarapanoff

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of Brazil was analyzed within the context of the French database DocThéses, comprising the years 1969 -1999. The data mining technique was used to obtain intelligence and infer knowledge. The objective was to identify indicators concerning: occurrence of thesis by subject areas; thesis supervisors identified with certain subject areas; geographical distribution of cities hosting institutions where the theses were defended; frequency by subject area in the period when the theses were defended. The technique of data mining is divided into stages which go from identification of the problem -object, through selection and preparation of data, and conclude with analysis of the latter. The software used to do the cleaning of the DocThéses database was Infotrans, and Dataview was used for the preparation of the data. It should be pointed out that the knowledge extracted is directly proportional to the value and validity of the information contained in the database. The results of the analysis were illustrated using the assumptions of Zipf's Law on bibliometrics, classifying the information as: trivial, interesting and 'noise', according to the distribution of frequency. It is concluded that the data mining technique associated with specialist software is a powerful ally when used with competitive intelligence applied at all levels of the decision -making process, including the macro level, since it can help the consolidation, investment and development of actions and policies.

  18. Postural control in blind subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Vinicius Soares

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze postural control in acquired and congenitally blind adults. Methods: A total of 40 visually impaired adults participated in the research, divided into 2 groups, 20 with acquired blindness and 20 with congenital blindness - 21 males and 19 females, mean age 35.8 ± 10.8. The Brazilian version of Berg Balance Scale and the motor domain of functional independence measure were utilized. Results: On Berg Balance Scale the mean for acquired blindness was 54.0 ± 2.4 and 54.4 ± 2.5 for congenitally blind subjects; on functional independence measure the mean for acquired blind group was 87.1 ± 4.8 and 87.3 ± 2.3 for congenitally blind group. Conclusion: Based upon the scale used the results suggest the ability to control posture can be developed by compensatory mechanisms and it is not affected by visual loss in congenitally and acquired blindness.

  19. Petroleum geology of Falkland Islands region, including Malvinas basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, J.W.; Masters, C.D.

    1986-05-01

    The Falkland Islands are on continental crust that is part of the South American lithospheric plate. Two prospective areas for oil and gas are Malvinas basin south of the Falklands extending onto Burdwood Bank, and Falkland Plateau east and northeast of the Falklands. To evaluate this area, workers must understand the paleogeography at the time the Atlantic Ocean opened, during the Jurassic and Cretaceous, because this environment controlled deposition of euxinic muds, which are the prime source beds for oil and gas. Thick Upper Jurassic source beds have been penetrated by the drill on the Falkland Plateau and in the Magallanes basin. The seismic profiles across the Malvinas basin, Burdwood Bank, and Falkland Plateau suggest that the Jurassic-Cretaceous source beds may be continuous throughout the entire area. Now the question is, does the euxinic claystone facies extend throughout the same area. This question remains, as do those concerning traps, seals, and structures. The authors surmise that block faulting will have disturbed the sedimentary pile sufficiently for traps to have formed. In the eastern part of Malvinas basin, which includes Burdwood Bank, the thick (up to 7000 m) sedimentary section is favorable for hydrocarbon accumulations. However, the lower part of this section may have generated gas, which in turn may have displaced most of the trapped oil.

  20. Full Boltzmann equations for leptogenesis including scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Hahn-Woernle, F; Wong, Y Y Y

    2009-01-01

    We study the evolution of a cosmological baryon asymmetry produced via leptogenesis by means of the full classical Boltzmann equations, without the assumption of kinetic equilibrium and including all quantum statistical factors. Beginning with the full mode equations we derive the usual equations of motion for the right-handed neutrino number density and integrated lepton asymmetry, and show explicitly the impact of each assumption on these quantities. For the first time, we investigate also the effects of scattering of the right-handed neutrino with the top quark to leading order in the Yukawa couplings by means of the full Boltzmann equations. We find that in our full Boltzmann treatment the final lepton asymmetry can be suppressed by as much as a factor of 1.5 in the weak wash-out regime (K1), the full Boltzmann treatment and the integrated approach give nearly identical final lepton asymmetries (within 10 % of each other at K>3). Finally, we show that the opposing effects of quantum statistics on decays/i...

  1. Extending Newtonian Dynamics to Include Stochastic Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Michail

    2009-01-01

    A paper presents further results of continuing research reported in several previous NASA Tech Briefs articles, the two most recent being Stochastic Representations of Chaos Using Terminal Attractors (NPO-41519), [Vol. 30, No. 5 (May 2006), page 57] and Physical Principle for Generation of Randomness (NPO-43822) [Vol. 33, No. 5 (May 2009), page 56]. This research focuses upon a mathematical formalism for describing post-instability motions of a dynamical system characterized by exponential divergences of trajectories leading to chaos (including turbulence as a form of chaos). The formalism involves fictitious control forces that couple the equations of motion of the system with a Liouville equation that describes the evolution of the probability density of errors in initial conditions. These stabilizing forces create a powerful terminal attractor in probability space that corresponds to occurrence of a target trajectory with probability one. The effect in configuration space (ordinary three-dimensional space as commonly perceived) is to suppress exponential divergences of neighboring trajectories without affecting the target trajectory. As a result, the post-instability motion is represented by a set of functions describing the evolution of such statistical quantities as expectations and higher moments, and this representation is stable.

  2. Broca's area network in language function: a pooling-data connectivity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Byron; Ardila, Alfredo; Rosselli, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Modern neuroimaging developments have demonstrated that cognitive functions correlate with brain networks rather than specific areas. The purpose of this paper was to analyze the connectivity of Broca's area based on language tasks. A connectivity modeling study was performed by pooling data of Broca's activation in language tasks. Fifty-seven papers that included 883 subjects in 84 experiments were analyzed. Analysis of Likelihood Estimates of pooled data was utilized to generate the map; thresholds at p area, and the parietal lobe. Less common clusters were seen in the sub-cortical structures including the left thalamus, left putamen, secondary visual areas, and the right cerebellum. Broca's area-44-related networks involved in language processing were demonstrated utilizing a pooling-data connectivity study. Significance, interpretation, and limitations of the results are discussed.

  3. Skeletal pattern in subjects with temporomandibular joint disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almăşan, Oana Cristina; Băciuţ, Mihaela; Almăşan, Horea Artimoniu; Bran, Simion; Lascu, Liana; Iancu, Mihaela; Băciuţ, Grigore

    2013-02-21

    To establish the skeletal pattern in subjects with malocclusions and temporomandibular disorders (TMD); to assess the relationship between craniofacial skeletal structures and TMD in subjects with malocclusions. Sixty-four subjects with malocclusions, over 18 years of age, were included in the study. Temporomandibular disorders were clinically assessed according to the Helkimo Anamnestic Index. Subjects underwent a lateral cephalogram. Subjects were grouped according to the sagittal skeletal pattern (ANB angle) into class I, II and III. Parametric Student tests with equal or unequal variations were used (variations were previously tested with Levene test). Twenty-four patients with TMD (experimental sample); 40 patients without TMD (control group); interincisal angle was higher in class I and II (p < 0.05) experimental subjects; overjet was larger in experimental subjects; midline shift and Wits appraisal were broader in the experimental group in all three classes. In class III subjects, the SNB angle was higher in the experimental group (p = 0.01). Joint noises followed by reduced mandible mobility, muscular pain and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain were the most frequent symptoms in subjects with TMD and malocclusions. Temporomandibular joint status is an important factor to consider when planning orthodontic treatment in patients with severe malocclusions; midline shift, large overjet and deep overbite have been associated with signs and symptoms of TMD.

  4. Extent of Stream Burial and Relationships to Watershed Area, Topography, and Impervious Surface Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy E. Weitzell

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Stream burial—the routing of streams through culverts, pipes, and concrete lined channels, or simply paving them over—is common during urbanization, and disproportionately affects small, headwater streams. Burial undermines the physical and chemical processes governing life in streams, with consequences for water quality and quantity that may amplify from headwaters to downstream receiving waters. Knowledge of the extent of stream burial is critical for understanding cumulative impacts to stream networks, and for future decision-making allowing for urban development while protecting ecosystem function. We predicted stream burial across the urbanizing Potomac River Basin (USA for each 10-m stream segment in the basin from medium-resolution impervious cover data and training observations obtained from high-resolution aerial photography in a GIS. Results were analyzed across a range in spatial aggregation, including counties and independent cities, small watersheds, and regular spatial grids. Stream burial was generally correlated with total impervious surface area (ISA, with areas exhibiting ISA above 30% often subject to elevated ratios of stream burial. Recurring patterns in burial predictions related to catchment area and topographic slope were also detected. We discuss these results in the context of physiographic constraints on stream location and urban development, including implications for environmental management of aquatic resources.

  5. Class 1 Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A "Class 1" area is a geographic area recognized by the EPA as being of the highest environmental quality and requiring maximum protection. Class I areas are areas...

  6. SEEPAGE MODEL FOR PA INCLUDING DRIFT COLLAPSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Tsang

    2004-09-22

    The purpose of this report is to document the predictions and analyses performed using the seepage model for performance assessment (SMPA) for both the Topopah Spring middle nonlithophysal (Tptpmn) and lower lithophysal (Tptpll) lithostratigraphic units at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Look-up tables of seepage flow rates into a drift (and their uncertainty) are generated by performing numerical simulations with the seepage model for many combinations of the three most important seepage-relevant parameters: the fracture permeability, the capillary-strength parameter 1/a, and the percolation flux. The percolation flux values chosen take into account flow focusing effects, which are evaluated based on a flow-focusing model. Moreover, multiple realizations of the underlying stochastic permeability field are conducted. Selected sensitivity studies are performed, including the effects of an alternative drift geometry representing a partially collapsed drift from an independent drift-degradation analysis (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166107]). The intended purpose of the seepage model is to provide results of drift-scale seepage rates under a series of parameters and scenarios in support of the Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). The SMPA is intended for the evaluation of drift-scale seepage rates under the full range of parameter values for three parameters found to be key (fracture permeability, the van Genuchten 1/a parameter, and percolation flux) and drift degradation shape scenarios in support of the TSPA-LA during the period of compliance for postclosure performance [Technical Work Plan for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone (BSC 2002 [DIRS 160819], Section I-4-2-1)]. The flow-focusing model in the Topopah Spring welded (TSw) unit is intended to provide an estimate of flow focusing factors (FFFs) that (1) bridge the gap between the mountain-scale and drift-scale models, and (2) account for variability in local percolation flux due to

  7. [Contracts including performance and management of uncertainty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duru, G; Garassus, P; Auray, J-P

    2013-09-01

    Since many decades in France, the most important part of ambulatory health care expenditure is represented by drug consumption. By the fact, French patient is indeed the greatest world consumer of pharmaceuticals treatments. Therefore, the regulation authorities by successive strategies, attempt to limit or even restrict market access for new drugs in the health care sector secured by public social insurance coverage. Common objectives are to assess the reimbursement to scientific studies and to fix the price of therapeutics at an acceptable level for both industries and government. New trends try then to determine recently the drug price in a dual approach, as a component of global and effective contract, including performance and outcome. The first diffusion authorization is diffusion concerned, but this concept takes into account the eventual success of new produces in long-term survey. Signed for a fixed period as reciprocal partnership between regulation authorities and pharmaceutics industries, the contract integrates two dimensions of incertitude. The first one is represented by the strategy of new treatments development according to efficacy and adapted price, and the second one is linked to the result of diffusion and determines adapted rules if eventual non-respects of the previous engagement are registered. This paper discusses problems related to this new dimension of incertitude affected by conditional drug prices in market access strategy and the adapted follow-up of new treatment diffusion fixed by "outcome" contract between French regulation administration and pharmaceutics industries in our recent economic context. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. SANDY CREEK ROADLESS AREA, MISSISSIPPI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Boyd R.; Bitar, Richard F.

    1984-01-01

    The Sandy Creek Roadless Area includes about 3. 7 sq mi in the southeastern part of Adams County, Mississippi. On the basis of a mineral survey, the area offers little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources but has a probable resource potential for oil and natural gas. It is possible that wells drilled deep enough to penetrate the older reservoirs will encounter significant quantities of oil and natural gas in the roadless area. The deposits of gravel, sand, and clay present in the area could be utilized in the construction industry, but similar deposits elsewhere are much closer to available markets.

  9. Scoring Rules for Subjective Probability Distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Swarthout, J. Todd

    report the true subjective probability of a binary event, even under Subjective Expected Utility. To address this one can “calibrate” inferences about true subjective probabilities from elicited subjective probabilities over binary events, recognizing the incentives that risk averse agents have...

  10. Report of the Racism and Sexism in Subject Analysis Subcommittee to the RTSD/CCS Subject Analysis Committee, Midwinter 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Elizabeth M.; And Others

    Directed toward the eradication of sexual and racial bias in bibliographic systems, the subcommittee reports its progress in the identification of areas of classification systems and subject headings requiring change. A policy statement and six guidelines establish a framework for three categories of projects: (1) the need for changes in Library…

  11. Research in the hospital setting on human subjects. Protecting the patient and the institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuer, R

    1993-10-01

    A hospital's institutional review board is charged with the responsibility of fully protecting the rights of research subjects. In doing so, the board establishes that research protocols are based on sound scientific principles, that benefits to research subjects outweigh the risks, and that the subject's consent is informed and not coerced. Although it has been argued that risk management has no role in the activities of such boards, the literature indicates that risk management and quality assurance principles apply to all areas of the institution, including the activities of the board. The institution must ensure that its researchers and board members are as fully protected as possible from civil and criminal liability and that the integrity of those conducting the research is established and maintained. The institution must also provide sufficient support for the board to conduct its reviews and educate the research community and board members on current and evolving laws and regulations governing human research. Risk prevention and quality assurance strategies should recognize the rights of the research subject as paramount while protecting the institution, its researchers, and the community served.

  12. Normal sensory and range of motion (ROM) responses during Thoracic Slump Test (ST) in asymptomatic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Ketaki C; Eapen, Charu; Kumar, Senthil P

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the normal sensory and range of motion (ROM) responses during the movement components of Thoracic Slump Test (Thoracic ST) in asymptomatic subjects. Sixty asymptomatic subjects were included in the study. Thoracic ST was performed in two sequences, proximal initiation, which was proximal to distal and distal initiation, which was distal to proximal. Subjects were randomized into four groups depending on the order of sequences and sides. Outcome measures of sensory responses (intensity, type, and location) and ROM responses were recorded after each sequence. Friedman's test was done to compare between sensory responses of the subjects. Between-component comparison for prevalence of sensory responses within each sequence was done using Kruskal-Wallis test and Wilcoxonsigned ranks test was used for between-component comparisons of intensity of symptoms within each sequence of testing. Independent t test was used to assess the ROM responses. Results show the prevalence of sensory responses, its nature, area and intensity. These sensory and ROM responses may be considered as normal response of Thoracic ST. The intensity of the symptoms of proximal initiation sequence (1.09±1.35 cm) was significant (PROM was significant (P<0.05) for distal initiation (7.55±4.51 degrees) when compared to proximal initiation (4.96±3.76 degrees). These normal responses may be used as a reference when using the Thoracic ST as an assessment technique.

  13. Including carbon emissions from deforestation in the carbon footprint of Brazilian beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederberg, Christel; Persson, U Martin; Neovius, Kristian; Molander, Sverker; Clift, Roland

    2011-03-01

    Effects of land use changes are starting to be included in estimates of life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, so-called carbon footprints (CFs), from food production. Their omission can lead to serious underestimates, particularly for meat. Here we estimate emissions from the conversion of forest to pasture in the Legal Amazon Region (LAR) of Brazil and present a model to distribute the emissions from deforestation over products and time subsequent to the land use change. Expansion of cattle ranching for beef production is a major cause of deforestation in the LAR. The carbon footprint of beef produced on newly deforested land is estimated at more than 700 kg CO(2)-equivalents per kg carcass weight if direct land use emissions are annualized over 20 years. This is orders of magnitude larger than the figure for beef production on established pasture on non-deforested land. While Brazilian beef exports have originated mainly from areas outside the LAR, i.e. from regions not subject to recent deforestation, we argue that increased production for export has been the key driver of the pasture expansion and deforestation in the LAR during the past decade and this should be reflected in the carbon footprint attributed to beef exports. We conclude that carbon footprint standards must include the more extended effects of land use changes to avoid giving misleading information to policy makers, retailers, and consumers.

  14. Prosocial Behavior and Subjective Insecurity in Violent Contexts: Field Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, María Alejandra; Trujillo, Carlos Andres; Moros, Lina; Forero, Clemente

    2016-01-01

    Subjective insecurity is a key determinant of different forms of prosocial behavior. In Study 1, we used field experiments with farmers in Colombian villages exposed to different levels of violence to investigate how individual perceptions of insecurity affect cooperation, trust, reciprocity and altruism. To do so, we developed a cognitive-affective measure of subjective insecurity. We found that subjective insecurity has a negative effect on cooperation but influences trust and altruism positively. In Study 2, carried out three years after Study 1, we repeated the initial design with additional measures of victimization. Our goal was to relate subjective insecurity with actual victimization. The findings of Study 2 support the initial results, and are robust and consistent for cooperative behavior and trust when including victimization as a mediator. Different indicators of victimization are positively correlated with subjective insecurity and an aggregate index of victimization has a negative effect on cooperation but exerts a positive influence on trust. PMID:27472437

  15. Prosocial Behavior and Subjective Insecurity in Violent Contexts: Field Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, María Alejandra; Trujillo, Carlos Andres; Moros, Lina; Forero, Clemente

    2016-01-01

    Subjective insecurity is a key determinant of different forms of prosocial behavior. In Study 1, we used field experiments with farmers in Colombian villages exposed to different levels of violence to investigate how individual perceptions of insecurity affect cooperation, trust, reciprocity and altruism. To do so, we developed a cognitive-affective measure of subjective insecurity. We found that subjective insecurity has a negative effect on cooperation but influences trust and altruism positively. In Study 2, carried out three years after Study 1, we repeated the initial design with additional measures of victimization. Our goal was to relate subjective insecurity with actual victimization. The findings of Study 2 support the initial results, and are robust and consistent for cooperative behavior and trust when including victimization as a mediator. Different indicators of victimization are positively correlated with subjective insecurity and an aggregate index of victimization has a negative effect on cooperation but exerts a positive influence on trust.

  16. Prosocial Behavior and Subjective Insecurity in Violent Contexts: Field Experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Alejandra Vélez

    Full Text Available Subjective insecurity is a key determinant of different forms of prosocial behavior. In Study 1, we used field experiments with farmers in Colombian villages exposed to different levels of violence to investigate how individual perceptions of insecurity affect cooperation, trust, reciprocity and altruism. To do so, we developed a cognitive-affective measure of subjective insecurity. We found that subjective insecurity has a negative effect on cooperation but influences trust and altruism positively. In Study 2, carried out three years after Study 1, we repeated the initial design with additional measures of victimization. Our goal was to relate subjective insecurity with actual victimization. The findings of Study 2 support the initial results, and are robust and consistent for cooperative behavior and trust when including victimization as a mediator. Different indicators of victimization are positively correlated with subjective insecurity and an aggregate index of victimization has a negative effect on cooperation but exerts a positive influence on trust.

  17. Authentic subjectivity and social transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael O'Sullivan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Holiness in the Christian tradition has often been understood in a way that devalues embodiment and practical engagement with the world of one’s time. The latter understanding, for example, led to Marx’s critique and repudiation of Christianity. Both interpretations of holiness can be understood as mistaken efforts to express the dynamism for authenticity in contextualised human subjectivity. Vatican 2 opposed both views by addressing itself to all people of good will, declaring that everyone was called to holiness, and that authentic Christian identity involved solidarity with the world of one’s time, especially those who are poor. Vatican 2, therefore, provided an authoritative faith foundation for holiness expressed through social commitment and for viewing social commitment on the part of people of good will in whatever state of life as a form of holiness. This vision was also the conviction of leading spirituality writers of the period, like Thomas Merton, and inspired liberation theologians and the Latin American Catholic bishops at their conference in Medellín a few years after the Council. The argument of this article is that the emergence and development of a non-dualist Christian spirituality is grounded methodologically in the correct appropriation of the common innate dynamism for authenticity in concrete human persons and lived spiritual experiences consistent with and capable of enhancing this dynamism.

  18. Clinical management of transsexual subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Elaine Maria Frade; Mendonca, Berenice Bilharinho

    2014-03-01

    Transsexual subjects are individuals who have a desire to live and be accepted as a member of the opposite sex, usually accompanied by a sense of discomfort with, or inappropriateness of, one's anatomic sex, and a wish to have surgery and hormonal treatment to make one's body as congruent as possible with one's preferred sex. They seek to develop the physical characteristics of the desired gender, and should undergo an effective and safe treatment regimen. The goal of treatment is to rehabilitate the individual as a member of society in the gender he or she identifies with. Sex reassignment procedures necessary for the treatment of transsexual patients are allowed in our country, at Medical Services that have a multidisciplinary team composed of a psychologist, a social worker, a psychiatrist, an endocrinologist and surgeons (gynecologists, plastic surgeons, and urologists). Patients must be between 21 to 75 years old and in psychological and hormonal treatment for at least 2 years. Testosterone is the principal agent used to induce male characteristics in female transsexual patients, and the estrogen is the chosen hormone used to induce the female sexual characteristics in male transsexual patients. Based on our 15 years of experience, we can conclude that testosterone and estradiol treatment in physiological doses are effective and safe in female and male transsexual patients, respectively.

  19. Researching Risk: Narrative, Biography, Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Henwood

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article contributes to the development of methodological practices promoting greater epistemic reflexivity in risk research and in social science generally. Knowledge of the specific practices researchers will find useful cannot exist separately from any particular empirical project. Accordingly, we report on, and provide a reflective account of, the "nuclear risk" project that was part of the Social Contexts and Responses to Risk (SCARR network in the UK (2003-2008. A key focus is exploring the value of narrative methods—especially narrative elicitation methods—for understanding people's perceptions of, and ways of living with, risk. We credit our deployment of a narrative method with producing a rich form of data on risk-biography intersections, which have carried great significance in our analytical work on the way biographical experiences, dynamically unfolding through space and time, can be interrupted by risk events. Arguments from the literature on reflexive modernity are deployed to make the case for: researching risk in everyday life as a problematic in and of itself; placing concepts of risk-biography, risk-reflexivity and risk-subjectivity at centre stage; and finding ways to inquire into the social and psychic complexities involved in the dynamic construction and reconstruction of risk phenomena. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1001201

  20. International Energy: Subject Thesaurus. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutkowski, R.W. [ed.

    1997-12-31

    The Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE) is a consortium of member countries around the globe that share their energy research and technology information through ETDE`s database. The Exchange was established in 1987 under the auspices of the International Energy Agency (IEA) and serves all ETDE member countries. The Exchange also collaborates with other entities as appropriate.The International Energy:Subject Thesaurus [ETDE/PUB--2(Rev.2)] contains the standard vocabulary of indexing terms (descriptors) developed and structured to build and maintain energy information databases. Involved in this cooperative task are (1) the technical staff of the U.S. DOE Office of Scientific and technical Information (OSTI) in cooperation with the member countries of the International Energy Agency`s Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE) and (2) the International Atomic Energy Agency`s International Nuclear Information System (INIS) staff representing the more than 100 countries and organizations t hat record and index information for the international nuclear information community. Because all ETDE member countries are also members of INIS, the contents of INIS`s database are included in ETDE`s database. Indexing terminology is therefore cooperatively standardized for use in both information systems. This structured vocabulary reflects the scope of international energy research and technology programs. The terminology of this thesaurus aids in subject searching on commercial systems, such as the online products offered by Knight-Ridder Information Services and STN International and the CD-ROM products offered by Silver Platter and Knight-Ridder. This thesaurus can also be used with the in-house systems provided by some ETDE member countries. Descriptors are added to the thesaurus as needed (i.e., when a document contains a concept for which there is no adequate term or terms in the thesaurus). More than 28,000 entries appear in this document, which replaced International

  1. Biomass partitioning and leaf area of Pinus radiata trees subjected to silvopastoral and conventional forestry in the VI region, Chile Distribución de biomasa y área foliar en árboles de Pinus radiata sometidos a manejo silvopastoral y convencional en la VI región, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROLANDO RODRÍGUEZ

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of silvicultural regimes on leaf area and biomass distribution were analyzed in 16-year old Pinus radiata trees growing in the semiarid zone of Chile. Three stands with different silvopastoral management were compared with a conventionally managed stand. Data were obtained through destructive sampling of 36 trees and analyzed by MANOVA and regression models of ANCOVA. Results show that the management regime affects the leaf area. Specific leaf area was affected by both silvicultural regime and crown position. Total biomass per tree under the silvopastoral regime was 2.1 to 2.5 times larger than in the conventional forestry regime. However, aboveground biomass partitioning was neither affected by the silvicultural regime nor by the schemes of silvopastoral management. The most important allometric change was in fine root biomass, which was greater under the conventional forestry regime than in the silvopastoral one. Fine root biomass increases with a regular distribution of the plants in the field, and decreases with the clumping of trees. Similarly, the fine root biomass decreases with fertilization. Both plantation design and fertilization regimes explain the changes in the fine root biomass to components of the crown. However, crown structure influences the magnitude of these changes.Se analizaron los efectos del régimen silvícola en el área foliar y distribución de biomasa en árboles de Pinus radiata de 16 años, creciendo en la zona semiárida de Chile. Para ello se compararon tres rodales con manejo silvopastoral con uno manejado en forma tradicional. Los datos se obtuvieron mediante muestreo destructivo de 36 árboles y se analizaron mediante MANOVA y regresión en modelos de ANCOVA. Los resultados permiten concluir que el régimen de manejo afectó el área foliar. El área foliar específica fue afectada por el régimen silvícola y su posición en la copa. La biomasa total por árbol con régimen silvopastoral es 2,1 a

  2. If, Why, and When Subjective Well-Being Influences Health, and Future Needed Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diener, Ed; Pressman, Sarah D; Hunter, John; Delgadillo-Chase, Desiree

    2017-07-01

    We review evidence on whether subjective well-being (SWB) can influence health, why it might do so, and what we know about the conditions where this is more or less likely to occur. This review also explores how various methodological approaches inform the study of the connections between subjective well-being and health and longevity outcomes. Our review of this growing literature indicates areas where data are substantial and where much more research is needed. We conclude that SWB can sometimes influence health, and review a number of reasons why it does so. A key open question is when it does and does not do so-in terms of populations likely to be affected, types of SWB that are most influential (including which might be harmful), and types of health and illnesses that are most likely to be affected. We also describe additional types of research that are now much needed in this burgeoning area of interest, for example, cross-cultural studies, animal research, and experimental interventions designed to raise long-term SWB and assess the effects on physical health. This research area is characterised both by potentially extremely important findings, and also by pivotal research issues and questions. © 2017 The Authors. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Association of Applied Psychology.

  3. The action principle for generalized fluid motion including gyroviscosity

    CERN Document Server

    Lingam, M

    2014-01-01

    A general set of fluid equations that allow for energy-conserving momentum transport by gyroscopic motion of fluid elements is obtained. The equations are produced by a class of action principles that yield a large subset of the known fluid and magnetofluid models, including gyroviscosity. Analysis of the action principle yields broad, model-independent results regarding the conservation laws of energy and linear and angular momenta. The formalism is illustrated by studying fluid models with intrinsic angular momentum that may appear in the contexts of condensed matter, biological, and other areas of physics.

  4. Auditors’ Assessments of Materiality Between Professional Judgment and Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saher Aqel

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Materiality has been and continues to be a topic of importance for auditors. It is considered as a significant factor in the planning of the audit procedures, performing the planned audit procedures, evaluating the results of the audit procedures and issuing an audit report. Recently, there has been a renewed interest in the concept of materiality motivated by concerns at the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, Securities and Exchange Commission and International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board issuance of proposed standards on materiality. The objective of this paper is to discuss and analyze comprehensively the concept of audit materiality including how materiality threshold is determined by auditors. Auditing standards settings bodies pointed out that auditor’s determination of materiality threshold is a matter of professional judjment. As a judgmental concept, however, materiality is susceptible to subjectivity. Furthermore, the absence of audting standards on how materiality is determined has highlighted the significance of this issue and indicated that guidance for materiality professional judgments must come from other non-authoritative sources such as empirical researches. A number of new and important areas of materiality are in need of further investigation.

  5. The Observation and Execution of Actions Share Motor and Somatosensory Voxels in all Tested Subjects: Single-Subject Analyses of Unsmoothed fMRI Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keysers, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Many neuroimaging studies of the mirror neuron system (MNS) examine if certain voxels in the brain are shared between action observation and execution (shared voxels, sVx). Unfortunately, finding sVx in standard group analyses is not a guarantee that sVx exist in individual subjects. Using unsmoothed, single-subject analyses we show sVx can be reliably found in all 16 investigated participants. Beside the ventral premotor (BA6/44) and inferior parietal cortex (area PF) where mirror neurons (MNs) have been found in monkeys, sVx were reliably observed in dorsal premotor, supplementary motor, middle cingulate, somatosensory (BA3, BA2, and OP1), superior parietal, middle temporal cortex and cerebellum. For the premotor, somatosensory and parietal areas, sVx were more numerous in the left hemisphere. The hand representation of the primary motor cortex showed a reduced BOLD during hand action observation, possibly preventing undesired overt imitation. This study provides a more detailed description of the location and reliability of sVx and proposes a model that extends the original idea of the MNS to include forward and inverse internal models and motor and sensory simulation, distinguishing the MNS from a more general concept of sVx. PMID:19020203

  6. 50 CFR 665.798 - Management area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Management area. 665.798 Section 665.798 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION....798 Management area. The western Pacific Pelagic fishery management area includes all areas of fishing...

  7. Dynamic Analysis of Wind Turbines Including Soil-Structure Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harte, M.; Basu, B.; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    2012-01-01

    blades and includes the effect of centrifugal stiffening due to rotation. The foundation of the structure is modeled as a rigid gravity based foundation with two DOF whose movement is related to the surrounding soil by means of complex impedance functions generated using cone model. Transfer functions...... for displacement of the turbine system are obtained and the modal frequencies of the combined turbine-foundation system are estimated. Simulations are presented for the MDOF turbine structure subjected to wind loading for different soil stiffness conditions. Steady state and turbulent wind loading, developed using...... blade element momentum theory and the Kaimal spectrum, have been considered. Soil stiffness and damping properties acquired from DNV/Risø standards are used as a comparison. The soil-structure interaction is shown to affect the response of the wind turbine. This is examined in terms of the turbine...

  8. Thermogenic effect of glucose in hypothyroid subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozacz, Agnieszka; Grunt, Paulina; Steczkowska, Marta; Mikulski, Tomasz; Dąbrowski, Jan; Górecka, Monika; Sanocka, Urszula; Ziemba, Andrzej Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    The importance of thyroid hormone, catecholamines, and insulin in modification of the thermogenic effect of glucose (TEG) was examined in 34 healthy and 32 hypothyroid subjects. We calculated the energy expenditure at rest and during oral glucose tolerance test. Blood samples for determinations of glucose, plasma insulin, adrenaline (A), and noradrenaline (NA) were collected. It was found that TEG was lower in hypothyroid than in control group (19.68 ± 3.90 versus 55.40 ± 7.32 kJ, resp., P < 0.0004). Mean values of glucose and insulin areas under the curve were higher in women with hypothyroidism than in control group (286.79 ± 23.65 versus 188.41 ± 15.84 mmol/L·min, P < 0.003 and 7563.27 ± 863.65 versus 4987.72 ± 583.88 mU/L·min, P < 0.03 resp.). Maximal levels of catecholamines after glucose ingestion were higher in hypothyroid patients than in control subjects (Amax-0.69 ± 0.08 versus 0.30 ± 0.07 nmol/L, P < 0.0001, and NAmax-6.42 ± 0.86 versus 2.54 ± 0.30 nmol/L, P < 0.0002). It can be concluded that in hypothyroidism TEG and glucose tolerance are decreased while the adrenergic response to glucose administration is enhanced. Presumably, these changes are related to decreased insulin sensitivity and responsiveness to catecholamine action.

  9. Thermogenic Effect of Glucose in Hypothyroid Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kozacz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of thyroid hormone, catecholamines, and insulin in modification of the thermogenic effect of glucose (TEG was examined in 34 healthy and 32 hypothyroid subjects. We calculated the energy expenditure at rest and during oral glucose tolerance test. Blood samples for determinations of glucose, plasma insulin, adrenaline (A, and noradrenaline (NA were collected. It was found that TEG was lower in hypothyroid than in control group (19.68±3.90 versus 55.40±7.32 kJ, resp., P<0.0004. Mean values of glucose and insulin areas under the curve were higher in women with hypothyroidism than in control group (286.79±23.65 versus 188.41±15.84 mmol/L·min, P<0.003 and 7563.27±863.65 versus 4987.72±583.88 mU/L·min, P<0.03 resp.. Maximal levels of catecholamines after glucose ingestion were higher in hypothyroid patients than in control subjects (Amax—0.69±0.08 versus 0.30±0.07 nmol/L, P<0.0001, and NAmax—6.42±0.86 versus 2.54±0.30 nmol/L, P<0.0002. It can be concluded that in hypothyroidism TEG and glucose tolerance are decreased while the adrenergic response to glucose administration is enhanced. Presumably, these changes are related to decreased insulin sensitivity and responsiveness to catecholamine action.

  10. Correlations of subjectively assessed fleece and conformation traits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data used for this study were collected on the Carnarvon Afrino flock from 1986 to 1998, and include data records on several subjectively assessed traits, body weight and fleece traits of 3291 animals, the progeny of 127 sires and 772 dams. Reproduction data of 686 ewes born from 1986 to 1997 were also included.

  11. The relationships between faecal worm egg count and subjectively ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2014-08-02

    Aug 2, 2014 ... globally has included the genetics of nematode resistance and resilience in sheep flocks, using faecal worm egg count ... 2007). Studies of the genetic correlation between FEC and other subjectively assessed wool and .... (2014). The model including only the direct additive genetic effect of animal (σ2 a).

  12. Capitalist Discourse, Subjectivity and Lacanian Psychoanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanheule, Stijn

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies how subjectivity in capitalist culture can be characterized. Building on Lacan's later seminars XVI, XVII, XVIII, and XIX, the author first outlines Lacan's general discourse theory, which includes four characteristic discourses: the discourse of the master, the discourse of the university, the discourse of the hysteric and the discourse of the analyst. Next, the author explores the subjectivity and the mode of dealing with jouissance and semblance, which is entailed in a fifth type of discourse, the capitalist discourse, discussed by Lacan (1972). Indeed, like the other discourses that Lacan discerns, the discourse of the capitalist can be thought of as a mode of dealing with the sexual non-rapport. It is argued that in the case of neurosis the discourse of the capitalist functions as an attempt to ignore the sexual non-rapport and the dimension of the unconscious. Psychosis, by contrast, is marked by an a priori exclusion from discourse. In that case, consumerist ways of relating to the other might offer a semblance, and thus the possibility of inventing a mode of relating to the other. Two clinical vignettes are presented to illustrate this perspective: one concerning the neurotic structure and one concerning the psychotic structure. PMID:28018280

  13. Capitalist Discourse, Subjectivity and Lacanian Psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanheule, Stijn

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies how subjectivity in capitalist culture can be characterized. Building on Lacan's later seminars XVI, XVII, XVIII, and XIX, the author first outlines Lacan's general discourse theory, which includes four characteristic discourses: the discourse of the master, the discourse of the university, the discourse of the hysteric and the discourse of the analyst. Next, the author explores the subjectivity and the mode of dealing with jouissance and semblance, which is entailed in a fifth type of discourse, the capitalist discourse, discussed by Lacan (1972). Indeed, like the other discourses that Lacan discerns, the discourse of the capitalist can be thought of as a mode of dealing with the sexual non-rapport. It is argued that in the case of neurosis the discourse of the capitalist functions as an attempt to ignore the sexual non-rapport and the dimension of the unconscious. Psychosis, by contrast, is marked by an a priori exclusion from discourse. In that case, consumerist ways of relating to the other might offer a semblance, and thus the possibility of inventing a mode of relating to the other. Two clinical vignettes are presented to illustrate this perspective: one concerning the neurotic structure and one concerning the psychotic structure.

  14. Capitalist discourse, subjectivity and Lacanian psychoanalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stijn Vanheule

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies how subjectivity in capitalist culture can be characterised. Building on Lacan’s later seminars XVI, XVII, XVIII and XIX, the author first outlines Lacan’s general discourse theory, which includes four characteristic discourses: the discourse of the master, the discourse of the university, the discourse of the hysteric and the discourse of the analyst. Next, the author explores the subjectivity and the mode of dealing with jouissance and semblance, which is entailed in a fifth type of discourse, the capitalist discourse, discussed by Lacan in 1972. Indeed, like the other discourses that Lacan discerns, the discourse of the capitalist can be thought of as a mode of dealing with the sexual non-rapport. It is argued that in the case of neurosis the discourse of the capitalist functions as an attempt to ignore the sexual non-rapport and the dimension of the unconscious. Psychosis, by contrast, is marked by an a priori exclusion from discourse. In that case, consumerist ways of relating to the other might offer a semblance, and thus the possibility of inventing a mode of relating to the other. Two clinical vignettes are presented to illustrate this perspective: one concerning the neurotic structure and one concerning the psychotic structure.

  15. International Energy: Subject Thesaurus. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    The International Energy Agency: Subject Thesaurus contains the standard vocabulary of indexing terms (descriptors) developed and structured to build and maintain energy information databases. Involved in this cooperative task are (1) the technical staff of the USDOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) in cooperation with the member countries of the International Energy Agency`s Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE) and (2) the International Atomic Energy Agency`s International Nuclear Information System (INIS) staff representing the more than 100 countries and organizations that record and index information for the international nuclear information community. ETDE member countries are also members of INIS. Nuclear information prepared for INIS by ETDE member countries is included in the ETDE Energy Database, which contains the online equivalent of the printed INIS Atomindex. Indexing terminology is therefore cooperatively standardized for use in both information systems. This structured vocabulary reflects thscope of international energy research, development, and technological programs. The terminology of this thesaurus aids in subject searching on commercial systems, such as ``Energy Science & Technology`` by DIALOG Information Services, ``Energy`` by STN International and the ``ETDE Energy Database`` by SilverPlatter. It is also the thesaurus for the Integrated Technical Information System (ITIS) online databases of the US Department of Energy.

  16. Corneal Biomechanics Determination in Healthy Myopic Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Kunliang; Lu, Xuehui; Zhang, Riping; Wang, Geng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the corneal biomechanical properties by using the Ocular Response Analyzer™ and to investigate potential factors associated with the corneal biomechanics in healthy myopic subjects. Methods. 135 eyes from 135 healthy myopic subjects were included in this cross-sectional observational study. Cornea hysteresis (CH), corneal resistance factor (CRF), cornea-compensated intraocular pressure (IOPcc), and Goldmann-correlated intraocular pressure (IOPg) were determined with the Reichert Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA). Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to investigate factors associated with corneal biomechanics. Results. The mean CH and CRF were 9.82 ± 1.34 mmHg and 9.64 ± 1.57 mmHg, respectively. In univariate regression analysis, CH was significantly correlated with axial length, refraction, central corneal thickness (CCT), and IOPg (r = −0.27, 0.23, 0.45, and 0.21, resp.; all with p ≤ 0.015), but not with corneal curvature or age; CRF was significantly correlated with CCT and IOPg (r = 0.52 and 0.70, resp.; all with p corneal curvature, or age. In multivariate regression analysis, axial length, IOPcc, and CCT were found to be independently associated with CH, while CCT and IOPg were associated with CRF. Conclusions. Both CH and CRF were positively correlated with CCT. Lower CH but not CRF was associated with increasing degree of myopia. Evaluation of corneal biomechanical properties should take CCT and myopic status into consideration. PMID:27525109

  17. Comparison of static postural balance between healthy subjects and those with low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Alice Bernardi; Rodrigues, Ana Carolina de Mello Alves; de Lima, Giliane Vanessa Moraes Pereira; de Melo, Larissa Rabello; de Carvalho, Alberito Rodrigo; Bertolini, Gladson Ricardo Flor

    2012-01-01

    To compare the static postural balance between women suffering from chronic low back pain and healthy subjects, by moving the center of pressure. The study included 15 women with low back pain (LBP group) and 15 healthy women (healthy group). They were instructed to remain in standing on the force platform for 30 seconds. We analyzed the area and the speed of displacement of center of pressure of both groups. Data analysis was performed using the Student's t-test, with significance of 5%. Individuals with chronic low back pain showed a larger area of displacement of the center of pressure relative to the healthy ones but there was no significant difference in the speed of displacement of the center of pressure. Individuals with chronic low back pain had alterations in static balance with respect to healthy ones. Level of Evidence III, Prognostic Studies.

  18. Feasibility study on a complete system of production, transportation and utilization of about 7 MTa of CWS from Shenmu area and Yellow Sea (China). Results of a Beijing symposium on the subject in Beijing (April 1994) and creation of a World Laboratory research centre ad hoc in Beijing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novelli, G.; Wang Zuna [ICSC World Lab., Lausanne (Switzerland). Project NET-1

    1996-12-31

    The authors had occasion at a coal-water slurry conference in Clearwater to present a preliminary part of a feasibility study, in cooperation with an Italian and a Chinese team, for a complete integrated project of mining, slurryfication, transportation via pipeline, and utilization of 7 millions tons/year of coal. This study started in 1987 and was presented to the Chinese authority on April 1994 in a specific symposium in Beijing with a participation of 60 scientists from Italy and P.R. China. During this long period of cooperation and exchange between the parties, it was possible to organize a complete and advanced Centre of Research in Beijing supplied with modern equipment that is now in full operation and is producing work of very good quality. The goal of this paper is to summarize the above mentioned experience and describe the new Centre, the present status and the future developments. The study and the equipment of the Centre was sponsored by the World Laboratory an International Institution established in Lausanne under the presidency of Prof. A. Zichichi. This organization supported particularly by the Italian government is responsible for several programs of cooperation between N-S-E-W countries in all the critical areas of planetary importance (health, energy, agriculture, food, environment).

  19. Upcoming treatments in Parkinson's disease, including gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodnitzky, Robert L

    2012-01-01

    Progress is being made in the development of three categories of therapy for Parkinson's disease: (1) Symptomatic, (2) Neuroprotective, (3) Neurorestorative. Evolving approaches to symptomatic therapy, already in clinical trials, include the use of adenosine 2(A) antagonists, novel glutamate antagonists, and serotonin receptor antagonists, the latter for the therapy of Parkinson's psychosis and/or levodopa-induced dyskinesias. Examples of promising neuroprotective therapies under evaluation include the administration of creatine, urate-inducing compounds, calcium channel blockers, and pioglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonist. Cell-based restorative therapies are not the subject of this presentation, but various forms of gene therapy have shown promise in human Parkinson's disease trials. These protocols typically involve gene transfer into the CNS through the use of viral vectors. Currently, the most advanced studies of this technique involve delivery of an adeno-associated viral vector encoding glutamic acid decarboxylase into the subthalamic nucleus. This treatment has shown modest benefit in early clinical trials. Other gene therapies, in various stages of human clinical trials, include gene transfer for the production of trophic factors, for aromatic amino acid decarboxylase alone, and most recently, a lentiviral vector transfer of an enzymatic dopamine "factory" consisting of three essential enzymes required for production for this neurotransmitter. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Goal Orientation Dan Subjective Well Being Pada Lansia

    OpenAIRE

    Desiningrum, Dinie Ratri

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the relationship between goal orientation and subjective well-being in the elderly, which includes psychological well-being, emotional well-being and social well-being. The research subjects consisted of 90 elderly from the elderly group Adi Yuswo and Wulandaru Semarang obtained through simple random sampling. The data were obtained using a measuring instrument goal orientation (18 items, α = .87), psychological well-being (33 items, α = .92), social well-being (33...

  1. Enhancement of subject description of fiction with annotations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Šauperl

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In Slovenia, subject description of fiction was traditionally limited to the Universal Decimal Classification number, which was mainly assigned for shelving. Readers found their books by browsing the library shelves, while librarians had to rely on their personal familiarity with the library collection if they wanted to advise readers on the selection of books. Subject description, such as is often associated with non-literary works, would require a lot of time. Therefore, we wanted to know whether reading book reviews in newspapers could replace reading the entire literary work. We analysed a small sample of book reviews written by literary critics and published in Slovenian newspapers and compared them to the reviews, written by librarians for the same literary works (in the »Priporočamo!« project. We realized that the content is different. However, they could be used for identification of additional subject headings. The same findings resulted from a similar analysis of literary works written for children. Concepts, that seemed potentially appropriate subject headings, often actually do not appear in the Slovenian subject headings or subject headings from the Pionirska knjižnica of Ljubljana. Both subject heading lists should include a larger number of abstract concepts, which more often appear in literary than in non-literary works. Both subject heading lists should also be coordinated.

  2. The neural subjective frame: from bodily signals to perceptual consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyeong-Dong; Tallon-Baudry, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    The report ‘I saw the stimulus’ operationally defines visual consciousness, but where does the ‘I’ come from? To account for the subjective dimension of perceptual experience, we introduce the concept of the neural subjective frame. The neural subjective frame would be based on the constantly updated neural maps of the internal state of the body and constitute a neural referential from which first person experience can be created. We propose to root the neural subjective frame in the neural representation of visceral information which is transmitted through multiple anatomical pathways to a number of target sites, including posterior insula, ventral anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala and somatosensory cortex. We review existing experimental evidence showing that the processing of external stimuli can interact with visceral function. The neural subjective frame is a low-level building block of subjective experience which is not explicitly experienced by itself which is necessary but not sufficient for perceptual experience. It could also underlie other types of subjective experiences such as self-consciousness and emotional feelings. Because the neural subjective frame is tightly linked to homeostatic regulations involved in vigilance, it could also make a link between state and content consciousness. PMID:24639580

  3. 7 CFR 1160.115 - Milk marketing area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Milk marketing area. 1160.115 Section 1160.115... Order Definitions § 1160.115 Milk marketing area. Milk marketing area means each area within which milk being marketed is subject to a milk marketing order issued pursuant to the Agricultural Marketing...

  4. Occupation as a factor of personality subjective wellbeing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karapetyan L.V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines personality subjective well-being and describes its psychological structure, general components and characteristics. An overview of foreign theories and studies on subjective well-being is presented. Correlations among related concepts such as happiness, life satisfaction and subjective well-being are also described. Subjective well-being is seen as a multivariate construction of a stable nature in mobile equilibrium. It is argued that a type of professional activity can have great importance and a positive impact on an individual’s social life, health, identity shaping and psychological wellness. This article’s findings are substantiated by the survey administered to 2229 respondents divided into groups according to their area of business: students, psychologists, doctors, teachers, engineering and technical staff, representatives of service industries, workers, military men, and prisoners. The descriptors identified two types of natures: positive, directed to a person’s inner world (happy, lucky, optimistic and to the outer world (trustworthy, competent, successful, and negative (pessimistic, unhappy, envious. This division of nature type was categorized according to the participants’ subjective well-being index. Empirical evidence has shown that occupational specificity influences a person’s subjective well-being. A substantial difference was found in subjective well-being index of the respondents. A higher index is typical of students and military men. Educators and industrial intelligentsia also demonstrate an increased level of subjective well-being, whereas prisoners tend to have a low level of subjective well-being. The same low index is characteristic of servicing trade representatives and psychologists.

  5. Eliciting Subjective Probabilities with Binary Lotteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Swarthout, J. Todd

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate a binary lottery procedure for inducing risk neutral behavior in a subjective belief elicitation task. Prior research has shown this procedure to robustly induce risk neutrality when subjects are given a single risk task defined over objective probabilities. Drawing a sample from...... the same subject population, we find evidence that the binary lottery procedure also induces linear utility in a subjective probability elicitation task using the Quadratic Scoring Rule. We also show that the binary lottery procedure can induce direct revelation of subjective probabilities in subjects...

  6. Congenital pouch colon in female subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarin Y

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Over a period of 5-year (May 2000 to April 2005 29 patients of congenital pouch colon (CPC were managed by single pediatric surgeon in the Department of Pediatric Surgery of a tertiary hospital. Of these, 11 were girls (M: F: 1.6:1. Detailed anatomy could be studied in nine patients, were included in this study. Age of presentation in female subjects ranged 1 day to 8 years. On examination, eight of the nine patients had single perineal opening suggesting a very high incidence of association of cloaca in female subjects with CPC. Four had short urogenital sinus with colonic pouch opening in the posterior wall of urinary bladder. In other two patients, CPC terminated in short cloaca. Anomalies of mullerian structures such as uterus didelphus and septate vagina ware commonly encountered. Proximal diversion with or without pouch excision was done as the initial preliminary treatment for all those patients who presented in early life. Of the nine girls, two died after the preliminary surgery. Only five patients have undergone definitive surgery. Definitive surgery included abdomino-perineal pull-through of proximal normal colon ( n =2, tubularization of pouch with abdomino- posterior sagittal- pull through ( n =2 and abdomino-posterior sagittal urethra-vaginoanorectoplasty with pull through of tapered pouch colon in one patient. Two of these patients had concomitant bowel vaginoplasty. Three patients with tubularized pouches had constipation and spurious diarrhea. However, good pseudo-continence of bowel was achieved on regular bowel washes. The cosmetic appearance of perineum in all these three patients was acceptable. The patients in whom pouch excision was done had diarrhea and severe perineal excoriation resistant to conservative management.

  7. Clinical trials. A pending subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Extremera, B; Jiménez-López, P; Mediavilla-García, J D

    2017-07-31

    Clinical trials are essential tools for the progress of clinical medicine in its diagnostic and therapeutic aspects. Since the first trial in 1948, which related tobacco use with lung cancer, there have been more than 150,000 clinical trials to date in various areas (paediatrics, cardiology, oncology, endocrinology, etc.). This article highlights the importance for all physicians to participate, over the course of their professional career, in a clinical trial, due to the inherent benefits for patients, the progress of medicine and for curricular prestige. The authors have created a synthesis of their experience with clinical trials on hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia and ischaemic heart disease over the course of almost 3 decades. Furthermore, a brief reference has been made to the characteristics of a phase I unit, as well as to a number of research studies currently underway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  8. Investigating the Neural Bases for Intra-Subject Cognitive Efficiency Using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neena K. Rao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Several fMRI studies have examined brain regions mediating inter-subject variability in cognitive efficiency, but none have examined regions mediating intra-subject variability in efficiency. Thus, the present study was designed to identify brain regions involved in intra-subject variability in cognitive efficiency via participant-level correlations between trial-level reaction time (RT and trial-level fMRI BOLD percent signal change on a processing speed task. On each trial, participants indicated whether a digit-symbol probe-pair was present or absent in an array of nine digit-symbol probe-pairs while fMRI data were collected. Deconvolution analyses, using RT time-series models (derived from the proportional scaling of an event-related hemodynamic response function model by trial-level RT, were used to evaluate relationships between trial-level RTs and BOLD percent signal change. Although task-related patterns of activation and deactivation were observed in regions including bilateral occipital, bilateral parietal, portions of the medial wall such as the precuneus, default mode network regions including anterior cingulate, posterior cingulate, bilateral temporal, right cerebellum, and right cuneus, RT-BOLD correlations were observed in a more circumscribed set of regions. Positive RT-related patterns, or RT-BOLD correlations where fast RTs were associated with lower BOLD percent signal change, were observed in regions including bilateral occipital, bilateral parietal, and the precuneus. RT-BOLD correlations were not observed in the default mode network indicating a smaller set of regions associated with intra-subject variability in cognitive efficiency. The results are discussed in terms of a distributed area of regions that mediate variability in the cognitive efficiency that might underlie processing speed differences between individuals.

  9. BAHNG score: predictive model for detection of subjects with the oropharynx colonized by uncommon microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Del Castillo, J; Teja-Marina, J; Candel, F J; Barberán, J; Moreno-Cuervo, A; Chiarella, F; López-González, L; Ramos-Cordero, P; Martín-Sánchez, F J

    2017-11-06

    Pneumonia is most frequently produced by the microaspiration of flora that colonizes the oropharynx. Etiological diagnosis of pneumonia is infrequent in clinical practise and empirical treatment should be prescribed. The aims of the present study were to determine the factors associated with oropharynx colonization by uncommon microorganisms (UM) and to develop a predictive model. A cross-sectional study that included all pa-tients living in one long-term care facilities was developed. Demographic, comorbidities, basal functional status and clinical data were collected. To determinate the oropharyngeal colonization, a single sample of pharynx was obtained for each subject using a cotton swab. A total of 221 subjects were included, mean age 86.27 (SD 8.05) years and 157 (71%) were female. In 32 (14.5%) subjects UM flora was isolated, Gram-negative bacilli in 16 (7.2%) residents, and Staphylococcus aureus in 16 (7.2%). The predictive model included the presence of hypertension, neuromuscular disease, Barthel <90 and use of PEG. The BAHNG score (BArthel, Hypertension, Neuromuscular, Gastrostomy), showed an area under the curve of 0.731 (CI 95% 0.643-0.820; p<0.001). We have classified patients according to this score in low (0-2 points), intermediate (3-5 points) and high risk (≥ 6). The probability of UM colonization in the oropharyngeal based on this classification is 4.1%, 15.8% and 57.1% for low, intermediate and high risk, respectively. The BAHNG score could help in the identifications of elderly patients with high risk of colonization by UM. In case of pneumonia the evaluation of the subject through this score could help in the initial decisions concerning antibiotic treatment.

  10. Brain correlates of craving for online gaming under cue exposure in subjects with Internet gaming addiction and in remitted subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Chih-Hung; Liu, Gin-Chung; Yen, Ju-Yu; Chen, Chiao-Yun; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Cheng-Sheng

    2013-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate brain correlates of cue-induced craving to play online games in subjects with Internet gaming addiction (IGA), subjects in remission from IGA and controls. The craving response was assessed by event-related design of functional magnetic resonance images (fMRIs). Fifteen subjects with IGA, 15 in remission from IGA and 15 controls were recruited in this study. The subjects were arranged to view the gaming screenshots and neutral images under investigation of fMRIs. The results showed that bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), precuneus, left parahippocampus, posterior cingulate and right anterior cingulate were activated in response to gaming cues in the IGA group and their activation was stronger in the IGA group than those in the control group. Their region-of-interest was also positively correlated with subjective gaming urge under cue exposure. These activated brain areas represent the brain circuit corresponding to the mechanism of substance use disorder. Thus, it would suggest that the mechanism of IGA is similar to substance use disorder. Furthermore, the IGA group had stronger activation over right DLPFC and left parahippocampus than did the remission group. The two areas would be candidate markers for current addiction to online gaming and should be investigated in future studies. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  11. Science and Technology Business Area Strategic Plan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paul, Richard

    2000-01-01

    The S&T Business Area Strategic Plan has been updated to include lessons learned over the last two years, identifies areas that need to be reviewed further, addresses business opportunities and threats...

  12. Prevalence of pachycondyla chinensis venom allergy in an ant-infested area in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, You Sook; Lee, Young-Mok; Lee, Chang-Keun; Yoo, Bin; Park, Hae-Sim; Moon, Hee-Bom

    2002-07-01

    Recently, immediate allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis, after Pachycondyla chinensis ant stings have been frequently reported in Korea. To estimate the prevalence of these reactions and the sensitization rate to P chinensis, we undertook a visit-questionnaire survey of the 327 adult residents living in a town in an ant-infested area in Korea. Skin prick tests with 6 common inhalant allergens, 3 bee venom allergens, and P chinensis whole body extract were performed on all ant-allergic subjects, on 86 asymptomatic residents, and on 37 controls outside the area. The serum-specific IgE to P chinensis extract was determined by ELISA. Seven subjects (2.1%) reported that they had experienced systemic allergic reactions to P chinensis stings; 4 of them had anaphylactic reactions. Large local reactions occurred in an additional 5 subjects (1.6%). All subjects with systemic allergic reactions had positive skin prick test results to P chinensis extract, whereas 23.3% of asymptomatic residents and 2.7% of the controls showed positive skin prick test results. The serum-specific IgE level was significantly higher in the subjects with systemic reactions than in the subjects with local reactions, the asymptomatic sensitizers, and the nonatopic controls. Sensitization to bee venom was found in 25% of the P chinensis -allergic subjects; this was significantly higher than the 3% rate seen in nonsensitized subjects. In conclusion, we report a 2.1% prevalence of systemic allergic reactions after P chinensis stings, based on self-reported symptoms, in an ant-infested area in Korea.

  13. Beer, wine, spirits and subjective health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbaek, M; Mortensen, E L; Mygind, K

    1999-01-01

    To examine the association between intake of different types of alcoholic beverages and self reported subjective health.......To examine the association between intake of different types of alcoholic beverages and self reported subjective health....

  14. A Reactive Behavior Agent: Including Emotions into a Video Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Laureano-Cruces

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Why we have emotions and how they influence human behavior are two questions we constantly ask ourselves.According to researchers in the field, there are two kinds of information that the person receives to make a decision.This information is integrated to generate a whole. One comes from ourselves it is proprioceptive and refers toemotions; the other one is external, it comes from the environment. Thus, emotions are immersed in different areas ofa person’s life, including social, functional, and cognitive aspects. It has an important role in the decision-makingprocess. It is on this last point that this paper focuses its approach, which consists of including a cognitive structure ofemotions in a reactive behavior in order to enrich behavior, including the information generated through internalevaluation of the external physical stimuli. Our work is based on the OCC theory (named after the name of its authors:Ortony, Collins and Clore. This theory proposes that a decision-making process is affected through differentperspectives: a goals and events, b agents and their actions, and c objects and their capacity for attraction. Thecase study is situated within a scenario that represents an approach that seeks to include a module of emotions withinthe design of the architecture of a videogame.

  15. Anterior and posterior ocular biometry in healthy Chinese subjects: data based on AS-OCT and SS-OCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenbin; Gao, Xinbo; Li, Xingyi; Wang, Jiawei; Chen, Shida; Wang, Wei; Du, Shaolin; He, Mingguang; Zhang, Xiulan

    2015-01-01

    To measure the anterior and posterior ocular biometric characteristics concurrently and to determine the relationship between the iris and choroid in healthy Chinese subjects. A total of 148 subjects (270 eyes) were enrolled in this cross-section study. The anterior and posterior ocular biometric characteristics were measured simultaneously by anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) and swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). Compared with male eyes, female eyes had narrower anterior biometric parameters that presented with smaller anterior segment parameters [including anterior chamber depth (ACD), width (ACW), area (ACA), and volume (ACV); (all piris space area (TISA750), and angle recess area (ARA); (all piris curvature (ICURV) (p = 0.003), and larger lens vaults (LV) (p = 0.019). These anterior ocular biometric parameters were correlated with increasing age (pIris thickness (IT750) and iris area (IAREA) were associated with age, ACW, and pupil diameter (all pbiometric parameters that correlated with increasing age, which would be helpful in explaining the higher prevalence of angle closure rates in the female gender and in aging people. Increased CT might be associated with smaller iris area; however, this possibility needs to be investigated in future studies before this conclusion is made.

  16. The effect of predictability on subjective duration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vani Pariyadath

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Events can sometimes appear longer or shorter in duration than other events of equal length. For example, in a repeated presentation of auditory or visual stimuli, an unexpected object of equivalent duration appears to last longer. Illusions of duration distortion beg an important question of time representation: when durations dilate or contract, does time in general slow down or speed up during that moment? In other words, what entailments do duration distortions have with respect to other timing judgments? We here show that when a sound or visual flicker is presented in conjunction with an unexpected visual stimulus, neither the pitch of the sound nor the frequency of the flicker is affected by the apparent duration dilation. This demonstrates that subjective time in general is not slowed; instead, duration judgments can be manipulated with no concurrent impact on other temporal judgments. Like spatial vision, time perception appears to be underpinned by a collaboration of separate neural mechanisms that usually work in concert but are separable. We further show that the duration dilation of an unexpected stimulus is not enhanced by increasing its saliency, suggesting that the effect is more closely related to prediction violation than enhanced attention. Finally, duration distortions induced by violations of progressive number sequences implicate the involvement of high-level predictability, suggesting the involvement of areas higher than primary visual cortex. We suggest that duration distortions can be understood in terms of repetition suppression, in which neural responses to repeated stimuli are diminished.

  17. Fear-learning deficits in subjects with fibromyalgia syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenewein, J.; Moergeli, H.; Sprott, H.; Honegger, D.; Brunner, L.; Ettlin, D.; Grillon, C.; Bloch, K.; Brügger, M.; Schwegler, K.; Schumacher, S.; Hasler, G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is frequently associated with psychiatric conditions, particularly anxiety. Deficits in contingency learning during fear conditioning have been hypothesized to increase anxiety and, consequently, pain sensation in susceptible individuals. The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between contingency learning and pain experience in subjects with FMS and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods Fourteen female FMS subjects, 14 age-matched female RA subjects and 14 age-matched female healthy controls (HCs) were included in a fear-conditioning experiment. The conditioned stimulus (CS) consisted of visual signs, the unconditioned stimulus (US) of thermal stimuli. CS− predicted low-temperature exposure (US), while CS+ was followed by low or high temperature. Results In the FMS group, only 50% of the subjects were aware of the US–CS contingency, whereas 86% of the RA subjects and all of the HCs were aware of the contingency. CS+ induced more anxiety than CS− in RA subjects and HCs. As expected, low-temperature exposure was experienced as less painful after CS− than after CS+ in these subjects. FMS subjects did not show such adaptive conditioning. The effects of the type of CS on heart rate changes were significant in the HCs and the aware FMS subjects, but not in the unaware FMS subjects. Conclusions Contingency learning deficits represent a potentially promising and specific, but largely unstudied, psychopathological factor in FMS. Deficits in contingency learning may increase anxiety and, consequently, pain sensation. These findings have the potential to contribute to the development of novel therapeutic approaches for FMS. PMID:23468076

  18. 76 FR 61741 - Bmc Software, Inc. Including On-Site Leased Workers From COMSYS ITS Including Remote Workers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... have occurred involving employees of the subject firm who telework from off-site locations throughout... the subject firm who telework and report into the Houston, Texas facility. The intent of the...

  19. Single Subject Research: Applications to Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakiroglu, Orhan

    2012-01-01

    Single subject research is a scientific research methodology that is increasingly used in the field of special education. Therefore, understanding the unique characteristics of single subject research methodology is critical both for educators and practitioners. Certain characteristics make single subject research one of the most preferred…

  20. Subject Choice and Earnings of UK Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    Using a survey of a cohort of UK graduates, linked to administrative data on higher education participation, this paper investigates the labour market attainment of recent graduates by subject of study. We document a large heterogeneity in the mean wages of graduates from different subjects and a considerably larger one within subject with…

  1. The changing role of the subject specialist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Cotta-Schønberg

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available As we all know, libraries are these years rapidly undergoing change on unparalleled scale. Evidently, this applies to librarians, too, and not the least to that important category of library staff, the subject specialist. As recruiting and education of library workers differ from country to country it is difficult to give a detailed, generally valid description of the subject librarian in libraries, but I believe that you can describe an ideal model of subject librarianship as follows: Within each of the major subject disciplines covered by the library, the library should have a subject specialist preferably with a master degree or at least a bachelor degree in the particular subject discipline. The role of the subject specialist is to perform four basic functions where extensive subject knowledge is considered to be necessary: selecting and classifying books, assisting users with advanced subject inquiries, giving subject-specific courses in information retrieval, and maintaining liaison with relevant academic departments and centres. Personally, I know this system very well since I got employment in the Royal Library in Copenhagen as a subject specialist in psychology in the very month I finished my degree in psychology from the University of Copenhagen, back in 1973. The subject librarian system at the Royal Library in Copenhagen was patterned on the ideal model, as I just described it, and it was closely paralleled in the other academic libraries in Denmark, also the new university libraries which were founded in the seventies.

  2. Sex Education as a Transversal Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabelo, Amanda Oliveira; Pereira, Graziela Raupp; Reis, Maria Amélia; Ferreira, António G.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, sex education is in many countries a transversal subject, in which the school becomes a privileged place for the implementation of policies that aim at promoting "public health." Its design as a cross-cutting subject envisages fostering the dissemination of these subjects in all pedagogical and curricular fields; however, we…

  3. Geometry of area without length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Pei-Ming; Inami, Takeo

    2016-01-01

    To define a free string by the Nambu-Goto action, all we need is the notion of area, and mathematically the area can be defined directly in the absence of a metric. Motivated by the possibility that string theory admits backgrounds where the notion of length is not well defined but a definition of area is given, we study space-time geometries based on the generalization of a metric to an area metric. In analogy with Riemannian geometry, we define the analogues of connections, curvatures, and Einstein tensor. We propose a formulation generalizing Einstein's theory that will be useful if at a certain stage or a certain scale the metric is ill defined and the space-time is better characterized by the notion of area. Static spherical solutions are found for the generalized Einstein equation in vacuum, including the Schwarzschild solution as a special case.

  4. Community Assessment Tool for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ORAU' s Oak Ridge Institute for Science Education (HCTT-CHE)

    2011-04-14

    The Community Assessment Tool (CAT) for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza (hereafter referred to as the CAT) was developed as a result of feedback received from several communities. These communities participated in workshops focused on influenza pandemic planning and response. The 2008 through 2011 workshops were sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Feedback during those workshops indicated the need for a tool that a community can use to assess its readiness for a disaster - readiness from a total healthcare perspective, not just hospitals, but the whole healthcare system. The CAT intends to do just that - help strengthen existing preparedness plans by allowing the healthcare system and other agencies to work together during an influenza pandemic. It helps reveal each core agency partners (sectors) capabilities and resources, and highlights cases of the same vendors being used for resource supplies (e.g., personal protective equipment [PPE] and oxygen) by the partners (e.g., public health departments, clinics, or hospitals). The CAT also addresses gaps in the community's capabilities or potential shortages in resources. This tool has been reviewed by a variety of key subject matter experts from federal, state, and local agencies and organizations. It also has been piloted with various communities that consist of different population sizes, to include large urban to small rural communities.

  5. Geothermal resource areas database for monitoring the progress of development in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, J. D.; Lepman, S. R.; Leung, K. N.; Phillips, S. L.

    1981-01-01

    The Geothermal Resource Areas Database (GRAD) and associated data system provide broad coverage of information on the development of geothermal resources in the United States. The system is designed to serve the information requirements of the National Progress Monitoring System. GRAD covers development from the initial exploratory phase through plant construction and operation. Emphasis is on actual facts or events rather than projections and scenarios. The selection and organization of data are based on a model of geothermal development. Subjects in GRAD include: names and addresses, leases, area descriptions, geothermal wells, power plants, direct use facilities, and environmental and regulatory aspects of development. Data collected in the various subject areas are critically evaluated, and then entered into an on-line interactive computer system. The system is publically available for retrieval and use. The background of the project, conceptual development, software development, and data collection are described as well as the structure of the database.

  6. Geothermal resource areas database for monitoring the progress of development in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, J.D.; Lepman, S.R.; Leung, K.; Phillips, S.L.

    1981-01-01

    The Geothermal Resource Areas Database (GRAD) and associated data system provide broad coverage of information on the development of geothermal resources in the United States. The system is designed to serve the information requirements of the National Progress Monitoring System. GRAD covers development from the initial exploratory phase through plant construction and operation. Emphasis is on actual facts or events rather than projections and scenarios. The selection and organization of data are based on a model of geothermal development. Subjects in GRAD include: names and addresses, leases, area descriptions, geothermal wells, power plants, direct use facilities, and environmental and regulatory aspects of development. Data collected in the various subject areas are critically evaluated, and then entered into an on-line interactive computer system. The system is publically available for retrieval and use. The background of the project, conceptual development, software development, and data collection are described here. Appendices describe the structure of the database in detail.

  7. Do subjects with whiplash-associated disorders respond differently in the short-term to manual therapy and exercise than those with mechanical neck pain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castaldo, Matteo; Catena, Antonella; Chiarotto, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE : To compare the short-term effects of manual therapy and exercise on pain, related disability, range of motion, and pressure pain thresholds between subjects with mechanical neck pain and whiplash-associated disorders. METHODS : Twenty-two subjects with mechanical neck pain and 28...... with whiplash-associated disorders participated. Clinical and physical outcomes including neck pain intensity, neck-related disability, and pain area, as well as cervical range of motion and pressure pain thresholds over the upper trapezius and tibialis anterior muscles, were obtained at baseline and after...... the intervention by a blinded assessor. Each subject received six sessions of manual therapy and specific neck exercises. Mixed-model repeated measures analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) were used for the analyses. RESULTS : Subjects with whiplash-associated disorders exhibited higher neck-related disability (P = 0...

  8. Phenotypes in defined genotypes including siblings with Usher syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malm, Eva; Ponjavic, Vesna; Möller, Claes; Kimberling, William J; Andréasson, Sten

    2011-06-01

    To characterize visual function in defined genotypes including siblings with Usher syndrome. Thirteen patients with phenotypically different subtypes of Usher syndrome, including 3 families with affected siblings, were selected. Genetic analysis and ophthalmological examinations including visual fields, full-field electroretinography (ERG), multifocal electroretinography (mf ERG), and optical coherence tomography (OCT) were assessed. The patients' degree of visual handicap was evaluated by a questionnaire (ADL). Twelve of thirteen patients were genotyped as Usher 1B, 1D, 1F, 2A, 2C or 3A. In 12 of 13 patients examined with ERG the 30 Hz flickering light response revealed remaining cone function. In 3 of the patients with Usher type 1 mf ERG demonstrated a specific pattern, with a sharp distinction between the area with reduced function and the central area with remaining macular function and normal peak time. OCT demonstrated loss of foveal depression with distortion of the foveal architecture in the macula in all patients. The foveal thickness ranged from 159 to 384 µm and was not correlated to retinal function. Three siblings shared the same mutation for Usher 2C but in contrast to previous reports regarding this genotype, 1 of them diverged in phenotype with substantially normal visual fields, almost normal OCT and mf ERG findings, and only moderately reduced rod and cone function according to ERG. Evaluation of visual function comprising both the severity of the rod cone degeneration and the function in the macular region confirm phenotypical heterogeneity within siblings and between different genotypes of Usher syndrome.

  9. Studying Irony Detection Beyond Ironic Criticism: Let's Include Ironic Praise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruntsch, Richard; Ruch, Willibald

    2017-01-01

    Studies of irony detection have commonly used ironic criticisms (i.e., mock positive evaluation of negative circumstances) as stimulus materials. Another basic type of verbal irony, ironic praise (i.e., mock negative evaluation of positive circumstances) is largely absent from studies on individuals' aptitude to detect verbal irony. However, it can be argued that ironic praise needs to be considered in order to investigate the detection of irony in the variety of its facets. To explore whether the detection ironic praise has a benefit beyond ironic criticism, three studies were conducted. In Study 1, an instrument (Test of Verbal Irony Detection Aptitude; TOVIDA) was constructed and its factorial structure was tested using N = 311 subjects. The TOVIDA contains 26 scenario-based items and contains two scales for the detection of ironic criticism vs. ironic praise. To validate the measurement method, the two scales of the TOVIDA were experimentally evaluated with N = 154 subjects in Study 2. In Study 3, N = 183 subjects were tested to explore personality and ability correlates of the two TOVIDA scales. Results indicate that the co-variance between the ironic TOVIDA items was organized by two inter-correlated but distinct factors: one representing ironic praise detection aptitude and one representing ironic criticism detection aptitude. Experimental validation showed that the TOVIDA items truly contain irony and that item scores reflect irony detection. Trait bad mood and benevolent humor (as a facet of the sense of humor) were found as joint correlates for both ironic criticism and ironic praise detection scores. In contrast, intelligence, trait cheerfulness, and corrective humor were found as unique correlates of ironic praise detection scores, even when statistically controlling for the aptitude to detect ironic criticism. Our results indicate that the aptitude to detect ironic praise can be seen as distinct from the aptitude to detect ironic criticism. Generating

  10. Studying Irony Detection Beyond Ironic Criticism: Let's Include Ironic Praise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Bruntsch

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies of irony detection have commonly used ironic criticisms (i.e., mock positive evaluation of negative circumstances as stimulus materials. Another basic type of verbal irony, ironic praise (i.e., mock negative evaluation of positive circumstances is largely absent from studies on individuals' aptitude to detect verbal irony. However, it can be argued that ironic praise needs to be considered in order to investigate the detection of irony in the variety of its facets. To explore whether the detection ironic praise has a benefit beyond ironic criticism, three studies were conducted. In Study 1, an instrument (Test of Verbal Irony Detection Aptitude; TOVIDA was constructed and its factorial structure was tested using N = 311 subjects. The TOVIDA contains 26 scenario-based items and contains two scales for the detection of ironic criticism vs. ironic praise. To validate the measurement method, the two scales of the TOVIDA were experimentally evaluated with N = 154 subjects in Study 2. In Study 3, N = 183 subjects were tested to explore personality and ability correlates of the two TOVIDA scales. Results indicate that the co-variance between the ironic TOVIDA items was organized by two inter-correlated but distinct factors: one representing ironic praise detection aptitude and one representing ironic criticism detection aptitude. Experimental validation showed that the TOVIDA items truly contain irony and that item scores reflect irony detection. Trait bad mood and benevolent humor (as a facet of the sense of humor were found as joint correlates for both ironic criticism and ironic praise detection scores. In contrast, intelligence, trait cheerfulness, and corrective humor were found as unique correlates of ironic praise detection scores, even when statistically controlling for the aptitude to detect ironic criticism. Our results indicate that the aptitude to detect ironic praise can be seen as distinct from the aptitude to detect ironic

  11. Cortex Parcellation Associated Whole White Matter Parcellation in Individual Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Schiffler

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of specific white matter areas is a growing field in neurological research and is typically achieved through the use of atlases. However, the definition of anatomically based regions remains challenging for the white matter and thus hinders region-specific analysis in individual subjects. In this article, we focus on creating a whole white matter parcellation method for individual subjects where these areas can be associated to cortex regions. This is done by combining cortex parcellation and fiber tracking data. By tracking fibers out of each cortex region and labeling the fibers according to their origin, we populate a candidate image. We then derive the white matter parcellation by classifying each white matter voxel according to the distribution of labels in the corresponding voxel from the candidate image. The parcellation of the white matter with the presented method is highly reliable and is not as dependent on registration as with white matter atlases. This method allows for the parcellation of the whole white matter into individual cortex region associated areas and, therefore, associates white matter alterations to cortex regions. In addition, we compare the results from the presented method to existing atlases. The areas generated by the presented method are not as sharply defined as the areas in most existing atlases; however, they are computed directly in the DWI space of the subject and, therefore, do not suffer from distortion caused by registration. The presented approach might be a promising tool for clinical and basic research to investigate modalities or system specific micro structural alterations of white matter areas in a quantitative manner.

  12. Catalyst support structure, catalyst including the structure, reactor including a catalyst, and methods of forming same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Norman, Staci A.; Aston, Victoria J.; Weimer, Alan W.

    2017-05-09

    Structures, catalysts, and reactors suitable for use for a variety of applications, including gas-to-liquid and coal-to-liquid processes and methods of forming the structures, catalysts, and reactors are disclosed. The catalyst material can be deposited onto an inner wall of a microtubular reactor and/or onto porous tungsten support structures using atomic layer deposition techniques.

  13. Subjective Age and Changes in Memory in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Yannick; Sutin, Angelina R; Caudroit, Johan; Terracciano, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    The subjective experience of aging, indexed by how old or young an individual feels, has been related to well-being and health-related outcomes among older adults. The present study examined whether subjective age is associated with memory level and changes, as indexed by measures of immediate and delayed recall. A complementary purpose was to test the mediating role of depressive symptoms and physical activity in the relation between subjective age and memory changes. Participants were drawn from three waves of the Health and Retirement Study. Subjective age, baseline memory measures, and covariates were assessed during the 2008 wave (N = 5809), depressive symptoms and physical activity were assessed again in the 2010 wave, and the follow-up memory measures were assessed in the 2012 wave. Regression analyses that included demographic, metabolic, and vascular covariates revealed that a younger subjective age at baseline was associated with better concurrent performance and with slower decline in immediate and delayed recall. Bootstrap procedures indicated that fewer depressive symptoms mediated these associations. Additional analyses revealed that memory level and change were unrelated to changes in subjective age. Beyond chronological age, the subjective experience of age is associated with cognitive aging. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Reflecting on subjective well-being and spinal cord injury.

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    Migliorini, Christine; Tonge, Bruce

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine factors associated with the subjective well-being of individuals with spinal cord injuries, while acknowledging theories that describe the subjective well-being tendency to homeostasis. A representative community cross-sectional cohort of 443 adults with traumatic and non-traumatic spinal cord injury completed a self-report survey (by internet, telephone or hard copy) that included reliable and valid measures of quality of life, depression, anxiety and stress, post-traumatic stress disorder, coping strategies, and emotional consequences. The subjective well-being of half of the population with spinal cord injury lay above the normative subjective well-being set-point threshold. Despite the inclusion of many biopsychosocial factors, only Intimacy, Safety, Acceptance, and Helplessness were significantly associated with normative subjective well-being. Comparatively few factors were significantly associated with normative subjective well-being, but the results help to explain observed contradictions noted in previous research into subjective well-being after spinal cord injuries. The results highlight the resilience of individuals in general and are in keeping with the disability paradox. However, many individuals with spinal cord injuries do not live satisfactory lives. It is for them that further psychological care and rehabilitation is necessary to create a good life after spinal cord injury.

  15. Dietary management for older subjects with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernoff, Ronni

    2005-11-01

    In recent years, obesity has been recognized as a form of malnutrition in older adults and a continuing risk factor for serious health problems. Weight reduction in older adults is not as reliable a recommendation as it is for younger adults; a decreased body mass index (BMI) seems to be associated with a higher incidence of stroke, and a normal or slightly elevated BMI has been linked to greater reserve capacity. Weight loss in older adults requires strategies that consider health status, functional ability, and rational targets. Strategies may include behavior modification, dietary alterations, exercise or physical activity, and reasonable goals that do not put the individual at nutritional risk. Studies that examine different approaches to weight reduction rarely include older subjects, so it is difficult to make judgments about various interventions (surgery, exercise, drugs, or diet) and their efficacy in this population. Fad diets may be lacking in essential nutrients and may prove to be risky for elderly people. Weight loss programs for older adults should focus on maintaining adequate intake of essential nutrients while reducing calories by controlling dietary fat intake.

  16. Quantitative analysis of iris changes following mydriasis in subjects with different mechanisms of angle closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye; Li, Si Zhen; Li, Lei; He, Ming Guang; Thomas, Ravi; Wang, Ning Li

    2015-01-08

    We estimate and compare change in iris cross-sectional area (IA) after physiologic and pharmacologic mydriasis in subjects with different dominant mechanisms for primary angle closure. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) measurements in light, dark, and following pharmacologic dilation were obtained on primary angle closure suspects (PACS), primary angle closure (PAC), and primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) examined during the 5-year follow-up of the Handan Eye Study. Subjects were categorized into three subgroups according to their dominant angle closure (AC) mechanisms as determined by AS-OCT: pupillary block (PB), plateau iris configuration (PIC), and thick peripheral iris roll (TPIR). The IA and other biometric parameters measured using the Zhongshan Angle Assessment Program in the right eyes of all subjects were analyzed. A total of 364 right eyes of subjects with PACS (333), and PAC/PACG (31) was included in the analysis. Significant differences in the change of IAs (P = 0.030), IA loss per mm pupil diameter (PD) increase (P = 0.001) in light versus pharmacologic dilation, and IA loss per mm PD increase (P = 0.011) from dark versus pharmacologic dilation were observed among the three groups. The smallest decrease occurred in the PB group. There are significant differences in IA and IA loss per mm of pupil change following physiologic or pharmacologic mydriasis in Chinese subjects with dissimilar dominant mechanisms for AC. Dynamic iris change may have a more important role in angle closure where PB is the dominant mechanism. Copyright 2015 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  17. Transesophageal echocardiography screening in subjects with a first cerebrovascular ischemic event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kate C; Benesch, Curtis G

    2011-11-01

    Our goal was to develop decision guides to predict the presence of a high-risk source of embolus and to predict a change in management following transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in subjects who present with a first cerebral ischemic event. We conducted a retrospective review of subjects age ≥18 years who underwent TEE after a first ischemic event and were admitted to our stroke service between 2004 and 2007 (n = 287). A high-risk source of embolus and a change in clinical management (including medication changes or subsequent testing) were analyzed as separate endpoints, using multivariate techniques and receiver operating characteristic curves. We found that 14.3% of the subjects had a high-risk source, and an additional 61.3% had a potential (or low-risk) source of embolus. Increasing age and no history of diabetes mellitus were independently associated with a high-risk source of embolus. TEE would be recommended for nondiabetic individuals age ≥66 years (sensitivity, 68%; specificity, 76%). The area under the curve (AUC) for detecting a high-risk source was 0.773. TEE results changed medications or clinical management in 30.3% of the subjects. Current smokers were less likely to undergo a change in management. The AUC was uninformative (0.56) for predicting changes in management. Subjects presenting with a first ischemic event age ≥66 years may benefit from TEE. Although changes in management occurred in at least 30% of our cohort, no factors that predicted a change in management better than chance alone could be identified. Copyright © 2011 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Testing thermal comfort of trekking boots: an objective and subjective evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arezes, P M; Neves, M M; Teixeira, S F; Leão, C P; Cunha, J L

    2013-07-01

    The study of the thermal comfort of the feet when using a specific type of shoe is of paramount importance, in particular if the main goal of the study is to attend to the needs of users. The main aim of this study was to propose a test battery for thermal comfort analysis and to apply it to the analysis of trekking boots. Methodologically, the project involves both objective and subjective evaluations. An objective evaluation of the thermal properties of the fabrics used in the boots was developed and applied. In addition, the thermal comfort provided when using the boots was also assessed both subjective and objectively. The evaluation of the thermal comfort during use, which was simulated in a laboratory environment, included the measurement of the temperature and moisture of the feet. The subjective assessment was performed using a questionnaire. From the results obtained, it was possible to define an optimal combination of fabrics to apply to trekking boots by considering the provided thermal insulation, air permeability and wicking. The results also revealed that the subjective perception of thermal comfort appears to be more related to the increase in temperature of the feet than to the moisture retention inside the boot. Although the evaluation of knits used in the boots indicated that a particular combination of fibres was optimal for use in the inner layer, the subjective and objective evaluation of thermal comfort revealed that the evaluation provided by users did not necessarily match the technical assessment data. No correlation was observed between the general comfort and specific thermal comfort assessments. Finally, the identification of thermal discomfort by specific foot areas would be useful in the process of designing and developing boots. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparing the results of DAADD and ABC of children included in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Milene Rossi Pereira; Fernandes, Fernanda Dreux Miranda

    2014-01-01

    To verify if there are characteristic behaviors of the different diagnosis included in the autism spectrum according to the Differential Assessment of Autism and Other Developmental Disorders (DAADD) and to the Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC). Participants were 45 individuals and their respective speech-language therapists. All therapists are graduate students working with the children for at least 1 year. This time was considered sufficient to the therapists to have the information required by the DAADD questionnaire. It is comprised by 3 protocols specifically designed to children with 2 to 4 years, 4 to 6 years and 6 to 8 years, the same criteria used to separate the research groups, G1, G2 and G3, respectively. Data referring to the ABC were retrieved from the subject's files at the Laboratório de Investigação Fonoaudiológica nos Distúrbios do Espectro do Autismo (Research Laboratory on Language Disorders in the Autism Spectrum) of the School of Medicine, Universidade de São Paulo, where it is routinely applied during the annual assessment. Answers to the different areas of DAADD are similar to the different areas of ABC. These data show data the diagnosis by DAADD is easier in older children. Although there is no significant difference, the large occurrence of Rett's syndrome diagnosis according to the DAADD was associated to higher risk for autism according to the ABC in G1. With increasing age this tendency decreases and either in G2 and G3 Autism is the most frequent diagnosis. Although the results of both questionnaires tend to agree more with increasing age, the DAADD is more sensitive in the different ages while the ABC if more specific only to older children.

  20. Corneal Biomechanics Determination in Healthy Myopic Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunliang Qiu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the corneal biomechanical properties by using the Ocular Response Analyzer™ and to investigate potential factors associated with the corneal biomechanics in healthy myopic subjects. Methods. 135 eyes from 135 healthy myopic subjects were included in this cross-sectional observational study. Cornea hysteresis (CH, corneal resistance factor (CRF, cornea-compensated intraocular pressure (IOPcc, and Goldmann-correlated intraocular pressure (IOPg were determined with the Reichert Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to investigate factors associated with corneal biomechanics. Results. The mean CH and CRF were 9.82±1.34 mmHg and 9.64±1.57 mmHg, respectively. In univariate regression analysis, CH was significantly correlated with axial length, refraction, central corneal thickness (CCT, and IOPg (r=-0.27, 0.23, 0.45, and 0.21, resp.; all with p≤0.015, but not with corneal curvature or age; CRF was significantly correlated with CCT and IOPg (r=0.52 and 0.70, resp.; all with p<0.001, but not with axial length/refraction, corneal curvature, or age. In multivariate regression analysis, axial length, IOPcc, and CCT were found to be independently associated with CH, while CCT and IOPg were associated with CRF. Conclusions. Both CH and CRF were positively correlated with CCT. Lower CH but not CRF was associated with increasing degree of myopia. Evaluation of corneal biomechanical properties should take CCT and myopic status into consideration.