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Sample records for subject area grade

  1. A Study of the Stability of School Effectiveness Measures across Grades and Subject Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandeville, Garrett K.; Anderson, Lorin W.

    School effectiveness indices (SEIs), based on regressing test performance onto earlier test performance and a socioeconomic status measure, were obtained for eight subject-grade combinations from 485 South Carolina elementary schools. The analysis involved school means based on longitudinally matched student data. Reading and mathematics…

  2. The Stability of School Effectiveness Indices across Grade Levels and Subject Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandeville, Garrett K.; Anderson, Lorin W.

    1987-01-01

    School effectiveness indices based on regressing achievement test scores onto earlier scores and a socioeconomic status measure were obtained for South Carolina students in grades one to four. Results were unstable across grades, and grade-to-grade correlations were more significant for mathematics achievement than for reading. (Author/GDC)

  3. Influence of "Halo" and "Demon" Effects in Subjective Grading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, Gerald D.

    1983-01-01

    The phenomenon of "halo" effects in subjective grading was investigated. Two groups of three raters evaluated 20 term papers in introductory psychology. Term paper grades correlated significantly with course grades when information about previous academic performance was made available. When this information was not available, the…

  4. Acquisition in different and special subject areas

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Linda S

    2013-01-01

    Learn how acquisitions librarians successfully serve specialized users! In this book, you'll find profiles, methods, and processes for acquisitions in specialized subject areas, such as local and regional poetry, oceanography, educational information in electronic formats, popular fiction, regional and ethnic materials, and more. Seasoned acquisitions librarians share their experiences in gathering the hard-to-find materials their libraries' highly specialized clients need to access. You'll also examine issues surrounding the acquisition of new reference tools that are vital in today's emergi

  5. Altered intraoperative cerebrovascular reactivity in brain areas of high-grade glioma recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierstra, Jorn; van Niftrik, Bas; Piccirelli, Marco; Burkhardt, Jan Karl; Pangalu, Athina; Kocian, Roman; Valavanis, Antonios; Weller, Michael; Regli, Luca; Bozinov, Oliver

    2016-07-01

    Current MRI sequences are limited in identifying brain areas at risk for high grade glioma recurrence. We employed intraoperative 3-Tesla functional MRI to assess cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) after high-grade glioma resection and analyzed regional CVR responses in areas of tumor recurrence on clinical follow-up imaging. Five subjects with high-grade glioma that underwent an intraoperative Blood Oxygen-Level Dependent (BOLD) MRI CVR examination and had a clinical follow-up of at least 18months were selected from a prospective database. For this study, location of tumor recurrence was spatially matched to the intraoperative imaging to assess CVR response in that particular area. CVR is defined as the percent BOLD signal change during repeated cycles of apnea. Of the 5 subjects (mean age 44, 2 females), 4 were diagnosed with a WHO grade III and 1 subject with a WHO grade IV glioma. Three subjects exhibited a tumor recurrence on clinical follow-up MRI (mean: 15months). BOLD CVR measured in the spatially matched area of tumor recurrence was on average 94% increased (range-32% to 183%) as compared to contralateral hemisphere CVR response, 1.50±0.81 versus 1.03±0.46 respectively (p=0.31). For this first analysis in a small cohort, we found altered intraoperative CVR in brain areas exhibiting high grade glioma recurrence on clinical follow-up imaging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Improving Students' Transfer of Learning among Subject Areas through the Use of an Integrated Curriculum and Alternative Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boidy, Tish; Moran, Michelle

    An intervention program sought to improve third- and fifth- grade students' ability to transfer learning among subject areas and to apply their learning to everyday occurrences. Surveys and interviews revealed the lack of student transference of knowledge among subject areas; teacher surveys and an interview with the curriculum director provided…

  7. Facing Contrast-Enhancing Gliomas: Perfusion MRI in Grade III and Grade IV Gliomas according to Tumor Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Luisa Di Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumoral neoangiogenesis characterizes high grade gliomas. Relative Cerebral Blood Volume (rCBV, calculated with Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast (DSC Perfusion-Weighted Imaging (PWI, allows for the estimation of vascular density over the tumor bed. The aim of the study was to characterize putative tumoral neoangiogenesis via the study of maximal rCBV with a Region of Interest (ROI approach in three tumor areas—the contrast-enhancing area, the nonenhancing tumor, and the high perfusion area on CBV map—in patients affected by contrast-enhancing glioma (grades III and IV. Twenty-one patients were included: 15 were affected by grade IV and 6 by grade III glioma. Maximal rCBV values for each patient were averaged according to glioma grade. Although rCBV from contrast-enhancement and from nonenhancing tumor areas was higher in grade IV glioma than in grade III (5.58 and 2.68; 3.01 and 2.2, resp., the differences were not significant. Instead, rCBV recorded in the high perfusion area on CBV map, independently of tumor compartment, was significantly higher in grade IV glioma than in grade III (7.51 versus 3.78, P=0.036. In conclusion, neoangiogenesis encompasses different tumor compartments and CBV maps appear capable of best characterizing the degree of neovascularization. Facing contrast-enhancing brain tumors, areas of high perfusion on CBV maps should be considered as the reference areas to be targeted for glioma grading.

  8. Problems Faced By Elementary School Second Grade English Subject Matter Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belgin Bal Incebacak

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of thisstudy isto determine the problems experienced by subject matter teachers while instructing English lessons in the second grade of elementary school. What are the problemsfaced by English subject matter teachers when they instruct in 2nd grade lessons? In this research the descriptive modeling, which is one of the qualitative research methods, was employed. In accordance with this objective, we worked with 8 subject matter teachers from 5 different schoolsinAtakum and Ilkadim districtslocated in downtown Samsun, through easily accessible case sampling. The semi-structured “English Course Interview Form’’was applied to the teachers. In the study, descriptive survey model was employed, since it was aimed to reveal the current status of qualitative research methods.According to the results obtained from the research, the content was configured and presented under 5 themes. They were categorized as: 1. the problems experienced in classroom management, 2. the problems in physical and cognitive readiness, 3. the problems experienced in the learning and teacher process, 4. the problems seen in counseling, 5. the problems experienced in assessment and evaluation. In conclusion, the teachers stated that they had problems with managing the classroom, especially with the second grade students, whom are younger than others. It is observed that the change for teaching English at a younger age has been appropriate. Our teachersstated that they required in-service training so as to adapt to this aforementioned change.

  9. Automatic creation of specialised multilingual dictionaries in new subject areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Moré

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a tool to automatically generate specialised dictionaries of multilingual equivalents in new subject areas. The tool uses resources that are available on the web to search for equivalents and verify their reliability. These resources are, on the one hand, the Wikipedias, which can be freely downloaded and processed, and, on the other, the materials that terminological institutions of reference make available. This tool is of use to teachers producing teaching materials and researchers preparing theses, articles or reference manuals. It is also of use to translators and terminologists working on terminological standardisation in a new subject area in a given language, as it helps them in their work to pinpoint concepts that have yet to receive a standardised denomination.

  10. Therapeutic satisfaction and subjective effects of different strains of pharmaceutical-grade cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunt, Tibor M; van Genugten, Marianne; Höner-Snoeken, Kathrin; van de Velde, Marco J; Niesink, Raymond J M

    2014-06-01

    In The Netherlands, pharmaceutical-grade cultivated cannabis is distributed for medicinal purposes as commissioned by the Ministry of Health. Few studies have thus far described its therapeutic efficacy or subjective (adverse) effects in patients. The aims of this study are to assess the therapeutic satisfaction within a group of patients using prescribed pharmaceutical-grade cannabis and to compare the subjective effects among the available strains with special focus on their delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol content. In a cross-sectional and natural design, users of pharmaceutical-grade cannabis were investigated with questionnaires. Medical background of the patients was asked as well as experienced therapeutic effects and characteristics of cannabis use. Subjective effects were measured with psychometric scales and used to compare among the strains of cannabis used across this group of patients. One hundred two patients were included; their average age was 53 years and 76% used it for more than a year preceding this study. Chronic pain (53%; n = 54) was the most common medical indication for using cannabis followed by multiple sclerosis (23%; n = 23), and 86% (n = 88) of patients (almost) always experienced therapeutic satisfaction when using pharmaceutical cannabis. Dejection, anxiety, and appetite stimulation were found to differ among the 3 strains of cannabis. These results show that patients report therapeutic satisfaction with pharmaceutical cannabis, mainly pain alleviation. Some subjective effects were found to differ among the available strains of cannabis, which is discussed in relation to their different tetrahydrocannabinol/cannabidiol content. These results may aid in further research and critical appraisal for medicinally prescribed cannabis products.

  11. Three-dimensional free vibration of functionally graded truncated conical shells subjected to thermal environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malekzadeh, P., E-mail: p_malekz@yahoo.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr 75168 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fiouz, A.R.; Sobhrouyan, M. [Department of Civil Engineering, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr 75168 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    A three-dimensional (3D) free vibration analysis of the functionally graded (FG) truncated conical shells subjected to thermal environment is presented. The material properties are assumed to be temperature-dependent and graded in the radius direction, which can vary according to a simple power law distribution. The initial thermal stresses are obtained accurately by solving the thermoelastic equilibrium equations and by considering the two-dimensional axisymmetric temperature distribution in the shell. The differential quadrature method (DQM) as an efficient and accurate numerical tool is adopted to solve the thermal and thermo-mechanical governing equations. For this purpose, a mapping technique is employed to transform the cross section of the shell into the computational domain of DQM. The convergence behavior of the method is numerically demonstrated and comparison studies with the available solutions in the literature are performed. The effects of temperature dependence of material properties, geometrical parameters, material graded index, thermal and mechanical boundary conditions on the frequency parameters of the FG truncated conical shells are carried out. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 3D free vibration analysis of the functionally graded truncated conical shells is presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two-dimensional axisymmetric temperature distribution in the shell is assumed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The material properties are assumed to be temperature-dependent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Initial thermal stresses due to thermal environment are evaluated accurately and included. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Representing the effects of different parameters on the non-dimensional frequencies.

  12. Low-grade astrocytoma: surgical outcomes in eloquent versus non-eloquent brain areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André de Macedo Bianco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective study of 81 patients with low-grade astrocytoma (LGA comparing the efficacy of aggressive versus less aggressive surgery in eloquent and non-eloquent brain areas was conducted. Extent of surgical resection was analyzed to assess overall survival (OS and progression- free survival (PFS. Degree of tumor resection was classified as gross total resection (GTR, subtotal resection (STR or biopsy. GTR, STR and biopsy in patients with tumors in non-eloquent areas were performed in 31, 48 and 21% subjects, whereas in patients with tumors in eloquent areas resections were 22.5, 35 and 42.5%. Overall survival was 4.7 and 1.9 years in patients with tumors in non-eloquent brain areas submitted to GTR/STR and biopsy (p=0.013, whereas overall survival among patients with tumors in eloquent area was 4.5 and 2.1 years (p=0.33. Improved outcome for adult patients with LGA is predicted by more aggressive surgery in both eloquent and non-eloquent brain areas.

  13. Vibration of functionally graded plate resting on viscoelastic elastic foundation subjected to moving loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duy Hien, Ta; Lam, Nguyen Ngoc

    2018-04-01

    The dynamics of plates subjected to a moving load must be considered by engineering mechanics and design structures. This paper deals with the dynamic responses of functionally graded (FG) rectangular plates resting on a viscoelastic foundation under moving loads. It is assumed that material properties of the plate vary continuously in the thickness direction according to the power-law. The governing equations are derived by using Hamilton’s principle, which considers the effect of the higher-order shear deformation in the plate. Transient responses of simply supported FG rectangular plates are employed by using state-space methods. Several examples are given for displacement and stresses in the plates with various structural parameters, and the effects of these parameters are discussed.

  14. Drilling in areas subject to environmental protection; A perfuracao em area de protecao ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendonca, Ricardo Teixeira; Guimaraes, Antimio Santos [PETROBRAS, XX (Brazil). Distrito de Perfuracao do Nordeste. Div. Tecnica; Santana, Manoel Messias de [PETROBRAS, XX (Brazil). Regiao de Producao do Nordeste. Setor de Seguranca Industrial

    1990-12-31

    This paper presents the practices developed for pollution control in areas subject to environmental protection. This well drilling operation was carried out in the Municipality of Marechal Deodoro, in the State of Alagoas, in locality named Massagueira. We stress the preventive methods for liquid and solid effluent generation and the use of Closed Fluid System or Anti-Dike System. (author) 3 figs.

  15. Grading A-Level Double Subject Mathematicians and the Implications for Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbould, Charles A.

    1981-01-01

    Test data were used to compare the grading of two forms of double mathematics: pure and applied math, and regular and advanced math. Results confirm expectations that in the former system, the grading is comparable, and in the latter, it is not necessarily comparable. Implications for student admission are discussed. (MSE)

  16. Effect of Graded Unilateral Sanding Exercise on Metabolic and Cardiopulmonary Function in the Healthy and the Hemiparetic Elderly Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Muraki, Toshiaki

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how 18 elderly subjects with cerebral vascular accident (CVA) (14 men and 4 women) and 19 healthy elderly subjects (6 men and 13 women) would respond to a five-step graded unilateral sanding activity. Three indicators of pulmonary function such as expiratory tidal volume, respiratory rate, and expiratory volume and four indicators of cardiometabolic function such as metabolic equivalents (METS), systolic blood pressure, heart rate, and pressure rat...

  17. The Effect of Internet-Based Education on Student Success in Teaching of 8th Grade Triangles Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Deniz; Kesan, Cenk; Izgiol, Dilek

    2013-01-01

    In the study, it was researched the effect of internet-based application on student success. Internet-based application was used at the teaching of triangles subject which is included in 8th grade units of triangles and algebra. The study was carried out over the internet with a computer software program: Vitamin Program. The study was carried out…

  18. Interest of Grade Ten Students toward Physics among Other Science Subjects, Case of Wolaita Soddo Town Governmental Secondary Schools, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamelo, Shewangzaw

    2016-01-01

    This paper has proposed to investigate the interest in students towards physics among other science subjects. The investigation was carried out with 490 samples of grade ten students in Wolaita Soddo town governmental schools. Thus, overall result indicates that the interest in students towards physics is low and students hate to learn physics in…

  19. 44 CFR 65.13 - Mapping and map revisions for areas subject to alluvial fan flooding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... areas subject to alluvial fan flooding. 65.13 Section 65.13 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL... areas subject to alluvial fan flooding. This section describes the procedures to be followed and the... provides protection from the base flood in an area subject to alluvial fan flooding. This information must...

  20. 47 CFR 22.228 - Cellular rural service area licenses subject to competitive bidding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cellular rural service area licenses subject to... Procedures § 22.228 Cellular rural service area licenses subject to competitive bidding. Mutually exclusive initial applications for Cellular Rural Service Area licenses are subject to competitive bidding. The...

  1. Differential effects of dietary protein sources on postprandial low-grade inflammation after a single high fat meal in obese non-diabetic subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herzig Karl-Heinz

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a state of chronic low-grade inflammation. Chronic low-grade inflammation is associated with the pathophysiology of both type-2 diabetes and atherosclerosis. Prevention or reduction of chronic low-grade inflammation may be advantageous in relation to obesity related co-morbidity. In this study we investigated the acute effect of dietary protein sources on postprandial low-grade inflammatory markers after a high-fat meal in obese non-diabetic subjects. Methods We conducted a randomized, acute clinical intervention study in a crossover design. We supplemented a fat rich mixed meal with one of four dietary proteins - cod protein, whey isolate, gluten or casein. 11 obese non-diabetic subjects (age: 40-68, BMI: 30.3-42.0 kg/m2 participated and blood samples were drawn in the 4 h postprandial period. Adiponectin was estimated by ELISA methods and cytokines were analyzed by multiplex assay. Results MCP-1 and CCL5/RANTES displayed significant postprandial dynamics. CCL5/RANTES initially increased after all meals, but overall CCL5/RANTES incremental area under the curve (iAUC was significantly lower after the whey meal compared with the cod and casein meals (P = 0.0053. MCP-1 was initially suppressed after all protein meals. However, the iAUC was significantly higher after whey meal compared to the cod and gluten meals (P = 0.04. Conclusion We have demonstrated acute differential effects on postprandial low grade inflammation of four dietary proteins in obese non-diabetic subjects. CCL5/RANTES initially increased after all meals but the smallest overall postprandial increase was observed after the whey meal. MCP-1 was initially suppressed after all 4 protein meals and the whey meal caused the smallest overall postprandial suppression. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT00863564

  2. A Comparison of Graded Response and Rasch Partial Credit Models with Subjective Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John G.; Rounds, James B.; Zevon, Michael A.

    2000-01-01

    Compared two multiple category item response theory models using a data set of 52 mood terms with 713 undergraduate psychology students. Comparative model fit for the Samejima (F. Samejima, 1966) logistic model for graded responses and the Masters (G. Masters, 1982) partial credit model favored the former model for this data set. (SLD)

  3. Comparative thermal cyclic test of different beryllium grades previously subjected to simulated disruption loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gervash, A.; Giniyatulin, R.; Mazul, I.

    1999-01-01

    Considering beryllium as plasma facing armour this paper presents recent results obtained in Russia. A special process of joining beryllium to a Cu-alloy material structure is described and recent results of thermal cycling tests of such joints are presented. Summarizing the results, the authors show that a Cu-alloy heat sink structure armoured with beryllium can survive high heat fluxes (≥10 MW/m 2 ) during 1000 heating/cooling cycles without serious damage to the armour material and its joint. The principal feasibility of thermal cycling of beryllium grades and their joints directly in the core of a nuclear reactor is demonstrated and the main results of this test are presented. The paper also describes the thermal cycling of different beryllium grades having cracks initiated by previously applied high heat loads simulating plasma disruptions. (orig.)

  4. Gender Gaps in High School GPA and ACT Scores: High School Grade Point Average and ACT Test Score by Subject and Gender. Information Brief 2014-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    ACT, Inc., 2014

    2014-01-01

    Female students who graduated from high school in 2013 averaged higher grades than their male counterparts in all subjects, but male graduates earned higher scores on the math and science sections of the ACT. This information brief looks at high school grade point average and ACT test score by subject and gender

  5. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  6. EFFECTS OF THE SCHOOL SUBJECT – SPORT FOR ATHLETES ON MOTORIC ABILITIES OF 8TH GRADE BOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovan Ljubojević

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available School curriculums in physical education are conceptualised that students are expected to overcome many motoric assignments and vast area of disciplines (athletics, gymnastics, sports games, rhythmic gymnastics, ethnic dances, etc. Drawbacks of this kind of curriculum are: students superficially adopt only basic elements of motions; there is no automatization and complete control of motoric motions. Teaching practice is mainly focused on development of technical elements in contrast to development of motoric and functional abilities of students. Physical education efficiency can be improved by realistic, expertly and economical planning and monitoring of the effects of the teaching, as well as by increase in weekly number of classes. Sports games are, among others, by nature of comprising motions, important factors and tools in teaching of physical education of students. It seems that all of this has been considered when school reform has been done in Montenegro. By this very kind of work the effects of the increment in weekly class number are meant to be checked out. Our sample consisted of 73 8th grade boys, 42 in experimental group involved in additional basketball programme, and 31 boys in control group without additional classes of physical education. Level of motoric abilities has been followed by 14 test battery which measured levels of speed, coordination, precision, balance, flexibility and explosive strength. We concluded that subjects in experimental group had shown improved levels of abilities in each test at final measurement, except at the test of vertical aiming – darts. However, keep in mind that boys in control group had also show certain improvements in results of the t test for dependent samples at initial and final measurement of the horizontal wall bouncing for 15 seconds test and hand and foot tapping test, by using ANOVA we compared measured results at final measurement of the each group. We concluded that there are

  7. Performance Evaluation of Waterproofing Membrane Systems Subject to the Concrete Joint Load Behavior of Below-Grade Concrete Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeyoung Song

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Below-grade structures such as parking lots, underground subway tunnels, and basements are growing in scale and reaching deeper below-ground levels. In this type of environment, they become subject to higher water pressure. The concrete material of the structures is exposed to wet conditions for longer periods of time, which makes the proper adhesion of waterproofing membranes difficult. Joint movements from increased structural settlement, thermal expansion/shrinkage, and physical loads from external sources (e.g., vehicles make securing durable waterproofing challenging. While ASTM Guides, Korean Codes, and BS Practice Codes on below-grade waterproofing stress the importance of manufacturer specification for quality control, ensuring high quality waterproofing for the ever-changing scale of construction remains a challenge. This study proposes a new evaluation method and criteria which allow for the selection of waterproofing membranes based on specific performance attributes and workmanship. It subjects six different waterproofing membrane systems (installed on dry and wet surface conditioned mortar slab specimens with an artificial joint to different cyclic movement widths to 300 cycles in water to demonstrate that inadequate material properties and workmanship are key causes for leakages.

  8. Successful Written Subject-Verb Agreement: An Online Analysis of the Procedure Used by Students in Grades 3, 5 and 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamargot, Denis; Flouret, Lisa; Larocque, Denis; Caporossi, Gilles; Pontart, Virginie; Paduraru, Carmen; Morisset, Pauline; Fayol, Michel

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to (1) investigate the procedure responsible for successful written subject-verb agreement, and (2) describe how it develops across grades. Students in Grades 3, 5 and 12 were asked to read noun-noun-verb sentences aloud (e.g., "Le chien des voisins mange" ["The dog of the neighbors eats"]) and write out…

  9. WHAT ARE AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS PH.D. STUDENTS LEARNING ABOUT AGRIBUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS AND SUBJECT AREAS?

    OpenAIRE

    House, Lisa; Sterns, James A.

    2002-01-01

    This document contains the PowerPoint presentation given by the authors at the 2002 WCC-72 meetings, regarding what agricultural economics Ph.D students are learning about agribusiness research methods and subject areas.

  10. Size-dependent thermal stability analysis of graded piezomagnetic nanoplates on elastic medium subjected to various thermal environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Farzad; Barati, Mohammad Reza

    2016-10-01

    This paper investigates the thermal stability of magneto-electro-thermo-elastic functionally graded (METE-FG) nanoplates based on the nonlocal theory and a refined plate model. The METE-FG nanoplate is subjected to the external electric potential, magnetic potential and different temperature rises. Interaction of elastic medium with the METE-FG nanoplate is modeled via Winkler-Pasternak foundation model. The governing equations are derived by using the Hamilton principle and solved by using an analytical method to determine the critical buckling temperatures. To verify the validity of the developed model, the results of the present work are compared with those available in the literature. A detailed parametric study is conducted to study the influences of the nonlocal parameter, foundation parameters, temperature rise, external electric and magnetic potentials on the size-dependent thermal buckling characteristics of METE-FG nanoplates.

  11. 47 CFR 22.960 - Cellular unserved area radiotelephone licenses subject to competitive bidding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cellular unserved area radiotelephone licenses... (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Cellular Radiotelephone Service § 22.960 Cellular... applications for cellular unserved area Phase I and Phase II licenses filed after July 26, 1993 are subject to...

  12. Effect of weight loss on sympatho-vagal balance in subjects with grade-3 obesity: restrictive surgery versus hypocaloric diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontiroli, Antonio E; Merlotti, Claudia; Veronelli, Annamaria; Lombardi, Federico

    2013-12-01

    Few and mostly uncontrolled studies indicate that weight loss improves heart rate variability (HRV) in grade-3 obesity. The aim of this study was to compare in grade-3 obesity surgery and hypocaloric diet on clinical and metabolic variables and on autonomic indices of HRV. Twenty-four subjects (body mass index, BMI 45.5 ± 9.13 kg/m(2)) underwent surgery (n = 12, gastric banding, LAGB) or received hypocaloric diet (n = 12, 1,000-1,200 kg/day). Clinical [BMI, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate] and metabolic variables [glucose, cholesterol, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, AST and ALT transaminases] and 24-h Holter electrocardiographic-derived HRV parameters [R-R interval, standard deviation of R-R intervals (SDNN); low/high-frequency (LF/HF) ratio, and QT interval] were measured at baseline and after 6 months. The two groups were identical at baseline. BMI (-7.5 ± 3.57 kg/m(2), mean ± SD), glucose (-24.1 ± 26.77 mg/dL), SBP (-16.7 ± 22.19 mmHg) and DBP (-6.2 ± 8.56 mmHg) decreased in LAGB subjects (p < 0.05) and remained unchanged in controls. At 6 months, SDNN increased in LAGB subjects (+25.0 ± 37.19 ms, p < 0.05) and LF/HF ratio diminished (2.9 ± 1.84 vs. 4.9 ± 2.78; p = 0.01), with no change in controls; LF (daytime) and HF (24 h and daytime) increased in LAGB subjects, with no change in controls. Decrease in BMI correlated with SBP and DBP decrease (p < 0.05), and DBP decrease correlated with HR decrease (p < 0.05) and QT shortening (p < 0.05). Weight loss is associated with improvement of glucose metabolism, of blood pressure, and with changes in time and frequency domain parameters of HRV; all these changes indicate recovery of a more physiological autonomic control, with increase in parasympathetic and reduction in sympathetic indices of HRV.

  13. Early Local Activity in Temporal Areas Reflects Graded Content of Visual Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Francesca Tagliabue

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In visual cognitive neuroscience the debate on consciousness is focused on two major topics: the search for the neural correlates of the different properties of visual awareness and the controversy on the graded versus dichotomous nature of visual conscious experience. The aim of this study is to search for the possible neural correlates of different grades of visual awareness investigating the Event Related Potentials (ERPs to reduced contrast visual stimuli whose perceptual clarity was rated on the four-point Perceptual Awareness Scale (PAS. Results revealed a left centro-parietal negative deflection (Visual Awareness Negativity; VAN peaking at 280-320 ms from stimulus onset, related to the perceptual content of the stimulus, followed by a bilateral positive deflection (Late Positivity; LP peaking at 510-550 ms over almost all electrodes, reflecting post-perceptual processes performed on such content. Interestingly, the amplitude of both deflections gradually increased as a function of visual awareness. Moreover, the intracranial generators of the phenomenal content (VAN were found to be located in the left temporal lobe. The present data thus seem to suggest 1 that visual conscious experience is characterized by a gradual increase of perceived clarity at both behavioral and neural level and 2 that the actual content of perceptual experiences emerges from early local activation in temporal areas, without the need of later widespread frontal engagement.

  14. Estimation of serum ferritin for normal subject living in Khartoum area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eltayeb, E.A; Khangi, F.A.; Satti, G.M.; Abu Salab, A.

    2003-01-01

    This study was conducted with a main objective; the estimation of serum ferritin level in normal subjects in Khartoum area.To fulfil this objective, two hundred and sixty symptoms-free subjects were included in the study, 103 males with 15 to 45 years. serum ferritin was determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA). It was found that the mean concentration of males' serum ferritin was much higher than that of the females' (p<0.001). (Author)

  15. An investigation on impacts of scheduling configurations on Mississippi biology subject area testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchette, Frances Lenora

    The purpose of this mixed modal study was to compare the results of Biology Subject Area mean scores of students on a 4 x 4 block schedule, A/B block schedule, and traditional year-long schedule for 1A to 5A size schools. This study also reviewed the data to determine if minority or gender issues might influence the test results. Interviews with administrators and teachers were conducted about the type of schedule configuration they use and the influence that the schedule has on student academic performance on the Biology Subject Area Test. Additionally, this research further explored whether schedule configurations allow sufficient time for students to construct knowledge. This study is important to schools, teachers, and administrators because it can assist them in considering the impacts that different types of class schedules have on student performance and if ethnic or gender issues are influencing testing results. This study used the causal-comparative method for the quantitative portion of the study and constant comparative method for the qualitative portion to explore the relationship of school schedules on student academic achievement on the Mississippi Biology Subject Area Test. The aggregate means of selected student scores indicate that the Mississippi Biology Subject Area Test as a measure of student performance reveals no significant difference on student achievement for the three school schedule configurations. The data were adjusted for initial differences of gender, minority, and school size on the three schedule configurations. The results suggest that schools may employ various schedule configurations and expect student performance on the Mississippi Biology Subject Area Test to be unaffected. However, many areas of concern were identified in the interviews that might impact on school learning environments. These concerns relate to effective classroom management, the active involvement of students in learning, the adequacy of teacher education

  16. Does Taking One Step Back Get You Two Steps Forward? Grade Retention and School Performance in Poor Areas in Rural China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinxin; Liu, Chengfang; Zhang, Linxiu; Shi, Yaojiang; Rozelle, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Despite the rise in grade retention in poor areas in rural China recently, little work has been done to understand the impact of grade retention on the educational performance of students in these areas in rural China. This paper seeks to redress this shortcoming and examines the effect of grade retention on educational performance on 1649…

  17. CRIMINAL-POLITICAL FUTUROLOGY IN THE FIELD OF FIGHTING CRIME (CONCEPTUAL AND SUBJECT AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery Novichkov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the subject area of the new direction of pre-vision — criminal-political futurology (forecasting in the field of combating crime, absorbing in itself the main types of legal prediction: criminological, criminal, criminal Executive, criminal procedural, operational search and other.

  18. Literacy as Self-Expression: Interpreting the Subject Areas through the Arts. Research into Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Karen D.; Finke, Janet; Douville, Patricia

    1999-01-01

    Examines self-expression in art, drama, and gesture, offering practical strategies that can be used across subject areas to enhance students' literacy performance. Discusses the way creative projects can motivate student language use and participation in history and science projects. (JPB)

  19. EFFECTS OF THE SCHOOL SUBJECT – SPORT FOR ATHLETES ON MOTORIC ABILITIES OF 8TH GRADE GIRLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovan Ljubojević

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The place and importance of physical education in educational system is well known. Many researches have been done with the goal to determine influence of physical education on students. However, keep in mind that many of those researches had shown that women are generally not so interested in sports and that they are less included in physical activities (especially some forms of it, we have focused our work at possibilities of improvement of motoric abilities of girls inside chosen subject – sport for athletes, which is being conveyed in 8th grade with two classes per week, and chosen sport was basketball. Our sample consisted of 67 girls (37 in experimental and 30 in control group. Level of motoric abilities has been tracked by 14 test battery which measured levels of speed, coordination, precision, balance, flexibility and explosive strength. We concluded that subjects in experimental group improved levels of abilities in each test at final measuring. However, keep in mind that girls in control group had also show certain improvements in results of the t test for dependent samples at initial and final measurement of the following tests: horizontal wall bouncing for 15 seconds, hand and foot tapping, horizontal aiming and standing on one leg with eyes closed, we have compared by ANOVA measured results at final measurement of the each group. We concluded that there are statistically significant differences between groups in left hand basketball dribbling test, pull-through and jump-over tests, horizontal wall bouncing for 15 seconds, hand and foot tapping, standing on one leg with eyes closed, vertical jump – Sargent test, basketball throwing from chest from sitting position. Therefore, we can finally conclude that conveyed basketball programme had completely positive impact at motoric abilities of girls, as we expected

  20. Cross-Modal Recruitment of Auditory and Orofacial Areas During Sign Language in a Deaf Subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Juan; Velasquez, Carlos; Vázquez-Bourgon, Javier; de Lucas, Enrique Marco; Gomez, Elsa

    2017-09-01

    Modern sign languages used by deaf people are fully expressive, natural human languages that are perceived visually and produced manually. The literature contains little data concerning human brain organization in conditions of deficient sensory information such as deafness. A deaf-mute patient underwent surgery of a left temporoinsular low-grade glioma. The patient underwent awake surgery with intraoperative electrical stimulation mapping, allowing direct study of the cortical and subcortical organization of sign language. We found a similar distribution of language sites to what has been reported in mapping studies of patients with oral language, including 1) speech perception areas inducing anomias and alexias close to the auditory cortex (at the posterior portion of the superior temporal gyrus and supramarginal gyrus); 2) speech production areas inducing speech arrest (anarthria) at the ventral premotor cortex, close to the lip motor area and away from the hand motor area; and 3) subcortical stimulation-induced semantic paraphasias at the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus at the temporal isthmus. The intraoperative setup for sign language mapping with intraoperative electrical stimulation in deaf-mute patients is similar to the setup described in patients with oral language. To elucidate the type of language errors, a sign language interpreter in close interaction with the neuropsychologist is necessary. Sign language is perceived visually and produced manually; however, this case revealed a cross-modal recruitment of auditory and orofacial motor areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Teaching dilemmas and solutions in content-area literacy, grades 6-12

    CERN Document Server

    Smagorinsky, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Because literacy is not just the English teacher's job Think literacy is just for English teachers? Not anymore. Nor should it be when you consider  that each discipline has its own unique values and means of expression. These days, it's up to all teachers to communicate what it means to be literate in their disciplines. Here, finally, is a book ambitious enough to tackle the topic across all major subject areas.  Smagorinsky and his colleagues provide an insider's lens on both the states of their fields and their specific literacy requirements, including:  Reviews of the latest issues and res

  2. Frequent EGFR Positivity and Overexpression in High-Grade Areas of Human MPNSTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séverine Tabone-Eglinger

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours (MPNSTs are highly malignant and resistant. Transformation might implicate up regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR. Fifty-two MPNST samples were studied for EGFR, Ki-67, p53, and survivin expression by immunohistochemistry and for EGFR amplification by in situ hybridization. Results were correlated with clinical data. EGFR RNA was also quantified by RT-PCR in 20 other MPNSTs and 14 dermal neurofibromas. Half of the patients had a neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1. EGFR expression, detected in 86% of MPNSTs, was more frequent in NF1 specimens and closely associated with high-grade and p53-positive areas. MPNSTs expressed more EGFR transcripts than neurofibromas. No amplification of EGFR locus was observed. NF1 status was the only prognostic factor in multivariate analysis, with median survivals of 18 and 43 months for patients with or without NF1. Finally, EGFR might become a new target for MPNSTs treatment, especially in NF1-associated MPNSTs.

  3. Within-Subject Correlation Analysis to Detect Functional Areas Associated With Response Inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Yamasaki

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Functional areas in fMRI studies are often detected by brain-behavior correlation, calculating across-subject correlation between the behavioral index and the brain activity related to a function of interest. Within-subject correlation analysis is also employed in a single subject level, which utilizes cognitive fluctuations in a shorter time period by correlating the behavioral index with the brain activity across trials. In the present study, the within-subject analysis was applied to the stop-signal task, a standard task to probe response inhibition, where efficiency of response inhibition can be evaluated by the stop-signal reaction time (SSRT. Since the SSRT is estimated, by definition, not in a trial basis but from pooled trials, the correlation across runs was calculated between the SSRT and the brain activity related to response inhibition. The within-subject correlation revealed negative correlations in the anterior cingulate cortex and the cerebellum. Moreover, the dissociation pattern was observed in the within-subject analysis when earlier vs. later parts of the runs were analyzed: negative correlation was dominant in earlier runs, whereas positive correlation was dominant in later runs. Regions of interest analyses revealed that the negative correlation in the anterior cingulate cortex, but not in the cerebellum, was dominant in earlier runs, suggesting multiple mechanisms associated with inhibitory processes that fluctuate on a run-by-run basis. These results indicate that the within-subject analysis compliments the across-subject analysis by highlighting different aspects of cognitive/affective processes related to response inhibition.

  4. Las Matematicas: Lenguaje Universal. Grados Intermedios, Nivel 5b: Medida Lineal, Perimetro y Area (Mathematics: A Universal Language. Intermediate Grades, Level 5b: Linear Measure, Perimeter and Area).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This is one of a series of student booklets designed for use in a bilingual mathematics program in grades 6-8. The general format is to present each page in both Spanish and English. The mathematical topics in this booklet include measurement, perimeter, and area. (MK)

  5. Gender, Previous Knowledge, Personality Traits and Subject-Specific Motivation as Predictors of Students' Math Grade in Upper-Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peklaj, Cirila; Podlesek, Anja; Pecjak, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relationships between gender, previous knowledge, different personality traits, subject-specific motivational dimensions and students' math grade in secondary school. A total of 386 first-year students (142 boys and 244 girls) from secondary schools in Slovenia (mean age was 15.7 years) participated in the…

  6. Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS). Volume 7: Sample and Data Tracking subject area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    The Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS) Sample and Data Tracking subject area allows insertion of tracking information into a central repository where the data is immediately available for viewing. For example, a technical coordinator is able to view the current status of a particular sampling effort, from sample collection to data package validation dates. Four major types of data comprise the Sample and Data Tracking subject area: data about the mechanisms that groups a set of samples for a particular sampling effort; data about how constituents are grouped and assigned to a sample; data about when, where, and how samples are sent to a laboratory for analysis; and data bout the status of a sample's constituent analysis requirements, i.e., whether the analysis results have been returned from the laboratory

  7. Chewing side, bite force symmetry, and occlusal contact area of subjects with different facial vertical patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Guimarães Farias Gomes

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Craniofacial dimensions influence oral functions; however, it is not known whether they are associated with function asymmetry. The objective of this study was to evaluate chewing side preference and lateral asymmetry of occlusal contact area and bite force of individuals with different craniofacial patterns. Seventy-eight dentate subjects were divided into 3 groups according to the VERT index as follows: (1 mesofacial, (2 brachyfacial and (3 dolichofacial. Chewing side preference was evaluated using jaw tracking equipment, occlusal contact area was measured by silicon registration of posterior teeth, and bite force was measured unilaterally on molar regions using 2.25 mm-thick sensors. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA on Ranks, Student's t-test, and Mann-Whitney tests at a 5% significance level. Mesofacial, brachyfacial, and dolichofacial subjects presented more occlusal contact area on the left side. Only dolichofacial subjects showed lateral asymmetry for bite force, presenting higher force on the left side. No statistically significant differences were found for chewing side preference among all groups. Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that craniofacial dimensions play a role in asymmetry of bite force. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01286363.

  8. Model of external exposure of population living in the areas subjected to radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golikov, V.Yu.; Balonov, M.I.

    2002-01-01

    In the paper, we formulated the general approach to assessment of external doses to population living in contaminated areas (the model equation and the set of parameters). The model parameters were assessed on the basis of results of monitoring in the environment, phantom experiments, and social and demographic information obtained on the contaminated areas. Verification of model assessments performed by comparison with measurement results of individual external doses in inhabitants within the thermoluminescent dosimetry method have shown that differences in dose assessments within both methods does not exceed 1.5 times at a confidence level of 95%. In the paper, we present the results illustrating specific features of external dose formation in population living in the areas of Russia subjected to radioactive contamination due to nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk test site, radioactive releases from the Mayak enterprise, and the Chernobyl accident. (author)

  9. [Prediction model of meteorological grade of wheat stripe rust in winter-reproductive area, Sichuan Basin, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiang; Wang, Ming Tian; Zhang, Guo Zhi

    2017-12-01

    The winter reproductive areas of Puccinia striiformis var. striiformis in Sichuan Basin are often the places mostly affected by wheat stripe rust. With data on the meteorological condition and stripe rust situation at typical stations in the winter reproductive area in Sichuan Basin from 1999 to 2016, this paper classified the meteorological conditions inducing wheat stripe rust into 5 grades, based on the incidence area ratio of the disease. The meteorological factors which were biologically related to wheat stripe rust were determined through multiple analytical methods, and a meteorological grade model for forecasting wheat stripe rust was created. The result showed that wheat stripe rust in Sichuan Basin was significantly correlated with many meteorological factors, such as the ave-rage (maximum and minimum) temperature, precipitation and its anomaly percentage, relative humidity and its anomaly percentage, average wind speed and sunshine duration. Among these, the average temperature and the anomaly percentage of relative humidity were the determining factors. According to a historical retrospective test, the accuracy of the forecast based on the model was 64% for samples in the county-level test, and 89% for samples in the municipal-level test. In a meteorological grade forecast of wheat stripe rust in the winter reproductive areas in Sichuan Basin in 2017, the prediction was accurate for 62.8% of the samples, with 27.9% error by one grade and only 9.3% error by two or more grades. As a result, the model could deliver satisfactory forecast results, and predicate future wheat stripe rust from a meteorological point of view.

  10. The Prevalence of Mathematical Anxiety in a Business School: A Comparative Study across Subject Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Howard

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical anxiety is a phenomenon linked to poor attainment in mathematics and restricted development of mathematical skills among those who are afflicted by it. Unfortunately most undergraduate courses in business related areas require the further study of mathematics to enable effective business decision making and students who suffer from mathematical anxiety are placed at risk of underperformance or failure in such quantitative modules. This paper summarizes the results of a survey (n = 330 of students joining a university business school with a view to ascertaining the degree of mathematical anxiety exhibited by incoming students. Results of the survey show no significant differences in anxiety attributable to age or gender but significant differences attributable to level of study and subject area. Implications of the findings for a redesigned teaching approach are discussed drawing on suggestions from the literature surrounding mathematical anxiety.

  11. "All White Americans in the County" and Other Loaded Subjects: Race, Community, and Morality in a Second Grade Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaenen, Inda L.

    2010-01-01

    This teacher research inquiry is a critical discourse analysis of second grade classroom talk about racial identity and dialect difference within the theoretical framework of moral philosophy. Participants in the study, which took place in an urban public district in a Midwestern United States city, included ten African American students and a…

  12. The Effects of Using Concept Cartoons in Astronomy Subjects on Critical Thinking Skills among Seventh Grade Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Filiz; Özyürek, Cengiz

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is to research the effects of using concept cartoons in the "Solar System and Beyond" unit, which is included in seventh grade science lessons, on students' critical thinking skills. The study group consisted of 58 students, selected using an appropriate sampling method, who were students in a state secondary…

  13. The Influence of Gender, Grade Level and Favourite Subject on Czech Lower Secondary School Pupils' Perception of Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiatko, Milan; Janko, Tomas; Mrazkova, Katerina

    2012-01-01

    Geography is an important school subject that brings pupils' description and explanation of social, economic and/or political aspects of the changing world. It has been affirmed that the interest in a subject depends on the attitude to this subject. This study investigates Czech lower secondary school pupils' perception of geography. The research…

  14. Blood biomonitoring of metals in subjects living near abandoned mining and active industrial areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeddu, Roberto; Tolu, Paola; Asara, Yolande; Farace, Cristiano; Forte, Giovanni; Bocca, Beatrice

    2013-07-01

    A human blood biomonitoring campaign to detect the environmental exposure to metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Mn, Pb and Zn) in 265 subjects was performed in the South-Western part of Sardinia (an Italian island) that is a particular area with a great history of coal and metal mining (Pb/Zn mainly) activities and large industrial structures (as metallurgy). Subjects living near the industrial plant area had geometric means (GM) of blood Cd (0.79 μg/l), Cu (971 μg/l), Mn (12.2 μg/l), and Pb (55.7 μg/l) significantly higher than controls (Cd, 0.47 μg/l; Cu, 900 μg/l; Mn 9.98 μg/l; Pb, 26.5 μg/l) and than people living nearby the past mining sites. Subjects living next to one dismissed mine were statistically higher in blood Cu (GM, 1,022 μg/l) and Pb (GM, 41.4 μg/l) concentrations than controls. No differences were observed in people living in the different mining sites, and this might be related to the decennial disclosure of mines and the adoption of environmental remediation programmes. Some interindividual variables influenced blood biomonitoring data, as smoke and age for Cd, gender for Cu, age, sex and alcohol for Pb, and age for Zn. Moreover, blood metal levels of the whole population were similar to reference values representative of the Sardinian population and acceptably safe according to currently available health guidelines.

  15. Vascular grading of angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S; Grabau, D A; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    2000-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of angiogenesis by vascular grading of primary breast tumours, and to evaluate the prognostic impact of adding the vascular grade to the Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI). The investigation included 836 patients. The median follow-up time was 11...... years and 4 months. The microvessels were immunohistochemically stained by antibodies against CD34. Angiogenesis was graded semiquantitatively by subjective scoring into three groups according to the expected number of microvessels in the most vascular tumour area. The vascular grading between observers...... for 24% of the patients, who had a shift in prognostic group, as compared to NPI, and implied a better prognostic dissemination. We concluded that the angiogenesis determined by vascular grading has independent prognostic value of clinical relevance for patients with breast cancer....

  16. Vascular grading of angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S; Grabau, D A; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    2000-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of angiogenesis by vascular grading of primary breast tumours, and to evaluate the prognostic impact of adding the vascular grade to the Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI). The investigation included 836 patients. The median follow-up time was 11...... years and 4 months. The microvessels were immunohistochemically stained by antibodies against CD34. Angiogenesis was graded semiquantitatively by subjective scoring into three groups according to the expected number of microvessels in the most vascular tumour area. The vascular grading between observers...... impact for 24% of the patients, who had a shift in prognostic group, as compared to NPI, and implied a better prognostic dissemination. We concluded that the angiogenesis determined by vascular grading has independent prognostic value of clinical relevance for patients with breast cancer....

  17. Environmental protection foliar fertilization in areas subject to limitation of fertilizers use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavriluta, I.; Alexandrescu, A; Budoi, G.; Bireescu, L.; Bireescu, G.

    1999-01-01

    Significant increases of plant productivity have been recorded in field experiments conducted between 1991 - 1994 using general purpose complex foliar fertilizers as well as aminoacid containing complex foliar fertilizers. These increases at the same time had positive environmental effects against chemical pollution, especially with nitrates. As a rule, the greater the degree of nutrient efficiency, especially of nitrate, the lower are the losses, which are subject to transfer to the environment. So in the light of environmental protection against chemical pollution using foliar fertilization is certainly beneficial for crops and for all other components of the agricultural environment giving rise to its significant improvement. Both, foliar and soil fertilization in areas with limitation of fertilizer use should be carried out under a continuous and strict analytical check of plant, soil and water. Refs. 14 (author)

  18. Refractive error study in young subjects: results from a rural area in Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Signes-Soler

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the distribution of refractive error in young subjects in a rural area of Paraguay in the context of an international cooperation campaign for the prevention of blindness. METHODS: A sample of 1466 young subjects (ranging from 3 to 22 years old, with a mean age of 11.21±3.63 years old, were examined to assess their distance visual acuity (VA and refractive error. The first screening examination performed by trained volunteers, included visual acuity testing, autokeratometry and non-cycloplegic autorefraction. Inclusion criteria for a second complete cycloplegic eye examination by an optometrist were VA <20/25 (0.10 logMAR or 0.8 decimal and/or corneal astigmatism ≥1.50 D. RESULTS: An uncorrected distance VA of 0 logMAR (1.0 decimal was found in 89.2% of children. VA <20/25 and/or corneal astigmatism ≥1.50 D was found in 3.9% of children (n=57, with a prevalence of hyperopia of 5.2% (0.2% of the total in this specific group. Furthermore, myopia (spherical equivalent ≤-0.5 D was found in 37.7% of the refracted children (0.5% of the total. The prevalence of refractive astigmatism (cylinder ≤-1.50 D was 15.8% (0.6% of the total. Visual impairment (VI (0.05≤VA≤0.3 was found in 12/114 (0.4% of the refracted eyes. Main causes for VI were refractive error (58%, retinal problems (17%, 2/12, albinism (17%, 2/12 and unknown (8%, 1/12. CONCLUSION: A low prevalence of refractive error has been found in this rural area of Paraguay, with higher prevalence of myopia than of hyperopia.

  19. Spatial variability of soil potassium in sugarcane areas subjected to the application of vinasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAÉRCIO A. DE CARVALHO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available When deposited on land the vinasse can promote improvement in fertility, however, often fertilizer application occurs in areas considered homogeneous, without taking into account the variability of the soil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of vinasse application on potassium content in two classes of soils cultivated with sugarcane, and characterize the spatial variability of soil using geostatistical techniques. In the 2010 and 2011 crop year, soil samples were collected from an experimental grid at 0-0.2 and 0.2-0.4 m depth in three soils cultivated with sugarcane, totaling 90 samplings in each grid, for the determination of pH, calcium (Ca, magnesium (Mg, potassium (K, phosphorus (P, aluminum (Al and potential acidity (H + Al. The data have been submitted to analysis of descriptive statistics and the K attribute was subjected to geostatistical analysis. The coefficient of variation indicated medium and high variability of K for the three soils. The results showed that the spatial dependence of K increased in depth to FRce and decreased to PHlv, indicating that the attribute could have followed the pattern of distribution of clay in depth. The investigation of the spatial variability of K on the surface and subsurface soils provided the definition of management zones with different levels of fertility, which can be organized into sub-areas for a more efficient management of the resources and the environment.

  20. Increased variability of watershed areas in patients with high-grade carotid stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaczmarz, Stephan; Griese, Vanessa; Preibisch, Christine

    2018-01-01

    . Despite of high relevance for both clinical diagnostics and research, individual in vivo WSA definition is fairly limited to date. Thus, this study proposes a standardized segmentation approach to delineate individual WSAs by use of time-to-peak (TTP) maps and investigates spatial variability...... of individual WSAs. Methods: We defined individual watershed masks based on relative TTP increases in 30 healthy elderly persons and 28 patients with unilateral, high-grade carotid stenosis, being at risk for watershed-related hemodynamic impairment. Determined WSA location was confirmed by an arterial transit...... time atlas and individual super-selective arterial spin labeling. We compared spatial variability of WSA probability maps between groups and assessed TTP differences between hemispheres in individual and group-average watershed locations. Results: Patients showed significantly higher spatial...

  1. Effects of acute hypoxia on renal and endocrine function at rest and during graded exercise in hydrated subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Vidiendal; Kanstrup, I L; Richalet, J P

    1992-01-01

    Renal effects of altitude hypoxia are unclear. Renal and hormonal function was investigated in eight males at rest and during graded exercise at sea level (SL) and 48 h after rapid ascent to 4,350 m (HA). HA did not change resting values of effective renal plasma flow (ERPF), glomerular filtration...... rate (GFR), sodium clearance (CNa), urine flow, or lithium clearance (CLi), which was used as an index of proximal tubular outflow. At rest, HA increased plasma norepinephrine concentration and decreased plasma concentrations of renin and aldosterone. Exercise decreased ERPF similarly in both...... environments. Normoxic exercise progressively reduced GFR, but at HA GFR only decreased during heavy exercise. This resulted in a higher filtration fraction during light and moderate hypoxic exercise. However, calculated absolute proximal reabsorption rate (GFR-CLi) at HA was higher during low...

  2. Diet and exercise reduce low-grade inflammation and macrophage infiltration in adipose tissue but not in skeletal muscle in severely obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Jens M; Helge, Jørn W; Richelsen, Bjørn

    2006-01-01

    Obesity is associated with low-grade inflammation, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. This study investigated the effect of a 15-wk lifestyle intervention (hypocaloric diet and daily exercise) on inflammatory markers in plasma, adipose tissue (AT), and skeletal muscle...... (SM) in 27 severely obese subjects (mean body mass index: 45.8 kg/m2). Plasma samples, subcutaneous abdominal AT biopsies, and vastus lateralis SM biopsies were obtained before and after the intervention and analyzed by ELISA and RT-PCR. The intervention reduced body weight (P

  3. Influence of Elastic Bandage and Neoprene Ankle Support on Ankle Position Sense and Pain in Subjects with Ankle Sprain (Grade I & II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basir Majdoleslami

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to investigate whether a neoprene ankle support and elastic bandage around the ankle joint of subjects with ankle sprain (grade I&II would , in short term (a reduce pain (b improve ankle joint position sense and comparison of their effect with each other if they have. Materials & Methods: In a semi-experimental study, 30 subjects (16men, 14 women, age between 16-52 with ankle sprain grade I&II. Subjects had to have at least 2cm from 10cm visual analogue scale (VAS of ankle pain for study entry. All patients were randomly assigned to either an elastic bandage or a neoprene ankle support. One week later they were assigned to the opposite selection. Joint position sense was assessed in the sitting position using an electrogoniometer and pain by VAS where 0cm equals no pain and 10 cm equals worst pain. ankle pain and JPS were assessed for each selection one week apart. During each visit assessment were performed at baseline and after 20 min of bandage/neoprene ankle support application. Results: the mean of scores for ankle variables JPS and VAS was taken and paired-t test and Wilcoxon signed rank test was employed to calculate the different between two trails. Neoprene ankle support had significant effect on ankle JPS (P=0.034. But elastic bandage had no effect (P=0.539. Both of them had significantly reduced ankle pain. (P=0.000  Conclusion: In subjects with both neoprene ankle support and elastic bandage reduced ankle pain with more effect of neoprene ankle support. Only the neoprene ankle support had effect on knee JPS.

  4. High-grade metamorphic rocks of the Mellid area, Galicia, NW Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hubregtse, J.J.M.W.

    1973-01-01

    This study concerns the petrology of the Mellid area, the SE portion of the outer zone of the Ordenes Complex which is one of the upthrusted Precambrian complexes in the axial zone of the Hercynian orogen in Galicia, NW Spain. An eugeosynclinal rock sequence is found containing units with different

  5. An Experimental Study on the Effects of Stereotype Awareness on the Subjective Grading of Undergraduate College Essays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikesell-Redding, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    Racial equality is promoted on nearly every academic campus across America; however, research has shown that educators express racial bias in various ways. The purpose of this experimental research was to determine the extent of racial bias among White, undergraduate professors, an area lacking previous research. The study tested whether a…

  6. Serum IL-12 Is Increased in Mexican Obese Subjects and Associated with Low-Grade Inflammation and Obesity-Related Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Suárez-Álvarez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-(IL- 12 has been recently suggested to participate during development of insulin resistance in obese mice. Nevertheless, serum IL-12 levels have not been accurately determined in overweight and obese humans. We thus studied serum concentrations of IL-12 in Mexican adult individuals, examining their relationship with low-grade inflammation and obesity-related parameters. A total of 147 healthy individuals, 43 normal weight, 61 overweight, and 43 obese subjects participated in the study. Circulating levels of IL-12, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, leptin, insulin, glucose, total cholesterol, and triglyceride were measured after overnight fasting in all of the study subjects. Waist circumference and body fat percentage were recorded for all the participants. Serum IL-12 was significantly higher in overweight and obese individuals than in normal weight controls. Besides being strongly related with body mass index (r=0.5154, serum IL-12 exhibited a significant relationship with abdominal obesity (r=0.4481, body fat percentage (r=0.5625, serum glucose (r=0.3158, triglyceride (r=0.3714, and TNF-α (r=0.4717. Thus, serum levels of IL-12 are increased in overweight and obese individuals and show a strong relationship with markers of low-grade inflammation and obesity in the Mexican adult population. Further research is needed to understand the role of IL-12 in developing obesity-associated alterations in humans.

  7. Development of Chemistry Game Card as an Instructional Media in the Subject of Naming Chemical Compound in Grade X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayharti; Iswendi, I.; Arifin, M. N.

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this research was to produce a chemistry game card as an instructional media in the subject of naming chemical compounds and determine the degree of validity and practicality of instructional media produced. Type of this research was Research and Development (R&D) that produced a product. The development model used was4-D model which comprises four stages incuding: (1) define, (2) design, (3) develop, and (4) disseminate. This research was restricted at the development stage. Chemistry game card developed was validated by seven validators and practicality was tested to class X6 students of SMAN 5 Padang. Instrument of this research is questionnair that consist of validity sheet and practicality sheet. Technique in collection data was done by distributing questionnaire to the validators, chemistry teachers, and students. The data were analyzed by using formula Cohen’s Kappa. Based on data analysis, validity of chemistry game card was0.87 with category highly valid and practicality of chemistry game card was 0.91 with category highly practice.

  8. Evaluation of thyroid function in female subjects living in the high natural background radiation area of Karunagappally, Kerala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreekumar, A.; Nair, Raghu Ram K.; Jayalakshmi, P.; Sebastian, P.; Akiba, S.

    2010-01-01

    Radiation exposure has been reported to cause non cancer thyroid abnormalities like diffuse goiter and thyroid nodules. The present study was undertaken to see if there are any morphological and functional changes taking place in the thyroid due to chronic low level radiation exposure. 257 female subjects living in the four high background radiation panchayats of Chavara, Neendakara, Alappad and Panmana were selected for the study after getting informed consent. 5 ml of blood was drawn from these subjects for assessing thyroid function. The subjects were all staying in the same area since their birth and had not moved out for more than one year at a stretch. The average age of the subjects was 40.5y with a range of 17-66y. The cumulative dose had a mean of 226.3 mGy and a range of 20.6-937.8 mGy. 95 subjects from the low background area of Oachira and Thevalakkara were selected as controls in the age group of 18-63y with a mean age of 47.1y. The mean cumulative dose of this group was 35.9 mGy with a minimum of 5.3 mGy and a maximum of 106.8 mGy. 5 ml blood was collected from these subjects for thyroid function studies. All the subjects underwent ultrasound examination of the thyroid using a 10 MHz frequency linear probe. The following parameters were studied to assess thyroid function: Free T4, TSH, Antithyroglobulin antibody (ATG), Parathyroid hormone. Ultrasound images showed the following common features: Normal - 171, Suggestive of Thyroiditis - 106, Multinodular Goitre - 63, Diffuse Goitre - 5, Solitary Nodule - 31. 73 subjects had elevated TSH and 190 subjects had raised ATG. A significant numbers of subjects had features of thyroiditis. A comparative evaluation with control subjects will be done to assess its significance with reference to cumulative dose

  9. Soil protection strategies in Brandenburg - management of waste recycling on devastated areas subject to recultivation (soil protection in recultivation areas)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, M.; Bannick, C.G.

    1996-01-01

    The article reflects on consideration in the Land (Federal State) Brandenburg in the preliminary stages of a Land regulation on the recycling of wastes on devasted brown coal mining areas from the viewpoint of soil protection. Within the framework of a proposed recultivation, the benefit and harmlessness of recycling shall be examined. The benefits are derived from the preservation, improvement and restoration of soil functions without detrimental effects on other soil functions. In order to make full use of the benefits, a graduated, site-specific system for the main nutrients is presented. For pollutants, different approaches for limitation of the input are discussed. 36 refs., 1 fig., 12 tabs

  10. [Inadequacy of the paradigms of special education to subjects with severe and profound grade intellectual disability - the need for pragmatic realism in psychiatry and special pedagogy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipowicz, Kasper; Żuraw, Hanna; Witusik, Andrzej; Mokros, Łukasz; Najbert, Edyta; Pietras, Tadeusz

    2018-05-25

    People with severe and profound grade disabilities are the subject of interest in psychiatry, clinical psychology and special pedagogy. Unfortunately, the paradigmatic approach to special education based on postmodern philosophy is in contrast to the biomedical approach that is based on the positivist and Cartesian models. The paper is an attempt to systematize the similarities and differences between the humanistic approach and the modern biomedical model, which, despite the apparent differences, do not differ so much from each other. Work with a person disabled intellectually in the severe or profound degree is governed by the principles of methodical realism, taking into account to an equal extent the principal deficits, the concomitant diseases, limitations and the social context. The deeper the impairment and disability is, the smaller is the role of the humanistic paradigm in work with the client in the medical management and educational process. Changing the paradigms of special pedagogy has drawn attention to the social context of disability, separating, however, special pedagogy from modern medicine and psychology, cognitive-oriented and psychometry-based. The postmodern paradigm has become an ideology, which makes it difficult to work with deeply disabled people. Only the multidirectional approach including a variety of paradigms makes it possible to provide integrational aid to people with severe and profound grade intellectual disabilities. Working with such a disabled person should take into account equally the biomedical and humanistic aspects. © 2018 MEDPRESS.

  11. Reorganization of Language Areas in Patient with a Frontal Lobe Low Grade Glioma – fMRI Case Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kośla, Katarzyna; Bryszewski, Bartosz; Jaskólski, Dariusz; Błasiak-Kołacińska, Nina; Stefańczyk, Ludomir; Majos, Agata

    2015-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) studies results in case of an adult patient with low grade glioma (LGG) in dominant hemisphere suggest brain plasticity process with acquisition of language functions by the non-dominant hemisphere speech regions. A 36-years old right-handed woman was admitted to the Department of Neurosurgery for surgical treatment of brain tumor. An MRI examination revealed a pathological mass in the left frontal lobe, in close topographical relationship to the Broca’s area. A left fronto-parietal craniotomy was performed, with an intraoperative awake language mapping procedure. A total resection of the pathological mass was achieved. The tumor was examined histologically as LGG. In the follow-up MRI exam 32 months after the operation a tumor recurrence was suggested. The fMRI exams performed preoperative and 3, 32 and 41 months after the operation showed changes in language regions activation patterns, with a progressive right-sided activation of Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas. Pre- and postoperative cognitive evaluation by a neuropsychologist did not detect any language impairment. We present a running process of reorganization of language areas in a patient after brain tumor resection, from strong left-sided to symmetrical lateralization. 1. FMRI results in comparison with the psychological status of the patient proved contribution of functional reorganization to the preservation of language performance. 2. A slow growing LGG as well as the recurrence of the tumor near the left Broca’s area might be the factors leading to reorganization of language-related areas by recruiting the right hemisphe

  12. Changes in Contact Area in Meniscus Horizontal Cleavage Tears Subjected to Repair and Resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beamer, Brandon S; Walley, Kempland C; Okajima, Stephen; Manoukian, Ohan S; Perez-Viloria, Miguel; DeAngelis, Joseph P; Ramappa, Arun J; Nazarian, Ara

    2017-03-01

    To assess the changes in tibiofemoral contact pressure and contact area in human knees with a horizontal cleavage tear before and after treatment. Ten human cadaveric knees were tested. Pressure sensors were placed under the medial meniscus and the knees were loaded at twice the body weight for 20 cycles at 0°, 10°, and 20° of flexion. Contact area and pressure were recorded for the intact meniscus, the meniscus with a horizontal cleavage tear, after meniscal repair, after partial meniscectomy (single leaflet), and after subtotal meniscectomy (double leaflet). The presence of a horizontal cleavage tear significantly increased average peak contact pressure and reduced effective average tibiofemoral contact area at all flexion angles tested compared with the intact state (P contact pressure after creation of the horizontal cleavage tear. Repairing the horizontal cleavage tear restored peak contact pressures and areas to within 15% of baseline, statistically similar to the intact state at all angles tested (P contact pressure and reduced average contact area at all degrees of flexion compared with the intact state (P contact area and a significant elevation in contact pressure. These changes may accelerate joint degeneration. A suture-based repair of these horizontal cleavage tears returns the contact area and contact pressure to nearly normal, whereas both partial and subtotal meniscectomy lead to significant reductions in contact area and significant elevations in contact pressure within the knee. Repairing horizontal cleavage tears may lead to improved clinical outcomes by preserving meniscal tissue and the meniscal function. Understanding contact area and peak contact pressure resulting from differing strategies for treating horizontal cleavage tears will allow the surgeon to evaluate the best strategy for treating his or her patients who present with this meniscal pathology. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier

  13. 75 FR 26967 - Guidance for Industry: Use of Water by Food Manufacturers in Areas Subject to a Boil-Water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2010-D-0236] Guidance for Industry: Use of Water by Food Manufacturers in Areas Subject to a Boil-Water Advisory; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug...

  14. Economics of Scholarly Publishing: Exploring the Causes of Subscription Price Variations of Scholarly Journals in Business Subject-Specific Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lewis G.

    2011-01-01

    This empirical research investigates subscription price variations of scholarly journals in five business subject-specific areas using the semilogarithmic regression model. It has two main purposes. The first is to address the unsettled debate over whether or not and to what extent commercial publishers reap monopoly profits by overcharging…

  15. Problem Solving and Creativity and Design: What Influence Do They Have on Girls' Interest in STEM Subject Areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Robyn; Heaverlo, Carol

    2013-01-01

    For girls there is a distinct loss in interest, lack of confidence, and decline in positive attitudes toward STEM subject areas that begins early on in their academic experience and increases with age. According to the National Academy of Engineering, students need to begin associating the possibilities in STEM fields with the need for creativity…

  16. Aging of Holocaust Survivors: Discrepancies Between Subjective and General Health in the greater Tel Aviv Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohana, Irit; Golander, Hava; Barak, Yoram

    2018-04-01

    Aging has been associated with perceived lowering of health, especially in post-traumatic individuals. The effects may be more complex or even different for Holocaust survivors as they age due to their inherited resilience and life perspective. A cross-sectional study was conducted of Holocaust survivors and a matched comparison group recruited from the general Israeli population. All participants underwent a personal interview and completed the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale and a survey of subjective Likert-scale questions about perceived health. The study comprised 214 older adults: 107 Holocaust survivors and 107 comparison participants; 101 women and 113 men. The mean age for the participants was 80.7 ± 4.7 years (range 68-93). Holocaust survivors did not differ from comparison subjects in general health measures (mean 51.50 ± 3.06 vs. 52.27 ± 3.24, respectively). However, the Holocaust survivors' subjective health was significantly lower, F (2,211) = 4.18, P Holocaust survivors to achieve successful aging.

  17. Estimating species – area relationships by modeling abundance and frequency subject to incomplete sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaura, Yuichi; Connor, Edward F.; Royle, Andy; Itoh, Katsuo; Sato, Kiyoshi; Taki, Hisatomo; Mishima, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    Models and data used to describe species–area relationships confound sampling with ecological process as they fail to acknowledge that estimates of species richness arise due to sampling. This compromises our ability to make ecological inferences from and about species–area relationships. We develop and illustrate hierarchical community models of abundance and frequency to estimate species richness. The models we propose separate sampling from ecological processes by explicitly accounting for the fact that sampled patches are seldom completely covered by sampling plots and that individuals present in the sampling plots are imperfectly detected. We propose a multispecies abundance model in which community assembly is treated as the summation of an ensemble of species-level Poisson processes and estimate patch-level species richness as a derived parameter. We use sampling process models appropriate for specific survey methods. We propose a multispecies frequency model that treats the number of plots in which a species occurs as a binomial process. We illustrate these models using data collected in surveys of early-successional bird species and plants in young forest plantation patches. Results indicate that only mature forest plant species deviated from the constant density hypothesis, but the null model suggested that the deviations were too small to alter the form of species–area relationships. Nevertheless, results from simulations clearly show that the aggregate pattern of individual species density–area relationships and occurrence probability–area relationships can alter the form of species–area relationships. The plant community model estimated that only half of the species present in the regional species pool were encountered during the survey. The modeling framework we propose explicitly accounts for sampling processes so that ecological processes can be examined free of sampling artefacts. Our modeling approach is extensible and could be applied

  18. MEG reveals a fast pathway from somatosensory cortex to occipital areas via posterior parietal cortex in a blind subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas A Ioannides

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cross-modal activity in visual cortex of blind subjects has been reported during performance of variety of non-visual tasks. A key unanswered question is through which pathways non-visual inputs are funneled to the visual cortex. Here we used tomographic analysis of single trial magnetoencephalography (MEG data recorded from one congenitally blind and two sighted subjects after stimulation of the left and right median nerves at three intensities: below sensory threshold, above sensory threshold and above motor threshold; the last sufficient to produce thumb twitching. We identified reproducible brain responses in the primary somatosensory (S1 and motor (M1 cortices at around 20 ms post-stimulus, which were very similar in sighted and blind subjects. Time-frequency analysis revealed strong 45 to 70 Hz activity at latencies of 20 to 50 ms in S1 and M1, and posterior parietal cortex Brodmann areas (BA 7 and 40, which compared to lower frequencies, were substantially more pronounced in the blind than the sighted subjects. Critically, at frequencies from α-band up to 100 Hz we found clear, strong and widespread responses in the visual cortex of the blind subject, which increased with the intensity of the somatosensory stimuli. Time-delayed mutual information (MI revealed that in blind subject the stimulus information is funneled from the early somatosensory to visual cortex through posterior parietal BA 7 and 40, projecting first to visual areas V5 and V3, and eventually V1. The flow of information through this pathway occured in stages characterized by convergence of activations into specific cortical regions. In sighted subjects, no linked activity was found that led from the somatosensory to the visual cortex through any of the studied brain regions. These results provide the first evidence from MEG that in blind subjects, tactile information is routed from primary somatosensory to occipital cortex via the posterior parietal cortex.

  19. MEG reveals a fast pathway from somatosensory cortex to occipital areas via posterior parietal cortex in a blind subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannides, Andreas A; Liu, Lichan; Poghosyan, Vahe; Saridis, George A; Gjedde, Albert; Ptito, Maurice; Kupers, Ron

    2013-01-01

    Cross-modal activity in visual cortex of blind subjects has been reported during performance of variety of non-visual tasks. A key unanswered question is through which pathways non-visual inputs are funneled to the visual cortex. Here we used tomographic analysis of single trial magnetoencephalography (MEG) data recorded from one congenitally blind and two sighted subjects after stimulation of the left and right median nerves at three intensities: below sensory threshold, above sensory threshold and above motor threshold; the last sufficient to produce thumb twitching. We identified reproducible brain responses in the primary somatosensory (S1) and motor (M1) cortices at around 20 ms post-stimulus, which were very similar in sighted and blind subjects. Time-frequency analysis revealed strong 45-70 Hz activity at latencies of 20-50 ms in S1 and M1, and posterior parietal cortex Brodmann areas (BA) 7 and 40, which compared to lower frequencies, were substantially more pronounced in the blind than the sighted subjects. Critically, at frequencies from α-band up to 100 Hz we found clear, strong, and widespread responses in the visual cortex of the blind subject, which increased with the intensity of the somatosensory stimuli. Time-delayed mutual information (MI) revealed that in blind subject the stimulus information is funneled from the early somatosensory to visual cortex through posterior parietal BA 7 and 40, projecting first to visual areas V5 and V3, and eventually V1. The flow of information through this pathway occurred in stages characterized by convergence of activations into specific cortical regions. In sighted subjects, no linked activity was found that led from the somatosensory to the visual cortex through any of the studied brain regions. These results provide the first evidence from MEG that in blind subjects, tactile information is routed from primary somatosensory to occipital cortex via the posterior parietal cortex.

  20. Magneto encephalography (MEG: perspectives of speech areas functional mapping in human subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butorina A. V.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the main problems in clinical practice and academic research is how to localize speech zones in the human brain. Two speech areas (Broca and Wernicke areas that are responsible for language production and for understanding of written and spoken language have been known since the past century. Their location and even hemispheric lateralization have a substantial inter-individual variability, especially in neurosurgery patients. Wada test is one of the most frequently used invasive methodology for speech hemispheric lateralization in neurosurgery patients. However, besides relatively high-risk of Wada test for patient's health, it has its own limitation, e. g. low reliability of Wada-based evidence of verbal memory brain lateralization. Therefore, there is an urgent need for non-invasive, reliable methods of speech zones mapping.The current review summarizes the recent experimental evidence from magnitoencephalographic (MEG research suggesting that speech areas are included in the speech processing within the first 200 ms after the word onset. The electro-magnetic response to deviant word, mismatch negativity wave with latency of 100—200 ms, can be recorded from auditory cortex within the oddball-paradigm. We provide the arguments that basic features of this brain response, such as its automatic, pre-attentive nature, high signal to noise ratio, source localization at superior temporal sulcus, make it a promising vehicle for non-invasive MEG-based speech areas mapping in neurosurgery.

  1. The Prevalence of Mathematical Anxiety in a Business School: A Comparative Study Across Subject Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Howard, A; Warwick, J

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical anxiety is a phenomenon linked to poor attainment in mathematics and restricted development of mathematical skills among those who are afflicted by it. Unfortunately most undergraduate courses in business related areas require the further study of mathematics to enable effective business decision making and students who suffer from mathematical anxiety are placed at risk of underperformance or failure in such quantitative modules. This paper summarizes the results of ...

  2. Subject-specific computational modeling of DBS in the PPTg area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M. Zitella

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Deep brain stimulation (DBS in the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg has been proposed to alleviate medically intractable gait difficulties associated with Parkinson’s disease. Clinical trials have shown somewhat variable outcomes, stemming in part from surgical targeting variability, modulating fiber pathways implicated in side effects, and a general lack of mechanistic understanding of DBS in this brain region. Subject-specific computational models of DBS are a promising tool to investigate the underlying therapy and side effects. In this study, a parkinsonian rhesus macaque was implanted unilaterally with an 8-contact DBS lead in the PPTg region. Fiber tracts adjacent to PPTg, including the oculomotor nerve, central tegmental tract, and superior cerebellar peduncle, were reconstructed from a combination of pre-implant 7T MRI, post-implant CT, and post-mortem histology. These structures were populated with axon models and coupled with a finite element model simulating the voltage distribution in the surrounding neural tissue during stimulation. This study introduces two empirical approaches to evaluate model parameters. First, incremental monopolar cathodic stimulation (20Hz, 90µs pulse width was evaluated for each electrode, during which a right eyelid flutter was observed at the proximal four contacts (-1.0 to -1.4mA. These current amplitudes followed closely with model predicted activation of the oculomotor nerve when assuming an anisotropic conduction medium. Second, PET imaging was collected OFF-DBS and twice during DBS (two different contacts, which supported the model predicted activation of the central tegmental tract and superior cerebellar peduncle. Together, subject-specific models provide a framework to more precisely predict pathways modulated by DBS.

  3. Evaluating the outcomes of a hearing screening service for grade one learners in urban areas at Durban, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Govender

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Early intervention through hearing screening can reduce the negative impact of hearing loss for children. Optimal outcomes are achieved when an appropriate screening protocol is selected, a pathway for follow up care is established, and when a hearing conservation component is included. This study aimed to describe the outcomes of a hearing screening service provided to grade one learners in urban areas at Durban. A cross-sectional design was employed. Learners (n=241 were conveniently sampled from six randomly selected schools. They were screened using otoscopy, tympanometry and pure tone audiometry. Fifty eight participants (24% obtained a refer result, with 33% referred for diagnostic assessments, 29% for middle ear pathology and 38% for cerumen management. Findings further revealed that only 33% of referrals were followed up indicating poor compliance. Association between test results and income levels (P=0.38 as well as distance to the nearest health care facility (P=0.22 did not influence test outcomes. School aged children do present with common ear problems. Appropriate protocol selection, ensuring compliance to recommendations and education on hearing conservation are essential components of any health initiative.

  4. CO2 sequestration in two mediterranean dune areas subjected to a different level of anthropogenic disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonito, Andrea; Ricotta, Carlo; Iberite, Mauro; Gratani, Loretta; Varone, Laura

    2017-09-01

    Coastal sand dunes are among the most threatened habitats, especially in the Mediterranean Basin, where the high levels of human pressure impair the presence of plant species, putting at risk the maintenance of the ecosystem services, such as CO2 sequestration provided by these habitats. The aim of this study was to analyze how disturbance-induced changes in plant species abundance patterns account for variations in annual CO2 sequestration flow (CS) of Mediterranean sand dune areas. Two sites characterized by a high (site HAD) and a lower (site LAD) anthropogenic disturbance level were selected. At both sites, plant species number, cover, height and CS based on net photosynthesis measurements were sampled. At the plant species level, our results highlighted that Ammophila arenaria and Pancratium maritimum, had a key role in CS. Moreover, the results revealed a patchy species assemblage in both sites. In particular, HAD was characterized by a higher extension of the anthropogenic aphytoic zone (64% of the total transect length) than LAD. In spite of the observed differences in plant species composition, there were not significant differences between HAD and LAD in structural and functional traits, such as plant height and net photosynthesis. As a consequence, HAD and LAD had a similar CS (443 and 421 Mg CO2 ha-1 y-1, respectively). From a monetary point of view, our estimates based on the social costs of carbon revealed that the flow of sequestered CO2 valued on an average 3181 ± 114 ha-1 year-1 (mean value for the two sites). However, considering also the value of the CO2 negative flow related to loss of vegetated area, the annual net benefit arising from CO2 sequestration amounted to 1641 and 1772 for HAD and LAD, respectively. Overall, the results highlighted the importance to maximize the efforts to preserve dune habitats by applying an effective management policy, which could allow maintaining also a regulatory ecosystem service such as CO2 sequestration.

  5. Genetic structure and genetic diversity of Swietenia macrophylla in areas subjected to selective logging in Quintana Roo, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Alcalá, Raúl Ernesto; Cruz, Silvia De la; Gutiérrez-Granados, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    The hypothesis that selective logging has a negative effect by altering the genetic parameters of tropical tree species was evaluated. The genetic diversity and genetic structure between adult trees (N = 47) and saplings (N = 50) of Swietenia macrophylla were contrasted within an area subjected to selective logging in the Mayan zone. Although differences in the number of alleles and in their frequencies were detected between both groups, the observed and expected heterozygosity and the coeffi...

  6. The Difference in Translaminar Pressure Gradient and Neuroretinal Rim Area in Glaucoma and Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Siaudvytyte

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To assess differences in translaminar pressure gradient (TPG and neuroretinal rim area (NRA in patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG, high tension glaucoma (HTG, and healthy controls. Methods. 27 patients with NTG, HTG, and healthy controls were included in the prospective pilot study (each group consisted of 9 patients. Intraocular pressure (IOP, intracranial pressure (ICP, and confocal laser scanning tomography were assessed. TPG was calculated as the difference of IOP minus ICP. ICP was measured using noninvasive two-depth transcranial Doppler device. The level of significance P 0.05. The difference between TPG for healthy (5.4(7.7 mmHg and glaucomatous eyes (NTG 6.3(3.1 mmHg, HTG 15.7(7.7 mmHg was statistically significant (P < 0.001. Higher TPG was correlated with decreased NRA (r = −0.83; P = 0.01 in the NTG group. Conclusion. Translaminar pressure gradient was higher in glaucoma patients. Reduction of NRA was related to higher TPG in NTG patients. Further prospective studies are warranted to investigate the involvement of TPG in glaucoma management.

  7. Mineralogy, geochemistry and low grade metamorphism of green tuffs of Karaj formation in Hesarbon area (south west Firoozkooh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Bahrami

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Green tuffs of middle Eocene age in Hesarbon area, south west of Firoozkuh (East of Central Alborz consist of a thick sequence of lithic-, crystal-,vitric-and calcareous-tuffs. Microscopic and x-ray diffraction studies show plagioclase (albite and oligoclase, alkali feldspar (sanidine, quartz, cristobalite, biotite and hornblende are the major minerals in the rocks studied. Secondary minerals such as analcime, chlorite, prehnite and clay minerals are mainly present in the groundmass of the rocks. Extensive tectonic activities have created a variety of structural features including numerous folds and faults and therefore, have caused the green tuffs to be crushed and converted to breccia tuffs in many parts. Veins and cavities are filled by considerable amounts of zeolitic minerals including heulandite group, clinoptilolite and natrolite along with calcite and secondary quartz. Based on geochemical data, they lie on the dacite and rhyodacite field showing a calc-alkaline nature in the corresponding diagrams. According to the chondrite and primitive mantle normalized diagrams of trace elements, negative anomalies of Eu, Nb, Ti, P and depletion of HFSE together with their position in the petrogenesis discrimination diagrams, it is most likely that these rocks are formed in the active continental margin of a subduction zone. The existence of analcime and prehnite in the groundmass demonstrate that these rocks have undergone some degrees of low-grade metamorphism due to the overburden of the layers in the temperature range 200-300 °C. The present study shows that zeolite minerals filling the fractures and cavities of tuffs are precipitated by hydrothermal fluids with a neutral pH to acidic

  8. Differences in Activation Area Within Brodmann Area 2 Caused by Pressure Stimuli on Fingers and Joints: In Case of Male Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mi-Hyun; Kim, Hyung-Sik; Baek, Ji-Hye; Lee, Jung-Chul; Park, Sung-Jun; Jeong, Ul-Ho; Gim, Seon-Young; Kim, Sung-Phil; Lim, Dae-Woon; Chung, Soon-Cheol

    2015-09-01

    In this study, a constant pressure stimulus was applied on the 3 joints (first [p1], second [p2], and third [p3] joints) of 4 fingers (index, middle, ring, and little fingers), and the activation areas within Brodmann area 2 (BA 2) were compared for these different fingers and joints by using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Eight healthy male college students (25.4 ± 1.32 years) participated in the study. Each session was composed of 3 blocks, and each block was composed of a Control phase (30 seconds) and a Pressure phase (30 seconds). No pressure stimulus was applied in the Control phase, during which the subjects would simply lay comfortably with their eyes closed. In the Pressure phase, a pressure stimulus was applied onto one of the joints of the selected finger. For each finger and joint, BA 2 areas activated by the pressure stimulus were extracted by the region of interest method. There was a significant difference in the activation areas for the different fingers (P = .042) as well as for the different joints (P = .050). The activation area decreased in the order of the little, index, and middle fingers, as well as in the order of p1, p3, and p2.

  9. Arsenic methylation capability and hypertension risk in subjects living in arseniasis-hyperendemic areas in southwestern Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Y.-K.; Tseng, C.-H.; Huang, Y.-L.; Yang, M.-H.; Chen, C.-J.; Hsueh, Y.-M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Cumulative arsenic exposure (CAE) from drinking water has been shown to be associated with hypertension in a dose-response pattern. This study further explored the association between arsenic methylation capability and hypertension risk among residents of arseniasis-hyperendemic areas in Taiwan considering the effect of CAE and other potential confounders. Method: There were 871 subjects (488 women and 383 men) and among them 372 were diagnosed as having hypertension based on a positive history or measured systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mm Hg. Urinary arsenic species were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-hydride generator and atomic absorption spectrometry. Primary arsenic methylation index [PMI, defined as monomethylarsonic acid (MMA V ) divided by (As III + As V )] and secondary arsenic methylation index (SMI, defined as dimethylarsinic acid divided by MMA V ) were used as indicators for arsenic methylation capability. Results: The level of urinary arsenic was still significantly correlated with cumulative arsenic exposure (CAE) calculated from a questionnaire interview (p = 0.02) even after the residents stopped drinking the artesian well water for 2-3 decades. Hypertensive subjects had higher percentages of MMA V and lower SMI than subjects without hypertension. However, subjects having CAE > 0 mg/L-year had higher hypertension risk than those who had CAE = 0 mg/L-year disregard a high or low methylation index. Conclusion: Inefficient arsenic methylation ability may be related with hypertension risk

  10. Comparison of optic area measurement using fundus photography and optical coherence tomography between optic nerve head drusen and control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Rodríguez, Patricia; Gili, Pablo; Martín-Ríos, María Dolores; Grifol-Clar, Eulalia

    2013-03-01

    To compare optic disc area measurement between optic nerve head drusen (ONHD) and control subjects using fundus photography, time-domain optical coherence tomography (TD-OCT) and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). We also made a comparison between each of the three techniques. We performed our study on 66 eyes (66 patients) with ONHD and 70 healthy control subjects (70 controls) with colour ocular fundus photography at 20º (Zeiss FF 450 IR plus), TD-OCT (Stratus OCT) with the Fast Optic Disc protocol and SD-OCT (Cirrus OCT) with the Optic Disc Cube 200 × 200 protocol for measurement of the optic disc area. The measurements were made by two observers and in each measurement a correction of the image magnification factor was performed. Measurement comparison using the Student's t-test/Mann-Whitney U test, the intraclass correlation coefficient, Pearson/Spearman rank correlation coefficient and the Bland-Altman plot was performed in the statistical analysis. Mean and standard deviation (SD) of the optic disc area in ONHD and in controls was 2.38 (0.54) mm(2) and 2.54 (0.42) mm(2), respectively with fundus photography; 2.01 (0.56) mm(2) and 1.66 (0.37) mm(2), respectively with TD-OCT, and 2.03 (0.49) mm(2) and 1.75 (0.38) mm(2), respectively with SD-OCT. In ONHD and controls, repeatability of optic disc area measurement was excellent with fundus photography and optical coherence tomography (TD-OCT and SD-OCT), but with a low degree of agreement between both techniques. Optic disc area measurement is smaller in ONHD compared to healthy subjects with fundus photography, unlike time-domain and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in which the reverse is true. Both techniques offer good repeatability, but a low degree of correlation and agreement, which means that optic disc area measurement is not interchangeable or comparable between techniques. Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2013 The College of Optometrists.

  11. Cortical surface area reduction in identification of subjects at high risk for post-traumatic stress disorder: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hao; Sun, Yawen; Su, Shanshan; Wang, Yao; Qiu, Yongming; Yang, Xi; Zhou, Yan; Xiao, Zeping; Wang, Zhen

    2018-01-01

    Victims of motor vehicle accidents often develop post-traumatic stress disorder, which causes significant social function loss. For the difficulty in treating post-traumatic stress disorder, identification of subjects at high risk for post-traumatic stress disorder is essential for providing possible intervention. This paper aims to examine the cortical structural traits related to susceptibility to post-traumatic stress disorder. To address this issue, we performed structural magnetic resonance imaging study in motor vehicle accident victims within 48 hours from the accidents. A total of 70 victims, available for both clinical and magnetic resonance imaging data, enrolled in our study. Upon completion of 6-month follow-up, 29 of them developed post-traumatic stress disorder, while 41 of them didn't. At baseline, voxelwise comparisons of cortical thickness, cortical area and cortical volume were conducted between post-traumatic stress disorder group and trauma control group. As expected, several reduced cortical volume within frontal-temporal loop were observed in post-traumatic stress disorder. For cortical thickness, no between-group differences were observed. There were three clusters in left hemisphere and one cluster in right hemisphere showing decreased cortical area in post-traumatic stress disorder patients, compared with trauma controls. Peak voxels of the three clusters in left hemisphere were separately located in superior parietal cortex, insula and rostral anterior cingulate cortex. The finding of reduced surface area of left insula and left rostral anterior cingulate cortex suggests that shrinked surface area in motor vehicle accident victims could act as potential biomarker of subjects at high risk for post-traumatic stress disorder.

  12. Fourier power, subjective distance, and object categories all provide plausible models of BOLD responses in scene-selective visual areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lescroart, Mark D.; Stansbury, Dustin E.; Gallant, Jack L.

    2015-01-01

    Perception of natural visual scenes activates several functional areas in the human brain, including the Parahippocampal Place Area (PPA), Retrosplenial Complex (RSC), and the Occipital Place Area (OPA). It is currently unclear what specific scene-related features are represented in these areas. Previous studies have suggested that PPA, RSC, and/or OPA might represent at least three qualitatively different classes of features: (1) 2D features related to Fourier power; (2) 3D spatial features such as the distance to objects in a scene; or (3) abstract features such as the categories of objects in a scene. To determine which of these hypotheses best describes the visual representation in scene-selective areas, we applied voxel-wise modeling (VM) to BOLD fMRI responses elicited by a set of 1386 images of natural scenes. VM provides an efficient method for testing competing hypotheses by comparing predictions of brain activity based on encoding models that instantiate each hypothesis. Here we evaluated three different encoding models that instantiate each of the three hypotheses listed above. We used linear regression to fit each encoding model to the fMRI data recorded from each voxel, and we evaluated each fit model by estimating the amount of variance it predicted in a withheld portion of the data set. We found that voxel-wise models based on Fourier power or the subjective distance to objects in each scene predicted much of the variance predicted by a model based on object categories. Furthermore, the response variance explained by these three models is largely shared, and the individual models explain little unique variance in responses. Based on an evaluation of previous studies and the data we present here, we conclude that there is currently no good basis to favor any one of the three alternative hypotheses about visual representation in scene-selective areas. We offer suggestions for further studies that may help resolve this issue. PMID:26594164

  13. Career Education Program: Geneva Area City Schools. [Grade 4 Units: Conservation, The World of Work, and This is My Life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geneva Area City Schools, OH.

    The three curriculum units for the fourth grade level focus on: (1) conservation careers, systems, and needs; (2) occupational variety and qualifications; and (3) self awareness. Behavioral objectives range from helping students to become more aware of careers in a variety of occupations, including conservation. A chart format is used to list…

  14. Graded Assessment in Vocational Education and Training: An Analysis of National Practice, Drivers and Areas for Policy Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Melanie; Bateman, Andrea

    Practices and policies regarding graded assessment in vocational education and training (VET) in Australia were examined. Data were collected through a literature review; focus groups involving approximately 120 stakeholders in 5 states; interviews with 49 representatives of registered training organizations (RTOs); and surveys of RTOs, students,…

  15. Transport and solubility of Hetero-disperse dry deposition particulate matter subject to urban source area rainfall-runoff processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, G.; Sansalone, J.

    2010-03-01

    SummaryWith respect to hydrologic processes, the impervious pavement interface significantly alters relationships between rainfall and runoff. Commensurate with alteration of hydrologic processes the pavement also facilitates transport and solubility of dry deposition particulate matter (PM) in runoff. This study examines dry depositional flux rates, granulometric modification by runoff transport, as well as generation of total dissolved solids (TDS), alkalinity and conductivity in source area runoff resulting from PM solubility. PM is collected from a paved source area transportation corridor (I-10) in Baton Rouge, Louisiana encompassing 17 dry deposition and 8 runoff events. The mass-based granulometric particle size distribution (PSD) is measured and modeled through a cumulative gamma function, while PM surface area distributions across the PSD follow a log-normal distribution. Dry deposition flux rates are modeled as separate first-order exponential functions of previous dry hours (PDH) for PM and suspended, settleable and sediment fractions. When trans-located from dry deposition into runoff, PSDs are modified, with a d50m decreasing from 331 to 14 μm after transport and 60 min of settling. Solubility experiments as a function of pH, contact time and particle size using source area rainfall generate constitutive models to reproduce pH, alkalinity, TDS and alkalinity for historical events. Equilibrium pH, alkalinity and TDS are strongly influenced by particle size and contact times. The constitutive leaching models are combined with measured PSDs from a series of rainfall-runoff events to demonstrate that the model results replicate alkalinity and TDS in runoff from the subject watershed. Results illustrate the granulometry of dry deposition PM, modification of PSDs along the drainage pathway, and the role of PM solubility for generation of TDS, alkalinity and conductivity in urban source area rainfall-runoff.

  16. The perceptions of teachers and principals toward providing additional compensation to teachers in high-need subject areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longing, Jeffrey Lucian

    The purpose of this study was to determine possible differences in the perceptions of teachers teaching in high-need areas (i.e., math, science, special education, etc.) and teachers not teaching in high-need areas, (i.e., business education, physical education, etc.) as defined by the states of Arkansas and Louisiana, regarding higher compensation for high-need teachers. In addition, possible perception differences among principals and teachers were determined. The independent variables consisted of gender, position held, years of certified experience, and certification areas. The dependent variable was the perceptions of the participants on providing higher compensation for high-need teachers in order to attract and retain them. The data for all variables were collected using the Teacher Compensation Survey. The sample for this study was limited to teachers, grades 9 through 12, and principals of public high schools in south Arkansas and north Louisiana. Forty-four school districts in south Arkansas (Arkansas Department of Education, 2008a) and north Louisiana (Louisiana Department of Education, 2008a) met the criteria for this study. Twenty-two superintendents gave permission for their districts to participate in the research. A sample of 849 teachers and 38 principals were identified in these districts. Surveys were returned from 350 teachers, creating a 41% response rate. When the 31 principals that returned surveys were added to the total population, the response rate increased to 43% with 381 of the 887 surveyed responding. However, 42 of the teachers and two of the principals skipped some of the questions on the survey and were not included in the study. The researcher used a One-Way ANOVA and independent t-tests to determine the presence of statistical differences at the .05 level. The data showed that most math and science teachers agreed that high-need teachers should be compensated at a higher rate than teachers not teaching in high-need areas. The data

  17. Improvement of Low-Grade Silica Sand Deposits in Um Bogma Area-West Central Sinai, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Rahman, I.F.; El Shennawy, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    There are several silica sand deposits in Sinai, but they require upgrading to provide a raw materials acceptable for the glass manufacture. This study records beneficiation of low-grade silica sand deposits near Um Bogma at west central Sinai. The improvement techniques of ore dressing involving wet sieving, attrition scrubbing, decantation, gravimetric and magnetic separations have been applied depending on the physical properties of the constituents.

  18. Urinary arsenic methylation capability and carotid atherosclerosis risk in subjects living in arsenicosis-hyperendemic areas in southwestern Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Y.-L. [Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsueh, Y.-M. [Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: ymhsueh@tmu.edu.tw; Huang, Y.-K. [Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Yip, P.-K. [Department of Neurology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taiwan (China); Yang, M.-H. [Department of Nuclear Science, National Tsing-Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Chen, C.-J. [Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Epidemiology, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2009-04-01

    Long-term exposure to inorganic arsenic from artesian drinking well water is associated with carotid atherosclerosis in the Blackfoot Disease (BFD)-hyperendemic area in Taiwan. The current study examined the arsenic methylation capacity and its risk on carotid atherosclerosis. A total of 304 adults (158 men and 146 women) residing in the BFD-hyperendemic area were included. The extent of carotid atherosclerosis was assessed by duplex ultrasonography. Chronic arsenic exposure was estimated by an index of cumulative arsenic exposure (CAE) and the duration of artesian well water consumption. Urinary levels of inorganic arsenite [As(III)], arsenate [As(V)], monomethylarsonic acid [MMA(V)] and dimethylarsinic acid [DMA(V)] were determined by high performance liquid chromatography linked on-line to a hydride generator and atomic absorption spectrometry (HPLC-HG-AAS). The percentage of arsenic species, primary methylation index [PMI = MMA(V) / (As(III) + As(V)] and secondary methylation index [SMI = DMA(V) / MMA(V)] were calculated and employed as indicators of arsenic methylation capacity. Results showed that women and younger subjects had a more efficient arsenic methylation capacity than did men and the elderly. Carotid atherosclerosis cases had a significantly greater percentage of MMA(V) [%MMA(V)] and a lower percentage of DMA [%DMA (V)] compared to controls. Subjects in the highest two tertiles of PMI with a median of CAE > 0 mg/L-year had an odds ratio (OR) and a 95% confidence interval (CI) of carotid atherosclerosis of 2.61 and 0.98-6.90 compared to those in the highest two tertiles of PMI with a CAE = 0 mg/L-year. We conclude that individuals with greater exposure to arsenic and lower capacity to methylate inorganic arsenic may be at a higher risk to carotid atherosclerosis.

  19. Urinary arsenic methylation capability and carotid atherosclerosis risk in subjects living in arsenicosis-hyperendemic areas in southwestern Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Y.-L.; Hsueh, Y.-M.; Huang, Y.-K.; Yip, P.-K.; Yang, M.-H.; Chen, C.-J.

    2009-01-01

    Long-term exposure to inorganic arsenic from artesian drinking well water is associated with carotid atherosclerosis in the Blackfoot Disease (BFD)-hyperendemic area in Taiwan. The current study examined the arsenic methylation capacity and its risk on carotid atherosclerosis. A total of 304 adults (158 men and 146 women) residing in the BFD-hyperendemic area were included. The extent of carotid atherosclerosis was assessed by duplex ultrasonography. Chronic arsenic exposure was estimated by an index of cumulative arsenic exposure (CAE) and the duration of artesian well water consumption. Urinary levels of inorganic arsenite [As(III)], arsenate [As(V)], monomethylarsonic acid [MMA(V)] and dimethylarsinic acid [DMA(V)] were determined by high performance liquid chromatography linked on-line to a hydride generator and atomic absorption spectrometry (HPLC-HG-AAS). The percentage of arsenic species, primary methylation index [PMI = MMA(V) / (As(III) + As(V)] and secondary methylation index [SMI = DMA(V) / MMA(V)] were calculated and employed as indicators of arsenic methylation capacity. Results showed that women and younger subjects had a more efficient arsenic methylation capacity than did men and the elderly. Carotid atherosclerosis cases had a significantly greater percentage of MMA(V) [%MMA(V)] and a lower percentage of DMA [%DMA (V)] compared to controls. Subjects in the highest two tertiles of PMI with a median of CAE > 0 mg/L-year had an odds ratio (OR) and a 95% confidence interval (CI) of carotid atherosclerosis of 2.61 and 0.98-6.90 compared to those in the highest two tertiles of PMI with a CAE = 0 mg/L-year. We conclude that individuals with greater exposure to arsenic and lower capacity to methylate inorganic arsenic may be at a higher risk to carotid atherosclerosis

  20. A case study of full integration of the arts into core subject area instruction in one East Texas secondary school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leysath, Maggie

    This exploratory phenomenological case study investigated the influence the full integration of the arts into core subject instruction has on classroom environment, student academic achievement, and student engagement as perceived by administrators, teachers, and students in one East Texas secondary school. Participant interviews were analyzed using Creswell's (2012) six-step method for analyzing phenomenological studies. The researcher implemented three learning activities in which ceramics learning objectives were fully integrated with chemistry learning objectives. The first activity combined clay properties and pottery wheel throwing with significant numbers. The second activity combined glaze formulation with moles. The third combined stoichiometry with the increased glaze formula for students to glaze the bowls they made. Findings suggest the full integration of art in core subject area instruction has numerous positive effects. Participants reported improved academic achievement for all students including reluctant learners. Students, teachers, and the administrator reported greater participation in the art integrated activities. Participants perceived a need for further training for teachers and administrators for greater success.

  1. Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors containing areas of iso- or hypoattenuation in dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography: Spectrum of imaging findings and pathological grading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyodo, Ryota; Suzuki, Kojiro; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Komada, Tomohiro; Naganawa, Shinji

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) features of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) containing areas of iso- or hypoattenuation and the relationship with pathological grading. Between June 2006 and March 2014, 61 PNETs in 58 consecutive patients (29 male, 29 female; median-age 55 years), which were surgically diagnosed, underwent preoperative dynamic contrast-enhanced CT. PNETs were classified based on contrast enhancement patterns in the pancreatic phase: iso/hypo-PNETs were defined as tumors containing areas of iso- or hypoattenuation except for cystic components, and hyper-PNETs were tumors showing hyperattenuation over the whole area. CT findings and contrast-enhancement patterns of the tumors were evaluated retrospectively by two radiologists and compared with the pathological grading. Iso/hypo-PNETs comprised 26 tumors, and hyper-PNETs comprised 35 tumors. Not only hyper-PNETs but also most iso/hypo-PNETs showed peak enhancement in the pancreatic phase and a washout from the portal venous phase to the delayed phase. Iso/hypo-PNETs showed larger tumor size than the hyper-PNETs (mean, 3.7 cm vs. 1.6 cm; PIso/hypo-PNETs also showed significantly higher pathological grading (WHO 2010 classification; iso/hypo, G1=14, G2=11, G3=1; hyper, G1=34, G2=1; Piso/hypo-areas showed a rapid enhancement pattern as well as hyper-PNETs, various radiological features and higher malignant potential. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cytogenetic analysis chromosomal status of subjects from the regions in the vicinity of uranium-contaminated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovicic, D.; Milacie, S.; Kovacevic, R.; Petrovic, I.

    2004-01-01

    The past application of nuclear technology has brought about free emission of numerous Due to the military application of the depleted uranium (DU) in our country, the problem of its radioactivity and hemo toxicity if actualized. Likewise every heavy metal, its is highly toxic and, in addition to it, also radioactive: Interaction of the water-soluble uranium forms with soil is an important effect. In this way, it penetrates into food chain and endangers human health. The study was aimed at determining possible karyotype genotoxic effects in individuals from the regions close to the contaminated areas. Biological dosimetry was performed using modified Moorthead's micromethod. Our studies included the targeted group of 29 patients from the affected regions. The subjects were averagely aged 39.5±2.8 years. Average age of the control group (k), unexposed to the effects of the known genotoxic agents comprising 22 individuals was 28.3±1.2 years. The presented data evidenced that increased incidence of the chromosomal aberrations was found in 6 subjects,accounting for 20.6%. Dicentric type changes were evidence, as well ring chromosomes and eccentric fragments, which are, at the same time the most frequent aberrations. The changes are considered reparable aberrations accounting for 2-3% in metaphases of the unexposed individuals. Statistical data processing evidenced significant difference (p<0.005) between structural chromosomal aberrations in the studied and control groups, as well as in the number of chromatid aberrations (p<0.05).Based on the obtained data it may be concluded that human karyotype changes were present in the studied group, resulting from interaction of ionizing irradiation and other genotoxic agents, with possibility of potent synergistic effects. It is necessary to stress the importance of further monitoring and control of the general population health, particularly due to possible late genetic effects that may affect future generations. (Author) 10

  3. The Measurement of Relevance Amount of Documents That By Using of Google cross-language retrieval About Agriculture Subject Area are Retrieved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Jamshidi Ghahfarokhi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the relevance amount of documents has been investigated by using google cross-language retrieval tools about a agriculture subject area in cross-language retrieval form, are retrieved. For this purpose, by using Persian journals articles that have had English abstracts, Persian phrases and subject terms with their English equivalent were extracted. In three class us, thirty number of phrases and subject terms of agriculture area were extracted: First class, subject phrases that only in agriculture are used; Secondary, agriculture subject terms that in other fields are used too; Third class, agriculture subject terms that out of this field are considered as public term. Then by these phrases and terms, documents were searched, and relevance amount of search results are investigated. Results of study showed that google cross-language retrieval tools for two classes of phrases and terms, in cross-language retrieval of relevance document about agriculture subject area, aren`t succeed: one class, agriculture subject terms that in other fields are used too. other class, agriculture subject terms that out of agriculture field are considered as public term. Google cross-language retrieval tools about subject phrase and terms that only in agriculture field are used, are performance rather desirable than other two class of phrase and terms

  4. Functional connectivity of the ventral tegmental area and avolition in subjects with schizophrenia: a resting state functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Giulia Maria; Stanziano, Mario; Papa, Michele; Mucci, Armida; Prinster, Anna; Soricelli, Andrea; Galderisi, Silvana

    2018-04-10

    Avolition, a deficit in goal-directed behavior, is a key aspect of negative symptoms. It is highly prevalent in schizophrenia and is associated to poor functional outcome and to measures of real life motivation, indicating that central to the concept is the lack of interest and motivation. In this study we tested the hypothesis that avolition is related to altered connectivity within dopaminergic cortico-striatal circuits involved in motivation processes. Since dopamine input to these circuits derives mostly from the ventro-tegmental area (VTA), we investigated the relationships between the resting-state functional connectivity (RS-FC) of the VTA and avolition in twenty-six subjects with schizophrenia (SCZ), treated with second-generation antipsychotics only, compared to twenty-two healthy controls (HC). SCZ, in comparison to HC, showed significantly reduced RS-FC of the VTA with bilateral ventro-lateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), bilateral insular cortex (IC) and right (R) lateral occipital complex (LOC) and increased RS-FC of the VTA with bilateral dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Significant negative correlations were found between avolition and RS-FC of the VTA with the bilateral IC, R VLPFC and R LOC. According to our findings, avolition is linked to a disconnectivity of the VTA from several key cortical regions involved in the integration of value information with action selection. These findings are in line with translational animal models of "auto-activation apathy". Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  5. Bioavailability of elemental iron powders to rats is less than bakery-grade ferrous sulfate and predicted by iron solubility and particle surface area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, James H; Newman, Samuel M; Hunt, Janet R

    2003-11-01

    Foods are fortified with elemental forms of iron to reduce iron deficiency. However, the nutritional efficacy of current, commercially produced elemental iron powders has not been verified. We determined the bioavailability of six commercial elemental iron powders and examined how physicochemistry influences bioavailability. Relative biological value (RBV) of the iron powders was determined using a hemoglobin repletion/slope ratio method, treating iron-deficient rats with repletion diets fortified with graded quantities of iron powders, bakery-grade ferrous sulfate or no added iron. Iron powders were assessed physicochemically by measuring iron solubility in hydrochloric acid at pH 1.0 and 1.7, surface area by nitrogen gas adsorption and surface microstructure by electron microscopy. Bioavailability from the iron powders, based on absolute iron intake, was significantly less than from FeSO4 (100%; P Electrolytic (54%; A-131, U.S.) > Electrolytic (46%; Electrolytic Iron, India) > H-Reduced (42%; AC-325, U.S.) > Reduced (24%; ATOMET 95SP, Canada) > CO-Reduced (21%; RSI-325, Sweden). Solubility testing of the iron powders resulted in different relative rankings and better RBV predictability with increasing time at pH 1.7 (R2 = 0.65 at 150 min). The prediction was improved with less time and lower pH (R2 = 0.82, pH 1.0 at 30 min). Surface area, ranging from 90 to 370 m2/kg, was also highly predictive of RBV (R2 = 0.80). Bioavailability of iron powders is less than bakery-grade ferrous sulfate and varies up to three times among different commercial forms. Solubility at pH 1.0 and surface area were predictive of iron bioavailability in rats.

  6. SYSTEM-COGNITIVE MODEL OF FORECASTING THE DEVELOPMENT OF DIVERSIFIED AGRO-INDUSTRIAL CORPORATIONS. PART I. COGNITIVE STRUCTURING AND FORMALIZATION OF THE SUBJECT AREA

    OpenAIRE

    Lutsenko Y. V.; Loyko V. I.; Baranovskaya T. P.; Makarevich O. A.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, in accordance with the methodology of the Automated system-cognitive analysis (ASCanalysis), we examine the implementation of the 1st and 2nd stages of ASC-analysis: cognitive structuring and formalization of the subject area. At the stage of cognitive structurization of subject area, researchers decide what to consider as the object of modeling, the factors affecting it and the results of their actions. In accordance with the results of the cognitive structurization, we prep...

  7. Awake surgery for WHO Grade II gliomas within "noneloquent" areas in the left dominant hemisphere: toward a "supratotal" resection. Clinical article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yordanova, Yordanka N; Moritz-Gasser, Sylvie; Duffau, Hugues

    2011-08-01

    It has been demonstrated that an extensive resection (total or subtotal) may significantly increase the overall survival in patients with WHO Grade II gliomas (low-grade gliomas [LGGs]). Yet, recent data have shown that conventional MR imaging underestimates the spatial extent of LGG, since tumor cells were found up to 20 mm around MR imaging abnormalities. Thus, it was hypothesized that an extended resection with a margin beyond MR imaging-defined abnormalities-a "supratotal" resection-might improve the outcome of LGG. However, because of the frequent location of LGG within "eloquent" brain areas, it is often difficult to achieve such a supratotal resection. This could nevertheless be possible when LGGs involve "noneloquent" areas, even in the left dominant hemisphere. The authors report on their use of awake electrical mapping to tailor the resection according to functional boundaries, that is, to pursue the resection beyond MR imaging-defined abnormalities, until corticosubcortical eloquent structures are encountered. Their aim was to apply this reliable surgical technique to LGGs located not within eloquent areas but distant from eloquent areas, to take a margin around the LGG visible on MR imaging while preserving brain function. Fifteen right-handed patients with a total of 17 tumors underwent resection of WHO Grade II gliomas involving nonfunctional areas within the left dominant hemisphere. In all patients, seizures were the initial manifestation of the tumors. Awake surgery with intraoperative electrostimulation was performed in all cases. The resection was continued until the surgeon reached cortical and subcortical areas crucial for brain function, especially language, as defined by the intrasurgical electrical mapping. The extent of resection was evaluated on postoperative FLAIR-weighted MR images. Despite transient neurological worsening in 60% of cases, all patients recovered and returned to a normal life. Seizure control was obtained in all patients

  8. Mapping Weathering and Alteration Minerals in the Comstock and Geiger Grade Areas using Visible to Thermal Infrared Airborne Remote Sensing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Greg R.; Calvin, Wendy M.

    2005-01-01

    To support research into both precious metal exploration and environmental site characterization a combination of high spatial/spectral resolution airborne visible, near infrared, short wave infrared (VNIR/SWIR) and thermal infrared (TIR) image data were acquired to remotely map hydrothermal alteration minerals around the Geiger Grade and Comstock alteration regions, and map the mineral by-products of weathered mine dumps in Virginia City. Remote sensing data from the Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS), SpecTIR Corporation's airborne hyperspectral imager (HyperSpecTIR), the MODIS-ASTER airborne simulator (MASTER), and the Spatially Enhanced Broadband Array Spectrograph System (SEBASS) were acquired and processed into mineral maps based on the unique spectral signatures of image pixels. VNIR/SWIR and TIR field spectrometer data were collected for both calibration and validation of the remote data sets, and field sampling, laboratory spectral analyses and XRD analyses were made to corroborate the surface mineralogy identified by spectroscopy. The resulting mineral maps show the spatial distribution of several important alteration minerals around each study area including alunite, quartz, pyrophyllite, kaolinite, montmorillonite/muscovite, and chlorite. In the Comstock region the mineral maps show acid-sulfate alteration, widespread propylitic alteration and extensive faulting that offsets the acid-sulfate areas, in contrast to the larger, dominantly acid-sulfate alteration exposed along Geiger Grade. Also, different mineral zones within the intense acid-sulfate areas were mapped. In the Virginia City historic mining district the important weathering minerals mapped include hematite, goethite, jarosite and hydrous sulfate minerals (hexahydrite, alunogen and gypsum) located on mine dumps. Sulfate minerals indicate acidic water forming in the mine dump environment. While there is not an immediate threat to the community, there are clearly sources of

  9. Development of Meta-Subject Competencies of the 7-9 Grades Basic School Students through the Implementation of Interdisciplinary Mathematical Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorev, Pavel M.; Masalimova, Alfiya R.

    2017-01-01

    The article is aimed at describing one of the possible interdisciplinary courses for students of the 7-9 classes of the basic school connecting mathematics with natural sciences and the study of such courses role in the formation and development of meta-subject competencies of students. The leading method for this is the modeling of…

  10. {sup 1}H and {sup 31}P magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging of white matter signal hyperintensity areas in elderly subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constans, J M [Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center and University of California Magnetic Resonance Unit, San Francisco, CA (United States); [California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Meyerhoff, D J [Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center and University of California Magnetic Resonance Unit, San Francisco, CA (United States); [California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Norman, D [California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Fein, G [Department of Veterans Affairs Psychiatry Service, University of California, San Francisco, California (United States); [University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Psychiatry; Weiner, M W [Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center and University of California Magnetic Resonance Unit, San Francisco, CA (United States); [California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; [California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Medicine; [DVA Medical Center, Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Unit, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    White matter signal hyperintensities (WMSH) are commonly seen on MRI of elderly subjects. The purpose of this study was to characterize metabolic changes in the white matter of elderly subjects with extensive WMSH. We used water-suppressed proton ({sup 1}H) magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) to compare six subjects with extensive WMSH with eight age-matched elderly subjects with minimal or absent WMSH, and phosphorus ({sup 31}P) MRSI to compare nine subjects with extensive WMSH and seven age-matched elderly subjects without extensive WMSH. Relative to region-matched tissue in elderly controls, extensive WMSH were associated with increased signal from choline-containing metabolites, no significant change of signal from N-acetylaspartate, and a trend to a decreased phosphomonoester (PME) resonance. These findings suggest that WMSH may be associated with an alteration of brain myelin phospholipids in the absence of axonal damage. There were no differences in energy phosphates, consistent with lack of ongoing brain ischemia. Within the group with extensive WMSH, PME resonance measures were significantly lower in WMSH than in contralateral normal-appearing white matter. These results provide information on pathophysiology of WMSH and a basis for comparison with WMSH in Alzheimer`s disease, vascular dementia, multiple sclerosis, and other diseases. (orig.). With 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Renal Parenchyma to Hydronephrosis Area Ratio (PHAR) as a Predictor of Future Surgical Intervention for Infants With High-grade Prenatal Hydronephrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, Mandy; Lorenzo, Armando J; Braga, Luis H

    2017-03-01

    To explore the potential value of an objective assessment, renal parenchyma to hydronephrosis area ratio (PHAR), as an early predictor of surgery. Initial sagittal renal ultrasound (US) images of patients prospectively entered into a prenatal hydronephrosis database from January 2008 to January 2016 with baseline Society for Fetal Urology (SFU) grades III and IV prenatal hydronephrosis, without vesicoureteral reflux, were evaluated using the National Institutes of Health-sponsored image processing software. PHAR, anteroposterior diameter, SFU grade, and urinary tract dilation risk categories were contrasted with nuclear scan data (differential renal function and drainage time [t 1/2 ]) and analyzed for predictive value in determining the decision to proceed with surgery by drawing receiver operating characteristic curves. Out of 196 infants (162 male; 138 left sided hydronephrosis), 58 (30%) underwent surgery to address obstruction. Surgical patients compared with those managed conservatively had longer t 1/2 (60 vs 18 min; P hydronephrosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. CONNECTION BETWEEN SOME MOTORIC ABILITIES WITH SUCCESS IN REALIZATION OF PROGRAMMED CONTENTS FROM THE AREA OF GYMNASTICS OF THE FOURTH GRADE OF HIGH SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovica Petković

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This research is undertaken for the purpose of defi ning and determinating of the le vel of connection between some motoric abilities with effi ciency in realization of some pro gramme issnes in the area of gymnastic (stretched – legged jump and folded – legged jump. On the sample of fi fty students from the fourth grade of High school, examined stu dents have been tested on ten motoric tests and on two specifi c motoric assignmentsstre tched – legged jump and folded – legged jump. The results of this research clearly point that there exist the multitude of statistically important coeffi cients of correlation between treated motoric abilities and applied assignments

  13. Classroom Museums: Touchable Tables for Kids Grades 3-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Pamela

    This book provides ideas for table exhibits for grades 3-6 in nine different subject areas. These areas are: marine life; nature in the backyard; the history and uses of flags; impressionist painters and art; winter festivals around the world; fibers and fabrics; Native Americans in touch with the land; sugar and chocolate; and keeping the earth,…

  14. MEG reveals a fast pathway from somatosensory cortex to occipital areas via posterior parietal cortex in a blind subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ioannides, Andreas A; Liu, Lichan; Poghosyan, Vahe

    2013-01-01

    magnetoencephalography (MEG) data recorded from one congenitally blind and two sighted subjects after stimulation of the left and right median nerves at three intensities: below sensory threshold, above sensory threshold and above motor threshold; the last sufficient to produce thumb twitching. We identified...... reproducible brain responses in the primary somatosensory (S1) and motor (M1) cortices at around 20 ms post-stimulus, which were very similar in sighted and blind subjects. Time-frequency analysis revealed strong 45-70 Hz activity at latencies of 20-50 ms in S1 and M1, and posterior parietal cortex Brodmann...... of information through this pathway occurred in stages characterized by convergence of activations into specific cortical regions. In sighted subjects, no linked activity was found that led from the somatosensory to the visual cortex through any of the studied brain regions. These results provide the first...

  15. Subjectivity in Education and Health: Research Notes on School Learning Area and Physical Education in Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Marilia; da Costa, Jonatas Maia

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of two studies researching the theory of subjectivity from a cultural-historical perspective. The studies are situated in the fields of education and health and are conducted using Qualitative Epistemology. The first study discusses the pathological movement problems of learning disabilities in Brazilian schools and…

  16. Assessing the Implementation Fidelity of a School-Based Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility Program in Physical Education and Other Subject Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escartí, Amparo; Liops-Goig, Ramon; Wright, Paul M.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility (TPSR) model was developed to foster responsibility and teach life skills that transfer to various settings. The purpose of this study was to assess the implementation fidelity of a school-based TPSR program in physical education and other subject areas. Method: Systematic observation was…

  17. Genotoxic differences by sex in nasal epithelium and blood leukocytes in subjects residing in a highly polluted area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortoul, T.I.; Valverde, M.; Lopez, M.C.; Avila-Costa, M.R.; Avila-Casado, M.C.; Mussali-Galante, P.; Gonzalez-Villalva, A.; Rojas, E.; Ostrosky-Shejet, P.

    2004-01-01

    We describe differences by sex in genotoxic damage found in a population of medical students exposed to a highly oxidative atmosphere, compared with a control group, measured by the single-cell gel electrophoresis assay and histological changes in nasal epithelium smears. Cells were obtained from the nasal epithelium and blood leukocytes. Higher DNA damage in nasal cells and leukocytes was found in males compared to females and control subjects. The percentage of squamous metaplastic changes in the nasal epithelium was also higher in males compared with females and controls. The commutation of normal nasal epithelium by squamous cells might modify its protective function in the nose, increasing the risk of damage to the lower respiratory tract. Although, as medical students, males and females were exposed to the same environment and activity patterns, male genotoxicity damage was higher in control and exposed subjects. More research should be done in order to identify direct or indirect sexual hormone intervention

  18. Measurement of Gamma Radioactivity in a Group of Control Subjects from the Stockholm Area During 1959-1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, I Oe; Nilsson, I; Eckerstig, K

    1963-08-15

    Repeated measurements of the gamma radioactivity in a group of control subjects have been made since June 1959, using a whole body counter scintillation spectrometer. The body contents of cesium-137 and potassium-40 and their trends with time have been determined. The cesium-137 values have been compared with the results from measurements of the fallout rate of cesium-137 and the concentration of cesium-137 in milk. The control group study was carried out to obtain information about the gamma radioactivity situation in the general population. Such an investigation is necessary if one wants to measure occupational contamination at low levels.

  19. The modulation of venlafaxine on cortical activation of language area in healthy subjects with fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qi; Liu, Yan; Li, Chun-Yong; Song, Xue-Zhu; Wang, Jun; Han, Li-Xin; Bai, Hong-Min

    2012-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, activators of the cortex, apparently improved language functional recovery after brain damage rather than simply affective disorders. Our aim was to determine whether venlafaxine (an agonist of both norepinephrine and 5-hydroxytryptamine) could modulate language cortex function. A double-blind, crossover, randomized design was used to compare two 7-day treatment sessions with either venlafaxine (75 mg per day) or placebo. A functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment and two language function tests were performed on eight healthy males (mean age, 28.25 ± 3.15 years) at the end of each session, i.e., study entry, after venlafaxine, and after placebo (days 0, 7, and 18). Hyperactivation (venlafaxine minus placebo >0) or hypoactivation (placebo minus venlafaxine >0) by venlaxafine was assessed on the basis of the activation-baseline contrast. The naming score (P gyrus frontalis medius and the bilateral fusiform gyrus and the bilateral outer occipital lobes, (2) hyperactivation was observed in the adjoining area of posterior upper Broca area and premotor area in the dominant hemisphere in venlafaxine session (after venlafaxine), (3) the hyperactivation of the left gyrus frontalis medius on fMRI and the increase in naming test score were positively correlated, and (4) by contrast, we observed hypoactivation in the temporo-parieto-occipital region in venlafaxine session (after venlafaxine). This improvement may be related to increased phonics-related output in the frontal language cortex of the dominant hemisphere.

  20. Surgical resection of low-grade gliomas in eloquent areas with the guidance of the preoperative functional magnetic resonance imaging and craniometric points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Surgical resection of low-grade gliomas (LGGs in eloquent areas is one of the challenges in neurosurgery, using assistant tools to facilitate effective excision with minimal postoperative neurological deficits has been previously discussed (awake craniotomy and intraoperative cortical stimulation; however, these tools could have their own limitations thus implementation of a simple and effective technique that can guide to safe excision is needed in many situations. Materials and Methods: The authors conducted a retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected data of 76 consecutive surgical cases of LGGs of these 21 cases were situated in eloquent areas. Preoperative functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, pre- and post-operative MRI with volumetric analysis of the tumor size was conducted, and intraoperative determination of the craniometric points related to the tumor (navigation guided in 10 cases were studied to evaluate the effectiveness of the aforementioned tools in safe excision of the aforementioned tumors. Results: Total-near total excision in 14 (66.67% subtotal in 6 (28.57%, and biopsy in 1 case (4.57%. In long-term follow–up, only one case experienced persistent dysphasia. Conclusion: In spite of its simplicity, the identification of the safe anatomical landmarks guided by the preoperative fMRI is a useful technique that serves in safe excision of LGGs in eloquent areas. Such technique can replace intraoperative evoked potentials or the awake craniotomy in most of the cases. However, navigation-guided excision might be crucial in deeply seated and large tumors to allow safe and radical excision.

  1. Physico - chemical Up-grading studies of uraniferous xenotime mineral from ferruginous siltstone sediments of Um hamd, Um bogma area, sinai, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Monem, H.M.; Elassy, I.E.; Bishay, A.F.; El-Kammar, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    The exposed paleozoic deposits at Um Bogma area in west central sinai contain three main units namely; the lower sandstone, the middle carbonate and the upper sandstone. These units are composed of intercalation of clay minerals, sand, carbonate and iron oxides.The upper layers of the lower sandstone and the base of the middle carbonate units contain possible resources of anomalously uraniferous xenotime (YPO 4 ). Xenotime, being preferentially concentrated with the very fine grain sizes, is more abundant in the argillaceous sediments. The associated clay minerals are represented by kaolinite the non-clay minerals include hematite, goethite and quartz.The up-grading of uraniferous xenotime from a bulk head sample assaying 1.44% Y 2 O 3 was performed by collaborative technological processes that include; liquid/liquid separation using two immiscible liquids (CCI 4 and H 2 O) and finally acid leaching. By applying the proposed flowsheet, more than 90% of xenotime is recovered with an assay value of more than 45% Y 2 O 3 . The simplicity of the proposed flowsheet allows it to be adopted to semi-industrial or even industrial purposes

  2. Design of a test device for subjecting materials to high strain rates: with application in nuclear area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todesco, Sergio R.; Mucsi, Cristiano S.; Rossi, Jesualdo L., E-mail: sergio.todesco@usp.br, E-mail: csmucsi@ipen.br, E-mail: jelrossi@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a design of a device to gather characteristic data of materials subjected to high strain rates, this device named after the eminent English engineer Sir Bertram Hopkinson 'Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar', from here will be designated SHPB. More specifically, this work is inseparably linked to the development of packing for transportation of highly radioactive substances as a part to the general scope of a CAPES project in partnership with the CCTM Materials Department of IPEN, Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research, linked to the University of Sao Paulo. The development of the device is part of a scope, and collection of data necessary for the design and construction of this packing. The SHPB device can be divided into two parts, the first part concerning the mechanical design. The second, data collection that is indeed the challenging part of the device, and proper tests. The present paper, specifically, will only deals with the mechanical design of the device, importantly, divided into two parts, the size of the bars, which are the impact bar, the input bar, and the output bar, and the size of the impact device. The sizing of the bars involve knowledge of the concept of elastic waves in solid media for the length of the bars to serve as a wave-guide, which will cause a deformation of the specimen, and enables recording of these waves for data analysis. The impact device must be robust enough to produce the stress wave to deform the specimen, but not to plastically deform the bars, which have to continue throughout the test within the elastic range. (author)

  3. Design of a test device for subjecting materials to high strain rates: with application in nuclear area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todesco, Sergio R.; Mucsi, Cristiano S.; Rossi, Jesualdo L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a design of a device to gather characteristic data of materials subjected to high strain rates, this device named after the eminent English engineer Sir Bertram Hopkinson 'Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar', from here will be designated SHPB. More specifically, this work is inseparably linked to the development of packing for transportation of highly radioactive substances as a part to the general scope of a CAPES project in partnership with the CCTM Materials Department of IPEN, Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research, linked to the University of Sao Paulo. The development of the device is part of a scope, and collection of data necessary for the design and construction of this packing. The SHPB device can be divided into two parts, the first part concerning the mechanical design. The second, data collection that is indeed the challenging part of the device, and proper tests. The present paper, specifically, will only deals with the mechanical design of the device, importantly, divided into two parts, the size of the bars, which are the impact bar, the input bar, and the output bar, and the size of the impact device. The sizing of the bars involve knowledge of the concept of elastic waves in solid media for the length of the bars to serve as a wave-guide, which will cause a deformation of the specimen, and enables recording of these waves for data analysis. The impact device must be robust enough to produce the stress wave to deform the specimen, but not to plastically deform the bars, which have to continue throughout the test within the elastic range. (author)

  4. Concentration and correlations of perfluoroalkyl substances in whole blood among subjects from three different geographical areas in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Chon Rae; Lam, Nguyen Hoang [College of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences, Chonnam National University, Yeosu 550-749 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Byung Mann [Department of Preventive Medicine and Occupational Medicine, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Yangsan 626-770 (Korea, Republic of); Kannan, Kurunthachalam [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health and Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, Empire State Plaza PO Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States); Cho, Hyeon Seo, E-mail: hscho@jnu.ac.kr [College of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences, Chonnam National University, Yeosu 550-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    blood were found in Korea. • Gender was found to influence the concentrations of PFOA, PFNA, PFHxS and PFOSA. • Significant positive associations between PFAS levels and age of subjects were found. • Occupation was a determinant for PFNA and PFHxS concentrations.

  5. Concentration and correlations of perfluoroalkyl substances in whole blood among subjects from three different geographical areas in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Chon Rae; Lam, Nguyen Hoang; Cho, Byung Mann; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Cho, Hyeon Seo

    2015-01-01

    blood were found in Korea. • Gender was found to influence the concentrations of PFOA, PFNA, PFHxS and PFOSA. • Significant positive associations between PFAS levels and age of subjects were found. • Occupation was a determinant for PFNA and PFHxS concentrations

  6. Hong's grading for evaluating anterior chamber angle width.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seok Hwan; Kang, Ja Heon; Park, Ki Ho; Hong, Chul

    2012-11-01

    To compare Hong's grading method with anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT), gonioscopy, and the dark-room prone-position test (DRPT) for evaluating anterior chamber width. The anterior chamber angle was graded using Hong's grading method, and Hong's angle width was calculated from the arctangent of Hong's grades. The correlation between Hong's angle width and AS-OCT parameters was analyzed. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for Hong's grading method when discriminating between narrow and open angles as determined by gonioscopy was calculated. Correlation analysis was performed between Hong's angle width and intraocular pressure (IOP) changes determined by DRPT. A total of 60 subjects were enrolled. Of these subjects, 53.5 % had a narrow angle. Hong's angle width correlated significantly with the AS-OCT parameters (r = 0.562-0.719, P < 0.01). A Bland-Altman plot showed relatively good agreement between Hong's angle width and the angle width obtained by AS-OCT. The ability of Hong's grading method to discriminate between open and narrow angles was good (AUC = 0.868, 95 % CI 0.756-0.942). A significant linear correlation was found between Hong's angle width and IOP change determined by DRPT (r = -0.761, P < 0.01). Hong's grading method is useful for detecting narrow angles. Hong's grading correlated well with AS-OCT parameters and DRPT.

  7. Effect of toe-spread-out exercise on hallux valgus angle and cross-sectional area of abductor hallucis muscle in subjects with hallux valgus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Moon-Hwan; Yi, Chung-Hwi; Weon, Jong-Hyuck; Cynn, Heon-Seock; Jung, Do-Young; Kwon, Oh-Yun

    2015-04-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated whether the toe-spread-out exercise affects the hallux valgus angle, the cross-sectional area of the abductor hallucis muscle, and the hallux valgus angle during active abduction. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-four subjects with hallux valgus were randomly assigned to orthosis and orthosis plus toe-spread-out exercise groups. The orthosis group wore the orthosis for 8 weeks, while the orthosis plus toe-spread-out group also performed the toe-spread-out exercise. The hallux valgus angle, the cross-sectional area of the abductor hallucis muscle, and the hallux valgus angle during active abduction were measured initially and after 8 weeks by radiography and ultrasonography. [Results] While there were no significant changes in the three parameters in the orthosis group, there were significant differences in the orthosis plus toe-spread-out exercise group after 8 weeks. In addition there were significant differences in the three measures between the two groups. [Conclusion] The toe-spread-out exercise reduces the hallux valgus angle and hallux valgus angle during active abduction, and increases the cross-sectional area of the abductor hallucis muscle. The toe-spread-out exercise is recommended for patients with mild to moderate hallux valgus.

  8. ICIS Contacts Subject Area Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS) is a web-based system that provides information for the federal enforcement and compliance (FE&C) and the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) programs.

  9. Career Education Program: Geneva Area City Schools. [Grade 2 Units: Postal Services, Our Homes, Clothing, Community Helpers, and Custodians In Our Lives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geneva Area City Schools, OH.

    Five curriculum units for the second grade level focus on: (1) clothing producers and suppliers, and the clothing industry; (2) postal service workers and the postal system; (3) janitorial workers; (4) workers who build, furnish, and maintain homes and the housing industry; and (5) various community workers. Behavioral unit objectives emphasize…

  10. Grade 6 Science Curriculum Specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Branch.

    This material describes curriculum specifications for grade 6 science in Alberta. Emphases recommended are: (1) process skills (50%); (2) psychomotor skills (10%); (3) attitudes (10%); and (4) subject matter (30%). Priorities within each category are identified. (YP)

  11. Educational role of art history as a school subject area in programmes of formal education in Slovenia: the aspect of vzgoja, according to general European guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjana Dolšina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Programmes of formal education establish a systematic transfer of knowledge as well as universal values from one generation to another. By that, they ensure the survival of social structures, prevent radical disruptions in their continuity, and serve as basis for general development of a society. Their content and didactic arrangements include interweaving of two basic aspects: the cognitive one and the one related to vzgoja (i.e. upbringing, moral/value education etc.. The latter aims to achieve the ideals of a tolerant, just and lifelong learning society, but seems to be facing increasing challenges, mainly emerging from neoliberal capitalist mentality. Art history as a school subject area in elementary and secondary education may provide an insight beneath the surface of historical events. Thus, it helps develop a critical view towards them and consequently towards the present real-life situations, which contributes to ascending the taxonomic scale of conative educational goals.

  12. The effect of the 4MAT learning model on the achievement and motivation of 7th grade students on the subject of particulate nature of matter and an examination of student opinions on the model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, İdris; Bılgın, İbrahim

    2015-01-01

    Background:Many researchers agree that students, especially primary students, have learning difficulties on the 'Particulate Nature of Matter' unit. One reason for this difficulty is not considering individual differences for teaching science. In 4MAT model learning, environment is arranged according to individual differences. Purpose:The purpose of this study is to examine (1) the effects of the 4MAT learning model on the7th grade students' academic achievement and motivation on the 'Particulate Nature of Matter' unit and (2) identify student opinions on the 4MAT model. Sample:The sample consists of 235 students (115 experimental, 120 control) in Turkey. Design and methods:Experimental groups were instructed with the 4MAT model while control groups were instructed with a traditional method. Achievement Test (AchToM) and Motivation Scale (MotScl) were administered to students as pre- and post-tests. Moreover, the opinions of students in the experimental groups on the 4MAT model were ascertained through open-ended questions after the application. Results:According to independent t-test results, statistical difference in favour of the experimental groups was detected between the post-AchToM (ES = 1.43; p motivation and participation in the lesson, lessons are more amusing and enjoyable, and the self-confidence of the students increases. Besides these positive opinions, however, a few students stated that the method took too much time, they were not motivated and it did not help them in understanding the subject. Conclusions:The 4MAT model is more effective than traditional method in terms of increasing achievement and motivation. The model takes all learners into account. Thus, the teacher or educator should use the 4MAT model to ensure all students' learning in their classroom.

  13. Iron, folacin, vitamin B12 and zinc status and immune response in elderly subjects in the Washington D.C. metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry-Christian, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    The iron, folacin, vitamin B 12 , and zinc status of a group of economically and socially disadvantaged elderly persons in the Washington Metropolitan Area was evaluated. Factors related to deficiencies of these nutrients, the relationships between the status of these nutrients and cell-mediated immunity, and the relationships of iron, folacin and vitamin B 12 status to hemoglobin levels in the subjects were also examined. It was also determined whether there were any interactions among iron, folacin, vitamin B 12 and zinc status in their relationships to cell-mediated immunity. Socio-demographic and nutritional data on the subjects were obtained using a questionnaire. Dietary data were obtained using a dietary record. A fasting blood sample was drawn and the levels of ferritin, folate and vitamin B 12 , and the erythrocyte levels of folate were determined by radioassay. Plasma and hair zinc levels were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Cell-mediated immune response was determined by transformation of peripheral blood lymphocytes after stimulation by mitogens, and by allogenic lymphocytes in the mixed lymphocyte reaction

  14. [Subjective Workload, Job Satisfaction, and Work-Life-Balance of Physicians and Nurses in a Municipal Hospital in a Rural Area Compared to an Urban University Hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körber, Michael; Schmid, Klaus; Drexler, Hans; Kiesel, Johannes

    2018-05-01

    Medical and nursing shortages in rural areas represent a current serious public health problem. The healthcare of the rural population is at risk. This study compares perceived workload, job satisfaction and work-life balance of physicians and nurses at a clinic in a rural area with two clinics of a University hospital. Physicians and nurses were interviewed anonymously with a standardized questionnaire (paper and pencil), including questions on job satisfaction, subjective workload and work-life balance. The response rate was almost 50% in the University hospital as well as in the municipal hospital. 32 physicians and 54 nurses from the University hospital and 18 physicians and 137 nurses from the municipal hospital participated in the survey. Nurses at the University hospital assessed the organization of the daily routine with 94.1% as better than those at the municipal hospital (82.4%, p=0.03). Physicians at the University hospital were able to better implement acquired knowledge at a University clinic with 87.5% than their counterparts at the municipal hospital (55.5%, p=0.02). In contrast to their colleagues at the municipal hospital, only 50% of the physicians at the University hospital subjectively considered their workload as just right (83.3% municipal, p=0.02). 96.9% of the physicians at the University hospital were "daily" or "several times a week" under time pressure (municipal 50%, pwork and family life (62.9% University hospital, 72.8% Municipal hospital). In contrast, only 20% of the physicians at the University Hospital but 42.9% of the physicians of the municipal hospital had sufficient opportunities to balance workload and family (p=0.13). The return rate of almost 50% can be described as good. Due to the small number of physicians, especially from the municipal hospital, it can be assumed that some interesting differences could not be detected. There were only slight differences between the nurses from the two hospitals. In contrast, subjective

  15. Morphology and U-Pb ages of zircons from the high-grade metamorphic Precambrian in the Sirdal-Oersdal area, SW Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wielens, J.B.W.

    1979-01-01

    The U-Pb systematics of seven suites of zircons and two apatites were investigated in an attempt to obtain data about the pre-Sveconorwegian geochronology. Very little was known about this earlier history, as previous studies have shown that the high-grade metamorphism has obliterated most of the older Rb-Sr record. Three samples were investigated from the augengneisses, two from the pyroxene syenites, one garnetiferous migmatite and one magnetite-ilmenite-zircon veinlet cross-cutting the charnockitic migmatites. (Auth.)

  16. Demystify Learning Expectations to Address Grade Inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Linda C.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the subject of "grade inflation," a reference to educators giving higher grades to student work than their expectations for student achievement warrant. Of the many reasons why this practice happens, Hodges specifically discusses inflating grades as "a natural consequence" when the faculty really…

  17. The cutoff values of visceral fat area and waist circumference for identifying subjects at risk for metabolic syndrome in elderly Korean: Ansan Geriatric (AGE cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh Young

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Korea, the cutoff values of waist circumference (WC for the identification of metabolic syndrome (MetS were suggested to be 90 cm for men and 85 cm for women based on the analysis mainly in middle-aged adults. As aging is associated with increased fat, especially abdominal visceral fat, the cutoff value of WC may differ according to age. In addition, the usefulness of visceral abdominal fat area (VFA to predict MetS in the elderly has not been studied yet. We aimed to suggest WC and VFA criteria and to compare the predictability of WC and VFA to identify people at risk for MetS. Methods A total of 689 elderly subjects aged ≥63 years (308 men, 381 women were chosen in this cross-sectional study from an ongoing, prospective, population-based study, the Ansan Geriatric (AGE cohort study. VFA was measured by single slice abdominal computed tomography scanning. The metabolic risk factors except WC (plasma glucose, blood pressure, serum triglycerides and HDL cholesterol levels were defined using modified NCEP-ATP III criteria. We estimated the accuracy of VFA and WC for identifying at least two of these factors by receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis. Results Two hundred three of 308 men and 280 of 381 women had ≥2 metabolic risk factors. The area under the ROC curve (AUC value for VFA to predict the presence of ≥2 metabolic risk factors was not significantly different from that for WC (men, 0.735 and 0.750; women, 0.715 and 0.682; AUC values for VFA and WC, respectively. The optimal cutoff points for VFA and WC for predicting the presence of ≥2 metabolic risk factors were 92.6 cm2 and 86.5 cm for men and 88.9 cm2 and 86.5 cm for women. Conclusion WC had comparable power with VFA to identify elderly people who are at risk for MetS. Elderly Korean men and women had very similar cutoff points for both VFA and WC measurements for estimating the risk of MetS. Age-specific cutoff point for WC might be

  18. Increasing mortality from ischaemic heart disease in China from 2004 to 2010: disproportionate rise in rural areas and elderly subjects. 438 million person-years follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaofei; Khan, Arshad A; Haq, Ehtesham Ul; Rahim, Aadil; Hu, Dayi; Attia, John; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Ma, Xiaoyan; Ding, Rongjing; Boyle, Andrew J

    2017-01-01

    We sought to ascertain the changes in mortality from ischaemic heart disease (IHD) from 2004 to 2010 in China as the sheer size of China's population makes disease patterns relevant globally. Data on IHD mortality were obtained from the Chinese Centre for Disease Control and Prevention National Disease Surveillance Point System, which includes 161 counties and a population of over 73 million-a representative sample of over 6% of the entire population of China. Both crude and World Health Organization (WHO)-standardized IHD mortality increased, in both men and women and in both urban and rural locations, during the study period, demonstrating the effect of urbanization, economic growth, and epidemiological transition on cardiovascular health. WHO-standardized IHD mortality increased for rural males by 9.2% per year (95% CI: 6.7-11.7%; P China, in contrast to decreasing in other countries. This is largely driven by increasing IHD mortality in rural areas and subjects over 80 years old. This needs urgent attention by public health workers and policymakers. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Multiplicative synergistic risk of hepatocellular carcinoma development among hepatitis B and C co-infected subjects in HBV endemic area: a community-based cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jin-Kyoung; Shin, Hai-Rim; Lim, Min Kyung; Cho, Heeyoun; Kim, Dong-Il; Jee, Youngmee; Yun, Haesun; Yoo, Keun-Young

    2012-01-01

    There has been limited study on the effect of infection with different hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes on the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in hepatitis B virus (HBV) endemic regions of Asia. Hazard ratios of HCC development were estimated for HBV and HCV co-infected subjects among a community-based prospective cohort. HCV genotype was determined in HCV RNA-positive samples. Incident HCC cases were identified through linkage to the cancer registry. HCC incidence was 79 per 100,000 person-years in the study population (50 incident cases among 6,694 individuals within 63,170 person-years with an average of 9.4 years of follow-up); seroprevalence of HBsAg and anti-HCV was 5.2% and 5.6%. Adjusted hazard ratios of HCC by HBsAg positivity and anti-HCV positivity were 13.3 (CI: 7.3-24.4) and 6.7 (CI: 3.6-12.6). HRs of HBV and HCV monoinfection, and HBV/HCV coinfection were 17.1 (CI: 8.4-34.8), 10.4 (CI: 4.9-22.1) and 115.0 (CI: 32.5-407.3). Multiplicative synergistic effect of HBV/HCV coinfection on HCC risk was also observed (synergy index: 4.5, CI: 1.3-15.5). Infection with HCV genotype 1 (HR: 29.7, CI: 13.6-46.8) and mixed infection with genotype 1 and 2 (HR: 68.7, CI: 16.4-288.4) significantly elevated HCC risk, much higher than HBV infection. The effect of differences in HCV genotype and the multiplicative synergistic effect of HBV/HCV coinfection on HCC risk shown in the present study underline the need for comprehensive identification of hepatitis infection status in order to prevent and control HCC in this HBV endemic area

  20. Biological monitoring of environmental exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in subjects living in the area of recycling electronic garbage, in Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Zhang, Wenbing; Fan, Ruifang; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo

    2014-01-01

    The study was undertaken to evaluate the environmental exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in subjects living in the area of recycling electronic garbage in Southern China and research the influence of environment smoke tobacco (EST) to people through active and passive smoking. Urinary concentrations of 2-hydroxynaphthalene, 2-hydoxyfluorene, 9-hydroxyphenanthrene, and 1-hydroxypyrene were determined in 141 randomly selected voluntary residents aged 13 to 81 years in two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-exposed groups, two control groups, and an EST research group. The concentrations of 2-hydroxynaphthalene, 2-hydoxyfluorene, 9-hydroxyphenanthrene, and 1-hydroxypyrene in PAH-exposed groups are significantly higher (pelectronic garbage (1.1 μmol/mol creatinine) is a little higher than those of iron foundry workers, automobile repair workers, and firefighters. Mean value of 2-hydroxynaphthalene (11.3 μmol/mol creatinine) is much higher than that of shipyard and aircraft maintenance and much lower than some occupational exposure, such as coking batteries, sorting department, and distillation department in coking plant. Some metabolites of PAHs (PAHm) are significantly elevated through active and passive smoking, while the influence of EST to other PAHm is not statistically significant. 2-Hydroxynaphthalene, 2-hydoxyfluorene, 9-hydroxyphenanthrene, and 1-hydroxypyrene in the urine of smokers are, respectively, 3.9, 1.9, 1.4, and 1.9 times to those of nonsmokers. In nonsmokers, passive smokers excreted 1.1, 1.5, 1.9, and 1.5 times of 2-hydroxynaphthalene, 2-hydoxyfluorene, 9-hydroxyphenanthrene, and 1-hydroxypyrene compared to nonpassive smokers.

  1. Methodology for the Inventory and Assessment of Americium Contamination Level in 1987 in an Area of Palomares Contaminated with Plutonium Weapon Grade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa, A.; Aragon, A.; Cruz de la, B.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology applied for the assessment of the ''241 Am coming from the decay of ''241 Pu isotope content in a contaminated area of Palomares, where the clean-up work done in 1966, given the negligible agricultural importance of such area at the time and its geographical characteristics, was not of the same magnitude as for the rest of the region. (Author) 4 refs

  2. Grade Inflation: An Issue for Higher Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruth, Donald L.; Caruth, Gail D.

    2013-01-01

    Grade inflation impacts university credibility, student courses of study, choices of institution, and other areas. There has been an upward shift in grades without a corresponding upward shift in knowledge gained. Some of the most frequently mentioned causes of grade inflation are: (1) student evaluations of professors; (2) student teacher…

  3. A Comparison of Chronic Periodontitis in HIV-Seropositive Subjects and the General Population in the Ga-Rankuwa Area, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razia Khammissa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of HIV infection on the prevalence and the rate of progression of chronic periodontitis is not clear. The aim of this study was to compare parameters associated with the severity of chronic periodontitis in terms of periodontal probing depths, gingival recession, plaque indexes, and bleeding indexes of HIV-seropositive subjects and healthy age-matched control subjects, and of HIV-seropositive subjects on highly active antiretroviral therapy and those not receiving such treatment. Two cohorts of subjects with chronic periodontitis were recruited for this study over a period of six months. There were 30 HIV-seropositive subjects, and 30 control subjects. Periodontal probing depths, gingival marginal recession, plaque indexes, and bleeding indexes were compared by HIV serostatus, the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy, and CD4+ T-cell counts. All participants were black persons between the age of 18 and 45 and were of a similar socioeconomic status and age. The results of this study indicate that chronic periodontitis in HIV-seropositive subjects is similar in terms of mean periodontal probing depth, gingival marginal recession, plaque index, and bleeding index to that in healthy age-matched control subjects, and a low CD4+ T-cell count does not appear to be a risk factor for increased severity of chronic periodontitis.

  4. Acquiring Science and Social Studies Knowledge in Kindergarten through Fourth Grade: Conceptualization, Design, Implementation, and Efficacy Testing of Content-Area Literacy Instruction (CALI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Dombek, Jennifer; Crowe, Elizabeth C.; Spencer, Mercedes; Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Coffinger, Sean; Zargar, Elham; Wood, Taffeta; Petscher, Yaacov

    2017-01-01

    With national focus on reading and math achievement, science and social studies have received less instructional time. Yet, accumulating evidence suggests that content knowledge is an important predictor of proficient reading. Starting with a design study, we developed content-area literacy instruction (CALI) as an individualized (or personalized)…

  5. The Effects of 12 Hours of Low-Grade Hypoxia at 10,000 ft at Night in Special Operations Forces Aircraft Operations on Cognition, Night Vision, Goggle Vision and Subjective Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-28

    in scuba diving, or other hyperbaric exposures, for 48 h prior to the hypobaric exposures. Each subject was trained prior to study condition as...and another at 10,000 ft altitude in a hypobaric chamber. Half of the subjects performed moderate exercise. Results: Twelve hour exposure at 10,000...to 10,000 ft altitude pressure in a hypobaric chamber. Half (15) of the subjects performed moderate exercise on a cycle ergometer for 10 min every

  6. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool......-Saxon and continental traditions, this special issue provides examples of the use of researcher subjectivity, informed by psychoanalytic thinking, in expanding research understanding....

  7. Three-dimensional in vivo patellofemoral kinematics and contact area of anterior cruciate ligament-deficient and -reconstructed subjects using magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Choongsoo S; Carpenter, R Dana; Majumdar, Sharmila; Ma, C Benjamin

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to test whether (1) the 3-dimensional in vivo patellofemoral kinematics and patellofemoral contact area of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-deficient knees are different from those of normal, contralateral knees and (2) ACL reconstruction restores in vivo patellofemoral kinematics and contact area. Ten ACL-deficient knees and twelve ACL-reconstructed knees, as well as the contralateral uninjured knees, were tested. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed at full extension and 40 degrees of flexion under simulated partial weight-bearing conditions. Six-degrees of freedom patellofemoral kinematics, patellofemoral contact area, and contact location were analyzed by use of magnetic resonance image-based 3-dimensional patellofemoral knee models. The patella in the ACL-deficient knees underwent significantly more lateral tilt during flexion (P contact areas of ACL-deficient knees at both the extended and flexed positions (37 +/- 22 mm(2) and 357 +/- 53 mm(2), respectively) were significantly smaller than those of contralateral knees (78 +/- 45 mm(2) and 437 +/- 119 mm(2), respectively) (P contact area of ACL-reconstructed knees in the extended position (86 +/- 41 mm(2)) was significantly larger (P contact centroid translation, and contact area showed coefficients of variation of less than 6.8%. ACL injuries alter patellofemoral kinematics including patellar tilt and patellar lateral translation, but ACL reconstruction with hamstring or allograft restores altered patellar tilt. ACL injuries reduce the patellofemoral contact area at both the extended and flexed positions, but ACL reconstruction enlarges the patellofemoral contact area at extension and restores the normal contact area at low angles of flexion. Level III, case-control study.

  8. Masticatory and cervical muscle tenderness and pain sensitivity in a remote area in subjects with a temporomandibular disorder and neck disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Anelise; Armijo-Olivo, Susan; Gadotti, Inae C; Magee, David

    2014-01-01

    To compare the masticatory and cervical muscle tenderness and pain sensitivity in the hand (remote region) between patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and healthy controls. Twenty female subjects were diagnosed with chronic TMD, and 20 were considered healthy. Subjects completed the Neck Disability Index and Limitations of Daily Functions in a TMD questionnaire. Tenderness of the masticatory and cervical muscles and pain sensitivity in the hand were measured using an algometer. Three-way mixed analysis of variance (ANOVA) evaluated differences in muscle tenderness between groups. One-way ANOVA compared pain sensitivity in the hand between groups. Effect sizes were assessed using Cohen guidelines. Significantly increased masticatory and cervical muscle tenderness and pain sensitivity in the hand were found in subjects with TMD when compared with healthy subjects. Moderate to high effect sizes showed the clinical relevance of the findings. The results of this study have highlighted the importance of assessing TMD patients not only in the craniofacial region but also in the neck and other parts of the body. Future studies should focus on testing the effectiveness of treatments addressing the neck and the pain sensitivity in the hand in patients with TMD.

  9. Teachers' Grading Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isnawati, Ida; Saukah, Ali

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated teachers' grading decision making, focusing on their beliefs underlying their grading decision making, their grading practices and assessment types, and factors they considered in grading decision making. Two teachers from two junior high schools applying different curriculum policies in grade reporting in Indonesian…

  10. Student Attitudes Toward Grades and Grading Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, William M.; Leslie, Elwood K.

    The result of a study designed to assess student attitudes toward grading practices are discussed. Questionnaire responses of 3439 students in three institutions were tabulated. Responses were generally negative toward conventional grading systems. (MS)

  11. Tabla de Especificaciones e Instructivo sobre Elaboracion de Pruebas Objetivas en la Ensenanza Primaria, para las asignaturas de Estudios Sociales, Idioma Espanol, Matematicas y Ciencias Naturales (Specification Tables and Instructions for the Construction of Objective Tests in the Primary Grades in Social Studies, Spanish, Mathematics, and Natural Sciences).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministerio de Educacion, Guatemala City (Guatemala). Direccion de Bienestar Estudiantil y Educacion Especial.

    This booklet presents specification tables illustrating the relative importance given to topics on tests within a particular subject area. The general subject areas are social studies, Spanish, mathematics, and natural sciences. Tables are provided for final exams in each of these areas for several primary grades, illustrating the importance of…

  12. A comparison of human jaw muscle cross-sectional area and volume in long- and short-face subjects, using MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Spronsena, P. H.; van Ginkel, F. C.; van Schijndel, R. A.; Castelijns, J. A.; Tuinzing, D. B.

    Objective: In humans, the vertical craniofacial dimensions vary significantly with the size of the jaw muscles, which are regarded as important controlling factors of craniofacial growth. The functional relevance of the maximum cross-sectional area (CSA), indicating maximum muscle strength, is

  13. A comparison of human jaw muscle cross-sectional area and volume in long- and short-face subjects, using MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, H.P.W.; van Spronsen, P.H.; van Ginkel, F.C.; van Schijndel, R.A.; Castelijns, J.A.; Tuinzing, D.B.

    2008-01-01

    Objective In humans, the vertical craniofacial dimensions vary significantly with the size of the jaw muscles, which are regarded as important controlling factors of craniofacial growth. The functional relevance of the maximum cross-sectional area (CSA), indicating maximum muscle strength, is

  14. A comparison of human jaw muscle cross-sectional area and volume in long- and short-face subjects, using MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, H.P.; van Spronsen, P.H.; van Ginkel, F.C.; van Schijndel, R.A.; Castelijns, J.A.; Tuinzing, D.B.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: In humans, the vertical craniofacial dimensions vary significantly with the size of the jaw muscles, which are regarded as important controlling factors of craniofacial growth. The functional relevance of the maximum cross-sectional area (CSA), indicating maximum muscle strength, is

  15. [Reproducibility of Fuhrman nuclear grade: advantages of a two-grade system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letourneux, Hervé; Lindner, Véronique; Lang, Hervé; Massfelder, Thierry; Meyer, Nicolas; Saussine, Christian; Jacqmin, Didier

    2006-06-01

    The Fuhrman nuclear grade is the reference histoprognostic grading system routinely used all over the world for renal cell carcinoma. Studies measuring the inter-observer and intra-observer concordance of Fuhrman grade show poor results in terms of reproducibility and repeatability. These variations are due to a certain degree of subjectivity of the pathologist in application of the definition of tumour grade, particularly nuclear grade. Elements able to account for this subjectivity in renal cell carcinoma are identified from a review of the literature. To improve the reliability of nuclear grade, the territory occupied by the highest grade must be specified and the grades should probably be combined. At the present time, regrouping of grade 1 and 2 tumours as low grade and grade 3 and 4 tumours as high grade would achieve better reproducibility, while preserving the prognostic: value for overall survival. The development of new treatment modalities and their use in adjuvant situations will imply the use of reliable histoprognostic factors to specify, indications.

  16. Experimental study of the strain state at the area of a surface defect in a steel cylindrical shell subjected to internal pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Бесчетников, Д. А.

    2014-01-01

    Experimental research of stress-strain state at the area of local volumetric surface defects of the pipeline systems is an important goal because results of the measurements are necessary for increasing of effectiveness of existing repair technologies using fiber reinforcement polymer composite materials. In this work the description of experiment carried out by the author is presented with statement of results. The experiment was devoted to strain gauging of a steel cylindrical shell with vo...

  17. Factors associated with poor nutritional status among community dwelling Lebanese elderly subjects living in rural areas: results of the AMEL study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulos, C; Salameh, P; Barberger-Gateau, P

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed to assess the nutritional status, measured by MNA, and its association with socio-demographic indicators and health related characteristics of a representative sample of community dwelling elderly subjects. Cross-sectional study. Community dwelling elderly individuals living in rural communities in Lebanon. 1200 elderly individuals aged 65 years or more. Socio-demographic indicators and health related characteristics were recorded during a standardized interview. Nutritional status was assessed through Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). The 5-item GDS score and the WHO-5-A score were used to assess mood, whereas Mini Mental Status (MMS) was applied to evaluate cognitive status. The prevalence of malnutrition and risk of malnutrition was 8.0% respective 29.1% of the study sample. Malnutrition was significantly more frequent in elderly subjects aged more than 85 years, in females, widowed and illiterate people. Moreover, participants who reported lower financial status were more often malnourished or at risk of malnutrition. Regarding health status, poor nutritional status was more common among those reporting more than three chronic diseases, taking more than three drugs daily, suffering from chronic pain and those who had worse oral health status. Also, depressive disorders and cognitive dysfunction were significantly related to malnutrition. After multivariate analysis following variables remained independently associated to malnutrition: living in the governorate of Nabatieh (ORa 2.30, 95% CI 1.35 -3.93), reporting higher income (ORa 0.77, 95% CI 0.61-0.97), higher number of comorbidities (ORa 1.22, 95% CI 1.12-1.32), chronic pain (ORa 1.72, 95% CI 1.24-2.39), and depressive disorders (ORa 1.66, 95% CI 1.47-1.88). On the other hand, better cognitive functioning was strongly associated with decreased nutritional risk (ORa 0.27, 95%CI 0.17-0.43). Our results highlighted the close relationship between health status and malnutrition. The

  18. MRI differentiation of low-grade from high-grade appendicular chondrosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douis, Hassan; Singh, Leanne; Saifuddin, Asif

    2014-01-01

    To identify magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features which differentiate low-grade chondral lesions (atypical cartilaginous tumours/grade 1 chondrosarcoma) from high-grade chondrosarcomas (grade 2, grade 3 and dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma) of the major long bones. We identified all patients treated for central atypical cartilaginous tumours and central chondrosarcoma of major long bones (humerus, femur, tibia) over a 13-year period. The MRI studies were assessed for the following features: bone marrow oedema, soft tissue oedema, bone expansion, cortical thickening, cortical destruction, active periostitis, soft tissue mass and tumour length. The MRI-features were compared with the histopathological tumour grading using univariate, multivariate logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analyses. One hundred and seventy-nine tumours were included in this retrospective study. There were 28 atypical cartilaginous tumours, 79 grade 1 chondrosarcomas, 36 grade 2 chondrosarcomas, 13 grade 3 chondrosarcomas and 23 dedifferentiated chondrosarcomas. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that bone expansion (P = 0.001), active periostitis (P = 0.001), soft tissue mass (P < 0.001) and tumour length (P < 0.001) were statistically significant differentiating factors between low-grade and high-grade chondral lesions with an area under the ROC curve of 0.956. On MRI, bone expansion, active periostitis, soft tissue mass and tumour length can reliably differentiate high-grade chondrosarcomas from low-grade chondral lesions of the major long bones. (orig.)

  19. MRI differentiation of low-grade from high-grade appendicular chondrosarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douis, Hassan; Singh, Leanne; Saifuddin, Asif [The Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-15

    To identify magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features which differentiate low-grade chondral lesions (atypical cartilaginous tumours/grade 1 chondrosarcoma) from high-grade chondrosarcomas (grade 2, grade 3 and dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma) of the major long bones. We identified all patients treated for central atypical cartilaginous tumours and central chondrosarcoma of major long bones (humerus, femur, tibia) over a 13-year period. The MRI studies were assessed for the following features: bone marrow oedema, soft tissue oedema, bone expansion, cortical thickening, cortical destruction, active periostitis, soft tissue mass and tumour length. The MRI-features were compared with the histopathological tumour grading using univariate, multivariate logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analyses. One hundred and seventy-nine tumours were included in this retrospective study. There were 28 atypical cartilaginous tumours, 79 grade 1 chondrosarcomas, 36 grade 2 chondrosarcomas, 13 grade 3 chondrosarcomas and 23 dedifferentiated chondrosarcomas. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that bone expansion (P = 0.001), active periostitis (P = 0.001), soft tissue mass (P < 0.001) and tumour length (P < 0.001) were statistically significant differentiating factors between low-grade and high-grade chondral lesions with an area under the ROC curve of 0.956. On MRI, bone expansion, active periostitis, soft tissue mass and tumour length can reliably differentiate high-grade chondrosarcomas from low-grade chondral lesions of the major long bones. (orig.)

  20. Multiple biomarker responses in Prochilodus lineatus subjected to short-term in situ exposure to streams from agricultural areas in Southern Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Carlos Eduardo Delfino [Laboratório de Ecofisiologia Animal — Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Paraná (Brazil); Costa, Patrícia Gomes [Laboratório de Microcontaminantes Orgânicos e Ecotoxicologia — Instituto de Oceanografia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Lunardelli, Bruna; Fernandes de Oliveira, Luciana [Laboratório de Ecofisiologia Animal — Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Paraná (Brazil); Costa Cabrera, Liziara da [Laboratório de Análise de Compostos Orgânicos e Metais — Escola de Química e Alimentos, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Risso, Wagner Ezequiel [Laboratório de Ecofisiologia Animal — Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Paraná (Brazil); Primel, Ednei Gilberto [Laboratório de Análise de Compostos Orgânicos e Metais — Escola de Química e Alimentos, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); and others

    2016-01-15

    In order to assess the quality of streams susceptible to contamination by pesticides we apply biochemical and genotoxic biomarkers in the Neotropical fish Prochilodus lineatus submitted to in situ tests. Fish were caged, for 96 h, in two streams located in areas with intensive use of pesticides, the Apertados (AP) and the Jacutinga (JC), and in a small stream (Godoy stream — GD) found inside a forest fragment adjacent to a State Park. Biochemical parameters, such as biotransformation enzymes 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), non-protein thiols (NPSH), lipoperoxidation (LPO), protein carbonylation (PCO) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) were evaluated in various fish organs, as well as genotoxic biomarkers (damage to DNA and occurrence of micronuclei and erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities). Samples of water and sediment were collected for analysis of metals (Cu, Cr, Pb, Ni, Mn, Cd and Zn), organochloride pesticides, and triazine and glyphosate herbicides. We observed an increase in liver GST activity in fish at AP and gill GST activity in fish at JC. An increase in liver LPO was also observed in fish exposed to AP and JC. The same animals also exhibited increased DNA damage and erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities (ENAs) compared to the fish kept in GD. A number of compounds showed concentrations higher than the permitted levels, in particular, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), its metabolites dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCH), heptachloride, diclofluanid and aldrins. These pesticides were detected at higher concentrations in water and sediment samples from AP, followed by JC and GD. The Integrated Biomarker Response Index (IBR) indicated that AP and JC (AP: 21.7 > JC: 18.5 > GD: 12.6) have the worst environmental quality. Integrated biomarker analysis revealed that the alterations observed related well with the levels of environmental contaminants

  1. Hydrogeologic monitoring of the Paraíba do Sul river floodplain area subject to sand mining in the Tremembé municipality, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getulio Teixeira Batista

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To characterize the geological, hydrogeological, hydrochemical, and hydrobacterial aspects of the surface and groundwater in the floodplain of the Paraíba do Sul river in Tremembé municipality, the water levels of the Quaternary sedimentary aquifer experimental site was monitored based on four wells and eight associated piezometers with daily measures of water levels in continuous operation since December 3, 2009. In addition, data from a modular weather station in operation since March 2010 and data from the quality of surface water and groundwater have been analyzed in the period between March 2010 and March 2011. The water balance between April 2010 and March 2011 was estimated to verify the periods of water deficiency and excess. Data loggers installed in the piezometers enabled daily groundwater levels monitoring to establish the influence of the Paraíba do Sul river in the water levels of the Quaternary sedimentary aquifer and also they allowed the determination of the water loss to the atmosphere. A hydrogeological model with simplified equations, based on hydraulics parameters obtained in the wells pump tests, was implemented to calculate the amount of daily evapotranspiration and the average distance of the water loss from the wells to the atmosphere. An evaporation rate of 83.4 m3/h from the open-pit sand mine located at 212.2 m and of 89.2 m3/h for the one at 885.0 m average distance from the monitoring wells were observed. Chemical and bacteriological analysis involving multiple parameters were performed in the period from March 2010 to March 2011 in groundwater collected in wells, in the open-pit mines and in the waters of the Paraíba do Sul river. The results allowed to observe the influences of the Paraíba do Sul river as well as the contamination from fertilizers and pesticides from the agriculture practiced in the floodplain area on the quality of the groundwater.

  2. On arbitrarily graded rings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    58

    paper is devoted to the study of arbitrary rings graded through arbitrary sets. .... which recover certain multiplicative relations among the homogeneous components ... instance the case in which the grading set A is an Abelian group, where the ...

  3. Graded manifolds and supermanifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batchelor, M.

    1984-01-01

    In this paper, a review is presented on graded manifolds and supermanifolds. Many theorems, propositions, corrollaries, etc. are given with proofs or sketch proofs. Graded manifolds, supereuclidian space, Lie supergroups, etc. are dealt with

  4. GRADE Equity Guidelines 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welch, Vivian A; Akl, Elie A; Pottie, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to describe a conceptual framework for how to consider health equity in the GRADE (Grading Recommendations Assessment and Development Evidence) guideline development process. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Consensus-based guidance developed by the GRADE working grou...

  5. A minimally invasive system for glucose area under the curve measurement using interstitial fluid extraction technology: evaluation of the accuracy and usefulness with oral glucose tolerance tests in subjects with and without diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Kazuhiko; Hirota, Yushi; Hashimoto, Naoko; Ogawa, Wataru; Sato, Toshiyuki; Okada, Seiki; Hagino, Kei; Asakura, Yoshihiro; Kikkawa, Yasuo; Kojima, Junko; Maekawa, Yasunori; Nakajima, Hiromu

    2012-06-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the importance of managing postprandial hyperglycemia, but adequate monitoring of postprandial glucose remains difficult because of wide variations in levels. We have therefore developed a minimally invasive system to monitor postprandial glucose area under the curve (AUC). This system involves no blood sampling and uses interstitial fluid glucose (IG) AUC (IG-AUC) as a surrogate marker of postprandial glucose. This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of this system by comparing data with the findings of oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) in subjects with and without diabetes. The glucose AUC monitoring system was validated by OGTTs in 37 subjects with and 10 subjects without diabetes. A plastic microneedle array was stamped on the forearm to extract IG. A hydrogel patch was then placed on the pretreated area to accumulate IG. Glucose and sodium ion concentrations in the hydrogel were measured to calculate IG-AUC at 2-h postload glucose. Plasma glucose (PG) levels were measured every 30 min to calculate reference PG-AUC. IG-AUC correlated strongly with reference PG-AUC (r=0.93) over a wide range. The level of correlation between IG-AUC and maximum PG level was also high (r=0.86). The painless nature of the technique was confirmed by the response of patients to questionnaires. The glucose AUC monitoring system using IG provided good estimates of reference PG-AUC and maximum PG level during OGTTs in subjects with and without diabetes. This system provides easy-to-use monitoring of glucose AUC, which is a good indicator of postprandial glucose.

  6. Enhancement of motor learning by focal intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) of either the primary motor (M1) or somatosensory area (S1) in healthy human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platz, Thomas; Adler-Wiebe, Marija; Roschka, Sybille; Lotze, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Motor rehabilitation after brain damage relies on motor re-learning as induced by specific training. Non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) can alter cortical excitability and thereby has a potential to enhance subsequent training-induced learning. Knowledge about any priming effects of NIBS on motor learning in healthy subjects can help to design targeted therapeutic applications in brain-damaged subjects. To examine whether complex motor learning in healthy subjects can be enhanced by intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) to primary motor or sensory cortical areas. Eighteen young healthy subjects trained eight different arm motor tasks (arm ability training, AAT) once a day for 5 days using their left non-dominant arm. Except for day 1 (baseline), training was performed after applying an excitatory form of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (iTBS) to either (I) right M1 or (II) S1, or (III) sham stimulation to the right M1. Subjects were randomly assigned to conditions I, II, or III. A principal component analysis of the motor behaviour data suggested eight independent motor abilities corresponding to the 8 trained tasks. AAT induced substantial motor learning across abilities with generalisation to a non-trained test of finger dexterity (Nine-Hole-Peg-Test, NHPT). Participants receiving iTBS (to either M1 or S1) showed better performance with the AAT tasks over the period of training compared to sham stimulation as well as a bigger improvement with the generalisation task (NHPT) for the trained left hand after training completion. Priming with an excitatory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation as iTBS of either M1 or S1 can enhance motor learning across different sensorimotor abilities.

  7. Heat stress in urban areas. Indoor and outdoor temperatures in different urban structure types and subjectively reported well-being during a heat wave in the city of Leipzig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franck, Ulrich; Roeder, Stefan; Schlink, Uwe [Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Leipzig (Germany). Core Facility Studies; Krueger, Michael [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Geography; Schwarz, Nina [Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Leipzig (Germany). Dept. of Computational Landscape Ecology; Grossmann, Katrin [Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Leipzig (Germany). Dept. of Urban and Environmental Sociology

    2013-04-15

    Climate projections for Leipzig suggest elevated minimum and maximum temperatures as well as more frequent days with high temperatures. Hence, climate change is threatening human well-being and health. People spend the majority of their time indoors. Therefore, indoor temperatures (especially during the night) are of special importance with respect to well-being and health. Indoor air temperature depends on outdoor air temperatures, but is for example modified by type of urban structure, housing area, and may be also influenced by differences in the behavior of the inhabitants. Especially in cities, outdoor air temperatures depend on urban structure e.g. housing density, building arrangement, unpaved areas, types of urban structures, urban green, and other factors. Hence, the questions arise how types of urban structures are related to inner-urban temperature differences and how outdoor air temperatures influence indoor temperatures in dependence on urban housing conditions. This work is a part of a pilot study conducted during the summer 2010 which gathered data from remote sensing, mobile measurements, stationary measurements of air temperatures and relative humidity in areas with different housing structures, and of indoor as well as outdoor temperatures in occupied apartments. Household-survey data reported the subjective perception of heat stress. The study resulted in rather complex relationships between type of housing areas, indoor and outdoor temperatures, morning and evening temperatures, indoor and outdoor temperatures as well as subjective heat perception. Green spaces and types of residential areas are related to air temperatures. More green resulted in lower temperatures. Temperatures have a tendency to increase with increasing story number and are significantly higher in the top floor. An indoor heat island effect corresponding to the outdoor effect could be shown for the homes: Distance to city center is a predicting variable for both outdoor and

  8. Heat stress in urban areas: Indoor and outdoor temperatures in different urban structure types and subjectively reported well-being during a heat wave in the city of Leipzig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Franck

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate projections for Leipzig suggest elevated minimum and maximum temperatures as well as more frequent days with high temperatures. Hence, climate change is threatening human well-being and health. People spend the majority of their time indoors. Therefore, indoor temperatures (especially during the night are of special importance with respect to well-being and health. Indoor air temperature depends on outdoor air temperatures, but is for example modified by type of urban structure, housing area, and may be also influenced by differences in the behavior of the inhabitants. Especially in cities, outdoor air temperatures depend on urban structure e.g. housing density, building arrangement, unpaved areas, types of urban structures, urban green, and other factors. Hence, the questions arise how types of urban structures are related to inner-urban temperature differences and how outdoor air temperatures influence indoor temperatures in dependence on urban housing conditions. This work is a part of a pilot study conducted during the summer 2010 which gathered data from remote sensing, mobile measurements, stationary measurements of air temperatures and relative humidity in areas with different housing structures, and of indoor as well as outdoor temperatures in occupied apartments. Household-survey data reported the subjective perception of heat stress. The study resulted in rather complex relationships between type of housing areas, indoor and outdoor temperatures, morning and evening temperatures, indoor and outdoor temperatures as well as subjective heat perception. Green spaces and types of residential areas are related to air temperatures. More green resulted in lower temperatures. Temperatures have a tendency to increase with increasing story number and are significantly higher in the top floor. An indoor heat island effect corresponding to the outdoor effect could be shown for the homes: Distance to city center is a predicting variable for

  9. Graded gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerner, R.

    1983-01-01

    The mathematical background for a graded extension of gauge theories is investigated. After discussing the general properties of graded Lie algebras and what may serve as a model for a graded Lie group, the graded fiber bundle is constructed. Its basis manifold is supposed to be the so-called superspace, i.e. the product of the Minkowskian space-time with the Grassmann algebra spanned by the anticommuting Lorentz spinors; the vertical subspaces tangent to the fibers are isomorphic with the graded extension of the SU(N) Lie algebra. The connection and curvature are defined then on this bundle; the two different gradings are either independent of each other, or may be unified in one common grading, which is equivalent to the choice of the spin-statistics dependence. The Yang-Mills lagrangian is investigated in the simplified case. The conformal symmetry breaking is discussed, as well as some other physical consequences of the model. (orig.)

  10. The impact of new technology on the economics of uranium production from low-grade ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonsen, H.A.; Boydell, D.W.; James, H.E.

    1981-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the following headings: influence of a depressed market on uranium supply from low-grade ores; potential areas for a reduction in uranium ore processing costs; in-situ leaching (solution mining; heap leaching; resin-in-pulp; solvent-in-pulp; belt filtration; continuous ion exchange; solvent extraction); preconcentration (upgrading of coarse rock; upgrading in the mill; wet high-intensity magnetic separation; flotation); summary and conclusions. (U.K.)

  11. Grading of quality assurance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The present Manual provides guidance and illustrative examples for applying a method by which graded quality assurance requirements may be determined and adapted to the items and services of a nuclear power plant in conformance with the requirements of the IAEA Nuclear Safety Standards (NUSS) Code and Safety Guides on quality assurance. The Manual replaces the previous publication IAEA-TECDOC-303 on the same subject. Various methods of grading quality assurance are available in a number of Member States. During the development of the present Manual it was not considered practical to attempt to resolve the differences between those methods and it was preferred to identify and benefit from the good practices available in all the methods. The method presented in this Manual deals with the aspects of management, documentation, control, verification and administration which affect quality. 1 fig., 4 tabs

  12. Graded tensor calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheunert, M.

    1982-10-01

    We develop a graded tensor calculus corresponding to arbitrary Abelian groups of degrees and arbitrary commutation factors. The standard basic constructions and definitions like tensor products, spaces of multilinear mappings, contractions, symmetrization, symmetric algebra, as well as the transpose, adjoint, and trace of a linear mapping, are generalized to the graded case and a multitude of canonical isomorphisms is presented. Moreover, the graded versions of the classical Lie algebras are introduced and some of their basic properties are described. (orig.)

  13. Graded activity: legacy of the sanatorium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creighton, C

    1993-08-01

    Occupational therapists in all areas of practice grade therapeutic activities to help patients progress toward their goals. It is proposed in this paper that the concept of graded activity originated in German tuberculosis sanatoria in the late 1800s, when patients were required to walk on graded (sloped) land for exercise. British physician Marcus Paterson included work, as well as walking, in his graduated exercise program for tuberculosis patients and was honored for this innovation at the founding meeting of the National Society for the Promotion of Occupational Therapy (NSPOT). George Barton, Susan Tracy, and Herbert Hall were among the NSPOT members who contributed to the development of graded activity as a principle in occupational therapy intervention. The military rehabilitation programs established during World War I provided additional impetus, and by the mid-1920s, graded activity was recognized as central to the profession.

  14. Environmental literacy in agriculture and coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujianti, N.; Munandar, A.; Surakusumah, W.

    2018-05-01

    This research aim to investigate the environmental literacy of junior high school students in agricultural and coastal areas in Subang based on knowledge, cognitive skill and attitudes toward to environment. This research used descriptive method. The subjects of the research were 7 grade students of junior high school and involved 62 participants in agriculture area and 64 participants in coastal area. The instrument of environment literacy adapted from Middle School Environment Literacy Survey (MSELS) and adapted to the context of agricultural and coastal area. The results showed that: environmental literacy in agricultural areas is 169.30 with moderate category and environmental literacy in the coastal area is 152.61 in the moderate category.

  15. The Cultural Exchange, A Cross-Cultural and Interdisciplinary Multicultural Education Curriculum for Grades 4-8. Probe Cards [and] Probe Booklets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nethery, Mary; And Others

    These student probe cards for grades 4-8 provide a variety of values-oriented activities to help students explore, understand, and appreciate culturally diverse values. Activities are matched to one of seven objectives and are cross-referenced to the subject areas of social science, mathematics, fine arts, drama, physical education, language arts,…

  16. Classroom: Efficient Grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, David D.; Pease, Leonard F., III.

    2014-01-01

    Grading can be accelerated to make time for more effective instruction. This article presents specific time management strategies selected to decrease administrative time required of faculty and teaching assistants, including a multiple answer multiple choice interface for exams, a three-tier grading system for open ended problem solving, and a…

  17. Grain Grading and Handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendleman, Matt; Legacy, James

    This publication provides an introduction to grain grading and handling for adult students in vocational and technical education programs. Organized in five chapters, the booklet provides a brief overview of the jobs performed at a grain elevator and of the techniques used to grade grain. The first chapter introduces the grain industry and…

  18. Gradings on simple Lie algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Elduque, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Gradings are ubiquitous in the theory of Lie algebras, from the root space decomposition of a complex semisimple Lie algebra relative to a Cartan subalgebra to the beautiful Dempwolff decomposition of E_8 as a direct sum of thirty-one Cartan subalgebras. This monograph is a self-contained exposition of the classification of gradings by arbitrary groups on classical simple Lie algebras over algebraically closed fields of characteristic not equal to 2 as well as on some nonclassical simple Lie algebras in positive characteristic. Other important algebras also enter the stage: matrix algebras, the octonions, and the Albert algebra. Most of the presented results are recent and have not yet appeared in book form. This work can be used as a textbook for graduate students or as a reference for researchers in Lie theory and neighboring areas.

  19. Vision as subjective perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reppas, J.B.; Dale, A.; Sereno, M.; Tootell, R.

    1996-01-01

    The human brain is not very different of the monkey's one: at least, its visual cortex is organized as a similar scheme. Specialized areas in the movement analysis are found and others in the forms perception. In this work, the author tries to answer to the following questions: 1)why so many visual areas? What are exactly their role in vision? Thirteen years of experimentation have not allowed to answer to these questions. The cerebral NMR imaging gives the opportunity of understanding the subjective perception of the visual world. One step which is particularly described in this work is to know how the visual cortex reacts to the optical illusions. (O.M.)

  20. Teacher Grading Decisions: Influences, Rationale, and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunnath, Joshua P.

    2017-01-01

    This mixed-methods study applied a decision-making theoretical framework to an investigation of teacher grading in a large urban school district in California. A sample of 251 high school teachers of core subjects were surveyed, and 15 teachers participated in four focus group interviews in order provide data on the influences, rationale, and…

  1. Efeitos da redução de peso superior a 5% nos perfis hemodinâmico, metabólico e neuroendócrino de obesos grau I Effects of greater-than-5% weight reduction on hemodynamic, metabolic and neuroendocrine profiles of grade I obese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Biancardini Gomes Barbato

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos da redução de peso superior a 5% nos perfis hemodinâmico, metabólico e neuroendócrino de obesos grau I. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional com 47 obesos grau I, média de idade de 33 anos, submetidos a orientação mensal quanto a dieta, exercício físico e comportamento alimentar, durante quatro meses. A pressão arterial, pelo método auscultatório, e a freqüência cardíaca, pelo método palpatório, foram avaliadas mensalmente, enquanto as seguintes variáveis (e respectivos métodos foram medidas no início e final do estudo: colesterol total, triglicerídeos, HDL-colesterol (enzimático, LDL-colesterol (fórmula de Friedwald, glicemia (enzimático hexoquinase, leptina, adiponectina, renina, aldosterona, insulina (radioimunoensaio e índice de resistência à insulina (HOMA. RESULTADOS: Observamos, após ajuste para outras variáveis, reduções significativas de 6 mmHg na pressão arterial diastólica, 7 pg/ml na renina, 13 mg/dl no colesterol total e 12 mg/dl no LDL-colesterol, no grupo com redução de peso superior a 5%. Notamos, também nesse grupo, tendência ao aumento de maior magnitude da adiponectina ao final do estudo, bem como diminuição três vezes maior dos níveis de glicemia, insulina e HOMA, e seis vezes maior da leptina. CONCLUSÃO: Medidas não-farmacológicas capazes de promover redução de peso superior a 5% produzem efeitos hemodinâmicos, metabólicos e neuroendócrinos que melhoram o risco cardiovascular de obesos.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of a greater-than-5% weight reduction in hemodynamic, metabolic, and neuroendocrine profiles of grade I obese subjects. METHODS: Observational study with 47 grade I obese subjects, with mean age of 33 years who received monthly orientation regarding diet, physical exercises, and eating behavior for four months. Blood pressure using the auscultatory method and pulse rate were assessed monthly, whereas the following variables (and

  2. Preventing halo bias in grading the work of university students

    OpenAIRE

    John M. Malouff; Sarah J. Stein; Lodewicka N. Bothma; Kimberley Coulter; Ashley J. Emmerton

    2014-01-01

    Experts have advocated anonymous marking as a means of minimizing bias in subjective student assessment. In the present study, 159 faculty members or teaching assistants across disciplines were randomly assigned (1) to grade a poor oral presentation of a university student, (2) to grade a good oral presentation of the same student, or (3) not to grade any oral presentation of the student. All graders then assessed the same written work by the student. A linear-contrasts analysis showed that, ...

  3. GRADE INFLATION: An Issue for Higher Education?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald L. CARUTH,

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Grade inflation impacts university credibility, student courses of study, choices of institution, and other areas. There has been an upward shift in grades without a corresponding upward shift in knowledge gained. Some of the most frequently mentioned causes of grade inflation are: Ø student evaluations of professors, Ø student teacher dynamics, Ø merit-based financial aid, and Ø student expectations. Ø Among the reasons for higher student grades on the part of professors are: Ø fear of student evaluations, Ø avoidance of bad relations with students, Ø below average teaching skills,Ø lack of experience, Ø a lack of clearly stated objectives, and Ø job security. While grades are not a perfect answer to assessing student performance in a course they are still the best answer we have for evaluating students. In order to evaluate students more accurately, universities must identify the problems in grading and grading practices. Once this is accomplished new practices can be designed and policies implemented.

  4. Power calculation of grading device in desintegrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, V. S.; Semikopenko, I. A.; Vavilov, D. V.

    2018-03-01

    This article describes the analytical method of measuring the secondary power consumption, necessitated by the installation of a grading device in the peripheral part of the grinding chamber in the desintegrator. There is a calculation model for defining the power input of the disintegrator increased by the extra power demand, required to rotate the grading device and to grind the material in the area between the external row of hammers and the grading device. The work has determined the inertia moments of a cylindrical section of the grading device with armour plates. The processing capacity of the grading device is adjusted to the conveying capacity of the auger feeder. The grading device enables one to increase the concentration of particles in the peripheral part of the grinding chamber and the amount of interaction between particles and armour plates as well as the number of colliding particles. The perforated sections provide the output of the ground material with the proper size granules, which together with the effects of armour plates, improves the efficiency of grinding. The power demand to rotate the grading device does not exceed the admissible value.

  5. CRA Grade Inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth H. Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Community Reinvestment Act of 1977 (CRA) ratings and performance evaluations are the only bank and thrift exam findings disclosed by financial institution regulators. Inflation of CRA ratings has been alleged by community activists for two decades, but there has been no quantification or empirical investigation of grade inflation. Using a unique grade inflation methodology on actual ratings and evaluation data for 1,407 small banks and thrifts under the revised CRA regulations, this paper con...

  6. Functionally graded materials

    CERN Document Server

    Mahamood, Rasheedat Modupe

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the concept of functionally graded materials as well as their use and different fabrication processes. The authors describe the use of additive manufacturing technology for the production of very complex parts directly from the three dimension computer aided design of the part by adding material layer after layer. A case study is also presented in the book on the experimental analysis of functionally graded material using laser metal deposition process.

  7. A CURRICULUM FOR ENGLISH, TEACHER PACKET, GRADE 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebraska Univ., Lincoln. Curriculum Development Center.

    THE NEBRASKA ENGLISH CURRICULUM FOR GRADE NINE FOCUSES ON THE CONCEPT OF GENRE AND ACCOMPANYING LITERARY ATTITUDES AND DEVICES. SATIRE, COMEDY, AND THE EPIC ARE THE SUBJECTS OF THE LITERARY PROGRAM. LANGUAGE AND COMPOSITION STUDIES, BUILDING UPON EIGHTH-GRADE LANGUAGE HISTORY AND SYNTAX UNITS, CENTER ON GEOGRAPHIC AND SOCIAL DIALECTS, PHONOLOGY,…

  8. Grade Inflation: Too Much Talk, Too Little Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faurer, Judson C.; Lopez, Larry

    2009-01-01

    Grade inflation in academic institutions. Is it a subject so complex and pervasive in education that it defies resolution? The issue of grade inflation is of concern to college students, faculty, administrators and future employers. There is much gnashing of teeth, some veiled threats, wringing of hands, and both written and oral discussion of the…

  9. Instructional quality of lower grades natural science classes: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... classes: the case of primary schools linked to Kemise College of Teacher Education. ... the quality of natural science education classroom instruction in lower grade ... on pedagogical and subject matter issue, closer support and supervision.

  10. Functionally graded biomimetic energy absorption concept development for transportation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Mechanics of a functionally graded cylinder subject to static or dynamic axial loading is considered, including a potential application as energy absorber. The mass density and stiffness are power functions of the radial coordinate as may be the case...

  11. Critical Thinking and Problem Solving Skills in Mathematics of Grade-7 Public Secondary Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil C. Alcantara

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to assess the academic performance, critical thinking skills, and problem solving skills in mathematics of Grade-7 students in the five central public secondary schools of Area 2, Division of Batangas, Philippines. This study utilized descriptive method of research. Three hundred forty one (341 students of the public secondary schools out of the total of 2,324 Grade-7 students were selected through systematic random sampling as the subjects of the study. It was found out that the level of performance in Mathematics of the Grade-7 students is proficient. The level of critical thinking skills of students from the different schools is above average as well as their level of problem solving skills. The mathematics performance of the students is positively correlated to their level of critical thinking skills and problem solving skills. Students considered the following learning competencies in the different content areas of Grade-7 Mathematics as difficult to master: solving problems involving sets, describing the development of measurement from the primitive to the present international system of units, finding a solution of an equation or inequality involving one variable, using compass and straightedge to bisect line segments and angles, and analyzing, interpreting accurately and drawing conclusions from graphic and tabular presentations of statistical data.

  12. Contractions from grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Chethan; Raju, Avinash

    2018-04-01

    We note that large classes of contractions of algebras that arise in physics can be understood purely algebraically via identifying appropriate Zm-gradings (and their generalizations) on the parent algebra. This includes various types of flat space/Carroll limits of finite and infinite dimensional (A)dS algebras, as well as Galilean and Galilean conformal algebras. Our observations can be regarded as providing a natural context for the Grassmann approach of Krishnan et al. [J. High Energy Phys. 2014(3), 36]. We also introduce a related notion, which we call partial grading, that arises naturally in this context.

  13. Beneficiation studies on low-grade complex polymetallic lead-zinc ore of duddar (lasbela) Balochistan, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatti, M.R.; Kazim, K.R.; Mehmood, R.; Akram, A.

    2016-01-01

    A bench-scale beneficiation study was performed on low-grade complex lead-zinc ore of Duddar area, District Lasbela, Balochistan Province, Pakistan. The polymetallic ore under investigation contains galena and sphalerite as valuable minerals of lead and zinc. The low-grade ore was upgraded by selective sequential froth flotation technology to recover both minerals. An effort was made to investigate the effect of important variables on grade and recovery of concentrates and to design the process flow sheet. Different parameters of flotation process such as particle size of the feed, pH and % solids of the pulp, speed of impeller, type of reagents (collectors, frothers, regulators and modifiers) and their quantities, conditioning time and flotation time were optimized to attain maximum grade and recovery of respective concentrates. The rougher concentrates obtained were subjected to one regrinding and two cleaning operations to achieve higher-grade concentrates of both metals. Bench-scale flotation tests show that it is possible to obtain a lead concentrate assaying 65.24% Pb with recovery rate of 81.32% and a zinc concentrate containing 55.63% Zn content with recovery rate of 80.28%. Both the concentrates meet the specifications required for metallurgical and chemical grades. (author)

  14. Fatigue Characterization of Functionally Graded Metallic Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, F. S.

    2008-01-01

    Functionally graded components exhibit spatial variations of mechanical properties in contrast with, and as an alternative to, purely homogeneous components. A large class of graded materials, however, are in fact mostly homogeneous materials with property variations (chemical or mechanical) restricted to a specific area or layer produced by applying for example a coating or by introducing sub-surface residual stresses. However, it is also possible to obtain graded materials with a smooth transition of mechanical properties along the entire component, for example in a 40 mm component. This is possible, for example, by using centrifugal casting technique or incremental melting and solidification technique. In this paper we will study fully metallic functionally graded components with a smooth gradient, focusing on fatigue crack propagation. Fatigue propagation will be assessed in the direction parallel to the gradation (in different homogeneous layers of the functionally graded component) to assess what would be fatigue crack propagation on the direction perpendicular to the gradation. Fatigue crack growth rate (standard mode I fatigue crack growth) will be correlated to the mode I stress intensity factor range. Other mechanical properties of different layers of the component (Young's modulus) will also be considered in this analysis. The effect of residual stresses along the component gradation on crack propagation will also be taken into account. A qualitative analysis of the effects of some important features, present in functionally graded materials, will be made based on the obtained results

  15. Computer-Aided Grading of Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) using HRCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jianhua; Avila, Nilo; Dwyer, Andrew; Taveira-DaSilva, Angelo M.; Hathaway, Olanda M.; Moss, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a multisystem disorder associated with proliferation of smooth muscle-like cells, which leads to destruction of lung parenchyma. Subjective grading of LAM on HRCT is imprecise and can be arduous especially in cases with severe involvement. We propose a computer-aided evaluation system that grades LAM involvement based on analysis of lung texture patterns. A committee of support vector machines is employed for classification. The system was tested on 36 patients. The computer grade demonstrates good correlation with subjective radiologist grade (R=0.91, p<0.0001) and pulmonary functional tests (R=0.85, p<0.0001). The grade also provides precise progression assessment of disease over time. PMID:21625320

  16. Lens subluxation grading system: predictive value for ectopia lentis surgical outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Mauro Waiswol; Niro Kasahara

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To present a classification system to grade ectopia lentis and to assess its usefulness as a predictor for surgical outcomes. Methods: Fifty-one eyes of 28 patients with either simple (19 patients) or Marfan syndrome-associated ectopia lentis (nine patients) with variable degrees of subluxation were operated on. Lens subluxation intensity was graded according to the lens subluxation grading system (LSGS) from grade 1 (lens on the whole pupillary area) up to grade 4 (lens absent fro...

  17. Endangered Animals. Second Grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Marcia

    This second grade teaching unit centers on endangered animal species around the world. Questions addressed are: What is an endangered species? Why do animals become extinct? How do I feel about the problem? and What can I do? Students study the definition of endangered species and investigate whether it is a natural process. They explore topics…

  18. Calculating Student Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allswang, John M.

    1986-01-01

    This article provides two short microcomputer gradebook programs. The programs, written in BASIC for the IBM-PC and Apple II, provide statistical information about class performance and calculate grades either on a normal distribution or based on teacher-defined break points. (JDH)

  19. Grades as Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Darren

    2007-01-01

    We determine how much observed student performance in microeconomics principles can be attributed, inferentially, to three kinds of student academic "productivity," the instructor, demographics, and unmeasurables. The empirical approach utilizes an ordered probit model that relates student performance in micro to grades in prior…

  20. First Grade Baseline Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Innovation in Assessment (NJ1), 2013

    2013-01-01

    The First Grade Baseline Evaluation is an optional tool that can be used at the beginning of the school year to help teachers get to know the reading and language skills of each student. The evaluation is composed of seven screenings. Teachers may use the entire evaluation or choose to use those individual screenings that they find most beneficial…

  1. The Fifth Grade Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Michael; And Others

    An interdisciplinary design project report investigates the relationship of the fifth grade educational facility to the student and teacher needs in light of human and environmental factors. The classroom, activity and teaching spaces are analyzed with regard to the educational curriculum. Specifications and design criteria concerning equipment…

  2. Cutting Class Harms Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lewis A., III

    2012-01-01

    An accessible business school population of undergraduate students was investigated in three independent, but related studies to determine effects on grades due to cutting class and failing to take advantage of optional reviews and study quizzes. It was hypothesized that cutting classes harms exam scores, attending preexam reviews helps exam…

  3. The value of blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD MR imaging in differentiation of renal solid mass and grading of renal cell carcinoma (RCC: analysis based on the largest cross-sectional area versus the entire whole tumour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Yu Wu

    Full Text Available To study the value of assessing renal masses using different methods in parameter approaches and to determine whether BOLD MRI is helpful in differentiating RCC from benign renal masses, differentiating clear-cell RCC from renal masses other than clear-cell RCC and determining the tumour grade.Ninety-five patients with 139 renal masses (93 malignant and 46 benign who underwent abdominal BOLD MRI were enrolled. R2* values were derived from the largest cross-section (R2*largest and from the whole tumour (R2*whole. Intra-observer and inter-observer agreements were analysed based on two measurements by the same observer and the first measurement from each observer, respectively, and these agreements are reported with intra-class correlation coefficients and 95% confidence intervals. The diagnostic value of the R2* value in the evaluation was assessed with receiver-operating characteristic analysis.The intra-observer agreement was very good for R2*largest and R2*whole (all > 0.8. The inter-observer agreement of R2*whole (0.75, 95% confidence interval: 0.69~0.79 was good and was significantly improved compared with the R2*largest (0.61, 95% confidence interval: 0.52~0.68, as there was no overlap in the 95% confidence interval of the intra-class correlation coefficients. The diagnostic value in differentiating renal cell carcinoma from benign lesions with R2*whole (AUC=0.79/0.78[observer1/observer2] and R2*largest (AUC=0.75[observer1] was good and significantly higher (p=0.01 for R2*largest[observer2] vs R2*whole[observer2], p 0.7 and were not significantly different (p=0.89/0.93 for R2*largest vs R2*whole[observer1/observer2], 0.96 for R2*whole[observer1] vs R2*largest[observer2] and 0.96 for R2*whole [observer2] vs R2*largest[observer1].BOLD MRI could provide a feasible parameter for differentiating renal cell carcinoma from benign renal masses and for predicting clear-cell renal cell carcinoma grading. Compared with the largest cross

  4. Comparative studies of industrial grade carbon black powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chawla, Komal, E-mail: komalchawla.rs@gmail.com; Chauhan, Alok P. S., E-mail: chauhan.alok@gmail.com, E-mail: alok.chauhan@alumni.stonybrook.edu [Department of Physics and Material Science and Engineering, Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, A-10, Sector-62, Noida-201307, UP, India. (India)

    2016-05-06

    Comparative studies of two dissimilar industrial grade Carbon Black (CB) powders (N375 and N405) were conducted. The structure, surface area and particle size are the three important characteristics of CB powder that determine their processability and application as filler in preparing rubber compounds. The powders were characterized for their structure using dibutyl phthalate absorption (DBPA), particle size via laser particle size analyzer and surface area by nitrogen adsorption method. The structural characterization showed that N405 had lower DBPA in comparison to N375, confirming low structure of N405 grade CB powder. It was observed from the particle size analysis that N375 was coarser than N405 grade CB. The total surface area values were determined by the BET method based on the cross sectional area of the nitrogen molecule. N375, a coarse grade CB powder with high structure, depicted less surface area as compared to N405.

  5. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THREE READING APPROACHES AND AN ORAL LANGUAGE STIMULATION PROGRAM WITH DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN IN THE PRIMARY GRADES--AN INTERIM REPORT AFTER ONE YEAR OF THE COOPERATIVE READING PROJECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DUNN, LLOYD M.; AND OTHERS

    THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THREE APPROACHES TO TEACHING BEGINNING READING AND THE INFLUENCE OF AN ORAL LANGUAGE STIMULATION PROGRAM ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN IS REPORTED IN THE FIRST-YEAR REPORT OF A 2-YEAR INTERVENTION STUDY. SUBJECTS WERE 608 FIRST-GRADE PUPILS FROM 12 ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS IN AN INNER-CITY AREA. THE THREE EXPERIMENTAL…

  6. 78 FR 66655 - Consumer Information; Uniform Tire Quality Grading Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... information indicating the relative performance of passenger car tires in the areas of treadwear, traction... [Docket No. NHTSA-2013-0120] RIN 2127-AL49 Consumer Information; Uniform Tire Quality Grading Standards...). ACTION: Interim final rule; request for comments. SUMMARY: The Uniform Tire Quality Grading Standards...

  7. 30 CFR 816.105 - Backfilling and grading: Thick overburden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Backfilling and grading: Thick overburden. 816...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.105 Backfilling and grading: Thick overburden. (a) Definition. Thick... surrounding terrain. (b) Performance standards. Where thick overburden occurs within the permit area, the...

  8. 7 CFR 958.9 - Grade and size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... thereon. The term size also includes any of the sizes recognized by the onion trade in the production area. ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED.... Grade means any of the officially established grades of onions, and size means any of the officially...

  9. Home Economics Education. Course of Study for Occupationally Oriented Classes. Grades 8, 9, 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairfax County Schools, VA.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grades 8-10. SUBJECT MATTER: Vocational home economics. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into three sections, one for each grade. Sections are further subdivided into units, each of which is laid out in three columns. Column headings are goals and concepts, activities and resources and notes. The guide is…

  10. Validity and Reliability of Preschool, First and Second Grade Versions of Berkeley Parenting Self-Efficacy Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrbanoo Tajeri

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available "nObjective: The purpose of this study is to examine the factor structure, internal consistency, and construct validity of preschool, first and second grade versions of Berkeley Parenting self-efficacy scale. "nMethod:  The subjects were 317 mothers: (102 mothers of preschool children, 111 mothers of first grade children and 104 mothers of second grade children who were randomly selected from schools in Tehran. They completed Berkeley parenting self-efficacy and Rotter `s locus of control scales. Factor analysis using the principle component method was used to identify the factor structure of parenting self-efficacy scale. Cronbach`s alpha coefficient was used to identify the reliability of parenting self efficacy scale. "nResults: Results of this study indicated that the cronbach`s alpha coefficient was 0.84, 0.87, 0.64 for preschool, first grade and second grade versions respectively. Based on the scree test ,,factor analysis produced two factors of maternal strategy and child outcome, and it also produced the highest level of total variance explained by these 2 factors. The Parenting self-efficacy scale was negatively associated with measure of locus of control(r=-0.54 for the preschool version, -0.64 for the first grade version and -0.54 for the second grade version. "nConclusion: Due to relatively high reliability and validity of preschool, first and second grade versions of Berkeley Parenting Self-Efficacy scale, this scale could be used as a reliable and valid scale in other research areas

  11. Integrated Curriculum and Subject-based Curriculum: Achievement and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casady, Victoria

    The research conducted for this mixed-method study, qualitative and quantitative, analyzed the results of an academic year-long study to determine whether the use of an integrated fourth grade curriculum would benefit student achievement in the areas of English language arts, social studies, and science more than a subject-based traditional curriculum. The research was conducted based on the international, national, and state test scores, which show a slowing or lack of growth. Through pre- and post-assessments, student questionnaires, and administrative interviews, the researcher analyzed the phenomenological experiences of the students to determine if the integrated curriculum was a beneficial restructuring of the curriculum. The research questions for this study focused on the achievement and attitudes of the students in the study and whether the curriculum they were taught impacted their achievement and attitudes over the course of one school year. The curricula for the study were organized to cover the current standards, where the integrated curriculum focused on connections between subject areas to help students make connections to what they are learning and the world beyond the classroom. The findings of this study indicated that utilizing the integrated curriculum could increase achievement as well as students' attitudes toward specific content areas. The ANOVA analysis for English language arts was not determined to be significant; although, greater growth in the students from the integrated curriculum setting was recorded. The ANOVA for social studies (0.05) and the paired t-tests (0.001) for science both determined significant positive differences. The qualitative analysis led to the discovery that the experiences of the students from the integrated curriculum setting were more positive. The evaluation of the data from this study led the researcher to determine that the integrated curriculum was a worthwhile endeavor to increase achievement and attitudes

  12. Inflated Grades, Enrollments & Budgets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Stone

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Reports of the past 13 years that call attention to deficient academic standards in American higher education are enumerated. Particular attention is given the Wingspread Group's recent An American Imperative: Higher Expectations for Higher Education. Low academic standards, grade inflation, and budgetary incentives for increased enrollment are analyzed and a call is made for research at the state level. Reported trends in achievement and GPAs are extrapolated to Tennessee and combined with local data to support the inference that 15% of the state's present day college graduates would not have earned a diploma by mid 1960s standards. A conspicuous lack of interest by public oversight bodies is noted despite a growing public awareness of low academic expectations and lenient grading and an implicit budgetary impact of over $100 million. Various academic policies and the dynamics of bureaucratic control are discussed in relationship to the maintenance of academic standards. The disincentives for challenging course requirements and responsible grading are examined, and the growing movement to address academic quality issues through better training and supervision of faculty are critiqued. Recommendations that would encourage renewed academic integrity and make learning outcomes visible to students, parents, employers, and the taxpaying public are offered and briefly discussed.

  13. A Multidisciplinary Process Curriculum in Environmental Education, Grade 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds School District 15, Lynnwood, WA.

    This second grade curriculum guide is based on a multidisciplinary approach to environmental education. The guide includes activities, guidelines for field trip planning, and a resource section. The guide deals with the subjects of plants, soil, and litter. Each subject section includes activities based on the physical characteristics, man's use,…

  14. TCGA_LowerGradeGliomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    TCGA researchers analyzed nearly 300 cases of diffuse low- and intermediate-grade gliomas, which together comprise lower-grade gliomas. LGGs occur mainly in adults and include astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas.

  15. MRI features can predict EGFR expression in lower grade gliomas. A voxel-based radiomic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yiming; Liu, Xing; Qian, Zenghui; Fan, Xing; Li, Shaowu; Jiang, Tao [Capital Medical University, Beijing Neurosurgical Institute, Beijing (China); Xu, Kaibin [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Automation, Beijing (China); Wang, Kai [Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Beijing (China); Wang, Yinyan [Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Beijing (China); Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing (China)

    2018-01-15

    To identify the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features associated with epidermal growth factor (EGFR) expression level in lower grade gliomas using radiomic analysis. 270 lower grade glioma patients with known EGFR expression status were randomly assigned into training (n=200) and validation (n=70) sets, and were subjected to feature extraction. Using a logistic regression model, a signature of MRI features was identified to be predictive of the EGFR expression level in lower grade gliomas in the training set, and the accuracy of prediction was assessed in the validation set. A signature of 41 MRI features achieved accuracies of 82.5% (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.90) in the training set and 90.0% (AUC = 0.95) in the validation set. This radiomic signature consisted of 25 first-order statistics or related wavelet features (including range, standard deviation, uniformity, variance), one shape and size-based feature (spherical disproportion), and 15 textural features or related wavelet features (including sum variance, sum entropy, run percentage). A radiomic signature allowing for the prediction of the EGFR expression level in patients with lower grade glioma was identified, suggesting that using tumour-derived radiological features for predicting genomic information is feasible. (orig.)

  16. Praxis, subjectivity and sense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Gómez-Muller

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A primordial aspect of the Sartrian critique of alienation concerns understanding the analytic ideology as the domination of materiality over the symbolic, in other words as the reification of the human, and therefore as anticulture. In the context of contemporary nihilism, the decoding of the mechanisms which consign praxis to the practico-inert requires a critique of the relations between the social sciences and philosophy, which in its turn implies a new theory of the relation between what Sartre calls the "notion" (the area of subjectivity and the "concept" (objectivity, From this perspective, the deconstruction of the established frontiers between the social sciences and philosophy, and between the conceptual and the narrative, is corelative to a redefinition of the relation between theory and practice.

  17. Setting standards to determine core clerkship grades in pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudas, Robert A; Barone, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges for clerkship directors is assigning a final grade and determining the precise point at which a student either passes or fails a clinical clerkship. The process of incorporating both subjective and objective assessment data to provide a final summative grade can be challenging. We describe our experience conducting a standard-setting exercise to set defensible cut points in a 4-tiered grading system in our pediatric clerkship. Using the Hofstee standard-setting approach, 8 faculty members participated in an exercise to establish grade cut points. These faculty members were subsequently surveyed to assess their attitudes toward the standard-setting process as well as their reactions to these newly proposed standards. We applied the new cut points to a historic cohort of 116 Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine students from the academic year 2012-2013 to assess the potential impact on grade distributions. The resultant grading schema would lead to a significant increase in the number of students receiving a failing grade and a decrease in the number of students receiving a grade of honors in a historical cohort. Faculty reported that the Hofstee method was easy to understand and fair. All faculty members thought that grade inflation presently exists within the pediatric clerkship. This study demonstrates that practical standards using the Hofstee method can be set for medical students in a pediatric clerkship in which multiple performance measures are used. Copyright © 2014 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Let's End the Grading Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Clifford H.; Edwards, Laurie

    1999-01-01

    Argues that grades have negative effects on learning and self-concept. States that while grading has a long tradition of sorting children for college entrance, there is limited evidence that grades serve a valid purpose. Argues that this practice should be abolished and an evaluation system established that provides a more valid estimate of…

  19. Four Steps in Grading Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guskey, Thomas R.; Jung, Lee Ann

    2012-01-01

    The field of education is moving rapidly toward a standards-based approach to grading. School leaders have become increasingly aware of the tremendous variation that exists in grading practices, even among teachers of the same courses in the same department in the same school. Consequently, students' grades often have little relation to their…

  20. Sensibility and Subjectivity: Levinas’ Traumatic Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmika Pandya

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Levinas’ notions of sensibility and subjectivity are evident in the revision of phenomenological method by current phenomenologists such as Jean-Luc Marion and Michel Henry. The criticisms of key tenants of classical phenomenology, intentionality and reduction, are of a particular note. However, there are problems with Levinas’ characterization of subjectivity as essentially sensible. In “Totality and Infinity” and “Otherwise than Being”, Levinas criticizes and recasts a traditional notion of subjectivity, particularly the notion of the subject as the first and foremost rational subject. The subject in Levinas’ works is characterized more by its sensibility and affectedness than by its capacity to reason or affect its world. Levinas ties rationality to economy and suggests an alternative notion of reason that leads to his analysis of the ethical relation as the face-to-face encounter. The ‘origin’ of the social relation is located not in our capacity to know but rather in a sensibility that is diametrically opposed to the reason understood as economy. I argue that the opposition in Levinas’ thought between reason and sensibility is problematic and essentially leads to a self-conflicted subject. In fact, it would seem that violence characterizes the subject’s self-relation and, thus, is also inscribed at the base of the social relation. Rather than overcoming a problematic tendency to dualistic thought in philosophy Levinas merely reverses traditional hierarchies of reason/emotion, subject/object and self/other. 

  1. Effects of Transfer to Real-World Subject Area Materials from Training in Graphic Organizers and Summarizing on Developmental College Readers' Comprehension of the Compare/Contrast Text Structure in Science Expository Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balajthy, Ernest; Weisberg, Renee

    To determine whether less able readers could use the strategies they had been taught, a study investigated the transfer effects of training in the use of graphic organizers and summary writing on readers' recognition of the compare/contrast text structure. Subjects, 70 freshmen at a western New York state college of liberal arts and sciences in a…

  2. Review of therapeutic agents for burns pruritus and protocols for management in adult and paediatric patients using the GRADE classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goutos Ioannis

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available To review the current evidence on therapeutic agents for burns pruritus and use the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE classification to propose therapeutic protocols for adult and paediatric patients. All published interventions for burns pruritus were analysed by a multidisciplinary panel of burns specialists following the GRADE classification to rate individual agents. Following the collation of results and panel discussion, consensus protocols are presented. Twenty-three studies appraising therapeutic agents in the burns literature were identified. The majority of these studies (16 out of 23 are of an observational nature, making an evidence-based approach to defining optimal therapy not feasible. Our multidisciplinary approach employing the GRADE classification recommends the use of antihistamines (cetirizine and cimetidine and gabapentin as the first-line pharmacological agents for both adult and paediatric patients. Ondansetron and loratadine are the second-line medications in our protocols. We additionally recommend a variety of non-pharmacological adjuncts for the perusal of clinicians in order to maximise symptomatic relief in patients troubled with postburn itch. Most studies in the subject area lack sufficient statistical power to dictate a ′gold standard′ treatment agent for burns itch. We encourage clinicians to employ the GRADE system in order to delineate the most appropriate therapeutic approach for burns pruritus until further research elucidates the most efficacious interventions. This widely adopted classification empowers burns clinicians to tailor therapeutic regimens according to current evidence, patient values, risks and resource considerations in different medical environments.

  3. DIFFERENT LEVEL OF LEARNED-HELPLESSNESS AMONG HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS WITH LOWER GRADE AND HIGHER GRADE IN SALATIGA INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Esti Ari Prasetya

    2013-06-01

    consisted of 190 of higher grade students and 127 of lower grade students. Mann-Whitney U was used to analyse the data, considering that the data were not normally distributed. This test result showed that there was a significant difference between high school students with higher grade and lower grade (the Mann-Whitney U coefficient of 10,644, with z value of -1795, p <0.05 (p = 0036, 1-tailed, with students of lower grade tend to be more prone to experience learned-helplessness. Additional results from their subjective perception on their achievement were also discussed and so were the implications of the study.

  4. New examples of continuum graded Lie algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savel'ev, M.V.

    1989-01-01

    Several new examples of continuum graded Lie algebras which provide an additional elucidation of these algebras are given. Here, in particular, the Kac-Moody algebras, the algebra S 0 Diff T 2 of infinitesimal area-preserving diffeomorphisms of the torus T 2 , the Fairlie, Fletcher and Zachos sine-algebras, etc., are described as special cases of the cross product Lie algebras. 8 refs

  5. Teaching the Classics in the Middle Grades: Connecting with the Roots of Western Civilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Robin H.

    1998-01-01

    At a New Jersey school, students spend one year studying each of three time periods: ancient Egypt in fourth grade; Greece in fifth grade; and Rome and the Middle Ages in sixth grade. The history curriculum becomes the focal point for other areas (art, music, drama, language arts, science, geography, and math). Teachers use primary sources and…

  6. Automated tone grading of granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catalina Hernández, J.C.; Fernández Ramón, G.

    2017-01-01

    The production of a natural stone processing plant is subject to the intrinsic variability of the stone blocks that constitute its raw material, which may cause problems of lack of uniformity in the visual appearance of the produced material that often triggers complaints from customers. The best way to tackle this problem is to classify the product according to its visual features, which is traditionally done by hand: an operator observes each and every piece that comes out of the production line and assigns it to the closest match among a number of predefined classes, taking into account visual features of the material such as colour, texture, grain, veins, etc. However, this manual procedure presents significant consistency problems, due to the inherent subjectivity of the classification performed by each operator, and the errors caused by their progressive fatigue. Attempts to employ automated sorting systems like the ones used in the ceramic tile industry have not been successful, as natural stone presents much higher variability than ceramic tiles. Therefore, it has been necessary to develop classification systems specifically designed for the treatment of the visual parameters that distinguish the different types of natural stone. This paper describes the details of a computer vision system developed by AITEMIN for the automatic classification of granite pieces according to their tone, which provides an integral solution to tone grading problems in the granite processing and marketing industry. The system has been designed to be easily trained by the end user, through the learning of the samples established as tone patterns by the user. [es

  7. Typing and grading of cytological category C5 breast lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafar, N.; Jamal, S.; Mamoon, N.; Luqman, M.; Anwar, M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine the tumour type, cytological grade and nuclear grade on fine-needle aspiration smears in cytological category C5 breast lesions and compare them with histopathological findings. Subjects and Methods: Out of all patients referred to AFIP, Rawalpindi for fine-needle aspiration of breast masses, those adjudged C5 (malignant) were chosen for this study. History, clinical details and mammographic findings were noted. Aspirated smears were examined and an attempt was made to ascertain tumour type, cytological grade and nuclear grade. On excision of these lesions, the cytological findings were compared with those on paraffin-embedded histological sections. Results: A total of 71 patients were included in this study. Of these, 64 (90.14%) were cytologically diagnosed as ductal carcinoma, 4 (5.63%) lobular carcinoma, 2 (2.82%) mucinous carcinoma and 1 (1.41%) as medullary carcinoma. Seventy (98.60%) tumours were correctly typed on aspiration smears. Sixty-eight (95.77%) cases were cytologically graded with accuracy. Nuclear grading was even better on cytology and, excluding one malignant lymphoma, all 70 (100%) smears were assessed correctly. Conclusion: Overall efficiency of the tumour typing, cytological grading and nuclear grading on aspirated material turned out to be quite accurate. In expert hands, cytological examination can be of great help in pre-operative planning and in cases where tumour morphology in paraffin-embedded material has been distorted by neo-adjuvant therapy prior to excision. (author)

  8. Buckling Response of Thick Functionally Graded Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOUAZZA MOKHTAR

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the buckling of a functionally graded plate is studied by using first order shear deformation theory (FSDT. The material properties of the plate are assumed to be graded continuously in the direction of thickness. The variation of the material properties follows a simple power-law distribution in terms of the volume fractions of constituents. The von Karman strains are used to construct the equilibrium equations of the plates subjected to two types of thermal loading, linear temperature rise and gradient through the thickness are considered. The governing equations are reduced to linear differential equation with boundary conditions yielding a simple solution procedure. In addition, the effects of temperature field, volume fraction distributions, and system geometric parameters are investigated. The results are compared with the results of the no shear deformation theory (classic plate theory, CPT.

  9. Functionally Graded Materials Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisara, Katsuto; Konno, Tomomi; Niino, Masayuki

    2008-02-01

    Functionally Graded Materials Database (hereinafter referred to as FGMs Database) was open to the society via Internet in October 2002, and since then it has been managed by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). As of October 2006, the database includes 1,703 research information entries with 2,429 researchers data, 509 institution data and so on. Reading materials such as "Applicability of FGMs Technology to Space Plane" and "FGMs Application to Space Solar Power System (SSPS)" were prepared in FY 2004 and 2005, respectively. The English version of "FGMs Application to Space Solar Power System (SSPS)" is now under preparation. This present paper explains the FGMs Database, describing the research information data, the sitemap and how to use it. From the access analysis, user access results and users' interests are discussed.

  10. Investigating the factors that contribute to the academic underachievement of grade 9 learners / Uys R.M.

    OpenAIRE

    Uys, Riza Mari

    2011-01-01

    Academic underachievement potentially redirects the future of adolescents. The specific sample for this research was Grade nine learners. Grade nine is when subject choices are made and the last year of compulsory education. Academic underachievement during Grade nine becomes a barrier to career enhancing subject choices. Subject choice is a first step to greater specialisation of skills and a future career path. This study focused on the investigation of factors that could possibly contribut...

  11. Analysis of DTI-Derived Tensor Metrics in Differential Diagnosis between Low-grade and High-grade Gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Liang; Xiao, Chao-Yong; Xu, Quan; Sun, Jun; Chen, Huiyou; Chen, Yu-Chen; Yin, Xindao

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: It is critical and difficult to accurately discriminate between high- and low-grade gliomas preoperatively. This study aimed to ascertain the role of several scalar measures in distinguishing high-grade from low-grade gliomas, especially the axial diffusivity (AD), radial diffusivity (RD), planar tensor (Cp), spherical tensor (Cs), and linear tensor (Cl) derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Materials and Methods: Fifty-three patients with pathologically confirmed brain gliomas (21 low-grade and 32 high-grade) were included. Contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images and DTI were performed in all patients. The AD, RD, Cp, Cs, and Cl values in the tumor zone, peritumoral edema zone, white matter (WM) adjacent to edema and contralateral normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) were calculated. The DTI parameters and tumor grades were statistically analyzed, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was also performed. Results: The DTI metrics in the affected hemisphere showed significant differences from those in the NAWM, except for the AD values in the tumor zone and the RD values in WM adjacent to edema in the low-grade groups, as well as the Cp values in WM adjacent to edema in the high-grade groups. AD in the tumor zone as well as Cs and Cl in WM adjacent to edema revealed significant differences between the low- and high-grade gliomas. The areas under the curve (Az) of all three metrics were greater than 0.5 in distinguishing low-grade from high-grade gliomas by ROC curve analysis, and the best DTI metric was Cs in WM adjacent to edema (Az: 0.692). Conclusion: AD in the tumor zone as well as Cs and Cl in WM adjacent to edema will provide additional information to better classify gliomas and can be used as non-invasive reliable biomarkers in glioma grading.

  12. Examining school effectiveness at the fourth grade: A hierarchical analysis of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemler, Steven Edward

    This study explored school effectiveness in mathematics and science at the fourth grade using data from IEA's Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). Fourteen of the 26 countries participating in TIMSS at the fourth grade possessed sufficient between-school variability in mathematics achievement to justify the creation of explanatory models of school effectiveness while 13 countries possessed sufficient between-school variability in science achievement. Exploratory models were developed using variables drawn from student, teacher, and school questionnaires. The variables were chosen to represent the domains of student involvement, instructional methods, classroom organization, school climate, and school structure. Six explanatory models for each subject were analyzed using two-level hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) and were compared to models using only school mean SES as an explanatory variable. The amount of variability in student achievement in mathematics attributable to differences between schools ranged from 16% in Cyprus to 56% in Latvia, while the amount of between-school variance in science achievement ranged from 12% in Korea to 59% in Latvia. In general, about one-quarter of the variability in mathematics and science achievement was found to lie between schools. The research findings revealed that after adjusting for differences in student backgrounds across schools, the most effective schools in mathematics and science had students who reported seeing a positive relationship between hard work, belief in their own abilities, and achievement. In addition, more effective schools had students who reported less frequent use of computers and calculators in the classroom. These relationships were found to be stable across explanatory models, cultural contexts, and subject areas. This study has contributed a unique element to the literature by examining school effectiveness at the fourth grade across two subject areas and across 14

  13. The Implications of Grade Inflation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, David E.; Fleisher, Steven

    2011-01-01

    The authors review current and past practices of the grade inflation controversy and present ways to return to each institution’s established grading guidelines. Students are graded based on knowledge gathered. Certain faculty members use thorough evaluative methods, such as written and oral pres...... have been profiled in the news. The model is provided to ensure that degree candidates are academic experts in their field, having earned the credential through rigorous study....

  14. Surface area and pore size characteristics of nanoporous gold subjected to thermal, mechanical, or surface modification studied using gas adsorption isotherms, cyclic voltammetry, thermogravimetric analysis, and scanning electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yih Horng; Davis, Jason A.; Fujikawa, Kohki; Ganesh, N. Vijaya; Demchenko, Alexei V.

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms are used to investigate the Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) surface area and Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) pore size distribution of physically modified, thermally annealed, and octadecanethiol functionalized np-Au monoliths. We present the full adsorption-desorption isotherms for N2 gas on np-Au, and observe type IV isotherms and type H1 hysteresis loops. The evolution of the np-Au under various thermal annealing treatments was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The images of both the exterior and interior of the thermally annealed np-Au show that the porosity of all free standing np-Au structures decreases as the heat treatment temperature increases. The modification of the np-Au surface with a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of C18-SH (coverage of 2.94 × 1014 molecules cm−2 based from the decomposition of the C18-SH using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)), was found to reduce the strength of the interaction of nitrogen gas with the np-Au surface, as reflected by a decrease in the ‘C’ parameter of the BET equation. From cyclic voltammetry studies, we found that the surface area of the np-Au monoliths annealed at elevated temperatures followed the same trend with annealing temperature as found in the BET surface area study and SEM morphology characterization. The study highlights the ability to control free-standing nanoporous gold monoliths with high surface area, and well-defined, tunable pore morphology. PMID:22822294

  15. A subjective scheduler for subjective dedicated networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suherman; Fakhrizal, Said Reza; Al-Akaidi, Marwan

    2017-09-01

    Multiple access technique is one of important techniques within medium access layer in TCP/IP protocol stack. Each network technology implements the selected access method. Priority can be implemented in those methods to differentiate services. Some internet networks are dedicated for specific purpose. Education browsing or tutorial video accesses are preferred in a library hotspot, while entertainment and sport contents could be subjects of limitation. Current solution may use IP address filter or access list. This paper proposes subjective properties of users or applications are used for priority determination in multiple access techniques. The NS-2 simulator is employed to evaluate the method. A video surveillance network using WiMAX is chosen as the object. Subjective priority is implemented on WiMAX scheduler based on traffic properties. Three different traffic sources from monitoring video: palace, park, and market are evaluated. The proposed subjective scheduler prioritizes palace monitoring video that results better quality, xx dB than the later monitoring spots.

  16. Low-grade salivary duct carcinoma or low-grade intraductal carcinoma? Review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ying-Ju; Weinreb, Ilan; Perez-Ordonez, Bayardo

    2013-07-01

    Low-grade salivary duct carcinoma (LG-SDC) is a rare neoplasm characterized by predominant intraductal growth, luminal ductal phenotype, bland microscopic features, and favorable clinical behavior with an appearance reminiscent of florid to atypical ductal hyperplasia to low grade intraductal breast carcinoma. LG-SDC is composed of multiple cysts, cribriform architecture with "Roman Bridges", "pseudocribriform" proliferations with floppy fenestrations or irregular slits, micropapillae with epithelial tufts, fibrovascular cores, and solid areas. Most of the tumor cells are small to medium sized with pale eosinophilic cytoplasm, and round to oval nuclei, which may contain finely dispersed or dark condensed chromatin. Foci of intermediate to high grade atypia, and invasive carcinoma or micro-invasion have been reported in up to 23 % of cases. The neoplastic cells have a ductal phenotype with coexpression of keratins and S100 protein and are surrounded by a layer of myoepithelial cells in non-invasive cases. The main differential diagnosis of LG-SDC includes cystadenoma, cystadenocarcinoma, sclerosing polycystic adenosis, salivary duct carcinoma in situ/high-grade intraductal carcinoma, and papillary-cystic variant of acinic cell carcinoma. There is no published data supporting the continuous classification of LG-SDC as a variant of cystadenocarcinoma. Given that most LG-SDC are non-invasive neoplasms; the terms "cribriform cystadenocarcinoma" and LG-SDC should be replaced by "low-grade intraductal carcinoma" (LG-IDC) of salivary gland or "low-grade intraductal carcinoma with areas of invasive carcinoma" in those cases with evidence of invasive carcinoma.

  17. Commercial-grade motors in safety-related applications: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzman, P.M.

    1988-04-01

    The objective of this project was to discuss the process necessary to utilize commercial grade equipment in safety related applications and to provide utilities with guidance for accepting commercial grade motors for safety-related applications. The generic commercial-grade concepts presented in this report can be successfully applied to motors. Commercial grade item utilization has the greatest applicability to motors in ''mild'' environments, because these motors are essentially similar to commercial grade motors in materials, construction methods, and capabilities. The acceptance process is less applicable to motors that are subject to ''harsh'' environments during postulated accidents, because of the unique design features and testing required to qualify these motors

  18. Practicing Good Habits, Grade 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cong Lau; And Others

    This illustrated textbook was designed for teaching civics and values to fourth grade students in Vietnam. It is divided into six chapters: (1) At School (recapitulation of the grade three program, friendship, respect for the teacher, team work, discipline, honor); (2) In the Street: Traffic Regulations; (3) At Home (the extended family spirit,…

  19. Graded geometry and Poisson reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Cattaneo, A S; Zambon, M

    2009-01-01

    The main result of [2] extends the Marsden-Ratiu reduction theorem [4] in Poisson geometry, and is proven by means of graded geometry. In this note we provide the background material about graded geometry necessary for the proof in [2]. Further, we provide an alternative algebraic proof for the main result. ©2009 American Institute of Physics

  20. Compositionally Graded Multilayer Ceramic Capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyun-Cheol; Zhou, Jie E; Maurya, Deepam; Yan, Yongke; Wang, Yu U; Priya, Shashank

    2017-09-27

    Multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCC) are widely used in consumer electronics. Here, we provide a transformative method for achieving high dielectric response and tunability over a wide temperature range through design of compositionally graded multilayer (CGML) architecture. Compositionally graded MLCCs were found to exhibit enhanced dielectric tunability (70%) along with small dielectric losses (filters and power converters.

  1. Differentiation of low- and high-grade clear cell renal cell carcinoma: Tumor size versus CT perfusion parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Kang, Qinqin; Xu, Bing; Guo, Hairuo; Wei, Qiang; Wang, Tiegong; Ye, Hui; Wu, Xinhuai

    To compare the utility of tumor size and CT perfusion parameters for differentiation of low- and high-grade clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Tumor size, Equivalent blood volume (Equiv BV), permeability surface-area product (PS), blood flow (BF), and Fuhrman pathological grading of clear cell RCC were retrospectively analyzed. High-grade clear cell RCC had significantly higher tumor size and lower PS than low grade. Tumor size positively correlated with Fuhrman grade, but PS negatively did. Tumor size and PS were significantly independent indexes for differentiating high-grade from low-grade clear cell RCC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Presence, location, type and size of denuded areas of subchondral bone in the knee as a function of radiographic stage of OA - data from the OA initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frobell, R B; Wirth, W; Nevitt, M; Wyman, B T; Benichou, O; Dreher, D; Davies, R Y; Lee, J H; Baribaud, F; Gimona, A; Hudelmaier, M; Cotofana, S; Eckstein, F

    2010-05-01

    To assess the presence, location, type and size of denuded areas of subchondral bone (dAB) in the femorotibial joint, measured quantitatively with 3T MRI, in a large subset of OAI participants. One knee of 633 subjects (250 men, 383 women, aged 61.7+/-9.6 y) were studied, spanning all radiographic osteoarthritis (OA) stages. dABs were determined quantitatively using segmentations of coronal FLASHwe images, representing areas where the subchondral bone was not covered by cartilage. Post hoc visual examination of segmented images determined whether dABs represented full thickness cartilage loss or internal osteophyte. 7% Of the knees were Kellgren & Lawrence (KL) grade 0, 6% grade 1, 41% grade 2, 41% grade 3, and 5% grade 4. 39% Of the participants (48% of the men and 33% of the women) displayed dABs; 61% of the dABs represented internal osteophytes. 1/47 Participants with KL grade 0 displayed 'any' dAB whereas 29/32 of the KL grade 4 knees were affected. Even as early as KL grade 1, 29% of the participants showed dABs. There were significant relationships of dAB with increasing KL grades (Posteophytes were more frequent laterally (mainly posterior tibia and internal femur) whereas full thickness cartilage loss was more frequent medially (mainly external tibia and femur). dABs occur already at earliest stages of radiographic OA (KL grades 1 and 2) and become more common (and larger) with increasing disease severity. Almost all KL grade 4 knees exhibited dABs, with cartilage loss being more frequent than internal osteophytes. Copyright 2010 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Energy data base: subject thesaurus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redford, J.S.

    1981-10-01

    The technical staff of the DOE Technical Information Center, during its subject indexing activities, develops and structures a vocabulary that allows consistent machine storage and retrieval of information necessary to the accomplishment of the DOE mission. This thesaurus incorporates that structured vocabulary. The terminology of this thesaurus is used for the subject control of information announced in DOE Energy Research Abstracts, Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis, and various update journals and bulletins in specialized areas. This terminology also facilitates subject searching of the DOE Energy Data Base on the DOE/RECON on-line retrieval system and on other commercial retrieval systems. The rapid expansion of the DOE's activities will result in a commitant thesaurus expansion as information relating to new activities is indexed. Only the terms used in the indexing of documents at the Technical Information Center to date are included

  4. Manual for subject analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document is one in a series of publications known as the ETDE/INIS Joint Reference Series and also constitutes a part of the ETDE Procedures Manual. It presents the rules, guidelines and procedures to be adopted by centers submitting input to the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) or the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE). It is a manual for the subject analysis part of input preparation, meaning the selection, subject classification, abstracting and subject indexing of relevant publications, and is to be used in conjunction with the Thesauruses, Subject Categories documents and the documents providing guidelines for the preparation of abstracts. The concept and structure of the new manual are intended to describe in a logical and efficient sequence all the steps comprising the subject analysis of documents to be reported to INIS or ETDE. The manual includes new chapters on preparatory analysis, subject classification, abstracting and subject indexing, as well as rules, guidelines, procedures, examples and a special chapter on guidelines and examples for subject analysis in particular subject fields. (g.t.; a.n.)

  5. Estimating Subjective Probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.

    2014-01-01

    either construct elicitation mechanisms that control for risk aversion, or construct elicitation mechanisms which undertake 'calibrating adjustments' to elicited reports. We illustrate how the joint estimation of risk attitudes and subjective probabilities can provide the calibration adjustments...... that theory calls for. We illustrate this approach using data from a controlled experiment with real monetary consequences to the subjects. This allows the observer to make inferences about the latent subjective probability, under virtually any well-specified model of choice under subjective risk, while still...

  6. The effects of school policies and practices on eighth-grade science achievement: A multilevel analysis of TIMSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Carol Ann Mary

    Identifying the relative importance of both alterable school policies and fairly stable contextual factors as they relate to middle level science achievement, a domain of identified national concern, requires simultaneous investigation of multilevel predictors (i.e., student level and school level) specific to the grade level and academic subject area. The school level factors are predictors associated with both the school (e.g., average socioeconomic status, tracking, and instructional time) and the classroom (e.g., average academic press of peers, teacher collaboration, and instructional strategies). The current study assessed the effects of school policies, practices, and contextual factors on the science achievement of eighth grade students. These influences were considered to be both additive (i.e., influencing the mean achievement in a school after controlling for student characteristics) and interactive (i.e., affecting the relationships between student background characteristics and individual achievement). To account for the nested structure of predictors and cross level interactions among predictors, a multilevel model for middle level science achievement was estimated using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) with data collected from eighth grade students, science teachers, and administrators in 1995 as part of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). The major findings of this research suggest that although average eighth grade science achievement in a school was primarily associated with the contextual characteristics of the classroom and the school (e.g., average socioeconomic status and average academic press), both the academic differentiating influence of prior achievement and the social differentiating influence of parental education on the science achievement of eighth grade students were related not only to contextual characteristics of the classroom and the school, but also to the instructional policies of the classroom

  7. Laser-controlled land grading for farmland drainage in the Red River Valley: an economic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwardson, S.; Watt, D.; Disrud, L.

    1988-01-01

    A study was conducted in the Red River Valley to evaluate the benefits of laser land grading for drainage. Graded fields were compared with ungraded fields to measure changes in crop yields due to better drainage on the graded fields. Cut-and-fill areas were studied in graded fields to evaluate the effect of grading on nutrient levels and crop uniformity. Potential cut-and-fill areas on an ungraded field were also studied for yield uniformity and nutrient levels and compared with the graded field. Crop maturity and yield were more uniform on graded fields (0.05 level of significance) than on ungraded fields. Aerial photographs indicated graded fields had more uniform drainage and, consequently, more uniform crop maturity at harvest. A method is presented for determining the economic feasibility of land grading based upon the percentage of land lost to drown out, the value of the crop, and the cost of grading. The economic analysis indicates that land grading on the areas studied resulted in an 8-year payback and a positive investment return for a longer period of time. (author)

  8. Effect of Grade Retention in First Grade on Psychosocial Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Wei; West, Stephen G.; Hughes, Jan N.

    2010-01-01

    In a 4-year longitudinal study, the authors investigated effects of retention in first grade on children’s externalizing and internalizing behaviors; social acceptance; and behavioral, cognitive, and affective engagement. From a large multiethnic sample (n = 784) of children below the median on literacy at school entrance, 124 retained children were matched with 251 promoted children on the basis of propensity scores (probability of being retained in first grade estimated from 72 baseline var...

  9. EDF specifications on nuclear grade resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mascarenhas, Darren; Gressier, Frederic; Taunier, Stephane; Le-Calvar, Marc; Ranchoux, Gilles; Marteau, Herve; Labed, Veronique

    2012-09-01

    Ion exchange resins are widely used across EDF, especially within the nuclear division for the purification of water. Important applications include primary circuit, secondary circuit and effluent treatment, which require high quality nuclear grade resins to retain the dissolved species, some of which may be radioactive. There is a need for more and more efficient purification in order to decrease worker dose during maintenance but also to decrease volumes of radioactive resin waste. Resin performance is subject to several forms of degradation, including physical, chemical, thermal and radioactive, therefore appropriate resin properties have to be selected to reduce such effects. Work has been done with research institutes, manufacturers and on EDF sites to select these properties, create specifications and to continuously improve on these specifications. An interesting example of research regarding resin performance is the resin degradation under irradiation. Resins used in the CVCS circuit of EDF nuclear power plants are subject to irradiation over their lifetime. A study was carried out on the effects of total integrated doses of 0.1, 1 and 10 MGy on typically used EDF mixed bed resins in a 'mini-CVCS' apparatus to simultaneously test actual primary circuit fluid. The tests confirmed that the resins still perform efficiently after a typical CVCS radiation dose. Certain resins also need additional specifications in order to maintain the integrity of the particular circuits they are used in. Recently, EDF has updated its requirements on these high purity nuclear grade resins, produced generic doctrines for all products and materials used on site which include resins of all grades, and as a result have also updated a guide on recommended resin usage for the French fleet of reactors. An overview of the evolutions will be presented. (authors)

  10. Course Syllabi and Their Effects on Students' Final Grade Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, Ana Gil

    This study examined the relationship between the changes introduced in a course syllabus for a course titled "Instructional Strategies" and the final grades obtained by freshman and sophomore students in three successive academic periods. A sample of 150 subjects was randomly selected from students enrolled in the course at the…

  11. The Effects of Oral Planning on Fifth-Grade Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeker, Ruth Ann

    In this study, three grade 5 classes were tested during a 3 week period to determine the effect that classroom discussion has on certain quantitative aspects of composition. Each week, 78 subjects viewed a short film with no narration and--after either no discussion, class discussion, or paired-student discussion--were required to write…

  12. Diagnostic Appraisal of Grade 12 Students' Understanding of Reaction Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yaw Kai; Subramaniam, R.

    2016-01-01

    The study explored grade 12 students' understanding of reaction kinetics, a topic which has not been extensively explored in the chemistry education literature at this level. A 3-tier diagnostic instrument with 11 questions was developed--this format is of very recent origin and has been the subject of only a handful of studies. The findings…

  13. Connecting with the Arts: A Workshop for Middle Grades Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annenberg Media, 2005

    2005-01-01

    "Connecting with the Arts: A Workshop for Middle Grades Teachers" is a video workshop for middle school teachers of the arts and other subjects. The workshop includes eight hour-long video programs and a companion workshop guide and Web site. The workshop shows middle school teachers why and how to integrate the arts (dance, music, theatre, and…

  14. Subjective poverty line definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Flik; B.M.S. van Praag (Bernard)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we will deal with definitions of subjective poverty lines. To measure a poverty threshold value in terms of household income, which separates the poor from the non-poor, we take into account the opinions of all people in society. Three subjective methods will be discussed

  15. Diabetic Retinopathy Grading by Digital Curvelet Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Hajeb Mohammad Alipour

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the major complications of diabetes is diabetic retinopathy. As manual analysis and diagnosis of large amount of images are time consuming, automatic detection and grading of diabetic retinopathy are desired. In this paper, we use fundus fluorescein angiography and color fundus images simultaneously, extract 6 features employing curvelet transform, and feed them to support vector machine in order to determine diabetic retinopathy severity stages. These features are area of blood vessels, area, regularity of foveal avascular zone, and the number of micro-aneurisms therein, total number of micro-aneurisms, and area of exudates. In order to extract exudates and vessels, we respectively modify curvelet coefficients of color fundus images and angiograms. The end points of extracted vessels in predefined region of interest based on optic disk are connected together to segment foveal avascular zone region. To extract micro-aneurisms from angiogram, first extracted vessels are subtracted from original image, and after removing detected background by morphological operators and enhancing bright small pixels, micro-aneurisms are detected. 70 patients were involved in this study to classify diabetic retinopathy into 3 groups, that is, (1 no diabetic retinopathy, (2 mild/moderate nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy, (3 severe nonproliferative/proliferative diabetic retinopathy, and our simulations show that the proposed system has sensitivity and specificity of 100% for grading.

  16. A vision of graded hemispheric specialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrmann, Marlene; Plaut, David C

    2015-11-01

    Understanding the process by which the cerebral hemispheres reach their mature functional organization remains challenging. We propose a theoretical account in which, in the domain of vision, faces and words come to be represented adjacent to retinotopic cortex by virtue of the need to discriminate among homogeneous exemplars. Orthographic representations are further constrained to be proximal to typically left-lateralized language-related information to minimize connectivity length between visual and language areas. As reading is acquired, orthography comes to rely more heavily (albeit not exclusively) on the left fusiform region to bridge vision and language. Consequently, due to competition from emerging word representations, face representations that were initially bilateral become lateralized to the right fusiform region (albeit, again, not exclusively). We review recent research that describes constraints that give rise to this graded hemispheric arrangement. We then summarize empirical evidence from a variety of studies (behavioral, evoked response potential, functional imaging) across different populations (children, adolescents, and adults; left handers and individuals with developmental dyslexia) that supports the claims that hemispheric lateralization is graded rather than binary and that this graded organization emerges dynamically over the course of development. Perturbations of this system either during development or in adulthood provide further insights into the principles governing hemispheric organization. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  17. Gender discrimination in exam grading?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rangvid, Beatrice Schindler

    2018-01-01

    Girls, on average, obtain higher test scores in school than boys, and recent research suggests that part of this difference may be due to discrimination against boys in grading. This bias is consequential if admission to subsequent education programs is based on exam scores. This study assesses t...... tendencies are in accordance with statistical discrimination as a mechanism for grading bias in essay writing and with gender-stereotyped beliefs of math being a male domain....... are scored twice (blind and non-blind). Both strategies use difference-in-differences methods. Although imprecisely estimated, the point estimates indicate a blind grading advantage for boys in essay writing of approximately 5-8% SD, corresponding to 9-15% of the gender gap in essay exam grades. The effect...

  18. Progressive problems higher grade physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kennedy, William

    2001-01-01

    This book fully covers all three Units studied in Scotland's Higher Grade Physics course, providing a systematic array of problems (from the simplest to the most difficult) to lead variously abled pupils to examination success.

  19. Improving GRADE evidence tables part 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langendam, Miranda; Carrasco-Labra, Alonso; Santesso, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) working group has developed GRADE evidence profiles (EP) and summary of findings (SoF) tables to present evidence summaries in systematic reviews, clinical guidelines, and health technology assessments. Exp...

  20. Classifying low-grade and high-grade bladder cancer using label-free serum surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and support vector machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanjiao; Lai, Xiaoping; Zeng, Qiuyao; Li, Linfang; Lin, Lin; Li, Shaoxin; Liu, Zhiming; Su, Chengkang; Qi, Minni; Guo, Zhouyi

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to classify low-grade and high-grade bladder cancer (BC) patients using serum surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra and support vector machine (SVM) algorithms. Serum SERS spectra are acquired from 88 serum samples with silver nanoparticles as the SERS-active substrate. Diagnostic accuracies of 96.4% and 95.4% are obtained when differentiating the serum SERS spectra of all BC patients versus normal subjects and low-grade versus high-grade BC patients, respectively, with optimal SVM classifier models. This study demonstrates that the serum SERS technique combined with SVM has great potential to noninvasively detect and classify high-grade and low-grade BC patients.

  1. Cracks in functionally graded materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahr, H.-A.; Balke, H.; Fett, T.; Hofinger, I.; Kirchhoff, G.; Munz, D.; Neubrand, A.; Semenov, A.S.; Weiss, H.-J.; Yang, Y.Y.

    2003-01-01

    The weight function method is described to analyze the crack growth behavior in functionally graded materials and in particular materials with a rising crack growth resistance curve. Further, failure of graded thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) under cyclic surface heating by laser irradiation is modeled on the basis of fracture mechanics. The damage of both graded and non-graded TBCs is found to develop in several distinct stages: vertical cracking→delamination→blistering→spalling. This sequence can be understood as an effect of progressive shrinkage due to sintering and high-temperature creep during thermal cycling, which increases the energy-release rate for vertical cracks which subsequently turn into delamination cracks. The results of finite element modeling, taking into account the TBC damage mechanisms, are compatible with experimental data. An increase of interface fracture toughness due to grading and a decrease due to ageing have been measured in a four-point bending test modified by a stiffening layer. Correlation with the damage observed in cyclic heating is discussed. It is explained in which way grading is able to reduce the damage

  2. Graded/Gradient Porous Biomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xigeng Miao

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomaterials include bioceramics, biometals, biopolymers and biocomposites and they play important roles in the replacement and regeneration of human tissues. However, dense bioceramics and dense biometals pose the problem of stress shielding due to their high Young’s moduli compared to those of bones. On the other hand, porous biomaterials exhibit the potential of bone ingrowth, which will depend on porous parameters such as pore size, pore interconnectivity, and porosity. Unfortunately, a highly porous biomaterial results in poor mechanical properties. To optimise the mechanical and the biological properties, porous biomaterials with graded/gradient porosity, pores size, and/or composition have been developed. Graded/gradient porous biomaterials have many advantages over graded/gradient dense biomaterials and uniform or homogenous porous biomaterials. The internal pore surfaces of graded/gradient porous biomaterials can be modified with organic, inorganic, or biological coatings and the internal pores themselves can also be filled with biocompatible and biodegradable materials or living cells. However, graded/gradient porous biomaterials are generally more difficult to fabricate than uniform or homogenous porous biomaterials. With the development of cost-effective processing techniques, graded/gradient porous biomaterials can find wide applications in bone defect filling, implant fixation, bone replacement, drug delivery, and tissue engineering.

  3. RUSSIAN LAW SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Bakhrakh

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The question about the subjects of law branches is concerning the number of most important and difficult in law science. Its right decision influences on the subject of law regulation, precise definition of addressees of law norms, the volume of their rights and duties, the limits of action of norms of Main part of the branch, its principles. Scientific investigations, dedicated to law subjects system, promote the development of recommendations for the legislative and law applying activity; they are needed for scientific work organization and student training, for preparing qualified lawyers.

  4. Writing and the 'Subject'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Charlotte

    /page. It is, moreover, an index pointing to the painting/writing subject; it is a special deictic mode of painting/writing. The handwriting of the Russian avant-garde books, the poetics of handwriting, and the way handwriting is represented in poetry emphasize the way the subject (the speaking and the viewing...... in the early as well as the contemporary avant-garde, it becomes clear that the ‘subject’ is an unstable category that can be exposed to manipulation and play. Handwriting is performing as a signature (as an index), but is at the same time similar to the signature of a subject (an icon) and a verbal construct...

  5. Subject (of documents)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2017-01-01

    This article presents and discuss the concept “subject” or subject matter (of documents) as it has been examined in library and information science (LIS) for more than 100 years. Different theoretical positions are outlined and it is found that the most important distinction is between document......-oriented views versus request-oriented views. The document-oriented view conceive subject as something inherent in documents, whereas the request-oriented view (or the policy based view) understand subject as an attribution made to documents in order to facilitate certain uses of them. Related concepts...

  6. Hardwood log grades and lumber grade yields for factory lumber logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leland F. Hanks; Glenn L. Gammon; Robert L. Brisbin; Everette D. Rast

    1980-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service Standard Grades for Hardwood Factory Lumber Logs are described, and lumber grade yields for 16 species and 2 species groups are presented by log grade and log diameter. The grades enable foresters, log buyers, and log sellers to select and grade those log suitable for conversion into standard factory grade lumber. By using the apropriate lumber...

  7. 7 CFR 810.2204 - Grades and grade requirements for wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for wheat. 810.2204... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Wheat Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.2204 Grades and grade requirements for wheat. (a) Grades and grade requirements...

  8. Cohesive cracked-hinge model for simulation of fracture in one-way slabs on grade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skar, Asmus; Poulsen, Peter Noe; Olesen, John Forbes

    2017-01-01

    Numerical analysis of slab on grade structures subjected to mechanical loads is a complex matter often requiring computationally expensive models. In order to develop a simplified and general concept for non-linear analysis of slab on grade structures, this paper presents a cohesive cracked-hinge...

  9. Seventh Grade Social Studies. A Program in Sociology and American History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Patricia; And Others

    GRADES OR AGES: Seventh grade. SUBJECT MATTER: Sociology and American history. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide covers five units: "Biological Basis of Human Behavior,""How We Become Human,""The Family and Other Socializing Institutions,""Man's Behavior in Groups and Crowds," and "Minority Group Problems." The presentation of the…

  10. You and Man in the Western World. A Cultural Approach. Eighth Grade Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsippany - Troy Hills Board of Education, Parsippany, NJ.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grade 8. SUBJECT MATTER: Social Studies--You and Man in the Western World. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide contains five units: 1) cultural orientation; 2) social studies dimensions in Western Europe; 3) social studies dimensions in Eastern Europe and Soviet Union; 4) social studies dimensions in Latin America; and…

  11. Strand I: Physical Health Nutrition. Health Curriculum Materials. Grades 4-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Elementary Curriculum Development.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grades 4-6. SUBJECT MATTER: Physical health and nutrition. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into five sections: factors determining what people eat, the role of food in growth and development, the uses of nutrients in food, selection of foods to meet bodily needs, and food in the history of man. The…

  12. Man's Basic Needs. Resource Units, Grade 1. Providence Social Studies Curriculum Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Providence Public Schools, RI.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grade 1. SUBJECT MATTER: Social studies; man's basic needs. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into 11 chapters, five of which outline the basic curriculum subunits. These five chapters are laid out in three columns, one each for topics, activities, and materials. Other chapters are in list form. The guide…

  13. The Relationship between Home Literary Environments and Attitudes toward Reading in Ninth-Grade Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubis, Mary Ellen

    A study determined what variables in the home literary environments of ninth-grade students influenced their attitudes toward reading. Subjects, 316 students from 2 ninth-grade classes at 2 metropolitan high schools, were given the Estes Reading Attitude Scale and a researcher-developed, 30-question inventory of their home literary environment.…

  14. The Effects of Handwriting Instruction on Reading for Students in Grades 1 and 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroik, Linda R.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative quasi-experimental group comparison study using a repeated measures comparison group design with random assignment of subjects to groups was to investigate the effects of handwriting instruction on reading progress for learners in grade 1 and grade 2. At three points in time, the number of words each student read…

  15. Practices in the Teaching of Listening in Grade 9 EFL Classrooms of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to examine the practices in the teaching of listening in Grade 9 EFL classrooms of Mote Secondary School. The study employed a descriptive survey design to attain the objective. The research used 108 Grade 9 students and 6 English language teachers who were teaching English as subjects of ...

  16. Eighth Grade Social Studies. An Experimental Program in Geography and Anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, James; And Others

    GRADES OR AGES: Grade 8. SUBJECT MATTER: Geography and Anthropology. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The introductory material includes descriptions of geography and anthropology as disciplines, the basic course objectives, techniques for evaluating objectives and a student self-evaluation form. The guide covers six units: 1) "What Kind of…

  17. What is current practice in soft tissue sarcoma grading?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golouh, R.; Bracko, M.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose. Most published grading systems of soft tissue sarcomas (STS) are somewhat subjective and it seems that there is no definite consensus among experts which of them is the most effective. The aim of this study was to collect data from practicing pathologists and to get some insight in the practice of STS grading. Subjects. A questionnaire was sent to 135 pathologists chosen randomly. Results. There were 88 responders from 30 countries from 5 continents. Most responders (85%) grade STS, more frequently in Europe than in non-European countries. Three-grade system is preferred by both European and non-European pathologists, who use it in almost 77% and 67%, respectively. They apply the criteria set by FNCLCC in 37.3%, by NCI in 24%, by Broders in 12% and by Markhede in 1.4%. In Europe, FNCLCC system is the most widely used. Beside classical histological criteria, other modern methods are applied by more than one half of the responders. Immunohistochemical evaluation of proliferation markers is the method most widely used, followed by molecular markers and DNA flow cytometry. Conclusion. The results of our study indicate that most pathologists consider histologic grade of STS as a valuable, however not completely satisfactory predictor of a patient's survival. (author)

  18. The remembering subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Angélica Garzón Martínez

    2015-07-01

    More concretely this article presents the idea of remembrance subjectivity that becomes converted into a political platform for reclaiming the right to recollect and change based on those recollections

  19. Correlation of DNA content and nucleomorphometric features with World Health Organization grading of meningiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunewald, J P; Röhl, F W; Kirches, E; Dietzmann, K

    1998-02-01

    Many studies dealing with extracranial cancer showed a strong correlation of DNA ploidy to a poor clinical outcome, recurrence, or malignancy. In brain tumors, analysis of DNA content did not always provided significant diagnostic information. In this study, DNA density and karyometric parameters of 50 meningiomas (26 Grade I, 10 Grade II, 14 Grade III) were quantitatively evaluated by digital cell image analyses of Feulgen-stained nuclei. In particular, the densitometric parameter SEXT, which describes nuclear DNA content, as well as the morphometric values LENG (a computer-assisted measurement of nuclear circumference), AREA (a computer-assisted measurement of nuclear area), FCON (a parameter that describes nuclear roundness), and CONC (a describing nuclear contour), evaluated with the software IMAGE C, were correlated to World Health Organization (WHO) grading using univariate and multivariate methods. AREA and LENG values showed significant differences between tumors of Grades I and III. FCON values were unable to distinguish WHO Grade III from Grade I/II but were useful in clearly separating Grade II from Grade I tumors. CONC values detected differences between WHO Grades II and I/III tumors but not between the latter. SEXT values clearly distinguished Grade III from Grade I/II tumors. The 1c, 2c, 2.5c, and 5c exceeding rates showed no predictive values. Only the 6c exceeding rate showed a significant difference between Grades I and III. These results outline the characteristic features of the atypical (Grade II) meningiomas, which make them a recognizable tumor entity distinct from benign and anaplastic meningiomas. The combination of DNA densitometric and morphometric findings seems to be a powerful addition to the histopathologic classification of meningiomas, as suggested by the WHO.

  20. On English Locative Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Brůhová

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses English sentences with thematic locative subjects. These subjects were detected as translation counterparts of Czech sentenceinitial locative adverbials realized by prepositional phrases with the prepositions do (into, na (on, v/ve (in, z/ze (from complemented by a noun. In the corresponding English structure, the initial scene-setting adverbial is reflected in the thematic subject, which results in the locative semantics of the subject. The sentences are analysed from syntactic, semantic and FSP aspects. From the syntactic point of view, we found five syntactic patterns of the English sentences with a locative subject (SV, SVA, SVO, SVpassA and SVCs that correspond to Czech sentences with initial locative adverbials. On the FSP level the paper studies the potential of the sentences to implement the Presentation or Quality Scale. Since it is the “semantic content of the verb that actuates the presentation semantics of the sentence” (Duškova, 2015a: 260, major attention is paid to the syntactic-semantic structure of the verb. The analysis of the semantics of the English sentences results in the identification of two semantic classes of verbs which co-occur with the English locative subject.

  1. The Societal Nature of Subjectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Henning Salling

    2013-01-01

    The HSR Focus presents a psycho-societal approach to qualitative empirical research in several areas of everyday social life. It is an approach which integrates a theory of subjectivity and an interpretation methodology which integrates hermeneutic experiences from text analysis and psychoanalysis....... In terms of methodology it revives the themes originally launched in FOS exactly ten years ago: "Subjectivity and Reflectivity in Qualitative Research" (Breuer, Mruck and Roth 2002; Mruck and Breuer 2003). This editorial introduction presents the intellectual background of the psycho-societal methodology......, reflects on its relevance and critical perspectives in a contemporary landscape of social science, and comments the way in which an international and interdisciplinary research group has developed this approach to profane empirical research....

  2. Investigation of optimize graded concrete for Oklahoma : phase 1 : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Optimized Graded Concrete has been a subject widely discussed through the history of concrete. Since aggregates make up over 70% of the volume in a mixture, gradation is critical to the strength, workability, and durability of concrete. In practice o...

  3. 78 FR 43758 - Kiwifruit Grown in California and Imported Kiwifruit; Relaxation of Minimum Grade Requirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ... that export fruit to the United States and known kiwifruit importers will be notified of this interim... Subjects 7 CFR Part 920 Kiwifruit, Marketing agreements. 7 CFR Part 944 Avocados, Food grades and standards...

  4. The effects of grade, self-efficacy, learned-helpnessness, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    helplessness, and cognitive engagement on liking mathematics, and b) assessing the developmental trends of these variables across grade levels. The subjects of the study are 159 primary school students. The results showed that the effect of the ...

  5. Vision as subjective perception; La vision, une perception subjective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reppas, J.B. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Biological Labs.; Dale, A.; Sereno, M.; Tootell, R.

    1996-07-01

    The human brain is not very different of the monkey`s one: at least, its visual cortex is organized as a similar scheme. Specialized areas in the movement analysis are found and others in the forms perception. In this work, the author tries to answer to the following questions: (1)why so many visual areas? What are exactly their role in vision? Thirteen years of experimentation have not allowed to answer to these questions. The cerebral NMR imaging gives the opportunity of understanding the subjective perception of the visual world. One step which is particularly described in this work is to know how the visual cortex reacts to the optical illusions. (O.M.).

  6. Experimental Study on Subjective Evaluation for Visual Information by Event-Related Potential: Evaluation of Food and its Appearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoshi Tanaka

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating subjective judgment for visual information by event-related potential (ERP quantitatively was studied. Pictures of food were displayed as visual information. And P300 component of the ERP was focused. The P300 is related to cognition and/or judgment, and has the latency in the range from 250 to 500 ms. As a fundamental study, the ERP was measured when subjectively judging food and its appearance by three-grade scale with the opinion “like”, “favorite” and “more favorite”. Sushi and cooked rice were selected as typical foods. And bottles which had almost the same shape without labels, but the colors were different, were used for an opinion test of the food appearance. Five pictures for each food were chosen by subjects before measurements. And no food which the subjects disliked was chosen because almost the same P300 amplitude appeared in both cases where the subjects judged as “like” and “dislike”. In results, the P300 amplitude by each subject's opinion was different, and the P300 area (surrounded by ERP waveform from the latency 250 to 500 ms became larger when the subjects judged as “more favorite”. These results indicate the feasibility of quantitative evaluation of subjective judgment by the ERP.

  7. Control Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This feature class represents electric power Control Areas. Control Areas, also known as Balancing Authority Areas, are controlled by Balancing Authorities, who are...

  8. Content and Grade Trends in State Assessments and NAEP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William D. Schafer

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Each state is required by the No Child Left Behind Act to report the percents of its students who have reached a score level called - proficient- or above for certain grades in the content areas of reading (or a similar construct and math. Using 2005 data from public web sites of states and the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP, state-to-state differences in percents were analyzed, both unconditionally and conditionally on NAEP, for (1 trend across content areas (horizontal moderation, (2 trend across grade levels (vertical moderation, and (3 consistency with NAEP. While there was considerable variation from state to state, especially on an idealistic-realistic dimension, the results generally show that states are relatively consistent in trends across grades and contents.

  9. INSTRUMENTAL CONCEPTUALIZATION SUBJECT AREA SOCIOLOGY: SOME POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Maslennikov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines some of the possible ways of integrating the deployment tool conceptualizing domains of sociology on the basis of the machine sets of steps3. Substantiates the urgency of the problem of application of structural constructs of mathematics as a structure-formalism domain of sociology as a combination of theoretical knowledge. Formulated understanding of the sociological dimension in a broad sense of the concept of research as a measurement based on the use of instrumental in conceptualizing the methodology of sociological research. Under instrumental conceptualization refers to the construction of complex conceptual (conceptual schema structurally interconnected relationships between their individual elements, which are the units of the consideration related conceptual integrity, derived from interpretation of the properties “Set” construct. The paper proposes a definition based on the properties set in the scale set by the structure of N. Bourbaki4 relations systems in the data sets under the structural dimension of social phenomena to understand the interpretation of the investigated properties of social phenomena in terms of a construct that lies at the basis of the theoretical model that reflects the diversity of these qualities with the help of conceptual schemes that determine the quality of each as a structure of relations systems (ie, property in these qualities. In conclusion, the article lists presented in a number of publications, some preliminary results of the application of the methodology of conceptualizing instrumental in related disciplines from sociology. These works can perform suggestive role in the knowledge and understanding of methods of problem fields and objectives of the work on the conceptualization of theoretical sociology, using the mathematical theory of forms. 

  10. International gastroenterology research : subject areas, impact, and funding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lewison, G; Grant, J; Jansen, P

    Aims - To examine the volume and potential impact of gastroenterology research outputs from 1985 to 1998 from 14 developed countries; the overlap with research in cancer, infectious diseases, and genetics; and the funding sources for this research. To determine if countries' research outputs

  11. Characteristics of Open Access Journals in Six Subject Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, William H.; Linvill, Anne C.

    2011-01-01

    We examine the characteristics of 663 Open Access (OA) journals in biology, computer science, economics, history, medicine, and psychology, then compare the OA journals with impact factors to comparable subscription journals. There is great variation in the size of OA journals; the largest publishes more than 2,700 articles per year, but half…

  12. Interaction, transference, and subjectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Fieldwork is one of the important methods in educational, social, and organisational research. In fieldwork, the researcher takes residence for a shorter or longer period amongst the subjects and settings to be studied. The aim of this is to study the culture of people: how people seem to make...... sense of their lives and which moral, professional, and ethical values seem to guide their behaviour and attitudes. In fieldwork, the researcher has to balance participation and observation in her attempts at representation. Consequently, the researcher’s academic and life-historical subjectivity...... is also subjected to psychodynamic processes. In this article, I draw upon a number of research inquiries to illustrate how psychodynamic processes influence research processes: data production, research questions and methodology, relations to informants, as well as interpretation and analysis. I further...

  13. Rapid grading of fundus photographs for diabetic retinopathy using crowdsourcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Christopher J; Villanti, Andrea C; Pearson, Jennifer L; Kirchner, Thomas R; Gupta, Omesh P; Shah, Chirag P

    2014-10-30

    Screening for diabetic retinopathy is both effective and cost-effective, but rates of screening compliance remain suboptimal. As screening improves, new methods to deal with screening data may help reduce the human resource needs. Crowdsourcing has been used in many contexts to harness distributed human intelligence for the completion of small tasks including image categorization. Our goal was to develop and validate a novel method for fundus photograph grading. An interface for fundus photo classification was developed for the Amazon Mechanical Turk crowdsourcing platform. We posted 19 expert-graded images for grading by Turkers, with 10 repetitions per photo for an initial proof-of-concept (Phase I). Turkers were paid US $0.10 per image. In Phase II, one prototypical image from each of the four grading categories received 500 unique Turker interpretations. Fifty draws of 1-50 Turkers were then used to estimate the variance in accuracy derived from randomly drawn samples of increasing crowd size to determine the minimum number of Turkers needed to produce valid results. In Phase III, the interface was modified to attempt to improve Turker grading. Across 230 grading instances in the normal versus abnormal arm of Phase I, 187 images (81.3%) were correctly classified by Turkers. Average time to grade each image was 25 seconds, including time to review training images. With the addition of grading categories, time to grade each image increased and percentage of images graded correctly decreased. In Phase II, area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) indicated that sensitivity and specificity were maximized after 7 graders for ratings of normal versus abnormal (AUC=0.98) but was significantly reduced (AUC=0.63) when Turkers were asked to specify the level of severity. With improvements to the interface in Phase III, correctly classified images by the mean Turker grade in four-category grading increased to a maximum of 52.6% (10/19 images

  14. [Low grade renal trauma (Part II): diagnostic validity of ultrasonography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grill, R; Báca, V; Otcenásek, M; Zátura, F

    2010-04-01

    hypoechogenic areas of varying sizes in the renal cortex. A negative ultrasonographic finding is no proof of the absence of renal trauma. As low-grade renal injury is difficult to detect by mere clinical examination or by a single imaging method, the authors regard as necessary to actively look for them, taking into consideration the mechanism of injury, haematuria findings and evaluation of ultrasonographic and CT scans.

  15. Operational Area Environmental Evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey-White, Brenda Eileen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nagy, Michael David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wagner, Katrina Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Goodman, Thomas Richard [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Herring, Allen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Catechis, Christopher S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kinghorn, Aubrianna Nicole [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johnson, Ellie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Barthel, Michael David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Casaus, Benito [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The Operational Area Environmental Evaluation update provides a description of activities that have the potential to adversely affect natural and cultural resources, including soil, air, water, biological, ecological, and historical resources. The environmental sensitivity of an area is evaluated and summarized, which may facilitate informed management decisions as to where development may be prohibited, restricted, or subject to additional requirements.

  16. Functionally Graded Mo sintered steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Cisneros-Belmonte

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Functionally graded materials (FGM, the multi-materials, strive to satisfy the numerous requirements demanded of parts in a given combination of compositions and microstructures. The required material compatibility lead the manufacturing process and the achieving of an interface, not always diffuse. Powder metallurgy is one of the techniques used in manufacturing functionally graded materials, in particular the compaction matrix of the possible techniques for forming these materials. In this paper, a process of forming a functionally graded steel based on the use of a high molybdenum steel with cooper and other steel with copper, without molybdenum, is proposed with the aim of concentrating this element to the surface of the workpiece, increasing the mechanical strength. The study is completed with the evaluation of physical properties (density and porosity distribution, mechanical properties (hardness, tensile strength and elongation and microstructural analysis by optical and scanning electron microscopy.

  17. 7 CFR 51.304 - Combination grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... Standards for Grades of Apples Grades § 51.304 Combination grades. (a) Combinations of the above grades may...

  18. On-Demand Grades: The Effect of Online Grade Book Access on Student Mastery and Performance Goal Orientations, Grade Orientation, Academic Self Efficacy, and Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seldow, Adam Lowell

    2010-01-01

    With the widespread growth of broadband Internet access, teachers, and in many cases, schools and school districts are transitioning from traditional paper-based grade books to student accessible online (Web-based) grade books. Online grade books offer students 24/7, on demand access to grades and various other student data, and have the potential…

  19. Functionally Graded Material: An overview

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mahamood, RM

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available -3146. [50] X. Jin, L. Wu, L. Guo, H. Yu, and Y. Sun, ?Experimental investigation of the mixed-mode crack propagation in ZrO2/NiCr functionally graded materials,? Engineering Fracture Mechanics, vol. 76(12), (2009), pp. 1800-1810. [51] Z. Cheng, D. Gao... by stable crack growth,? Engineering Fracture Mechanics, vol.72(15), (2005), pp. 2359-2372. [47] Z.-H. Jin, and R.H. Dodds Jr, ?Crack growth resistance behavior of a functionally graded material: computational studies,? Engineering Fracture Mechanics...

  20. On the union of graded prime ideals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uregen Rabia Nagehan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate graded compactly packed rings, which is defined as; if any graded ideal I of R is contained in the union of a family of graded prime ideals of R, then I is actually contained in one of the graded prime ideals of the family. We give some characterizations of graded compactly packed rings. Further, we examine this property on h – Spec(R. We also define a generalization of graded compactly packed rings, the graded coprimely packed rings. We show that R is a graded compactly packed ring if and only if R is a graded coprimely packed ring whenever R be a graded integral domain and h – dim R = 1.

  1. Distributed Road Grade Estimation for Heavy Duty Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahlholm, Per

    2011-07-01

    torque are combined with observations of the road altitude from a GPS receiver, using vehicle and road models. The operation of the estimators is adjusted during gearshifts, braking, and poor satellite coverage, to account for variations in sensor and model reliability. The estimated error covariances of the road grade estimates are used together with their absolute positions to update a stored road grade map. Highway driving trials show that the proposed estimators produce accurate road grade data. The estimation performance improves as the number of road segment traces increases. A vehicle equipped with the proposed system will rapidly develop a road grade map for its area of operation. Simulations show that collaborative generation of the third dimension for a pre-existing large area two-dimensional map is feasible. The experimental results indicate that road grade estimates from the proposed methods are accurate enough to be used in predictive vehicle control systems to enhance safety, efficiency, and driver comfort in heavy duty vehicles. The grade estimators may also be used for on-line validation of road grade information from other sources. This is important in on-board applications, since the envisioned control applications can degrade vehicle performance if inaccurate data are used

  2. Subjectivity of embodiment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novotný, Karel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 1 (2014), s. 187-195 ISSN 1804-624X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP401/10/1164 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : Levinas * phenomenology * factivity * body * experience Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  3. Miscellaneous subjects, ch. 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brussaard, P.J.; Glaudemans, P.W.M.

    1977-01-01

    Attention is paid to a variery of subjects which are related to shell model applications, e.g. the Lanczos method for matrix diagonalization, truncation methods (seniority truncation, single-particle energy truncation and diagonal energy truncation which can be used for reducing the configuration space.) Coulomb energies and spurious states are briefly discussed. Finally attention is paid to the particle-vibrator model

  4. Barron's SAT subject test

    CERN Document Server

    Jansen, MA, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Includes one diagnostic test and three complete tests, all questions answered and explained, self-assessment guides, and subject reviews. Also features test strategies, QR codes to short instructional videos, and a detailed appendix with equations, physical constants, and a basic math review.

  5. Micromechanical models for graded composite materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiter, T; Dvorak, G.J.; Tvergaard, Viggo

    1997-01-01

    of piecewise homogeneous layers with equivalent elastic properties estimated by Mori-Tanaka and self-consistent methods are also analysed under similar boundary conditions. Comparisons of the overall and local fields predicted by the discrete and homogenized models are made using a C/SiC composite system...... fields are predicted by Mori-Tanaka estimates. On the other hand, the response of graded materials with a skeletal microstructure in a wide transition zone between clearly defined matrix phases is better approximated by the self-consistent estimates. Certain exceptions are noted for loading by overall...... transverse shear stress; The results suggest that the averaging methods originally developed for statistically homogeneous aggregates may be selectively applied, with a reasonable degree of confidence, to aggregates dth composition gradients, subjected to both uniform and nonuniform overall loads. (C) 1997...

  6. Guided Reading in First-Fourth Grade: Theory to Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffner, Jacqueline; Johnson, Kary; Torres-Elias, Annette; Dryden, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of collaborative efforts between a large metropolitan school district and the school of education at an area urban university. A reading clinic, in which university students conducted small guided reading group lessons with elementary students reading below grade level, was established through…

  7. Environmental Studies Center Teacher Books. 4th Grade - Mangrove Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin County Schools, Jensen Beach, FL. Environmental Studies Center.

    This teacher's guide, one of nine teacher packages developed for use in the sequential, hands-on, field-oriented, K-8 environmental education program of the Martin County Schools in Florida, was developed for use with elementary children in grade four prior to and after a visit to an environmental studies center located near an estuarine area. The…

  8. Podcasting in an Eighth-Grade American History Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Patrick D.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to see how students used podcasts in an eighth-grade American history unit and the value they placed on them as an educational tool. The 6-week study was conducted in a suburban middle school in a district that is part of a large metropolitan area in Texas. Participants included 29 students and 2 eighth-grade…

  9. Illinois Ratings of Teacher Effectiveness Manual. Grades 9-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, B. Everard

    The Illinois Ratings of Teacher Effectiveness (IRTE) is an instrument for recording senior high school student perceptions of teacher performance in ten trait areas: teacher appearance, ability to explain, friendliness, grading fairness, discipline, outside classroom assignments, enjoyment of teaching, voice, mannerisms, and command of subject…

  10. Teaching Measurement to Children: Grades K-6. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borelli, Michael L.; Morelli, Sandra Z.

    Objectives are listed describing the progression which students follow in learning to measure. These objectives follow a sequence that corresponds closely with the intellectual sequence found in students' learning. Grade-level recommendation charts follow the objectives. Topics dealt with are length, distance, area, volume, capacity, mass, and…

  11. Grade Inflation: Faculty Lived-Experiences and Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Nan

    2016-01-01

    The research area of this study is the phenomenon of grade inflation in higher educational organizations. Using a qualitative phenomenological research design, seven faculty members from a higher educational organization were purposefully selected to participate in a semi-structured, face-to-face interview. The participants were of various ages,…

  12. 14 CFR 139.309 - Safety areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... construction, reconstruction, or expansion began if construction, reconstruction, or significant expansion of... grading or storm sewers to prevent water accumulation. (3) Each safety area must be capable under dry...

  13. Reliability of didactic grades to predict practical skills in an undergraduate dental college in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawawi, Khalid H; Afify, Ahmed R; Yousef, Mohammed K; Othman, Hisham I; Al-Dharrab, Ayman A

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study was aimed to investigate the association between didactic grades and practical skills for dental students and whether didactic grades can reliability predict the dental students' practical performance. Didactic and practical grades for graduates from the Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, between the years 2009 and 2011 were collected. Four courses were selected: Dental Anatomy, Operative Dentistry, Prosthodontics, and Orthodontics. Pearson product-moment correlation analyses between didactic and practical scores were conducted. There was only a significant correlation between didactic and practical scores for the Dental Anatomy course (Pdidactic scores (Pdidactic and practical scores for all subjects. Based on the findings of this study, the relationship between didactic grades and practical performance is course specific. Didactic grades do not reliably predict the students' practical skills. Measuring practical performances should be independent from didactic grading.

  14. Pharmacokinetic MRI of the prostate. Parameters for differentiating low-grade and high-grade prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franiel, T.; Taupitz, M.; Asbach, P.; Beyersdorff, D.; Luedemann, L.; Rost, J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: to investigate whether pharmacokinetic MRI parameters ''perfusion, blood volume, mean transit time (MTT), interstitial volume, permeability, extraction coefficient, delay, and dispersion'' allow the differentiation of low-grade (Gleason score ≤ 6) and high-grade (Gleason score ≥ 7) prostate cancer. Materials and method: forty-two patients with prostate cancer verified by biopsy (PSA 2.7 to 31.4ng/ml) and scheduled for prostatectomy underwent MRI at 1.5 Tesla using the dynamic contrast-enhanced inversion-prepared dual-contrast gradient echo sequence (temporal resolution, 1.65 s) and a combined endorectal body phased array coil. Parametric maps were computed using a sequential 3-compartment model and the corresponding post-processing algorithms. A total of 41 areas of prostate cancer (15 low-grade, 26 high-grade cancers) in 32 patients were able to be correlated with the prostatectomy specimens and were included in the analysis. Results: low-grade prostate cancers had a higher mean blood volume (1.76% vs. 1.64%, p = 0.039), longer MTT (6.39 s vs. 3.25 s, p -1 vs. 3.86 min -1 , p = 0.011) than high-grade cancers. No statistically significant difference was found for perfusion (p = 0.069), interstitial volume (p = 0.849), extraction coefficient (p = 0.615), delay (p = 0.489), and dispersion (p = 0.306). (orig.)

  15. 7 CFR 810.404 - Grades and grade requirements for corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for corn. 810.404... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Corn Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.404 Grades and grade requirements for corn. Grade Minimum test weight per...

  16. 7 CFR 810.1804 - Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed. 810... AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sunflower Seed Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.1804 Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed. Grade...

  17. Attendance Policies and Student Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risen, D. Michael

    2007-01-01

    The details described in this case study examine the issues related to attendance policies and how such policies might be legally used to affect student grades. Concepts discussed should cause graduate students in educational administration to reflect on the issues presented from various points of view when the students complete an analysis of the…

  18. Grading Rubrics: Hoopla or Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Rebecca J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to offer some quantitative, multivariate evidence concerning the impact of grading rubric use on academic outcome among American higher education students. Using a pre-post, quasi-experimental research design, cross-sectional data were derived from undergraduates enrolled in an elective during spring and fall 2009 at…

  19. Transportation: Grade 8. Cluster IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Olivia H.

    A curriculum guide for grade 8, the document is devoted to the occupational cluster "Transportation." It is divided into five units: surface transportation, interstate transportation, air transportation, water transportation, and subterranean transportation (the Metro). Each unit is introduced by a statement of the topic, the unit's…

  20. Preventing halo bias in grading the work of university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Malouff

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Experts have advocated anonymous marking as a means of minimizing bias in subjective student assessment. In the present study, 159 faculty members or teaching assistants across disciplines were randomly assigned (1 to grade a poor oral presentation of a university student, (2 to grade a good oral presentation of the same student, or (3 not to grade any oral presentation of the student. All graders then assessed the same written work by the student. A linear-contrasts analysis showed that, as hypothesized, the graders assigned significantly higher scores to written work following the better oral presentation than following the poor oral presentation, with intermediate scores for the written work of the student whose oral presentation was not seen by the graders. The results provide evidence of a halo effect in that prior experience with a student biased the grading of written work completed by the student. The findings suggest that keeping students anonymous, as in the condition with no knowledge of the student’s performance in the oral presentation, helps prevent bias in grading.

  1. Smartphone-based grading of apple quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianglin; Li, Ting

    2018-02-01

    Apple quality grading is a critical issue in apple industry which is one economical pillar of many countries. Artificial grading is inefficient and of poor accuracy. Here we proposed to develop a portable, convenient, real-time, and low cost method aimed at grading apple. Color images of the apples were collected with a smartphone and the grade of sampled apple was assessed by a customized smartphone app, which offered the functions translating RGB color values of the apple to color grade and translating the edge of apple image to weight grade. The algorithms are based on modeling with a large number of apple image at different grades. The apple grade data evaluated by the smartphone are in accordance with the actual data. This study demonstrated the potential of smart phone in apple quality grading/online monitoring at gathering and transportation stage for apple industry.

  2. Energy Data Base: subject categories and scope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bost, D.E.

    1985-03-01

    The subject scope of the Energy Data Base (EDB) encompasses all DOE-sponsored research. Broadly defined, EDB subject scope includes all technological aspects of energy production, conversion, and efficient utilization, and the economic, social, and political aspects as well. Scope notes are provided to define the extent of interest in certain subject areas, particularly areas of basic research. Cross references between categories are provided to aid both the categorization of information and its retrieval. Citations entered into DOE's computerized bibliographic information system are assigned six-digit subject category numbers to broadly group information for storage, retrieval, and manipulation. These numbers are used in the preparation of printed documents, such as bibliographies and abstract journals, to arrange the citations and to aid searching on the DOE/RECON on-line system

  3. The Subjectivity of Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Morten

    of a community of social/youth workers in Copenhagen between 1987 and 2003, who developed a pedagogy through creating collectives and mobilizing young people as participants. The theoretical and practical traditions are combined in a unique methodology viewing research as a contentious modeling of prototypical......What is a 'we' – a collective – and how can we use such communal self-knowledge to help people? This book is about collectivity, participation, and subjectivity – and about the social theories that may help us understand these matters. It also seeks to learn from the innovative practices and ideas...

  4. Inhalation of road dust by human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takishima, T; Nakamura, M; Sasaki, M; Miyano, M; Yamaya, M; Sasaki, H

    1987-11-01

    We measured pneumomagnetic field strength (PMFS) in 42 healthy control subjects living in districts of Northern Japan with low levels of road dust pollution and in 39 healthy subjects living in areas with high levels of road dust pollution. Suspended road dust produced by studded tires increases from 30 micrograms/m3 during the summer season to levels as high as 400 micrograms/m3 during the snow season in the downtown areas of Sendai, Japan. Road dust retained in the lungs, containing 3% iron, was magnetized from the surface of the chest wall, and PMFS was measured. Three to 5 sequential PMFS measurements were made in each subject in March and October of 1984 and 1985, and in March 1986. The PMFS in control subjects in March 1984 was 37 +/- 14 pico-Tesla (mean +/- SD) and did not significantly differ from the PMFS in October 1984 or that in March 1985. In March 1984, the PMFS of the subjects in highly polluted areas was 95 +/- 100 pico-Tesla (mean +/- SD) and was significantly higher than that of control subjects (p less than 0.01) and subsequently decreased in March 1985 and in March 1986, corresponding to a decrease in suspended road dust brought about by a campaign to eliminate the use of studded tires. Our findings suggest that some road dust caused by studded tires is retained in the lungs.

  5. SPANISH PEAKS PRIMITIVE AREA, MONTANA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, James A.; Pattee, Eldon C.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Spanish Peaks Primitive Area, Montana, disclosed a small low-grade deposit of demonstrated chromite and asbestos resources. The chances for discovery of additional chrome resources are uncertain and the area has little promise for the occurrence of other mineral or energy resources. A reevaluation, sampling at depth, and testing for possible extensions of the Table Mountain asbestos and chromium deposit should be undertaken in the light of recent interpretations regarding its geologic setting.

  6. Assessment of tissue heterogeneity using diffusion tensor and diffusion kurtosis imaging for grading gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raja, Rajikha; Sinha, Neelam [International Institute of Information Technology-Bangalore, Bangalore (India); Saini, Jitender; Mahadevan, Anita; Rao, K.V.L. Narasinga; Swaminathan, Aarthi [National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bangalore (India)

    2016-12-15

    In this work, we aim to assess the significance of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) parameters in grading gliomas. Retrospective studies were performed on 53 subjects with gliomas belonging to WHO grade II (n = 19), grade III (n = 20) and grade IV (n = 14). Expert marked regions of interest (ROIs) covering the tumour on T2-weighted images. Statistical texture measures such as entropy and busyness calculated over ROIs on diffusion parametric maps were used to assess the tumour heterogeneity. Additionally, we propose a volume heterogeneity index derived from cross correlation (CC) analysis as a tool for grading gliomas. The texture measures were compared between grades by performing the Mann-Whitney test followed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis for evaluating diagnostic accuracy. Entropy, busyness and volume heterogeneity index for all diffusion parameters except fractional anisotropy and anisotropy of kurtosis showed significant differences between grades. The Mann-Whitney test on mean diffusivity (MD), among DTI parameters, resulted in the highest discriminability with values of P = 0.029 (0.0421) for grade II vs. III and P = 0.0312 (0.0415) for III vs. IV for entropy (busyness). In DKI, mean kurtosis (MK) showed the highest discriminability, P = 0.018 (0.038) for grade II vs. III and P = 0.022 (0.04) for III vs. IV for entropy (busyness). Results of CC analysis illustrate the existence of homogeneity in volume (uniformity across slices) for lower grades, as compared to higher grades. Hypothesis testing performed on volume heterogeneity index showed P values of 0.0002 (0.0001) and 0.0003 (0.0003) between grades II vs. III and III vs. IV, respectively, for MD (MK). In summary, the studies demonstrated great potential towards automating grading gliomas by employing tumour heterogeneity measures on DTI and DKI parameters. (orig.)

  7. Assessment of tissue heterogeneity using diffusion tensor and diffusion kurtosis imaging for grading gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raja, Rajikha; Sinha, Neelam; Saini, Jitender; Mahadevan, Anita; Rao, K.V.L. Narasinga; Swaminathan, Aarthi

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we aim to assess the significance of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) parameters in grading gliomas. Retrospective studies were performed on 53 subjects with gliomas belonging to WHO grade II (n = 19), grade III (n = 20) and grade IV (n = 14). Expert marked regions of interest (ROIs) covering the tumour on T2-weighted images. Statistical texture measures such as entropy and busyness calculated over ROIs on diffusion parametric maps were used to assess the tumour heterogeneity. Additionally, we propose a volume heterogeneity index derived from cross correlation (CC) analysis as a tool for grading gliomas. The texture measures were compared between grades by performing the Mann-Whitney test followed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis for evaluating diagnostic accuracy. Entropy, busyness and volume heterogeneity index for all diffusion parameters except fractional anisotropy and anisotropy of kurtosis showed significant differences between grades. The Mann-Whitney test on mean diffusivity (MD), among DTI parameters, resulted in the highest discriminability with values of P = 0.029 (0.0421) for grade II vs. III and P = 0.0312 (0.0415) for III vs. IV for entropy (busyness). In DKI, mean kurtosis (MK) showed the highest discriminability, P = 0.018 (0.038) for grade II vs. III and P = 0.022 (0.04) for III vs. IV for entropy (busyness). Results of CC analysis illustrate the existence of homogeneity in volume (uniformity across slices) for lower grades, as compared to higher grades. Hypothesis testing performed on volume heterogeneity index showed P values of 0.0002 (0.0001) and 0.0003 (0.0003) between grades II vs. III and III vs. IV, respectively, for MD (MK). In summary, the studies demonstrated great potential towards automating grading gliomas by employing tumour heterogeneity measures on DTI and DKI parameters. (orig.)

  8. Information Literacy Skills Are Positively Correlated with Writing Grade and Overall Course Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Elizabeth Scott

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A Review of: Shao, X., & Purpur, G. (2016. Effects of information literacy skills on student writing and course performance. The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 42(6, 670-678. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acalib.2016.08.006 Abstract Objective – To measure the correlation of tested information literacy skills with individual writing scores and overall course grade. Design – Online, multiple-choice survey. Setting – Public research university in North Carolina, United States of America. Subjects – Freshmen students enrolled in either first-year seminar (UCO1200 or basic English writing course (ENG1000. Methods – A 25-question, forced-choice test was piloted with 30 students and measured for internal consistency using Cronbach’s Alphas. The survey instrument was slightly revised before being administered online via SelectSurvey, to 398 students in 19 different sections of either UCO1200 or ENG1000, during class sessions. The test measured students’ information literacy skills in four areas: research strategies, resource types, scholarly vs. popular, and evaluating websites. The preliminary questions asked for each student’s name, major (by category, number of library instruction sessions attended, and the names of library services utilized. The students’ information literacy scores were compared to their writing scores and overall course grades, both of which were obtained from course instructors. The information literacy scores were also analyzed for correlation to the number of library instruction sessions attended or the types of library services utilized. Main Results – Information literacy skills positively correlated with writing scores (n=344, r=-.153, p=0.004 and final course grades (n=345, r=0.112, p=0.037. Pearson’s Correlation Coefficients results demonstrated relationships between writing scores and the information literacy test section “Scholarly versus Popular Sources” (n=344, r=0.145, p=0.007, and final

  9. Low grade uranium deposits of India - a bane or boon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaki, Anjan

    2010-01-01

    Uranium resources of the world is estimated to be 5.5 million tonnes and the proven resources in India forms 3% of the world resources. The biggest uranium deposit is the Olympic dam deposit in Australia, which contains nearly one million tonnes of 0.04% U 3 O 8 , while the highest grade of nearly 20% is established in the McArthur river deposit, Canada. Another very high grade deposit, the Cigar lake deposit, is established in Canada with an average grade of nearly 18%. Most of the uranium deposits established in India so far falls under the category of low grade. These low grade uranium deposits are distributed mainly in Singhbhum Shear Zone, eastern India; in parts of Chhattisgarh; Southern parts of Meghalaya; Cuddapah Basin, Andhra Pradesh; in parts of Karnataka and Aravalli- and Delhi Supergroups, Rajasthan and Haryana. These deposits are mainly hydrothermal vein type, stratabound type and unconformity related. The Singhbhum Shear Zone, Jharkhand hosts a seventeen low grade uranium deposits, aggregating about 30% of Indian uranium resources. The uranium mineralisation hosted by Vempalle dolostone extends over 160 km belt along southwestern margin of Cuddapah Basin in Andhra Pradesh and accounts 23% of the Indian resources. Though the dolostone hosted Tummalapalle uranium deposit was established in the early nineties, because of techno-economic constraints, the deposit remained dormant. As a consequence of the development of an innovative pressure alkali beneficiation process, the deposit became economically viable and a mine and mill are being constructed here. Recent exploration inputs are leading to prove a number of low grade uranium deposits in the extension areas of Tummalapalle. Nearly 10 blocks have been identified within a 30 km belt which are being actively explored and a large uranium deposit has already been proved in this province. The deposit at Tummalapalle and adjoining areas is likely to become the second biggest deposit in the world. The

  10. QUALITY OF PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION SERVICES IN URBAN AREA OF ORADEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silaghi Simona

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Intensification of public transport in urban areas due to increased mobility at regional and national levels, discrepancies among urban areas with same population and lack of statistical data related to performance and quality of public transport services are the main determinants of this paper. A separation line must be drawn between quality of services and performance indicators of public transport system. Service quality is a multi subjective outcome of an array of intangible variables. Service quality can be approached from four directions: consumer, vehicle performance (including the human operator, specialized company in passenger transport, and the Government (local Councils. Availability, comfort and convenience are the two main indicators that must be evaluated by citizens as being with high grades for a good quality of urban transport services. The instrument used to gather data is the preference survey.

  11. Anaplasia and grading in medulloblastomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhart, Charles G; Burger, Peter C

    2003-07-01

    The variable clinical outcomes of medulloblastoma patients have prompted a search for markers with which to tailor therapies to individuals. In this review, we discuss clinical, histological and molecular features that can be used in such treatment customization, focusing on how histopathological grading can impact both patient care and research on the molecular basis of CNS embryonal tumors. Medulloblastomas span a histological spectrum ending in overtly malignant large cell/anaplastic lesions characterized by increased nuclear size, marked cytological anaplasia, and increased mitotic and apoptotic rates. These "high-grade" lesions make up approximately one quarter of medulloblastomas, and recur and metastasize more frequently than tumors lacking anaplasia. We believe anaplastic change represents a type of malignant progression common to many medulloblastoma subtypes and to other CNS embryonal lesions as well. Correlation of these histological changes with the accumulation of genetic events suggests a model for the histological and molecular progression of medulloblastoma.

  12. Synthesis of battery grade reduced silver powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qadeer, R.; Hameed, M.; Ikram, S.; Munir, A.

    2002-01-01

    Process for production of battery grade reduced silver powder, an active positive material for zinc-silver oxide batteries, having specific characteristics has been optimized and the synthesized reduced silver powder was characterized. Results reveal that the values of bulk density (1.25 0.1 g/cm3) and activity (73.27 %) of synthesized reduced silver powder lies within the recommended range for use as battery material. It has purity ≥ 98% and contains Fe and Cu as traces in the concentration range of 30 5 ppm and 15 7 ppm respectively. Others determined values of surface and pores parameters are: surface area 2.6 .4 m2/g: pore volume 3.10 cm3/g: pore diameter 0.043 mu m and porosity 20%. XRD studies reveal that reduced silver powder has a cubic structure. (author)

  13. A new grading system for analyzing pediatric cholesteatoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, Akira; Ashimori, Naoki; Tsurita, Minako; Ban, Akihiro

    2007-01-01

    We developed a new grading system to understand the complicated pathological changes of cholesteatoma in comparison to those of chronic otitis media. This grading system, based on the extent of the cholesteatoma and the surrounding pathlogical changes, is able to simply express the entire pathological condition of the ear with cholesteatoma. Using this grading system, we analyzed the ears of 48 children with cholesteatoma, who underwent tympanoplasty over the past ten years. Their ages ranged from 2 to 15 years with an average age of 8.5 years. The attic and mesotympanic cholesteatomas were associated with greater pathological changes than those observed in postero-superior quadrant cholesteatomas. The degree of the pathological change in the area surrounding the cholesteatoma appears to correlate with the degree of extention of the cholesteatoma. This system is thus considered to be useful for evaluating the improvement in the pathological conditions before and after surgery in patients with cholesteatoma. (author)

  14. Grade Expectations: Rationality and Overconfidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Jan R.; Peresetsky, Anatoly A.

    2018-01-01

    Confidence and overconfidence are essential aspects of human nature, but measuring (over)confidence is not easy. Our approach is to consider students' forecasts of their exam grades. Part of a student's grade expectation is based on the student's previous academic achievements; what remains can be interpreted as (over)confidence. Our results are based on a sample of about 500 second-year undergraduate students enrolled in a statistics course in Moscow. The course contains three exams and each student produces a forecast for each of the three exams. Our models allow us to estimate overconfidence quantitatively. Using these models we find that students' expectations are not rational and that most students are overconfident, in agreement with the general literature. Less obvious is that overconfidence helps: given the same academic achievement students with larger confidence obtain higher exam grades. Female students are less overconfident than male students, their forecasts are more rational, and they are also faster learners in the sense that they adjust their expectations more rapidly. PMID:29375449

  15. Grade Expectations: Rationality and Overconfidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan R. Magnus

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Confidence and overconfidence are essential aspects of human nature, but measuring (overconfidence is not easy. Our approach is to consider students' forecasts of their exam grades. Part of a student's grade expectation is based on the student's previous academic achievements; what remains can be interpreted as (overconfidence. Our results are based on a sample of about 500 second-year undergraduate students enrolled in a statistics course in Moscow. The course contains three exams and each student produces a forecast for each of the three exams. Our models allow us to estimate overconfidence quantitatively. Using these models we find that students' expectations are not rational and that most students are overconfident, in agreement with the general literature. Less obvious is that overconfidence helps: given the same academic achievement students with larger confidence obtain higher exam grades. Female students are less overconfident than male students, their forecasts are more rational, and they are also faster learners in the sense that they adjust their expectations more rapidly.

  16. A proposed grading system for standardizing tumor consistency of intracranial meningiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zada, Gabriel; Yashar, Parham; Robison, Aaron; Winer, Jesse; Khalessi, Alexander; Mack, William J; Giannotta, Steven L

    2013-12-01

    Tumor consistency plays an important and underrecognized role in the surgeon's ability to resect meningiomas, especially with evolving trends toward minimally invasive and keyhole surgical approaches. Aside from descriptors such as "hard" or "soft," no objective criteria exist for grading, studying, and conveying the consistency of meningiomas. The authors designed a practical 5-point scale for intraoperative grading of meningiomas based on the surgeon's ability to internally debulk the tumor and on the subsequent resistance to folding of the tumor capsule. Tumor consistency grades and features are as follows: 1) extremely soft tumor, internal debulking with suction only; 2) soft tumor, internal debulking mostly with suction, and remaining fibrous strands resected with easily folded capsule; 3) average consistency, tumor cannot be freely suctioned and requires mechanical debulking, and the capsule then folds with relative ease; 4) firm tumor, high degree of mechanical debulking required, and capsule remains difficult to fold; and 5) extremely firm, calcified tumor, approaches density of bone, and capsule does not fold. Additional grading categories included tumor heterogeneity (with minimum and maximum consistency scores) and a 3-point vascularity score. This grading system was prospectively assessed in 50 consecutive patients undergoing craniotomy for meningioma resection by 2 surgeons in an independent fashion. Grading scores were subjected to a linear weighted kappa analysis for interuser reliability. Fifty patients (100 scores) were included in the analysis. The mean maximal tumor diameter was 4.3 cm. The distribution of overall tumor consistency scores was as follows: Grade 1, 4%; Grade 2, 9%; Grade 3, 43%; Grade 4, 44%; and Grade 5, 0%. Regions of Grade 5 consistency were reported only focally in 14% of heterogeneous tumors. Tumors were designated as homogeneous in 68% and heterogeneous in 32% of grades. The kappa analysis score for overall tumor consistency

  17. A resiliência como objeto de investigação na enfermagem e em outras áreas: uma revisão La resiliencia como objeto de investigación en la enfermería y en otras areas: una revisión Resilience as subject for investigation in nursing and in other areas: a revision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise de Assis Corrêa Sória

    2006-12-01

    in databases, having, as describing, Resilience and Nursing. The data was characterized by the frequency in each area of knowledge. We objectify to search, in the catalogue of the CEPEN and the electronic bases of data BDENF, LILACS, MEDLINE, SCIELO, the resilience as thematic in the productions of the Nursing, between January of 1993 and May of 2004. The incidence was found in Social Sciences. In the MEDLINE, the biggest concentration it was given in the Mental Health. In the BDENF, its boarding is scarce. In the SCIELO, the Psychology concentrated the studies about the thematics. From the 122 analyzed studies, the resilience was object in 6% of the total of the studies. We verify a gap in the use of the concept in the area of the Latin American Nursing, fact that adds value to the study, contributing for a redimensionning of the daily professional.

  18. Measure of uncertainty in regional grade variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tutmez, B.; Kaymak, U.; Melin, P.; Castillo, O.; Gomez Ramirez, E.; Kacprzyk, J.; Pedrycz, W.

    2007-01-01

    Because the geological events are neither homogeneous nor isotropic, the geological investigations are characterized by particularly high uncertainties. This paper presents a hybrid methodology for measuring of uncertainty in regional grade variability. In order to evaluate the fuzziness in grade

  19. Interview without a subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rittenhofer, Iris

    2010-01-01

    This article contributes to the rethinking of qualitative interview research into intercultural issues. It suggests that the application of poststructuralist thought should not be limited to the analysis of the interview material itself, but incorporate the choice of interviewees and the modalities...... for the accomplishment of interviews. The paper focuses on a discussion of theoretical and methodological considerations of design, approach and research strategy. These discussions are specified in relation to a project on gender and ethnicity in cultural encounters at Universities. In the paper, I introduce a research...... design named Cultural interviewing, present an approach to the design of interviews named Interview without a subject, and offer an analytic strategy directed towards the analysis of interview transcripts named Interview on the level of the signifier. The paper concludes that even though it is relevant...

  20. The grading management of the quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Xiaozheng; Han Shufang; Yu Bei; Tian Xuehang

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces the quality assurance grading management of the items, services and technology process on nuclear power plants (nuclear island, conventional island, BOP), such as the requirements and aim in the related code, guide, technical document, the requirements for the related units, the grading principle and grading, the considering method for the differences of QA requirements of the each QA grand, as well as the status and propositions in the QA grading management in China. (authors)

  1. Lens subluxation grading system: predictive value for ectopia lentis surgical outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Waiswol

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present a classification system to grade ectopia lentis and to assess its usefulness as a predictor for surgical outcomes. Methods: Fifty-one eyes of 28 patients with either simple (19 patients or Marfan syndrome-associated ectopia lentis (nine patients with variable degrees of subluxation were operated on. Lens subluxation intensity was graded according to the lens subluxation grading system (LSGS from grade 1 (lens on the whole pupillary area up to grade 4 (lens absent from the pupillary area. Thirty eyes underwent cataract extraction (“dry” aspiration with endocapsular ring and in-the-bag intraocular lens (IOL implantation. Twenty-one eyes underwent cataract extraction (“dry” aspiration with scleral fixation of the IOL. The predictive value of the LSGS was assessed by analyzing the post-operative outcomes, including visual acuity (VA, endothelial cell loss, and complications for each grade on the grading system. Rresults: Patients were classified into grade 1 (19.6%, grade 2 (51% and grade 3 (29.4%. Post-operative VA was lower for eyes with larger degrees of subluxation. The higher the subluxation grade, the higher the endothelial cell loss, as well as, the frequency of vitreous loss and surgical time. Higher subluxation grades prevented optimal surgical outcomes with endocapsular ring and in-the-bag IOL implantation. Cconclusions: The LSGS provides an estimate of the surgical success of ectopia lentis. Adequate standardization of lens subluxation is crucial for understanding studies dealing with the surgical correction of this disorder.

  2. The pathologist's mean grade is constant and individualizes the prognostic value of bladder cancer grading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rhijn, Bas W G; van Leenders, Geert J L H; Ooms, Bert C M; Kirkels, Wim J; Zlotta, Alexandre R; Boevé, Egbert R; Jöbsis, Adriaan C; van der Kwast, Theo H

    2010-06-01

    A new grading system for bladder cancer (BCa) was adopted in 2004 to reduce observer variability and provide better prognostic information. We compared the World Health Organization (WHO) 1973 and 2004 systems for observer variability and prognosis. Slides of 173 primary non-muscle-invasive BCa were reviewed two times by four pathologists. Intra- and interobserver variability were assessed using κ statistics. We determined the mean grade (eg, G1/low malignant potential is 1 grade point, G2/low grade is 2 grade points) of the pathologists per grading cycle. Kaplan-Meier analyses were applied for prediction of recurrence and progression. For WHO 2004 and 1973 grading, the agreement between the pathologists was 39-74% (κ: 0.14-0.58) and 39-64% (κ: 0.15-0.41), respectively. The intraobserver agreement varied from 71% to 88% (κ: 0.55-0.81). The mean grade of a pathologist was constant (difference below 0.1 grade point) irrespective of the grading system. Conversely, mean-grade differences among the pathologists were high, up to 0.7 grade point. The mean grades for the WHO 2004 system were 0.3-0.5 grade point higher than those of WHO 1973. Mean grade distinguished low and high graders among the pathologists and was strongly linked with risk of progression in each grade category. The variation in mean grade among individual pathologists exceeded the grade shift caused by WHO 2004 grading. Knowledge of the pathologist's mean grade allows a better assessment of the prognostic value of grading. Mean grade has the potential to become a tool for quality assurance in pathology. Copyright © 2009 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Examining Text Complexity in the Early Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Jill; Elmore, Jeff; Hiebert, Elfrieda H.; Koons, Heather H.; Bowen, Kimberly; Sanford-Moore, Eleanor E.; Stenner, A. Jackson

    2016-01-01

    The Common Core raises the stature of texts to new heights, creating a hubbub. The fuss is especially messy at the early grades, where children are expected to read more complex texts than in the past. But early-grades teachers have been given little actionable guidance about text complexity. The authors recently examined early-grades texts to…

  4. Registration Patterns Under Two Different Grading Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remley, Audrey W.

    In the early 1960's, Westminster College adopted a new grading system, with the traditional grade levels of A, B, C, D, and F converted to DN (Distinction), HP (High Pass), P (Pass), and NC (No Credit). NC replaced both D and F of the old system, and grade point averages were abolished, in an effort to encourage students to register in more…

  5. Forecasting and recruitment in graded manpower systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nunen, J.A.E.E.; Wessels, J.

    1977-01-01

    In this paper a generalized Markov model is introduced to describe the dynamic behaviour of an individual employee in a graded Manpower system. Characteristics like the employee's grade, his educational level, his age and the time spent in his actual grade, can be incorporated in the Markov model.

  6. Does Education Corrupt? Theories of Grade Inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleinik, Anton

    2009-01-01

    Several theories of grade inflation are discussed in this review article. It is argued that grade inflation results from the substitution of criteria specific to the search for truth by criteria of quality control generated outside of academia. Particular mechanisms of the grade inflation that occurs when a university is transformed into a…

  7. Classifcation of volcanic structure in mesozoic era in the Fuzhou-Shaoxing area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fengqi.

    1989-01-01

    The volcanic structure in the Fuzhou-Shaoxing area can be classified into IV grades: the grade I be the zone of volcanic activity; the grade II be the second zone of volcanic activity; the grade III be the positive, negative volcanic structure; the grade IV be volcanic conduit, volcanic crater, concealed eruption breccia pipe. Based on the geological situation in this area, the different types of volcanic structure are also dealt with. In the mean time, both the embossed type in the depression area and the depressed type in the embossed area in the volcanic basin are pointed out. It is of great advantage to Uranium mineralization

  8. The Relationship of Grade Span in 9th Grade to Math Achievement in High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, John; Miller, Mary Lou; Myers, Jim; Norton, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Purpose, Scope, and Method of Study: The purpose of this study was to determine if a correlation exists between grade span for ninth grade and gains in math achievement test scores in 10th grade and 12th grade. A quantitative, longitudinal, correlational research design was employed to investigate the research questions. The population was high…

  9. High grade glioma: Imaging combined with pathological grade defines management and predicts prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnet, Neil G.; Lynch, Andrew G.; Jefferies, Sarah J.; Price, Stephen J.; Jones, Phil H.; Antoun, Nagui M.; Xuereb, John H.; Pohl, Ute

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: There is ambiguity in pathological grading of high grade gliomas within the WHO 2000 classification, especially those with predominant oligodendroglial differentiation. Patients and methods: All adult high grade gliomas treated radically, 1996-2005, were assessed. Cases in which pathology was grade III but radiology suggested glioblastoma (GBM) were classified as 'grade III/IV'; their pathology was reviewed. Results: Data from 245 patients (52 grade III, 18 grade III/IV, 175 GBM) were analysed using a Cox Proportional Hazards model. On pathology review, features suggestive of more aggressive behaviour were found in all 18 grade III/IV tumours. Oligodendroglial components with both necrosis and microvascular proliferation were present in 7. MIB-1 counts for the last 8 were all above 14%, mean 27%. Median survivals were: grade III 34 months, grade III/IV 10 months, GBM 11 months. Survival was not significantly different between grade III/IV and GBM. Patients with grade III/IV tumours had significantly worse outcome than grade III, with a hazard of death 3.7 times higher. Conclusions: The results highlight the current inconsistency in pathological grading of high grade tumours, especially those with oligodendroglial elements. Patients with histological grade III tumours but radiological appearances suggestive of GBM should be managed as glioblastoma

  10. Association of Grade Configuration with School Climate for 7th and 8th Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Marisa; Cornell, Dewey; Shukla, Kathan

    2017-01-01

    Educational authorities have questioned whether middle schools provide the best school climate for 7th and 8th grade students, and proposed that other grade configurations such as K-8th grade schools may provide a better learning environment. The purpose of this study was to compare 7th and 8th grade students' perceptions of 4 key features of…

  11. Comparing Dropout Predictors for Two State-Level Panels Using Grade 6 and Grade 8 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Bobby J.; Trouard, Stephen B.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of dropout predictors across time. Two state-level high school graduation panels were selected to begin with the seventh and ninth grades but end at the same time. The first panel (seventh grade) contained 29,554 students and used sixth grade predictors. The second panel (ninth grade)…

  12. Grade Inflation Marches On: Grade Increases from the 1990s to 2000s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostal, Jack W.; Kuncel, Nathan R.; Sackett, Paul R.

    2016-01-01

    Grade inflation threatens the integrity of college grades as indicators of academic achievement. In this study, we contribute to the literature on grade inflation by providing the first estimate of the size of grade increases at the student level between the mid-1990s and mid-2000s. By controlling for student characteristics and course-taking…

  13. The effect of various grading scales on student grade point averages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Kelli D; Buring, Shauna M

    2012-04-10

    To investigate changes in and the impact of grading scales from 2005 to 2010 and explore pharmacy faculty and student perceptions of whole-letter and plus/minus grading scales on cumulative grade point averages (GPAs) in required courses. Grading scales used in 2010 at the University of Cincinnati College of Pharmacy were retrospectively identified and compared to those used in 2005. Mean GPA was calculated using a whole-letter grading scale and a plus/minus grading scale to determine the impact of scales on GPA. Faculty members and students were surveyed regarding their perceptions of plus/minus grading. Nine unique grading scales were used throughout the curriculum, including plus/minus (64%) and whole-letter (21%) grading scales. From 2005 to 2010 there was transition from use of predominantly whole-letter scales to plus/minus grading scales. The type of grading scale used did not affect the mean cumulative GPA. Students preferred use of a plus-only grading scale while faculty members preferred use of a plus/minus grading scale. The transition from whole-letter grading to plus/minus grading in courses from 2005 to 2010 reflects pharmacy faculty members' perception that plus/minus grading allows for better differentiation between students' performances.

  14. Anchorage Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An anchorage area is a place where boats and ships can safely drop anchor. These areas are created in navigable waterways when ships and vessels require them for...

  15. Laboratory instruction and subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Barolli

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The specific aspects which determined the way some groups of students conducted their work in a university laboratory, made us understand the articulation of these groups´s dynamics, from elements that were beyond the reach of cognition. In more specific terms the conduction and the maintenance of the groups student´s dynamics were explicited based on a intergame between the non conscious strategies, shared anonymously, and the efforts of the individuals in working based on their most objective task. The results and issues we have reached so far, using a reference the work developed by W.R.Bion, with therapeutical groups, gave us the possibility for understanding the dynamics of the student´s experimental work through a new approach that approximates the fields of cognition and subjectivity. This approximation led us to a deeper reflection about the issues which may be involved in the teaching process, particularly in situations which the teacher deals with the class, organised in groups.

  16. A Subjective Rational Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradov, G. P.

    2017-01-01

    The problem of constructing a choice model of an agent with endogenous purposes of evolution is under debate. It is demonstrated that its solution requires the development of well-known methods of decision-making while taking into account the relation of action mode motivation to an agent’s ambition to implement subjectively understood interests and the environment state. The latter is submitted for consideration as a purposeful state situation model that exists only in the mind of an agent. It is the situation that is a basis for getting an insight into the agent’s ideas on the possible selected action mode results. The agent’s ambition to build his confidence in the feasibility of the action mode and the possibility of achieving the desired state requires him to use the procedures of forming an idea model based on the measured values of environment state. This leads to the gaming approach for the choice problem and its solution can be obtained on a set of trade-off alternatives.

  17. Resource Handbook--Space Beyond the Earth. A Supplement to Basic Curriculum Guide--Science, Grades K-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, John W., 3rd., Ed.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grades K-6. SUBJECT MATTER: Science; space. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into four units: 1) the sun, earth, and moon; 2) stars and planets; 3) exploring space; 4) man's existence in space. Each unit includes initiatory and developmental activities. There are also sections on evaluation, vocabulary,…

  18. The Effects of Animation Supported 5E Model on Teaching "Indicative and Subjunctive Moods" in 7th Grade Turkish Lesson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özcan, Mehmet Fatih; Kiliç, Latife Kirbasoglu

    2017-01-01

    This study is to investigate the effects of animated 5E method on the success, attitude and opinions towards the course in teaching of "subjunctive and indicative moods" subject of 7th grade Turkish course. The study was conducted with 60 seventh grade students of a state-run secondary school in Palandöken district of Erzurum during the…

  19. Strand V: Education for Survival. First Aid and Survival Education. Health Curriculum Materials Grades 10-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grades 10-12. SUBJECT MATTER: First aid and survival education. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into six sections: transportation of the injured, automobile accidents, conditions resulting from nuclear explosion, chemical warfare, natural catastrophes, and psychological first aid. The publication format…

  20. Enhancing Reading Comprehension and Critical Thinking Skills of First Grade ESOL Students through the Use of Semantic Webbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Madeline

    In response to low reading scores among first grade students of English as a Second Language (ESL) in one inner-city school, the teaching techniques of semantic webbing and brainstorming were used to improve student reading skills. Subjects were eight first grade ESL students. Pretests were administered to assess student levels of reading…

  1. The Effect of Conceptual Change Approach to Eliminate 9th Grade High School Students' Misconceptions about Air Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbas, Yavuz; Gencturk, Ebru

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of teaching based on conceptual change overcome misconceptions of 9th grade high school students about the subject of air pressure. The sampling of the study was formed with two classes of 9th grade students from a general high school in the city-center of Trabzon. A quasi-experimental…

  2. The effect of two grading systems on the performance of medical students during oral examinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ba-Ali, Shakoor; Jemec, Gregor B E; Sander, Birgit

    2017-01-01

    group (p = 0.45). Moreover, the average mark was higher among the international students (mean = 10.3, on the seven-point grading scale) than in the Danish speaking classes (mean = 9.1). CONCLUSION: The seven-point grading scale seems to motivate students to yield a better performance; hence tiered......INTRODUCTION: Either a pass/fail approach or a seven-point grading scale are used to evaluate students at the Danish universities. The aim of this study was to explore any effect of the assessment methods on student performances during oral exams. METHODS: In a prospective study including 1......,037 examinations in three medical subjects, we investigated the difference in the test scores between the spring- and autumn semester. In the spring semester, the students could either pass or fail the subject (pass/fail) while in the following autumn semester, the students were assessed by tiered grading (seven...

  3. The Utility of Phosphohistone H3 in Breast Cancer Grading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiaoyan; Harada, Shuko; Shen, Dejun; Siegal, Gene P; Wei, Shi

    2015-01-01

    The commonly used Nottingham Grading System in breast cancer takes into consideration the presence of tubular formation, nuclear pleomorphism, and the mitotic index (MI), among which the latter has been shown to be the most powerful prognostic factor. In practice, histologic grading is highly subjective, with only moderate interobserver reproducibility. Phosphorylation of histone H3 has been demonstrated to be a specific event in the mitotic phase, and is negligible during interphase. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of Phosphohistone H3 (PHH3) in the breast cancer grading of 97 consecutive biopsy specimens. PHH3 antibodies clearly revealed discrete, strong nuclear immunoreactivity in mitotically active cells even under low magnification. The PHH3 MI showed a significant correlation with that derived by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining as well as the Ki-67 proliferation index. Further, the pairwise κ-value of the MI was significantly increased, and the pairwise agreement was also markedly improved by PHH3 immunostaining, although a significant proportion of breast cancer cases were upgraded by use of the PHH3 MI. Our data showed that PHH3 provided a more sensitive and accurate MI with less interobserver variability when compared with conventional H&E staining, thus emphasizing its potentially increased value in practice. Reconsideration of breast cancer grading with integration of PHH3 should be considered if it continues to demonstrate superiorly to traditional H&E staining.

  4. Development of nuclear grade stainless steels at KCSSL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balachandran, G.; Dhere, M.; Mahadik, A.; Hinge, N.M.; Balasubramanian, V.

    2011-01-01

    Kalyani Carpenter Special Steels Ltd is an alloy steel plant, where a variety of alloy steel grades are produced for automotive, defence, nuclear and aerospace applications. The plant has developed expertise in processing of several alloy steel grades of superior quality that meets stringent specifications. Primary steel is processed through a combination of electric arc furnace, ladle furnace and vacuum degassing where stringent control over dephosphorisation, desulphurization, deoxidation is effected to get a refined high quality steel. The molten steel is cast through continuous casting of slabs or ingot casting. In grades specific to nuclear application, the primary cast products are further subjected to electroslag remelting to achieve further freedom from inclusions and to achieve a favourable solidification grain structure, which ultimately improve the hot workability of the alloy steel. Appropriate choice of slag and operating parameters are needed for realising the required ingot quality. The present study would examine the processing and quality aspects of some important grades of steels used in nuclear industry namely ferritic 9Cr-1Mo steel, martensitic stainless steels 403, 410, precipitation hardenable 17-4 PH stainless steel and austenitic 321, 316LN stainless steel, which were made and supplied for applications to Indian nuclear industry. The expertise developed in processing the steels in terms of melting, heat treatment and their relationship to structural features and mechanical properties would be highlighted. (author)

  5. The measurement and inclusion of a stochastic ore-grade uncertainty in mine valuations using PDEs

    OpenAIRE

    Evatt, G. W.; Johnson, P. V.; Duck, P. W.; Howell, S. D.

    2010-01-01

    Mining companies world-wide are faced with the problem of how to accurately value and plan extraction projects subject to uncertainty in both future price and ore grade. Whilst the methodology of modelling price uncertainty is reasonably well understood, modelling ore-grade uncertainty is a much harder problem to formulate, and when attempts have been made the solutions have taken unfeasibly long times to compute. This paper provides a new partial differential equations approach to the proble...

  6. The Construction of a Muscular Strength Test Battery for Girls in the Primary Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiNucci, James M.; Pelton, Elois B.

    This study was designed to construct a gross muscular strength test battery for girls 6-9 years of age in grades 1-3. The subjects for this investigation were a random sample of 183 girls in grades 1-3 of the public schools of Natchitoches, Louisiana. The variables selected were 22 cable tension strength tests developed by Clarke and associates.…

  7. Actinide recovery from waste and low-grade sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navratil, J.D.; Schulz, W.W.

    1982-01-01

    Actinide and nuclear fuel cycle operations generate a variety of process waste streams. New methods are needed to remove and recover actinides. More interest is also being expressed in recovering uranium from oceans, phosphoric acid, and other low grade sources. To meet the need for an up-to-date status report in the area of actinide recovery from waste and low grade sources, these papers were brought together. The papers provide an authoritative, in-depth coverage of an important area of nuclear and industrial and engineering chemistry which cover the following topics: uranium recovery from oceans and phosphoric acid; recovery of actinides from solids and liquid wastes; plutonium scrap recovery technology; and other new developments in actinide recovery processes

  8. Fire Hazards Analysis for the 200 Area Interim Storage Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JOHNSON, D.M.

    2000-01-01

    This documents the Fire Hazards Analysis (FHA) for the 200 Area Interim Storage Area. The Interim Storage Cask, Rad-Vault, and NAC-1 Cask are analyzed for fire hazards and the 200 Area Interim Storage Area is assessed according to HNF-PRO-350 and the objectives of DOE Order 5480 7A. This FHA addresses the potential fire hazards associated with the Interim Storage Area (ISA) facility in accordance with the requirements of DOE Order 5480 7A. It is intended to assess the risk from fire to ensure there are no undue fire hazards to site personnel and the public and to ensure property damage potential from fire is within acceptable limits. This FHA will be in the form of a graded approach commensurate with the complexity of the structure or area and the associated fire hazards

  9. The Investigation of 6th Grade Student Misconceptions Originated from Didactic about the "Digestive System" Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgur, Sami; Pelitoglu, Fatma Cildir

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the misconceptions emerged as a result of instruction were examined from the viewpoint of the Didactic Transposition Theory. To this end, two randomly selected sample groups (n = 33 and n = 31) from the students of two nearby schools in downtown Balikesir were included in the study. It was observed that different knowledge…

  10. Teaching Subjectively: Interdisciplinary Insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacy Douglas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article of linked, short essays reflecting on the experiences of five female scholars across three disciplines — law, social work and political science - draws upon Britzman’s (1991 notion of the “dialogic discourse” to explore how these professors’ sense of self is constituted through interplay with colleagues and their perceptions of students within the classroom. The authors explore the teacher/learner relationship as a dialogue within which learners and educators shape each other as they come to understand how and what they know. What the collection makes explicit is what is often only implicit, that the ways in which professors understand their practices and subjective self is central to the identity of “a professor”, which is never stable or certain, but is always a creative practice. Such practices, we argue, are best sustained through collegial reflective practices that help us make sense of ourselves and continue our work. Cet article consiste de courts essais reliés entre eux qui relatent les expériences de cinq professeures érudites qui oeuvrent dans trois disciplines différentes : le droit, le travail social et les sciences politiques. Il est basé sur la notion de « discours dialogique » de Britzman (1991 qui permet d’explorer comment la conscience de soi de ces professeures s’est constituée à travers leurs interactions avec leurs collègues et leurs perceptions des étudiants dans la salle de classe. Les auteures explorent les relations entre enseignants et apprenants sous forme de dialogues au sein desquels les apprenants et les éducateurs se façonnent les uns les autres au fur et à mesure qu’ils comprennent comment ils apprennent et ce qu’ils ont appris. Ce que la collection rend explicite est ce qui est souvent seulement implicite, à savoir que les diverses manières dont les professeurs comprennent leurs pratiques et leur moi subjectif sont au centre de l’identité d’un « professeur

  11. SUBJECT AND AUTHOR INDEXS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IJBE Volume 1

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available SUBJECT INDEX IJBE VOLUME 1EPA, 1Agrotourism, 148AHP, 148balance scorecard, 63batik tulis Rolla Junior, 23Broiler, 90business model canvas, 137business performance,32capital structure, 81cashew industry,158CHAID,106CLI,42coal transportation service,63company’s characteristics, 81competitive advantage, 12competitive strategy, 127consumer satisfaction, 51CSI, 42customer loyalty, 42customer satisfaction,42decision of visitors, 72development strategy, 23development,158entrepreneurship, 32Feasibility studies, 90FEM, 81gap analysis, 1Indonesia Stock Exchange, 177Indosat, 137investor,177Kawah Putih, 72kedai sop durian lodaya (KSDL,51klassen typology, 96leading sector, 96less cash society, 137liquidity ratio, 165location quotient, 96logistic regression, 115market, 177marketing development strategy, 148Marketing mix, 72mobile payment, 137modern and Traditional cage, 90multiple regression analyse,165multiple regression, 177net working capital, 165organic tofu product, 115Padang, 106paired comparison, 63partnership, 1, 32Pecking Order Theory, 81PLS, 81Portfolio, 96power, 32product quality, 51profitability ratio, 165Prol Tape Primadona, 127purchase decision, 115purchase intention, 51purchasing interest,115QSPM, 23, 127refilled drinking water, 106seed,1segmentation, 106SEM, 42, 51service quality, 51SMEs, 96specialty coffee, 12stock,177strategic diagnosis,137strategy, 158Sukorambi Botanic Garden, 148SWOT, 23, 127, 148, 158SWOT-AHP, 12tourists,72UD. Primadona, 127value chain, 12VRIO,12 AUTHOR INDEX IJBE VOLUME 1Adiningsih, Kartika Puspitasari,42Aknesia, Vharessa,12Amalia, Firda Rachma,90Andati, Trias, 177Anggraeni, Lukytawati,23Asriani,158Daryanto, Arief,12, 90Djamaludin, MD., 42Djohar, Setiadi,96Fachrodji, Achmad,72Fahmi, Idqan,1, 63, 127Fasyni, Awisal,106Hubeis, Musa,148Iskandar, Dodi,51Juanda, Bambang, 165Kirbrandoko, 12, 106, 115Lumbantoruan, Dewi Margareth,96Maulana, TB Nur Ahmad,81Muksin, 148Mukti Soleh, Cecep,63Najib, Mukhamad,106Noor, Tajudin,81

  12. Should Broca's area include Brodmann area 47?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, Alfredo; Bernal, Byron; Rosselli, Monica

    2017-02-01

    Understanding brain organization of speech production has been a principal goal of neuroscience. Historically, brain speech production has been associated with so-called Broca’s area (Brodmann area –BA- 44 and 45), however, modern neuroimaging developments suggest speech production is associated with networks rather than with areas. The purpose of this paper was to analyze the connectivity of BA47 ( pars orbitalis) in relation to language . A meta-analysis was conducted to assess the language network in which BA47 is involved. The Brainmap database was used. Twenty papers corresponding to 29 experimental conditions with a total of 373 subjects were included. Our results suggest that BA47 participates in a “frontal language production system” (or extended Broca’s system). The BA47  connectivity found is also concordant with a minor role in language semantics. BA47 plays a central role in the language production system.

  13. Subjective quality of life and emotional pain among subjects with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    World Health Organization Quality of Life-Bref (WHOQoL-Bref), Psychache Scale (PAS) instruments were administered on subjects that consented to the study. Results: One hundred and forty four (144) subjects of equal sex distribution were studied. The mean age was 31.7±10.2 years. The highest number of subjects, ...

  14. Study of Subjective Life Quality in Young People with Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurtanova Yu.E.,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a study of subjective life quality in young people with disabilities compared with their healthy peers. The study sample comprised 62 women aged 14 to 18 years. The experimental study group consisted of 30 students of grades VIII-XI of Secondary School of home-based learning № 1673 "Support". The control group included 32 student of grades VIII-XI of School № 1222 with in-depth study of the German language. The methods used were: Medical Outcomes Study 36 Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36, M. Kuhn test "Who am I" (M. Kuhn, T. McPartland; modification by T.V. Rumjantseva, Method and diagnosis of health, activity and mood, projective technique "Picture of the actual self" and "Picture of the desired self" with questions. We formulated conclusions about the features of the subjective assessment of the quality of life in young people with disabilities compared with their healthy peers.

  15. Selective Oxidation of Soft Grade Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zecevic, N.

    2007-12-01

    the surface area is essential. Mutual oxidizing agents are ozone, air, mixture of nitric oxide and air, and nitric acid. However, treatment with highly oxidizing agents in a gaseous phase or aqueous medium may highly increase the concentration of acid oxides on the surface area of the carbon black. Acid oxides on the surface area of carbon black decrease the pH value, which is closely connected to the vulcanization of rubber compounds. Furthermore, the afore-mentioned method has other disadvantages. In the case of nitrate acid, the major disadvantage is corrosion of plant equipment. The mixture of nitrite oxide and air demands a very complicated plant, and the same procedure is very time consuming. Ozone increases the oxygen content on the surface area of the carbon black by as much as 15 %, which creates carbon dioxide and reduces utilization. Air creates thermally unstable surface area oxides, since the process demands a temperature range between 450 and 700 °C. Due to all these reasons, an oxidation method was developed of eliminating non-reacted oil from the surface area of oil-furnace carbon black, which cannot be produced with the conventional production method. An aqueous solution of salt ammonium nitrate p.a. proved to be a very good oxidizing agent. Conventional soft grades of oil-furnace carbon blacks with very high contents of non-reacted oil on their surface area, were mixed with the appropriate mass weight of ammonium nitrate p. a. (1.25 to 10.00 g L-1 NH4NO3 p. a.. The obtained homogeneous mixture was dried at temperatures from 180 to 210 °C for a period of 30 to 120 min. Namely, oil-furnace carbon blacks are first produced in a "fluffy" form with exceptionally small mass density, which is why they are very unpractical for manipulation. The "fluffy" oil-furnace carbon black must be transformed to a greater weight density and have a smaller quantity of fines as possible. However, there are many industrial processes of transforming "fluffy" carbon black

  16. An Empirical Study on Subjective Well-Being of Young People Live in Urban Areas of China--From the Perspective of Work-Life Balance Theory%我国城市青年人群幸福感的实证研究--基于工作-生活平衡理论的视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜学勇; 周美多

    2014-01-01

    Although there are plenty of literatures focused on the influencing factors of subjective well-being, few have noticed the importance of time distribution. Based on the work-life balance theory, we conducted a survey on young people who live in the urban areas of China and made an observation on the structural allocation of their work and life time and its impact on subjective well-being. The regression analysis indicates that increasing time that spends with family members and opportunities of short term journeys could enhance young people’s subjective well-being. Reducing their time spent on housework could lead to the same result. Thus, the policy makers could enhance the well-being of people at working age by improving social policies such as adopting more flexible work system and more reasonable holiday system, and promoting the development of household service.%虽然国内外有关幸福感影响因素的研究甚众,但却忽略了时间配置这样一个重要的要素。文章从工作-生活平衡理论的视角构建分析框架,通过对我国城市青年人群的抽样问卷调查,考察青年人群在工作和生活时间上的结构性配置对主观幸福感的影响。回归分析的结果表明,增加与家人相处时间和短途旅游机会,减少个体家务劳动时间都有助于提高人们的幸福感。因此,决策者可以通过采取更具弹性的工作制度、更加合理的休假制度以及推动家政服务的发展等社会政策来实现广大人民尤其是适龄劳动人口的福祉。

  17. A Nonimmunosuppressant Approach on Asia Psoriasis Subjects: 5-Year Followup and 11-Year Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Yuqi Tang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mono- or combine immunosuppressants are commonly used for psoriasis; however the side effect caused by potent systemic immunosuppressants frequently incurred; moreover the inflammation flares up shortly after immunosuppressants are discontinued. An alternative nonimmunosuppressive therapy was introduced to psoriasis subjects. A retrospective observational study consisted of 1583 psoriasis patients who were treated with Herose Psoria capsule 1440 mg three times daily at two clinical centres, one in China, the other in Singapore, from 1 January 2000 to 1 January 2011. Psoriasis lesion evolution was photographed at monthly visit, and efficacy and safety were assessed using psoriasis area severity index PASI score grading, renal and liver function testing, and adverse event reporting and supplemented by information obtained during targeted telephone interviews. The effectiveness of Herose on psoriasis was inversely associated to prior immunosuppressants exposure (r=0.9154, significant improvements occurred in non-immunosuppressants subjects, and complete clearance was achieved in 8 months (87.5%, 14 of 16; the wavelike evolution of psoriatic lesion appeared in prior immunosuppressants subjects.

  18. SUBJECT AND AUTHOR INDEXS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IJBE Volume 2

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available SUBJECT INDEX IJBE VOLUME 2access credit, 93acquisition, 177AHP, 61, 82, 165arena simulation,43BMC, 69Bojonegoro, 69brand choice, 208brand image, 208brand positioning, 208bullwhip effect, 43burger buns, 1business synergy and financial reports, 177capital structure, 130cluster, 151coal reserves, 130coffee plantation, 93competitiveness, 82consumer behaviour, 33consumer complaint behavior, 101cooking spices, 1crackers, 1cross sectional analytical, 139crosstab, 101CSI, 12direct selling, 122discriminant analysis, 33economic value added, 130, 187employee motivation, 112employee performance, 112employees, 139EOQ, 23farmer decisions, 93farmer group, 52financial performance evaluation, 187financial performance, 52, 177financial ratio, 187financial report, 187fiva food, 23food crops, 151horticulture, 151imports, 151improved capital structure, 177IPA, 12leading sector, 151life insurance, 165LotteMart, 43main product, 61marketing mix, 33, 165matrix SWOT, 69MPE, 61multiple linear regression, 122muslim clothing, 197Ogun, 139Pangasius fillet, 82Pati, 93pearson correlation, 101perceived value, 208performance suppy chain, 23PLS, 208POQ, 23portfolio analyzing, 1product, 101PT SKP, 122pulp and papers, 187purchase decision, 165purchase intention, 33remuneration, 112re-purchasing decisions, 197sales performance, 122sawmill, 52SCOR, 23sekolah peternakan rakyat, 69SEM, 112SERVQUAL, 12Sido Makmur farmer groups, 93SI-PUHH Online, 12small and medium industries (IKM, 61socio-demographic, 139sport drink, 208stress, 139supply chain, 43SWOT, 82the mix marketing, 197Tobin’s Q, 130trade partnership, 52uleg chili sauce, 1 AUTHOR INDEX IJBE VOLUME 2Achsani, Noer Azam, 177Andati, Trias, 52, 177Andihka, Galih, 208Arkeman, Yandra, 43Baga, Lukman M, 69Cahyanugroho, Aldi, 112Daryanto, Arief, 12David, Ajibade, 139Djoni, 122Fahmi, Idqan, 1Fattah, Muhammad Unggul Abdul, 61Hakim, Dedi Budiman, 187Harianto, 93Hartoyo, 101Homisah, 1Hubeis, Musa, 112Hutagaol, M. Parulian, 93Jaya, Stevana

  19. Magnetothermoelastic creep analysis of functionally graded cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loghman, A.; Ghorbanpour Arani, A.; Amir, S.; Vajedi, A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes time-dependent creep stress redistribution analysis of a thick-walled FGM cylinder placed in uniform magnetic and temperature fields and subjected to an internal pressure. The material creep, magnetic and mechanical properties through the radial graded direction are assumed to obey the simple power law variation. Total strains are assumed to be the sum of elastic, thermal and creep strains. Creep strains are time, temperature and stress dependent. Using equations of equilibrium, stress-strain and strain-displacement a differential equation, containing creep strains, for displacement is obtained. Ignoring creep strains in this differential equation a closed form solution for the displacement and initial magnetothermoelastic stresses at zero time is presented. Initial magnetothermoelastic stresses are illustrated for different material properties. Using Prandtl-Reuss relation in conjunction with the above differential equation and the Norton's law for the material uniaxial creep constitutive model, the radial displacement rate is obtained and then the radial and circumferential creep stress rates are calculated. Creep stress rates are plotted against dimensionless radius for different material properties. Using creep stress rates, stress redistributions are calculated iteratively using magnetothermoelastic stresses as initial values for stress redistributions. It has been found that radial stress redistributions are not significant for different material properties, however major redistributions occur for circumferential and effective stresses.

  20. Muscle metabolism during graded quadriceps exercise in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn W; Stallknecht, Bente; Galbo, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    , oxidation of plasma free fatty acids increases and accordingly oxidation of other fat sources decreases. These findings are in contrast to whole body measurements performed during graded exercise involving a large muscle mass during which fat oxidation peaks at around 60% of .......The aim of the study was to examine local muscle metabolism in response to graded exercise when the involved muscle mass is too small to elicit marked hormonal changes and local blood flow restriction. Nine healthy overnight fasted male subjects performed knee extension exercise with both thighs...... intensity. In conclusion, in the presence of a high blood flow and oxygen supply and only small hormonal changes, total fat oxidation in muscle increases from rest to light exercise, but then remains constant with exercise intensity up to heavy exercise. However, with increasing exercise intensity...

  1. Is the Sky Falling? Grade Inflation and the Signaling Power of Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattison, Evangeleen; Grodsky, Eric; Muller, Chandra

    2013-06-01

    Grades are the fundamental currency of our educational system; they signal academic achievement and non-cognitive skills to parents, employers, postsecondary gatekeepers, and students themselves. Grade inflation compromises the signaling value of grades, undermining their capacity to achieve the functions for which they are intended. We challenge the 'increases in grade point average' definition of grade inflation and argue that grade inflation must be understood in terms of the signaling power of grades. Analyzing data from four nationally representative samples, we find that in the decades following 1972: (a) grades have risen at high schools and dropped at four-year colleges, in general, and selective four-year institutions, in particular; and (b) the signaling power of grades has attenuated little, if at all.

  2. Physiotherapy Student Clinical Examinations: The Influence of Subjective Judgments on Observational Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Helen A.

    1996-01-01

    A study investigated the role of subjective assessment in the evaluation of physiotherapy students in clinical programs. Clinical teachers, visiting lecturers, and students recorded perceptions of daily events and interactions in journals. Analysis suggests that assessors make subjective judgments about students that influence grades, and…

  3. Computer Science Education in Secondary Schools--The Introduction of a New Compulsory Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubwieser, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In 2004 the German state of Bavaria introduced a new compulsory subject of computer science (CS) in its grammar schools ("Gymnasium"). The subject is based on a comprehensive teaching concept that was developed by the author and his colleagues during the years 1995-2000. It comprises mandatory courses in grades 6/7 for all students of…

  4. The Effect of Friendship Skills Training on Friendship Quality and Subjective Well-Being of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çekiç, Ali; Kul, Aykut; Çetin, Aysenur; Cihangiroglu, Ümmügülsüm

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to examine the effects of friendship skills training on the quality of friendship and subjective well-being of adolescents. In order to determine the experimental and control groups, the Friendship Quality Scale and the Adolescent Subjective Well-Being Scale were administered to 311 students in 9th, 10th and 11th grade classes from…

  5. Self-Oriented Perfectionism and Self-Assessment as Predictors of Adolescents? Subjective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Eyüp

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to examine whether subjective well-being is predicted by self-oriented perfectionism and self-assessment. The self-oriented perfectionism scale, self-assessment scale and subjective well-being scale (SWB) were administrated to a sample of voluntary 272 eight-grade students from three secondary schools in Sultangazi,…

  6. Energy Data Base: Subject categories and scope: A reference manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grissom, M.C.

    1987-04-01

    The subject scope of the Energy Data Base (EDB) is defined, encompassing all technological aspects of energy production, conversion, and efficient utilization, and the economic, social, and political aspects as well. Coverage also includes the basic sciences as applicable. The subject areas within the scope of EDB are defined and hierarchically numbered, and scope notes are provided to define the extent of interest in certain areas, particularly areas of basic research

  7. Production of Food Grade Yeasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argyro Bekatorou

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Yeasts have been known to humans for thousands of years as they have been used in traditional fermentation processes like wine, beer and bread making. Today, yeasts are also used as alternative sources of high nutritional value proteins, enzymes and vitamins, and have numerous applications in the health food industry as food additives, conditioners and flavouring agents, for the production of microbiology media and extracts, as well as livestock feeds. Modern scientific advances allow the isolation, construction and industrial production of new yeast strains to satisfy the specific demands of the food industry. Types of commercial food grade yeasts, industrial production processes and raw materials are highlighted. Aspects of yeast metabolism, with respect to carbohydrate utilization, nutritional aspects and recent research advances are also discussed.

  8. SUBJECTIVE METHODS FOR ASSESSMENT OF DRIVER DROWSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Mashko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the issue of fatigue and sleepiness behind the wheel, which for a long time has been of vital importance for the research in the area of driver-car interaction safety. Numerous experiments on car simulators with diverse measurements to observe human behavior have been performed at the laboratories of the faculty of the authors. The paper provides analysis and an overview and assessment of the subjective (self-rating and observer rating methods for observation of driver behavior and the detection of critical behavior in sleep deprived drivers using the developed subjective rating scales.

  9. A fractional motion diffusion model for grading pediatric brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, M Muge; Wang, He; Sui, Yi; Engelhard, Herbert H; Li, Yuhua; Zhou, Xiaohong Joe

    2016-01-01

    To demonstrate the feasibility of a novel fractional motion (FM) diffusion model for distinguishing low- versus high-grade pediatric brain tumors; and to investigate its possible advantage over apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and/or a previously reported continuous-time random-walk (CTRW) diffusion model. With approval from the institutional review board and written informed consents from the legal guardians of all participating patients, this study involved 70 children with histopathologically-proven brain tumors (30 low-grade and 40 high-grade). Multi- b -value diffusion images were acquired and analyzed using the FM, CTRW, and mono-exponential diffusion models. The FM parameters, D fm , φ , ψ (non-Gaussian diffusion statistical measures), and the CTRW parameters, D m , α , β (non-Gaussian temporal and spatial diffusion heterogeneity measures) were compared between the low- and high-grade tumor groups by using a Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon U test. The performance of the FM model for differentiating between low- and high-grade tumors was evaluated and compared with that of the CTRW and the mono-exponential models using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The FM parameters were significantly lower ( p  < 0.0001) in the high-grade ( D fm : 0.81 ± 0.26, φ : 1.40 ± 0.10, ψ : 0.42 ± 0.11) than in the low-grade ( D fm : 1.52 ± 0.52, φ : 1.64 ± 0.13, ψ : 0.67 ± 0.13) tumor groups. The ROC analysis showed that the FM parameters offered better specificity (88% versus 73%), sensitivity (90% versus 82%), accuracy (88% versus 78%), and area under the curve (AUC, 93% versus 80%) in discriminating tumor malignancy compared to the conventional ADC. The performance of the FM model was similar to that of the CTRW model. Similar to the CTRW model, the FM model can improve differentiation between low- and high-grade pediatric brain tumors over ADC.

  10. Processing of low-grade uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, P.

    1975-01-01

    Four types of low grade ores are studied. Low grade ores which must be extracted because they are enclosed in a normal grade deposit. Heap leaching is the processing method which is largely used. It allows to obtain solutions or preconcentrates which may be delivered at the nearest plant. Normal grade ores contained in a low amplitude deposit which can be processed using leaching as far as the operation does not need any large expensive equipment. Medium grade ores in medium amplitude deposits to which a simplified conventional process can be applied using fast heap leaching. Low grade ores in large deposits. The processing possibilities leading to use in place leaching are explained. The operating conditions of the method are studied (leaching agent, preparation of the ore deposit to obtain a good tightness with regard to the hydrological system and to have a good contact between ore and reagent) [fr

  11. Processing of low grade uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, P.

    1978-10-01

    Four types of low-grade ores are studied: (1) Low-grade ores that must be extracted because they are enclosed in a normal-grade deposit. Heap leaching is the processing method which is largely used. (2) Normal-grade ores contained in low-amplitude deposits. They can be processed using in-place leaching as far as the operation does not need any large and expensive equipment. (3) Medium-grade ores in medium-amplitude deposits. A simplified conventional process can be applied using fast heap leaching. (4) Low-grade ores in large deposits. The report explains processing possibilities leading in most cases to the use of in-place leaching. The operating conditions of this method are laid out, especially the selection of the leaching agents and the preparation of the ore deposit

  12. The research reported in this article was conducted from a socio-environmental perspective on learners’ school readiness when entering Grade 1, as well as their school performance in Grade 1 and again in Grade 4. The relation between school readiness and

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erna van Zyl

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The research reported in this article was conducted from a socio-environmental perspective on learners’ school readiness when entering Grade 1, as well as their school performance in Grade 1 and again in Grade 4. The relation between school readiness and performance in Home Language and Numeracy in Grade 1, and performance in the same learning areas in Grade 4 were investigated by means of a longitudinal quantitative study. One school in the Free State province was purposefully selected. The Aptitude Test for School Beginners (ASB was implemented to capture school readiness, including school maturity and levels of development in physical, cognitive, emotional, social and normative domains. Results confirm that school readiness significantly correlated with academic performance of the respondents in Grade 1 as well as with their school performance in Grade 4.

  13. WHAT INFLUENCES STUDENTS' EXPECTATIONS IN WHAT REGARDS GRADES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mare Codruta

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available After a period of studying a certain subject, students form an opinion about it and begin having certain expectations. These expectations and the degree in which, in the end, they fulfil, contribute to the reputation of the university. Consequently, a continuous evaluation of the quality of the educational process is needed. The present research presents a part of a more complex study made on a sample of master students in Audit and Financial Management in Romania. The goal was to evidence the main factors that affect students' expectations in what regards the grades they will obtain at the end of the semester. For this, a questionnaire of 20 questions was applied to 250 such students. After factor reduction procedures were applied, six most significant variables were kept in the analysis: the proportion of knowledge acquired, the perceived level of utility of the discipline in the professional career of the student, the proportion in which the subject could contribute to getting employed in the field it belongs to, the evaluation method and two variables evaluating through grades the didactic performance during the course and the overall performance of the tenure professor. The influence of these variables upon the grade expected by the student was assessed with the help of the OLS regression, both in the simple and multiple forms. Out of the six hypotheses formulated, only one proved to be false based on the simple regression analysis. When individually assessed, the evaluation method announced by the teacher at the beginning of the semester turned out to have no statistically significant influence upon students' expectations. For the rest of the variables, results were according to the assumptions made, i.e. all determine in a significant positive manner the students' opinion about the grade they will get. We have also constructed the multiple regression models. When putting all variables together, the significance changes. The level of

  14. 2006 Toronto smog report card : final grade C-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This annual report card evaluated the progress made by the City of Toronto toward reducing the environmental and health impacts of smog. The final grade for 2006 was a C-, the same as for 2005. The highest grade of B+ was issued in 2004. The report card evaluated City Council actions based on their clean air commitments. Although the summer of 2006 was one of the best on record, with only 11 smog days, the grade of C- was issued because the performance of the City's Air Quality Improvement record was poor. Toronto Environmental Alliance strongly recommended that important changes be made to improve air quality, transit and waste disposal. It recommended that the City should address the real causes of unclean air, which are motor vehicle exhaust and toxic pollution. This report card graded the performance on initiatives in the following six major areas: energy; transit; air quality plan; walking and biking; fleets and fuels; and, intergovernmental action. The report recommended that efforts should be made to reduce greenhouse gas emissions which cause global warming. refs., tabs., figs.

  15. An instrument for rapid delineation of grade boundaries in selective mining of uranium ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, G.J.; Dickson, B.L.; Meakins, R.L.; Kenny, D.; Talaska, A.

    1982-01-01

    A vehicle-mounted radiation detector interfaced to a microprocessor called PRAM (programmable radioactive analyser mobile) has been developed to provide grade control for selective mining of a soft rock uranium ore. The grade of ore over which the vehicle passes is determined and indicated by several coloured lights to a pegman who walks behind the vehicle. Coloured pegs are then laid out to mark the uranium grade ranges on the floor of the mine pit. Comparison between grade ranges determined by the PRAM and by prior drilling and downhole logging at the Yeelirrie deposit, Western Australia indicate good agreement. Use of the PRAM decreases the cost, manpower and time required to grade extensive areas of a mine pit floor

  16. Distinguishing medication-free subjects with unipolar disorder from subjects with bipolar disorder: state matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rive, Maria M; Redlich, Ronny; Schmaal, Lianne; Marquand, André F; Dannlowski, Udo; Grotegerd, Dominik; Veltman, Dick J; Schene, Aart H; Ruhé, Henricus G

    2016-11-01

    Recent studies have indicated that pattern recognition techniques of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data for individual classification may be valuable for distinguishing between major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). Importantly, medication may have affected previous classification results as subjects with MDD and BD use different classes of medication. Furthermore, almost all studies have investigated only depressed subjects. Therefore, we focused on medication-free subjects. We additionally investigated whether classification would be mood state independent by including depressed and remitted subjects alike. We applied Gaussian process classifiers to investigate the discriminatory power of structural MRI (gray matter volumes of emotion regulation areas) and resting-state fMRI (resting-state networks implicated in mood disorders: default mode network [DMN], salience network [SN], and lateralized frontoparietal networks [FPNs]) in depressed (n=42) and remitted (n=49) medication-free subjects with MDD and BD. Depressed subjects with MDD and BD could be classified based on the gray matter volumes of emotion regulation areas as well as DMN functional connectivity with 69.1% prediction accuracy. Prediction accuracy using the FPNs and SN did not exceed chance level. It was not possible to discriminate between remitted subjects with MDD and BD. For the first time, we showed that medication-free subjects with MDD and BD can be differentiated based on structural MRI as well as resting-state functional connectivity. Importantly, the results indicated that research concerning diagnostic neuroimaging tools distinguishing between MDD and BD should consider mood state as only depressed subjects with MDD and BD could be correctly classified. Future studies, in larger samples are needed to investigate whether the results can be generalized to medication-naïve or first-episode subjects. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley

  17. Peer Victimization in Fifth Grade and Health in Tenth Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Marc N.; Klein, David J.; Tortolero, Susan R.; Mrug, Sylvie; Peskin, Melissa F.; Davies, Susan L.; Schink, Elizabeth T.; Schuster, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Children who experience bullying, a type of peer victimization, show worse mental and physical health cross-sectionally. Few studies have assessed these relationships longitudinally. We examined longitudinal associations of bullying with mental and physical health from elementary to high school, comparing effects of different bullying histories. METHODS: We analyzed data from 4297 children surveyed at 3 time points (fifth, seventh, and tenth grades) in 3 cities. We used multivariable regressions to test longitudinal associations of bullying with mental and physical health by comparing youth who experienced bullying in both the past and present, experienced bullying in the present only, experienced bullying in the past only, or did not experience bullying. RESULTS: Bullying was associated with worse mental and physical health, greater depression symptoms, and lower self-worth over time. Health was significantly worse for children with both past and present bullying experiences, followed by children with present-only experiences, children with past-only experiences, and children with no experiences. For example, 44.6% of children bullied in both the past and present were at the lowest decile of psychosocial health, compared with 30.7% of those bullied in the present only (P = .005), 12.1% of those bullied in the past only (P bullied (P bullying are associated with substantially worse health. Clinicians who recognize bullying when it first starts could intervene to reverse the downward health trajectory experienced by youth who are repeated targets. PMID:24534401

  18. WHO Grade IV Gliofibroma: A Grading Label Denoting Malignancy for an Otherwise Commonly Misinterpreted Neoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola A. Escalante Abril

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We report a 50-year-old woman with no relevant clinical history who presented with headache and loss of memory. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a left parieto-temporal mass with annular enhancement after contrast media administration, rendering a radiological diagnosis of high-grade astrocytic neoplasm. Tumour sampling was performed but the patient ultimately died as a result of disease. Microscopically, the lesion had areas of glioblastoma mixed with a benign mesenchymal constituent; the former showed hypercellularity, endothelial proliferation, high mitotic activity and necrosis, while the latter showed fascicles of long spindle cells surrounded by collagen and reticulin fibers. With approximately 40 previously reported cases, gliofibroma is a rare neoplasm defined as either glio-desmoplastic or glial/benign mesenchymal. As shown in our case, its prognosis is apparently determined by the degree of anaplasia of the glial component.

  19. Visual application of the American Board of Orthodontics Grading System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Steven A; Freer, Terry J

    2005-05-01

    Assessment of treatment outcomes has traditionally been accomplished using the subjective opinion of experienced clinicians. Reduced subjectivity in the assessment of orthodontic treatment can be achieved with the use of an occlusal index. To implement an index for quality assurance purposes is time-consuming and subject to the inherent error of the index. Quality assessment of orthodontic treatment on a routine basis has been difficult to implement in private practice. To investigate whether a clinician can accurately apply the American Board of Orthodontics Objective Grading System by direct visual inspection instead of measuring individual traits. A random sample of 30 cases was selected, including pretreatment and post-treatment upper and lower study casts and panoramic radiographs. The cases were examined and scored with the standardized measuring gauge according to the protocol provided by the American Board of Orthodontics (ABO). The records were re-examined 6 weeks later and the individual traits scored by visual inspection (VI). There were no significant differences between the pre- and post-treatment ABO gauge and VI scores. This study suggests that occlusal traits defined by the ABO Objective Grading System can be accurately assessed by visual inspection. The VI score provides a simple and convenient method for critical evaluation of treatment outcome by a clinician.

  20. GRADE: Assessing the quality of evidence in environmental and occupational health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Rebecca L; Thayer, Kristina A; Bero, Lisa; Bruce, Nigel; Falck-Ytter, Yngve; Ghersi, Davina; Guyatt, Gordon; Hooijmans, Carlijn; Langendam, Miranda; Mandrioli, Daniele; Mustafa, Reem A; Rehfuess, Eva A; Rooney, Andrew A; Shea, Beverley; Silbergeld, Ellen K; Sutton, Patrice; Wolfe, Mary S; Woodruff, Tracey J; Verbeek, Jos H; Holloway, Alison C; Santesso, Nancy; Schünemann, Holger J

    2016-01-01

    There is high demand in environmental health for adoption of a structured process that evaluates and integrates evidence while making decisions and recommendations transparent. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) framework holds promise to address this demand. For over a decade, GRADE has been applied successfully to areas of clinical medicine, public health, and health policy, but experience with GRADE in environmental and occupational health is just beginning. Environmental and occupational health questions focus on understanding whether an exposure is a potential health hazard or risk, assessing the exposure to understand the extent and magnitude of risk, and exploring interventions to mitigate exposure or risk. Although GRADE offers many advantages, including its flexibility and methodological rigor, there are features of the different sources of evidence used in environmental and occupational health that will require further consideration to assess the need for method refinement. An issue that requires particular attention is the evaluation and integration of evidence from human, animal, in vitro, and in silico (computer modeling) studies when determining whether an environmental factor represents a potential health hazard or risk. Assessment of the hazard of exposures can produce analyses for use in the GRADE evidence-to-decision (EtD) framework to inform risk-management decisions about removing harmful exposures or mitigating risks. The EtD framework allows for grading the strength of the recommendations based on judgments of the certainty in the evidence (also known as quality of the evidence), as well as other factors that inform recommendations such as social values and preferences, resource implications, and benefits. GRADE represents an untapped opportunity for environmental and occupational health to make evidence-based recommendations in a systematic and transparent manner. The objectives of this article are

  1. Estimation of intermediate-grade uranium resources II. Proposed method for estimating intermediate-grade uranium resources in roll-front deposits. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambie, F.W.; Yee, S.N.

    1981-09-01

    The purpose of this and a previous project was to examine the feasibility of estimating intermediate grade uranium (0.01 to 0.05% U 3 O 8 ) on the basis of existing, sparsely drilled holes. All data are from the Powder River Basin in Wyoming. DOE makes preliminary estimates of endowment by calculating an Average Area of Influence (AAI) based on densely drilled areas, multiplying that by the thickness of the mineralization and then dividing by a tonnage factor. The resulting tonnage of ore is then multiplied by the average grade of the interval to obtain the estimate of U 3 O 8 tonnage. Total endowment is the sum of these values over all mineralized intervals in all wells in the area. In regions where wells are densely drilled and approximately regularly spaced this technique approaches the classical polygonal estimation technique used to estimate ore reserves and should be fairly reliable. The method is conservative because: (1) in sparsely drilled regions a large fraction of the area is not considered to contribute to endowment; (2) there is a bias created by the different distributions of point grades and mining block grades. A conservative approach may be justified for purposes of ore reserve estimation, where large investments may hinge on local forecasts. But for estimates of endowment over areas as large as 1 0 by 2 0 quadrangles, or the nation as a whole, errors in local predictions are not critical as long as they tend to cancel and a less conservative estimation approach may be justified.One candidate, developed for this study and described is called the contoured thickness technique. A comparison of estimates based on the contoured thickness approach with DOE calculations for five areas of Wyoming roll-fronts in the Powder River Basin is presented. The sensitivity of the technique to well density is examined and the question of predicting intermediate grade endowment from data on higher grades is discussed

  2. Differentiating high-grade from low-grade chondrosarcoma with MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Hye Jin; Hong, Sung Hwan; Choi, Ja-Young; Choi, Jung-Ah; Kang, Heung Sik [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Moon, Kyung Chul [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Han-Soo [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Seoul (Korea)

    2009-12-15

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the MR imaging features that differentiate between low-grade chondrosarcoma (LGCS) and high-grade chondrosarcoma (HGCS) and to determine the most reliable predictors for differentiation. MR images of 42 pathologically proven chondrosarcomas (28 LGCS and 14 HGCS) were retrospectively reviewed. There were 13 male and 29 female patients with an age range of 23-72 years (average age 51 years). On MR images, signal intensity, specific morphological characteristics including entrapped fat, internal lobular architecture, and outer lobular margin, soft tissue mass formation and contrast enhancement pattern were analysed. MR imaging features used to identify LGCS and HGCS were compared using univariate analysis and multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis. On T1-weighted images, a central area of high signal intensity, which was not seen in LGCS, was frequently observed in HGCS (n = 5, 36%) (p < 0.01). Entrapped fat within the tumour was commonly seen in LGCS (n = 26, 93%), but not in HGCS (n = 1, 4%) (p < 0.01). LGCS more commonly (n = 24, 86%) preserved the characteristic internal lobular structures within the tumour than HGCSs (n = 4, 29%) (p < 0.01). Soft tissue formation was more frequently observed in HGCS (n = 11, 79%) than in LGCS (n = 1, 4%) (p < 0.01). On gadolinium-enhanced images, large central nonenhancing areas were exhibited in only two (7.1%) of LGCS, while HGCS frequently (n = 9, 64%) had a central nonenhancing portion (p < 0.01). Results of multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that soft tissue formation and entrapped fat within the tumour were the variables that could be used to independently differentiate LGCS from HGCS. There were several MR imaging features of chondrosarcoma that could be helpful in distinguishing HGCS from LGCS. Among them, soft tissue mass formation favoured the diagnosis of HGCS, and entrapped fat within the tumour was highly indicative of LGCS. (orig.)

  3. Differentiating high-grade from low-grade chondrosarcoma with MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Hye Jin; Hong, Sung Hwan; Choi, Ja-Young; Choi, Jung-Ah; Kang, Heung Sik; Moon, Kyung Chul; Kim, Han-Soo

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the MR imaging features that differentiate between low-grade chondrosarcoma (LGCS) and high-grade chondrosarcoma (HGCS) and to determine the most reliable predictors for differentiation. MR images of 42 pathologically proven chondrosarcomas (28 LGCS and 14 HGCS) were retrospectively reviewed. There were 13 male and 29 female patients with an age range of 23-72 years (average age 51 years). On MR images, signal intensity, specific morphological characteristics including entrapped fat, internal lobular architecture, and outer lobular margin, soft tissue mass formation and contrast enhancement pattern were analysed. MR imaging features used to identify LGCS and HGCS were compared using univariate analysis and multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis. On T1-weighted images, a central area of high signal intensity, which was not seen in LGCS, was frequently observed in HGCS (n = 5, 36%) (p < 0.01). Entrapped fat within the tumour was commonly seen in LGCS (n = 26, 93%), but not in HGCS (n = 1, 4%) (p < 0.01). LGCS more commonly (n = 24, 86%) preserved the characteristic internal lobular structures within the tumour than HGCSs (n = 4, 29%) (p < 0.01). Soft tissue formation was more frequently observed in HGCS (n = 11, 79%) than in LGCS (n = 1, 4%) (p < 0.01). On gadolinium-enhanced images, large central nonenhancing areas were exhibited in only two (7.1%) of LGCS, while HGCS frequently (n = 9, 64%) had a central nonenhancing portion (p < 0.01). Results of multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that soft tissue formation and entrapped fat within the tumour were the variables that could be used to independently differentiate LGCS from HGCS. There were several MR imaging features of chondrosarcoma that could be helpful in distinguishing HGCS from LGCS. Among them, soft tissue mass formation favoured the diagnosis of HGCS, and entrapped fat within the tumour was highly indicative of LGCS. (orig.)

  4. [Effect of air pollution on respiratory health in school-aged children in the main urban area of Chongqing, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ming-Yue; Tang, Xu; Huang, Wei; Dai, Hua; Liu, Xing-Can; Xia, Yin-Yin; Meng, Pan; Zhang, Rui-Yuan; Guo, Yu-Ming; Cheng, Shu-Qun

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the effect of air pollution on respiratory health in school-aged children in the main urban area of Chongqing, China. The main urban area of Chongqing was divided into polluted area and clean area according to the air pollution data shown on the Environmental Protection Agency Website of Chongqing between 2010 and 2015. A cluster sampling method was used to select 695 third- or fourth-grade children from 2 primary schools in the clean or polluted area as study subjects, with 313 children from the clean area and 382 children from the polluted area. Pulmonary function was examined for all children and a standard American epidemiological questionnaire (ATS-DLD-78-C) was used to investigate the prevalence of respiratory diseases and symptoms. Compared with the clean area, the polluted area had significantly higher concentrations of inhalable particles (PM 10 ), fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ), and nitric oxide (NO X ) (Ppolluted area had significantly higher risks of cough (OR=1.644), cough during cold (OR=1.596), expectoration during cold (OR=2.196), persistent expectoration (OR=1.802), and wheezing (OR=2.415). The boys and girls in the clean area had significantly higher forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in one second than those in the polluted area (PAir pollution in the main urban area of Chongqing is associated with the increased prevalence of respiratory symptoms in school-aged children and has certain effect on children's pulmonary function.

  5. Human subjects research handbook: Protecting human research subjects. Second edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-30

    This handbook serves as a guide to understanding and implementing the Federal regulations and US DOE Orders established to protect human research subjects. Material in this handbook is directed towards new and continuing institutional review board (IRB) members, researchers, institutional administrators, DOE officials, and others who may be involved or interested in human subjects research. It offers comprehensive overview of the various requirements, procedures, and issues relating to human subject research today.

  6. Revitalization Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Revitalization areas are HUD-designated neighborhoods in need of economic and community development and where there is already a strong commitment by the local...

  7. 700 Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The 700 Area of the Hanford Site is located in downtown Richland.Called the Federal Office Building, the Richland Operations Site Manager and the Richland Operations...

  8. Automated egg grading system using computer vision: Investigation on weight measure versus shape parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Ahmad Fakhri Ab; Suhaila Sabarudin, Siti; Majeed, Anwar P. P. Abdul; Ghani, Ahmad Shahrizan Abdul

    2018-04-01

    Chicken egg is a source of food of high demand by humans. Human operators cannot work perfectly and continuously when conducting egg grading. Instead of an egg grading system using weight measure, an automatic system for egg grading using computer vision (using egg shape parameter) can be used to improve the productivity of egg grading. However, early hypothesis has indicated that more number of egg classes will change when using egg shape parameter compared with using weight measure. This paper presents the comparison of egg classification by the two above-mentioned methods. Firstly, 120 images of chicken eggs of various grades (A–D) produced in Malaysia are captured. Then, the egg images are processed using image pre-processing techniques, such as image cropping, smoothing and segmentation. Thereafter, eight egg shape features, including area, major axis length, minor axis length, volume, diameter and perimeter, are extracted. Lastly, feature selection (information gain ratio) and feature extraction (principal component analysis) are performed using k-nearest neighbour classifier in the classification process. Two methods, namely, supervised learning (using weight measure as graded by egg supplier) and unsupervised learning (using egg shape parameters as graded by ourselves), are conducted to execute the experiment. Clustering results reveal many changes in egg classes after performing shape-based grading. On average, the best recognition results using shape-based grading label is 94.16% while using weight-based label is 44.17%. As conclusion, automated egg grading system using computer vision is better by implementing shape-based features since it uses image meanwhile the weight parameter is more suitable by using weight grading system.

  9. Energy education resources: Kindergarten through 12th grade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    Energy Education Resources: Kindergarten Through 12th Grade is published by the National Energy Information Center (NEIC) a service of the Energy Information Administration (EIA), to provide students, educators, and other information users, a list of generally available free or low-cost energy-related educational materials. Each entry includes the address, telephone number, and description of the organization and the energy-related materials available. Most of the entries also include Internet (Web) and electronic mail (E-Mail) addresses. Each entry is followed by a number, which is referenced in the subject index in the back of this book.

  10. Memory and subjective workload assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staveland, L.; Hart, S.; Yeh, Y. Y.

    1986-01-01

    Recent research suggested subjective introspection of workload is not based upon specific retrieval of information from long term memory, and only reflects the average workload that is imposed upon the human operator by a particular task. These findings are based upon global ratings of workload for the overall task, suggesting that subjective ratings are limited in ability to retrieve specific details of a task from long term memory. To clarify the limits memory imposes on subjective workload assessment, the difficulty of task segments was varied and the workload of specified segments was retrospectively rated. The ratings were retrospectively collected on the manipulations of three levels of segment difficulty. Subjects were assigned to one of two memory groups. In the Before group, subjects knew before performing a block of trials which segment to rate. In the After group, subjects did not know which segment to rate until after performing the block of trials. The subjective ratings, RTs (reaction times) and MTs (movement times) were compared within group, and between group differences. Performance measures and subjective evaluations of workload reflected the experimental manipulations. Subjects were sensitive to different difficulty levels, and recalled the average workload of task components. Cueing did not appear to help recall, and memory group differences possibly reflected variations in the groups of subjects, or an additional memory task.

  11. The Effect of Using Flipped Classroom Strategy on the Academic Achievement of Fourth Grade Students in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shereen Mazen Elian

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at investigating the effect of flipped classroom strategy on the academic achievement in the subject of science among fourth grade students in Jordan. The study population consists of all fourth grade students in the Directorate of Private Education in Amman area, totaling 2134 students during the second semester of the academic year 2015-2016. The study sample consists of 44 male and female students who were chosen purposely from the study population. The study sample was distributed into two groups: the experimental group that consisted of 22 students, who has studied according to flipped classroom strategy, and the control group that consisted of 22 students, who has studied in the ordinary method. To achieve the objectives of the study, an achievement test was prepared and its validity and reliability were checked. ANCOVA, Means, and Standard Deviations were used to analyze the collected research data. The study deduced the following results: 1 There are statistically significant differences in the Means on the educational achievement test attributed to the teaching strategy, in favor of the members of the experimental group, and 2 there are no statistically significant differences in the Means on the academic achievement test attributed to gender. In light of the findings, the study recommended encouraging science teachers to teach students using teaching strategies emanated from the use of modern technologies, particularly the flipped classroom strategy. In addition, the study suggested that colleges of education should train prospective teachers on the use of teaching strategies stemming from modern educational theories and strategies such as the flipped classroom strategy during the period of preparing them to teach. Furthermore, the study recommended re-applying this experience and identifying its effectiveness at other schools stages and other subjects in other content areas.

  12. P2-7: Encoding of Graded Changes in Validity of Spatial Priors in Human Visual Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Hara

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available If the spatial validity of prior information is varied systematically, does human behavioral performance improve in a graded fashion, and if so, does visual cortex represent the probability directly? Cortical activity was measured with fMRI while subjects performed a contrast-discrimination task in which the spatial validity of a prior cue for target location was systematically varied. Subjects viewed four sinusoidal gratings (randomized contrasts of 12.5, 25, and 50% shown in discrete visual quadrants presented twice. The contrast in one location (target was incremented in one of the two presentations. Subjects reported with a button press which presentation contained the greater contrast. The target grating was signaled in advance by a cue which varied in spatial validity; at trial onset, small lines pointed to four, two, or one of the possible target locations, thus indicating the target with 25, 50, or 100% probability. Behavioral performance was 2.1 and 3.3 times better in the 100% probability condition than the 50% and 25%, respectively (p < .001, ANOVA. Unlike behavioral performance, cortical activity in early visual areas showed the same increase in response amplitude for cued versus uncued stimuli for both 100% and 50% probability (V1-V4, V3A all p < .18, Student's t-test, 25% had no uncued condition. How could behavioral performance improve in a graded fashion if cortical activity showed the same effect for different probabilities? A model of efficient selection in which V1 responses were pooled according to their magnitude rather than as a simple average explained the observations (AIC difference = −15.

  13. Emerging role of functional brain MRI in low-grade glioma surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friismose, Ancuta; Traise, Peter; Markovic, Ljubo

    Learning objectives 1. To describe the use of functional MRI (fMRI) in cranial surgery planning for patients with low-grade gliomas (LGG). 2. To show the increasing importance of fMRI in the clinical setting. Background LGG include brain tumors classified by the World Health Organization as grade I...... be used to map eloquent cortex areas, thus minimizing postoperative deficits and improving surgical performance. Findings and procedure details Patients diagnosed with low-grade gliomas located in eloquent brain areas undergo fMRI prior to surgery. The exams are performed on a 3T MR system (Achieva TX....... Language comprehension and visual tasks can be added to visualize Wernicke’s area or the visual cortex. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is used to map nerve tract course relative to the tumour. Conclusion FMRI has proven its clinical utility in locating eloquent brain areas with relation to tumor site...

  14. Use of subjective and objective criteria to categorise visual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajla, Garima; Rohatgi, Jolly; Dhaliwal, Upreet

    2014-04-01

    Visual disability is categorised using objective criteria. Subjective measures are not considered. To use subjective criteria along with objective ones to categorise visual disability. Ophthalmology out-patient department; teaching hospital; observational study. Consecutive persons aged >25 years, with vision disability; group-zero: normal range of vision, to group-X: no perception of light, bilaterally. Snellen's vision; binocular contrast sensitivity (Pelli-Robson chart); automated binocular visual field (Humphrey; Esterman test); and vision-related quality of life (Indian Visual Function Questionnaire-33; IND-VFQ33) were recorded. SPSS version-17; Kruskal-wallis test was used to compare contrast sensitivity and visual fields across groups, and Mann-Whitney U test for pair-wise comparison (Bonferroni adjustment; P visual fields were comparable for differing disability grades except when disability was severe (P disability grades but comparable for groups III (78.51 ± 6.86) and IV (82.64 ± 5.80), and groups IV and V (77.23 ± 3.22); these were merged to generate group 345; similarly, global scores were comparable for adjacent groups V and VI (72.53 ± 6.77), VI and VII (74.46 ± 4.32), and VII and VIII (69.12 ± 5.97); these were merged to generate group 5678; thereafter, contrast sensitivity and global and individual IND-VFQ33 scores could differentiate between different grades of disability in the five new groups. Subjective criteria made it possible to objectively reclassify visual disability. Visual disability grades could be redefined to accommodate all from zero-100%.

  15. What's in a Grade? Grading Policies and Practices in Principles of Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walstad, William B.; Miller, Laurie A.

    2016-01-01

    Survey results from a national sample of economics instructors describe the grading policies and practices in principles of economics courses. The survey results provide insights about absolute and relative grading systems used by instructors, the course components and their weights that determine grades, and the type of assessment items used for…

  16. Teachers grading practices : an analysis of the reliability of teacher-assigned grade point average (GPA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Lans, R. M.; van de Grift, W. J. C. M.; van Veen, K.

    2015-01-01

    In previous research, teachers report that they use a hodgepodge of factors when grading students. This has led researchers to suspect that teacher-assigned grades are inflated by teacher-student interactions; the hodgepodge hypothesis. Teachers also are reported to differ in grading leniency; the

  17. The Impact of Early Exposure of Eighth Grade Math Standards on End of Grade Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Tonjai E.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the Cumberland County Schools district-wide issue surrounding the disproportional performance of eighth grade Math I students' proficiency scores on standardized end-of-grade and end-of-course assessments. The study focused on the impact of the school district incorporating eighth grade math standards in…

  18. Are Flunkers Social Outcasts? A Multilevel Study of Grade Retention Effects on Same-Grade Friendships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demanet, Jannick; Van Houtte, Mieke

    2016-01-01

    We examine the association between grade retention and the number of same-grade friendships. Moreover, we investigate the effect of a school's proportion of retained students on these friendships and the moderating effect of this school characteristic on the relationship between retention and the number of same-grade friendships. Multilevel…

  19. Fifth Grade Elementary Students' Conceptions of Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savasci, Funda; Uluduz, Hatice

    2013-01-01

    This study intends to investigate the fifth grade students' conceptions of earthquakes. Twenty two grade 5 students (11-12 years old) from five different elementary schools in Istanbul voluntarily participated in the study. Data were collected from semi-structured interviews with each participant. Six interview questions were designed by…

  20. Matriculation Research Report: Incomplete Grades; Data & Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerda, Joe

    The policy on incomplete grades at California's College of the Canyons states that incompletes may only be given under circumstances beyond students' control and that students must make arrangements with faculty prior to the end of the semester to clear the incomplete. Failure to complete an incomplete may result in an "F" grade. While…

  1. The Leap into 4th Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Fourth grade is a pivotal year, in which students commonly face increased academic demands. According to Anderson, teachers can help students make a smooth transition to 4th grade by introducing these new challenges in ways that are in line with 4th graders' common developmental characteristics: incredible energy and emotion, industriousness and…

  2. Bruxism defined and graded: an international consensus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobbezoo, F.; Ahlberg, J.; Glaros, A.G.; Kato, T.; Koyano, K.; Lavigne, G.J.; de Leeuw, R.; Manfredini, D.; Svensson, P.; Winocur, E.

    2013-01-01

    To date, there is no consensus about the definition and diagnostic grading of bruxism. A written consensus discussion was held among an international group of bruxism experts as to formulate a definition of bruxism and to suggest a grading system for its operationalisation. The expert group defined

  3. Perceptions of restaurateurs on quality grading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Roberson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A restaurateur's strategic focus is to maximise wealth for the owner(s. To achieve wealth maximisation, a restaurateur could implement one or more of the following strategies: focus strategy, cost-leadership strategy and/or differentiation strategy. A management intervention a restaurateur could implement to achieve this is quality differentiation. Grading of an establishment will assist a restaurateur in becoming a market leader. Currently there no national restaurant grading system exists in South Africa. As support and participation of restaurateurs in any future quality grading system are essential, it is imperative to test their perceptions of the implementation of a quality grading scale. The aim of this paper is to gather the perceptions of restaurateurs of an envisaged scale that could be used to grade independent full-service restaurants. In this study the researcher tested the perceptions of restaurateurs using nine possible outcomes of implementing quality grading in the independent fullservice restaurant segment. The outcomes to be tested were presented to restaurateurs in a questionnaire uploaded on "survey monkey". This was emailed to 3 286 restaurateurs and 265 responses were received. Respondents who were positive regarding grading indicated that they were enthusiastic about the impact grading would have on international tourism, as well as the fact that it could contribute to an increase in the value of their establishments.

  4. 7 CFR 51.2556 - Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Shelled Pistachio Nuts § 51.2556 Grades. (a) “U.S. Fancy,” “U.S. Extra No. 1,” and “U.S. No. 1” consist of pistachio kernels which meet the following requirements: (1) Well dried, or...

  5. Contraction of graded su(2) algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patra, M.K.; Tripathy, K.C.

    1989-01-01

    The Inoenu-Wigner contraction scheme is extended to Lie superalgebras. The structure and representations of extended BRS algebra are obtained from contraction of the graded su(2) algebra. From cohomological consideration, we demonstrate that the graded su(2) algebra is the only superalgebra which, on contraction, yields the full BRS algebra. (orig.)

  6. What's ahead in automated lumber grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Earl Kline; Richard Conners; Philip A. Araman

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses how present scanning technologies are being applied to automatic lumber grading. The presentation focuses on 1) what sensing and scanning devices are needed to measure information for accurate grading feature detection, 2) the hardware and software needed to efficiently process this information, and 3) specific issues related to softwood lumber...

  7. Liberal Grading Improves Evaluations But Not Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasta, Ross; Sarmiento, Robert F.

    Two grading distributions--a liberal and a more stringent curve--were compared between two sections of an undergraduate psychology course. The two classes were team taught and treated as similarly as possible. Four unit exams and an optional final were administered, with one section consistently receiving a more lenient grade distribution. No…

  8. Examining First Grade Teachers' Handwriting Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Derya

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the first grade teachers' practices of handwriting instructions in terms of teaching, evaluation and handwriting difficulties. From qualitative research patterns, phenomenology was used. The study was applied to the 54 First grade teachers who work at central Burdur and Burdur county centre primary education…

  9. Extrauterine Low-Grade Endometrial Stromal Sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ju Chen

    2005-12-01

    Conclusions: Low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma typically has an indolent clinical course and favorable prognosis. Surgical resection is the primary therapeutic approach, and adjuvant therapy with radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or progesterone therapy should be considered for the management of residual or recurrent low-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas.

  10. Grade Repetition in Queensland State Prep Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Robyn

    2012-01-01

    The current study considers grade repetition rates in the early years of schooling in Queensland state schools with specific focus on the pre-schooling year, Prep. In particular, it provides empirical evidence of grade repetition in Queensland state schools along with groups of students who are more often repeated. At the same time, much of the…

  11. Consumer Preference for Graded Maple Syrup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul E. Sendak

    1978-01-01

    The three grades of maple syrup and a commercial table syrup containing artificial flavor and 3 percent pure maple syrup were evaluated by 1,018 women in four cities. The results indicate that differences in preference for flavor are related to how close the respondents are to a maple syrup-production region. Differences in preference among grades of pure maple syrup...

  12. Determinants of College Grade Point Averages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Paul Dean

    2012-01-01

    Chapter 2: The Role of Class Difficulty in College Grade Point Averages. Grade Point Averages (GPAs) are widely used as a measure of college students' ability. Low GPAs can remove a students from eligibility for scholarships, and even continued enrollment at a university. However, GPAs are determined not only by student ability but also by the…

  13. Grading sugar pine saw logs in trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Henley

    1972-01-01

    Small limbs and small overgrown limbs cause problems when grading saw logs in sugar pine trees. Surface characteristics and lumber recovery information for 426 logs from 64 sugar pine trees were examined. Resulting modifications in the grading specification that allow a grader to ignore small limbs and small limb indicators do not appear to decrease the performance of...

  14. The Compatibility of Developed Mathematics Textbooks' Content in Saudi Arabia (Grades 6-8) with NCTM Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshehri, Mohammed Ali; Ali, Hassan Shawki

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the compatibility of developed mathematics textbooks' content (grades 6-8) in Saudi Arabia with NCTM standards in the areas of: number and operations, algebra, geometry, measurement, data analysis and probability. To achieve that goal, a list of (NCTM) standards for grades (6-8) were translated to Arabic language,…

  15. Amphiboles and their host rocks in the high-grade metamorphic Precambrin of Rogaland/Vest-Agder, Sw. Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, A.G.C.

    1978-01-01

    In the high-grade metamorphic Precambrian of the Sirdal-¢rsdal area, Rogaland/Vest-Agder,south-west Norway, the Ca-amphiboles show a change in pleochroic colours, not only with changes in metamorphic grade, but also to some extend in bulk composition. A regional study was performed on the

  16. Amphiboles and their host rocks in the high-grade metamorphic Precambrin of Rogaland/Vest-Agder, Sw. Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, A.G.C.

    1978-01-01

    In the high-grade metamorphic Precambrian of the Sirdal-¢rsdal area, Rogaland/Vest-Agder,south-west Norway, the Ca-amphiboles show a change in pleochroic colours, not only with changes in metamorphic grade, but also to some extend in bulk composition. A regional study was performed on the amphiboles

  17. Improving Eighth Grade Students' Reading Comprehension through the Use of the Collision Plus Arts-Integrated Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Taneka L.

    2016-01-01

    African American and Latino students attending Title I schools in the metropolitan Atlanta area were not reading on grade level. The majority of students are low performing readers and minimally met the reading comprehension requirements. The 2015 average 8th grade reading score for these students was 246 out of 500. This applied dissertation was…

  18. Human subjects and experimental irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, R.

    1985-01-01

    In recent years the public has expressed concern about the use of human subjects in scientific research. Some professional institutions have adopted codes of practice to guide them in this matter. At the University of New South Wales, where human subjects are used in teaching and research programmes, a committee ensures that high ethical standards are maintained. As the volunteer subjects do not gain any benefit themselves from the procedures, their level of risk is kept low. One type of procedure in which risk is becoming quantifiable, is the irradiation of human subjects. To assist peer review groups, the ICRP, WHO and the National Health and Medical Research Council have enunciated principles which should be followed in the irradiation of human volunteer subjects. In general the role of the Committee is advisory to protect the rights of the investigator, the subject, and the institution. Some of the inherent problems are discussed

  19. Secondary Schools Curriculum Guide, Mathematics, Grades 10-12, Levels 87-112.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Arnold R., Ed.; And Others

    Behavioral objectives for geometry, algebra, computer mathematics, trigonometry, analytic geometry, calculus, and probability are specified for grades 10 through 12. General objectives are stated for major areas under each topic and are followed by a list of specific objectives for that area. This work was prepared under an ESEA Title III…

  20. Towards a definition of SUBJECT in binding domains and subject ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    be antecedents for subject-oriented anaphors (e.g. Maling 1984) ... 1985), it is unclear what actually determines this binding behaviour, or why subjects should ..... contexts can be unified by the fact that both functionally determine their complements. ...... Binding theory, control and pro. ... San Diego: Academic Press. pp. 179 ...

  1. Functionally Graded Adhesives for Composite Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Scott E.; Waas, Anthony M.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    Adhesives with functionally graded material properties are being considered for use in adhesively bonded joints to reduce the peel stress concentrations located near adherend discontinuities. Several practical concerns impede the actual use of such adhesives. These include increased manufacturing complications, alterations to the grading due to adhesive flow during manufacturing, and whether changing the loading conditions significantly impact the effectiveness of the grading. An analytical study is conducted to address these three concerns. An enhanced joint finite element, which uses an analytical formulation to obtain exact shape functions, is used to model the joint. Furthermore, proof of concept testing is conducted to show the potential advantages of functionally graded adhesives. In this study, grading is achieved by strategically placing glass beads within the adhesive layer at different densities along the joint.

  2. Foraminal syringomyelia: suggestion for a grading system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versari, P P; D'Aliberti, G; Talamonti, G; Collice, M

    1993-01-01

    The standard treatment of foraminal syringomyelia includes foramen magnum decompression and duraplasty. Improvement or stabilization of the disease are achieved in most of cases. However, at least one third of patients are reported to receive little or no benefit. In this paper we retrospectively reviewed a series of 40 consecutive foramen magnum decompressions in order to identify the possible pre-operative outcome predictors. Based on clinical evolution, neurological impairment and radiological features, a scale of severity was fixed and retrospectively tested. A pre-operative score was obtained for each patient and was correlated with the surgical results. Then a four level grading system was derived. All grade I and grade II patients achieved good results (improvement or stabilization), whereas grade III patients showed intermediate behaviour and grade IV invariably worsened. On this basis, surgical results of foramen magnum decompression might be further improved provided that a careful pre-operative selection is made.

  3. The Subject in Cognitive Psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Caro-Gabalda

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the various subjects embedded in cognitive psychotherapy. The cognitive model developed by Beck, considered as a rationalist and modernist model, will exemplify these subjects. Cognitive therapy should be placed in the modernist historical context and related to a subject characterized as having rationality and the ability to observe and detect cognitions, emotions and behaviors. The paper develops this background introducing three main subject types. The first is the introspective and conscious subject, who is able to observe what is within oneself, has free access, and is conscious of one's cognitive world. The second is the cognitive miser that describes the subject who enters into therapy. The final subject identified, is the trained scientist who is able to develop a more objective knowledge, changing faulty schemas and cognitive distortions. This subject is the one most looked for in cognitive therapy. We could connect these subjects to some of the main elements of cognitive therapy such as the concept of ABC, assessment procedures, cognitive techniques or the relevance of schemas. Finally, the paper suggests some issues for study that could contribute to the theoretical and clinical evolution of cognitive psychotherapy.

  4. Profile formation of academic self-concept in elementary school students in grades 1 to 4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Schmidt

    Full Text Available Academic self-concept (ASC is comprised of individual perceptions of one's own academic ability. In a cross-sectional quasi-representative sample of 3,779 German elementary school children in grades 1 to 4, we investigated (a the structure of ASC, (b ASC profile formation, an aspect of differentiation that is reflected in lower correlations between domain-specific ASCs with increasing grade level, (c the impact of (internal dimensional comparisons of one's own ability in different school subjects for profile formation of ASC, and (d the role played by differences in school grades between subjects for these dimensional comparisons. The nested Marsh/Shavelson model, with general ASC at the apex and math, writing, and reading ASC as specific factors nested under general ASC fitted the data at all grade levels. A first-order factor model with math, writing, reading, and general ASCs as correlated factors provided a good fit, too. ASC profile formation became apparent during the first two to three years of school. Dimensional comparisons across subjects contributed to ASC profile formation. School grades enhanced these comparisons, especially when achievement profiles were uneven. In part, findings depended on the assumed structural model of ASCs. Implications for further research are discussed with special regard to factors influencing and moderating dimensional comparisons.

  5. Influence of grade on the reliability of corroding pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maes, M.A.; Dann, M.; Salama, M.M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on a comparative analysis of the reliability associated with the evolution of corrosion between normal and high-strength pipe material. The use of high strength steel grades such as X100 and X120 for high pressure gas pipeline in the arctic is currently being considered. To achieve this objective, a time-dependent reliability analysis using variable Y/T ratios in a multiaxial finite strain analysis of thin-walled pipeline is performed. This analysis allows for the consideration of longitudinal grooves and the presence of companion axial tension and bending loads. Limit states models are developed based on suitable strain hardening models for the ultimate behavior of corroded medium and high strength pipeline material. In an application, the evolution of corrosion is modeled in pipelines of different grades that have been subjected to an internal corrosion inspection after a specified time which allows for a Bayesian updating of long-term corrosion estimates and, hence, the derivation of annual probabilities of failure as a function of time. The effect of grade and Y/T is clearly demonstrated

  6. Graded Aerobic Treadmill Testing in Adolescent Traumatic Brain Injury Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordingley, Dean M; Girardin, Richard; Morissette, Marc P; Reimer, Karen; Leiter, Jeff; Russell, Kelly; Ellis, Michael J

    2017-11-01

    To examine the safety and tolerability of clinical graded aerobic treadmill testing in recovering adolescent moderate and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients referred to a multidisciplinary pediatric concussion program. We completed a retrospective case series of two moderate and five severe TBI patients (mean age, 17.3 years) who underwent initial Buffalo Concussion Treadmill Testing at a mean time of 71.6 days (range, 55-87) postinjury. Six patients completed one graded aerobic treadmill test each and one patient underwent initial and repeat testing. There were no complications. Five initial treadmill tests were completely tolerated and allowed an accurate assessment of exercise tolerance. Two initial tests were terminated early by the treatment team because of neurological and cardiorespiratory limitations. As a result of testing, two patients were cleared for aerobic exercise as tolerated and four patients were treated with individually tailored submaximal aerobic exercise programs resulting in subjective improvement in residual symptoms and/or exercise tolerance. Repeat treadmill testing in one patient performed after 1 month of treatment with submaximal aerobic exercise prescription was suggestive of improved exercise tolerance. One patient was able to tolerate aerobic exercise following surgery for posterior glottic stenosis. Preliminary results suggest that graded aerobic treadmill testing is a safe, well tolerated, and clinically useful tool to assess exercise tolerance in appropriately selected adolescent patients with TBI. Future prospective studies are needed to evaluate the effect of tailored submaximal aerobic exercise prescription on exercise tolerance and patient outcomes in recovering adolescent moderate and severe TBI patients.

  7. Territorial ordering in Toay area and surroundings, La Pampa province, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carballo, O.; Sbrocco; J; Calmels, A.; Sotorres, E.; Miglianelli, C.

    2004-01-01

    This present work aims to provide a territorial ordering in an area limited by the 36 grades 39 minutes and 36 grades 43 minutes Southern Parallels and the 64 grades 20 minutes and 64 grades 27 minutes. Meridians from the same hemisphere; within such area, the population from Toay and surroundings are held/contained. The empiric method employed was taken from Gomez Orea (1993). The area was divided into environmental synthesis units and through the use of different proposed tasks it was possible to reach an objective description of the area with the distribution of its varied units [es

  8. Developmental Dynamics of General and School-Subject-Specific Components of Academic Self-Concept, Academic Interest, and Academic Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogol, Katarzyna; Brunner, Martin; Preckel, Franzis; Goetz, Thomas; Martin, Romain

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the developmental dynamics of general and subject-specific (i.e., mathematics, French, and German) components of students' academic self-concept, anxiety, and interest. To this end, the authors integrated three lines of research: (a) hierarchical and multidimensional approaches to the conceptualization of each construct, (b) longitudinal analyses of bottom-up and top-down developmental processes across hierarchical levels, and (c) developmental processes across subjects. The data stemmed from two longitudinal large-scale samples (N = 3498 and N = 3863) of students attending Grades 7 and 9 in Luxembourgish schools. Nested-factor models were applied to represent each construct at each grade level. The analyses demonstrated that several characteristics were shared across constructs. All constructs were multidimensional in nature with respect to the different subjects, showed a hierarchical organization with a general component at the apex of the hierarchy, and had a strong separation between the subject-specific components at both grade levels. Further, all constructs showed moderate differential stabilities at both the general (0.42 < r < 0.55) and subject-specific levels (0.45 < r < 0.73). Further, little evidence was found for top-down or bottom-up developmental processes. Rather, general and subject-specific components in Grade 9 proved to be primarily a function of the corresponding components in Grade 7. Finally, change in several subject-specific components could be explained by negative effects across subjects.

  9. Developmental Dynamics of General and School-Subject-Specific Components of Academic Self-Concept, Academic Interest, and Academic Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna eGogol

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the developmental dynamics of general and subject-specific (i.e., mathematics, French, and German components of students’ academic self-concept, anxiety, and interest. To this end, the authors integrated three lines of research: (a hierarchical and multidimensional approaches to the conceptualization of each construct, (b longitudinal analyses of bottom-up and top-down developmental processes across hierarchical levels, and (c ipsative developmental processes across subjects. The data stemmed from two longitudinal large-scale samples (N = 3,498 and N = 3,863 of students attending Grades 7 and 9 in Luxembourgish schools. Nested-factor models were applied to represent each construct at each grade level. The analyses demonstrated that several characteristics were shared across constructs. All constructs were multidimensional in nature with respect to the different subjects, showed a hierarchical organization with a general component at the apex of the hierarchy, and had a strong separation between the subject-specific components at both grade levels. Further, all constructs showed moderate differential stabilities at both the general (.42 < r < .55 and subject-specific levels (.45 < r < .73. Further, little evidence was found for top-down or bottom-up developmental processes. Rather, general and subject-specific components in Grade 9 proved to be primarily a function of the corresponding components in Grade 7. Finally, change in several subject-specific components could be explained by negative, ipsative effects across subjects.

  10. Developmental Dynamics of General and School-Subject-Specific Components of Academic Self-Concept, Academic Interest, and Academic Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogol, Katarzyna; Brunner, Martin; Preckel, Franzis; Goetz, Thomas; Martin, Romain

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the developmental dynamics of general and subject-specific (i.e., mathematics, French, and German) components of students' academic self-concept, anxiety, and interest. To this end, the authors integrated three lines of research: (a) hierarchical and multidimensional approaches to the conceptualization of each construct, (b) longitudinal analyses of bottom-up and top-down developmental processes across hierarchical levels, and (c) developmental processes across subjects. The data stemmed from two longitudinal large-scale samples (N = 3498 and N = 3863) of students attending Grades 7 and 9 in Luxembourgish schools. Nested-factor models were applied to represent each construct at each grade level. The analyses demonstrated that several characteristics were shared across constructs. All constructs were multidimensional in nature with respect to the different subjects, showed a hierarchical organization with a general component at the apex of the hierarchy, and had a strong separation between the subject-specific components at both grade levels. Further, all constructs showed moderate differential stabilities at both the general (0.42 < r < 0.55) and subject-specific levels (0.45 < r < 0.73). Further, little evidence was found for top-down or bottom-up developmental processes. Rather, general and subject-specific components in Grade 9 proved to be primarily a function of the corresponding components in Grade 7. Finally, change in several subject-specific components could be explained by negative effects across subjects. PMID:27014162

  11. Práticas educativas em saúde: da fundamentação à construção de uma disciplina curricular Prácticas educativas en la salud: del fundamento a la construcción de una asignatura Educational practice in health area: from the base to the construction of a curricular subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Salgado Bagnato

    2009-09-01

    salud De esta forma, nuestra trayectoria en la construcción de la asignatura, posibilitó la comprensión de la historicidad de las Prácticas Educativas en la Salud y los presupuestos que han orientado el análisis crítico del l desarrollo de estas prácticas.This work presents the process of building a subject named Educational Practice in Health Area, which has become part of the curricular program since 2006 and has been developed in the Nursing course in Campinas University, Campinas, SP. This study was accomplished by trying to put together Education, Health and Cultural Studies, going through these fields and keeping them connected to other possibilities of building up the pedagogical knowledge for the graduating nurse. During the classes important topics were discussed, such as conceptions of the human being, of the body, health, the education-health relation, among others. In this context, interlocutions were established to shake the paradigms, the speeches and the practice in Health Area. Hence, our trajectory towards the discipline enabled us to understand the historicity of Educational Practice in Health Area and the purposes that have guided them to support critical analysis in developing those practices.

  12. Regional glucose utilization and blood flow following graded forebrain ischemia in the rat: correlation with neuropathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginsberg, M.D.; Graham, D.I.; Busto, R.

    1985-01-01

    Regional patterns of cerebral glucose utilization (rCMRglc) and blood flow (rCBF) were examined in the early recovery period following transient forebrain ischemia in order to correlate early postischemic physiological events with regionally selective patterns of ischemic neuropathology. Wistar rats were subjected to 30 or 60 minutes of graded forebrain ischemia by a method combining unilateral occlusion of the common carotid artery with moderate elevation of intracranial pressure and mild hypotension; this procedure results in a high-grade ischemic deficit affecting chiefly the lateral neocortex, striatum, and hippocampus ipsilateral to the carotid occlusion. Simultaneous measurements of rCMRglc and rCBF made in regional tissue samples after 2 and 4 hours of postischemic recirculation using a double-tracer radioisotopic strategy revealed a disproportionately high level of glucose metabolism relative to blood flow in the early postischemic striatum, owing to the resumption of nearly normal rCMRglc in the face of depressed flow. In contrast, the neocortex, which had been equally ischemic, showed parallel depressions of both metabolism and blood flow during early recovery. Light microscopy at 4 and 8 hours after recovery revealed the striatum to be the predominant locus of ischemic neuronal alterations, whereas neocortical lesions were much less prominent in extent and severity at this time. The resumption of normal levels of metabolism in the setting of a disproportionate depression of rCBF in the early postischemic period may accentuate the process of neuronal injury initiated by ischemia and may contribute to the genesis of neuronal necrosis in selectively vulnerable areas of the forebrain

  13. Value functions on simple algebras, and associated graded rings

    CERN Document Server

    Tignol, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    This monograph is the first book-length treatment of valuation theory on finite-dimensional division algebras, a subject of active and substantial research over the last forty years. Its development was spurred in the last decades of the twentieth century by important advances such as Amitsur's construction of noncrossed products and Platonov's solution of the Tannaka-Artin problem. This study is particularly timely because it approaches the subject from the perspective of associated graded structures. This new approach has been developed by the authors in the last few years and has significantly clarified the theory. Various constructions of division algebras are obtained as applications of the theory, such as noncrossed products and indecomposable algebras. In addition, the use of valuation theory in reduced Whitehead group calculations (after Hazrat and Wadsworth) and in essential dimension computations (after Baek and Merkurjev) is showcased. The intended audience consists of graduate students and researc...

  14. Beliefs of grade six learners’ regarding adolescent pregnancy and sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Grobler

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Escalating adolescent pregnancy and risky sexual behaviour is becoming more common amongst young adolescents and especially amongst black adolescents in South Africa. Statistics confirm that South African adolescents as young as fourteen are already sexually active and become pregnant. The decision to become sexually active with resulting adolescent pregnancy whether planned or not, are directly influenced by the teenager’s beliefs. A person’s beliefs consist of a person’ own individual beliefs or attitude as well as what the individual subjective norm which the individual perceive as other people’s beliefs regarding the same object of reason. The aim of the study was to describe the attitude of black grade six learners under the age of fourteen, towards adolescent pregnancy and sex. A quantitative descriptive research design was used. Results were clustered according to demographic variables as well as beliefs that consist of attitude and subjective norm.

  15. Feasibility Studies for Production of Pellet Grade Concentrate from Sub Grade Iron Ore Using Multi Gravity Separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Gottumukkala Venkateswara; Markandeya, R.; Kumar, Rajan

    2018-04-01

    An attempt has been made to utilise Sub Grade Iron Ore by producing pellet grade concentrate from Deposit 5, Bacheli Complex, Bailadila, Chhattisgarh, India. The `as received' Run of Mine (ROM) sample assayed 40.80% Fe, 40.90% SiO2. Mineralogical studies indicated that the main ore mineral is Hematite and lone gangue mineral is Quartz. Mineral liberation studies indicated that, the ore mineral Hematite and gangue mineral Quartz are getting liberated below 100 microns. The stage crushed and ground sample was subjected to concentration by using a Multi Gravity Separator (MGS). Rougher Multi Gravity Separation (MGS) experimental results were optimised to recover highest possible iron values. A concentrate of 55.80% Fe with a yield of 61.73% by weight with a recovery of 84.42% Iron values was obtained in rougher MGS concentrate. Further experiments were carried out with rougher MGS concentrate to produce a concentrate suitable for commercial grade pellet concentrate. It was proved that a concentrate assaying 66.67% Fe, 3.12% SiO2 with an yield of 45.08% by weight and with a recovery of 73.67% iron values in the concentrate.

  16. CT measurments of cranial growth: normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, F.J.; Chu, W.K.; Cheung, J.Y.

    1984-01-01

    Growth patterns of the cranium measured directly as head circumference have been well documented. With the availability of computed tomography (CT) , cranial dimensions can be obtained easily. The objective of this project was to establish the mean values and their normal variance of CT cranial area of subjects at different ages. Cranial area and its long and short axes were measured on CT scans for 215 neurologic patients of a wide age range who presented no evidence of abnormal growth of head size. Growth patterns of the cranial area as well as the numeric product of it linear dimensions were determined via a curve fitting process. The patterns resemble that of the head circumference growth chart, with the most rapid growth observed in the first 12 months of age and reaching full size during adolescence

  17. Functional MRI of Multilingual Subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Jae Min; Ryoo, Jae Wook; Choi, Dae Seob; Shin, Tae Beom; Chung, Sung Hoon; Kim, Ji Eun; Han, Heon; Kim, Sam Soo; Jeon, Yong Hwan

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate brain activation areas during the processing of languages in multilingual volunteers by functional MRI and to examine the differences between the mother and foreign languages. Nine multilingual (Korean, French, and English speaking) Korean individuals were enrolled in this study. Functional images were acquired during a lexical decision task (LDT) and picture naming task (PNT) in each of the Korean, French and English languages. The areas activated were analyzed topographically in each language and task, and compared between languages. Activation was noted in Broca's area, supramarginal gyrus, fusiform gyrus during the LDT. During the PNT, activation was noted in Broca's area, left prefrontal area, cerebellum, right extrastriated cortex. While Broca's area activation was observed for all languages during LDT, there was more activation in Broca's area and additional activation in the right prefrontal area with foreign languages. During the PNT, there was more activation in the left prefrontal area with foreign languages. Broca's area, which is known as a major language region, was activated by all languages and tasks. The brain activation areas were largely overlapping with the mother and foreign languages. However, there were wider areas of activation and additional different activation areas with foreign languages. These results suggest more cerebral effort during foreign language processing

  18. Evaluation of a Topical Anti-inflammatory/Antifungal Combination Cream in Mild-to-moderate Facial Seborrheic Dermatitis: An Intra-subject Controlled Trial Examining Treated vs. Untreated Skin Utilizing Clinical Features and Erythema-directed Digital Photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Oglio, Federica; Tedeschi, Aurora; Guardabasso, Vincenzo; Micali, Giuseppe

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate if nonprescription topical agents may provide positive outcomes in the management of mild-to-moderate facial seborrheic dermatitis by reducing inflammation and scale production through clinical evaluation and erythema-directed digital photography. Open-label, prospective, not-blinded, intra-patient, controlled, clinical trial (target area). Twenty adult subjects affected by mild-to-moderate facial seborrheic dermatitis were enrolled and instructed to apply the study cream two times daily, initially on a selected target area only for seven days. If the subject developed visible improvement, it was advised to extend the application to all facial affected area for 21 additional days. Efficacy was evaluated by measuring the grade of erythema (by clinical examination and by erythema-directed digital photography), desquamation (by clinical examination), and pruritus (by subject-completed visual analog scale). Additionally, at the end of the protocol, a Physician Global Assessment was carried out. Eighteen subjects completed the study, whereas two subjects were lost to follow-up for nonadherence and personal reasons, respectively. Day 7 data from target areas showed a significant reduction in erythema. At the end of study, a significant improvement was recorded for erythema, desquamation, and pruritus compared to baseline. Physician Global Assessment showed improvement in 89 percent of patients, with a complete response in 56 percent of cases. These preliminary results indicate that the study cream may be a viable nonprescription therapeutic option for patients affected by facial seborrheic dermatitis able to determine early and significant improvement. This study also emphasizes the advantages of using an erythema-directed digital photography system for assisting in a simple, more accurate erythema severity grading and therapeutic monitoring in patients affected by seborrheic dermatitis.

  19. Analysis Critical Thinking Stage of Eighth Grade in PBL-Scaffolding Setting To Solve Mathematical Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Nur Aisyah Isti; Arief Agoestanto; Ary Woro Kurniasih

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research was described critical thinking stage of students grade VIII in setting PBL and scaffolding to solve mathematics problems. Critical thinking stage consists of clarification, assesment, inference, and strategy/tactics. The subject were teo students in the level of capacity to think critical (uncritical, less critical, quite critical, and critical). So that this research subject was 8 students in VIII A One State Junior High School of Temanggung. The result showed a...

  20. Alternative Grading Systems. The Practitioner, Vol. III, No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leonibus, Nancy; Thomson, Scott

    After examining some of the pros and cons of traditional grading, the demands colleges make on grading practices, and the responses of people interested in grading, a number of examples of operating alternative systems are given. The alternatives include a dual (pass/withdraw grading in some courses, traditional grading in others) system, a…

  1. 7 CFR 51.1578 - Off-Grade potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Off-Grade potatoes. 51.1578 Section 51.1578... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Off-Grade § 51.1578 Off-Grade potatoes. Potatoes which fail to meet the requirements of any of the foregoing grades shall be Off-Grade potatoes...

  2. subjective approach to subjective approach to human physiological

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    the only physiological variables that influence the heat balance [4]. Yao et al [2] .... between the human responses and outdoor climate. 4.1 Subjective Response ... months seem to be influenced by cloud cover rather than the altitude.

  3. Cervical Muscle Dysfunction in the Chronic Whiplash Associated Disorder Grade II (WAD-II)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederhand, Marcus Johannes; IJzerman, Maarten Joost; Hermens, Hermanus J.; Baten, Christian T.M.; Zilvold, Gerrit

    2000-01-01

    Study Design: In a cross-sectional study, surface electromyography measurements of the upper trapezius muscles were obtained during different functional tasks in patients with a chronic whiplash associated disorder Grade II and healthy control subjects. - Objectives: To investigate whether muscle

  4. Effects of Classwide Peer Tutoring on the Performance of Sixth Grade Students during a Volleyball Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayvazo, Shiri; Ward, Phillip

    2009-01-01

    This investigation examined the effects of Classwide Peer Tutoring (CWPT), a variation of peer tutoring on the volleyball skills of four 6th grade middle school students purposefully selected from an intact class of 21 students. Participants were average to low skilled males and females. A single subject A-B-A-B withdrawal design was used to…

  5. Comparison of examination grades using item response theory : a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korobko, O.B.

    2007-01-01

    In item response theory (IRT), mathematical models are applied to analyze data from tests and questionnaires used to measure abilities, proficiency, personality traits and attitudes. This thesis is concerned with comparison of subjects, students and schools based on average examination grades using

  6. Enhancing Argumentative Essay Writing of Fourth-Grade Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deatline-Buchman, Andria; Jitendra, Asha K.

    2006-01-01

    A within-subject pretest-posttest comparison design was used to explore the effectiveness of a planning and writing intervention in improving the argumentative writing performance of five fourth-grade students with learning disabilities. Students were taught to collaboratively plan and revise their essays and independently write their essays using…

  7. An Analysis of the Development of Spelling and Punctuation in Selected Third and Fourth Grade Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Sandra

    Assuming that learning to spell and punctuate involves making and testing hypotheses about how the orthographic style of English works, a study explored six children's classroom spelling during their third and fourth grade years. The subjects were American children of the Tonono O'odham (Papago) tribe of southwestern Arizona who were part of a…

  8. Studying Gender Bias in Physics Grading: The Role of Teaching Experience and Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Sarah I.

    2015-01-01

    The existence of gender-STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) stereotypes has been repeatedly documented. This article examines physics teachers' gender bias in grading and the influence of teaching experience in Switzerland, Austria, and Germany. In a 2?×?2 between-subjects design, with years of teaching experience included as…

  9. An Experimental Analysis of the Relation between Assigned Grades and Instructor Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dale L.; Cook, Patrick; Buskist, William

    2011-01-01

    The perceived relation between assigned student grades and instructor evaluations of teaching has been the subject of much debate, though few laboratory studies have been conducted with adequate controls. Marsh and Roche suggested that experimental field studies may be a particularly promising avenue for further analyses of this relation. The…

  10. Facial nerve grading instruments: systematic review of the literature and suggestion for uniformity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fattah, A.Y.; Gurusinghe, A.D.; Gavilan, J.; Hadlock, T.A.; Marcus, J.R.; Marres, H.A.; Nduka, C.C.; Slattery, W.H.; Snyder-Warwick, A.K.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A variety of facial nerve grading scales have been developed over the years with the intended goals of objectively documenting facial nerve function,tracking recovery, and facilitating communication between practitioners. Numerous scales have been proposed; however, all are subject to

  11. Effect of size grading on the essential oil yield and composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The essential oil of freshly harvested 12 months mature ginger rhizomes graded based on their thickness, according to three commonly occuring sizes (big, medium and small) were extracted and subjected to GC-MS evaluation, in order to establish likely variation in yield and identify possible compositional differences ...

  12. The Risk of a Halo Bias as a Reason to Keep Students Anonymous during Grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malouff, John M.; Emmerton, Ashley J.; Schutte, Nicola S.

    2013-01-01

    Experts have advocated anonymous grading as a means of eliminating actual or perceived evaluator bias in subjective student assessment. The utility of anonymity in assessment rests on whether information derived from student identity can unduly influence evaluation. The halo effect provides a conceptual background for why a bias might occur. In…

  13. Disentangling the Predictive Validity of High School Grades for Academic Success in University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulperhorst, Jonne; Lutz, Christel; de Kleijn, Renske; van Tartwijk, Jan

    2018-01-01

    To refine selective admission models, we investigate which measure of prior achievement has the best predictive validity for academic success in university. We compare the predictive validity of three core high school subjects to the predictive validity of high school grade point average (GPA) for academic achievement in a liberal arts university…

  14. Physical Education and Health Education for Wyoming Elementary Schools, Grades Kindergarten-Six.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, John B., Ed.

    GRADES OR AGES: K-6. SUBJECT MATTER: Physical education and health education. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: There are 10 main sections--1) the elementary school program--organization and administration; 2) movement exploration and education; 3) rhythmic activities; 4) games; 5) stunts, tumbling, trampoline, and apparatus; 6) individual,…

  15. Correlation between the Physical Activity Level and Grade Point Averages of Faculty of Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imdat, Yarim

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to find the correlation that exists between physical activity level and grade point averages of faculty of education students. The subjects consist of 359 (172 females and 187 males) under graduate students To determine the physical activity levels of the students in this research, International Physical Activity…

  16. Science, Technology, and Society: Some Philosophical Reflections on a Grade 11 Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Paul L.

    1993-01-01

    Speculates on factors that may influence the lack of status of a "Science and Technology" course for grade 11 in British Columbia. Suggests that Aristotelian conceptions of the superiority of pure science over practical knowledge affect the status of school subjects. Questions the course's portrayal of the nature of technology and…

  17. Asymmetric acoustic transmission in graded beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, Li, E-mail: lj94172350@hotmail.com [School of Mechanical Engineering and State Key laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Wu, Jiu Hui, E-mail: ejhwu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Mechanical Engineering and State Key laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Guan, Dong; Lu, Kuan [School of Mechanical Engineering and State Key laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Gao, Nansha [School of Marine Science and Technology, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710072 (China); Songhua, Cao [School of Mechanical Engineering and State Key laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China)

    2016-12-01

    We demonstrate the dynamic effective material parameters and vibration performance of a graded beam. The structure of the beam was composed of several unit cells with different fill factors. The dispersion relations and energy band structures of each unit cell were calculated using the finite element method (FEM). The dynamic effective material parameters in each unit cell of the graded beam were determined by the dispersion relations and energy band structures. Longitudinal wave propagation was investigated using a numerical method and FEM. The results show that the graded beam allows asymmetric acoustic transmission over a wide range of frequencies.

  18. Graded Alternating-Time Temporal Logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faella, Marco; Napoli, Margherita; Parente, Mimmo

    Graded modalities enrich the universal and existential quantifiers with the capability to express the concept of at least k or all but k, for a non-negative integer k. Recently, temporal logics such as μ-calculus and Computational Tree Logic, Ctl, augmented with graded modalities have received attention from the scientific community, both from a theoretical side and from an applicative perspective. Both μ-calculus and Ctl naturally apply as specification languages for closed systems: in this paper, we add graded modalities to the Alternating-time Temporal Logic (Atl) introduced by Alur et al., to study how these modalities may affect specification languages for open systems.

  19. Quiet areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rikke Munck

    2016-01-01

    This paper argues that drone filming can substantiate our understanding of multisensorial experiences of quiet areas and urban landscapes. Contrary to the distanced gaze often associated with the drone, this paper discusses drone filming as an intimate performativity apparatus that can affect...... perception as a result of its interrelationships between motion, gaze, and sound. This paper uses four films, one of which is a drone flyover, to launch a discussion concerning a smooth and alluring gaze, a sliding gaze that penetrates landscapes, and site appearance. Films hold the capacity to project both...... and transcendence can facilitate a deeper understanding of intimate sensations, substantiating their role in the future design and planning of urban landscapes. Hence, it addresses the ethics of an intimacy perspective (of drone filming) in the qualification of quiet areas....

  20. Subject Retrieval from Full-Text Databases in the Humanities

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, John W.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the problems involved in subject retrieval from full-text databases of secondary materials in the humanities. Ten such databases were studied and their search functionality evaluated, focusing on factors such as Boolean operators, document surrogates, limiting by subject area, proximity operators, phrase searching, wildcards,…

  1. Orofacial myofunctional disorder in subjects with temporomandibular disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Cláudia Lúcia Pimenta; Da Silva, Marco Antônio M Rodrigues; de Felício, Cláudia Maria

    2009-10-01

    To determine the frequency and degree of orofacial myofunctional disorder (OMD) in a sample of patients with temporomandibular disorder (TMD), the dental records of 240 patients with a diagnosis of TMD were reviewed. Mean patient age and mean TMD duration, gender frequency, complaints, and signs and symptoms were calculated. The results showed that the sample studied was quite characteristic of a TMD group. The presence of the following signs/symptoms was significant: muscular pain, TMJ pain, joint noise, at least one otologic symptom, headache, and neck and shoulder pain. Most subjects presented some degree of OMD, with grade high prevailing over grade low. The importance of evaluating the stomatognathic structures and functions during the clinical examination of patients with TMD is emphasized.

  2. Subjective Evaluation of Audiovisual Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fikejz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with subjective evaluation of audiovisual signals, with emphasis on the interaction between acoustic and visual quality. The subjective test is realized by a simple rating method. The audiovisual signal used in this test is a combination of images compressed by JPEG compression codec and sound samples compressed by MPEG-1 Layer III. Images and sounds have various contents. It simulates a real situation when the subject listens to compressed music and watches compressed pictures without the access to original, i.e. uncompressed signals.

  3. Methodology for the Inventory and Assessment of Americium Contamination Level in 1987 in an Area of Palomares Contaminated with Plutonium Weapon Grade; Estimacion del Contenido de Americio Existente en el Ano 1987 en una Zona de Palomares Contaminada en 1966 por Material de Plutonio Grado Bomba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa, A.; Aragon, A.; Cruz de la, B.

    2001-07-01

    This paper presents a methodology applied for the assessment of the ''241 Am coming from the decay of ''241 Pu isotope content in a contaminated area of Palomares, where the clean-up work done in 1966, given the negligible agricultural importance of such area at the time and its geographical characteristics, was not of the same magnitude as for the rest of the region. (Author) 4 refs.

  4. Objectively measured sedentary behaviour and moderate and vigorous physical activity in different school subjects: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerli Mooses

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence shows the positive influence of moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA and negative influence of sedentary time on health and academic achievement. Although schools can significantly contribute to overall physical activity, little is known about MVPA and sedentary behaviour in different school subjects in different grades. Methods Physical activity of 646 students from 18 schools (94 classes and from three school stages (grades 1–9, aged 7–16 was measured with accelerometry for 5 school days. Time and proportion of MVPA and sedentary time, also average sedentary bout length was calculated for native language (Estonian, mathematics, science, foreign language, music and crafts lessons. Results A total of 6363 lessons were measured, with lesson duration of 45 min. The average lesson time MVPA remained below 2.2 min in all school stages and in all subjects. Students in grades 4–6 had greatest decline in the proportion of lesson time MVPA in science (β = −1.9, 95%CI −3.1– -0.6 and music (−1.2, −2.1– -0.4 and in grades 7–9 in music (−1.7, −3.1– -0.3 lessons compared to grades 1–3. In grades 1–3 students spent on average 76% of lesson time (34.0 ± 7.0 min as sedentary, whereas in grades 7–9 the average proportion of sedentary time was 87% (38.9 ± 5.7 min. An average sedentary bout length increased from 13 min in grades 1–3 to 20 min in grades 7–9. An increase in sedentary bout length from grades 1–3 compared to grades 7–9 was present in most subjects, except crafts, with smallest increase in foreign language (6 min, 3.5–8.9 and greatest in music lessons (16.6 min, 11.9–21.3. Lessons with prolonged sedentary bouts formed a maximum 36% of all lessons in grades 1–3 and 73% in grades 7–9. Conclusion The long sedentary time, bout length and low MVPA in most subjects were unfavourable in respect of both health and academic achievement. Significantly

  5. Corrosion investigations of high-alloyed steels carried out in different marine area organized by European Federation of Corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birn, J.; Skalski, I.

    1999-01-01

    Research works arranged by EFC Working Party on Marine Corrosion are described. The research was performed in sea areas of Norway, Finland, Sweden, France, Italy, Poland and Netherlands. Subjected to test were three corrosion resistant steel grades; 316, 904 and UNS S 31524. Two corrosion tests were carried out in the years 1993 and 1994 each of min. 6 month duration. The results show that chemical composition of water at salinity level of more than 0.7% has not great effect on corrosion aggressivity in relation to corrosion resistant steels. On the other hand temperature of sea water has great influence on corrosion process. (author)

  6. ENERGY STAR Laboratory Grade Refrigerators and Freezers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Laboratory Grade Refrigerators and Freezers that...

  7. High Performance Graded Index Polymer Optical Fibers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garito, Anthony

    1998-01-01

    ...) plastic optical fibers (POF) and graded index (GI) POFs are reported. A set of criteria and analyses of physical parameters are developed in context to the major issues of POF applications in short-distance communication systems...

  8. Bruxism defined and graded: an international consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobbezoo, F; Ahlberg, J; Glaros, A G; Kato, T; Koyano, K; Lavigne, G J; de Leeuw, R; Manfredini, D; Svensson, P; Winocur, E

    2013-01-01

    To date, there is no consensus about the definition and diagnostic grading of bruxism. A written consensus discussion was held among an international group of bruxism experts as to formulate a definition of bruxism and to suggest a grading system for its operationalisation. The expert group defined bruxism as a repetitive jaw-muscle activity characterised by clenching or grinding of the teeth and/or by bracing or thrusting of the mandible. Bruxism has two distinct circadian manifestations: it can occur during sleep (indicated as sleep bruxism) or during wakefulness (indicated as awake bruxism). For the operationalisation of this definition, the expert group proposes a diagnostic grading system of 'possible', 'probable' and 'definite' sleep or awake bruxism. The proposed definition and grading system are suggested for clinical and research purposes in all relevant dental and medical domains. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Kindergarten Predictors of Third Grade Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Wanzek, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal of the present study was to examine the relations of kindergarten transcription, oral language, word reading, and attention skills to writing skills in third grade. Children (N = 157) were assessed on their letter writing automaticity, spelling, oral language, word reading, and attention in kindergarten. Then, they were assessed on writing in third grade using three writing tasks – one narrative and two expository prompts. Children’s written compositions were evaluated in terms of writing quality (the extent to which ideas were developed and presented in an organized manner). Structural equation modeling showed that kindergarten oral language and lexical literacy skills (i.e., word reading and spelling) were independently predicted third grade narrative writing quality, and kindergarten literacy skill uniquely predicted third grade expository writing quality. In contrast, attention and letter writing automaticity were not directly related to writing quality in either narrative or expository genre. These results are discussed in light of theoretical and practical implications. PMID:25642118

  10. Statistical Content in Middle Grades Mathematics Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickle, Maria Consuelo Capiral

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzed the treatment and scope of statistical concepts in four, widely-used, contemporary, middle grades mathematics textbook series: "Glencoe Math Connects," "Prentice Hall Mathematics," "Connected Mathematics Project," and "University of Chicago School Mathematics Project." There were three…

  11. Doubly graded sigma model with torsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalski-Glikman, J.

    1986-08-01

    Using the Hull-Witten construction we show how to introduce torsion to the doubly graded sigma model. This construction enables us to find a link between this model and the ten-dimensional supergravity theory in superspace. (Auth.)

  12. Graded contractions of Jordan algebras and of their representations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashuba, Iryna; Patera, JirI

    2003-01-01

    Contractions of Jordan algebras and Jordan superalgebras which preserve a chosen grading are defined and studied. Simultaneous grading of Jordan algebras and their representation spaces is used to develop a theory of grading, preserving contractions of representations of Jordan algebras

  13. Politics of modern muslim subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Dietrich; Petersen, Marie Juul; Sparre, Sara Lei

    Examining modern Muslim identity constructions, the authors introduce a novel analytical framework to Islamic Studies, drawing on theories of successive modernities, sociology of religion, and poststructuralist approaches to modern subjectivity, as well as the results of extensive fieldwork...

  14. Objective and subjective sleep quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, Lone; Glenthøj, Birte Yding; Jennum, Poul Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    and subjective sleep quality during benzodiazepine discontinuation and whether sleep variables were associated with benzodiazepine withdrawal. Eligible patients included adults with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder and long-term use of benzodiazepines in combination...

  15. Experimental Tape Casting of Adjacently Graded Materials for Magnetic Refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulatova, Regina

    encompass modification of the entire tape caster into a multi chamber unit, establishment of the optimal operating parameters such as casting gap, speed, and slurry level in the tape caster reservoir, and elucidation of the impact of chamber partition design on the quality of the final tape. The second...... of the side-by-side tape casting technique: recognising critical parameters which affect the quality of a graded tape, shape and position of the interface area. Studied parameters can be divided into two categories: operational parameters and slurry formulation optimisation. The operational parameters...

  16. Experimental Study on Purification of Low Grade Diatomite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Liguang; Pang, Bo

    2017-04-01

    This paper presented an innovation for purification of low grade diatomite(DE) by grinding, ultrasonic pretreatment, acid leaching of closed stirring and calcination. The optimum process parameters of DE purification were obtained, the characterizations of original and purified DE were determined by SEM and BET. The results showed that the specific surface area of DE increased from 12.65m2/g to 23.23m2/g, which increased by 45.54%. SEM analysis revealed that the pore structure of purified DE was dredged highly.

  17. Subjective Illness theory and coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gessmann H.-W.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a view of a problem of subjective illness theory in context of coping behavior. The article compiles the results of the latest studies of coping; discloses the way subjective illness theory affects the illness coping and patient's health; presents the study of differences in coping behaviour of patients at risk of heart attack and oncology. The article is recommended for specialists, concerned with psychological reasons of pathogenic processes and coping strategies of patients.

  18. Subject categories and scope descriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document is one in a series of publications known as the ETDE/INIS Joint Reference Series. It defines the subject categories and provides the scope descriptions to be used for categorization of the nuclear literature for the preparation of INIS and ETDE input by national and regional centres. Together with the other volumes of the INIS Reference Series it defines the rules, standards and practices and provides the authorities to be used in the International Nuclear Information System and ETDE. A complete list of the volumes published in the INIS Reference Series may be found on the inside front cover of this publication. This INIS/ETDE Reference Series document is intended to serve two purposes: to define the subject scope of the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) and the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE) and to define the subject classification scheme of INIS and ETDE. It is thus the guide to the inputting centres in determining which items of literature should be reported, and in determining where the full bibliographic entry and abstract of each item should be included in INIS or ETDE database. Each category is identified by a category code consisting of three alphanumeric characters. A scope description is given for each subject category. The scope of INIS is the sum of the scopes of all the categories. With most categories cross references are provided to other categories where appropriate. Cross references should be of assistance in finding the appropriate category; in fact, by indicating topics that are excluded from the category in question, the cross references help to clarify and define the scope of the category to which they are appended. A Subject Index is included as an aid to subject classifiers, but it is only an aid and not a means for subject classification. It facilitates the use of this document, but is no substitute for the description of the scope of the subject categories

  19. Subjective expected utility without preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Bouyssou , Denis; Marchant , Thierry

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a theory of subjective expected utility based on primitives only involving the fact that an act can be judged either "attractive" or "unattractive". We give conditions implying that there are a utility function on the set of consequences and a probability distribution on the set of states such that attractive acts have a subjective expected utility above some threshold. The numerical representation that is obtained has strong uniqueness properties.

  20. Pollination biology of basal angiosperms (ANITA Grade)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard B. Thien; Peter Bernhardt; Margaret S. Devall; Zhi-Duan Chen; Yi-bo Luo; Jian-Hua Fan; Liang-Chen Yuan; Joseph H. Williams

    2009-01-01

    The fi rst three branches of the angiosperm phylogenetic tree consist of eight families with ~201 species of plants (the ANITA grade). The oldest fl ower fossil for the group is dated to the Early Cretaceous (115 – 125 Mya) and identifi ed to the Nymphaeales. The fl owers of extant plants in the ANITA grade are small, and pollen is the edible reward (rarely nectar or...