WorldWideScience

Sample records for subj difden flight

  1. Temperature Regulation in Crewmembers After a 115-Day Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. M. C.; Williams, W. J.; Siconolfi, S. F.; Gonzalez, R.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Mikhavlov, V.; Kobzev, Y.; Fortney, S. M.

    1996-01-01

    Impaired thermoregulation, which has been observed during exercise following bed rest, may significantly impact crewmembers during space flight operations by decreasing exercise capacity and orthostatic tolerance. Impaired temperature regulation would cause higher levels of core temperature, due to an attenuated cutaneous vasodilatory reflex and sweating response, for a given oxygen consumption. Two mate crewmembers of the Mir 18 mission performed supine cycle exercise se (20 min @ 40% and 20 min @ 65% preflight VO2pk) 145 days preflight and 5 days postflight. Core temperature (Tcore) was measured by an ingestible telemetry pill, skin blood flow (SBF) by laser Doppler velocimetry, and sweat rate (SR) by dew point hygrometry. Tcore at the time of test termination was similar (37.8 C) for both subjects before and after flight despite a shorter test duration (40 vs 28-29 minutes) postflight. The slopes of the SBF/Tcore relationship (Subj 1: 396 vs 214; Subj 2: 704 vs 143 Perfusion Unit/degC) and SR/Tcore relationship (Subj 1: 4.5 vs 2.1; Subj 2: 11.0 vs 3.6mg/min/sq cm/degC) were reduced postflight. Tcore thresholds for both SR (Subj 1: 37.4 vs 37.6; Subj 2: 37.6 vs 37.6 C) and SBF (Subj 1: 37.3 vs 37.5; Subj 2: 37.6 vs 37.7 C) were similar pre- to postflight. For these 2 crewmembers, it appeared that thermoregulation during exercise was impaired as evidenced by compromised heat loss responses after long-duration space flight.

  2. effects of joints stiffening on the dynamic response of frames subje

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uncle Greg 4 Real

    Cramer's rule which is used to solve. Equation (8) requires, for a non-trival solution, that the determinant of the coefficients of X equals zero i.e. ij i. *K – m ω * = 0 …(9). 2. Thus, Equation (9) is an eigenvalue problem whose solution yields the natural frequencies. 1. 2 n ω , ω , …, ω . 1. 2 n where, ω < ω < … < ω …(10). 6.0.

  3. A flight control through unstable flapping flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iima, Makoto; Yokoyama, Naoto; Hirai, Norio; Senda, Kei

    2012-11-01

    We have studied a flight control in a two-dimensional flapping flight model for insects. In this model, the model of center-of-mass can move in both horizontal and vertical directions according to the hydrodynamic force generated by flapping. Under steady flapping, the model converges to steady flight states depending on initial conditions. We demonstrate that simple changes in flapping motion, a finite-time stop of flapping, results in changes in the vortex structures, and the separation of two steady flight state by a quasi-steady flight. The model's flight finally converges to one of the final states by way of the quasi-steady state, which is not observed as a (stable) steady flight. The flight dynamic has been also analyzed. KAKENHI (23540433, 22360105, 21340019) and CREST No. PJ74100011.

  4. Abort Flight Test Project Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitz, Joel

    2007-01-01

    A general overview of the Orion abort flight test is presented. The contents include: 1) Abort Flight Test Project Overview; 2) DFRC Exploration Mission Directorate; 3) Abort Flight Test; 4) Flight Test Configurations; 5) Flight Test Vehicle Engineering Office; 6) DFRC FTA Scope; 7) Flight Test Operations; 8) DFRC Ops Support; 9) Launch Facilities; and 10) Scope of Launch Abort Flight Test

  5. Manned Flight Simulator (MFS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Aircraft Simulation Division, home to the Manned Flight Simulator (MFS), provides real-time, high fidelity, hardware-in-the-loop flight simulation capabilities...

  6. Ornithopter flight stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietl, John M.; Garcia, Ephrahim

    2007-04-01

    The quasi-steady aerodynamics model and the vehicle dynamics model of ornithopter flight are explained, and numerical methods are described to capture limit cycle behavior in ornithopter flight. The Floquet method is used to determine stability in forward flight, and a linear discrete-time state-space model is developed. This is used to calculate stabilizing and disturbance-rejecting controllers.

  7. Biomechanics of bird flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobalske, Bret W

    2007-09-01

    Power output is a unifying theme for bird flight and considerable progress has been accomplished recently in measuring muscular, metabolic and aerodynamic power in birds. The primary flight muscles of birds, the pectoralis and supracoracoideus, are designed for work and power output, with large stress (force per unit cross-sectional area) and strain (relative length change) per contraction. U-shaped curves describe how mechanical power output varies with flight speed, but the specific shapes and characteristic speeds of these curves differ according to morphology and flight style. New measures of induced, profile and parasite power should help to update existing mathematical models of flight. In turn, these improved models may serve to test behavioral and ecological processes. Unlike terrestrial locomotion that is generally characterized by discrete gaits, changes in wing kinematics and aerodynamics across flight speeds are gradual. Take-off flight performance scales with body size, but fully revealing the mechanisms responsible for this pattern awaits new study. Intermittent flight appears to reduce the power cost for flight, as some species flap-glide at slow speeds and flap-bound at fast speeds. It is vital to test the metabolic costs of intermittent flight to understand why some birds use intermittent bounds during slow flight. Maneuvering and stability are critical for flying birds, and design for maneuvering may impinge upon other aspects of flight performance. The tail contributes to lift and drag; it is also integral to maneuvering and stability. Recent studies have revealed that maneuvers are typically initiated during downstroke and involve bilateral asymmetry of force production in the pectoralis. Future study of maneuvering and stability should measure inertial and aerodynamic forces. It is critical for continued progress into the biomechanics of bird flight that experimental designs are developed in an ecological and evolutionary context.

  8. Bat flight: aerodynamics, kinematics and flight morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedenström, Anders; Johansson, L Christoffer

    2015-03-01

    Bats evolved the ability of powered flight more than 50 million years ago. The modern bat is an efficient flyer and recent research on bat flight has revealed many intriguing facts. By using particle image velocimetry to visualize wake vortices, both the magnitude and time-history of aerodynamic forces can be estimated. At most speeds the downstroke generates both lift and thrust, whereas the function of the upstroke changes with forward flight speed. At hovering and slow speed bats use a leading edge vortex to enhance the lift beyond that allowed by steady aerodynamics and an inverted wing during the upstroke to further aid weight support. The bat wing and its skeleton exhibit many features and control mechanisms that are presumed to improve flight performance. Whereas bats appear aerodynamically less efficient than birds when it comes to cruising flight, they have the edge over birds when it comes to manoeuvring. There is a direct relationship between kinematics and the aerodynamic performance, but there is still a lack of knowledge about how (and if) the bat controls the movements and shape (planform and camber) of the wing. Considering the relatively few bat species whose aerodynamic tracks have been characterized, there is scope for new discoveries and a need to study species representing more extreme positions in the bat morphospace. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Flight Attendant Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Seattle to Helsinki) on the salivary melatonin and cortisol levels in 35 female flight atten- dants has shown that the resynchronization rate of these...in both summer and winter. Salivary melatonin and cortisol levels were measured at two-hour intervals for five days before, during, and after the 4...The effect of four-day round trip flights over 10 time zones on the circadian variation of salivary melatonin and cortisol in airline flight at

  10. Flight Standards Automation System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — FAVSIS supports Flight Standards Service (AFS) by maintaining their information on entities such as air carriers, air agencies, designated airmen, and check airmen....

  11. Aviation Flight Regulations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2006-01-01

    .... This regulation covers aircraft operations, crew requirements and flight rules. It also covers Army aviation general provisions, training, standardization, and management of aviation resources...

  12. Basics of space flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celnikier, L. M.

    Space flight can be approached as an exercise in applied physics. "With his physicist's eye view" the author shows how well known and relatively elementary laws constrain what can and what cannot be done. This book will be of interest to anyone wishing to understand the real, rather than the imagined, limits of space flight.

  13. Robust Flight Controllers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    Institute of Technology, Wright-Patterson Air force Base, Ohio, December, 1982. 31. Roskam , J. Airplane Flight Dynamics and Automatic Flight Controls...Lawrence, Kansas: Roskam Aviation and Engineering, 1979. 171 " APPENDIX A: Generic Controller Format Al. Introduction In Chapter II, the idea of a

  14. Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengle, Tom; Flores-Amaya, Felipe

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes the major activities and accomplishments carried out by the Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch (FDAB), Code 572, in support of flight projects and technology development initiatives in fiscal year 2000. The report is intended to serve as a summary of the type of support carried out by the FDAB, as well as a concise reference of key accomplishments and mission experience derived from the various mission support roles. The primary focus of the FDAB is to provide expertise in the disciplines of flight dynamics, spacecraft trajectory, attitude analysis, and attitude determination and control. The FDAB currently provides support for missions and technology development projects involving NASA, government, university, and private industry.

  15. Flight Research Building (Hangar)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NASA Glenn Flight Research Building is located at the NASA Glenn Research Center with aircraft access to Cleveland Hopkins International Airport. The facility is...

  16. Flight Systems Monitor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I project will develop the Flight System Monitor which will use non-intrusive electrical monitoring (NEMO). The electronic system health of...

  17. Orion Abort Flight Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Peggy Sue

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of NASA's Constellation project is to create the new generation of spacecraft for human flight to the International Space Station in low-earth orbit, the lunar surface, as well as for use in future deep-space exploration. One portion of the Constellation program was the development of the Orion crew exploration vehicle (CEV) to be used in spaceflight. The Orion spacecraft consists of a crew module, service module, space adapter and launch abort system. The crew module was designed to hold as many as six crew members. The Orion crew exploration vehicle is similar in design to the Apollo space capsules, although larger and more massive. The Flight Test Office is the responsible flight test organization for the launch abort system on the Orion crew exploration vehicle. The Flight Test Office originally proposed six tests that would demonstrate the use of the launch abort system. These flight tests were to be performed at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico and were similar in nature to the Apollo Little Joe II tests performed in the 1960s. The first flight test of the launch abort system was a pad abort (PA-1), that took place on 6 May 2010 at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. Primary flight test objectives were to demonstrate the capability of the launch abort system to propel the crew module a safe distance away from a launch vehicle during a pad abort, to demonstrate the stability and control characteristics of the vehicle, and to determine the performance of the motors contained within the launch abort system. The focus of the PA-1 flight test was engineering development and data acquisition, not certification. In this presentation, a high level overview of the PA-1 vehicle is given, along with an overview of the Mobile Operations Facility and information on the White Sands tracking sites for radar & optics. Several lessons learned are presented, including detailed information on the lessons learned in the development of wind

  18. The flight robotics laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobbe, Patrick A.; Williamson, Marlin J.; Glaese, John R.

    1988-01-01

    The Flight Robotics Laboratory of the Marshall Space Flight Center is described in detail. This facility, containing an eight degree of freedom manipulator, precision air bearing floor, teleoperated motion base, reconfigurable operator's console, and VAX 11/750 computer system, provides simulation capability to study human/system interactions of remote systems. The facility hardware, software and subsequent integration of these components into a real time man-in-the-loop simulation for the evaluation of spacecraft contact proximity and dynamics are described.

  19. Aerodynamics of Bird Flight

    OpenAIRE

    Dvořák Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    Unlike airplanes birds must have either flapping or oscillating wings (the hummingbird). Only such wings can produce both lift and thrust – two sine qua non attributes of flying.The bird wings have several possibilities how to obtain the same functions as airplane wings. All are realized by the system of flight feathers. Birds have also the capabilities of adjusting the shape of the wing according to what the immediate flight situation demands, as well as of responding almost immediately to c...

  20. Flight Test Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    PARTICULARITES ET INNOVATIONS par G.Guyot 4 THE EXPERIMENTAL AIRCRAFT FLIGHT TEST PIOGRAMME by R.A.Hartley 5 REAL-TIME LGHT TEST ANALYSIS AND DISPLAY TECNIQUES ...the surface with a paint brush approximately 30 min prior to takeoff. Documentation was obtained from chase aircraft photographs. A dark curved line...also exhibited numerous teething difficulties caused by its radical flight control system. That these problems were worked out (particularly those

  1. Adaptive structures flight experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Maurice

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: adaptive structures flight experiments; enhanced resolution using active vibration suppression; Advanced Controls Technology Experiment (ACTEX); ACTEX program status; ACTEX-2; ACTEX-2 program status; modular control patch; STRV-1b Cryocooler Vibration Suppression Experiment; STRV-1b program status; Precision Optical Bench Experiment (PROBE); Clementine Spacecraft Configuration; TECHSAT all-composite spacecraft; Inexpensive Structures and Materials Flight Experiment (INFLEX); and INFLEX program status.

  2. Magnesium and Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium is an essential nutrient for muscle, cardiovascular, and bone health on Earth, and during space flight. We sought to evaluate magnesium status in 43 astronauts (34 male, 9 female; 47 ± 5 years old, mean ± SD) before, during, and after 4–6-month space missions. We also studied individuals participating in a ground analog of space flight (head-down-tilt bed rest; n = 27 (17 male, 10 female), 35 ± 7 years old). We evaluated serum concentration and 24-h urinary excretion of magnesium, along with estimates of tissue magnesium status from sublingual cells. Serum magnesium increased late in flight, while urinary magnesium excretion was higher over the course of 180-day space missions. Urinary magnesium increased during flight but decreased significantly at landing. Neither serum nor urinary magnesium changed during bed rest. For flight and bed rest, significant correlations existed between the area under the curve of serum and urinary magnesium and the change in total body bone mineral content. Tissue magnesium concentration was unchanged after flight and bed rest. Increased excretion of magnesium is likely partially from bone and partially from diet, but importantly, it does not come at the expense of muscle tissue stores. While further study is needed to better understand the implications of these findings for longer space exploration missions, magnesium homeostasis and tissue status seem well maintained during 4–6-month space missions. PMID:26670248

  3. Magnesium and Space Flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott M. Smith

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium is an essential nutrient for muscle, cardiovascular, and bone health on Earth, and during space flight. We sought to evaluate magnesium status in 43 astronauts (34 male, 9 female; 47 ± 5 years old, mean ± SD before, during, and after 4–6-month space missions. We also studied individuals participating in a ground analog of space flight (head-down-tilt bed rest; n = 27 (17 male, 10 female, 35 ± 7 years old. We evaluated serum concentration and 24-h urinary excretion of magnesium, along with estimates of tissue magnesium status from sublingual cells. Serum magnesium increased late in flight, while urinary magnesium excretion was higher over the course of 180-day space missions. Urinary magnesium increased during flight but decreased significantly at landing. Neither serum nor urinary magnesium changed during bed rest. For flight and bed rest, significant correlations existed between the area under the curve of serum and urinary magnesium and the change in total body bone mineral content. Tissue magnesium concentration was unchanged after flight and bed rest. Increased excretion of magnesium is likely partially from bone and partially from diet, but importantly, it does not come at the expense of muscle tissue stores. While further study is needed to better understand the implications of these findings for longer space exploration missions, magnesium homeostasis and tissue status seem well maintained during 4–6-month space missions.

  4. DAST in Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The modified BQM-34 Firebee II drone with Aeroelastic Research Wing (ARW-1), a supercritical airfoil, during a 1980 research flight. The remotely-piloted vehicle, which was air launched from NASA's NB-52B mothership, participated in the Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST) program which ran from 1977 to 1983. The DAST 1 aircraft (Serial #72-1557), pictured, crashed on 12 June 1980 after its right wing ripped off during a test flight near Cuddeback Dry Lake, California. The crash occurred on the modified drone's third free flight. These are the image contact sheets for each image resolution of the NASA Dryden Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST) Photo Gallery. From 1977 to 1983, the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, (under two different names) conducted the DAST Program as a high-risk flight experiment using a ground-controlled, pilotless aircraft. Described by NASA engineers as a 'wind tunnel in the sky,' the DAST was a specially modified Teledyne-Ryan BQM-34E/F Firebee II supersonic target drone that was flown to validate theoretical predictions under actual flight conditions in a joint project with the Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. The DAST Program merged advances in electronic remote control systems with advances in airplane design. Drones (remotely controlled, missile-like vehicles initially developed to serve as gunnery targets) had been deployed successfully during the Vietnamese conflict as reconnaissance aircraft. After the war, the energy crisis of the 1970s led NASA to seek new ways to cut fuel use and improve airplane efficiency. The DAST Program's drones provided an economical, fuel-conscious method for conducting in-flight experiments from a remote ground site. DAST explored the technology required to build wing structures with less than normal stiffness. This was done because stiffness requires structural weight but ensures freedom from flutter-an uncontrolled, divergent oscillation of

  5. Long duration flights management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa-Sesma, Sergio; Letrenne, Gérard; Spel, Martin; Charbonnier, Jean-Marc

    Long duration flights (LDF) require a special management to take the best decisions in terms of ballast consumption and instant of separation. As a contrast to short duration flights, where meteorological conditions are relatively well known, for LDF we need to include the meteorological model accuracy in trajectory simulations. Dispersions on the fields of model (wind, temperature and IR fluxes) could make the mission incompatible with safety rules, authorized zones and others flight requirements. Last CNES developments for LDF act on three main axes: 1. Although ECMWF-NCEP forecast allows generating simulations from a 4D point (altitude, latitude, longitude and UT time), result is not statistical, it is determinist. To take into account model dispersion a meteorological NCEP data base was analyzed. A comparison between Analysis (AN) and Forecast (FC) for the same time frame had been done. Result obtained from this work allows implementing wind and temperature dispersions on balloon flight simulator. 2. For IR fluxes, NCEP does not provide ascending IR fluxes in AN mode but only in FC mode. To obtain the IR fluxes for each time frame, satellite images are used. A comparison between FC and satellites measurements had been done. Results obtained from this work allow implementing flux dispersions on balloon flight simulator. 3. An improved cartography containing a vast data base had been included in balloon flight simulator. Mixing these three points with balloon flight dynamics we have obtained two new tools for observing balloon evolution and risk, one of them is called ASTERISK (Statistic Tool for Evaluation of Risk) for calculations and the other one is called OBERISK (Observing Balloon Evolution and Risk) for visualization. Depending on the balloon type (super pressure, zero pressure or MIR) relevant information for the flight manager is different. The goal is to take the best decision according to the global situation to obtain the largest flight duration with

  6. Perseus Post-flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Crew members check out the Perseus proof-of-concept vehicle on Rogers Dry Lake, adjacent to the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, after a test flight in 1991. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus design, which began with the Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft. Perseus was initially developed as part of NASA's Small High-Altitude Science Aircraft (SHASA) program, which later evolved

  7. Aerodynamics of bird flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dvořák Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike airplanes birds must have either flapping or oscillating wings (the hummingbird. Only such wings can produce both lift and thrust – two sine qua non attributes of flying.The bird wings have several possibilities how to obtain the same functions as airplane wings. All are realized by the system of flight feathers. Birds have also the capabilities of adjusting the shape of the wing according to what the immediate flight situation demands, as well as of responding almost immediately to conditions the flow environment dictates, such as wind gusts, object avoidance, target tracking, etc. In bird aerodynamics also the tail plays an important role. To fly, wings impart downward momentum to the surrounding air and obtain lift by reaction. How this is achieved under various flight situations (cruise flight, hovering, landing, etc., and what the role is of the wing-generated vortices in producing lift and thrust is discussed.The issue of studying bird flight experimentally from in vivo or in vitro experiments is also briefly discussed.

  8. 14 CFR 121.493 - Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators. 121.493 Section 121.493 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time...

  9. Flight Planning in the Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Sarah L.; Chapman, Bruce D.; Tung, Waye W.; Zheng, Yang

    2011-01-01

    This new interface will enable Principal Investigators (PIs), as well as UAVSAR (Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar) members to do their own flight planning and time estimation without having to request flight lines through the science coordinator. It uses an all-in-one Google Maps interface, a JPL hosted database, and PI flight requirements to design an airborne flight plan. The application will enable users to see their own flight plan being constructed interactively through a map interface, and then the flight planning software will generate all the files necessary for the flight. Afterward, the UAVSAR team can then complete the flight request, including calendaring and supplying requisite flight request files in the expected format for processing by NASA s airborne science program. Some of the main features of the interface include drawing flight lines on the map, nudging them, adding them to the current flight plan, and reordering them. The user can also search and select takeoff, landing, and intermediate airports. As the flight plan is constructed, all of its components are constantly being saved to the database, and the estimated flight times are updated. Another feature is the ability to import flight lines from previously saved flight plans. One of the main motivations was to make this Web application as simple and intuitive as possible, while also being dynamic and robust. This Web application can easily be extended to support other airborne instruments.

  10. Flight calls and orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Andersen, Bent Bach; Kropp, Wibke

    2008-01-01

    flight calls was simulated by sequential computer controlled activation of five loudspeakers placed in a linear array perpendicular to the bird's migration course. The bird responded to this stimulation by changing its migratory course in the direction of that of the ‘flying conspecifics' but after about...... 30 minutes it drifted back to its original migration course. The results suggest that songbirds migrating alone at night can use the flight calls from conspecifics as additional cues for orientation and that they may compare this information with other cues to decide what course to keep.......  In a pilot experiment a European Robin, Erithacus rubecula, expressing migratory restlessness with a stable orientation, was video filmed in the dark with an infrared camera and its directional migratory activity was recorded. The flight overhead of migrating conspecifics uttering nocturnal...

  11. Decision Model of Flight Safety Based on Flight Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao-yu, Zhang; Jiu-sheng, Chen

    To improve the management of flight safety for airline company, the hierarchy model is established about the evaluation of flight safety by flight event. Flight safety is evaluated by improved analytical hierarchy process (AHP). The method to rectify the consistency judgment matrix is given to improve the AHP. Then the weight can be given directly without consistency judgment matrix. It ensures absolute consistent of judgment matrix. By statistic of flight event incidence history data, the flight safety analysis is processed by means of static evaluation and dynamic evaluation. The hierarchy structure model is implemented based on .NET, and the simulation result proves the validity of the method.

  12. F-104 in flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    F-104G N826NA during a 1993 flight over the Mojave desert, outfitted with an experiment pylon under the center fuselage and wing racks. The F-104 was originally designed by Kelly Johnson of the Lockheed Skunk Works as a day fighter. The aircraft soon proved ideal for both research and training. For instance, a modified F-104 tested the reaction control jets for the X-15. The F-104's short wings and low lift to drag ratio made it ideal to simulate the X-15 landing profile, which the F-104s often undertook before X-15 flights in order to acquaint pilots with the rocket plane's landing characteristics. This training role continued with the lifting bodies. NASA F-104s were also used for high-speed research after the X-1E was retired. Finally, the F-104s were also used as chase planes for research missions. The F-104G was a late model designed as a fighter bomber for low-level strike missions. It was built for use by the West German Air Force and other foreign governments. N826NA accomplished a wide-range of research activities, including tests of the Space Shuttle's Thermal Protection System (TPS) tiles. The aircraft made 1,415 flights before being retired. It is now on display at the Dryden Flight Research Center.

  13. Flight deck task management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-21

    This report documents the work undertaken in support of Volpe Task Order No. T0026, Flight Deck Task Management. The objectives of this work effort were to: : 1) Develop a specific and standard definition of task management (TM) : 2) Conduct a ...

  14. UAVSAR Flight-Planning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    A system of software partly automates planning of a flight of the Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) -- a polarimetric synthetic-aperture radar system aboard an unpiloted or minimally piloted airplane. The software constructs a flight plan that specifies not only the intended flight path but also the setup of the radar system at each point along the path.

  15. Infrared Thermography Flight Experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Robert C.; Carter, Matthew L.; Kirsch, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Analysis was done on IR data collected by DFRC on May 8, 2002. This includes the generation of a movie to initially examine the IR flight data. The production of the movie was challenged by the volume of data that needed to be processed, namely 40,500 images with each image (256 x 252) containing over 264 million points (pixel depth 4096). It was also observed during the initial analysis that the RTD surface coating has a different emissivity than the surroundings. This fact added unexpected complexity in obtaining a correlation between RTD data and IR data. A scheme was devised to generate IR data near the RTD location which is not affected by the surface coating This scheme is valid as long as the surface temperature as measured does not change too much over a few pixel distances from the RTD location. After obtaining IR data near the RTD location, it is possible to make a direct comparison with the temperature as measured during the flight after adjusting for the camera s auto scaling. The IR data seems to correlate well to the flight temperature data at three of the four RID locations. The maximum count intensity occurs closely to the maximum temperature as measured during flight. At one location (RTD #3), there is poor correlation and this must be investigated before any further progress is possible. However, with successful comparisons at three locations, it seems there is great potential to be able to find a calibration curve for the data. Moreover, as such it will be possible to measure temperature directly from the IR data in the near future.

  16. Flight Software Math Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, David

    2013-01-01

    The flight software (FSW) math library is a collection of reusable math components that provides typical math utilities required by spacecraft flight software. These utilities are intended to increase flight software quality reusability and maintainability by providing a set of consistent, well-documented, and tested math utilities. This library only has dependencies on ANSI C, so it is easily ported. Prior to this library, each mission typically created its own math utilities using ideas/code from previous missions. Part of the reason for this is that math libraries can be written with different strategies in areas like error handling, parameters orders, naming conventions, etc. Changing the utilities for each mission introduces risks and costs. The obvious risks and costs are that the utilities must be coded and revalidated. The hidden risks and costs arise in miscommunication between engineers. These utilities must be understood by both the flight software engineers and other subsystem engineers (primarily guidance navigation and control). The FSW math library is part of a larger goal to produce a library of reusable Guidance Navigation and Control (GN&C) FSW components. A GN&C FSW library cannot be created unless a standardized math basis is created. This library solves the standardization problem by defining a common feature set and establishing policies for the library s design. This allows the libraries to be maintained with the same strategy used in its initial development, which supports a library of reusable GN&C FSW components. The FSW math library is written for an embedded software environment in C. This places restrictions on the language features that can be used by the library. Another advantage of the FSW math library is that it can be used in the FSW as well as other environments like the GN&C analyst s simulators. This helps communication between the teams because they can use the same utilities with the same feature set and syntax.

  17. The aerodynamics of flight in an insect flight-mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gal Ribak

    Full Text Available Predicting the dispersal of pest insects is important for pest management schemes. Flight-mills provide a simple way to evaluate the flight potential of insects, but there are several complications in relating tethered-flight to natural flight. We used high-speed video to evaluate the effect of flight-mill design on flight of the red palm weevil (Rynchophorous ferruginneus in four variants of a flight-mill. Two variants had the rotating radial arm pivoted on the main shaft of the rotation axis, allowing freedom to elevate the arm as the insect applied lift force. Two other variants had the pivot point fixed, restricting the radial arm to horizontal motion. Beetles were tethered with their lateral axis horizontal or rotated by 40°, as in a banked turn. Flight-mill type did not affect flight speed or wing-beat frequency, but did affect flapping kinematics. The wingtip internal to the circular trajectory was always moved faster relative to air, suggesting that the beetles were attempting to steer in the opposite direction to the curved trajectory forced by the flight-mill. However, banked beetles had lower flapping asymmetry, generated higher lift forces and lost more of their body mass per time and distance flown during prolonged flight compared to beetles flying level. The results indicate, that flapping asymmetry and low lift can be rectified by tethering the beetle in a banked orientation, but the flight still does not correspond directly to free-flight. This should be recognized and taken into account when designing flight-mills and interoperating their data.

  18. The aerodynamics of flight in an insect flight-mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribak, Gal; Barkan, Shay; Soroker, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    Predicting the dispersal of pest insects is important for pest management schemes. Flight-mills provide a simple way to evaluate the flight potential of insects, but there are several complications in relating tethered-flight to natural flight. We used high-speed video to evaluate the effect of flight-mill design on flight of the red palm weevil (Rynchophorous ferruginneus) in four variants of a flight-mill. Two variants had the rotating radial arm pivoted on the main shaft of the rotation axis, allowing freedom to elevate the arm as the insect applied lift force. Two other variants had the pivot point fixed, restricting the radial arm to horizontal motion. Beetles were tethered with their lateral axis horizontal or rotated by 40°, as in a banked turn. Flight-mill type did not affect flight speed or wing-beat frequency, but did affect flapping kinematics. The wingtip internal to the circular trajectory was always moved faster relative to air, suggesting that the beetles were attempting to steer in the opposite direction to the curved trajectory forced by the flight-mill. However, banked beetles had lower flapping asymmetry, generated higher lift forces and lost more of their body mass per time and distance flown during prolonged flight compared to beetles flying level. The results indicate, that flapping asymmetry and low lift can be rectified by tethering the beetle in a banked orientation, but the flight still does not correspond directly to free-flight. This should be recognized and taken into account when designing flight-mills and interoperating their data.

  19. 14 CFR 91.109 - Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests. 91.109 Section 91.109 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... throwover control wheel in place of fixed, dual controls of the elevator and ailerons when— (1) The...

  20. Rocket Flight Path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Waters

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This project uses Newton’s Second Law of Motion, Euler’s method, basic physics, and basic calculus to model the flight path of a rocket. From this, one can find the height and velocity at any point from launch to the maximum altitude, or apogee. This can then be compared to the actual values to see if the method of estimation is a plausible. The rocket used for this project is modeled after Bullistic-1 which was launched by the Society of Aeronautics and Rocketry at the University of South Florida.

  1. Pregnant Guppy in Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1960-01-01

    The Pregnant Guppy is a modified Boeing B-377 Stratocruiser used to transport the S-IV (second) stage for the Saturn I launch vehicle between manufacturing facilities on the West coast, and testing and launch facilities in the Southeast. The fuselage of the B-377 was lengthened to accommodate the S-IV stage and the plane's cabin section was enlarged to approximately double its normal volume. The idea was originated by John M. Conroy of Aero Spaceliners, Incorporated, in Van Nuys, California. The former Stratocruiser became a B-377 PG: the Pregnant Guppy. This photograph depicts the Pregnant Guppy in flight.

  2. Flight Mechanics Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steck, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    This report documents the generation of an outbound Earth to Moon transfer preliminary database consisting of four cases calculated twice a day for a 19 year period. The database was desired as the first step in order for NASA to rapidly generate Earth to Moon trajectories for the Constellation Program using the Mission Assessment Post Processor. The completed database was created running a flight trajectory and optimization program, called Copernicus, in batch mode with the use of newly created Matlab functions. The database is accurate and has high data resolution. The techniques and scripts developed to generate the trajectory information will also be directly used in generating a comprehensive database.

  3. Orion Pad Abort 1 Flight Test - Ground and Flight Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackenbergy, Davis L.; Hicks, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the ground and flight operations aspects to the Pad Abort 1 launch. The paper details the processes used to plan all operations. The paper then discussions the difficulties of integration and testing, while detailing some of the lessons learned throughout the entire launch campaign. Flight operational aspects of the launc are covered in order to provide the listener with the full suite of operational issues encountered in preparation for the first flight test of the Orion Launch Abort System.

  4. New Theory of Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Johan; Jansson, Johan; Johnson, Claes

    2016-06-01

    We present a new mathematical theory explaining the fluid mechanics of subsonic flight, which is fundamentally different from the existing boundary layer-circulation theory by Prandtl-Kutta-Zhukovsky formed 100 year ago. The new theory is based on our new resolution of d'Alembert's paradox showing that slightly viscous bluff body flow can be viewed as zero-drag/lift potential flow modified by 3d rotational slip separation arising from a specific separation instability of potential flow, into turbulent flow with nonzero drag/lift. For a wing this separation mechanism maintains the large lift of potential flow generated at the leading edge at the price of small drag, resulting in a lift to drag quotient of size 15-20 for a small propeller plane at cruising speed with Reynolds number {Re≈ 107} and a jumbojet at take-off and landing with {Re≈ 108} , which allows flight at affordable power. The new mathematical theory is supported by computed turbulent solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations with a slip boundary condition as a model of observed small skin friction of a turbulent boundary layer always arising for {Re > 106} , in close accordance with experimental observations over the entire range of angle of attacks including stall using a few millions of mesh points for a full wing-body configuration.

  5. NASA - Human Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2006-01-01

    The presentation covers five main topical areas. The first is a description of how things work in the microgravity environment such as convection and sedimentation. The second part describes the effects of microgravity on human physiology. This is followed by a description of the hazards of space flight including the environment, the space craft, and the mission. An overview of biomedical research in space, both on shuttle and ISS is the fourth section of the presentation. The presentation concludes with a history of space flight from Ham to ISS. At CART students (11th and 12th graders from Fresno Unified and Clovis Unified) are actively involved in their education. They work in teams to research real world problems and discover original solutions. Students work on projects guided by academic instructors and business partners. They will have access to the latest technology and will be expected to expand their learning environment to include the community. They will focus their studies around a career area (Professional Sciences, Advanced Communications, Engineering and Product Development, or Global Issues).

  6. Human Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolford, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    The performance of complex tasks on the International Space Station (ISS) requires significant preflight crew training commitments and frequent skill and knowledge refreshment. This report documents a recently developed just-in-time training methodology, which integrates preflight hardware familiarization and procedure training with an on-orbit CD-ROM-based skill enhancement. This just-in-time concept was used to support real-time remote expert guidance to complete medical examinations using the ISS Human Research Facility (HRF). An American md Russian ISS crewmember received 2-hours of hands on ultrasound training 8 months prior to the on-orbit ultrasound exam. A CD-ROM-based Onboard Proficiency Enhancement (OPE) interactive multimedia program consisting of memory enhancing tutorials, and skill testing exercises, was completed by the crewmember six days prior to the on-orbit ultrasound exam. The crewmember was then remotely guided through a thoracic, vascular, and echocardiographic examination by ultrasound imaging experts. Results of the CD ROM based OPE session were used to modify the instructions during a complete 35 minute real-time thoracic, cardiac, and carotid/jugular ultrasound study. Following commands from the ground-based expert, the crewmember acquired all target views and images without difficulty. The anatomical content and fidelity of ultrasound video were excellent and adequate for clinical decision-making. Complex ultrasound experiments with expert guidance were performed with high accuracy following limited pre-flight training and CD-ROM-based in-flight review, despite a 2-second communication latency.

  7. MABEL Iceland 2012 Flight Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, William B.; Brunt, Kelly M.; De Marco, Eugenia L.; Reed, Daniel L.; Neumann, Thomas A.; Markus, Thorsten

    2017-01-01

    In March and April 2012, NASA conducted an airborne lidar campaign based out of Keflavik, Iceland, in support of Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2) algorithm development. The survey targeted the Greenland Ice Sheet, Iceland ice caps, and sea ice in the Arctic Ocean during the winter season. Ultimately, the mission, MABEL Iceland 2012, including checkout and transit flights, conducted 14 science flights, for a total of over 80 flight hours over glaciers, icefields, and sea ice.

  8. In-flight Medical Emergencies

    OpenAIRE

    Amit Chandra; Shauna Conry

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Research and data regarding in-flight medical emergencies during commercial air travel are lacking. Although volunteer medical professionals are often called upon to assist, there are no guidelines or best practices to guide their actions. This paper reviews the literature quantifying and categorizing in-flight medical incidents, discusses the unique challenges posed by the in-flight environment, evaluates the legal aspects of volunteering to provide care, and suggests an approa...

  9. Getting started with Twitter Flight

    CERN Document Server

    Hamshere, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Getting Started with Twitter Flight is written with the intention to educate the readers, helping them learn how to build modular powerful applications with Flight, Twitter's cutting-edge JavaScript framework.This book is for anyone with a foundation in JavaScript who wants to build web applications. Flight is quick and easy to learn, built on technologies you already understand such as the DOM, events, and jQuery.

  10. Cibola flight experiment satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, P.; Liddle, Doug; Paffett, John; Sweeting, Martin; Curiel, A.; Sun, Wei; Eves, Stuart

    2004-11-01

    In order to achieve an "economy of scale" with respect to payload capacity the major trend in telecommunications satellites is for larger and larger platforms. With these large platforms the level of integration between platform and payload is increasing leading to longer delivery schedules. The typical lifecycle for procurement of these large telecommunications satellites is now 3-6 years depending on the level of non-recurring engineering needed. Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL) has designed a low-cost platform aimed at telecommunications and navigation applications. SSTL's Geostationary Minisatellite Platform (GMP) is a new entrant addressing the lower end of the market with payloads up to 250kg requiring less than 1.5 kW power. The British National Space Centre through the MOSAIC Small Satellite Initiative supported the development of GMP. The main design goals for GMP are low-cost for the complete mission including launch and operations and a platform allowing flexible payload accommodation. GMP is specifically designed to allow rapid development and deployment with schedules typically between 1 and 2 years from contract signature to flight readiness. GMP achieves these aims by a modular design where the level of integration between the platform and payload is low. The modular design decomposes the satellite into three major components - the propulsion bay, the avionics bay and the payload module. Both the propulsion and avionics bays are reusable, largely unchanged, and independent of the payload configuration. Such a design means that SSTL or a 3rd party manufacturer can manufacture the payload in parallel to the platform with integration taking place quite late in the schedule. In July 2003 SSTL signed a contract for ESA's first Galileo navigation satellite known as GSTBV2/A. The satellite is based on GMP and ESA plan to launch it into a MEO orbit late in 2005. The second flight of GMP is likely to be in 2006 carrying a geostationary payload

  11. Robust flight-to-gate assignment using flight presence probabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schaijk, Oscar R.P.; Visser, H.G.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel method to improve the robustness of solutions to the Flight-to-Gate Assignment Problem (FGAP), with the aim to reduce the need for gate re-planning due to unpredicted flight schedule disturbances in the daily operations at an airport. We propose an approach in

  12. Flight home, flight abroad, and international credit cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giannetti, M.; Laeven, L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper shows that banks exhibit a weaker (stronger) home bias in the extension of new loans when funding conditions in their home country improve (deteriorate). We refer to these changes in home bias as flight abroad and flight home effects, respectively, and show that they are unrelated to the

  13. The Cibola flight experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caffrey, Michael Paul [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nelson, Anthony [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Salazar, Anthony [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Roussel - Dupre, Diane [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Katko, Kim [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Palmer, Joseph [ISE-3; Robinson, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wirthlin, Michael [BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIV; Howes, William [BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIV; Richins, Daniel [BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIV

    2009-01-01

    The Cibola Flight Experiment (CFE) is an experimental small satellite carrying a reconfigurable processing instrument developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory that demonstrates the feasibility of using FPGA-based high-performance computing for sensor processing in the space environment. The CFE satellite was launched on March 8, 2007 in low-earth orbit and has operated extremely well since its deployment. The nine Xilinx Virtex FPGAs used in the payload have been used for several high-throughput sensor processing applications and for single-event upset (SEU) monitoring and mitigation. This paper will describe the CFE system and summarize its operational results. In addition, this paper will describe the results from several SEU detection circuits that were performed on the spacecraft.

  14. Digital flight control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caglayan, A. K.; Vanlandingham, H. F.

    1977-01-01

    The design of stable feedback control laws for sampled-data systems with variable rate sampling was investigated. These types of sampled-data systems arise naturally in digital flight control systems which use digital actuators where it is desirable to decrease the number of control computer output commands in order to save wear and tear of the associated equipment. The design of aircraft control systems which are optimally tolerant of sensor and actuator failures was also studied. Detection of the failed sensor or actuator must be resolved and if the estimate of the state is used in the control law, then it is also desirable to have an estimator which will give the optimal state estimate even under the failed conditions.

  15. X-38 - First Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Reminiscent of the lifting body research flights conducted more than 30 years earlier, NASA's B-52 mothership lifts off carrying a new generation of lifting body research vehicle--the X-38. The X-38 was designed to help develop an emergency crew return vehicle for the International Space Station. NASA B-52, Tail Number 008, is an air launch carrier aircraft, 'mothership,' as well as a research aircraft platform that has been used on a variety of research projects. The aircraft, a 'B' model built in 1952 and first flown on June 11, 1955, is the oldest B-52 in flying status and has been used on some of the most significant research projects in aerospace history. Some of the significant projects supported by B-52 008 include the X-15, the lifting bodies, HiMAT (highly maneuverable aircraft technology), Pegasus, validation of parachute systems developed for the space shuttle program (solid-rocket-booster recovery system and the orbiter drag chute system), and the X-38. The B-52 served as the launch vehicle on 106 X-15 flights and flew a total of 159 captive-carry and launch missions in support of that program from June 1959 to October 1968. Information gained from the highly successful X-15 program contributed to the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo human spaceflight programs as well as space shuttle development. Between 1966 and 1975, the B-52 served as the launch aircraft for 127 of the 144 wingless lifting body flights. In the 1970s and 1980s, the B-52 was the launch aircraft for several aircraft at what is now the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to study spin-stall, high-angle-of attack, and maneuvering characteristics. These included the 3/8-scale F-15/spin research vehicle (SRV), the HiMAT (Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology) research vehicle, and the DAST (drones for aerodynamic and structural testing). The aircraft supported the development of parachute recovery systems used to recover the space shuttle solid rocket booster casings. It also

  16. Flight Control of Flexible Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan T.

    2017-01-01

    This presentation presents an overview of flight control research for flexible high aspect wing aircraft in support of the NASA ARMD Advanced Air Transport Technology (AATT) project. It summarizes multi-objective flight control technology being developed for drag optimization, flutter suppression, and maneuver and gust load alleviation.

  17. Revitalization of Nuclear Powered Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    developing a response in the event a nuclear aircraft crashed . For this, marines would fly in a chase plane, and in the event of a crash would...September 17, 1955 the first of 47 test flights were made. These test flight never used the nuclear reactor to propel the aircraft , but tested the...2 Nuclear Powered Aircraft History

  18. Capital flight and political risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensink, R; Hermes, N; Murinde, [No Value

    This paper provides the first serious attempt to examine the relationship between political risk and capital flight for a large set of developing countries. The outcomes of the analysis show that in most cases political risk variables do have a statistically robust relationship to capital flight

  19. Passengers waste production during flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofalli, Niki; Loizia, Pantelitsa; Zorpas, Antonis A

    2017-12-20

    We assume that during flights the amount of waste that is produced is limited. However, daily, approximately 8000 commercial airplanes fly above Europe's airspace while at the same time, more than 17,000 commercial flights exist in the entire world. Using primary data from airlines, which use the Larnaca's International Airport (LIA) in Cyprus, we have tried to understand why wastes are produced during a typical flight such as food waste, paper, and plastics, as well as how passengers affect the production of those wastes. The compositional analysis took place on 27 flights of 4 different airlines which used LIA as final destination. The evaluation indicated that the passenger's habits and ethics, and the policy of each airline produced different kinds of waste during the flights and especially food waste (FW). Furthermore, it was observed that the only waste management strategy that exists in place in the airport is the collection and the transportation of all those wastes from aircrafts and from the airport in the central unit for further treatment. Hence, this research indicated extremely difficulties to implement any specific waste minimization, or prevention practice or other sorting methods during the flights due to the limited time of the most flights (less than 3 h), the limited available space within the aircrafts, and the strictly safety roles that exist during the flights.

  20. 49 CFR 1552.3 - Flight training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flight training. 1552.3 Section 1552.3..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY FLIGHT SCHOOLS Flight Training for Aliens and Other Designated Individuals § 1552.3 Flight training. This section describes the procedures a flight school must...

  1. 14 CFR 61.187 - Flight proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight proficiency. 61.187 Section 61.187... CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Flight Instructors Other than Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating § 61.187 Flight proficiency. (a) General. A person who is applying for a...

  2. Applications of Payload Directed Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippolito, Corey; Fladeland, Matthew M.; Yeh, Yoo Hsiu

    2009-01-01

    Next generation aviation flight control concepts require autonomous and intelligent control system architectures that close control loops directly around payload sensors in manner more integrated and cohesive that in traditional autopilot designs. Research into payload directed flight control at NASA Ames Research Center is investigating new and novel architectures that can satisfy the requirements for next generation control and automation concepts for aviation. Tighter integration between sensor and machine requires definition of specific sensor-directed control modes to tie the sensor data directly into a vehicle control structures throughout the entire control architecture, from low-level stability- and control loops, to higher level mission planning and scheduling reasoning systems. Payload directed flight systems can thus provide guidance, navigation, and control for vehicle platforms hosting a suite of onboard payload sensors. This paper outlines related research into the field of payload directed flight; and outlines requirements and operating concepts for payload directed flight systems based on identified needs from the scientific literature.'

  3. IVGEN Post Flight Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcquillen, John; Brown, Dan; Hussey, Sam; Zoldak, John

    2014-01-01

    The Intravenous Fluid Generation (IVGEN) Experiment was a technology demonstration experiment that purified ISS potable water, mixed it with salt, and transferred it through a sterilizing filter. On-orbit performance was verified as appropriate and two 1.5 l bags of normal saline solution were returned to earth for post-flight testing by a FDA certified laboratory for compliance with United States Pharmacopiea (USP) standards. Salt concentration deviated from required values and an analysis identified probable causes. Current efforts are focused on Total Organic Content (TOC) testing, and shelf life.The Intravenous Fluid Generation (IVGEN) Experiment demonstrated the purification of ISS potable water, the mixing of the purified water with sodium chloride, and sterilization of the solution via membrane filtration. On-orbit performance was monitored where feasible and two 1.5-liter bags of normal saline solution were returned to earth for post-flight testing by a FDA-registered laboratory for compliance with United States Pharmacopeia (USP)standards [1]. Current efforts have been focused on challenge testing with identified [2] impurities (total organic-carbon), and shelf life testing. The challenge testing flowed known concentrations of contaminants through the IVGEN deionizing cartridge and membrane filters to test their effectiveness. One finding was that the filters and DI-resin themselves contribute to the contaminant load during initial startup, suggesting that the first 100 ml of fluid be discarded. Shelf life testing is ongoing and involves periodic testing of stored DI cartridges and membrane filters that are capped and sealed in hermetic packages. The testing is conducted at six month intervals measuring conductivity and endotoxins in the effluent. Currently, the packaging technique has been successfully demonstrated for one year of storage testing. The USP standards specifies that the TOC be conducted at point of generation as opposed to point of

  4. Morphing Flight Control Surface for Advanced Flight Performance Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR project, a new Morphing Flight Control Surface (MFCS) will be developed. The distinction of the research effort is that the SenAnTech team will employ...

  5. Dynamic Flight Envelope Assessment with Flight Safety Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandita, Rohit

    Aircraft have a manufacturer prescribed operating flight envelope for safe operation, exceeding these limits can result in unrecoverable departures or even structural failure. Numerous commercial aircraft accidents in the past have been attributed to loss-of-control (LOC) resulting from exceeding the safe operating flight envelope. Hence, real-time knowledge of the safe operating flight envelope is essential for safe flight operation, a problem known as dynamic flight envelope assessment. This dissertation explores dynamic flight envelope assessment from a control theoretic perspective. Two notions of the flight envelope, namely, the reachable sets and the region-of-attraction analysis are investigated. The NASA generic transport model (GTM) aircraft dynamics is used as an application problem. Linear and nonlinear techniques for flight envelope assessment are formulated in the linear matrix inequality (LMI) and sum-of-squares (SOS) framework, respectively. LMI and SOS problems are computationally tractable convex optimization problems for which many semi-definite programming solvers are available. This thesis also investigated fault detection and isolation strategies. Commercial jet transport aircrafts make extensive use of active controls. Faults or failures in the flight control system (FCS) elements like sensors or control effectors can lead to catastrophic failure. Model-based fault detection and isolation (FDI) filters can provide analytical redundancy by reliably detecting such faults in the system. Practical application of model-based FDI filters is limited so far due to poor performance, false alarms and missed detection arising out of uncertain dynamics of the aircraft, effect of nonlinearities in the system and the influence of closed-loop controllers. An application of closed-loop metrics to assess worst case FDI filter performance in the presence of a controller and uncertain dynamics is presented. Longitudinal GTM dynamics are considered. An Hinfinity

  6. Enclosure enhancement of flight performance

    KAUST Repository

    Ghommem, Mehdi

    2014-08-19

    We use a potential flow solver to investigate the aerodynamic aspects of flapping flights in enclosed spaces. The enclosure effects are simulated by the method of images. Our study complements previous aerodynamic analyses which considered only the near-ground flight. The present results show that flying in the proximity of an enclosure affects the aerodynamic performance of flapping wings in terms of lift and thrust generation and power consumption. It leads to higher flight efficiency and more than 5% increase of the generation of lift and thrust.

  7. Immune responses in space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, G.

    1998-01-01

    Space flight has been shown to have profound effects on immunological parameters of humans, monkeys and rodents. These studies have been carried out by a number of different laboratories. Among the parameters affected are leukocyte blastogenesis, natural killer cell activity, leukocyte subset distribution, cytokine production - including interferons and interleukins, and macrophage maturation and activity. These changes start to occur only after a few days space flight, and some changes continue throughout long-term space flight. Antibody responses have received only very limited study, and total antibody levels have been shown to be increased after long-term space flight. Several factors could be involved in inducing these changes. These factors could include microgravity, lack of load-bearing, stress, acceleration forces, and radiation. The mechanism(s) for space flight-induced changes in immune responses remain(s) to be established. Certainly, there can be direct effects of microgravity, or other factors, on cells that play a fundamental role in immune responses. However, it is now clear that there are interactions between the immune system and other physiological systems that could play a major role. For example, changes occurring in calcium use in the musculoskeletal system induced by microgravity or lack of use could have great impact on the immune system. Most of the changes in immune responses have been observed using samples taken immediately after return from space flight. However, there have been two recent studies that have used in-flight testing. Delayed-type hypersensitivity responses to common recall antigens of astronauts and cosmonauts have been shown to be decreased when tested during space flights. Additionally, natural killer cell and blastogenic activities are inhibited in samples taken from rats during space flight. Therefore, it is now clear that events occurring during space flight itself can affect immune responses. The biological

  8. Enclosure enhancement of flight performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ghommem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We use a potential flow solver to investigate the aerodynamic aspects of flapping flights in enclosed spaces. The enclosure effects are simulated by the method of images. Our study complements previous aerodynamic analyses which considered only the near-ground flight. The present results show that flying in the proximity of an enclosure affects the aerodynamic performance of flapping wings in terms of lift and thrust generation and power consumption. It leads to higher flight efficiency and more than 5% increase of the generation of lift and thrust.

  9. Flight Data For Tail 669

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  10. Flight Data For Tail 658

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  11. Flight Data For Tail 680

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  12. Flight Data For Tail 667

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  13. Flight Data For Tail 663

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  14. Flight Data For Tail 657

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  15. Flight Data For Tail 662

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  16. Flight Data For Tail 686

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  17. Flight Data For Tail 674

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  18. Flight tracks, Northern California TRACON

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset contains the records of all the flights in the Northern California TRACON. The data was provided by the aircraft noise abatement office...

  19. Flight Data For Tail 682

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  20. "Space flight is utter bilge"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeomans, Donald

    2004-01-01

    Despite skepticism and ridicule from scientists and the public alike, a small handful of dreamers kept faith in their vision of space flight and planned for the day when humanity would break loose from Earth.

  1. Flight Data For Tail 673

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  2. Flight Data For Tail 678

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  3. Flight Data For Tail 652

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  4. Flight Data For Tail 681

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  5. Flight Data For Tail 672

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  6. Flight Data For Tail 668

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  7. Flight Data For Tail 659

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  8. Flight Data For Tail 661

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  9. Flight Data For Tail 665

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  10. Flight Data For Tail 683

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  11. Flight Data For Tail 656

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  12. Flight Data For Tail 676

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  13. Flight Termination Systems Commonality Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    EFI exploding foil initiator EFTR enhanced flight termination receiver EFTS enhanced flight termination system ELS equivalent level of safety EMC ...account shielding effectiveness of the vehicle. 3.3.13 Other Environments An FTS component shall satisfy all of its performance requirements and not...solid-state power transfer switches, and arm-and-enable circuits. 3.9.6 Circuit Isolation, Shielding , and Grounding The circuitry of an FTS

  14. Automated ISS Flight Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offermann, Jan Tuzlic

    2016-01-01

    EVADES output. As mentioned above, GEnEVADOSE makes extensive use of ROOT version 6, the data analysis framework developed at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), and the code is written to the C++11 standard (as are the other projects). My second project is the Automated Mission Reference Exposure Utility (AMREU).Unlike GEnEVADOSE, AMREU is a combination of three frameworks written in both Python and C++, also making use of ROOT (and PyROOT). Run as a combination of daily and weekly cron jobs, these macros query the SRAG database system to determine the active ISS missions, and query minute-by-minute radiation dose information from ISS-TEPC (Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter), one of the radiation detectors onboard the ISS. Using this information, AMREU creates a corrected data set of daily radiation doses, addressing situations where TEPC may be offline or locked up by correcting doses for days with less than 95% live time (the total amount time the instrument acquires data) by averaging the past 7 days. As not all errors may be automatically detectable, AMREU also allows for manual corrections, checking an updated plaintext file each time it runs. With the corrected data, AMREU generates cumulative dose plots for each mission, and uses a Python script to generate a flight note file (.docx format) containing these plots, as well as information sections to be filled in and modified by the space weather environment officers with information specific to the week. AMREU is set up to run without requiring any user input, and it automatically archives old flight notes and information files for missions that are no longer active. My other projects involve cleaning up a large data set from the Charged Particle Directional Spectrometer (CPDS), joining together many different data sets in order to clean up information in SRAG SQL databases, and developing other automated utilities for displaying information on active solar regions, that may be used by the

  15. 14 CFR 29.151 - Flight controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight controls. 29.151 Section 29.151 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Flight Characteristics § 29.151 Flight controls. (a...

  16. 14 CFR 61.98 - Flight proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight proficiency. 61.98 Section 61.98... CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Recreational Pilots § 61.98 Flight proficiency... and flight training from an authorized instructor on the areas of operation of this section that apply...

  17. 14 CFR 27.151 - Flight controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight controls. 27.151 Section 27.151 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Flight Characteristics § 27.151 Flight controls. (a...

  18. 14 CFR 61.56 - Flight review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight review. 61.56 Section 61.56... CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS General § 61.56 Flight review. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (f) of this section, a flight review consists of a minimum of 1 hour of...

  19. 14 CFR 125.269 - Flight attendants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight attendants. 125.269 Section 125.269....269 Flight attendants. (a) Each certificate holder shall provide at least the following flight... passengers—one flight attendant. (2) For airplanes having more than 50 but less than 101 passengers—two...

  20. 14 CFR 91.303 - Aerobatic flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aerobatic flight. 91.303 Section 91.303... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Special Flight Operations § 91.303 Aerobatic flight. No person may operate an aircraft in aerobatic flight— (a) Over any congested area of a...

  1. 14 CFR 61.157 - Flight proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight proficiency. 61.157 Section 61.157... CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Airline Transport Pilots § 61.157 Flight... and log ground and flight training from an authorized instructor on the areas of operation under this...

  2. 14 CFR 61.107 - Flight proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight proficiency. 61.107 Section 61.107... CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Private Pilots § 61.107 Flight proficiency. (a) General. A person who applies for a private pilot certificate must receive and log ground and flight...

  3. Aurora Flight Sciences' Perseus B Remotely Piloted Aircraft in Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    A long, slender wing and a pusher propeller at the rear characterize the Perseus B remotely piloted research aircraft, seen here during a test flight in June 1998. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus design, which began with the Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft. Perseus was initially developed as part of NASA's Small High-Altitude Science Aircraft (SHASA) program, which later evolved into the ERAST

  4. 14 CFR 23.865 - Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire protection of flight controls, engine... COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 23.865 Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure. Flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight...

  5. 14 CFR 25.865 - Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire protection of flight controls, engine... Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25.865 Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure. Essential flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structures located in...

  6. 14 CFR 121.425 - Flight engineers: Initial and transition flight training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight engineers: Initial and transition flight training. 121.425 Section 121.425 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... § 121.425 Flight engineers: Initial and transition flight training. (a) Initial and transition flight...

  7. 14 CFR 93.305 - Flight-free zones and flight corridors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight-free zones and flight corridors. 93... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of Grand Canyon National Park, AZ § 93.305 Flight-free zones and flight corridors. Except in an...

  8. 14 CFR 121.426 - Flight navigators: Initial and transition flight training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight navigators: Initial and transition flight training. 121.426 Section 121.426 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... § 121.426 Flight navigators: Initial and transition flight training. (a) Initial and transition flight...

  9. 14 CFR 142.59 - Flight simulators and flight training devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight simulators and flight training... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES TRAINING CENTERS Personnel and Flight Training Equipment Requirements § 142.59 Flight simulators and flight training devices. (a) An applicant for, or...

  10. 14 CFR 121.511 - Flight time limitations: Flight engineers: airplanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Flight engineers... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations: Supplemental Operations § 121.511 Flight time limitations: Flight engineers: airplanes. (a) In any operation in which one...

  11. Stability in hovering ornithopter flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietl, John M.; Garcia, Ephrahim

    2008-03-01

    The quasi-steady aerodynamics model is coupled to a dynamic model of ornithopter flight. Previously, the combined model has been used to calculate forward flight trajectories, each a limit cycle in the vehicle's states. The limit cycle results from the periodic wing beat, producing a periodic force while on the cycle's trajectory. This was accomplished using a multiple shooting algorithm and numerical integration in MATLAB. An analysis of hover, a crucial element to vertical takeoff and landing in adverse conditions, follows. A method to calculate plausible wing flapping motions and control surface deflections for hover is developed, employing the above flight dynamics model. Once a hovering limit cycle trajectory is found, it can be linearized in discrete time and analyzed for stability (by calculating the trajectory's Floquet multipliers a type of discrete-time eigenvalue) are calculated. The dynamic mode shapes are discussed.

  12. Calbindins decreased after space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeev, I. N.; Rhoten, W. B.; Carney, M. D.

    1996-01-01

    Exposure of the body to microgravity during space flight causes a series of well-documented changes in Ca2+ metabolism, yet the cellular and molecular mechanisms leading to these changes are poorly understood. Calbindins, vitamin D-dependent Ca2+ binding proteins, are believed to have a significant role in maintaining cellular Ca2+ homeostasis. In this study, we used biochemical and immunocytochemical approaches to analyze the expression of calbindin-D28k and calbindin-D9k in kidneys, small intestine, and pancreas of rats flown for 9 d aboard the space shuttle. The effects of microgravity on calbindins in rats from space were compared with synchronous Animal Enclosure Module controls, modeled weightlessness animals (tail suspension), and their controls. Exposure to microgravity resulted in a significant and sustained decrease in calbindin-D28k content in the kidney and calbindin-D9k in the small intestine of flight animals, as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Modeled weightlessness animals exhibited a similar decrease in calbindins by ELISA. Immunocytochemistry (ICC) in combination with quantitative computer image analysis was used to measure in situ the expression of calbindins in the kidney and the small intestine, and the expression of insulin in pancreas. There was a large decrease of immunoreactivity in renal distal tubular cell-associated calbindin-D28k and in intestinal absorptive cell-associated calbindin-D9k of space flight and modeled weightlessness animals compared with matched controls. No consistent difference in pancreatic insulin immunoreactivity between space flight, modeled weightlessness, and controls was observed. Regression analysis of results obtained by quantitative ICC and ELISA for space flight, modeled weightlessness animals, and their controls demonstrated a significant correlation. These findings after a short-term exposure to microgravity or modeled weightlessness suggest that a decreased expression of calbindins

  13. Perspectives on wind shear flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miele, A.; Wang, T.; Wu, G. D.

    1991-01-01

    Wind shears originating from downbursts have been the cause of many aircraft accidents in the past two decades. In turn, this has led to considerable research on wind shear avoidance systems and wind shear recovery systems. This paper reviews recent advances in wind shear recovery systems. It summarizes the work done at Rice University on trajectory optimization and trajectory guidance for two basic flight conditions: takeoff and abort landing. It appears that, in the relatively near future, an advanced wind shear control system can be developed, that is, capable of functioning in different wind models and covering the spectrum of flight conditions having interest in a wind shear encounter.

  14. Flight crew sleep during multiple layover polar flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Mitsuo; Kurosaki, Yuko S.; Spinweber, Cheryl L.; Graeber, R. C.; Takahashi, Toshiharu

    1993-01-01

    This study investigated changes in sleep after multiple transmeridian flights. The subjects were 12 B747 airline pilots operating on the following polar flight: Tokyo (TYO)-Anchorage (ANC)-London (LON)-Anchorage-Tokyo. Sleep polysmonograms were recorded on two baseline nights (B1, B2), during layovers, and, after returning to Tokyo, two recovery nights were recorded (R1, R2). In ANC (outbound), total sleep time was reduced and, sleep efficiency was low (72.0 percent). In London, time in bed increased slightly, but sleep efficiency was still reduced. On return to ANC (inbound), there was considerable slow wave sleep rebound and multiple awakenings reduced sleep efficiency to 76.8 percent. Sleep efficiency on R2 was significantly lower than on B1 but not different from R1. To sum up, sleep of aircrews flying multiple transmeridian flights is disrupted during layovers and this effect persists during the two recovery nights. As a result, there is a marked cumulative sleep loss during multilegs polar route trip in comparison to single leg flights. These findings suggest that following such extensive transmeridian trips, crews should have at least three nights of recovery sleep in their home time zone before returning to duty.

  15. Blowfly flight and optic flow II. Head movements during flight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hateren, JH; Schilstra, C

    The position and orientation of the thorax and head of flying blowflies (Calliphora vicina) were measured using small sensor coils mounted on the thorax and head. During flight, roll movements of the thorax are compensated by counter rolls of the head relative to the thorax, The yaw turns of the

  16. Flight Deck Interval Management Flight Test Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulder, Paul V.

    2017-01-01

    This document provides a summary of the avionics design, implementation, and evaluation activities conducted for the ATD-1 Avionics Phase 2. The flight test data collection and a subset of the analysis results are described. This report also documents lessons learned, conclusions, and recommendations to guide further development efforts.

  17. Sickness absence and flight type exposure in flight crew members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Drongelen, A.; van der Beek, A.J.; Penders, G.B.S.; Hlobil, H.; Smid, T.; Boot, C.R.L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Shift work research has shown that the relationship between exposure to irregular working times and sickness absence may differ between working populations. Not much is known about the prevalence of sickness absence in flight crews or about the relationship between exposure to different

  18. Aurora Flight Sciences' Perseus B Remotely Piloted Aircraft in Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    A long, slender wing and a pusher propeller at the rear characterize the Perseus B remotely piloted research aircraft, seen here during a test flight in June 1998. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus design, which began with the Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft. Perseus was initially developed as part of NASA's Small High-Altitude Science Aircraft (SHASA) program, which later evolved into the ERAST

  19. In-flight turbulence benefits soaring birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallon, Julie M.; Bildstein, Keith L.; Katzner, Todd E.

    2016-01-01

    Birds use atmospheric updrafts to subsidize soaring flight. We observed highly variable soaring flight by Black Vultures (Coragyps atratus) and Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura) in Virginia, USA, that was inconsistent with published descriptions of terrestrial avian flight. Birds engaging in this behavior regularly deviated vertically and horizontally from linear flight paths. We observed the soaring flight behavior of these 2 species to understand why they soar in this manner and when this behavior occurs. Vultures used this type of soaring mainly at low altitudes (birds because it permits continuous subsidized flight when other types of updraft are not available.

  20. Celebrating 100 Years of Flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Susan

    2003-01-01

    In honor of the Wright brothers' first flight, the article profiles aviation and aerospace technology programs that are training workers in aviation safety and explorations. Looks at programs from Eastern New Mexico University-Roswell, Pima Community College, and Olathe Northwest High School. (JOW)

  1. Local sampling for indoor flight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Croon, G.C.H.E.; De Wagter, C.; Remes, B.D.W.; Ruijsink, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    A challenging problem in artificial intelligence is to achieve vision-based autonomous indoor flight with Micro Air Vehicles. Approaches to this problem currently do not make use of image appearance features, because these features generally are computationally expensive. In this article, we deliver

  2. Aerodynamic Simulation of Indoor Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leon, Nelson; De Leon, Matthew N.

    2007-01-01

    We develop a two-dimensional flight simulator for lightweight (less than 10 g) indoor planes. The simulator consists of four coupled time differential equations describing the plane CG, plane pitch and motor. The equations are integrated numerically with appropriate parameters and initial conditions for two planes: (1) Science Olympiad and (2)…

  3. ALICE Time Of Flight Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Alici, A

    2013-01-01

    Charged particles in the intermediate momentum range are identified in ALICE by the Time Of Flight (TOF) detector. The time measurement with the TOF, in conjunction with the momentum and track length measured by the tracking detector, is used to calculate the particle mass.

  4. Bat Flight and Zoonotic Viruses

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-05-30

    Reginald Tucker reads an abridged version of the EID perspective Bat Flight and Zoonotic Viruses.  Created: 5/30/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/2/2014.

  5. In-Flight Sleep of Flight Crew During a 7-hour Rest Break: Implications for Research and Flight Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signal, T. Leigh; Gander, Philippa H.; van den Berg, Margo J.; Graeber, R. Curtis

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: To assess the amount and quality of sleep that flight crew are able to obtain during flight, and identify factors that influence the sleep obtained. Design: Flight crew operating flights between Everett, WA, USA and Asia had their sleep recorded polysomnographically for 1 night in a layover hotel and during a 7-h in-flight rest opportunity on flights averaging 15.7 h. Setting: Layover hotel and in-flight crew rest facilities onboard the Boeing 777-200ER aircraft. Participants: Twenty-one male flight crew (11 Captains, mean age 48 yr and 10 First Officers, mean age 35 yr). Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Sleep was recorded using actigraphy during the entire tour of duty, and polysomnographically in a layover hotel and during the flight. Mixed model analysis of covariance was used to determine the factors affecting in-flight sleep. In-flight sleep was less efficient (70% vs. 88%), with more nonrapid eye movement Stage 1/Stage 2 and more frequent awakenings per h (7.7/h vs. 4.6/h) than sleep in the layover hotel. In-flight sleep included very little slow wave sleep (median 0.5%). Less time was spent trying to sleep and less sleep was obtained when sleep opportunities occurred during the first half of the flight. Multivariate analyses suggest age is the most consistent factor affecting in-flight sleep duration and quality. Conclusions: This study confirms that even during long sleep opportunities, in-flight sleep is of poorer quality than sleep on the ground. With longer flight times, the quality and recuperative value of in-flight sleep is increasingly important for flight safety. Because the age limit for flight crew is being challenged, the consequences of age adversely affecting sleep quantity and quality need to be evaluated. Citation: Signal TL; Gander PH; van den Berg MJ; Graeber RC. In-flight sleep of flight crew during a 7-hour rest break: implications for research and flight safety. SLEEP 2013;36(1):109–115. PMID:23288977

  6. Online Learning Flight Control for Intelligent Flight Control Systems (IFCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niewoehner, Kevin R.; Carter, John (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The research accomplishments for the cooperative agreement 'Online Learning Flight Control for Intelligent Flight Control Systems (IFCS)' include the following: (1) previous IFC program data collection and analysis; (2) IFC program support site (configured IFC systems support network, configured Tornado/VxWorks OS development system, made Configuration and Documentation Management Systems Internet accessible); (3) Airborne Research Test Systems (ARTS) II Hardware (developed hardware requirements specification, developing environmental testing requirements, hardware design, and hardware design development); (4) ARTS II software development laboratory unit (procurement of lab style hardware, configured lab style hardware, and designed interface module equivalent to ARTS II faceplate); (5) program support documentation (developed software development plan, configuration management plan, and software verification and validation plan); (6) LWR algorithm analysis (performed timing and profiling on algorithm); (7) pre-trained neural network analysis; (8) Dynamic Cell Structures (DCS) Neural Network Analysis (performing timing and profiling on algorithm); and (9) conducted technical interchange and quarterly meetings to define IFC research goals.

  7. 14 CFR 61.127 - Flight proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Commercial Pilots § 61.127 Flight proficiency. (a) General. A person who applies for a commercial pilot certificate must receive and log ground and...

  8. GRIP FLIGHT TRACKS AND ANIMATIONS V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GRIP Flight Tracks and Animations dataset includes both KML files and animation files. The KML files use Google Earth to show the flight tracks on a map. The...

  9. Flight Activity and Crew Tracking System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Flight Activity and Crew Tracking System (FACTS) is a Web-based application that provides an overall management and tracking tool of FAA Airmen performing Flight...

  10. F-15 IFCS Intelligent Flight Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosworth, John T.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives a detailed description of the F-15 aircraft, flight tests, aircraft performance and overall advanced neural network based flight control technologies for aerospace systems designs.

  11. The dynamics of parabolic flight: Flight characteristics and passenger percepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmali, Faisal; Shelhamer, Mark

    2008-09-01

    Flying a parabolic trajectory in an aircraft is one of the few ways to create freefall on Earth, which is important for astronaut training and scientific research. Here we review the physics underlying parabolic flight, explain the resulting flight dynamics, and describe several counterintuitive findings, which we corroborate using experimental data. Typically, the aircraft flies parabolic arcs that produce approximately 25 s of freefall (0 g) followed by 40 s of enhanced force (1.8 g), repeated 30-60 times. Although passengers perceive gravity to be zero, in actuality acceleration, and not gravity, has changed, and thus we caution against the terms "microgravity" and "zero gravity." Despite the aircraft trajectory including large (45°) pitch-up and pitch-down attitudes, the occupants experience a net force perpendicular to the floor of the aircraft. This is because the aircraft generates appropriate lift and thrust to produce the desired vertical and longitudinal accelerations, respectively, although we measured moderate (0.2 g) aft-ward accelerations during certain parts of these trajectories. Aircraft pitch rotation (average 3°/s) is barely detectable by the vestibular system, but could influence some physics experiments. Investigators should consider such details in the planning, analysis, and interpretation of parabolic-flight experiments.

  12. Free Flight Rotorcraft Flight Test Vehicle Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, W. Todd; Walker, Gregory W.

    1994-01-01

    A rotary wing, unmanned air vehicle (UAV) is being developed as a research tool at the NASA Langley Research Center by the U.S. Army and NASA. This development program is intended to provide the rotorcraft research community an intermediate step between rotorcraft wind tunnel testing and full scale manned flight testing. The technologies under development for this vehicle are: adaptive electronic flight control systems incorporating artificial intelligence (AI) techniques, small-light weight sophisticated sensors, advanced telepresence-telerobotics systems and rotary wing UAV operational procedures. This paper briefly describes the system's requirements and the techniques used to integrate the various technologies to meet these requirements. The paper also discusses the status of the development effort. In addition to the original aeromechanics research mission, the technology development effort has generated a great deal of interest in the UAV community for related spin-off applications, as briefly described at the end of the paper. In some cases the technologies under development in the free flight program are critical to the ability to perform some applications.

  13. 14 CFR 141.79 - Flight training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... than a certificated flight instructor or commercial pilot with a lighter-than-air rating who has the... instructor or commercial pilot with a lighter-than-air rating who is present at that airport. (c) Each chief... approved flight instructor refresher course. (d) Each certificated flight instructor or commercial pilot...

  14. Lessons from 30 Years of Flight Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, David C.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation takes a brief historical look at flight software over the past 30 years, extracts lessons learned and shows how many of the lessons learned are embodied in the Flight Software product line called the core Flight System (cFS). It also captures the lessons learned from developing and applying the cFS.

  15. 14 CFR 121.387 - Flight engineer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight engineer. 121.387 Section 121.387..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airman and Crewmember Requirements § 121.387 Flight engineer. No... holding a current flight engineer certificate. For each airplane type certificated after January 1, 1964...

  16. Flight Attendants. Aviation Careers Series. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharevitz, Walter

    This booklet, one in a series on aviation careers, outlines the career opportunities of airline flight attendants. General information about airline hiring policies for flight attendants are discussed, and the following information about the flight attendant job classification is provided: nature of the work, working conditions, where the jobs…

  17. Glider Flight Instructor Written Test Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Flight Standards Service.

    The purposes of the test guide are threefold. First, it is intended to outline the scope of the basic aeronautical knowledge requirements for a glider flight instructor. This includes fundamentals of flight instruction and performance and analysis of flight training maneuvers. Secondly, it is intended to acquaint the applicant with source material…

  18. 14 CFR 93.323 - Flight plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight plans. 93.323 Section 93.323... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of Grand Canyon National Park, AZ § 93.323 Flight plans. Each certificate holder conducting a commercial SFRA...

  19. 14 CFR 23.333 - Flight envelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight envelope. 23.333 Section 23.333... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Flight Loads § 23.333 Flight envelope. (a) General. Compliance with the strength requirements of this subpart must be shown at...

  20. 14 CFR 437.71 - Flight rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight rules. 437.71 Section 437.71... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING EXPERIMENTAL PERMITS Safety Requirements § 437.71 Flight rules. (a) Before initiating rocket-powered flight, a permittee must confirm that all systems and operations necessary to ensure that...

  1. 14 CFR 21.35 - Flight tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight tests. 21.35 Section 21.35... PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Type Certificates § 21.35 Flight tests. (a) Each applicant for an aircraft...) That the aircraft conforms with the type design; and (4) That the Administrator received a flight test...

  2. 14 CFR 437.39 - Flight rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight rules. 437.39 Section 437.39 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Documentation § 437.39 Flight rules. An applicant must provide flight rules as required by § 437.71. ...

  3. Flight performance of Macdunnoughia crassisigna (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, X-W; Chang, H; He, L-M; Zhao, S-Y; Wu, K-M

    2017-12-01

    Macdunnoughia crassisigna Warren (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a highly destructive herbivore that poses a serious risk to cotton, maize, soybean, and cruciferous vegetables in East Asia. Examining the effects of various biotic and abiotic factors on the flight performance of M. crassisigna is crucial for a better understanding of its trans-regional migration. In this study, the flight activity of M. crassisignai moths of different ages, under different temperatures and relative humidity (RH) levels, was evaluated by tethering individuals to computerized flight mills for a 24-h trial period. The results showed that M. crassisignai had the capacity for sustained flight and the flight ability was strongest in 3-day-old individuals, and then their flight performance decreased significantly in older moths. For both sexes, temperature had a significant effect on their flight performance, and the flight activity was relatively higher at 24-28°C than other temperatures. There was a significant effect of RH on all flight parameters of the tested moths, and the flight activity was relatively higher at RH of 60-75% than other RH levels. For 3-day-old moths under the optimum conditions (24°C and 75% RH) throughout the 24 h scotophase, their mean flight distance reached 66 km, and the mean flight duration reached 13.5 h, suggesting M. crassisigna possess strong potential to undertake long-distance migration. These findings will be helpful for developing sound forecasting systems of this pest species.

  4. 14 CFR 375.22 - Flight operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight operations. 375.22 Section 375.22 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL... Flight operations. Flights of foreign civil aircraft in the United States shall be conducted in...

  5. ALICE Time of Flight Module

    CERN Multimedia

    The Time-Of-Flight system of ALICE consists of 90 such modules, each containing 15 or 19 Multigap Resistive Plate Chamber (MRPC) strips. This detector is used for identification of charged particles. It measures with high precision (50 ps) the time of flight of charged particles and therefore their velocity. The curvature of the particle trajectory inside the magnetic field gives the momentum, thus the particle mass is calculated and the particle is identified The MRPC is a stack of resistive glass plates, separated from each other by nylon fishing line. The mass production of the chambers (~1600, covering a surface of 150 m2) was done at INFN Bologna, while the first prototypes were bult at CERN.

  6. Neuroplasticity changes during space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slenzka, K.

    Neuroplasticity refers to the ability of neurons to alter some functional property in response to alterations in input. Most of the inputs received by the brain and thus the neurons are coming from the overall sensory system. The lack of gravity during space flight or even the reduction of gravity during the planned Mars missions are and will change these inputs. The often observed "loop swimming" of some aquatic species is under discussion to be based on sensory input changes as well as the observed motion sickness of astronauts and cosmonauts. Several reports are published regarding these changes being based on alterations of general neurophysiological parameters. In this paper a summing-up of recent results obtained in the last years during space flight missions will be presented. Beside data obtained from astronauts and cosmonauts, main focus of this paper will be on animal model system data.

  7. 14 CFR 121.412 - Qualifications: Flight instructors (airplane) and flight instructors (simulator).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (airplane) and flight instructors (simulator). 121.412 Section 121.412 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... OPERATIONS Training Program § 121.412 Qualifications: Flight instructors (airplane) and flight instructors (simulator). (a) For the purposes of this section and § 121.414: (1) A flight instructor (airplane) is a...

  8. Orion Pad Abort 1 Flight Test: Simulation Predictions Versus Flight Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillwater, Ryan Allanque; Merritt, Deborah S.

    2011-01-01

    The presentation covers the pre-flight simulation predictions of the Orion Pad Abort 1. The pre-flight simulation predictions are compared to the Orion Pad Abort 1 flight test data. Finally the flight test data is compared to the updated simulation predictions, which show a ove rall improvement in the accuracy of the simulation predictions.

  9. Nutritional biochemistry of space flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S M; Lane, H W

    1999-01-01

    Humans have flown in space for more than 35 years. Since that time, Americans have walked on the moon, launched two space stations (Skylab and the International Space Station), docked during orbit with a Soviet Soyuz space capsule and the Russian Mir space station, flown the only reusable space vehicle, and visited a Russian space station for more then 6 months at a time. Nutritional intake has not been considered a high priority during relatively brief flights of the Space Shuttle and other programs (i.e., less than 21 days). However, as we embark on extended-duration (i.e., > 30 days up to several years) missions, nutrition becomes a critical issue. The impact of weightlessness on human physiology is profound. We are in the very early stages of understanding how space flight affects nutrient requirements and related issues such as absorption, metabolism, and excretion. Apart from the obvious role of providing energy and required nutrients, nutrition is also important in terms of enhancing psychosocial interactions among crews, and ameliorating some of the effects of microgravity on the body (i.e., acting as a "countermeasure"). The interrelationships among space flight, nutrition, and physiology suggest that a program of specified nutritional intake may be required to enhance mission safety and crew productivity. Defining which nutrients are essential for the space flight environment depends on a more complete understanding of how weightlessness affects physiology. Providing the required nutrients is also limited by the types of foods that can be provided by the food system on board the space craft, and the dietary habits of space crews.

  10. International logistics in flight catering

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanovic, Slobodan; Vujic, Vidoje

    2007-01-01

    As it is well known the flight catering industry is very demanding. Taken into account the time and effort involved in training staff, organizing transportation and stocking of food supplies to warehouses we can conclude this business is not for the inert. Since travel catering is a multibillion dollar industry with projections of its growth in the future, members of this industry see the need to get their part. How they get their share will determine mainly on their ''know-how''. Knowl...

  11. Progress in knowledge-based flight monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    Features and applications of the script-based flight monitor SECURE are described. Implemented on an on-board computer, SECURE treats a flight as a regular sequence of contexts (situations) defined in a knowledge base with a hierarchical structure for successively more finely delineated flight phases, i.e., takeoff, cruise and landing. SECURE provides normalcy references for flight monitoring and allows context identification, which allows the presentation of checklists. An implementation of SECURE, written in MACLISP, on a DC-10 flight simulator is described.

  12. Development of the hypersonic flight experimental vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Hiroki; Kobayasi, Minoru; Yamazaki, Isao; Shirouzu, Masao; Yamamoto, Masataka

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the Hypersonic Flight Experimental Vehicle, Hyflex, the first Japanese hypersonic lifting vehicle as the precursor engineering demonstrator of the H-II Orbiting Plane (HOPE). The flight experiment was successfully conducted on February 12 1996 by the brand-new NASDA small launcher, the J-I Launch Vehicle. The project purpose, progress, experiment flight plan / result and the vehicle system feature are summarized. Onboard measurement such as pressure, temperature and other sensor is described with typical flight results. Some detailed development progress of Aerodynamics, Aerothermodynamics, Thermal Protection and Flight Control are also discussed.

  13. Efficient flapping flight of pterosaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Karl Axel

    In the late eighteenth century, humans discovered the first pterosaur fossil remains and have been fascinated by their existence ever since. Pterosaurs exploited their membrane wings in a sophisticated manner for flight control and propulsion, and were likely the most efficient and effective flyers ever to inhabit our planet. The flapping gait is a complex combination of motions that sustains and propels an animal in the air. Because pterosaurs were so large with wingspans up to eleven meters, if they could have sustained flapping flight, they would have had to achieve high propulsive efficiencies. Identifying the wing motions that contribute the most to propulsive efficiency is key to understanding pterosaur flight, and therefore to shedding light on flapping flight in general and the design of efficient ornithopters. This study is based on published results for a very well-preserved specimen of Coloborhynchus robustus, for which the joints are well-known and thoroughly described in the literature. Simplifying assumptions are made to estimate the characteristics that can not be inferred directly from the fossil remains. For a given animal, maximizing efficiency is equivalent to minimizing power at a given thrust and speed. We therefore aim at finding the flapping gait, that is the joint motions, that minimize the required flapping power. The power is computed from the aerodynamic forces created during a given wing motion. We develop an unsteady three-dimensional code based on the vortex-lattice method, which correlates well with published results for unsteady motions of rectangular wings. In the aerodynamic model, the rigid pterosaur wing is defined by the position of the bones. In the aeroelastic model, we add the flexibility of the bones and of the wing membrane. The nonlinear structural behavior of the membrane is reduced to a linear modal decomposition, assuming small deflections about the reference wing geometry. The reference wing geometry is computed for

  14. 14 CFR 61.189 - Flight instructor records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight instructor records. 61.189 Section...) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Flight Instructors Other than Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating § 61.189 Flight instructor records. (a) A flight instructor...

  15. Flight energetics of sphinx moths: power input during hovering flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, T M

    1976-06-01

    The energetic cost of hovering flight was measured in sphinx moths from five species. Mean power input per unit mass (Pi/M) varied from 237-2 W kg-1 in Manduca sexta (Subfamily:Sphinginae), mean body mass 1-2 X 10(-3) kg, to 327-9 W kg-1 in Deilephila elpenor (Subfamily: Macroglossinae) mean body mass 7-3 X 10(-4) kg. Mean Pi/M for the five species was inversely proportional to mean body mass and directly proportional to mean wing loading. For any given body mass, Pi/M was greater in Hyles lineata than in M. sexta. This difference is correlated with higher wing loading at any given mass in H. lineata. Energy expenditure per unit mass of thorax was 1018 W kg-1 in H. lineata and 694 W kg-1 in M. sexta. Within each of these species, Pi per unit mass of thorax does not vary with body mass. Power input data are compared with calculated power requirements based on momentum theory and blade-element theory of helicopter aerodynamics. Absolute efficiency, the ratio between calculated power requirements and measured energy expenditure, appears to vary directly with body mass. These data provide an energetic basis for observed correlates between thoracic temperature and flight effort in flying sphinx moths.

  16. Ethernet for Space Flight Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Evan; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is adapting current data networking technologies to fly on future spaceflight missions. The benefits of using commercially based networking standards and protocols have been widely discussed and are expected to include reduction in overall mission cost, shortened integration and test (I&T) schedules, increased operations flexibility, and hardware and software upgradeability/scalability with developments ongoing in the commercial world. The networking effort is a comprehensive one encompassing missions ranging from small University Explorer (UNEX) class spacecraft to large observatories such as the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST). Mission aspects such as flight hardware and software, ground station hardware and software, operations, RF communications, and security (physical and electronic) are all being addressed to ensure a complete end-to-end system solution. One of the current networking development efforts at GSFC is the SpaceLAN (Spacecraft Local Area Network) project, development of a space-qualifiable Ethernet network. To this end we have purchased an IEEE 802.3-compatible 10/100/1000 Media Access Control (MAC) layer Intellectual Property (IP) core and are designing a network node interface (NNI) and associated network components such as a switch. These systems will ultimately allow the replacement of the typical MIL-STD-1553/1773 and custom interfaces that inhabit most spacecraft. In this paper we will describe our current Ethernet NNI development along with a novel new space qualified physical layer that will be used in place of the standard interfaces. We will outline our plans for development of space qualified network components that will allow future spacecraft to operate in significant radiation environments while using a single onboard network for reliable commanding and data transfer. There will be a brief discussion of some issues surrounding system implications of a flight Ethernet. Finally, we will

  17. Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test 1 - Post-Flight Assessment of Simulation Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Soumyo; Bowes, Angela L.; Striepe, Scott A.; Davis, Jody L.; Queen, Eric M.; Blood, Eric M.; Ivanov, Mark C.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Low Density Supersonic Decelerator (LDSD) project conducted its first Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test (SFDT-1) on June 28, 2014. Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST2) was one of the flight dynamics codes used to simulate and predict the flight performance and Monte Carlo analysis was used to characterize the potential flight conditions experienced by the test vehicle. This paper compares the simulation predictions with the reconstructed trajectory of SFDT-1. Additionally, off-nominal conditions seen during flight are modeled in post-flight simulations to find the primary contributors that reconcile the simulation with flight data. The results of these analyses are beneficial for the pre-flight simulation and targeting of the follow-on SFDT flights currently scheduled for summer 2015.

  18. The flight of uncontrolled rockets

    CERN Document Server

    Gantmakher, F R; Dryden, H L

    1964-01-01

    International Series of Monographs on Aeronautics and Astronautics, Division VII, Volume 5: The Flight of Uncontrolled Rockets focuses on external ballistics of uncontrolled rockets. The book first discusses the equations of motion of rockets. The rocket as a system of changing composition; application of solidification principle to rockets; rotational motion of rockets; and equations of motion of the center of mass of rockets are described. The text looks at the calculation of trajectory of rockets and the fundamentals of rocket dispersion. The selection further focuses on the dispersion of f

  19. Space Flight Ionizing Radiation Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Steve

    2017-01-01

    The space-flight ionizing radiation (IR) environment is dominated by very high-kinetic energy-charged particles with relatively smaller contributions from X-rays and gamma rays. The Earth's surface IR environment is not dominated by the natural radioisotope decay processes. Dr. Steven Koontz's lecture will provide a solid foundation in the basic engineering physics of space radiation environments, beginning with the space radiation environment on the International Space Station and moving outward through the Van Allen belts to cislunar space. The benefits and limitations of radiation shielding materials will also be summarized.

  20. STS-72 Flight Day 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    On this sixth day of the STS-72 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. Brian Duffy, Pilot Brent W. Jett, and Mission Specialists Leroy Chiao, Daniel T. Barry, Winston E. Scott, and Koichi Wakata (NASDA), successfully retrieved the OAST-Flyer satellite and berthed it in the shuttle's cargo bay with Wakata using the shuttle's robot arm. Dr. Barry conducted an interview with a radio station in Houston via satellite link. He answered general questions concerning the spacewalks, the equipment, and the planned International Space Station. Earth views include cloud cover, water masses, and land masses.

  1. STS-81 Flight Day 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    On this sixth day of the STS-81 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. Michael A. Baker, Pilot Brent W. Jett, Mission Specialists, John M. Grunsfeld, Marsha S. Ivins, Peter J.K. Wisoff, and John Blaha, and the cosmonauts of the Mir Space Station continue to transfer hundreds of pounds of food, water and supplies between each other's spacecraft for a third day. Jerry M. Linenger spent several hours continuing to familiarize himself with his new orbital home, unpacking experiment hardware and helping astronaut John Blaha transfer biomedical samples back to Atlantis for Blaha's trip back to Earth. Blaha is wrapping up his four-month tour of duty in space.

  2. Thom van Dooren, Flight Ways

    OpenAIRE

    De Meyer, Thibault

    2015-01-01

    Flight ways relate de manière vivante les histoires de quelques espèces d’oiseau en voie de disparition. Même si le livre fait constamment appel à des données scientifiques, il ne s’agit pourtant pas d’un simple livre de vulgarisation. En fait, Thom van Dooren part du constat que les connaissances scientifiques ne permettent pas à elles seules de transformer nos rapports au monde ou, pour reprendre des concepts mobilisés par Bruno Latour, un matter of fact n’est pas à lui seul un matter of co...

  3. Flight to Safety from European Stock Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslanidis, Nektarios; Christiansen, Charlotte

    This paper investigates flight-to-safety from stocks to bonds in seven European markets. We use quantile regressions to identify flight-to-safety episodes. The simple risk-return trade-off on the stock markets is negative which is caused by flight-to-safety episodes: During normal periods, the risk......-return trade-off is positive and during flight-to-safety episodes it is negative. The effects of flight-to-safety episodes on the risk-return trade-off are qualitatively similar for own country flight-to-safety episodes, for flight from own country stock market to the US bond market, and for US flight......-to-safety. The strength of the trade-off is strongest for own country flight-to-safety episodes. The risk-return trade-off is not significantly influenced by recession periods or the recent sovereign debt crisis. The main results hold for flight to gold instead of to bonds....

  4. 14 CFR 63.23 - Special purpose flight engineer and flight navigator certificates: Operation of U.S.-registered...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... purpose flight engineer and flight navigator certificates: Operation of U.S.-registered civil airplanes... flight engineer or flight navigator duties on a civil airplane of U.S. registry, leased to a person not a... certificate holder is performing flight engineer or flight navigator duties on the U.S.-registered civil...

  5. Robust flight control of rotorcraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechner, Adam Daniel

    With recent design improvement in fixed wing aircraft, there has been a considerable interest in the design of robust flight control systems to compensate for the inherent instability necessary to achieve desired performance. Such systems are designed for maximum available retention of stability and performance in the presence of significant vehicle damage or system failure. The rotorcraft industry has shown similar interest in adopting these reconfigurable flight control schemes specifically because of their ability to reject disturbance inputs and provide a significant amount of robustness for all but the most catastrophic of situations. The research summarized herein focuses on the extension of the pseudo-sliding mode control design procedure interpreted in the frequency domain. Application of the technique is employed and simulated on two well known helicopters, a simplified model of a hovering Sikorsky S-61 and the military's Black Hawk UH-60A also produced by Sikorsky. The Sikorsky helicopter model details are readily available and was chosen because it can be limited to pitch and roll motion reducing the number of degrees of freedom and yet contains two degrees of freedom, which is the minimum requirement in proving the validity of the pseudo-sliding control technique. The full order model of a hovering Black Hawk system was included both as a comparison to the S-61 helicopter design system and as a means to demonstrate the scaleability and effectiveness of the control technique on sophisticated systems where design robustness is of critical concern.

  6. DC-10 winglet flight evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, A. B.

    1983-01-01

    Results of a flight evaluation of winglets on a DC-10 Series 10 aircraft are presented. For sensitive areas of comparison, effects of winglets were determined back-to-back with and without winglets. Basic and reduced-span winglet configurations were tested. After initial encounter with low-speed buffet, a number of acceptable configurations were developed. For maximum drag reduction at both cruise and low speeds, lower winglets were required, having leading edge devices on upper and lower winglets for the latter regime. The cruise benefits were enhanced by adding outboard aileron droop to the reduced-span winglet aircraft. Winglets had no significant impact on stall speeds, high-speed buffet boundary, and stability and control. Flutter test results agreed with predictions and ground vibration data. Flight loads measurement, provided in a concurrent program, also agreed with predictions. It was estimated that a production version of the aircraft, using the reduced-span winglet and aileron droop, would yield a 3-percent reduction in fuel burned with capacity payload. This range was 2% greater than with winglets. A 5% reduction in takeoff distance at maximum takeoff weight would also result.

  7. STS-81 Post Flight Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The flight crew of the STS-81 mission, Commander Michael A. Baker, Pilot Brent W. Jett Jr, and Mission Specialists John M. Grunsfeld, Marsha S. Ivins, Peter J.K. Wisoff, and Jerry M. Linenger present a video mission over-view of their space flight. Images include prelaunch activities such as eating the traditional breakfast, crew suit-up, and the ride out to the launch pad. Also included are various panoramic views of the shuttle on the pad. The crew can be seen being readied in the "white room" for their mission. After the closing of the hatch and arm retraction, launch activities are shown including countdown, engine ignition, launch, and the separation of the Solid Rocket Boosters. During the presentation the astronauts take turns discussing aspects of the mission including: the SPACEHAB a double module that provides additional middeck locker space for secondary experiments. During the five days of docked operations with Mir, the crews is seen transferring water and supplies from one spacecraft to the other.

  8. Orion Flight Performance Design Trades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Mark C.; Straube, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    A significant portion of the Orion pre-PDR design effort has focused on balancing mass with performance. High level performance metrics include abort success rates, lunar surface coverage, landing accuracy and touchdown loads. These metrics may be converted to parameters that affect mass, such as ballast for stabilizing the abort vehicle, propellant to achieve increased lunar coverage or extended missions, or ballast to increase the lift-to-drag ratio to improve entry and landing performance. The Orion Flight Dynamics team was tasked to perform analyses to evaluate many of these trades. These analyses not only provide insight into the physics of each particular trade but, in aggregate, they illustrate the processes used by Orion to balance performance and mass margins, and thereby make design decisions. Lessons learned can be gleaned from a review of these studies which will be useful to other spacecraft system designers. These lessons fall into several categories, including: appropriate application of Monte Carlo analysis in design trades, managing margin in a highly mass-constrained environment, and the use of requirements to balance margin between subsystems and components. This paper provides a review of some of the trades and analyses conducted by the Flight Dynamics team, as well as systems engineering lessons learned.

  9. Helicopter Flight Procedures for Community Noise Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Eric

    2017-01-01

    A computationally efficient, semiempirical noise model suitable for maneuvering flight noise prediction is used to evaluate the community noise impact of practical variations on several helicopter flight procedures typical of normal operations. Turns, "quick-stops," approaches, climbs, and combinations of these maneuvers are assessed. Relatively small variations in flight procedures are shown to cause significant changes to Sound Exposure Levels over a wide area. Guidelines are developed for helicopter pilots intended to provide effective strategies for reducing the negative effects of helicopter noise on the community. Finally, direct optimization of flight trajectories is conducted to identify low noise optimal flight procedures and quantify the magnitude of community noise reductions that can be obtained through tailored helicopter flight procedures. Physically realizable optimal turns and approaches are identified that achieve global noise reductions of as much as 10 dBA Sound Exposure Level.

  10. Free Flight Ground Testing of ADEPT in Advance of the Sounding Rocket One Flight Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B. P.; Dutta, S.

    2017-01-01

    The Adaptable Deployable Entry and Placement Technology (ADEPT) project will be conducting the first flight test of ADEPT, titled Sounding Rocket One (SR-1), in just two months. The need for this flight test stems from the fact that ADEPT's supersonic dynamic stability has not yet been characterized. The SR-1 flight test will provide critical data describing the flight mechanics of ADEPT in ballistic flight. These data will feed decision making on future ADEPT mission designs. This presentation will describe the SR-1 scientific data products, possible flight test outcomes, and the implications of those outcomes on future ADEPT development. In addition, this presentation will describe free-flight ground testing performed in advance of the flight test. A subsonic flight dynamics test conducted at the Vertical Spin Tunnel located at NASA Langley Research Center provided subsonic flight dynamics data at high and low altitudes for multiple center of mass (CoM) locations. A ballistic range test at the Hypervelocity Free Flight Aerodynamics Facility (HFFAF) located at NASA Ames Research Center provided supersonic flight dynamics data at low supersonic Mach numbers. Execution and outcomes of these tests will be discussed. Finally, a hypothesized trajectory estimate for the SR-1 flight will be presented.

  11. Introduction to orbital flight planning (1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, H. E. (Editor); Davis, E. L.; Dell, D. D.

    1981-01-01

    This workbook is designed for students interested in space flight planning, who after training, may serve as flight planning aides. Routine flight planning activities requiring engineering-type calculations and analysis are covered. Practice exercises and brief instructions are given for the programming and use of the hand calculator as well as the calculation of position and velocity in the orbital plane. Calculation of relative orbital position is also covered with emphasis upon celestial coordinates and time measurement.

  12. Launch vehicle aerodynamic flight test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, L. M.; Osborn, W. L.; Wiltse, P. D.

    1983-01-01

    The aerodynamic flight test procedures and results for the Space Shuttle orbiter are presented. The aerodynamic characteristics used in testing were determined from flights STS-1 and through STS-4. Normal force and pitching moment were different than predicted, suggesting an unanticipated aerodynamic force acting upward on the end of the orbiter. However, lateral-directional aerodynamic characteristics were in good management with good predictions. The flight measured aerodynamics are repeatable and show good correlation with angle of attack and angle of sideslip.

  13. Flight simulation for wind shear encounter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulgund, Sandeep S.

    1990-01-01

    A real-time piloted flight simulator is under development in the Laboratory for Control and Automation at Princeton University. This facility will be used to study piloted flight through a simulated wind shear. It will also provide a testbed for real-time flight guidance laws. The hardware configuration and aerodynamic model used are discussed. The microburst model to be incorporated into the simulation is introduced, and some proposed cockpit display concepts are described.

  14. Flight Performance of Ctenoplusia agnata (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaowei; Zhao, Shengyuan; Li, Chao; Wu, Xiao; Guo, Jianglong; Wu, Kongming

    2017-06-01

    Ctenoplusia agnata (Staudinger) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a highly destructive polyphagous pest of cotton, maize, soybean, and cruciferous vegetables in East Asia. The effect of various biotic and abiotic factors on the flight performance of C. agnata is crucial for a better understanding of its transregional migration. In this study, the flight performance of C. agnata moths at different ages, temperatures, and relative humidity (RH) levels, was examined by tethering individual moths to computerized flight mills for a 24-h scotophase. The results showed that 1) C. agnata had the capacity for sustained flight and the flight ability was most pronounced in 3-d-old individuals, and then their flight performance decreased significantly as the moth got older. 2) For both sexes, temperature had a significant effect on their flight performance, and the flight activity was most pronounced at 24-28 °C. 3) There was a significant effect of RH on all flight parameters of the tested moths, and the flight activity was most pronounced at RH of 60-75%. 4) For 3-d-old moths under the optimum conditions (24 °C and 75% RH) throughout the 24-h scotophase, the total flight distance reached 69.01 ± 2.13 km (females) and 62.15 ± 2.31 km (males), and the total flight duration reached 14.11 ± 0.79 h (females) and 13.08 ± 0.70 h (males), which suggests that C. agnata has a strong potential to undertake long-distance migration. These findings will be helpful for developing sound forecasting systems of this pest species. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Flight Operations . [Zero Knowledge to Mission Complete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest, Greg; Apyan, Alex; Hillin, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Outline the process that takes new hires with zero knowledge all the way to the point of completing missions in Flight Operations. Audience members should be able to outline the attributes of a flight controller and instructor, outline the training flow for flight controllers and instructors, and identify how the flight controller and instructor attributes are necessary to ensure operational excellence in mission prep and execution. Identify how the simulation environment is used to develop crisis management, communication, teamwork, and leadership skills for SGT employees beyond what can be provided by classroom training.

  16. Time Manager Software for a Flight Processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoerne, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Data analysis is a process of inspecting, cleaning, transforming, and modeling data to highlight useful information and suggest conclusions. Accurate timestamps and a timeline of vehicle events are needed to analyze flight data. By moving the timekeeping to the flight processor, there is no longer a need for a redundant time source. If each flight processor is initially synchronized to GPS, they can freewheel and maintain a fairly accurate time throughout the flight with no additional GPS time messages received. How ever, additional GPS time messages will ensure an even greater accuracy. When a timestamp is required, a gettime function is called that immediately reads the time-base register.

  17. Adaptive Flight Envelope Estimation and Protection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Impact Technologies, in collaboration with the Georgia Institute of Technology, proposes to develop and demonstrate an innovative flight envelope estimation and...

  18. Time-of-Flight Microwave Camera

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Charvat, Gregory; Temme, Andrew; Feigin, Micha; Raskar, Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    .... We demonstrate a multispectral time-of-flight microwave imaging system which overcomes these challenges with a large passive aperture to improve lateral resolution, multiple illumination points...

  19. New model of flap-gliding flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Gottfried

    2015-07-21

    A new modelling approach is presented for describing flap-gliding flight in birds and the associated mechanical energy cost of travelling. The new approach is based on the difference in the drag characteristics between flapping and non-flapping due to the drag increase caused by flapping. Thus, the possibility of a gliding flight phase, as it exists in flap-gliding flight, yields a performance advantage resulting from the decrease in the drag when compared with continuous flapping flight. Introducing an appropriate non-dimensionalization for the mathematical relations describing flap-gliding flight, results and findings of generally valid nature are derived. It is shown that there is an energy saving of flap-gliding flight in the entire speed range compared to continuous flapping flight. The energy saving reaches the highest level in the lower speed region. The travelling speed of flap-gliding flight is composed of the weighted average of the differing speeds in the flapping and gliding phases. Furthermore, the maximum range performance achievable with flap-gliding flight and the associated optimal travelling speed are determined. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Flight of the dragonflies and damselflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomphrey, Richard J; Nakata, Toshiyuki; Henningsson, Per; Lin, Huai-Ti

    2016-09-26

    This work is a synthesis of our current understanding of the mechanics, aerodynamics and visually mediated control of dragonfly and damselfly flight, with the addition of new experimental and computational data in several key areas. These are: the diversity of dragonfly wing morphologies, the aerodynamics of gliding flight, force generation in flapping flight, aerodynamic efficiency, comparative flight performance and pursuit strategies during predatory and territorial flights. New data are set in context by brief reviews covering anatomy at several scales, insect aerodynamics, neuromechanics and behaviour. We achieve a new perspective by means of a diverse range of techniques, including laser-line mapping of wing topographies, computational fluid dynamics simulations of finely detailed wing geometries, quantitative imaging using particle image velocimetry of on-wing and wake flow patterns, classical aerodynamic theory, photography in the field, infrared motion capture and multi-camera optical tracking of free flight trajectories in laboratory environments. Our comprehensive approach enables a novel synthesis of datasets and subfields that integrates many aspects of flight from the neurobiology of the compound eye, through the aeromechanical interface with the surrounding fluid, to flight performance under cruising and higher-energy behavioural modes.This article is part of the themed issue 'Moving in a moving medium: new perspectives on flight'. © 2016 The Authors.

  1. Enhanced flight characteristics by heterogeneous autorotating wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Lionel; Zheng, Min; Kanso, Eva

    2015-11-01

    We investigate experimentally the effect of mass distribution and flexibility on the descent motion of thin rectangular auto-rotating wings. We vary the wing thickness and material density under carefully controlled initial conditions. We focus in particular on the flight characteristics and how it affects the dispersion properties, namely, the flight duration, descent angle, and flight range. We found that altering the mass distribution along the auto-rotation axis generally leads to a diminution of aerodynamic characteristics, in agreement with previous studies. On the other hand, changing the mass distribution width-wise can lead to enhanced flight characteristics, from beneficial aerodynamic effects.

  2. Douglas flight deck design philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldale, Paul

    1990-01-01

    The systems experience gained from 17 years of DC-10 operation was used during the design of the MD-11 to automate system operation and reduce crew workload. All functions, from preflight to shutdown at the termination of flight, require little input from the crew. The MD-11 aircraft systems are monitored for proper operation by the Aircraft Systems Controllers (ASC). In most cases, system reconfiguration as a result of a malfunction is automated. Manual input is required for irreversible actions such as engine shutdown, fuel dump, fire agent discharge, or Integrated Drive Generator (IDG) disconnect. During normal operations, when the cockpit is configured for flight, all annunciators on the overhead panel will be extinguished. This Dark Cockpit immediately confirms to the crew that the panels are correctly configured and that no abnormalities are present. Primary systems annunciations are shown in text on the Alert Area of the Engine and Alert Display (EAD). This eliminates the need to scan the overhead. The MD-11 aircraft systems can be manually controlled from the overhead area of the cockpit. The center portion of the overhead panel is composed of the primary aircraft systems panels, which include FUEL, AIR, Electrical (ELEC) and Hydraulic (HYD) systems, which are easily accessible from both flight crew positions. Each Aircraft Systems Controller (ASC) has two automatic channels and a manual mode. All rectangular lights are annunciators. All square lights are combined switches and annunciators called switch/lights. Red switch/lights on the overhead (Level 3 alerts) are for conditions requiring immediate crew action. Amber (Level 2 or Level 1 alerts) indicates a fault or switch out of position requiring awareness or crew interaction. Overhead switches used in normal operating conditions will illuminate blue when in use (Level 0 alerts) such as WING ANTI-ICE - ON. An overhead switch/light with BLACK LETTERING on an amber or red background indicates a system

  3. Mitigating and monitoring flight crew fatigue on a westward ultra-long-range flight

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Signal, T Leigh; Mulrine, Hannah M; van den Berg, Margo J; Smith, Alexander A T; Gander, Philippa H; Serfontein, Wynand

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the uptake and effectiveness of fatigue mitigation guidance material including sleep recommendations for a trip with a westward ultra-long-range flight and return long-range flight...

  4. GPM GROUND VALIDATION FLIGHT SUMMARIES AND FLIGHT TRACKS IMAGERY MC3E V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Flight Summaries and Flight Tracks Imagery MC3E dataset for the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) provides...

  5. GPM GROUND VALIDATION FLIGHT SUMMARIES AND FLIGHT TRACKS IMAGERY MC3E V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Flight Summaries and Flight Tracks Imagery dataset for MC3E provides processed summaries from University of North Dakota including sonde maps, a radar animation,...

  6. Advanced transport operating system software upgrade: Flight management/flight controls software description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinedinst, Winston C.; Debure, Kelly R.; Dickson, Richard W.; Heaphy, William J.; Parks, Mark A.; Slominski, Christopher J.; Wolverton, David A.

    1988-01-01

    The Flight Management/Flight Controls (FM/FC) software for the Norden 2 (PDP-11/70M) computer installed on the NASA 737 aircraft is described. The software computes the navigation position estimates, guidance commands, those commands to be issued to the control surfaces to direct the aircraft in flight based on the modes selected on the Advanced Guidance Control System (AGSC) mode panel, and the flight path selected via the Navigation Control/Display Unit (NCDU).

  7. STS-81 Flight Day 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    On this fifth day of the STS-81 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. Michael A. Baker, Pilot Brent W. Jett, Mission Specialists, John M. Grunsfeld, Marsha S. Ivins, Peter J.K. Wisoff, and John Blaha, and the Mir cosmonauts including astronaut Jerry M. Linenger continue with the transfer of food, water and supplies between the two spacecrafts for a second day of joint operations. With both spacecraft in excellent shape, the nine crewmembers float back and forth between Atlantis and the Mir, hauling bags of water, satchels of logistical supplies and experiment hardware. The supplies and hardware will be used by cosmonauts and Linenger during his four months of scientific research aboard the Mir. Linenger, who officially became a Mir crewmember earlier, spends time with his precedessor; John Blaha to get familiar with his new home.

  8. Bat flight and zoonotic viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Thomas J.; Cryan, Paul M.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Hayman, David T.S.; Luis, Angela D.; Peel, Alison J.; Plowright, Raina K.; Wood, James L.N.

    2014-01-01

    Bats are sources of high viral diversity and high-profile zoonotic viruses worldwide. Although apparently not pathogenic in their reservoir hosts, some viruses from bats severely affect other mammals, including humans. Examples include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, Ebola and Marburg viruses, and Nipah and Hendra viruses. Factors underlying high viral diversity in bats are the subject of speculation. We hypothesize that flight, a factor common to all bats but to no other mammals, provides an intensive selective force for coexistence with viral parasites through a daily cycle that elevates metabolism and body temperature analogous to the febrile response in other mammals. On an evolutionary scale, this host–virus interaction might have resulted in the large diversity of zoonotic viruses in bats, possibly through bat viruses adapting to be more tolerant of the fever response and less virulent to their natural hosts.

  9. The Aerodynamics of Frisbee Flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Baumback

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This project will describe the physics of a common Frisbee in flight. The aerodynamic forces acting on the Frisbee are lift and drag, with lift being explained by Bernoulli‘s equation and drag by the Prandtl relationship. Using V. R. Morrison‘s model for the 2-dimensional trajectory of a Frisbee, equations for the x- and y- components of the Frisbee‘s motion were written in Microsoft Excel and the path of the Frisbee was illustrated. Variables such as angle of attack, area, and attack velocity were altered to see their effect on the Frisbee‘s path and to speculate on ways to achieve maximum distance and height.

  10. Atmospheric radiation flight dose rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiska, W. K.

    2015-12-01

    Space weather's effects upon the near-Earth environment are due to dynamic changes in the energy transfer processes from the Sun's photons, particles, and fields. Of the domains that are affected by space weather, the coupling between the solar and galactic high-energy particles, the magnetosphere, and atmospheric regions can significantly affect humans and our technology as a result of radiation exposure. Space Environment Technologies (SET) has been conducting space weather observations of the atmospheric radiation environment at aviation altitudes that will eventually be transitioned into air traffic management operations. The Automated Radiation Measurements for Aerospace Safety (ARMAS) system and Upper-atmospheric Space and Earth Weather eXperiment (USEWX) both are providing dose rate measurements. Both activities are under the ARMAS goal of providing the "weather" of the radiation environment to improve aircraft crew and passenger safety. Over 5-dozen ARMAS and USEWX flights have successfully demonstrated the operation of a micro dosimeter on commercial aviation altitude aircraft that captures the real-time radiation environment resulting from Galactic Cosmic Rays and Solar Energetic Particles. The real-time radiation exposure is computed as an effective dose rate (body-averaged over the radiative-sensitive organs and tissues in units of microsieverts per hour); total ionizing dose is captured on the aircraft, downlinked in real-time, processed on the ground into effective dose rates, compared with NASA's Langley Research Center (LaRC) most recent Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation System (NAIRAS) global radiation climatology model runs, and then made available to end users via the web and smart phone apps. Flight altitudes now exceed 60,000 ft. and extend above commercial aviation altitudes into the stratosphere. In this presentation we describe recent ARMAS and USEWX results.

  11. Optimization of the vertical flight profile on the flight management system for green aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix Patron, Roberto Salvador

    To reduce aircraft's fuel consumption, a new method to calculate flight trajectories to be implemented in commercial Flight Management Systems has been developed. The aircraft's model was obtained from a flight performance database, which included experimental flight data. The optimized trajectories for three different commercial aircraft have been analyzed and developed in this thesis. To obtain the optimal flight trajectory that reduces the global flight cost, the vertical and the LNAV profiles have been studied and analyzed to find the aircraft's available speeds, possible flight altitudes and alternative horizontal trajectories that could reduce the global fuel consumption. A dynamic weather model has been implemented to improve the precision of the algorithm. This weather model calculates the speed and direction of wind, and the outside air temperature from a public weather database. To reduce the calculation time, different time-optimization algorithms have been implemented, such as the Golden Section search method, and different types of genetic algorithms. The optimization algorithm calculates the aircraft trajectory considering the departure and arrival airport coordinates, the aircraft parameters, the in-flight restrictions such as speeds, altitudes and WPs. The final output is given in terms of the flight time, fuel consumption and global flight cost of the complete flight. To validate the optimization algorithm results, the software FlightSIM RTM has been used. This software considers a complete aircraft aerodynamic model for its simulations, giving results that are accurate and very close to reality.

  12. Selected Flight Test Results for Online Learning Neural Network-Based Flight Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Hayes, Peggy S.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA F-15 Intelligent Flight Control System project team developed a series of flight control concepts designed to demonstrate neural network-based adaptive controller benefits, with the objective to develop and flight-test control systems using neural network technology to optimize aircraft performance under nominal conditions and stabilize the aircraft under failure conditions. This report presents flight-test results for an adaptive controller using stability and control derivative values from an online learning neural network. A dynamic cell structure neural network is used in conjunction with a real-time parameter identification algorithm to estimate aerodynamic stability and control derivative increments to baseline aerodynamic derivatives in flight. This open-loop flight test set was performed in preparation for a future phase in which the learning neural network and parameter identification algorithm output would provide the flight controller with aerodynamic stability and control derivative updates in near real time. Two flight maneuvers are analyzed - pitch frequency sweep and automated flight-test maneuver designed to optimally excite the parameter identification algorithm in all axes. Frequency responses generated from flight data are compared to those obtained from nonlinear simulation runs. Flight data examination shows that addition of flight-identified aerodynamic derivative increments into the simulation improved aircraft pitch handling qualities.

  13. Design considerations for space flight hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    The environmental and design constraints are reviewed along with some insight into the established design and quality assurance practices that apply to low earth orbit (LEO) space flight hardware. It is intended as an introduction for people unfamiliar with space flight considerations. Some basic data and a bibliography are included.

  14. Cryogenic fluid management program flight concept definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Erich

    1987-01-01

    The Lewis Research Center's cryogenic fluid management program flight concept definition is presented in viewgraph form. Diagrams are given of the cryogenic fluid management subpallet and its configuration with the Delta launch vehicle. Information is given in outline form on feasibility studies, requirements definition, and flight experiments design.

  15. Pernilla Craig Flight Around Lac Leman

    CERN Document Server

    Goldfarb, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Aviator and future physicist Pernilla Craig visits CERN and is hosted by the Geneva Flight Club. Web pioneer Robert Cailliau helps in the preparations, flight instructor Aline Cosmetatos takes the co-pilot seat, and ATLAS outreach coordinator Steven Goldfarb serves cocktails from the back seat.

  16. Theory of Aircraft Flight. Aerospace Education II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, James D.

    This revised textbook, one in the Aerospace Education II series, provides answers to many questions related to airplanes and properties of air flight. The first chapter provides a description of aerodynamic forces and deals with concepts such as acceleration, velocity, and forces of flight. The second chapter is devoted to the discussion of…

  17. Investigating Flight with a Toy Helicopter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebl, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Flight fascinates people of all ages. Recent advances in battery technology have extended the capabilities of model airplanes and toy helicopters. For those who have never outgrown a childhood enthusiasm for the wonders of flight, it is possible to buy inexpensive, remotely controlled planes and helicopters. A toy helicopter offers an opportunity…

  18. Perception coherence zones in flight simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valente Pais, A.R.; Paassen, M.M. van; Mulder, M.; Wentink, M.

    2010-01-01

    The development and tuning of flight simulator motion filters relies on understanding human motion perception and its limitations. Of particular interest to flight simulation is the study of visual-inertial coherence zones. Coherence zones refer to combinations of visual and inertial cues that,

  19. Perception coherence zones in flight simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valente Pais, A.R.; Paassen, M.M. van; Mulder, M.; Wentink, M.

    2009-01-01

    The importance of motion perception knowledge for flight simulation is widely recognized. The development and tuning of motion filters relies on understanding the human motion perception mechanisms and its limitations. Particularly interesting for flight simulation is the study of visual-vestibular

  20. Simulation of the Physics of Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, W. Brian

    2013-01-01

    Computer simulations continue to prove to be a valuable tool in physics education. Based on the needs of an Aviation Physics course, we developed the PHYSics of FLIght Simulator (PhysFliS), which numerically solves Newton's second law for an airplane in flight based on standard aerodynamics relationships. The simulation can be used to pique…

  1. Preliminary X-43 flight test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClinton, Charles R.; Rausch, Vincent L.; Nguyen, Luat T.; Sitz, Joel R.

    2005-07-01

    The successful Mach 7 flight test of the Hyper-X/X-43 research vehicle has provided a major, essential demonstration of the capability of the airframe integrated scramjet engine. This flight was a crucial first step toward establishing the potential for air-breathing hypersonic propulsion for application to space-launch vehicles.

  2. Flight. Science Series Grades 4, 5, 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frensch, Helen

    The activities in this book are designed to reinforce the elementary concepts of flight. General background information, suggested activities, questions for discussion, and answers are provided. Twenty-eight reproducible worksheets are contained in this guide. Topics include: hot air balloons, the physics of flight, air resistance, airplane…

  3. A Decentralized Approach to Formation Flight Routing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, H.G.; Lopes dos Santos, Bruno F.; Verhagen, C.M.A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an optimization-based cooperative planning system for the efficient routing and scheduling of flight formations. This study considers the use of formation flight as a means to reduce the overall fuel consumption of civil aviation in long-haul operations. It

  4. 14 CFR 63.43 - Flight engineer courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight engineer courses. 63.43 Section 63...) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS OTHER THAN PILOTS Flight Engineers § 63.43 Flight engineer courses. An applicant for approval of a flight engineer course must submit a letter to the Administrator...

  5. 14 CFR 91.305 - Flight test areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight test areas. 91.305 Section 91.305... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Special Flight Operations § 91.305 Flight test areas. No person may flight test an aircraft except over open water, or sparsely populated...

  6. 14 CFR 63.61 - Flight navigator courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight navigator courses. 63.61 Section 63...) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS OTHER THAN PILOTS Flight Navigators § 63.61 Flight navigator courses. An applicant for approval of a flight navigator course must submit a letter to the Administrator...

  7. 14 CFR 61.193 - Flight instructor privileges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight instructor privileges. 61.193... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Flight Instructors Other than Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating § 61.193 Flight instructor privileges. A person who...

  8. Remote radio control of insect flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotaka Sato

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrated the remote control of insects in free flight via an implantable radio-equipped miniature neural stimulating system. The pronotum mounted system consisted of neural stimulators, muscular stimulators, a radio transceiver-equipped microcontroller and a microbattery. Flight initiation, cessation and elevation control were accomplished through neural stimulus of the brain which elicited, suppressed or modulated wing oscillation. Turns were triggered through the direct muscular stimulus of either of the basalar muscles. We characterized the response times, success rates, and free-flight trajectories elicited by our neural control systems in remotely-controlled beetles. We believe this type of technology will open the door to in-flight perturbation and recording of insect flight responses.

  9. Relationship of age and simulated flight performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesavage, J A; Taylor, J L; Mumenthaler, M S; Noda, A; O'Hara, R

    1999-07-01

    To determine the relationship between age and aviator performance on a flight simulator. A cross-sectional observational study. The sample consisted of 100 aviators aged 50 to 69 (mean = 58). Pilots were tested on a Frasca 141 flight simulator (Urbana, IL), linked to a UNIX-based IRIS 4D computer (Silicon Graphics, Mountain View, CA), which both generated graphics of the environment in which the pilots flew and collected data concerning the aircraft's flight conditions. We found that increased age was significantly associated with decreased aviator performance on a flight simulator. Although there was a significant relationship between increased age and decreased aviator performance, age explained 22% or less of the variance of performance on different flight tasks; hence, other factors are also important in explaining the performance of older pilots.

  10. Flight in low-level wind shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, W.

    1983-01-01

    Results of studies of wind shear hazard to aircraft operation are summarized. Existing wind shear profiles currently used in computer and flight simulator studies are reviewed. The governing equations of motion for an aircraft are derived incorporating the variable wind effects. Quantitative discussions of the effects of wind shear on aircraft performance are presented. These are followed by a review of mathematical solutions to both the linear and nonlinear forms of the governing equations. Solutions with and without control laws are presented. The application of detailed analysis to develop warning and detection systems based on Doppler radar measuring wind speed along the flight path is given. A number of flight path deterioration parameters are defined and evaluated. Comparison of computer-predicted flight paths with those measured in a manned flight simulator is made. Some proposed airborne and ground-based wind shear hazard warning and detection systems are reviewed. The advantages and disadvantages of both types of systems are discussed.

  11. Double Flight-Modes Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Getting inspiration from the real birds in flight, we propose a new particle swarm optimization algorithm that we call the double flight modes particle swarm optimization (DMPSO in this paper. In the DMPSO, each bird (particle can use both rotational flight mode and nonrotational flight mode to fly, while it is searching for food in its search space. There is a King in the swarm of birds, and the King controls each bird’s flight behavior in accordance with certain rules all the time. Experiments were conducted on benchmark functions such as Schwefel, Rastrigin, Ackley, Step, Griewank, and Sphere. The experimental results show that the DMPSO not only has marked advantage of global convergence property but also can effectively avoid the premature convergence problem and has good performance in solving the complex and high-dimensional optimization problems.

  12. Ranking different factors influencing flight delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysam Kazemi Asfe

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Flight interruption is one of the most important issues in today’s airline industry. Every year, most airlines spend significant amount of money to compensate flight delays. Therefore, it is important to detect important factors influencing on flight delays. This paper presents an empirical investigation to determine important factors on this issue. The study also asks some decision makers to make pairwise comparison and ranks various factors using the art of analytical hierarchy process. The study determines that technical defects and delayed entry were among the most important factors to blame for flight delays. In addition, announcing the postponement, replacement aircraft and path replacement are among the most important decisions facing managers in the aviation industry during the disruption of the flight.

  13. Free flight of the mosquito Aedes aegypti

    CERN Document Server

    Iams, S M

    2012-01-01

    High speed video observations of free flying male Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, the dengue and yellow fever vector, along with custom measurement methods, enable measurement of wingbeat frequency, body position and body orientation of mosquitoes during flight. We find these mosquitoes flap their wings at approximately 850 Hz. We also generate body yaw, body pitch and wing deviation measurements with standard deviations of less than 1 degree and find that sideways velocity and acceleration are important components of mosquito motion. Rapid turns involving changes in flight direction often involve large sideways accelerations. These do not correspond to commensurate changes in body heading, and the insect's flight direction and body heading are decoupled during flight. These findings call in to question the role of yaw control in mosquito flight. In addition, using orientation data, we find that sideways accelerations are well explained by roll-based rotation of the lift vector. In contrast, the insect's body pitch...

  14. Flights in a pseudo-chaotic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstein, J H; Vivaldi, F

    2011-09-01

    We consider the problem of transport in a one-parameter family of piecewise rotations of the torus, for rotation number approaching 1∕4. This is a zero-entropy system which in this limit exhibits a divided phase space, with island chains immersed in a "pseudo-chaotic" region. We identify a novel mechanism for long-range transport, namely the adiabatic destruction of accelerator-mode islands. This process originates from the approximate translational invariance of the phase space and leads to long flights of linear motion, for a significant measure of initial conditions. We show that the asymptotic probability distribution of the flight lengths is determined by the geometric properties of a partition of the accelerator-mode island associated with the flight. We establish the existence of flights travelling distances of order O(1) in phase space. We provide evidence for the existence of a scattering process that connects flights travelling in opposite directions.

  15. Flight capacity of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) adult females based on flight mill studies and flight muscle ultrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min; Chen, Peng; Ye, Hui; Yuan, Ruiling; Wang, Xiaowei; Xu, Jin

    2015-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is considered a major economic threat in many regions worldwide. To better comprehend flight capacity of B. dorsalis and its physiological basis, a computer-monitored flight mill was used to study flight capacity of B. dorsalis adult females of various ages, and the changes of its flight muscle ultrastructures were studied by transmission electron microscopy. The flight capacity (both speed and distance) changed significantly with age of B. dorsalis female adults, peaking at about 15 d; the myofibril diameter of the flight muscle of test insects at 15-d old was the longest, up to 1.56 µm, the sarcomere length at 15-d old was the shortest, averaging at 1.37 µm, volume content of mitochondria of flight muscle at 15-d old reached the peak, it was 32.64%. This study provides the important scientific data for better revealing long-distance movement mechanism of B. dorsalis. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  16. A Simple Flight Mill for the Study of Tethered Flight in Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attisano, Alfredo; Murphy, James T; Vickers, Andrew; Moore, Patricia J

    2015-12-10

    Flight in insects can be long-range migratory flights, intermediate-range dispersal flights, or short-range host-seeking flights. Previous studies have shown that flight mills are valuable tools for the experimental study of insect flight behavior, allowing researchers to examine how factors such as age, host plants, or population source can influence an insects' propensity to disperse. Flight mills allow researchers to measure components of flight such as speed and distance flown. Lack of detailed information about how to build such a device can make their construction appear to be prohibitively complex. We present a simple and relatively inexpensive flight mill for the study of tethered flight in insects. Experimental insects can be tethered with non-toxic adhesives and revolve around an axis by means of a very low friction magnetic bearing. The mill is designed for the study of flight in controlled conditions as it can be used inside an incubator or environmental chamber. The strongest points are the very simple electronic circuitry, the design that allows sixteen insects to fly simultaneously allowing the collection and analysis of a large number of samples in a short time and the potential to use the device in a very limited workspace. This design is extremely flexible, and we have adjusted the mill to accommodate different species of insects of various sizes.

  17. Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) Flight Management/Flight Controls (FM/FC) software description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, David A.; Dickson, Richard W.; Clinedinst, Winston C.; Slominski, Christopher J.

    1993-01-01

    The flight software developed for the Flight Management/Flight Controls (FM/FC) MicroVAX computer used on the Transport Systems Research Vehicle for Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) research is described. The FM/FC software computes navigation position estimates, guidance commands, and those commands issued to the control surfaces to direct the aircraft in flight. Various modes of flight are provided for, ranging from computer assisted manual modes to fully automatic modes including automatic landing. A high-level system overview as well as a description of each software module comprising the system is provided. Digital systems diagrams are included for each major flight control component and selected flight management functions.

  18. 14 CFR 63.42 - Flight engineer certificate issued on basis of a foreign flight engineer license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight engineer certificate issued on basis of a foreign flight engineer license. 63.42 Section 63.42 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... PILOTS Flight Engineers § 63.42 Flight engineer certificate issued on basis of a foreign flight engineer...

  19. Fight or flight? - Flight increases immune gene expression but does not help to fight an infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woestmann, L; Kvist, J; Saastamoinen, M

    2017-03-01

    Flight represents a key trait in most insects, being energetically extremely demanding, yet often necessary for foraging and reproduction. Additionally, dispersal via flight is especially important for species living in fragmented landscapes. Even though, based on life-history theory, a negative relationship may be expected between flight and immunity, a number of previous studies have indicated flight to induce an increased immune response. In this study, we assessed whether induced immunity (i.e. immune gene expression) in response to 15-min forced flight treatment impacts individual survival of bacterial infection in the Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia). We were able to confirm previous findings of flight-induced immune gene expression, but still observed substantially stronger effects on both gene expression levels and life span due to bacterial infection compared to flight treatment. Even though gene expression levels of some immunity-related genes were elevated due to flight, these individuals did not show increased survival of bacterial infection, indicating that flight-induced immune activation does not completely protect them from the negative effects of bacterial infection. Finally, an interaction between flight and immune treatment indicated a potential trade-off: flight treatment increased immune gene expression in naïve individuals only, whereas in infected individuals no increase in immune gene expression was induced by flight. Our results suggest that the up-regulation of immune genes upon flight is based on a general stress response rather than reflecting an adaptive response to cope with potential infections during flight or in new habitats. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons ltd on behalf of European Society for Evolutionary Biology.

  20. STS-81 Flight Day 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    On this fourth day of the STS-81 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. Michael A. Baker, Pilot Brent W. Jett, Mission Specialists, John M. Grunsfeld, Marsha S. Ivins, Peter J.K. Wisoff, and Jerry M. Linenger, prepare for the fifth linkup of the Space Shuttle and the Mir Space Station. The Atlantis docks with Mir at a point 210 nautical miles above the Earth southeast of Moscow, culminating a three-day rendezvous. Two hours after docking, the hatches between Atlantis and Mir are opened and Baker and Mir 22 Commander Valery Korzun share a hug to mark the start of five days of joint operations between the two crews. After an informal welcoming ceremony in the Mir's core module, the STS-81 crewmembers receive a station safety briefing. Linenger becomes the fourth American to occupy a position on the Russian Space Station following the docking of Atlantis to the outpost. During the docked phase of the mission, the two crews transfer nearly three tons of food, water and supplies to Mir.

  1. STS-81 Flight Day 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    On this seventh first day of the STS-81 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. Michael A. Baker, Pilot Brent W. Jett, Mission Specialists, John M. Grunsfeld, Marsha S. Ivins, Peter J.K. Wisoff, and John Blaha, and the cosmonauts of the Russian Space Station Mir continue to transfer hundreds of pounds of water, supplies, and logistical items to each other's spacecraft. More than 1,300 pounds of water have now been transferred from Atlantis to the Mir to resupply the Russian outpost, along with equipment that will be used by astronaut Jerry M. Linenger during his four-month research mission. A bioprocessing device and an experiment used to grow cartilage cells during astronaut John Blaha's four month stay on the Mir is also transferred to Atlantis for the trip back to Earth. Linenger spends most of the day collecting water samples from the Mir for analysis back on Earth and Blaha continues to exercise on a treadmill on the Mir to stay in shape for his return to Earth and a readaptation to gravity after four months of weightlessness.

  2. STS-93 Post Flight Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    An overview of Flight STS-93 is presented. The primary objective of the STS-93 mission was to deploy the Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), also known as the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The mission flew on the Columbia Shuttle, on July 22, 1999. This facility is the most sophisticated X-ray observatory ever built. Other payloads on STS-93 were: (1) the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX), (2) Shuttle Ionospheric Modification with Pulsed Local Exhaust (SIMPLEX), (3) Southwest Ultraviolet Imaging System (SWUIS), (4) Gelation of Sols: Applied Microgravity Research (GOSAMR), Space Tissue Loss-B (STL-B), (5) Light Weight Flexible Solar Array Hinge (LFSAH), (6) Cell Culture Module (CCM), and (7) the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-II (SAREX-II), (8) EarthKam, (9) Plant Growth Investigations in Microgravity (PGIM), (10) Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGBA), (11) Micro-Electrical Mechanical System (MEMS), and (12) the Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC). The crew was: Eileen M. Collins, Mission Commander, the first female shuttle commander; Jeffrey S. Ashby, Pilot; Steven A. Hawley , Mission Specialist; Catherine G. Coleman, Mission Specialist; Michel Tognini (CNES), Mission Specialist. The video contains views of life aboard the space shuttle. This mission featured both a night launching and a night landing at the Kennedy Space Center.

  3. Aeroservoelastic Uncertainty Model Identification from Flight Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Martin J.

    2001-01-01

    Uncertainty modeling is a critical element in the estimation of robust stability margins for stability boundary prediction and robust flight control system development. There has been a serious deficiency to date in aeroservoelastic data analysis with attention to uncertainty modeling. Uncertainty can be estimated from flight data using both parametric and nonparametric identification techniques. The model validation problem addressed in this paper is to identify aeroservoelastic models with associated uncertainty structures from a limited amount of controlled excitation inputs over an extensive flight envelope. The challenge to this problem is to update analytical models from flight data estimates while also deriving non-conservative uncertainty descriptions consistent with the flight data. Multisine control surface command inputs and control system feedbacks are used as signals in a wavelet-based modal parameter estimation procedure for model updates. Transfer function estimates are incorporated in a robust minimax estimation scheme to get input-output parameters and error bounds consistent with the data and model structure. Uncertainty estimates derived from the data in this manner provide an appropriate and relevant representation for model development and robust stability analysis. This model-plus-uncertainty identification procedure is applied to aeroservoelastic flight data from the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center F-18 Systems Research Aircraft.

  4. The Route Analysis Based On Flight Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feriyanto, Nur; Saleh, Chairul; Fauzi, Achmad; Rachman Dzakiyullah, Nur; Riza Iwaputra, Kahfi

    2016-02-01

    Economic development effects use of air transportation since the business process in every aspect was increased. Many people these days was prefer using airplane because it can save time and money. This situation also effects flight routes, many airlines offer new routes to deal with competition. Managing flight routes is one of the problems that must be faced in order to find the efficient and effective routes. This paper investigates the best routes based on flight performance by determining the amount of block fuel for the Jakarta-Denpasar flight route. Moreover, in this work compares a two kinds of aircraft and tracks by calculating flight distance, flight time and block fuel. The result shows Jakarta-Denpasar in the Track II has effective and efficient block fuel that can be performed by Airbus 320-200 aircraft. This study can contribute to practice in making an effective decision, especially helping executive management of company due to selecting appropriate aircraft and the track in the flight plan based on the block fuel consumption for business operation.

  5. Writing executable assertions to test flight software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, A.; Andrews, D. M.; Mccluskey, E. J.

    1984-01-01

    An executable assertion is a logical statement about the variables or a block of code. If there is no error during execution, the assertion statement results in a true value. Executable assertions can be used for dynamic testing of software. They can be employed for validation during the design phase, and exception and error detection during the operation phase. The present investigation is concerned with the problem of writing executable assertions, taking into account the use of assertions for testing flight software. They can be employed for validation during the design phase, and for exception handling and error detection during the operation phase The digital flight control system and the flight control software are discussed. The considered system provides autopilot and flight director modes of operation for automatic and manual control of the aircraft during all phases of flight. Attention is given to techniques for writing and using assertions to test flight software, an experimental setup to test flight software, and language features to support efficient use of assertions.

  6. HIFiRE-5 Flight Vehicle Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmel, Roger L.; Adamczak, David; Berger, Karen; Choudhari, Meelan

    2010-01-01

    The Hypersonic International Flight Research Experimentation (HIFiRE) program is a hypersonic flight test program executed by the Air Force Research Laboratories (AFRL) and Australian Defence Science and Technology Organization (DSTO). HIFiRE flight 5 is devoted to measuring transition on a three-dimensional body. This paper summarizes payload configuration, trajectory, vehicle stability limits and roughness tolerances. Results show that the proposed configuration is suitable for testing transition on a three-dimensional body. Transition is predicted to occur within the test window, and a design has been developed that will allow the vehicle to be manufactured within prescribed roughness tolerances

  7. Flight Path Recovery System (FPRS) design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-09-01

    The study contained herein presents a design for a Flight Path Recovery System (FPPS) for use in the NURE Program which will be more accurate than systems presently used, provide position location data in digital form suitable for automatic data processing, and provide for flight path recovery in a more economic and operationally suitable manner. The design is based upon the use of presently available hardware and technoloy, and presents little, it any, development risk. In addition, a Flight Test Plan designed to test the FPRS design concept is presented.

  8. The Biological Flight Research Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Catherine C.

    1993-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) is building a research facility, the Biological Flight Research Facility (BFRF), to meet the needs of life scientists to study the long-term effects of variable gravity on living systems. The facility will be housed on Space Station Freedom and is anticipated to operate for the lifetime of the station, approximately thirty years. It will allow plant and animal biologists to study the role of gravity, or its absence, at varying gravity intensities for varying periods of time and with various organisms. The principal difference between current Spacelab missions and those on Space Station Freedom, other than length of mission, will be the capability to perform on-orbit science procedures and the capability to simulate earth gravity. Initially the facility will house plants and rodents in habitats which can be maintained at microgravity or can be placed on a 2.5 meter diameter centrifuge. However, the facility is also being designed to accommodate future habitats for small primates, avian, and aquatic specimens. The centrifuge will provide 1 g for controls and will also be able to provide gravity from 0.01 to 2.0 g for threshold gravity studies as well as hypergravity studies. Included in the facility are a service unit for providing clean chambers for the specimens and a glovebox for manipulating the plant and animal specimens and for performing experimental protocols. The BFRF will provide the means to conduct basic experiments to gain an understanding of the effects of microgravity on the structure and function of plants and animals, as well as investigate the role of gravity as a potential countermeasure for the physiological changes observed in microgravity.

  9. Space Flight Orthostatic Intolerance Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luty, Wei

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes investigations conducted on different orthostatic intolerance protection garments. This paper emphasizes on the engineering and operational aspects of the project. The current Shuttle pneumatic Anti-G Suit or AGS at 25 mmHg (0.5 psi) and customized medical mechanical compressive garments (20-30 mmHg) were tested on human subjects. The test process is presented. The preliminary results conclude that mechanical compressive garments can ameliorate orthostatic hypotension in hypovolemic subjects. A mechanical compressive garment is light, small and works without external pressure gas source; however the current garment design does not provide an adjustment to compensate for the loss of mass and size in the lower torso during long term space missions. It is also difficult to don. Compression garments that do not include an abdominal component are less effective countermeasures than garments which do. An early investigation conducted by the Human Adaptation and Countermeasures Division at Johnson Space Center (JSC) has shown there is no significant difference between the protection function of the AGS (at 77 mmHg or 1.5 psi) and the Russian anti-g suit, Kentavr (at 25 mmHg or 0.5 psi). Although both garments successfully countered hypovolemia-induced orthostatic intolerance, the Kentavr provided protection by using lower levels of compression pressure. This more recent study with a lower AGS pressure shows that pressures at 20-30 mmHg is acceptable but protection function is not as effective as higher pressure. In addition, a questionnaire survey with flight crewmembers who used both AGS and Kentavr during different missions was also performed.

  10. Flight Deck I-Glasses Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Flight Deck i-Glasses is a color, stereoscopic 3-D display mounted on consumer style eye glass frames that will enhance operator performance and multi-modal...

  11. EPS analysis of nominal STS-1 flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfgram, D. F.; Pipher, M. D.

    1980-01-01

    The results of electrical power system (EPS) analysis of the planned Shuttle Transportation System Flight 1 mission are presented. The capability of the orbiter EPS to support the planned flight and to provide program tape information and supplementary data specifically requested by the flight operations directorate was assessed. The analysis was accomplished using the orbiter version of the spacecraft electrical power simulator program, operating from a modified version of orbiter electrical equipment utilization baseline revision four. The results indicate that the nominal flight, as analyzed, is within the capabilities of the orbiter power generation system, but that a brief, and minimal, current overload may exist between main distributor 1 and mid power controlled 1, and that inverter 9 may the overloaded for extended periods of time. A comparison of results with launch commit criteria also indicated that some of the presently existing launch redlines may be violated during the terminal countdown.

  12. PLANNING OF TRAINING AIRCRAFT FLIGHT HOURS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visnja Vojvodić Rosenzweig

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of the training aircraft causes downtime of operations and thereby reduces the operational availability, which is crucial for flight planning in a training organisation. Manual daily planning within the fleet delivers suboptimal results and often causes discontinued flight of several aircraft that have to be maintained at the same time. Optimal maintenance schedule of training aircraft can be obtained by a sliding scale method. This paper presents a mathematical model of the sliding scale formulated by a mixed integer linear problem. Allocation of flight hours is optimised by using AMPL programming language, assuring that a sufficient number of aircraft are always available for training. The model can be used by a flight dispatch department in a training organisation as a basis for optimised planning and reduction of maintenance downtime.

  13. Human Factors for Flight Deck Certification Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-07-01

    This document is a compilation of proceedings and lecture material on human : performance capabilities that was presented to FAA flight deck certification : personnel. A five-day series of lectures was developed to provide certification : specialists...

  14. Distributed Flight Controls for UAVs Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Two novel flight control actuation concepts for UAV applications are proposed for prototype development, both of which incorporate shape memory alloy (SMA) wires as...

  15. Pre-flight characteristics of Hecht vaults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeadon, M R; King, M A; Sprigings, E J

    1998-05-01

    This study reports the techniques used by gymnasts to perform the Hecht vault and compares them with techniques used for the handspring somersault vault (Takei and Kim, 1990). Our main aim was to establish how the pre-flight characteristics of the Hecht vault influence post-flight performance. Data were obtained on 27 elite gymnasts performing the Hecht vault at the 1993 Canadian National Championships using two-dimensional video analysis with the direct linear transformation (DLT) technique. The maximum height reached by the mass centre during post-flight was significantly correlated (P vault, the gymnasts had longer, lower and faster pre-flights with slower rotation at horse contact compared with the handspring somersault vaults.

  16. Flight Crew State Monitoring Metrics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — eSky will develop specific crew state metrics based on the timeliness, tempo and accuracy of pilot inputs required by the H-mode Flight Control System (HFCS)....

  17. OZ: An Innovative Primary Flight Display Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed SBIR project will develop OZ, an innovative primary flight display for aircraft. The OZ display, designed from "first principles" of vision science,...

  18. Northern Pintail - Flight Path Telemetry [ds117

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — North-south flight paths of radio-tagged female northern pintails were monitored in a section of Highway 152 near Los Banos, California during 4 and 11 November and...

  19. Who dares to join a parabolic flight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Christian; Zander, Tina; Schneider, Stefan

    2016-12-01

    Parabolic flights represent an important tool in space research to investigate zero gravity on airplanes. Research on these flights often target psychological and biological processes in humans to investigate if and how we can adapt to this unique environment. This research is costly, hard to conduct and clearly heavily relies on humans participating in experiments in this (unnatural) situation. The present study investigated N =66 participants and N =66 matched control persons to study if participants in such experimental flights differ in terms of their personality traits from non-parabonauts. The main finding of this study demonstrates that parabonauts score significantly lower on harm avoidance, a trait closely linked to being anxious. As anxious humans differ from non-anxious humans in their biology, the present observations need to be taken into account when aiming at the generalizability of psychobiological research findings conducted in zero gravity on parabolic flights.

  20. Flight Lossless Data Compression Electronics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed work seeks to drastically increase the capability of the lossless data compression technology embedded in the currently used flight part known as USES...

  1. Greased Lightning (GL-10) Flight Testing Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredericks, William J.; McSwain, Robert G.; Beaton, Brian F.; Klassman, David W.; Theodore, Colin R.

    2017-01-01

    Greased Lightning (GL-10) is an aircraft configuration that combines the characteristics of a cruise efficient airplane with the ability to perform vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL). This aircraft has been designed, fabricated and flight tested at the small unmanned aerial system (UAS) scale. This technical memorandum will document the procedures and findings of the flight test experiments. The GL-10 design utilized two key technologies to enable this unique aircraft design; namely, distributed electric propulsion (DEP) and inexpensive closed loop controllers. These technologies enabled the flight of this inherently unstable aircraft. Overall it has been determined thru flight test that a design that leverages these new technologies can yield a useful VTOL cruise efficient aircraft.

  2. CARVE: Daily Flight Reports, 2012-2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset includes detailed daily flight reports from each of the airborne campaigns over the Alaskan and Canadian Arctic for the Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs...

  3. Distributed Flight Controls for UAVs Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Two novel flight control actuation concepts for UAV applications are proposed for research and development, both of which incorporate shape memory alloy (SMA) wires...

  4. Liability and Insurance for Suborbital Flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson-Zwaan, T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes and compares liability and liability insurance in the fields of aviation and spaceflight in order to propose solutions for a liability regime and insurance options for suborbital flights. Suborbital flights can be said to take place in the grey zone between air and space, between air law and space law, as well as between aviation insurance and space insurance. In terms of liability, the paper discusses air law and space law provisions in the fields of second and third party liability for damage to passengers and 'innocent bystanders' respectively, touching upon international treaties, national law and EU law, and on insurance to cover those risks. Although the insurance market is currently not ready to provide tailor-made products for operators of suborbital flights, it is expected to adapt rapidly once such flights will become reality. A hybrid approach will provide the best solution in the medium term.

  5. Space Flight Resource Management for ISS Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Larry; Slack, Kelley; O'Keefe, William; Huning, Therese; Sipes, Walter; Holland, Albert

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the International Space Station (ISS) Operations space flight resource management, which was adapted to the ISS from the shuttle processes. It covers crew training and behavior elements.

  6. Comparing future options for human space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Brent

    2011-09-01

    The paper analyzes the "value proposition" for government-funded human space flight, a vexing question that persistently dogs efforts to justify its $10 10/year expense in the US. The original Mercury/Gemini/Apollo value proposition is not valid today. Neither was it the value proposition actually promoted by von Braun, which the post-Apollo 80% of human space flight history has persistently attempted to fulfill. Divergent potential objectives for human space flight are captured in four strategic options— Explore Mars; accelerate Space Passenger Travel; enable Space Power for Earth; and Settle the Moon—which are then analyzed for their purpose, societal myth, legacy benefits, core needs, and result as measured by the number and type of humans they would fly in space. This simple framework is proposed as a way to support productive dialog with public and other stakeholders, to determine a sustainable value proposition for human space flight.

  7. Asset Analysis and Operational Concepts for Separation Assurance Flight Testing at Dryden Flight Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Guillermo J.; Arteaga, Ricardo A.

    2011-01-01

    A preliminary survey of existing separation assurance and collision avoidance advancements, technologies, and efforts has been conducted in order to develop a concept of operations for flight testing autonomous separation assurance at Dryden Flight Research Center. This effort was part of the Unmanned Aerial Systems in the National Airspace System project. The survey focused primarily on separation assurance projects validated through flight testing (including lessons learned), however current forays into the field were also examined. Comparisons between current Dryden flight and range assets were conducted using House of Quality matrices in order to allow project management to make determinations regarding asset utilization for future flight tests. This was conducted in order to establish a body of knowledge of the current collision avoidance landscape, and thus focus Dryden s efforts more effectively towards the providing of assets and test ranges for future flight testing within this research field.

  8. Flight Testing and Test Instrumentation of PHOENIX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janovsky, R.; Behr, R.

    2005-02-01

    Within the frame of the German national ASTRA program, the need for in-flight experimentation as a key element in the development of the next generation launcher was addressed by the Phoenix project. The Phoenix 1 flight test vehicle was designed to demonstrate the un-powered horizontal landing of a representative, winged RLV configuration. The Phoenix 1 flight test vehicle is downscaled from the reference RLV shape "Hopper", with the dimensions of 7.8m overall length, 3.8m span, and 1200kg mass. In order to be representative of a full scale RLV, the scaling method preserves all features challenging the automatic landing from the flight control point of view. These are in particular the poor flying qualities of the static unstable vehicle and the high landing velocity of 71m/s, which is same as for the full scale vehicle. The landing demonstration scenario comprises a drop from the helicopter approximately 6km ahead of the runway threshold at 2.4km above runway level. The subsequent free flight includes an accelerating dive to merge with a steep final approach path representative of an RLV, followed by a long flare, touch down on the runway, and rollout to standstill. Besides its mandatory avionics system, the vehicle is also equipped with an additional flight test instrumentation to identify local aerodynamic flow and structural stress. This FTI system is designed to collect data by recording about 130 sensor signals during flight. This test instrumentation system was operated during a test campaign dedicated to verify the aerodynamic data base of Phoenix in the Dutch-German Wind-tunnel (DNW) in August 2003 and during three automatic landing flight tests after helicopter drop in May 2004. Post flight analysis of these data allows to validate the design models and the development tools in order to establish a flight validated data base for future work. This paper gives an overview on the Phoenix system including the flight test instrumentation, the test program and

  9. Applying data mining techniques to detect abnormal flight characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslaner, H. E.; Unal, Cagri; Iyigun, Cem

    2016-05-01

    This paper targets to highlight flight safety issues by applying data mining techniques to recorded flight data and proactively detecting abnormalities in certain flight phases. For this purpose, a result oriented method is offered which facilitates the process of post flight data analysis. In the first part of the study, a common time period of flight is defined and critical flight parameters are selected to be analyzed. Then the similarities of the flight parameters in time series basis are calculated for each flight by using Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) method. In the second part, hierarchical clustering technique is applied to the aggregate data matrix which is comprised of all the flights to be studied in terms of similarities among chosen parameters. Consequently, proximity levels among flight phases are determined. In the final part, an algorithm is constructed to distinguish outliers from clusters and classify them as suspicious flights.

  10. Flapping flight aerodynamics for flying animals

    OpenAIRE

    Norizham, Abdul Razak; Dimitriadis, Grigorios

    2011-01-01

    Most research into the aerodynamics of flying animals is based on aircraft aerodynamics. Aircraft have rigid wings, therefore such research is mostly suited to the study of the gliding flight of animals. However, many species spend more time flapping than gliding. Some species don’t glide at all. This seminar presents recent work on flapping flight carried out at the University of Liège.

  11. Loads in the design of flight vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Simion TĂTARU; Radu BÎSCĂ; Dorin LOZICI-BRÎNZEI

    2010-01-01

    The calculation of flight loads is a critical part of air vehicle design. On the other hand, the prediction of accurate loads is a sophisticated and complex process that requires skilled and experienced engineers. They must integrate results from wind tunnel tests, computer simulations, historical data and empirical formulations into a number of loads cases that provide a realistic assessment of the flight vehicle’s environment. Under these conditions, the vehicle must satisfy requirements im...

  12. Concepts of flight experiments for HOPE development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Hiroshi; Ito, Tetsuichi; Akimoto, Toshio; Miyaba, Hiroshi; Inaba, Motoyuki

    In connection with NASDA's design studies for HOPE, the H-II launch vehicle-lofted manned orbiter whose first flight is projected for the late 1990s, efforts are being made toward proof-of-concept (1) orbital reentry, 'OREX', (2) hypersonic flight, 'HYFLEX', and (3) approach and landing, 'ALEX' experiments, using small, simplified scale models of HOPE. Structures and materials suited to the mission segment in question are used in each of the three test series.

  13. Formation Flight Control for Aerial Refueling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    Microbiotics , Inc. The IMU data were recorded on a flight of a Cessna 172, and a representative time slice was reproduced for all of the simulations...nothing about. The final position relative Data Source: Flight Test MIDG II IMU Cessna 172 Microbiotics , Inc. 48 to the boom will obviously...Embedded PC ATH-400 Athena Diamond Systems, Inc GPS Receiver Card JNS100 OEM Javad Navigation Systems MEMS IMU MIDG II INS/GPS Microbiotics , Inc UHF

  14. Fused Reality for Enhanced Flight Test Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelder, Ed; Klyde, David

    2011-01-01

    The feasibility of using Fused Reality-based simulation technology to enhance flight test capabilities has been investigated. In terms of relevancy to piloted evaluation, there remains no substitute for actual flight tests, even when considering the fidelity and effectiveness of modern ground-based simulators. In addition to real-world cueing (vestibular, visual, aural, environmental, etc.), flight tests provide subtle but key intangibles that cannot be duplicated in a ground-based simulator. There is, however, a cost to be paid for the benefits of flight in terms of budget, mission complexity, and safety, including the need for ground and control-room personnel, additional aircraft, etc. A Fused Reality(tm) (FR) Flight system was developed that allows a virtual environment to be integrated with the test aircraft so that tasks such as aerial refueling, formation flying, or approach and landing can be accomplished without additional aircraft resources or the risk of operating in close proximity to the ground or other aircraft. Furthermore, the dynamic motions of the simulated objects can be directly correlated with the responses of the test aircraft. The FR Flight system will allow real-time observation of, and manual interaction with, the cockpit environment that serves as a frame for the virtual out-the-window scene.

  15. The development of an automated flight test management system for flight test planning and monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewett, Marle D.; Tartt, David M.; Duke, Eugene L.; Antoniewicz, Robert F.; Brumbaugh, Randal W.

    1988-01-01

    The development of an automated flight test management system (ATMS) as a component of a rapid-prototyping flight research facility for AI-based flight systems concepts is described. The rapid-prototyping facility includes real-time high-fidelity simulators, numeric and symbolic processors, and high-performance research aircraft modified to accept commands for a ground-based remotely augmented vehicle facility. The flight system configuration of the ATMS includes three computers: the TI explorer LX and two GOULD SEL 32/27s.

  16. Advanced aircraft service life monitoring method via flight-by-flight load spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hongchul

    This research is an effort to understand current method and to propose an advanced method for Damage Tolerance Analysis (DTA) for the purpose of monitoring the aircraft service life. As one of tasks in the DTA, the current indirect Individual Aircraft Tracking (IAT) method for the F-16C/D Block 32 does not properly represent changes in flight usage severity affecting structural fatigue life. Therefore, an advanced aircraft service life monitoring method based on flight-by-flight load spectra is proposed and recommended for IAT program to track consumed fatigue life as an alternative to the current method which is based on the crack severity index (CSI) value. Damage Tolerance is one of aircraft design philosophies to ensure that aging aircrafts satisfy structural reliability in terms of fatigue failures throughout their service periods. IAT program, one of the most important tasks of DTA, is able to track potential structural crack growth at critical areas in the major airframe structural components of individual aircraft. The F-16C/D aircraft is equipped with a flight data recorder to monitor flight usage and provide the data to support structural load analysis. However, limited memory of flight data recorder allows user to monitor individual aircraft fatigue usage in terms of only the vertical inertia (NzW) data for calculating Crack Severity Index (CSI) value which defines the relative maneuver severity. Current IAT method for the F-16C/D Block 32 based on CSI value calculated from NzW is shown to be not accurate enough to monitor individual aircraft fatigue usage due to several problems. The proposed advanced aircraft service life monitoring method based on flight-by-flight load spectra is recommended as an improved method for the F-16C/D Block 32 aircraft. Flight-by-flight load spectra was generated from downloaded Crash Survival Flight Data Recorder (CSFDR) data by calculating loads for each time hack in selected flight data utilizing loads equations. From

  17. DAST in Flight Showing Diverging Wingtip Oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Two BQM-34 Firebee II drones were modified with supercritical airfoils, called the Aeroelastic Research Wing (ARW), for the Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST) program, which ran from 1977 to 1983. In this view of DAST-1 (Serial # 72-1557), taken on June 12, 1980, severe wingtip flutter is visible. Moments later, the right wing failed catastrophically and the vehicle crashed near Cuddeback Dry Lake. Before the drone was lost, it had made two captive and two free flights. Its first free flight, on October 2, 1979, was cut short by an uplink receiver failure. The drone was caught in midair by an HH-3 helicopter. The second free flight, on March 12, 1980, was successful, ending in a midair recovery. The third free flight, made on June 12, was to expand the flutter envelope. All of these missions launched from the NASA B-52. From 1977 to 1983, the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, (under two different names) conducted the DAST Program as a high-risk flight experiment using a ground-controlled, pilotless aircraft. Described by NASA engineers as a 'wind tunnel in the sky,' the DAST was a specially modified Teledyne-Ryan BQM-34E/F Firebee II supersonic target drone that was flown to validate theoretical predictions under actual flight conditions in a joint project with the Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. The DAST Program merged advances in electronic remote control systems with advances in airplane design. Drones (remotely controlled, missile-like vehicles initially developed to serve as gunnery targets) had been deployed successfully during the Vietnamese conflict as reconnaissance aircraft. After the war, the energy crisis of the 1970s led NASA to seek new ways to cut fuel use and improve airplane efficiency. The DAST Program's drones provided an economical, fuel-conscious method for conducting in-flight experiments from a remote ground site. DAST explored the technology required to build wing structures with less than

  18. DAST Being Calibrated for Flight in Hangar

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    DAST-2, a modified BQM-34 Firebee II drone, undergoes calibration in a hangar at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. After the crash of the first DAST vehicle, project personnel fitted a second Firebee II (serial # 72-1558) with the rebuilt ARW-1 (ARW-1R) wing. The DAST-2 made a captive flight aboard the B-52 on October 29, 1982, followed by a free flight on November 3, 1982. During January and February of 1983, three launch attempts from the B-52 had to be aborted due to various problems. Following this, the project changed the launch aircraft to a DC-130A. Two captive flights occurred in May 1983. The first launch attempt from the DC-130 took place on June 1, 1983. The mothership released the DAST-2, but the recovery system immediately fired without being commanded. The parachute then disconnected from the vehicle, and the DAST-2 crashed into a farm field near Harper Dry Lake. Wags called this the 'Alfalfa Field Impact Test.' These are the image contact sheets for each image resolution of the NASA Dryden Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST) Photo Gallery. From 1977 to 1983, the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, (under two different names) conducted the DAST Program as a high-risk flight experiment using a ground-controlled, pilotless aircraft. Described by NASA engineers as a 'wind tunnel in the sky,' the DAST was a specially modified Teledyne-Ryan BQM-34E/F Firebee II supersonic target drone that was flown to validate theoretical predictions under actual flight conditions in a joint project with the Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. The DAST Program merged advances in electronic remote control systems with advances in airplane design. Drones (remotely controlled, missile-like vehicles initially developed to serve as gunnery targets) had been deployed successfully during the Vietnamese conflict as reconnaissance aircraft. After the war, the energy crisis of the 1970s led NASA to seek new ways to cut fuel use and

  19. 14 CFR 125.265 - Flight engineer requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight engineer requirements. 125.265... Requirements § 125.265 Flight engineer requirements. (a) No person may operate an airplane for which a flight engineer is required by the type certification requirements without a flight crewmember holding a current...

  20. 14 CFR 121.689 - Flight release form: Supplemental operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Company or organization name. (2) Make, model, and registration number of the aircraft being used. (3....g., IFR, VFR). (8) For each flight released as an ETOPS flight, the ETOPS diversion time for which the flight is released. (b) The aircraft flight release must contain, or have attached to it, weather...

  1. 14 CFR 135.100 - Flight crewmember duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight crewmember duties. 135.100 Section... REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 135.100 Flight crewmember duties. (a) No certificate holder shall require, nor may any flight...

  2. 14 CFR 23.1459 - Flight data recorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight data recorders. 23.1459 Section 23... Equipment § 23.1459 Flight data recorders. (a) Each flight recorder required by the operating rules of this... electrical power from the bus that provides the maximum reliability for operation of the flight data recorder...

  3. 14 CFR 125.75 - Airplane flight manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane flight manual. 125.75 Section 125... Airplane flight manual. (a) Each certificate holder shall keep a current approved Airplane Flight Manual or... approved Airplane Flight Manual or the approved equivalent aboard each airplane it operates. A certificate...

  4. 49 CFR 1544.237 - Flight deck privileges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flight deck privileges. 1544.237 Section 1544.237... COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Operations § 1544.237 Flight deck privileges. (a) For each aircraft that has a door to the flight deck, each aircraft operator must restrict access to the flight deck as provided in its...

  5. 14 CFR 121.542 - Flight crewmember duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight crewmember duties. 121.542 Section... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.542 Flight crewmember duties. (a) No certificate holder shall require, nor may any flight crewmember perform, any duties during a...

  6. 14 CFR 125.53 - Flight locating requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight locating requirements. 125.53... and Miscellaneous Requirements § 125.53 Flight locating requirements. (a) Each certificate holder must have procedures established for locating each flight for which an FAA flight plan is not filed that— (1...

  7. 14 CFR 91.1061 - Augmented flight crews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Augmented flight crews. 91.1061 Section 91...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Fractional Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1061 Augmented flight crews. (a) No program manager may assign any flight...

  8. 14 CFR 121.657 - Flight altitude rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight altitude rules. 121.657 Section 121... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules § 121.657 Flight... other flight conditions, the Administrator prescribes other minimums for any route or part of a route...

  9. 14 CFR 125.403 - Flight release form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight release form. 125.403 Section 125... Flight release form. (a) The flight release may be in any form but must contain at least the following information concerning each flight: (1) Company or organization name. (2) Make, model, and registration number...

  10. 14 CFR 121.385 - Composition of flight crew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Composition of flight crew. 121.385 Section... Composition of flight crew. (a) No certificate holder may operate an airplane with less than the minimum flight crew in the airworthiness certificate or the airplane Flight Manual approved for that type...

  11. 14 CFR 121.547 - Admission to flight deck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Admission to flight deck. 121.547 Section... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.547 Admission to flight deck. (a) No person may admit any person to the flight deck of an aircraft unless the person being admitted...

  12. 14 CFR 23.347 - Unsymmetrical flight conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unsymmetrical flight conditions. 23.347... Flight Loads § 23.347 Unsymmetrical flight conditions. (a) The airplane is assumed to be subjected to the unsymmetrical flight conditions of §§ 23.349 and 23.351. Unbalanced aerodynamic moments about the center of...

  13. 14 CFR 23.61 - Takeoff flight path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Takeoff flight path. 23.61 Section 23.61... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Performance § 23.61 Takeoff flight path. For each commuter category airplane, the takeoff flight path must be determined as follows...

  14. 38 CFR 21.134 - Limitation on flight training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limitation on flight.... Chapter 31 Educational and Vocational Training Services § 21.134 Limitation on flight training. Flight... that include required flight training. This type of training is otherwise subject to the same...

  15. 14 CFR 125.315 - Admission to flight deck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Admission to flight deck. 125.315 Section...,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 125.315 Admission to flight deck. (a) No person may admit any person to the flight deck of an airplane unless the...

  16. 14 CFR 23.331 - Symmetrical flight conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Symmetrical flight conditions. 23.331... Flight Loads § 23.331 Symmetrical flight conditions. (a) The appropriate balancing horizontal tail load... inertia loads corresponding to any of the symmetrical flight conditions specified in §§ 23.333 through 23...

  17. 14 CFR 125.351 - Flight release authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight release authority. 125.351 Section...,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Release Rules § 125.351 Flight release authority. (a) No person may start a flight without authority from the person authorized...

  18. 14 CFR 135.107 - Flight attendant crewmember requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight attendant crewmember requirement... Flight Operations § 135.107 Flight attendant crewmember requirement. No certificate holder may operate an... is a flight attendant crewmember on board the aircraft. ...

  19. 14 CFR 23.1335 - Flight director systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight director systems. 23.1335 Section 23...: Installation § 23.1335 Flight director systems. If a flight director system is installed, means must be provided to indicate to the flight crew its current mode of operation. Selector switch position is not...

  20. 14 CFR 121.543 - Flight crewmembers at controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight crewmembers at controls. 121.543... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.543 Flight crewmembers at controls. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, each required flight crewmember on...

  1. 14 CFR 23.1523 - Minimum flight crew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum flight crew. 23.1523 Section 23... Information § 23.1523 Minimum flight crew. The minimum flight crew must be established so that it is... commuter category airplanes, each crewmember workload determination must consider the following: (1) Flight...

  2. Thermal biology of flight in a butterfly: genotype, flight metabolism, and environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, Anniina L K

    2015-12-01

    Knowledge of the effects of thermal conditions on animal movement and dispersal is necessary for a mechanistic understanding of the consequences of climate change and habitat fragmentation. In particular, the flight of ectothermic insects such as small butterflies is greatly influenced by ambient temperature. Here, variation in body temperature during flight is investigated in an ecological model species, the Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia). Attention is paid on the effects of flight metabolism, genotypes at candidate loci, and environmental conditions. Measurements were made under a natural range of conditions using infrared thermal imaging. Heating of flight muscles by flight metabolism has been presumed to be negligible in small butterflies. However, the results demonstrate that Glanville fritillary males with high flight metabolic rate maintain elevated body temperature better during flight than males with a low rate of flight metabolism. This effect is likely to have a significant influence on the dispersal performance and fitness of butterflies and demonstrates the possible importance of intraspecific physiological variation on dispersal in other similar ectothermic insects. The results also suggest that individuals having an advantage in low ambient temperatures can be susceptible to overheating at high temperatures. Further, tolerance of high temperatures may be important for flight performance, as indicated by an association of heat-shock protein (Hsp70) genotype with flight metabolic rate and body temperature at takeoff. The dynamics of body temperature at flight and factors affecting it also differed significantly between female and male butterflies, indicating that thermal dynamics are governed by different mechanisms in the two sexes. This study contributes to knowledge about factors affecting intraspecific variation in dispersal-related thermal performance in butterflies and other insects. Such information is needed for predictive

  3. 14 CFR 141.41 - Flight simulators, flight training devices, and training aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., and training aids. 141.41 Section 141.41 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... aids. An applicant for a pilot school certificate or a provisional pilot school certificate must show that its flight simulators, flight training devices, training aids, and equipment meet the following...

  4. Regulation of substrate utilization in the flight muscle of the locust, Locusta migratoria, during flight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worm, R.A.A.; Beenakkers, A.M.Th.

    1980-01-01

    The concentrations of metabolites involved in carbohydrate metabolizing pathways, of amino acids and adenine nucleotides in the flight muscles of Locusta migratoria were determined during a fligt of 2 hr. During the first 15 min of flight, glycogen and glucose concentrations decreased to reach

  5. An Overview of Flight Test Results for a Formation Flight Autopilot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Curtis E.; Ryan, Jack; Allen, Michael J.; Jacobson, Steven R.

    2002-01-01

    The first flight test phase of the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center Autonomous Formation Flight project has successfully demonstrated precision autonomous station-keeping of an F/A-18 research airplane with a second F/A-18 airplane. Blended inertial navigation system (INS) and global positioning system (GPS) measurements have been communicated across an air-to-air telemetry link and used to compute relative-position estimates. A precision research formation autopilot onboard the trailing airplane controls lateral and vertical spacing while the leading airplane operates under production autopilot control. Four research autopilot gain sets have been designed and flight-tested, and each exceeds the project design requirement of steady-state tracking accuracy within 1 standard deviation of 10 ft. Performance also has been demonstrated using single- and multiple-axis inputs such as step commands and frequency sweeps. This report briefly describes the experimental formation flight systems employed and discusses the navigation, guidance, and control algorithms that have been flight-tested. An overview of the flight test results of the formation autopilot during steady-state tracking and maneuvering flight is presented.

  6. The relationship of certified flight instructors' emotional intelligence levels on flight student advancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokeness, Mark Merrill

    Aviation researchers estimate airline companies will require nearly 500,000 pilots in the next 20 years. The role of a Certified Flight Instructor (CFI) is to move student pilots to professional pilots with training typically conducted in one-on-one student and instructor sessions. The knowledge of aviation, professionalism as a teacher, and the CFI’s interpersonal skills can directly affect the successes and advancement of a student pilot. A new and emerging assessment of people skills is known as emotional intelligence (EI). The EI of the CFI can and will affect a flight students’ learning experiences. With knowledge of emotional intelligence and its effect on flight training, student pilot dropouts from aviation may be reduced, thus helping to ensure an adequate supply of pilots. Without pilots, the growth of the commercial aviation industry will be restricted. This mixed method research study established the correlation between a CFI’s measured EI levels and the advancement of flight students. The elements contributing to a CFI’s EI level were not found to be teaching or flight-related experiences, suggesting other life factors are drawn upon by the CFI and are reflected in their emotional intelligence levels presented to flight students. Students respond positively to CFIs with higher levels of emotional intelligence. Awareness of EI skills by both the CFI and flight student contribute to flight student successes and advancement.

  7. A predictive model of flight crew performance in automated air traffic control and flight management operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Prepared ca. 1995. This paper describes Air-MIDAS, a model of pilot performance in interaction with varied levels of automation in flight management operations. The model was used to predict the performance of a two person flight crew responding to c...

  8. Free flight wind tunnel tests for parameter identification

    OpenAIRE

    Nowack, Jan; Alles, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    The Chair of Flight Dynamics at the RWTH Aachen University is conducting research on a method for identification of flight mechanical characteristics on free flying models in a wind tunnel. The main goal is to create a eproducible free flight environment for cost effective identification of important values even in an early design stage. The method will combine the advantages of free flight with wind tunnel techniques as it takes the free flight into a reproducible environment under laborator...

  9. Spatial orientation during locomation following space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasauer, S.; Amorim, M. A.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Reschke, M. F.; Peters, B. T.; Smith, S. L.; Berthoz, A.

    To investigate changes in spatial orientation ability and walking performance following space flight, 7 astronaut subjects were asked pre- and post-flight to perform a goal directed locomotion paradigm which consisted of walking a triangular path with and without vision. This new paradigm, involving inputs from different sensory systems, allows quantification of several critical parameters, like orientation performance, walking velocities and postural stability, in a natural walking task. The paper presented here mainly focusses on spatial orientation performance quantified by the errors in walking the previously seen path without vision. Errors in length and reaching the corners did not change significantly from pre- to post-flight, while absolute angular errors slightly increased post-flight. The significant decrease in walking velocity and a change in head-trunk coordination while walking around the corners of the path observed post-flight may suggest that during re-adaptation to gravity the mechanisms which are necessary to perform the task have to be re-accomplished.

  10. Automated Flight Routing Using Stochastic Dynamic Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Hok K.; Morando, Alex; Grabbe, Shon

    2010-01-01

    Airspace capacity reduction due to convective weather impedes air traffic flows and causes traffic congestion. This study presents an algorithm that reroutes flights in the presence of winds, enroute convective weather, and congested airspace based on stochastic dynamic programming. A stochastic disturbance model incorporates into the reroute design process the capacity uncertainty. A trajectory-based airspace demand model is employed for calculating current and future airspace demand. The optimal routes minimize the total expected traveling time, weather incursion, and induced congestion costs. They are compared to weather-avoidance routes calculated using deterministic dynamic programming. The stochastic reroutes have smaller deviation probability than the deterministic counterpart when both reroutes have similar total flight distance. The stochastic rerouting algorithm takes into account all convective weather fields with all severity levels while the deterministic algorithm only accounts for convective weather systems exceeding a specified level of severity. When the stochastic reroutes are compared to the actual flight routes, they have similar total flight time, and both have about 1% of travel time crossing congested enroute sectors on average. The actual flight routes induce slightly less traffic congestion than the stochastic reroutes but intercept more severe convective weather.

  11. Aircraft digital flight control technical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Otha B.; Leggett, David B.

    1993-01-01

    The Aircraft Digital Flight Control Technical Review was initiated by two pilot induced oscillation (PIO) incidents in the spring and summer of 1992. Maj. Gen. Franklin (PEO) wondered why the Air Force development process for digital flight control systems was not preventing PIO problems. Consequently, a technical review team was formed to examine the development process and determine why PIO problems continued to occur. The team was also to identify the 'best practices' used in the various programs. The charter of the team was to focus on the PIO problem, assess the current development process, and document the 'best practices.' The team reviewed all major USAF aircraft programs with digital flight controls, specifically, the F-15E, F-16C/D, F-22, F-111, C-17, and B-2. The team interviewed contractor, System Program Office (SPO), and Combined Test Force (CTF) personnel on these programs. The team also went to NAS Patuxent River to interview USN personnel about the F/A-18 program. The team also reviewed experimental USAF and NASA systems with digital flight control systems: X-29, X-31, F-15 STOL and Maneuver Technology Demonstrator (SMTD), and the Variable In-Flight Stability Test Aircraft (VISTA). The team also discussed the problem with other experts in the field including Ralph Smith and personnel from Calspan. The major conclusions and recommendations from the review are presented.

  12. I-FORCAST: Rapid Flight Planning Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oaida, Bogdan; Khan, Mohammed; Mercury, Michael B.

    2012-01-01

    I-FORCAST (Instrument - Field of Regard Coverage Analysis and Simulation Tool) is a flight planning tool specifically designed for quickly verifying the feasibility and estimating the cost of airborne remote sensing campaigns (see figure). Flights are simulated by being broken into three predefined routing algorithms as necessary: mapping in a snaking pattern, mapping the area around a point target (like a volcano) with a star pattern, and mapping the area between a list of points. The tool has been used to plan missions for radar, lidar, and in-situ atmospheric measuring instruments for a variety of aircraft. It has also been used for global and regional scale campaigns and automatically includes landings when refueling is required. The software has been compared to the flight times of known commercial aircraft route travel times, as well as a UAVSAR (Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar) campaign, and was within 15% of the actual flight time. Most of the discrepancy is due to non-optimal flight paths taken by actual aircraft to avoid restricted airspace and used to follow landing and take-off corridors.

  13. Soviet space flight: the human element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garshnek, V

    1989-07-01

    Building on past experience and knowledge, the Soviet manned space flight effort has become broad, comprehensive, and forward-looking. Their long-running space station program has provided the capabilities to investigate long-term effects of microgravity on human physiology and behavior, and test various countermeasures against microgravity-induced physiological deconditioning. Since the beginning of Soviet manned space flight, the biomedical training and preparation of cosmonauts has evolved from a process that increased human tolerance to space flight factors, to a system of interrelated measures to prepare cosmonauts physically and psychologically to live and work in space. Currently, the Soviet Union is constructing a multimodular space station, the Mir. With the emergence of dedicated laboratory modules, the Soviets have begun the transition from small-scale experimental research to large-scale production activities and specialized scientific work in space. In the future, additional laboratory modules will be added, including one dedicated to biomedical research, called the "Medilab." The longest manned space flight to date (326 d) has been completed by the Soviets. The biomedical effects of previous long-duration flights, and perhaps those of still greater length, may contribute important insight into the possibility of extended missions beyond Earth, such as a voyage to Mars.

  14. Computational Aerodynamics of Insects' Flapping Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kyung Dong; Kyung, Richard

    2011-11-01

    The kinematics of the Insects' flapping flight is modeled through mathematical and computational observations with commercial software. Recently, study on the insects' flapping flight became one of the challenging research subjects in the field of aeronautics because of its potential applicability to intelligent micro-robots capable of autonomous flight and the next generation aerial-vehicles. In order to uncover its curious unsteady characteristics, many researchers have conducted experimental and computational studies on the unsteady aerodynamics of insects' flapping flight. In the present paper, the unsteady flow physics around insect wings is carried out by utilizing computer software e-AIRS. The e-AIRS (e-Science Aerospace Integrated Research System) analyzes and models the results of computational and experimental aerodynamics, along with integrated research process of these two research activities. Stroke angles and phase angles, the important two factors in producing lift of the airfoils are set as main parameters to determine aerodynamic characteristics of the insects' flapping flight. As a result, the optimal phase angle to minimize the drag and to maximize the lift are found. Various simulations indicate that using proper value of variables produce greater thrust due to an optimal angle of attack at the initial position during down stroke motion.

  15. Software for Managing Inventory of Flight Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, John; Savage, Scott; Thomas, Shirman

    2003-01-01

    The Flight Hardware Support Request System (FHSRS) is a computer program that relieves engineers at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) of most of the non-engineering administrative burden of managing an inventory of flight hardware. The FHSRS can also be adapted to perform similar functions for other organizations. The FHSRS affords a combination of capabilities, including those formerly provided by three separate programs in purchasing, inventorying, and inspecting hardware. The FHSRS provides a Web-based interface with a server computer that supports a relational database of inventory; electronic routing of requests and approvals; and electronic documentation from initial request through implementation of quality criteria, acquisition, receipt, inspection, storage, and final issue of flight materials and components. The database lists both hardware acquired for current projects and residual hardware from previous projects. The increased visibility of residual flight components provided by the FHSRS has dramatically improved the re-utilization of materials in lieu of new procurements, resulting in a cost savings of over $1.7 million. The FHSRS includes subprograms for manipulating the data in the database, informing of the status of a request or an item of hardware, and searching the database on any physical or other technical characteristic of a component or material. The software structure forces normalization of the data to facilitate inquiries and searches for which users have entered mixed or inconsistent values.

  16. Flight Technical Error Analysis of the SATS Higher Volume Operations Simulation and Flight Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Daniel M.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Murdoch, Jennifer L.; Adams, Catherine H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of Flight Technical Error (FTE) from recent SATS experiments, called the Higher Volume Operations (HVO) Simulation and Flight experiments, which NASA conducted to determine pilot acceptability of the HVO concept for normal operating conditions. Reported are FTE results from simulation and flight experiment data indicating the SATS HVO concept is viable and acceptable to low-time instrument rated pilots when compared with today s system (baseline). Described is the comparative FTE analysis of lateral, vertical, and airspeed deviations from the baseline and SATS HVO experimental flight procedures. Based on FTE analysis, all evaluation subjects, low-time instrument-rated pilots, flew the HVO procedures safely and proficiently in comparison to today s system. In all cases, the results of the flight experiment validated the results of the simulation experiment and confirm the utility of the simulation platform for comparative Human in the Loop (HITL) studies of SATS HVO and Baseline operations.

  17. A Flight Dynamics Perspective of the Orion Pad Abort One Flight Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idicula, Jinu; Williams-Hayes, Peggy S.; Stillwater, Ryan; Yates, Max

    2009-01-01

    The Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle is America s next generation of human rated spacecraft. The Orion Launch Abort System will take the astronauts away from the exploration vehicle in the event of an aborted launch. The pad abort mode of the Launch Abort System will be flight-tested in 2009 from the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. This paper examines some of the efforts currently underway at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center by the Controls & Dynamics group in preparation for the flight test. The concept of operation for the pad abort flight is presented along with an overview of the guidance, control and navigation systems. Preparations for the flight test, such as hardware testing and development of the real-time displays, are examined. The results from the validation and verification efforts for the aerodynamic and atmospheric models are shown along with Monte Carlo analysis results.

  18. Integrating Space Flight Resource Management Skills into Technical Lessons for International Space Station Flight Controller Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Evelyn

    2008-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center s (JSC) International Space Station (ISS) Space Flight Resource Management (SFRM) training program is designed to teach the team skills required to be an effective flight controller. It was adapted from the SFRM training given to Shuttle flight controllers to fit the needs of a "24 hours a day/365 days a year" flight controller. More recently, the length reduction of technical training flows for ISS flight controllers impacted the number of opportunities for fully integrated team scenario based training, where most SFRM training occurred. Thus, the ISS SFRM training program is evolving yet again, using a new approach of teaching and evaluating SFRM alongside of technical materials. Because there are very few models in other industries that have successfully tied team and technical skills together, challenges are arising. Despite this, the Mission Operations Directorate of NASA s JSC is committed to implementing this integrated training approach because of the anticipated benefits.

  19. A Review of Wind Tunnel Based Virtual Flight Testing Techniques for Evaluation of Flight Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind tunnel based Virtual Flight Testing (VFT is a dynamic wind tunnel test for evaluating flight control systems (FCS proposed in recent decades. It integrates aerodynamics, flight dynamics, and FCS as a whole and is a more realistic and reliable method for FCS evaluation than traditional ground evaluation methods, such as Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation (HILS. With FCS evaluated by VFT before flight test, the risk of flight test will be further reduced. In this paper, the background, progress, and prospects of VFT are systematically summarized. Specifically, the differences among VFT, traditional dynamic wind tunnel methods, and traditional FCS evaluation methods are introduced in order to address the advantages of evaluating FCS with VFT. Secondly, the progress of VFT is reviewed in detail. Then, the test system and key technologies of VFT for FCS evaluation are analyzed. Lastly, the prospects of VFT for evaluating FCS are described.

  20. Flight performance using a hyperstereo helmet-mounted display: post-flight debriefing questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalich, Melvyn E.; Rash, Clarence E.; Harding, Thomas H.; Jennings, Sion; Craig, Gregory; Stuart, Geoffrey W.

    2009-05-01

    Helmet-mounted display (HMD) designs have faced persistent head-supported mass and center of mass (CM) problems, especially HMD designs like night vision goggles (NVG) that utilize image intensification (I2) sensors mounted forward in front of the user's eyes. Relocating I2 sensors from the front to the sides of the helmet, at or below the transverse plane through the user's head CM, can resolve most of the CM problems. However, the resulting increase in the separation between the two I2 channels effectively increases the user's interpupillary distance (IPD). This HMD design is referred to as a hyperstero design and introduces the phenomenon of hyperstereopsis, a type of visual distortion where stereoscopic depth perception is exaggerated, particularly at distances under 200 feet (~60 meters). The presence of hyperstereopsis has been a concern regarding implementation of hyperstereo HMDs for rotary-wing aircraft. To address this concern, a flight study was conducted to assess the impact of hyperstereopsis on aircraft handling proficiency and pilot acceptance. Three rated aviators with differing levels of I2 and hyperstereo HMD experience conducted a series of flights that concentrated on low-level maneuvers over a two-week period. Initial and final flights were flown with a standard issue I2 device and a production hyperstereo design HMD. Interim flights were flown only with the hyperstereo HMD. Two aviators accumulated 8 hours of flight time with the hyperstereo HMD, while the third accumulated 6.9 hours. This paper presents data collected via written questionnaires completed by the aviators during the post-flight debriefings. These data are compared to questionnaire data from a previous flight investigation in which aviators in a copilot capacity, hands not on the flight controls, accumulated 8 flight hours of flight time using a hyperstereo HMD.

  1. Flight demonstration of flight termination system and solid rocket motor ignition using semiconductor laser initiated ordnance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Norman R.; Maxfield, B.; Boucher, C.

    1995-01-01

    Solid State Laser Initiated Ordnance (LIO) offers new technology having potential for enhanced safety, reduced costs, and improved operational efficiency. Concerns over the absence of programmatic applications of the technology, which has prevented acceptance by flight programs, should be abated since LIO has now been operationally implemented by the Laser Initiated Ordnance Sounding Rocket Demonstration (LOSRD) Program. The first launch of solid state laser diode LIO at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) occurred on March 15, 1995 with all mission objectives accomplished. This project, Phase 3 of a series of three NASA Headquarters LIO demonstration initiatives, accomplished its objective by the flight of a dedicated, all-LIO sounding rocket mission using a two-stage Nike-Orion launch vehicle. LIO flight hardware, made by The Ensign-Bickford Company under NASA's first Cooperative Agreement with Profit Making Organizations, safely initiated three demanding pyrotechnic sequence events, namely, solid rocket motor ignition from the ground and in flight, and flight termination, i.e., as a Flight Termination System (FTS). A flight LIO system was designed, built, tested, and flown to support the objectives of quickly and inexpensively putting LIO through ground and flight operational paces. The hardware was fully qualified for this mission, including component testing as well as a full-scale system test. The launch accomplished all mission objectives in less than 11 months from proposal receipt. This paper concentrates on accomplishments of the ordnance aspects of the program and on the program's implementation and results. While this program does not generically qualify LIO for all applications, it demonstrated the safety, technical, and operational feasibility of those two most demanding applications, using an all solid state safe and arm system in critical flight applications.

  2. Flight Capacity of the Walnut Twig Beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) on a Laboratory Flight Mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kees, Aubree M; Hefty, Andrea R; Venette, Robert C; Seybold, Steven J; Aukema, Brian H

    2017-06-01

    The walnut twig beetle, Pityophthorus juglandis Blackman, and associated fungus Geosmithia morbida Kolařík, Freeland, Utley, & Tisserat constitute the insect-fungal complex that causes thousand cankers disease in walnut, Juglans spp., and wingnut, Pterocarya spp. Thousand cankers disease is responsible for the decline of Juglans species throughout the western United States and more recently, the eastern United States and northern Italy. We examined the flight capacity of P. juglandis over 24-h trials on a flight mill in the laboratory. The maximum total flight distance observed was ∼3.6 km in 24 h; however, the mean and median distances flown by beetles that initiated flight were ∼372 m and ∼158 m, respectively. Beetles flew for 34 min on average within a 24-h flight trial. Male and female flight capacities were similar, even though males were larger than females (0.64 vs. 0.57 mm pronotal width). Age postemergence had no effect on flight distance, flight time, or mean flight velocity. The propensity to fly, however, decreased with age. We integrated results of flight distance with propensity to fly as beetles aged in a Monte Carlo simulation to estimate the maximum dispersal capacity over 5 d, assuming no mortality. Only 1% of the insects would be expected to fly >2 km, whereas one-third of the insects were estimated to fly <100 m. These results suggest that nascent establishments remain relatively localized without anthropogenic transport or wind-aided dispersal, which has implications for management and sampling of this hardwood pest. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  3. Inquir into concepts of flight simulation fidelity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Zhi-Gang [China Flight Test Establishment, Xian (China)

    1994-12-31

    In this paper, the author points that just considering the accuracy of aerodynamic characteristics is not enough to define flight simulation fidelity. According to his experience, the definition of fidelity ought to be based on the analysis of pilot-aircraft controlling loop. Both the controlling loops in real flight and in simulation are introduced here. Comparing the two loops, it is find that a certain degree of infidelity is unavoidable for an aircraft simulator, so that some compromises have to be made between the need and possibility. Some definitions of fidelity, Open Loop fidelity and Close Loop fidelity, White Box fidelity and Black Box fidelity, Original fidelity and Final fidelity, and the approaches of verifying and improving flight simulation fidelity are also described.

  4. Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch 2005 Technical Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This report summarizes the major activities and accomplishments carried out by the Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch (FDAB), Code 595, in support of flight projects and technology development initiatives in Fiscal Year (FY) 2005. The report is intended to serve as a summary of the type of support carried out by the FDAB, as well as a concise reference of key accomplishments and mission experience derived from the various mission support roles. The primary focus of the FDAB is to provide expertise in the disciplines of flight dynamics including spacecraft navigation (autonomous and ground based); spacecraft trajectory design and maneuver planning; attitude analysis; attitude determination and sensor calibration; and attitude control subsystem (ACS) analysis and design. The FDAB currently provides support for missions and technology development projects involving NASA, other government agencies, academia, and private industry.

  5. Compound control methodology for flight vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Xia, Yuanqing

    2013-01-01

    “Compound Control Methodology for Flight Vehicles” focuses on new control methods for flight vehicles. In this monograph the concept of compound control is introduced. It is demonstrated that both Sliding Mode Control (SMC) and Active Disturbance Rejection Control (ADRC) have their own advantages and limitations, i.e., chattering of SMC and the observability of extended state observer (ESO), respectively. It is shown that compound control combines their advantages and improves the performance of the closed-loop systems. The book is self-contained, providing sufficient mathematical foundations for understanding the contents of each chapter. It will be of significant interest to scientists and engineers engaged in the field of flight vehicle control.

  6. Flight control electronics reliability/maintenance study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade, W. W.; Edwards, R. H.; Katt, G. T.; Mcclellan, K. L.; Shomber, H. A.

    1977-01-01

    Collection and analysis of data are reported that concern the reliability and maintenance experience of flight control system electronics currently in use on passenger carrying jet aircraft. Two airlines B-747 airplane fleets were analyzed to assess the component reliability, system functional reliability, and achieved availability of the CAT II configuration flight control system. Also assessed were the costs generated by this system in the categories of spare equipment, schedule irregularity, and line and shop maintenance. The results indicate that although there is a marked difference in the geographic location and route pattern between the airlines studied, there is a close similarity in the reliability and the maintenance costs associated with the flight control electronics.

  7. Somatosensory Substrates of Flight Control in Bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara L. Marshall

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Flight maneuvers require rapid sensory integration to generate adaptive motor output. Bats achieve remarkable agility with modified forelimbs that serve as airfoils while retaining capacity for object manipulation. Wing sensory inputs provide behaviorally relevant information to guide flight; however, components of wing sensory-motor circuits have not been analyzed. Here, we elucidate the organization of wing innervation in an insectivore, the big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus. We demonstrate that wing sensory innervation differs from other vertebrate forelimbs, revealing a peripheral basis for the atypical topographic organization reported for bat somatosensory nuclei. Furthermore, the wing is innervated by an unusual complement of sensory neurons poised to report airflow and touch. Finally, we report that cortical neurons encode tactile and airflow inputs with sparse activity patterns. Together, our findings identify neural substrates of somatosensation in the bat wing and imply that evolutionary pressures giving rise to mammalian flight led to unusual sensorimotor projections.

  8. The Flight of Birds and Other Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin J. Pennycuick

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Methods of observing birds in flight now include training them to fly under known conditions in wind tunnels, and fitting free-flying birds with data loggers, that are either retrieved or read remotely via satellite links. The performance that comes to light depends on the known limitations of the materials from which they are made, and the conditions in which the birds live. Bird glide polars can be obtained by training birds to glide in a tilting wind tunnel. Translating these curves to power required from the flight muscles in level flight requires drag coefficients to be measured, which unfortunately does not work with bird bodies, because the flow is always fully detached. The drag of bodies in level flight can be determined by observing wingbeat frequency, and shows CD values around 0.08 in small birds, down to 0.06 in small waders specialised for efficient migration. Lift coefficients are up to 1.6 in gliding, or 1.8 for short, temporary glides. In-flight measurements can be used to calculate power curves for birds in level flight, and this has been applied to migrating geese in detail. These typically achieve lift:drag ratios around 15, including allowances for stops, as against 19 for continuous powered flight. The same calculations, applied to Pacific Black-tailed Godwits which start with fat fractions up to 0.55 at departure, show that such birds not only cross the Pacific to New Zealand, but have enough fuel in hand to reach the South Pole if that were necessary. This performance depends on the “dual fuel” arrangements of these migrants, whereby they use fat as their main fuel, and supplement this by extra fuel from burning the engine (flight muscles, as less power is needed later in the flight. The accuracy of these power curves has never been checked, although provision for stopping the bird, and making these checks at regular intervals during a simulated flight was built into the original design of the Lund wind tunnel. The

  9. The FLP microsatellite platform flight operations manual

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book represents the Flight Operations Manual for a reusable microsatellite platform – the “Future Low-cost Platform” (FLP), developed at the University of Stuttgart, Germany. It provides a basic insight on the onboard software functions, the core data handling system and on the power, communications, attitude control and thermal subsystem of the platform. Onboard failure detection, isolation and recovery functions are treated in detail. The platform is suited for satellites in the 50-150 kg class and is baseline of the microsatellite “Flying Laptop” from the University. The book covers the essential information for ground operators to controls an FLP-based satellite applying international command and control standards (CCSDS and ECSS PUS). Furthermore it provides an overview on the Flight Control Center in Stuttgart and on the link to the German Space Agency DLR Ground Station which is used for early mission phases. Flight procedure and mission planning chapters complement the book. .

  10. HUMAN SPACE FLIGHTS: FACTS AND DREAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Bizzarri

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Manned space flight has been the great human and technological adventure of the past half-century. By putting people into places and situations unprecedented in history, it has stirred the imagination while expanding and redefining the human experience. However, space exploration obliges men to confront a hostile environment of cosmic radiation, microgravity, isolation and changes in the magnetic field. Any space traveler is therefore submitted to relevant health threats. In the twenty-first century, human space flight will continue, but it will change in the ways that science and technology have changed on Earth: it will become more networked, more global, and more oriented toward primary objectives. A new international human space flight policy can help achieve these objectives by clarifying the rationales, the ethics of acceptable risk, the role of remote presence, and the need for balance between funding and ambition to justify the risk of human lives.

  11. Speech Recognition Interfaces Improve Flight Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    "Alpha, Golf, November, Echo, Zulu." "Sierra, Alpha, Golf, Echo, Sierra." "Lima, Hotel, Yankee." It looks like some strange word game, but the combinations of words above actually communicate the first three points of a flight plan from Albany, New York to Florence, South Carolina. Spoken by air traffic controllers and pilots, the aviation industry s standard International Civil Aviation Organization phonetic alphabet uses words to represent letters. The first letter of each word in the series is combined to spell waypoints, or reference points, used in flight navigation. The first waypoint above is AGNEZ (alpha for A, golf for G, etc.). The second is SAGES, and the third is LHY. For pilots of general aviation aircraft, the traditional method of entering the letters of each waypoint into a GPS device is a time-consuming process. For each of the 16 waypoints required for the complete flight plan from Albany to Florence, the pilot uses a knob to scroll through each letter of the alphabet. It takes approximately 5 minutes of the pilot s focused attention to complete this particular plan. Entering such a long flight plan into a GPS can pose a safety hazard because it can take the pilot s attention from other critical tasks like scanning gauges or avoiding other aircraft. For more than five decades, NASA has supported research and development in aviation safety, including through its Vehicle Systems Safety Technology (VSST) program, which works to advance safer and more capable flight decks (cockpits) in aircraft. Randy Bailey, a lead aerospace engineer in the VSST program at Langley Research Center, says the technology in cockpits is directly related to flight safety. For example, "GPS navigation systems are wonderful as far as improving a pilot s ability to navigate, but if you can find ways to reduce the draw of the pilot s attention into the cockpit while using the GPS, it could potentially improve safety," he says.

  12. Flight performance of the largest volant bird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksepka, Daniel T.

    2014-07-01

    Pelagornithidae is an extinct clade of birds characterized by bizarre tooth-like bony projections of the jaws. Here, the flight capabilities of pelagornithids are explored based on data from a species with the largest reported wingspan among birds. Pelagornis sandersi sp. nov. is represented by a skull and substantial postcranial material. Conservative wingspan estimates (∼6.4 m) exceed theoretical maximums based on extant soaring birds. Modeled flight properties indicate that lift:drag ratios and glide ratios for P. sandersi were near the upper limit observed in extant birds and suggest that pelagornithids were highly efficient gliders, exploiting a long-range soaring ecology.

  13. Development Of Maneuvering Autopilot For Flight Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, P. K. A.; Walker, R. A.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes recent efforts to develop automatic control system operating under supervision of pilot and making airplane follow prescribed trajectories during flight tests. Report represents additional progress on this project. Gives background information on technology of control of test-flight trajectories; presents mathematical models of airframe, engine and command-augmentation system; focuses on mathematical modeling of maneuvers; addresses design of autopilots for maneuvers; discusses numerical simulation and evaluation of results of simulation of eight maneuvers under control of simulated autopilot; and presents summary and discussion of future work.

  14. Space flight nutrition research: platforms and analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Uchakin, Peter N.; Tobin, Brian W.

    2002-01-01

    Conducting research during actual or simulated weightlessness is a challenging endeavor, where even the simplest activities may present significant challenges. This article reviews some of the potential obstacles associated with performing research during space flight and offers brief descriptions of current and previous space research platforms and ground-based analogs, including those for human, animal, and cell-based research. This review is intended to highlight the main issues of space flight research analogs and leave the specifics for each physiologic system for the other papers in this section.

  15. Development of a flight software testing methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccluskey, E. J.; Andrews, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    The research to develop a testing methodology for flight software is described. An experiment was conducted in using assertions to dynamically test digital flight control software. The experiment showed that 87% of typical errors introduced into the program would be detected by assertions. Detailed analysis of the test data showed that the number of assertions needed to detect those errors could be reduced to a minimal set. The analysis also revealed that the most effective assertions tested program parameters that provided greater indirect (collateral) testing of other parameters. In addition, a prototype watchdog task system was built to evaluate the effectiveness of executing assertions in parallel by using the multitasking features of Ada.

  16. ALICE Time of Flight Readout - AFRO

    CERN Document Server

    Kluge, A; CERN. Geneva

    2000-01-01

    Abstract This document describes the design of the ALICE Time of Flight readout system architecture. The requirements of the system are discussed. The architecture which copes with the requirements of the system is described. Further work and research projects concerning the readout are anticipated. In order to describe the system and also the environment, namely the chamber cells and the analog and digital front-end electronics, are described. These parts have been developed by the entire Time of Flight (TOF) collaboration. Further simulations, measurements and prototypes will reveal new results. After that the design has to be adapted accordingly.

  17. Propulsion systems for vertical flight aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, A.

    1990-01-01

    The present evaluation of VTOL airframe/powerplant integration configurations combining high forward flight speed with safe and efficient vertical flight identifies six configurations that can be matched with one of three powerplant types: turboshafts, convertible-driveshaft lift fans, and gas-drive lift fans. The airframes configurations are (1) tilt-rotor, (2) folded tilt-rotor, (3) tilt-wing, (4) rotor wing/disk wing, (5) lift fan, and (6) variable-diameter rotor. Attention is given to the lift-fan VTOL configuration. The evaluation of these configurations has been conducted by both a joint NASA/DARPA program and the NASA High Speed Rotorcraft program. 7 refs.

  18. New drag laws for flapping flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agre, Natalie; Zhang, Jun; Ristroph, Leif

    2014-11-01

    Classical aerodynamic theory predicts that a steadily-moving wing experiences fluid forces proportional to the square of its speed. For bird and insect flight, however, there is currently no model for how drag is affected by flapping motions of the wings. By considering simple wings driven to oscillate while progressing through the air, we discover that flapping significantly changes the magnitude of drag and fundamentally alters its scaling with speed. These measurements motivate a new aerodynamic force law that could help to understand the free-flight dynamics, control, and stability of insects and flapping-wing robots.

  19. Acquisition of a Biomedical Database of Acute Responses to Space Flight during Commercial Personal Suborbital Flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, John B.; Richard, Elizabeth E.

    2010-01-01

    There is currently too little reproducible data for a scientifically valid understanding of the initial responses of a diverse human population to weightlessness and other space flight factors. Astronauts on orbital space flights to date have been extremely healthy and fit, unlike the general human population. Data collection opportunities during the earliest phases of space flights to date, when the most dynamic responses may occur in response to abrupt transitions in acceleration loads, have been limited by operational restrictions on our ability to encumber the astronauts with even minimal monitoring instrumentation. The era of commercial personal suborbital space flights promises the availability of a large (perhaps hundreds per year), diverse population of potential participants with a vested interest in their own responses to space flight factors, and a number of flight providers interested in documenting and demonstrating the attractiveness and safety of the experience they are offering. Voluntary participation by even a fraction of the flying population in a uniform set of unobtrusive biomedical data collections would provide a database enabling statistical analyses of a variety of acute responses to a standardized space flight environment. This will benefit both the space life sciences discipline and the general state of human knowledge.

  20. Onset of Oviposition Triggers Abrupt Reduction in Migratory Flight Behavior and Flight Muscle in the Female Beet Webworm, Loxostege sticticalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunxia Cheng

    Full Text Available Flight and reproduction are usually considered as two life history traits that compete for resources in a migratory insect. The beet webworm, Loxostege sticticalis L., manages the costs of migratory flight and reproduction through a trade-off in timing of these two life history traits, where migratory behavior occurs during the preoviposition period. To gain insight into how migratory flight and reproduction are coordinated in the female beet webworm, we conducted experiments beginning at the end of the preoviposition period. We used flight mills to test whether flight performance and supportive flight musculature and fuel are affected by the number of eggs oviposited, or by the age of mated and unmated females after onset of oviposition by the former. The results showed that flight distance, flight velocity, flight duration, and flight muscle mass decreased abruptly at the onset of oviposition, compared to that of virgin females of the same age which did not change over the next 7 d. These results indicate that onset of oviposition triggers a decrease in flight performance and capacity in female beet webworms, as a way of actively managing reallocation of resources away from migratory flight and into egg production. In addition to the abrupt switch, there was a gradual, linear decline in flight performance, flight muscle mass, and flight fuel relative to the number of eggs oviposited. The histolysis of flight muscle and decrease of triglyceride content indicate a progressive degradation in the ability of adults to perform additional migratory flights after onset of oviposition. Although the results show that substantial, albeit reduced, long-duration flights remain possible after oviposition begins, additional long-distance migratory flights probably are not launched after the initiation of oviposition.

  1. Cassini Attitude Control Flight Software: from Development to In-Flight Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jay

    2008-01-01

    The Cassini Attitude and Articulation Control Subsystem (AACS) Flight Software (FSW) has achieved its intended design goals by successfully guiding and controlling the Cassini-Huygens planetary mission to Saturn and its moons. This paper describes an overview of AACS FSW details from early design, development, implementation, and test to its fruition of operating and maintaining spacecraft control over an eleven year prime mission. Starting from phases of FSW development, topics expand to FSW development methodology, achievements utilizing in-flight autonomy, and summarize lessons learned during flight operations which can be useful to FSW in current and future spacecraft missions.

  2. Current and Future Flight Operating Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cudmore, Alan

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the current real time operating system (RTOS) type in use with current flight systems. A new RTOS model is described, i.e. the process model. Included is a review of the challenges of migrating from the classic RTOS to the Process Model type.

  3. Feeding, flight and dispersal in thrips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevor Lewis

    1991-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to amplify some of the general points made in my introductory paper on the order Thysanoptera (Lewis 1990, this proceedings), with particular reference to feeding, flight and dispersal. These aspects of thrips behaviour are clearly of great relevance to the spread and effects of infestations of Taeniothrips inconsequens in...

  4. Vision Research for Flight Simulation. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Whitman, Ed.; Dismukes, Key, Ed.

    Based on a workshop on vision research issues in flight-training simulators held in June 1980, this report focuses on approaches for the conduct of research on what visual information is needed for simulation and how it can best be presented. An introduction gives an overview of the workshop and describes the contents of the report. Section 1…

  5. An Exemplary High School Literary Magazine: "Flight."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Hilary Taylor, Comp.

    One of a series of 20 literary magazine profiles written to help faculty advisors wishing to start or improve their publication, this profile provides information on staffing and production of "Flight," the magazine published by St. Edward High School, Cleveland, Ohio. The introduction describes the literary magazine contest (and…

  6. Flights of Imagination. An Introduction to Aerodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosking, Wayne

    The study and use of kites have contributed to science through the development of aeronautics. This document traces some of the history of kites and provides teachers and students with basic information about kite components and flight dynamics. The major portion of the book provides students with 18 projects which deal with: (1) shapes that will…

  7. Symposium on School Desegregation and White Flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfield, Gary, Ed.

    Five papers intended to serve as an introduction to a complex and rapidly growing body of research are included in this volume. These papers represent the work of scholars who have studied the problem of white flight long before the current controversy over urban desegregation plans made it a national issue. Starting from very different…

  8. 14 CFR 417.107 - Flight safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight safety. 417.107 Section 417.107 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... significantly increase the accumulated risk from debris impacts. (b) Public risk criteria. A launch operator may...

  9. Social psychology on the flight deck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmreich, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    Social psychological and personality factors that can influence resource management on the flight deck are discussed. It is argued that personality and situational factors intersect to determine crew responses and that assessment of performance under full crew and mission conditions can provide the most valuable information about relevant factors. The possibility of training procedures to improve performance on these dimensions is discussed.

  10. Alertness management in flight operations - Strategic napping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosekind, Mark R.; Gander, Philippa H.; Dinges, David F.

    1991-01-01

    Strategic napping in two different flight operation environments is considered to illustrate its application as a fatigue countermeasure. Data obtained from commercial short-haul and long-haul operations demonstrated the utility and current practices of strategic napping. A preplanned cockpit nap acted as an acute 'safety valve' for the sleep loss, circadian disruption, and fatigue that occurs in long-haul flying.

  11. Bird Flight and Satish Dhawan: Some Thoughts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 10. Bird Flight and Satish Dhawan: Some Thoughts. K R Y Simha. General Article Volume 8 Issue 10 October 2003 pp 31-39. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/008/10/0031-0039 ...

  12. Nutrition in Space Flight: Some Thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, P. C., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Space flight causes physiological changes related to microgravity and on which nutrition has a bearing. Examples are: muscle atrophy-protein; bone atrophy-calcium; phosphorus, and vitamin D; space sickness-fat; cardiovascular deconditioning-sodium; water, and potassium. The physiological changes are discussed which relate to living in space.

  13. Thin Time-Of-Flight PET project

    CERN Multimedia

    The pre-R&D aims at designing and producing a compact and thin Time-Of-Flight PET detector device with depth of interaction measurement capability, which employs layered silicon sensors as active material, with a readout consisting of a new generation of very-low noise and very fast electronics based on SiGe Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors (HBT) components.

  14. Flight testing an integrated synthetic vision system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Bailey, Randall E.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III

    2005-05-01

    NASA's Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) project is developing technologies with practical applications to eliminate low visibility conditions as a causal factor to civil aircraft accidents while replicating the operational benefits of clear day flight operations, regardless of the actual outside visibility condition. A major thrust of the SVS project involves the development/demonstration of affordable, certifiable display configurations that provide intuitive out-the-window terrain and obstacle information with advanced pathway guidance for transport aircraft. The SVS concept being developed at NASA encompasses the integration of tactical and strategic Synthetic Vision Display Concepts (SVDC) with Runway Incursion Prevention System (RIPS) alerting and display concepts, real-time terrain database integrity monitoring equipment (DIME), and Enhanced Vision Systems (EVS) and/or improved Weather Radar for real-time object detection and database integrity monitoring. A flight test evaluation was jointly conducted (in July and August 2004) by NASA Langley Research Center and an industry partner team under NASA's Aviation Safety and Security, Synthetic Vision System project. A Gulfstream G-V aircraft was flown over a 3-week period in the Reno/Tahoe International Airport (NV) local area and an additional 3-week period in the Wallops Flight Facility (VA) local area to evaluate integrated Synthetic Vision System concepts. The enabling technologies (RIPS, EVS and DIME) were integrated into the larger SVS concept design. This paper presents experimental methods and the high level results of this flight test.

  15. Fish Swimming and Bird/Insect Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Theodore Yaotsu

    2011-01-01

    This expository review is devoted to fish swimming and bird/insect flight. (a) The simple waving motion of an elongated flexible ribbon plate of constant width propagating a wave distally down the plate to swim forward in a fluid, initially at rest, is first considered to provide a fundamental concept on energy conservation. It is generalized to include variations in body width and thickness, with appended dorsal, ventral and caudal fins shedding vortices to closely simulate fish swimming, for which a nonlinear theory is presented for large-amplitude propulsion. (b) For bird flight, the pioneering studies on oscillatory rigid wings are discussed with delineating a fully nonlinear unsteady theory for a two-dimensional flexible wing with arbitrary variations in shape and trajectory to provide a comparative study with experiments. (c) For insect flight, recent advances are reviewed by items on aerodynamic theory and modeling, computational methods, and experiments, for forward and hovering flights with producing leading-edge vortex to yield unsteady high lift. (d) Prospects are explored on extracting prevailing intrinsic flow energy by fish and bird to enhance thrust for propulsion. (e) The mechanical and biological principles are drawn together for unified studies on the energetics in deriving metabolic power for animal locomotion, leading to the surprising discovery that the hydrodynamic viscous drag on swimming fish is largely associated with laminar boundary layers, thus drawing valid and sound evidences for a resounding resolution to the long-standing fish-swim paradox proclaimed by Gray (1936, 1968 ).

  16. A Flight Simulator Program Takes Off

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Don

    2003-01-01

    Aviation concepts, including forces acting on an airplane, navigation, correct aircraft terminology, and general aviation vocabulary, are often part of a comprehensive fifth-grade aviation curriculum. But in one school district, students also learned about flying planes and even trained in a flight simulator. This article describes how industry…

  17. 14 CFR 121.391 - Flight attendants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight attendants. 121.391 Section 121.391 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS... safety belts and shoulder harnesses fastened except to perform duties related to the safety of the...

  18. Literature for flight simulator (motion) requirements research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    This is the yearly snapshot of the literature examined in the framework of the Federal Aviation Administration/Volpe Center Flight Simulator Human Factors Program and entered in an EndNote database. It describes 1131 documents, 118 more than last y...

  19. Optic flow cues guide flight in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagavatula, Partha S; Claudianos, Charles; Ibbotson, Michael R; Srinivasan, Mandyam V

    2011-11-08

    Although considerable effort has been devoted to investigating how birds migrate over large distances, surprisingly little is known about how they tackle so successfully the moment-to-moment challenges of rapid flight through cluttered environments [1]. It has been suggested that birds detect and avoid obstacles [2] and control landing maneuvers [3-5] by using cues derived from the image motion that is generated in the eyes during flight. Here we investigate the ability of budgerigars to fly through narrow passages in a collision-free manner, by filming their trajectories during flight in a corridor where the walls are decorated with various visual patterns. The results demonstrate, unequivocally and for the first time, that birds negotiate narrow gaps safely by balancing the speeds of image motion that are experienced by the two eyes and that the speed of flight is regulated by monitoring the speed of image motion that is experienced by the two eyes. These findings have close parallels with those previously reported for flying insects [6-13], suggesting that some principles of visual guidance may be shared by all diurnal, flying animals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 14 CFR 415.115 - Flight safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... orbital or guided suborbital launch vehicle, and nine months for any unguided suborbital launch vehicle... trajectories applied for, or the worst case vehicle and trajectory under which flight will be attempted, no... triggered lightning. For any orbital or guided suborbital expendable launch vehicle, an applicant must...

  1. System safety education focused on flight safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, E.

    1971-01-01

    The measures necessary for achieving higher levels of system safety are analyzed with an eye toward maintaining the combat capability of the Air Force. Several education courses were provided for personnel involved in safety management. Data include: (1) Flight Safety Officer Course, (2) Advanced Safety Program Management, (3) Fundamentals of System Safety, and (4) Quantitative Methods of Safety Analysis.

  2. Tennis Ball Flight under Strong Wind

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 11. Tennis Ball Flight under Strong Wind. K R Y Simha. Classroom Volume 7 Issue 11 November 2002 pp 70-76. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/007/11/0070-0076. Author Affiliations.

  3. The Wright Brothers and their First Flight

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 12. The Wright Brothers and their First Flight. O N Ramesh. Article-in-a-Box Volume 8 Issue 12 December 2003 pp 3-4. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/008/12/0003-0004 ...

  4. Aerodynamic effect of alula in avian flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Im; Lee, Jaemyoung; Park, Hyungmin; Jablonski, Piotr; Choi, Haecheon

    2012-11-01

    Alula is a small structure located at the joint between handwing and armwing of birds and has been suggested to function as a leading-edge slot. In this study, we investigated the functional aspect of alula in bird flight with experimental conditions that reflect the flow characteristics used by birds in their actual flight using magpies as the model species. The presence of alula enabled the bird to perform steeper descending flights with greater lateral angle changes. Force measurements showed that alula presence increased the lift when the angle of attack was high (higher than 20-45 deg), which resulted in the stall delay by 5 deg. The wake width was significantly thinner when alula was present, suggesting that boundary layer separation is delayed when alula is used. This result was corroborated by PIV; accelerated streamwise velocity over the wing surface was recovered faster and separation point was pushed downstream when alula was present. To conclude, the lift enhancement and stall delay by alula are closely related to the downstream movement of separation point and faster recovery of accelerated flow over the wing surface, which endows greater flight maneuverability to the birds. This work was supported by the Korea Research Foundation Grants (2011-0030744, 2010-0009006, and 2012-K001368).

  5. NASA develops new digital flight control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewhinney, Michael

    1994-01-01

    This news release reports on the development and testing of a new integrated flight and propulsion automated control system that aerospace engineers at NASA's Ames Research Center have been working on. The system is being tested in the V/STOL (Vertical/Short Takeoff and Landing) Systems Research Aircraft (VSRA).

  6. Astronaut Gordon Cooper during flight tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-01-01

    Astronaut L. Gordon Cooper, prime pilot for the Mercury-Atlas 9 mission, relaxes while waiting for weight and balance tests to begin (03974); Cooper prior to entering the Mercury Spacecraft for a series of simulated flight tests. During these tests NASA doctors, engineers and technicians monitor Cooper's performance (03975); Cooper undergoing suit pressurization tests (03976).

  7. Crash Survivable Flight Data Recording System Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-30

    checklist (before StaL- fled In Appendix B of this Part- IfD Each flight recorder required by Ins engines for the purpose of fljg- (1) Time, altitude...gisetrici&I power glictli dse of this sucetion must meet be installed so that- from the bus ithat provides, the mai- Me uffinh-um Performsnce Btandard

  8. Additive Manufacturing: From Rapid Prototyping to Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prater, Tracie

    2015-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) offers tremendous promise for the rocket propulsion community. Foundational work must be performed to ensure the safe performance of AM parts. Government, industry, and academia must collaborate in the characterization, design, modeling, and process control to accelerate the certification of AM parts for human-rated flight.

  9. Laser data transfer flight experiment definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    A set of laser communication flight experiments to be performed between a relay satellite, ground terminals, and space shuttles were synthesized and evaluated. Results include a definition of the space terminals, NASA ground terminals, test methods, and test schedules required to perform the experiments.

  10. Mutual Fund Flight-to-Liquidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rzeznik, Aleksandra

    for the market; the market driven flight-toliquidity places upward pressure on the liquidity premium. I examine the underlying mechanisms driving fund behaviour. I show that market volatility is associated with lower fund performance and withdrawals, which causes funds to adjust the composition...

  11. Modular Infrastructure for Rapid Flight Software Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Craig

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of modular infrastructure to assist in the development of flight software. A feature of this program is the use of model based approach for application unique software. A review of two programs that this approach was use on are: the development of software for Hover Test Vehicle (HTV), and Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Experiment (LADEE).

  12. Solar Flight on Mars and Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; LaMarre, Christopher; Colozza, Anthony

    2002-10-01

    Solar powered aircraft are of interest for exploring both Mars and Venus. The thin atmosphere of Mars presents a difficult environment for flying. It is clear that a new approach is needed. By making a totally solar airplane, we can eliminate many of the heavy components, and make an airplane that can fly without fuel. Using high efficiency solar cells, we can succeed with an airplane design that can fly for up to 6 hours in near-equatorial regions of Mars (4 hours of level flight, plus two hours of slow descent), and potentially fly for many days in the polar regions. By designing an airplane for a single day flight. In particular, this change means that we no longer have to cope with the weight of the energy storage system that made previous solar powered airplanes for Mars impractical). The new airplane concept is designed to fly only under the optimal conditions: near equatorial flight, at the subsolar point, near noon. We baseline an 8 kg airplane, with 2 kg margin. Science instruments will be selected with the primary criterion of low mass. Solar-powered aircraft are also quite interesting for the exploration of Venus. Venus provides several advantages for flying a solar-powered aircraft. At the top of the cloud level, the solar intensity is comparable to or greater than terrestrial solar intensities. The atmospheric pressure makes flight much easier than on planets such as Mars. The atmospheric pressure on Venus is presented. From an altitude of approximately 45 km (pressure = 2 bar), to approximately 60 km (pressure = 0.2 bar), terrestrial airplane experience can be easily applied to a Venus airplane design. At these flight altitudes, the temperature varies from 80 C at 45 km, decreasing to -35 C at 60 km. Also, the slow rotation of Venus allows an airplane to be designed for flight within continuous sunlight, eliminating the need for energy storage for nighttime flight. These factors make Venus a prime choice for a long-duration solar-powered aircraft

  13. Biodynamics--the key to flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapp, J P

    1986-10-01

    Biodynamics measures the effects of mechanical force on living tissues. The quantitative relations of mechanical stress factors and biological strain responses of the living body provide criteria for limits of injury threshold, reversible injury, permanently disabling injury, and fatal injury. These criteria are guidelines for aerospace design and performance standards involving human survival in the environment of flight. Below these limits, the effects of mechanical force factors on human performance while acutely or chronically exposed to them in aerial or space flight are crucial. Some can be accumulatively disabling; others can be adapted to over a period of time. Extremes of low-frequency vibration cannot be long endured, while sustained zero gravity in space flight produces mild, transient malaise followed by adaptation in several hours. Aerospace flight biodynamics deals with human reactions to absence of gravity; sustained curvilinear acceleration; sustained acceleration and deceleration (launch and reentry in space flight); single impact force (collisions); low-frequency vibration in the whole human body resonance response range; whole-body tumbling and spinning, as in high-altitude free-fall; acoustical range vibrations; explosive blast in air or water; abrupt decompression, as in cabin pressure failure; static forces in tension, compression, torsion and shear. Biodynamic stress analysis takes into account whole-body responses, particular responses of rigid bone, viscous elastic soft tissues, pneumatic and hydraulic effects of gas and fluids in hollow organs, and displacements of solid organs suspended in body cavities. Accurate and comprehensive results require physical measurements, clinical and laboratory studies before and after exposure, subjective reports of trained volunteer subjects, and objective medical and bioengineering evaluation of results.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Hovering and intermittent flight in birds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobalske, Bret W, E-mail: bret.tobalske@mso.umt.ed [Field Research Station at Fort Missoula, Division of Biological Sciences, University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Two styles of bird locomotion, hovering and intermittent flight, have great potential to inform future development of autonomous flying vehicles. Hummingbirds are the smallest flying vertebrates, and they are the only birds that can sustain hovering. Their ability to hover is due to their small size, high wingbeat frequency, relatively large margin of mass-specific power available for flight and a suite of anatomical features that include proportionally massive major flight muscles (pectoralis and supracoracoideus) and wing anatomy that enables them to leave their wings extended yet turned over (supinated) during upstroke so that they can generate lift to support their weight. Hummingbirds generate three times more lift during downstroke compared with upstroke, with the disparity due to wing twist during upstroke. Much like insects, hummingbirds exploit unsteady mechanisms during hovering including delayed stall during wing translation that is manifest as a leading-edge vortex (LEV) on the wing and rotational circulation at the end of each half stroke. Intermittent flight is common in small- and medium-sized birds and consists of pauses during which the wings are flexed (bound) or extended (glide). Flap-bounding appears to be an energy-saving style when flying relatively fast, with the production of lift by the body and tail critical to this saving. Flap-gliding is thought to be less costly than continuous flapping during flight at most speeds. Some species are known to shift from flap-gliding at slow speeds to flap-bounding at fast speeds, but there is an upper size limit for the ability to bound ({approx}0.3 kg) and small birds with rounded wings do not use intermittent glides.

  15. Eclipse program QF-106 aircraft in flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This photo shows one of the QF-106s used in the Eclipse project in flight. In 1997 and 1998, the Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California, supported and hosted a Kelly Space & Technology, Inc. project called Eclipse, which sought to demonstrate the feasibility of a reusable tow-launch vehicle concept. The project goal was to successfully tow, inflight, a modified QF-106 delta-wing aircraft with an Air Force C-141A transport aircraft. This would demonstrate the possibility of towing and launching an actual launch vehicle from behind a tow plane. Dryden was the responsible test organization and had flight safety responsibility for the Eclipse project. Dryden provided engineering, instrumentation, simulation, modification, maintenance, range support, and research pilots for the test program. The Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC), Edwards, California, supplied the C-141A transport aircraft and crew and configured the aircraft as needed for the tests. The AFFTC also provided the concept and detail design and analysis as well as hardware for the tow system and QF-106 modifications. Dryden performed the modifications to convert the QF-106 drone into the piloted EXD-01 (Eclipse eXperimental Demonstrator-01) experimental aircraft. Kelly Space & Technology hoped to use the results gleaned from the tow test in developing a series of low-cost, reusable launch vehicles. These tests demonstrated the validity of towing a delta-wing aircraft having high wing loading, validated the tow simulation model, and demonstrated various operational procedures, such as ground processing of in-flight maneuvers and emergency abort scenarios.

  16. Poor flight performance in deep-diving cormorants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yuuki Y; Takahashi, Akinori; Sato, Katsufumi; Viviant, Morgane; Bost, Charles-André

    2011-02-01

    Aerial flight and breath-hold diving present conflicting morphological and physiological demands, and hence diving seabirds capable of flight are expected to face evolutionary trade-offs regarding locomotory performances. We tested whether Kerguelen shags Phalacrocorax verrucosus, which are remarkable divers, have poor flight capability using newly developed tags that recorded their flight air speed (the first direct measurement for wild birds) with propeller sensors, flight duration, GPS position and depth during foraging trips. Flight air speed (mean 12.7 m s(-1)) was close to the speed that minimizes power requirement, rather than energy expenditure per distance, when existing aerodynamic models were applied. Flights were short (mean 92 s), with a mean summed duration of only 24 min day(-1). Shags sometimes stayed at the sea surface without diving between flights, even on the way back to the colony, and surface durations increased with the preceding flight durations; these observations suggest that shags rested after flights. Our results indicate that their flight performance is physiologically limited, presumably compromised by their great diving capability (max. depth 94 m, duration 306 s) through their morphological adaptations for diving, including large body mass (enabling a large oxygen store), small flight muscles (to allow for large leg muscles for underwater propulsion) and short wings (to decrease air volume in the feathers and hence buoyancy). The compromise between flight and diving, as well as the local bathymetry, shape the three-dimensional foraging range (<26 km horizontally, <94 m vertically) in this bottom-feeding cormorant.

  17. Aging Enhances Indirect Flight Muscle Fiber Performance yet Decreases Flight Ability in Drosophila

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, Mark S; Lekkas, Panagiotis; Braddock, Joan M; Farman, Gerrie P; Ballif, Bryan A; Irving, Thomas C; Maughan, David W; Vigoreaux, Jim O

    2008-01-01

    .... Small-amplitude sinusoidal length perturbation analysis showed median-aged indirect flight muscle fibers developed greater than twice the isometric force and power output of young fibers, yet cross...

  18. Introduction to the aerodynamics of flight. [including aircraft stability, and hypersonic flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talay, T. A.

    1975-01-01

    General concepts of the aerodynamics of flight are discussed. Topics considered include: the atmosphere; fluid flow; subsonic flow effects; transonic flow; supersonic flow; aircraft performance; and stability and control.

  19. Atmospheric Measurements for Flight Test at NASAs Neil A. Armstrong Flight Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teets, Edward H.

    2016-01-01

    Information enclosed is to be shared with students of Atmospheric Sciences, Engineering and High School STEM programs. Information will show the relationship between atmospheric Sciences and aeronautical flight testing.

  20. 14 CFR 417.219 - Data loss flight time and planned safe flight state analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... along the nominal trajectory from liftoff through that point during nominal flight when the minimum... otherwise protected area for the remainder of the launch; (2) The launch vehicle achieves orbital insertion...

  1. Real-Time, Maneuvering Flight Noise Prediction for Rotorcraft Flight Simulations Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal outlines a plan for developing new technology to provide accurate real-time noise prediction for rotorcraft in steady and maneuvering flight. Main...

  2. Effectively Transforming IMC Flight into VMC Flight: An SVS Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaab, Louis J.; Hughes, Monic F.; Parrish, Russell V.; Takallu, Mohammad A.

    2006-01-01

    A flight-test experiment was conducted using the NASA LaRC Cessna 206 aircraft. Four primary flight and navigation display concepts, including baseline and Synthetic Vision System (SVS) concepts, were evaluated in the local area of Roanoke Virginia Airport, flying visual and instrument approach procedures. A total of 19 pilots, from 3 pilot groups reflecting the diverse piloting skills of the GA population, served as evaluation pilots. Multi-variable Discriminant Analysis was applied to three carefully selected and markedly different operating conditions with conventional instrumentation to provide an extension of traditional analysis methods as well as provide an assessment of the effectiveness of SVS displays to effectively transform IMC flight into VMC flight.

  3. Introduction: Assessment of aerothermodynamic flight prediction tools through ground and flight experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmisseur, John D.; Erbland, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an introduction and overview to the efforts of NATO Research and Technology Organization Task Group AVT-136, Assessment of Aerothermodynamic Flight Prediction Tools through Ground and Flight Experimentation. During the period of 2006-2010, AVT-136 coordinated international contributions to assess the state-of-the-art and research challenges for the prediction of critical aerothermodynamic flight phenomena based on the extrapolation of ground test and numerical simulation. To achieve this goal, efforts were organized around six scientific topic areas: (1) Noses and leading edges, (2) Shock Interactions and Control Surfaces, (3) Shock Layers and Radiation, (4) Boundary Layer Transition, (5) Gas-Surface Interactions, and (6) Base and Afterbody Flows. A key component of the AVT-136 strategy was comparison of state-of-the-art numerical simulations with data to be acquired from planned flight research programs. Although it was recognized from the onset of AVT-136 activities that reliance on flight research data yet to be collected posed a significant risk, the group concluded the substantial benefit to be derived from comparison of computational simulations with flight data warranted pursuit of such a program of work. Unfortunately, program delays and failures in the flight programs contributing to the AVT-136 effort prevented timely access to flight research data. Despite this setback, most of the scientific topic areas developed by the Task Group made significant progress in the assessment of current capabilities. Additionally, the activities of AVT-136 generated substantial interest within the international scientific research community and the work of the Task Group was prominently featured in a total of six invited sessions in European and American technical conferences. In addition to this overview, reviews of the state-of-the-art and research challenges identified by the six research thrusts of AVT-136 are also included in this special

  4. Space Flight Applications of Optical Fiber; 30 Years of Space Flight Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Melanie N.

    2010-01-01

    For over thirty years NASA has had success with space flight missions that utilize optical fiber component technology. One of the early environmental characterization experiments that included optical fiber was launched as the Long Duration Exposure Facility in 1978. Since then, multiple missions have launched with optical fiber components that functioned as expected, without failure throughout the mission life. The use of optical fiber in NASA space flight communications links and exploration and science instrumentation is reviewed.

  5. Assessing Flight Potential of the Invasive Asian Longhorned Beetle (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) With Computerized Flight Mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Vanessa M; Hoddle, Mark S; Francese, Joseph A; Lance, David R; Ray, Ann M

    2017-06-01

    The Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Lamiinae), is an invasive woodborer that poses a serious threat to urban and natural landscapes. In North America, this beetle is a quarantine pest, and populations are subject to eradication efforts that consist of the identification, removal, and destruction of infested host material, and removal or prophylactic treatment of high-risk host plant species. To enhance Asian longhorned beetle eradication protocols in landscapes with extensive host availability, we assessed the dispersal potential of male and female adults of varying age, mating, and nutritional status using computerized flight mills. In total, 162 individuals were tethered to computerized flight mills for a 24-h trial period to collect information on total distance flown, flight times and velocities, and number and duration of flight bouts. Adult Asian longhorned beetles (in all treatments) flew an average of 2,272 m within a 24-h period, but are capable of flying up to 13,667 m (8.5 miles). Nutrition and age had the greatest impacts on flight, with Asian longhorned beetle adults >5 d of age that had fed having greater overall flight performance than any other group. However, mating status, sex, and body size (pre-flight weight and elytron length) had a minimal effect on flight performance. This information will be useful for refining quarantine zones surrounding areas of infestation, and for providing greater specificity as to the risk the Asian longhorned beetle poses within invaded regions. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  6. Calcium signalling indicates bilateral power balancing in the Drosophila flight muscle during manoeuvring flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Fritz-Olaf; Skandalis, Dimitri A; Berthé, Ruben

    2013-05-06

    Manoeuvring flight in animals requires precise adjustments of mechanical power output produced by the flight musculature. In many insects such as fruit flies, power generation is most likely varied by altering stretch-activated tension, that is set by sarcoplasmic calcium levels. The muscles reside in a thoracic shell that simultaneously drives both wings during wing flapping. Using a genetically expressed muscle calcium indicator, we here demonstrate in vivo the ability of this animal to bilaterally adjust its calcium activation to the mechanical power output required to sustain aerodynamic costs during flight. Motoneuron-specific comparisons of calcium activation during lift modulation and yaw turning behaviour suggest slightly higher calcium activation for dorso-longitudinal than for dorsoventral muscle fibres, which corroborates the elevated need for muscle mechanical power during the wings' downstroke. During turning flight, calcium activation explains only up to 54 per cent of the required changes in mechanical power, suggesting substantial power transmission between both sides of the thoracic shell. The bilateral control of muscle calcium runs counter to the hypothesis that the thorax of flies acts as a single, equally proportional source for mechanical power production for both flapping wings. Collectively, power balancing highlights the precision with which insects adjust their flight motor to changing energetic requirements during aerial steering. This potentially enhances flight efficiency and is thus of interest for the development of technical vehicles that employ bioinspired strategies of power delivery to flapping wings.

  7. Energy metabolism during endurance flight and the post-flight recovery phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenni-Eiermann, Susanne

    2017-07-01

    Migrating birds are known to fly non-stop for thousands of kilometres without food or water intake and at a high metabolic rate thereby relying on energy stores which were built up preceding a flight bout. Hence, from a physiological point of view the metabolism of a migrant has to switch between an active fasting phase during flight and a fuelling phase during stopover. To meet the energetic and water requirements of endurance flight, migratory birds have to store an optimal fuel composition and they have to be able to quickly mobilize and deliver sufficient energy to the working flight muscles. After flight, birds have to recover from a strenuous exercise and sleeplessness, but, at the same time, they have to be alert to escape from predators and to prepare the next flight bout. In this overview, metabolic adaptations of free-ranging migrants to both phases will be presented and compared with results from windtunnel studies. The questions whether migratory strategy (long distance versus short distance) and diet composition influence the metabolic pathways will be discussed.

  8. Integrated Flight Path Planning System and Flight Control System for Unmanned Helicopters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hsiang Lin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the design of an integrated navigation and guidance system for unmanned helicopters. The integrated navigation system comprises two systems: the Flight Path Planning System (FPPS and the Flight Control System (FCS. The FPPS finds the shortest flight path by the A-Star (A* algorithm in an adaptive manner for different flight conditions, and the FPPS can add a forbidden zone to stop the unmanned helicopter from crossing over into dangerous areas. In this paper, the FPPS computation time is reduced by the multi-resolution scheme, and the flight path quality is improved by the path smoothing methods. Meanwhile, the FCS includes the fuzzy inference systems (FISs based on the fuzzy logic. By using expert knowledge and experience to train the FIS, the controller can operate the unmanned helicopter without dynamic models. The integrated system of the FPPS and the FCS is aimed at providing navigation and guidance to the mission destination and it is implemented by coupling the flight simulation software, X-Plane, and the computing software, MATLAB. Simulations are performed and shown in real time three-dimensional animations. Finally, the integrated system is demonstrated to work successfully in controlling the unmanned helicopter to operate in various terrains of a digital elevation model (DEM.

  9. Role of Corticosteroids in Bone Loss During Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wronski, Thomas J.; Halloran, Bernard P.; Miller, Scott C.

    1998-01-01

    The primary objective of this research project is to test the hypothesis that corticosteroids contribute to the adverse skeletal effects of space flight. To achieve this objective, serum corticosteroids, which are known to increase during space flight, must be maintained at normal physiologic levels in flight rats by a combination of adrenalectomy and corticosteroid supplementation via implanted hormone pellets. Bone analyses in these animals will then be compared to those of intact flight rats that, based on past experience, will undergo corticosteroid excess and bone loss during space flight. The results will reveal whether maintaining serum corticosteroids at physiologic levels in flight rats affects the skeletal abnormalities that normally develop during space flight. A positive response to this question would indicate that the bone loss and decreased bone formation associated with space flight are mediated, at least in part, by corticosteroid excess.

  10. Novel Real-Time Flight Envelope Monitoring System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is an aircraft flight envelope monitoring system that will provide real-time in-cockpit estimations of aircraft flight envelope boundaries,...

  11. Fault Tolerance, Diagnostics, and Prognostics in Aircraft Flight

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract In modern fighter aircraft with statically unstable airframe designs, the flight control system is considered flight critical, i.e. the aircraft will...

  12. Novel Real-Time Flight Envelope Monitoring System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is an aircraft flight envelope monitoring system that will provide real-time in-cockpit estimations of aircraft flight envelope boundaries....

  13. Automated Flight Safety Inference Engine (AFSIE) System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop an innovative Autonomous Flight Safety Inference Engine (AFSIE) system to autonomously and reliably terminate the flight of an errant launch...

  14. Bisphosphonates as a Countermeasure to Space Flight Induced Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Adrian; Matsumoto, Toshio; Jones, Jeff; Shapiro, Jay; Lang, Tom; Smith, Scott M.; Shackelford, Linda C.; Sibonga, Jean; Evans, Harlan; Spector, Elisabeth; hide

    2011-01-01

    Experiment Hypothesis -- The combined effect of anti-resorptive drugs plus in-flight exercise regimen will have a measurable effect in preventing space flight induced bone mass and strength loss and reducing renal stone risk.

  15. Reactive In-flight Multisensor Security System (RIMSS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The need for in-flight event detection and monitoring systems is clear. To address this and other safety and security needs, IEM proposed the Reactive In-flight...

  16. Flight envelope protection system for unmanned aerial vehicles

    KAUST Repository

    Claudel, Christian G.

    2016-04-28

    Systems and methods to protect the flight envelope in both manual flight and flight by a commercial autopilot are provided. A system can comprise: an inertial measurement unit (IMU); a computing device in data communication with the IMU; an application executable by the computing device comprising: logic that estimates an angle of attack; a slip angle; and a speed of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) based at least in part on data received from the UAV. A method can comprise estimating, via a computing device, flight data of a UAV based at least in part on data received from an IMU; comparing the estimated flight data with measured flight data; and triggering an error indication in response to a determination that the measured flight data exceeds a predefined deviation of the estimated flight data. The estimated speed can comprise an estimated airspeed, vertical speed and/or ground velocity.

  17. Fused Reality for Enhanced Flight Test Capabilities Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — While modern ground-based flight simulators continue to improve in fidelity and effectiveness, there remains no substitute for flight test evaluations. In addition...

  18. Core Flight Software (CFS) Maturation Towards Human Rating Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Core Flight Software (CFS) system developed by Goddard Space Flight Center, through experience on Morpheus, has proven to be a quality product and a viable...

  19. H/OZ: PFD and Collaborative Flight Control System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Researchers at the Institute for Human and Machine Cognition invented OZ, a primary flight display that provides a single, unified graphic display of critical flight...

  20. In-flight sleep, pilot fatigue and Psychomotor Vigilance Task performance on ultra-long range versus long range flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gander, Philippa H; Signal, T Leigh; van den Berg, Margo J; Mulrine, Hannah M; Jay, Sarah M; Jim Mangie, Captain

    2013-12-01

    This study evaluated whether pilot fatigue was greater on ultra-long range (ULR) trips (flights >16 h on 10% of trips in a 90-day period) than on long range (LR) trips. The within-subjects design controlled for crew complement, pattern of in-flight breaks, flight direction and departure time. Thirty male Captains (mean age = 54.5 years) and 40 male First officers (mean age = 48.0 years) were monitored on commercial passenger flights (Boeing 777 aircraft). Sleep was monitored (actigraphy, duty/sleep diaries) from 3 days before the first study trip to 3 days after the second study trip. Karolinska Sleepiness Scale, Samn-Perelli fatigue ratings and a 5-min Psychomotor Vigilance Task were completed before, during and after every flight. Total sleep in the 24 h before outbound flights and before inbound flights after 2-day layovers was comparable for ULR and LR flights. All pilots slept on all flights. For each additional hour of flight time, they obtained an estimated additional 12.3 min of sleep. Estimated mean total sleep was longer on ULR flights (3 h 53 min) than LR flights (3 h 15 min; P(F) = 0.0004). Sleepiness ratings were lower and mean reaction speed was faster at the end of ULR flights. Findings suggest that additional in-flight sleep mitigated fatigue effectively on longer flights. Further research is needed to clarify the contributions to fatigue of in-flight sleep versus time awake at top of descent. The study design was limited to eastward outbound flights with two Captains and two First Officers. Caution must be exercised when extrapolating to different operations. © 2013 European Sleep Research Society.

  1. A unified flight control methodology for a compound rotorcraft in fundamental and aerobatic maneuvering flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsen, Adam

    This study investigates a novel approach to flight control for a compound rotorcraft in a variety of maneuvers ranging from fundamental to aerobatic in nature. Fundamental maneuvers are a class of maneuvers with design significance that are useful for testing and tuning flight control systems along with uncovering control law deficiencies. Aerobatic maneuvers are a class of aggressive and complex maneuvers with more operational significance. The process culminating in a unified approach to flight control includes various control allocation studies for redundant controls in trim and maneuvering flight, an efficient methodology to simulate non-piloted maneuvers with varying degrees of complexity, and the setup of an unconventional control inceptor configuration along with the use of a flight simulator to gather pilot feedback in order to improve the unified control architecture. A flight path generation algorithm was developed to calculate control inceptor commands required for a rotorcraft in aerobatic maneuvers. This generalized algorithm was tailored to generate flight paths through optimization methods in order to satisfy target terminal position coordinates or to minimize the total time of a particular maneuver. Six aerobatic maneuvers were developed drawing inspiration from air combat maneuvers of fighter jet aircraft: Pitch-Back Turn (PBT), Combat Ascent Turn (CAT), Combat Descent Turn (CDT), Weaving Pull-up (WPU), Combat Break Turn (CBT), and Zoom and Boom (ZAB). These aerobatic maneuvers were simulated at moderate to high advance ratios while fundamental maneuvers of the compound including level accelerations/decelerations, climbs, descents, and turns were investigated across the entire flight envelope to evaluate controller performance. The unified control system was developed to allow controls to seamlessly transition between manual and automatic allocations while ensuring that the axis of control for a particular inceptor remained constant with flight

  2. In-flight cabin smoke control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, T I

    1996-12-31

    Fatal accidents originating from in-flight cabin fires comprise only about 1% of all fatal accidents in the civil jet transport fleet. Nevertheless, the impossibility of escape during flight accentuates the hazards resulting from low visibility and toxic gases. Control of combustion products in an aircraft cabin is affected by several characteristics that make the aircraft cabin environment unique. The aircraft fuselage is pressurized in flight and has an air distribution system which provides ventilation jets from the ceiling level air inlets running along the cabin length. A fixed quantity of ventilation air is metered into the cabin and air discharge is handled primarily by pressure controlling outflow valves in the rear lower part of the fuselage. Earlier airplane flight tests on cabin smoke control used generators producing minimally buoyant smoke products that moved with and served as a telltales for overall cabin ventilation flows. Analytical studies were done with localized smoke production to predict the percent of cabin length that would remain smoke-free during continuous generation. Development of a buoyant smoke generator allowed simulation of a fire plume with controllable simulated temperature and heat release rates. Tests on a Boeing 757, modified to allow smoke venting out through the top of the cabin, showed that the buoyant smoke front moved at 0.46m/s (1.5ft/sec) with and 0.27m/sec (0.9ft/sec) against, the axial ventilation airflow. Flight tests in a modified Boeing 727 showed that a ceiling level counterflow of about 0.55m/sec (1.8ft/sec) was required to arrest the forward movement of buoyant smoke. A design goal of 0.61m/s (2ft/sec) axial cabin flow would require a flow rate of 99m3/min (3500ft3/min) in a furnished Boeing 757. The current maximum fresh air cabin ventilation flow is 78m3/min (2756 ft3/min). Experimental results indicate that buoyancy effects cause smoke movement behaviour that is not predicted by traditional design analyses and

  3. The Falcon 1 Flight-003 Jumpstart Mission Integration Summary

    OpenAIRE

    Bjelde, Brian; Shotwell, Gwynne; Dreyer, Lauren; Vozoff, Max

    2008-01-01

    In 2007, following Demonstration Flight 2 - Falcon 1’s second demonstration mission, SpaceX declared Falcon 1 ready to exit the demonstration program and upgraded the vehicle to operational status. The mission was sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and the US Air Force (USAF) with objectives centered on testing the vehicle in flight, gathering data and retiring technical risk prior to the first operational flight. This flight resulted in retiring significant ri...

  4. Overview of Pre-Flight Physical Training, In-Flight Exercise Countermeasures and the Post-Flight Reconditioning Program for International Space Station Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerstman, Eric

    2011-01-01

    International Space Station (ISS) astronauts receive supervised physical training pre-flight, utilize exercise countermeasures in-flight, and participate in a structured reconditioning program post-flight. Despite recent advances in exercise hardware and prescribed exercise countermeasures, ISS crewmembers are still found to have variable levels of deconditioning post-flight. This presentation provides an overview of the astronaut medical certification requirements, pre-flight physical training, in-flight exercise countermeasures, and the post-flight reconditioning program. Astronauts must meet medical certification requirements on selection, annually, and prior to ISS missions. In addition, extensive physical fitness testing and standardized medical assessments are performed on long duration crewmembers pre-flight. Limited physical fitness assessments and medical examinations are performed in-flight to develop exercise countermeasure prescriptions, ensure that the crewmembers are physically capable of performing mission tasks, and monitor astronaut health. Upon mission completion, long duration astronauts must re-adapt to the 1 G environment, and be certified as fit to return to space flight training and active duty. A structured, supervised postflight reconditioning program has been developed to prevent injuries, facilitate re-adaptation to the 1 G environment, and subsequently return astronauts to training and space flight. The NASA reconditioning program is implemented by the Astronaut Strength, Conditioning, and Rehabilitation (ASCR) team and supervised by NASA flight surgeons. This program has evolved over the past 10 years of the International Space Station (ISS) program and has been successful in ensuring that long duration astronauts safely re-adapt to the 1 g environment and return to active duty. Lessons learned from this approach to managing deconditioning can be applied to terrestrial medicine and future exploration space flight missions.

  5. U.S. Air Force Aircrew Flight Protective Eyewear Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    compatible with communication headgear ; high degree of fog resistance; high compatibility/comfort with flight equipment; provides limited dust/debris...Revision Sawfly High compatibility/comfort with flight equipment and communication headgear ; lightweight; good field of view; limited dust/debris...High compatibility/comfort with flight equipment and communication headgear ; lightweight; high degree of fog resistance; limited dust/debris

  6. Intersatellite communications optoelectronics research at the Goddard Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krainak, Michael A.

    1992-01-01

    A review is presented of current optoelectronics research and development at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center for high-power, high-bandwidth laser transmitters; high-bandwidth, high-sensitivity optical receivers; pointing, acquisition, and tracking components; and experimental and theoretical system modeling at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Program hardware and space flight opportunities are presented.

  7. 14 CFR Appendix E to Part 121 - Flight Training Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... conditions, wind direction and velocity, brake heat energy, and any other pertinent factors that may... and oil B B AT AT BU BU (5) Electrical B B AT AT BU BU (6) Hydraulic B B AT AT BU BU (7) Flight... available B AT BU (14) Electrical, hydraulic, flight control, and flight instrument system malfunctioning or...

  8. 14 CFR 1214.806 - Premature termination of Spacelab flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Premature termination of Spacelab flights... FLIGHT Reimbursement for Spacelab Services § 1214.806 Premature termination of Spacelab flights. If a... are, in NASA's judgment, adversely affected by such premature termination. The basis for proration...

  9. 14 CFR 125.363 - Flight release over water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight release over water. 125.363 Section 125.363 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... Flight release over water. (a) No person may release an airplane for a flight that involves extended...

  10. 14 CFR 21.5 - Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual. 21.5... CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS General § 21.5 Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual. (a) With each airplane or rotorcraft that was not type certificated with an Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual...

  11. 48 CFR 1852.228-71 - Aircraft flight risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Aircraft flight risks. 1852... 1852.228-71 Aircraft flight risks. (a) As prescribed in 1828.311-2, insert the following clause: Aircraft Flight Risks (DEC 1988) (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this contract (particularly...

  12. 14 CFR 91.529 - Flight engineer requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight engineer requirements. 91.529...-Powered Multiengine Airplanes and Fractional Ownership Program Aircraft § 91.529 Flight engineer... flight engineer certificate: (1) An airplane for which a type certificate was issued before January 2...

  13. 14 CFR 121.453 - Flight engineer qualifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight engineer qualifications. 121.453... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Crewmember Qualifications § 121.453 Flight engineer qualifications. (a) No certificate holder may use any person nor may any person serve as a flight engineer on an...

  14. 14 CFR 437.25 - Flight test plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight test plan. 437.25 Section 437.25 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... number of flights and key flight-safety events. (b) Identify and describe the geographic coordinates of...

  15. 14 CFR 29.1303 - Flight and navigation instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight and navigation instruments. 29.1303... navigation instruments. The following are required flight and navigational instruments: (a) An airspeed... on rotorcraft with a third attitude instrument system that— (1) Is usable through flight attitudes of...

  16. Wireless Instrumentation Systems for Flight Testing at NASA AFRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Richard

    2017-01-01

    NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center is revolutionizing its traditional wired instrumentation systems with wireless technologies. This effort faces many technical challenges, such as spectrum compliance, time synchronization, power distribution and airworthiness. This presentation summarizes NASA AFRC's flight test capabilities with current conventional instrumentation methodology and highlights the technical challenges of wireless systems used for flight test research applications.

  17. Impact of Vehicle Flexibility on IRVE-II Flight Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, David M.; Toniolo, Matthew D.; Cheatwood, F. M.; Hughes, Stephen J.; Dillman, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    The Inflatable Re-entry Vehicle Experiment II (IRVE-II) successfully launched from Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) on August 17, 2009. The primary objectives of this flight test were to demonstrate inflation and re-entry survivability, assess the thermal and drag performance of the reentry vehicle, and to collect flight data for refining pre-flight design and analysis tools. Post-flight analysis including trajectory reconstruction outlined in O Keefe3 demonstrated that the IRVE-II Research Vehicle (RV) met mission objectives but also identified a few anomalies of interest to flight dynamics engineers. Most notable of these anomalies was high normal acceleration during the re-entry pressure pulse. Deflection of the inflatable aeroshell during the pressure pulse was evident in flight video and identified as the likely cause of the anomaly. This paper provides a summary of further post-flight analysis with particular attention to the impact of aeroshell flexibility on flight dynamics and the reconciliation of flight performance with pre-flight models. Independent methods for estimating the magnitude of the deflection of the aeroshell experienced on IRVE-II are discussed. The use of the results to refine models for pre-flight prediction of vehicle performance is then described.

  18. Intelligent Flight Control System and Aeronautics Research at NASA Dryden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Nelson A.

    2009-01-01

    This video presentation reviews the F-15 Intelligent Flight Control System and contains clips of flight tests and aircraft performance in the areas of target tracking, takeoff and differential stabilators. Video of the APG milestone flight 1g formation is included.

  19. 14 CFR 129.15 - Flight crewmember certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight crewmember certificates. 129.15 Section 129.15 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... § 129.15 Flight crewmember certificates. No person may act as a flight crewmember unless he holds a...

  20. 77 FR 24220 - Flight 93 National Memorial Advisory Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-23

    ... National Park Service Flight 93 National Memorial Advisory Commission AGENCY: National Park Service... meeting of the Flight 93 Advisory Commission. DATES: The public meeting of the Advisory Commission will be... the Flight 93 National Memorial Office, 109 West Main Street, Suite 104, Somerset, PA 15501. Agenda...

  1. 14 CFR 125.225 - Flight data recorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight data recorders. 125.225 Section 125... Requirements § 125.225 Flight data recorders. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, after... October 1, 1969, unless it is equipped with one or more approved flight recorders that utilize a digital...

  2. 14 CFR 23.1303 - Flight and navigation instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight and navigation instruments. 23.1303 Section 23.1303 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... General § 23.1303 Flight and navigation instruments. The following are the minimum required flight and...

  3. 14 CFR 21.197 - Special flight permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special flight permits. 21.197 Section 21... CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Airworthiness Certificates § 21.197 Special flight permits. (a) A special flight permit may be issued for an aircraft that may not currently meet applicable...

  4. 14 CFR 135.99 - Composition of flight crew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Composition of flight crew. 135.99 Section... REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 135.99 Composition of flight crew. (a) No certificate holder may operate an aircraft with less...

  5. 75 FR 43199 - Flight 93 National Memorial Advisory Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ... National Park Service Flight 93 National Memorial Advisory Commission AGENCY: National Park Service... 7, 2010, meeting of the Flight 93 Advisory Commission. DATES: The public meeting of the Advisory... meet jointly with the Flight 93 Memorial Task Force. Location: The meeting will be held at the Somerset...

  6. 14 CFR 121.141 - Airplane flight manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane flight manual. 121.141 Section 121... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Manual Requirements § 121.141 Airplane flight manual. (a) Each certificate holder shall keep a current approved airplane flight manual for each type of...

  7. 14 CFR 121.125 - Flight following system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight following system. 121.125 Section... Operations § 121.125 Flight following system. (a) Each certificate holder conducting supplemental operations must show that it has— (1) An approved flight following system established in accordance with subpart U...

  8. 14 CFR 125.359 - Flight release under VFR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight release under VFR. 125.359 Section...,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Release Rules § 125.359 Flight release under VFR. No person may release an airplane for VFR operation unless the ceiling and...

  9. 75 FR 65029 - Flight 93 National Memorial Advisory Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-21

    ... National Park Service Flight 93 National Memorial Advisory Commission AGENCY: National Park Service... November 13, 2010, meeting of the Flight 93 Advisory Commission. DATES: The public meeting of the Advisory... will meet jointly with the Flight 93 Memorial Task Force. Location: The meeting will be held at the...

  10. 76 FR 64102 - Flight 93 National Memorial Advisory Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... National Park Service Flight 93 National Memorial Advisory Commission AGENCY: National Park Service... November 5, 2011, meeting of the Flight 93 Advisory Commission. DATES: The public meeting of the Advisory... meeting will be held at the Flight 93 National Memorial Office, 109 West Main Street Suite 104, Somerset...

  11. 14 CFR 121.305 - Flight and navigational equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight and navigational equipment. 121.305... Flight and navigational equipment. No person may operate an airplane unless it is equipped with the following flight and navigational instruments and equipment: (a) An airspeed indicating system with heated...

  12. 77 FR 3793 - Flight 93 National Memorial Advisory Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... National Park Service Flight 93 National Memorial Advisory Commission AGENCY: National Park Service... February 4, 2012, meeting of the Flight 93 Advisory Commission. DATES: The public meeting of the Advisory... meeting will be held via teleconference at the Flight 93 National Memorial office, 109 West Main Street...

  13. 76 FR 18778 - Flight 93 National Memorial Advisory Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... National Park Service Flight 93 National Memorial Advisory Commission AGENCY: National Park Service..., 2011, meeting of the Flight 93 Advisory Commission. DATES: The public meeting of the Advisory... will be held at the Flight 93 National Memorial Office, 109 West Main Street Suite 104, Somerset, PA...

  14. 14 CFR 133.41 - Flight characteristics requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight characteristics requirements. 133.41... EXTERNAL-LOAD OPERATIONS Airworthiness Requirements § 133.41 Flight characteristics requirements. (a) The applicant must demonstrate to the Administrator, by performing the operational flight checks prescribed in...

  15. 14 CFR 91.515 - Flight altitude rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight altitude rules. 91.515 Section 91...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Large and Turbine-Powered Multiengine Airplanes and Fractional Ownership Program Aircraft § 91.515 Flight altitude rules. (a...

  16. 14 CFR 125.311 - Flight crewmembers at controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight crewmembers at controls. 125.311... CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 125.311 Flight crewmembers at controls. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, each...

  17. 14 CFR 23.673 - Primary flight controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Primary flight controls. 23.673 Section 23.673 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Control Systems § 23.673 Primary flight controls. Primary flight controls are those used by the pilot for...

  18. 76 FR 4131 - Flight 93 National Memorial Advisory Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    ... National Park Service Flight 93 National Memorial Advisory Commission AGENCY: National Park Service... February 5, 2011, meeting of the Flight 93 Advisory Commission. DATES: The public meeting of the Advisory... meet jointly with the Flight 93 Memorial Task Force. Location: The meeting will be held via...

  19. 75 FR 17158 - Flight 93 National Memorial Advisory Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... National Park Service Flight 93 National Memorial Advisory Commission AGENCY: National Park Service..., 2010, meeting of the Flight 93 Advisory Commission. DATES: The public meeting of the Advisory... jointly with the Flight 93 Memorial Task Force. Location: The meeting will be held at the Somerset County...

  20. 14 CFR 121.343 - Flight data recorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight data recorders. 121.343 Section 121... Flight data recorders. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b), (c), (d), (e), and (f) of this section... or is turbine-engine powered unless it is equipped with one or more approved flight recorders that...

  1. 14 CFR 93.307 - Minimum flight altitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum flight altitudes. 93.307 Section 93...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of Grand Canyon National Park, AZ § 93.307 Minimum flight altitudes. Except in an emergency, or if...

  2. 14 CFR 135.79 - Flight locating requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight locating requirements. 135.79... REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 135.79 Flight locating requirements. (a) Each certificate holder must have procedures...

  3. 14 CFR 21.37 - Flight test pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight test pilot. 21.37 Section 21.37... PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Type Certificates § 21.37 Flight test pilot. Each applicant for a normal... holding an appropriate pilot certificate to make the flight tests required by this part. ...

  4. 14 CFR 91.533 - Flight attendant requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight attendant requirements. 91.533... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Large and Turbine-Powered Multiengine Airplanes and Fractional Ownership Program Aircraft § 91.533 Flight attendant...

  5. 75 FR 3488 - Flight 93 National Memorial Advisory Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    ... National Park Service Flight 93 National Memorial Advisory Commission AGENCY: National Park Service. ACTION... meeting of the Flight 93 Advisory Commission. DATES: The public meeting of the Advisory Commission will be... with the Flight 93 Memorial Task Force. Location: The meeting will be held at the Somerset County...

  6. 48 CFR 1852.246-73 - Human space flight item.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Human space flight item... 1852.246-73 Human space flight item. As prescribed in 1845.370(b), insert the following clause: Human Space Flight Item (MAR 1997) The Contractor shall include the following statement in all subcontracts...

  7. 14 CFR 121.127 - Flight following system; requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight following system; requirements. 121... Supplemental Operations § 121.127 Flight following system; requirements. (a) Each certificate holder conducting supplemental operations using a flight following system must show that— (1) The system has adequate facilities...

  8. Estimating wind velocities from limited sailplane flight data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, N.; Millane, R.; Hunter, A.J.; Enevoldson, E.; Murray, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    The problem of estimating wind velocities from limited flight data recordings is considered, with application to sailplane flights in high-altitude mountain waves. Sailplane flight recorders routinely measure only GPS position and, infrequently, also airspeed and the problem is underdetermined.

  9. On the flight of an American Football

    CERN Document Server

    Horn, Curtis

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we examine the detailed theory of the American football in flight, with spin and air resistance included. We find the theory has much in common with the theory of a gyroscope and also rocket trajectory with a misaligned thruster. Unfortunately most of the air resistance data, for rocketry and ballistics, is for speeds of Mach 1 or higher, where the air resistance increases dramatically. We shall approximate a realistic air resistance, at the slower speeds of football flight, with a drag force proportional to cross sectional area and either $v$ or $v^2$, depending on speed, where $v$ is velocity of the football. We begin with a discussion of the motion, giving as much detail as possible without the use of complex analytic calculations. We point out the previous errors made with moments of inertia and make the necessary corrections for more accurate results. We show that the shape of an American football closely resembles a parabola of revolution.

  10. Cervical artery dissection following a turbulent flight.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quinn, Colin

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: Cervical artery dissection is a common cause of stroke in young patients without vascular risk factors and may affect the carotid or vertebral arteries. The risk of spontaneous dissection is higher in those with genetic predisposing factors while other cases may be precipitated by an event involving head or neck movement or associated with direct neck trauma. CASE REPORT: We present the case of a previously well young woman with a history of migraine who developed internal carotid artery dissection following a turbulent short-haul commercial flight while restrained using a seatbelt. DISCUSSION: We propose that repetitive flexion-hyperextension neck movements encountered during the flight were the most likely precipitant of carotid artery dissection in this case and review the therapeutic options available.

  11. Space robotic experiment in JEM flight demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatomo, Masanori; Tanaka, Masaki; Nakamura, Kazuyuki; Tsuda, Shinichi

    1994-01-01

    Japan is collaborating on the multinational space station program. The JEM, Japanese Experiment Module, has both a pressurized module and an Exposed Facility (EF). JEM Remote Manipulator System (JEMRMS) will play a dominant role in handling/servicing payloads and the maintenance of the EF, and consists of two robotic arms, a main arm and a small fine arm. JEM Flight Demonstration (JFD) is a space robotics experiment using the prototype small fine arm to demonstrate its capability, prior to the Space Station operation. The small fine arm will be installed in the Space Shuttle cargo bay and operated by a crew from a dedicated workstation in the Aft Flight Deck of the orbiter.

  12. The HADES time-of-flight wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agodi, C.; Bassi, A.; Bassini, R.; Bellia, G.; Benovic, M.; Boiano, C.; Brambilla, S.; Coniglione, R.; Cosentino, L.; Finocchiaro, P.; Hlavac, S.; Iori, I.; Koenig, W.; Kugler, A.; Maiolino, C.; Marek, T.; Piattelli, P.; Pleskač, R.; Sapienza, P.; Spataro, S.; Suk, M.; Taranenko, A.; Tlustý, P.; Turzo, I.; Vassiliev, D.; Wagner, V.; Zovinec, D.

    2002-10-01

    In the framework of the High Acceptance DiElectron Spectrometer collaboration a Time-of-Flight wall subdetector has been developed. In order to efficiently select rare events with dilepton pairs produced in the nuclear matter, in a high hadron multiplicity environment, such a wall must be able to resolve electrons from pions up to 0.5 GeV/ c and from protons up to 2 GeV/ c. The short flight path of about 2 m requires a time resolution better than 150 ps, while impact position and multiplicity measurements need adequate granularity. These requirements have been fulfilled by employing scintillator rods read-out at both ends by photomultipliers.

  13. Loads in the design of flight vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simion TĂTARU

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The calculation of flight loads is a critical part of air vehicle design. On the other hand, the prediction of accurate loads is a sophisticated and complex process that requires skilled and experienced engineers. They must integrate results from wind tunnel tests, computer simulations, historical data and empirical formulations into a number of loads cases that provide a realistic assessment of the flight vehicle’s environment. Under these conditions, the vehicle must satisfy requirements imposed by regulatory agencies as part of the vehicle certification process.Loads and boundary conditions can be associated to either the finite element model or the underlying geometry. By associating loads and boundary conditions to the geometry the finite element model mesh and elements can be modified without redefining and applying the loads to the model. Loads and boundary conditions are associated to the model geometry by default.

  14. SHMS Hodoscopes and Time of Flight System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craycraft, Kayla; Malace, Simona

    2017-09-01

    As part of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility's (Jefferson Lab) upgrade from 6 GeV to 12 GeV, a new magnetic focusing spectrometer, the Super High Momentum Spectrometer (SHMS), was installed in experimental Hall C. The detector stack consists of horizontal drift chambers for tracking, gas Cerenkov and Aerogel detectors and a lead glass calorimeter for particle identification. A hodoscope system consisting of three planes of scintillator detectors (constructed by James Madison University) and one plane of quartz bars (built by North Carolina A&T State University) is used for triggering and time of flight measurements. This presentation consists of discussion of the installation, calibration, and characterization of the detectors used in this Time of Flight system. James Madison University, North Carolina A&T State University.

  15. Mars Science Laboratory Heatshield Flight Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahzari, Milad; White, Todd

    2017-01-01

    NASA Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), which landed the Curiosity rover on the surface of Mars on August 5th, 2012, was the largest and heaviest Mars entry vehicle representing a significant advancement in planetary entry, descent and landing capability. Hypersonic flight performance data was collected using MSLs on-board sensors called Mars Entry, Descent and Landing Instrumentation (MEDLI). This talk will give an overview of MSL entry and a description of MEDLI sensors. Observations from flight data will be examined followed by a discussion of analysis efforts to reconstruct surface heating from heatshields in-depth temperature measurements. Finally, a brief overview of MEDLI2 instrumentation, which will fly on NASAs Mars2020 mission, will be presented with a discussion on how lessons learned from MEDLI data affected the design of MEDLI2 instrumentation.

  16. Powered Flight The Engineering of Aerospace Propulsion

    CERN Document Server

    Greatrix, David R

    2012-01-01

    Whilst most contemporary books in the aerospace propulsion field are dedicated primarily to gas turbine engines, there is often little or no coverage of other propulsion systems and devices such as propeller and helicopter rotors or detailed attention to rocket engines. By taking a wider viewpoint, Powered Flight - The Engineering of Aerospace Propulsion aims to provide a broader context, allowing observations and comparisons to be made across systems that are overlooked by focusing on a single aspect alone. The physics and history of aerospace propulsion are built on step-by-step, coupled with the development of an appreciation for the mathematics involved in the science and engineering of propulsion. Combining the author’s experience as a researcher, an industry professional and a lecturer in graduate and undergraduate aerospace engineering, Powered Flight - The Engineering of Aerospace Propulsion covers its subject matter both theoretically and with an awareness of the practicalities of the industry. To ...

  17. Automatic Code Generation for Instrument Flight Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, Kiri L.; Benowitz, Edward; Byrne, D. J.; Peters, Ken; Watney, Garth

    2008-01-01

    Automatic code generation can be used to convert software state diagrams into executable code, enabling a model- based approach to software design and development. The primary benefits of this process are reduced development time and continuous consistency between the system design (statechart) and its implementation. We used model-based design and code generation to produce software for the Electra UHF radios that is functionally equivalent to software that will be used by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) and the Mars Science Laboratory to communicate with each other. The resulting software passed all of the relevant MRO flight software tests, and the project provides a useful case study for future work in model-based software development for flight software systems.

  18. STS-114 Flight Day 4 Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Video coverage of Day 4 continues the Return to Flight mission of STS-114. The crew of Space Shuttle Discovery (Commander Eileen Collins, Pilot James Kelly, Mission Specialists Soichi Noguchi, Stephen Robinson, Andrew Thomas, Wendy Lawrence, and Charles Camarda) and the Expedition 11 crew (Commander Sergei Krikalev and NASA ISS Science Officer and Flight Engineer John Phillips) of the International Space Station (ISS) cooperated on several activities. These were the installation of the Raffaello Multipurpose Logistics Module onto the Common Bearthing Mechanism of the Unity module of the ISS by the Space Station Remote Manipulator System, an interview of Collins and Thomas, primarily focusing on foam shedding and shuttle safety, and use of the Orbiter Boom Sensor System by the Shuttle Remote Manipulator System to follow up on ground-based inspection of the thermal protection beneath Discovery.

  19. Perception of stress among aviation flight students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Amrita

    There have been many studies related to stress among college students and the purpose of this research was to determine what causes stress among the student pilots enrolled in the Middle Tennessee State University (MTSU) flight program, also to find out what students think could be some possible ways to reduce their stress, and to compare the results with a previous study conducted by South Illinois University. The survey designed by Robertson and Ruiz (2010) was administered to MTSU students so that a comparison could be done between MTSU and SIU, as SIU used the same survey form. Results of the study showed that flight students are exposed to similar stress at both universities, but some of the factors that cause stress are different between MTSU and SIU students.

  20. Mutual Fund Flight-to-Liquidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rzeznik, Aleksandra

    of their portfolio towards more liquid assets in order to meet potential redemptions. This causal chain is consistent with Vayanos (2004), who argues that fund managers are investors with time-varying liquidity preferences due to threat of withdrawal. Aggregated over funds, the effect is substantial: a one standard......This paper examines the liquidity choices of mutual funds during times of market uncertainty. I find that when markets are uncertain, mutual funds actively increase the liquidity of their portfolio { often referred to as a `flight-to-liquidity.' In aggregate, mutual fund behaviour has implications...... for the market; the market driven flight-toliquidity places upward pressure on the liquidity premium. I examine the underlying mechanisms driving fund behaviour. I show that market volatility is associated with lower fund performance and withdrawals, which causes funds to adjust the composition...

  1. Flight Testing of Hybrid Powered Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, George; Arves, Joe

    2006-01-01

    Hybrid Rocket powered vehicles have had a limited number of flights. Most recently in 2004, Scaled Composites had a successful orbital trajectory that put a private vehicle twice to over 62 miles high, the edge of space to win the X-Prize. This endeavor man rates a hybrid system. Hybrids have also been used in a number of one time launch attempts - SET-1, HYSR, HPDP. Hybrids have also been developed for use and flown in target drones. This chapter discusses various flight-test programs that have been conducted, hybrid vehicles that are in development, other hybrid vehicles that have been proposed and some strap-on applications have also been examined.

  2. Development of an active structure flight experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, R. A.; Wyse, R. E.; Schubert, S. R.

    1993-02-01

    The design and development of the Air Force and TRW's Advanced Control Technology Experiment (ACTEX) flight experiment is described in this paper. The overall objective of ACTEX is to provide an active structure trailblazer which will demonstrate the compatibility of active structures with operational spacecraft performance and lifetime measures. At the heart of the experiment is an active tripod driven by a digitally-programmable analog control electronics subsystem. Piezoceramic sensors and actuators embedded in a graphite epoxy host material provide the sensing and actuation mechanism for the active tripod. Low noise ground-programmable electronics provide a virtually unlimited number of control schemes that can be implemented in the space environment. The flight experiment program provides the opportunity to gather performance, reliability, adaptability, and lifetime performance data on vibration suppression hardware for the next generation of DoD and NASA spacecraft.

  3. YF-16 flight flutter test procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brignac, W. J.; Ness, H. B.; Johnson, M. K.; Smith, L. M.

    1976-01-01

    The Random Decrement technique (Randomdec) was incorporated in procedures for flight testing of the YF-16 lightweight fighter prototype. Damping values obtained substantiate the adequacy of the flutter margin of safety. To confirm the structural modes which were being excited, a spectral analysis of each channel was performed using the AFFTC time/data 1923/50 time series analyzer. Inflight test procedure included the careful monitoring of strip charts, three axis pulses, rolls, and pullups.

  4. Flight elements subpanel introduction and overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollock, Paul E.

    1990-01-01

    Major objectives, milestones, key contacts, technology issues, accomplishments, and candidate programs are outlined. Topics addressed include: advanced avionics systems architectures; advanced information processing; avionics concepts; integrated Global Positioning System/guidance, navigation, and command concepts; advanced communication and telemetry; display and control concepts; advanced sensors and instrumentation; fault detection and fault management; advanced electric power, distribution, and control; EMA/power systems; and in-flight crew training. This presentation is represented by viewgraphs only.

  5. The aerodynamics of hovering flight in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Steven N; Sayaman, Rosalyn; Dickinson, Michael H

    2005-06-01

    Using 3D infrared high-speed video, we captured the continuous wing and body kinematics of free-flying fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, during hovering and slow forward flight. We then 'replayed' the wing kinematics on a dynamically scaled robotic model to measure the aerodynamic forces produced by the wings. Hovering animals generate a U-shaped wing trajectory, in which large drag forces during a downward plunge at the start of each stroke create peak vertical forces. Quasi-steady mechanisms could account for nearly all of the mean measured force required to hover, although temporal discrepancies between instantaneous measured forces and model predictions indicate that unsteady mechanisms also play a significant role. We analyzed the requirements for hovering from an analysis of the time history of forces and moments in all six degrees of freedom. The wing kinematics necessary to generate sufficient lift are highly constrained by the requirement to balance thrust and pitch torque over the stroke cycle. We also compare the wing motion and aerodynamic forces of free and tethered flies. Tethering causes a strong distortion of the stroke pattern that results in a reduction of translational forces and a prominent nose-down pitch moment. The stereotyped distortion under tethered conditions is most likely due to a disruption of sensory feedback. Finally, we calculated flight power based directly on the measurements of wing motion and aerodynamic forces, which yielded a higher estimate of muscle power during free hovering flight than prior estimates based on time-averaged parameters. This discrepancy is mostly due to a two- to threefold underestimate of the mean profile drag coefficient in prior studies. We also compared our values with the predictions of the same time-averaged models using more accurate kinematic and aerodynamic input parameters based on our high-speed videography measurements. In this case, the time-averaged models tended to overestimate flight

  6. Flight Performance of the Biological Lifting Surface

    OpenAIRE

    Prisacariu, Vasile

    2017-01-01

    In the international research, biomimetic lifting surface are analyzed in various aspects: construction, aerodynamics and energy. The specificity of the flying wings determined similarity between the aeromechanical and the biomimetic concepts leading to numerous challenges in terms of construction, aerodynamics and actuation. The Aeromechanics of the biological flight focuses both on the various forms of lifting surfaces and the biomechanical aspects. This article contains a number of referen...

  7. Spin of Planetary Probes in Atmospheric Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, R. D.

    Probes that enter planetary atmospheres are often spun during entry or descent for a variety of reasons. Their spin rate histories are influenced by often subtle effects. The spin requirements, control methods and flight experience from planetary and earth entry missions are reviewed. An interaction of the probe aerodynamic wake with a drogue parachute, observed in Gemini wind tunnel tests, is discussed in connection with the anomalous spin behaviour of the Huygens probe.

  8. Mobile communications satellite antenna flight experiment definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeland, Robert E.

    1987-01-01

    Results of a NASA-sponsored study to determine the technical feasibility and cost of a Shuttle-based flight experiment specifically intended for the MSAT commercial user community are presented. The experiment will include demonstrations of technology in the areas of radio frequency, sensing and control, and structures. The results of the structural subsystem study summarized here include experiment objective and technical approach, experiment structural description, structure/environment interactions, structural characterization, thermal characterization, structural measurement system, and experiment functional description.

  9. Launch Abort System Flight Test Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Hayes, Peggy; Bosworth, John T.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation is an overview of the Launch Abort System (LAS) for the Constellation Program. The purpose of the paper is to review the planned tests for the LAS. The program will evaluate the performance of the crew escape functions of the Launch Abort System (LAS) specifically: the ability of the LAS to separate from the crew module, to gather flight test data for future design and implementation and to reduce system development risks.

  10. Multicore Considerations for Legacy Flight Software Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vines, Kenneth; Day, Len

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we will discuss potential benefits and pitfalls when considering a migration from an existing single core code base to a multicore processor implementation. The results of this study present options that should be considered before migrating fault managers, device handlers and tasks with time-constrained requirements to a multicore flight software environment. Possible future multicore test bed demonstrations are also discussed.

  11. IRAC Full-Scale Flight Testbed Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James A.; Pahle, Joseph; Cogan, Bruce R.; Hanson, Curtis E.; Bosworth, John T.

    2009-01-01

    Overview: Provide validation of adaptive control law concepts through full scale flight evaluation in a representative avionics architecture. Develop an understanding of aircraft dynamics of current vehicles in damaged and upset conditions Real-world conditions include: a) Turbulence, sensor noise, feedback biases; and b) Coupling between pilot and adaptive system. Simulated damage includes 1) "B" matrix (surface) failures; and 2) "A" matrix failures. Evaluate robustness of control systems to anticipated and unanticipated failures.

  12. High Capacity Battery Cell Flight Qualified

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKissock, Barbara I.

    1997-01-01

    The High Capacity Battery Cell project is an effort equally funded by the NASA Lewis Research Center and Hughes Space and Communications Company (a unit of Hughes Aircraft Company) to develop and flight qualify a higher capacity nickel hydrogen battery for continuing use on commercial spacecraft. The larger diameter, individual pressure vessel cell will provide approximately twice the power, while occupying the same volume, as the current state-of-the-art nickel hydrogen cell. These cells are also anticipated to reduce battery cost by 20 percent. The battery is currently booked for use on 26 spacecraft, with the first flight scheduled in 1997. A strong requirement for batteries with higher power levels (6 to 12 kW), long life, and reduced cost was identified in studies of the needs of commercial communications spacecraft. With the design developed in this effort, the higher power level was accommodated without having to modify the rest of the existing spacecraft bus. This design scaled-up the existing state-of-the-art nickel hydrogen battery cell from a 3.5-in., 50-Ahr cell to a 5.5-in., 350-Ahr cell. An improvement in cycle life was also achieved by the use of the 26-percent KOH electrolyte design developed by NASA Lewis. The cell design was completed, and flight batteries were built and flight qualified by Hughes Space and Communications Company with input from NASA Lewis. Two batteries were shipped in September 1996 to undergo life cycle testing under the purview of NASA Lewis.

  13. On the modelling of gyroplane flight dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Stewart; Thomson, Douglas

    2017-01-01

    The study of the gyroplane, with a few exceptions, is largely neglected in the literature which is indicative of a niche configuration limited to the sport and recreational market where resources are limited. However the contemporary needs of an informed population of owners and constructors, as well as the possibility of a wider application of such low-cost rotorcraft in other roles, suggests that an examination of the mathematical modelling requirements for the study of gyroplane flight mechanics is timely. Rotorcraft mathematical modelling has become stratified in three levels, each one defining the inclusion of various layers of complexity added to embrace specific modelling features as well as an attempt to improve fidelity. This paper examines the modelling of gyroplane flight mechanics in the context of this complexity, and shows that relatively simple formulations are adequate for capturing most aspects of gyroplane trim, stability and control characteristics. In particular the conventional 6 degree-of-freedom model structure is suitable for the synthesis of models from flight test data as well as being the framework for reducing the order of the higher levels of modelling. However, a high level of modelling can be required to mimic some aspects of behaviour observed in data gathered from flight experiments and even then can fail to capture other details. These limitations are addressed in the paper. It is concluded that the mathematical modelling of gyroplanes for the simulation and analysis of trim, stability and control presents no special difficulty and the conventional techniques, methods and formulations familiar to the rotary-wing community are directly applicable.

  14. Making Personalised Flight Recommendations using Implicit Feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Coyle, Lorcan

    2004-01-01

    As e-commerce has become more popular, the problem of information overload has come to the fore. Recommender systems that reduce the information overload problem are becoming more common. However, the problem with many recommender systems is that they are associated with a high cost of learning customer preferences (in terms of cognitive load). We describe the Personal Travel Assistant (PTA), a flight recommender application that uses case-based reasoning (CBR) to overcome these problem...

  15. Technology research for digital flight control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carestia, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    The use of advanced digital systems for flight control and guidance for a specific mission is investigated. The research areas include advanced electronic system architectures, tests with the global positioning system (GPS) in a helicopter, and advanced integrated systems concept for rotorcraft. Emphasis is on a search and rescue mission, differential global positioning systems to provide a data base of performance information for navigation, and a study to determine the present usage and trends of microcomputers and microcomputer components in the avionics industries.

  16. Enhancing the Flight Safety Culture Through Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanki, Barbara G.; Rosekind, Mark R. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    In the 1970's, flight safety professionals became profoundly concerned about the prevalence of crew-caused accidents and incidents, and the role of human error in flight operations. As result, they initiated a change in the flight safety culture which has grown to significant proportions today. At the heart of the evolution were crew concepts such as flightdeck management, crew coordination, and cockpit resource management, concepts which seemed to target critical deficiencies. In themselves, the concepts were not new but their incorporation into training as a direct means of changing the flight safety culture was an untried, almost 'grassroots' approach. The targeted crew concepts and skills were not an integral part of the typical training program; the methods, curriculum, media, and even course content itself, would have to be developed and implemented from the bottom up. A familiar truism in the pilot culture is that you should 'Train the way you fly; Fly the way you train'. In short, training was expected to provide the pilot with practical operational skills that were consistent with the performance standards they were required to maintain and the operational demands they met on a daily basis. In short, one could not simply command crews to use good CRM; one would have to research and define these skills operationally as well as develop and implement a consistent and effective training program. Furthermore, one would need active support and collaboration among the research, industry and government communities in order to ensure acceptance and continued commitment. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  17. Visual Advantage of Enhanced Flight Vision System During NextGen Flight Test Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Harrison, Stephanie J.; Bailey, Randall E.; Shelton, Kevin J.; Ellis, Kyle K.

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic Vision Systems and Enhanced Flight Vision System (SVS/EFVS) technologies have the potential to provide additional margins of safety for aircrew performance and enable operational improvements for low visibility operations in the terminal area environment. Simulation and flight tests were jointly sponsored by NASA's Aviation Safety Program, Vehicle Systems Safety Technology project and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to evaluate potential safety and operational benefits of SVS/EFVS technologies in low visibility Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) operations. The flight tests were conducted by a team of Honeywell, Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation and NASA personnel with the goal of obtaining pilot-in-the-loop test data for flight validation, verification, and demonstration of selected SVS/EFVS operational and system-level performance capabilities. Nine test flights were flown in Gulfstream's G450 flight test aircraft outfitted with the SVS/EFVS technologies under low visibility instrument meteorological conditions. Evaluation pilots flew 108 approaches in low visibility weather conditions (600 feet to 3600 feet reported visibility) under different obscurants (mist, fog, drizzle fog, frozen fog) and sky cover (broken, overcast). Flight test videos were evaluated at three different altitudes (decision altitude, 100 feet radar altitude, and touchdown) to determine the visual advantage afforded to the pilot using the EFVS/Forward-Looking InfraRed (FLIR) imagery compared to natural vision. Results indicate the EFVS provided a visual advantage of two to three times over that of the out-the-window (OTW) view. The EFVS allowed pilots to view the runway environment, specifically runway lights, before they would be able to OTW with natural vision.

  18. The endocrine system in space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, C. S.; Johnson, P. C.; Cintron, N. M.

    1988-01-01

    A trial natriuretic factor (ANF), a hormone recently shown to regulate sodium and water excretion, has been measured in blood specimens obtained during flight. After 30 or 42 h of weightlessness, mean ANF was elevated. After 175 or 180 h, ANF has increased by 59 percent, and it changed little between that time and soon after landing. There is probably an increase in ANF early inflight associated with the fluid shift, followed by a compensatory decrease in blood volume. Increased renal blood flow may cause the later ANF decrease. Erythropoietin (Ep), a hormone involved in the control of red blood cell proudction, was measured in blood samples taken during the first Spacelab mission and was significantly decreased on the second day of flight, suggesting also an increase in renal blood flow. Spacelab-2 investigators report that the active vitamin D metabolite 1 alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D-3 increased early in the flight, indicating that a stimulus for increased bone resorption occurs by 30 h after launch.

  19. The TORCH time-of-flight detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnew, N.; Brook, N.; Castillo García, L.; Cussans, D.; Föhl, K.; Forty, R.; Frei, C.; Gao, R.; Gys, T.; Piedigrossi, D.; Rademacker, J.; Ros Garcia, A.; van Dijk, M.

    2016-07-01

    The TORCH time-of-flight detector is being developed to provide particle identification between 2 and 10 GeV/c momentum over a flight distance of 10 m. TORCH is designed for large-area coverage, up to 30 m2, and has a DIRC-like construction. The goal is to achieve a 15 ps time-of-flight resolution per incident particle by combining arrival times from multiple Cherenkov photons produced within quartz radiator plates of 10 mm thickness. A four-year R&D programme is underway with an industrial partner (Photek, UK) to produce 53×53 mm2 Micro-Channel Plate (MCP) detectors for the TORCH application. The MCP-PMT will provide a timing accuracy of 40 ps per photon and it will have a lifetime of up to at least 5 Ccm-2 of integrated anode charge by utilizing an Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) coating. The MCP will be read out using charge division with customised electronics incorporating the NINO chipset. Laboratory results on prototype MCPs are presented. The construction of a prototype TORCH module and its simulated performance are also described.

  20. The TORCH time-of-flight detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harnew, N., E-mail: Neville.Harnew@physics.ox.ac.uk [University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, 1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Brook, N. [University College London, Department of Physics & Astronomy, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Castillo García, L. [CERN, PH Department, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Laboratory for High Energy Physics, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Cussans, D. [H.H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Föhl, K.; Forty, R.; Frei, C. [CERN, PH Department, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Gao, R. [University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, 1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Gys, T.; Piedigrossi, D. [CERN, PH Department, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Rademacker, J.; Ros Garcia, A.; Dijk, M. van [H.H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-11

    The TORCH time-of-flight detector is being developed to provide particle identification between 2 and 10 GeV/c momentum over a flight distance of 10 m. TORCH is designed for large-area coverage, up to 30 m{sup 2}, and has a DIRC-like construction. The goal is to achieve a 15 ps time-of-flight resolution per incident particle by combining arrival times from multiple Cherenkov photons produced within quartz radiator plates of 10 mm thickness. A four-year R&D programme is underway with an industrial partner (Photek, UK) to produce 53×53 mm{sup 2} Micro-Channel Plate (MCP) detectors for the TORCH application. The MCP-PMT will provide a timing accuracy of 40 ps per photon and it will have a lifetime of up to at least 5 Ccm{sup −2} of integrated anode charge by utilizing an Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) coating. The MCP will be read out using charge division with customised electronics incorporating the NINO chipset. Laboratory results on prototype MCPs are presented. The construction of a prototype TORCH module and its simulated performance are also described.

  1. First RAVEN flight set for September

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2002-08-01

    An unmanned aerial vehicle called RAVEN, said to be capable of remote tracking of onshore and offshore oil and gas facilities, has been developed by a group of graduate students from Memorial University of Newfoundland. RAVEN is claimed to be capable of performing a number of tasks under its own control without the need for human intervention, including checking onshore pipelines for damage, or scouting the path of hazardous icebergs offshore. The RAVEN was created to meet the need for real time iceberg tracking and early hazard detection, supplementing or replacing the present method of RADARSAT images and tracking by manned aircraft. The RAVEN can be launched from any platform; it can fly under conditions that would be too dangerous for a manned aircraft. Currently in the prototype stage, the first trial flight for the RAVEN is expected to take place in September 2002. The first flight will consist of five GPS waypoints set relatively close together in a pattern to allow testing of the autopilot and the camera simultaneously. The second flight will be similar, but will also include tracking a section of a pipeline and record images at programmed GPS waypoints.

  2. STS-107 Flight Day 8 Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This video shows the activities of the STS-107 crew (Rick Husband, Commander; William McCool, Pilot; Kalpana Chawla, David Brown, Michael Anderson, Laurel Clark, Mission Specialists, Ilan Ramon, Payload Specialist) during flight day 8 of the Columbia orbiter's final flight. The primary activities of flight day 8 are spaceborne experiments. Some background information is given on the SOFBALL (Structure of Flame Balls at Low Lewis-Number) microgravity experiment as footage of the flame balls is shown. The video also shows the MEIDEX (Mediterranean Israeli Dust Experiment) calibrating on the Moon. The six STARS (Space Technology and Research Students) international student experiments are profiled, including experiments on carpenter bees (Liechtenstein), spiders (Australia), silkworms (China), ants (United States), crystal growth (Israel), and fish embryos (Japan). A commercial experiment on roses is also profiled. Astronaut Clark gives a tour of the SpaceHab RDM (Research Double Module), in the space shuttle's payload bay. Astronauts McCool and Ramon take turns on an exercise machine. The video includes a partly cloudy view of the Pacific Ocean.

  3. HIPO in-flight performance aboard SOFIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Edward W.; Bida, Thomas A.; Collins, Peter L.; Mandushev, Georgi I.; McLean, Ian S.; Person, Michael J.; Smith, Erin C.; Taylor, Brian W.; Zoonematkermani, Saeid

    2012-09-01

    HIPO is a special purpose science instrument for SOFIA that was also designed to be used for Observatory test work. It was used in a series of flights from June to December 2011 as part of the SOFIA Characterization and Integration (SCAI) flight test program. Partial commissioning of HIPO and the co-mounted HIPO-FLITECAM (FLIPO) configuration were included within the scope of the SCAI work. The commissioning measurements included such things as optical throughput, image size and shape as a function of wavelength and exposure time, image motion assessment over a wide frequency range, scintillation noise, photometric stability assessment, twilight sky brightness, cosmic ray rate as a function of altitude, telescope pointing control, secondary mirror control, and GPS time and position performance. As part of this work we successfully observed a stellar occultation by Pluto, our first SOFIA science data. We report here on the observed in-flight performance of HIPO both when mounted alone and when used in the FLIPO configuration.

  4. History of nutrition in space flight: overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Helen W.; Feeback, Daniel L.

    2002-01-01

    Major accomplishments in nutritional sciences for support of human space travel have occurred over the past 40 y. This article reviews these accomplishments, beginning with the early Gemini program and continuing through the impressive results from the first space station Skylab program that focused on life sciences research, the Russian contributions through the Mir space station, the US Shuttle life sciences research, and the emerging International Space Station missions. Nutrition is affected by environmental conditions such as radiation, temperature, and atmospheric pressures, and these are reviewed. Nutrition with respect to space flight is closely interconnected with other life sciences research disciplines including the study of hematology, immunology, as well as neurosensory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, circadian rhythms, and musculoskeletal physiology. These relationships are reviewed in reference to the overall history of nutritional science in human space flight. Cumulative nutritional research over the past four decades has resulted in the current nutritional requirements for astronauts. Space-flight nutritional recommendations are presented along with the critical path road map that outlines the research needed for future development of nutritional requirements.

  5. STS-114 Flight Day 3 Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Video coverage of Day 3 includes highlights of STS-114 during the approach and docking of Discovery with the International Space Station (ISS). The Return to Flight continues with space shuttle crew members (Commander Eileen Collins, Pilot James Kelly, Mission Specialists Soichi Noguchi, Stephen Robinson, Andrew Thomas, Wendy Lawrence, and Charles Camarda) seen in onboard activities on the fore and aft portions of the flight deck during the orbiter's approach. Camarda sends a greeting to his family, and Collins maneuvers Discovery as the ISS appears steadily closer in sequential still video from the centerline camera of the Orbiter Docking System. The approach includes video of Discovery from the ISS during the orbiter's Rendezvous Pitch Maneuver, giving the ISS a clear view of the thermal protection systems underneath the orbiter. Discovery docks with the Destiny Laboratory of the ISS, and the shuttle crew greets the Expedition 11 crew (Commander Sergei Krikalev and NASA ISS Science Officer and Flight Engineer John Phillips) of the ISS onboard the station. Finally, the Space Station Remote Manipulator System hands the Orbiter Boom Sensor System to its counterpart, the Shuttle Remote Manipulator System.

  6. XML Flight/Ground Data Dictionary Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jesse; Wiklow, Colette

    2007-01-01

    A computer program generates Extensible Markup Language (XML) files that effect coupling between the command- and telemetry-handling software running aboard a spacecraft and the corresponding software running in ground support systems. The XML files are produced by use of information from the flight software and from flight-system engineering. The XML files are converted to legacy ground-system data formats for command and telemetry, transformed into Web-based and printed documentation, and used in developing new ground-system data-handling software. Previously, the information about telemetry and command was scattered in various paper documents that were not synchronized. The process of searching and reading the documents was time-consuming and introduced errors. In contrast, the XML files contain all of the information in one place. XML structures can evolve in such a manner as to enable the addition, to the XML files, of the metadata necessary to track the changes and the associated documentation. The use of this software has reduced the extent of manual operations in developing a ground data system, thereby saving considerable time and removing errors that previously arose in the translation and transcription of software information from the flight to the ground system.

  7. Evolutionary flight and enabling smart actuator devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Justin; Garcia, Ephrahim

    2007-04-01

    Recent interest in morphing vehicles with multiple, optimized configurations has led to renewed research on biological flight. The flying vertebrates - birds, bats, and pterosaurs - all made or make use of various morphing devices to achieve lift to suit rapidly changing flight demands, including maneuvers as complex as perching and hovering. The first part of this paper will discuss these devices, with a focus on the morphing elements and structural strong suits of each creature. Modern flight correlations to these devices will be discussed and analyzed as valid adaptations of these evolutionary traits. The second part of the paper will focus on the use of active joint structures for use in morphing aircraft devices. Initial work on smart actuator devices focused on NASA Langley's Hyper-Elliptical Cambered Span (HECS) wing platform, which led to development of a discretized spanwise curvature effector. This mechanism uses shape memory alloy (SMA) as the sole morphing actuator, allowing fast rotation with lightweight components at the expense of energy inefficiency. Phase two of morphing actuator development will add an element of active rigidity to the morphing structure, in the form of shape memory polymer (SMP). Employing a composite structure of polymer and alloy, this joint will function as part of a biomimetic morphing actuator system in a more energetically efficient manner. The joint is thermally actuated to allow compliance on demand and rigidity in the nominal configuration. Analytical and experimental joint models are presented, and potential applications on a bat-wing aircraft structure are outlined.

  8. 75 FR 73014 - Notice of Public Meeting: Updating the Flight Instructor Renewal Process To Enhance Safety of Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... Renewal Process To Enhance Safety of Flight AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... to improve the Certificated Flight Instructor (CFI) biennial renewal process to enhance the safety of... [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The FAA has been reviewing safety of flight...

  9. Relationship of Flight and Reproduction in Beet Armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), a Migrant Lacking the Oogenesis-flight Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, undertakes long-distance migration. We used flight mills to investigate the interaction between flight and reproduction in this species given the apparent absence of the oogenesis-flight syndrome. This syndrome is characterized by a suite of traits common in man...

  10. 14 CFR 121.631 - Original dispatch or flight release, redispatch or amendment of dispatch or flight release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... a flight to continue beyond the ETOPS Entry Point unless— (1) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of... Alternate Airports within the authorized ETOPS maximum diversion time are reviewed and the flight crew... ETOPS Alternate Airport within the maximum ETOPS diversion time that could be authorized for that flight...

  11. Design of All Digital Flight Program Training Desktop Application System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available All digital flight program training desktop application system operating conditions are simple. Can make the aircraft aircrew learning theory and operation training closely. Improve the training efficiency and effectiveness. This paper studies the application field and design requirements of flight program training system. Based on the WINDOWS operating system desktop application, the design idea and system architecture of the all digital flight program training system are put forward. Flight characteristics, key airborne systems and aircraft cockpit are simulated. Finally, By comparing flight training simulator and the specific script program training system, The characteristics and advantages of the training system are analyzed in this paper.

  12. In-Flight Personalized Medication Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peletskaya, E.; Griko, Y. V.

    2016-01-01

    Current medication selection for treatment of astronauts during spaceflight missions is primarily dictated by the task of efficiently treating the widest possible range of physiological conditions and illnesses with a limited set of medications. Dosage and recommendations on the combination of drugs are based on the assumption of genetically equal drug sensitivity and unchanged metabolism. To our knowledge, there was no pre-flight drug sensitivity testing on a genetic level for any of the previous manned NASA space missions. Although many of the common, binary drug-drug interactions are, most likely, already considered in the ISS Medical kit composition, multi-drug and multi-drug-gene factors are not incorporated in the medication selection or prescription. Furthermore, due to the physiological changes occurring in microgravity environments, astronauts might be susceptible to potential increased drug toxicity as a result of decreased clearance of numerous drugs. In particular, perturbation of CYP450 enzymes which contribute to the hepatic metabolism of the majority of drugs may have significant effects on therapeutic efficacy and increase treatment-related toxicity5. The genes encoding the CYP450 enzymes are highly variable in humans. Inheritable variations of CYP450 hepatic metabolizer enzymes and transport proteins play a crucial role in the inter-individual variability of drug efficiency and risks of adverse drug reactions5. Additionally, there are some reports that document changes in the levels of production of drug-metabolizing enzymes in microgravity. These data can be extrapolated to provide reasonable assumptions of decreased levels of expression for most CYP450 enzymes in human body during prolonged space travel. If the prescribed medication regiment is not fully effective or causes undesirable side effects, the ability of the astronauts to function and maintain peak performance levels during space flight could be seriously compromised. Therefore

  13. Aging Enhances Indirect Flight Muscle Fiber Performance yet Decreases Flight Ability in Drosophila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Mark S.; Lekkas, Panagiotis; Braddock, Joan M.; Farman, Gerrie P.; Ballif, Bryan A.; Irving, Thomas C.; Maughan, David W.; Vigoreaux, Jim O. (IIT); (Vermont)

    2008-10-02

    We investigated the effects of aging on Drosophila melanogaster indirect flight muscle from the whole organism to the actomyosin cross-bridge. Median-aged (49-day-old) flies were flight impaired, had normal myofilament number and packing, barely longer sarcomeres, and slight mitochondrial deterioration compared with young (3-day-old) flies. Old (56-day-old) flies were unable to beat their wings, had deteriorated ultrastructure with severe mitochondrial damage, and their skinned fibers failed to activate with calcium. Small-amplitude sinusoidal length perturbation analysis showed median-aged indirect flight muscle fibers developed greater than twice the isometric force and power output of young fibers, yet cross-bridge kinetics were similar. Large increases in elastic and viscous moduli amplitude under active, passive, and rigor conditions suggest that median-aged fibers become stiffer longitudinally. Small-angle x-ray diffraction indicates that myosin heads move increasingly toward the thin filament with age, accounting for the increased transverse stiffness via cross-bridge formation. We propose that the observed protein composition changes in the connecting filaments, which anchor the thick filaments to the Z-disk, produce compensatory increases in longitudinal stiffness, isometric tension, power and actomyosin interaction in aging indirect flight muscle. We also speculate that a lack of MgATP due to damaged mitochondria accounts for the decreased flight performance.

  14. HIFIRE Flight 2 Overview and Status Update 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Kevin R.; Gruber, Mark R.; Buccellato, Salvatore

    2011-01-01

    A collaborative international effort, the Hypersonic International Flight Research Experimentation (HIFiRE) Program aims to study basic hypersonic phenomena through flight experimentation. HIFiRE Flight 2 teams the United States Air Force Research Lab (AFRL), NASA, and the Australian Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO). Flight 2 will develop an alternative test technique for acquiring high enthalpy scramjet flight test data, allowing exploration of accelerating hydrocarbon-fueled scramjet performance and dual-to-scram mode transition up to and beyond Mach 8 flight. The generic scramjet flowpath is research quality and the test fuel is a simple surrogate for an endothermically cracked liquid hydrocarbon fuel. HIFiRE Flight 2 will be a first of its kind in contribution to scramjets. The HIFiRE program builds upon the HyShot and HYCAUSE programs and aims to leverage the low-cost flight test technique developed in those programs. It will explore suppressed trajectories of a sounding rocket propelled test article and their utility in studying ramjet-scramjet mode transition and flame extinction limits research. This paper describes the overall scramjet flight test experiment mission goals and objectives, flight test approach and strategy, ground test and analysis summary, development status and project schedule. A successful launch and operation will present to the scramjet community valuable flight test data in addition to a new tool, and vehicle, with which to explore high enthalpy scramjet technologies.

  15. Methods for conducting an introductory flight test engineering course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Gentry

    This thesis serves as a guide to teaching an introductory flight test engineering course. There are several references pertaining to this area of study, but they are limited in their discussion of the details in how the professor can teach the course, how the professor can handle the logistics of the course, how the students can record and reduce the data and how the pilot can perform the flight test maneuvers. As such, this thesis, along with the materials developed therein, serves the reader as a guide to developing and conducting an introductory flight test engineering course. Materials were developed for the parties involved with an introductory flight test engineering course. Lesson plans and background theory is developed for the professor of the course. In-flight videos and flight maneuver manuals were developed to assist the pilot with flying the maneuvers. In-flight videos, a workbook and in-flight data collection manuals were developed to teach the students the basics of flight test engineering. A chapter is also dedicated to the logistics of the course for the professor. With these materials, any university interested in teaching the basics of flight test engineering will have a foundation to build upon. They will also be guided in the selection of a pilot who can perform the flight test maneuvers required of this course.

  16. Armstrong Flight Research Center Flight Test Capabilities and Opportunities for the Applications of Wireless Data Acquisition Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will overview NASA Armstrong Flight Research Centers flight test capabilities, which can provide various means for flight testing of passive and active wireless sensor systems, also, it will address the needs of the wireless data acquisition solutions for the centers flight instrumentation issues such as additional weight caused by added instrumentation wire bundles, connectors, wire cables routing, moving components, etc., that the Passive Wireless Sensor Technology Workshop may help. The presentation shows the constraints and requirements that the wireless sensor systems will face in the flight test applications.

  17. Nuptial flights behavior of the African weaver ant, Oecophylla longinoda Latreille (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and weather factors triggering flights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nene, Wilson; Rwegasira, Gration; Nielsen, Mogens Gissel

    2016-01-01

    compared to days without flights. Also, flights mainly took place around full moons. However, this correlation was based on a total of only five full moon phases and should, therefore, be interpreted with caution. The results also showed that flights were only significantly correlated with weather...... parameters during the early part of the mating season, the trend changed thereafter probably due to depletion of sexuals in the nests as the season progressed. This information improves our understanding of ant nuptial flights and offers a tool to improve forecasts of O. longinoda flights, enabling easier...

  18. In-flight Fault Detection and Isolation in Aircraft Flight Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azam, Mohammad; Pattipati, Krishna; Allanach, Jeffrey; Poll, Scott; Patterson-Hine, Ann

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of test design for real-time fault detection and isolation (FDI) in the flight control system of fixed-wing aircraft. We focus on the faults that are manifested in the control surface elements (e.g., aileron, elevator, rudder and stabilizer) of an aircraft. For demonstration purposes, we restrict our focus on the faults belonging to nine basic fault classes. The diagnostic tests are performed on the features extracted from fifty monitored system parameters. The proposed tests are able to uniquely isolate each of the faults at almost all severity levels. A neural network-based flight control simulator, FLTZ(Registered TradeMark), is used for the simulation of various faults in fixed-wing aircraft flight control systems for the purpose of FDI.

  19. Analysis of helicopter flight dynamics through modeling and simulation of primary flight control actuation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Hunter Barton

    A simplified second-order transfer function actuator model used in most flight dynamics applications cannot easily capture the effects of different actuator parameters. The present work integrates a nonlinear actuator model into a nonlinear state space rotorcraft model to determine the effect of actuator parameters on key flight dynamics. The completed actuator model was integrated with a swashplate kinematics where step responses were generated over a range of key hydraulic parameters. The actuator-swashplate system was then introduced into a nonlinear state space rotorcraft simulation where flight dynamics quantities such as bandwidth and phase delay analyzed. Frequency sweeps were simulated for unique actuator configurations using the coupled nonlinear actuator-rotorcraft system. The software package CIFER was used for system identification and compared directly to the linearized models. As the actuator became rate saturated, the effects on bandwidth and phase delay were apparent on the predicted handling qualities specifications.

  20. Age and Expertise Effects in Aviation Decision Making and Flight Control in a Flight Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Quinn; Taylor, Joy L.; Reade, Gordon; Yesavage, Jerome A.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Age (due to declines in cognitive abilities necessary for navigation) and level of aviation expertise are two factors that may affect aviation performance and decision making under adverse weather conditions. We examined the roles of age, expertise, and their relationship on aviation decision making and flight control performance during a flight simulator task. Methods Seventy-two IFR-rated general aviators, aged 19–79 yr, made multiple approach, holding pattern entry, and landing decisions while navigating under Instrument Flight Rules weather conditions. Over three trials in which the fog level varied, subjects decided whether or not to land the aircraft. They also completed two holding pattern entries. Subjects’ flight control during approaches and holding patterns was measured. Results Older pilots (41+ yr) were more likely than younger pilots to land when visibility was inadequate (older pilots’ mean false alarm rate: 0.44 vs 0.25). They also showed less precise flight control for components of the approach, performing 0.16 SD below mean approach scores. Expertise attenuated an age-related decline in flight control during holding patterns: older IFR/CFI performed 0.73 SD below mean score; younger IFR/CFI, younger CFII/ATP, older CFII/ATP: 0.32, 0.26, 0.03 SD above mean score. Additionally, pilots with faster processing speed (by median split) had a higher mean landing decision false alarm rate (0.42 vs 0.28), yet performed 0.14 SD above the mean approach control score. Conclusions Results have implications regarding specialized training for older pilots and for understanding processes involved in older adults’ real world decision making and performance. PMID:20464816

  1. Quantifying Pilot Contribution to Flight Safety During an In-Flight Airspeed Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etherington, Timothy J.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Bailey, Randall E.; Kennedey, Kellie D.

    2017-01-01

    Accident statistics cite the flight crew as a causal factor in over 60% of large transport fatal accidents. Yet a well-trained and well-qualified crew is acknowledged as the critical center point of aircraft systems safety and an integral component of the entire commercial aviation system. A human-in-the-loop test was conducted using a Level D certified Boeing 737-800 simulator to evaluate the pilot's contribution to safety-of-flight during routine air carrier flight operations and in response to system failures. To quantify the human's contribution, crew complement was used as an independent variable in a between-subjects design. This paper details the crew's actions and responses while dealing with an in-flight airspeed failure. Accident statistics often cite flight crew error (Baker, 2001) as the primary contributor in accidents and incidents in transport category aircraft. However, the Air Line Pilots Association (2011) suggests "a well-trained and well-qualified pilot is acknowledged as the critical center point of the aircraft systems safety and an integral safety component of the entire commercial aviation system." This is generally acknowledged but cannot be verified because little or no quantitative data exists on how or how many accidents/incidents are averted by crew actions. Anecdotal evidence suggest crews handle failures on a daily basis and Aviation Safety Action Program data generally supports this assertion, even if the data is not released to the public. However without hard evidence, the contribution and means by which pilots achieve safety of flight is difficult to define. Thus, ways to improve the human ability to contribute or overcome deficiencies are ill-defined.

  2. Optimal flight altitude and flight routes with respect to environmental and economical aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nodorp, D.; Sausen, R.; Land, C. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere; Deidewig, F. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Koeln (Germany). Inst. fuer Antriebstechnik

    1997-12-31

    A flight routing method is presented. In addition to conventional minimization of travel time and/or fuel consumption it also takes into account the environmental impact of the aircraft emissions on the climate system. In the process the ECHAM general circulation model is used to trace the pollutants after release, estimate their potential to cause damage and to weight this environmental relative to the economical aspect. Some case studies are presented for an Airbus A340 in the North Atlantic flight corridor. (author) 6 refs.

  3. Reactions of Air Transport Flight Crews to Displays of Weather During Simulated Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, James P.; Fallon, Corey; Bustamante, Ernesto; Bailey, William R., III; Anderson, Brittany

    2005-01-01

    Display of information in the cockpit has long been a challenge for aircraft designers. Given the limited space in which to present information, designers have had to be extremely selective about the types and amount of flight related information to present to pilots. The general goal of cockpit display design and implementation is to ensure that displays present information that is timely, useful, and helpful. This suggests that displays should facilitate the management of perceived workload, and should allow maximal situation awareness. The formatting of current and projected weather displays represents a unique challenge. As technologies have been developed to increase the variety and capabilities of weather information available to flight crews, factors such as conflicting weather representations and increased decision importance have increased the likelihood for errors. However, if formatted optimally, it is possible that next generation weather displays could allow for clearer indications of weather trends such as developing or decaying weather patterns. Important issues to address include the integration of weather information sources, flight crew trust of displayed weather information, and the teamed reactivity of flight crews to displays of weather. Past studies of weather display reactivity and formatting have not adequately addressed these issues; in part because experimental stimuli have not approximated the complexity of modern weather displays, and in part because they have not used realistic experimental tasks or participants. The goal of the research reported here was to investigate the influence of onboard and NEXRAD agreement, range to the simulated potential weather event, and the pilot flying on flight crew deviation decisions, perceived workload, and perceived situation awareness. Fifteen pilot-copilot teams were required to fly a simulated route while reacting to weather events presented in two graphical formats on a separate visual display

  4. Renal Stone Risk During Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitson, Peggy A.; Pietrzyk, Robert A.; Sams, Clarence F.; Pak, Charles Y. C.; Jones, Jeffrey A.

    1999-01-01

    Space flight produces a number of metabolic and physiological changes in the crewmembers exposed to microgravity. Following launch, body fluid volumes, electrolyte levels, and bone and muscle undergo changes as the human body adapts to the weightless environment. Changes in the urinary chemical composition may lead to the potentially serious consequences of renal stone formation. Previous data collected immediately after space flight indicate changes in the urine chemistry favoring an increased risk of calcium oxalate and uric acid stone formation (n = 323). During short term Shuttle space flights, the changes observed include increased urinary calcium and decreased urine volume, pH and citrate resulting in a greater risk for calcium oxalate and brushite stone formation (n = 6). Results from long duration Shuttle/Mir missions (n = 9) followed a similar trend and demonstrated decreased fluid intake and urine volume and increased urinary calcium resulting in a urinary environment saturated with the calcium stone-forming salts. The increased risk occurs rapidly upon exposure to microgravity, continues throughout the space flight and following landing. Dietary factors, especially fluid intake, or pharmacologic intervention can significantly influence the urinary chemical composition. Increasing fluid intake to produce a daily urine output of 2 liters/day may allow the excess salts in the urine to remain in solution, crystals formation will not occur and a renal stone will not develop. Results from long duration crewmembers (n = 2) who had urine volumes greater than 2.5 L/day minimized their risk of renal stone formation. Also, comparisons of stone-forming risk in short duration crewmembers clearly identified greater risk in those who produced less than 2 liters of urine/day. However, hydration and increased urine output does not correct the underlying calcium excretion due to bone loss and only treats the symptoms and not the cause of the increased urinary salts

  5. Failure of flight feathers under uniaxial compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelestow, Kristina; Troncoso, Omar P; Torres, Fernando G

    2017-09-01

    Flight feathers are light weight engineering structures. They have a central shaft divided in two parts: the calamus and the rachis. The rachis is a thinly walled conical shell filled with foam, while the calamus is a hollow tube-like structure. Due to the fact that bending loads are produced during birds' flight, the resistance to bending of feathers has been reported in different studies. However, the analysis of bent feathers has shown that compression could induce failure by buckling. Here, we have studied the compression of feathers in order to assess the failure mechanisms involved. Axial compression tests were carried out on the rachis and the calamus of dove and pelican feathers. The failure mechanisms and folding structures that resulted from the compression tests were observed from images obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The rachis and calamus fail due to structural instability. In the case of the calamus, this instability leads to a progressive folding process. In contrast, the rachis undergoes a typical Euler column-type buckling failure. The study of failed specimens showed that delamination buckling, cell collapse and cell densification are the primary failure mechanisms of the rachis structure. The role of the foam is also discussed with regard to the mechanical response of the samples and the energy dissipated during the compression tests. Critical stress values were calculated using delamination buckling models and were found to be in very good agreement with the experimental values measured. Failure analysis and mechanical testing have confirmed that flight feathers are complex thin walled structures with mechanical adaptations that allow them to fulfil their functions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Low-Cost SIRTF Flight Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, M.-J.; Ebersole, M.; Nichols, J.

    1997-12-01

    The Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) , the fourth of the Great Observatories, will be placed in a unique solar orbit trailing the Earth, in 2001. SIRTF will acquire both imaging and spectral data using large infrared detector arrays from 3.5mm to 160mm. The primary science objectives are (1) search for and study of brown dwarfs and super planets, (2) discovery and study of protoplanetary debris disks, (3) study of ultraluminous galaxies and active galactic nuclei, and (4) study of the early Universe. Driven by the limited cryogenic lifetime of 2.5 years, with a goal of 5 years, and the severely cost-capped development, a Mission Planning and Operations system is being designed that will result in high on-board efficiency (>90%) and low-cost operation, yet will accommodate rapid response science requirements . SIRTF is designing an architecture for an operations system that will be shared between science and flight operations. Crucial to this effort is the philosophy of an integrated science and engineering plan, co-location, cross-training of teams and common planning tools. The common tool set will enable the automatic generation of an integrated and conflict free planned schedule accommodating 20 000 observations and engineering activities a year. The shared tool set will help generate standard observations , (sometimes non-standard) engineering activities and manage the ground and flight resources and constraints appropriately. The ground software will allow the development from the ground of robust event driven sequences. Flexibility will be provided to incorporate newly discovered science opportunities or health issues late in the process and via quick links. This shared science and flight operations process if used from observation selection through sequence and command generation, will provide a low-cost operations system. Though SIRTF is a 'Great Observatory', its annual mission operations costs will more closely resemble those of an Explorer class

  7. Johnson Space Center Flight Medicine Clinic Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Trela

    2006-01-01

    Being a member of the Flight Medicine Clinic (FMC) Staff is a great experience. I joined the FMC staff 2 years ago when I became part of the Kelsey-Seybold team. The FMC staff consists of Flight Surgeons, Family Clinic Physician, Nursing staff, Wellness Coordinator and Support staff. We serve as the Primary Care Physicians for the astronauts and their families and provide annual physicals for the retired astronauts. We have approximately 800 patients in the FMC. As the Family Clinic Physician, I care for the astronaut spouses and children and provide annual physicals for the retired astronauts. Since we have a small patient population, we have the opportunity to spend increased personal time with our patients, which I enjoy. We have a pretty healthy patient population, who are very interested in their overall health and preventive care. In preparation for a shuttle launch, our nursing staff assists the flight surgeons with the astronaut physical exams, which occur 10 days prior to launch and again 3 days after their return. We also provide Primary Contact physicals for the families and guests, who will be in close contact with shuttle crew members. During these physicals, we provide education, emphasizing the importance of preventing the spread of communicable diseases to shuttle crew members. Being a part of the Space Medicine Program is an honor. To know that you contribute in some way to our nation s Space Program is very special. (This article was prepared by Dr. Trela Landry, M.D. for inclusion in a Kelsey-Seybold newsletter on 25 OCT 2006.)

  8. Space Flight Resource Management for ISS Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Lacey L.; Slack, Kelley; Holland, Albert; Huning, Therese; O'Keefe, William; Sipes, Walter E.

    2010-01-01

    Although the astronaut training flow for the International Space Station (ISS) spans 2 years, each astronaut or cosmonaut often spends most of their training alone. Rarely is it operationally feasible for all six ISS crewmembers to train together, even more unlikely that crewmembers can practice living together before launch. Likewise, ISS Flight Controller training spans 18 months of learning to manage incredibly complex systems remotely in plug-and-play ground teams that have little to no exposure to crewmembers before a mission. How then do all of these people quickly become a team - a team that must respond flexibly yet decisively to a variety of situations? The answer implemented at NASA is Space Flight Resource Management (SFRM), the so-called "soft skills" or team performance skills. Based on Crew Resource Management, SFRM was developed first for shuttle astronauts and focused on managing human errors during time-critical events (Rogers, et al. 2002). Given the nature of life on ISS, the scope of SFRM for ISS broadened to include teamwork during prolonged and routine operations (O'Keefe, 2008). The ISS SFRM model resembles a star with one competency for each point: Communication, Cross-Culture, Teamwork, Decision Making, Team Care, Leadership/Followership, Conflict Management, and Situation Awareness. These eight competencies were developed with international participation by the Human Behavior and Performance Training Working Group. Over the last two years, these competencies have been used to build a multi-modal SFRM training flow for astronaut candidates and flight controllers that integrates team performance skills into the practice of technical skills. Preliminary results show trainee skill increases as the flow progresses; and participants find the training invaluable to performing well and staying healthy during ISS operations. Future development of SFRM training will aim to help support indirect handovers as ISS operations evolve further with the

  9. Tissue culture apparatus for flight experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheld, H. W.; Magnuson, J. W.; Krikorian, A. D.

    1985-01-01

    The development of an apparatus for in-flight treatment of cells, tissues, or small organisms for microscopic and chemical analyses is discussed. The hardware for the apparatus is to have: (1) automated functions, (2) the capability to interface with ground-based facilities, (3) independently controlled chambers, (4) variable chamber configurations and volumes, and (4) the capabilities for processing the materials. The components of the equipment used on Skylab 3 for the study of animal cells are described. The design of an apparatus which incorporates all the required capabilities is proposed.

  10. Flight Performance of the Biological Lifting Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile PRISACARIU

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the international research, biomimetic lifting surface are analyzed in various aspects: construction, aerodynamics and energy. The specificity of the flying wings determined similarity between the aeromechanical and the biomimetic concepts leading to numerous challenges in terms of construction, aerodynamics and actuation. The Aeromechanics of the biological flight focuses both on the various forms of lifting surfaces and the biomechanical aspects. This article contains a number of references to the biological inspiration of the morphing concept, a brief introduction to the theoretical area of the flying wings and a numerical analysis of biologically similar morphing geometry completed by conclusions and future approaches.

  11. Flight prototype regenerative particulate filter system development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, D. C.; Garber, P. J.

    1974-01-01

    The effort to design, fabricate, and test a flight prototype Filter Regeneration Unit used to regenerate (clean) fluid particulate filter elements is reported. The design of the filter regeneration unit and the results of tests performed in both one-gravity and zero-gravity are discussed. The filter regeneration unit uses a backflush/jet impingement method of regenerating fluid filter elements that is highly efficient. A vortex particle separator and particle trap were designed for zero-gravity use, and the zero-gravity test results are discussed. The filter regeneration unit was designed for both inflight maintenance and ground refurbishment use on space shuttle and future space missions.

  12. Voyager flight engineering preparations for Neptune encounter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, L. J.; Savary, K. E.

    1988-01-01

    Voyager 2 will make the first close observations of the planet Neptune, during the period from June 1 to October 1,1989. A number of flight engineering activities are being conducted in preparation for the encounter. This paper discusses the most significant of these activities: new image motion compensation techniques, attitude control system changes, new exposure capabilities, new data handling capabilities, radiation protection measures, and new navigation methods. In addition, the process of performing late sequence updates is discussed. An overview of the Neptune mission is also presented.

  13. Marshall Space Flight Center Faculty Fellowship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six, N. F.; Karr, G.

    2017-01-01

    The research projects conducted by the 2016 Faculty Fellows at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center included propulsion studies on propellant issues, and materials investigations involving plasma effects and friction stir welding. Spacecraft Systems research was conducted on wireless systems and 3D printing of avionics. Vehicle Systems studies were performed on controllers and spacecraft instruments. The Science and Technology group investigated additive construction applied to Mars and Lunar regolith, medical uses of 3D printing, and unique instrumentation, while the Test Laboratory measured pressure vessel leakage and crack growth rates.

  14. Automation Framework for Flight Dynamics Products Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, Robert E.; Esposito, Timothy C.; Watson, John S.; Jun, Linda; Shoan, Wendy; Matusow, Carla

    2010-01-01

    XFDS provides an easily adaptable automation platform. To date it has been used to support flight dynamics operations. It coordinates the execution of other applications such as Satellite TookKit, FreeFlyer, MATLAB, and Perl code. It provides a mechanism for passing messages among a collection of XFDS processes, and allows sending and receiving of GMSEC messages. A unified and consistent graphical user interface (GUI) is used for the various tools. Its automation configuration is stored in text files, and can be edited either directly or using the GUI.

  15. Some fundamental aspects of Levy flights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzler, Ralf [NORDITA, Blegdamsvej 17, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)]. E-mail: metz@nordita.dk; Chechkin, Aleksei V. [Institute for Theoretical Physics NSC KIPT, Akademicheskaya street 1, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Gonchar, Vsevolod Yu. [Institute for Theoretical Physics NSC KIPT, Akademicheskaya street 1, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Klafter, Joseph [School of Chemistry, Tel Aviv University, 69978 Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2007-10-15

    We investigate the physical basis and properties of Levy flights (LFs), Markovian random walks with a long-tailed density of jump lengths, {lambda}({xi}){approx}|{xi}|{sup -1-{alpha}}, with 0<{alpha}<2. In particular, we show that non-trivial boundary conditions need to be carefully posed, and that the method of images fails due to the non-locality of LFs. We discuss the behaviour of LFs in external potentials, demonstrating the existence of multimodal solutions whose maxima do not coincide with the potential minimum. The Kramers escape of LFs is investigated, and the physical nature of the a priori diverging kinetic energy of an LF is addressed.

  16. Cost Estimation and Control for Flight Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Walter E.; Vanhook, Michael E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Good program management practices, cost analysis, cost estimation, and cost control for aerospace flight systems are interrelated and depend upon each other. The best cost control process cannot overcome poor design or poor systems trades that lead to the wrong approach. The project needs robust Technical, Schedule, Cost, Risk, and Cost Risk practices before it can incorporate adequate Cost Control. Cost analysis both precedes and follows cost estimation -- the two are closely coupled with each other and with Risk analysis. Parametric cost estimating relationships and computerized models are most often used. NASA has learned some valuable lessons in controlling cost problems, and recommends use of a summary Project Manager's checklist as shown here.

  17. Surface tension dominates insect flight on fluid interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukundarajan, Haripriya; Bardon, Thibaut C; Kim, Dong Hyun; Prakash, Manu

    2016-03-01

    Flight on the 2D air-water interface, with body weight supported by surface tension, is a unique locomotion strategy well adapted for the environmental niche on the surface of water. Although previously described in aquatic insects like stoneflies, the biomechanics of interfacial flight has never been analysed. Here, we report interfacial flight as an adapted behaviour in waterlily beetles (Galerucella nymphaeae) which are also dexterous airborne fliers. We present the first quantitative biomechanical model of interfacial flight in insects, uncovering an intricate interplay of capillary, aerodynamic and neuromuscular forces. We show that waterlily beetles use their tarsal claws to attach themselves to the interface, via a fluid contact line pinned at the claw. We investigate the kinematics of interfacial flight trajectories using high-speed imaging and construct a mathematical model describing the flight dynamics. Our results show that non-linear surface tension forces make interfacial flight energetically expensive compared with airborne flight at the relatively high speeds characteristic of waterlily beetles, and cause chaotic dynamics to arise naturally in these regimes. We identify the crucial roles of capillary-gravity wave drag and oscillatory surface tension forces which dominate interfacial flight, showing that the air-water interface presents a radically modified force landscape for flapping wing flight compared with air. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. Flight Avionics Sequencing Telemetry (FAST) DIV Latching Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Engineering (NE) Directorate at Kennedy Space Center provides engineering services to major programs such as: Space Shuttle, Inter national Space Station, and the Launch Services Program (LSP). The Av ionics Division within NE, provides avionics and flight control syste ms engineering support to LSP. The Launch Services Program is respons ible for procuring safe and reliable services for transporting critical, one of a kind, NASA payloads into orbit. As a result, engineers mu st monitor critical flight events during countdown and launch to asse ss anomalous behavior or any unexpected occurrence. The goal of this project is to take a tailored Systems Engineering approach to design, develop, and test Iris telemetry displays. The Flight Avionics Sequen cing Telemetry Delta-IV (FAST-D4) displays will provide NASA with an improved flight event monitoring tool to evaluate launch vehicle heal th and performance during system-level ground testing and flight. Flight events monitored will include data from the Redundant Inertial Fli ght Control Assembly (RIFCA) flight computer and launch vehicle comma nd feedback data. When a flight event occurs, the flight event is ill uminated on the display. This will enable NASA Engineers to monitor c ritical flight events on the day of launch. Completion of this project requires rudimentary knowledge of launch vehicle Guidance, Navigatio n, and Control (GN&C) systems, telemetry, and console operation. Work locations for the project include the engineering office, NASA telem etry laboratory, and Delta launch sites.

  19. Flight-testing of the self-repairing flight control system using the F-15 highly integrated digital electronic control flight research facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, James F.; Shuck, Thomas L.

    1990-01-01

    Flight tests conducted with the self-repairing flight control system (SRFCS) installed on the NASA F-15 highly integrated digital electronic control aircraft are described. The development leading to the current SRFCS configuration is highlighted. Key objectives of the program are outlined: (1) to flight-evaluate a control reconfiguration strategy with three types of control surface failure; (2) to evaluate a cockpit display that will inform the pilot of the maneuvering capacity of the damage aircraft; and (3) to flight-evaluate the onboard expert system maintenance diagnostics process using representative faults set to occur only under maneuvering conditions. Preliminary flight results addressing the operation of the overall system, as well as the individual technologies, are included.

  20. Formation Flight Control System for In-Flight Sweet Spot Estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brodecki, M.; Subbarao, K.; Chu, Q.P.

    2013-01-01

    A formation flight control system has been designed that addresses the unique environment encountered by aircraft flying in formation and in the upwash of the leading aircraft. In order to test the control system a simulation environment has been created that adequately represents the aerodynamic