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Sample records for subirrigated alluvial materials

  1. ALLUVIAL DEPOSITS AS A SUBSOIL AND MATERIAL FOR BASIC HYDRO-TECHNICAL CONSTRUCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jędrzej Wierzbicki

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of geotechnical parameters of the alluvial deposit (the areas of the Vistula and Warta river valleys with a view to using the soil as an earth construction material and as a foundation for buildings constructed on the grounds tested. Strength and deformation parameters of the subsoil tested were identified by the CPTU (cone penetration test and DMT (flat dilatometer test methods, as well as by the vane test (VT. The article includes the analysis of overconsolidation process of the soil tested and a formula for the identification of the overconsolidation ratio OCR. Equation 4 reflects the relation between the undrained shear strength and plasticity of the silts analyzed and the OCR value. The analysis resulted in the determination of the Nkt coefficient, which might be used to identify the undrained shear strength of both sediments tested. On the basis of a detailed analysis of changes in terms of the constrained oedometric modulus M0, the relations between the said modulus, the liquidity index and the OCR value were identified. Mayne’s formula (1995 was used to determine the M0 modulus from the CPTU test. The usefulness of the alluvial deposit as an earth construction material was analysed after their structure had been destroyed and compacted with a Proctor apparatus. In cases of samples characterized by different water content and soil particle density, the analysis of changes in terms of cohesion and the internal friction angle proved that these parameters are influenced by the soil phase composition. On the basis of the tests, it was concluded that the most desirable shear strength parameters are achieved when the silt is compacted below the optimum water content.

  2. Alluvial Aquifer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This coverage shows the extents of the alluvial aquifers in Kansas. The alluvial aquifers consist of unconsolidated Quaternary alluvium and contiguous terrace...

  3. Subirrigation for production of native plants in nurseries - concepts, current knowledge, and implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin L. Schmal; Kas Dumroese; Anthony S. Davis; Jeremy Pinto; Douglass F. Jacobs

    2011-01-01

    Subirrigation, a method whereby water is allowed to move upward into the growing medium by capillary action, has been the focus of recent research in forest and conservation nurseries growing a wide variety of native plants. Subirrigation reduces the amount of water needed for producing high-quality plants, discharged wastewater, and leaching of nutrients compared with...

  4. Corn yield under subirrigation and future climate scenarios in the Maumee river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subirrigation has been proposed as a water table management practice to maintain appropriate soil water content during periods of high crop water demand on subsurface drained croplands in the Corn Belt. Subirrigation takes advantage of the subsurface drainage systems already installed on drained agr...

  5. An Apparatus for Bed Material Sediment Extraction From Coarse River Beds in Large Alluvial Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, M. B.; Adam, H.; Cooper, J.; Cepello, S.

    2005-12-01

    Grain size distributions of bed material sediment in large alluvial rivers are required in applications ranging from habitat mapping, calibration of sediment transport models, high resolution sediment routing, and testing of existing theories of longitudinal and cross steam sediment sorting. However, characterizing bed material sediment from coarse river beds is hampered by difficulties in sediment extraction, a challenge that is generally circumvented via pebble counts on point bars, even though it is unclear whether the bulk grain size distribution of bed sediments is well represented by pebble counts on bars. We have developed and tested a boat-based sampling apparatus and methodology for extracting bulk sediment from a wide range of riverbed materials. It involves the use of a 0.4 x 0.4 x 0.2 meter stainless steel toothed sampler, called the Cooper Scooper, which is deployed from and dragged downstream by the weight of a jet boat. The design is based on that of a river anchor such that a rotating center bar connected to a rope line in the boat aligns the sampler in the downstream direction, the teeth penetrate the bed surface, and the sampler digs into the bed. The sampler is fitted with lead weights to keep it from tipping over. The force of the sampler `biting' into the bed can be felt on the rope line held by a person in the boat at which point they let out slack. The boat then motors to the spot above the embedded sampler, which is hoisted to the water surface via a system of pulleys. The Cooper Scooper is then clipped into a winch and boom assembly by which it is brought aboard. This apparatus improves upon commonly used clamshell dredge samplers, which are unable to penetrate coarse or mixed bed surfaces. The Cooper Scooper, by contrast, extracts statistically representative bed material sediment samples of up to 30 kilograms. Not surprisingly, the sampler does not perform well in very coarse or armored beds (e.g. where surface material size is on the

  6. Use of subirrigation for water stress imposition in a semi-continuous CO2-exchange system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhuanito Soranz Ferrarezi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this work were to evaluate the effects of distinct moisture contents to trigger subirrigation on salvia photosynthesis and plant growth, and to verify the feasibility of subirrigation use in water stress imposition research in this crop. We evaluated two substrate volumetric water contents (VWC as treatments (0.2 and 0.4 m3 m-3 to trigger subirrigation, with 4 replications. Each replication was composed of 10 plants. An automated semi-continuous multi-chamber crop CO2-exchange system was used, with capacitance soil moisture sensors for continuous moisture monitoring. Manual subirrigation with nutrient solution was performed when VWC dropped below the thresholds. In both treatments, the values of net photosynthesis, daily carbon gain and carbon use efficiency reduced over time, from 2 to 1.1 μmol s-1 from 2.2 to 1 μmol d-1 from 0.7 to 0.45 mol mol-1, respectively, in both soil moisture treatments. Total shoot dry mass (p=0.0129, shoot height in the tip of the highest flower (p<0.0001 and total leaf area (p=0.0007 were statistically higher at 0.4 m3 m-3 treatment. The subirrigation system was not efficient to impose water stress, due to excessive variation on VWC values after each irrigation event in both treatments. Higher soil moisture promoted positive plant growth responses in salvia cultivated by subirrigation.

  7. Alluvial Deposits in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This coverage maps alluvial deposits throughout Iowa. This generally would include areas of alluvial soils associated with modern streams that are identified on...

  8. Growth, gas exchange, foliar nitrogen content, and water use of subirrigated and overhead irrigated Populus tremuloides Michx. seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony S. Davis; Matthew M. Aghai; Jeremiah R. Pinto; Kent G. Apostal

    2011-01-01

    Because limitations on water used by container nurseries has become commonplace, nursery growers will have to improve irrigation management. Subirrigation systems may provide an alternative to overhead irrigation systems by mitigating groundwater pollution and excessive water consumption. Seedling growth, gas exchange, leaf nitrogen (N) content, and water use were...

  9. Container volume and subirrigation schedule influence Quercus variabilis seedling growth and nutrient status in the nursery and field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiaoyu Sun; R. Kasten Dumroese; Yong Liu

    2018-01-01

    Container volume and irrigation management affect seedling growth in the nursery and field. We evaluated the effects of container volumes (D40, 656 ml; D60, 983 ml) and subirrigation schedules (85%, 75%, 65%, and 55% of 100% total substrate moisture content, TSMC) on seedling growth in a greenhouse and outplanting performance of Chinese cork oak (Quercus variabilis...

  10. Effect of chemically processed bonemeal alone and in combination with organic materials on plant growth. [Part] I : Rice-wheat rotation in an alluvial soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramasami, S.; Vimal, O.P.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of chemically processed bonemeal added 60 kg P 2 O /ha alone and in combination with various organic materials viz., wheat straw and rice straw 3 tons/hs, starch 500 kg/ha and EDTA 250 kg/ha was studied on rice in an alluvial soil. The residual effect was studied on wheat using 32 P as a tracer. The results showed that in the first crop(rice) bonemeal organic matter combination had a significant effect both on dry matter yield and nutrient uptake. In the second crop (wheat) except chemically processed honemeal in combination with EDTA, all other combinations showed a marked positive effect on yield, total P-uptake and 'A' values. Comparison of P-uptake from soil and fertilizer indicated that there was a marked residual effect on the subsequent wheat crop. (author)

  11. Matching agricultural freshwater supply and demand: using industrial and domestic treated wastewater for sub-irrigation purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomeus, Ruud; van den Eertwegh, Gé; Worm, Bas; Cirkel, Gijsbert; van Loon, Arnaut; Raat, Klaasjan

    2017-04-01

    Agricultural crop yields depend largely on soil moisture conditions in the root zone. Climate change leads to more prolonged drought periods that alternate with more intensive rainfall events. With unaltered water management practices, reduced crop yield due to drought stress will increase. Therefore, both farmers and water management authorities search for opportunities to manage risks of decreasing crop yields. Available groundwater sources for irrigation purposes are increasingly under pressure due to the regional coexistence of land use functions that are critical to groundwater levels or compete for available water. At the same time, treated wastewater from industries and domestic wastewater treatment plants are quickly discharged via surface waters towards sea. Exploitation of these freshwater sources may be an effective strategy to balance regional water supply and agricultural water demand. We present results of two pilot studies in drought sensitive regions in the Netherlands, concerning agricultural water supply through reuse of industrial and domestic treated wastewater. In these pilots, excess wastewater is delivered to the plant root zone through sub-irrigation by drainage systems. Sub-irrigation is a subsurface irrigation method that can be more efficient than classical, aboveground irrigation methods using sprinkler installations. Domestic wastewater treatment plants in the Netherlands produce annually 40-50mm freshwater. A pilot project has been setup in the eastern part of the Netherlands, in which treated wastewater is applied to a corn field by sub-irrigation during the growing seasons of 2015 and 2016, using a climate adaptive drainage system. The chemical composition of treated domestic wastewater is different from infiltrating excess rainfall water and natural groundwater. In the pilot project, the bromide-chloride ratio and traces of pharmaceuticals in the treated wastewater are used as a tracer to describe water and solute transport in the

  12. Effects of potential surface coal mining on dissolved solids in Otter Creek and in the Otter Creek alluvial aquifer, southeastern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, M.R.

    1985-01-01

    Otter Creek drains an area of 709 square miles in the coal-rich Powder River structural basin of southeastern Montana. The Knobloch coal beds in the Tongue River Member of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation is a shallow aquifer and a target for future surface mining in the downstream part of the Otter Creek basin. A mass-balance model was used to estimate the effects of potential mining on the dissolved solids concentration in Otter Creek and in the alluvial aquifer in the Otter Creek valley. With extensive mining of the Knobloch coal beds, the annual load of dissolved solids to Otter Creek at Ashland at median streamflow could increase by 2,873 tons, or a 32-percent increase compared to the annual pre-mining load. Increased monthly loads of Otter Creek, at the median streamflow, could range from 15 percent in February to 208 percent in August. The post-mining dissolved solids load to the subirrigated part of the alluvial valley could increase by 71 percent. The median dissolved solids concentration in the subirrigated part of the valley could be 4,430 milligrams per liter, compared to the pre-mining median concentration of 2,590 milligrams per liter. Post-mining loads from the potentially mined landscape were calculated using saturated-paste-extract data from 506 overburdened samples collected from 26 wells and test holes. Post-mining loads to the Otter Creek valley likely would continue at increased rates for hundreds of years after mining. If the actual area of Knobloch coal disturbed by mining were less than that used in the model, post-mining loads to the Otter Creek valley would be proportionally smaller. (USGS)

  13. Interaction of fine sediment with alluvial streambeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobson, Harvey E.; Carey, William P.

    1989-01-01

    More knowledge is needed about the physical processes that control the transport of fine sediment moving over an alluvial bed. The knowledge is needed to design rational sampling and monitoring programs that assess the transport and fate of toxic substances in surface waters because the toxics are often associated with silt- and clay-sized particles. This technical note reviews some of the past research in areas that may contribute to an increased understanding of the processes involved. An alluvial streambed can have a large capacity to store fine sediments that are extracted from the flow when instream concentrations are high and it can gradually release fine sediment to the flow when the instream concentrations are low. Several types of storage mechanisms are available depending on the relative size distribution of the suspended load and bed material, as well as the flow hydraulics. Alluvial flow tends to segregate the deposited material according to size and density. Some of the storage locations are temporary, but some can store the fine sediment for very long periods of time.

  14. Distribution of monazite in granite and alluvial of South Bangka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngadenin

    2011-01-01

    Monazite is one source of thorium (Th), which has significant economic value and potential as an alternative fuel of nuclear power plants. The aims of research is to find out the distribution monazite alternative fuel of nuclear power plants. The aims of research is to find out the distribution monazite and its potential as a resource of radioactive minerals on the Bangka Island, then the data will be used and its potential as a resource of radioactive minerals on the Bangka Island, then the data will be used as a reference in the development of radioactive minerals exploration areas in the coming year. The research location is in the Bencah and Gadung villages, South Bangka Regency. The method used is the geological mapping, sampling of rock for petrographic, mineragraphic and autoradiographic analysis and heavy mineral for grains counting analysis. The results showed that lithologic area of Bencah Village composed of clay stone and alluvial deposits, while the Gadung Village composed by granite and alluvial deposits. Granite Gadung is predicted as the ilmenite series granite and tend to be of S type, while the material of Bencah alluvial is predicted come from the Klabat granite groups. In general, distribution of monazite in the alluvial slightly more potent of monazite than in the granite so that the development of radioactive minerals exploration will be prioritized in the alluvial areas. (author)

  15. FUTURE STUDIES AT PENA BLANCA: RADIONUCLIDE MIGRATION IN THE VADOSE ZONE OF AN ALLUVIAL FAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Goodell; J. Walton; P.J. Rodriguez

    2005-07-11

    The pathway to the accessible environment at Yucca Mountain contains volcanic rocks and alluvial fill. Transport properties in alluvial fill, specifically retardation and dispersivity, may be significant in determining the overall performance of the repository. Prior relevant studies, with the exception of the Nye County Tracer Test, are almost entirely in bedrock material. The proposed study will provide field data on radionuclide migration in alluvial material. High grade uranium ore was mined at the Nopal I deposit. This mined ore (60,000 tons) was moved in 1994 to its present site as open piles on an alluvial fan in the Boquilla Colorada Microbasin. Precipitation is approximately 20 cm/year, and has caused migration of radionuclides into the subsurface. We propose partial removal of an ore pile, excavation into the alluvial fan, sampling, and determination of radionuclide mobilities from the uranium decay chain. The proposed research would be taking advantage of a unique opportunity with a known time frame for migration.

  16. FUTURE STUDIES AT PENA BLANCA: RADIONUCLIDE MIGRATION IN THE VADOSE ZONE OF AN ALLUVIAL FAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodell, P.; Walton, J.; Rodriguez, P.J.

    2005-01-01

    The pathway to the accessible environment at Yucca Mountain contains volcanic rocks and alluvial fill. Transport properties in alluvial fill, specifically retardation and dispersivity, may be significant in determining the overall performance of the repository. Prior relevant studies, with the exception of the Nye County Tracer Test, are almost entirely in bedrock material. The proposed study will provide field data on radionuclide migration in alluvial material. High grade uranium ore was mined at the Nopal I deposit. This mined ore (60,000 tons) was moved in 1994 to its present site as open piles on an alluvial fan in the Boquilla Colorada Microbasin. Precipitation is approximately 20 cm/year, and has caused migration of radionuclides into the subsurface. We propose partial removal of an ore pile, excavation into the alluvial fan, sampling, and determination of radionuclide mobilities from the uranium decay chain. The proposed research would be taking advantage of a unique opportunity with a known time frame for migration

  17. Response spectra in alluvial soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekharan, A.R.; Paul, D.K.

    1975-01-01

    For aseismic design of structures, the ground motion data is assumed either in the form of ground acceleration as a function of time or indirectly in the form of response spectra. Though the response spectra approach has limitations like not being applicable for nonlinear problems, it is usually used for structures like nuclear power plants. Fifty accelerograms recorded at alluvial sites have been processed. Since different empirical formulas relating acceleration with magnitude and distance give a wide scatter of values, peak ground acceleration alone cannot be the parameter as is assumed by a number of authors. The spectra corresponding to 5% damping have been normalised with respect to three parameters, namely, peak ground acceleration, peak ground velocity and a nondimensional quantity ad/v 2 . Envelopee of maxima and minima as well as average response spectra has been obtained. A comparison with the USAEC spectra has been made. A relation between ground acceleration, ground velocity and ad/v 2 has been obtained which would nearly give the same magnification of the response. A design response spectra for alluvial soils has been recommended. (author)

  18. Controls on alluvial fans morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delorme, P.; Devauchelle, O.; Lajeunesse, E.; Barrier, L.; Métivier, F.

    2017-12-01

    Using laboratory experiments, we investigate the influence of water and sediment discharges on the morphology of an alluvial fan. In our flume, a single-thread laminar river deposits corundum sand (0.4 mm) into a conical fan. We record the fan progradation with top-view images, and measure its shape using the deformation of a Moiré pattern. The fan remains virtually self-affine as it grows, with a nearly constant slope. We find that, when the sediment discharge is small, the longitudinal slope of the fan remains close to that of a river at the threshold for sediment transport. A higher sediment discharge causes the fan's slope to depart from the threshold value. Due to the downstream decrease of the sediment load, this slope gets shallower towards the fan's toe. This mechanism generates a slightly concave fan profile. This suggests that the proximal slope of an alluvial fan could be a proxy for the sediment flux that feeds the fan.Finally, we discuss the applicability of these results to natural systems.

  19. Clay Mineralogy of AN Alluvial Aquifer in a Mountainous, Semiarid Terrain, AN Example from Rifle, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, W. C.; Lim, D.; Zaunbrecher, L. K.; Pickering, R. A.; Williams, K. H.; Navarre-Sitchler, A.; Long, P. E.; Noel, V.; Bargar, J.; Qafoku, N. P.

    2015-12-01

    Alluvial sediments deposited along the Colorado River corridor in the semi-arid regions of central to western Colorado can be important hosts for legacy contamination including U, V, As and Se. These alluvial sediments host aquifers which are thought to provide important "hot spots" and "hot moments" for microbiological activity controlling organic carbon processing and fluxes in the subsurface. Relatively little is known about the clay mineralogy of these alluvial aquifers and the parent alluvial sediments in spite of the fact that they commonly include lenses of silt-clay materials. These lenses are typically more reduced than coarser grained materials, but zones of reduced and more oxidized materials are present in these alluvial aquifer sediments. The clay mineralogy of the non-reduced parent alluvial sediments of the alluvial aquifer located in Rifle, CO (USA) is composed of chlorite, smectite, illite, kaolinite and quartz. The clay mineralogy of non-reduced fine-grained materials at Rifle are composed of the same suite of minerals found in the sediments plus a vermiculite-smectite intergrade that occurs near the bottom of the aquifer near the top of the Wasatch Formation. The clay mineral assemblages of the system reflect the mineralogically immature character of the source sediments. These assemblages are consistent with sediments and soils that formed in a moderately low rainfall climate and suggestive of minimal transport of the alluvial sediments from their source areas. Chlorite, smectite, smectite-vermiculite intergrade, and illite are the likely phases involved in the sorption of organic carbon and related microbial redox transformations of metals in these sediments. Both the occurrence and abundance of chlorite, smectite-vermiculite, illite and smectite can therefore exert an important control on the contaminant fluxes and are important determinants of biogeofacies in mountainous, semiarid terrains.

  20. Designing the Alluvial Riverbeds in Curved Paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macura, Viliam; Škrinár, Andrej; Štefunková, Zuzana; Muchová, Zlatica; Majorošová, Martina

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents the method of determining the shape of the riverbed in curves of the watercourse, which is based on the method of Ikeda (1975) developed for a slightly curved path in sandy riverbed. Regulated rivers have essentially slightly and smoothly curved paths; therefore, this methodology provides the appropriate basis for river restoration. Based on the research in the experimental reach of the Holeška Brook and several alluvial mountain streams the methodology was adjusted. The method also takes into account other important characteristics of bottom material - the shape and orientation of the particles, settling velocity and drag coefficients. Thus, the method is mainly meant for the natural sand-gravel material, which is heterogeneous and the particle shape of the bottom material is very different from spherical. The calculation of the river channel in the curved path provides the basis for the design of optimal habitat, but also for the design of foundations of armouring of the bankside of the channel. The input data is adapted to the conditions of design practice.

  1. Estimation of alluvial recharge in the semiarid

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade,Tafnes S.; Montenegro,Suzana M. G. L.; Montenegro,Abelardo A. de A.; Rodrigues,Diogo F. B.

    2014-01-01

    In areas where there is irrigated agriculture, the recuperation of water reserves in alluvial aquifers may occur preferentially due to precipitation. Recharging can be evaluated from variation information of water depth measured in piezometers or observation wells. Thus, the aim of this research is to study the recharge in the alluvial aquifer formed by the Mimoso temporary stream in the semiarid region of Pernambuco (PE), Brazil, using the method of the fluctuation of the water level. This s...

  2. Imaging normal faults in alluvial fans using geophysical techniques: Field example from the coast of Gulf of Aqaba, Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif M.; Jonsson, Sigurjon; Klinger, Yann

    2014-01-01

    In this work we use geophysical methods to locate and characterize active faults in alluvial sediments. Since only subtle material and velocity contrasts are expected across the faults, we used seismic refraction tomography and 2D resistivity

  3. Adsorption behavior of endosulfan on alluvial soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashraf, M.; Sherazi, S.T.H.; Nizamani, S.M.; Bhanger, M.I.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was carried out to assess the behavior of endosulfan pesticide in alluvial soil under laboratory conditions. Sandy loam soil was studied to evaluate the fate of applied endosulfan with respect to soil properties. Known amount of endosulfan was added on alluvial soil in PVC column and eluted with 1000 ml of water. Eluents were collected in 10 parts, each of 100 ml. The soil in the column was divided in to three equal parts, each of 10 cm. Each part of the soil and eluents were analyzed for the determination of Endosulfan level using GC- mu ECD and GC-MS techniques. The kinetic and equilibrium adsorption characteristics of endosulfan on sandy loam soil was also studied and found that it follows Ho's pseudo second order and Freundlich isotherm. The present study revealed that a-and beta-Endosulfan was determined efficiently with their degraded products in alluvial soil under laboratory conditions with above mentioned instruments. (author)

  4. Quaternary alluvial stratigraphy and palaeoclimatic reconstruction at the Thar margin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, M.; Tandon, S.K.

    2003-01-01

    Quaternary alluvial record at the Thar desert margin has been examined using the exposed succession along Mahudi, Sabarmati river, Western India. Different alluvial facies, their associations and granulometry have been studied for palaeoenvironmental reconstruction. Clay mineral indices smectite/...

  5. Fecal-indicator bacteria and Escherichia coli pathogen data collected near a novel sub-irrigation water-treatment system in Lenawee County, Michigan, June-November 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duris, Joseph W.; Beeler, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Lenawee County Conservation District in Lenawee County, Mich., conducted a sampling effort over a single growing season (June to November 2007) to evaluate the microbiological water quality around a novel livestock reservoir wetland sub-irrigation system. Samples were collected and analyzed for fecal coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria, and six genes from pathogenic strains of E. coli.A total of 73 water-quality samples were collected on nine occasions from June to November 2007. These samples were collected within the surface water, shallow ground water, and the manure-treatment system near Bakerlads Farm near Clayton in Lenawee County, Mich. Fecal coliform bacteria concentrations ranged from 10 to 1.26 million colony forming units per 100 milliliters (CFU/100 mL). E. coli bacteria concentrations ranged from 8 to 540,000 CFU/100 mL. Data from the E. coli pathogen analysis showed that 73 percent of samples contained the eaeA gene, 1 percent of samples contained the stx2 gene, 37 percent of samples contained the stx1 gene, 21 percent of samples contained the rfbO157 gene, and 64 percent of samples contained the LTIIa gene.

  6. Dry season diets of sympatric ungulates in lowland Nepal: competition and facilitation in alluvial tall grasslands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegge, P.; Shrestha, A.K.; Moe, S.R.

    2006-01-01

    Based on microhistological analyses of faecal material, we compared the early dry season diets of greater one-horned rhinoceros Rhinoceros unicornis, swamp deer Cervus duvauceli and hog deer Axis porcinus, which inhabit the same alluvial grassland habitat complex in lowland Nepal. Their diets were

  7. Laboratory alluvial fans in one dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerit, L; Métivier, F; Devauchelle, O; Lajeunesse, E; Barrier, L

    2014-08-01

    When they reach a flat plain, rivers often deposit their sediment load into a cone-shaped structure called alluvial fan. We present a simplified experimental setup that reproduces, in one dimension, basic features of alluvial fans. A mixture of water and glycerol transports and deposits glass beads between two transparent panels separated by a narrow gap. As the beads, which mimic natural sediments, get deposited in this gap, they form an almost one-dimensional fan. At a moderate sediment discharge, the fan grows quasistatically and maintains its slope just above the threshold for sediment transport. The water discharge determines this critical slope. At leading order, the sediment discharge only controls the velocity at which the fan grows. A more detailed analysis reveals a slight curvature of the fan profile, which relates directly to the rate at which sediments are transported.

  8. An Alluvial Fan at Apollinaris Patera, Mars

    OpenAIRE

    Ghail, RC; Hutchison, JE

    2003-01-01

    Apollinaris Patera, Mars (7?S,173?E), is an intermediate sized volcano (~6 km high, 150 km diameter) with a large (200-km long) fan-like deposit on its southern flank. This fan is deeply incised and originates from a single breach in the rim of the summit caldera. New topographic and multispectral image data reveal that this fan is alluvial, implying a long-lived source of (volcaniclastic) sediment and water (probably from a caldera lake).

  9. Geological aspects of paleoseismicity and archaeosismology in the fluvial alluvial Rimac valley

    OpenAIRE

    Jacay, Javier

    2017-01-01

    The sedimentary fill of the Rimac River fluvial-alluvial plain (Upper Miocene-Quaternary) consists of a thick sequence of unconsolidated material that corresponds to fluvial deposits. A record of seismotectonic activity is presentedin the sedimentary levels of fine facie within numerous paleoseismic structures such as contoured layers, pseudonodules, load figures, and material injections. Additionally, wall inclination and collapse, as well as displacement and partialfracturing, and pavement ...

  10. CHANNEL EVOLUTION IN MODIFIED ALLUVIAL STREAMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Andrew; Hupp, Cliff R.

    1987-01-01

    This study (a) assesses the channel changes and network trends of bed level response after modifications between 1959 and 1972 of alluvial channels in western Tennessee and (b) develops a conceptual model of bank slope development to qualitatively assess bank stability and potential channel widening. A six-step, semiquantitative model of channel evolution in disturbed channels was developed by quantifying bed level trends and recognizing qualitative stages of bank slope development. Development of the bank profile is defined in terms of three dynamic and observable surfaces: (a) vertical face (70 to 90 degrees), (b) upper bank (25 to 50 degrees), and (c) slough line (20 to 25 degrees).

  11. Clogging of water supply wells in alluvial aquifers by mineral incrustations, central Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majkić-Dursun Brankica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The formation of incrustations on public water supply well screens reduces their performance considerably. The incrustations increase hydraulic losses, reduce the capacity of the well and screen, affect the quality of the pumped water and increase maintenance costs. In alluvial environments, the most common deposits are iron and manganese hydroxides. However, the rates of formation, compositions and levels of crystallization vary, depending on the geochemical characteristics of the alluvial environment, the microbiological characteristics of the groundwater and the abstraction method. Samples of 15 incrustations were collected from wells that tap shallow alluvial aquifers and were found to be dominated by iron. XRD analyses detected low-crystalline ferrihydrite and manganese hydroxide in the samples collected from the water supply source at Trnovče (Velika Morava alluvial. The incrustations from the Belgrade Groundwater Source revealed the presence of ferrihydrite and a substantial amount of goethite α-FeOOH. Apart from goethite, greigite (Fe3S4 was detected in three samples, while one sample additionally contained bernalite Fe(OH3 and monoclinic sulfur S8. Among carbonates, only siderite was detected. Iron oxidizing bacteria generally catalyze deposition processes in wells, while sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB play a role in the biogenic formation of greigite. Determining the nature of the deposited material allows better selection of rehabilitation chemicals and procedure. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR37014

  12. Fertilizers mobilization in alluvial aquifer: laboratory experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrocicco, M.; Colombani, N.; Palpacelli, S.

    2009-02-01

    In alluvial plains, intensive farming with conspicuous use of agrochemicals, can cause land pollution and groundwater contamination. In central Po River plain, paleo-channels are important links between arable lands and the underlaying aquifer, since the latter is often confined by clay sediments that act as a barrier against contaminants migration. Therefore, paleo-channels are recharge zones of particular interest that have to be protected from pollution as they are commonly used for water supply. This paper focuses on fertilizer mobilization next to a sand pit excavated in a paleo-channel near Ferrara (Italy). The problem is approached via batch test leaking and columns elution of alluvial sediments. Results from batch experiments showed fast increase in all major cations and anions, suggesting equilibrium control of dissolution reactions, limited availability of solid phases and geochemical homogeneity of samples. In column experiments, early elution and tailing of all ions breakthrough was recorded due to preferential flow paths. For sediments investigated in this study, dispersion, dilution and chemical reactions can reduce fertilizers at concentration below drinking standards in a reasonable time frame, provided fertilizer loading is halted or, at least, reduced. Thus, the definition of a corridor along paleo-channels is recommended to preserve groundwater quality.

  13. Evaluation of carbaryl sorption in alluvial soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naba Kumar Mondal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the adsorption potential of carbaryl onto alluvial soil. Parameters that influence the adsorption process such as pH, adsorbent dose, initial carbaryl concentration, stirring rate, particle size, contact time and temperature were studied in a batch process. The carbaryl adsorption capacity was at maximum at pH 6 for an initial concentration of 20 ppm. Adsorption equilibirium time was observed in 180 min. Equilibrium adsorption data was best fitted with Freundlich isotherm and pseudo-first order kinetic model, respectively. The adsorbent was characterized by X-ray diffraction spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The experiment performed indicated that the adsorption capacity of carbaryl was significantly correlated with particle size, organic matter and pH of the soil. Therefore, the possibility for carbaryl to contaminate underground water may be greater in the presence of low organic matter content.

  14. Design of flood protection for transportation alignments on alluvial fans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, R.H.

    1991-01-01

    The method of floodplain delineation on alluvial fans developed for the national flood insurance program is modified to provide estimates of peak flood flows at transportation alignments crossing an alluvial fan. The modified methodology divides the total alignment length into drainage design segments and estimates the peak flows that drainage structures would be required to convey as a function of the length of the drainage design segment, the return period of the event, and the location of the alignment on the alluvial fan. An example of the application of the methodology is provided. 16 refs., 5 figs

  15. Radon concentration in the springs of the alluvial fan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiuchi, Kimiko; Ishii, Tadashi; Kobayashi, Masao

    2003-01-01

    Rokugo alluvial fan is one of the typical stratified alluvial fans which have grown in the east edge of Yokote basin in Akita Prefecture. Many of Rokugo's springs are gushing out from 45 m to 50 m above the sea level where city town have been developed. Mechanism of gushing out of spring is closely bound up with the landform of this area. There is nearly no radon existing in the surface water, but in groundwater, radon concentrations are stable in every stratums and infiltration of groundwater to surface water. We would like to obtain some hydrological information by measuring radon concentration in water samples of Rokugo alluvial fan. (author)

  16. Length scale hierarchy and spatiotemporal change of alluvial morphologies over the Selenga River delta, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, T. Y.; Nittrouer, J.; McElroy, B. J.; Ma, H.; Czapiga, M. J.; Il'icheva, E.; Pavlov, M.; Parker, G.

    2017-12-01

    The movement of water and sediment in natural channels creates various types of alluvial morphologies that span length scales from dunes to deltas. The behavior of these morphologies is controlled microscopically by hydrodynamic conditions and bed material size, and macroscopically by hydrologic and geological settings. Alluvial morphologies can be modeled as either diffusive or kinematic waves, in accordance with their respective boundary conditions. Recently, it has been shown that the difference between these two dynamic behaviors of alluvial morphologies can be characterized by the backwater number, which is a dimensionless value normalizing the length scale of a morphological feature to its local hydrodynamic condition. Application of the backwater number has proven useful for evaluating the size of morphologies, including deltas (e.g., by assessing the preferential avulsion location of a lobe), and for comparing bedform types across different fluvial systems. Yet two critical questions emerge when applying the backwater number: First, how do different types of alluvial morphologies compare within a single deltaic system, where there is a hydrodynamic transition from uniform to non-uniform flow? Second, how do different types of morphologies evolve temporally within a system as a function of changing water discharge? This study addresses these questions by compiling and analyzing field data from the Selenga River delta, Russia, which include measurements of flow velocity, channel geometry, bed material grain size, and channel slope, as well as length scales of various morphologies, including dunes, island bars, meanders, bifurcations, and delta lobes. Data analyses reveal that the length scale of morphologies decrease and the backwater number increases as flow transitions from uniform to non-uniform conditions progressing downstream. It is shown that the evaluated length scale hierarchy and planform distribution of different morphologies can be used to

  17. Aerial Transient Electromagnetic Surveys of Alluvial Aquifers in Rural Watersheds of Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pool, D. R.; Callegary, J. B.; Groom, R. W.

    2006-12-01

    Development in rural areas of Arizona has led the State of Arizona (Arizona Department of Water Resources), in cooperation with the Arizona Water Science Center of the U.S. Geological Survey, to sponsor investigations of the hydrogeologic framework of several alluvial-basin aquifers. An efficient method for mapping the aquifer extent and lithology was needed due to sparse subsurface information. Aerial Transient Electro-Magnetic (ATEM) methods were selected because they can be used to quickly survey large areas and with a great depth of investigation. Both helicopter and fixed-wing ATEM methods are available. A fixed-wing method (GEOTEM) was selected because of the potential for a depth of investigation of 300 m or more and because previous surveys indicated the method is useful in alluvial basins in southeastern Arizona. About 2,900 km of data along flight lines were surveyed across five alluvial basins, including the Middle San Pedro and Willcox Basins in southeastern Arizona, and Detrital, Hualapai, and Sacramento Basins in northwestern Arizona. Data initially were analyzed by the contractor (FUGRO Airborne Surveys) to produce conductivity-depth-transforms, which approximate the general subsurface electrical-property distribution along profiles. Physically based two-dimensional physical models of the profile data were then developed by PetRos- Eikon by using EMIGMA software. Hydrologically important lithologies can have different electrical properties. Several types of crystalline and sedimentary rocks generally are poor aquifers that have low porosity and high electrical resistivity. Good alluvial aquifers of sand and gravel generally have an intermediate electrical resistivity. Poor aquifer materials, such as silt and clay, and areas of poor quality water have low electrical resistivity values. Several types of control data were available to constrain the models including drill logs, electrical logs, water levels , and water quality information from wells; and

  18. Level III Ecoregions of the Mississippi Alluvial Plain

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Ecoregions for the Mississippi Alluvial Plain were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in...

  19. Level IV Ecoregions of the Mississippi Alluvial Plain

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Ecoregions for the Mississippi Alluvial Plain were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in...

  20. Water transport in desert alluvial soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearl, P.M.

    1982-04-01

    Safe storage of radioactive waste buried in an arid alluvial soil requires extensive site characterization of the physical process influencing moisture movement which could act as a transport medium for the migration of radionuclides. The field portion of this study included an infiltration plot instrumented with thermocouple psychrometers and neturon moisture probe access holes. Baseline information shows a zone of higher moisture content at approximately 1.5 m (5 ft) in depth. A sprinkler system simulated a 500-year precipitation event. Results revealed water penetrated the soil to 0.9 m (2.9 ft). Due to the low moisture content, vapor transport was primarily responsible for water movement at this depth. Temperature gradients are substantially responsible for vapor transport by preferentially sorting water-vapor molecules from the surrounding air by using the soil as a molecular sieve. Adsorbed and capillary water vapor pressure increases in response to a temperature increase and releases additional water to the soil pore atmosphere to be diffused away

  1. Effects of alluvial knickpoint migration on floodplain ecology and geomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Annegret; May, Jan-Hendrick

    2016-04-01

    Alluvial knickpoints are well described as erosional mechanism within discontinuous ephemeral streams in the semi-arid SW USA. However, alluvial knickpoints occur globally in a wide range of settings and of climate zones, including temperate SE Australia, subtropical Africa, and tropical Australia. Much attention has been given in the scientific literature to the trigger mechanisms of alluvial knickpoints, which can be summarized as: i) threshold phenomena, ii) climate variability and iii) land-use change, or to a combination of these factors. Recently, studies have focused on the timescale of alluvial knickpoint retreat, and the processes, mechanisms and feedbacks with ecology, geomorphology and hydrology. In this study, we compile data from a global literature review with a case study on a tropical river system in Australia affected by re-occurring, fast migrating (140 myr-1) alluvial knickpoint. We highlight the importance of potential water table declines due to channel incision following knickpoint migration, which in turn leads to the destabilization of river banks, and a shift in floodplain vegetation and fire incursion. We hypothesize that the observed feedbacks might also help to understand the broader impacts of alluvial knickpoint migration in other regions, and might explain the drastic effects of knickpoint migration on land cover and land-use in semi-arid areas.

  2. Lateral Erosion Encourages Vertical Incision in a Bimodal Alluvial River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gran, K. B.

    2015-12-01

    Sand can have a strong impact on gravel transport, increasing gravel transport rates by orders of magnitude as sand content increases. Recent experimental work by others indicates that adding sand to an armored bed can even cause armor to break-up and mobilize. These two elements together help explain observations from a bimodal sand and gravel-bedded river, where lateral migration into sand-rich alluvium breaks up the armor layer, encouraging further incision into the bed. Detailed bedload measurements were coupled with surface and subsurface grain size analyses and cross-sectional surveys in a seasonally-incised channel carved into the upper alluvial fan of the Pasig-Potrero River at Mount Pinatubo, Philippines. Pinatubo erupted in 1991, filling valleys draining the flanks of the volcano with primarily sand-sized pyroclastic flow debris. Twenty years after the eruption, sand-rich sediment inputs are strongly seasonal, with most sediment input to the channel during the rainy season. During the dry season, flow condenses from a wide braided planform to a single-thread channel in most of the upper basin, extending several km onto the alluvial fan. This change in planform creates similar unit discharge ranges in summer and winter. Lower sediment loads in the dry season drive vertical incision until the bed is sufficiently armored. Incision proceeds downstream in a wave, with increasing sediment transport rates and decreasing grain size with distance downstream, eventually reaching a gravel-sand transition and return to a braided planform. Incision depths in the gravel-bedded section exceeded 3 meters in parts of a 4 km-long study reach, a depth too great to be explained by predictions from simple winnowing during incision. Instead, lateral migration into sand-rich alluvium provides sufficient fine sediment to break up the armor surface, allowing incision to start anew and increasing the total depth of the seasonally-incised valley. Lateral migration is recorded in a

  3. Geotechnical Parameters of Alluvial Soils from in-situ Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Młynarek, Zbigniew; Stefaniak, Katarzyna; Wierzbicki, Jedrzej

    2012-10-01

    The article concentrates on the identification of geotechnical parameters of alluvial soil represented by silts found near Poznan and Elblag. Strength and deformation parameters of the subsoil tested were identified by the CPTU (static penetration) and SDMT (dilatometric) methods, as well as by the vane test (VT). Geotechnical parameters of the subsoil were analysed with a view to using the soil as an earth construction material and as a foundation for buildings constructed on the grounds tested. The article includes an analysis of the overconsolidation process of the soil tested and a formula for the identification of the overconsolidation ratio OCR. Equation 9 reflects the relation between the undrained shear strength and plasticity of the silts analyzed and the OCR value. The analysis resulted in the determination of the Nkt coefficient, which might be used to identify the undrained shear strength of both sediments tested. On the basis of a detailed analysis of changes in terms of the constrained oedometric modulus M0, the relations between the said modulus, the liquidity index and the OCR value were identified. Mayne's formula (1995) was used to determine the M0 modulus from the CPTU test. The usefullness of the sediments found near Poznan as an earth construction material was analysed after their structure had been destroyed and compacted with a Proctor apparatus. In cases of samples characterised by different water content and soil particle density, the analysis of changes in terms of cohesion and the internal friction angle proved that these parameters are influenced by the soil phase composition (Fig. 18 and 19). On the basis of the tests, it was concluded that the most desirable shear strength parameters are achieved when the silt is compacted below the optimum water content.

  4. Alluvial architecture of the Holocene Rhine-Meuse delta (The Netherlands) and the Lower Mississippi Valley (U.S.A.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouw, M.J.P.

    2007-01-01

    Alluvial architecture describes the geometry, proportion, and spatial distribution of different types of fluvial deposits in an alluvial succession. Alluvial architecture is frequently subject of study, because natural resources commonly occur in ancient fluvial sequences. The ability of models to

  5. The application of radioactive tracers for determination of bed-load transport in alluvial rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomsen, T.

    1980-01-01

    Radioactive isotopes have been applied for determining the transport rate of bed load in an alluvial river on the basis of: centroid velocity of the tracer particles, size and material-transporting width of mobile layer. These parameters were found by detailed measurements in the field. Computed values were produced on the basis of Engelund and Fredsoee's model on sediment transport and on the propagation of bed forms. When comparing measured and computed values, the difference was about 25%. Finally, the applicability of tracer methods for solving practical problem is discussed. (author)

  6. Optical dating using feldspar from Quaternary alluvial and colluvial sediments from SE Brazilian Plateau, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatumi, Sonia H.; Peixoto, Maria Naise O.; Moura, Josilda R.S.; Mello, Claudio L.; Carmo, Isabela O.; Kowata, Emilia A.; Yee, Marcio; Brito, Silvio Luiz M.; Gozzi, Giuiliano; Kassab, Luciana R.P.

    2003-01-01

    Opticallly stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating has been applied to a wide variety of materials such as loess, sand dunes, colluvium, alluvium, volcanic products, etc., helping geologic geomorphologic studies. OSL dating results using feldspar crystals extracted from alluvial and colluvial deposits of SE Brazilian Plateau will be presented in this work. The methodology used is based on the regeneration method, with multiple aliquot protocol. A total of 23 sample ages were obtained spanning 6.5-97.2 kyr. Results of radioactive contents and comparison with radiocarbon ages will be discussed

  7. 44 CFR 65.13 - Mapping and map revisions for areas subject to alluvial fan flooding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... areas subject to alluvial fan flooding. 65.13 Section 65.13 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL... areas subject to alluvial fan flooding. This section describes the procedures to be followed and the... provides protection from the base flood in an area subject to alluvial fan flooding. This information must...

  8. 75 FR 62137 - Notice of Public Meeting; Proposed Alluvial Valley Floor Coal Exchange Public Interest Factors...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    ... exchange Federal coal deposits for Alluvial Valley Floor (AVF) fee coal pursuant to the Federal Land Policy...; MTM-99236] Notice of Public Meeting; Proposed Alluvial Valley Floor Coal Exchange Public Interest... Alluvial Valley Floor Environmental Assessment can be viewed on the BLM's Miles City Field Office Web page...

  9. Counter diffusion of zinc and iron in alluvial soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rattan, R.K.; Deb, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    Half cell technique showed that an increase in moisture tension and CaCO 3 content caused reduction in the counter diffusion coefficients of zinc and iron in an alluvial soil. Increases in bulk density, ambient temperature and concentration of synthetic chelating agents e.g. EDTA and DTPA increased the counter diffusion coefficients of both zinc and iron. (author)

  10. Topographic and hydraulic controls over alluviation on a bedrock template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, David; Heritage, George; Entwistle, Neil; Tooth, Stephen

    2017-04-01

    Bedrock-alluvial anastomosed channels found in dryland rivers are characterised by an over-wide channel cut into the host rock containing a network of interconnecting bedrock sub-channels separated by bedrock influenced interfluve areas. Whilst the channels remain largely free of sediment the interfluves display varying levels of alluviation ranging from bare rock, sand sheets and silt drapes through to consolidated bedrock core bars, islands and lateral deposits. Examination of the sedimentary units associated with the bedrock anastomosed reaches of the Sabie river in the Kruger National Park, South Africa reveal a repeating sequence of coarse sand / fine gravel grading through to silt representing successive flood related depositional units. Unit development in relation to the bedrock template was investigated using pre-flood aerial imagery of bedrock core bar locations and post flood LiDAR data of bedrock anastomosed sites stripped during the 2000 and 2012 extreme flood events. This revealed a propensity for bar development associated with bedrock hollows disconnected from the principal high-energy sub-channels. 2-D morpho-dynamic modelling was used to further investigate spatial patterns of deposition over the bedrock template. Although topographic lows displayed mid-range velocities during peak flow events, these are likely to be preferential routing areas, with sediments stalling in low energy areas on the falling limb of floods. It is also likely that vegetation development plays a fundamental role in the development of alluviated zones, through increasing strength of alluvial units and capturing new sediments. With these results in mind we present a conceptual model for the development of bedrock-core bars, the fundamental unit in bedrock-alluvial anastomosed channels.

  11. Imaging normal faults in alluvial fans using geophysical techniques: Field example from the coast of Gulf of Aqaba, Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif M.

    2014-08-05

    In this work we use geophysical methods to locate and characterize active faults in alluvial sediments. Since only subtle material and velocity contrasts are expected across the faults, we used seismic refraction tomography and 2D resistivity imaging to locate the fault. One seismic profile and one 2D resistivity profile are collected at an alluvial fan on the Gulf of Aqaba coast in Saudi Arabia. The collected data are inverted to generate the traveltime tomogram and the electric resistivity tomogram (ERT). A low velocity anomaly is shown on the traveltime tomogram indicates the colluvial wedge associated with the fault. The location of the fault is shown on the ERT as a vertical high resistivity anomaly.

  12. The impact of medium architecture of alluvial settings on non-Fickian transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Green, Christopher T.; Fogg, Graham E.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of heterogeneous architecture of alluvial aquifers on non-Fickian transport is explored using the Monte Carlo approach. More than two thousand high-resolution hydrofacies models representing seven groups of alluvial settings are built to test the effects of varying facies proportions, mean length and its anisotropy ratio, juxtapositional tendencies, and sub-facies heterogeneity. Results show that the volumetric fraction (P(Z)) of floodplain layers classified by their thicknesses Z controls the non-Fickian tailing of tracer transport at late times. A simple quantitative relationship SBTC≈SP(Z)/2-1 is built based on a multi-rate mass transfer analysis, where SBTC is the slope of the power-law portion of tracer breakthrough curve, and SP(Z) denotes the slope of the power-law portion of the distribution of P(Z) which can be measured, e.g., in core logs. At early times, the mean length of hydrofacies affects the non-Fickian tailing by controlling the channeling of flow in high-permeability non-floodplain materials and the sequestration in surrounding low-permeability floodplain layers. The competition between channeling and sequestration generates complex pre-asymptotic features, including sublinear growth of plume mean displacement, superlinear growth of plume variance, and skewed mass distribution. Those observations of the influence of medium heterogeneity on tracer transport at early and late times may lead to development of nonlocal transport models that can be parameterized using measurable aquifer characteristics.

  13. Correlation of alluvial deposits at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grothaus, B.; Howard, N.

    1977-01-01

    Because characteristics of rock layers and problems in drilling must be studied before radioactive waste can be safely contained, an evaluation was made of methods for correlating alluvial deposits at Yucca Flat of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Although correlation of Tertiary volcanic tuff beds at the NTS has been successfully achieved, correlation of stratigraphic zones in the overlying alluvium has posed technical difficulties. We have evaluated several methods for correlating alluvial deposits from drillholes, including electric resistivity logs (E logs), visual examination of sidewall samples and comparison of their carbonate (CO 2 ) content, downhole stereo photography for identifying debris flow deposits, caliche age-dating, and specific yield and permeability measurements of deposits. For predicting the thickness of zones having similar physical properties in the alluvium, E log measurements were found to be the most useful of these methods

  14. Metabolism of 14C-lindane in flooded alluvial soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddaramappa, R.; Sethunathan, N.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of rice straw on the persistence of uniformly ring labelled 14 C-lindane in an alluvial soil was investigated under flooded conditions. The residues in the soil were extracted with chloroform-diethyl ether and the radioactivity was measured by liquid scintillation. The radioactivity in the solvent phase decreased more rapidly in amended soil than in unamended soil. Radioautograph of thin layer chromatograms of solvent phase indicated that lindane was readily converted to a breakdown product in both amended and unamended soils. This breakdown product was also formed in both autoclaved and nonautoclaved soils. Rice straw amendment enhanced further decomposition of lindane and its breakdown product. Heat treatment retarded further decomposition of lindane and its breakdown product whereas they were rapidly decomposed in nonautoclaved soil. These studies indicated that in flooded alluvial soil tested, lindane was initially decomposed by a chemical reaction and soil microorganisms appeared to attack the products of the chemical reaction. (author)

  15. Alluvial architecture of the Holocene Rhine-Meuse delta (The Netherlands) and the Lower Mississippi Valley (U.S.A.)

    OpenAIRE

    Gouw, M.J.P.

    2007-01-01

    Alluvial architecture describes the geometry, proportion, and spatial distribution of different types of fluvial deposits in an alluvial succession. Alluvial architecture is frequently subject of study, because natural resources commonly occur in ancient fluvial sequences. The ability of models to simulate alluvial architecture realistically is largely unknown due to a lack of natural data to test the models. Generating high-resolution datasets describing alluvial architecture of natural fluv...

  16. Summary of Available Hydrogeologic Data for the Northeast Portion of the Alluvial Aquifer at Louisville, Kentucky

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Unthank, Michael D; Nelson, Jr., Hugh L

    2006-01-01

    The hydrogeologic characteristics of the unconsolidated glacial outwash sand and gravel deposits that compose the northeast portion of the alluvial aquifer at Louisville, Kentucky, indicate a prolific...

  17. Numerical model of the lowermost Mississippi River as an alluvial-bedrock reach: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viparelli, E.; Nittrouer, J. A.; Mohrig, D. C.; Parker, G.

    2012-12-01

    Recent field studies reveal that the river bed of the Lower Mississippi River is characterized by a transition from alluvium (upstream) to bedrock (downstream). In particular, in the downstream 250 km of the river, fields of actively migrating bedforms alternate with deep zones where a consolidated substratum is exposed. Here we present a first version of a one-dimensional numerical model able to capture the alluvial-bedrock transition in the lowermost Mississippi River, defined herein as the 500-km reach between the Old River Control Structure and the Gulf of Mexico. The flow is assumed to be steady, and the cross-section is divided in two regions, the river channel and the floodplain. The streamwise variation of channel and floodplain geometry is described with synthetic relations derived from field observations. Flow resistance in the river channel is computed with the formulation for low-slope, large sand bed rivers due to Wright and Parker, while a Chezy-type formulation is implemented on the floodplain. Sediment is modeled in terms of bed material and wash load. Suspended load is computed with the Wright-Parker formulation. This treatment allows either uniform sediment or a mixture of different grain sizes, and accounts for stratification effects. Bedload transport rates are estimated with the relation for sediment mixtures of Ashida and Michiue. Previous work documents reasonable agreement between these load relations and field measurements. Washload is routed through the system solving the equation of mass conservation of sediment in suspension in the water column. The gradual transition from the alluvial reach to the bedrock reach is modeled in terms of a "mushy" layer of specified thickness overlying the non-erodible substrate. In the case of a fully alluvial reach, the channel bed elevation is above this mushy layer, while in the case of partial alluvial cover of the substratum, the channel bed elevation is within the mushy layer. Variations in base

  18. Alluvial Diamond Resource Potential and Production Capacity Assessment of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirico, Peter G.; Malpeli, Katherine C.; Anum, Solomon; Phillips, Emily C.

    2010-01-01

    In May of 2000, a meeting was convened in Kimberley, South Africa, and attended by representatives of the diamond industry and leaders of African governments to develop a certification process intended to assure that rough, exported diamonds were free of conflictual concerns. This meeting was supported later in 2000 by the United Nations in a resolution adopted by the General Assembly. By 2002, the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme (KPCS) was ratified and signed by both diamond-producing and diamond-importing countries. Over 70 countries were included as members at the end of 2007. To prevent trade in 'conflict' diamonds while protecting legitimate trade, the KPCS requires that each country set up an internal system of controls to prevent conflict diamonds from entering any imported or exported shipments of rough diamonds. Every diamond or diamond shipment must be accompanied by a Kimberley Process (KP) certificate and be contained in tamper-proof packaging. The objective of this study was to assess the alluvial diamond resource endowment and current production capacity of the alluvial diamond-mining sector in Ghana. A modified volume and grade methodology was used to estimate the remaining diamond reserves within the Birim and Bonsa diamond fields. The production capacity of the sector was estimated using a formulaic expression of the number of workers reported in the sector, their productivity, and the average grade of deposits mined. This study estimates that there are approximately 91,600,000 carats of alluvial diamonds remaining in both the Birim and Bonsa diamond fields: 89,000,000 carats in the Birim and 2,600,000 carats in the Bonsa. Production capacity is calculated to be 765,000 carats per year, based on the formula used and available data on the number of workers and worker productivity. Annual production is highly dependent on the international diamond market and prices, the numbers of seasonal workers actively mining in the sector, and

  19. Development of A Mississippi River Alluvial Aquifer Groundwater Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakullukcu, R. E.; Tsai, F. T. C.; Bhatta, D.; Paudel, K.; Kao, S. C.

    2017-12-01

    The Mississippi River Alluvial Aquifer (MRAA) underlies the Mississippi River Valley of the northeastern Louisiana, extending from the north border of Louisiana and Arkansas to south central of Louisiana. The MRAA has direct contact with the Mississippi River. However, the interaction between the Mississippi River and the alluvial aquifer is largely unknown. The MRAA is the second most used groundwater source in Louisiana's aquifers with about 390 million gallons per day, which is about 25% of all groundwater withdrawals in Louisiana. MRAA is the major water source to agriculture in the northeastern Louisiana. The groundwater withdrawals from the MRAA increases annually for irrigation. High groundwater pumping has caused significant groundwater level decline and elevated salinity in the aquifer. Therefore, dealing with agricultural irrigation is the primary purpose for managing the MRAA. The main objective of this study is to develop a groundwater model as a tool for the MRAA groundwater management. To do so, a hydrostratigraphy model of the MRAA was constructed by using nearly 8,000 drillers' logs and electric logs collected from Louisiana Department of Natural Resources. The hydrostratigraphy model clearly shows that the Mississippi River cuts into the alluvial aquifer. A grid generation technique was developed to convert the hydrostratigraphy model into a MODFLOW model with 12 layers. A GIS-based method was used to estimate groundwater withdrawals for irrigation wells based on the crop location and acreage from the USDACropScape - Cropland Data Layer. Results from the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model were used to determine potential recharge. NHDPlusV2 data was used to determine water level for major streams for the MODFLOW River Package. The groundwater model was calibrated using groundwater data between 2004 and 2015 to estimate aquifer hydraulic conductivity, specific yield, specific storage, river conductance, and surficial recharge.

  20. A row-charge nuclear cratering explosion in alluvial rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kireev, V.V.; Kedrovskij, O.L.; Valentinov, Yu.A.; Myasnikov, K.V.; Nikiforov, G.A.; Prozorov, L.B.; Potapov, V.K.

    1975-01-01

    A brief description is given of the first row-charge nuclear cratering explosion in alluvial rocks carried out on the route of the Pechora-Kolva canal. The authors explain the purposes of the explosion, describe the geological conditions, indicate the emplacement parameters and yields of the charges, present data on the dynamics of development of the explosion and report on its seismic effects. The parameters of the resulting trench cut and the characteristics of the rock ejecta are also given. The possibility of using nuclear explosions for hydrotechnological projects requiring large excavations in a thick stratum of weak water-bearing rocks is considered

  1. Temporal correlation of fluvial and alluvial sequences in the Makran Range, SE-Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kober, F.; Zeilinger, G.; Ivy-Ochs, S.; Dolati, A.; Smit, J.; Burg, J.-P.; Bahroudi, A.; Kubik, P. W.; Baur, H.; Wieler, R.; Haghipour, N.

    2009-04-01

    The Makran region of southeastern Iran is an active accretionary wedge with a partially subaerial component. New investigations have revealed a rather complex geodynamic evolution of the Makran active accretionary wedge that is not yet fully understood in its entity. Ongoing convergence between the Arabian and Eurasian plates and tectonic activity since the late Mesozoic has extended all trough the Quaternary. We focus here on fluvial and alluvial sequences in tectonically separated basins that have been deposited probably in the Pliocene/Quaternary, based on stratigraphic classification in official geological maps, in order to understand the climatic and tectonic forces occurring during the ongoing accretionary wegde formation. Specifically, we investigate the influence of Quaternary climate variations (Pleistocene cold period, monsoonal variations) on erosional and depositional processes in the (semi)arid Makran as well as local and regional tectonic forces in the Coastal and Central Makran Range region. Necessary for such an analysis is a temporal calibration of alluvial and fluvial terrace sequences that will allow an inter-basin correlation. We utilize the exposure age dating method using terrestrial cosmogenic nuclides (TCN) due to the lack of otherwise datatable material in the arid Makran region. Limited radiocarbon data are only available for marine terraces (wave-cut platforms). Our preliminary 21Ne and 10Be TCN-ages of amalgamated clast samples from (un)deformed terrace and alluvial sequences range from ~250 ky to present day (modern wash). These ages agree in relative terms with sequences previously assigned by other investigations through correlation of Quaternary sequences from Central and Western Iran regions. However, our minimum ages suggest that all age sequences are of middle to late Pleistocene age, compared to Pliocene age estimates previously assigned for the oldest units. Although often suggested, a genetical relation and connection of those

  2. Quality of water in alluvial aquifers in eastern Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoca, Mark E.; Sadorf, Eric M.; Linhart, S. Michael; Barnes, Kimberlee K.

    2001-01-01

    The goal of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program is to assess the status and trends in the quality of the Nation's surface and ground water, and to better understand the natural and human factors affecting water quality. The Eastern Iowa Basins study unit encompasses an area of about 50,500 square kilometers (19,500 square miles) in eastern Iowa and southern Minnesota and is one of 59 study units in the NAWQA program. Land-use studies are an important component of the NAWQA program, and are designed to assess the concentration and distribution of water-quality constituents in recently recharged ground water associated with the most significant land use and hydrogeologic settings within a study unit. The focus of the land-use study in the Eastern Iowa Basins study unit is agricultural and urban land uses and alluvial aquifers. Agriculture is the dominant land use in the study unit. Urban areas, although not extensive, represent important potential source areas of contaminants associated with residential, commercial, and industrial activities. Alluvial aquifers are present throughout much of the study unit, and constitute a major ground-water supply that is susceptible to contamination from land-use activities.

  3. Case studies of groundwater- surface water interactions and scale relationships in small alluvial aquifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Love, Dave; de Hamer, Wouter; Owen, Richard J.S.; Booij, Martijn J.; Uhlenbrook, Stefan; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; van der Zaag, Pieter

    2007-01-01

    An alluvial aquifer can be described as a groundwater system, generally unconfined, that is hosted in laterally discontinuous layers of gravel, sand, silt and clay, deposited by a river in a river channel, banks or flood plain. In semi-arid regions, streams that are associated with alluvial aquifers

  4. Alluvial architecture of fluvio-deltaic successions: a review with special reference to Holocene settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouw, M.J.P.

    2007-01-01

    Alluvial architecture has been subject of many studies because of the occurrence of natural resources in ancient fluvial successions. This paperprovides an overview of the current state of research on alluvial architecture with special reference to Holocene fluvio-deltaic settings. Severalexamples

  5. Outlook for Mississippi Alluvial Valley forests: a subregional report from the Southern Forest Futures Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emile S. Gardiner

    2015-01-01

    The Mississippi Alluvial Valley, which can be broadly subdivided into the Holocene Deposits section and the Deltaic Plain section, is a 24.9-million-acre area generally approximating the alluvial floodplain and delta of the lower Mississippi River. Its robust agricultural economy is maintained by a largely rural population, and recreational resources draw high...

  6. Environment tracers application to groundwater circulation assessment in an alluvial aquifer in Central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sappa, Giuseppe; Barbieri, Maurizio; Vitale, Stefania

    2017-04-01

    Groundwater vulnerability assessment is an important tool in order to plan any groundwater protection strategy. The aim of this study is to experiment a specific approach to give a conceptual model about groundwater circulation characterization. This approach has been applied to a suspected contaminated site in a large alluvial plan, made of sediments coming from weathered volcanic rocks, laying on marine sediments, where more than thirty years ago had been built a very important urban waste solid landfill. In referring to this case history it has been pointed out the importance of natural chemical interaction between ground water and rock mass, especially when pyroclastic origin sediments are involved. The landfill had been isolated from the surrounding environment, especially to protect aquifers, by a waterproof diaphragm This land is characterised by intensive agricultural and industrial activities (oil refineries, medical waste incinerators, concrete production, tar factory). The study will highlight the importance of environmental tracers which provide information about the flow and mixing processes of water coming from different sources. They are also useful to point out directions of groundwater flow and to determine origin Environmental tracers are natural chemical and isotopic substances that can be measured in groundwater and used to understand hydrologic properties of aquifers. They may be input into the hydrological system from the atmosphere at recharge and/or are added/lost/exchanged inherently as waters flow over and through materials. Variations in their chemical abundances and isotopic compositions can be used as tracers to determine sources (provenance), pathways (of reaction or interaction) and also timescales (dating) of environmental processes. In combination with these, the basic idea is to use. In this case enviromental tracers have been integrated by temperature and electric conductivity logs, to better investigate different levels of faster

  7. Quaternary alluvial fans of Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, northern México: OSL ages and implications for climatic history of the region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zúñiga de León, David; Kershaw, Stephen; Mahan, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    Alluvial fans formed from sediments derived from erosion of the Juárez Mountains in northernmost México have a significant flood impact on the Ciudad Juárez, which is built on the fan system. The northern part of Ciudad Juárez is the most active; further south, older parts of the fan, upon which the rest of the city is built, were largely eroded by natural processes prior to human habitation and subsequently modified only recently by human construction. Three aeolian sand samples, collected from the uppermost (youngest) parts of the fan system in the city area, in places where human intervention has not disturbed the sediment, and constrain the latest dates of fan building. Depositional ages of the Quaternary alluvial fans were measured using Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) on aeolian sands that have inter-fingered with alluvial fan material. These dates are: a) sample P1, 31 ka; b) sample P2, 41 ka; c) sample P3, 74 ka, between Oxygen Isotope Stages (OIS) 3 to 5. They demonstrate that fan development, in the area now occupied by the city, terminated in the Late Pleistocene, immediately after what we interpret to have been an extended period of erosion without further deposition, lasting from the Late Pleistocene to Holocene. The three dates broadly correspond to global glacial periods, implying that the cool, dry periods may reflect periods of aeolian transport in northern México in between phases that were wetter to form the alluvial fans. Alluvial fan margins inter-finger with fluvial terrace sediments derived from the Río Bravo, indicating an additional component of fan dissection by Río Bravo lateral erosion, presumed to be active during earlier times than our OSL ages, but these are not yet dated. Further dating is required to ascertain the controls on the fan and fluvial system.

  8. Sustainable Water Use System of Artesian Water in Alluvial Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishi, K.; Tsujimura, M.; Tase, N.

    2013-12-01

    The traditional water use system, developed with the intelligence of the local residents, usually takes advantage of local natural resources and is considered as a sustainable system, because of its energy saving(only forces of nature). For this reason, such kind of water use system is also recommended in some strategic policies for the purpose of a symbiosis between nature and human society. Therefore, it is important to clarify the relationship between human activities and water use systems. This study aims to clarify the mechanism of traditional water use processes in alluvial fan, and in addition, to investigate the important factors which help forming a sustainable water use system from the aspects of natural conditions and human activities. The study area, an alluvial fan region named Adogawa, is located in Shiga Prefecture, Japan and is in the west of Biwa Lake which is the largest lake in Japan. In this alluvial region where the land use is mainly occupied by settlements and paddy fields, a groundwater flowing well system is called "kabata" according to local tradition. During field survey, we took samples of groundwater, river water and lake water as well as measured the potential head of groundwater. The results showed that the upper boundary of flowing water was approximately 88m amsl, which is basically the same as the results reported by Kishi and Kanno (1966). In study area, a rapid increase of water pumping for domestic water use and melting snow during last 50 years, even if the irrigation area has decreased about 30% since 1970, and this fact may cause a decrease in recharge rate to groundwater. However, the groundwater level didn't decline based on the observed results, which is probably contributed by some water conservancy projects on Biwa Lake which maintained the water level of the lake. All the water samples are characterized by Ca-HCO3 type and similar stable isotopic value of δD and δ18O. Groundwater level in irrigation season is higher

  9. 30 CFR 785.19 - Surface coal mining and reclamation operations on areas or adjacent to areas including alluvial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... alluvial valley floor exists if it finds that— (i) Unconsolidated streamlaid deposits holding streams are... on areas or adjacent to areas including alluvial valley floors in the arid and semiarid areas west of....19 Surface coal mining and reclamation operations on areas or adjacent to areas including alluvial...

  10. Dynamic analysis of a reactor building on alluvial soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arya, A.S.; Chandrasekaran, A.R.; Paul, D.K.; Warudkar, A.S.

    1977-01-01

    The reactor building consists of reinforced concrete internal framed structure enclosed in double containment shells of prestressed and reinforced concrete all resting on a common massive raft. The external cylindrical shell is capped by a spherical dome while the internal shell carries a cellular gird slab. The building is partially buried under ground. The soil consists of alluvial going to 1000 m depth. The site lies in a moderate seismic zone. The paper presents the dynamic analysis of the building including soil-structure interaction. The mathematical model consists of four parallel, suitably interconnected struxtures, namely inner containment, outer containment, internal frame and the calandria vault. Each one of the parallel structures consists of lumped-mass beam elements. The soil below the raft and on the sides of outer containment shell is represented by elastic springs in both horizontal and vertical directions. The various assumpions required to be made in developing the mathematical model are briefly discussed in the paper. (Auth.)

  11. Occurrence of monazite in some alluvial soils of North Bihar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mall, J.; Mishra, B.B.

    1994-01-01

    Monazite, a thorium-bearing mineral, has been identified in the heavy mineral fractions of the fine sands from the alluvial soil profiles at Barpalia and Gyaspur of Siwan district in north Bihar. The amount of monazite varied from 14.29 to 15.40 per cent and 6.25 to 9.38 per cent of the heavy minerals in the fine sands of Barpalia and Gyaspur, respectively. Monazite could have been derived from the granite pegmatite and gneissic metamorphic rocks in association with feldspar, zircon and apatite from the Himalayan orogan. The amount of 232 Th present in monazite originally ranges from a few wt per cent ThO 2 to 10-12 per cent. Even in the east coast of India , monazite contains 9.05 per cent ThO 2 . (author).5 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  12. Evaluation of a computer model to simulate water table response to subirrigation Avaliação de um modelo computacional para simular a resposta do lençol freático à subirrigação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadir Aparecido Rosa

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the water flow computer model, WATABLE, using experimental field observations on water table management plots from a site located near Hastings, FL, USA. The experimental field had scale drainage systems with provisions for subirrigation with buried microirrigation and conventional seepage irrigation systems. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. growing seasons from years 1996 and 1997 were used to simulate the hydrology of the area. Water table levels, precipitation, irrigation and runoff volumes were continuously monitored. The model simulated the water movement from a buried microirrigation line source and the response of the water table to irrigation, precipitation, evapotranspiration, and deep percolation. The model was calibrated and verified by comparing simulated results with experimental field observations. The model performed very well in simulating seasonal runoff, irrigation volumes, and water table levels during crop growth. The two-dimensional model can be used to investigate different irrigation strategies involving water table management control. Applications of the model include optimization of the water table depth for each growth stage, and duration, frequency, and rate of irrigation.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o modelo computacional WATABLE usando-se dados de campo obtidos em uma área experimental em manejo de lençol freático, localizada em Hastings, FL, EUA. Na área experimental, estavam instalados um sistema de drenagem e sistemas de irrigação por subsuperfície com irrigação localizada e por canais. Ciclos de cultivo de batata (Solanum tuberosum L., nos anos de 1996 e 1997, foram usados para a simulação da hidrologia da área. Profundidades do lençol freático, chuvas, irrigação e escorrimento superficial foram monitorados constantemente. O modelo simulou o movimento da água a partir de uma linha de irrigação localizada enterrada, e a resposta do nível do len

  13. Magnetic properties of alluvial soils polluted with heavy metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlouha, S.; Petrovsky, E.; Boruvka, L.; Kapicka, A.; Grison, H.

    2012-04-01

    Magnetic properties of soils, reflecting mineralogy, concentration and grain-size distribution of Fe-oxides, proved to be useful tool in assessing the soil properties in terms of various environmental conditions. Measurement of soil magnetic properties presents a convenient method to investigate the natural environmental changes in soils as well as the anthropogenic pollution of soils with several risk elements. The effect of fluvial pollution with Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn on magnetic soil properties was studied on highly contaminated alluvial soils from the mining/smelting district (Příbram; CZ) using a combination of magnetic and geochemical methods. The basic soil characteristics, the content of heavy metals, oxalate, and dithionite extractable iron were determined in selected soil samples. Soil profiles were sampled using HUMAX soil corer and the magnetic susceptibility was measured in situ, further detailed magnetic analyses of selected distinct layers were carried out. Two types of variations of magnetic properties in soil profiles were observed corresponding to indentified soil types (Fluvisols, and Gleyic Fluvisols). Significantly higher values of topsoil magnetic susceptibility compared to underlying soil are accompanied with high concentration of heavy metals. Sequential extraction analysis proved the binding of Pb, Zn and Cd in Fe and Mn oxides. Concentration and size-dependent parameters (anhysteretic and isothermal magnetization) were measured on bulk samples in terms of assessing the origin of magnetic components. The results enabled to distinguish clearly topsoil layers enhanced with heavy metals from subsoil samples. The dominance of particles with pseudo-single domain behavior in topsoil and paramagnetic/antiferromagnetic contribution in subsoil were observed. These measurements were verified with room temperature hysteresis measurement carried out on bulk samples and magnetic extracts. Thermomagnetic analysis of magnetic susceptibility measured on

  14. Bacterial biomass and DNA diversity in an alluvial meadow soil upon long-term fertilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naumova, N.B.; Kuikman, P.J.

    2001-01-01

    The denaturing gradient gel-electrophoresis of bacterial DNA fragments and the assessment of bacterial biomass revealed changes in the diversity of the bacterial community in a meadow alluvial soil upon long-term fertilization.

  15. Assessment of the denitrification process in alluvial wetlands at floodplain scale using the SWAT model

    Science.gov (United States)

    As alluvial plains support intensive agricultural activities, they often suffer from groundwater nitrate pollution. Denitrification is recognized as an important process in nitrate pollution control in riparian zones. In shallow aquifer zones influenced by recharged surface water, denitrification ...

  16. Alluvial aquifers in the Mzingwane catchment: Their distribution, properties, current usage and potential expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyce, William; Mangeya, Pride; Owen, Richard; Love, David

    The Mzingwane River is a sand filled channel, with extensive alluvial aquifers distributed along its banks and bed in the lower catchment. LandSat TM imagery was used to identify alluvial deposits for potential groundwater resources for irrigation development. On the false colour composite band 3, band 4 and band 5 (FCC 345) the alluvial deposits stand out as white and dense actively growing vegetation stands out as green making it possible to mark out the lateral extent of the saturated alluvial plain deposits using the riverine fringe and vegetation . The alluvial aquifers form ribbon shaped aquifers extending along the channel and reaching over 20 km in length in some localities and are enhanced at lithological boundaries. These alluvial aquifers extend laterally outside the active channel, and individual alluvial aquifers have been measured with area ranging from 45 ha to 723 ha in the channels and 75 ha to 2196 ha on the plains. The alluvial aquifers are more pronounced in the Lower Mzingwane, where the slopes are gentler and allow for more sediment accumulation. Estimated water resources potential ranges between 175,000 m 3 and 5,430,000 m 3 in the channels and between 80,000 m 3 and 6,920,000 m 3 in the plains. Such a water resource potential can support irrigation ranging from 18 ha to 543 ha for channels alluvial aquifers and 8 ha to 692 ha for plain alluvial aquifers. Currently, some of these aquifers are being used to provide water for domestic use, livestock watering and dip tanks, commercial irrigation and market gardening. The water quality of the aquifers in general is fairly good due to regular recharge and flushing out of the aquifers by annual river flows and floodwater. Water salinity was found to increase significantly in the end of the dry season, and this effect was more pronounced in water abstracted from wells on the alluvial plains. During drought years, recharge is expected to be less and if the drought is extended water levels in the

  17. Analysis and assessment on heavy metal sources in the coastal soils developed from alluvial deposits using multivariate statistical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinling; He, Ming; Han, Wei; Gu, Yifan

    2009-05-30

    An investigation on heavy metal sources, i.e., Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb, Cr, and Cd in the coastal soils of Shanghai, China, was conducted using multivariate statistical methods (principal component analysis, clustering analysis, and correlation analysis). All the results of the multivariate analysis showed that: (i) Cu, Ni, Pb, and Cd had anthropogenic sources (e.g., overuse of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, industrial and municipal discharges, animal wastes, sewage irrigation, etc.); (ii) Zn and Cr were associated with parent materials and therefore had natural sources (e.g., the weathering process of parent materials and subsequent pedo-genesis due to the alluvial deposits). The effect of heavy metals in the soils was greatly affected by soil formation, atmospheric deposition, and human activities. These findings provided essential information on the possible sources of heavy metals, which would contribute to the monitoring and assessment process of agricultural soils in worldwide regions.

  18. Hydrochemical Processes in the Alluvial Aquifer of the Gwydir River (Northern New South Wales, Australia)

    OpenAIRE

    Menció, Anna; Mas-Pla, Josep; Korbel, Kathryn; Hose, Grant C.

    2013-01-01

    The hydrochemistry of the Narrabri Formation, the shallow aquifer system of the alluvial fan of the Gwydir River (NSW, Australia), is analyzed to better understand the hydrogeological processes involved in aquifer recharge, and to set up future management options that preserve the quantity and quality of water resources. Results show that groundwater hydrochemistry in this alluvial aquifer is mainly controlled by silicate weathering and cation exchange. However, salt remobilization in specifi...

  19. Diagenesis of Permian alluvial fan deposits of Northern Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluem, W.

    1987-01-01

    Fine-grained sandstones of Permian alluvial fan deposits from three Nagra boreholes (Weiach, Riniken, Kaisten) and an exploration well, drilled at Wintersingen are clast supported, moderately sorted arkosic greywackes containing typically 2-20 % clayey matrix. Petrographic studies indicate that the origin of this clayey matrix is postdepositional. Mechanical infiltration of fines and diagenetic reddening of detrital and authigenic iron oxides are the earliest recorded events. Additionally, nodular calcites of calcrete origin and fibrous illitic clays are also ascribed to the eogenetic environment. The present strong compaction fabric results from general lack of eogenetic framework supporting cements. During mesogenesis, secondary porosity was generated through partial removal of early calcite. At the same time, a first generation of syntaxial quartz cementation and a subsequent fibrous illite authigenesis took place. Leaching of detrital K-feldspars post-dating compaction is recorded throughout the studied boreholes. The following burial diagenetic events differ between the various boreholes: in Weiach and Wintersingen kaolinite, illite, prismatic quartz and ankerite/siderite are recorded; in Riniken K-feldspar, illite, prismatic quartz and dolomite developed; whilst in Kaisten K-feldspar and microcrystalline quartz-cement dominate. These differences reflect the chemistry, pH and ionic strength of the pore fluids. Filling of veins by dolomite/ankerite, iron-rich and subsequent iron-poor calcite is the latest recorded event. (author) 21 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  20. The Quaternary alluvial systems tract of the Pantanal Basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Luis Assine

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Pantanal Basin is an active sedimentary basin in central-west Brazil that consists of a complex alluvial systems tract characterized by the interaction between different river systems developed in one of the largest wetlands in the world. The Paraguay River is the trunk river system that drains the water and part of the sediment load received from areas outside of the basin. Depositional styles vary considerably along the river profiles throughout the basin, with the development of entrenched meandering belts, anastomosing reaches, and floodplain ponds. Paleodrainage patterns are preserved on the surface of abandoned lobes of fluvial fans, which also exhibit many degradational channels. Here, we propose a novel classification scheme according to which the geomorphology, hydrological regime and sedimentary dynamics of these fluvial systems are determined by the geology and geomorphology of the source areas. In this way, the following systems are recognized and described: (I the Paraguay trunk-river plains; (II fluvial fans sourced by the tablelands catchment area; (III fluvial fans sourced by lowlands; and (IV fluvial interfans. We highlight the importance of considering the influences of source areas when interpreting contrasting styles of fluvial architectures in the rock record.

  1. Colonizing Dynamic Alluvial and Coastal Landscapes in the Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidder, T.; Liu, X.; Ervin, K.

    2017-12-01

    Throughout the Holocene humans have had to adapt to dynamic, rapidly changing alluvial and coastal landscapes. Understanding when people inhabit a given environment is an important starting point for exploring human adaptations, but increasingly we need to consider how, and especially why certain environments are used—or not used— so we can understand the consequences of these human actions. Using four case studies—one from the Yellow River Valley, China, one from coastal Jiangsu, China, one from the Mississippi River Valley (Mississippi, USA) and one from the Mississippi River delta (Louisiana , USA)—we develop a model of how humans at various stages of cultural development colonize new environments. Using archaeological data and ecological modeling we investigate the relationship between the timing of landscape colonization and the ecological richness and predictability of any given environment. As new landscapes emerge and mature humans adopt different strategies for exploiting these novel environments that begins with episodic use and increasingly shifts to stable, long-term habitation. The early phase of landscape colonization appears to be the most significant period because it shapes human environmental practices and sets each culture on a trajectory of socio-cultural development. Thus, human-environment interaction is a critical part of the emergence of cultural patterns that shapes the past, present, and even the future.

  2. Diazotrophy in alluvial meadows of subarctic river systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas H DeLuca

    Full Text Available There is currently limited understanding of the contribution of biological N2 fixation (diazotrophy to the N budget of large river systems. This natural source of N in boreal river systems may partially explain the sustained productivity of river floodplains in Northern Europe where winter fodder was harvested for centuries without fertilizer amendments. In much of the world, anthropogenic pollution and river regulation have nearly eliminated opportunities to study natural processes that shaped early nutrient dynamics of large river systems; however, pristine conditions in northern Fennoscandia allow for the retrospective evaluation of key biochemical processes of historical significance. We investigated biological N2 fixation (diazotrophy as a potential source of nitrogen fertility at 71 independent floodplain sites along 10 rivers and conducted seasonal and intensive analyses at a subset of these sites. Biological N2 fixation occurred in all floodplains, averaged 24.5 kg N ha(-1 yr(-1 and was down regulated from over 60 kg N ha(-1 yr(-1 to 0 kg N ha(-1 yr(-1 by river N pollution. A diversity of N2-fixing cyanobacteria was found to colonize surface detritus in the floodplains. The data provide evidence for N2 fixation to be a fundamental source of new N that may have sustained fertility at alluvial sites along subarctic rivers. Such data may have implications for the interpretation of ancient agricultural development and the design of contemporary low-input agroecosystems.

  3. Geomorphology of the Namoi alluvial plain, northwestern New South Wales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, R.W.; Young, A.R.M.; Price, D.M.; Wray, R.A.L.

    2002-01-01

    The Quaternary history of the extensive alluvial plains of the northern part of the Darling River Basin has received little attention, and has generally been assumed to be an analogue of the very detailed history compiled for the Riverine Plain of southeastern Australia. Our study of the Namoi valley, which is a tributary to the upper Darling, shows that this assumption is unfounded. Thermoluminescence dating demonstrates that the oldest palaeochannels of the Namoi River correspond only to the youngest palaeochannels on the Riverine Plain. The thermoluminescence analyses were carried out on the 90-125 μm quartz fraction thermally stimulated by ionizing radiation using the combined additive/regenerative technique. This technique utilises a second glow normalisation procedure that involves re-irradiating each of the quartz sample aliquots and measuring the thermoluminescence induced in the grains. It has ben demonstrated that unlike the streams on the Riverine Plain, the Namoi River has moved progressively away from its buried Tertiary palaeovalley, probably due to declining sediment input from its southern tributaries. In contrast to the streams of the Riverine Plain, the dimensions of the Namoi palaeochannels are indicative of substantially greater discharges until the mid-Holocene. There is also evidence of significant aeolian input throughout the Late Quaternary. The study indicates that the water resources of this increasingly important irrigated region seem to be considerably constrained by the Quaternary heritage of the Namoi valley. Copyright (2002) Geological Society of Australia

  4. Turkana Grits - a Cretaceous braided alluvial system in northern Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handford, C.R.

    1987-05-01

    Rather spotty but excellent exposures of the Cretaceous-age Turkana Grits occur near the western shore of Lake Turkana, northern Kenya. These very coarse to pebbly arkosic sandstones and sandy conglomerates were derived from and rest unconformably upon Precambrian metamorphic basement; they are overlain by late Tertiary basaltic flows that comprise much of the volcanics in the East African Rift Zone. The formation ranges up to 2000 ft thick in the Laburr Range. Several outcrops contain sauropod, crocodile, and tortoise remains as well as abundant trunks of petrified wood (Dryoxylon). Five major facies make up the Turkana Grits and record a major episode of continental fluvial deposition in basins flanked by Precambrian basement. Facies 1 is crudely stratified, cobble and boulder conglomerate (clast-supported); Facies 2 is crudely stratified pebble-cobble conglomerate and pebbly sandstone; Facies 3 is trough cross-bedded, very coarse sandstones containing fossils wood and vertebrate remains; Facies 4 is crudely stratified to massive sandstones with ironstone nodules; and Facies 5 is red, purple, and gray mudstone and mud shale with carbonate nodules. Facies 1 through 3 record deposition in proximal to medial braided-stream channel, longitudinal bar and dune complexes. Facies 4 is a lowland, hydromorphic paleosol, and Facies 5 represents overbank and abandoned channel-fill sedimentation in an alluvial plain.

  5. Woody riparian vegetation response to different alluvial water table regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafroth, P.B.; Stromberg, J.C.; Patten, D.T.

    2000-01-01

    Woody riparian vegetation in western North American riparian ecosystems is commonly dependent on alluvial groundwater. Various natural and anthropogenic mechanisms can cause groundwater declines that stress riparian vegetation, but little quantitative information exists on the nature of plant response to different magnitudes, rates, and durations of groundwater decline. We observed groundwater dynamics and the response of Populus fremontii, Salix gooddingii, and Tamarix ramosissima saplings at 3 sites between 1995 and 1997 along the Bill Williams River, Arizona. At a site where the lowest observed groundwater level in 1996 (-1.97 m) was 1.11 m lower than that in 1995 (-0.86 m), 92-100% of Populus and Salix saplings died, whereas 0-13% of Tamarix stems died. A site with greater absolute water table depths in 1996 (-2.55 m), but less change from the 1995 condition (0.55 m), showed less Populus and Salix mortality and increased basal area. Excavations of sapling roots suggest that root distribution is related to groundwater history. Therefore, a decline in water table relative to the condition under which roots developed may strand plant roots where they cannot obtain sufficient moisture. Plant response is likely mediated by other factors such as soil texture and stratigraphy, availability of precipitation-derived soil moisture, physiological and morphological adaptations to water stress, and tree age. An understanding of the relationships between water table declines and plant response may enable land and water managers to avoid activities that are likely to stress desirable riparian vegetation.

  6. The Graded Alluvial River: Variable Flow and the Dominant Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, A.; Arkesteijn, L.; Viparelli, E.

    2016-12-01

    We derive analytical formulations for the graded or equilibrium longitudinal profile of a mixed-sediment alluvial river under variable flow. The formulations are applicable to reaches upstream from the backwater zone. The model is based on the conservation equations for the mass of two distinct sediment modes, sand and gravel, at the bed surface to account for the effects of grain size selective transport and abrasion of gravel particles. The effects of a variable flow rate are included by (a) treating the flow as a continuously changing yet steady water discharge (i.e. here termed an alternating steady discharge) and (b) assuming the time scale of changes in channel slope and bed surface texture to be much larger than the one of changes in flow rate. The equations are simplified realizing that at equilibrium the river profile finds itself in a dynamic steady state with oscillations around constant mean values of channel slope and bed surface texture. A generalized sediment transport relation representing the stochastic nature of sediment transport allows for explicit or analytical solutions to the streamwise decrease of both the channel slope and the bed surface mean grain size under variable flow for reaches unaffected by backwater effects. This modelling approach also provides a definition of a channel-forming or dominant water discharge, i.e., that steady water discharge that is equivalent in its effect on the equilibrium channel slope to the full hydrograph.

  7. Hydrocarbon Status of Alluvial Soils in the Istra Morphostructural Node (Moscow Oblast)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikovskiy, Yu. I.; Gennadiev, A. N.; Kovach, R. G.; Khlynina, N. I.; Khlynina, A. V.

    2017-12-01

    The effect of the current block structure of the earth's crust and its most active sites (morphostructural nodes) on the natural hydrocarbon status of alluvial soils has been considered. Studies have been performed in the Istra district of Moscow oblast within the Istra morphostructural node. The node represents an area of increased geodynamic activity of the earth's crust located at the convergence or intersection of block boundaries: mobile linear zones following large river valleys with alluvial soils. Soil cover mainly consists of alluvial humic-gley soils (Eutric Gleyic Fluvisols) of different depths and alluvial mucky-gley soils (Eutric Gleyic Histic Fluvisols). Some soils manifest stratification. Two factors forming the hydrocarbon status of soils are considered: soil processes and the effect of geodynamic activity, which is manifested within the morphostructural node. The contents of bitumoids and retained methane and butanes in alluvial soils appreciably increase at the entry of river valley into the node. The occurrence frequency of 5-6-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (perylene and benzo[ghi]perylene) in mineral horizons increases. It has been concluded that alluvial soils within the Istra morphostructural node are characterized by the biogeochemical type of hydrocarbon status with signs of emanation type at sites with the highest geodynamic activity.

  8. The “Alluvial Mesovoid Shallow Substratum”, a New Subterranean Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortuño, Vicente M.; Gilgado, José D.; Jiménez-Valverde, Alberto; Sendra, Alberto; Pérez-Suárez, Gonzalo; Herrero-Borgoñón, Juan J.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we describe a new type of subterranean habitat associated with dry watercourses in the Eastern Iberian Peninsula, the “Alluvial Mesovoid Shallow Substratum” (alluvial MSS). Historical observations and data from field sampling specially designed to study MSS fauna in the streambeds of temporary watercourses support the description of this new habitat. To conduct the sampling, 16 subterranean sampling devices were placed in a region of Eastern Spain. The traps were operated for 12 months and temperature and relative humidity data were recorded to characterise the habitat. A large number of species was captured, many of which belonged to the arthropod group, with marked hygrophilous, geophilic, lucifugous and mesothermal habits. In addition, there was also a substantial number of species showing markedly ripicolous traits. The results confirm that the network of spaces which forms in alluvial deposits of temporary watercourses merits the category of habitat, and here we propose the name of “alluvial MSS”. The “alluvial MSS” may be covered or not by a layer of soil, is extremely damp, provides a buffer against above ground temperatures and is aphotic. In addition, compared to other types of MSS, it is a very unstable habitat. It is possible that the “alluvial MSS” may be found in other areas of the world with strongly seasonal climatic regimes, and could play an important role as a biogeographic corridor and as a refuge from climatic changes. PMID:24124544

  9. Chronostratigraphic study of the Grottaperfetta alluvial valley in the city of Rome (Italy: investigating possible interaction between sedimentary and tectonic processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Di Giulio

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We carried out geomorphologic and geological investigations in a south-eastern tributary valley of the Tiber River in Rome, the Grottaperfetta valley, aimed to reconstruct its buried geometry. Since results of the geomorphologic study evidenced anomalies of the stream beds, we performed geoelectric and boreholes prospecting to check whether recent faulting, rather than an inherited structural control, possibly contributed to the evolution of the alluvial valley. Vertical offsets of the stratigraphic horizons across adjacent boreholes were evidenced within the Late Pleistocene-Holocene alluvium and its substratum. In order to rule out the effects of irregular geometry of the alluvial deposits, we focussed on sectors where vertical offsets affected all the stratigraphic horizons (alluvium and pre-Holocene substratum, showing an increasing displacement with depth. We identified a site where repeated displacements occur coupled with a lateral variation of soil resistivity, and we drilled an oblique borehole aimed to cross and sample the possible fault zone affecting the terrain. A 7 cm thick granular layer, inclined 50°÷70° on the horizontal, was recovered 5 m b.g., and it was interpreted as the filling material of a fracture. The convergence of the reported features with independent evidence from geoelectric and geomorphologic investigations leads to hypothesize the presence of a faulting zone within the Holocene alluvial terrains and to propose the excavation of a trench to verify this hypothesis.

  10. Multiconfiguration electromagnetic induction survey for paleochannel internal structure imaging: a case study in the alluvial plain of the River Seine, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejiba, Fayçal; Schamper, Cyril; Chevalier, Antoine; Deleplancque, Benoit; Hovhannissian, Gaghik; Thiesson, Julien; Weill, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    The La Bassée floodplain area is a large groundwater reservoir controlling most of the water exchanged between local aquifers and hydrographic networks within the Seine River basin (France). Preferential flows depend essentially on the heterogeneity of alluvial plain infilling, whose characteristics are strongly influenced by the presence of mud plugs (paleomeander clayey infilling). These mud plugs strongly contrast with the coarse sand material that composes most of the alluvial plain, and can create permeability barriers to groundwater flows. A detailed knowledge of the global and internal geometry of such paleomeanders can thus lead to a comprehensive understanding of the long-term hydrogeological processes of the alluvial plain. A geophysical survey based on the use of electromagnetic induction was performed on a wide paleomeander, situated close to the city of Nogent-sur-Seine in France. In the present study we assess the advantages of combining several spatial offsets, together with both vertical and horizontal dipole orientations (six apparent conductivities), thereby mapping not only the spatial distribution of the paleomeander derived from lidar data but also its vertical extent and internal variability.

  11. The influence of time on the magnetic properties of late Quaternary periglacial and alluvial surface and buried soils along the Delaware River, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary E Stinchcomb

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic susceptibility of soils has been used as a proxy for rainfall, but other factors can contribute to magnetic enhancement in soils. Here we explore influence of century- to millennial-scale duration of soil formation on periglacial and alluvial soil magnetic properties by assessing three terraces with surface and buried soils ranging in exposure ages from <0.01 to ~16 kyrs along the Delaware River in northeastern USA. The A and B soil horizons have higher Xlf, Ms, and S-ratios compared to parent material, and these values increase in a non-linear fashion with increasing duration of soil formation. Magnetic remanence measurements show a mixed low- and high-coercivity mineral assemblage likely consisting of goethite, hematite and maghemite that contributes to the magnetic enhancement of the soil. Room-temperature and low-temperature field-cooled and zero field-cooled remanence curves confirm the presence of goethite and magnetite and show an increase in magnetization with increasing soil age. These data suggest that as the Delaware alluvial soils weather, the concentration of secondary ferrimagnetic minerals increase in the A and B soil horizons. We then compared the time-dependent Xlf from several age-constrained buried alluvial soils with known climate data for the region during the Quaternary. Contradictory to most studies that suggest a link between increases in magnetic susceptibility and high moisture, increased magnetic enhancement of Delaware alluvial soils coincides with dry climate intervals. Early Holocene enhanced soil Xlf (9.5 – 8.5 ka corresponds with a well-documented cool-dry climate episode. This relationship is probably related to less frequent flooding during dry intervals allowing more time for low-coercive pedogenic magnetic minerals to form and accumulate, which resulted in increased Xlf. Middle Holocene enhanced Xlf (6.1 – 4.3 ka corresponds with a transitional wet/dry phase and a previously documented incision

  12. Materialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    Materialism is nearly universally assumed by cognitive scientists. Intuitively, materialism says that a person's mental states are nothing over and above his or her material states, while dualism denies this. Philosophers have introduced concepts (e.g., realization and supervenience) to assist in formulating the theses of materialism and dualism with more precision, and distinguished among importantly different versions of each view (e.g., eliminative materialism, substance dualism, and emergentism). They have also clarified the logic of arguments that use empirical findings to support materialism. Finally, they have devised various objections to materialism, objections that therefore serve also as arguments for dualism. These objections typically center around two features of mental states that materialism has had trouble in accommodating. The first feature is intentionality, the property of representing, or being about, objects, properties, and states of affairs external to the mental states. The second feature is phenomenal consciousness, the property possessed by many mental states of there being something it is like for the subject of the mental state to be in that mental state. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:281-292. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1174 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Dynamic analysis of a reactor building on alluvial soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arya, A.S.; Chandrasekaran, A.R.; Paul, D.K.

    1977-01-01

    The reactor building consists of reinforced concrete internal framed structure enclosed in double containment shells of prestressed and reinforced concrete all resting on a common massive raft. The external cylindrical shell is capped by a spherical dome while the internal shell carries a cellular grid slab. The building is partially buried under ground. The soil consists of alluvial going to 1000 m depth. The site lies in a moderate seismic zone. The paper presents the dynamic analysis of the building including soil-structure interaction. The mathematical model consists of four parallel, suitably interconnected structures, namely inner containment, outer containment, internal frame and the calandria vault. Each one of the parallel structures consists of lumped-mass beam elements. The soil below the raft and on the sides of outer containment shell is represented by elastic springs in both horizontal and vertical directions. The various assumptions required to be made in developing the mathematical model are briefly discussed in the paper. Transfer matrix technique has been used to determine the frequencies and mode shapes. The deformations due to bending, shear and effect of the rotary inertia have been included. Various alternatives of laterally interconnecting the internals and the shells have been examined and the best alternative from earthquake considerations has been obtained. In the study, the effect of internal structure flexibility and Calandria vault flexibility on the whole building have been studied. The resulting base raft motion and the structural timewise response of all floors have been determined for the design basis (safe shutdown) earthquake by mode superposition

  14. ESR as a method for the characterization of alluvial sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissoux, H.; Voinchet, P.; Lacquement, F.; Despriée, J.

    2015-01-01

    The possibility of using the parameters involved in the ESR dating of optically bleached quartz grains in a purpose of source determination was checked. In that aim, samples previously taken in different sedimentary formations of the Middle Loire Basin (Central France) and dated by ESR have been observed. First discrimination was made using the thorium and potassium content in the sediments obtained by gamma spectrometry. The plot of these 119 data on the Th/K Schlumberger diagram clearly demonstrated that it was possible to discriminate the clays associations included in the sediment from which the dated quartz are extracted. Clay's nature could then be indicative of the geological nature of the substratum of rivers from their sources. Second discrimination was made using the ESR intensities calculated from Al, Ti–H and Ti–Li paramagnetic centres on 18 samples. It appears that the combination of the non-bleachable aluminum trap (DAT) saturation intensity and the Ti–H/Ti–Li ratio intensities make possible the discrimination of the two main sources of the sediment: Massif Central and Paris Basin. More deeply, The Ti/OBAT (Optically bleachable aluminum traps) intensities made possible the discrimination of quartz grains of different geological sources or with different geothermal history within the Massif Central group. - Highlights: • We used ESR and gamma spectrometry for source determination of alluvial quartz grains. • Th/K ratio distinguishes sediments from rivers flowing in various geological contexts. • Al, Ti–H and Ti–Li ESR centers discriminate quartz of different geological sources.

  15. Evaluation of reforestation in the Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, S.L.; Keeland, B.D.

    1999-01-01

    Only about 2.8 million ha of an estimated original 10 million ha of bottomland hardwood forests still exist in the Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley (LMAV) of the United States. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the U.S. Forest Service, and state agencies initiated reforestation efforts in the late 1980s to improve wildlife habitat. We surveyed restorationists responsible for reforestation in the LMAV to determine the magnitude of past and future efforts and to identify major limiting factors. Over the past 10 years, 77,698 ha have been reforested by the agencies represented in our survey and an additional 89,009 ha are targeted in the next 5 years. Oaks are the most commonly planted species and bare-root seedlings are the most commonly used planting stock. Problems with seedling availability may increase the diversity of plantings in the future. Reforestation in the LMAV is based upon principles of landscape ecology; however, local problems such as herbivory, drought, and flooding often limit success. Broad-scale hydrologic restoration is needed to fully restore the structural and functional attributes of these systems, but because of drastic and widespread hydrologic alterations and socioeconomic constraints, this goal is generally not realistic. Local hydrologic restoration and creation of specific habitat features needed by some wildlife and fish species warrant attention. More extensive analyses of plantings are needed to evaluate functional success. The Wetland Reserve Program is a positive development, but policies that provide additional financial incentives to landowners for reforestation efforts should be seriously considered.

  16. Measuring Paleolandscape Relief in Alluvial River Systems from the Stratigraphic Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajek, E. A.; Trampush, S. M.; Chamberlin, E.; Greenberg, E.

    2017-12-01

    Aggradational alluvial river systems sometimes generate relief in the vicinity of their channel belts (i.e. alluvial ridges) and it has been proposed that this process may define important thresholds in river avulsion. The compensation scale can be used to estimate the maximum relief across a landscape and can be connected to the maximum scale of autogenic organization in experimental and numerical systems. Here we use the compensation scale - measured from outcrops of Upper Cretaceous and Paleogene fluvial deposits - to estimate the maximum relief that characterized ancient fluvial landscapes. In some cases, the compensation scale significantly exceeds the maximum channel depth observed in a deposit, suggesting that aggradational alluvial systems organize to sustain more relief than might be expected by looking only in the immediate vicinity of the active channel belt. Instead, these results indicate that in some systems, positive topographic relief generated by multiple alluvial ridge complexes and/or large-scale fan features may be associated with landscape-scale autogenic organization of channel networks that spans multiple cycles of channel avulsion. We compare channel and floodplain sedimentation patterns among the studied ancient fluvial systems in an effort to determine whether avulsion style, channel migration, or floodplain conditions influenced the maximum autogenic relief of ancient landscapes. Our results emphasize that alluvial channel networks may be organized at much larger spatial and temporal scales than previously realized and provide an avenue for understanding which types of river systems are likely to exhibit the largest range of autogenic dynamics.

  17. Alluvial diamond resource potential and production capacity assessment of Mali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirico, Peter G.; Barthelemy, Francis; Kone, Fatiaga

    2010-01-01

    In May of 2000, a meeting was convened in Kimberley, South Africa, and attended by representatives of the diamond industry and leaders of African governments to develop a certification process intended to assure that rough, exported diamonds were free of conflictual concerns. This meeting was supported later in 2000 by the United Nations in a resolution adopted by the General Assembly. By 2002, the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme (KPCS) was ratified and signed by diamond-producing and diamond-importing countries. Over 70 countries were included as members of the KPCS at the end of 2007. To prevent trade in "conflict diamonds" while protecting legitimate trade, the KPCS requires that each country set up an internal system of controls to prevent conflict diamonds from entering any imported or exported shipments of rough diamonds. Every diamond or diamond shipment must be accompanied by a Kimberley Process (KP) certificate and be contained in tamper-proof packaging. The objective of this study was (1) to assess the naturally occurring endowment of diamonds in Mali (potential resources) based on geological evidence, previous studies, and recent field data and (2) to assess the diamond-production capacity and measure the intensity of mining activity. Several possible methods can be used to estimate the potential diamond resource. However, because there is generally a lack of sufficient and consistent data recording all diamond mining in Mali and because time to conduct fieldwork and accessibility to the diamond mining areas are limited, four different methodologies were used: the cylindrical calculation of the primary kimberlitic deposits, the surface area methodology, the volume and grade approach, and the content per kilometer approach. Approximately 700,000 carats are estimated to be in the alluvial deposits of the Kenieba region, with 540,000 carats calculated to lie within the concentration grade deposits. Additionally, 580,000 carats are estimated to have

  18. Conditions for tidal bore formation in convergent alluvial estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneton, Philippe; Filippini, Andrea Gilberto; Arpaia, Luca; Bonneton, Natalie; Ricchiuto, Mario

    2016-04-01

    Over the last decade there has been an increasing interest in tidal bore dynamics. However most studies have been focused on small-scale bore processes. The present paper describes the first quantitative study, at the estuary scale, of the conditions for tidal bore formation in convergent alluvial estuaries. When freshwater discharge and large-scale spatial variations of the estuary water depth can be neglected, tide propagation in such estuaries is controlled by three main dimensionless parameters: the nonlinearity parameter ε0 , the convergence ratio δ0 and the friction parameter ϕ0. In this paper we explore this dimensionless parameter space, in terms of tidal bore occurrence, from a database of 21 estuaries (8 tidal-bore estuaries and 13 non tidal-bore estuaries). The field data point out that tidal bores occur for convergence ratios close to the critical convergence δc. A new proposed definition of the friction parameter highlights a clear separation on the parameter plane (ϕ0,ε0) between tidal-bore estuaries and non tidal-bore estuaries. More specifically, we have established that tidal bores occur in convergent estuaries when the nonlinearity parameter is greater than a critical value, εc , which is an increasing function of the friction parameter ϕ0. This result has been confirmed by numerical simulations of the two-dimensional Saint Venant equations. The real-estuary observations and the numerical simulations also show that, contrary to what is generally assumed, tide amplification is not a necessary condition for tidal bore formation. The effect of freshwater discharge on tidal bore occurrence has been analyzed from the database acquired during three long-term campaigns carried out on the Gironde/Garonne estuary. We have shown that in the upper estuary the tidal bore intensity is mainly governed by the local dimensionless tide amplitude ε. The bore intensity is an increasing function of ε and this relationship does not depend on freshwater

  19. Materials

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available . It is generally included as part of a structurally insulated panel (SIP) where the foam is sandwiched between external skins of steel, wood or cement. Cement composites Cement bonded composites are an important class of building materials. These products... for their stone buildings, including the Egyptians, Aztecs and Inca’s. As stone is a very dense material it requires intensive heating to become warm. Rocks were generally stacked dry but mud, and later cement, can be used as a mortar to hold the rocks...

  20. Nucleation of Waterfalls at Fault Scarps Temporarily Shielded By Alluvial Fan Aggradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malatesta, L. C.; Lamb, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    Waterfalls are important components of mountain river systems and they can serve as an agent to transfer tectonic, climatic, or authigenic signals upstream through a catchment. Retreating waterfalls lower the local base level of the adjacent hillslopes, and temporarily increase sediment delivery to the fluvial system. Their creation is often attributed to seismic ruptures, lithological boundaries, or the coalescence of multiple smaller steps. We explore here a mechanism for the nucleation of waterfalls that does not rely on sudden seismic slip but on the build-up of accumulated slip during periods of fault burial by fluvial aggradation. Alluvial fans are common features at the front of mountain ranges bound by normal or thrust faults. Climate change or internal forcing in the mountain catchment modifies the equilibrium slope of alluvial fans. When alluvial fans aggrade, they shield the active fault scarp from fluvial erosion allowing the scarp to grow undisturbed. The scarp may then be exposed when the channel incises into the fan exposing a new bedrock waterfall. We explore this mechanism analytically and using a numerical model for bedrock river incision and sediment deposition. We find that the creation of waterfalls by scarp burial is limited by three distinct timescales: 1) the critical timescale for the scarp to grow to the burial height, 2) the timescale of alluvial re-grading of the fan, and 3) the timescale of the external or internal forcing, such as climate change. The height of the waterfall is controlled by i) the difference in equilibrium alluvial-fan slopes, ii) the ratio of the respective fan and catchment sizes, iii) the catchment wide denudation rate, and iv) the fault slip rate. We test whether an individual waterfall could be produced by alluvial shielding of a scarp, and identify the tectonic, climatic, or authigenic nature of waterfalls using example field sites in the southwest United States.

  1. Enhancing flood hazard estimation methods on alluvial fans using an integrated hydraulic, geological and geomorphological approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollaei, Zeinab; Davary, Kamran; Majid Hasheminia, Seyed; Faridhosseini, Alireza; Pourmohamad, Yavar

    2018-04-01

    Due to the uncertainty concerning the location of flow paths on active alluvial fans, alluvial fan floods could be more dangerous than riverine floods. The United States Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) used a simple stochastic model named FAN for this purpose, which has been practiced for many years. In the last decade, this model has been criticized as a consequence of development of more complex computer models. This study was conducted on three alluvial fans located in northeast and southeast Iran using a combination of the FAN model, the hydraulic portion of the FLO-2D model, and geomorphological information. Initial stages included three steps: (a) identifying the alluvial fans' landforms, (b) determining the active and inactive areas of alluvial fans, and (c) delineating 100-year flood within these selected areas. This information was used as an input in the mentioned three approaches of the (i) FLO-2D model, (ii) geomorphological method, and (iii) FAN model. Thereafter, the results of each model were obtained and geographical information system (GIS) layers were created and overlaid. Afterwards, using a scoring system, the results were evaluated and compared. The goal of this research was to introduce a simple but effective solution to estimate the flood hazards. It was concluded that the integrated method proposed in this study is superior at projecting alluvial fan flood hazards with minimum required input data, simplicity, and affordability, which are considered the primary goals of such comprehensive studies. These advantages are more highlighted in underdeveloped and developing countries, which may well lack detailed data and financially cannot support such costly projects. Furthermore, such a highly cost-effective method could be greatly advantageous and pragmatic for developed countries.

  2. Geomorphological and cryostratigraphical analyses of the Zackenberg Valley, NE Greenland and significance of Holocene alluvial fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, Stefanie; Christiansen, Hanne H.; Westergaard-Nielsen, Andreas; Kroon, Aart; Elberling, Bo

    2018-02-01

    In High Arctic northern Greenland, future responses to climatic changes are poorly understood on a landscape scale. Here, we present a study of the geomorphology and cryostratigraphy in the Zackenberg Valley in NE Greenland (74°N) containing a geomorphological map and a simplified geocryological map, combined with analyses of 13 permafrost cores and two exposures. Cores from a solifluction sheet, alluvial fans, and an emerged delta were studied with regards to cryostructures, ice and total carbon contents, grain size distribution, and pore water electrical conductivity; and the samples were AMS 14C dated. The near-surface permafrost on slopes and alluvial fans is ice rich, as opposed to the ice-poor epigenetic permafrost in the emerged delta. Ground ice and carbon distribution are closely linked to sediment transport processes, which largely depend on lithology and topography. Holocene alluvial fans on the lowermost hillslopes, covering 12% of the study area, represent paleoenvironmental archives. During the contrasting climates of the Holocene, the alluvial fans continued to aggrade - through the warmer early Holocene Optimum, the colder late Holocene, and the following climate warming - and by 0.45 mm a- 1, on average. This is caused by three factors: sedimentation, ground ice aggradation, and vegetation growth and is reflected by AMS 14C dating and continuously alternating cryostructures. Highly variable sedimentation rates in space and time at the alluvial fans have been detected. This is also reflected by alternating lenticular and microlenticular cryostructures indicating syngenetic permafrost aggradation during sedimentation with suspended and organic-matrix cryostructures indicating quasi-syngenetic permafrost aggradation in response to vegetation growth in periods with reduced or no sedimentation. Over time, this causes organic matter to become buried, indicating that alluvial fans represent effective carbon sinks that have previously been overlooked.

  3. Uranium-series comminution ages of continental sediments: Case study of a Pleistocene alluvial fan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Victoria E.; DePaolo, Donald J.; Christensen, John N.

    2010-04-30

    Obtaining quantitative information about the timescales associated with sediment transport, storage, and deposition in continental settings is important but challenging. The uranium-series comminution age method potentially provides a universal approach for direct dating of Quaternary detrital sediments, and can also provide estimates of the sediment transport and storage timescales. (The word"comminution" means"to reduce to powder," reflecting the start of the comminution age clock as reduction of lithic parent material below a critical grain size threshold of ~;;50 mu m.) To test the comminution age method as a means to date continental sediments, we applied the method to drill-core samples of the glacially-derived Kings River Fan alluvial deposits in central California. Sediments from the 45 m core have independently-estimated depositional ages of up to ~;;800 ka, based on paleomagnetism and correlations to nearby dated sediments. We characterized sequentially-leached core samples (both bulk sediment and grain size separates) for U, Nd, and Sr isotopes, grain size, surface texture, and mineralogy. In accordance with the comminution age model, where 234U is partially lost from small sediment grains due to alpha recoil, we found that (234U/238U) activity ratios generally decrease with age, depth, and specific surface area, with depletions of up to 9percent relative to radioactive equilibrium. The resulting calculated comminution ages are reasonable, although they do not exactly match age estimates from previous studies and also depend on assumptions about 234U loss rates. The results indicate that the method may be a significant addition to the sparse set of available tools for dating detrital continental sediments, following further refinement. Improving the accuracy of the method requires more advanced models or measurements for both the recoil loss factor fa and weathering effects. We discuss several independent methods for obtaining fa on individual samples

  4. Late Pleistocene dune-sourced alluvial fans in coastal settings: Sedimentary facies and related processes (Mallorca, Western Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomar, F.; del Valle, L.; Fornós, J. J.; Gómez-Pujol, L.

    2018-05-01

    Aeolian-alluvial sedimentary interaction results in the formation of deposits characterized by typical alluvial sedimentary structures, but is composed of conspicuous amounts of aeolian sediments. The literature on this topic is limited and most works relate more with continental aeolian dunes or fluvial dune interference with fan bodies. Furthermore, there is a lack of examples of aeolian-alluvial sedimentary interference in coastal settings. In the western Mediterranean, there are many Pleistocene alluvial fan deposits built up partly by sediment originating from coastal dunes dismantled by alluvial streams. Very often, these deposits show a continuous sedimentary sequence through which we can derive the contribution and predominance of coastal, alluvial-colluvial and aeolian processes and their controls on landscape formation. This is an outstanding feature within coastal systems since it shows marine sediments reworked and integrated within coastal dune fields by aeolian transport, and the latter built up into alluvial fan bodies. In this sense, aeolian-alluvial interaction is the geomorphic-sedimentary expression of the coexistence and overlapping of alluvial and aeolian environments resulting in deposits sharing sedimentary features from both environments. The aim of this paper is to unravel the contribution of coastal dunes in the construction of alluvial fans bodies and identify the main sedimentary facies that constitute these deposits, as well as their climatic controls. For this reason, Es Caló fan (northern Mallorca) has been selected due to its well-exposed deposits exhibiting the alternation of aeolian, alluvial and colluvial deposits. Sedimentological and stratigraphic analyses based on 33 logs and complementary analyses demonstrate that most of the facies constituting the fan body are made up completely of marine bioclastic sands. These deposits record an alluvial fan sedimentary environment characterized by sediments inputs that do not proceed

  5. Potential water supply of a small reservoir and alluvial aquifer system in southern Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hamer, W.; Love, D.; Owen, R.; Booij, Martijn J.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2008-01-01

    Groundwater use by accessing alluvial aquifers of non-perennial rivers can be an important additional water resource in the semi-arid region of southern Zimbabwe. The research objective of the study was to calculate the potential water supply for the upper-Mnyabezi catchment under current conditions

  6. Potential water supply of a small reservoir and alluvial aquifer system in southern Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hamer, W.; Love, D.; Owen, R.; Booij, Martijn J.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2007-01-01

    Groundwater use by accessing alluvial aquifers of non‐perennial rivers can be an important additional water resource in the semi‐arid region of southern Zimbabwe. The research objective of the study was to calculate the potential water supply for the upper‐Mnyabezi catchment under current conditions

  7. Reference conditions for old-growth redwood restoration on alluvial flats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christa M. Dagley; John-Pascal. Berrill

    2012-01-01

    We quantified structural attributes in three alluvial flat old-growth coast redwood stands. Tree size parameters and occurrences of distinctive features (e.g., burls, goose pens) were similar between stands. Occurrence of distinctive features was greater among larger trees. Tree sizefrequency distributions conformed to a reverse-J diameter distribution. The range of...

  8. Bottomland Hardwoods of the Mississippi Alluvial Valley: Characteristics and Management of Natural Function, Structure, and Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul B. Hamel; Thomas L. Foti; [Editors

    2001-01-01

    A symposium entitled "Bottomland hardwoods of the Mississippi Alluvial Valley: characteristics and management of natural function, structure, and composition" convened on October 28, 1995, as part of the Natural Areas Conference, October 25-28, 1995, In Fayetteville, AR. The symposium's goal was to provide informatibn that managers need to begin...

  9. Contrasting morphodynamics in alluvial fans and fan deltas: effect of the downstream boundary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, M. van; Kleinhans, M.G.; Postma, G.; Kraal, E.

    2012-01-01

    Alluvial fans and fan deltas can, in principle, have exactly the same upstream conditions, but fan deltas by definition have ponding water at their downstream boundary. This ponding creates effects on the autogenic behaviour of fan deltas, such as backwater adaptation, mouth bars and backward

  10. Transport of Escherichia Coli and solutes during waste water infiltration in an urban alluvial aquifer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foppen, J.W.A.; van Herwerden, M.; Kebtie, M.; Noman, A.; Schrijven, J.F.; Stuijfzand, P.J.; Uhlenbrook, S.

    2008-01-01

    Recharge of waste water in an unconsolidated poorly sorted alluvial aquifer is a complex process, both physically and hydrochemically. The aim of this paper is to analyse and conceptualise vertical transport mechanisms taking place in an urban area of extensive wastewater infiltration by analysing

  11. Towards groundwater neutral cropping systems in the Alluvial Fans of the North China Plain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oort, van P.A.J.; Wang, G.; Vos, J.; Meinke, H.; Li, B.G.; Huang, J.K.; Werf, van der W.

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater levels in the North China Plain (NCP), the bread basket of China, have dropped more than one meter per year over the last 40 years, putting at risk the long term productivity of this region. Groundwater decline is most severe in the Alluvial Fans where our study site is located.

  12. Historical trajectories and restoration strategies for the Mississippi River alluvial valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice B. Hanberry; John M. Kabrick; Hong S. He; Brian J. Palik

    2012-01-01

    Unlike upland forests in the eastern United States, little research is available about the composition and structure of bottomland forests before Euro-American settlement. To provide a historical reference encompassing spatial variation for the Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley, we quantified forest types, species distributions, densities, and stocking of...

  13. INFLUENCE OF SEDIMENT SUPPLY, LITHOLOGY, AND WOOD DEBRIS ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF BEDROCK AND ALLUVIAL CHANNELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field surveys in the Willapa River basin, Washington State, indicate that the drainage area?channel slope threshold describing the distribution of bedrock and alluvial channels is influenced by the underlying lithology and that local variations in sediment supply can overwhelm ba...

  14. Isotope studies on mechanisms of groundwater recharge to an alluvial aquifer in Gatton, Queensland, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dharmasiri, J.K.; Morawska, L.

    1997-01-01

    Gatton is an important agricultural area for Queensland where about 40% of its vegetables needs are produced using groundwater as the main source. An alluvial Aquifer is located about 30m beneath the layers of alluvial sediments ranging from black soils of volcanic origin on top, layers of alluvial sands, clays and beds of sand and gravel. The leakage of creek flows has been considered to be the main source of recharge to this aquifer. A number of weirs have been built across the Lockyer and Laidley creeks to allow surface water to infiltrate through the beds when the creeks flow. Water levels in bores in a section located in the middle of the alluvial plain (Crowley Vale) have been declining for the last 20 years with little or no success in recharging from the creeks. Acute water shortages have been experienced in the Gatton area during the droughts of 1980-81, 1986-87 and 1994-97. Naturally occurring stable isotopes, 2 H, 18 0 and 13 C as well as radioisotopes 3 H and 14 C have been used to delineate sources of recharge and active recharge areas. Tritium tracing of soil moisture in the unsaturated soil was also used to determine direct infiltration rates

  15. Calibration of a neutron probe for determining the humidity in deep alluvial soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrer, A.; Rivero, H.; Lopez, F.; Cantillo, O.

    1993-01-01

    Preliminary data for the calibration of a neutron probe in deep alluvial soils for determining the humidity are reported. Comparisons of Neutron flow behaviour with the depth of the land are established. A characteristic curve of amount of detected neutrons according to the humidity percentage (from 50 to 100 % of the field humidity) is obtained

  16. Spatial patterns of lacustrine fish assemblages in a catchment of the Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Caroline S.; Miranda, Leandro E.; Goetz, Daniel B.; Kroger, Robert

    2014-01-01

    In the alluvial valley of the lower Mississippi River, floodplain lakes form isolated aquatic fragments that retain differing degrees of connectivity to neighbouring rivers. Within these floodplain lakes it was hypothesized that fish species composition, relative abundance, and biodiversity metrics would be shaped largely by aquatic connectivity within a catchment.

  17. Hydrology of the alluvial, buried channel, basal Pleistocene and Dakota aquifers in west-central Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runkle, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    A ground-water resources investigation in west-central Iowa indicates that water is available from alluvial, buried channel, basal Pleistocene, and Dakota aquifers. The west-central Iowa area includes Audubon, Carrol1, Crawford, Greene, Guthrie, Harrison, Monona, and Shelby Counties.

  18. Strontium isotope geochemistry of alluvial groundwater: a tracer for groundwater resources characterisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Négrel

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents strontium isotope and major ion data of shallow groundwater and river water from the Ile du Chambon catchment, located on the Allier river in the Massif Central (France. There are large variations in the major-element contents in the surface- and groundwater. Plotting of Na vs. Cl contents and Ca, Mg, NO3, K, SO4, HCO3, Sr concentrations reflect water–rock interaction (carbonate dissolution for Ca, Mg, HCO3 and Sr because the bedrock contains marly limestones, agricultural input (farming and fertilising and sewage effluents (for NO3, K, SO4, although some water samples are unpolluted. Sr contents and isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr vary from 0.70892 to 0.71180 along the hydrological cycle in the groundwater agree with previous work on groundwater in alluvial aquifers in the Loire catchment. The data plot along three directions in a 87Sr/86Sr v. 1/Sr diagram as a result of mixing, involving at least three geochemical signatures–Allier river water, and two distinct signatures that might be related to different water-rock interactions in the catchment. Mixing proportions are calculated and discussed. The alluvial aquifer of the Ile du Chambon catchment is considered, within the Sr isotope systematic, in a larger scheme that includes several alluvial aquifers of the Loire Allier catchment. Keywords: : Loire river, major and trace elements, Sr isotopic ratio, alluvial aquifer, hydrology

  19. Definition of the filtration coefficient in the alluvial sands area of the Chernobyl NPP industrial site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panasyuk, N.I.

    2014-01-01

    Calculations of the filter coefficients of the alluvial soils of the first unconfined aquifer according roses pumping water from wells perfect. Filtration coefficient is one of the main parameters of the soil, which has a significant impact on the reliability of the forecasts of changes. Radio- hydrogeological conditions of the area and water calculations

  20. Litterfall in the hardwood forest of a minor alluvial-floodplain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvin E. Meier; John A. Stanturf; Emile S. Gardiner

    2006-01-01

    within mature deciduous forests, annual development of foliar biomass is a major component of aboveground net primary production and nutrient demand. As litterfall, this same foliage becomes a dominant annual transfer of biomass and nutrients to the detritus pathway. We report litterfall transfers of a mature bottomland hardwood forest in a minor alluvial-floodplain...

  1. Magnetic properties of alluvial soils contaminated with lead, zinc and cadmium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrovský, Eduard; Kapička, Aleš; Jordanova, Neli; Borůvka, L.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 2 (2001), s. 12-136 ISSN 0926-9851 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/96/0260 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3012916 Keywords : magnetic properties * alluvial soil * heavy metals Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 0.390, year: 2001

  2. Carbon sequestration resulting from bottomland hardwood afforestation in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand F. Nero; Richard P. Maiers; Janet C. Dewey; Andrew J. Londo

    2010-01-01

    Increasing abandonment of marginal agricultural lands in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley (LMAV) and rising global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) levels create a need for better options of achieving rapid afforestation and enhancing both below and aboveground carbon sequestration. This study examines the responses of six mixtures of bottomland hardwood species...

  3. Timing and nature of alluvial fan and strath terrace formation in the Eastern Precordillera of Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, Kathryn; Owen, Lewis A.; Rockwell, Thomas K.; Meigs, Andrew; Costa, Carlos; Caffee, Marc W.; Masana, Eulalia; Ahumada, Emilio

    2013-11-01

    Sixty-eight 10Be terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide (TCN) surface exposure ages are presented to define the timing of alluvial fan and strath terrace formation in the hyper-arid San Juan region of the Argentine Precordillera. This region is tectonically active, and numerous fault scarps traverse Quaternary landforms. The three study sites, Marquesado strath complex, Loma Negra alluvial fan and Carpintería strath complex reveal a history of alluvial fan and strath terrace development over the past ˜225 ka. The Marquesado complex Q3m surface dates to ˜17 ± 3 ka, whereas the Loma Negra Q1ln, Q2ln, Q3ln, Q4ln, and Q5ln surfaces date to ˜24 ± 3 ka, ˜48 ± 2 ka, ˜65 ± 13 ka, ˜105 ± 21 ka, and ˜181 ± 29 ka, respectively. The Carpintería complex comprises eight surfaces that have been dated and include the Q1c (˜23 ± 3 ka), Q2c (˜5 ± 5 ka), Q3ac (˜25 ± 12 ka), Q3bc (˜29 ± 15 ka), Q4c (˜61 ± 12 ka), Q5c (˜98 ± 18 ka), Q6c (˜93 ± 18 ka), and Q7c (˜212 ± 37 ka). 10Be TCN depth profile data for the Loma Negra alluvial fan complex and Carpintería strath terrace complex, as well as OSL ages on some Carpintería deposits, aid in refining surface ages for comparison with local and global climate proxies, and additionally offer insights into inheritance and erosion rate values for TCNs (˜10 × 10410Be atoms/g of SiO2 and ˜5 m Ma-1, respectively). Comparison with other alluvial fan studies in the region show that less dynamic and older preserved surfaces occur in the Carpintería and Loma Negra areas with only younger alluvial fan surfaces preserved both to the north and south. These data in combination with that of other studies illustrate broad regional agreement between alluvial fan and strath terrace ages, which suggests that climate is the dominant forcing agent in the timing of terrace formation in this region.

  4. Groundwater quality in alluvial and prolluvial areas under the influence of irrigated agriculture activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacevik, Biljana; Boev, Blazo; Panova, Vesna Zajkova; Mitrev, Sasa

    2016-12-05

    The aim of this study was to investigate the groundwater pollution from alluvial aquifers lying under surface agriculture activities in two geologically different areas: alluvial and prolluvial. The groundwater in investigated areas is neutral to alkaline (pH 7.05-8.45), and the major dissolved ions are bicarbonate and calcium. Groundwater samples from the alluvial area are characterized by nitrate concentration above the national maximum concentration limit (MCL) at 20.5% of samples [mean value (Me) 6.31 mg/L], arsenic concentrations greater than national MCL at 35.6% of investigated samples (Me 12.12 µg/L) and elevated concentrations of iron (Me 202.37 µg/L) and manganese (Me 355.22 µg/L) at 22.7% and 81% of investigated samples, respectively. Groundwater samples from the prolluvial area did not show significantly elevated concentrations of heavy metals, but the concentration of nitrate was considerably higher (Me 65.06 mg/L). Factor analysis positively correlates As with Mn and Fe, suggesting its natural origin. Nitrate was found in positive correlation with SO 4 2- and Ni but in negative with NH 4 + , suggesting its anthropogenic origin and the relationship of these ions in the process of denitrification. The t-test analysis showed a significant difference between nitrate pollution of groundwater from alluvial and prolluvial areas. According to the chemical composition of groundwater, the process of denitrification is considered to be the main reason for the reduced presence of nitrate in the groundwater lying under alluvial deposits represented by chalk and sandstones. Denitrification in groundwater lying under prolluvial deposits represented by magmatic and metamorphic rock formations was not observed.

  5. Continental Environment of Triassic Alluvial Beds in the Northern North Sea Area: Core Examples from the Lunde Formation, Snorre Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nystuen, Johan Petter; Bergan, Morten

    1999-07-01

    Alluvial processes transport and deposit gravel, sand and mud in a series of depositional systems such as alluvial fans, fluvial channels, floodplain and lacustrine basins. In the northernmost part of the North Sea alluvial sandstones form major reservoir rocks in several oil fields in the Tampen Spur area. In the Snorre Field, the Norian- Early Rhaetian Lunde Formation has given a great database from exploration and production wells, seismic studies, reservoir modelling, production experience and comparative analogue studies on facies distribution, alluvial architecture, heterogeneities and reservoir properties of alluvial successions. The Lunde Formation is subdivided in three members, the lower, middle and upper Lunde members, with the upper member being the main part of the Lunde reservoir rocks. The scope of presenting core samples from the upper Lunde member is to demonstrate main alluvial facies and facies associations, how facies analysis proceeds into construction of conceptual fluvial models that in turn are fundamental in evaluation of reservoir heterogeneities and reservoir modelling. The upper Lunde member consists of repeated units of red and grey sandstone and mudstone. Sandstones are dominantly medium-grained with common range from coarse- to very fine-grained. A basic building stone of the alluvial succession consists of a thick single- or multi-storey sandstone body overlain by a thick mudstone unit. Such couplets form allostratigraphic units and define the main reservoir zones.

  6. Occurrence of volcanic ash in the Quaternary alluvial deposits, lower ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of finely laminated silty sand and gravel lenses. ... undulating upper contact following the pre-existing ... The ash material is light with its specific .... negative Eu-anomaly, area enclosed within blue line indicates compositional range of the distal ...

  7. The role of discharge variability in the formation and preservation of alluvial sediment bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Christopher R.; Alexander, Jan; Allen, Jonathan P.

    2018-03-01

    Extant, planform-based facies models for alluvial deposits are not fully fit for purpose, because they over-emphasise plan form whereas there is little in the alluvial rock record that is distinctive of any particular planform, and because the planform of individual rivers vary in both time and space. Accordingly, existing facies models have limited predictive capability. In this paper, we explore the role of inter-annual peak discharge variability as a possible control on the character of the preserved alluvial record. Data from a suite of modern rivers, for which long-term gauging records are available, and for which there are published descriptions of subsurface sedimentary architecture, are analysed. The selected rivers are categorized according to their variance in peak discharge or the coefficient of variation (CVQp = standard deviation of the annual peak flood discharge over the mean annual peak flood discharge). This parameter ranges over the rivers studied between 0.18 and 1.22, allowing classification of rivers as having very low ( 0.90) annual peak discharge variance. Deposits of rivers with very low and low peak discharge variability are dominated by cross-bedding on various scales and preserve macroform bedding structure, allowing the interpretation of bar construction processes. Rivers with moderate values preserve mostly cross-bedding, but records of macroform processes are in places muted and considerably modified by reworking. Rivers with high and very high values of annual peak discharge variability show a wide range of bedding structures commonly including critical and supercritical flow structures, abundant in situ trees and transported large, woody debris, and their deposits contain pedogenically modified mud partings and generally lack macroform structure. Such a facies assemblage is distinctively different from the conventional fluvial style recorded in published facies models but is widely developed both in modern and ancient alluvial

  8. Capturing and modelling high-complex alluvial topography with UAS-borne laser scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandlburger, Gottfried; Wieser, Martin; Pfennigbauer, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Due to fluvial activity alluvial forests are zones of highest complexity and relief energy. Alluvial forests are dominated by new and pristine channels in consequence of current and historic flood events. Apart from topographic features, the vegetation structure is typically very complex featuring, both, dense under story as well as high trees. Furthermore, deadwood and debris carried from upstream during periods of high discharge within the river channel are deposited in these areas. Therefore, precise modelling of the micro relief of alluvial forests using standard tools like Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) is hardly feasible. Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS), in turn, is very time consuming for capturing larger areas as many scan positions are necessary for obtaining complete coverage due to view occlusions in the forest. In the recent past, the technological development of Unmanned Arial Systems (UAS) has reached a level that light-weight survey-grade laser scanners can be operated from these platforms. For capturing alluvial topography this could bridge the gap between ALS and TLS in terms of providing a very detailed description of the topography and the vegetation structure due to the achievable very high point density of >100 points per m2. In our contribution we demonstrate the feasibility to apply UAS-borne laser scanning for capturing and modelling the complex topography of the study area Neubacher Au, an alluvial forest at the pre-alpine River Pielach (Lower Austria). The area was captured with Riegl's VUX-1 compact time-of-flight laser scanner mounted on a RiCopter (X-8 array octocopter). The scanner features an effective scan rate of 500 kHz and was flown in 50-100 m above ground. At this flying height the laser footprint is 25-50 mm allowing mapping of very small surface details. Furthermore, online waveform processing of the backscattered laser energy enables the retrieval of multiple targets for single laser shots resulting in a dense point cloud of

  9. Reservoir Characterization, Production Characteristics, and Research Needs for Fluvial/Alluvial Reservoirs in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, E.L.; Fowler, M.L.; Jackson, S.R.; Madden, M.P.; Raw-Schatzinger, V.; Salamy, S.P.; Sarathi, P.; Young, M.A.

    1999-04-28

    The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oil Recovery Field Demonstration Program was initiated in 1992 to maximize the economically and environmentally sound recovery of oil from known domestic reservoirs and to preserve access to this resource. Cost-shared field demonstration projects are being initiated in geology defined reservoir classes which have been prioritized by their potential for incremental recovery and their risk of abandonment. This document defines the characteristics of the fifth geological reservoir class in the series, fluvial/alluvial reservoirs. The reservoirs of Class 5 include deposits of alluvial fans, braided streams, and meandering streams. Deposit morphologies vary as a complex function of climate and tectonics and are characterized by a high degree of heterogeneity to fluid flow as a result of extreme variations in water energy as the deposits formed.

  10. Design of alluvial Egyptian irrigation canals using artificial neural networks method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ibrahim Mohamed

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, artificial neural networks method (ANNs is used to estimate the main parameters which used in design of stable alluvial channels. The capability of ANN models to predict the stable alluvial channels dimensions is investigated, where the flow rate and sediment mean grain size were considered as input variables and wetted perimeter, hydraulic radius, and water surface slope were considered as output variables. The used ANN models are based on a back propagation algorithm to train a multi-layer feed-forward network (Levenberg Marquardt algorithm. The proposed models were verified using 311 data sets of field data collected from 61 manmade canals and drains. Several statistical measures and graphical representation are used to check the accuracy of the models in comparison with previous empirical equations. The results of the developed ANN model proved that this technique is reliable in such field compared with previously developed methods.

  11. Influence of geologic structure on alluvial sedimentation in northwestern Yucca Flat, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagoner, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    Using downhole photography, alluvial sediments are described in 5 emplacement holes in northwestern Yucca Flat. The holes are located on or near the Grouse Canyon fan. The 3 most proximally located holes contain the coarsest sediments and display a general decrease in grain size in the downfan direction. The 2 most distally located holes contain fine-grained distal facies sediment in the upper parts of the holes and coarse-grained proximal facies gravels lower in the holes. The proximal gravels in the lower half of the sections were derived from the gravity high, a north-south-trending horst which was exposed early during the history of Yucca Flat basin. Alluvial sedimentation eventually exceeded uplift of the horst, which was buried by distal facies sediments, derived from the western basin margin

  12. Radiocarbon dating of floodplain and young terraces alluvial sediments of Latvia rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhards, G.; Saltupe, B.

    2000-01-01

    This paper include new information about alluvial sediments structure and radiocarbon data of some Latvia free-meandering rivers (Gauja, Ogre, Liela and Maza Jugla, Daugava) floodplains and first terraces. In this present study we examined Gauja river floodplains in the different geomorphological and geological areas. Radiocarbon dating add the fact that the high level floodplain (4-5 m) formation and sediment accumulation take place 3000-5000 years before present (BP) middle level floodplains formed 1500-2100 years BP. Investigations show that one river terraces and floodplains with same relative height have a several absolute age. The rivers crossed same hypsometrical regions (highlands, lowlands) downstream in lowlands alluvial terraces performed as floodplains or from from floodplains to terraces with same height. On the highest, middle and in the lower parts of the rivers with free - meandering channel to - day the dynamic balance of the channel processes exits 4000-5000 years. (author)

  13. Moessbauer study of the transformations occurring in egyptian alluvial and calcareous clays during firing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallam, H.A.; Gomma, N.S.; El Meligy, W.M.; Eissa, N.A.

    1994-01-01

    Egyptian alluvial and calcareous clay samples, which are used in pottery production, were heated at different temperatures in air up to 1100 degree C. The physicochemical transformations were followed up and could be separated in two main stages; i) the dehydroxilation, of the clay mineral, stage for firing up to 700 degree C, ii) the second stage for firing at 900 degree C and higher. In the later stage the effect of calcium content was very pronounced. 2 figs

  14. Investigating selective transport and abrasion on an alluvial fan using quantitative grain size and shape analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwin, K. L.; Jerolmack, D. J.

    2011-12-01

    Selective sorting and abrasion are the two major fluvial processes that are attributed to the downstream fining of sediments in rivers and alluvial fans. Selective transport is the process by which smaller grains are preferentially transported downstream while larger grains are deposited closer to the source. Abrasion is defined by the production of fine sediments and sand that occurs by saltation of gravel, where particle-to-particle collisions supply the energy required to break apart grains. We hypothesize that abrasion results in the gradual fining of large grains and the production of fine sands and silts, while sorting accounts for the differences in transport of these two grain-size fractions produced from abrasion, thereby creating the abrupt gravel-sand transition observed in many channel systems. In this research, we explore both selective transport and abrasion processes on the Dog Canyon alluvial fan near Alamogordo, New Mexico. We complete an extensive grain size analysis down the main channel of the fan employing an image-based technique that utilizes an autocorrelation process. We also characterize changes in grain shape using standard shape parameters, as well as Fourier analysis, which allows the study of contributions of grain roughness on a variety of length scales. Sorting appears to dominate the upper portion of the fan; the grain-size distribution narrows moving downstream until reaching a point of equal mobility, at which point sorting ceases. Abrasion exerts a subtle but persistent effect on grains during transport down the fan. Shape analysis reveals that particles become more rounded by the removal of small-scale textural features, a process that is expected to only modestly influence grain size of gravel, but should produce significant quantities of sand. This study provides a better understanding of the importance of grain abrasion and sorting on the downstream fining of channel grains in an alluvial fan, as well as an improved knowledge

  15. Upstream effects of dams on alluvial channels: state-of-the-art and future challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liro, Maciej

    2017-04-01

    More than 50,000 large dams (with the height above 15 m) operate all over the world and, thus, they significantly disturb water and sediment transport in river systems. These disturbances are recognized as one of the most important factors shaping river morphology in the Anthropocene. Downstream effects of dams have been well documented in numerous case studies and supported by predictions from existing models. In contrast, little is known on the upstream effects of dams on alluvial channels. This review highlights the lack of studies on sedimentological, hydromorphological and biogeomorphological adjustments of alluvial rivers in the base-level raised zones of backwater upstream of dam reservoirs where water level fluctuations occur. Up to date, it has been documented that backwater effects may facilitate fine and coarse sediment deposition, increase groundwater level, provide higher and more frequent channel and floodplain inundation and lead to significant morphological changes. But there have been no studies quantifying short- and long-term consequences of these disturbances for the hydromorphological and biogeomorphological feedbacks that control development of alluvial channels. Some recent studies carried out on gravel-bed and fine-grained bed rivers show that the above mentioned disturbances facilitate vegetation expansion on exposed channel sediments and floodplain influencing river morphology, which suggests that backwater area of alluvial rivers may be treated as the hotspot of bio-geomorphological changes in a fluvial system. To set the stage for future research on upstream effects of dams, this work presents the existing state-of-art and proposes some hypotheses which may be tested in future studies. This study was carried out within the scope of the Research Project 2015/19/N/ST10/01526 financed by the National Science Centre of Poland

  16. Habitat disturbance and hydrological parameters determine the body size and reproduction strategy of alluvial ground beetles

    OpenAIRE

    Gerisch, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Environmental variability is the main driver for the variation of biological characteristics (life-history traits) of species. Therefore, life-history traits are particularly suited to identify mechanistic linkages between environmental variability and species occurrence and can help in explaining ecological patterns. For ground beetles, few studies directly related species traits to environmental variables. This study aims to analyse how life-history traits of alluvial ground beetle...

  17. Impacts of hydroelectric dams on alluvial riparian plant communities in Eastern Brazilian Amazonian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Leandro Valle; Cunha, Denise A; Chaves, Priscilla P; Matos, Darley C L; Parolin, Pia

    2013-09-01

    The major rivers of the Amazon River basin and their biota are threatened by the planned construction of large hydroelectric dams that are expected to have strong impacts on floodplain plant communities. The present study presents forest inventories from three floodplain sites colonized by alluvial riparian vegetation in the Tapajós, Xingu and Tocantins River basins in eastern Amazonian. Results indicate that tree species of the highly specialized alluvial riparian vegetation are clearly distinct among the three river basins, although they are not very distinct from each other and environmental constraints are very similar. With only 6 of 74 species occurring in all three inventories, most tree and shrub species are restricted to only one of the rivers, indicating a high degree of local distribution. Different species occupy similar environmental niches, making these fragile riparian formations highly valuable. Conservation plans must consider species complementarily when decisions are made on where to place floodplain forest conservation units to avoid the irreversible loss of unique alluvial riparian vegetation biodiversity.

  18. Impacts of hydroelectric dams on alluvial riparian plant communities in eastern Brazilian Amazonian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEANDRO VALLE FERREIRA

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The major rivers of the Amazon River basin and their biota are threatened by the planned construction of large hydroelectric dams that are expected to have strong impacts on floodplain plant communities. The present study presents forest inventories from three floodplain sites colonized by alluvial riparian vegetation in the Tapajós, Xingu and Tocantins River basins in eastern Amazonian. Results indicate that tree species of the highly specialized alluvial riparian vegetation are clearly distinct among the three river basins, although they are not very distinct from each other and environmental constraints are very similar. With only 6 of 74 species occurring in all three inventories, most tree and shrub species are restricted to only one of the rivers, indicating a high degree of local distribution. Different species occupy similar environmental niches, making these fragile riparian formations highly valuable. Conservation plans must consider species complementarily when decisions are made on where to place floodplain forest conservation units to avoid the irreversible loss of unique alluvial riparian vegetation biodiversity.

  19. Radioactive Contamination of Alluvial Soils in the Taiga Landscapes of Yakutia with 137Cs, 226Ra, and 238U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevychelov, A. P.; Sobakin, P. I.

    2017-12-01

    The concentrations and distribution of 137Cs in alluvial soils (Fluvisols) of the upper and middle reaches of the Markha River in the northwest of Yakutia and 226Ra and 238U in alluvial soils within the El'kon uranium ore deposit in the south of Yakutia have been studied. It is shown that the migration of radiocesium in the permafrost-affected soils of Yakutia owing to alluviation processes extends to more than 600 km from the source of the radioactive contamination. The migration of 137Cs with water flows is accompanied by its deposition in the buried horizons of alluvial soils during extremely high floods caused by ice jams. In the technogenic landscapes of southern Yakutia, active water migration of 238U and 226Ra from radioactive dump rocks. The leaching of 238U with surface waters from the rocks is more intense than the leaching of 226Ra. The vertical distribution patterns of 238U and 226Ra in the profiles of alluvial soils are complex. Uranium tends to accumulate in the surface humus horizon and in the buried soil horizons, whereas radium does not display any definite regularities of its distribution in the soil profiles. At present, the migration of 238U and 226Ra with river water and their accumulation in the alluvial soils extend to about 30 km from the source.

  20. Natural hazards on alluvial fans: the debris flow and flash flood disaster of December 1999, Vargas state, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Matthew C.; Wieczorek, Gerald F.; Eaton, L.S.; Torres-Sierra, Heriberto; Sylva, Walter F.

    2001-01-01

    Large populations live on or near alluvial fans in locations such as Los Angeles, California, Salt Lake City, Utah, Denver, Colorado, and lesser known areas such as Sarno, Italy, and Vargas, Venezuela. Debris flows and flash floods occur episodically in these alluvial fan environments, and place many communities at high risk during intense and prolonged rainfall. In December 1999, rainstorms induced thousands of landslides along the Cordillera de la Costa, Vargas, Venezuela. Rainfall accumulation of 293 mm during the first 2 weeks of December was followed by an additional 911 mm of rainfall on December 14 through 16. Debris flows and floods inundated coastal communities resulting in a catastrophic death toll of as many as 30,000 people. Flash floods and debris flows caused severe property destruction on alluvial fans at the mouths of the coastal mountain drainage network. In time scales spanning thousands of years, the alluvial fans along this Caribbean coastline are dynamic zones of high geomorphic activity. Because most of the coastal zone in Vargas consists of steep mountain fronts that rise abruptly from the Caribbean Sea, the alluvial fans provide practically the only flat areas upon which to build. Rebuilding and reoccupation of these areas requires careful determination of hazard zones to avoid future loss of life and property. KEY TERMS: Debris flows, flash floods, alluvial fans, natural hazards, landslides, Venezuela

  1. Potential impacts of damming the Juba Valley, western Somalia: Insights from geomorphology and alluvial history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martin

    2014-05-01

    In 1988 plans were well advanced to dam the Juba River in western Somalia. The aims of the Baardheere Dam Project were to generate hydroelectric power for the capital Mogadishu, and to provide water for irrigation in the Juba Valley. A reconnaissance survey on foot along 500 km of the river upstream of the proposed dam site at Baardheere and detailed geomorphic mapping from air photos provided a basis for reconstructing the late Quaternary alluvial history of the river and for assessing the potential impact of the proposed dam. The Juba River rises in the Ethiopian Highlands and is the only river in Somalia that flows to the sea. Its history reflects climatic events in Ethiopia, where the Rift Valley lakes were very low during the LGM (21±2 ka), and high for about 5, 000 years before and after then. Cave deposits in Somalia indicate wetter conditions at 13, 10, 7.5 and 1.5 ka. Alluvial terraces in the Juba Valley range in age from late Pleistocene to late Holocene but only attain a few metres above the present floodplain. This is because the dry tributary valleys contain limestone caves and fissures that divert any high flows from the parent river underground, a process not known when the project was first approved. The oldest preserved terrace was cemented by calcrete by 40 ka. Alluvial gravels were deposited at the outlet of dry tributary valleys during times of episodic high-energy flow between 26 ka and 28 ka. Finely laminated shelly sands accumulated at 10 ka to form the 5 m terrace. The 2 m terrace was laid down 3.2 ka ago as a slackwater deposit. The lack of high-level alluvial terraces raises doubts over plans to dam the river, since rapid leakage would occur from side valleys and the reservoir would not attain the height needed to generate hydroelectric power. It would submerge all existing arable land along the river. Finally, the presence in the late Holocene alluvium of the sub-fossil gastropods Bulinus truncatus and Biomphalaria pfeifferi, which are

  2. Age and origin of the Gezira alluvial fan between the Blue and White Nile rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, martin

    2014-05-01

    The Gezira is a low-angle alluvial fan bounded by the Blue Nile to the east and the White Nile to the west. It is the main agricultural region of Sudan and produces high quality long-staple cotton for export. Dark cracking clays (vertisols) cover much of the Gezira and range in age from 50 kyr to Holocene. The Gezira is traversed by a series of defunct sandy channels that originate between Sennar and Wad Medani on the present-day Blue Nile. With a radius of 300 km and an area of 40,000 km2 the Gezira is a mega-fan. The younger channels range in age from early Holocene to 100 kyr, while near surface channels filled with rolled quartz and carbonate gravels have ages back to >250 kyr. Boreholes in the Gezira reveal coarse alluvial sands and gravels in now buried channels overlain by alluvial clays, forming a repetitive sequence of fining-upwards alluvial units. that probably extend back to Pliocene times. The fan is up to 180 m thick with a volume of ~1,800 km3. The sandy or gravelly bed-load channels coincide with colder drier climates and sparse vegetation in the Ethiopian headwaters of the Blue Nile and the alluvial clays denote widespread flooding during times of stronger summer monsoon. The early stages of such flood events were often accompanied by mass burial of Nile oyster (Etheria elliptica) beds, such as the 45-50 kyr floods that deposited up to 5 m of clay in the northern Gezira. A unique feature of the eastern Gezira is a former Blue Nile channel at least 80 km long running parallel to the present river and entirely filled with volcanic ash. The channel was only 3-4 m deep and 20-30 m wide. Very fine laminations and cross-beds, together with locally abundant phytoliths and sponge spicules, suggest slow-moving water, with flow dispersed across many distributary channels. The ash geochemistry is similar to that in the lower part of the Kibish Formation in the lower Omo valley of southern Ethiopia and points to a minimum age of 100 kyr and a maximum age of

  3. Controls on sediment cover in bedrock-alluvial channels of the Henry Mountains, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, R. A.; Yager, E.; Johnson, J. P.; Tranmer, A.

    2017-12-01

    The location and extent of sediment cover in bedrock-alluvial channels influences sediment transport rates, channel incision and instream ecology. However, factors affecting sediment cover and how it responds to changes in relative sediment supply have rarely been quantitatively evaluated in field settings. Using field surveys and SFM analysis of channel reach topography, we quantified sediment cover and channel properties including slope, width, grain size distributions, and bedrock and alluvial roughness in North Wash and Chelada Creek in the Henry Mountains, Utah. Along reaches where upstream sediment supply does not appear to be restricted, we find that the fraction of local bedrock exposure increases as a function of local relative transport capacity . In a downstream section of Chelada Creek, decadal-scale sediment supply has been restricted by an upstream culvert that has caused a backwater effect and corresponding upstream deposition. In this section, alluvial cover is uncorrelated with local stream power. To test the impact of relative sediment supply on sediment cover, a 1D sediment transport model was used to predict the equilibrium sediment cover in Chelada Creek under varying flow and sediment supply conditions. Sediment transport in each model section was predicted using the partial cover model of Johnson (2015), which accounts for differences in bedrock and alluvial roughness on critical shear stress and flow resistance. Model runs in which sediment supply was approximately equal to mean transport capacity produced a pattern of sediment cover which best matched the field observations upstream of the culvert. However, runs where sediment supply was under-capacity produced the pattern most similar to field observations downstream of the culvert, consistent with our field-based interpretations. Model results were insensitive to initial sediment cover, and equilibrium was relatively quickly reached, suggesting that the channel is responsive to changes in

  4. Terrestrial Cosmogenic-Nuclide Dating of Alluvial Fans in Death Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machette, Michael N.; Slate, Janet L.; Phillips, Fred M.

    2008-01-01

    We have used terrestrial cosmogenic nuclides (TCN) to establish the age of some of the most extensive Quaternary alluvial fans in Death Valley, California. These intermediate-age alluvial fans are most extensive on the western side of the valley, where tectonic deformation is considerably less pronounced than on the eastern side of the valley. These fans are characterized by a relatively smooth, densely packed desert pavement formed by well-varnished (blackened) clasts. These surfaces have been mapped as the Q2 gravel by previous workers and as unit Qai (intermediate age) by us. However, the intermediate-age gravels probably contain multiple subunits, as evidenced by slight differences in morphologic expression, soil formation, and inset geomorphic relations. The TCN technique used herein sums the cosmogenic 36Cl in approximately 2.5-meter-deep profiles through soil and host alluvium, thus avoiding some of the problems associated with the more typical surface-exposure dating of boulders or smaller clasts. Our TCN 36Cl dating of 12 depth profiles indicates that these intermediate-age (Qai) alluvial fans range from about 100 to 40 kilo-annum (ka), with a mean age of about 70 ka. An alternative interpretation is that alluvial unit Qai was deposited in two discrete episodes from 90 to 80 ka and from 60 to 50 ka, before and after MIS (marine oxygen-isotope stage) 4 (respectively). Without an intermediate-age unit, such as MIS 4 lake deposits, we can neither disprove nor prove that Qai was deposited in two discrete intervals or over a longer range of time. Thus, in Death Valley, alluvial unit Qai largely brackets MIS 4, which is not associated with a deep phase of Lake Manly. These Qai fans extend to elevations of about -46 meters (150 feet below sea level) and have not been transgressed by Lake Manly, suggesting that MIS 4 or MIS 2 lakes were rather shallow in Death Valley, perhaps because they lacked inflow from surface runoff of the Sierra Nevada drainages through

  5. Defining the formative discharge for alternate bars in alluvial rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redolfi, M.; Carlin, M.; Tubino, M.; Adami, L.; Zolezzi, G.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the properties of alternate bars in long straight reaches of channelized streams subject to an unsteady, irregular flow regime. To this aim we propose a novel integration of a statistical approach with the analytical perturbation model of Tubino (1991) which predicts the evolution of bar properties (namely amplitude and wavelength) as consequence of a flood. The outcomes of our integrated modelling approach are probability distribution of the bar properties, which depend essentially on two ingredients: (i) the statistical properties of the flow regime (duration, frequency and magnitude of the flood events, and (ii) the reach-averaged hydro-geomorphic characteristics of the channel (bed material, channel gradient and width). This allows to define a "bar-forming" discharge value as the flow value which would reproduce the most likely bar properties in a river reach under unsteady flow. Alternate bars are often migrating downstream and growing or declining during flood events. The timescale of bar growth and migration is often comparable with the duration of the floods: consequently, bar properties such as height and wavelength do not respond instantaneously to discharge variations (i.e. quasi-equilibrium response) but may depend on previous flood events. Theoretical results are compared with observations in three Alpine, channelized gravel bed rivers with encouraging outcomes.png" class="documentimage" >

  6. Coupling heat and chemical tracer experiments for estimating heat transfer parameters in shallow alluvial aquifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildemeersch, S; Jamin, P; Orban, P; Hermans, T; Klepikova, M; Nguyen, F; Brouyère, S; Dassargues, A

    2014-11-15

    Geothermal energy systems, closed or open, are increasingly considered for heating and/or cooling buildings. The efficiency of such systems depends on the thermal properties of the subsurface. Therefore, feasibility and impact studies performed prior to their installation should include a field characterization of thermal properties and a heat transfer model using parameter values measured in situ. However, there is a lack of in situ experiments and methodology for performing such a field characterization, especially for open systems. This study presents an in situ experiment designed for estimating heat transfer parameters in shallow alluvial aquifers with focus on the specific heat capacity. This experiment consists in simultaneously injecting hot water and a chemical tracer into the aquifer and monitoring the evolution of groundwater temperature and concentration in the recovery well (and possibly in other piezometers located down gradient). Temperature and concentrations are then used for estimating the specific heat capacity. The first method for estimating this parameter is based on a modeling in series of the chemical tracer and temperature breakthrough curves at the recovery well. The second method is based on an energy balance. The values of specific heat capacity estimated for both methods (2.30 and 2.54MJ/m(3)/K) for the experimental site in the alluvial aquifer of the Meuse River (Belgium) are almost identical and consistent with values found in the literature. Temperature breakthrough curves in other piezometers are not required for estimating the specific heat capacity. However, they highlight that heat transfer in the alluvial aquifer of the Meuse River is complex and contrasted with different dominant process depending on the depth leading to significant vertical heat exchange between upper and lower part of the aquifer. Furthermore, these temperature breakthrough curves could be included in the calibration of a complex heat transfer model for

  7. 15N Isotopic Study on Decomposition of Organic Residues Incorporated into Alluvial and Sandy Saline Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Kholi, A. F.; Galal, Y. G. M.

    2004-01-01

    Incubation experiment was conducted to study the effect of the nitrogenous fertilizer on the decomposition and mineralization of organic residues (soybean powdered forage) as well as the release of the soil inorganic nitrogen. This technique was carried out using two types of soils, one is alluvial and the other is saline sandy soil collected from Fayoum governorate. Soybean forage has an organic carbon 23.1%, total N 1.6% and C/N ratio 14.4. Regarding the effect of incubation period on the two soil samples, the evolved NH 4 -N was generally reached its highest peak after 30-45 days, in the presence of either the added 15 No3-fertilizer solely or in combination with soybean forage. Reversible trend was occurred with regard to the evolved No3-N. The highest peak of evolved No3-N recorded in unfertilized control, as compared to 15 No3-N treatment, at 30 day incubation period indicated that the addition of labeled mineral fertilizer had appreciably enhanced the immobilization process. Net nitrification revealed that it was the highest in unfertilized control soil where it was significantly decreased in the treated two soil samples. Gross mineralization as affected by the addition of soybean forage in combination with labeled mineral fertilizer had been promoted by 75% in the alluvial soil and by 18% in the sandy saline soil, as compared with the soil samples received 15 No3-fertilizer only. Gross immobilization, in soil samples received 15 No3-fertilizer plus soybean forage had surpassed those received 15 No3-fertilizer only by 16% in the alluvial soil and by 25% in the sandy saline soil. (Authors)

  8. Hydrogeology and simulation of groundwater flow and analysis of projected water use for the Canadian River alluvial aquifer, western and central Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, John H.; Mashburn, Shana L.; Graves, Grant M.; Peterson, Steven M.; Smith, S. Jerrod; Fuhrig, Leland T.; Wagner, Derrick L.; Sanford, Jon E.

    2017-02-13

    aquifer materials. The aquifer areal extent ranged from less than 0.2 to 8.5 miles wide. The maximum aquifer thickness was 120 feet (ft), and the average aquifer thickness was 50 ft. Average horizontal hydraulic conductivity for the Canadian River alluvial aquifer was calculated to be 39 feet per day, and the maximum horizontal hydraulic conductivity was calculated to be 100 feet per day.Recharge rates to the Canadian River alluvial aquifer were estimated by using a soil-water-balance code to estimate the spatial distribution of groundwater recharge and a water-table fluctuation method to estimate localized recharge rates. By using daily precipitation and temperature data from 39 climate stations, recharge was estimated to average 3.4 in/yr, which corresponds to 8.7 percent of precipitation as recharge for the Canadian River alluvial aquifer from 1981 to 2013. The water-table fluctuation method was used at one site where continuous water-level observation data were available to estimate the percentage of precipitation that becomes groundwater recharge. Estimated annual recharge at that site was 9.7 in/yr during 2014.Groundwater flow in the Canadian River alluvial aquifer was identified and quantified by a conceptual flow model for the period 1981–2013. Inflows to the Canadian River alluvial aquifer include recharge to the water table from precipitation, lateral flow from the surrounding bedrock, and flow from the Canadian River, whereas outflows include flow to the Canadian River (base-flow gain), evapotranspiration, and groundwater use. Total annual recharge inflows estimated by the soil-water-balance code were multiplied by the area of each reach and then averaged over the simulated period to produce an annual average of 28,919 acre-feet per year (acre-ft/yr) for Reach I and 82,006 acre-ft/yr for Reach II. Stream base flow to the Canadian River was estimated to be the largest outflow of groundwater from the aquifer, measured at four streamgages, along with

  9. Heavy Metals Pollution of Alluvial Soil in the Copşa Mică Area

    OpenAIRE

    , D. Popa; , I.M. Prundeanu; , R. Lăcătuşu

    2011-01-01

    The objective of our study was to determine the concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn and Fe) from soil samples, which have been previously treated with HNO3 and concentrated HClO4. The study was performed on a series of 24 soil samples and one soil profile, collected from the alluvial soil in the Copşa Mică area. The concentrations of heavy metals were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The pH was determined by using the potentiometric method in aqueous...

  10. Distribution of plutonium and cesium in alluvial soils of the Los Alamos environs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyhan, J.W.; Miera, F.R. Jr.; Peters, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    The alluvial soils of three liquid waste disposal areas at Los Alamos were sampled to determine plutonium and cesium distributional relationships and correlations with soil physical-chemical properties. Radionuclide concentrations were determined for soil samples as a function of soil depth and distance from the waste outfall. The cesium-plutonium data were correlated with levels of organic carbon, carbonates, exchangeable and water-soluble cations, pH, cation exchange capacity, bulk density, surface area and geometric particle size of these soils. The distribution patterns of soil plutonium and cesium were also compared to the waste use history of the three study areas

  11. Temporal changes in the distribution of 137Cs in alluvial soils at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyhan, J.W.; Hakonson, T.E.; Miera, F.R. Jr.; Bostick, K.V.

    1978-05-01

    The alluvial soils of three liquid-effluent receiving areas at Los Alamos were sampled to determine 137 Cs temporal distributional relationships. Soil radionuclide concentrations were determined as a function of soil depth and distance from the waste outfall, and discussed relative to runoff transport of 137 Cs-contaminated alluvium. The inventories of soil 137 Cs in various segments of each effluent-receiving area were calculated for two sampling periods and compared with amounts of 137 Cs added to the canyons in the liquid wastes. The distribution patterns of soil cesium were compared with the waste-use history of the three study areas and the hydrologic characteristics of the canyons

  12. Lithologic and hydrologic controls of mixed alluvial-bedrock channels in flood-prone fluvial systems: bankfull and macrochannels in the Llano River watershed, central Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitmuller, Frank T.; Hudson, Paul F.; Asquith, William H.

    2015-01-01

    The rural and unregulated Llano River watershed located in central Texas, USA, has a highly variable flow regime and a wide range of instantaneous peak flows. Abrupt transitions in surface lithology exist along the main-stem channel course. Both of these characteristics afford an opportunity to examine hydrologic, lithologic, and sedimentary controls on downstream changes in channel morphology. Field surveys of channel topography and boundary composition are coupled with sediment analyses, hydraulic computations, flood-frequency analyses, and geographic information system mapping to discern controls on channel geometry (profile, pattern, and shape) and dimensions along the mixed alluvial-bedrock Llano River and key tributaries. Four categories of channel classification in a downstream direction include: (i) uppermost ephemeral reaches, (ii) straight or sinuous gravel-bed channels in Cretaceous carbonate sedimentary zones, (iii) straight or sinuous gravel-bed or bedrock channels in Paleozoic sedimentary zones, and (iv) straight, braided, or multithread mixed alluvial–bedrock channels with sandy beds in Precambrian igneous and metamorphic zones. Principal findings include: (i) a nearly linear channel profile attributed to resistant bedrock incision checkpoints; (ii) statistically significant correlations of both alluvial sinuosity and valley confinement to relatively high f (mean depth) hydraulic geometry values; (iii) relatively high b (width) hydraulic geometry values in partly confined settings with sinuous channels upstream from a prominent incision checkpoint; (iv) different functional flow categories including frequently occurring events (< 1.5-year return periods) that mobilize channel-bed material and less frequent events that determine bankfull channel (1.5- to 3-year return periods) and macrochannel (10- to 40-year return periods) dimensions; (v) macrochannels with high f values (most ≤ 0.45) that develop at sites with unit stream power values in excess

  13. Use of morphometric analysis and self-organizing maps for alluvial fan classification: case study on Ostorankooh altitudes, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokarram, Marzieh; Seif, Abdollah; Sathyamoorthy, Dinesh

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to classify alluvial fans formed by high-gradient braided streams and torrents that discharge into the Oshtorankook altitudes in the Lorestan province, Iran. The morphology of the fans and their watershed is quantitatively described through estimated morphometric parameters. For relationships between geomorphological features of the fans and their drainage basins, self-organizingmaps (SOM) were used. In SOM, according to both qualitative data and morphometric variables, the clustering tendency of alluvial fans was investigated using 15 alluvial fans parameters. The results of the analysis showed that several morphologically different fan types were recognizedbased on their geomorphological characteristics in the study area. A strong positive relationship was found between the drainage basin area and size of the fan with a simple power function. In addition, the relationship between fan slope and drainage area was found to be negative and moderately strong with a simple power function

  14. Potential effect of natural gas wells on alluvial groundwater contamination at the Kansas City Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickering, D.A.; Laase, A.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Locke, D.A. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States)

    1993-05-01

    This report is the result of a request for further information about several abandoned natural gas wells at the US Department of Energy`s Kansas City Plant (KCP). The request was prompted by an old map showing several, possibly eight, natural gas wells located under or near what is now the southeast corner of the Main Manufacturing Building at KCP. Volatile organic compound contamination in the alluvial aquifer surrounding the gas wells might possibly contaminate the bedrock aquifer if the gas wells still exist as conduits. Several circumstances exist that make it doubtful that contamination is entering the bedrock aquifers: (1) because regional groundwater flow in the bedrock beneath the KCP is expected to be vertically upward, contaminants found in the alluvial aquifer should not migrate down the old wells; (2) because of the low hydraulic conductivity of the bedrock units, contaminant transport would be extremely slow if the contaminants were migrating down the wells; and (3) casing, apparently set through the alluvium in all of the wells, would have deteriorated and may have collapsed; if the casing collapsed, the silty clays in the alluvium would also collapse and seal the well. No definitive information has been discovered about the exact location of the wells. No further search for or consideration of the old gas wells is recommended.

  15. Potential effect of natural gas wells on alluvial groundwater contamination at the Kansas City Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickering, D.A.; Laase, A.D. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Locke, D.A. (Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States))

    1993-05-01

    This report is the result of a request for further information about several abandoned natural gas wells at the US Department of Energy's Kansas City Plant (KCP). The request was prompted by an old map showing several, possibly eight, natural gas wells located under or near what is now the southeast corner of the Main Manufacturing Building at KCP. Volatile organic compound contamination in the alluvial aquifer surrounding the gas wells might possibly contaminate the bedrock aquifer if the gas wells still exist as conduits. Several circumstances exist that make it doubtful that contamination is entering the bedrock aquifers: (1) because regional groundwater flow in the bedrock beneath the KCP is expected to be vertically upward, contaminants found in the alluvial aquifer should not migrate down the old wells; (2) because of the low hydraulic conductivity of the bedrock units, contaminant transport would be extremely slow if the contaminants were migrating down the wells; and (3) casing, apparently set through the alluvium in all of the wells, would have deteriorated and may have collapsed; if the casing collapsed, the silty clays in the alluvium would also collapse and seal the well. No definitive information has been discovered about the exact location of the wells. No further search for or consideration of the old gas wells is recommended.

  16. The preliminary study on the alluvial stratigraphy of Peinan archaeological site, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hsiaochin; Chen, Wenshan; Yeh, Changkeng

    2015-04-01

    Many of the activities of prehistoric people who lived in Taiwan were concentrated around river terrace environments and seldom in alluvial environments which are resulting from the rapid tectonic uplift and high erosion rate of the late Cenozoic mountain belt. However, the Peinan archaeological site, one of the most important Neolithic sites in Taiwan because of the great amount of slate slab coffins and nephrite artifacts unearthed, is located at the bottom of Peinan Hill which is formed by the activity of Lichi and Luyeh Faults. According to the radioactive carbon dating results, the Peinan alluvial fan used as cemetery was lasted over 3,700 years (5700-2000 yr BP) but the related cultural formation was only lasted 400 years (3500-3100 yr BP). What have happened to the prehistoric people? As the stratigraphic record allows archaeologists to ascertain the effects of geological processes on the preservation of the archaeological record, determining which parts of the archaeological records are absent, which have potentially been preserved, and how fragmentary are the preserved portions of the records. The limitations that geologic processes impose on the archaeological record must be recognized and understood before meaningful interpretations of prehistory can be made. Therefore, the reconstruction of the landscape and stratigraphic records in archaeological site not only provides the paleo-environmental context but also helps to explain changes that occurred to human cultures over time.

  17. Monitoring biocalcification potential of Lysinibacillus sp. isolated from alluvial soils for improved compressive strength of concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashisht, Rajneesh; Attri, Sampan; Sharma, Deepak; Shukla, Abhilash; Goel, Gunjan

    2018-03-01

    The present study reports the potential of newly isolated calcite precipitating bacteria isolated from alluvial soil to improve the strength and durability of concrete. A total of sixteen samples of alluvial soil and sewage were collected from the different locations of province Solan (India). For isolation, enrichment culture technique was used to enrich calcite precipitating strains in Urea broth. After enrichment, fourteen distinct bacterial strains were obtained on Urea agar. Based on qualitative and quantitative screening for urease activity, five isolates were obtained possessing higher calcite formation and urease activities (38-77 μmhos/cm) as compared with standard strain of Bacillus megaterium MTCC 1684 (77 μmhos/cm). An isolate I13 identified as Lysinibacillus sp. was selected for self healing property in the concrete mix of M20. An improved compressive strength of 1.5 fold was observed in concrete samples amended with Lysinibacillus sp. over the concrete amended with B. megaterium MTCC 1684 after 28 days of curing. The higher calcite precipitation activity was indicated in Lysinibacillus sp. by FE-SEM micrographs and EDX analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Potential effect of natural gas wells on alluvial groundwater contamination at the Kansas City Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickering, D.A.; Laase, A.D.; Locke, D.A.

    1993-05-01

    This report is the result of a request for further information about several abandoned natural gas wells at the US Department of Energy's Kansas City Plant (KCP). The request was prompted by an old map showing several, possibly eight, natural gas wells located under or near what is now the southeast corner of the Main Manufacturing Building at KCP. Volatile organic compound contamination in the alluvial aquifer surrounding the gas wells might possibly contaminate the bedrock aquifer if the gas wells still exist as conduits. Several circumstances exist that make it doubtful that contamination is entering the bedrock aquifers: (1) because regional groundwater flow in the bedrock beneath the KCP is expected to be vertically upward, contaminants found in the alluvial aquifer should not migrate down the old wells; (2) because of the low hydraulic conductivity of the bedrock units, contaminant transport would be extremely slow if the contaminants were migrating down the wells; and (3) casing, apparently set through the alluvium in all of the wells, would have deteriorated and may have collapsed; if the casing collapsed, the silty clays in the alluvium would also collapse and seal the well. No definitive information has been discovered about the exact location of the wells. No further search for or consideration of the old gas wells is recommended

  19. Effects of the Biofuels Initiative on Water Quality and Quantity in the Mississippi Alluvial Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, H. L.; Green, C. T.; Coupe, R. H.

    2010-12-01

    In the search for renewable fuel alternatives, biofuels have gained strong political momentum. In the last decade, extensive mandates, policies, and subsidies have been adopted to foster the development of a biofuels industry in the United States. The manifestation of the Biofuels Initiative in the Mississippi Delta was a 47-percent decrease in cotton acreage with a concurrent 288 percent increase in corn acreage in 2007. Because corn uses 80 percent more water for irrigation than cotton, and more nitrogen fertilizer is recommended for corn cultivation, this crop type change has implications for water quantity and quality in the Delta. Increased water use for corn is accelerating water-level declines in the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer at a time when conservation is being encouraged due to concerns about sustainability. A mathematical model calibrated to existing conditions in the Delta shows that increased fertilizer applications on corn will increase the extent of nitrate movement into the alluvial aquifer. Estimates based on surface-water modeling results indicate that higher application rates of nitrogen from increased corn production increases the amount of nitrogen exported from the Yazoo River basin to the Gulf of Mexico by about 7 percent; increasing the Delta’s contribution to hypoxic conditions in the Gulf of Mexico.

  20. Fe and Mn levels regulated by agricultural activities in alluvial groundwaters underneath a flooded paddy field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kangjoo [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Kunsan National University, Jeonbuk 573-701 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: kangjoo@kunsan.ac.kr; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Choi, Byoung-Young; Kim, Seok-Hwi; Park, Ki-hoon [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Kunsan National University, Jeonbuk 573-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Eungyu [Department of Geology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Koh, Dong-Chan [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Seong-Taek [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-01-15

    Iron and Mn concentrations in fresh groundwaters of alluvial aquifers are generally high in reducing conditions reflecting low SO{sub 4} concentrations. The mass balance and isotopic approaches of this study demonstrate that reduction of SO{sub 4}, supplied from agricultural activities such as fertilization and irrigation, is important in lowering Fe and Mn levels in alluvial groundwaters underneath a paddy field. This study was performed to investigate the processes regulating Fe and Mn levels in groundwaters of a point bar area, which has been intensively used for flood cultivation. Four multilevel-groundwater samplers were installed to examine the relationship between geology and the vertical changes in water chemistry. The results show that Fe and Mn levels are regulated by the presence of NO{sub 3} at shallow depths and by SO{sub 4} reduction at the greater depths. Isotopic and mass balance analyses revealed that NO{sub 3} and SO{sub 4} in groundwater are mostly supplied from the paddy field, suggesting that the Fe-and Mn-rich zone of the study area is confined by the agricultural activities. For this reason, the geologic conditions controlling the infiltration of agrochemicals are also important for the occurrence of Fe/Mn-rich groundwaters in the paddy field area.

  1. Geohydrology and water quality of the North Platte River alluvial aquifer, Garden County, Western Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Gregory V.; Cannia, James C.

    1995-01-01

    In 1993, a 3-year study was begun to describe the geohydrology and water quality of the North Platte River alluvial aquifer near Oshkosh, Garden County, Nebraska. The study's objectives are to evaluate the geohydrologic characteristics of the alluvial aquifer and to establish a network of observation wells for long-term monitoring of temporal variations and spatial distributions of nitrate and major-ion concentrations. Monitor wells were installed at 11 sites near Oshkosh. The geohydrology of the aquifer was characterized based on water-level measurements and two short-term aquifer tests. Bimonthly water samples were collected and analyzed for pH, specific conductivity, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, and nutrients that included dissolved nitrate. Concentrations of major ions were defined from analyses of semiannual water samples. Analyses of the geohydrologic and water-quality data indicate that the aquifer is vulnerable to nitrate contamination. These data also show that nitrate concentrations in ground water flowing into and out of the study area are less than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Maximum Concentration Level of 10 milligrams per liter for drinking water. Ground water from Lost Creek Valley may be mixing with ground water in the North Platte River Valley, somewhat moderating nitrate concentrations near Oshkosh.

  2. Effects of silicon on photosynthetic characteristics of maize (Zea mays L.) on alluvial soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhiming; Song, Fengbin; Xu, Hongwen; Shao, Hongbo; Song, Ri

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to determine the effects of silicon on photosynthetic characteristics of maize on alluvial soil, including total chlorophyll contents, photosynthetic rate (P n), stomatal conductance (g s), transpiration rate (E), and intercellular CO2 concentration (C i ) using the method of field experiment, in which there were five levels (0, 45, 90, 150, and 225 kg · ha(-1)) of silicon supplying. The results showed that certain doses of silicon fertilizers can be used successfully in increasing the values of total chlorophyll contents, P n, and g s and decreasing the values of E and C i of maize leaves, which meant that photosynthetic efficiency of maize was significantly increased in different growth stages by proper doses of Si application on alluvial soil, and the optimal dose of Si application was 150 kg · ha(-1). Our results indicated that silicon in proper amounts can be beneficial in increasing the photosynthetic ability of maize, which would be helpful for the grain yield and growth of maize.

  3. Quantifying relief on alluvial fans using airborne lidar to reveal patterns of sediment accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelan, A. E., III; Oskin, M. E.

    2017-12-01

    We present a method of quantifying detailed surface relief on alluvial fans from high-resolution topography. Average slope and curvature of the fan are used together to empirically derive an idealized, radially symmetric fan surface, from which we compute residual topography. Maps produced using this technique highlight spatial patterns of fan deposition and avulsion. Regions of high residual topography reveal active and abandoned sediment lobes accumulated from recent depositional events, often with well-defined channels at their apex. Preliminary observations suggest that surface relief is uniform across a collection of fans in a given region and source lithology. Alluvial fans with granitic catchment lithologies in eastern California (n=12), each with varying source catchment size and mean fan slope, all show relief of around 4 meters. A collection of fans from the Carrizo Plain in central California (n=12), with source catchments set within Miocene marine and nonmarine sedimentary rocks, show significantly lower relief values around 2 meters. We hypothesize that particle grain size determines this contrasting relief through its control on the thickness of fan-building debris flows. In both settings we find that sediment lobes tend to extend toward the fan toe. This pattern supports a process, observed in analog experiments, of fan deposition dominated by back-filling and overtopping of distributary channels by debris-flows.

  4. Lower Cretaceous paleo-Vertisols and sedimentary interrelationships in stacked alluvial sequences, Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joeckel, R. M.; Ludvigson, G. A.; Kirkland, J. I.

    2017-11-01

    The Yellow Cat Member of the Cedar Mountain Formation in Poison Strip, Utah, USA, consists of stacked, erosionally bounded alluvial sequences dominated by massive mudstones (lithofacies Fm) with paleo-Vertisols. Sediment bodies within these sequences grade vertically and laterally into each other at pedogenic boundaries, across which color, texture, and structures (sedimentary vs. pedogenic) change. Slickensides, unfilled (sealed) cracks, carbonate-filled cracks, and deeper cracks filled with sandstone; the latter features suggest thorough desiccation during aridification. Thin sandstones (Sms) in some sequences, typically as well as laminated to massive mudstones (Flm) with which they are interbedded in some cases, are interpreted as avulsion deposits. The termini of many beds of these lithofacies curve upward, parallel to nearby pedogenic slickensides, as the features we call ;turnups.; Turnups are overlain or surrounded by paleosols, but strata sheltered underneath beds with turnups retain primary sedimentary fabrics. Turnups were produced by movement along slickensides during pedogenesis, by differential compaction alongside pre-existing gilgai microhighs, or by a combination of both. Palustrine carbonates (lithofacies C) appear only in the highest or next-highest alluvial sequences, along with a deep paleo-Vertisol that exhibits partially preserved microrelief at the base of the overlying Poison Strip Member. The attributes of the Yellow Cat Member suggest comparatively low accommodation, slow accumulation, long hiatuses in clastic sedimentation, and substantial time intervals of subaerial exposure and pedogenesis; it appears to be distinct among the members of the Cedar Mountain Formation in these respects.

  5. Fe and Mn levels regulated by agricultural activities in alluvial groundwaters underneath a flooded paddy field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kangjoo; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Choi, Byoung-Young; Kim, Seok-Hwi; Park, Ki-hoon; Park, Eungyu; Koh, Dong-Chan; Yun, Seong-Taek

    2008-01-01

    Iron and Mn concentrations in fresh groundwaters of alluvial aquifers are generally high in reducing conditions reflecting low SO 4 concentrations. The mass balance and isotopic approaches of this study demonstrate that reduction of SO 4 , supplied from agricultural activities such as fertilization and irrigation, is important in lowering Fe and Mn levels in alluvial groundwaters underneath a paddy field. This study was performed to investigate the processes regulating Fe and Mn levels in groundwaters of a point bar area, which has been intensively used for flood cultivation. Four multilevel-groundwater samplers were installed to examine the relationship between geology and the vertical changes in water chemistry. The results show that Fe and Mn levels are regulated by the presence of NO 3 at shallow depths and by SO 4 reduction at the greater depths. Isotopic and mass balance analyses revealed that NO 3 and SO 4 in groundwater are mostly supplied from the paddy field, suggesting that the Fe-and Mn-rich zone of the study area is confined by the agricultural activities. For this reason, the geologic conditions controlling the infiltration of agrochemicals are also important for the occurrence of Fe/Mn-rich groundwaters in the paddy field area

  6. Characterization of Natural Organic Matter in Alluvial Aquifer Sediments: Approaches and Implications for Reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, P. M.; Nico, P. S.; Hao, Z.; Gilbert, B.; Tfaily, M. M.; Devadoss, J.

    2015-12-01

    Sediment-associated natural organic matter (NOM) is an extremely complex assemblage of organic molecules with a wide range of sizes, functional groups, and structures, which is intricately associated with mineral particles. The chemical nature of NOM may control its' reactivity towards metals, minerals, enzymes, and bacteria. Organic carbon concentrations in subsurface sediments are typically much lower than in surface soils, posing a distinct challenge for characterization. In this study, we investigated NOM associated with shallow alluvial aquifer sediments in a floodplain of the Colorado River. Total organic carbon (TOC) contents in these subsurface sediments are typically around 0.1%, but can range from 0.03% up to approximately 1.5%. Even at the typical TOC values of 0.1%, the mass of sediment-associated OC is approximately 5000 times higher than the mass of dissolved OC, representing a large pool of carbon that may potentially be mobilized or degraded under changing environmental conditions. Sediment-associated OC is much older than both the depositional age of the alluvial sediments and dissolved OC in the groundwater, indicating that the vast majority of NOM was sequestered by the sediment long before it was deposited in the floodplain. We have characterized the sediment-bound NOM from two locations within the floodplain with differing physical and geochemical properties. One location has relatively low organic carbon (mineral association across different biogeochemical regimes and assess the potential reactivity of various NOM pools.

  7. Distal alluvial fan sediments in early Proterozoic red beds of the Wilgerivier formation, Waterberg Group, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Neut, M.; Eriksson, P. G.; Callaghan, C. C.

    The 1900 - 1700 M.a. Waterberg Group belongs to a series of southern African cratonic cover sequences of roughly equivalent age. Red beds of the Wilgerivier Formation comprise sandstones, interbedded with subordinate conglomerates and minor mudrocks. These immature sedimentary rocks exhibit lenticular bedding, radial palaeocurrent patterns and features indicative of both streamflow and gravity-flow deposition. A distal wet alluvial fan palaeoenvironmental setting is envisaged, with fan-deltas forming where alluvial lobes prograded into a lacustrine basin. Intrastratal, diagenetic alteration of ferromagnesian detrital grains and ferruginous grain coatings led to the red colouration of the Wilgerivier sediments.

  8. Alluvial systems as archives for environmental change at a Hominid site with Oldowan archaeological occurrences: the Homa Peninsula, southwestern Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Thomas; Whitfield, Elizabeth; Kirby, Jason; Hunt, Christopher; Bishop, Laura; Plummer, Thomas; Ditchfield, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The Homa Peninsula, southwestern Kenya, preserves fossiliferous sedimentary sequences dating to the Plio-Pleistocene. Evidence of hominids inhabiting an open grassland setting and utilising Oldowan tools has been reported here, as well as some of the oldest known traces of hominin activity. Reconstructions of the palaeoenvironment have suggested that alluvial and lake marginal environments on a grassy plain, between wooded slopes and a permanent water body might be plausible. However, these interpretations are based only on field sedimentological analyses and stable isotope analysis at a single site on the peninsula (Kanjera South). It is the aim of this study to utilise a multiproxy approach to develop our understanding of the palaeoenvironmental characteristics here. Sediments will also be characterized at a new site (Nyayanga) through field analyses, as well as through analyses of particle size, siliceous microfossils (diatoms, phytoliths and sponge spicules), pollen and stable isotopes. By utilizing this approach, new insights into the palaeoecology, palaeohydromorphology and palaeoclimate of the locale may be revealed, expanding the limited data available to palaeoanthropological studies of Oldowan occurrences in east Africa. Efforts to refine palaeoenvironmental reconstructions of Kanjera South through particle size analysis have shown that sediments in the lower beds of the sequence are characterised by poor sorting, a bimodal distribution and sand/silty-sand grade material. This suggests rapid deposition and/or a variable hydrological regime and may represent the role of relatively unconfined ephemeral channels in the transportation and deposition of sediments. Fluvial reworking of aeolian sediments, most likely during unconfined flood events may also have occurred.

  9. A Pleistocene coastal alluvial fan complex produced by Middle Pleistocene glacio-fluvial processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Kathryn; Woodward, Jamie; Hughes, Philip; Giglio, Federico; Del Bianco, Fabrizio

    2014-05-01

    A coarse-grained alluvial fan sequence at Lipci, Kotor Bay, in western Montenegro, provides a sedimentary record of meltwater streams draining from the Orjen Massif (1,894 m a.s.l.) to the coastal zone. At Lipci sedimentary evidence and U-series ages have been used alongside offshore bathymetric imagery and seismic profiles to establish the size of the fan and constrain the nature and timing of its formation. Establishing the depositional history of such coastal fans is important for our understanding of cold stage sediment flux from glaciated uplands to the offshore zone, and for exploring the impact of sea level change on fan reworking. There is evidence of at least four phases of Pleistocene glaciation on the Orjen massif, which have been U-series dated and correlated to MIS 12, MIS 6, MIS 5d-2 and the Younger Dryas. A series of meltwater channels delivered large volumes of coarse- and fine-grained limestone sediment from the glaciated uplands into the Bay of Kotor. At the southern margin of the Orjen massif, a series of large (>700 m long) alluvial fans has developed. Some of these extend offshore for up to 600 m. Lipci fan lies downstream of end moraines in the valley immediately above, which were formed by an extensive outlet glacier of the Orjen ice cap during MIS 12. The terrestrial deposits are part of the fan apex (50 m a.s.l.) that lies at the foot of a steep bedrock channel, but the majority of the fan is now more than 25 m below sea level. The terrestrial fan sediments are strongly cemented by multiple generations of calcite precipitates: the oldest U-series ages are infinite indicating that the fan is >350 ka in age. These ages are in agreement with alluvial sedimentary evidence and U-series ages from other fluvial units on Mount Orjen. The terrestrial portion of the Lipci fan surface contains several channels. These are well preserved due to cementation with calcium carbonate. Submarine imagery indicates that the now submerged portion of the fan also

  10. Landform evolution modeling of fine-grained sedimentation on alluvial fans on Mars and Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, A. M.; Howard, A. D.; Moore, J. M.; Swander, Z. J.; Fink, D.; Korup, O.; Hesse, P. P.; Singh, T.; Srivastava, P.

    2017-12-01

    Reconstructing how rivers respond to changes in runoff or sediment supply by incising or aggrading has been pivotal in gauging the role of the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) as a geomorphic driver in the Himalayas. Here we present new data on how the fluvial systems of the Lesser Himalaya of India has responded to late Quaternary climate change. Our study is based on new chronological data for fluvial aggradation and incision from the Donga alluvial fan and several reaches of the upper Alaknanda River, as well as a meta-analysis of previous work. Fluvial sediments in the Himalayas in general, and quartz from the region in particular, have been previously noted for a number of unsuitable OSL properties including large recuperation and the existence of unremovable feldspar signals, leading to controversial discussions with regard to the reliability of existing OSL chronologies in this region. In order to improve the applicability and validity of OSL in the Lesser Himalaya, we have tested and applied pulsed OSL signals (POSL) to quartz grains from alluvial terrace and fan sediments, and propose a new chronology of regional fluvial aggradation. For previously dated terraces and alluvial fan sections, our POSL ages are systematically older than previously reported OSL ages. These results suggest periods of aggradation in the Alaknanda and Dehradun Valleys mainly between 20 and 50 ka. This most likely reflects decreased stream power during periods of weakened monsoon. The concentration of in-situ cosmogenic beryllium-10 from fluvial bedrock surfaces was also used to infer bedrock surface exposure ages, which should inform about episodes of active fluvial erosion. Resulting exposure ages span between 1.3 and 9.0 ka, suggesting that strath terraces were exposed relatively recently, and incision was dominant through most of the Holocene. In combination, our results support a precipitation-driven climatic control on fluvial dynamics, which regulates the balance between stream

  11. Low-pass filtered continuum streambed and bedload sediment mass balance laws for an alluvial, gravel-bed stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeTemple, B.; Wilcock, P.

    2011-12-01

    In an alluvial, gravel-bed stream governed by a plane-bed bedload transport regime, the physicochemical properties, size distribution, and granular architecture of the sediment grains that constitute the streambed surface influence many hydrodynamic, geomorphic, chemical, and ecological processes. Consequently, the abilities to accurately characterize the morphology and model the morphodynamics of the streambed surface and its interaction with the bedload above and subsurface below are necessary for a more complete understanding of how sediment, flow, organisms, and biogeochemistry interact. We report on our progress in the bottom-up development of low-pass filtered continuum streambed and bedload sediment mass balance laws for an alluvial, gravel-bed stream. These balance laws are assembled in a four stage process. First, the stream sediment-water system is conceptually abstracted as a nested, multi-phase, multi-species, structured continuum. Second, the granular surface of an aggregate of sediment grains is mathematically defined. Third, an integral approach to mass balance, founded in the continuum theory of multiphase flow, is used to formulate primordial, differential, instantaneous, local, continuum, mass balance laws applicable at any material point within a gravel-bed stream. Fourth, area averaging and time-after-area averaging, employing planform, low-pass filtering expressed as correlation or convolution integrals and based on the spatial and temporal filtering techniques found in the fields of multiphase flow, porous media flow, and large eddy simulation of turbulent fluid flow, are applied to smooth the primordial equations while maximizing stratigraphic resolution and preserving the definitions of relevant morphodynamic surfaces. Our approach unifies, corrects, contextualizes, and generalizes prior efforts at developing stream sediment continuity equations, including the top-down derivations of the surface layer (or "active layer") approach of Hirano

  12. Nursery stock quality as an indicator of bottomland hardwood forest restoration success in the Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass F. Jacobs; Rosa C. Goodman; Emile S. Gardiner; K Frances Salifu; Ronald P. Overton; George Hernandez

    2012-01-01

    Seedling morphological quality standards are lacking for bottomland hardwood restoration plantings in the Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley, USA, which may contribute toward variable restoration success. We measured initial seedling morphology (shoot height, root collar diameter, number of first order lateral roots, fresh mass, and root volume), second year field...

  13. Investigation of groundwater-streamflow interactions in the Bega alluvial aquifer using tritium and stable isotope ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, D.J.M.; Thomas, M.; Russell, G.

    2001-01-01

    An isotope hydrology study of the Bega Valley groundwater system has been made. The investigation which focussed on environmental tritium and stable isotope ratios confirms that that the groundwater in the alluvial aquifer of the Bega Valley is sustainable at the current usage rate

  14. Distribution of technogenic radionuclides in alluvial deposits and fractions of soils in neighboring zone of Krasnoyarsk GKhK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linnik, V.G.; Volosov, A.G.; Korobova, E.M.; Borisov, A.P.; Potapov, V.N.; Surkov, V.V.; Borguis, A.P.; Braun, Dzh.; Alekseeva, T.A.

    2004-01-01

    Distribution of synthetic radionuclides using landscape-radiation profile of Berezovyj island. Difference in density of contamination deals with heterogeneous lithological composition of soil-forming rocks and so with different duration of flooding. Radionuclide distribution in alluvial deposits and soil fractions near Balchug village is considered, the role of thin fraction in radionuclides accumulation is determined [ru

  15. Effect of different levels of magnesium saturation on the extractability of native and applied zinc in red and alluvial soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deb, D.L.; Das, S.K.; Sachdev, Pamila

    1978-01-01

    The investigation showed that Mg saturation of soil has a beneficial effect on the extractibility of native and applied zinc in soil. The soils used in the investigation were alluvial soil from Delhi and red soil from Karnataka under upland and waterlogged conditions. Zinc was applied in the form of ZnSO 4 solution labelled with 65 Zn. (M.G.B.)

  16. The Temporal-Spatial Distribution of Shule River Alluvial Fan Units in China Based on SAR Data and OSL Dating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Zhang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Alluvial fans in arid and semi-arid regions can provide important evidence of geomorphic and climatic changes, which reveal the evolution of the regional tectonic activity and environment. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR remote sensing technology, which is sensitive to geomorphic features, plays an important role in quickly mapping alluvial fan units of different ages. In this paper, RADARSAT-2 (Canada’s C-band new-generation radar satellite and ALOS-PALSAR (Japan’s advanced land observing satellite, phased array type L-band SAR sensor data, acquired over the Shule River Alluvial Fan (SRAF, are used to extract backscattering coefficients, scattering mechanism-related information, and polarimetric characteristic parameters. The correlation between these SAR characteristic parameters and fan units of the SRAF of different ages was studied, and the spatial distribution of fan units, since the Late Pleistocene, was extracted based on the Maximum Likelihood classification method. The results prove that (1 some C-band SAR parameters can describe the geomorphic characteristics of alluvial fan units of different ages in the SRAF; (2 SAR data can be used to map the SRAF’s surface between the Late Pleistocene and the Holocene and to extract the spatial distribution of fan units; and (3 the time-spatial distribution of the SRAF can provide valuable information for tectonic and paleoenvironmental research of the study area.

  17. Neolithic Occupation of Svratka Alluvial Plain; Case Study from Brno-Přízřenice, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Parma, D.; Vejrostová, L.; Lisá, Lenka; Bajer, A.; Pacina, J.; Gottwald, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 2 (2015), s. 181-193 ISSN 1804-848X Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : alluvial zone * buried soils * prehistoric occupation * dark earth * geoarchaeology * micromorphology * grain size analysis * magnetic proxies Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology http://www.iansa.eu/papers/IANSA-2015-02-parma.pdf

  18. Temporal changes in the distribution of /sup 137/Cs in alluvial soils at Los Alamos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyhan, J.W.; Hakonson, T.E.; Miera, F.R. Jr.; Bostick, K.V.

    1978-05-01

    The alluvial soils of three liquid-effluent receiving areas at Los Alamos were sampled to determine /sup 137/Cs temporal distributional relationships. Soil radionuclide concentrations were determined as a function of soil depth and distance from the waste outfall, and discussed relative to runoff transport of /sup 137/Cs-contaminated alluvium. The inventories of soil /sup 137/Cs in various segments of each effluent-receiving area were calculated for two sampling periods and compared with amounts of /sup 137/Cs added to the canyons in the liquid wastes. The distribution patterns of soil cesium were compared with the waste-use history of the three study areas and the hydrologic characteristics of the canyons.

  19. Soil mycoflora of banana and cassava in peatland and alluvial soil in Bengkulu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUCIATMIH

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to discover the diversity and population of soil fungi, a study was carried out at banana (Musa paradisiaca and cassava (Manihot utilissima plants where both those plants planted in peatland and alluvial soil. Soil fungi were isolated using serial dilution plate method and they were incubated at both room temperature (27-28oC and 45oC. This process was replicated two times for each sample. The result indicated that from 4 soil samples, 24 genera of fungi representing 4 Ascomycotina, 15 Deuteromycotina, and 5 Zygomycotina were detected. The highest soil fungi population was found in cassava planted in peat land and incubated at room temperature (8.5 105 cfu/ g dry soil, while the lower soil fungi population came from banana plant that was planted in peat land and incubated at 45oC (7.1 103 cfu/g dry soil.

  20. Relating Hydrogeomorphic Attributes to Nutrient Uptake in Alluvial Streams of a Mountain Lake District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arp, C. D.; Baker, M. A.

    2005-05-01

    Stream form and hydrologic processes may indirectly drive nutrient uptake, however developing predictive relationships has been elusive. Problems in establishing such relationships may lie in the sets of streams analyzed, which often span diverse channel-sizes, geology, and regions, or are too geomorphically similar. We collected field data on stream geomorphology and hydrologic and nutrient transport processes using solute injections at 22 alluvial stream reaches in the Sawtooth Mountains, Idaho, USA. Many of these streams occur near lakes, which create contrasting fluvial form and functions that we hoped would produce a broad geomorphic dataset to compare to hyporheic and dead-zone transient storage and NO3 and PO4 spiraling metrics. Preliminary results suggest that storage zone residence time (Tsto) was best predicted by sediment D50, wood abundance (CWD), and discharge (r2=0.84, pnutrient cycling processes should be further considered and investigated.

  1. Fishes in paleochannels of the Lower Mississippi River alluvial valley: A national treasure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro E.

    2016-01-01

    Fluvial geomorphology of the alluvial valley of the Lower Mississippi River reveals a fascinating history. A prominent occupant of the valley was the Ohio River, estimated to have flowed 25,000 years ago over western Tennessee and Mississippi to join the Mississippi River north of Baton Rouge, Louisiana, 750–800 km south of the present confluence. Over time, shifts in the Mississippi and Ohio rivers toward their contemporary positions have left a legacy of abandoned paleochannels supportive of unique fish assemblages. Relative to channels abandoned in the last 500 years, paleochannels exhibit harsher environmental conditions characteristic of hypereutrophic lakes and support tolerant fish assemblages. Considering their ecological, geological, and historical importance, coupled with their primordial scenery, the hundreds of paleochannels in the valley represent a national treasure. Altogether, these waterscapes are endangered by human activities and would benefit from the conservation attention afforded to our national parks and wildlife refuges.

  2. Effect of rice straw on the degradation of 14C-parathion in flooded alluvial soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajaram, K.P.; Sethunathan, N.

    1975-01-01

    Organic matter, either native or applied, influences the persistence of soil-applied pesticides. The effect of rice straw on the metabolism of parathion in an alluvial soil under flooded condition was investigated. Residues were extracted from the soil at periodic intervals after application of ethoxy 14 C-parathion to rice straw amended and unamended soil employing chloroform-diethyl ether. The radioactivity in the solvent and water fractions were estimated. The activity in the solvent phase decreased more rapidly in the rice straw amended than in unamended soil indicating enhanced degradation of parathion by rice straw amendment. The autoradiograph of thin layer chromatograms of solvent phase revealed the rapid formation of aminoparathion and an unidentified metabolite possessing P-S bond and ethoxy label in amended soil within 3 days. A polar unidentified metabolite was detected in the water phase of the unamended soil at 14 days. (author)

  3. Radiotracer technique to study movement of pollutants in an alluvial aquifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, U.P.; Sharma, Suman

    2001-01-01

    Radioisotopes are being used as tracers in many research areas. Their use in determination of groundwater flow velocity is well known. They also provide insight into the understanding the hydrological systems. In this paper, pollutant movement in an alluvial aquifer in the Ganga basin near Kanpur is evaluated using radiotracer method. Radioactive 82 Br in the form of aqueous ammonium bromide was used as a tracer to measure filtration velocity of the groundwater in the vicinity of an effluent storage lagoon of a fertilizer plant at Kanpur, U.P. Point dilution technique in a single well was applied. Filtration velocity so obtained provided relevant information about the pollutant movement in the groundwater. (author)

  4. Using oblique digital photography for alluvial sandbar monitoring and low-cost change detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tusso, Robert B.; Buscombe, Daniel D.; Grams, Paul E.

    2015-01-01

    The maintenance of alluvial sandbars is a longstanding management interest along the Colorado River in Grand Canyon. Resource managers are interested in both the long-term trend in sandbar condition and the short-term response to management actions, such as intentional controlled floods released from Glen Canyon Dam. Long-term monitoring is accomplished at a range of scales, by a combination of annual topographic survey at selected sites, daily collection of images from those sites using novel, autonomously operating, digital camera systems (hereafter referred to as 'remote cameras'), and quadrennial remote sensing of sandbars canyonwide. In this paper, we present results from the remote camera images for daily changes in sandbar topography.

  5. Cosmogenic helium and volatile-rich fluid in Sierra leone alluvial diamonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConville, P.; Reynolds, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    Pursuant to the discovery elsewhere of cosmogenic 10 Be in alluvial diamond fragments from Zaire, noble gas measurements were made on two identical splits of a finely powdered, harshly acid-washed sample derived from selected (for clarity) fragments of a single alluvial diamond from Sierra Leone (sample LJA → L4 and L5). Essentially identical results were obtained for both splits. Isotopic ratios for Ar, Kr, and Xe were atmospheric and their elemental abundances were high relative to published data, owing to shock implantation in the crushing as verified in a supplementary experiment. No neon was detected above blank level. 3 He was exceptionally abundant, 4 He exceptionally depleted, possibly from the acid wash, and the ratio 3 He/ 4 He almost unprecedentedly high at an R/R a value of 246 ± 16. The results support the hypothesis that excess 3 He in diamonds is cosmogenic, although a cosmic-ray exposure of 5, 35, or (impossibly) 152 Ma for cyclic gardening of the sample to a maximum depth of 0, 4.6 m, or 20 m, respectively, is required. Troublesome for the cosmogenic hypothesis is a sample from very deep in the Finsch mine, South Africa, found by Zadnik et al (1987) to have an R/R a value of 1,000. This paper includes histograms of noble gas data published prior to mid-1988 for diamonds of known provenance. The Sierra Leone diamond studied in the supplementary experiment belongs to a distinct population of 40* Ar-rich diamonds consisting mostly of cubic diamonds for Zaire

  6. Hydrogeochemistry of Groundwater and Arsenic Adsorption Characteristics of Subsurface Sediments in an Alluvial Plain, SW Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libing Liao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Many studies were conducted to investigate arsenic mobilization in different alluvial plains worldwide. However, due to the unique endemic disease associated with arsenic (As contamination in Taiwan, a recent research was re-initiated to understand the transport behavior of arsenic in a localized alluvial plain. A comprehensive approach towards arsenic mobility, binding, and chemical speciation was applied to correlate groundwater hydrogeochemistry with parameters of the sediments that affected the As fate and transport. The groundwater belongs to a Na-Ca-HCO3 type with moderate reducing to oxidizing conditions (redox potential = −192 to 8 mV. Groundwater As concentration in the region ranged from 8.89 to 1131 μg/L with a mean of 343 ± 297 μg/L, while the As content in the core sediments varied from 0.80 to 22.8 mg/kg with a mean of 9.9 ± 6.2 mg/kg. A significant correlation was found between As and Fe, Mn, or organic matter, as well as other elements such as Ni, Cu, Zn, and Co in the core sediments. Sequential extraction analysis indicated that the organic matter and Fe/Mn oxyhydroxides were the major binding pools of As. Batch adsorption experiments showed that the sediments had slightly higher affinity for As(III than for As(V under near neutral pH conditions and the As adsorption capacity increased as the contents of Fe oxyhydroxides as well as the organic matter increased.

  7. Bicarbonate Impact on U(VI) Bioreduction in a Shallow Alluvial Aquifer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Philip E.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Davis, James A.; Fox, Patricia M.; Wilkins, Michael J.; Yabusaki, Steven B.; Fang, Yilin; Waichler, Scott R.; Berman, Elena S.; Gupta, Manish; Chandler, Darrell P.; Murray, Christopher J.; Peacock, Aaron D.; Giloteaux, L.; Handley, Kim M.; Lovley, Derek R.; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2015-02-01

    Field-scale biostimulation and desorption tracer experiments conducted in a uranium (U) contaminated, shallow alluvial aquifer have provided insight into the coupling of microbiology, biogeochemistry, and hydrogeology that control U mobility in the subsurface. Initial experiments successfully tested the concept that Fe-reducing bacteria such as Geobacter sp. could enzymatically reduce soluble U(VI) to insoluble U(IV) during in situ electron donor amendment (Anderson et al. 2003, Williams et al. 2011). In parallel, in situ desorption tracer tests using bicarbonate amendment demonstrated rate-limited U(VI) desorption (Fox et al. 2012). These results and prior laboratory studies underscored the importance of enzymatic U(VI)-reduction and suggested the ability to combine desorption and bioreduction of U(VI). Here we report the results of a new field experiment in which bicarbonate-promoted uranium desorption and acetate amendment were combined and compared to an acetate amendment-only experiment in the same experimental plot. Results confirm that bicarbonate amendment to alluvial aquifer desorbs U(VI) and increases the abundance of Ca-uranyl-carbonato complexes. At the same time, that the rate of acetate-promoted enzymatic U(VI) reduction was greater in the presence of added bicarbonate in spite of the increased dominance of Ca-uranyl-carbonato aqueous complexes. A model-simulated peak rate of U(VI) reduction was ~3.8 times higher during acetate-bicarbonate treatment than under acetate-only conditions. Lack of consistent differences in microbial community structure between acetate-bicarbonate and acetate-only treatments suggest that a significantly higher rate of U(VI) reduction the bicarbonate-impacted sediment may be due to a higher intrinsic rate of microbial reduction induced by elevated concentrations of the bicarbonate oxyanion. The findings indicate that bicarbonate amendment may be useful in improving the engineered bioremediation of uranium in aquifers.

  8. Bicarbonate impact on U(VI) bioreduction in a shallow alluvial aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Philip E.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Davis, James A.; Fox, Patricia M.; Wilkins, Michael J.; Yabusaki, Steven B.; Fang, Yilin; Waichler, Scott R.; Berman, Elena S. F.; Gupta, Manish; Chandler, Darrell P.; Murray, Chris; Peacock, Aaron D.; Giloteaux, Ludovic; Handley, Kim M.; Lovley, Derek R.; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2015-02-01

    Field-scale biostimulation and desorption tracer experiments conducted in a uranium (U) contaminated, shallow alluvial aquifer have provided insight into the coupling of microbiology, biogeochemistry, and hydrogeology that control U mobility in the subsurface. Initial experiments successfully tested the concept that Fe-reducing bacteria such as Geobacter sp. could enzymatically reduce soluble U(VI) to insoluble U(IV) during in situ electron donor amendment (Anderson et al., 2003; Williams et al., 2011). In parallel, in situ desorption tracer tests using bicarbonate amendment demonstrated rate-limited U(VI) desorption (Fox et al., 2012). These results and prior laboratory studies underscored the importance of enzymatic U(VI)-reduction and suggested the ability to combine desorption and bioreduction of U(VI). Here we report the results of a new field experiment in which bicarbonate-promoted uranium desorption and acetate amendment were combined and compared to an acetate amendment-only experiment in the same experimental plot. Results confirm that bicarbonate amendment to alluvial aquifer sediments desorbs U(VI) and increases the abundance of Ca-uranyl-carbonato complexes. At the same time, the rate of acetate-promoted enzymatic U(VI) reduction was greater in the presence of added bicarbonate in spite of the increased dominance of Ca-uranyl-carbonato aqueous complexes. A model-simulated peak rate of U(VI) reduction was ∼3.8 times higher during acetate-bicarbonate treatment than under acetate-only conditions. Lack of consistent differences in microbial community structure between acetate-bicarbonate and acetate-only treatments suggest that a significantly higher rate of U(VI) reduction in the bicarbonate-impacted sediment may be due to a higher intrinsic rate of microbial reduction induced by elevated concentrations of the bicarbonate oxyanion. The findings indicate that bicarbonate amendment may be useful in improving the engineered bioremediation of uranium in

  9. Preliminary Groundwater Simulations To Compare Different Reconstruction Methods of 3-d Alluvial Heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teles, V.; de Marsily, G.; Delay, F.; Perrier, E.

    Alluvial floodplains are extremely heterogeneous aquifers, whose three-dimensional structures are quite difficult to model. In general, when representing such structures, the medium heterogeneity is modeled with classical geostatistical or Boolean meth- ods. Another approach, still in its infancy, is called the genetic method because it simulates the generation of the medium by reproducing sedimentary processes. We developed a new genetic model to obtain a realistic three-dimensional image of allu- vial media. It does not simulate the hydrodynamics of sedimentation but uses semi- empirical and statistical rules to roughly reproduce fluvial deposition and erosion. The main processes, either at the stream scale or at the plain scale, are modeled by simple rules applied to "sediment" entities or to conceptual "erosion" entities. The model was applied to a several kilometer long portion of the Aube River floodplain (France) and reproduced the deposition and erosion cycles that occurred during the inferred climate periods (15 000 BP to present). A three-dimensional image of the aquifer was gener- ated, by extrapolating the two-dimensional information collected on a cross-section of the floodplain. Unlike geostatistical methods, this extrapolation does not use a statis- tical spatial analysis of the data, but a genetic analysis, which leads to a more realistic structure. Groundwater flow and transport simulations in the alluvium were carried out with a three-dimensional flow code or simulator (MODFLOW), using different rep- resentations of the alluvial reservoir of the Aube River floodplain: first an equivalent homogeneous medium, and then different heterogeneous media built either with the traditional geostatistical approach simulating the permeability distribution, or with the new genetic model presented here simulating sediment facies. In the latter case, each deposited entity of a given lithology was assigned a constant hydraulic conductivity value. Results of these

  10. The Importance of Bank Storage in Supplying Baseflow to Rivers Flowing Through Compartmentalized, Alluvial Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Kimberly A.; Proffitt, Tiffany; Rowley, Taylor; Knappett, Peter S. K.; Montiel, Daniel; Dimova, Natasha; Tebo, Daniel; Miller, Gretchen R.

    2017-12-01

    As water grows scarcer in semiarid and arid regions around the world, new tools are needed to quantify fluxes of water and chemicals between aquifers and rivers. In this study, we quantify the volumetric flux of subsurface water to a 24 km reach of the Brazos River, a lowland river that meanders through the Brazos River Alluvium Aquifer (BRAA), with 8 months of high-frequency differential gaging measurements using fixed gaging stations. Subsurface discharge sources were determined using natural tracers and End-Member Mixing Analysis (EMMA). During a 4 month river stage recession following a high stage event, subsurface discharge decreased from 50 m3/s to 0, releasing a total of 1.0 × 108 m3 of water. Subsurface discharge dried up even as the groundwater table at two locations in the BRAA located 300-500 m from the river remained ˜4 m higher than the river stage. Less than 4% of the water discharged from the subsurface during the prolonged recession period resembled the chemical fingerprint of the alluvial aquifer. Instead, the chemistry of this discharged water closely resembled high stage "event" river water. Together, these findings suggest that the river is well connected to rechargeable bank storage reservoirs but disconnected from the broader alluvial aquifer. The average width of discrete bank storage zones on each side of the river, identified with Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), was approximately 1.5 km. In such highly compartmentalized aquifers, groundwater pumping is unlikely to impact the exchange between the river and the alluvium.

  11. Determinism in fish assemblages of floodplain lakes of the vastly disturbed Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, L.E.; Lucas, G.M.

    2004-01-01

    The Mississippi Alluvial Valley between southern Illinois and southern Louisiana contains hundreds of floodplain lakes, most of which have been adversely affected by landscape modifications used to control flooding and support agriculture. We examined fish assemblages in lakes of this region to determine whether deterministic patterns developed in relation to prominent abiotic lake characteristics and to explore whether relevant abiotic factors could be linked to specific assemblage structuring mechanisms. The distributions of 14 taxa in 29 lakes were governed primarily by two gradients that contrasted assemblages in terms of lake area, lake elongation, and water clarity. The knowledge of whether a lake was clear or turbid, large or small, and long or short helped determine fish assemblage characteristics. Abiotic factors influenced fish assemblage structures, plausibly through limitations on foraging and physiological tolerances. Determinism in assemblage organization of floodplain lakes relative to recurrence in physicochemical features has been documented for unaltered rivers. Whereas the Mississippi Alluvial Valley has been subjected to vast anthropogenic disturbances and is not a fully functional floodplain river, fish assemblages in its floodplain lakes remain deterministic and organized by the underlying factors that also dictate assemblages in unaltered rivers. In advanced stages of lake aging, fish assemblages in these lakes are expected to largely include species that thrive in turbid, shallow systems with few predators and low oxygen concentrations. The observed patterns related to physical characteristics of these lakes suggest three general conservation foci, including (1) watershed management to control erosion, (2) removal of sediments or increases in water level to alleviate depth reductions and derived detriments to water physicochemistry, and (3) management of fish populations through stockings, removals, and harvest regulations.

  12. Benzene dynamics and biodegradation in alluvial aquifers affected by river fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batlle-Aguilar, J; Morasch, B; Hunkeler, D; Brouyère, S

    2014-01-01

    The spatial distribution and temporal dynamics of a benzene plume in an alluvial aquifer strongly affected by river fluctuations was studied. Benzene concentrations, aquifer geochemistry datasets, past river morphology, and benzene degradation rates estimated in situ using stable carbon isotope enrichment were analyzed in concert with aquifer heterogeneity and river fluctuations. Geochemistry data demonstrated that benzene biodegradation was on-going under sulfate reducing conditions. Long-term monitoring of hydraulic heads and characterization of the alluvial aquifer formed the basis of a detailed modeled image of aquifer heterogeneity. Hydraulic conductivity was found to strongly correlate with benzene degradation, indicating that low hydraulic conductivity areas are capable of sustaining benzene anaerobic biodegradation provided the electron acceptor (SO4 (2-) ) does not become rate limiting. Modeling results demonstrated that the groundwater flux direction is reversed on annual basis when the river level rises up to 2 m, thereby forcing the infiltration of oxygenated surface water into the aquifer. The mobilization state of metal trace elements such as Zn, Cd, and As present in the aquifer predominantly depended on the strong potential gradient within the plume. However, infiltration of oxygenated water was found to trigger a change from strongly reducing to oxic conditions near the river, causing mobilization of previously immobile metal species and vice versa. MNA appears to be an appropriate remediation strategy in this type of dynamic environment provided that aquifer characterization and targeted monitoring of redox conditions are adequate and electron acceptors remain available until concentrations of toxic compounds reduce to acceptable levels. © 2013, National Ground Water Association.

  13. Heat tracer test in an alluvial aquifer: Field experiment and inverse modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepikova, Maria; Wildemeersch, Samuel; Hermans, Thomas; Jamin, Pierre; Orban, Philippe; Nguyen, Frédéric; Brouyère, Serge; Dassargues, Alain

    2016-09-01

    Using heat as an active tracer for aquifer characterization is a topic of increasing interest. In this study, we investigate the potential of using heat tracer tests for characterization of a shallow alluvial aquifer. A thermal tracer test was conducted in the alluvial aquifer of the Meuse River, Belgium. The tracing experiment consisted in simultaneously injecting heated water and a dye tracer in an injection well and monitoring the evolution of groundwater temperature and tracer concentration in the pumping well and in measurement intervals. To get insights in the 3D characteristics of the heat transport mechanisms, temperature data from a large number of observation wells closely spaced along three transects were used. Temperature breakthrough curves in observation wells are contrasted with what would be expected in an ideal layered aquifer. They reveal strongly unequal lateral and vertical components of the transport mechanisms. The observed complex behavior of the heat plume is explained by the groundwater flow gradient on the site and heterogeneities in the hydraulic conductivity field. Moreover, due to high injection temperatures during the field experiment a temperature-induced fluid density effect on heat transport occurred. By using a flow and heat transport numerical model with variable density coupled with a pilot point approach for inversion of the hydraulic conductivity field, the main preferential flow paths were delineated. The successful application of a field heat tracer test at this site suggests that heat tracer tests is a promising approach to image hydraulic conductivity field. This methodology could be applied in aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) projects for assessing future efficiency that is strongly linked to the hydraulic conductivity variability in the considered aquifer.

  14. Bottomland hardwood establishment and avian colonization of reforested sites in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R.R.; Twedt, D.J.; Fredrickson, L.H.; King, S.L.; Kaminski, R.M.

    2005-01-01

    Reforestation of bottomland hardwood sites in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley has markedly increased in recent years, primarily due to financial incentive programs such as the Wetland Reserve Program, Partners for Wildlife Program, and state and private conservation programs. An avian conservation plan for the Mississippi Alluvial Valley proposes returning a substantial area of cropland to forested wetlands. Understanding how birds colonize reforested sites is important to assess the effectiveness of avian conservation. We evaluated establishment of woody species and assessed bird colonization on 89 reforested sites. These reforested sites were primarily planted with heavy-seeded oaks (Quercus spp.) and pecans (Carya illinoensis). Natural invasion of light-seeded species was expected to diversify these forests for wildlife and sustainable timber harvest. Planted tree species averaged 397 + 36 stems/ha-1, whereas naturally invading trees averaged 1675 + 241 stems/ha. However, naturally invading trees were shorter than planted trees and most natural invasion occurred <100 m from an existing forested edge. Even so, planted trees were relatively slow to develop vertical structure, especially when compared with tree species planted and managed for pulpwood production. Slow development of vertical structure resulted in grassland bird species, particularly dickcissel (Spiza americana) and red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), being the dominant avian colonizers for the first 7 years post-planting. High priority bird species (as defined by Partners in Flight), such as prothonotary warbler (Protonotaria citrea) and wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina), were not frequently detected until stands were 15 years old. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed tree height had the greatest influence on the bird communities colonizing reforested sites. Because colonization by forest birds is dependent on tree height, we recommend inclusion of at least one fast-growing tree

  15. An alluvial record of El Niño events from northern coastal Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Lisa E.

    1987-12-01

    Overbank flood deposits of northern coastal Peru provide the potential for the development of a late Quaternary chronology of El Niño events. Alluvial deposits from the 1982-1983 El Niño event are the basis for establishing a type El Niño deposit. Sedimentary structures suggesting depositional processes range from sheet flows to debris flows, with sheet flood deposits being the most common. The 1982-1983 deposits are characterized by a 50- to 100-cm- thick basal gravel, overlain by a 10- to 100-cm-thick sand bed, grading into a 1- to 10-cm-thick silty sand bed and capped by a very thin layer of silt or clay. The surface of the deposit commonly displays the original shear flow lines crosscut by postdepositional mud cracks and footprints (human and animal). Stacked sequences of flood deposits are present in Pleistocene and Holocene alluvial fill, suggesting that El Niño type events likely occurred throughout the late Quaternary. A relative chronology of the deposits is developed based on terrace and soil stratigraphy and on the degree of preservation of surficial features. A minimum of 15 El Niño events occurred during the Holocene; a minimum of 21 events occurred during the late Pleistocene. Timing of the Holocene events is bracketed by isochrons derived from the archaeologic stratigraphy. Corrected radiocarbon ages from included detrital wood provide the following absolute dates for El Niño events: 1720 ± 60 A.D., 1460 ± 20 A.D., 1380 ± 140 A.D. (error overlaps with the A.D. 1460 event; these may represent a single event), and 1230 ± 60 B.C.

  16. Determination of Land Use/ Land Cover Changes in Igneada Alluvial (Longos) Forest Ecosystem, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bektas Balcik, F.

    2012-12-01

    Alluvial (Longos) forests are one of the most fragile and threatened ecosystems in the world. Typically, these types of ecosystems have high biological diversity, high productivity, and high habitat dynamism. In this study, Igneada, Kirklareli was selected as study area. The region, lies between latitudes 41° 46' N and 41° 59' N and stretches between longitudes 27° 50' E and 28° 02' E and it covers approximately 24000 (ha). Igneada Longos ecosystems include mixed forests, streams, flooded (alluvial) forests, marshes, wetlands, lakes and coastal sand dunes with different types of flora and fauna. Igneada was classified by Conservation International as one of the world's top 122 Important Plant Areas, and 185 Important Bird Areas. These types of wild forest in other parts of Turkey and in Europe have been damaged due to anthropogenic effects. Remote sensing is very effective tool to monitor these types of sensitive regions for sustainable management. In this study, 1984 and 2011 dated Landsat 5 TM data were used to determine land cover/land use change detection of the selected region by using six vegetation indices such as Tasseled Cap index of greenness (TCG), brightness (TCB), and wetness (TCW), ratios of near-infrared to red image (RVI), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and soil-adjusted vegetation index (SAVI). Geometric and radiometric corrections were applied in image pre-processing step. Selective Principle Component Analysis (PCA) change detection method was applied to the selected vegetation index imagery to generate change imagery for extracting the changed features between the year of 1984 and 2011. Accuracy assessment was applied based on error matrix by calculating overall accuracy and Kappa statistics.

  17. Residence times and alluvial architecture of a sediment superslug in response to different flow regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, John A.

    2017-01-01

    A superslug was deposited in a basin in the Colorado Front Range Mountains as a consequence of an extreme flood following a wildfire disturbance in 1996. The subsequent evolution of this superslug was measured by repeat topographic surveys (31 surveys from 1996 through 2014) of 18 cross sections approximately uniformly spaced over 1500 m immediately above the basin outlet. These surveys allowed the identification within the superslug of chronostratigraphic units deposited and eroded by different geomorphic processes in response to different flow regimes.Over the time period of the study, the superslug went through aggradation, incision, and stabilization phases that were controlled by a shift in geomorphic processes from generally short-duration, episodic, large-magnitude floods that deposited new chronostratigraphic units to long-duration processes that eroded units. These phases were not contemporaneous at each channel cross section, which resulted in a complex response that preserved different chronostratigraphic units at each channel cross section having, in general, two dominant types of alluvial architecture—laminar and fragmented. Age and transit-time distributions for these two alluvial architectures evolved with time since the extreme flood. Because of the complex shape of the distributions they were best modeled by two-parameter Weibull functions. The Weibull scale parameter approximated the median age of the distributions, and the Weibull shape parameter generally had a linear relation that increased with time since the extreme flood. Additional results indicated that deposition of new chronostratigraphic units can be represented by a power-law frequency distribution, and that the erosion of units decreases with depth of burial to a limiting depth. These relations can be used to model other situations with different flow regimes where vertical aggradation and incision are dominant processes, to predict the residence time of possible contaminated

  18. Residence times and alluvial architecture of a sediment superslug in response to different flow regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, John A.

    2017-10-01

    A superslug was deposited in a basin in the Colorado Front Range Mountains as a consequence of an extreme flood following a wildfire disturbance in 1996. The subsequent evolution of this superslug was measured by repeat topographic surveys (31 surveys from 1996 through 2014) of 18 cross sections approximately uniformly spaced over 1500 m immediately above the basin outlet. These surveys allowed the identification within the superslug of chronostratigraphic units deposited and eroded by different geomorphic processes in response to different flow regimes. Over the time period of the study, the superslug went through aggradation, incision, and stabilization phases that were controlled by a shift in geomorphic processes from generally short-duration, episodic, large-magnitude floods that deposited new chronostratigraphic units to long-duration processes that eroded units. These phases were not contemporaneous at each channel cross section, which resulted in a complex response that preserved different chronostratigraphic units at each channel cross section having, in general, two dominant types of alluvial architecture-laminar and fragmented. Age and transit-time distributions for these two alluvial architectures evolved with time since the extreme flood. Because of the complex shape of the distributions they were best modeled by two-parameter Weibull functions. The Weibull scale parameter approximated the median age of the distributions, and the Weibull shape parameter generally had a linear relation that increased with time since the extreme flood. Additional results indicated that deposition of new chronostratigraphic units can be represented by a power-law frequency distribution, and that the erosion of units decreases with depth of burial to a limiting depth. These relations can be used to model other situations with different flow regimes where vertical aggradation and incision are dominant processes, to predict the residence time of possible contaminated

  19. Hydrogeology and water quality in the Snake River alluvial aquifer at Jackson Hole Airport, Jackson, Wyoming, water years 2011 and 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Peter R.

    2013-01-01

    advisories; however, reduction and oxidation (redox) measurements indicate oxygen-poor water in many of the wells. Gasoline-range organics, three volatile organic compounds, and triazoles were detected in some groundwater samples. The quality of groundwater in the alluvial aquifer generally was suitable for domestic and other uses; however, dissolved iron and manganese were detected in samples from many of the monitor wells at concentrations exceeding U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary maximum contaminant levels. Iron and manganese likely are both natural components of the geologic materials in the area and may have become mobilized in the aquifer because of redox processes. Additionally, measurements of dissolved-oxygen concentrations and analyses of major ions and nutrients indicate reducing conditions exist at 7 of the 10 wells sampled. Measurements of dissolved-oxygen concentrations (less than 0.1 to 9 milligrams per liter) indicated some variability in the oxygen content of the aquifer. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations in samples from 3 of the 10 wells indicated oxic conditions in the aquifer, whereas low dissolved-oxygen concentrations (less than 1 milligram per liter) in samples from 7 wells indicated anoxic conditions. Nutrients were present in low concentrations in all samples collected. Nitrate plus nitrite was detected in samples from 6 of the 10 monitored wells, whereas dissolved ammonia was detected in small concentrations in 8 of the 10 monitored wells. Dissolved organic carbon concentrations generally were low. At least one dissolved organic carbon concentration was quantified by the laboratory in samples from all 10 wells; one of the concentrations was an order of magnitude higher than other detected dissolved organic carbon concentrations, and slightly exceeded the estimated range for natural groundwater. Samples were collected for analyses of dissolved gases, and field analyses of ferrous iron, hydrogen sulfide, and low-level dissolved oxygen

  20. by recycled subirrigational supply of plant growth retardants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... an ebb and flow system on the growth and flowering of kalanchoe cultivar 'Gold Strike' was examined. Plants potted in 10 cm .... photoperiod during the first six weeks after pinching. .... stage and adverse influences on overall growth of the plants. ..... retardants on the growth and flowering in poinsettia. RDA.

  1. Preliminary results of chronostratigraphic field work, OSL-dating and morphogenetic reconstruction of an alluvial apron at Alborz southern foothill, Damghan basin, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büdel, Christian; Fuchs, Markus; Majid Padashi, Seyed; Baumhauer, Roland

    2014-05-01

    Here we present preliminary results of a chronostratigraphic study of an alluvial fan in the Damghan Basin, northern Iran. The basin sediments date back to the Mio- and Pliocene and therefore represent the starting point of alluvial fan aggradation. Today, the still active alluvial fans prograde from the Albors Mountain ranges and sit on the older sediment bodies. In this study, our focus is on the late Pleistocene to Holocene alluvial fan sedimentation history. The upper stratigraphy of the alluvial fans and intercalated lake deposits is characterized by six individual layers of gravels and fines, representing six different stratigraphic units. These units are described and classified by detailed geomorphological and stratigraphic mapping. To establish an alluvial fan chronology, six profiles were sampled for OSL dating. As expected, due to the high-energy transport system of alluvial fan aggradation in semi-desert environments, OSL dating of these sediments is challenging due to the problem of insufficient bleaching. Consequently, most of the samples are interpreted as maximum ages. However, the measurements show a consistent internal age structure and the overall OSL-based chronology is in agreement with the age model derived from our geomorphological analysis. As a first interpretation, based on surveyed geomorphological features and chronological analysis, we could identify seven morphodynamic phases, leading to a genetic model of alluvial fan aggradation. The oldest Pleistocene age estimate is derived from a former lake terrace. The following ages represent ongoing lake sediment deposition and the development of a proximal and mid-fan gravel cover. After the youngest lake deposits were accumulated within the Holocene, the lake starts to retreat and small alluvial fans are filling up the former lake bottom. This last sedimentation phase can be divided in at least two sub-phases, probably coupled to a lateral shifting of the active depositional lobe and to the

  2. Recharge processes drive sulfate reduction in an alluvial aquifer contaminated with landfill leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, M.A.; Cozzarelli, I.M.; Christenson, S.C.

    2006-01-01

    Natural attenuation of contaminants in groundwater depends on an adequate supply of electron acceptors to stimulate biodegradation. In an alluvial aquifer contaminated with leachate from an unlined municipal landfill, the mechanism of recharge infiltration was investigated as a source of electron acceptors. Water samples were collected monthly at closely spaced intervals in the top 2 m of the saturated zone from a leachate-contaminated well and an uncontaminated well, and analyzed for ??18O, ??2H, non-volatile dissolved organic carbon (NVDOC), SO42-, NO3- and Cl-. Monthly recharge amounts were quantified using the offset of the ??18O or ??2H from the local meteoric water line as a parameter to distinguish water types, as evaporation and methanogenesis caused isotopic enrichment in waters from different sources. Presence of dissolved SO42- in the top 1 to 2??m of the saturated zone was associated with recharge; SO42- averaged 2.2??mM, with maximum concentrations of 15??mM. Nitrate was observed near the water table at the contaminated site at concentrations up to 4.6??mM. Temporal monitoring of ??2H and SO42- showed that vertical transport of recharge carried SO42- to depths up to 1.75??m below the water table, supplying an additional electron acceptor to the predominantly methanogenic leachate plume. Measurements of ??34S in SO42- indicated both SO42- reduction and sulfide oxidation were occurring in the aquifer. Depth-integrated net SO42- reduction rates, calculated using the natural Cl- gradient as a conservative tracer, ranged from 7.5 ?? 10- 3 to 0.61??mM??d- 1 (over various depth intervals from 0.45 to 1.75??m). Sulfate reduction occurred at both the contaminated and uncontaminated sites; however, median SO42- reduction rates were higher at the contaminated site. Although estimated SO42- reduction rates are relatively high, significant decreases in NVDOC were not observed at the contaminated site. Organic compounds more labile than the leachate NVDOC may be

  3. Recharge processes drive sulfate reduction in an alluvial aquifer contaminated with landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, Martha A; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M; Christenson, Scott C

    2006-08-10

    Natural attenuation of contaminants in groundwater depends on an adequate supply of electron acceptors to stimulate biodegradation. In an alluvial aquifer contaminated with leachate from an unlined municipal landfill, the mechanism of recharge infiltration was investigated as a source of electron acceptors. Water samples were collected monthly at closely spaced intervals in the top 2 m of the saturated zone from a leachate-contaminated well and an uncontaminated well, and analyzed for delta(18)O, delta(2)H, non-volatile dissolved organic carbon (NVDOC), SO(4)(2-), NO(3)(-) and Cl(-). Monthly recharge amounts were quantified using the offset of the delta(18)O or delta(2)H from the local meteoric water line as a parameter to distinguish water types, as evaporation and methanogenesis caused isotopic enrichment in waters from different sources. Presence of dissolved SO(4)(2-) in the top 1 to 2 m of the saturated zone was associated with recharge; SO(4)(2-) averaged 2.2 mM, with maximum concentrations of 15 mM. Nitrate was observed near the water table at the contaminated site at concentrations up to 4.6 mM. Temporal monitoring of delta(2)H and SO(4)(2-) showed that vertical transport of recharge carried SO(4)(2-) to depths up to 1.75 m below the water table, supplying an additional electron acceptor to the predominantly methanogenic leachate plume. Measurements of delta(34)S in SO(4)(2-) indicated both SO(4)(2-) reduction and sulfide oxidation were occurring in the aquifer. Depth-integrated net SO(4)(2-) reduction rates, calculated using the natural Cl(-) gradient as a conservative tracer, ranged from 7.5x10(-3) to 0.61 mM.d(-1) (over various depth intervals from 0.45 to 1.75 m). Sulfate reduction occurred at both the contaminated and uncontaminated sites; however, median SO(4)(2-) reduction rates were higher at the contaminated site. Although estimated SO(4)(2-) reduction rates are relatively high, significant decreases in NVDOC were not observed at the contaminated

  4. Groundwater recharge and agricultural contamination in alluvial fan of Eastern Kofu basin, JAPAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, T.

    2009-12-01

    Agriculture has significant effects on the rate and composition of groundwater recharge. The chemical loading into groundwater have been dominated by the constituents derived directly or indirectly from agricultural practices and additives. The contamination of groundwater with nitrate is a major public health and environmental concern around the world. The inorganic constituents like, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, SO42-, Cl- and variety of other minor elements of groundwater are often used as agricultural additives; and the natural occurrence of these elements are dominated by the agricultural sources. A recent study has reported that Kofu basin groundwater aquifer is contaminated by nitrate from agricultural areas because of the fertilizer application for the orchard (Kazama and Yoneyama, 2002; Sakamoto et al., 1997, Nakamura et al., 2007). The water-oxygen and hydrogen stable isotope (δ18O and δD) and nitrate-nitrogen stable isotope (δ15N) of groundwater, river water and precipitation samples were investigated to identify the source of groundwater and nitrate nitrogen contamination in groundwater in the Fuefukigawa and Hikawa_Kanegawa alluvial fans in Kofu basin. The plot of δD versus δ18O values of groundwater, river water and precipitation samples suggest that the groundwater is a mixture of precipitation and river water. And nitrate-nitrogen isotope values have suggested the nitrate contamination of groundwater is from agricultural area. The study revealed positive correlation between groundwater δ18O values and NO3-, Cl-, SO42-, Ca2+, Mg2+ concentration, which shows the agricultural contamination is carried by the recharge of groundwater from precipitation in alluvial fan. Whereas, NO3-, Cl-, SO42-, Ca2+, Mg2+ are diluted by the river water recharges. This study showed the quality of groundwater is resulted from the mixing of water from the different source during the groundwater recharge in the study area. References Kazama F, Yoneyama M (2002) Nitrogen generation

  5. Mars analogue alluvial fans along the Hilina Pali fault system, Island of Hawaíi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, A. M.; Craddock, R. A.

    2016-12-01

    Alluvial fans across the martian surface act as a testament to the planet's wetter past, but the magnitude and duration of runoff events and their formative environment remain poorly constrained. Here we describe the geomorphology and interpreted formative sedimentary processes of a series of coarse grained alluvial fans along the Hilina Pali fault system at the south end of the Island of Hawaíi. The Hilina Pali is a 500m fault scarp similar in slope to the interior of a crater rim, the preferential location for fan formation on Mars. Channels feeding the fans drain the Káū Desert on the leeward side of the Kilauea volcano. These channels take advantage of lava tubes and depressions in lava flows, and subsequent lava flows preferentially flow within channels. This creates a complicated stratigraphy that is difficult to interpret solely from remote sensing data. From measured channel cross sections and woody debris we calculate feeder channel discharges of 1.6-11.4 m3/s, implying runoff production rates of up to 4cm/hour. This value is in the range of rainfall that can be delivered during large cold core winter cyclones, locally known as `Kona storms', which can generate precipitation in excess of 1m/24h. While fluid is sourced from a broad area throughout the southern Káū Desert, interpolation-derived volumes of the fans and eroded alcoves above the fans suggest that fan sediment primarily is sourced directly from edge of the pali itself. We find that similar to fans on Mars, the Hilina Pali fans are relatively large relative to their contributing basin areas. However, the Hawaiian fans vary widely in their individual relations between area, slope, and grain size. We hypothesize this is due to variations in fine grained sediment supply. The fines required for increased suspension during debris flows are sourced from sand dunes and sand sheets consisting of volcanic tephra located several hundred meters north of the pali, and these dunes are unevenly

  6. Analysis of the Carmel Valley alluvial ground-water basin, Monterey County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapple, Glenn W.; Mitten, Hugh T.; Durbin, Timothy J.; Johnson, Michael J.

    1984-01-01

    A two-dimensional, finite-element, digital model was developed for the Carmel Valley alluvial ground-water basin using measured, computed, and estimated discharge and recharge data for the basin. Discharge data included evapotranspiration by phreatophytes and agricultural, municipal, and domestic pumpage. Recharge data included river leakage, tributary runoff, and pumping return flow. Recharge from subsurface boundary flow and rainfall infiltration was assumed to be insignificant. From 1974 through 1978, the annual pumping rate ranged from 5,900 to 9,100 acre-feet per year with 55 percent allotted to municipal use principally exported out of the valley, 44 percent to agricultural use, and 1 percent to domestic use. The pumpage return flow within the valley ranged from 900 to 1,500 acre-feet per year. The aquifer properties of transmissivity (about 5,900 feet squared per day) and of the storage coefficient (0.19) were estimated from an average alluvial thickness of 75 feet and from less well-defined data on specific capacity and grain-size distribution. During calibration the values estimated for hydraulic conductivity and storage coefficient for the lower valley were reduced because of the smaller grain size there. The river characteristics were based on field and laboratory analyses of hydraulic conductivity and on altitude survey data. The model is intended principally for simulation of flow conditions using monthly time steps. Time variations in transmissivity and short-term, highrecharge potential are included in the model. The years 1974 through 1978 (including "pre-" and "post-" drought) were selected because of the extreme fluctuation in water levels between the low levels measured during dry years and the above-normal water levels measured during the preceding and following wet years. Also, during this time more hydrologic information was available. Significantly, computed water levels were generally within a few feet of the measured levels, and computed

  7. Geologically based model of heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity in an alluvial setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogg, Graham E.; Noyes, Charles D.; Carle, Steven F.

    Information on sediment texture and spatial continuity are inherent to sedimentary depositional facies descriptions, which are therefore potentially good predictors of spatially varying hydraulic conductivity (K). Analysis of complex alluvial heterogeneity in Livermore Valley, California, USA, using relatively abundant core descriptions and field pumping-test data, demonstrates a depositional-facies approach to characterization of subsurface heterogeneity. Conventional textural classifications of the core show a poor correlation with K; however, further refinement of the textural classifications into channel, levee, debris-flow, and flood-plain depositional facies reveals a systematic framework for spatial modeling of K. This geologic framework shows that most of the system is composed of very low-K flood-plain materials, and that the K measurements predominantly represent the other, higher-K facies. Joint interpretation of both the K and geologic data shows that spatial distribution of K in this system could not be adequately modeled without geologic data and analysis. Furthermore, it appears that K should not be assumed to be log-normally distributed, except perhaps within each facies. Markov chain modeling of transition probability, representing spatial correlation within and among the facies, captures the relevant geologic features while highlighting a new approach for statistical characterization of hydrofacies spatial variability. The presence of fining-upward facies sequences, cross correlation between facies, as well as other geologic attributes captured by the Markov chains provoke questions about the suitability of conventional geostatistical approaches based on variograms or covariances for modeling geologic heterogeneity. Résumé Les informations sur la texture des sédiments et leur continuité spatiale font partie des descriptions de faciès sédimentaires de dépôt. Par conséquent, ces descriptions sont d'excellents prédicteurs potentiels des

  8. Phosphorus availability due to polyphosphates additions to alfalfa plants grown on alluvial and calcareous soils using tracer techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, A.S.; Massoud, M.A.; Shalil, K.M.E.

    1985-01-01

    A pot experiment was carried out to compare the effect of different sources and levels of condensed phosphates, including ring and chain structured molecules, with orthophosphate on alfalfa plants grown on alluvial and highly calcareous soils using P-32-labelled fertilizers. Data indicate that application of different sources of P-fertilizers increased both dry matter content and total-P uptake by alfalfa plants over control in both soils. The fraction of phosphorus in plants derived from added fertilizers was higher from condensed phosphates than that derived from the other sources of phosphorus. The percentages of P-fraction derived from added fertilizers (y-values) were higher in calcareous soil than those in alluvial soil

  9. 137Cs Results and Interpretation of Cesium Soil Data on the Upper Fortymile Wash Alluvial Fan, Amargosa Valley, Nevada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, C.

    2004-12-01

    Studies using 137Cs were used to produce soil Cs profiles and to use them to determine erosion rates on interchannel divides of the Fortymile Wash alluvial fan over the last 50 years. Sample locations whose 137Cs profiles most resemble the reference-sample (stable surface) profiles are located on interchannel divide areas between distributary channels. These profiles are similar to the reference profiles that have low 137Cs values (in the range of 0.02 to 0.08 pCi/g) in the 3 to 6 cm layers. However, the surface layers (1-3 cm depth) typically have values much less than the reference samples from equivalent depths (range from 0.251 to 0.421 pCi/g). The data indicate that many of these interchannel divide areas have had part of the upper layer removed. Interchannel divide areas have the least likelihood of having been submerged during floods over the last fifty years. Thus, the loss of material from these otherwise stable surfaces appears to be due to eolian processes. Erosion of an interchannel divide area with little evidence of recent water movement is most easily explained by eolian removal. Evidence for wind erosion as the predominant process on the interchannel divide areas includes the lack of new or developing stream channels and the presence of modern coppice dunes near channels on interchannel divides. The presence of nearby Big Dune and other eolian deposits provides strong support for eolian erosion and transport. The amount of material removed from the interchannel divide areas was estimated by comparing the 137Cs value of the upper 3 cm layer to that of the reference value and calculating the thickness of the layer that would have to be removed to obtain the lower value. Applying this method across the interchannel divide sample locations indicates 1 to 2 cm of material has been removed from the interchannel divide surfaces in the last 50 years. This results in erosion rates that range from 0.02 to 0.04 cm/yr. These rates are similar to erosion rates

  10. Holocene alluvial stratigraphy and response to climate change in the Roaring River valley, Front Range, Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madole, Richard F.

    2012-09-01

    Stratigraphic analyses and radiocarbon geochronology of alluvial deposits exposed along the Roaring River, Colorado, lead to three principal conclusions: (1) the opinion that stream channels in the higher parts of the Front Range are relics of the Pleistocene and nonalluvial under the present climate, as argued in a water-rights trial USA v. Colorado, is untenable, (2) beds of clast-supported gravel alternate in vertical succession with beds of fine-grained sediment (sand, mud, and peat) in response to centennial-scale changes in snowmelt-driven peak discharges, and (3) alluvial strata provide information about Holocene climate history that complements the history provided by cirque moraines, periglacial deposits, and paleontological data. Most alluvial strata are of late Holocene age and record, among other things, that: (1) the largest peak flows since the end of the Pleistocene occurred during the late Holocene; (2) the occurrence of a mid- to late Holocene interval (~ 2450-1630(?) cal yr BP) of warmer climate, which is not clearly identified in palynological records; and (3) the Little Ice Age climate seems to have had little impact on stream channels, except perhaps for minor (~ 1 m) incision.

  11. Determination of gold in auriferous alluvial sands and rocks by 14 MeV neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ene, A.; Nat, A.; Lupu, R.; Popescu, I.V.

    2004-01-01

    In this work a complex study of the interferences which appear in gold determination by 14 MeV neutron activation analysis of some Romanian auriferous alluvial sands and rocks has been carried out. The contribution of the nuclear interfering elements - Hg and Pt - to the concentration of gold in the samples is minimum in the case of the nuclear reactions 197 Au (n, 2n) 196 Au, 197 Au (n, 2n) 196m Au and 197 Au (n, n') 197m Au. As regards the spectral interferences, these are minimum in the case of using the reactions 197 Au (n, n') 197m Au and 197 Au (n, 2n) 196 Au and are due to Rb, Ti and V for short irradiation and to Se for long irradiation. We propose two methods of gold determination in auriferous alluvial sands and rocks in the range 20-2500 ppm - the minimum value of 20 ppm being at the level of an economic extraction - in the optimum conditions established by us so that the systematic errors of analysis due to the gold accompanying elements should be considerably diminished: a method using short irradiation (25s) and NaI(Tl) spectrometry for measuring the induced gamma radioactivity in the samples and a method using long irradiation (3000s) and Ge(Li) spectrometry. The data presented in this paper can be adapted by other analysts to the rapid determination of gold in a variety of alluvial sands and rocks. (authors)

  12. Lithology, hydrologic characteristics, and water quality of the Arkansas River Valley alluvial aquifer in the vicinity of Van Buren, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresse, Timothy M.; Westerman, Drew A.; Hart, Rheannon M.

    2015-01-01

    A study to assess the potential of the Arkansas River Valley alluvial aquifer in the vicinity of Van Buren, Arkansas, as a viable source of public-supply water was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Little Rock, District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. An important study component was to identify possible changes in hydrologic conditions following installation of James W. Trimble Lock and Dam 13 (December 1969) on the Arkansas River near the study area. Data were gathered for the study in regard to the lithology, hydrologic characteristics, and water quality of the aquifer. Lithologic information was obtained from drillers’ logs of wells drilled from 1957 through 1959. Water-quality samples were collected from 10 irrigation wells and analyzed for inorganic constituents and pesticides. To evaluate the potential viability of the alluvial aquifer in the Van Buren area, these data were compared to similar stratigraphic, lithologic, and groundwater-quality data from the Arkansas River Valley alluvial aquifer at Dardanelle, Ark., where the aquifer provides a proven, productive, sole-source of public-supply water.

  13. Application of geoecological concept of the alluvial landscape in the creation of nature reserve (case study from Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Machar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The geoecological concept of the alluvial landscape describes the variability and consecutive character of alluvial ecotopes and biocenoses, which are interrelated in terms of their homeorhetic development, in their dynamic ecological stability. This article deals with application of this landscape concept in the frame of creation of nature reserve as core zone of the Litovelské Pomoraví Protected Landscape Area (Czech Republic. Complex protection of the whole floodplain ecosystem, which comprised all components of the fluvial succession series of alluvial habitats, was proposed on the basis of determination of geomorphological type of the river system. Analyses of the floodplain forest stands status within the study area were performed using methods that are normally used in the elaboration of management plans of protected areas within forest land on the basis of data from Forest Management Plan. The area of the proposed NNR was created by the overlay of the special map layers using method gap-analysis in the frame of GIS.

  14. Sedimentology and paleoecology of an Eocene Oligocene alluvial lacustrine arid system, Southern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beraldi-Campesi, Hugo; Cevallos-Ferriz, Sergio R. S.; Centeno-García, Elena; Arenas-Abad, Concepción; Fernández, Luis Pedro

    2006-10-01

    A depositional model of the Eocene-Oligocene Coatzingo Formation in Tepexi de Rodríguez (Puebla, Mexico) is proposed, based on facies analysis of one of the best-preserved sections, the Axamilpa Section. The sedimentary evolution is interpreted as the retrogradation of an alluvial system, followed by the progressive expansion of an alkaline lake system, with deltaic, palustrine, and evaporitic environments. The analysis suggests a change towards more arid conditions with time. Fossils from this region, such as fossil tracks of artiodactyls, aquatic birds and cat-like mammals, suggest that these animals traversed the area, ostracods populated the lake waters, and plants grew on incipient soils and riparian environments many times throughout the history of the basin. The inferred habitat for some fossil plants coincides with the sedimentological interpretation of an arid to semiarid climate for that epoch. This combined sedimentological-paleontological study of the Axamilpa Section provides an environmental context in which fossils can be placed and brings into attention important biotic episodes, like bird and camelid migrations or the origin of endemic but extinct plants in this area.

  15. Assessment of On-site sanitation system on local groundwater regime in an alluvial aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quamar, Rafat; Jangam, C.; Veligeti, J.; Chintalapudi, P.; Janipella, R.

    2017-12-01

    The present study is an attempt to study the impact of the On-site sanitation system on the groundwater sources in its vicinity. The study has been undertaken in the Agra city of Yamuna sub-basin. In this context, sampling sites (3 nos) namely Pandav Nagar, Ayodhya Kunj and Laxmi Nagar were selected for sampling. The groundwater samples were analyzed for major cations, anions and faecal coliform. Critical parameters namely chloride, nitrate and Faecal coliform were considered to assess the impact of the On-site sanitation systems. The analytical results shown that except for chloride, most of the samples exceeded the Bureau of Indian Standard limits for drinking water for all the other analyzed parameters, i.e., nitrate and faecal coliform in the first two sites. In Laxmi Nagar, except for faecal coliform, all the samples are below the BIS limits. In all the three sites, faecal coliform was found in majority of the samples. A comparison of present study indicates that the contamination of groundwater in alluvial setting is less as compared to hard rock where On-site sanitation systems have been implemented.

  16. Nitrogen-isotope ratio studies of soils and groundwater nitrate from alluvial fan aquifers in Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreitler, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    Kreitler has previously identified two ranges of nitrogen-isotope values (delta 15 N) for soil nitrate under different land uses in west Texas: nitrate originating from nonfertilized, cultivated fields (delta 14 N range, 2 to +8per thousand with an average of +4.9per thousand), and nitrate from animal wastes (delta 15 N range, +10 to +22per thousand with an average of +14.4per thousand). The delta 15 N of groundwater nitrate from irrigation wells on the Lockhart and Taylor and alluvial fans range from +3.3 to +10.8per thousand with an average of +7.3per thousand. Ground water from domestic wells on the two fans has higher nitrate concentrations and a more positive delta 15 N range (+6.7 to 18.2per thousand with an average of +11.1per thousand) than wells located in the cultivated fields. Nitrate contamination of wells located in cultivated fields results primarily from cultivation with ammonium-type fertilizers, whereas animal wastes are contaminating domestic well waters. (Auth.)

  17. The Lower Cretaceous Way Group of northern Chile: An alluvial fan-fan delta complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, S.; Clemmey, H.; Turner, P.

    1986-01-01

    Alluvial fan sediments of the Lower Cretaceous Coloso Basin in northern Chile were deposited in a half-graben and derived from andesitic volcanics of a former island arc. Transport directions were towards the east, away from the present-day Peru-Chile trench. Grain flow, density modified grain flow and sheetflow processes were responsible for most of the sediment deposition with cohesive debris flows playing only a minor part. An early phase of conglomerate deposition (Coloso Formation) into a restricted basin records the transition from proximal fan facies with abundant grain flows and remobilized screes to mid-fan facies dominated by sheetflows. Stratiform copper mineralization near the top of the lower conglomerates is related to the unroofing of the Jurassic island arc. This mineralization comprises copper sulphide-cemented sands and gravels and formed by the reaction of mineralized detritus with diagenetic and hydrothermal solutions. A later phase of deposition (Lombriz Formation) includes sandstones, siltstones and conglomerates with a source area different from the Coloso Formation. This change in source may be related to strike-slip tectonics as the basin extended. The Lombriz conglomerates pass distally (eastwards) into red sandstones and purple siltstones with thin limestones deposited under marine conditions. This sequence is interpreted as a major fan delta complex. It passes conformably into marine carbonates of the Tableado Formation signifying the complete drowning of the basin in lower Cretaceous times.

  18. Using solute and heat tracers for aquifer characterization in a strongly heterogeneous alluvial aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarris, Theo S.; Close, Murray; Abraham, Phillip

    2018-03-01

    A test using Rhodamine WT and heat as tracers, conducted over a 78 day period in a strongly heterogeneous alluvial aquifer, was used to evaluate the utility of the combined observation dataset for aquifer characterization. A highly parameterized model was inverted, with concentration and temperature time-series as calibration targets. Groundwater heads recorded during the experiment were boundary dependent and were ignored during the inversion process. The inverted model produced a high resolution depiction of the hydraulic conductivity and porosity fields. Statistical properties of these fields are in very good agreement with estimates from previous studies at the site. Spatially distributed sensitivity analysis suggests that both solute and heat transport were most sensitive to the hydraulic conductivity and porosity fields and less sensitive to dispersivity and thermal distribution factor, with sensitivity to porosity greatly reducing outside the monitored area. The issues of model over-parameterization and non-uniqueness are addressed through identifiability analysis. Longitudinal dispersivity and thermal distribution factor are highly identifiable, however spatially distributed parameters are only identifiable near the injection point. Temperature related density effects became observable for both heat and solute, as the temperature anomaly increased above 12 degrees centigrade, and affected down gradient propagation. Finally we demonstrate that high frequency and spatially dense temperature data cannot inform a dual porosity model in the absence of frequent solute concentration measurements.

  19. Organic and chemical manure of the bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in alluvial soils of intermediate climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamayo V, Alvaro; Munoz A, Rodrigo

    1997-01-01

    With the purpose to evaluate the effect on bean production ICA CITARA variety, four sources of organic matter (hen manure, pig manure, cow manure, and earthworm manure) in four doses 280,500 y 1.000 kg/ha with the same doses of chemical fertilization, were evaluated the experiment was carried out at Tulio Ospina Research Center, located at Bello (Antioquia) of medium climate with 1.320 m.s.n.m. This was established using an alluvial soil (Tropofluvent), frenk, with low contents of organic, matter (2,2%), phosphorus (10 ppm), and potassium (0,10 meq/l00 g). the results, after six consecutive harvests on the same plots, showed highly significative differences among treatments. The highest yield (1.836 kg/ha) was obtained when to the chemical fertilization (300 kg of 10-30-10) was added with 250 kg/ha of hen manure, followed by the application of 100 kg/ha, of cow manure (1.812 kg/ha). Chemical fertilization without organic matter produced 1.640 kg/ha of bean, which was very similar to the addition of 1.000 kg/ha of cow manure and earthworm manure with yields of 1.688 kg/ha and 1.635 kg/ha respectively

  20. Mechanisms of vegetation uprooting by flow in alluvial non-cohesive sediment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Edmaier

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of riparian pioneer vegetation is of crucial importance within river restoration projects. After germination or vegetative reproduction on river bars juvenile plants are often exposed to mortality by uprooting caused by floods. At later stages of root development vegetation uprooting by flow is seen to occur as a consequence of a marked erosion gradually exposing the root system and accordingly reducing the mechanical anchoring. How time scales of flow-induced uprooting do depend on vegetation stages growing in alluvial non-cohesive sediment is currently an open question that we conceptually address in this work. After reviewing vegetation root issues in relation to morphodynamic processes, we then propose two modelling mechanisms (Type I and Type II, respectively concerning the uprooting time scales of early germinated and of mature vegetation. Type I is a purely flow-induced drag mechanism, which causes alone a nearly instantaneous uprooting when exceeding root resistance. Type II arises as a combination of substantial sediment erosion exposing the root system and resulting in a decreased anchoring resistance, eventually degenerating into a Type I mechanism. We support our conceptual models with some preliminary experimental data and discuss the importance of better understanding such mechanisms in order to formulate sounding mathematical models that are suitable to plan and to manage river restoration projects.

  1. Modelling stream aquifer seepage in an alluvial aquifer: an improved loosing-stream package for MODFLOW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Yassin Z.; Bruen, Michael P.

    2002-07-01

    Seepage from a stream, which partially penetrates an unconfined alluvial aquifer, is studied for the case when the water table falls below the streambed level. Inadequacies are identified in current modelling approaches to this situation. A simple and improved method of incorporating such seepage into groundwater models is presented. This considers the effect on seepage flow of suction in the unsaturated part of the aquifer below a disconnected stream and allows for the variation of seepage with water table fluctuations. The suggested technique is incorporated into the saturated code MODFLOW and is tested by comparing its predictions with those of a widely used variably saturated model, SWMS_2D simulating water flow and solute transport in two-dimensional variably saturated media. Comparisons are made of both seepage flows and local mounding of the water table. The suggested technique compares very well with the results of variably saturated model simulations. Most currently used approaches are shown to underestimate the seepage and associated local water table mounding, sometimes substantially. The proposed method is simple, easy to implement and requires only a small amount of additional data about the aquifer hydraulic properties.

  2. Liquefaction analysis of alluvial soil deposits in Bedsa south west of Cairo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Mohamed Hafez Ismail Ibrahim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Bedsa is one of the districts in Dahshour that lays south west of Cairo and suffered from liquefaction during October 1992 earthquake, Egypt. The soil profile consists of alluvial river Nile deposits mainly sandy mud with low plasticity; the ground water is shallow. The earthquake hypocenter was 18 km far away with local magnitude 5.8; the fault length was 13.8 km, as recorded by the Egyptian national seismological network (ENSN at Helwan. The analysis used the empirical method introduced by the national center for earthquake engineering research (NCEER based on field standard penetration of soil. It is found that the studied area can liquefy since there are saturated loose sandy silt layers at depth ranges from 7 to 14 m. The settlement is about 26 cm. The probability of liquefaction ranges between 40% and 100%. The presence of impermeable surface from medium cohesive silty clay acts as a plug resisting and trapping the upward flow of water during liquefaction, so fountain and spouts at weak points occurs. It is wise to use point bearing piles with foundation level deeper than 14 m beyond the liquefiable depth away from ground slopes, otherwise liquefaction improving techniques have to be applied in the area.

  3. A morphological comparison of narrow, low-gradient streams traversing wetland environments to alluvial streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurmu, Michael C

    2002-12-01

    Twelve morphological features from research on alluvial streams are compared in four narrow, low-gradient wetland streams located in different geographic regions (Connecticut, Indiana, and Wisconsin, USA). All four reaches differed in morphological characteristics in five of the features compared (consistent bend width, bend cross-sectional shape, riffle width compared to pool width, greatest width directly downstream of riffles, and thalweg location), while three reaches differed in two comparisons (mean radius of curvature to width ratio and axial wavelength to width ratio). The remaining five features compared had at least one reach where different characteristics existed. This indicates the possibility of varying morphology for streams traversing wetland areas further supporting the concept that the unique qualities of wetland environments might also influence the controls on fluvial dynamics and the development of streams. If certain morphological features found in streams traversing wetland areas differ from current fluvial principles, then these varying features should be incorporated into future wetland stream design and creation projects. The results warrant further research on other streams traversing wetlands to determine if streams in these environments contain unique morphology and further investigation of the impact of low-energy fluvial processes on morphological development. Possible explanations for the morphology deviations in the study streams and some suggestions for stream design in wetland areas based upon the results and field observations are also presented.

  4. Magnetic properties of alluvial soils contaminated with lead, zinc and cadmium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovský, E.; Kapička, A.; Jordanova, N.; Borůvka, L.

    2001-09-01

    Several proxy methods have been used recently to outline increased levels of pollution. One of them is based on measurements of the concentration of (ferri)magnetic minerals of anthropogenic origin. This method has been used recently in the mapping of both polluted and unpolluted areas. In order to validate this method, a more detailed study of links between magnetic parameters characterising the physical shape of magnetic minerals and concentrations of heavy metals is needed. In this study, we analysed the magnetic characteristics of alluvial soils, formed as a result of several breakdowns of wet deposit sink of ashes from a lead ore smelter. The soils were previously analysed for concentration of lead, zinc and cadmium. Our results show that in this case of a shared source of heavy metals and magnetic minerals, simple measurements of magnetic susceptibility discriminate well between polluted and clean areas. In addition, the concentration pattern agrees with the concentrations of the heavy metals studied in deeper soil layers that were not affected by post-depositional changes due to climate and remediation efforts.

  5. Exploration of an alluvial aquifer in Oman by time-domain electromagnetic sounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, M. E.; de Bruijn, R. G. M.; Al-Ismaily, A. Salim

    One-third of the population of Oman depends upon groundwater extracted from the alluvium of the Batinah Plain, on the coast of the Gulf of Oman. Deep geophysical exploration techniques were used to determine the depth and nature of the alluvium and the boundaries of the aquifer. The base and structural controls of the alluvial basin at its contact with Tertiary marine sediments and Cretaceous ophiolite were mapped with seismic reflection data, recorded originally for oil exploration. The base of the alluvium dips northward from the foothills of the Northern Oman Mountains, reaching a maximum depth of 2000m at the coast. The varying facies of the alluvium are grossly characterised by different, overlapping ranges of electrical resistivity, depending largely on the clay content and degree of cementation. Resistivities near the coast are reduced by saline intrusion. These variations of resistivity were mapped with time-domain electromagnetic sounding along 400km of profile, to distinguish among the three zones of the alluvial aquifer. The wedge of saline intrusion was also delineated, up to 10km from the coast. The thickness of the saturated gravel aquifer ranges from 20-160m in an area greater than 600km2. Résumé Un tiers de la population d'Oman est alimenté par de l'eau souterraine pompée dans les alluvions de la plaine de Batinah, sur la côte du golfe d'Oman. Des techniques d'exploration géophysique profonde ont été mises en oeuvre pour déterminer la profondeur et la nature des alluvions et les limites de l'aquifère. La base et les contrôles structuraux du bassin alluvial au contact des sédiments marins tertiaires et des ophiolites crétacées ont été cartographiés à partir des données de sismique réflexion obtenues à l'origine pour la recherche pétrolière. La base des alluvions plonge vers le nord à partir du piémont du massif septentrional d'Oman, pour atteindre une profondeur maximale de 2000m sur la côte. Les divers faciès alluviaux

  6. An Investigation of the Uniaxial Compressive Strength of a Cemented Hydraulic Backfill Made of Alluvial Sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangsheng Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Backfill is commonly used in underground mines. The quality control of the backfill is a key step to ensure it meets the designed strength requirement. This is done through sample collection from the underground environment, followed by uniaxial compression tests to obtain the Uniaxial Compressive Strength (UCS in the laboratory. When the cylindrical cemented backfill samples are axially loaded to failure, several failure modes can be observed and mainly classified into diagonal shear failure and axial split failure. To date, the UCS obtained by these two failure modes are considered to be the same with no distinction between them. In this paper, an analysis of the UCS results obtained on a cemented hydraulic backfill made of alluvial sand at a Canadian underground mine over the course of more than three years is presented. The results show that the UCS values obtained by diagonal shear failure are generally higher than those obtained by axial split failure for samples with the same recipe and curing time. This highlights the importance of making a distinction between the UCS values obtained by the two different modes of failure. Their difference in failure mechanism is explained. Further investigations on the sources of the data dispersion tend to indicate that the UCS obtained by laboratory tests following the current practice may not be representative of the in-situ strength distribution in the underground stopes due to segregation in cemented hydraulic backfill.

  7. River banks and channel axis curvature: Effects on the longitudinal dispersion in alluvial rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzoni, Stefano; Ferdousi, Amena; Tambroni, Nicoletta

    2018-03-01

    The fate and transport of soluble contaminants released in natural streams are strongly dependent on the spatial variations of the flow field and of the bed topography. These variations are essentially related to the presence of the channel banks and to the planform configuration of the channel. Large velocity gradients arise near to the channel banks, where the flow depth decreases to zero. Moreover, single thread alluvial rivers are seldom straight, and usually exhibit meandering planforms and a bed topography that deviates from the plane configuration. Channel axis curvature and movable bed deformations drive secondary helical currents which enhance both cross sectional velocity gradients and transverse mixing, thus crucially influencing longitudinal dispersion. The present contribution sets up a rational framework which, assuming mild sloping banks and taking advantage of the weakly meandering character often exhibited by natural streams, leads to an analytical estimate of the contribution to longitudinal dispersion associated with spatial non-uniformities of the flow field. The resulting relationship stems from a physics-based modeling of the flow in natural rivers, and expresses the bend averaged longitudinal dispersion coefficient as a function of the relevant hydraulic and morphologic parameters. The treatment of the problem is river specific, since it relies on an explicit spatial description, although linearized, of the flow field that establishes in the investigated river. Comparison with field data available from tracer tests supports the robustness of the proposed framework, given also the complexity of the processes that affect dispersion dynamics in real streams.

  8. Habitat associations of chorusing anurans in the Lower Mississippi River Alluvial valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, J.S.; King, S.L.; Grace, J.B.; Walls, S.C.

    2006-01-01

    Amphibian populations have declined worldwide. To pursue conservation efforts adequately, land managers need more information concerning amphibian habitat requirements. To address this need, we examined relationships between anurans and habitat characteristics of wetlands in the Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley (LMAV). We surveyed chorusing anurans in 31 wetlands in 2000 and 28 wetlands in 2001, and measured microhabitat variables along the shoreline within the week following each survey. We recorded 12 species of anurans during our study. Species richness was significantly lower in 2000 than 2001 (t-test, P < 0.001) and correlated with an ongoing drought. We found species richness to be significantly greater at lake sites compared to impoundment, swale, and riverine sites (ANOVA, P = 0.002). We used stepwise regression to investigate the wetland types and microhabitat characteristics associated with species richness of chorusing anurans. Microhabitat characteristics associated with species richness included dense herbaceous vegetation and accumulated litter along the shoreline. Individual species showed species-specific habitat associations. The bronze frog, American bullfrog, and northern cricket frog were positively associated with lake sites (Fisher's Exact Test, P < 0.05), however wetland type did not significantly influence any additional species. Using bivariate correlations, we found that six of the seven most common species had significant associations with microhabitat variables. Overall, our findings support the view that conservation and enhancement of amphibian communities in the LMAV and elsewhere requires a matrix of diverse wetland types and habitat conditions. ?? 2006, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  9. Hierarchy in factors affecting fish biodiversity in floodplain lakes of the Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembkowski, D.J.; Miranda, L.E.

    2012-01-01

    River-floodplain ecosystems offer some of the most diverse and dynamic environments in the world. Accordingly, floodplain habitats harbor diverse fish assemblages. Fish biodiversity in floodplain lakes may be influenced by multiple variables operating on disparate scales, and these variables may exhibit a hierarchical organization depending on whether one variable governs another. In this study, we examined the interaction between primary variables descriptive of floodplain lake large-scale features, suites of secondary variables descriptive of water quality and primary productivity, and a set of tertiary variables descriptive of fish biodiversity across a range of floodplain lakes in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley of Mississippi and Arkansas (USA). Lakes varied considerably in their representation of primary, secondary, and tertiary variables. Multivariate direct gradient analyses indicated that lake maximum depth and the percentage of agricultural land surrounding a lake were the most important factors controlling variation in suites of secondary and tertiary variables, followed to a lesser extent by lake surface area. Fish biodiversity was generally greatest in large, deep lakes with lower proportions of watershed agricultural land. Our results may help foster a holistic approach to floodplain lake management and suggest the framework for a feedback model wherein primary variables can be manipulated for conservation and restoration purposes and secondary and tertiary variables can be used to monitor the success of such efforts. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  10. Factors affecting fish biodiversity in floodplain lakes of the Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Dembkowski, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    River-floodplain ecosystems offer some of the most diverse and dynamic environments in the world. Accordingly, floodplain habitats harbor diverse fish assemblages. Fish biodiversity in floodplain lakes may be influenced by multiple variables operating on disparate scales, and these variables may exhibit a hierarchical organization depending on whether one variable governs another. In this study, we examined the interaction between primary variables descriptive of floodplain lake large-scale features, suites of secondary variables descriptive of water quality and primary productivity, and a set of tertiary variables descriptive of fish biodiversity across a range of floodplain lakes in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley of Mississippi and Arkansas (USA). Lakes varied considerably in their representation of primary, secondary, and tertiary variables. Multivariate direct gradient analyses indicated that lake maximum depth and the percentage of agricultural land surrounding a lake were the most important factors controlling variation in suites of secondary and tertiary variables, followed to a lesser extent by lake surface area. Fish biodiversity was generally greatest in large, deep lakes with lower proportions of watershed agricultural land. Our results may help foster a holistic approach to floodplain lake management and suggest the framework for a feedback model wherein primary variables can be manipulated for conservation and restoration purposes and secondary and tertiary variables can be used to monitor the success of such efforts.

  11. Balancing lake ecological condition and agriculture irrigation needs in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Omer, A.R.; Killgore, K.J.

    2017-01-01

    The Mississippi Alluvial Valley includes hundreds of floodplain lakes that support unique fish assemblages and high biodiversity. Irrigation practices in the valley have lowered the water table, increasing the cost of pumping water, and necessitating the use of floodplain lakes as a source of water for irrigation. This development has prompted the need to regulate water withdrawals to protect aquatic resources, but it is unknown how much water can be withdrawn from lakes before ecological integrity is compromised. To estimate withdrawal limits, we examined descriptors of lake water quality (i.e., total nitrogen, total phosphorus, turbidity, Secchi visibility, chlorophyll-a) and fish assemblages (species richness, diversity, composition) relative to maximum depth in 59 floodplain lakes. Change-point regression analysis was applied to identify critical depths at which the relationships between depth and lake descriptors exhibited a rapid shift in slope, suggesting possible thresholds. All our water quality and fish assemblage descriptors showed rapid changes relative to depth near 1.2–2.0 m maximum depth. This threshold span may help inform regulatory decisions about water withdrawal limits. Alternatives to explain the triggers of the observed threshold span are considered.

  12. Influence of hydrologic modifications on Fraxinus pennsylvanica in the Mississippi River Alluvial Valley, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Hugo K.W.; King, Sammy L.; Keim, Richard F.

    2015-01-01

    We used tree-ring analysis to examine radial growth response of a common, moderately flood-tolerant species (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall) to hydrologic and climatic variability for > 40 years before and after hydrologic modifications affecting two forest stands in the Mississippi River Alluvial Valley (USA): a stand without levees below dams and a stand within a ring levee. At the stand without levees below dams, spring flood stages decreased and overall growth increased after dam construction, which we attribute to a reduction in flood stress. At the stand within a ring levee, growth responded to the elimination of overbank flooding by shifting from being positively correlated with river stage to not being correlated with river stage. In general, growth in swales was positively correlated with river stage and Palmer Drought Severity Index (an index of soil moisture) for longer periods than flats. Growth decreased after levee construction, but swales were less impacted than flats likely because of differences in elevation and soils provide higher soil moisture. Results of this study indicate that broad-scale hydrologic processes differ in their effects on the flood regime, and the effects on growth of moderately flood-tolerant species such as F. pennsylvanica can be mediated by local-scale factors such as topographic position, which affects soil moisture.

  13. Exchangeable fraction of elements in alluvial sediments under waste disposal site (Zagreb, Croatia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertacnik, A.; Barisic, D.; Musani, Lj.; Prohic, E.; Juracic, M.

    1997-01-01

    Concentrations of Ag, Ba, Cd, Ce, Cs, Co, Cr, Eu, Fe, Rb, Sc, Sr, Th, and Zn exchangeable fractions were determined in alluvial sediments at waste disposal site area in the vicinity of water-well field. Samples have been'leached with 0.5M NH 4 Cl at a sample/solution ratio of 1:20 during 24 hours without shaking. INAA of dry NH 4 Cl residues show that the concentrations of exchangeable elements determined in the most of the sediments below the wastes have natural levels. Ag, Ba and Sr are readily exchangeable; Rb, Cs and Zn have lower exchangeability, while Cd, Ce, Th, Sc, Eu, Cr, Fe and Co are rather immobile. Extremely high total and exchangeable silver concentration was found at 6.5-6.8 meters below waste in the aerated layer occasionally under the water table. Exchangeable concentrations in deeper water-bearing sediment layers are not elevated. Due to this, one can presume that the upper sediment layers act as chemical filter generally preventing the infiltration from overlying wastes into water-bearing layers. (author)

  14. Groundwater movement, recharge, and perchlorate occurrence in a faulted alluvial aquifer in California (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izbicki, John A.; Teague, Nicholas F.; Hatzinger, Paul B.; Böhlke, John Karl; Sturchio, Neil C.

    2015-01-01

    Perchlorate from military, industrial, and legacy agricultural sources is present within an alluvial aquifer in the Rialto-Colton groundwater subbasin, 80 km east of Los Angeles, California (USA). The area is extensively faulted, with water-level differences exceeding 60 m across parts of the Rialto-Colton Fault separating the Rialto-Colton and Chino groundwater subbasins. Coupled well-bore flow and depth-dependent water-quality data show decreases in well yield and changes in water chemistry and isotopic composition, reflecting changing aquifer properties and groundwater recharge sources with depth. Perchlorate movement through some wells under unpumped conditions from shallower to deeper layers underlying mapped plumes was as high as 13 kg/year. Water-level maps suggest potential groundwater movement across the Rialto-Colton Fault through an overlying perched aquifer. Upward flow through a well in the Chino subbasin near the Rialto-Colton Fault suggests potential groundwater movement across the fault through permeable layers within partly consolidated deposits at depth. Although potentially important locally, movement of groundwater from the Rialto-Colton subbasin has not resulted in widespread occurrence of perchlorate within the Chino subbasin. Nitrate and perchlorate concentrations at the water table, associated with legacy agricultural fertilizer use, may be underestimated by data from long-screened wells that mix water from different depths within the aquifer.

  15. Major periods of erosion and alluvial sedimentation in New Zealand during the Late Holocene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, P.J.

    1985-01-01

    During the last 1,800 years there have been eight major periods of erosion and alluvial sedimentation in New Zealand. These and their probable times of occurrence are: Taupo (1,l764 years BP), Post-Taupo (1,600-1,500 years BP), Pre-Kaharoa (1,300-900 years BP), Waihirere (680-600 years BP), Matawhero (450-330 years BP), Wakarara (180-150 years BP), Tamaki (1870-1900 AD) and Waipawa (1950 to present). The Taupo period, which is identified only in North Island, possibly resulted from heavy rainfalls induced by the Taupo Pumice eruption. The other seven periods, which probably occurred universally in both main islands of New Zealand, were almost certainly caused by increased northerly airflow and atmospheric warming over New Zealand, and the associated increased magnitude of major rainstorms and floods, producing increased rates of erosion and channel sediment transport. Such changes were due primarily to a temporary strengthening of the meridional upper atmospheric circulation in the Southwest Pacific region

  16. Valuing ecosystem services from wetlands restoration in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, W.A.; Murray, B.C.; Kramer, R.A.; Faulkner, S.P.

    2010-01-01

    This study assesses the value of restoring forested wetlands via the U.S. government's Wetlands Reserve Program (WRP) in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley by quantifying and monetizing ecosystem services. The three focal services are greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation, nitrogen mitigation, and waterfowl recreation. Site- and region-level measurements of these ecosystem services are combined with process models to quantify their production on agricultural land, which serves as the baseline, and on restored wetlands. We adjust and transform these measures into per-hectare, valuation-ready units and monetize them with prices from emerging ecosystem markets and the environmental economics literature. By valuing three of the many ecosystem services produced, we generate lower bound estimates for the total ecosystem value of the wetlands restoration. Social welfare value is found to be between $1435 and $1486/ha/year, with GHG mitigation valued in the range of $171 to $222, nitrogen mitigation at $1248, and waterfowl recreation at $16. Limited to existing markets, the estimate for annual market value is merely $70/ha, but when fully accounting for potential markets, this estimate rises to $1035/ha. The estimated social value surpasses the public expenditure or social cost of wetlands restoration in only 1 year, indicating that the return on public investment is very attractive for the WRP. Moreover, the potential market value is substantially greater than landowner opportunity costs, showing that payments to private landowners to restore wetlands could also be profitable for individual landowners. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  17. Stochastic Spectral Analysis for Characterizing Hydraulic Diffusivity in an Alluvial Fan Aquifer with River Stimulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y. L.; Zha, Y.; Yeh, T. C. J.; Wen, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    Estimation of subsurface hydraulic diffusivity was carried out to understand the characteristics of Zhuoshui River alluvial fan, Taiwan. The fan, an important agricultural and industrial region with high water demand, is located at middle Taiwan with an area of 1800 km2. The prior geo-investigations suggest that the main recharge region of the fan is at an apex along the river. The distribution of soil hydraulic diffusivity was estimated by fusing naturally recurring stimulus provided by river and groundwater head. Specifically, the variance and power spectrum provided by temporal and spatial change of groundwater head in response to river stage variations are analyzed to estimate hydraulic diffusivity distribution. It is found that the hydraulic diffusivity of the fan is at the range from 0.08 to 16 m2/s. The average hydraulic diffusivity at the apex, middle, and tail of the fan along the river is about 0.4, 0.6, and 1.0 m2/s, respectively.

  18. Quantitative groundwater modelling for a sustainable water resource exploitation in a Mediterranean alluvial aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laïssaoui, Mounir; Mesbah, Mohamed; Madani, Khodir; Kiniouar, Hocine

    2018-05-01

    To analyze the water budget under human influences in the Isser wadi alluvial aquifer in the northeast of Algeria, we built a mathematical model which can be used for better managing groundwater exploitation. A modular three-dimensional finite-difference groundwater flow model (MODFLOW) was used. The modelling system is largely based on physical laws and employs a numerical method of the finite difference to simulate water movement and fluxes in a horizontally discretized field. After calibration in steady-state, the model could reproduce the initial heads with a rather good precision. It enabled us to quantify the aquifer water balance terms and to obtain a conductivity zones distribution. The model also highlighted the relevant role of the Isser wadi which constitutes a drain of great importance for the aquifer, ensuring alone almost all outflows. The scenarios suggested in transient simulations showed that an increase in the pumping would only increase the lowering of the groundwater levels and disrupting natural balance of aquifer. However, it is clear that this situation depends primarily on the position of pumping wells in the plain as well as on the extracted volumes of water. As proven by the promising results of model, this physically based and distributed-parameter model is a valuable contribution to the ever-advancing technology of hydrological modelling and water resources assessment.

  19. The Influence of Syndepositional Macropores on the Hydraulic Integrity of Thick Alluvial Clay Aquitards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timms, Wendy A.; Acworth, R. Ian; Crane, Richard A.; Arns, Christoph H.; Arns, Ji-Youn; McGeeney, Dayna E.; Rau, Gabriel C.; Cuthbert, Mark O.

    2018-04-01

    Clay-rich deposits are commonly assumed to be aquitards which act as natural hydraulic barriers due to their low hydraulic connectivity. Postdepositional weathering processes are known to increase the permeability of aquitards in the near surface but not impact on deeper parts of relatively thick formations. However, syndepositional processes affecting the hydraulic properties of aquitards have previously received little attention in the literature. Here, we analyze a 31 m deep sediment core recovered from an inland clay-rich sedimentary sequence using a combination of techniques including particle size distribution and microscopy, centrifuge dye tracer testing and micro X-ray CT imaging. Subaerial deposition of soils within these fine grained alluvial deposits has led to the preservation of considerable macropores (root channels or animal burrows). Connected pores and macropores thus account for vertical hydraulic conductivity (K) of 4.2×10-9 m/s (geometric mean of 13 samples) throughout the thick aquitard, compared to a matrix K that is likely sediment was deposited must be considered when aquitards are investigated as potential natural hydraulic barriers and illustrate the value of combining multiple investigation techniques for characterizing clay-rich deposits.

  20. Phosphate-solubility and phosphatase activity in Gangetic alluvial soil as influenced by organophosphate insecticide residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Shyam Prasad; Das, Amal Chandra

    2016-04-01

    An experiment was conducted under laboratory conditions to investigate the effect of four organophosphate insecticides, viz. monocrotophos, profenophos, quinalphos and triazophos at their field application rates (0.75, 1.0, 0.5 and 0.6 kg a.i.ha(-1), respectively), on the growth and activities of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms in relation to availability of insoluble phosphates in the Gangetic alluvial soil of West Bengal, India. The proliferation of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms was highly induced with profenophos (38.3%), while monocrotophos exerted maximum stimulation (20.8%) towards the solubility of insoluble phosphates in soil. The phosphatase activities of the soil (both acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase) were significantly increased due to the incorporation of the insecticides in general, and the augmentation was more pronounced with quinalphos (43.1%) followed by profenophos (27.6%) for acid phosphatase, and with monocrotophos (25.2%) followed by profenophos (16.1%) for alkaline phosphatase activity in soil. The total phosphorus was highly retained by triazophos (19.9%) followed by monocrotophos (16.5%), while incorporation of triazophos and quinalphos manifested greater availability of water soluble phosphorus in soil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Cadmium accumulation and growth responses of a poplar (Populus deltoids x Populus nigra) in cadmium contaminated purple soil and alluvial soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Fuzhong; Yang Wanqin; Zhang Jian; Zhou Liqiang

    2010-01-01

    To characterize the phytoextraction efficiency of a hybrid poplar (Populus deltoids x Populus nigra) in cadmium contaminated purple soil and alluvial soil, a pot experiment in field was carried out in Sichuan basin, western China. After one growing period, the poplar accumulated the highest of 541.98 ± 19.22 and 576.75 ± 40.55 μg cadmium per plant with 110.77 ± 12.68 and 202.54 ± 19.12 g dry mass in these contaminated purple soil and alluvial soil, respectively. Higher phytoextraction efficiency with higher cadmium concentration in tissues was observed in poplar growing in purple soil than that in alluvial soil at relative lower soil cadmium concentration. The poplar growing in alluvial soil had relative higher tolerance ability with lower reduction rates of morphological and growth characters than that in purple soil, suggesting that the poplar growing in alluvial soil might display the higher phytoextraction ability when cadmium contamination level increased. Even so, the poplars exhibited obvious cadmium transport from root to shoot in both soils regardless of cadmium contamination levels. It implies that this examined poplar can extract more cadmium than some hyperaccumulators. The results indicated that metal phytoextraction using the poplar can be applied to clean up soils moderately contaminated by cadmium in these purple soil and alluvial soil.

  2. Cadmium accumulation and growth responses of a poplar (Populus deltoids x Populus nigra) in cadmium contaminated purple soil and alluvial soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Fuzhong [Faculty of Forestry, Sichuan Agricultural University, 625014, Ya' an (China); Yang Wanqin, E-mail: scyangwq@163.com [Faculty of Forestry, Sichuan Agricultural University, 625014, Ya' an (China); Zhang Jian; Zhou Liqiang [Faculty of Forestry, Sichuan Agricultural University, 625014, Ya' an (China)

    2010-05-15

    To characterize the phytoextraction efficiency of a hybrid poplar (Populus deltoids x Populus nigra) in cadmium contaminated purple soil and alluvial soil, a pot experiment in field was carried out in Sichuan basin, western China. After one growing period, the poplar accumulated the highest of 541.98 {+-} 19.22 and 576.75 {+-} 40.55 {mu}g cadmium per plant with 110.77 {+-} 12.68 and 202.54 {+-} 19.12 g dry mass in these contaminated purple soil and alluvial soil, respectively. Higher phytoextraction efficiency with higher cadmium concentration in tissues was observed in poplar growing in purple soil than that in alluvial soil at relative lower soil cadmium concentration. The poplar growing in alluvial soil had relative higher tolerance ability with lower reduction rates of morphological and growth characters than that in purple soil, suggesting that the poplar growing in alluvial soil might display the higher phytoextraction ability when cadmium contamination level increased. Even so, the poplars exhibited obvious cadmium transport from root to shoot in both soils regardless of cadmium contamination levels. It implies that this examined poplar can extract more cadmium than some hyperaccumulators. The results indicated that metal phytoextraction using the poplar can be applied to clean up soils moderately contaminated by cadmium in these purple soil and alluvial soil.

  3. Evidence for in situ degradation of mono-and polyaromatic hydrocarbons in alluvial sediments based on microcosm experiments with 13C-labeled contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morasch, B.; Hoehener, P.; Hunkeler, D.

    2007-01-01

    A microcosm study was conducted to investigate the degradation of mono- and polyaromatic hydrocarbons under in situ-like conditions using alluvial sediments from the site of a former cokery. Benzene, naphthalene, or acenaphthene were added to the sediments as 13 C-labeled substrates. Based on the evolution of 13 C-CO 2 determined by gas chromatography isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (GC-IRMS) it was possible to prove mineralization of the compound of interest in the presence of other unknown organic substances of the sediment material. This new approach was suitable to give evidence for the intrinsic biodegradation of benzene, naphthalene, and acenaphthene under oxic and also under anoxic conditions, due to the high sensitivity and reproducibility of 13 C/ 12 C stable isotope analysis. This semi-quantitative method can be used to screen for biodegradation of any slowly degrading, strongly sorbing compound in long-term experiments. - A method based on 13 C-labeled substrates was developed to determine the intrinsic biodegradation potential of aromatic pollutants under oxic and under anoxic conditions

  4. Landscape formation and soil genesis in volcanic parent materials in humid tropical lowlands of Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuyse, A.

    1996-01-01


    The influence of volcanism on landscape genesis, and formation of soils on volcanic parent material was studied in the Atlantic lowland of Costs Rica. This lowland is a subduction basin of tectonic origin, in which thick alluvial and marine sediments are accumulated. At its southwestern

  5. Biogeochemistry at a wetland sediment-alluvial aquifer interface in a landfill leachate plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorah, M.M.; Cozzarelli, I.M.; Böhlke, J.K.

    2009-01-01

    The biogeochemistry at the interface between sediments in a seasonally ponded wetland (slough) and an alluvial aquifer contaminated with landfill leachate was investigated to evaluate factors that can effect natural attenuation of landfill leachate contaminants in areas of groundwater/surface-water interaction. The biogeochemistry at the wetland-alluvial aquifer interface differed greatly between dry and wet conditions. During dry conditions (low water table), vertically upward discharge was focused at the center of the slough from the fringe of a landfill-derived ammonium plume in the underlying aquifer, resulting in transport of relatively low concentrations of ammonium to the slough sediments with dilution and dispersion as the primary attenuation mechanism. In contrast, during wet conditions (high water table), leachate-contaminated groundwater discharged upward near the upgradient slough bank, where ammonium concentrations in the aquifer where high. Relatively high concentrations of ammonium and other leachate constituents also were transported laterally through the slough porewater to the downgradient bank in wet conditions. Concentrations of the leachate-associated constituents chloride, ammonium, non-volatile dissolved organic carbon, alkalinity, and ferrous iron more than doubled in the slough porewater on the upgradient bank during wet conditions. Chloride, non-volatile dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and bicarbonate acted conservatively during lateral transport in the aquifer and slough porewater, whereas ammonium and potassium were strongly attenuated. Nitrogen isotope variations in ammonium and the distribution of ammonium compared to other cations indicated that sorption was the primary attenuation mechanism for ammonium during lateral transport in the aquifer and the slough porewater. Ammonium attenuation was less efficient, however, in the slough porewater than in the aquifer and possibly occurred by a different sorption mechanism. A

  6. Organic manure of the corn (Zea mays L.) in alluvial soils of intermediate climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamayo V, Alvaro; Munoz A, Rodrigo; Diaz A; Carlos

    1997-01-01

    With the purpose to evaluate the effect on the yield of com ICA V.303 variety, using four sources of organic matter (hen manure, pig manure, cow manure, earthworm manure) in two doses (500 and 1.000 kg/ha), compared with a chemical treatment (300 kg/ha of 10-30-10 plus 150 kg of urea), and a control, an experiment was carried out at Tulio Ospina Research Center, located at Bello (Antioquia), with 1.320 m.s.n.m. The experiment was established using an alluvial soil (tropofluvent), frank, with low content of organic matter (3.1%), and potassium (0.11 meq/l00 g), and medium content of phosphorus (2 ppm). The results, after four consecutive harvests on the same plots, showed highly significative differences among treatments, compared with the control. The highest yield (4.709 kg/ha) was obtained with the chemical treatment (300 kg/ha of 10-30-10 plus 150 kg of urea). The addition of 500 and 1.000 kg/ha of hen manure and pig manure showed an average yield of corn of 4.315,4.539 .4.246, and 4.487 kg/ha respectively. the control only produced 2.620 kg/ha. The great profitability was obtained with 500 kg/ ha of cow manure, 1.000 kg/ha of pig manure and the chemical treatment (300 kg/ha 10-30-10 and 150 kg/ha of urea y 1.000 kg/ha hen manure). There were not significative differences between the chemical fertilization and the organic fertilization; these results show that organic matter is an alternative for fertilization with respect to the development of a sustained and biological agriculture

  7. Sensitivity Analysis of DRASTIC Model in Vulnerability Assessment of Shahrood Alluvial Aquifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadi Abolhasan Almasi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater vulnerability assessment is typically accomplished as a management tool to protect groundwater resources. In this research, the DRASTIC model which is an empirical one used for evaluating the potential of an aquifer for pollution was employed to evaluate the vulnerability of Shahrood alluvial aquifer. Moreover, the sensitivity of the model paramneters was assessed to identify the ones with greatest effect on vulnerability. The model layers including depth to groundwater table level, recharge, aquifer media, topography, impact of unsaturated zone, and hydraulic conductivity were prepared and classified in the ArcGIS software based on analyses of both the available data and the layer of surface soil texture using Aster satellite images. Once the vulnerability index was calculated, the sensitivity map of Shahroud aquifer vulnerability was analyzed using the two parameter removal and single parameter sensitivity methods. These were further verified by textural analysis of soil samples from different parts of the region. The layers with appropriate weights were overlaid and the DRASTIC index of the aquifer was estimated at 28 to 148. The highest vulnerability was detected in the northern margins and southwestern parts of the aquifer while other parts were characterized by medium to low vulnerability. The low nitrogen concentration observed in the farm areas and its rise to 45 mg/l in the northern stretches of the aquifer bear witness to the accuracy of the zoning rendered by the DRASTIC model. Based on the vulnerability map of Sharoud aquifer, it was found that 1.6% of the aquifer’s area has a very high vulnerability or potential for pollution followed by 10%, 28.8%, and 18.9% of the area were identified as having high, medium and low potentials for pollution, respecytively. The remaining (i.e., 40.5% was found to have no risk of pollution.

  8. Analysis of cutin and suberin biomarker patterns in alluvial sedi-ments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herschbach, Jennifer; Sesterheim, Anna; König, Frauke; Fuchs, Elmar

    2015-04-01

    Cutin and suberin are the primary source of hydrolysable aliphatic lipid polyesters in soil organic matter (SOM). They are known as geochemical biomarkers to estimate the contribution of different plant species and tissues to SOM. Despite their potential as biomarkers, cutin and suberin have received less attention as flood plain sediment biomarkers. The objectives of this study were to investigate the efficiency of cutin and suberin as biomarkers in floodplains. Therefore similarities between the lipid pattern in alluvial sediments and in the actual vegetation were considered. Lipids of plant tissues (roots, twigs, leaves) from different species (reed (e.g. Phalaris arun-diacea), Salix alba, Ulmus laevis and grassland (e.g. Carex spec.)) and of the un-derlying soils and sediments were obtained and investigated at four sites in the nature reserve Knoblauchsaue (Hessen, Germany). The four sampling sites differ not only with respect to their vegetation, but also within their distance to the river Rhine. Cutin and suberin monomers of plants and soils were analysed by alkaline hydrolysis, methylation and acetylation and subsequent gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Resulting lipid patterns were specific for the appropriate plant species and tissues. However, the traceability of single selected lipids was decreasing alongside the soil profile, with the exception of monomers in softwood floodplain soils. Selected tissue specific lipid ratios showed a higher traceability due to strong attributions of lipid ratios in soils and roots of U. laevis and Carex spec. and in leaves of U. laevis and S. alba. In contrast, there was no accordance between the suberin specific lipid ratios in soils and roots of S. alba and P. arundiacea. The most robust interpretations were afforded when a set of multiple biomarkers (i.e. a combination of free lipid ratios and ratios of hydrolysable lipids) was used to collectively reconstruct the source vegetation of different sediment layers.

  9. Using Lead Concentrations and Stable Lead Isotope Ratios to Identify Contamination Events in Alluvial Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Saint-Laurent

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Soils contaminated with hydrocarbons (C10–C50, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, and other contaminants (e.g., As, Cd, Cu, Pb were recently discovered on the banks of the Saint-François and Massawippi rivers. Alluvial soils are contaminated over a distance of 100 kilometers, and the level of the contaminated-hydrocarbon layer in the soil profiles is among the highest at the Windsor and Richmond sites. Concentrations of lead and stable lead isotope ratios (204Pb/206Pb, 207Pb/206Pb, 208Pb/206Pb are also used to identify contamination events. The maximum and minimum values detected in soil profiles for arsenic, cadmium, and lead vary from 3.01 to 37.88 mg kg-1 (As, 0.11 to 0.81 mg kg-1 (Cd 12.32 to 149.13 mg kg-1 (Pb, respectively, while the 207Pb/206Pb isotopic ratio values are between 0.8545 and 0.8724 for all the profiles. The highest values of trace elements (As, Pb and Zn were detected in the hydrocarbon layer (C10–C50, most often located at the bottom of the profiles (160, 200, and 220 cm in depth. The various peaks recorded in the soils and the position of the profiles suggest that various contaminants were transported by the river on several occasions and infiltrated the soil matrix or deposited on floodplains during successive floods. Atmospheric particles which entered the river or deposited on riverbanks must also be considered as another source of pollution recorded in soils.

  10. Mapping groundwater renewability using age data in the Baiyang alluvial fan, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tianming; Pang, Zhonghe; Li, Jie; Xiang, Yong; Zhao, Zhijiang

    2017-05-01

    Groundwater age has been used to map renewability of water resources within four groups: strong, partial, and rare renewability, and non-renewable. The Baiyang alluvial fan in NW China is a representative area for examining groundwater recharge from river infiltration and for mapping groundwater renewability, and it has been investigated using multiple isotopes and water chemistry. Systematic sampling included 52 samples for 2H and 18O analysis and 32 samples for 3H, 13C and 14C analysis. The δ13C compositions remain nearly constant throughout the basin (median -12.7‰) and indicate that carbonate dissolution does not alter 14C age. The initial 14C activity of 80 pmC, obtained by plotting 3H and 14C activity, was used to correct groundwater 14C age. The results show that areas closer to the river consist of younger groundwater ages; this suggests that river infiltration is the main recharge source to the shallow groundwater system. However, at distances far away from the river, groundwater ages become older, i.e., from modern water (less than 60 year) to pre-modern water (from 60 to 1,000 years) and paleowater (more than 1,000 yeas). The four classifications of groundwater renewability have been associated with different age ranges. The area of shallow groundwater with strong renewability accounts for 74% of the total study area. Because recharge condition (river infiltration) controls overall renewability, a groundwater renewability map is of significant importance to the management of groundwater exploitation of this area as well as other arid groundwater basins.

  11. Colluvial and alluvial response to land use change in Midland England: An integrated geoarchaeological approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Antony G.

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents geomorphic, soils and palaeoecological data from a small sub-catchment in the English Midlands in an attempt to provide an integrated picture of Holocene landscape change. The area used has also been the focus of a multi-disciplinary and long-term archaeological survey (Raunds Area Project) and so has a wealth of archaeological and historical data which can be related to the environmental record. The paper combines these data, much of which are only published in the archaeological literature with new interpretations based upon unpublished data and new data particularly from the hillslopes and new radiocarbon dating from the valley floor. It is inferred that despite a long history of pastoral and arable agriculture (since the Neolithic/Bronze Age), colluviation on lower slopes, significant soil redistribution and overbank alluviation only began to a measurable extent in the Late Saxon-Medieval period (9th Century AD onwards). It is suggested that this is due to a combination of land-use factors, principally the laying out of an intensive open field system and the establishment of villages combined with a period of extremes in climate well known throughout Europe. Indeed the critical element appears to have been the social changes in this period that created this regionally distinctive landscape which happened to have a high spatial connectivity and facilitated intensive arable production with high tillage rates. Intense rainfall events during this period could therefore detach and mobilize high volumes of soil and the open field system facilitated transport to slope bases and valley floors. The need for detailed and spatially precise land-use data in order to interpret accelerated landscape change is stressed.

  12. Spatial distribution of triazine residues in a shallow alluvial aquifer linked to groundwater residence time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassine, Lara; Le Gal La Salle, Corinne; Khaska, Mahmoud; Verdoux, Patrick; Meffre, Patrick; Benfodda, Zohra; Roig, Benoît

    2017-03-01

    At present, some triazine herbicides occurrence in European groundwater, 13 years after their use ban in the European Union, remains of great concern and raises the question of their persistence in groundwater systems due to several factors such as storage and remobilization from soil and unsaturated zone, limited or absence of degradation, sorption in saturated zones, or to continuing illegal applications. In order to address this problem and to determine triazine distribution in the saturated zone, their occurrence is investigated in the light of the aquifer hydrodynamic on the basis of a geochemical approach using groundwater dating tracers ( 3 H/ 3 He). In this study, atrazine, simazine, terbuthylazine, deethylatrazine, deisopropylatrazine, and deethylterbuthylazine are measured in 66 samples collected between 2011 and 2013 from 21 sampling points, on the Vistrenque shallow alluvial aquifer (southern France), covered by a major agricultural land use. The frequencies of quantification range from 100 to 56 % for simazine and atrazine, respectively (LQ = 1 ng L -1 ). Total triazine concentrations vary between 15 and 350 ng L -1 and show three different patterns with depth below the water table: (1) low concentrations independent of depth but related to water origin, (2) an increase in concentrations with depth in the aquifer related to groundwater residence time and triazine use prior to their ban, and (3) relatively high concentrations at low depths in the saturated zone more likely related to a slow desorption of these compounds from the soil and unsaturated zone. The triazine attenuation rate varies between 0.3 for waters influenced by surface water infiltration and 4.8 for water showing longer residence times in the aquifer, suggesting an increase in these rates with water residence time in the saturated zone. Increasing triazine concentrations with depth is consistent with a significant decrease in the use of these pesticides for the last 10 years on

  13. Deposition and early hydrologic evolution of Westwater Canyon wet alluvial-fan system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galloway, W.E.

    1980-01-01

    The Westwater Canyon Member is one of several large, low-gradient alluvial fans that compose the Morrison Formation in the Four Corners area. Morrison fans were deposited by major laterally migrating streams entering a broad basin bounded by highlands to the west and south. The Westwater Canyon sand framework consists of a downfan succession of 1) proximal braided channel, 2) straight bed-load channel, 3) sinuous mixed-load channel, and 4) distributary mixed-load-channel sand bodies. Regional sand distribution and facies patterns are highly digitate and radiate from a point source located northwest of Gallup, New Mexico. Early ground-water flow evolution within the Westwater Canyon fan aquifer system can be inferred by analogy with Quaternary wet-fan deposits and by the interpreted paragenetic sequence of diagenetic features present. Syndepositional flow was controlled by the downfan hydrodynamic gradient and the high horizontal and vertical transmissivity of the sand-rich fan aquifer. Dissolution and transport of soluble humate would be likely in earliest ground water, which was abundant, fresh, and slightly alkaline. With increasing confinement of the aquifer below less permeable tuffaceous Brushy Basin deposits and release of soluble constituents from volcanic ash, flow patterns stabilized, and relatively more saline, uranium-rich ground water permeated the aquifer. Uranium mineralization occurred during this early postdepositional, semiconfined flow phase. Development of overlying Dakota swamps suggests a shallow water table indicative of regional dischare or stagnation. In either event, only limited downward flux of acidic water is recorded by local, bleached, kaolinized zones where the Westwater Canyon directly underlies the Dakota swamps. Subsequent ground-water flow phases have further obscured primary alteration patterns and caused local oxidation and redistribution of uranium

  14. New Module to Simulate Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions in Small-Scale Alluvial Aquifer System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, L.

    2017-12-01

    Streamflow depletion can occur when groundwater pumping wells lower water table elevations adjacent to a nearby stream. Being able to accurately model the severity of this process is of critical importance in semi-arid regions where groundwater-surface water interactions affect water rights and the sustainability of water resource practices. The finite-difference flow model MODFLOW is currently the standard for estimating groundwater-surface water interactions in many regions in the western United States. However, certain limitations of the model persist when highly-resolved spatial scales are used to represent the stream-aquifer system, e.g. when the size of computational grid cells is much less than the river width. In this study, an external module is developed and linked with MODFLOW that (1) allows for multiple computational grid cells over the width of the river; (2) computes streamflow and stream stage along the length of the river using the one-dimensional (1D) steady (over a stress period) shallow water equations, which allows for more accurate stream stages when normal flow cannot be assumed or a rating curve is not available; and (3) incorporates a process for computing streamflow loss when an unsaturated zone develops under the streambed. Use of the module not only provides highly-resolved estimates of streamflow depletion, but also of streambed hydraulic conductivity. The new module is applied to the stream-aquifer alluvial system along the South Platte River south of Denver, Colorado, with results tested against field-measured groundwater levels, streamflow, and streamflow depletion.

  15. Developing A New Predictive Dispersion Equation Based on Tidal Average (TA) Condition in Alluvial Estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anak Gisen, Jacqueline Isabella; Nijzink, Remko C.; Savenije, Hubert H. G.

    2014-05-01

    Dispersion mathematical representation of tidal mixing between sea water and fresh water in The definition of dispersion somehow remains unclear as it is not directly measurable. The role of dispersion is only meaningful if it is related to the appropriate temporal and spatial scale of mixing, which are identified as the tidal period, tidal excursion (longitudinal), width of estuary (lateral) and mixing depth (vertical). Moreover, the mixing pattern determines the salt intrusion length in an estuary. If a physically based description of the dispersion is defined, this would allow the analytical solution of the salt intrusion problem. The objective of this study is to develop a predictive equation for estimating the dispersion coefficient at tidal average (TA) condition, which can be applied in the salt intrusion model to predict the salinity profile for any estuary during different events. Utilizing available data of 72 measurements in 27 estuaries (including 6 recently studied estuaries in Malaysia), regressions analysis has been performed with various combinations of dimensionless parameters . The predictive dispersion equations have been developed for two different locations, at the mouth D0TA and at the inflection point D1TA (where the convergence length changes). Regressions have been carried out with two separated datasets: 1) more reliable data for calibration; and 2) less reliable data for validation. The combination of dimensionless ratios that give the best performance is selected as the final outcome which indicates that the dispersion coefficient is depending on the tidal excursion, tidal range, tidal velocity amplitude, friction and the Richardson Number. A limitation of the newly developed equation is that the friction is generally unknown. In order to compensate this problem, further analysis has been performed adopting the hydraulic model of Cai et. al. (2012) to estimate the friction and depth. Keywords: dispersion, alluvial estuaries, mixing, salt

  16. Using Lead Concentrations and Stable Lead Isotope Ratios to Identify Contamination Events in Alluvial Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint-Laurent, D.; St-Laurent, J.; Hahni, M.; Chapados, C.; Ghaleb, B.

    2010-01-01

    Soils contaminated with hydrocarbons (C10,C50), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and other contaminants (e.g., As, Cd, Cu, Pb) were recently discovered on the banks of the Saint-Francois and Massawippi rivers. Alluvial soils are contaminated over a distance of 100 kilometers, and the level of the contaminated-hydrocarbon layer in the soil profiles is among the highest at the Windsor and Richmond sites. Concentrations of lead and stable lead isotope ratios ( 204 Pb/ 206 Pb, 206 Pb/ 207 Pb, 208 Pb/ 20 '6Pb) are also used to identify contamination events. The maximum and minimum values detected in soil profiles for arsenic, cadmium, and lead vary from 3.01 to 37.88?mg kg -1 (As), 0.11 to 0.81?mg kg-1 (Cd) 12.32 to 149.13?mg kg -1 (Pb), respectively, while the 207 Pb/ 206 Pb isotopic ratio values are between 0.8545 and 0.8724 for all the profiles. The highest values of trace elements (As, Pb and Zn) were detected in the hydrocarbon layer (C10,C50), most often located at the bottom of the profiles (160, 200, and 220 cm in depth). The various peaks recorded in the soils and the position of the profiles suggest that various contaminants were transported by the river on several occasions and infiltrated the soil matrix or deposited on flood plains during successive floods. Atmospheric particles which entered the river or deposited on riverbanks must also be considered as another source of pollution recorded in soils

  17. Uranium investigation in an alluvial aquifer with direct push methods - 59281

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Weirdt, Fabian

    2012-01-01

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The U.S. EPA has established a maximum contaminant level of 30 ug/l for uranium in drinking water due to its toxicity as a heavy metal. This regulation has affected many small public water supply systems in the US and several of them are struggling to come into compliance with the new standard. One such community is Clarks, NE, US which is situated on the alluvial deposits of the Platte River that are underlain by the Cretaceous Age Niobrara formation. Geoprobe Systems coordinated with the Nebraska Dept. of Health and Human Services, Water Well Stds. Program to investigate the cause of the elevated uranium in the groundwater that supplies drinking water to the village of Clarks. Initially hydraulic profiling tool (HPT) logs were obtained at selected locations across the Clarks well field. The HPT probe was advanced to depths of almost 36 m (120 ft) at several locations and the logs provided detailed information about the hydro-stratigraphy of the local aquifer not available from the drillers logs. The HPT logs were used to guide selection of screen depths for small diameter wells that were installed with direct push (DP) methods. A total of nine wells were installed at two locations at the facility with well depths ranging from as little as 6 m (20 ft) to a maximum of 36 m (118 ft). All wells were grouted bottom-up with a tremie tube using 25% solids bentonite slurry to assure screen interval isolation. (author)

  18. Advances in Field Deployable Instrumented Particles for the Study of Alluvial Transport Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, B.; Strom, K.

    2017-12-01

    Advances in microelectromechanical systems (MEMs) in the past decade have lead to the development of various instrumented or "smart" particles for use in the study of alluvial transport. The goal of many of these devices is to collect data on the interaction between hydrodynamic turbulence and individual sediment particles. Studying this interaction provides a basis to better understand entrainment and deposition processes which leads to better predictive morphologic and transport models. In collecting data on these processes, researchers seek to capture the time history of the forces incident on the particle and the particle's reaction. Many methods have been employed to capture this data - miniaturized pressure traps, accelerometers, gyroscopes, MEMs pressure transducers, and cantilevered load cells. However no system to date has been able to capture the pressure forces incident on the particle and its reaction while remaining mobile and of a size and density comparable to most gravels. Advances in the development, deployment, and use of waterproofed laboratory instrumentation have led our research group to develop such a particle. This particle has been used in both laboratory settings and large-scale fluvial environments (coupled with a field-deployable PIV system) to capture data on turbulent erosion processes. This system advances the practice in several ways: 1) It is, at present, the smallest (⌀ 19mm) instrumented erodible particle reported in the literature. 2) It contains novel developments in pressure sensing technology which allow the inclusion of six pressure ports, a 3-axis accelerometer, and a 1-axis gyroscope - all of which can be recorded simultaneously. 3) It expands the researcher's abilities to gather data on phenomena that, previously, have mandated the use of a laboratory scale model. The use of this system has generated observations of the so-called very large scale motions (VLSMs) in a reach of the Virginia section of the New River. Their

  19. Habitat disturbance and hydrological parameters determine the body size and reproductive strategy of alluvial ground beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerisch, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Environmental variability is the main driver for the variation of biological characteristics (life-history traits) of species. Therefore, life-history traits are particularly suited to identify mechanistic linkages between environmental variability and species occurrence and can help in explaining ecological patterns. For ground beetles, few studies directly related species traits to environmental variables. This study aims to analyse how life-history traits of alluvial ground beetles are controlled by environmental factors. I expected that the occurrence of species and the occurrence of specific traits are closely related to hydrological and disturbance parameters. Furthermore I expected most of the trait-variation to be explained by a combination of environmental variables, rather than by their isolated effects. Ground beetles were sampled in the year 2005 in floodplain grassland along the Elbe River in Germany. I used redundancy analysis to quantify the effects of hydrological, sediment, and disturbance related parameters on both species occurrence and species traits. I applied variation partitioning to analyse which environmental compartments explain most of the trait variation. Species occurrence and trait variation were both mainly controlled by hydrological and flood disturbance parameters. I could clearly identify reproductive traits and body size as key traits for floodplain ground beetles to cope with the environmental variability. Furthermore, combinations of hydrological, habitat disturbance, habitat type, and species diversity parameters, rather than their isolated effects, explained large parts of ground beetle trait variation. Thus, a main conclusion of this study is that ground beetle occurrence is mainly determined by complex, multi-scale interactions between environmental variability and their life-history traits.

  20. Unravelling the relative contribution of bed and suspended sediment load on a large alluvial river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, S. E.; Hackney, C. R.; Parsons, D. R.; Leyland, J.; Aalto, R. E.; Nicholas, A. P.; Best, J.

    2017-12-01

    The world's largest rivers transport 19 billion tonnes of sediment to the coastal zone annually, often supporting large deltas that rely on this sediment load to maintain their elevation in the face of rising sea level, and to sustain high levels of agricultural productivity and biodiversity. However, the majority of estimates of sediment delivery to coastal regions pertain solely to the suspended fraction of the sediment load, with the bedload fraction often being neglected due to the difficulty in estimating bedload flux and the assumption that bedload contributes a minor (management plans, improved estimates of all fractions of the sediment load are essential. Recent advances in non-intrusive, high-resolution, technology have begun to enable more accurate estimates of bedload transport rates. However, the characterisation of the holistic sediment transport regime of large alluvial rivers is still lacking. Here, we develop a sediment transport rating curve, combining both suspended- and bed- load sediment fractions, for the Lower Mekong River. We define suspended sediment rating curves using the inversion of acoustic return data from a series of acoustic Doppler current profiler surveys conducted through the Lower Mekong River in Cambodia, and into the bifurcating channels of the Mekong delta in Vietnam. Additionally, we detail estimates of bed-load sediment transport determined using repeat multibeam echo sounder surveys of the channel bed. By combining estimates of both fractions of the sediment load, we show the spatial and temporal contribution of bedload to the total sediment load of the Mekong and refine estimates of sediment transport to the Mekong delta. Our results indicate that the time-averaged suspended load transport rates for the Mekong River are 87 MT/yr, whilst bedload transport forms c. management within this highly threatened river basin.

  1. Isotope investigation on groundwater recharge and dynamics in shallow and deep alluvial aquifers of southwest Punjab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keesari, Tirumalesh; Sharma, Diana A; Rishi, Madhuri S; Pant, Diksha; Mohokar, Hemant V; Jaryal, Ajay Kumar; Sinha, U K

    2017-11-01

    Groundwater samples collected from the alluvial aquifers of southwest Punjab, both shallow and deep zones were measured for environmental tritium ( 3 H) and stable isotopes ( 2 H and 18 O) to evaluate the source of recharge and aquifer dynamics. The shallow groundwater shows wide variation in isotopic signature (δ 18 O: -11.3 to -5.0‰) reflecting multiple sources of recharge. The average isotopic signature of shallow groundwaters (δ 18 O: -6.73 ± 1.03‰) is similar to that of local precipitation (-6.98 ± 1.66‰) indicating local precipitation contributes to a large extent compared to other sources. Other sources have isotopically distinct signatures due to either high altitude recharge (canal sources) or evaporative enrichment (irrigation return flow). Deep groundwater shows relatively depleted isotopic signature (δ 18 O: -8.6‰) and doesn't show any evaporation effect as compared to shallow zone indicating recharge from precipitation occurring at relatively higher altitudes. Environmental tritium indicates that both shallow ( 3 H: 5 - 10 T.U.) and deeper zone ( 3 H: 1.5 - 2.5 T.U.) groundwaters are modern. In general the inter-aquifer connections seem to be unlikely except a few places. Environmental isotope data suggests that shallow groundwater is dynamic, local and prone to changes in land use patterns while deep zone water is derived from distant sources, less dynamic and not impacted by surface manifestations. A conceptual groundwater flow diagram is presented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Geomorphic Characterization of the FortyMile Wash Alluvial Fan, Nye County, Nevada, In Support of the Yucca Mountain Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline; De Long; Pelletier; Harrington

    2005-01-01

    In the event of an unlikely volcanic eruption through the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, contaminated ash would be deposited in portions of the Fortymile Wash drainage basin and would subsequently be redistributed to the Fortymile Wash alluvial fan by fluvial processes. As part of an effort to quantify the transport of contaminated ash throughout the fluvial system, characterization of the Fortymile Wash alluvial fan is required, especially the spatial distribution of fluvial activity over time scales of repository operation, and the rates of radionuclide migration into different soils on the fan. The Fortymile Wash alluvial fan consists of extremely low relief terraces as old as 70 ka. By conducting soils-geomorphic mapping and correlating relative surface ages with available geochronology from the Fortymile Wash fan and adjacent piedmonts, we identified 4 distinct surfaces on the fan. Surface ages are used to predict the relative stability of different areas of the fan to fluvial activity. Pleistocene-aged surfaces are assumed to be fluvially inactive over the 10 kyr time scale, for example. Our mapping and correlation provides a map of the depozone for contaminated ash that takes into account long-term channel migration the time scales of repository operation, and it provides a geomorphic framework for predicting radionuclide dispersion rates into different soils across the fan. The standard model for vertical migration of radionuclides in soil is diffusion; therefore we used diffusion profiles derived from 137 Cs fallout to determine infiltration rates on the various geomorphic surfaces. The results show a strong inverse correlation of the geomorphic surface age and diffusivity values inferred from the 137 Cs profiles collected on the different surfaces of the fan

  3. Determination of gold in Romanian auriferous alluvial sands and rocks by 14 MeV neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupu, Roxana; Nat, Alexandrina; Ene, Antoaneta

    2004-01-01

    In this work a complex study of the nuclear and spectral interferences which appear in gold determination by 14 MeV neutron activation analysis of Romanian auriferous alluvial sands and rocks has been accomplished. The contribution of the nuclear interfering elements - Hg and Pt - to the concentration of gold in the samples is minimum in the case of the nuclear reactions 197 Au(n, 2n) 196 Au, 197 Au (n,2n) 196m Au and 197 Au(n, n ' ) 197m Au. As regards the spectral interferences, these are minimum in the case of using the reactions 197 Au(n, n ' ) 197m Au and 197 Au (n, 2n) 196 Au and are due to Rb, Ti and V for the short irradiation and to Se for the long irradiation. We propose two methods of gold determination in auriferous alluvial sands and rocks in the range 20-2500 ppm - the minimum value of 20 ppm being at the level of an economic extraction - in the optima conditions established by us so that the systematic errors of analysis due to the gold accompanying elements should be considerably diminished: a method using short irradiation (25 s) and NaI(Tl) spectrometry for the measuring of the induced gamma radioactivity in the samples and a method using long irradiation (3000 s) and Ge(Li) spectrometry. The data presented in this paper can be adapted by other analysts to the rapid determination of gold in a variety of alluvial sands and rocks

  4. Assessing the impact of managed aquifer recharge on seasonal low flows in a semi-arid alluvial river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronayne, M. J.; Roudebush, J. A.; Stednick, J. D.

    2016-12-01

    Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is one strategy that can be used to augment seasonal low flows in alluvial rivers. Successful implementation requires an understanding of spatio-temporal groundwater-surface water exchange. In this study we conducted numerical groundwater modeling to analyze the performance of an existing MAR system in the South Platte River Valley in northeastern Colorado (USA). The engineered system involves a spatial reallocation of water during the winter months; alluvial groundwater is extracted near the river and pumped to upgradient recharge ponds, with the intent of producing a delayed hydraulic response that increases the riparian zone water table (and therefore streamflow) during summer months. Higher flows during the summer are required to improve riverine habitat for threatened species in the Platte River. Modeling scenarios were constrained by surface (streamflow gaging) and subsurface (well data) measurements throughout the study area. We compare two scenarios to analyze the impact of MAR: a natural base case scenario and an active management scenario that includes groundwater pumping and managed recharge. Steady-periodic solutions are used to evaluate the long-term stabilized behavior of the stream-aquifer system with and without pumping/recharge. Streamflow routing is included in the model, which permits quantification of the timing and location of streamflow accretion (increased streamflow associated with MAR). An analysis framework utilizing capture concepts is developed to interpret seasonal changes in head-dependent flows to/from the aquifer, including groundwater-surface water exchange that impacts streamflow. Results demonstrate that accretion occurs during the target low-flow period but is not limited to those months, highlighting an inefficiency that is a function of the aquifer geometry and hydraulic properties. The results of this study offer guidance for other flow augmentation projects that rely on water storage in shallow

  5. Flood susceptibility assessment in a highly urbanized alluvial fan: the case study of Sala Consilina (southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Santangelo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the risk assessment to alluvial fan flooding at the piedmont zone of carbonate massifs of the southern Apennines chain (southern Italy. These areas are prime spots for urban development and are generally considered to be safer than the valley floors. As a result, villages and towns have been built on alluvial fans which, during intense storms, may be affected by flooding and/or debris flow processes.

    The study area is located at the foothills of the Maddalena mountains, an elongated NW-SE trending ridge which bounds to the east the wide intermontane basin of Vallo di Diano. The area comprises a wide detrital talus (bajada made up by coalescent alluvial fans, ranging in age from the Middle Pleistocene to the Holocene. Historical analysis was carried out to ascertain the state of activity of the fans and to identify and map the zones most hit by past flooding. According to the information gathered, the Sala Consilina fans would appear prone to debris flows; in the past these processes have produced extensive damage and loss of life in the urban area. The watershed basins feeding the fans have very low response times and may produce debris flow events with high magnitudes. Taking into account the historical damage, the fan surface morphology, and the present urban development (street orientation and hydraulic network, the piedmont area was zoned and various susceptibility classes were detected. These results may represent a useful tool for studies aiming at territorial hazard mapping and civil protection interventions.

  6. Sources, lability and solubility of Pb in alluvial soils of the River Trent catchment, U.K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izquierdo, M.; Tye, A.M.; Chenery, S.R.

    2012-01-01

    Alluvial soils are reservoirs of metal contaminants such as Pb that originate from many different sources and are integrated temporally and spatially through erosional and depositional processes. In this study the source, lability and solubility of Pb were examined in a range of alluvial soils from the middle and lower River Trent and its tributary the River Dove using Pb isotope apportionment and isotopic dilution. All samples were collected within 10 m of the river bank to represent the soil that is most likely to be remobilised during bank erosion. Paired samples were taken from the topsoil (0–15 cm) and subsoil (35–50 cm) to assess differences with depth. Lead concentrations in soil ranged from 43 to 1282 mg/kg. The lability of soil Pb varied between 9 and 56% of total metal concentration whilst Pb concentrations in pore water varied between 0.2 and 6.5 μg/L. There was little difference in the % Pb lability between paired top and sub soils, possibly because soil characteristics such as pH, iron oxides and clay content were generally similar; a result of the recycling of eroded and deposited soils within the river system. Soil pH was found to be negatively correlated with % Pb lability. Source apportionment using 206 Pb/ 207 Pb and 208 Pb/ 207 Pb ratios showed that the isotopic ratios of Pb in the total, labile and solution pools fitted along a mixing line between Broken Hill Type (‘BHT’) Pb, used as an additive in UK petrol, and the local coal/Southern Pennine ore Pb. Various anomalies were found in the Pb isotopes of the bankside alluvial soils which were explained by point source pollution. Statistically significant differences were found between (i) the isotopic composition of Pb in the total soil pool and the labile/solution pools and (ii) the isotopic composition of Pb in the labile and solution pools, suggesting an enrichment of recent non-Pennine sources of Pb entering the soils in the labile and solution pools. -- Highlights: ► The labile

  7. Nutrient resorption efficiency of cocoa plantson lowl and of Alluvial plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Erwiyono

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Observation on nutrient retranslocation of cocoa plants has been carried out in Kaliwining Experimental Station, Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute (ICCRI in Jember in order to assess its efficiency to have better understanding on the loss of nutrients through cocoa litterfall relatively intensive during dry season, better utilization of the plant litters, and further more efficient plant management. Nutrient retranslocation assessment has been conducted for macro nutrients in terms of N, P, and K that have been observed on four clones of cocoa planted in 2004, that are KW 163, KW 162, KKM 22, and KW 165 in the plot with Tectona grandis shading trees and plot with Cassia surithensis shading trees, with five replicates. The plots of observation overlaid on Alluvial plain 45 m asl. and D type rainfall. The results showed that nutrient contents in senescence leaves with yellow colour and then falling significantly lower than those of mature leaves with green colour adjacent to it. Reductions of N, P, and K contents during leaf senescence occured significantly on KW 163, KW 162, and KKM 22 clones, whereas on KW 165 clone significant reduction only happened to phosphorus. Mature leaves of cocoa with green colour contained average nitrogen, phosphorus, and kalium at 13.0, 1.6, and 13.5 mg/g- respectively. Whereas senescing leaves with yellow colour then defoliating contained average nitrogen, phosphorus, and kalium at 9.5, 0.9, and 10.0 mg/g, respectively. This reduction of nutrient contents was caused by nutrient retranslocation mechanism of the plants. Nitrogen, phosphorus, and kalium retranslocated by cocoa plants in rainy season are as much as 3.60, 0.70, and 3.39 mg/g, or 27%, 42%, and 24%, respectively. In other words nutrient retranslocation efficiency of cocoa plants for N, P, and K is in the following order: P>N>K. Among the clones, KKM 22 clone retranslocated P and K most efficiently; whereas for N, KW 162 clone retranslocated it

  8. Soil Moisture and Turgidity of Selected Robusta Coffee Clones on Alluvial Plain with Seasonal Rainfall Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Erwiyono

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Observation on the seasonal variations of hydrological condition and turgidity of selected Robusta coffee clones has been carried out in Kaliwining Experimental Station, Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute in Jember. The aim was to evaluate the effect of hydrological variation on the coffee plants and the degree of soil moisture effect on plant performance. Experimental site overlays on alluvial plain, + 45 m a.s.l., 8o 15’ South with D rainfall type. Observation was conducted by survey method at the experimental plots of organic fertilizer and nitogen treatments on selected Robusta coffee clones derived from rooted cuttings, i.e. BP 436, BP 42, BP 936 and BP 358. Observation was only conducted at the experimental blocks of organic matter trials of 20 l/tree/year at nitrogen (Urea application of locally recommanded rate during the subsequent years of 1999 to 2001. Parameters observed included plant turgidity and soil moisture content of three different depths, i.e. 0—20, 20—40 and 40—60 cm and the weather. Observation was carried out in five replicates designed as blocks of barn manure treatment and N-fertilizer of recommended rate as basal fertilizer. The results showed that meteorological condition and soil moisture of experimental site through the years have seasonal patterns following the seasonal pattern of rainfall. Compared to other meteorological characteristics, relative humidity dominantly determined evaporation and plant turgidity. Plant turgi-dity was not only determined by soil moisture condition, but also atmospheric demand. When relative humidity (RH was relatively high, plant turgidity was relatively stable although soil moisture of surface layers was very low, and the reversal when soil moisture content was high plant turgidity was controlled by atmospheric demand (relative humidity. With a 3—4 dry month period, relative turgidity of the coffee plants was relatively stable above 82%, except when soil

  9. Alluvial diamond resource potential and production capacity assessment of the Central African Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirico, Peter G.; Barthelemy, Francis; Ngbokoto, Francois A.

    2010-01-01

    In May of 2000, a meeting was convened in Kimberley, South Africa, and attended by representatives of the diamond industry and leaders of African governments to develop a certification process intended to assure that rough, exported diamonds were free of conflict concerns. This meeting was supported later in 2000 by the United Nations in a resolution adopted by the General Assembly. By 2002, the Kimberly Process Certification Scheme (KPCS) was ratified and signed by diamond-producing and diamond-importing countries. Over 70 countries were included as members of the KPCS at the end of 2007. To prevent trade in "conflict diamonds" while protecting legitimate trade, the KPCS requires that each country set up an internal system of controls to prevent conflict diamonds from entering any imported or exported shipments of rough diamonds. Every diamond or diamond shipment must be accompanied by a Kimberley Process (KP) certificate and be contained in tamper-proof packaging. The objective of this study was (1) to assess the naturally occurring endowment of diamonds in the Central African Republic (potential resources) based on geological evidence, previous studies, and recent field data and (2) to assess the diamond-production capacity and measure the intensity of mining activity. Several possible methods can be used to estimate the potential diamond resource. However, because there is generally a lack of sufficient and consistent data recording all diamond mining in the Central African Republic and because time to conduct fieldwork and accessibility to the diamond mining areas are limited, two different methodologies were used: the volume and grade approach and the content per kilometer approach. Estimates are that approximately 39,000,000 carats of alluvial diamonds remain in the eastern and western zones of the CAR combined. This amount is roughly twice the total amount of diamonds reportedly exported from the Central African Republic since 1931. Production capacity is

  10. Interactions between fauna and environment in recent alluvial soils (Dunajec River, SE Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikuś, Paweł; Uchman, Alfred

    2017-04-01

    Recent riverine system is a particular place for interactions between fauna and the deposited sediments containing young and old alluvial soils. It is characterized by large energy gradients in relatively short time, which forces special adaptations of burrowing animals recorded in bioturbation structures. Predators produce mainly shelter burrows (interpreted as domichnia), and saprofags, especially earthworms, produce locomotion and feeding structures (pascichnia). Such structures have been studied in non- or poorly vegetated, sandy or muddy Holocene alluvia in the lower reach of the Dunajec River flowing through the Carpathian Foredeep in SE Poland. The observed burrows are mostly produced by a variety of organisms, including the European mole (Talpa europaea), common earthworm (Lumbricus terrestris), ground beetles (Carabidae), solitary bees (Ammophila), red fox (Vulpes vulpes), European beaver (Castor fiber), shrews (Soricidae), European otter (Lutra lutra), several species of mice (Muridae), voles (Myodae, Microtae), and the swallow sand martin (Riparia riparia). Burrows of a few species of ground beetles have been subjected to more detailed studies. Fertile deposits of older (early to middle Holocene) terraces, formed with many long-term interruptions in sedimentation processes, have a well-developed soil levels, more vulnerable to burrowing than recently deposited sediments. The terraces contain layers of sands and muds, which primary sedimentary structures and layer boundaries are completely or partly disturbed by bioturbation. Organic-rich muds have been moved up and down and mixed with sand. Moreover, sediments have been leached into open burrows during floods or rainfalls. In the natural levee sediments, mostly fine to medium sands, are horizontally burrowed, foremost by earthworms (Lumbricidae). Vertical, long (over 2 m deep) burrows of larger earthworms cross cut the natural levee sediments and enter buried soils. They were formed during a long period

  11. Probability distribution functions of turbulence in seepage-affected alluvial channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Anurag; Kumar, Bimlesh, E-mail: anurag.sharma@iitg.ac.in, E-mail: bimk@iitg.ac.in [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, 781039 (India)

    2017-02-15

    The present experimental study is carried out on the probability distribution functions (PDFs) of turbulent flow characteristics within near-bed-surface and away-from-bed surfaces for both no seepage and seepage flow. Laboratory experiments were conducted in the plane sand bed for no seepage (NS), 10% seepage (10%S) and 15% seepage (15%) cases. The experimental calculation of the PDFs of turbulent parameters such as Reynolds shear stress, velocity fluctuations, and bursting events is compared with theoretical expression obtained by Gram–Charlier (GC)-based exponential distribution. Experimental observations follow the computed PDF distributions for both no seepage and seepage cases. Jensen-Shannon divergence (JSD) method is used to measure the similarity between theoretical and experimental PDFs. The value of JSD for PDFs of velocity fluctuation lies between 0.0005 to 0.003 while the JSD value for PDFs of Reynolds shear stress varies between 0.001 to 0.006. Even with the application of seepage, the PDF distribution of bursting events, sweeps and ejections are well characterized by the exponential distribution of the GC series, except that a slight deflection of inward and outward interactions is observed which may be due to weaker events. The value of JSD for outward and inward interactions ranges from 0.0013 to 0.032, while the JSD value for sweep and ejection events varies between 0.0001 to 0.0025. The theoretical expression for the PDF of turbulent intensity is developed in the present study, which agrees well with the experimental observations and JSD lies between 0.007 and 0.015. The work presented is potentially applicable to the probability distribution of mobile-bed sediments in seepage-affected alluvial channels typically characterized by the various turbulent parameters. The purpose of PDF estimation from experimental data is that it provides a complete numerical description in the areas of turbulent flow either at a single or finite number of points

  12. Tree growth and recruitment in a leveed floodplain forest in the Mississippi River Alluvial Valley, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Hugo K.W.; King, Sammy L.; Keim, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    Flooding is a defining disturbance in floodplain forests affecting seed germination, seedling establishment, and tree growth. Globally, flood control, including artificial levees, dams, and channelization has altered flood regimes in floodplains. However, a paucity of data are available in regards to the long-term effects of levees on stand establishment and tree growth in floodplain forests. In this study, we used dendrochronological techniques to reconstruct tree recruitment and tree growth over a 90-year period at three stands within a ring levee in the Mississippi River Alluvial Valley (MAV) and to evaluate whether recruitment patterns and tree growth changed following levee construction. We hypothesized that: (1) sugarberry is increasing in dominance and overcup oak (Quercus lyrata) is becoming less dominant since the levee, and that changes in hydrology are playing a greater role than canopy disturbance in these changes in species dominance; and (2) that overcup oak growth has declined following construction of the levee and cessation of overbank flooding whereas that of sugarberry has increased. Recruitment patterns shifted from flood-tolerant overcup oak to flood-intolerant sugarberry (Celtis laevigata) after levee construction. None of the 122 sugarberry trees cored in this study established prior to the levee, but it was the most common species established after the levee. The mechanisms behind the compositional change are unknown, however, the cosmopolitan distribution of overcup oak during the pre-levee period and sugarberry during the post-levee period, the lack of sugarberry establishment in the pre-levee period, and the confinement of overcup oak regeneration to the lowest areas in each stand after harvest in the post-levee period indicate that species-specific responses to flooding and light availability are forcing recruitment patterns. Overcup oak growth was also affected by levee construction, but in contrast to our hypothesis, growth actually

  13. Highway 61 Revisited: Finding Drivers for Hypoxia in Aquatic Systems in the Mississippi Alluvial Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, F., Jr.; Murdock, J. N.; Lizotte, R. E., Jr.; Knight, S. S.; Locke, M. A.; Testa, S., III

    2011-12-01

    Streams and lakes in the intensively cultivated Mississippi River alluvial plain frequently experience periods of hypoxia that are evidence of ecological stress. Although hydrologic perturbations and sediments and nutrients derived from nonpoint sources are likely drivers of these conditions, the most efficient pathway for obtaining partial ecological recovery (e.g., N load reduction or P load reduction or flow augmentation or erosion control) is not clear. To gain deeper understanding of these systems, three similar ~20 km2 watersheds in northwestern Mississippi were selected for study and instrumented for collection of hydrologic and water quality data in 2011. Aquatic systems within each watershed consisted of shallow natural lakes embedded in networks of sporadically flowing ditches, natural channels and wetlands, with hydrology strongly impacted by irrigation withdrawals from groundwater and return flows to surface water bodies. Waters were usually turbid, with mean Secchi disk readings 10-15 cm and mean suspended solids concentrations 200-600 mg/L. Strong diurnal fluctuations in dissolved oxygen concentration (DO) occurred even in the wetter, cooler winter months, with up to 50% of daily means below state standards (5 mg/L). The average diurnal range (daily max-daily min) in DO varied from 0.9 to 2.5 mg/L for lakes and from 1.7 to 6.0 mg/L for channels. Attendant extreme diurnal variations in temperature and pH were also observed. Observations of chlorophyll a concentrations, water column phytoplankton, and attached algae indicate the importance of algal photosynthesis and respiration to DO levels, but these processes are limited by light availability and N and P concentrations in a complex fashion. Light levels are governed by channel width, water depth and turbidity, which is due to suspended sediment and algae. Preliminary nutrient limitation studies showed both N and P limit algal growth, and microbial production and respiration. N and N+P co

  14. Food Vulnerability and Alluvial Farming for Food Security in Central Dry Zone Area of Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boori, M. S.; Choudhary, K.; Evers, M.; Kupriyanov, A.

    2017-10-01

    The central dry zone area of Myanmar is the most water stressed and also one of the most food insecure regions in the country. In the Dry Zone area, the total population is 10.1 million people in 54 townships, in which approximately 43 % live in below poverty line and 40-50 % of the rural population is landless. Agriculture is the most important economic sector in Myanmar as it is essential for national food security and a major source of livelihood for its people. In this region the adverse effects of climate change such as late or early onset of monsoon season, longer dry spells, erratic rainfall, increasing temperature, heavy rains, stronger typhoons, extreme spatial-temporal variability of rainfall, high intensities, limited rainfall events in the growing season, heat stress, drought, flooding, sea water intrusion, land degradation, desertification, deforestation and other natural disasters are believed to be a major constraint to food insecurity. For food vulnerability, we use following indicators: slope, precipitation, vegetation, soil, erosion, land degradation and harvest failure in ArcGIS software. The erosion is influenced by rainfall and slope, while land degradation is directly related to vegetation, drainage and soil. While harvest failure can be generate by rainfall and flood potential zones. Results show that around 45 % study area comes under very high erosion danger level, 70 % under average harvest failure, 59 % intermediate land degradation area and the overall around 45 % study area comes under insecure food vulnerability zone. Our analysis shows an increase in alluvial farming by 1745.33 km2 since 1988 to reduce the insecure food vulnerability. Food vulnerability map is also relevant to increased population and low income areas. The extreme climatic events are likely increase in frequency and magnitude of serious drought periods and extreme floods. Food insecurity is an important thing that must be reviewed because it relates to

  15. FOOD VULNERABILITY AND ALLUVIAL FARMING FOR FOOD SECURITY IN CENTRAL DRY ZONE AREA OF MYANMAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Boori

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The central dry zone area of Myanmar is the most water stressed and also one of the most food insecure regions in the country. In the Dry Zone area, the total population is 10.1 million people in 54 townships, in which approximately 43 % live in below poverty line and 40–50 % of the rural population is landless. Agriculture is the most important economic sector in Myanmar as it is essential for national food security and a major source of livelihood for its people. In this region the adverse effects of climate change such as late or early onset of monsoon season, longer dry spells, erratic rainfall, increasing temperature, heavy rains, stronger typhoons, extreme spatial-temporal variability of rainfall, high intensities, limited rainfall events in the growing season, heat stress, drought, flooding, sea water intrusion, land degradation, desertification, deforestation and other natural disasters are believed to be a major constraint to food insecurity. For food vulnerability, we use following indicators: slope, precipitation, vegetation, soil, erosion, land degradation and harvest failure in ArcGIS software. The erosion is influenced by rainfall and slope, while land degradation is directly related to vegetation, drainage and soil. While harvest failure can be generate by rainfall and flood potential zones. Results show that around 45 % study area comes under very high erosion danger level, 70 % under average harvest failure, 59 % intermediate land degradation area and the overall around 45 % study area comes under insecure food vulnerability zone. Our analysis shows an increase in alluvial farming by 1745.33 km2 since 1988 to reduce the insecure food vulnerability. Food vulnerability map is also relevant to increased population and low income areas. The extreme climatic events are likely increase in frequency and magnitude of serious drought periods and extreme floods. Food insecurity is an important thing that must be reviewed

  16. Physical and microbiological properties of alluvial calcareous Çumra province soils (Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Sami Erol

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Alluvial calcareous soils in Central Anatolia (Konya province, Çumra district has a heavy granulometric composition (average clay, low organic carbon content (less than 1%, but stable pore space structure and favorable agrophysical properties. Studies of the water regime in drip irrigation confirm favorable hydrological properties of these soils. It is assumed that the favorable structure of the pore space due to vigorous activity a large and diverse soil biota. Four phyla dominate in soil biota, among which predominate Actinobacteria. The higher (Streptomyces, and lower (three species Rhodococcus actinobacteria are predominant in large amounts as a part of this phyla. Large biodiversity at a sufficiently high bacteria richness formed the structure of the microbial community that contribute to the balanced production of specific metabolites, including gases (CO2, N2, which allows the soil to function actively, preventing compaction of the pore space and maintaining optimal density, porosity, hydrologic properties of the studied silty clay soils. m the uppermost soil horizons. Analyses of heavy mineral fraction show presence of metamorphic and igneous minerals which indicate participation of weathering products from other rock types in the nearby area. The types of heavy minerals in soils depend more on composition of parent rocks and geomorphic position than on climate type. Soils from Nova Lovcha show similar composition, but the quantity of goethite and hematite significantly increase in soil from plain. Typical high-metamorphic minerals as andalusite, kyanite and sillimanite present only in Nova Lovcha, while garnet dominates in Petrovo and opaque minerals - in Dobrostan. Red soils, formed on slopes, where erosion prevails over accumulation, contain more illite, smectite and vermiculite-smectite, and very few or no kaolinite, whereas the kaolinite is dominant in soils formed on plain. The mineralogical composition of clays in different

  17. Delineation of groundwater development potential zones in parts of marginal Ganga Alluvial Plain in South Bihar, Eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Dipankar; Dhar, Y R; Vittala, S S

    2010-06-01

    A part of the Gangetic Alluvial Plain covering 2,228 km(2), in the state of Bihar, is studied for demarcating groundwater development potential zones. The area is mainly agrarian and experiencing intensive groundwater draft to the tune of 0.12 million cubic metre per square kilometres per year from the Quaternary marginal alluvial deposits, unconformably overlain northerly sloping Precambrian bedrock. Multiparametric data on groundwater comprising water level, hydraulic gradient (pre- and post-monsoon), aquifer thickness, permeability, suitability of groundwater for drinking and irrigation and groundwater resources vs. draft are spatially analysed and integrated on a Geographical Information System platform to generate thematic layers. By integrating these layers, three zones have been delineated based on groundwater development potential. It is inferred that about 48% of the area covering northern part has high development potential, while medium and low development potential category covers 41% of the area. Further increase in groundwater extraction is not recommended for an area of 173 km(2), affected by over-exploitation. The replenishable groundwater resource available for further extraction has been estimated. The development potential enhances towards north with increase in thickness of sediments. Local deviations are due to variation of-(1) cumulative thickness of aquifers, (2) deeper water level resulting from localised heavy groundwater extraction and (3) aquifer permeability.

  18. Comparison of groundwater recharge estimation techniques in an alluvial aquifer system with an intermittent/ephemeral stream (Queensland, Australia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Adam C.; Raiber, Matthias; Cox, Malcolm E.; Cendón, Dioni I.

    2017-09-01

    This study demonstrates the importance of the conceptual hydrogeological model for the estimation of groundwater recharge rates in an alluvial system interconnected with an ephemeral or intermittent stream in south-east Queensland, Australia. The losing/gaining condition of these streams is typically subject to temporal and spatial variability, and knowledge of these hydrological processes is critical for the interpretation of recharge estimates. Recharge rate estimates of 76-182 mm/year were determined using the water budget method. The water budget method provides useful broad approximations of recharge and discharge fluxes. The chloride mass balance (CMB) method and the tritium method were used on 17 and 13 sites respectively, yielding recharge rates of 1-43 mm/year (CMB) and 4-553 mm/year (tritium method). However, the conceptual hydrogeological model confirms that the results from the CMB method at some sites are not applicable in this setting because of overland flow and channel leakage. The tritium method was appropriate here and could be applied to other alluvial systems, provided that channel leakage and diffuse infiltration of rainfall can be accurately estimated. The water-table fluctuation (WTF) method was also applied to data from 16 bores; recharge estimates ranged from 0 to 721 mm/year. The WTF method was not suitable where bank storage processes occurred.

  19. Characteristics of the gravel size and potassium in the Ejin Alluvial Fan from remote sensing images and stratigraphic section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Lu; Guo, Huadong; Wang, Qinjun

    2014-01-01

    The Ejin Alluvial Fan (EAF), located in the north-west of China, is an important recorder of both paleoclimatic and tectonic information of the north margin of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Remote sensing technics, including optical and microwave sensors, have been the key spatial observation tools to extract the surface information related to the paleoenvironment. In this paper, the gravel size and chemical element potassium K distributions of the EAF were obtained from RadarSat-2 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data and LandSat TM optical data, respectively. In addition, the stratigraphic section of the EAF was established and the corresponding geological information in the vertical direction with different periods was obtained. Combining the geological survey information and surface distribution information, it can be concluded as follows. 1) The EAF covers an area of above 30,000 km 2 and may be the largest arid and semi-arid alluvial fan in the world based on the remote sensing survey. 2) Some surface parameters which are related to the paleoenvironmental change can be obtained from remote sensing data, such as the gravel size and potassium K parameters. 3) The forming process of the EAF and the corresponding environments will be understood deeply, combining the paleoenvironmental related parameters derived from remote sensing data and the geologic survey data

  20. Rapid determination of gold in Romanian auriferous alluvial sands, concentrates and rocks by 14 MeV NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nat, A.; Ene, A.; Lupu, R.

    2004-01-01

    The nuclear and spectral interferences in the 14 MeV neutron activation analysis (NAA) of gold from Romanian auriferous alluvial sands, concentrates and rocks have been studied and the optimum of activation, cooling and measuring times was determined for a maximum peak-to-background ratio for gold. The contribution of the nuclear interfering elements in the samples, Hg and Pt, to the concentration of gold has been calculated and, concluded that the nuclear reactions 197 Au(n,2n) 196 Au, 197 Au(n,2n) 196 mAu and 197 Au(n,n') 197 mAu can be used for gold determination, with minimal errors. Using the nuclear reactions 197 Au(n,n') 197 mAu and 197 Au(n,2n) 196 Au the spectral interferences are minimal and are due to Rb, Ti and V for a short irradiation and to Se for a long one. Two methods of fast gold determination were proposed for auriferous alluvial sands and rocks in the range of 20-2500 ppm, under the optimum conditions established so that the systematic errors of analysis due to the gold accompanying elements can be considerably diminished. For measuring the induced gamma-radioactivity in the samples either a short irradiation (25 seconds) with a NaI(Tl) detector or a long irradiation (3000 seconds) with a Ge(Li) detector were used. (author)

  1. Assessment of Intrinsic Vulnerability to Contamination for the Alluvial Aquifer in El-Fayoum Depression Using the Drastic Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Intrinsic vulnerability assessment to delineate areas that are more susceptible to contamination from anthropogenic sources has become an important element for sensible resource management and land use planning. The vulnerability for the alluvial aquifer in El-Fayoum depression was assessed by applying the Drastic model as well as utilizing sensitivity analyses to evaluate the reliability of this model. This method uses seven parameters including climatic, geological, and hydrogeological conditions controlling the seepage of pollutant substances to groundwater. Vulnerability maps were produced by applying the Generic and Agricultural models according to the Drastic charter. The resulting agricultural Drastic vulnerability map indicates that 23.3%, 22.7% and 12.4% of El-Fayoum depression is under low, low-moderate and moderately high vulnerability of groundwater contamination, respectively, while 41.6% of the area of study can be designated as an area of moderate vulnerability of groundwater contamination. Resulting maps revealed that the potential for polluting groundwater with agricultural chemicals is greater than with Generic Drastic index pollutants. Depth to water table parameter inflicted the largest impact on the intrinsic vulnerability of the alluvial aquifer in El-Fayoum depression. Both the map removal and single-parameter sensitivity analyses indicated that the vulnerability index is the least sensitive to the removal of the recharge and hydraulic conductivity parameters but is highly sensitive to the removal of depth to water parameter.

  2. Reconnaissance investigation of the alluvial gold deposits in the North Takhar Area of Interest, Takhar Province, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirico, Peter G.; Malpeli, Katherine C.; Moran, Thomas W.

    2013-01-01

    This study is a reconnaissance assessment of the alluvial gold deposits of the North Takhar Area of Interest (AOI) in Takhar Province, Afghanistan. Soviet and Afghan geologists collected data and calculated the gold deposit reserves in Takhar Province in the 1970s, prior to the development of satellite-based remote-sensing platforms and new methods of geomorphic mapping. The purpose of this study was to integrate new mapping techniques with previously collected borehole sampling and concentration sampling data and geomorphologic interpretations to reassess the alluvial gold placer deposits in the North Takhar AOI. Through a combination of historical borehole and cross-section data and digital terrain modeling, the Samti, Nooraba-Khasar-Anjir, and Kocha River placer deposits were reassessed. Resource estimates were calculated to be 20,927 kilograms (kg) for Samti, 7,626 kg for Nooraba-Khasar-Anjir, 160 kg for the mouth of the Kocha, 1,047 kg for the lower Kocha, 113 kg for the middle Kocha, and 168 kg for the upper Kocha. Previous resource estimates conducted by the Soviets for the Samti and Nooraba-Khasar-Anjir deposits estimated 30,062 kg and 802 kg of gold, respectively. This difference between the new estimates and previous estimates results from the higher resolution geomorphic model and the interpretation of areas outside of the initial work zone studied by Soviet and Afghan geologists.

  3. Hydrogeological framework, numerical simulation of groundwater flow, and effects of projected water use and drought for the Beaver-North Canadian River alluvial aquifer, northwestern Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryter, Derek W.; Correll, Jessica S.

    2016-01-14

    This report describes a study of the hydrology, hydrogeological framework, numerical groundwater-flow models, and results of simulations of the effects of water use and drought for the Beaver-North Canadian River alluvial aquifer, northwestern Oklahoma. The purpose of the study was to provide analyses, including estimating equal-proportionate-share (EPS) groundwater-pumping rates and the effects of projected water use and droughts, pertinent to water management of the Beaver-North Canadian River alluvial aquifer for the Oklahoma Water Resources Board.

  4. Depletion of rice as food of waterfowl wintering in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Danielle M.; Dugger, Bruce D.; Reinecke, Kenneth J.; Petrie, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    Waterfowl habitat conservation strategies in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MAV) and several other wintering areas assume carrying capacity is limited by available food, and increasing food resources is an effective conservation goal. Because existing research on winter food abundance and depletion is insufficient to test this hypothesis, we used harvested rice fields as model foraging habitats to determine if waste rice seed is depleted before spring migration. We sampled rice fields (n = 39 [winter 2000-2001], n = 69 [2001-2002]) to estimate seed mass when waterfowl arrived in late autumn and departed in late winter. We also placed exclosures in subsets of fields in autumn (n = 8 [2000-2001], n = 20 [2001-2002]) and compared seed mass inside and outside exclosures in late winter to estimate rice depletion attributable to waterfowl and other processes. Finally, we used an experiment to determine if the extent of rice depletion differed among fields of varying initial abundance and if the seed mass at which waterfowl ceased foraging or abandoned fields differed from a hypothesized giving-up value of 50 kg/ha. Mean seed mass was greater in late autumn 2000 than 2001 (127.0 vs. 83.9 kg/ha; P = 0.018) but decreased more during winter 2000-2001 than 2001-2002 (91.3 vs. 55.7 kg/ha) and did not differ at the end of winter (35.8 vs. 28.3 kg/ha; P = 0.651). Assuming equal loss to deterioration inside and outside exclosures, we estimated waterfowl consumed 61.3 kg/ha (48.3%) of rice present in late autumn 2000 and 21.1 kg/ha (25.1%) in 2001. When we manipulated late-autumn rice abundance, mean giving-up mass of rice seed was similar among treatments (48.7 kg/ha; P = 0.205) and did not differ from 50 kg/ha (P = 0.726). We integrated results by constructing scenarios in which waterfowl consumed rice at different times in winter, consumption and deterioration were competing risks, and consumption occurred only above 50 kg/ha. Results indicated waterfowl likely consumed

  5. Nutrient fluxes in litterfall of a secondary successional alluvial rain forest in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Bergamini Scheer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available During forest succession, litterfall nutrient fluxes increase significantly. The higher inputs of organic matter and nutrients through litterfall affects positively soil fertility and the species composition, which are essential components in forest restoration and management programs. In the present study, the input of nutrients to the forest soil via litterfall components was estimated for two sites of different development stages, in an early successional alluvial rain forest in Brazil. Litterfall returned to the soil, in kg/ha, ca. 93 N, 79 Ca, 24 K, 15 Mg, 6 P, 1.7 Mn, 0.94 Fe, 0.18 Zn, 0.09 Cu and 11.2 Al, in the site where trees were more abundant and had higher values of basal area. In the other area, where trees where less abundant and values of basal area were comparatively low, litterfall returned Durante la sucesión secundaria forestal, el flujo de nutrientes en la hojarasca se incrementa significativamente. Los altos ingresos de materia orgánica y nutrientes a través de la hojarasca afecta positivamente la fertilidad del suelo y la composición de especies, las cuales son componentes esenciales para programas de restauración forestal y de manejo. En el presente estudio, el ingreso de nutrientes a través de la hojarasca y sus componentes fueron estimados para dos sitios de una selva lluviosa atlántica aluvial en sucesión temprana. La cantidad anual de elementos que ingresan al suelo desde la vegetación más desarrollada (sitios con alta área basal y abundancia de árboles fueron (en kg/ha: 93 N, 79 Ca, 24 K, 15 Mg, 6 P, 1.7 Mn, 0.94 Fe, 0.18 Zn, 0.09 Cu y 11.2 Al. Menos de la mitad de esas cantidades fueron aportadas por la vegetación menos desarrollada, excepto para el Al. La cantidad de Al aportada a este sitio fue similar a la contribución de la vegetación más desarrollada, debido a la contribución de: Tibouchina pulchra (82% de todo el Al aportado. La eficiencia en el uso de nutrientes de la hojarasca

  6. The role of the uncertainty in assessing future scenarios of water shortage in alluvial aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Emanuele; Camici, Stefania; Brocca, Luca; Moramarco, Tommaso; Guyennon, Nicolas; Preziosi, Elisabetta

    2015-04-01

    There are many evidences that the combined effects of variations in precipitation and temperature due to climate change can result in a significant change of the recharge to groundwater at different time scales. A possible reduction of effective infiltration can result in a significant decrease, temporary or permanent, of the availability of the resource and, consequently, the sustainable pumping rate should be reassessed. In addition to this, one should also consider the so called indirect impacts of climate change, resulting from human intervention (e.g. augmentation of abstractions) which are feared to be even more important than the direct ones in the medium term: thus, a possible increase of episodes of shortage (i.e. the inability of the groundwater system to completely supply the water demand) can result both from change in the climate forcing and change in the demand. In order to assess future scenarios of water shortage a modelling chain is often used. It includes: 1) the use of General Circulation Models to estimate changes in temperature and precipitation; 2) downscaling procedures to match modeling scenarios to the observed meteorological time series; 3) soil-atmosphere modelling to estimate the time variation of the recharge to the aquifer; 4) groundwater flow models to simulate the water budget and piezometric head evolution; 5) future scenarios of groundwater quantitative status that include scenarios of demand variation. It is well known that each of these processing steps is affected by an intrinsic uncertainty that propagates through the whole chain leading to a final uncertainty on the piezometric head scenarios. The estimate of such an uncertainty is a key point for a correct management of groundwater resources, in case of water shortage due to prolonged droughts as well as for planning purposes. This study analyzes the uncertainty of the processing chain from GCM scenarios to its impact on an alluvial aquifer in terms of exploitation

  7. Sources, lability and solubility of Pb in alluvial soils of the River Trent catchment, U.K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, M; Tye, A M; Chenery, S R

    2012-09-01

    Alluvial soils are reservoirs of metal contaminants such as Pb that originate from many different sources and are integrated temporally and spatially through erosional and depositional processes. In this study the source, lability and solubility of Pb were examined in a range of alluvial soils from the middle and lower River Trent and its tributary the River Dove using Pb isotope apportionment and isotopic dilution. All samples were collected within 10 m of the river bank to represent the soil that is most likely to be remobilised during bank erosion. Paired samples were taken from the topsoil (0-15 cm) and subsoil (35-50 cm) to assess differences with depth. Lead concentrations in soil ranged from 43 to 1282 mg/kg. The lability of soil Pb varied between 9 and 56% of total metal concentration whilst Pb concentrations in pore water varied between 0.2 and 6.5 μg/L. There was little difference in the % Pb lability between paired top and sub soils, possibly because soil characteristics such as pH, iron oxides and clay content were generally similar; a result of the recycling of eroded and deposited soils within the river system. Soil pH was found to be negatively correlated with % Pb lability. Source apportionment using (206)Pb/(207)Pb and (208)Pb/(207)Pb ratios showed that the isotopic ratios of Pb in the total, labile and solution pools fitted along a mixing line between Broken Hill Type ('BHT') Pb, used as an additive in UK petrol, and the local coal/Southern Pennine ore Pb. Various anomalies were found in the Pb isotopes of the bankside alluvial soils which were explained by point source pollution. Statistically significant differences were found between (i) the isotopic composition of Pb in the total soil pool and the labile/solution pools and (ii) the isotopic composition of Pb in the labile and solution pools, suggesting an enrichment of recent non-Pennine sources of Pb entering the soils in the labile and solution pools. Copyright © 2012 Natural Environment

  8. Depositional Architecture of Late Pleistocene-Holocene Coastal Alluvial-fan System in the Coastal Range, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S. T.; Chen, W. S.

    2016-12-01

    Since late Pleistocene, the Coastal Range (Philippine Sea plate) collided and overridden on the Central Range (Eurasian Plate) along the Longitudinal Valley Fault. Therefore, the Coastal Range is exposed widely the late Pleistocene-Holocene marine and fluvial terraces caused by the tectonic uplift. Based on the estimation of paleosea-level elevations (Δh), depositional paleodepth, altitude distribution of Holocene deposits (D), altitude of outcrops (H), and 14C dating of marine deposits (t), the uplift rate (=(Δh+H +d-D)/t) is about 5-10 mm/yr in the southern Coastal Range. In this study, we suggest through field logging that the deposits can be divided into alluvial, foreshore (intertidal), shoreface, and offshore environments. In Dulan area in the southern Coastal Range, the uplift rate was 6-7 mm/yr during 16,380-10,000 cal yr BP and 3-4 mm/yr after 7,000 cal yr BP. Results from the Dulan Coastal alluvial-fan system can be divided into five depositional stages: (1) 16,380-14,300 cal yr BP: The rate of global sea level rise (SLR) has averaged about 6-7 mm/yr, similar to the tectonic uplift rate. In this stage, the bedrock was eroded and formed a wide wave-cut platform. (2) 14,300-10,000 cal yr BP: SLR of about 14 mm/yr that was faster than tectonic uplift rate of 6-7 mm/yr. As a result of transgression, the beach-lagoon deposits about 5 m thick were unconformably overlain on the wave-cut platform. (3) 10,000-8,200 cal yr BP: The ongoing sea level rise (SLR: 11 mm/yr), the lagoon deposits were overlain by an offshore slump deposits representing a gradual deepening of the depositional environment. (4) 8,200-7,930 cal yr BP (SLR: 6-7 mm/yr): The tectonic uplift rate may occur at similar SLR. The alluvial-fan deposits have prograded over the shallow marine deposits. (5) After 7,000 cal yr BP (SLR: 1-0 mm/yr): SLR was much slower than tectonic uplift rate of 3-4 mm/yr. Thus, Holocene marine terraces are extensively developed in the coastal region, showing that the

  9. A real options model to assess the role of flexibility in forestry and agroforestry adoption and disadoption in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory E. Frey; D. Evan Mercer; Frederick W. Cubbage; Robert C. Abt

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to restore the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley’s forests have not achieved desired levels of ecosystem services production.We examined how the variability of returns and the flexibility to change or postpone decisions (option value) affects the economic potential of forestry and agroforestry systems to keep private land in production while still providing...

  10. A Real Options Method for Estimating the Adoption Potential of Forestry and Agroforestry Systems on Private Lands in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory E. Frey; D. Evan Mercer; Frederick W. Cubbage; Robert C. Abt

    2010-01-01

    The Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley (LMAV), once was the largest forested bottom-land area in the continental United States, but has undergone widespread loss of forest through conversion to farmland. Restoration of forest functions and values has been a key conservation goal in the LMAV since the 1970s. This study utilizes a partial differential real options...

  11. Meteorological tower data for the Yucca Alluvial (YA) site and Yucca Ridge (YR) site: Final data report, July 1983-October 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Church, H.W.; Freeman, D.L.; Boro, K.; Egami, R.T.

    1987-11-01

    The purpose of the NNWSI meteorological data collection program was to support environmental evaluations of site suitability for a nuclear waste repository. This is the last of a series of data summaries for the NNWSI Alluvial and Ridge Sites in southern Nevada. 3 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs

  12. Root-collar diameter and third-year survival of three bottomland hardwoods planted on former agricultural fields in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emile S. Gardiner; Douglass F. Jacobs; Ronald P. Overton; George Hernandez

    2009-01-01

    Athough the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley (LMAV) has experienced substantial afforestation of former agricultural fields during the past 2 decades, seedling standards that support satisfactory outplanting performance of bottomland hardwood tree species are not available. A series of experimental plantations, established on three afforestation sites in the LMAV,...

  13. Luminescence dating of Pleistocene alluvial sediments affected by the Alhama de Murcia fault (eastern Betics, Spain) – a comparison between OSL, IRSL and post-IRIRSL ages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohbati, Reza; Murray, Andrew S.; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter

    2012-01-01

    The ages of nine alluvial units, identified by the integration of data obtained from five trenches at the southern termination of the Alhama de Murcia Fault (AMF) (eastern Betics, Spain), are constrained using luminescence dating based on the Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) from quartz...

  14. Geochemical characterization of the middle and late Pleistocene alluvial fan-dominated infill of the northern part of the Weihe Basin, Central China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rits, Daniël S.; Beets, Christiaan J.; Prins, Maarten A.; van Balen, Ronald T.; Troelstra, Simon R.; Luo, Chao; Wang, B.; Li, Xiaoqiang; Zhou, Jie; Zheng, Hongbo

    2017-01-01

    Major reorganizations in climate and tectonic regime occurred in East Asia during the Pleistocene, resulting in large-scale environmental changes. In this paper a detailed geochemical and mineralogical record of these changes is presented from a distal alluvial fan sedimentary sequence in the

  15. Early to high medieval colonization and alluvial landscape transformation of the Labe valley (Czech Republic): evaluation of archaeological, pollen and macrofossil evidence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kozáková, Radka; Pokorný, P.; Mařík, Jan; Čulíková, Věra; Boháčová, Ivana; Pokorná, Adéla

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 6 (2014), s. 701-718 ISSN 0939-6314 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA404/08/1696 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : human impact * medieval * pollen * macrofossils * stronghold * alluvial landscapes Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 2.648, year: 2014

  16. Fault-sourced alluvial fans and their interaction with axial fluvial drainage: An example from the Plio-Pleistocene Upper Valdarno Basin (Tuscany, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidolini, Francesco; Ghinassi, Massimiliano; Aldinucci, Mauro; Billi, Paolo; Boaga, Jacopo; Deiana, Rita; Brivio, Lara

    2013-05-01

    The present study deals with the fault-sourced, alluvial-fan deposits of the Plio-Pleistocene Upper Valdarno Basin (Northern Apennines, Italy). Different phases of alluvial fan aggradation, progradation and backstep are discussed as possible effects of the interaction among fault-generated accommodation space, sediment supply and discharge variations affecting the axial fluvial drainage. The Upper Valdarno Basin, located about 35 km SE of Florence, is filled with 550 m palustrine, lacustrine and alluvial deposits forming four main unconformity-bounded units (i.e. synthems). The study alluvial-fan deposits belong to the two uppermost synthems (Montevarchi and Torrente Ciuffenna synthems) and are Early to Middle Pleistocene in age. These deposits are sourced from the fault-bounded, NE margin of the basin and interfinger with axial fluvial deposits. Alluvial fan deposits of the Montevarchi Synthem consist of three main intervals: i) a lower interval, which lacks any evidence of a depositional trend and testify balance between the subsidence rate (i.e. fault activity) and the amount of sediment provided from the margin; ii) a coarsening-upward middle interval, pointing to a decrease in subsidence rate associated with an augment in sediment supply; iii) a fining-upward, upper interval (locally preserved), documenting a phase of tectonic quiescence associated with a progressive re-equilibration of the tectonically-induced morphological profile. The basin-scale unconformity, which separates the Montevarchi and Torrente Ciuffenna synthems was due to the entrance of the Arno River into the basin as consequence of a piracy. This event caused a dramatic increase in water discharge of the axial fluvial system, and its consequent embanking. Such an erosional surface started to develop in the axial areas, and propagated along the main tributaries, triggering erosion of the alluvial fan deposits. Alluvial-fan deposits of the Torrente Ciuffenna Synthem accumulated above the

  17. Comparison among chemical, mineralogical and physical analysis from alluvial clays from counties of Southwest of Minas Gerais state (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaspar Junior, L.A.; Varajao, A.F.D.C.; Souza, M.H.O.; Moreno, M.M.T.

    2011-01-01

    The studied area is located in the southwestern portion of Minas Gerais State, encompassing the counties of Alfenas, Areado, Machado, Poco Fundo, Campestre, Serrania, Monte Belo, Bandeira do Sul, Botelhos and Cabo Verde. This region is dominated by strongly weathered pre-cambrian rocks in association with colluvial-alluvial sediments. The present work consisted in a comparison among the mineralogical (X-Ray Diffraction), textural (Laser Granulometry), chemical (X-Ray Fluorescence) and technological (mechanical resistance, water absorption, etc, made in specimen tests) properties of the clays collected on potteries located in these counties. The mineralogical and chemical analysis displayed the kaolinitic nature of the clays from this region, showing also small amount of interlayered clays and large amount of quartz. The best results of physical analysis were obtained for clays from the counties of Cabo Verde and Monte Belo due to the presence of lower values of SiO 2 (quartz) associated with a finer particle size distribution. (author)

  18. Drinking Water Quality Criterion - Based site Selection of Aquifer Storage and Recovery Scheme in Chou-Shui River Alluvial Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H. E.; Liang, C. P.; Jang, C. S.; Chen, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Land subsidence due to groundwater exploitation is an urgent environmental problem in Choushui river alluvial fan in Taiwan. Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR), where excess surface water is injected into subsurface aquifers for later recovery, is one promising strategy for managing surplus water and may overcome water shortages. The performance of an ASR scheme is generally evaluated in terms of recovery efficiency, which is defined as percentage of water injected in to a system in an ASR site that fulfills the targeted water quality criterion. Site selection of an ASR scheme typically faces great challenges, due to the spatial variability of groundwater quality and hydrogeological condition. This study proposes a novel method for the ASR site selection based on drinking quality criterion. Simplified groundwater flow and contaminant transport model spatial distributions of the recovery efficiency with the help of the groundwater quality, hydrological condition, ASR operation. The results of this study may provide government administrator for establishing reliable ASR scheme.

  19. Arboreous vegetation of an alluvial riparian forest and their soil relations: Porto Rico island, Paraná river, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campos João Batista

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of alluvial deposits in floodplains forms islands and sandbanks. Deposits frequently accumulate at the river margins and on islands with consequent side growths. One of these sandbanks which started to form in 1952 annexed an area of 12.4ha to the Porto Rico island (53masculine15?W and 22masculine45?S. At present a forest fragment of approximately 2.0 ha exists in this place. The structural analysis of arboreous vegetation of this fragment showed a floristic gradient related to the physical and chemical variations of the substratum. High density of pioneer species associated to the absence of recruitment of new individuals of these and other successional categories indicated that the forest was impaired in its succession process. This fact could be associated with constant disturbances caused by cattle in the area.

  20. NAA of the 'Minoan pumice' at Thera and comparison to alluvial pumice deposits in the Eastern Mediterranean region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bichler, M.; Egger, H.; Preisinger, A.; Ritter, D.; Stastny, P.

    1997-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis was used to determine up to 30 elements in the pumice layers from the 'Minoan eruption' at Thera (Santorini, Greece). Mt Pilato (Lipari, Italy) and in alluvial pumice from coasts of the Eastern Mediterranean region. The morphologically well distinguishable layers of the 'Minoan pumice' were found to be of nearly similar composition in respect to the elements determined and their distribution patterns could therefore be used to identify a sample as Santorinian or not. Additionally, this method was applied to pumice lumps found during archaeological excavations in the Nile delta, Egypt. The results showed that two of the three Egyptian samples are products of the Minoan eruption at Thera and therefore chronologically useful. A second group of pumices collected at Antalya (Turkey), Crete (Greece) and also in Egypt was found to have a distinctly different composition and is therefore related to another volcanic event. (author)

  1. Characteristics of ejecta and alluvial deposits at Meteor Crater, Arizona and Odessa Craters, Texas: Results from ground penetrating radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, J. A.; Schultz, P. H.

    1991-01-01

    Previous ground penetrating radar (GRP) studies around 50,000 year old Meteor Crater revealed the potential for rapid, inexpensive, and non-destructive sub-surface investigations for deep reflectors (generally greater than 10 m). New GRP results are summarized focusing the shallow sub-surfaces (1-2 m) around Meteor Crater and the main crater at Odessa. The following subject areas are covered: (1) the thickness, distribution, and nature of the contact between surrounding alluvial deposits and distal ejecta; and (2) stratigraphic relationships between both the ejecta and alluvium derived from both pre and post crater drainages. These results support previous conclusions indicating limited vertical lowering (less than 1 m) of the distal ejecta at Meteor Crater and allow initial assessment of the gradational state if the Odessa craters.

  2. Obsidian from volcanic sequences and rent alluvial deposits, Erzurum district, north-eastern Anatolia: Chemical characterisation and archaeological implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, P.; Sagona, T.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Recent geoarchaeological research in the Erzurum district, north-eastern Anatolia, has revealed an abundance of obsidian at numerous neolithic and Bronze Age sites. Geochemical characterisation using neutron activation analysis indicates that the obsidian was obtained from several sources that are chemically distinct from the major sources already known from Central Anatolia an the Lake Van area. Multiple sources are represented in the samples collected from at least two of the sites, namely the sites of Sos and Pulur. The primary source of some of the obsidian utilised at the site of Sos has been located in the volcanic sequence outcropping tot he north-west of Pasinler. Field survey however has shown that the alluvial deposits along the main rivers and some of their tributaries were the main sources of the obsidian utilised at the sites near Erzurum. Trade or exchange of obsidian with sites outside the Erzurum area seems to have been limited

  3. Effect of seasonal flooding cycle on litterfall production in alluvial rainforest on the middle Xingu River (Amazon basin, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, M; Giarrizzo, T; Jesus, A J S

    2015-08-01

    The assumption for this study was that litterfall in floodplain environments of the middle Xingu river follows a pattern of seasonal variation. According to this view, litterfall production (total and fractions) was estimated in four alluvial rainforest sites on the middle Xingu River over an annual cycle, and examined the effect of seasonal flooding cycle. The sites included two marginal flooded forests of insular lakes (Ilha Grande and Pimentel) and two flooded forests on the banks of the Xingu itself (Boa Esperança and Arroz Cru). Total litterfall correlated with rainfall and river levels, but whereas the leaf and fruit fractions followed this general pattern, the flower fraction presented an inverse pattern, peaking in the dry season. The litterfall patterns recorded in the present study were consistent with those recorded at other Amazonian sites, and in some other tropical ecosystems.

  4. Simulating land management options to reduce nitrate pollution in an agricultural watershed dominated by an alluvial aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerro, Itsasne; Antigüedad, Iñaki; Srinavasan, Raghavan; Sauvage, Sabine; Volk, Martin; Sanchez-Perez, José Miguel

    2014-01-01

    The study area (Alegria watershed, Basque Country, Northern Spain) considered here is influenced by an important alluvial aquifer that plays a significant role in nitrate pollution from agricultural land use and management practices. Nitrates are transported primarily from the soil to the river through the alluvial aquifer. The agricultural activity covers 75% of the watershed and is located in a nitrate-vulnerable zone. The main objective of the study was to find land management options for water pollution abatement by using model systems. In a first step, the SWAT model was applied to simulate discharge and nitrate load in stream flow at the outlet of the catchment for the period between October 2009 and June 2011. The LOADEST program was used to estimate the daily nitrate load from measured nitrate concentration. We achieved satisfactory simulation results for discharge and nitrate loads at monthly and daily time steps. The results revealed clear variations in the seasons: higher nitrate loads were achieved for winter (20,000 kg mo NO-N), and lower nitrate loads were simulated for the summer (model was used to evaluate the long-term effects of best management practices (BMPs) for a 50-yr period by maintaining actual agricultural practices, reducing fertilizer application by 20%, splitting applications (same total N but applied over the growing period), and reducing 20% of the applied fertilizer amount and splitting the fertilizer doses. The BMPs were evaluated on the basis of local experience and farmer interaction. Results showed that reducing fertilizer amounts by 20% could lead to a reduction of 50% of the number of days exceeding the nitrate concentration limit value (50 mg L) set by the European Water Framework Directive. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  5. Debris flood hazard documentation and mitigation on the Tilcara alluvial fan (Quebrada de Humahuaca, Jujuy province, North-West Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Marcato

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available For some decades, mass wasting processes such as landslides and debris floods have been threatening villages and transportation routes in the Rio Grande Valley, named Quebrada de Humauhuaca. One of the most significant examples is the urban area of Tilcara, built on a large alluvial fan. In recent years, debris flood phenomena have been triggered in the tributary valley of the Huasamayo Stream and reached the alluvial fan on a decadal basis.

    In view of proper development of the area, hazard and risk assessment together with risk mitigation strategies are of paramount importance. The need is urgent also because the Quebrada de Humahuaca was recently included in the UNESCO World Cultural Heritage. Therefore, the growing tourism industry may lead to uncontrolled exploitation and urbanization of the valley, with a consequent increase of the vulnerability of the elements exposed to risk. In this context, structural and non structural mitigation measures not only have to be based on the understanding of natural processes, but also have to consider environmental and sociological factors that could hinder the effectiveness of the countermeasure works.

    The hydrogeological processes are described with reference to present-day hazard and risk conditions. Considering the socio-economic context, some possible interventions are outlined, which encompass budget constraints and local practices. One viable solution would be to build a protecting dam upstream of the fan apex and an artificial channel, in order to divert the floodwaters in a gully that would then convey water and sediments into the Rio Grande, some kilometers downstream of Tilcara. The proposed remedial measures should employ easily available and relatively cheap technologies and local workers, incorporating low environmental and visual impacts issues, in order to ensure both the future conservation of the site and its safe exploitation for inhabitants and tourists.

  6. Modeling and measuring the relationships between sediment transport processes, alluvial bedforms and channel-scale morphodynamics in sandy braided rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, A. P.; Ashworth, P. J.; Best, J.; Lane, S. N.; Parsons, D. R.; Sambrook Smith, G.; Simpson, C.; Strick, R. J. P.; Unsworth, C. A.

    2017-12-01

    Recent years have seen significant advances in the development and application of morphodynamic models to simulate river evolution. Despite this progress, significant challenges remain to be overcome before such models can provide realistic simulations of river response to environmental change, or be used to determine the controls on alluvial channel patterns and deposits with confidence. This impasse reflects a wide range of factors, not least the fact that many of the processes that control river behaviour operate at spatial scales that cannot be resolved by such models. For example, sand-bed rivers are characterised by multiple scales of topography (e.g., dunes, bars, channels), the finest of which must often by parameterized, rather than represented explicitly in morphodynamic models. We examine these issues using a combination of numerical modeling and field observations. High-resolution aerial imagery and Digital Elevation Models obtained for the sandy braided South Saskatchewan River in Canada are used to quantify dune, bar and channel morphology and their response to changing flow discharge. Numerical simulations are carried out using an existing morphodynamic model based on the 2D shallow water equations, coupled with new parameterisations of the evolution and influence of alluvial bedforms. We quantify the spatial patterns of sediment flux using repeat images of dune migration and bar evolution. These data are used to evaluate model predictions of sediment transport and morphological change, and to assess the degree to which model performance is controlled by the parametrization of roughness and sediment transport phenomena linked to subgrid-scale bedforms (dunes). The capacity of such models to replicate the characteristic multi-scale morphology of bars in sand-bed rivers, and the contrasting morphodynamic signatures of braiding during low and high flow conditions, is also assessed.

  7. Peclet number as affected by molecular diffusion controls transient anomalous transport in alluvial aquifer-aquitard complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Green, Christopher T.; Tick, Geoffrey R.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the role of the Peclet number as affected by molecular diffusion in transient anomalous transport, which is one of the major knowledge gaps in anomalous transport, by combining Monte Carlo simulations and stochastic model analysis. Two alluvial settings containing either short- or long-connected hydrofacies are generated and used as media for flow and transport modeling. Numerical experiments show that 1) the Peclet number affects both the duration of the power-law segment of tracer breakthrough curves (BTCs) and the transition rate from anomalous to Fickian transport by determining the solute residence time for a given low-permeability layer, 2) mechanical dispersion has a limited contribution to the anomalous characteristics of late-time transport as compared to molecular diffusion due to an almost negligible velocity in floodplain deposits, and 3) the initial source dimensions only enhance the power-law tail of the BTCs at short travel distances. A tempered stable stochastic (TSS) model is then applied to analyze the modeled transport. Applications show that the time-nonlocal parameters in the TSS model relate to the Peclet number, Pe. In particular, the truncation parameter in the TSS model increases nonlinearly with a decrease in Pe due to the decrease of the mean residence time, and the capacity coefficient increases with an increase in molecular diffusion which is probably due to the increase in the number of immobile particles. The above numerical experiments and stochastic analysis therefore reveal that the Peclet number as affected by molecular diffusion controls transient anomalous transport in alluvial aquifer–aquitard complexes.

  8. Debris flood hazard documentation and mitigation on the Tilcara alluvial fan (Quebrada de Humahuaca, Jujuy province, North-West Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcato, G.; Bossi, G.; Rivelli, F.; Borgatti, L.

    2012-06-01

    For some decades, mass wasting processes such as landslides and debris floods have been threatening villages and transportation routes in the Rio Grande Valley, named Quebrada de Humauhuaca. One of the most significant examples is the urban area of Tilcara, built on a large alluvial fan. In recent years, debris flood phenomena have been triggered in the tributary valley of the Huasamayo Stream and reached the alluvial fan on a decadal basis. In view of proper development of the area, hazard and risk assessment together with risk mitigation strategies are of paramount importance. The need is urgent also because the Quebrada de Humahuaca was recently included in the UNESCO World Cultural Heritage. Therefore, the growing tourism industry may lead to uncontrolled exploitation and urbanization of the valley, with a consequent increase of the vulnerability of the elements exposed to risk. In this context, structural and non structural mitigation measures not only have to be based on the understanding of natural processes, but also have to consider environmental and sociological factors that could hinder the effectiveness of the countermeasure works. The hydrogeological processes are described with reference to present-day hazard and risk conditions. Considering the socio-economic context, some possible interventions are outlined, which encompass budget constraints and local practices. One viable solution would be to build a protecting dam upstream of the fan apex and an artificial channel, in order to divert the floodwaters in a gully that would then convey water and sediments into the Rio Grande, some kilometers downstream of Tilcara. The proposed remedial measures should employ easily available and relatively cheap technologies and local workers, incorporating low environmental and visual impacts issues, in order to ensure both the future conservation of the site and its safe exploitation for inhabitants and tourists.

  9. Characterising alluvial aquifers in a remote ephemeral catchment (Flinders River, Queensland) using a direct push tracer approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Andrew R.; Smith, Stanley D.; Lamontagne, Sébastien; Suckow, Axel

    2018-01-01

    The availability of reliable water supplies is a key factor limiting development in northern Australia. However, characterising groundwater resources in this remote part of Australia is challenging due to a lack of existing infrastructure and data. Here, direct push technology (DPT) was used to characterise shallow alluvial aquifers at two locations in the semiarid Flinders River catchment. DPT was used to evaluate the saturated thickness of the aquifer and estimate recharge rates by sampling for environmental tracers in groundwater (major ions, 2H, 18O, 3H and 14C). The alluvium at Fifteen Mile Reserve and Glendalough Station consisted of a mixture of permeable coarse sandy and gravely sediments and less permeable clays and silts. The alluvium was relatively thin (i.e. < 20 m) and, at the time of the investigation, was only partially saturated. Tritium (3H) concentrations in groundwater was ∼1 Tritium Unit (TU), corresponding to a mean residence time for groundwater of about 12 years. The lack of an evaporation signal for the 2H and 18O of groundwater suggests rapid localised recharge from overbank flood events as the primary recharge mechanism. Using the chloride mass balance technique (CMB) and lumped parameter models to interpret patterns in 3H in the aquifer, the mean annual recharge rate varied between 21 and 240 mm/yr. Whilst this recharge rate is relatively high for a semiarid climate, the alluvium is thin and heterogeneous hosting numerous alluvial aquifers with varied connectivity and limited storage capacity. Combining DPT and environmental tracers is a cost-effective strategy to characterise shallow groundwater resources in unconsolidated sedimentary aquifers in remote data sparse areas.

  10. Geomorphic and hydraulic controls on large-scale riverbank failure on a mixed bedrock-alluvial river system, the River Murray, South Australia: a bathymetric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Carli, E.; Hubble, T.

    2014-12-01

    During the peak of the Millennium Drought (1997-2010) pool-levels in the lower River Murray in South Australia dropped 1.5 metres below sea level, resulting in large-scale mass failure of the alluvial banks. The largest of these failures occurred without signs of prior instability at Long Island Marina whereby a 270 metre length of populated and vegetated riverbank collapsed in a series of rotational failures. Analysis of long-reach bathymetric surveys of the river channel revealed a strong relationship between geomorphic and hydraulic controls on channel width and downstream alluvial failure. As the entrenched channel planform meanders within and encroaches upon its bedrock valley confines the channel width is 'pinched' and decreases by up to half, resulting in a deepening thalweg and channel bed incision. The authors posit that flow and shear velocities increase at these geomorphically controlled 'pinch-points' resulting in complex and variable hydraulic patterns such as erosional scour eddies, which act to scour the toe of the slope over-steepening and destabilising the alluvial margins. Analysis of bathymetric datasets between 2009 and 2014 revealed signs of active incision and erosional scour of the channel bed. This is counter to conceptual models which deem the backwater zone of a river to be one of decelerating flow and thus sediment deposition. Complex and variable flow patterns have been observed in other mixed alluvial-bedrock river systems, and signs of active incision observed in the backwater zone of the Mississippi River, United States. The incision and widening of the lower Murray River suggests the channel is in an erosional phase of channel readjustment which has implications for riverbank collapse on the alluvial margins. The prevention of seawater ingress due to barrage construction at the Murray mouth and Southern Ocean confluence, allowed pool-levels to drop significantly during the Millennium Drought reducing lateral confining support to the

  11. Groundwater components in the alluvial aquifer of the alpine Rhone River valley, Bois de Finges area, Wallis Canton, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schürch, Marc; Vuataz, François-D.

    2000-09-01

    Source, type, and quantity of various components of groundwater, as well as their spatial and temporal variations were determined by different hydrochemical methods in the alluvial aquifer of the upper Rhone River valley, Bois de Finges, Wallis Canton, Switzerland. The methods used are hydrochemical modeling, stable-isotope analysis, and chemical analysis of surface water and groundwater. Sampling during high- and low-water periods determined the spatial distribution of the water chemistry, whereas monthly sampling over three years provided a basis for understanding seasonal variability. The physico-chemical parameters of the groundwater have spatial and seasonal variations. The groundwater chemical composition of the Rhone alluvial aquifer indicates a mixing of weakly mineralized Rhone River water and SO4-rich water entering from the south side of the valley. Temporal changes in groundwater chemistry and in groundwater levels reflect the seasonal variations of the different contributors to groundwater recharge. The Rhone River recharges the alluvial aquifer only during the summer high-water period. Résumé. Origine, type et quantité de nombreux composants d'eau de l'aquifère alluvial dans la vallée supérieure du Rhône, Bois de Finges, Valais, Suisse, ainsi que leurs variations spatiales et temporelles ont été déterminés par différentes méthodes hydrochimiques. Les méthodes utilisées sont la modélisation hydrochimique, les isotopes stables, ainsi que l'échantillonnage en période de hautes eaux et de basses eaux pour étudier la distribution spatiale de la composition chimique, alors qu'un échantillonnage mensuel pendant trois ans sert à comprendre les processus de la variabilité saisonnière. Les paramètres physico-chimiques des eaux souterraines montrent des variations spatiales et saisonnières. La composition chimique de l'aquifère alluvial du Rhône indique un mélange entre une eau peu minéralisée venant du Rhône et une eau sulfatée s

  12. The use of O, H and Sr isotopes and carbamazepine to identify the origin of water bodies supplying a shallow alluvial aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassine, Lara; Le Gal La Salle, Corinne; Lancelot, Joël; Verdoux, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    Alluvial aquifers are of great socio-economic importance in France since they supply 82% of drinking water production, though they reveal to be very vulnerable to pesticides and emerging organic contaminants. The aim of this work is to identify the origin of water bodies which contribute to the recharge of an alluvial aquifer for a better understanding of its hydrochemistry and transfer of contaminants therein. The study is based on an isotopic and geochemical tracers approach, including major elements, trace elements (Br, Sr),and isotopes (δ18O, δ2H, 87Sr/86Sr), as well as organic molecules. Indeed, organic molecules such as pharmaceutical compounds, more precisely carbamazepine and caffeine, have shown their use as indicators of surface water in groundwater. The study area is a partially-confined shallow alluvial aquifer, the so-called Vistrenque aquifer, located at 15 km from the Mediterranean Sea, in the Quaternary alluviums deposited by an ancient arm of the Rhône River, in Southern France. This aquifer constitutes a shallow alluvial layer in a NE-SW graben structure. It is situated between a karst aquifer in lower Cretaceous limestones, on the NW border, and the Costières Plateau, on the SE border, having a similar geology as the Vistrenque. The alluvial plain is crossed by a surface water network with the Vistre as the main stream, and a canal used for irrigation essentially, the BRL canal, which is fed by the Rhône River. δ18O and δ2H allowed to differentiate the BRL canal water, depleted in heavy isotopes (δ2H = -71.5o vs V-SMOW), and the more enriched local rainwater (δ2H = -35.5o vs V-SMOW). In the Vistre surface water a binary mixing were evidenced with the BRL canal water and the rainwater, as end members. Then, in the Vistrenque groundwater both the BRL and the Vistre contributions could be identified, as they still show contrasting signature with local recharge. This allows to highlight the surface water contribution to a heavily exploited

  13. The migration, dissolution, and fate of chlorinated solvents in the urbanized alluvial valleys of the southwestern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, R. E.

    The migration, dissolution, and subsequent fate of spilled chlorinated solvents in the urban alluvial valleys of the southwestern U.S. appear to be governed by a unique set of hydrogeologic and geochemical processes occurring within terrigeneous clastic depositional systems. The alluvial and lacustrine fill of the basins, the trapping of solvents in fine-grained sediments beneath the urbanized valley centers, the oxic conditions typical of the deeper alluvium, and the contaminant-transport patterns produced by large-scale basin pumping combine to produce long aqueous-phase plumes derived from the dissolution of trapped chlorinated solvents. Although of limited aqueous solubility, these dense solvents are sufficiently mobile and soluble in the southwestern alluvial valleys to have produced aqueous plumes that have migrated several kilometers through the deeper alluvium and have contaminated valuable water-supply well fields in California, Arizona, and New Mexico. The typical length of these plumes and the presence of oxic groundwater indicate that it is unlikely that natural attenuation will be a practical remedial option in the southwestern alluvial valleys or in other alluvial systems in which similar hydrogeologic and geochemical conditions exist. Résumé La migration, la dissolution et l'évolution consécutive des rejets de solvants chlorés dans les vallées alluviales du sud-ouest des États-Unis paraissent déterminées par un même ensemble de processus hydrogéologiques et géochimiques intervenant dans des formations de dépôts clastiques terrigènes. Les remplissages alluviaux et lacustres des bassins, le piégeage des solvants par des sédiments fins sous les centres des vallées urbanisées, les conditions oxiques typiques des alluvions plus profondes et les types de transport de contaminants provoqués par le pompage à l'échelle du bassin se combinent pour produire des panaches, étendus dans la phase aqueuse, provenant de la dissolution de

  14. Potentiometric Surface of the Alluvial Aquifer and Hydrologic Conditions in the Juana Diaz area, Puerto Rico, June 29 - July 1, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Jose M.; Santigo-Rivera, Luis; Gómez-Gómez, Fernando

    2006-01-01

    A synoptic survey of the hydrologic conditions in the Juana Diaz area, Puerto Rico, was conducted between June 29 and July 1, 2005, to define the spatial distribution of the potentiometric surface of the alluvial aquifer. The study area encompasses 21 square miles of the more extensive South Coastal Plain Alluvial Aquifer system and is bounded along the north by foothills of the Cordillera Central mountain chain, to the south by the Caribbean Sea, the east by the Rio Descalabrado and to the west by the Rio Inabon. Ground water in the Juana Diaz area is in the Quaternary-age alluvial deposits and the middle-Tertiary age Ponce Limestone and Juana Diaz Formation (Giusti, 1968). The hydraulic properties of the Ponce Limestone in the Juana Diaz area are unknown, and the Juana Diaz Formation is a unit of poor permeability due to its high clay content. Consequently, the Ponce Limestone and the Juana Diaz Formation are generally considered to be the base of the alluvial aquifer in the Juana Diaz area with ground-water flow occurring primarily within the alluvial deposits. The potentiometric-surface map of the alluvial aquifer was delineated using ground-water level measurements taken at existing wells. The water-level measurements were taken at wells that were either not pumping during the survey or were shut down for a brief period. In the latter case, a recovery period of 30 minutes was allowed for the drawdown in the wellbore to achieve a near static level position representative of the aquifer at the measurement point. Land-surface altitude from U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 1:20,000 scale topographic maps (Playa de Ponce, Ponce, Rio Descalabrado, and Santa Isabel) were used to refer ground-water levels to mean sea level datum (National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929). In addition to the ground-water level measurements, the potentiometricsurface contours were delineated using hydrologic features, such as drainage ditches and saturated intermittent streams that were

  15. Possible Links Among Iron Reduction, Silicate Weathering, and Arsenic Mobility in the Mississippi River Alluvial Aquifer in Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrok, D. M.; Lenz, R. M.; Jennings, J. E.; Gentry, M. L.; Vinson, D. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Aquifer (LMRAA) is a critical groundwater resource for Arkansas, Mississippi, and Louisiana. Part of the aquifer in Louisiana contains waters rich in Na, HCO3, Fe, and As. We hypothesize that CO2 generated from dissimilatory iron reduction (DIR) within the aquifer acts to weather Na-bearing silicates, contributing Na and HCO3, which may influence the mobility of As. We examined the geochemistry of the aquifer using historical and new data collected from the Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality (LDEQ). Major and trace element data were collected from about 25 wells in the LMRAA in Louisiana every three years from 2001-2016. Samples collected in 2016 were additionally analyzed for water isotopes and the δ13C of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). Results suggest that groundwater in the LMRAA can be broken into two broad categories, (1) water with a molar Na/Cl ratio near 1 and/or high salinity, and (2) water with excess Na (i.e., the molar concentration of Na is greater than that of Cl) that is often higher in alkalinity (up to 616 mg/L as CaCO3), Fe (up to 21 mg/L), and sometimes As (up to 67 µg/L). Concentrations of dissolved Fe were found to correlate, at least weakly, with alkalinity and Na excess. Six of the approximately 25 wells historically sampled consistently had concentrations of As >10 µg/L. These locations generally correspond with groundwater characterized by higher Fe, alkalinity, and Na-excess. Initial results for δD and δ18O suggest that more isotopically depleted waters are sourced from the Mississippi River, whereas local precipitation recharges the aquifer farther from the river (δ18O ranged from -7.5‰ to -3.5‰). Part of the δ13C-DIC variation (-17.4‰ to -10.6‰) is consistent with pH modification (6.5-7.7) along differing horizontal and vertical flow paths in the aquifer. This geochemistry appears to be controlled in part by geology. Areas nearer to the current Mississippi River where

  16. Appraising options to reduce shallow groundwater tables and enhance flow conditions over regional scales in an irrigated alluvial aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morway, Eric D.; Gates, Timothy K.; Niswonger, Richard G.

    2013-01-01

    Some of the world’s key agricultural production systems face big challenges to both water quantity and quality due to shallow groundwater that results from long-term intensive irrigation, namely waterlogging and salinity, water losses, and environmental problems. This paper focuses on water quantity issues, presenting finite-difference groundwater models developed to describe shallow water table levels, non-beneficial groundwater consumptive use, and return flows to streams across two regions within an irrigated alluvial river valley in southeastern Colorado, USA. The models are calibrated and applied to simulate current baseline conditions in the alluvial aquifer system and to examine actions for potentially improving these conditions. The models provide a detailed description of regional-scale subsurface unsaturated and saturated flow processes, thereby enabling detailed spatiotemporal description of groundwater levels, recharge to infiltration ratios, partitioning of ET originating from the unsaturated and saturated zones, and groundwater flows, among other variables. Hybrid automated and manual calibration of the models is achieved using extensive observations of groundwater hydraulic head, groundwater return flow to streams, aquifer stratigraphy, canal seepage, total evapotranspiration, the portion of evapotranspiration supplied by upflux from the shallow water table, and irrigation flows. Baseline results from the two regional-scale models are compared to model predictions under variations of four alternative management schemes: (1) reduced seepage from earthen canals, (2) reduced irrigation applications, (3) rotational lease fallowing (irrigation water leased to municipalities, resulting in temporary dry-up of fields), and (4) combinations of these. The potential for increasing the average water table depth by up to 1.1 and 0.7 m in the two respective modeled regions, thereby reducing the threat of waterlogging and lowering non-beneficial consumptive use

  17. Managed aquifer recharge in the Marecchia alluvial fan (Rimini - Italy, start of the test and first results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Severi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Among the actions designed to manage the water crisis that have taken place in the summers of recent years in the southeastern part of the Emilia-Romagna Region, it has recently launched a trial of managed aquifer recharge in the alluvial fan of the Marecchia river (Rimini, where annually are withdrawn about 28 million m3 of water, 19 of witch for drinking water use. This test consists in conveying into quarry lake, located in the recharge area of the alluvial fan, an additional volume of water through a channel. The increase in the volume of water in the lake, should result in a rapid increase in the availability of water in the aquifers. To verify the recharge efficacy a special monitoring network consisting of 20 measuring points, 5 of which are specially drilled, it has been implemented. In 9 of these points a data logger for the continuous measure of level, temperature and electric conductivity at 20°C, it has been installed. A data logger has also been positioned in the channel from which the water flows into the lake. For about a month groundwater level was monitored prior to the recharge experiment. On 25 February 2014 managed aquifer recharge began and the volume of water flowing through the canal to lake until April 30, 2014, was approximately 600,000 m3. In this period it was possible to observe that the intervention produces the expected effects, thus inducing an increase in the groundwater level which is maximum near the lake and decreases away from it. The rise in the water level of the lake has been rapid and substantial. Within the area of the lake have settled some protected bird species in need of a precise environmental balance for nesting; an excessive increase of the lake level could put at risk of flooding some nests present. The objective of the following phases of the study will be to calibrate an adequate water level of the lake, to the purposes of managed aquifer recharge and to maintain the existing ecosystem. At the

  18. Effects of particle size and confining pressure on breakage factor of rockfill materials using medium triaxial test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Gupta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Rockfill dams are mostly constructed using blasted rockfill materials obtained by blasting rocks or alluvial rockfill materials collected from the riverbeds. Behaviors of rockfill materials and their characterization significantly depend on breakage factor observed during triaxial loading. In this paper, two modeled rockfill materials are investigated by using medium triaxial cell. Drained triaxial tests are conducted on various sizes of modeled rockfill materials used in the two dams, and test data are analyzed accordingly. Breakage factor of rockfill material is studied and the effects of particle size and confining pressure on breakage factor are investigated using medium triaxial cell as many researchers have already conducted investigation using large triaxial cell.

  19. Vertical distribution of 137Cs in alluvial soils of the Lokna River floodplain (Tula oblast) long after the Chernobyl accident and its simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamikhin, S. V.; Golosov, V. N.; Paramonova, T. A.; Shamshurina, E. N.; Ivanov, M. M.

    2016-12-01

    Profiles of vertical 137Cs distribution in alluvial meadow soils on the low and medium levels of the Lokna River floodplain (central part of the Plavsk radioactive spot in Tula oblast) 28 years after the Chernobyl fallout have been studied. A significant increase in the 137Cs pool is revealed on the low floodplain areas compared to the soils of interfluves due to the accumulation of alluvium, which hampers the reduction of the total radionuclide pool in alluvial soils because of radioactive decay. The rate of alluvium accumulation in the soil on the medium floodplain level is lower by three times on average. An imitation prognostic model has been developed, which considers the flooding and climatic conditions in the region under study. Numerical experiments have quantitatively confirmed the deciding role of low-mobile forms in the migration of maximum 137Cs content along the soil profile in the absence of manifested erosion-accumulation processes.

  20. Degradation of the Mitchell River fluvial megafan by alluvial gully erosion increased by post-European land use change, Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shellberg, J. G.; Spencer, J.; Brooks, A. P.; Pietsch, T. J.

    2016-08-01

    Along low gradient rivers in northern Australia, there is widespread gully erosion into unconfined alluvial deposits of active and inactive floodplains. On the Mitchell River fluvial megafan in northern Queensland, river incision and fan-head trenching into Pleistocene and Holocene megafan units with sodic soils created the potential energy for a secondary cycle of erosion. In this study, rates of alluvial gully erosion into incipiently-unstable channel banks and/or pre-existing floodplain features were quantified to assess the influence of land use change following European settlement. Alluvial gully scarp retreat rates were quantified at 18 sites across the megafan using recent GPS surveys and historic air photos, demonstrating rapid increases in gully area of 1.2 to 10 times their 1949 values. Extrapolation of gully area growth trends backward in time suggested that the current widespread phase of gullying initiated between 1880 and 1950, which is post-European settlement. This is supported by young optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dates of gully inset-floodplain deposits, LiDAR terrain analysis, historic explorer accounts of earlier gully types, and archival records of cattle numbers and land management. It is deduced that intense cattle grazing and associated disturbance concentrated in the riparian zones during the dry season promoted gully erosion in the wet season along steep banks, adjacent floodplain hollows and precursor gullies. This is a result of reduced native grass cover, increased physical disturbance of soils, and the concentration of water runoff along cattle tracks, in addition to fire regime modifications, episodic drought, and the establishment of exotic weed and grass species. Geomorphic processes operating over geologic time across the fluvial megafan predisposed the landscape to being pushed by land used change across an intrinsically close geomorphic threshold towards instability. The evolution of these alluvial gullies is discussed

  1. A combined morphometric, sedimentary, GIS and modelling analysis of flooding and debris flow hazard on a composite alluvial fan, Caveside, Tasmania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kain, Claire L.; Rigby, Edward H.; Mazengarb, Colin

    2018-02-01

    Two episodes of intense flooding and sediment movement occurred in the Westmorland Stream alluvial system near Caveside, Australia in January 2011 and June 2016. The events were investigated in order to better understand the drivers and functioning of this composite alluvial system on a larger scale, so as to provide awareness of the potential hazard from future flood and debris flow events. A novel combination of methods was employed, including field surveys, catchment morphometry, GIS mapping from LiDAR and aerial imagery, and hydraulic modelling using RiverFlow-2D software. Both events were initiated by extreme rainfall events (events on the farmland appeared similar; however, there were differences in sediment source and transport processes that have implications for understanding recurrence probabilities. A debris flow was a key driver in the 2011 event, by eroding the stream channel in the forested watershed and delivering a large volume of sediment downstream to the alluvial fan. In contrast, modelled flooding velocities suggest the impacts of the 2016 event were the result of an extended period of extreme stream flooding and consequent erosion of alluvium directly above the current fan apex. The morphometry of the catchment is better aligned with values from fluvially dominated fans found elsewhere, which suggests that flooding represents a more frequent future risk than debris flows. These findings have wider implications for the estimation of debris flow and flood hazard on alluvial fans in Tasmania and elsewhere, as well as further demonstrating the capacity of combined hydraulic modelling and geomorphologic investigation as a predictive tool to inform hazard management practices in environments affected by flooding and sediment movement.

  2. Surface complexation modeling for predicting solid phase arsenic concentrations in the sediments of the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer, Arkansas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, M.S.U.; Davis, R.K.; Steele, K.F.; Kim, B.; Hays, P.D.; Kresse, T.M.; Fazio, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    The potential health impact of As in drinking water supply systems in the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer in the state of Arkansas, USA is significant. In this context it is important to understand the occurrence, distribution and mobilization of As in the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer. Application of surface complexation models (SCMs) to predict the sorption behavior of As and hydrous Fe oxides (HFO) in the laboratory has increased in the last decade. However, the application of SCMs to predict the sorption of As in natural sediments has not often been reported, and such applications are greatly constrained by the lack of site-specific model parameters. Attempts have been made to use SCMs considering a component additivity (CA) approach which accounts for relative abundances of pure phases in natural sediments, followed by the addition of SCM parameters individually for each phase. Although few reliable and internally consistent sorption databases related to HFO exist, the use of SCMs using laboratory-derived sorption databases to predict the mobility of As in natural sediments has increased. This study is an attempt to evaluate the ability of the SCMs using the geochemical code PHREEQC to predict solid phase As in the sediments of the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer in Arkansas. The SCM option of the double-layer model (DLM) was simulated using ferrihydrite and goethite as sorbents quantified from chemical extractions, calculated surface-site densities, published surface properties, and published laboratory-derived sorption constants for the sorbents. The model results are satisfactory for shallow wells (10.6. m below ground surface), where the redox condition is relatively oxic or mildly suboxic. However, for the deep alluvial aquifer (21-36.6. m below ground surface) where the redox condition is suboxic to anoxic, the model results are unsatisfactory. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Grain-Size Analysis of Debris Flow Alluvial Fans in Panxi Area along Jinsha River, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The basic geometric parameters of 236 debris flow catchments were determined by interpreting SPOT5 remote sensing images with a resolution of 2.5 m in a 209 km section along the Jinsha River in the Panxi area, China. A total of 27 large-scale debris flow catchments were selected for detailed in situ investigation. Samples were taken from two profiles in the deposition zone for each debris flow catchment. The φ value gradation method of the grain size was used to obtain 54 histograms with abscissa in a logarithmic scale. Five types of debris flows were summarized from the outline of the histogram. Four grain size parameters were calculated: mean grain size, standard deviation, coefficient of skewness, and coefficient of kurtosis. These four values were used to evaluate the features of the histogram. The grain index that reflects the transport (kinetic energy information of debris flows was defined to describe the characteristics of the debris-flow materials. Furthermore, a normalized grain index based on the catchment area was proposed to allow evaluation of the debris flow mobility. The characteristics of the debris-flow materials were well-described by the histogram of grain-size distribution and the normalized grain index.

  4. Response of alluvial systems to Late Pleistocene climate changes recorded by environmental magnetism in the Añavieja Basin (Iberian Range, NE Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliva-Urcia, B.; Muñoz, A.; Larrasoaña, J.C.; Luzon, A.; Perez, A.; Gonzalez, A.; Jiang, Z.; Liu, Q.; Roman-Berdi, T.

    2016-07-01

    Environmental magnetic proxies were analyzed in a relatively monotonous, ~25.3m thick alluvial sedimentary sequence drilled in the Añavieja Basin (NE Spain). Results from the core AÑ2 suggest that the concentrationdependent magnetic parameters mainly reflect variations in the content of detrital magnetite, sourced in the catchment rocks and soils of the basin, via changes in the dynamics of alluvial fans due to temperature changes in the northern hemisphere during the Late Pleistocene. The correspondence between the magnetic proxies and the temperature variations in the North Atlantic region (NGRIP curve) indicates that higher (lower) concentrations and finer (coarser) magnetite grains coincide with warm (cold) periods. We propose that during cold periods, a sparser vegetation cover favored the incoming of higher energy runoff bearing coarser sediments to the basin that are relatively impoverished in magnetite. In contrast, during warm periods, the wider distribution of the vegetation cover associated with the lower runoff energy lead to finer, magnetite-richer sediment input to the basin. Maghemite, presumably of pedogenic origin, appears to be present also in the studied alluvial sediments. Further studies are necessary to unravel its palaeoclimatic significance. (Author)

  5. Comparison of Scour and Flow Characteristics Around Circular and Oblong Bridge Piers in Seepage Affected Alluvial Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, Rutuja; Venkataramana, B.; Acharya, Pratik; Kumar, Bimlesh

    2018-06-01

    The present study examines scour geometry and turbulent flow characteristics around circular and oblong piers in alluvial channel with downward seepage. Experiments were conducted in plane sand bed of non-uniform sand under no seepage, 10% seepage and 15% seepage conditions. Scour depth at oblong pier is significantly lesser than the scour depth at circular one. However, the scour depth at both piers reduces with downward seepage. The measurements show that the velocity and Reynolds stresses are negative near the bed at upstream of piers where the strong reversal occurs. At downstream of oblong pier near the free surface, velocity and Reynolds stresses are less positive; whereas, they are negative at downstream of circular pier. The streamline shape of oblong pier leads to reduce the strength of wake vortices and consequently reversal flow at downstream of pier. With application of downward seepage turbulent kinetic energy is decreasing. The results show that the wake vortices at oblong pier are weaker than the wake vortices at circular pier. The strength of wake vortices diminishes with downward seepage. The Strouhal number is lesser for oblong pier and decreases with downward seepage for both oblong and circular piers.

  6. Regional estimates of ecological services derived from U.S. Department of Agriculture conservation programs in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Stephen P.; Baldwin, Michael J.; Barrow, Wylie C.; Waddle, Hardin; Keeland, Bobby D.; Walls, Susan C.; James, Dale; Moorman, Tom

    2010-01-01

    The Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MAV) is the Nation?s largest floodplain and this once predominantly forested ecosystem provided significant habitat for a diverse flora and fauna, sequestered carbon in trees and soil, and stored floodwater, sediments, and nutrients within the floodplain. This landscape has been substantially altered by the conversion of nearly 75% of the riparian forests, predominantly to agricultural cropland, with significant loss and degradation of important ecosystem services. Large-scale efforts have been employed to restore the forest and wetland resources and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Wetlands Reserve Program (WRP) and Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) represent some of the most extensive restoration programs in the MAV. The objective of the WRP is to restore and protect the functions and values of wetlands in agricultural landscapes with an emphasis on habitat for migratory birds and wetland-dependent wildlife, protection and improvement of water quality, flood attenuation, ground water recharge, protection of native flora and fauna, and educational and scientific scholarship.

  7. Primary sink and source of geogenic arsenic in sedimentary aquifers in the southern Choushui River alluvial fan, Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Kuang-Liang; Liu, Chen-Wuing; Wang, Sheng-Wei; Jang, Cheng-Shin; Lin, Kao-Hung; Liao, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan; Liao, Chung-Min; Chang, Fi-John

    2010-01-01

    This work characterized the sink and source/mobility of As in the As-affected sedimentary aquifers of the southern Choushui River alluvial fan, central Taiwan. Major mineral phases and chemical components were determined by XRD and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The partitioning of As and Fe among cores were determined by sequential extraction. Based on XPS results, the primary forms of Fe were hematite, goethite and magnetite. Sequential extraction data and the XRF analysis indicated that Fe oxyhydroxides and sulfides were likely to be the major sinks of As, particularly in the distal-fan. Furthermore, Fe oxyhydroxides retained higher As contents than As-bearing sulfides. The reductive dissolution of Fe oxyhydroxides, which accompanied high levels of HCO 3 - and NH 4 + concentrations, was likely the principal release mechanism of As into groundwater in this area. The dual roles of Fe oxyhydroxides which are governed by the local redox condition act as a sink and source in the aquifer. Ionic replacement by PO 4 3- and HCO 3 - along with seasonal water table fluctuation, caused by monsoons and excessive pumping, contributed specific parts of As in the groundwater. The findings can be used to account for the inconsistency between Fe and As concentrations observed in groundwater.

  8. Hydraulic properties of alluvial soil of the ebb tide of Flocos Dam in Tuparetama - Pernambuco State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Eduardo S.; Montenegro, Abelardo A.A.

    2000-01-01

    The soil hydraulic properties, i.e., the soil-moisture characteristic curve, Θ(h), and the hydraulic conductivity, K(h), were determined for an alluvial soil from Flocos Dam, located at Tuparetama, state of Pernambuco, Brazil. The soil characteristic curves were determined through the functional adjustment, proposed by van Genuchten, to the values obtained in field measurements with tensiometers and neutron probes, and to values obtained in laboratory in a 'pressure pan' with a porous plate. The infiltration tests were performed for the depths of 0, 20, 40, 60, and 80 cm using an infiltration disk with a diameter of 80 mm, applying water at a potential of 0, -3, -6 and -12 cm. The hydraulic conductivity of the soil was determined through the VG method proposed by Zhang, which requires the previous knowledge of the soil-moisture characteristic curve. The determination of the soil-moisture characteristic curve by the two methods, using field or laboratory measurements, yielded similar results within the range of common pressure, from -300 to -100 cm, and indicates that the experimental results are sound and coherent. The heterogeneity of soil hydraulic properties within the soil profile can be explained by the variability in soil texture and dry bulk density throughout the profile. By using the diameter of the infiltration disk and the pressure applied to the soil, it was possible to characterize the porous matrix within the clayey layer. (author)

  9. Effects of soil water table regime on tree community species richness and structure of alluvial forest fragments in Southeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A C; Higuchi, P; van den Berg, E

    2010-08-01

    In order to determine the influence of soil water table fluctuation on tree species richness and structure of alluvial forest fragments, 24 plots were allocated in a point bar forest and 30 plots in five forest fragments located in a floodplain, in the municipality of São Sebastião da Bela Vista, Southeast Brazil, totalizing 54, 10 X 20 m, plots. The information recorded in each plot were the soil water table level, diameter at breast height (dbh), total height and botanical identity off all trees with dbh > 5 cm. The water table fluctuation was assessed through 1 m deep observation wells in each plot. Correlations analysis indicated that sites with shallower water table in the flooding plains had a low number of tree species and high tree density. Although the water table in the point bar remained below the wells during the study period, low tree species richness was observed. There are other events taking place within the point bar forest that assume a high ecological importance, such as the intensive water velocity during flooding and sedimentation processes.

  10. Remote sensing analysis of depositional landforms in alluvial settings: Method development and application to the Taquari megafan, Pantanal (Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zani, Hiran; Assine, Mario Luis; McGlue, Michael Matthew

    2012-08-01

    Traditional Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) topographic datasets hold limited value in the geomorphic analysis of low-relief terrains. To address this shortcoming, this paper presents a series of techniques designed to enhance digital elevation models (DEMs) of environments dominated by low-amplitude landforms, such as a fluvial megafan system. These techniques were validated through the study of a wide depositional tract composed of several megafans located within the Brazilian Pantanal. The Taquari megafan is the most remarkable of these features, covering an area of approximately 49,000 km2. To enhance the SRTM-DEM, the megafan global topography was calculated and found to be accurately represented by a second order polynomial. Simple subtraction of the global topography from altitude produced a new DEM product, which greatly enhanced low amplitude landforms within the Taquari megafan. A field campaign and optical satellite images were used to ground-truth features on the enhanced DEM, which consisted of both depositional (constructional) and erosional features. The results demonstrate that depositional lobes are the dominant landforms on the megafan. A model linking baselevel change, avulsion, clastic sedimentation, and erosion is proposed to explain the microtopographic features on the Taquari megafan surface. The study confirms the potential promise of enhanced DEMs for geomorphological research in alluvial settings.

  11. Geomorphologic, stratigraphic and sedimentologic evidences of tectonic activity in Sone-Ganga alluvial tract in Middle Ganga Plain, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Sudarsan; Saha, Dipankar

    2014-08-01

    The basement of the Ganga basin in the Himalayan foreland is criss-crossed by several faults, dividing the basin into several sub-blocks forming horsts, grabens, or half-grabens. Tectonic perturbations along basement faults have affected the fluvial regime and extent of sediment fill in different parts of the basin during Late Quaternary. The East Patna Fault (EPF) and the West Patna Fault (WPF), located in Sone-Ganga alluvial tract in the southern marginal parts of Middle Ganga Plain (MGP), have remained tectonically active. The EPF particularly has acted significantly and influenced in evolving the geomorphological landscape and the stratigraphic architecture of the area. The block bounded by the two faults has earlier been considered as a single entity, constituting a half-graben. The present investigation (by morpho-stratigraphic and sedimentologic means) has revealed the existence of yet another fault within the half-graben, referred to as Bishunpur-Khagaul Fault (BKF). Many of the long profile morphological characters (e.g., knick-zone, low width-depth ratio) of the Sone River at its lower reaches can be ascribed to local structural deformation along BKF. These basement faults in MGP lie parallel to each other in NE-SW direction.

  12. Waterbird communities and seed biomass in managed and reference-restored wetlands in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapp, Jessica L.; Weegman, Matthew M.; Webb, Elisabeth B.; Kaminski, Richard M.; Davis, J. Brian

    2018-01-01

    The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) commenced the Migratory Bird Habitat Initiative (MBHI) in summer 2010 after the April 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. The MBHI enrolled in the program 193,000 ha of private wet- and cropland inland from potential oil-impaired wetlands. We evaluated waterfowl and other waterbird use and potential seed/tuber food resources in NRCS Wetland Reserve Program easement wetlands managed via MBHI funding and associated reference wetlands in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley of Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Missouri. In Louisiana and Mississippi, nearly three times more dabbling ducks and all ducks combined were observed on managed than reference wetlands. Shorebirds and waterbirds other than waterfowl were nearly twice as abundant on managed than referenced wetlands. In Arkansas and Missouri, managed wetlands had over twice more dabbling ducks and nearly twice as many duck species than reference wetlands. Wetlands managed via MBHI in Mississippi and Louisiana contained ≥1.3 times more seed and tuber biomass known to be consumed by waterfowl than reference wetlands. Seed and tuber resources did not differ between wetlands in Arkansas and Missouri. While other studies have documented greater waterbird densities on actively than nonmanaged wetlands, our results highlighted the potential for initiatives focused on managing conservation easements to increase waterbird use and energetic carrying capacity of restored wetlands for waterbirds.

  13. Distribution of rare earth elements in an alluvial aquifer affected by acid mine drainage: the Guadiamar aquifer (SW Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olias, M.; Ceron, J.C.; Fernandez, I.; Rosa, J. de la

    2005-01-01

    This work analyses the spatial distribution, the origin, and the shale-normalised fractionation patterns of the rare earth elements (REE) in the alluvial aquifer of the Guadiamar River (south-western Spain). This river received notoriety in April 1998 for a spill that spread a great amount of slurry (mainly pyrites) and acid waters in a narrow strip along the river course. Groundwaters and surface waters were sampled to analyse, among other elements, the REEs. Their spatial distribution shows a peak close to the mining region, in an area with low values of pH and high concentrations of sulphates and other metals such as Zn, Cu, Co, Ni, Pb, and Cd. The patterns of shale-normalised fractionation at the most-contaminated points show an enrichment in the middle rare earth elements (MREE) with respect to the light (LREE) and heavy (HREE) ones, typical of acid waters. The Ce-anomaly becomes more negative as pH increases, due to the preferential fractionation of Ce in oxyhydroxides of Fe. - Pollution of the aquifer with rare earth elements is documented at a site of a major spill from a mining operation

  14. Effects of soil water table regime on tree community species richness and structure of alluvial forest fragments in Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AC. Silva

    Full Text Available In order to determine the influence of soil water table fluctuation on tree species richness and structure of alluvial forest fragments, 24 plots were allocated in a point bar forest and 30 plots in five forest fragments located in a floodplain, in the municipality of São Sebastião da Bela Vista, Southeast Brazil, totalizing 54, 10 X 20 m, plots. The information recorded in each plot were the soil water table level, diameter at breast height (dbh, total height and botanical identity off all trees with dbh > 5 cm. The water table fluctuation was assessed through 1 m deep observation wells in each plot. Correlations analysis indicated that sites with shallower water table in the flooding plains had a low number of tree species and high tree density. Although the water table in the point bar remained below the wells during the study period, low tree species richness was observed. There are other events taking place within the point bar forest that assume a high ecological importance, such as the intensive water velocity during flooding and sedimentation processes.

  15. Temporal-spatial variation and source apportionment of soil heavy metals in the representative river-alluviation depositional system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Yang, Zhongfang; Zhong, Cong; Ji, Junfeng

    2016-09-01

    The contributions of major driving forces on temporal changes of heavy metals in the soil in a representative river-alluviation area at the lower of Yangtze River were successfully quantified by combining geostatistics analysis with the modified principal component scores & multiple linear regressions approach (PCS-MLR). The results showed that the temporal (2003-2014) changes of Cu, Zn, Ni and Cr presented a similar spatial distribution pattern, whereas the Cd and Hg showed the distinctive patterns. The temporal changes of soil Cu, Zn, Ni and Cr may be predominated by the emission of the shipbuilding industry, whereas the significant changes of Cd and Hg were possibly predominated by the geochemical and geographical processes, such as the erosion of the Yangtze River water and leaching because of soil acidification. The emission of metal-bearing shipbuilding industry contributed an estimated 74%-83% of the changes in concentrations of Cu, Zn, Ni and Cr, whereas the geochemical and geographical processes may contribute 58% of change of Cd in the soil and 59% of decrease of Hg. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Developing a Composite Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment Model Combining DRASTIC with Agricultural Land Use in Choushui River Alluvial Fan, Central Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shih-Kai; Hsieh, Chih-Heng; Tsai, Cheng-Bin

    2017-04-01

    Aquifer vulnerability assessment is considered to be an effective tool in controlling potential pollution which is critical for groundwater management. The Choushui River alluvial fan, located in central Taiwan, is an agricultural area with complex crop patterns and various irrigation schemes, which increased the difficulties in groundwater resource management. The aim of this study is to propose an integrated methodology to assess shallow groundwater vulnerability by including land-use impact on groundwater potential pollution. The original groundwater vulnerability methodology, DRASTIC, was modified by adding a land-use parameter in order to assess groundwater vulnerability under intense agricultural activities. To examine the prediction capacity of pollution for the modified DRASTIC model, various risk categories of contamination potentials were compared with observed nitrate-N obtained from groundwater monitoring network. It was found that for the original DRASTIC vulnerability map, some areas with low nitrate-N concentrations are covered within the high vulnerability areas, especially in the northern part of mid-fan areas, where rice paddy is the main crop and planted for two crop seasons per year. The low nitrate-N contamination potential of rice paddies may be resulted from the denitrification in the reduced root zone. By reducing the rating for rice paddies, the modified model was proved to be capable of increasing the precise of prediction in study area. The results can provide a basis for groundwater monitoring network design and effective preserve measures formulation in the mixed agricultural area. Keyword:Aquifer Vulnerability, Groundwater, DRASTIC, Nitrate-N

  17. Effect of phosphorus and zinc on growth and their uptake in hybrid maize grown in a calcareous alluvial soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parik, B.L.; Santikari, A.K.; Das, S.K.; Chowdhury, B.

    1977-01-01

    Hybrid maize (Zea mays L., var. Ganga 101) was grown in glasshouse at different levels of phosphorus with and without zinc, in a calcareous alluvial soil of North Bihar. Phosphorus was applied at 0, 11, 22, 44 and 88 ppm as tagged P in single superphosphats. Zinc was applied at 0 and 10 ppm as 65 ZnCl 2 . Application of phosphorus and zinc significantly increased the dry matter yield up to P 44 . Higher dose of P resulted in depressed growth accompanied by decreased zinc concentration and uptake by plants, exhibiting zinc deficiency symptoms. Higher levels of P and Zn increased their concentrations in the plant, but their total uptake was reduced at P 88 . With higher levels of P the percent utilization of fertilizer P decreased, while in zinc treated soils uptake of fertilizer P increased. Percent utilization of added zinc increased with increase in P levels upto P 44 and decreased thereafter, although at this level of P a greater percentage of zinc was derived from the fertilizer. (author)

  18. Geology and ground-water conditions of Clark County Washington, with a description of a major alluvial aquifer along the Columbia River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundorff, Maurice John

    1964-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation of the ground-water resources of the populated parts of Clark County. Yields adequate for irrigation can be obtained from wells inmost farmed areas in Clark County, Wash. The total available supply is sufficient for all foreseeable irrigation developments. In a few local areas aquifers are fine-grained, and yields of individual wells are low. An enormous ground-water supply is available from a major alluvial aquifer underlying the flood plain of the Columbia River in the vicinity of Vancouver, Camas, and Washougal, where the aquifer is recharged, in part, by infiltration from the river. Yields of individual wells are large, ranging to as much as 4,000 gpm (gallons per minute). Clark County lies along the western flank of the Cascade Range. in the structural lowland (Willamette-Puget trough) between those mountains and the Coast Ranges to the west. The area covered by the report includes the urban, the suburban, and most of the agricultural lands in the county. These lands lie on a Series of nearly fiat plains and benches which rise steplike from the level of the Columbia River (a few feet above sea level) to about 800 feet above sea level. Clark County is-drained by the Columbia River (the trunk stream of the Pacific Northwest) and its tributaries. The Columbia River forms the southern and western boundaries of the county. Although the climate of the county is considered to be humid, the precipitation ranging from about 37 to more than 110 inches annually in various parts of the county, the unequal seasonal distribution (about 1.5 inches total for ;July and August in the agricultural area) makes irrigation highly desirable for most .crops and essential for some specialized crops. Consolidated rocks of Eocene to Miocene age, chiefly volcanic lava flows and pyroclastics but including some sedimentary strata, crop out in the foothills of the Cascades in the eastern part of the county and underlie the younger

  19. Vadose-zone instrumentation in coarse alluvial deposits of the Amargosa Desert near Beatty, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, D.S.; Fischer, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    A vadose-zone monitoring shaft near Beatty, NV, is 1.52 m in diameter and penetrates nearly 14 m of unsaturated fluvial sediments. These sediments are comprised of silty sand, coarse sandy gravel, and poorly cemented sand, with gravel and occasional cobbles and boulders. Thirty-three lateral ports at 11 levels between 3 and 13 m deep allow access to undisturbed sediments outside the vertical shaft. The prefabricated metal shaft was emplaced in a 2.44-m-diameter hole excavated by using a crane drill with bucket and flight augers. Laboratory-calibrated thermocouple-psychrometers are being used to measure soil-matrix potential. A method of installing the phychrometers was developed which will allow their retrieval, after extended periods in the soil, for cleaning, recalibration, and reinstallation. Primary access holes 2.5 cm in diameter are drilled laterally outward from the monitoring shaft to a distance of approximately 4 m. The psychrometer is then inserted into the primary access hole and sealed into a smaller diameter boring in the undisturbed material at the outer end of the primary access hole. Data are collected and stored by a programmable measurement-control and data-logger system powered by photovoltaic cells. Magnetic-tape data storage is used to back up daily data retrieval via telecommunication with the project headquarters in Carson City, Nev., 520 km north of the study

  20. High Recharge Areas in the Choushui River Alluvial Fan (Taiwan Assessed from Recharge Potential Analysis and Average Storage Variation Indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Pin Tsai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available High recharge areas significantly influence the groundwater quality and quantity in regional groundwater systems. Many studies have applied recharge potential analysis (RPA to estimate groundwater recharge potential (GRP and have delineated high recharge areas based on the estimated GRP. However, most of these studies define the RPA parameters with supposition, and this represents a major source of uncertainty for applying RPA. To objectively define the RPA parameter values without supposition, this study proposes a systematic method based on the theory of parameter identification. A surrogate variable, namely the average storage variation (ASV index, is developed to calibrate the RPA parameters, because of the lack of direct GRP observations. The study results show that the correlations between the ASV indexes and computed GRP values improved from 0.67 before calibration to 0.85 after calibration, thus indicating that the calibrated RPA parameters represent the recharge characteristics of the study area well; these data also highlight how defining the RPA parameters with ASV indexes can help to improve the accuracy. The calibrated RPA parameters were used to estimate the GRP distribution of the study area, and the GRP values were graded into five levels. High and excellent level areas are defined as high recharge areas, which composed 7.92% of the study area. Overall, this study demonstrates that the developed approach can objectively define the RPA parameters and high recharge areas of the Choushui River alluvial fan, and the results should serve as valuable references for the Taiwanese government in their efforts to conserve the groundwater quality and quantity of the study area.

  1. Sources of high-chloride water and managed aquifer recharge in an alluvial aquifer in California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, David R.; Izbicki, John A.; Metzger, Loren F.

    2015-11-01

    As a result of pumping in excess of recharge, water levels in alluvial aquifers within the Eastern San Joaquin Groundwater Subbasin, 130 km east of San Francisco (California, USA), declined below sea level in the early 1950s and have remained so to the present. Chloride concentrations in some wells increased during that time and exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency's secondary maximum contaminant level of 250 mg/L, resulting in removal of some wells from service. Sources of high-chloride water include irrigation return in 16 % of sampled wells and water from delta sediments and deeper groundwater in 50 % of sampled wells. Chloride concentrations resulting from irrigation return commonly did not exceed 100 mg/L, although nitrate concentrations were as high as 25 mg/L as nitrogen. Chloride concentrations ranged from less than 100-2,050 mg/L in wells affected by water from delta sediments and deeper groundwater. Sequential electromagnetic logs show movement of high-chloride water from delta sediments to pumping wells through permeable interconnected aquifer layers. δD and δ18O data show most groundwater originated as recharge along the front of the Sierra Nevada, but tritium and carbon-14 data suggest recharge rates in this area are low and have decreased over recent geologic time. Managed aquifer recharge at two sites show differences in water-level responses to recharge and in the physical movement of recharged water with depth related to subsurface geology. Well-bore flow logs also show rapid movement of water from recharge sites through permeable interconnected aquifer layers to pumping wells.

  2. Size-fractionation of groundwater arsenic in alluvial aquifers of West Bengal, India: the role of organic and inorganic colloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Santanu; Nath, Bibhash; Sarkar, Simita; Chatterjee, Debashis; Roman-Ross, Gabriela; Hidalgo, Manuela

    2014-01-15

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and Fe mineral phases are known to influence the mobility of arsenic (As) in groundwater. Arsenic can be associated with colloidal particles containing organic matter and Fe. Currently, no data is available on the dissolved phase/colloidal association of As in groundwater of alluvial aquifers in West Bengal, India. This study investigated the fractional distribution of As (and other metals/metalloids) among the particulate, colloidal and dissolved phases in groundwater to decipher controlling behavior of organic and inorganic colloids on As mobility. The result shows that 83-94% of As remained in the 'truly dissolved' phases (i.e., 0.05 μm size) colloidal particles, which indicates the close association of As with larger Fe-rich inorganic colloids. In smaller (i.e., <0.05 μm size) colloidal particles strong positive correlation is observed between As and DOC (r(2)=0.85), which highlights the close association of As with smaller organic colloids. As(III) is mainly associated with larger inorganic colloids, whereas, As(V) is associated with smaller organic/organometallic colloids. Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy confirm the association of As with DOC and Fe mineral phases suggesting the formation of dissolved organo-Fe complexes and colloidal organo-Fe oxide phases. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy further confirms the formation of As-Fe-NOM organometallic colloids, however, a detailed study of these types of colloids in natural waters is necessary to underpin their controlling behavior. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization and selection of biochar for an efficient retention of tricyclazole in a flooded alluvial paddy soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Jaramillo, Manuel, E-mail: mgarcia@irnas.csic.es [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiología de Sevilla (IRNAS-CSIC), P.O. Box 1052, 41080 Seville (Spain); Cox, Lucía; Knicker, Heike E.; Cornejo, Juan [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiología de Sevilla (IRNAS-CSIC), P.O. Box 1052, 41080 Seville (Spain); Spokas, Kurt A. [United States Department of Agriculture–Agricultural Research Service, 1991 Upper Buford Circle, Saint Paul 55108, MN (United States); Hermosín, M.Carmen [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiología de Sevilla (IRNAS-CSIC), P.O. Box 1052, 41080 Seville (Spain)

    2015-04-09

    Highlights: • Biochar CEC was inversely correlated with HTT. • Enhanced aromaticity was associated to an improved biochar adsorption of tricyclazole. • The SSA of the biochars was inversely correlated with DOC contents. • Adsorption of tricyclazole was related to high SSA and low DOC content of biochars. • The use of AC and biochar in conjunction provides the slow release of tricyclazole. - Abstract: Biochars, from different organic residues, are increasingly proposed as soil amendments for their agronomic and environmental benefits. A systematic detection method that correlates biochar properties to their abilities to adsorb organic compounds is still lacking. Seven biochars obtained after pyrolysis at different temperatures and from different feedstock (alperujo compost, rice hull, and woody debris), were characterized and tested to reveal potential remedial forms for pesticide capture in flooded soils. Biochar properties were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, specific surface area (SSA) assessment and scanning electron microscopy. In addition, dissolved organic matter (DOM) from these biochars was extracted and quantified in order to evaluate the effect on pesticide sorption. The biochars from alperujo compost presented very high affinity to the fungicide tricyclazole (55.9, 83.5, and 90.3% for B1, B4, and B5, respectively). This affinity was positively correlated with the pyrolysis temperature, the pH, the increased SSA of the biochars, and the enhanced aromaticity. Sorptive capacities were negatively related to DOM contents. The amendment with a mixture of compost and biochar endows the alluvial soil with high sorptive properties (from K{sub fads(soil)} = 9.26 to K{sub fads(mixture)} = 17.89) without impeding the slow release of tricyclazole.

  4. Characterization and selection of biochar for an efficient retention of tricyclazole in a flooded alluvial paddy soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Jaramillo, Manuel; Cox, Lucía; Knicker, Heike E.; Cornejo, Juan; Spokas, Kurt A.; Hermosín, M.Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Biochar CEC was inversely correlated with HTT. • Enhanced aromaticity was associated to an improved biochar adsorption of tricyclazole. • The SSA of the biochars was inversely correlated with DOC contents. • Adsorption of tricyclazole was related to high SSA and low DOC content of biochars. • The use of AC and biochar in conjunction provides the slow release of tricyclazole. - Abstract: Biochars, from different organic residues, are increasingly proposed as soil amendments for their agronomic and environmental benefits. A systematic detection method that correlates biochar properties to their abilities to adsorb organic compounds is still lacking. Seven biochars obtained after pyrolysis at different temperatures and from different feedstock (alperujo compost, rice hull, and woody debris), were characterized and tested to reveal potential remedial forms for pesticide capture in flooded soils. Biochar properties were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, specific surface area (SSA) assessment and scanning electron microscopy. In addition, dissolved organic matter (DOM) from these biochars was extracted and quantified in order to evaluate the effect on pesticide sorption. The biochars from alperujo compost presented very high affinity to the fungicide tricyclazole (55.9, 83.5, and 90.3% for B1, B4, and B5, respectively). This affinity was positively correlated with the pyrolysis temperature, the pH, the increased SSA of the biochars, and the enhanced aromaticity. Sorptive capacities were negatively related to DOM contents. The amendment with a mixture of compost and biochar endows the alluvial soil with high sorptive properties (from K fads(soil) = 9.26 to K fads(mixture) = 17.89) without impeding the slow release of tricyclazole

  5. RESPONSE OF SOYBEANS AND WHEAT TO PHOSPHORUS FERTILIZATION ON CALCAREOUS ALLUVIAL SOIL OF SAVA VALLEY AREA IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurica JOVIC

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The stationary field experiment of increasing rates of phosphorus (P fertilization started in spring 2011 on calcareous alluvial soil of Posavian Canton in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H. The level of plant available P was found to be low by previous soil tests carried on with ammonium-lactate-method (7.06 pH in 1 M KCl; 4.17% organic matter; 3.79% CaCO3; 5.4 mg P2O5 in 100 g of soil. Five rates of P fertilizers (monoammonium phosphate: 13% N + 53 % P2O5 were applied as follows (kg P2O5 ha-1: a = 75 (basic fertilization, b = 225, c = 375, d = 525 and e = 975. The experiment was conducted in four replicates (basic plot 60 m2. Only basic fertilization was applied in the following years. Crop rotation was as follows: soybean (2011 - winter wheat (2012 + 2013. Soybean yield increased for 20% (2.11 and 2.53 t ha-1, respectively with P fertilization from 75 to 375 kg P2O5 ha-1, whereas further increase of P rates resulted with lower yield compared to the control level. In both years significant differences of wheat yields were found only between basic and each rate of the increased P fertilization. Wheat yields of the control group were 6.21 and 6.44 t ha-1, for the harvest of 2012 and 2013, respectively. P fertilization led to an increase in wheat yields up to 13% in 2012 and 15% in 2013. Mean values of wheat yields of four P treatments (b+c+d+e were 6.92 and 7.21 t ha-1 for 2012 and 2013, respectively.

  6. Sources of high-chloride water and managed aquifer recharge in an alluvial aquifer in California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, David; Izbicki, John A.; Metzger, Loren F.

    2015-01-01

    As a result of pumping in excess of recharge, water levels in alluvial aquifers within the Eastern San Joaquin Groundwater Subbasin, 130 km east of San Francisco (California, USA), declined below sea level in the early 1950s and have remained so to the present. Chloride concentrations in some wells increased during that time and exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency’s secondary maximum contaminant level of 250 mg/L, resulting in removal of some wells from service. Sources of high-chloride water include irrigation return in 16 % of sampled wells and water from delta sediments and deeper groundwater in 50 % of sampled wells. Chloride concentrations resulting from irrigation return commonly did not exceed 100 mg/L, although nitrate concentrations were as high as 25 mg/L as nitrogen. Chloride concentrations ranged from less than 100–2,050 mg/L in wells affected by water from delta sediments and deeper groundwater. Sequential electromagnetic logs show movement of high-chloride water from delta sediments to pumping wells through permeable interconnected aquifer layers. δD and δ18O data show most groundwater originated as recharge along the front of the Sierra Nevada, but tritium and carbon-14 data suggest recharge rates in this area are low and have decreased over recent geologic time. Managed aquifer recharge at two sites show differences in water-level responses to recharge and in the physical movement of recharged water with depth related to subsurface geology. Well-bore flow logs also show rapid movement of water from recharge sites through permeable interconnected aquifer layers to pumping wells.

  7. The Definition of Groundwater Recharge Area Using GIS Approach -A Case Study of Choshuihsi Alluvial Fan, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, JuiPin; Chen, Yu Wen; Chang, Liang Cheng; Chiang, Chun Jung; Chen, Jui Er; Chen, You Cheng

    2013-04-01

    Groundwater recharge areas are regions with high permeability that accept surface water more readily than other regions. If the land use/cover were changed, it would affect the groundwater recharge. Also, if this area were polluted, the contamination easily infiltrates into the groundwater system. Therefore, the goal of this study is to delineate the recharge area of Choshuihsi Alluvial Fan. This study applies 6 recharge potential scale factors, including land use/land cover, soil, drainage density, annual average rainfall, hydraulic conductivity and aquifer thickness to estimate the infiltration ability and storage capacity of study area. The fundamental data of these factors were digitized using GIS (Geographic Information System) technology and their GIS maps were created. Then each of these maps was translated to a score map ranged from 1 to 100. Moreover, these score maps are integrated as a recharge potential map using arithmetic average, and this map shows recharge potential in 5 levels, such as very poor, poor, moderate, good and excellent. The result shows that majority of "good" and "excellent" areas is located at the top of the fan. This is because the land use of top-fan is agricultural and its surface soil type is gravel and coarse. The top-fan, which is close to mountain areas, has a higher average annual rainfall than other areas. Also, the aquifer thickness of top-fan is much thicker than other areas. The percentage of the areas ranged as "good" and above is 9.63% of total area, and most areas located at top-fan. As a result, we suggest that the top-fan of study area should be protected and more field surveys are required to accurately delineate the recharge area boundary.

  8. Evaluation of hydrologic conditions and nitrate concentrations in the Rio Nigua de Salinas alluvial fan aquifer, Salinas, Puerto Rico, 2002-03

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Jose M.

    2006-01-01

    A ground-water quality study to define the potential sources and concentration of nitrate in the Rio Nigua de Salinas alluvial fan aquifer was conducted between January 2002 and March 2003. The study area covers about 3,600 hectares of the coastal plain within the municipality of Salinas in southern Puerto Rico, extending from the foothills to the Caribbean Sea. Agriculture is the principal land use and includes cultivation of diverse crops, turf grass, bioengineered crops for seed production, and commercial poultry farms. Ground-water withdrawal in the alluvial fan was estimated to be about 43,500 cubic meters per day, of which 49 percent was withdrawn for agriculture, 42 percent for public supply, and 9 percent for industrial use. Ground-water flow in the study area was primarily to the south and toward a cone of depression within the south-central part of the alluvial fan. The presence of that cone of depression and a smaller one located in the northeastern quadrant of the study area may contribute to the increase in nitrate concentration within a total area of about 545 hectares by 'recycling' ground water used for irrigation of cultivated lands. In an area that covers about 405 hectares near the center of the Salinas alluvial fan, nitrate concentrations increased from 0.9 to 6.7 milligrams per liter as nitrogen in 1986 to 8 to 12 milligrams per liter as nitrogen in 2002. Principal sources of nitrate in the study area are fertilizers (used in the cultivated farmlands) and poultry farm wastes. The highest nitrogen concentrations were found at poultry farms in the foothills area. In the area of disposed poultry farm wastes, nitrate concentrations in ground water ranged from 25 to 77 milligrams per liter as nitrogen. Analyses for the stable isotope ratios of nitrogen-15/nitrogen-14 in nitrate were used to distinguish the source of nitrate in the coastal plain alluvial fan aquifer. Potential nitrate loads from areas under cultivation were estimated for the

  9. A dam in the drylands: Effects of soil geomorphic actions on a mediterranean alluvial scrubland and the endangered Santa Ana woolly star (Eriastrum densifolium spp. sanctorum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, R. R.; Sandquist, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    When dams preclude natural flow, maintenance of river ecosystems adapted to infrequent, catastrophic floods poses unique challenges. Further, riparian mediterranean ecosystems with high inter-annual and seasonal precipitation variability, coupled with complicated patterns of biotic and abiotic heterogeneity, intensify challenges for management under disrupted flow regimes. In this study, we evaluated the impact of six unique soil geomorphic actions on the rare Riversidian alluvial fan sage scrub plant community, which includes the endangered Santa Ana River woolly star (Eriastrum densifolium spp. sanctorum [Eds]) after 5, 7.5, and 13 years of response. We implemented a complete randomized block design, with each block incorporating six geomorphic treatments: cleared, diked, cut, filled (10 cm soil), filled (20 cm soil), and filled (30 cm soil), mimicking one of more physical disturbance process occurring after a natural flood event. We performed native and exotic plant community surveys on full plots in summer 2006, representing 7.5 years of response from the original 1999 disturbance, and on (re-disturbed half) plots in fall 2012, representing (5 years) 13 years of response. We found that recruitment of Eds into late-successional (i.e., control) plots is highly limited (0.0, 4.1, and 2.5% cover) after 5, 7.5, and 13 years, respectively, with implications for the persistence of this species, whereas the cut treatment showed significantly higher cover of Eds (25.3, 53.4, 14.3%, respectively). Our results also suggest that exotic annual grasses may inhibit Eds and other Riversidian alluvial fan sage scrub plant community members under a disrupted flow regime but that soil geomorphic treatment of late-successional habitat can be effective in facilitating Eds and Riversidian alluvial fan sage scrub establishment.

  10. Morphometric Analysis and Delineation of Debris Flow Susceptible Alluvial Fans in the Philippines after the 2015 Koppu and Melor Typhoon Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llanes, F.; Rodolfo, K. S.; Lagmay, A. M. A.

    2017-12-01

    On 17 October 2015, Typhoon Koppu brought heavy rains that generated debris flows in the municipalities of Bongabon, Laur, and Gabaldon in Nueva Ecija province. Roughly two months later on 15 December, Typhoon Melor made landfall in the province of Oriental Mindoro, bringing heavy rains that also generated debris flows in multiple watersheds in the municipality of Baco. Despite not being in the direct path of the typhoon, debris flows were triggered in Bongabon, Gabaldon, and Laur, whereas old debris-flow deposits were remobilized in Dingalan, a coastal town in Aurora province adjacent to Gabaldon. During the onslaught of Typhoons Koppu and Melor, landslides of rock, soil, and debris converged in the mountain stream networks where they were remobilized into debris flows that destroyed numerous houses and structures situated on alluvial fans. Satellite images before and after the two typhoons were compared to calculate the deposit extents on the fans and to determine the number and extent of landslides on each watershed. The affected alluvial fans were investigated in the field to determine whether they are debris flow or flood-prone, using a set of established geomorphic and sedimentary characteristics that differentiate deposits of the two processes. Melton ratio, watershed length, and other significant morphometric indices were calculated and analyzed for the affected watersheds using geographic information system (GIS) and high-resolution digital terrain models. A GIS model that can delineate debris flow susceptible alluvial fans in the Philippines was derived and developed from the analysis. Limitations of the model are discussed, as well as recommendations to improve and refine it.

  11. Thermodynamic and hydrochemical controls on CH4 in a coal seam gas and overlying alluvial aquifer: new insights into CH4 origins

    OpenAIRE

    Owen, D. Des. R.; Shouakar-Stash, O.; Morgenstern, U.; Aravena, R.

    2016-01-01

    Using a comprehensive data set (dissolved CH4, ?13C-CH4, ?2H-CH4, ?13C-DIC, ?37Cl, ?2H-H2O, ?18O-H2O, Na, K, Ca, Mg, HCO3, Cl, Br, SO4, NO3 and DO), in combination with a novel application of isometric log ratios, this study describes hydrochemical and thermodynamic controls on dissolved CH4 from a coal seam gas reservoir and an alluvial aquifer in the Condamine catchment, eastern Surat/north-western Clarence-Moreton basins, Australia. ?13C-CH4 data in the gas reservoir (?58? to ?49?) and sha...

  12. Natural and EDTA-complexed lanthanides used as a geochemical probe for aquifers: a case study of Orleans valley's alluvial and karstic aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Borgne, F.; Treuil, M.; Joron, J.L.; Lepiller, M.

    2005-01-01

    The transit of chemical elements within the different parts of Orleans valley's aquifer is studied by two complementary methods. Those methods rely on the fractionation of lanthanides (Ln) during their migration in natural waters. The first method consists in studying natural lanthanides patterns within the watershed, at its entries and exits. second one lies on multi-tracer experiments with Ln-EDTA complexes. This work is completed through an observation network consisting of 52 piezometers set on a sand and gravel quarry, and the natural entries and exits of the aquifer. Orleans valley's aquifer, which is made of an alluvial watershed lying on a karstic aquifer, is mainly fed by Loire river via a large karstic network. At the entries of the aquifer (Loire river at Jargeau), the Ln concentrations in the dissolved fraction ( heavy Ln. On the other hand, the filtration of alluvial groundwater with high colloids content induces no significant Ln fractionation when the solution contains no strong chelating agent. Hence, the transit of natural and artificial Ln in Orleans valley aquifer can be explained by two complementary processes. (I) Decanting/filtering or, on the opposite, stirring of colloids. Those processes induce no important Ln fractionation. (2) Exchanges of Ln between solute complexes, colloids and sediments due to the presence of strong chelating agents. Those exchanges fractionate the Ln in the order of their stability constants. Considering the natural Ln fractionation that occurs in the Loire river and in the studied aquifer, the carbonates, the stability constants of which follow the order light Ln < heavy Ln, are the best candidates as natural strong chelating agents. From the hydrodynamic point of view, both tracer experiments and natural Ln concentrations show that the transfer of elements within the alluvial watershed is pulsed by the Loire river movements. During an ascent phase, the elements migrate away from and perpendicularly to the karstic

  13. Dictionary materials engineering, materials testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This dictionary contains about 9,500 entries in each part of the following fields: 1) Materials using and selection; 2) Mechanical engineering materials -Metallic materials - Non-metallic inorganic materials - Plastics - Composites -Materials damage and protection; 3) Electrical and electronics materials -Conductor materials - Semiconductors - magnetic materials - Dielectric materials - non-conducting materials; 4) Materials testing - Mechanical methods - Analytical methods - Structure investigation - Complex methods - Measurement of physical properties - Non-destructive testing. (orig.) [de

  14. Identifying sources of groundwater nitrate contamination in a large alluvial groundwater basin with highly diversified intensive agricultural production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, K. M.; King, A. M.; Harter, T.

    2013-08-01

    Groundwater quality is a concern in alluvial aquifers underlying agricultural areas worldwide. Nitrate from land applied fertilizers or from animal waste can leach to groundwater and contaminate drinking water resources. The San Joaquin Valley, California, is an example of an agricultural landscape with a large diversity of field, vegetable, tree, nut, and citrus crops, but also confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs, here mostly dairies) that generate, store, and land apply large amounts of liquid manure. As in other such regions around the world, the rural population in the San Joaquin Valley relies almost exclusively on shallow domestic wells (≤ 150 m deep), of which many have been affected by nitrate. Variability in crops, soil type, and depth to groundwater contribute to large variability in nitrate occurrence across the underlying aquifer system. The role of these factors in controlling groundwater nitrate contamination levels is examined. Two hundred domestic wells were sampled in two sub-regions of the San Joaquin Valley, Stanislaus and Merced (Stan/Mer) and Tulare and Kings (Tul/Kings) Counties. Forty six percent of well water samples in Tul/Kings and 42% of well water samples in Stan/Mer exceeded the MCL for nitrate (10 mg/L NO3-N). For statistical analysis of nitrate contamination, 78 crop and landuse types were considered by grouping them into ten categories (CAFO, citrus, deciduous fruits and nuts, field crops, forage, native, pasture, truck crops, urban, and vineyards). Vadose zone thickness, soil type, well construction information, well proximity to dairies, and dominant landuse near the well were considered. In the Stan/Mer area, elevated nitrate levels in domestic wells most strongly correlate with the combination of very shallow (≤ 21 m) water table and the presence of either CAFO derived animal waste applications or deciduous fruit and nut crops (synthetic fertilizer applications). In Tulare County, statistical data indicate that elevated

  15. Alluvial and riparian soils as major sources of lead exposure in young children in the Philippines: the role of floods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrea, Enrique M; Ostrea, Angelo M; Villanueva-Uy, Ma Esterlita; Chiodo, Lisa; Janisse, James

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this paper was to determine the prevalence and sources of high lead (Pb) exposure among children in Bulacan, Philippines. A total of 150 children (6-7 years old) and their caregivers were studied. Lead was analyzed in children hair and deciduous teeth. Sources of lead exposure were determined by caregiver interview and Pb analysis of house soil, drinking faucet water, air, and water from seven Bulacan rivers. Lead was positive in 91.3% of children's hair (MC or median concentration = 8.9 μg/g; range = 0-38.29), in 46.2% of the teeth (MC = 0.000 μg/mg in positive samples; range = 0.00-0.020), in 100% of soil (MC = 27.06 mg/kg; range = 3.05-1155.80), in 21.1% of air (MC = 0 μg/Ncm; range = 0-0.10), in 4% of house, faucet water (MC = 0.0 ppm; range = 0-40). There was a significant correlation (Spearman's rho) between Pb in children's hair and soil (r = 0.195; p = 0.017) and between Pb in house water and outdoor air (r = 0.616; p = 0.005). There is no significant correlation between Pb in children's hair and teeth. None of the potential sources of Pb from interview were related to lead exposure in the children. Water from seven Bulacan rivers was 100% positive for lead (MC = 70.00 ppb; range = 30-90). Widespread flooding with river overflow occurred in Bulacan in 2009 which likely caused lead contamination of the soil. There was no significant difference in the lead concentration of the soil whether near or far from the river (p = 0.205, Mann-Whitney U test). High lead exposure in children in Bulacan is likely from soil contaminated by lead-polluted rivers during flooding. In areas where flooding is common, alluvial and riparian soils from polluted rivers are important sources of lead exposure in children.

  16. Distribution of Artificial Radioisotopes in Granulometric and Organic Fractions of Alluvial Soils Downstream the Krasnoyarsk Mining and Chemical Combine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korobova, Elena M.; Linnik, Vitaly G. [Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, 117991, Moscow (Russian Federation); Brown, Justin E. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority P.O. Box 55, N-1332 Oesteraas (Norway)

    2014-07-01

    A study of some artificial radionuclides discharged by the Krasnoyarsk Mining and Chemical Combine (KMCC) in different granulometric and organic fractions of alluvial soils was performed in the near and remote impact zones of the enterprise. Radionuclides were shown to concentrate in fine fractions enriched in hydro-mica and smectites. However in natural conditions the dominating size fraction associated with radionuclide accumulation at the study sites appeared to be made up of silt (0.010 mm) to clay (0.001 mm) sizes. Therefore due to radionuclide sorption and natural aggregation the peaks of a relatively high radionuclide mass accumulation were associated with three granulometric fractions: <0.001 mm, 0.063-0.010 mm and 0.25-0.125 mm. Soil granulometry was shown to reflect specificity of sedimentation at different landscape positions downstream from the KMCC. At the Balchug site a coarser fraction was accumulated close to the channel while finer fractions are deposited at a higher level. The portion of the clay fraction corresponded to the elevation level increasing from the river bank to the terrace. At the Mikhin Island the tendency was different. A coarser fraction was deposited on higher levels while the portion of clay fraction was at a minimum compared to the lower levels. To study the relationship between radionuclide activity concentrations and organic matter content, selected soil samples were subjected to extraction of the humic and fulvic acid fractions with a subsequent determination of radionuclides in the separated phases and the residue component. The air-dry sample was saturated with 0.1 M NaOH, humic acid was precipitated by 1 M HCl at pH=1. The separation resulted in three fractions of the fulvic acids, humic acids, and the residue containing the denuded mineral phase and the refractory organic residue. Radionuclides measured in the first fraction were believed to be the most mobile, those in the second fraction - subjected to the complexation

  17. Evidence for Upward Flow of Saline Water from Depth into the Mississippi River Valley Alluvial Aquifer in Southeastern Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, D.; Paul, J.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater salinization is occurring in the Mississippi River Valley Alluvial (MRVA) aquifer in southeastern Arkansas (SE AR). Water samples from the MRVA aquifer in Chicot and Desha counties have yielded elevated Cl-concentrations with some as high as 1,639 mg/L. Considering that the MRVA aquifer is the principle source of irrigation water for the agricultural economy of SE AR, salinization needs to be addressed to ensure the sustainability of crop, groundwater, and soil resources in the area. The origin of elevated salinity in MRVA aquifer was investigated using spatial and factor analysis of historical water quality data, and sampling and tracer analysis of groundwater from irrigation, municipal, and flowing industrial wells in SE AR. Spatial analysis of Cl- data in relation to soil type, geomorphic features and sand-blow density indicate that the Cl- anomalies are more closely related to the sand-blow density than soil data, suggesting an underlying tectonic control for the distribution of salinity. Factor analysis of historical geochemical data from the MRVA and underlying Sparta aquifer shows dilute and saline groups, with saline groups weighted positively with Cl- or Na+ and Cl-. Tracer data suggest a component of evaporatively evolved crustal water of pre-modern age has mixed with younger, fresher meteoric sources in SE AR to create the saline conditions in the MRVA aquifer. Stable hydrogen and oxygen values of waters sampled from the Tertiary Sparta and MRVA aquifers deviate from the global and local meteoric water lines along an evaporative trend (slope=4.4) and mixing line with Eocene Wilcox Group groundwaters. Ca2+ and Cl- contents vary with Br- along mixing trends between dilute MRVA water and Jurassic Smackover Formation pore fluids in southern AR. Increasing Cl- content with C-14 age in MRVA aquifer groundwater suggests that the older waters are more saline. Helium isotope ratios decrease with He gas content for more saline water, consistent with

  18. Spatio-temporal variation in groundwater head affected by stratigraphic heterogeneity of the alluvial aquifer in Northwest India

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, W. M.; Joshi, S. K.; Densmore, A. L.; Jackson, C. R.; Sutanudjaja, E.; Lafare, A. E. A.; Gupta, S.; Mackay, J. D.; Mason, P. J.; Sinha, R.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater is a primary source of freshwater in the alluvial aquifer system of northwestern India. Unsustainable exploitation of the groundwater resources has led to a regional hotspot in groundwater depletion. Rapid groundwater-level decline shows spatial variation, as the effects of various stresses, including precipitation, potential evapotranspiration and abstraction, are likely to be influenced by the stratigraphic and geomorphic heterogeneity between sediment fan and interfan areas (see Geomorphological map in Figure A). We used a transfer function-noise (TFN) time series approach to quantify the effect of the various stress components in the period 1974-2010, based on predefined impulse response functions (IRFs) of von Asmuth et al. (2008). The objective of this study was 1) to acquire the impulse response function of various stresses, 2) assess the spatial estimation parameter (the zeroth moment, M0) of the spatial development of the groundwater head and 3) relate the spatial M0 to the observed stratigraphic and geomorphic heterogeneity. We collected information on the groundwater head pre- and post-monsoon, the district-wise monthly precipitation and potential evapotranspiration, and we modeled the monthly abstraction rate using land-use information. The TFN identified the IRF of precipitation as well as abstraction. The IRF, summarized in the parameter M0, identified a hotspot for the abstraction stress (see M0 spatial map for abstraction in Figure B) at the margins of the Sutlej and Yamuna fans. No hotspot is observed for the precipitation stress, but the M0 for precipitation increases with distance from the Himalayan front. At larger distances from the Himalayan front, observed groundwater head rises cannot be explained by the IRFs for the abstraction and precipitation stresses. This is likely because the current TFN models do not account for other stresses, such as recharge by canal leakage, which are locally important. We conclude that the spatial

  19. Evaluating small mammal response to natural disturbance and restoration in oak ecosystems in the Mississippi alluvial valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith Carl G; Hamel Paul B; Fuzaro Gullo, Manoelle

    2010-01-01

    Oak species form a conspicuous and often dominant component of bottom land forests of the Mississippi Alluvial Valley. The extent of these forests has been drastically reduced as a result of clearing for agriculture in the past two centuries. Patterns of clearing have reduced the distribution of remaining forest patches to a much more flood-prone subset of the landscape than was historically the case, reducing the diversity of oak species currently present on the landscape. Intensive harvesting has further changed the composition of the remaining stands. Small remnant patches of primary forest continue to exist as Research Natural Areas on the Delta National Forest in Sharkey County, Mississippi. In particular, the Over cup Oak (Quercus lyrata) and Redgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) Research Natural Areas pres ent substantial components of the trees for which the areas were named, as well as Quercus nuttallii and smaller components of other species. Recent interest in afforestation has produced a resurgence of interest in restoration of oak forest to abandoned farmland in the region. We have studied small mammal response to restoration on an extensive experiment near the Delta National Forest since 1995. We have also examined small mammal response to a tornado that disturbed approximately half of the Over cup Oak Research Natural Area in 2008. We use these studies to demonstrate how population estimates of small mammals can be obtained from capture-recapture studies, employing different designs, and utilizing Program Capture for population estimation. Small mammal communities in these stands are more species-rich in early succession than in primary forest. The study of response to tornado damage to the Over cup Oak Research Natural Area is complicated by the fact that this particular forest type is very flood-prone, creating obstacles to colonization by small mammals. Analysis of capture-recapture data with robust methods illustrated in this study permits extraction

  20. Runoff and leaching of metolachlor from Mississippi River alluvial soil during seasons of average and below-average rainfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwick, Lloyd M; Appelboom, Timothy W; Fouss, James L

    2009-02-25

    The movement of the herbicide metolachlor [2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl)acetamide] via runoff and leaching from 0.21 ha plots planted to corn on Mississippi River alluvial soil (Commerce silt loam) was measured for a 6-year period, 1995-2000. The first three years received normal rainfall (30 year average); the second three years experienced reduced rainfall. The 4-month periods prior to application plus the following 4 months after application were characterized by 1039 +/- 148 mm of rainfall for 1995-1997 and by 674 +/- 108 mm for 1998-2000. During the normal rainfall years 216 +/- 150 mm of runoff occurred during the study seasons (4 months following herbicide application), accompanied by 76.9 +/- 38.9 mm of leachate. For the low-rainfall years these amounts were 16.2 +/- 18.2 mm of runoff (92% less than the normal years) and 45.1 +/- 25.5 mm of leachate (41% less than the normal seasons). Runoff of metolachlor during the normal-rainfall seasons was 4.5-6.1% of application, whereas leaching was 0.10-0.18%. For the below-normal periods, these losses were 0.07-0.37% of application in runoff and 0.22-0.27% in leachate. When averages over the three normal and the three less-than-normal seasons were taken, a 35% reduction in rainfall was characterized by a 97% reduction in runoff loss and a 71% increase in leachate loss of metolachlor on a percent of application basis. The data indicate an increase in preferential flow in the leaching movement of metolachlor from the surface soil layer during the reduced rainfall periods. Even with increased preferential flow through the soil during the below-average rainfall seasons, leachate loss (percent of application) of the herbicide remained below 0.3%. Compared to the average rainfall seasons of 1995-1997, the below-normal seasons of 1998-2000 were characterized by a 79% reduction in total runoff and leachate flow and by a 93% reduction in corresponding metolachlor movement via these routes

  1. The Italian Project S2 - Task 4:Near-fault earthquake ground motion simulation in the Sulmona alluvial basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupazzini, M.; Smerzini, C.; Cauzzi, C.; Faccioli, E.; Galadini, F.; Gori, S.

    2009-04-01

    Recently the Italian Department of Civil Protection (DPC), in cooperation with Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) has promoted the 'S2' research project (http://nuovoprogettoesse2.stru.polimi.it/) aimed at the design, testing and application of an open-source code for seismic hazard assessment (SHA). The tool envisaged will likely differ in several important respects from an existing international initiative (Open SHA, Field et al., 2003). In particular, while "the OpenSHA collaboration model envisions scientists developing their own attenuation relationships and earthquake rupture forecasts, which they will deploy and maintain in their own systems", the main purpose of S2 project is to provide a flexible computational tool for SHA, primarily suited for the needs of DPC, which not necessarily are scientific needs. Within S2, a crucial issue is to make alternative approaches available to quantify the ground motion, with emphasis on the near field region. The SHA architecture envisaged will allow for the use of ground motion descriptions other than those yielded by empirical attenuation equations, for instance user generated motions provided by deterministic source and wave propagation simulations. In this contribution, after a brief presentation of Project S2, we intend to illustrate some preliminary 3D scenario simulations performed in the alluvial basin of Sulmona (Central Italy), as an example of the type of descriptions that can be handled in the future SHA architecture. In detail, we selected some seismogenic sources (from the DISS database), believed to be responsible for a number of destructive historical earthquakes, and derive from them a family of simplified geometrical and mechanical source models spanning across a reasonable range of parameters, so that the extent of the main uncertainties can be covered. Then, purely deterministic (for frequencies Journal of Seismology, 1, 237-251. Field, E.H., T.H. Jordan, and C.A. Cornell (2003

  2. Stability of radioactive minerals in an oxidizing hydrogeological environment: new results from an alluvial placer deposit, Naegi district, central Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasao, Eiji; Komuro, Kosei; Nakata, Masataka

    2009-01-01

    Study of the stability of radioactive minerals in a placer deposit in the Naegi District, southeastern Gifu Prefecture, Central Japan contributes to understanding the modes of nuclide migration under various hydrogeological environments in the tectonically active Japanese Island Arc system. The placer deposit is embedded in basal conglomerates of the lower-most alluvial sequences, exposed to a near-surface, oxidizing hydrogeological environment. The mineral samples, ranging in mesh size from 120 to 250, were identified after sieving and magnetic separation to be mainly cassiterite, thorite, monazite, and topaz, with subordinate amounts of zircon, fergusonite-(Y), xenotime and wolframite. Observations using optical and scanning microscopy indicated that many grains of zircon have well-preserved crystal faces. Most monazite and fergusonite-(Y) grains are partly abraded and corroded whereas thorite grains are highly abraded and corroded. This indicates that under an oxidizing hydrogeological environment, the mechanical durability and geological stability decrease from zircon to monazite/fergusonite-(Y) to thorite, which correlates well with the Mohs's hardness scale. Cut and polished thorite grains display a high degree of alteration. The altered portions have higher Th, Fe and Y contents, and lower U and Si contents in comparison with the unaltered portions, indicating leaching of U and Si. In the fergusonite-(Y) grains, the altered portions have higher Th, Nb and Ta contents, and lower U and Y contents in comparison with the unaltered portions, indicate leaching of U and Y. Thus it is determined that uranium is strongly leached in an oxidizing hydrogeological environment. The leaching behaviour is dependent on mineralogy and is consistent with thermodynamic estimates. The alteration rate of fergusonite-(Y) was calculated to range from 0.05 to 0.000025 μm/year based on the thickness of the external alteration film and the duration of exposure to the oxidizing

  3. Geomorphologic and sedimentologic controls on records of flood-induced alluviation in Las Cajas National Park, Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodbell, D. T.; Bustamante, M. G.; Marks, S.; Abbott, M. B.; Moy, C. M.

    2017-12-01

    The sediment record from Laguna Pallcacocha in Las Cajas National Park, southern Ecuador (4060 masl; 2°46'S; 79°14'W) has been interpreted to record El Niño floods spanning the Holocene (Rodbell et al., 1999; Moy et al., 2002). The sediment record is unusual for the nearly continuous dark- and light-colored laminations (0.1-2.0 cm thick) that comprise the Holocene. Light laminae typically have erosive basal contacts and fine-upwards, whereas dark laminae possess abrupt or gradational lower contacts and reveal no grain size trends. Light laminae contain 7%), and contain 3-10% biogenic silica. Light laminae represent deposition during periods of increased precipitation, mobilization of unvegetated sediment above the lake, and increased stream discharge, all of which generate density-driven undercurrents. Conversely, dark laminae are deposited relatively slowly by sedimentation of organic matter, some derived from surface soil horizons. Time series analysis of light laminae reveal the ENSO spectral signature (2-8 yr) that evolves through the Holocene. However, none of the sediment cores taken from many nearby lakes reveal an alluvial record comparable in terms of frequency and magnitude to that preserved in Pallcacocha thus raising questions as to the factors responsible for the rich stratigraphy preserved in Pallcacocha, and, moreover, the regional paleoclimatic significance of the Pallcacocha record. A review of lacustrine sediment cores obtained from Las Cajas National Park suggests that drainage basin factors are the primary control on the sedimentologic signal recorded. These factors include bedrock geology, presence of unvegetated sediment exposed on slopes, connectivity of exposed sediment to primary inflow streams, drainage basin slope, drainage basin:lake surface area ratio, and position of lake in paternoster sequence of lakes. Bedrock is comprised of Quaternary silicic ignimbrite, rhyolite, and andesite of the Tarqui Formation. Ignimibrite provides the

  4. Material Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, Dong Yeon; Kim, Heung

    1987-08-15

    This book introduces material science, which includes key of a high-tech industry, new materials of dream like new metal material and semiconductor, classification of materials, microstructure of materials and characteristic. It mentions magic new materials such as shape memory alloy, fine ceramics, engineering fine ceramics, electronic ceramics, engineering plastic, glass, silicone conductor, optical fiber mixed materials and integrated circuit, challenge for new material and development of new materials.

  5. Material Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Dong Yeon; Kim, Heung

    1987-08-01

    This book introduces material science, which includes key of a high-tech industry, new materials of dream like new metal material and semiconductor, classification of materials, microstructure of materials and characteristic. It mentions magic new materials such as shape memory alloy, fine ceramics, engineering fine ceramics, electronic ceramics, engineering plastic, glass, silicone conductor, optical fiber mixed materials and integrated circuit, challenge for new material and development of new materials.

  6. Materials and material testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joergens, H.

    1978-01-01

    A review based on 105 literature quotations is given on the latest state of development in the steel sector and in the field of non-ferrous metals and plastics. The works quoted also include, preparation, working, welding including simulation methods, improvement of weldability, material mechanics (explanation of defects mechanisms by means of fracture mechanics), defect causes (corrosion, erosion, hydrogen influence), mechanical-technological and non-destructive material testing. Examples from the field of reactor building are also given within there topics. (IHOE) [de

  7. An Assessment of Regional Water Resources and Agricultural Sustainability in the Mississippi River Alluvial Aquifer System of Mississippi and Arkansas Under Current and Future Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, J.; Reba, M.

    2011-12-01

    The Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Plain is a highly productive agricultural region for rice, soy beans, and cotton that depends heavily on irrigation. Development of the Mississippi River Alluvial Aquifer (MRAA), one of the more prolific agricultural aquifers in the country, has traditionally been the primary source for irrigation in the region yielding over 1,100 Mgal/day to irrigation wells. Increasingly, the realities of changing climate and rapidly declining water tables have highlighted the necessity for new water management practices. Tail-water recovery and reuse is a rapidly expanding practice due in part to the efforts and cost-sharing of the NRCS, but regional studies of the potential for such practices to alleviate groundwater mining under current and future climate are lacking. While regional studies of aquifer geology have long been available, including assessments of regional groundwater flow, much about the aquifer is still not well understood including controls on recharge rates, a crucial component of water management design. We review the trends in regional availability of surface and groundwater resources, their current status, and the effects of recent changes in management practices on groundwater decline in Mississippi and Arkansas. Global and regional climate projections are used to assess scenarios of sustainable aquifer use under current land use and management along with the potential for more widely practiced surface water capture and reuse to alleviate groundwater decline. Finally, we highlight crucial knowledge gaps and challenges associated with the development of water management practices for sustainable agricultural use in the region.

  8. The influence of the association patterns of phosphorus–substrates and xylene–substrates on the degradation of xylenes in an alluvial aquifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANJA MRKIC

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The association patterns of xylene and of total phosphorus with sediment constituents in an alluvial aquifer consisting of clays and sands which had been contaminated by a spill of technical grade xylene were investigated with the aim of assessing the dependence of in situ xylene degradation on the P-availability. The investigated alluvial sediments of the Maki{ Plain (Sava river alluvion, Quaternary age, Serbia and Montenegro are relatively poor in P. The most reliable associations were proposed by analyzing the quality of the correlations of xylene- and of P-contents with 32 sediment characteristics. The association patterns depend on the mineralogical and granulometrical composition of sediments, the structural characteristics of the organicmatter (N/C-ratio and the redox-conditions. Differing association patterns in the clays and the sand had been developed, and these characteristics influence the intrinsic xylene degradation. The main proof for the occurrence of xylene degradation is the percentul share of bacteria which oxidize xylene as a single carbon-source.

  9. A Hydrological Tomography Collocated with Time-varying Gravimetry for Hydrogeology -An Example in Yun-Lin Alluvial Plain and Ming-Ju Basin in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, K. H.; Cheng, C. C.; Hwang, C.

    2016-12-01

    A new inversion technique featured by the collocation of hydrological modeling and gravimetry observation is presented in this report. Initially this study started from a project attempting to build a sequence of hydrodynamic models of ground water system, which was applied to identify the supplement areas of alluvial plains and basins along the west coast of Taiwan. To calibrate the decent hydro-geological parameters for the modeling, geological evolution were carefully investigated and absolute gravity observations, along with other on-site hydrological monitoring data were specially introduced. It was discovered in the data processing that the time-varying gravimetrical data are highly sensitive to certain boundary conditions in the hydrodynamic model, which are correspondent with respective geological features. A new inversion technique coined by the term "hydrological tomography" is therefore developed by reversing the boundary condition into the unknowns to be solved. An example of accurate estimate for water storage and precipitation infiltration of a costal alluvial plain Yun-Lin is presented. In the mean time, the study of an anticline structure of the upstream basin Ming-Ju is also presented to demonstrate how a geological formation is outlined when the gravimetrical data and hydrodynamic model are re-directed into an inversion.

  10. Weathering processes and the composition of inorganic material transported through the orinoco river system, Venezuela and Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallard, R.F.; Koehnken, L.; Johnsson, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    The composition of river-borne material in the Orinoco River system is related primarily to erosion regime, which in turn is related to tectonic setting; especially notable is the contrast between material derived from tectonically active mountain belts and that from stable cratonic regions. For a particular morpho-tectonic region, the compositional suites of suspended sediment, bed material, overback deposits, and dissolved phases are fairly uniform are are typically distinct from whose of other regions. For each region, a consistent set of chemical weathering reactions can be formulated to explain the composition of dissolved and solid loads. In developing these formulations, erosion on slopes and storage of solids in soils and alluvial sediments are important considerations. Compositionally verymature sediment is derived from areas of thick soils where erosion is transport limited and from areas where sediments are stored for extended periods of time in alluvial deposits. Compositionally immature sediments are derived from tectonically active mountain belts where erosion is weathering limited. Weathering-limited erosion also is important in the elevated parts of the Guayana Shield within areas of sleep topography. Compared to the mountain belts, sediments derived from elevated parts of the Shield are more mature. A greater degree of chemical weathering seems to be needed to erode the rock types typical of the Shield. The major-element chemistry and mineral composition of sediment delivered by the Orinoco River to the ocean are controlled by rivers that have their headwaters in mountain belts and cross the Llanos, a region of alluvial plains within the foreland basin. The composition of sediments in rivers that drain the Shield seems to be established primarily at the site of soil formation, whereas for rivers that drain the mountain belts, additional weathering occurs during s episodes of storage on alluvial plains as sediments are transported across the Llanos

  11. Predictive models applied to groundwater level forecasting: a preliminary experience on the alluvial aquifer of the Magra River (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozzo, Gianpiero; Doveri, Marco; Lelli, Matteo; Scozzari, Andrea

    2010-05-01

    Computer-based decision support systems are getting a growing interest for water managing authorities and water distribution companies. This work discusses a preliminary experience in the application of computational intelligence in a hydrological modeling framework, regarding the study area of the alluvial aquifer of the Magra River (Italy). Two sites in the studied area, corresponding to two distinct groups of wells (Battifollo and Fornola) are managed by the local drinkable water distribution company (ACAM Acque), which serves the area of La Spezia, on the Ligurian coast. Battifollo has 9 wells with a total extraction rate of about 240 liters per second, while Fornola has 44 wells with an extraction rate of about 900 liters per second. Objective of this work is to make use of time series coming from long-term monitoring activities in order to assess the trend of the groundwater level with respect to a set of environmental and exploitation parameters; this is accomplished by the experimentation of a suitable model, eligible to be used as a predictor. This activity moves on from the modeling of the system behavior, based on a set of Input/Output data, in order to characterize it without necessarily a prior knowledge of any deterministic mechanism (system identification). In this context, data series collected by continuous hydrological monitoring instrumentation installed in the studied sites, together with meteorological and water extraction data, have been analyzed in order to assess the applicability and performance of a predictive model of the groundwater level. A mixed approach (both data driven and process-based) has been experimented on the whole dataset relating to the last ten years of continuous monitoring activity. The system identification approach presented here is based on the integration of an adaptive technique based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) and a blind deterministic identification approach. According to this concept, the behavior of

  12. Hydrochemical processes in a shallow coal seam gas aquifer and its overlying stream–alluvial system: implications for recharge and inter-aquifer connectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duvert, Clément; Raiber, Matthias; Owen, Daniel D.R.; Cendón, Dioni I.; Batiot-Guilhe, Christelle; Cox, Malcolm E.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Major ions and isotopes used to study inter-aquifer mixing in a shallow CSG setting. • Considerable heterogeneity in the water composition of the coal-bearing aquifer. • Rapid recharge of the coal-bearing aquifer through highly fractured igneous rocks. • Potential mixing between the coal-bearing aquifer and downstream alluvial aquifer. • Need to consider the seasonal influences on inter-aquifer mixing in CSG settings. - Abstract: In areas of potential coal seam gas (CSG) development, understanding interactions between coal-bearing strata and adjacent aquifers and streams is of highest importance, particularly where CSG formations occur at shallow depth. This study tests a combination of hydrochemical and isotopic tracers to investigate the transient nature of hydrochemical processes, inter-aquifer mixing and recharge in a catchment where the coal-bearing aquifer is in direct contact with the alluvial aquifer and surface drainage network. A strong connection was observed between the main stream and underlying alluvium, marked by a similar evolution from fresh Ca–Mg–HCO 3 waters in the headwaters towards brackish Ca–Na–Cl composition near the outlet of the catchment, driven by evaporation and transpiration. In the coal-bearing aquifer, by contrast, considerable site-to-site variations were observed, although waters generally had a Na–HCO 3 –Cl facies and high residual alkalinity values. Increased salinity was controlled by several coexisting processes, including transpiration by plants, mineral weathering and possibly degradation of coal organic matter. Longer residence times and relatively enriched carbon isotopic signatures of the downstream alluvial waters were suggestive of potential interactions with the shallow coal-bearing aquifer. The examination of temporal variations in deuterium excess enabled detection of rapid recharge of the coal-bearing aquifer through highly fractured igneous rocks, particularly at the catchment

  13. Rivers turned to rock: Late Quaternary alluvial induration influencing the behaviour and morphology of an anabranching river in the Australian monsoon tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanson, Gerald C.; Jones, Brian G.; Price, David M.; Pietsch, Timothy J.

    2005-09-01

    Late Quaternary alluvial induration has greatly influenced contemporary channel morphology on the anabranching Gilbert River in the monsoon tropics of the Gulf of Carpentaria. The Gilbert, one of a number of rivers in this region, has contributed to an extensive system of coalescing low-gradient and partly indurated riverine plains. Extensive channel sands were deposited by enhanced flow conditions during marine oxygen isotope (OI) Stage 5. Subsequent flow declined, probably associated with increased aridity, however, enhanced runoff recurred again in OI Stages 4-3 (˜65-50 ka). Aridity then capped these plains with 4-7 m of mud. A widespread network of sandy distributary channels was incised into this muddy surface from sometime after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) to the mid Holocene during a fluvial episode more active than the present but less so than those of OI Stages 5 and 3. This network is still partly active but with channel avulsion and abandonment now occurring largely proximal to the main Gilbert flow path. A tropical climate and reactive catchment lithology have enhanced chemical weathering and lithification of alluvium along the river resulting in the formation of small rapids, waterfalls and inset gorges, features characteristic more of bedrock than alluvial systems. Thermoluminescence (TL) and comparative optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages of the sediments are presented along with U/Th ages of pedogenic calcrete and Fe/Mn oxyhydroxide/ oxide accumulations. They show that calcrete precipitated during the Late Quaternary at times similar to those that favoured ferricrete formation, possibly because of an alternating wet-dry climate. Intense chemical alteration of the alluvium leading to induration appears to have prevailed for much of the Late Quaternary but, probably due to exceptional dryness, not during the LGM. The result has been restricted channel migration and a reduced capacity for the channel to adjust and accommodate sudden

  14. Braidplain, floodplain and playa lake, alluvial-fan, aeolian and palaeosol facies composing a diversified lithogenetical sequence in the permian and triassic of South Devon (England)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, Detlef

    The Permian and Triassic of South Devon (England) are a continental red bed sequence of very diversified lithogenetical composition. Within the thick series, the distribution of the main depositional environments being fluvial braidplain, fluvial floodplain and playa lake, alluvial fan, aeolian dune and calcrete palaeosol changes repeatedly in both horizontal and vertical direction. Significant sedimentary milieus such as aeolian dunes and calcrete palaeosols occur repeatedly within the succession, but are also lacking in several parts of the sequence. Fluvial braidplain deposits comprise conglomerates, sandstones, intraformational reworking horizons and mudstones and originate in channels and overbank plains of a braided river system. Conglomerates and sandstones are formed by migration of bars and spreading out of sheets during infilling of streams and aggradation of flats. Gravel is often enriched as lag pockets or veneers within steeper scour holes and kolk pots or on the plane floor of the watercourse. Finer-grained sandstones and mudstones are laid down by suspension settling in stagnant water bodies such as small lakes in the overbank area and residual pools in interbar depressions during low-stage or waning-flow in active channels or in abandoned streams. Spectacular bioturbation features in some sandstones with both horizontal tubes and vertical burrows testify to the colonization of the sediments at the bottom of the rivers with declining discharge and transport capacity. Intraformational reworking horizons with ghost-like remnants of degraded sandstones, mudstones and pedogenic carbonates document partially severe condensation of the sequence by removal of some facies elements from the depositional record. The occasionally occurring gravel-bearing mudstones or silty-clayey sandstones represent products of high-energy water surges overspilling the channel banks and transporting sandy and gravelly bed-load in limited amounts beyond the levee wall. The

  15. Lithologic and hydrologic controls of mixed alluvial-bedrock channels in flood-prone fluvial systems: bankfull and macrochannels in the Llano River watershed, central Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitmuller, Frank T.; Hudson, Paul F.; Asquith, William H.

    2015-01-01

    The rural and unregulated Llano River watershed located in central Texas, USA, has a highly variable flow regime and a wide range of instantaneous peak flows. Abrupt transitions in surface lithology exist along the main-stem channel course. Both of these characteristics afford an opportunity to examine hydrologic, lithologic, and sedimentary controls on downstream changes in channel morphology. Field surveys of channel topography and boundary composition are coupled with sediment analyses, hydraulic computations, flood-frequency analyses, and geographic information system mapping to discern controls on channel geometry (profile, pattern, and shape) and dimensions along the mixed alluvial-bedrock Llano River and key tributaries. Four categories of channel classification in a downstream direction include: (i) uppermost ephemeral reaches, (ii) straight or sinuous gravel-bed channels in Cretaceous carbonate sedimentary zones, (iii) straight or sinuous gravel-bed or bedrock channels in Paleozoic sedimentary zones, and (iv) straight, braided, or multithread mixed alluvial–bedrock channels with sandy beds in Precambrian igneous and metamorphic zones. Principal findings include: (i) a nearly linear channel profile attributed to resistant bedrock incision checkpoints; (ii) statistically significant correlations of both alluvial sinuosity and valley confinement to relatively high f (mean depth) hydraulic geometry values; (iii) relatively high b (width) hydraulic geometry values in partly confined settings with sinuous channels upstream from a prominent incision checkpoint; (iv) different functional flow categories including frequently occurring events (high f values (most ≤ 0.45) that develop at sites with unit stream power values in excess of 200 watts per square meter (W/m2); and (vi) downstream convergence of hydraulic geometry exponents for bankfull and macrochannels, explained by co-increases of flood magnitude and noncohesive sandy sediments that collectively

  16. Field, Laboratory and Imaging spectroscopic Analysis of Landslide, Debris Flow and Flood Hazards in Lacustrine, Aeolian and Alluvial Fan Deposits Surrounding the Salton Sea, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, B. E.; Hooper, D. M.; Mars, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    High resolution satellite imagery, field spectral measurements using a portable ASD spectrometer, and 2013 hyperspectral AVIRIS imagery were used to evaluate the age of the Martinez Mountain Landslide (MML) near the Salton Sea, in order to determine the relative ages of adjacent alluvial fan surfaces and the potential for additional landslides, debris flows, and floods. The Salton Sea (SS) occupies a pluvial lake basin, with ancient shorelines ranging from 81 meters to 113 meters above the modern lake level. The highest shoreline overlaps the toe of the 0.24 - 0.38 km3 MML deposit derived from hydrothermally altered granites exposed near the summit of Martinez Mountain. The MML was originally believed to be of early Holocene age. However, AVIRIS mineral maps show abundant desert varnish on the top and toe of the landslide. Desert varnish can provide a means of relative dating of alluvial fan (AF) or landslide surfaces, as it accumulates at determinable rates over time. Based on the 1) highest levels of desert varnish accumulation mapped within the basin, 2) abundant evaporite playa minerals on top of the toe of the landslide, and 3) the highest shoreline of the ancestral lake overtopping the toe of the landslide with gastropod and bivalve shells, we conclude that the MML predates the oldest alluvial fan terraces and lake sediments exposed in the Coachella and Imperial valleys and must be older than early Holocene (i.e. Late Pleistocene?). Thus, the MML landslide has the potential to be used as a spectral endmember for desert varnish thickness and thus proxy for age discrimination of active AF washes versus desert pavements. Given the older age of the MML landslide and low water levels in the modern SS, the risk from future rockslides of this size and related seiches is rather low. However, catastrophic floods and debris flows do occur along the most active AF channels; and the aftermath of such flows can be identified spectrally by montmorillonite crusts forming in

  17. Sedimentology, geochemistry and OSL dating of the alluvial succession in the northern Gujarat alluvial plain (western India) - A record to evaluate the sensitivity of a semiarid fluvial system to the climatic and tectonic forcing since the late Marine Isotopic Stage 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Falguni; Shukla, Anil D.; Patel, R. C.; Rastogi, B. K.; Juyal, Navin

    2017-11-01

    The alluvial successions in the northern Gujarat alluvial plain (western India) have been investigated for reconstructing the climatic fluctuations during the last 40 ka. Alluvial architecture and geochemical proxies indicate prevalence of a strengthened Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) with fluctuations between the late Marine Isotopic Stage 3 (MIS 3; 37 ka) to the early MIS 2 (27 ka). A gradual onset of aridity (declining ISM) after 27 ka with peak aridity at 22 ka is observed. A gradual strengthening of ISM at around 18 and > 12 ka followed by a short reversal in ISM intensity between 12 and 11 ka, is attributed to the Younger-Dryas (YD) cooling event. The aeolian sand sheet dated to 6 and 3.5 ka represents the onset of regional aridity. Following this, a short-lived humid phase was observed after 2 ka, which includes the Medieval Warm Period (MWP). The study suggests that the variability in the ISM to the latitudinal migration of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone was caused by insolation-driven cooling and warming events in the North Atlantic. The incision of the valley fill alluvium occurred in two distinct phases. The older incision phase occurred after 11 ka and before 6 ka, whereas the younger incision phase that led to the development of present day topography is bracketed between 3.5 ka and before 1 ka. The older incision phase is ascribed to the early to mid-Holocene enhanced ISM (climatically driven), whereas the younger incision seems to be modulated by the activation of basement faults (tectonically driven).

  18. Geochemical evidence of groundwater flow paths and the fate and transport of constituents of concern in the alluvial aquifer at Fort Wingate Depot Activity, New Mexico, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Andrew J.; Henry, David W.; Langman, Jeffery B.

    2013-01-01

    As part of an environmental investigation at Fort Wingate Depot Activity, New Mexico, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, interpreted aqueous geochemical concentrations to better understand the groundwater flow paths and the fate and transport of constituents of concern in the alluvial aquifer underlying the study area. The fine-grained nature of the alluvial matrix creates a highly heterogeneous environment, which adds to the difficulty of characterizing the flow of groundwater and the fate of aqueous constituents of concern. The analysis of the groundwater geochemical data collected in October 2009 provides evidence that is used to identify four groundwater flow paths and their extent in the aquifer and indicates the dominant attenuation processes for the constituents of concern. The extent and interaction of groundwater flow paths were delineated by the major ion concentrations and their relations to each other. Four areas of groundwater recharge to the study area were identified based on groundwater elevations, hydrogeologic characteristics, and geochemical and isotopic evidence. One source of recharge enters the study area from the saturated alluvial deposits underlying the South Fork of the Puerco River to the north of the study area. A second source of recharge is shown to originate from a leaky cistern containing production water from the San Andres-Glorieta aquifer. The other two sources of recharge are shown to enter the study area from the south: one from an arroyo valley draining an area to the south and one from hill-front recharge that passes under the reported release of perchlorate and explosive constituents. The spatial extent and interaction of groundwater originating from these various sources along identified flow paths affect the persistence and attenuation of constituents of concern. It was determined that groundwater originating in the area of a former explosives’ wash-out operation and an

  19. Effect of chemically processed bonemeal in comparison to other phosphatic sources on plant growth - [Part]1 : rice wheat rotation in an alluvial soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vimal, O.P.; Ramasami, S.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of chemically processed bonemeal was studied in comparison to other phosphatic sources viz., superphosphate, steamed bonemeal and raw bonemeal at the rate of 60 and 120 kg P 2 O 5 /ha on rice in alluvial soil. The residual effect was studied with wheat using 32 P as a tracer. The results showed that in the first crop (rice), superphosphate at the rate of 120 kg/ha had a significant effect both on dry matter yield and nutrient uptake. In the second crop (wheat), chemically processed bonemeal at the rate of 120 kg/ha showed a marked positive effect on yield, total P uptake and 'A' values. The effects of steamed bonemeal and raw bonemeal were significantly lower compared to above effects. (author)

  20. Optical materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poker, D.B.; Ortiz, C.

    1989-01-01

    This book reports on: Diamond films, Synthesis of optical materials, Structure related optical properties, Radiation effects in optical materials, Characterization of optical materials, Deposition of optical thin films, and Optical fibers and waveguides

  1. Occurrence and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in organo-mineral particles of alluvial sandy soil profiles at a petroleum-contaminated site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Zhe; Zeng, Fangang; Xue, Nandong; Li, Fasheng

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence and the distribution of 16 USEPA priority pollutants polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in two alluvial sandy soil profiles and in their four sizes of organo-mineral particles ( 200 μm coarse sand) beside a typical oil sludge storage site in eastern China. PAHs were mainly enriched in the surface soil (0–20 cm) and the concentrations declined in deeper soils, from 3.68 to 0.128 μg/g in profile 1 and 10.8 to 0.143 μg/g in profile 2 (dry wt.). The PAHs in the upper soil layers of this study site mainly came from combustion pollution, whereas in the lower soil layers petroleum contamination became the major source of PAHs. The content of different sized organo-mineral particles of this alluvial sandy soil decreased in the following order: fine sand > coarse sand > silt > clay. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed that all the different sized soil fractions of this study site were dominated by quartz, calcite and feldspar. The particle surface became smoother with size increasing as shown by scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. PAH concentrations varied largely in different sized soil fractions. The highest PAH concentration was associated with clay and decreased in the order: clay > silt > coarse sand > fine sand. Soil organic matter (SOM) content, mineral composition and particle surface characteristics were suggested as three main factors affecting the distribution of PAHs in different sized organo-mineral particles. This study will help to understand the distribution and transport characteristics of PAHs in soil profiles at petroleum-contaminated sites. -- Highlights: ► PAH concentrations varied largely in different sized fractions. ► The highest PAH concentrations were associated with clay and decreased in the order: clay > silt > coarse sand > fine sand. ► Soil organic matter (SOM) is an important factor to dominate the distribution of PAHs in this study site.

  2. Rome in its setting. Post-glacial aggradation history of the Tiber River alluvial deposits and tectonic origin of the Tiber Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Laura; Brock, Andrea L.; Macrì, Patrizia; Florindo, Fabio; Sadori, Laura; Terrenato, Nicola

    2018-01-01

    The Tiber valley is a prominent feature in the landscape of ancient Rome and an important element for understanding its urban development. However, little is known about the city’s original setting. Our research provides new data on the Holocene sedimentary history and human-environment interactions in the Forum Boarium, the location of the earliest harbor of the city. Since the Last Glacial Maximum, when the fluvial valley was incised to a depth of tens of meters below the present sea level, 14C and ceramic ages coupled with paleomagnetic analysis show the occurrence of three distinct aggradational phases until the establishment of a relatively stable alluvial plain at 6–8 m a.s.l. during the late 3rd century BCE. Moreover, we report evidence of a sudden and anomalous increase in sedimentation rate around 2600 yr BP, leading to the deposition of a 4-6m thick package of alluvial deposits in approximately one century. We discuss this datum in the light of possible tectonic activity along a morpho-structural lineament, revealed by the digital elevation model of this area, crossing the Forum Boarium and aligned with the Tiber Island. We formulate the hypothesis that fault displacement along this structural lineament may be responsible for the sudden collapse of the investigated area, which provided new space for the observed unusually large accumulation of sediments. We also posit that, as a consequence of the diversion of the Tiber course and the loss in capacity of transport by the river, this faulting activity triggered the origin of the Tiber Island. PMID:29590208

  3. Storage in alluvial deposits controls the timing of particle delivery from large watersheds, filtering upland erosional signals and delaying benefits from watershed best management practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzuto, J. E.; Skalak, K.; Karwan, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    Transport of suspended sediment and sediment-borne constituents (here termed fluvial particles) through large river systems can be significantly influenced by episodic storage in floodplains and other alluvial deposits. Geomorphologists quantify the importance of storage using sediment budgets, but these data alone are insufficient to determine how storage influences the routing of fluvial particles through river corridors across large spatial scales. For steady state systems, models that combine sediment budget data with "waiting time distributions" (to define how long deposited particles remain stored until being remobilized) and velocities during transport events can provide useful predictions. Limited field data suggest that waiting time distributions are well represented by power laws, extending from 104 years, while the probability of storage defined by sediment budgets varies from 0.1 km-1 for small drainage basins to 0.001 km-1 for the world's largest watersheds. Timescales of particle delivery from large watersheds are determined by storage rather than by transport processes, with most particles requiring 102 -104 years to reach the basin outlet. These predictions suggest that erosional "signals" induced by climate change, tectonics, or anthropogenic activity will be transformed by storage before delivery to the outlets of large watersheds. In particular, best management practices (BMPs) implemented in upland source areas, designed to reduce the loading of fluvial particles to estuarine receiving waters, will not achieve their intended benefits for centuries (or longer). For transient systems, waiting time distributions cannot be constant, but will vary as portions of transient sediment "pulses" enter and are later released from storage. The delivery of sediment pulses under transient conditions can be predicted by adopting the hypothesis that the probability of erosion of stored particles will decrease with increasing "age" (where age is defined as the

  4. Managing tile drainage, subirrigation, and nitrogen fertilization to enhance crop yields and reduce nitrate loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, C F; Tan, C S; Reynolds, W D; Welacky, T W; Oloya, T O; Gaynor, J D

    2009-01-01

    Improving field-crop use of fertilizer nitrogen is essential for protecting water quality and increasing crop yields. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of controlled tile drainage (CD) and controlled tile drainage with subsurface irrigation (CDS) for mitigating off-field nitrate losses and enhancing crop yields. The CD and CDS systems were compared on a clay loam soil to traditional unrestricted tile drainage (UTD) under a corn (Zea Mays L.)-soybean (Glycine Max. (L.) Merr.) rotation at two nitrogen (N) fertilization rates (N1: 150 kg N ha(-1) applied to corn, no N applied to soybean; N2: 200 kg N ha(-1) applied to corn, 50 kg N ha(-1) applied to soybean). The N concentrations in tile flow events with the UTD treatment exceeded the provisional long-term aquatic life limit (LT-ALL) for freshwater (4.7 mg N L(-1)) 72% of the time at the N1 rate and 78% at the N2 rate, whereas only 24% of tile flow events at N1 and 40% at N2 exceeded the LT-ALL for the CDS treatment. Exceedances in N concentration for surface runoff and tile drainage were greater during the growing season than the non-growing season. At the N1 rate, CD and CDS reduced average annual N losses via tile drainage by 44 and 66%, respectively, relative to UTD. At the N2 rate, the average annual decreases in N loss were 31 and 68%, respectively. Crop yields from CDS were increased by an average of 2.8% relative to UTD at the N2 rate but were reduced by an average of 6.5% at the N1 rate. Hence, CD and CDS were effective for reducing average nitrate losses in tile drainage, but CDS increased average crop yields only when additional N fertilizer was applied.

  5. Structure of Fungal Communities in Sub-Irrigated Agricultural Soil from Cerrado Floodplains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elainy Cristina A. M. Oliveira

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the influence of soybean cultivation on the fungal community structure in a tropical floodplain area. Soil samples were collected from two different soybean cropland sites and a control area under native vegetation. The soil samples were collected at a depth of 0–10 cm soil during the off-season in July 2013. The genetic structure of the soil fungal microbial community was analyzed using the automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA technique. Among the 26 phylotypes with abundance levels higher than 1% detected in the control area, five were also detected in the area cultivated for five years, and none of them was shared between the control area and the area cultivated for eight years. Analysis of similarity (ANOSIM revealed differences in fungal community structure between the control area and the soybean cropland sites, and also between the soybean cropland sites. ANOSIM results were confirmed by multivariate statistics, which additionally revealed a nutrient-dependent relation for the fungal community structure in agricultural soil managed for eight consecutive years. The results indicated that land use affects soil chemical properties and richness and structure of the soil fungal microbial community in a tropical floodplain agricultural area, and the effects became more evident to the extent that soil was cultivated for soybean for more time.

  6. Strategic Materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buhler, Carl; Burke, Adrian; Davis, Kirk; Gerhard, Michelle; Heil, Valerie; Hulse, Richard; Kwong, Ralph; Mahoney, Michael; Moran, Scott; Peek, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Some materials possess greater value than others. Materials that provide essential support for the nation's economic viability or enable critical military capabilities warrant special attention in security studies...

  7. Bed-material entrainment potential, Roaring Fork River at Basalt, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, John G.

    2002-01-01

    The Roaring Fork River at Basalt, Colorado, has a frequently mobile streambed composed of gravel, cobbles, and boulders. Recent urban and highway development on the flood plain, earlier attempts to realign and confine the channel, and flow obstructions such as bridge openings and piers have altered the hydrology, hydraulics, sediment transport, and sediment deposition areas of the Roaring Fork. Entrainment and deposition of coarse sediment on the streambed and in large alluvial bars have reduced the flood-conveying capacity of the river. Previous engineering studies have identified flood-prone areas and hazards related to inundation and high streamflow velocity, but those studies have not evaluated the potential response of the channel to discharges that entrain the coarse streambed. This study builds upon the results of earlier flood studies and identifies some potential areas of concern associated with bed-material entrainment. Cross-section surveys and simulated water-surface elevations from a previously run HEC?RAS model were used to calculate the boundary shear stress on the mean streambed, in the thalweg, and on the tops of adjacent alluvial bars for four reference streamflows. Sediment-size characteristics were determined for surficial material on the streambed, on large alluvial bars, and on a streambank. The median particle size (d50) for the streambed samples was 165 millimeters and for the alluvial bars and bank samples was 107 millimeters. Shear stresses generated by the 10-, 50-, and 100-year floods, and by a more common flow that just inundated most of the alluvial bars in the study reach were calculated at 14 of the cross sections used in the Roaring Fork River HEC?RAS model. The Shields equation was used with a Shields parameter of 0.030 to estimate the critical shear stress for entrainment of the median sediment particle size on the mean streambed, in the thalweg, and on adjacent alluvial bar surfaces at the 14 cross sections. Sediment

  8. Materials Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Fahlman, Bradley D

    2011-01-01

    The 2nd edition of Materials Chemistry builds on the strengths that were recognized by a 2008 Textbook Excellence Award from the Text and Academic Authors Association (TAA). Materials Chemistry addresses inorganic-, organic-, and nano-based materials from a structure vs. property treatment, providing a suitable breadth and depth coverage of the rapidly evolving materials field. The 2nd edition continues to offer innovative coverage and practical perspective throughout. After briefly defining materials chemistry and its history, seven chapters discuss solid-state chemistry, metals, semiconducting materials, organic "soft" materials, nanomaterials, and materials characterization. All chapters have been thoroughly updated and expanded with, for example, new sections on ‘soft lithographic’ patterning, ‘click chemistry’ polymerization, nanotoxicity, graphene, as well as many biomaterials applications. The polymer and ‘soft’ materials chapter represents the largest expansion for the 2nd edition. Each ch...

  9. Regional groundwater-flow model of the Redwall-Muav, Coconino, and alluvial basin aquifer systems of northern and central Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pool, D.R.; Blasch, Kyle W.; Callegary, James B.; Leake, Stanley A.; Graser, Leslie F.

    2011-01-01

    A numerical flow model (MODFLOW) of the groundwater flow system in the primary aquifers in northern Arizona was developed to simulate interactions between the aquifers, perennial streams, and springs for predevelopment and transient conditions during 1910 through 2005. Simulated aquifers include the Redwall-Muav, Coconino, and basin-fill aquifers. Perennial stream reaches and springs that derive base flow from the aquifers were simulated, including the Colorado River, Little Colorado River, Salt River, Verde River, and perennial reaches of tributary streams. Simulated major springs include Blue Spring, Del Rio Springs, Havasu Springs, Verde River headwater springs, several springs that discharge adjacent to major Verde River tributaries, and many springs that discharge to the Colorado River. Estimates of aquifer hydraulic properties and groundwater budgets were developed from published reports and groundwater-flow models. Spatial extents of aquifers and confining units were developed from geologic data, geophysical models, a groundwater-flow model for the Prescott Active Management Area, drill logs, geologic logs, and geophysical logs. Spatial and temporal distributions of natural recharge were developed by using a water-balance model that estimates recharge from direct infiltration. Additional natural recharge from ephemeral channel infiltration was simulated in alluvial basins. Recharge at wastewater treatment facilities and incidental recharge at agricultural fields and golf courses were also simulated. Estimates of predevelopment rates of groundwater discharge to streams, springs, and evapotranspiration by phreatophytes were derived from previous reports and on the basis of streamflow records at gages. Annual estimates of groundwater withdrawals for agriculture, municipal, industrial, and domestic uses were developed from several sources, including reported withdrawals for nonexempt wells, estimated crop requirements for agricultural wells, and estimated per

  10. Arsenic and other oxyanion-forming trace elements in an alluvial basin aquifer: Evaluating sources and mobilization by isotopic tracers (Sr, B, S, O, H, Ra)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinson, David S., E-mail: dsv3@duke.edu [Duke University, Division of Earth and Ocean Sciences, Box 90227, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); McIntosh, Jennifer C. [University of Arizona, Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, 1133 E. James E. Rogers Way, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Dwyer, Gary S.; Vengosh, Avner [Duke University, Division of Earth and Ocean Sciences, Box 90227, Durham, NC 27708 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > Elevated natural As and F occur in the Willcox Basin aquifer of Arizona. > Oxyanion-forming elements are derived from volcanic-source aquifer sediments. > Sr isotopes trace sediment sources linked to oxyanion-forming trace elements. > {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr > 0.720 indicates Proterozoic crystalline-source sediment contributing low As. > Both sediment source and hydrogeochemical evolution (Ca/Na) affect As levels. - Abstract: The Willcox Basin is a hydrologically closed basin in semi-arid southeastern Arizona (USA) and, like many other alluvial basins in the southwestern USA, is characterized by oxic, near-neutral to slightly basic groundwater containing naturally elevated levels of oxyanion-forming trace elements such as As. This study evaluates the sources and mobilization of these oxyanionic trace elements of health significance by using several isotopic tracers of water-rock interaction and groundwater sources ({sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr, {delta}{sup 34}S{sub SO4}, {delta}{sup 11}B, {delta}{sup 2}H, {delta}{sup 18}O, {sup 3}H). Values of {delta}{sup 2}H (-85 per mille to -64 per mille) and {delta}{sup 18}O (-11.8 per mille to -8.6 per mille) are consistent with precipitation and groundwater in adjacent alluvial basins, and low to non-detectable {sup 3}H activities further imply that modern recharge is slow in this semi-arid environment. Large variations in {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios imply that groundwater has interacted with multiple sediment sources that constitute the basin-fill aquifer, including Tertiary felsic volcanic rocks, Paleozoic sedimentary rocks, and Proterozoic crystalline rocks. In general, low concentrations of oxyanion-forming trace elements and F{sup -} are associated with a group of waters exhibiting highly radiogenic values of {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr (0.72064-0.73336) consistent with waters in Proterozoic crystalline rocks in the mountain blocks (0.73247-0.75010). Generally higher As concentrations (2-29 {mu}g L{sup -1}), other

  11. Contrast Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is mixed with water before administration liquid paste tablet When iodine-based and barium-sulfate contrast materials ... for patients with kidney failure or allergies to MRI and/or computed tomography (CT) contrast material. Microbubble ...

  12. Dirac materials

    OpenAIRE

    Wehling, T. O.; Black-Schaffer, A. M.; Balatsky, A. V.

    2014-01-01

    A wide range of materials, like d-wave superconductors, graphene, and topological insulators, share a fundamental similarity: their low-energy fermionic excitations behave as massless Dirac particles rather than fermions obeying the usual Schrodinger Hamiltonian. This emergent behavior of Dirac fermions in condensed matter systems defines the unifying framework for a class of materials we call "Dirac materials''. In order to establish this class of materials, we illustrate how Dirac fermions ...

  13. Magnetic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaldin, Nicola A.

    2003-04-01

    Magnetic materials are the foundation of multi-billion dollar industries and the focus of intensive research across many disciplines. This book covers the fundamentals, basic theories and applications of magnetism and conventional magnetic materials. Based on a lecture course given by Nicola Spaldin in the Materials Department at University of California, Santa Barbara, the book is ideal for a one- semester course in magnetic materials. It contains numerous homework problems and solutions.

  14. Occurrence and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in organo-mineral particles of alluvial sandy soil profiles at a petroleum-contaminated site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Zhe [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Anwai, Dayangfang 8, Beijing 100012 (China); Department of Chemistry, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada R3T 2N2 (Canada); School of Environment, Renmin University of China, Zhongguancun Street 59, Beijing 100872 (China); Zeng, Fangang [School of Environment, Renmin University of China, Zhongguancun Street 59, Beijing 100872 (China); Xue, Nandong [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Anwai, Dayangfang 8, Beijing 100012 (China); Li, Fasheng, E-mail: ligulax@vip.sina.com [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Anwai, Dayangfang 8, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2012-09-01

    The occurrence and the distribution of 16 USEPA priority pollutants polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in two alluvial sandy soil profiles and in their four sizes of organo-mineral particles (< 2 {mu}m clay, 2-20 {mu}m silt, 20-200 {mu}m fine sand, and > 200 {mu}m coarse sand) beside a typical oil sludge storage site in eastern China. PAHs were mainly enriched in the surface soil (0-20 cm) and the concentrations declined in deeper soils, from 3.68 to 0.128 {mu}g/g in profile 1 and 10.8 to 0.143 {mu}g/g in profile 2 (dry wt.). The PAHs in the upper soil layers of this study site mainly came from combustion pollution, whereas in the lower soil layers petroleum contamination became the major source of PAHs. The content of different sized organo-mineral particles of this alluvial sandy soil decreased in the following order: fine sand > coarse sand > silt > clay. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed that all the different sized soil fractions of this study site were dominated by quartz, calcite and feldspar. The particle surface became smoother with size increasing as shown by scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. PAH concentrations varied largely in different sized soil fractions. The highest PAH concentration was associated with clay and decreased in the order: clay > silt > coarse sand > fine sand. Soil organic matter (SOM) content, mineral composition and particle surface characteristics were suggested as three main factors affecting the distribution of PAHs in different sized organo-mineral particles. This study will help to understand the distribution and transport characteristics of PAHs in soil profiles at petroleum-contaminated sites. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PAH concentrations varied largely in different sized fractions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The highest PAH concentrations were associated with clay and decreased in the order: clay > silt > coarse sand > fine sand. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Soil organic

  15. Agroforestry systems of the lowland alluvial valleys of the Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Biosphere Reserve: an evaluation of their biocultural capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo, Mariana; Casas, Alejandro; Pérez-Negrón, Edgar; Moreno-Calles, Ana I; Hernández-Ordoñez, Omar; Tellez, Oswaldo; Dávila, Patricia

    2015-02-19

    Agroforestry systems (AFS) are valuable production systems that allow concealing benefits provision with conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem services. We analysed AFS of the zone of alluvial valleys of the Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Valley (TCV), Mexico, the most intensive agricultural systems within a region recognized for harbouring one of the most ancient agricultural experience of the New World. We hypothesized that the biodiversity conservation capacity of AFS would be directly related to traditional agricultural features and inversely related to management intensity. Agricultural practices, use frequency of machinery and chemical inputs, and proportion of forest and cultivated areas were described in 15 AFS plots in alluvial valleys of the Salado River in three villages of the region. With the information, we constructed a management intensity index and compared among plots and villages. We documented the reasons why people maintain wild plant species and traditional practices. Perennial plant species were sampled in vegetation of AFS (15 plots) and unmanaged forests (12 plots 500 m(2)) in order to compare richness, diversity and other ecological indicators in AFS and forest. In all studied sites, people combine traditional and intensive agricultural practices. Main agroforestry practices are ground terraces and borders surrounding AFS plots where people maintain vegetation. According to people, the reasons for maintaining shrubs and trees in AFS were in order of importance are: Beauty and shade provision (14% of people), fruit provision (7%), protection against strong wind, and favouring water and soil retention. We recorded 66 species of trees and shrubs in the AFS studied, 81% of them being native species that represent 38% of the perennial plant species recorded in forests sampled. Land tenure and institutions vary among sites but not influenced the actions for maintaining the vegetation cover in AFS. Plant diversity decreased with increasing

  16. Leaching of radiostrontium in undisturbed columns of calcareous alluvial soil as affected by level of activity applied and rate of high calcium water of Tigris river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahad, A.A.; Razaq, I.B.; Ali, A.W.

    1986-01-01

    Leaching of 85 Sr in calcareous alluvial medium textured soil was undertaken for 126 days. Radiostrontium in three levels of 4.62(L1), 9.25(L2), and 18.50(L3) MBq column -1 was applied to undisturbed soil columns, 110cm long and 12cm inner diameter. Irrigation water of Tigris river was used as a leaching solution supplied automatically in 1.4, 2.0, and 3.0cm day -1 by rain simulator systems. Gamma radiation along the soil columns was scanned periodically during the course of leaching. Leaching of Sr from the surface layer was in two stages. The first stage covered the first 22 days and the second included the following 104 days. Strontium retained (y) as a function of time (x) fitted reasonably well (r>0.96) to the equations y=a+mlnx and lny=a+mx for the first and the second stage, respectively. Tigris river irrigation water was found as effective as the dilute Ca solution (proposed by some investigators) in displacing Sr. The leaching with 3.0cm day -1 for 126 days resulted in 23, 23, and 21 per cent of total Sr remaining in the upper 5 cm of soil columns under L1, L2 and L3, respectively. However, the area under the distribution curves followed the ratio 1.0:2.4:3.7 under L1, L2, and L3, respectively. The pattern of Sr distribution in calcareous alluvial soil depended not only on the rate and amount of water application but also on the level of Sr applied. Although the soil columns were leached with 378 cm of water for 126 days, the Sr front did not pass the 30 cm depth. This finding indicates the high retention of this soil for Sr and the potential hazard of radiostrontium arising from its existence in the layer of maximum root density. (author). 18 refs., 2 figures, 2 tables

  17. Hydrodynamic characterization of an alluvial soil for the Cajueiro Reservoir in Tuparetama-PE (Brazil), by using the internal drainage method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robalinho, Aviani Maria Bezerra

    2000-10-01

    The determination of the hydraulic properties of an alluvial soil in Cajueiro reservoir has been carried out in two experimental plots of 3.5 m x 3.5 m, installed in the opposite banks of the brook in which is located the dam, (Tuparetama Country, Pernambuco). For the determination of the hydraulic conductivity as a function of the soil water volumetric content K(θ), the internal driainage method proposed by Hillel et al. (1972) has been applied. The soil-water retention curves h (θ) have been determined through the experimental data of volumetric water content and pressure obtained in field experiments. The h (θ) and K (θ) curves have been fitted to van Genuchten's closed - form equations (1980), using the Burdine's model, and Brooks and Corey's model, respectively. The volumetric water content, matric potential, and total water content estimates have been fitted to two analytical functions: one being composed by the addition of three exponentials terms the other composed and by representation the reverse of the power functions. The latter has been preferred due to its smoother representation between the fast and the slow its drainage phases. Considering the hydraulic behavior, three different layers have been identified in the soil profiles of the two experimental parcels A2 and B4 in the alluvial soil Cajueiro reservoir. The second layer of the soil profile in parcel A2 turned out the more pemeable than the other two layers. As to the soil profile in parcel B4, the first layer turned out more conductive than the other layers. However, the biggest volumetric water content variations were due to the differences found in the texture and structure of the soil profiles under study. The hydrodynamic characterization of the two soil profiles, A2 and B4, brings significant elements for the simulation of scenarios related to the soil of water transport processes. It is of particular importance the study of scenarios related to the shallow soil layers, which are

  18. The role of river hydrology on Salix shoot and root survival statistics on the alluvial sediment of a restored river corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquale, Nicola; Perona, Paolo; Verones, Francesca; Francis, Robert; Burlando, Paolo

    2010-05-01

    In river restoration projects there is considerable interest in understanding the morphodynamics of river reaches in relation to the characteristics of vegetation that may colonize the bare alluvial sediment, and locally stabilize it by root anchoring. Vegetation interacts with river hydrology on multiple time scales, but such interactions are at present still poorly understood. In this contribution, we discuss both the above and below ground biomass growth dynamics of 1188 Salix cuttings (individual and group survival rate, growth of the longest shoots and number of branches and morphological root analysis) in relation to local river hydrodynamics. Cuttings were organized in square plots of different size and planted in spring 2009 on a gravel island of the restored river section of River Thur (Niederneunforn, Canton Thurgau, Switzerland). Cuttings in the plots were monitored regularly, from the beginning of the campaign (March) until the end of the growing season (October). We obtained a detailed and quite unique set of data, which includes, among others, root characteristic statistics obtained from image and high-resolution scanner analysis of carefully uprooted samples. Beyond describing the survival rate dynamics in relation to river hydrology, we show the nature and strength of correlations between island topography, cutting growth statistics and local reach morphodynamics (see also Pasquale et. al.3, session HS 3.1). In particular, by comparing empirical histograms of the vertical root distribution vs. those of the saturated water surface in the sediment, we show that main tropic responses are oxytropism, hydrotropism and thigmotropism. Moreover, by numerical modelling of the local hydrodynamics, we can also identify the spatial distribution of preferential locations of oxytropism and hydrotropism. As far as factors causing mortality are concerned, we also show that erosion by flood is responsible for influencing the spatial and temporal distribution of the

  19. Geohydrologic units and water-level conditions in the Terrace alluvial aquifer and Paluxy Aquifer, May 1993 and February 1994, near Air Force Plant 4, Fort Worth area, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Glen A.; Baker, Ernest T.; Coplin, L.S.

    1996-01-01

    The terrace alluvial aquifer underlying Air Force Plant 4 and the adjacent Naval Air Station (formerly Carswell Air Force Base) in the Fort Worth area, Texas, is contaminated locally with organic and metal compounds. Residents south and west of Air Force Plant 4 and the Naval Air Station are concerned that contaminants might enter the underlying Paluxy aquifer, which provides water to the city of White Settlement, south of Air Force Plant 4, and to residents west of Air Force Plant 4. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has qualified Air Force Plant 4 for Superfund cleanup. The pertinent geologic units include -A~rom oldest to youngest the Glen Rose, Paluxy, and Walnut Formations, Goodland Limestone, and terrace alluvial deposits. Except for the Glen Rose Formation, all units crop out at or near Air Force Plant 4 and the Naval Air Station. The terrace alluvial deposits, which nearly everywhere form the land surface, range from 0 to about 60 feet thick. These deposits comprise a mostly unconsolidated mixture of gravel, sand, silt, and clay. Mudstone and sandstone of the Paluxy Formation crop out north, west, and southwest of Lake Worth and total between about 130 and about 175 feet thick. The terrace alluvial deposits and the Paluxy Formation comprise the terrace alluvial aquifer and the Paluxy aquifer, respectively. These aquifers are separated by the Goodland-Walnut confining unit, composed of the Goodland Limestone and (or) Walnut Formation. Below the Paluxy aquifer, the Glen Rose Formation forms the Glen Rose confining unit. Water-level measurements during May 1993 and February 1994 from wells in the terrace alluvial aquifer indicate that, regionally, ground water flows toward the east-southeast beneath Air Force Plant 4 and the Naval Air Station. Locally, water appears to flow outward from ground-water mounds maintained by the localized infiltration of precipitation and reportedly by leaking water pipes and sanitary and (or) storm sewer lines beneath the

  20. Composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sambrook, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    A superconductor composite is described comprising at least one longitudinally extending superconductor filament or bundle of sub-filaments, each filament or bundle of sub-filaments being surrounded by and in good electrical contact with a matrix material, the matrix material comprising a plurality of longitudinally extending cells of a metal of high electrical conductivity surrounded by a material of lower electrical conductivity. The high electrical conductivity material surrounding the superconducting filament or bundle of sub-filaments is interrupted by a radially extending wall of the material of the lower electrical conductivity, the arrangement being such that at least two superconductor filaments or sub-filaments are circumferentially circumscribed by a single annulus of the material of high electrical conductivity. The annulus is electrically interrupted by a radially extending wall of the material of low electrical conductivity

  1. Aerospace materials and material technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Wanhill, R

    2017-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive compilation of chapters on materials (both established and evolving) and material technologies that are important for aerospace systems. It considers aerospace materials in three Parts. Part I covers Metallic Materials (Mg, Al, Al-Li, Ti, aero steels, Ni, intermetallics, bronzes and Nb alloys); Part II deals with Composites (GLARE, PMCs, CMCs and Carbon based CMCs); and Part III considers Special Materials. This compilation has ensured that no important aerospace material system is ignored. Emphasis is laid in each chapter on the underlying scientific principles as well as basic and fundamental mechanisms leading to processing, characterization, property evaluation and applications. A considerable amount of materials data is compiled and presented in appendices at the end of the book. This book will be useful to students, researchers and professionals working in the domain of aerospace materials.

  2. Materials Discovery | Materials Science | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discovery Materials Discovery Images of red and yellow particles NREL's research in materials characterization of sample by incoming beam and measuring outgoing particles, with data being stored and analyzed Staff Scientist Dr. Zakutayev specializes in design of novel semiconductor materials for energy

  3. Interception of residual nitrate from a calcareous alluvial soil profile on the North China Plain by deep-rooted crops: A {sup 15}N tracer study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, X.T. [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, College of Agricultural Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, 2 Yuan Ming Yuan West Road, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100094 (China)]. E-mail: juxt@cau.edu.cn; Gao, Q. [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, College of Agricultural Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, 2 Yuan Ming Yuan West Road, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100094 (China); College of Agricultural Resources and Environmental Sciences, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun 130118 (China); Christie, P. [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, College of Agricultural Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, 2 Yuan Ming Yuan West Road, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100094 (China); Agricultural and Environmental Science Department, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT9 5PX (United Kingdom); Zhang, F.S. [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, College of Agricultural Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, 2 Yuan Ming Yuan West Road, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100094 (China)

    2007-03-15

    {sup 15}N-labeled nitrate was injected into different depths of an alluvial calcareous soil profile on the North China Plain. Subsequent movement of NO{sub 3} {sup -}N and its recovery by deep-rooted maize (Zea mays L.) and shallow-rooted eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) were studied. Under conventional water and nutrient management the mean recoveries of {sup 15}N-labeled nitrate from K{sup 15}NO{sub 3} injected at depths 15, 45, and 75 cm were 22.4, 13.8, and 7.8% by maize and 7.9, 4.9, and 2.7% by eggplant. The recovery rate by maize at each soil depth was significantly higher than by eggplant. The deeper the injection of nitrate the smaller the distance of its downward movement and this corresponded with the movement of soil water during crop growth. Deeper rooting crops with high root length density and high water consumption may therefore be grown to utilize high concentrations of residual nitrate in the subsoil from previous intensive cropping and to protect the environment. - Deep-rooted crops have a greater capacity than shallow-rooted crops to intercept residual nitrate from the subsoil and restrict its movement down to the shallow groundw0010at.

  4. Effect of biochar addition on short-term N2O and CO2 emissions during repeated drying and wetting of an anthropogenic alluvial soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fang; Lee, Xinqing; Theng, Benny K G; Wang, Bing; Cheng, Jianzhong; Wang, Qian

    2017-06-01

    Agricultural soils are an important source of greenhouse gases (GHG). Biochar application to such soils has the potential of mitigating global anthropogenic GHG emissions. Under irrigation, the topsoils in arid regions experience repeated drying and wetting during the crop growing season. Biochar incorporation into these soils would change the soil microbial environment and hence affect GHG emissions. Little information, however, is available regarding the effect of biochar addition on carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions from agricultural soils undergoing repeated drying and wetting. Here, we report the results of a 49-day aerobic incubation experiment, incorporating biochar into an anthropogenic alluvial soil in an arid region of Xinjiang Province, China, and measuring CO 2 and N 2 O emissions. Under both drying-wetting and constantly moist conditions, biochar amendment significantly increased cumulative CO 2 emission. At the same time, there was a significant reduction (up to ~20 %) in cumulative N 2 O emission, indicating that the addition of biochar to irrigated agricultural soils may effectively slow down global warming in arid regions of China.

  5. Geostatistical and GIS analysis of the spatial variability of alluvial gold content in Ngoura-Colomines area, Eastern Cameroon: Implications for the exploration of primary gold deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takodjou Wambo, Jonas Didero; Ganno, Sylvestre; Djonthu Lahe, Yannick Sthopira; Kouankap Nono, Gus Djibril; Fossi, Donald Hermann; Tchouatcha, Milan Stafford; Nzenti, Jean Paul

    2018-06-01

    Linear and nonlinear geostatistic is commonly used in ore grade estimation and seldom used in Geographical Information System (GIS) technology. In this study, we suggest an approach based on geostatistic linear ordinary kriging (OK) and Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques to investigate the spatial distribution of alluvial gold content, mineralized and gangue layers thicknesses from 73 pits at the Ngoura-Colomines area with the aim to determine controlling factors for the spatial distribution of mineralization and delineate the most prospective area for primary gold mineralization. Gold content varies between 0.1 and 4.6 g/m3 and has been broadly grouped into three statistical classes. These classes have been spatially subdivided into nine zones using ordinary kriging model based on physical and topographical characteristics. Both mineralized and barren layer thicknesses show randomly spatial distribution, and there is no correlation between these parameters and the gold content. This approach has shown that the Ngoura-Colomines area is located in a large shear zone compatible with the Riedel fault system composed of P and P‧ fractures oriented NE-SW and NNE-SSW respectively; E-W trending R fractures and R‧ fractures with NW-SE trends that could have contributed significantly to the establishment of this gold mineralization. The combined OK model and GIS analysis have led to the delineation of Colomines, Tissongo, Madubal and Boutou villages as the most prospective areas for the exploration of primary gold deposit in the study area.

  6. Seasonal Variation in Soil Greenhouse Gas Emissions at Three Age-Stages of Dawn Redwood (Metasequoia glyptostroboides Stands in an Alluvial Island, Eastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Yin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse gas (GHG emissions are an important part of the carbon (C and nitrogen (N cycle in forest soil. However, soil greenhouse gas emissions in dawn redwood (Metasequoia glyptostroboides stands of different ages are poorly understood. To elucidate the effect of plantation age and environmental factors on soil GHG emissions, we used static chamber/gas chromatography (GC system to measure soil GHG emissions in an alluvial island in eastern China for two consecutive years. The soil was a source of CO2 and N2O and a sink of CH4 with annual emissions of 5.5–7.1 Mg C ha−1 year−1, 0.15–0.36 kg N ha−1 year−1, and 1.7–4.5 kg C ha−1 year−1, respectively. A clear exponential correlation was found between soil temperature and CO2 emission, but a negative linear correlation was found between soil water content and CO2 emission. Soil temperature had a significantly positive effect on CH4 uptake and N2O emission, whereas no significant correlation was found between CH4 uptake and soil water content, and N2O emission and soil water content. These results implied that older forest stands might cause more GHG emissions from the soil into the atmosphere because of higher litter/root biomass and soil carbon/nitrogen content compared with younger stands.

  7. Interception of residual nitrate from a calcareous alluvial soil profile on the North China Plain by deep-rooted crops: A 15N tracer study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, X.T.; Gao, Q.; Christie, P.; Zhang, F.S.

    2007-01-01

    15 N-labeled nitrate was injected into different depths of an alluvial calcareous soil profile on the North China Plain. Subsequent movement of NO 3 - N and its recovery by deep-rooted maize (Zea mays L.) and shallow-rooted eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) were studied. Under conventional water and nutrient management the mean recoveries of 15 N-labeled nitrate from K 15 NO 3 injected at depths 15, 45, and 75 cm were 22.4, 13.8, and 7.8% by maize and 7.9, 4.9, and 2.7% by eggplant. The recovery rate by maize at each soil depth was significantly higher than by eggplant. The deeper the injection of nitrate the smaller the distance of its downward movement and this corresponded with the movement of soil water during crop growth. Deeper rooting crops with high root length density and high water consumption may therefore be grown to utilize high concentrations of residual nitrate in the subsoil from previous intensive cropping and to protect the environment. - Deep-rooted crops have a greater capacity than shallow-rooted crops to intercept residual nitrate from the subsoil and restrict its movement down to the shallow groundwater

  8. Application of biological markers for the identification of oil-type pollutants in recent sediments: Alluvial formation of the Danube river, Oil refinery Pančevo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rašović Aleksandar S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to examine to which extent the abundance and distribution of certain biological markers may be used for the identification of oil-type pollutants in recent sediments and ground waters. The samples were taken from the area of the Oil Refinery Pančevo (alluvial formation of the Danube River. The organic matter of the investigated samples was isolated using an extraction method with chloroform. The group composition and usual biological markers were analyzed in the obtained extracts. n-Alkanes and acyclic isoprenoids, pristane and phytane were analyzed using gas chromatographie (GC analysis of saturated hydrocarbons. Polycyclic alkanes of the sterane and terpane type were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, i.e. by analyzing the carbamide non-adduct of the total alkane fraction (Single Ion Monitoring SIM-technique. The obtained results indicate that n-alkanes can be used for the identification of oil-type pollutants (for example, if the oil-pollutant is biodegraded or present in very low concentrations, and steranes and triterpanes can be used as very reliable indicators of oil-type pollution in recent sediments and ground waters.

  9. Identify temporal trend of air temperature and its impact on forest stream flow in Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley using wavelet analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Ying; Parajuli, Prem B; Li, Yide; Leininger, Theodor D; Feng, Gary

    2017-08-01

    Characterization of stream flow is essential to water resource management, water supply planning, environmental protection, and ecological restoration; while air temperature variation due to climate change can exacerbate stream flow and add instability to the flow. In this study, the wavelet analysis technique was employed to identify temporal trend of air temperature and its impact upon forest stream flows in Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley (LMRAV). Four surface water monitoring stations, which locate near the headwater areas with very few land use disturbances and the long-term data records (60-90 years) in the LMRAV, were selected to obtain stream discharge and air temperature data. The wavelet analysis showed that air temperature had an increasing temporal trend around its mean value during the past several decades in the LMRAV, whereas stream flow had a decreasing temporal trend around its average value at the same time period in the same region. Results of this study demonstrated that the climate in the LMRAV did get warmer as time elapsed and the streams were drier as a result of warmer air temperature. This study further revealed that the best way to estimate the temporal trends of air temperature and stream flow was to perform the wavelet transformation around their mean values. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Effect of dissolved organic matter derived from waste amendments on the mobility of inorganic arsenic (III) in the Egyptian alluvial soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashad, Mohamed [Land and Water Technologies Department, Arid Lands Cultivation Research Institute, City of Scientific Research and Technological Applications (SRTA-City), New Borg El-Arab, 21934 Alexandria (Egypt); Assaad, Faiz F. [Soils and Water Use Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo (Egypt); Shalaby, Elsayed A. [Environmental Studies Department, Institute of Graduate Studies and Research, Alexandria University (Egypt)

    2013-07-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is one of the decisive factors affecting pollutants mobility in soils receiving waste amendments. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of DOM1 derived from agricultural solid waste (ASW) and DOM2 derived from municipal solid waste (MSW) on the mobility of inorganic arsenic (As) in two alluvial soils from the Nile River Delta. In column experiments, addition of DOM solutions significantly increased As concentration in the effluents. There was no significant difference between the two soils, the obtained results from soil2 columns revealed that DOM2 has stronger capability than DOM1 to facilitate As mobility. The pH of the studied soils is alkaline (8.1) which promoted the dissociation as well as deprotonation of DOM and as a consequence, humic substances in DOM become negatively charged organic anions, leading to their substantial competition with As for the adsorption sites on both soil surfaces. The results emphasized that in alkaline soils there is a risk of groundwater pollution in the long run by arsenic either naturally found in soil or originated at high soil pH when dissolved organic carbon (DOC) released from various organic amendments ASW and/or MSW and leached through soil profile.

  11. Statistical and Fractal Approaches on Long Time-Series to Surface-Water/Groundwater Relationship Assessment: A Central Italy Alluvial Plain Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Chiaudani

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this research, univariate and bivariate statistical methods were applied to rainfall, river and piezometric level datasets belonging to 24-year time series (1986–2009. These methods, which often are used to understand the effects of precipitation on rivers and karstic springs discharge, have been used to assess piezometric level response to rainfall and river level fluctuations in a porous aquifer. A rain gauge, a river level gauge and three wells, located in Central Italy along the lower Pescara River valley in correspondence of its important alluvial aquifer, provided the data. Statistical analysis has been used within a known hydrogeological framework, which has been refined by mean of a photo-interpretation and a GPS survey. Water–groundwater relationships were identified following the autocorrelation and cross-correlation analyses. Spectral analysis and mono-fractal features of time series were assessed to provide information on multi-year variability, data distributions, their fractal dimension and the distribution return time within the historical time series. The statistical–mathematical results were interpreted through fieldwork that identified distinct groundwater flowpaths within the aquifer and enabled the implementation of a conceptual model, improving the knowledge on water resources management tools.

  12. The distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in shallow groundwater from an alluvial-diluvial fan of the Hutuo River in North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jincui; Zhao, Yongsheng; Sun, Jichao; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Chunyan

    2018-06-01

    This paper has investigated the concentration and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in shallow groundwater from an alluvial-diluvial fan of the Hutuo River in North China. Results show that the concentration levels of 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons range from 0 to 92.06 ng/L, do not conform to drinking water quality standards in China (GB 5749- 2006). However, the concentration figures of priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are much lower than that of other studies conducted elsewhere in China. In addition, highly-concentrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (50-92 ng/L) are fragmentarily distributed. The composition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from this study indicates that low molecular polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are predominant in groundwater samples, medium molecular compounds occur at low concentrations, and high molecular hydrocarbons are not detected. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon composition in groundwater samples is basically the same as that of gaseous samples in the atmosphere in this study. Therefore, the atmospheric input is assumed to be an important source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, no less than wastewater discharge, adhesion on suspended solids, and surface water leakage. Ratios of specific polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons demonstrate that they mainly originate from wood or coal combustion as well as natural gas and partially from petroleum according to the result of principal component analysis. On the whole, conclusions are drawn that the contamination sources of these polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are likely petrogenic and pyrolytic inputs. Future investigations by sampling topsoil, vadose soil, and the atmosphere can further verify aforementioned conclusions.

  13. Restoration of areas degraded by alluvial sand mining: use of soil microbiological activity and plant biomass growth to assess evolution of restored riparian vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venson, Graziela R; Marenzi, Rosemeri C; Almeida, Tito César M; Deschamps-Schmidt, Alexandre; Testolin, Renan C; Rörig, Leonardo R; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2017-03-01

    River or alluvial sand mining is causing a variety of environmental problems in the Itajaí-açú river basin in Santa Catarina State (south of Brazil). When this type of commercial activity degrades areas around rivers, environmental restoration programs need to be executed. In this context, the aim of this study was to assess the evolution of a restored riparian forest based on data on the soil microbial activity and plant biomass growth. A reference site and three sites with soil degradation were studied over a 3-year period. Five campaigns were performed to determine the hydrolysis of the soil enzyme fluorescein diacetate (FDA), and the biomass productivity was determined at the end of the studied period. The variation in the enzyme activity for the different campaigns at each site was low, but this parameter did differ significantly according to the site. Well-managed sites showed the highest biomass productivity, and this, in turn, showed a strong positive correlation with soil enzyme activity. In conclusion, soil enzyme activity could form the basis for monitoring and the early prediction of the success of vegetal restoration programs, since responses at the higher level of biological organization take longer, inhibiting the assessment of the project within an acceptable time frame.

  14. Evaluation of groundwater levels in the South Platte River alluvial aquifer, Colorado, 1953-2012, and design of initial well networks for monitoring groundwater levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, Tristan

    2015-01-01

    The South Platte River and underlying alluvial aquifer form an important hydrologic resource in northeastern Colorado that provides water to population centers along the Front Range and to agricultural communities across the rural plains. Water is regulated based on seniority of water rights and delivered using a network of administration structures that includes ditches, reservoirs, wells, impacted river sections, and engineered recharge areas. A recent addendum to Colorado water law enacted during 2002-2003 curtailed pumping from thousands of wells that lacked authorized augmentation plans. The restrictions in pumping were hypothesized to increase water storage in the aquifer, causing groundwater to rise near the land surface at some locations. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Colorado Water Conservation Board and the Colorado Water Institute, completed an assessment of 60 years (yr) of historical groundwater-level records collected from 1953 to 2012 from 1,669 wells. Relations of "high" groundwater levels, defined as depth to water from 0 to 10 feet (ft) below land surface, were compared to precipitation, river discharge, and 36 geographic and administrative attributes to identify natural and human controls in areas with shallow groundwater.

  15. Nano Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, In Ju; Lee, Ik Mo; Kwon, Yeung Gu

    2006-02-01

    This book introduces background of nano science such as summary, plenty room at the bottom, access way to nano technique, nanoparticles using bottom-up method which are a marvel of nature, and modern alchemy : chemical synthesis of artificial nano structure, understanding of quantum mechanics, STM/AFM, nano metal powder, ceramic nanoparticles, nano structure film, manufacture of nanoparticles using reverse micelle method, carbon nano tube, sol-gel material, nano energy material, nano catalyst nano bio material technology and spintronics.

  16. Material Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Brath; Mortensen, Henrik Rubæk; Mullins, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes and reflects upon the results of an investigative project which explores the setting up of a material system - a parametric and generative assembly consisting of and taking into consideration material properties, manufacturing constraints and geometric behavior. The project...... approaches the subject through the construction of a logic-driven system aiming to explore the possibilities of a material system that fulfills spatial, structural and performative requirements concurrently and how these are negotiated in situations where they might be conflicting....

  17. Material focus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokoler, Tomas; Vallgårda, Anna K. A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we build on the notion of computational composites, which hold a material perspective on computational technology. We argue that a focus on the material aspects of the technology could be a fruitful approach to achieve new expressions and to gain a new view on the technology's role...... in design. We study two of the computer's material properties: computed causality and connectability and through developing two computational composites that utilize these properties we begin to explore their potential expressions....

  18. Materializing Ethnography

    OpenAIRE

    Geismar, H.; Horst, H. A.

    2004-01-01

    The articles in this volume were originally presented in a panel entitled ‘Material Methodologies’ at the American Anthropological Association meeting in New Orleans (November 2002). The panel was devised to tie together theoretical advances in the study of the material with the creative possibilities of fieldwork practices. Through detailed ethnographic discussion, we highlighted the ways in which a focus on a specifically material world enabled us to discover new perspecti...

  19. Materials characterisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azali Muhammad

    2005-01-01

    Various nuclear techniques have been developed and employed by technologies and scientists worldwide to physically and chemically characterise the material particularly those that have applications in industry. These include small angle neutron scattering (SANS), x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) for the internal structural study of material, whereas, the x-ray fluorescence (XRF) for the chemical analysis, while the Moessbauer spectroscopy for the study on the magnetic properties and structural identity of material. Basic principle and instrumentations of the techniques are discussed in this chapter. Example of their applications in various disciplines particularly in characterisation of industrial materials also described

  20. New materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, S.K.; Rao, C.N.R.; Tsuruta, T.

    1992-01-01

    The book contains the state-of-the art lectures delivered at the discussion meeting on new materials, a field in which rapid advances are taking place. The main objective of the meeting was to bring active scientists in this area from Japan and India together. The topics covered diverse aspects of modern materials including high temperature superconducting compounds. (M.G.B.)

  1. Materials science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    the document is a collection of papers on different aspects of materials science. It discusses many items such as semiconductors, surface properties and interfaces, construction and civil engineering, metallic materials, polymers and composites, biology and biomaterials, metallurgy etc.. - 1 - Document1 Document1

  2. Material Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Anna; Boer, Laurens; Tsaknaki, Vasiliki

    2017-01-01

    . Consequently we ask what the practice of programming and giving form to such materials would be like? How would we be able to familiarize ourselves with the dynamics of these materials and their different combinations of cause and effect? Which tools would we need and what would they look like? Will we program......, and color, but additionally being capable of sensing, actuating, and computing. Indeed, computers will not be things in and by themselves, but embedded into the materials that make up our surroundings. This also means that the way we interact with computers and the way we program them, will change...... these computational composites through external computers and then transfer the code them, or will the programming happen closer to the materials? In this feature we outline a new research program that floats between imagined futures and the development of a material programming practice....

  3. Composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchens, Stacy A [Knoxville, TN; Woodward, Jonathan [Solihull, GB; Evans, Barbara R [Oak Ridge, TN; O'Neill, Hugh M [Knoxville, TN

    2012-02-07

    A composite biocompatible hydrogel material includes a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa. A calcium comprising salt is disposed in at least some of the pores. The porous polymer matrix can comprise cellulose, including bacterial cellulose. The composite can be used as a bone graft material. A method of tissue repair within the body of animals includes the steps of providing a composite biocompatible hydrogel material including a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa, and inserting the hydrogel material into cartilage or bone tissue of an animal, wherein the hydrogel material supports cell colonization in vitro for autologous cell seeding.

  4. Materials science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The Materials Science Division is engaged in research on physical properties of materials and the effects of radiation upon them. This involves solid state materials undergoing phase transitions, energy storing materials, and biomaterials. The Division also offers research facilities for M.S. and Ph.D. thesis work in the fields of physics, chemistry, materials, and radiation sciences in cooperation with the various colleges and departments of the UPR Mayaguez Campus. It is anticipated that it will serve as a catalyst in starting energy-related research programs in cooperation with UPR faculty, especially programs involving solar energy. To encourage and promote cooperative efforts, contact is maintained with former graduate students and with visiting scientists from Latin American research institutions

  5. Touching Materiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lisa Rosén

    2012-01-01

    Dripping ink pens, colourful paint on skin, vegetables pots on a school roof. In interviews with three generations of former school pupils, memories of material objects bore a relation to everyday school life in the past. Interwoven, these objects entered the memorising processes, taking...... the interviewer and interviewee beyond an exclusively linguistic understanding of memory. This article analyses how the shifting objects of materiality in personal and generational school memories connects to material as well as sensuous experiences of everyday school life and its complex processes of learning....... Drawing on anthropological writings, the article argues that the objects of materiality are part of important but non-verbalised memories of schooling. The Dutch philosopher Eelco Runia’s notions of presence and metonymy are incorporated as tools for approaching objects of materiality in memory studies....

  6. Remediation in Situ of Hydrocarbons by Combined Treatment in a Contaminated Alluvial Soil due to an Accidental Spill of LNAPL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ettore Trulli

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Soil contamination represents an environmental issue which has become extremely important in the last decades due to the diffusion of industrial activities. Accidents during transport of dangerous materials and fuels may cause severe pollution. The present paper describes the criteria of the actions which were operated to remediate the potential risk and observed negative effects on groundwater and soil originating from an accidental spill of diesel fuel from a tank truck. With the aim to evaluate the quality of the involved environmental matrices in the “emergency” phase, in the following “safety” operation and during the remediation action, a specific survey on hydrocarbons, light and heavy, was carried out in the sand deposits soil. Elaboration of collected data allows us to observe the movement of pollutants in the unsaturated soil. The remediation action was finalized to improve the groundwater and soil quality. The former was treated by a so called “pump and treat” system coupled with air sparging. A train of three different technologies was applied to the unsaturated soil in a sequential process: soil vapour extraction, bioventing and enhanced bioremediation. Results showed that the application of sequential remediation treatments allowed us to obtain a state of quality in unsaturated soil and groundwater as required by Italian law.

  7. Rapid fluvial incision of a late Holocene lava flow: Insights from LiDAR, alluvial stratigraphy, and numerical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Kristin; Roering, Joshua J.

    2016-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions fundamentally alter landscapes, paving over channels, decimating biota, and emplacing fresh, unweathered material. The fluvial incision of blocky lava flows is a geomorphic puzzle. First, high surface permeability and lack of sediment should preclude geomorphically effective surface runoff and dissection. Furthermore, past work has demonstrated the importance of extreme floods in driving incision via column toppling and plucking in columnar basalt, but it is unclear how incision occurs in systems where surface blocks are readily mobile. We examine rapid fluvial incision of the Collier lava flow, an andesitic Holocene lava flow in the High Cascades of Oregon. Since lava flow emplacement ∼1600 yr ago, White Branch Creek has incised bedrock gorges up to 8 m deep into the coherent core of the lava flow and deposited >0.2 km3 of sediment on the lava flow surface. Field observation points to a bimodal discharge regime in the channel, with evidence for both annual snowmelt runoff and outburst floods from Collier glacier, as well as historical evidence of vigorous glacial meltwater. To determine the range of discharge events capable of incision in White Branch Creek, we used a mechanistic model of fluvial abrasion. We show that the observed incision implies that moderate flows are capable of both initiating channel formation and sustaining incision. Our results have implications for the evolution of volcanic systems worldwide, where glaciation and/or mass wasting may accelerate fluvial processes by providing large amounts of sediment to otherwise porous, sediment-starved landscapes.

  8. Influence of colloids on the attenuation and transport of phosphorus in alluvial gravel aquifer and vadose zone media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Liping; Lafogler, Mark; Knorr, Bastian; McGill, Erin; Saunders, Darren; Baumann, Thomas; Abraham, Phillip; Close, Murray

    2016-04-15

    Phosphorous (P) leaching (e.g., from effluents, fertilizers) and transport in highly permeable subsurface media can be an important pathway that contributes to eutrophication of receiving surface waters as groundwater recharges the base-flow of surface waters. Here we investigated attenuation and transport of orthophosphate-P in gravel aquifer and vadose zone media in the presence and absence of model colloids (Escherichia coli, kaolinite, goethite). Experiments were conducted using repacked aquifer media in a large column (2m long, 0.19m in diameter) and intact cores (0.4m long, 0.24m in diameter) of vadose zone media under typical field flow rates. In the absence of the model colloids, P was readily traveled through the aquifer media with little attenuation (up to 100% recovery) and retardation, and P adsorption was highly reversible. Conversely, addition of the model colloids generally resulted in reduced P concentration and mass recovery (down to 28% recovery), and increased retardation and adsorption irreversibility in both aquifer and vadose zone media. The degree of colloid-assisted P attenuation was most significant in the presence of fine material and Fe-containing colloids at low flow rate but was least significant in the presence of coarse gravels and E. coli at high flow rate. Based on the experimental results, setback distances of 49-53m were estimated to allow a reduction of P concentrations in groundwater to acceptable levels in the receiving water. These estimates were consistent with field observations in the same aquifer media. Colloid-assisted P attenuation can be utilized to develop mitigation strategies to better manage effluent applications in gravelly soils. To efficiently retain P within soil matrix and reduce P leaching to groundwater, it is recommended to select soils that are rich in iron oxides, to periodically disturb soil preferential flow paths by tillage, and to apply a low irrigation rate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  9. The combined use of dynamic factor analysis and wavelet analysis to evaluate latent factors controlling complex groundwater level fluctuations in a riverside alluvial aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yun-Yeong; Yun, Seong-Taek; Yu, Soonyoung; Hamm, Se-Yeong

    2017-12-01

    To identify and quantitatively evaluate complex latent factors controlling groundwater level (GWL) fluctuations in a riverside alluvial aquifer influenced by barrage construction, we developed the combined use of dynamic factor analysis (DFA) and wavelet analysis (WA). Time series data of GWL, river water level and precipitation were collected for 3 years (July 2012 to June 2015) from an alluvial aquifer underneath an agricultural area of the Nakdong river basin, South Korea. Based on the wavelet coefficients of the final approximation, the GWL data was clustered into three groups (WCG1 to WCG3). Two dynamic factors (DFs) were then extracted using DFA for each group; thus, six major factors were extracted. Next, the time-frequency variability of the extracted DFs was examined using multiresolution cross-correlation analysis (MRCCA) with the following steps: 1) major driving forces and their scales in GWL fluctuations were identified by comparing maximum correlation coefficients (rmax) between DFs and the GWL time series and 2) the results were supplemented using the wavelet transformed coherence (WTC) analysis between DFs and the hydrological time series. Finally, relative contributions of six major DFs to the GWL fluctuations could be quantitatively assessed by calculating the effective dynamic efficiency (Def). The characteristics and relevant process of the identified six DFs are: 1) WCG1DF4,1 as an indicative of seasonal agricultural pumping (scales = 64-128 days; rmax = 0.68-0.89; Def ≤ 23.1%); 2) WCG1DF4,4 representing the cycle of regional groundwater recharge (scales = 64-128 days; rmax = 0.98-1.00; Def ≤ 11.1%); 3) WCG2DF4,1 indicating the complex interaction between the episodes of precipitation and direct runoff (scales = 2-8 days; rmax = 0.82-0.91; Def ≤ 35.3%) and seasonal GW-RW interaction (scales = 64-128 days; rmax = 0.76-0.91; Def ≤ 14.2%); 4) WCG2DF4,4 reflecting the complex effects of seasonal pervasive pumping and the local recharge

  10. Nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    In 1998, Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR) performed 38 inspections, 25 of them were performed in co-operation with IAEA inspectors. There is no fresh nuclear fuel at Bohunice A-1 NPP at present. Fresh fuel of Bohunice V-1 and V-2 NPPs is inspected in the fresh fuel storage.There are 327 fresh fuel assemblies in Mochovce NPP fresh fuel storage. In addition to that, are also 71 small users of nuclear materials in Slovakia. In most cases they use: covers made of depleted uranium for non-destructive works, detection of level in production plants, covers for therapeutical sources at medical facilities. In. 1995, NRA SR issued 4 new licences for nuclear material withdrawal. In the next part manipulation with nuclear materials, spent fuel stores and illegal trafficking in nuclear materials are reported

  11. Composite Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang

    This book deals with the mechanical and physical behavior of composites as influenced by composite geometry. "Composite Materials" provides a comprehensive introduction for researchers and students to modern composite materials research with a special emphasis on the significance of phase geometry......, viscoelastic behavior, and internal stress states. Other physical properties considered are thermal and electrical conductivities, diffusion coefficients, dielectric constants and magnetic permeability. Special attention is given to the effect of pore shape on the mechanical and physical behavior of porous....... The book enables the reader to a better understanding of the behavior of natural composites, improvement of such materials, and design of new materials with prescribed properties. A number of examples are presented: Special composite properties considered are stiffness, shrinkage, hygro-thermal behavior...

  12. Hazardous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... substances that could harm human health or the environment. Hazardous means dangerous, so these materials must be ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  13. Utopian Materialities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elgaard-Jensen, Torben

    2004-01-01

    In various ways, this paper makes the counter-intuitive claim that the utopian and the material are thoroughlyinterdependent, rather than worlds apart. First, through a reading of Thomas More's Utopia, it is argued thatUtopia is the product of particular kinds of relations, rather than merely...... a detachment from the known world.Second, the utopianism of a new economy firm is examined. It is argued that the physical set-up of the firm -in particular the distribution of tables and chairs - evoke a number of alternatives to ordinary work practice.In this way the materialities of the firm are crucial...... to its persuasive image of being the office of the future.The notion that utopia is achieved through material arrangements is finally related to the analysis of facts andfictions in ANT. It is argued, that even though Utopias are neither fact nor fiction, they are both material andeffective...

  14. Effects of redox conditions on the control of arsenic mobility in shallow alluvial aquifers on the Venetian Plain (Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carraro, A. [Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources, National Research Council (CNR) of Italy, Padova, Italy c/o Department of Geosciences, University of Padova, 35131 Padova (Italy); Fabbri, P. [Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources, National Research Council (CNR) of Italy, Padova, Italy c/o Department of Geosciences, University of Padova, 35131 Padova (Italy); Department of Geosciences, University of Padova, 35131 Padova (Italy); Giaretta, A.; Peruzzo, L.; Tateo, F.; Tellini, F. [Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources, National Research Council (CNR) of Italy, Padova, Italy c/o Department of Geosciences, University of Padova, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2015-11-01

    The Venetian Plain is known for the occurrence of areas with high concentrations of arsenic in groundwater (greater than 400 μg/L). The study area represents the typical residential, industrial and agricultural features of most Western countries and is devoid of hydrothermal, volcanic or anthropogenic sources of arsenic. The aim of the study is to model the arsenic mobilization and the water–rock interaction by a complete hydrogeochemical investigation (analyses of filtered and unfiltered groundwater sediment mineralogy and geochemistry). The groundwater arsenic contamination and redox conditions are highly variable. Groundwaters with oxidizing and strongly reducing potentials have much lower arsenic concentrations than do mildly reducing waters. The grain size of the aquifer sediments includes gravels, sands and silty-clays. A continuous range of organic material concentrations is observed (from zero to 40%). The amount of sedimentary organic matter is highly correlated with the arsenic content of the sediments (up to 300 mg/kg), whereas no relationships are detectable between arsenic and other chemical parameters. The occurrence of arsenic minerals was observed as a peculiar feature under the scanning electron microscope. Arsenic and sulfur are the sole constituents of small tufts or thin crystals concentrated in small masses. These arsenic minerals were clearly observed in the peat sediments, in agreement with the geochemical modeling that requires very reducing conditions for their precipitation from the groundwater. The modeling suggests that, under oxidizing conditions, arsenic is adsorbed; moreover, a continuous decrease in the redox potential causes increasing desorption of arsenic. If the reducing conditions become more intense, the formation of As-S minerals would explain the lower concentration of arsenic measured in the strongly reducing groundwater. Even if As-sulfides are rare under low-temperature conditions, the anomalous abundance of reductants

  15. Geomorphic and geochemical controls on leaf wax biomarker transport and preservation in alluvial river systems: Rio Bermejo, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repasch, M. N.; Sachse, D.; Hovius, N.; Scheingross, J. S.; Szupiany, R. N.

    2017-12-01

    Rivers are the primary conduits for organic carbon (OC) transfer from vegetation-rich uplands to long-term sinks, and thus are responsible for significant fluxes among different reservoirs of the carbon cycle. Fluxes of terrestrial OC out of river systems are generally less than fluxes into the systems, indicating loss of OC either during active fluvial transport, during residence in the active channel belt, or in older deposits outside of the active channel belt. Sedimentary biomarkers can be used to elucidate the mechanisms of transport, preservation, and/or transformation of OC during its passage from source to sink. In this study we evaluate the influence of fluvial sediment transport on preservation of terrestrial leaf wax n-alkanes. Our natural laboratory is the Rio Bermejo in northern Argentina, which transports sediment and organic matter from the central Andes over 700 km across the foreland basin without input of foreign material from tributaries. Rapid channel migration rates in a region of flexural foreland basin uplift (the forebulge) are responsible for remobilization of floodplain sediment and terrestrial OC. By sampling suspended sediment, river bank sediment, and soil from several locations along the length of the Rio Bermejo, and analyzing the dissolved chemistry, biomarker composition, and compound-specific stable isotopes, we can evaluate the geomorphic and geochemical processes that act to influence the preservation of terrestrial biomarkers through the river system. Data suggest that concentrations of long-chain terrestrial (C25-C33) alkanes decrease downstream, while concentrations of short-chain (C15-C19) alkanes increase. This trend is corroborated by a downstream increase in suspended sediment δ13C values, suggesting a replacement of terrestrial OC by microbial OC. It is likely that microbial degradation is responsible for loss of terrestrial biomarkers as their residence time in the river system increases. Controlled laboratory

  16. Effects of redox conditions on the control of arsenic mobility in shallow alluvial aquifers on the Venetian Plain (Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carraro, A.; Fabbri, P.; Giaretta, A.; Peruzzo, L.; Tateo, F.; Tellini, F.

    2015-01-01

    The Venetian Plain is known for the occurrence of areas with high concentrations of arsenic in groundwater (greater than 400 μg/L). The study area represents the typical residential, industrial and agricultural features of most Western countries and is devoid of hydrothermal, volcanic or anthropogenic sources of arsenic. The aim of the study is to model the arsenic mobilization and the water–rock interaction by a complete hydrogeochemical investigation (analyses of filtered and unfiltered groundwater sediment mineralogy and geochemistry). The groundwater arsenic contamination and redox conditions are highly variable. Groundwaters with oxidizing and strongly reducing potentials have much lower arsenic concentrations than do mildly reducing waters. The grain size of the aquifer sediments includes gravels, sands and silty-clays. A continuous range of organic material concentrations is observed (from zero to 40%). The amount of sedimentary organic matter is highly correlated with the arsenic content of the sediments (up to 300 mg/kg), whereas no relationships are detectable between arsenic and other chemical parameters. The occurrence of arsenic minerals was observed as a peculiar feature under the scanning electron microscope. Arsenic and sulfur are the sole constituents of small tufts or thin crystals concentrated in small masses. These arsenic minerals were clearly observed in the peat sediments, in agreement with the geochemical modeling that requires very reducing conditions for their precipitation from the groundwater. The modeling suggests that, under oxidizing conditions, arsenic is adsorbed; moreover, a continuous decrease in the redox potential causes increasing desorption of arsenic. If the reducing conditions become more intense, the formation of As-S minerals would explain the lower concentration of arsenic measured in the strongly reducing groundwater. Even if As-sulfides are rare under low-temperature conditions, the anomalous abundance of reductants

  17. Adsorptive properties of alluvial soil for arsenic(V) and its potential for protection of the shallow groundwater among Changsha, Zhuzhou, and Xiangtan cities, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongwei; Mei, Jinhua; Luo, Yueping; Qiu, Anni; Wang, Huan

    2017-02-01

    The study area is among Changsha, Zhuzhou, and Xiangtan cities, which was under agricultural use and natural conditions about 10 years ago and now is becoming part of the metropolis because of the urban expansion. This study aims to investigate the mechanisms and capabilities of the local alluvial soil layer for protecting the local shallow groundwater from arsenic pollution by field surveys and batch experiments. The field surveys showed that there was an acidic tendency of the groundwater, and phosphate, nitrate, and arsenic in the groundwater significantly increased comparing to their reference values. It indicates that the disturbance of the former agricultural land due to the change of land use may be responsible for these changes. From the experimental results, the maximum adsorption capacity of the soil for As(V) was as low as 0.334 mg/g, and lower As(V) adsorption capacities were obtained at higher As(V) concentration, higher pH, and lower temperature. The presence of H 2 PO 4 - and SiO 3 2- posed negative, while HCO 3 - slight positive, and SO 4 2- , NO 3 - and Cl - negligible influences on the As(V) adsorption. The surface-derived organic matter played a negative role in the adsorption process, and low specific surface area influenced adsorption capacity of the soil. The study reveals that the local soil layer shows poor potential for protection of the local shallow groundwater from As(V) pollution, and the change trends of the groundwater environments due to more intensive anthropogenic activities will further weaken this potential and increase the risk of the groundwater contamination.

  18. Assessing the mechanisms controlling the mobilization of arsenic in the arsenic contaminated shallow alluvial aquifer in the blackfoot disease endemic area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan; Chu, Yu-Ju; Su, Yu-Chen; Lin, Po-Cheng; Hwang, Yaw-Huei; Liu, Chen-Wuing; Liao, Chung-Min; Chang, Fi-John; Yu, Chan-Wei

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Sedimentary microcosm showed simultaneous microbial reduction of Fe(III) and As(V). ► Addition of acetate caused a further increase in aqueous Fe(II) but not arsenic. ► An As(V)-reducing bacterium (ARS-3) native to aquifer sediments was isolated. ► ARS-3 showed microbial reduction of As(V) to As(III) in pore water in this aquifer. - Abstract: High levels of arsenic in groundwater and drinking water represent a major health problem worldwide. Drinking arsenic-contaminated groundwater is a likely cause of blackfoot disease (BFD) in Taiwan, but mechanisms controlling the mobilization of arsenic present at elevated concentrations within aquifers remain understudied. Microcosm experiments using sediments from arsenic contaminated shallow alluvial aquifers in the blackfoot disease endemic area showed simultaneous microbial reduction of Fe(III) and As(V). Significant soluble Fe(II) (0.23 ± 0.03 mM) in pore waters and mobilization of As(III) (206.7 ± 21.2 nM) occurred during the first week. Aqueous Fe(II) and As(III) respectively reached concentrations of 0.27 ± 0.01 mM and 571.4 ± 63.3 nM after 8 weeks. We also showed that the addition of acetate caused a further increase in aqueous Fe(II) but the dissolved arsenic did not increase. We further isolated an As(V)-reducing bacterium native to aquifer sediments which showed that the direct enzymatic reduction of As(V) to the potentially more-soluble As(III) in pore water is possible in this aquifer. Our results provide evidence that microorganisms can mediate the release of sedimentary arsenic to groundwater in this region and the capacity for arsenic release was not limited by the availability of electron donors in the sediments.

  19. Assessing the mechanisms controlling the mobilization of arsenic in the arsenic contaminated shallow alluvial aquifer in the blackfoot disease endemic area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan, E-mail: vivianliao@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, 1 Roosevelt Road, Sec. 4, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Chu, Yu-Ju; Su, Yu-Chen; Lin, Po-Cheng [Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, 1 Roosevelt Road, Sec. 4, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Hwang, Yaw-Huei [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, 17 Xu-Zhou Road, Taipei 100, Taiwan (China); Liu, Chen-Wuing; Liao, Chung-Min; Chang, Fi-John; Yu, Chan-Wei [Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, 1 Roosevelt Road, Sec. 4, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sedimentary microcosm showed simultaneous microbial reduction of Fe(III) and As(V). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Addition of acetate caused a further increase in aqueous Fe(II) but not arsenic. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An As(V)-reducing bacterium (ARS-3) native to aquifer sediments was isolated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ARS-3 showed microbial reduction of As(V) to As(III) in pore water in this aquifer. - Abstract: High levels of arsenic in groundwater and drinking water represent a major health problem worldwide. Drinking arsenic-contaminated groundwater is a likely cause of blackfoot disease (BFD) in Taiwan, but mechanisms controlling the mobilization of arsenic present at elevated concentrations within aquifers remain understudied. Microcosm experiments using sediments from arsenic contaminated shallow alluvial aquifers in the blackfoot disease endemic area showed simultaneous microbial reduction of Fe(III) and As(V). Significant soluble Fe(II) (0.23 {+-} 0.03 mM) in pore waters and mobilization of As(III) (206.7 {+-} 21.2 nM) occurred during the first week. Aqueous Fe(II) and As(III) respectively reached concentrations of 0.27 {+-} 0.01 mM and 571.4 {+-} 63.3 nM after 8 weeks. We also showed that the addition of acetate caused a further increase in aqueous Fe(II) but the dissolved arsenic did not increase. We further isolated an As(V)-reducing bacterium native to aquifer sediments which showed that the direct enzymatic reduction of As(V) to the potentially more-soluble As(III) in pore water is possible in this aquifer. Our results provide evidence that microorganisms can mediate the release of sedimentary arsenic to groundwater in this region and the capacity for arsenic release was not limited by the availability of electron donors in the sediments.

  20. Assessing the mechanisms controlling the mobilization of arsenic in the arsenic contaminated shallow alluvial aquifer in the blackfoot disease endemic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan; Chu, Yu-Ju; Su, Yu-Chen; Lin, Po-Cheng; Hwang, Yaw-Huei; Liu, Chen-Wuing; Liao, Chung-Min; Chang, Fi-John; Yu, Chan-Wei

    2011-12-15

    High levels of arsenic in groundwater and drinking water represent a major health problem worldwide. Drinking arsenic-contaminated groundwater is a likely cause of blackfoot disease (BFD) in Taiwan, but mechanisms controlling the mobilization of arsenic present at elevated concentrations within aquifers remain understudied. Microcosm experiments using sediments from arsenic contaminated shallow alluvial aquifers in the blackfoot disease endemic area showed simultaneous microbial reduction of Fe(III) and As(V). Significant soluble Fe(II) (0.23±0.03 mM) in pore waters and mobilization of As(III) (206.7±21.2 nM) occurred during the first week. Aqueous Fe(II) and As(III) respectively reached concentrations of 0.27±0.01 mM and 571.4±63.3 nM after 8 weeks. We also showed that the addition of acetate caused a further increase in aqueous Fe(II) but the dissolved arsenic did not increase. We further isolated an As(V)-reducing bacterium native to aquifer sediments which showed that the direct enzymatic reduction of As(V) to the potentially more-soluble As(III) in pore water is possible in this aquifer. Our results provide evidence that microorganisms can mediate the release of sedimentary arsenic to groundwater in this region and the capacity for arsenic release was not limited by the availability of electron donors in the sediments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Quaternary landscape development, alluvial fan chronology and erosion of the Mecca Hills at the southern end of the San Andreas Fault zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Harrison J.; Owen, Lewis A.; Dietsch, Craig; Beck, Richard A.; Caffee, Marc A.; Finkelman, Robert B.; Mahan, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative geomorphic analysis combined with cosmogenic nuclide 10Be-based geochronology and denudation rates have been used to further the understanding of the Quaternary landscape development of the Mecca Hills, a zone of transpressional uplift along the southern end of the San Andreas Fault, in southern California. The similar timing of convergent uplifts along the San Andreas Fault with the initiation of the sub-parallel San Jacinto Fault suggest a possible link between the two tectonic events. The ages of alluvial fans and the rates of catchment-wide denudation have been integrated to assess the relative influence of climate and tectonic uplift on the development of catchments within the Mecca Hills. Ages for major geomorphic surfaces based on 10Be surface exposure dating of boulders and 10Be depth profiles define the timing of surface stabilization to 2.6 +5.6/–1.3 ka (Qyf1 surface), 67.2 ± 5.3 ka (Qvof2 surface), and 280 ± 24 ka (Qvof1 surface). Comparison of 10Be measurements from active channel deposits (Qac) and fluvial terraces (Qt) illustrate a complex history of erosion, sediment storage, and sediment transport in this environment. Beryllium-10 catchment-wide denudation rates range from 19.9 ± 3.2 to 149 ± 22.5 m/Ma and demonstrate strong correlations with mean catchment slope and with total active fault length normalized by catchment area. The lack of strong correlation with other geomorphic variables suggests that tectonic uplift and rock weakening have the greatest control. The currently measured topography and denudation rates across the Mecca Hills may be most consistent with a model of radial topographic growth in contrast to a model based on the rapid uplift and advection of crust.

  2. Diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in a chrono-sequence of alluvial and degraded soils due to mining processes in bajo cauca antioqueno, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina S, Marisol; Orozco P, Francisco H; Marquez F, Maria E

    2009-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) presence and diversity were evaluated in undisturbed and disturbed soils form alluvial mining processes. The soils belong to the Tropic Fluvaquent, Typical Dystropept, and Typical Paleudult sub-groups which corresponded to Low, Middle and High terraces, respectively, of the Cauca river at Taraza town. AMF propagules were multiplied in Leonard jars under glass house conditions using sterile substrate, modified Hoagland's solution and different fractions of soil used as sources of inoculum, which corresponded to the size of the spores. A first assay was made in maize (Zea mays) which allowed mycorrhizal colonization in roots but not spore production. In a second assay, in kudzu (Pueraria phaseoloides) AMF spores and colonized roots were obtained with the treatments corresponding to propagules obtained from high terrace and disturbed soil. These treatments presented a significant effect on kudzu yield (P?0,001) respect to the other treatments. The AMF spores of undisturbed and disturbed soils showed low infective capacity. Nevertheless, propagules of AMF were multiplied in trap cultures, which produced spores of four morpho types. One of these was identified as G. microagregatum. The polymorphism obtained by RAPD's made possible the differentiation of these morpho types with the primer OPA2. Similitude above 38% was achieved using UPGMA system. The results indicated that four morpho types belong to the genus Glomus, but they possibly belong to different species. Our results are promissory in the differentiation of native strains of AMF with low number of spores collected from soil samples in rehabilitation processes, which normally is unknown.

  3. Quaternary stratigraphy, sediment characteristics and geochemistry of arsenic-contaminated alluvial aquifers in the Ganges-Brahmaputra floodplain in central Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsudduha, M; Uddin, A; Saunders, J A; Lee, M-K

    2008-07-29

    This study focuses on the Quaternary stratigraphy, sediment composition, mineralogy, and geochemistry of arsenic (As)-contaminated alluvial aquifers in the Ganges-Brahmaputra floodplain in the central Bangladesh. Arsenic concentrations in 85 tubewells in Manikganj area, 70 km northwest of Dhaka City, range from 0.25 microg/L to 191 microg/L with a mean concentration of 33 microg/L. Groundwater is mainly Ca-HCO(3) type with high concentrations of dissolved As, Fe, and Mn, but low level of SO(4). The uppermost aquifer occurs between 10 m and 80 m below the surface that has a mean arsenic concentration of 35 microg/L. Deeper aquifer (>100 m depth) has a mean arsenic concentration of 18 microg/L. Sediments in the upper aquifer are mostly gray to dark-gray, whereas sediments in the deep aquifer are mostly yellowing-gray to brown. Quartz, feldspar, mica, hornblende, garnet, kyanite, tourmaline, magnetite, ilmenite are the major minerals in sediments from both aquifers. Biotite and potassium feldspar are dominant in shallow aquifer, although plagioclase feldspar and garnet are abundant in deep aquifer sediments. Sediment composition suggests a mixed provenance with sediment supplies from both orogenic belts and cratons. High arsenic concentrations in sediments are found within the upper 50 m in drilled core samples. Statistical analysis shows that As, Fe, Mn, Ca, and P are strongly correlated in sediments. Concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni, Zn, and Bi also show strong correlations with arsenic in the Manikganj sediment cores. Authigenic goethite concretions, possibly formed by bacteria, are found in the shallow sediments, which contain arsenic of a concentration as high as 8.8 mg/kg. High arsenic concentrations in aquifers are associated with fine-grained sediments that were derived mostly from the recycled orogens and relatively rapidly deposited mainly by meandering channels during the Early to Middle Holocene rising sea-level conditions.

  4. Chemometric evaluation of heavy metal pollutions in Patna region of the Ganges alluvial plain, India: implication for source apportionment and health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Ningombam Linthoingambi; Yadav, Ishwar Chandra

    2018-03-28

    While metal pollution and distribution in soil are well documented for many countries, the situation is more serious in developing countries because of the rapid increase in industrialization and urbanization during last decades. Although it is well documented in developed countries, data about substantial metal pollution in Indian soil, especially in eastern Ganges alluvial plain (GAP), are limited. In this study, eight different blocks of Patna district located in eastern GAP were selected to investigate the contamination, accumulation, and sources of metals in surface soil considering different land use types. Additionally, human health risk assessment was estimated to mark the potential carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effect of metals in soil. The concentration of all metals (except Pb) in soil was below the Indian standard limit of the potential toxic element for agricultural soil. Pb was the most abundant in soil, followed by Zn and Cu, and accounted for 52, 33 and 8% of the total metal. In terms of land use types, roadside soil detected higher concentrations of all metals, followed by park/grassland soil. Principal component analysis results indicated traffic pollution and industrial emissions are the major sources of heavy metals in soil. This was further confirmed by strong inter-correlation of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Ni, Cu and Pb). Human health risk assessment results indicated ingestion via soil as the primary pathway of heavy metal exposure to both adults and children population. The estimated hazard index was highest for Pb, suggesting significant non-carcinogenic effect to both adults and children population. The children were more prone to the non-carcinogenic effect of Pb than adults. However, relatively low cancer risk value estimated for all metals suggested non-significant carcinogenic risk in the soil.

  5. From Hype to an Operational Tool: Efforts to Establish a Long-Term Monitoring Protocol of Alluvial Sandbars using 'Structure-from-Motion' Photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, R.; Buscombe, D.; Grams, P. E.; Wheaton, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Despite recent advances in the use of 'Structure-from-Motion' (SfM) photogrammetry to accurately map landforms, its utility for reliably detecting and monitoring geomorphic change from repeat surveys remains underexplored in fluvial environments. It is unclear how the combination of various image acquisition platforms and techniques, survey scales, vegetation cover, and terrain complexities translate into accuracy and precision metrics for SfM-based construction of digital elevation models (DEMs) of fluvial landforms. Although unmanned aerial vehicles offer the potential to rapidly image large areas, they can be relatively costly, require skilled operators, are vulnerable in adverse weather conditions, and often rely on GPS-positioning to improve their stability. This research details image acquisition techniques for an underrepresented SfM platform: the pole-mounted camera. We highlight image acquisition and post-processing limitations of the SfM method for alluvial sandbars (10s to 100s m2) located in Marble and Grand Canyons in a remote, fluvial landscape with limited field access, strong light gradients, highly variable surface texture and limited ground control. We recommend a pole-based SfM protocol and evaluate it by comparing SfM-derived DEMs against concurrent, total station surveys and TLS derived DEMs. Error models of the sandbar surfaces are developed for a variety of surface characteristics (e.g., bare sand, steep slopes, and areas of shadow). The Geomorphic Change Detection (GCD) Software is used to compare SfM DEMs from before and after the 2014 high flow release from Glen Canyon Dam. Complementing existing total-station based sandbar surveys with potentially more efficient and cost-effective SfM methods will contribute to the understanding of morphodynamic responses of sandbars to high flow releases from Glen Canyon Dam. In addition, the development and implementation of a SfM-based operational protocol for monitoring geomorphic change will provide

  6. From Hype to an Operational Tool: Efforts to Establish a Long-Term Monitoring Protocol of Alluvial Sandbars using `Structure-from-Motion' Photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, R.; Buscombe, D.; Grams, P. E.; Schmidt, J. C.; Wheaton, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    Despite recent advances in the use of `Structure-from-Motion' (SfM) photogrammetry to accurately map landforms, its utility for reliably detecting and monitoring geomorphic change from repeat surveys remains underexplored in fluvial environments. It is unclear how the combination of various image acquisition platforms and techniques, survey scales, vegetation cover, and terrain complexities translate into accuracy and precision metrics for SfM-based construction of digital elevation models (DEMs) of fluvial landforms. Although unmanned aerial vehicles offer the potential to rapidly image large areas, they can be relatively costly, require skilled operators, are vulnerable in adverse weather conditions, and often rely on GPS-positioning to improve their stability. This research details image acquisition techniques for an underrepresented SfM platform: the pole-mounted camera. We highlight image acquisition and post-processing limitations of the SfM method for alluvial sandbars (10s to 100s m2) located in Marble and Grand Canyons in a remote, fluvial landscape with limited field access, strong light gradients, highly variable surface texture and limited ground control. We recommend a pole-based SfM protocol and evaluate it by comparing SfM-derived DEMs against concurrent, total station surveys. Error models of the sandbar surfaces are developed for a variety of surface characteristics (e.g., bare sand, steep slopes, and areas of shadow). The Geomorphic Change Detection (GCD) Software is used to compare SfM DEMs from before and after the 2014 high flow release from Glen Canyon Dam. Complementing existing total-station based sandbar surveys with potentially more efficient and cost-effective SfM methods will contribute to the understanding of morphodynamic responses of sandbars to high flow releases from Glen Canyon Dam. In addition, the development and implementation of a SfM-based operational method for monitoring geomorphic change will provide a methodological

  7. Propulsion materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, Edward J. [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, D.C. (United States); Sullivan, Rogelio A. [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, D.C. (United States); Gibbs, Jerry L. [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, D.C. (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Office of Vehicle Technologies (OVT) is pleased to introduce the FY 2007 Annual Progress Report for the Propulsion Materials Research and Development Program. Together with DOE national laboratories and in partnership with private industry and universities across the United States, the program continues to engage in research and development (R&D) that provides enabling materials technology for fuel-efficient and environmentally friendly commercial and passenger vehicles.

  8. Encountering Materiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie

    2016-01-01

    DHT researcher Connie Svabo and artist Charlotte Grum did a joint performance presentation titled Becoming Sheep, Becoming Animal at the international conference Encountering Materiality – Transdisciplinary Conversations, held in Geneve, Schwitzerland, June 23-25 2016.......DHT researcher Connie Svabo and artist Charlotte Grum did a joint performance presentation titled Becoming Sheep, Becoming Animal at the international conference Encountering Materiality – Transdisciplinary Conversations, held in Geneve, Schwitzerland, June 23-25 2016....

  9. Background Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne; Hyytiäinen, Kari; Saraiva, Sofia

    This document serves as a background material to the BONUS Pilot Scenario Workshop, which aims to develop harmonised regional storylines of socio-ecological futures in the Baltic Sea region in a collaborative effort together with other BONUS projects and stakeholders.......This document serves as a background material to the BONUS Pilot Scenario Workshop, which aims to develop harmonised regional storylines of socio-ecological futures in the Baltic Sea region in a collaborative effort together with other BONUS projects and stakeholders....

  10. Layered materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David; Clarke, Simon; Wiley, John; Koumoto, Kunihito

    2014-06-01

    Layered compounds, materials with a large anisotropy to their bonding, electrical and/or magnetic properties, have been important in the development of solid state chemistry, physics and engineering applications. Layered materials were the initial test bed where chemists developed intercalation chemistry that evolved into the field of topochemical reactions where researchers are able to perform sequential steps to arrive at kinetically stable products that cannot be directly prepared by other approaches. Physicists have used layered compounds to discover and understand novel phenomena made more apparent through reduced dimensionality. The discovery of charge and spin density waves and more recently the remarkable discovery in condensed matter physics of the two-dimensional topological insulating state were discovered in two-dimensional materials. The understanding developed in two-dimensional materials enabled subsequent extension of these and other phenomena into three-dimensional materials. Layered compounds have also been used in many technologies as engineers and scientists used their unique properties to solve challenging technical problems (low temperature ion conduction for batteries, easy shear planes for lubrication in vacuum, edge decorated catalyst sites for catalytic removal of sulfur from oil, etc). The articles that are published in this issue provide an excellent overview of the spectrum of activities that are being pursued, as well as an introduction to some of the most established achievements in the field. Clusters of papers discussing thermoelectric properties, electronic structure and transport properties, growth of single two-dimensional layers, intercalation and more extensive topochemical reactions and the interleaving of two structures to form new materials highlight the breadth of current research in this area. These papers will hopefully serve as a useful guideline for the interested reader to different important aspects in this field and

  11. Electronic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Kwok, H L

    2010-01-01

    The electronic properties of solids have become of increasing importance in the age of information technology. The study of solids and materials, while having originated from the disciplines of physics and chemistry, has evolved independently over the past few decades. The classical treatment of solid-state physics, which emphasized classifications, theories and fundamental physical principles, is no longer able to bridge the gap between materials advances and applications. In particular, the more recent developments in device physics and technology have not necessarily been driven by new conc

  12. Supplementary Material

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mraga

    1. Supplementary Material. A soluble-lead Redox Flow Battery with corrugated graphite sheet and reticulated vitreous carbon as positive and negative current collectors by A Banerjee et al (pp 163-. 170). Figure S1. SEM images for bare substrates: (a) graphite sheet, (b) 20 ppi RVC, (c) 30 ppi. RVC and (d) 45 ppi RVC.

  13. Emerging Materiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Olav Wedege; Breinbjerg, Morten; Pold, Søren

    2009-01-01

    The authors examine how materiality emerges from complex chains of mediation in creative software use. The primarily theoretical argument is inspired and illustrated by interviews with two composers of electronic music. The authors argue that computer mediated activity should not primarily be und...

  14. Atmospheric materiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieczorek, Izabela

    2016-01-01

    experience and, consequently, to the conceptual and methodological shifts in the production of space, and hence in the way we think about materiality. In this context, architectural space is understood as a contingent construction – a space of engagement that appears to us as a result of continuous...

  15. Absorbant materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quetier, Monique.

    1978-11-01

    Absorbants play a very important part in the nuclear industry. They serve for the control, shut-down and neutron shielding of reactors and increase the capacity of spent fuel storage pools and of special transport containers. This paper surveys the usual absorbant materials, means of obtainment, their essential characteristics relating to their use and their behaviour under neutron irradiation [fr

  16. Evolution of the alluvial fans of the Luo River in the Weihe Basin, central China, controlled by faulting and climate change - A reevaluation of the paleogeographical setting of Dali Man site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rits, Daniël S.; van Balen, Ronald T.; Prins, Maarten A.; Zheng, Hongbo

    2017-06-01

    The Luo River is located in the southern part of the Chinese Loess Plateau and the northern part of the Weihe Basin, in Central China. In the basin it flows proximal to the site of the Luyang Wetland core, which is an important archive of climate change over the past 1 Myr in this region. In this paper, the contribution of the Luo River to the sedimentary record is analyzed by reconstructing the evolution of this river during the Middle to Late Pleistocene. It is argued that an alluvial fan of the Luo River has contributed to the sedimentary archive until approximately 200-240 ka. From this moment onwards, the fan became incised and terraces began to form. The formation of a new alluvial fan further downstream led to the disconnection of the Luo River from the Luyang Wetland core site. We propose that this series of events was caused by the displacement of an intra-basinal fault and the resultant faulting-forced folding, which caused increased relative subsidence, and thus increased sedimentation rates at the core site. Therefore, a complete sediment record in the 'Luyang Wetland' was preserved, despite the disconnection from the Luo River. The chronology of the fans and terraces was established using existing age control (U-series, ESR, OSL, pIRIR290 and magnetic susceptibility correlation), and through correlation of the loess-paleosol cover to marine isotope stages. Based on sedimentological characteristics of the fluvial sequence, we suggest that incision of the Luo River occurred in two steps. Small incisions took place at transitions to interglacials and the main incision phases occur at the transition from an interglacial to glacial climate. Due to the incision, basal parts of the oldest Luo River alluvial fan are exposed, and it is in one of these exposures that the famous Dali Man skull was retrieved. This study shows that the Dali Man did not live on a river terrace as previously thought, but on an aggrading alluvial fan, during wet, glacial conditions.

  17. The quality of our Nation's waters: water quality in the Mississippi embayment-Texas coastal uplands aquifer system and Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer, south-central United States, 1994-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsbury, James A.; Barlow, Jeannie R.; Katz, Brian G.; Welch, Heather L.; Tollett, Roland W.; Fahlquist, Lynne S.

    2015-01-01

    About 8 million people rely on groundwater from the Mississippi embayment—Texas coastal uplands aquifer system for drinking water. The Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer also provides drinking water for domestic use in rural areas but is of primary importance to the region as a source of water for irrigation. Irrigation withdrawals from this aquifer are among the largest in the Nation and play a key role in the economy of the area, where annual crop sales total more than $7 billion. The reliance of the region on both aquifers for drinking water and irrigation highlights the importance of long-term management to sustain the availability and quality of these resources.

  18. A Linkage Between Parent Materials of Soil and Potential Risk of Heavy Metals in Yunnan province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, X.

    2015-12-01

    A large area exceeding soil quality standards for heavy metals in South western China has been identified previously reported on a nationwide survey of soil pollution, yet the ecological risk of heavy metal in soil is unknown or uncertainty.To assess thoroughly the ecological risk in this region, seven soil profiles with a depth of 2m on the different parent materials of soil were conducted in Yunnan province, China, and the level of total concentrations and the fraction of water soluble, ion exchangeable, carbonates, humic acid, iron and manganese oxides and organic matter of As, Cd, Hg and Pb was investigated in soil profiles. The results indicate that parent materials of soil critically influenced the ecological risk of heavy metal.The fraction of water soluble and ion exchangeable of Cd and Hg in alluvial material and in terrigenous clastic rocks showed 2-6 times higher than those in carbonate rock; As and Pb has almost same fraction of water soluble and ion exchangeable in three parent materials of soil.The findings suggest that parent materials of soil play a critical role in ecological risk of heavy metal.Thus, more studies are needed to better understand a linkage between the parent materials of soil, different soil-forming processes and the potential risk of heavy metals under various geographic conditions, which is the key for the evaluating soil quality and food safety. Those soils with high concentration of Cd and Hg originated alluvial material and terrigenous clastic rocks need to be continuously monitored before determining a cost-effective remediation technology. Keywords: Heavy metals; Ecological risk;Parent materials of soil;China

  19. Friction Material Composites Materials Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Sundarkrishnaa, K L

    2012-01-01

    Friction Material Composites is the first of the five volumes which strongly educates and updates engineers and other professionals in braking industries, research and test labs. It explains besides the formulation of design processes and its complete manufacturing input. This book gives an idea of mechanisms of friction and how to control them by designing .The book is  useful for designers  of automotive, rail and aero industries for designing the brake systems effectively with the integration of friction material composite design which is critical. It clearly  emphasizes the driving  safety and how serious designers should  select the design input. The significance of friction material component like brake pad or a liner as an integral part of the brake system of vehicles is explained. AFM pictures at nanolevel illustrate broadly the explanations given.

  20. Using hydrochemical data and modelling to enhance the knowledge of groundwater flow and quality in an alluvial aquifer of Zagreb, Croatia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marković, Tamara, E-mail: tmarkovic@hgi-cgs.hr; Brkić, Željka; Larva, Ozren

    2013-08-01

    The Zagreb alluvial aquifer system is located in the southwest of the Pannonian Basin in the Sava Valley in Croatia. It is composed of Quaternary unconsolidated deposits and is highly utilised, primarily as a water supply for the more than one million inhabitants of the capital city of Croatia. To determine the origin and dynamics of the groundwater and to enhance the knowledge of groundwater flow and the interactions between the groundwater and surface water, extensive hydrogeological and hydrochemical investigations have been completed. The groundwater levels monitored in nested observation wells and the lithological profile indicate that the aquifer is a single hydrogeologic unit, but the geochemical characteristics of the aquifer indicate stratification. The weathering of carbonate and silicate minerals has an important role in groundwater chemistry, especially in the area where old meanders of the Sava River existed. Groundwater quality was observed to be better in the deeper parts of the aquifer than in the shallower parts. Furthermore, deterioration of the groundwater quality was observed in the area under the influence of the landfill. The stable isotopic composition of all sampled waters indicates meteoric origin. NETPATH-WIN was used to calculate the mixing proportions between initial waters (water from the Sava River and groundwater from “regional” flow) in the final water (groundwater sampled from observation wells). According to the results, the mixing proportions of “regional” flow and the river water depend on hydrological conditions, the duration of certain hydrological conditions and the vicinity of the Sava River. Moreover, although the aquifer system behaves as a single hydrogeologic unit from a hydraulic point of view, it still clearly demonstrates geochemical stratification, which could be a decisive factor in future utilisation strategies for the aquifer system. - Highlights: • The Zagreb aquifer is the largest utilised source of

  1. Micromorphology and stable-isotope geochemistry of historical pedogenic siderite formed in PAH-contaminated alluvial clay soils, Tennessee, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driese, S.G.; Ludvigson, Greg A.; Roberts, J.A.; Fowle, D.A.; Gonzalez, Luis A.; Smith, J.J.; Vulava, V.M.; McKay, L.D.

    2010-01-01

    Alluvial clay soil samples from six boreholes advanced to depths of 400-450 cm (top of limestone bedrock) from the Chattanooga Coke Plant (CCP) site were examined micromorphologically and geochemically in order to determine if pedogenic siderite (FeCO3) was present and whether siderite occurrence was related to organic contaminant distribution. Samples from shallow depths were generally more heavily contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) than those at greater depth. The upper 1 m in most boreholes consisted of mixtures of anthropogenically remolded clay soil fill containing coal clinker, cinder grains, and limestone gravel; most layers of coarse fill were impregnated with creosote and coal tar. Most undisturbed soil (below 1 m depth) consisted of highly structured clays exhibiting fine subangular blocky ped structures, as well as redox-related features. Pedogenic siderite was abundant in the upper 2 m of most cores and in demonstrably historical (< 100 years old) soil matrices. Two morphologies were identified: (1) sphaerosiderite crystal spherulites ranging from 10 to 200 um in diameter, and (2) coccoid siderite comprising grape-like "clusters" of crystals 5-20 ??n in diameter. The siderite, formed in both macropores and within fine-grained clay matrices, indicates development of localized anaerobic, low-Eh conditions, possibly due to microbial degradation of organic contaminants. Stable-isotope compositions of the siderite have ??13C values spanning over 25%o (+7 to - 18%o VPDB) indicating fractionation of DIC by multiple microbial metabolic pathways, but with relatively constant ??18O values from (-4.8 ?? 0.66%o VPDB) defining a meteoric sphaerosiderite line (MSL). Calculated isotope equilibrium water ??18O values from pedogenic siderites at the CCP site are from 1 to 5 per mil lighter than the groundwater ??18O values that we estimate for the site. If confirmed by field studies in progress, this observation might call for a reevaluation of

  2. Assessment of the chemical status of the alluvial aquifer in the Aosta Plain: an example of the implementation of the Water Framework Directive in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotiroti, Marco; Fumagalli, Letizia; Stefania, Gennaro A.; Frigerio, Maria C.; Simonetto, Fulvio; Capodaglio, Pietro; Bonomi, Tullia

    2015-04-01

    The Italian Legislative Decree 30/09 (D.Lgs. 30/09) implements the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) providing some technical guidelines to assess the chemical status of groundwater bodies. This work presents the estimation of the chemical status of the shallow aquifer in the Aosta Plain (Aosta Valley Region, NW Alpine sector, Italy) on the basis of the D.Lgs. 30/09. The study area covers ~40 km2 along the Dora Baltea River basin. The Aosta Plain hosts an alluvial aquifer formed of lacustrine, glacial, fluvio-glacial and fan deposits of Pleistocene and Holocene ages. The unconfined aquifer features a depth of ~80 m in the western part of the plain and ~20 in the eastern part due to the intercalation of a silty lacustrine layer. The aquifer is mainly recharged by precipitation, surface water and ice and snow melt. Previous studies revealed that SO4, Fe, Mn, Ni, Cr(VI) and PCE represent potential threats for groundwater quality in the Aosta Plain. The chemical status was calculated using the data collected during the 2012 by the Regional Environmental Protection Agency of the Aosta Valley Region from its groundwater quality monitoring network that includes 38 points. Each point was sampled up to four times. Since the D.Lgs. 30/09 excludes Fe and Mn from the assessment of the groundwater chemical status, the present work deals with SO4, Ni, Cr(VI) and PCE. Threshold values (TVs) were estimated on the basis of natural background levels (NBLs) for SO4, Ni and Cr(VI) whereas, for PCE, the reference value (REF) reported by the D.Lgs. 30/09 (i.e., 1.1 µg/L) was used as TV. The NBLs were calculated using the two approaches suggested by the EU research project BRIDGE, that are the pre-selection and the component separation. The TVs were evaluated using the following criteria: (a) if NBL pollution in the Aosta Plain in order to achieve the good chemical status as required by the WFD.

  3. Feeding strategies for groundwater enhanced biodenitrification in an alluvial aquifer: Chemical, microbial and isotope assessment of a 1D flow-through experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidal-Gavilan, G., E-mail: georginavidal@biorem.cat [D D' ENGINY BIOREM S.L., Madrazo 68, bxs., 08006 Barcelona (Spain); Grup de Mineralogia Aplicada i Medi Ambient, Departament de Cristallografia, Mineralogia i Dipòsits MInerals, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Carrey, R., E-mail: rcarrey@ub.edu [Grup de Mineralogia Aplicada i Medi Ambient, Departament de Cristallografia, Mineralogia i Dipòsits MInerals, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Solanas, A., E-mail: asolanas@ub.edu [Departament de Microbiologia, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Avgda. Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Soler, A., E-mail: albertsolergil@ub.edu [Grup de Mineralogia Aplicada i Medi Ambient, Departament de Cristallografia, Mineralogia i Dipòsits MInerals, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-10-01

    Nitrate-removal through enhanced in situ biodenitrification (EISB) is an existing alternative for the recovery of groundwater quality, and is often suggested for use in exploitation wells pumping at small flow-rates. Innovative approaches focus on wider-scale applications, coupling EISB with water-management practices and new monitoring tools. However, before this approach can be used, some water-quality issues such as the accumulation of denitrification intermediates and/or of reduced compounds from other anaerobic processes must be addressed. With such a goal, a flow-through experiment using 100 mg-nitrate/L groundwater was built to simulate an EISB for an alluvial aquifer. Heterotrophic denitrification was induced through the periodic addition of a C source (ethanol), with four different C addition strategies being evaluated to improve the quality of the denitrified water. Chemical, microbial and isotope analyses of the water were performed. Biodenitrification was successfully stimulated by the daily addition of ethanol, easily achieving drinking water standards for both nitrate and nitrite, and showing an expected linear trend for nitrogen and oxygen isotope fractionation, with a εN/εO value of 1.1. Nitrate reduction to ammonium was never detected. Water quality in terms of remaining C, microbial counts, and denitrification intermediates was found to vary with the experimental time, and some secondary microbial respiration processes, mainly manganese reduction, were suspected to occur. Carbon isotope composition from the remaining ethanol also changed, from an initial enrichment in {sup 13}C-ethanol compared to the value of the injected ethanol (− 30.6‰), to a later depletion, achieving δ{sup 13}C values well below the initial isotope composition (to a minimum of − 46.7‰). This depletion in the heavy C isotope follows the trend of an inverse fractionation. Overall, our results indicated that most undesired effects on water quality may be controlled

  4. A comparative study on the decomposition of edible and non-edible oil cakes in the Gangetic alluvial soil of West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Sudeshna; Das, Ritwika; Das, Amal Chandra

    2014-08-01

    An experiment has been conducted under laboratory conditions to investigate the effect of decomposition of two edible oil cakes, viz. mustard cake (Brassica juncea L) and groundnut cake (Arachis hypogaea L), and two non-edible oil cakes, viz. mahua cake (Madhuca indica Gmel) and neem cake (Azadirachta indica Juss), at the rate of 5.0 t ha(-1) on the changes of microbial growth and activities in relation to transformations and availability of some plant nutrients in the Gangetic alluvial (Typic Haplustept) soil of West Bengal, India. Incorporation of oil cakes, in general, highly induced the proliferation of total bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi, resulting in greater retention and availability of oxidizable C, N, and P in soil. As compared to untreated control, the highest stimulation of total bacteria and actinomycetes was recorded with mustard cake (111.9 and 84.3 %, respectively) followed by groundnut cake (50.5 and 52.4 %, respectively), while the fungal colonies were highly accentuated due to the incorporation of neem cake (102.8 %) in soil. The retention of oxidizable organic C was highly increased due to decomposition of non-edible oil cakes, more so under mahua cake (14.5 %), whereas edible oil cakes and groundnut cake in particular exerted maximum stimulation (16.7 %) towards the retention of total N in soil. A similar trend was recorded towards the accumulation of available mineral N in soil and this was more pronounced with mustard cake (45.6 %) for exchangeable NH4 (+) and with groundnut cake (63.9 %) for soluble NO3 (-). The highest retention of total P (46.9 %) was manifested by the soil when it was incorporated with neem cake followed by the edible oil cakes; while the available P was highly induced due to the addition of edible oil cakes, the highest being under groundnut cake (23.5 %) followed by mustard cake (19.6 %).

  5. Fifth symposium on surface mining and reclamation. NCA/BCR coal conference and Expo IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    The Fifth Symposium on Surface Mining and Reclamation, sponsored by the National Coal Association and Bituminous Coal Research, Inc., was held at the Kentucky Fair and Exposition Center, Louisville, Kentucky, October 18-20, 1977. Twenty-six papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. Topics covered include spoil bank revegetation, use of aerial photography, reclamation for row crop production, hydrology, computer programs related to this work, subirrigated alluvial valley floors, reclamation on steep slopes, mountain top removal, surface mine road design, successional processes involved in reclamation, land use planning, etc. (LTN)

  6. Materials Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The Materials Science Program is structured so that NASA s headquarters is responsible for the program content and selection, through the Enterprise Scientist, and MSFC provides for implementation of ground and flight programs with a Discipline Scientist and Discipline Manager. The Discipline Working Group of eminent scientists from outside of NASA acts in an advisory capacity and writes the Discipline Document from which the NRA content is derived. The program is reviewed approximately every three years by groups such as the Committee on Microgravity Research, the National Materials Advisory Board, and the OBPR Maximization and Prioritization (ReMaP) Task Force. The flight program has had as many as twenty-six principal investigators (PIs) in flight or flight definition stage, with the numbers of PIs in the future dependent on the results of the ReMaP Task Force and internal reviews. Each project has a NASA-appointed Project Scientist, considered a half-time job, who assists the PI in understanding and preparing for internal reviews such as the Science Concept Review and Requirements Definition Review. The Project Scientist also insures that the PI gets the maximum science support from MSFC, represents the PI to the MSFC community, and collaborates with the Project Manager to insure the project is well-supported and remains vital. Currently available flight equipment includes the Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR-1) and Microgravity Science Glovebox. Ground based projects fall into one or more of several categories. Intellectual Underpinning of Flight Program projects include theoretical studies backed by modeling and computer simulations; bring to maturity new research, often by young researchers, and may include preliminary short duration low gravity experiments in the KC-135 aircraft or drop tube; enable characterization of data sets from previous flights; and provide thermophysical property determinations to aid PIs. Radiation Shielding and preliminary In

  7. Magnetocaloric materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeppesen, Stinus

    2008-10-15

    New and improved magnetocaloric materials are one of the cornerstones in the development of room temperature magnetic refrigeration. Magnetic refrigeration has been used since the 1930ies in cryogenic applications, but has since the discovery of room temperature refrigerants received enormous attention. This Ph.D. work has been mainly concerned with developing a new technique to characterize the magnetocaloric effect (MCE) and using this technique in the investigations on new and improved magnetocaloric materials. For this purpose a novel differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) with applied magnetic fields was developed for measuring heat capacity as function of magnetic field. Measurements using the developed DSC demonstrate a very high sensitivity, fast measurements and good agreement with results obtained by other techniques. Furthermore, two material systems have been described in this work. Both systems take basis in the mixed-valence manganite system La{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x}MnO{sub 3} well known from research on colossal magnetoresistance (CMR). The mixed-valence manganite crystallizes in the perovskite structure of general formula ABO{sub 3}. The first material system is designed to investigate the influence of low level Cu doping on the B-site. Six different samples were prepared with over-stoichiometric compositions La{sub 0.67}Ca{sub 0.33}Mn{sub 1.05}Cu{sub x}O{sub 3}, x=0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5%. All compositions crystallized well in the same perovskite structure, but the morphology of the samples changed drastically with doping. Investigation on the magnetocaloric properties revealed that small levels of Cu up to around 3% could improve the magnetocaloric performance of the materials. Furthermore, Cu could be used to tune the temperature interval without deteriorating the MCE, which is a much desired characteristic for potential use in magnetic refrigerators. A less comprehensive part of the work has been concerned with the investigation of doping on the A

  8. Materializing Superghosts

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandrov, Victor; Krotov, Dmitry; Losev, Andrei; Lysov, Vyacheslav

    2007-01-01

    We construct the off-shell BV realization of N=1, d=10 SYM with 7 auxillary fields. This becomes possible due to materialized ghost phenomenon. Namely, supersymmetry ghosts are coordinates on a manifold B of 10-dimensional spinors with pure spinors cut out. Auxillary fields are sections of a bundle over B, and supersymmetry transformations are nonlinear in ghosts. By integrating out axillary fields we obtain on-shell supersymmetric BV action with terms quadratic in antifields. Exactly this on...

  9. Material monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotter, W.; Zirker, L.; Hancock, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    Waste Reduction Operations Complex (WROC) facilities are located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The overall goal for the Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization Unit is to identify and establish the correct amount of waste generated so that it can be reduced. Quarterly, the INEL Pollution Prevention (P2) Unit compares the projected amount of waste generated per process with the actual amount generated. Examples of waste streams that would be addresses for our facility would include be are not limited to: Maintenance, Upgrades, Office and Scrap Metal. There are three potential sources of this variance: inaccurate identification of those who generate the waste; inaccurate identification of the process that generates the waste; and inaccurate measurement of the actual amount generated. The Materials Monitoring Program was proposed to identify the sources of variance and reduce the variance to an acceptable level. Prior to the implementation of the Material Monitoring Program, all information that was gathered and recorded was done so through an informal estimation of waste generated by various personnel concerned with each processes. Due to the inaccuracy of the prior information gathering system, the Material Monitoring Program was established. The heart of this program consists of two main parts. In the first part potential waste generators provide information on projected waste generation process. In the second part, Maintenance, Office, Scrap Metal and Facility Upgrade wastes from given processes is disposed within the appropriate bin dedicated to that process. The Material Monitoring Program allows for the more accurate gathering of information on the various waste types that are being generated quarterly

  10. Thermoelectric Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peng; Berkun, Isil; Schmidt, Robert D.; Luzenski, Matthew F.; Lu, Xu; Bordon Sarac, Patricia; Case, Eldon D.; Hogan, Timothy P.

    2014-06-01

    Mg2(Si,Sn) compounds are promising candidate low-cost, lightweight, nontoxic thermoelectric materials made from abundant elements and are suited for power generation applications in the intermediate temperature range of 600 K to 800 K. Knowledge on the transport and mechanical properties of Mg2(Si,Sn) compounds is essential to the design of Mg2(Si,Sn)-based thermoelectric devices. In this work, such materials were synthesized using the molten-salt sealing method and were powder processed, followed by pulsed electric sintering densification. A set of Mg2.08Si0.4- x Sn0.6Sb x (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.072) compounds were investigated, and a peak ZT of 1.50 was obtained at 716 K in Mg2.08Si0.364Sn0.6Sb0.036. The high ZT is attributed to a high electrical conductivity in these samples, possibly caused by a magnesium deficiency in the final product. The mechanical response of the material to stresses is a function of the elastic moduli. The temperature-dependent Young's modulus, shear modulus, bulk modulus, Poisson's ratio, acoustic wave speeds, and acoustic Debye temperature of the undoped Mg2(Si,Sn) compounds were measured using resonant ultrasound spectroscopy from 295 K to 603 K. In addition, the hardness and fracture toughness were measured at room temperature.

  11. FOREWORD: Materials metrology Materials metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Seton; Valdés, Joaquin

    2010-04-01

    It seems that so much of modern life is defined by the materials we use. From aircraft to architecture, from cars to communications, from microelectronics to medicine, the development of new materials and the innovative application of existing ones have underpinned the technological advances that have transformed the way we live, work and play. Recognizing the need for a sound technical basis for drafting codes of practice and specifications for advanced materials, the governments of countries of the Economic Summit (G7) and the European Commission signed a Memorandum of Understanding in 1982 to establish the Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and Standards (VAMAS). This project supports international trade by enabling scientific collaboration as a precursor to the drafting of standards. The VAMAS participants recognized the importance of agreeing a reliable, universally accepted basis for the traceability of the measurements on which standards depend for their preparation and implementation. Seeing the need to involve the wider metrology community, VAMAS approached the Comité International des Poids et Mesures (CIPM). Following discussions with NMI Directors and a workshop at the BIPM in February 2005, the CIPM decided to establish an ad hoc Working Group on the metrology applicable to the measurement of material properties. The Working Group presented its conclusions to the CIPM in October 2007 and published its final report in 2008, leading to the signature of a Memorandum of Understanding between VAMAS and the BIPM. This MoU recognizes the work that is already going on in VAMAS as well as in the Consultative Committees of the CIPM and establishes a framework for an ongoing dialogue on issues of materials metrology. The question of what is meant by traceability in the metrology of the properties of materials is particularly vexed when the measurement results depend on a specified procedure. In these cases, confidence in results requires not only traceable

  12. Sedimentological analysis of the Estefaniense de Tineo basin (Asturias): example of coal deposits in alluvial fans. Analisis sedimentologico de la cuenca Estefaniense de Tineo (Asturias): ejemplo de depositos de carbon en abanicos aluviales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos Garcia, J.A. (Empresa Nacional ADARO, Madrid (Spain))

    1991-01-01

    A sedimentological analysis of the Stephanian deposits of Tineo Basin is carried out. Three unities are established (Basal Breachs, Intermediate Unit and Conglomerate Unit) by means of lithological, mining and sedimentological criteria, which represent larger episodes in the filling of the basin. The first episode corresponds to the initial configuration of the basin, with coarse grained breccia deposits related to steep slopes (Basal Breccia). The second and more complex (Intermediate Unit), is represented by four larger sequences (stages from UI-1 to UI-4, La Prohida Zone) which show secondary tectonic pulsations. At this moment the sedimentation is carried out in several subbasins separated by palaeoreliefs or thresholds. The third episode corresponds to a strong reactivation of the northern edge of the basin, with deposition of the Conglomeratic Unit. The filling of the basin is assimilated to a pattern of alluvial fans in a tectonically-active basin, in which the coal deposition look place during calm (tranquil) periods when a large alluvial fan flanked by coalescent smaller sized fans developed along the northern margin of the basin. 24 refs., 9 figs.

  13. Alloy materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hans Thieme, Cornelis Leo (Westborough, MA); Thompson, Elliott D. (Coventry, RI); Fritzemeier, Leslie G. (Acton, MA); Cameron, Robert D. (Franklin, MA); Siegal, Edward J. (Malden, MA)

    2002-01-01

    An alloy that contains at least two metals and can be used as a substrate for a superconductor is disclosed. The alloy can contain an oxide former. The alloy can have a biaxial or cube texture. The substrate can be used in a multilayer superconductor, which can further include one or more buffer layers disposed between the substrate and the superconductor material. The alloys can be made a by process that involves first rolling the alloy then annealing the alloy. A relatively large volume percentage of the alloy can be formed of grains having a biaxial or cube texture.

  14. Casting materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Anil R [Xenia, OH; Dzugan, Robert [Cincinnati, OH; Harrington, Richard M [Cincinnati, OH; Neece, Faurice D [Lyndurst, OH; Singh, Nipendra P [Pepper Pike, OH

    2011-06-14

    A foam material comprises a liquid polymer and a liquid isocyanate which is mixed to make a solution that is poured, injected or otherwise deposited into a corresponding mold. A reaction from the mixture of the liquid polymer and liquid isocyanate inside the mold forms a thermally collapsible foam structure having a shape that corresponds to the inside surface configuration of the mold and a skin that is continuous and unbroken. Once the reaction is complete, the foam pattern is removed from the mold and may be used as a pattern in any number of conventional casting processes.

  15. Energy materials

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, Duncan W; Walton, Richard I

    2011-01-01

    In an age of global industrialisation and population growth, the area of energy is one that is very much in the public consciousness. Fundamental scientific research is recognised as being crucial to delivering solutions to these issues, particularly to yield novel means of providing efficient, ideally recyclable, ways of converting, transporting and delivering energy. This volume considers a selection of the state-of-the-art materials that are being designed to meet some of the energy challenges we face today. Topics are carefully chosen that show how the skill of the synthetic chemist can

  16. Construction material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagh, Arun S [Orland Park, IL; Antink, Allison L [Bolingbrook, IL

    2008-07-22

    A structural material of a polystyrene base and the reaction product of the polystyrene base and a solid phosphate ceramic is applied as a slurry which includes one or more of a metal oxide or a metal hydroxide with a source of phosphate to produce a phosphate ceramic and a poly (acrylic acid or acrylate) or combinations or salts thereof and polystyrene or MgO applied to the polystyrene base and allowed to cure so that the dried aqueous slurry chemically bonds to the polystyrene base. A method is also disclosed of applying the slurry to the polystyrene base.

  17. Photographic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamieson, P.B.

    1980-01-01

    Radiographic films based on silver halides are normally handled under red or orange safelights to prevent fogging due to their sensitivity to white light. The present invention relates to ultraviolet radiation sensitive material which can be handled under virtually white light without significant fogging. The film material is comprised of a base having at least one layer of a photographic silver halide emulsion and a yellow filter dye screening the emulsion from visible radiation. The silver halide emulsion contains 50-100 mole % of silver chloride, the higher the silver chloride content, the lower the visible light sensitivity. The nature and properties of the yellow filter dye are described. When recording an X-ray image, the film is loaded into the camera under white safelight conditions from which light of wavelength shorter than 400 nm is excluded. The film is in contact with one or more phosphor screens capable when struck by X-rays of emitting ultraviolet radiation, the screens having a peak ultraviolet emission within the wavelength range of 250-380 nm. After X-ray exposure, the film is removed and developed. Two examples illustrating the invention are given. (U.K.)

  18. Coating materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozeki, Takao; Kimura, Tadashi; Kobayashi, Juichi; Maeda, Yutaka; Nakamoto, Hideo.

    1969-01-01

    A non-solvent type coating material composition having properties as good as thermosetting acrylic or amino alkid resins is provided by employing active energy irradiation, particularly electron beams, using a radically polymerizable low molecular compound (A) (hereafter called an oligomer) containing at least two vinyl radicals in one molecule. This oligomer is produced by reacting an epoxy-containing vinyl monomer with alpha-, beta-ethylene unsaturated carboxylic acids or their anhydrides. The composition (I) contains 10% - 100% of this oligomer. In embodiments, an oligomer having a fiberous trivinyl construction is produced by reacting 180 parts by weight of glycidyl methacrylate ester with 130 parts of itaconic acid in the presence of a polymerization-inhibitor and an addition reaction catalyst at 90 0 C for 6 hours. In practice, the coating material compositions (1), consist of the whole oligomer [I-1]; (2), consist of 10-90% of (A) component and 90%-10% of vinyl monomers containing at least 30% (meth) acrylic monomer [I-2]; (3), 10%-90% of component (A) and 90%-10% of other monomers containing at least two vinyl radicals [I-3]; (4), a mixture of (I-2) and (I-3), [I-4]; and (5), consist of 50% or less unsaturated polyester of 500-5,000 molecular weight range or drying oil, or alkyd resin of 500-5,000 molecular weight range modified by drying oil, [I-5]. As a catalyst a tertiary amino vinyl compound is preferred. Five examples are given. (Iwakiri, K.)

  19. Functional materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J. Y.; Hong, G. W.; Lee, H. J.

    2002-05-01

    Development of fabrication process of functional ceramic materials, evaluation of characteristics and experiments for understanding of irradiation behavior of ceramics were carried out for application of ceramics to the nuclear industry. The developed processes were the SiC surface coating technology with large area for improvement of wear resistance and corrosion resistance, the fabrication technology of SiC composites for excellent irradiation resistance, performance improvement technology of SiC fiber and nano-sized powder processing by combustion ignition and spray. Typical res