Niceno, B.; Dhotre, M.T.; Deen, N.G.
2008-01-01
In this work, we have presented a one-equation model for sub-grid scale (SGS) kinetic energy and applied it for an Euler-Euler large eddy simulation (EELES) of a bubble column reactor. The one-equation model for SGS kinetic energy shows improved predictions over the state-of-the-art dynamic
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Greg Yarwood
2011-08-01
Full Text Available Multi-pollutant chemical transport models (CTMs are being routinely used to predict the impacts of emission controls on the concentrations and deposition of primary and secondary pollutants. While these models have a fairly comprehensive treatment of the governing atmospheric processes, they are unable to correctly represent processes that occur at very fine scales, such as the near-source transport and chemistry of emissions from elevated point sources, because of their relatively coarse horizontal resolution. Several different approaches have been used to address this limitation, such as using fine grids, adaptive grids, hybrid modeling, or an embedded sub-grid scale plume model, i.e., plume-in-grid (PinG modeling. In this paper, we first discuss the relative merits of these various approaches used to resolve sub-grid scale effects in grid models, and then focus on PinG modeling which has been very effective in addressing the problems listed above. We start with a history and review of PinG modeling from its initial applications for ozone modeling in the Urban Airshed Model (UAM in the early 1980s using a relatively simple plume model, to more sophisticated and state-of-the-science plume models, that include a full treatment of gas-phase, aerosol, and cloud chemistry, embedded in contemporary models such as CMAQ, CAMx, and WRF-Chem. We present examples of some typical results from PinG modeling for a variety of applications, discuss the implications of PinG on model predictions of source attribution, and discuss possible future developments and applications for PinG modeling.
Simple subgrid scale stresses models for homogeneous isotropic turbulence
Aupoix, B.; Cousteix, J.
Large eddy simulations employing the filtering of Navier-Stokes equations highlight stresses, related to the interaction between large scales below the cut and small scales above it, which have been designated 'subgrid scale stresses'. Their effects include both the energy flux through the cut and a component of viscous diffusion. The eddy viscosity introduced in the subgrid scale models which give the correct energy flux through the cut by comparison with spectral closures is shown to depend only on the small scales. The Smagorinsky (1963) model can only be obtained if the cut lies in the middle of the inertial range. A novel model which takes the small scales into account statistically, and includes the effects of viscosity, is proposed and compared with classical models for the Comte-Bellot and Corrsin (1971) experiment.
Modeling Subgrid Scale Droplet Deposition in Multiphase-CFD
Agostinelli, Giulia; Baglietto, Emilio
2017-11-01
The development of first-principle-based constitutive equations for the Eulerian-Eulerian CFD modeling of annular flow is a major priority to extend the applicability of multiphase CFD (M-CFD) across all two-phase flow regimes. Two key mechanisms need to be incorporated in the M-CFD framework, the entrainment of droplets from the liquid film, and their deposition. Here we focus first on the aspect of deposition leveraging a separate effects approach. Current two-field methods in M-CFD do not include appropriate local closures to describe the deposition of droplets in annular flow conditions. As many integral correlations for deposition have been proposed for lumped parameters methods applications, few attempts exist in literature to extend their applicability to CFD simulations. The integral nature of the approach limits its applicability to fully developed flow conditions, without geometrical or flow variations, therefore negating the scope of CFD application. A new approach is proposed here that leverages local quantities to predict the subgrid-scale deposition rate. The methodology is first tested into a three-field approach CFD model.
Silvis, Maurits H; Verstappen, Roel
2016-01-01
We study the construction of subgrid-scale models for large-eddy simulation of incompressible turbulent flows. In particular, we aim to consolidate a systematic approach of constructing subgrid-scale models, based on the idea that it is desirable that subgrid-scale models are consistent with the properties of the Navier-Stokes equations and the turbulent stresses. To that end, we first discuss in detail the symmetries of the Navier-Stokes equations, and the near-wall scaling behavior, realizability and dissipation properties of the turbulent stresses. We furthermore summarize the requirements that subgrid-scale models have to satisfy in order to preserve these important mathematical and physical properties. In this fashion, a framework of model constraints arises that we apply to analyze the behavior of a number of existing subgrid-scale models that are based on the local velocity gradient. We show that these subgrid-scale models do not satisfy all the desired properties, after which we explain that this is p...
Li, Feng-Chen; Wang, Lu; Cai, Wei-Hua
2015-07-01
A mixed subgrid-scale (SGS) model based on coherent structures and temporal approximate deconvolution (MCT) is proposed for turbulent drag-reducing flows of viscoelastic fluids. The main idea of the MCT SGS model is to perform spatial filtering for the momentum equation and temporal filtering for the conformation tensor transport equation of turbulent flow of viscoelastic fluid, respectively. The MCT model is suitable for large eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent drag-reducing flows of viscoelastic fluids in engineering applications since the model parameters can be easily obtained. The LES of forced homogeneous isotropic turbulence (FHIT) with polymer additives and turbulent channel flow with surfactant additives based on MCT SGS model shows excellent agreements with direct numerical simulation (DNS) results. Compared with the LES results using the temporal approximate deconvolution model (TADM) for FHIT with polymer additives, this mixed SGS model MCT behaves better, regarding the enhancement of calculating parameters such as the Reynolds number. For scientific and engineering research, turbulent flows at high Reynolds numbers are expected, so the MCT model can be a more suitable model for the LES of turbulent drag-reducing flows of viscoelastic fluid with polymer or surfactant additives. Project supported by the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2011M500652), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51276046 and 51206033), and the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20112302110020).
Silvis, Maurits H.; Trias, F. Xavier; Abkar, M.; Bae, H.J.; Lozano-Duran, A.; Verstappen, R.W.C.P.; Moin, Parviz; Urzay, Javier
2016-01-01
We study subgrid-scale modeling for large-eddy simulation of anisotropic turbulent flows on anisotropic grids. In particular, we show how the addition of a velocity-gradient-based nonlinear model term to an eddy viscosity model provides a better representation of energy transfer. This is shown to
Le, A.-T.; Kim, J.; Coleman, G.
1996-11-01
One of the primary reasons dynamic subgrid-scale (SGS) models are more successful than those that are `hand-tuned' is thought to be their insensitivity to numerical and modeling parameters. Jiménez has recently demonstrated that large-eddy simulations (LES) of decaying isotropic turbulence using a dynamic Smagorinsky model yield correct decay rates -- even when the model is subjected to a range of artificial perturbations. The objective of the present study is to determine to what extent this `self-adjusting' feature of dynamic SGS models is found in LES of inhomogeneous flows. The effects of numerical and modeling parameters on the accuracy of LES solutions of fully developed and developing turbulent channel flow are studied, using a spectral code and various dynamic models (including those of Lilly et al. and Meneveau et al.); other modeling parameters tested include the filter-width ratio and the effective magnitude of the Smagorinsky coefficient. Numerical parameters include the form of the convective term and the type of test filter (sharp-cutoff versus tophat). The resulting LES statistics are found to be surprisingly sensitive to the various parameter choices, which implies that more care than is needed for homogeneous-flow simulations must be exercised when performing LES of inhomogeneous flows.
Large Eddy Simulation of an SD7003 Airfoil: Effects of Reynolds number and Subgrid-scale modeling
Sarlak, Hamid
2017-05-01
This paper presents results of a series of numerical simulations in order to study aerodynamic characteristics of the low Reynolds number Selig-Donovan airfoil, SD7003. Large Eddy Simulation (LES) technique is used for all computations at chord-based Reynolds numbers 10,000, 24,000 and 60,000 and simulations have been performed to primarily investigate the role of sub-grid scale (SGS) modeling on the dynamics of flow generated over the airfoil, which has not been dealt with in great detail in the past. It is seen that simulations are increasingly getting influenced by SGS modeling with increasing the Reynolds number, and the effect is visible even at a relatively low chord-Reynolds number of 60,000. Among the tested models, the dynamic Smagorinsky gives the poorest predictions of the flow, with overprediction of lift and a larger separation on airfoils suction side. Among various models, the implicit LES offers closest pressure distribution predictions compared with literature.
M. Cassiani; Vinuesa, J.F.; Galmarini, S.; Denby, B
2010-01-01
The stochastic fields method for turbulent reacting flows has been applied to the issue of sub-grid scale emission heterogeneity in a mesoscale model. This method is a solution technique for the probability density function (PDF) transport equation and can be seen as a straightforward extension of currently used mesoscale dispersion models. It has been implemented in an existing mesoscale model and the results are compared with Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) data devised to test specifically the...
Chen, Sheng; Tölke, Jonas; Krafczyk, Manfred
2009-08-01
Natural convection within an enclosed circular annular cavity formed by two concentric vertical cylinders is of fundamental interest and practical importance. Generally, the assumption of axisymmetric thermal flow is adopted for simulating such natural convections and the validity of the assumption of axisymmetric thermal flow is still held even for some turbulent convection. Usually the Rayleigh numbers (Ra) of realistic flows are very high. However, the work to design suitable and efficient lattice Boltzmann (LB) models on such flows is quite rare. To bridge the gap, in this paper a simple LB subgrid-scale (SGS) model, which is based on our recent work [S. Chen, J. Tölke, and M. Krafczyk, Phys. Rev. E 79, 016704 (2009); S. Chen, J. Tölke, S. Geller, and M. Krafczyk, Phys. Rev. E 78, 046703 (2008)], is proposed for simulating convectional flow with high Ra within an enclosed circular annular cavity. The key parameter for the SGS model can be quite easily and efficiently evaluated by the present model. The numerical experiments demonstrate that the present model works well for a large range of Ra and Prandtl number (Pr). Though in the present study a popularly used static Smagorinsky turbulence model is adopted to demonstrate how to develop a LB SGS model for simulating axisymmetric thermal flows with high Ra, other state-of-the-art turbulence models can be incorporated into the present model in the same way. In addition, the present model can be extended straightforwardly to simulate other axisymmetric convectional flows with high Ra, for example, turbulent convection with internal volumetric heat generation in a vertical cylinder, which is an important simplified representation of a nuclear reactor.
Rasthofer, U.; Gravemeier, V.
2013-02-01
Multifractal subgrid-scale modeling within a variational multiscale method is proposed for large-eddy simulation of turbulent flow. In the multifractal subgrid-scale modeling approach, the subgrid-scale velocity is evaluated from a multifractal description of the subgrid-scale vorticity, which is based on the multifractal scale similarity of gradient fields in turbulent flow. The multifractal subgrid-scale modeling approach is integrated into a variational multiscale formulation, which constitutes a new application of the variational multiscale concept. A focus of this study is on the application of the multifractal subgrid-scale modeling approach to wall-bounded turbulent flow. Therefore, a near-wall limit of the multifractal subgrid-scale modeling approach is derived in this work. The novel computational approach of multifractal subgrid-scale modeling within a variational multiscale formulation is applied to turbulent channel flow at various Reynolds numbers, turbulent flow over a backward-facing step and turbulent flow past a square-section cylinder, which are three of the most important and widely-used benchmark examples for wall-bounded turbulent flow. All results presented in this study confirm a very good performance of the proposed method. Compared to a dynamic Smagorinsky model and a residual-based variational multiscale method, improved results are obtained. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the subgrid-scale energy transfer incorporated by the proposed method very well approximates the expected energy transfer as obtained from appropriately filtered direct numerical simulation data. The computational cost is notably reduced compared to a dynamic Smagorinsky model and only marginally increased compared to a residual-based variational multiscale method.
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M. Cassiani
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The stochastic fields method for turbulent reacting flows has been applied to the issue of sub-grid scale emission heterogeneity in a mesoscale model. This method is a solution technique for the probability density function (PDF transport equation and can be seen as a straightforward extension of currently used mesoscale dispersion models. It has been implemented in an existing mesoscale model and the results are compared with Large-Eddy Simulation (LES data devised to test specifically the effect of sub-grid scale emission heterogeneity on boundary layer concentration fluctuations. The sub-grid scale emission variability is assimilated in the model as a PDF of the emissions. The stochastic fields method shows excellent agreement with the LES data without adjustment of the constants used in the mesoscale model. The stochastic fields method is a stochastic solution of the transport equations for the concentration PDF of dispersing scalars, therefore it possesses the ability to handle chemistry of any complexity without the need to introduce additional closures for the high order statistics of chemical species. This study shows for the first time the feasibility of applying this method to mesoscale chemical transport models.
Subgrid-scale models for large-eddy simulation of rotating turbulent channel flows
Silvis, Maurits H.; Bae, Hyunji Jane; Trias, F. Xavier; Abkar, Mahdi; Moin, Parviz; Verstappen, Roel
2017-11-01
We aim to design subgrid-scale models for large-eddy simulation of rotating turbulent flows. Rotating turbulent flows form a challenging test case for large-eddy simulation due to the presence of the Coriolis force. The Coriolis force conserves the total kinetic energy while transporting it from small to large scales of motion, leading to the formation of large-scale anisotropic flow structures. The Coriolis force may also cause partial flow laminarization and the occurrence of turbulent bursts. Many subgrid-scale models for large-eddy simulation are, however, primarily designed to parametrize the dissipative nature of turbulent flows, ignoring the specific characteristics of transport processes. We, therefore, propose a new subgrid-scale model that, in addition to the usual dissipative eddy viscosity term, contains a nondissipative nonlinear model term designed to capture transport processes, such as those due to rotation. We show that the addition of this nonlinear model term leads to improved predictions of the energy spectra of rotating homogeneous isotropic turbulence as well as of the Reynolds stress anisotropy in spanwise-rotating plane-channel flows. This work is financed by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) under Project Number 613.001.212.
On the Effect of an Anisotropy-Resolving Subgrid-Scale Model on Turbulent Vortex Motions
2014-09-19
expression coincides with the modified Leonard stress proposed by Ger- mano et al. (1991). In this model, the SGS turbulence energy kSGS may be evaluated as... mano subgridscale closure method. Phys. Fluids A, Vol. 4, pp. 633-635. Morinishi, Y. and Vasilyev, O.V. (2001), A recommended modification to the
Lagrangian scheme to model subgrid-scale mixing and spreading in heterogeneous porous media
Herrera, P. A.; Cortínez, J. M.; Valocchi, A. J.
2017-04-01
Small-scale heterogeneity of permeability controls spreading, dilution, and mixing of solute plumes at large scale. However, conventional numerical simulations of solute transport are unable to resolve scales of heterogeneity below the grid scale. We propose a Lagrangian numerical approach to implement closure models to account for subgrid-scale spreading and mixing in Darcy-scale numerical simulations of solute transport in mildly heterogeneous porous media. The novelty of the proposed approach is that it considers two different dispersion coefficients to account for advective spreading mechanisms and local-scale dispersion. Using results of benchmark numerical simulations, we demonstrate that the proposed approach is able to model subgrid-scale spreading and mixing provided there is a correct choice of block-scale dispersion coefficient. We also demonstrate that for short travel times it is only possible to account for spreading or mixing using a single block-scale dispersion coefficient. Moreover, we show that it is necessary to use time-dependent dispersion coefficients to obtain correct mixing rates. On the contrary, for travel times that are large in comparison to the typical dispersive time scale, it is possible to use a single expression to compute the block-dispersion coefficient, which is equal to the asymptotic limit of the block-scale macrodispersion coefficient proposed by Rubin et al. (1999). Our approach provides a flexible and efficient way to model subgrid-scale mixing in numerical models of large-scale solute transport in heterogeneous aquifers. We expect that these findings will help to better understand the applicability of the advection-dispersion-equation (ADE) to simulate solute transport at the Darcy scale in heterogeneous porous media.
Hernandez Perez, Francisco E.
2017-01-05
Large eddy simulations of a turbulent premixed jet flame in a confined chamber were conducted using the flamelet-generated manifold technique for chemistry tabulation. The configuration is characterized by an off-center nozzle having an inner diameter of 10 mm, supplying a lean methane-air mixture with an equivalence ratio of 0.71 and a mean velocity of 90 m/s, at 573 K and atmospheric pressure. Conductive heat loss is accounted for in the manifold via burner-stabilized flamelets and the subgrid-scale (SGS) turbulencechemistry interaction is modeled via presumed probability density functions. Comparisons between numerical results and measured data show that a considerable improvement in the prediction of temperature is achieved when heat losses are included in the manifold, as compared to the adiabatic one. Additional improvement in the temperature predictions is obtained by incorporating radiative heat losses. Moreover, further enhancements in the LES predictions are achieved by employing SGS models based on transport equations, such as the SGS turbulence kinetic energy equation with dynamic coefficients. While the numerical results display good agreement up to a distance of 4 nozzle diameters downstream of the nozzle exit, the results become less satisfactory along the downstream, suggesting that further improvements in the modeling are required, among which a more accurate model for the SGS variance of progress variable can be relevant.
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M Nooroullahi
2016-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper the ability of different semi dynamic subgrid scale models for large eddy simulation was studied in a challenging test case. The semi dynamic subgrid scale models were examined in this investigation is Selective Structure model, Coherent structure model, Wall Adaptive Large Eddy model. The test case is a simulation of flow over a wall-mounted cube in a channel. The results of these models were compared to structure function model, dynamic models and experimental data at Reynolds number 40000. Results show that these semi dynamic models could improve the ability of numerical simulation in comparison with other models which use a constant coefficient for simulation of subgrid scale viscosity. In addition, these models don't have the instability problems of dynamic models.
Improving sub-grid scale accuracy of boundary features in regional finite-difference models
Panday, Sorab; Langevin, Christian D.
2012-01-01
As an alternative to grid refinement, the concept of a ghost node, which was developed for nested grid applications, has been extended towards improving sub-grid scale accuracy of flow to conduits, wells, rivers or other boundary features that interact with a finite-difference groundwater flow model. The formulation is presented for correcting the regular finite-difference groundwater flow equations for confined and unconfined cases, with or without Newton Raphson linearization of the nonlinearities, to include the Ghost Node Correction (GNC) for location displacement. The correction may be applied on the right-hand side vector for a symmetric finite-difference Picard implementation, or on the left-hand side matrix for an implicit but asymmetric implementation. The finite-difference matrix connectivity structure may be maintained for an implicit implementation by only selecting contributing nodes that are a part of the finite-difference connectivity. Proof of concept example problems are provided to demonstrate the improved accuracy that may be achieved through sub-grid scale corrections using the GNC schemes.
Effects of Implementing Subgrid-Scale Cloud-Radiation Interactions in a Regional Climate Model
Herwehe, J. A.; Alapaty, K.; Otte, T.; Nolte, C. G.
2012-12-01
Interactions between atmospheric radiation, clouds, and aerosols are the most important processes that determine the climate and its variability. In regional scale models, when used at relatively coarse spatial resolutions (e.g., larger than 1 km), convective cumulus clouds need to be parameterized as subgrid-scale clouds. Like many groups, our regional climate modeling group at the EPA uses the Weather Research & Forecasting model (WRF) as a regional climate model (RCM). One of the findings from our RCM studies is that the summertime convective systems simulated by the WRF model are highly energetic, leading to excessive surface precipitation. We also found that the WRF model does not consider the interactions between convective clouds and radiation, thereby omitting an important process that drives the climate. Thus, the subgrid-scale cloudiness associated with convective clouds (from shallow cumuli to thunderstorms) does not exist and radiation passes through the atmosphere nearly unimpeded, potentially leading to overly energetic convection. This also has implications for air quality modeling systems that are dependent upon cloud properties from the WRF model, as the failure to account for subgrid-scale cloudiness can lead to problems such as the underrepresentation of aqueous chemistry processes within clouds and the overprediction of ozone from overactive photolysis. In an effort to advance the climate science of the cloud-aerosol-radiation (CAR) interactions in RCM systems, as a first step we have focused on linking the cumulus clouds with the radiation processes. To this end, our research group has implemented into WRF's Kain-Fritsch (KF) cumulus parameterization a cloudiness formulation that is widely used in global earth system models (e.g., CESM/CAM5). Estimated grid-scale cloudiness and associated condensate are adjusted to account for the subgrid clouds and then passed to WRF's Rapid Radiative Transfer Model - Global (RRTMG) radiation schemes to affect
Baya Toda, Hubert; Cabrit, Olivier; Truffin, Karine; Bruneaux, Gilles; Nicoud, Franck
2014-07-01
Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) in complex geometries and industrial applications like piston engines, gas turbines, or aircraft engines requires the use of advanced subgrid-scale (SGS) models able to take into account the main flow features and the turbulence anisotropy. Keeping this goal in mind, this paper reports a LES-dedicated experiment of a pulsatile hot-jet impinging a flat-plate in the presence of a cold turbulent cross-flow. Unlike commonly used academic test cases, this configuration involves different flow features encountered in complex configurations: shear/rotating regions, stagnation point, wall-turbulence, and the propagation of a vortex ring along the wall. This experiment was also designed with the aim to use quantitative and nonintrusive optical diagnostics such as Particle Image Velocimetry, and to easily perform a LES involving a relatively simple geometry and well-controlled boundary conditions. Hence, two eddy-viscosity-based SGS models are investigated: the dynamic Smagorinsky model [M. Germano, U. Piomelli, P. Moin, and W. Cabot, "A dynamic subgrid-scale eddy viscosity model," Phys. Fluids A 3(7), 1760-1765 (1991)] and the σ-model [F. Nicoud, H. B. Toda, O. Cabrit, S. Bose, and J. Lee, "Using singular values to build a subgrid-scale model for large eddy simulations," Phys. Fluids 23(8), 085106 (2011)]. Both models give similar results during the first phase of the experiment. However, it was found that the dynamic Smagorinsky model could not accurately predict the vortex-ring propagation, while the σ-model provides a better agreement with the experimental measurements. Setting aside the implementation of the dynamic procedure (implemented here in its simplest form, i.e., without averaging over homogeneous directions and with clipping of negative values to ensure numerical stability), it is suggested that the mitigated predictions of the dynamic Smagorinsky model are due to the dynamic constant, which strongly depends on the mesh resolution
Numerical Dissipation and Subgrid Scale Modeling for Separated Flows at Moderate Reynolds Numbers
Cadieux, Francois; Domaradzki, Julian Andrzej
2014-11-01
Flows in rotating machinery, for unmanned and micro aerial vehicles, wind turbines, and propellers consist of different flow regimes. First, a laminar boundary layer is followed by a laminar separation bubble with a shear layer on top of it that experiences transition to turbulence. The separated turbulent flow then reattaches and evolves downstream from a nonequilibrium turbulent boundary layer to an equilibrium one. In previous work, the capability of LES to reduce the resolution requirements down to 1 % of DNS resolution for such flows was demonstrated (Cadieux et al., JFE 136-6). However, under-resolved DNS agreed better with the benchmark DNS than simulations with explicit SGS modeling because numerical dissipation and filtering alone acted as a surrogate SGS dissipation. In the present work numerical viscosity is quantified using a new method proposed recently by Schranner et al. and its effects are analyzed and compared to turbulent eddy viscosities of explicit SGS models. The effect of different SGS models on a simulation of the same flow using a non-dissipative code is also explored. Supported by NSF.
Numerical dissipation vs. subgrid-scale modelling for large eddy simulation
Dairay, Thibault; Lamballais, Eric; Laizet, Sylvain; Vassilicos, John Christos
2017-05-01
This study presents an alternative way to perform large eddy simulation based on a targeted numerical dissipation introduced by the discretization of the viscous term. It is shown that this regularisation technique is equivalent to the use of spectral vanishing viscosity. The flexibility of the method ensures high-order accuracy while controlling the level and spectral features of this purely numerical viscosity. A Pao-like spectral closure based on physical arguments is used to scale this numerical viscosity a priori. It is shown that this way of approaching large eddy simulation is more efficient and accurate than the use of the very popular Smagorinsky model in standard as well as in dynamic version. The main strength of being able to correctly calibrate numerical dissipation is the possibility to regularise the solution at the mesh scale. Thanks to this property, it is shown that the solution can be seen as numerically converged. Conversely, the two versions of the Smagorinsky model are found unable to ensure regularisation while showing a strong sensitivity to numerical errors. The originality of the present approach is that it can be viewed as implicit large eddy simulation, in the sense that the numerical error is the source of artificial dissipation, but also as explicit subgrid-scale modelling, because of the equivalence with spectral viscosity prescribed on a physical basis.
A dynamic subgrid scale model for Large Eddy Simulations based on the Mori-Zwanzig formalism
Parish, Eric J.; Duraisamy, Karthik
2017-11-01
The development of reduced models for complex multiscale problems remains one of the principal challenges in computational physics. The optimal prediction framework of Chorin et al. [1], which is a reformulation of the Mori-Zwanzig (M-Z) formalism of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics, provides a framework for the development of mathematically-derived reduced models of dynamical systems. Several promising models have emerged from the optimal prediction community and have found application in molecular dynamics and turbulent flows. In this work, a new M-Z-based closure model that addresses some of the deficiencies of existing methods is developed. The model is constructed by exploiting similarities between two levels of coarse-graining via the Germano identity of fluid mechanics and by assuming that memory effects have a finite temporal support. The appeal of the proposed model, which will be referred to as the 'dynamic-MZ-τ' model, is that it is parameter-free and has a structural form imposed by the mathematics of the coarse-graining process (rather than the phenomenological assumptions made by the modeler, such as in classical subgrid scale models). To promote the applicability of M-Z models in general, two procedures are presented to compute the resulting model form, helping to bypass the tedious error-prone algebra that has proven to be a hindrance to the construction of M-Z-based models for complex dynamical systems. While the new formulation is applicable to the solution of general partial differential equations, demonstrations are presented in the context of Large Eddy Simulation closures for the Burgers equation, decaying homogeneous turbulence, and turbulent channel flow. The performance of the model and validity of the underlying assumptions are investigated in detail.
Dall'Ozzo, C.; Carissimo, B.; Musson-Genon, L.; Dupont, E.; Milliez, M.
2012-04-01
The study of a whole diurnal cycle of the atmospheric boundary layer evolving through unstable, neutral and stable states is essential to test a model applicable to the dispersion of pollutants. Consequently a LES of a diurnal cycle is performed and compared to observations from the Wangara experiment (Day 33-34). All simulations are done with Code_Saturne [1] an open source CFD code. The synthetic eddy method (SEM) [2] is implemented to initialize turbulence at the beginning of the simulation. Two different subgrid-scale (SGS) models are tested: the Smagorinsky model [3],[4] and the dynamical Wong and Lilly model [5]. The first one, the most classical, uses a Smagorinsky constant Cs to parameterize the dynamical turbulent viscosity while the second one relies on a variable C. Cs remains insensitive to the atmospheric stability level in contrary to the parameter C determined by the Wong and Lilly model. It is based on the error minimization of the difference between the tensors of the resolved turbulent stress (Lij) and the difference of the SGS stress tensors at two different filter scales (Mij). Furthermore, the thermal eddy diffusivity, as opposed to the Smagorinsky model, is calculated with a dynamical Prandtl number determination. The results are confronted to previous simulations from Basu et al. (2008) [6], using a locally averaged scale-dependent dynamic (LASDD) SGS model, and to previous RANS simulations. The accuracy in reproducing the experimental atmospheric conditions is discussed, especially regarding the night time low-level jet formation. In addition, the benefit of the utilization of a coupled radiative model is discussed.
Weiner, Andre; Bothe, Dieter
2017-10-01
This paper presents a novel subgrid scale (SGS) model for simulating convection-dominated species transport at deformable fluid interfaces. One possible application is the Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of mass transfer from rising bubbles. The transport of a dissolving gas along the bubble-liquid interface is determined by two transport phenomena: convection in streamwise direction and diffusion in interface normal direction. The convective transport for technical bubble sizes is several orders of magnitude higher, leading to a thin concentration boundary layer around the bubble. A true DNS, fully resolving hydrodynamic and mass transfer length scales results in infeasible computational costs. Our approach is therefore a DNS of the flow field combined with a SGS model to compute the mass transfer between bubble and liquid. An appropriate model-function is used to compute the numerical fluxes on all cell faces of an interface cell. This allows to predict the mass transfer correctly even if the concentration boundary layer is fully contained in a single cell layer around the interface. We show that the SGS-model reduces the resolution requirements at the interface by a factor of ten and more. The integral flux correction is also applicable to other thin boundary layer problems. Two flow regimes are investigated to validate the model. A semi-analytical solution for creeping flow is used to assess local and global mass transfer quantities. For higher Reynolds numbers ranging from Re = 100 to Re = 460 and Péclet numbers between Pe =104 and Pe = 4 ṡ106 we compare the global Sherwood number against correlations from literature. In terms of accuracy, the predicted mass transfer never deviates more than 4% from the reference values.
Chen, Juhui; Yin, Weijie; Wang, Shuai; Meng, Cheng; Li, Jiuru; Qin, Bai; Yu, Guangbin
2016-07-01
Large-eddy simulation (LES) approach is used for gas turbulence, and eddy dissipation concept (EDC)-sub-grid scale (SGS) reaction model is employed for reactions in small eddies. The simulated gas molar fractions are in better agreement with experimental data with EDC-SGS reaction model. The effect of reactions in small eddies on biomass gasification is emphatically analyzed with EDC-SGS reaction model. The distributions of the SGS reaction rates which represent the reactions in small eddies with particles concentration and temperature are analyzed. The distributions of SGS reaction rates have the similar trend with those of total reactions rates and the values account for about 15% of the total reactions rates. The heterogeneous reaction rates with EDC-SGS reaction model are also improved during the biomass gasification process in bubbling fluidized bed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Development of Near-Wall SGS Model Based on a Localized Low-Dimensional Approach
Juttijudata, Vejapong; Rempfer, Dietmar; Lumley, John
2001-11-01
An alternative way to model sub-grid scale stresses (SGS) in the near-wall region is proposed. The key concept of this approach is that near-wall SGS are computed directly by filtering the instantaneous velocity estimated from the velocity reconstruction of a localized low-dimensional model. A blending function is introduced to blend the near-wall SGS to the core-region SGS calculated from a mixed SGS model. As a preliminary study, a globalized low-dimensional model in a wide channel is considered. The model is constructed by projection of the Navier-Stokes equations onto a three-dimensional vector Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD). The results show considerable promise. Further study of a localized low-dimensional model is being conducted. The issues of filtering procedure and velocity/pressure boundary conditions at the interface (y^+=85) of the localized low-dimensional model are seriously considered. Some results from the localized low-dimensional model are discussed.
Subgrid-scale turbulence in shock-boundary layer flows
Jammalamadaka, Avinash; Jaberi, Farhad
2015-04-01
Data generated by direct numerical simulation (DNS) for a Mach 2.75 zero-pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer interacting with shocks of different intensities are used for a priori analysis of subgrid-scale (SGS) turbulence and various terms in the compressible filtered Navier-Stokes equations. The numerical method used for DNS is based on a hybrid scheme that uses a non-dissipative central scheme in the shock-free turbulent regions and a robust monotonicity-preserving scheme in the shock regions. The behavior of SGS stresses and their components, namely Leonard, Cross and Reynolds components, is examined in various regions of the flow for different shock intensities and filter widths. The backscatter in various regions of the flow is found to be significant only instantaneously, while the ensemble-averaged statistics indicate no significant backscatter. The budgets for the SGS kinetic energy equation are examined for a better understanding of shock-tubulence interactions at the subgrid level and also with the aim of providing useful information for one-equation LES models. A term-by-term analysis of SGS terms in the filtered total energy equation indicate that while each term in this equation is significant by itself, the net contribution by all of them is relatively small. This observation is consistent with our a posteriori analysis.
Zhou, Bowen; Xue, Ming; Zhu, Kefeng
2017-04-01
Compared to the representation of vertical turbulent mixing through various PBL schemes, the treatment of horizontal turbulence mixing in the boundary layer within mesoscale models, with O(10) km horizontal grid spacing, has received much less attention. In mesoscale models, subgrid-scale horizontal fluxes most often adopt the gradient-diffusion assumption. The horizontal mixing coefficients are usually set to a constant, or through the 2D Smagorinsky formulation, or in some cases based on the 1.5-order turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) closure. In this work, horizontal turbulent mixing parameterizations using physically based characteristic velocity and length scales are proposed for the convective boundary layer based on analysis of a well-resolved, wide-domain large-eddy simulation (LES). The proposed schemes involve different levels of sophistication. The first two schemes can be used together with first-order PBL schemes, while the third uses TKE to define its characteristic velocity scale and can be used together with TKE-based higher-order PBL schemes. The current horizontal mixing formulations are also assessed a priori through the filtered LES results to illustrate their limitations. The proposed parameterizations are tested a posteriori in idealized simulations of turbulent dispersion of a passive scalar. Comparisons show improved horizontal dispersion by the proposed schemes, and further demonstrate the weakness of the current schemes.
Accounting for subgrid scale topographic variations in flood propagation modeling using MODFLOW
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Milzow, Christian; Kinzelbach, W.
2010-01-01
To be computationally viable, grid-based spatially distributed hydrological models of large wetlands or floodplains must be set up using relatively large cells (order of hundreds of meters to kilometers). Computational costs are especially high when considering the numerous model runs or model time...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jablonowski, Christiane [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)
2015-12-14
The goals of this project were to (1) assess and quantify the sensitivity and scale-dependency of unresolved subgrid-scale mixing processes in NCAR’s Community Earth System Model (CESM), and (2) to improve the accuracy and skill of forthcoming CESM configurations on modern cubed-sphere and variable-resolution computational grids. The research thereby contributed to the description and quantification of uncertainties in CESM’s dynamical cores and their physics-dynamics interactions.
A Dynamic Subgrid Scale Model for Large Eddy Simulations Based on the Mori-Zwanzig Formalism
Parish, Eric J
2016-01-01
The development of reduced models for complex systems that lack scale separation remains one of the principal challenges in computational physics. The optimal prediction framework of Chorin et al., which is a reformulation of the Mori-Zwanzig (M-Z) formalism of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics, provides a methodology for the development of mathematically-derived reduced models of dynamical systems. Several promising models have emerged from the optimal prediction community and have found application in molecular dynamics and turbulent flows. In this work, a novel M-Z-based closure model that addresses some of the deficiencies of existing methods is developed. The model is constructed by exploiting similarities between two levels of coarse-graining via the Germano identity of fluid mechanics and by assuming that memory effects have a finite temporal support. The appeal of the proposed model, which will be referred to as the `dynamic-$\\tau$' model, is that it is parameter-free and has a structural form imp...
Sub-grid scale models for discontinuous Galerkin methods based on the Mori-Zwanzig formalism
Parish, Eric; Duraisamy, Karthk
2017-11-01
The optimal prediction framework of Chorin et al., which is a reformulation of the Mori-Zwanzig (M-Z) formalism of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics, provides a framework for the development of mathematically-derived closure models. The M-Z formalism provides a methodology to reformulate a high-dimensional Markovian dynamical system as a lower-dimensional, non-Markovian (non-local) system. In this lower-dimensional system, the effects of the unresolved scales on the resolved scales are non-local and appear as a convolution integral. The non-Markovian system is an exact statement of the original dynamics and is used as a starting point for model development. In this work, we investigate the development of M-Z-based closures model within the context of the Variational Multiscale Method (VMS). The method relies on a decomposition of the solution space into two orthogonal subspaces. The impact of the unresolved subspace on the resolved subspace is shown to be non-local in time and is modeled through the M-Z-formalism. The models are applied to hierarchical discontinuous Galerkin discretizations. Commonalities between the M-Z closures and conventional flux schemes are explored. This work was supported in part by AFOSR under the project ''LES Modeling of Non-local effects using Statistical Coarse-graining'' with Dr. Jean-Luc Cambier as the technical monitor.
The subgrid-scale scalar variance under supercritical pressure conditions
Masi, Enrica; Bellan, Josette
2011-08-01
To model the subgrid-scale (SGS) scalar variance under supercritical-pressure conditions, an equation is first derived for it. This equation is considerably more complex than its equivalent for atmospheric-pressure conditions. Using a previously created direct numerical simulation (DNS) database of transitional states obtained for binary-species systems in the context of temporal mixing layers, the activity of terms in this equation is evaluated, and it is found that some of these new terms have magnitude comparable to that of governing terms in the classical equation. Most prominent among these new terms are those expressing the variation of diffusivity with thermodynamic variables and Soret terms having dissipative effects. Since models are not available for these new terms that would enable solving the SGS scalar variance equation, the adopted strategy is to directly model the SGS scalar variance. Two models are investigated for this quantity, both developed in the context of compressible flows. The first one is based on an approximate deconvolution approach and the second one is a gradient-like model which relies on a dynamic procedure using the Leonard term expansion. Both models are successful in reproducing the SGS scalar variance extracted from the filtered DNS database, and moreover, when used in the framework of a probability density function (PDF) approach in conjunction with the β-PDF, they excellently reproduce a filtered quantity which is a function of the scalar. For the dynamic model, the proportionality coefficient spans a small range of values through the layer cross-stream coordinate, boding well for the stability of large eddy simulations using this model.
Grete, P; Schmidt, W; Schleicher, D R G
2016-01-01
Even though compressible plasma turbulence is encountered in many astrophysical phenomena, its effect is often not well understood. Furthermore, direct numerical simulations are typically not able to reach the extreme parameters of these processes. For this reason, large-eddy simulations (LES), which only simulate large and intermediate scales directly, are employed. The smallest, unresolved scales and the interactions between small and large scales are introduced by means of a subgrid-scale (SGS) model. We propose and verify a new set of nonlinear SGS closures for future application as an SGS model in LES of compressible magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). We use 15 simulations (without explicit SGS model) of forced, isotropic, homogeneous turbulence with varying sonic Mach number $\\mathrm{M_s} = 0.2$ to $20$ as reference data for the most extensive \\textit{a priori} tests performed so far in literature. In these tests we explicitly filter the reference data and compare the performance of the new closures against th...
A novel particle SGS model based on differential filter for LES of particle-laden turbulent flows
Park, George; Urzay, Javier; Moin, Parviz
2015-11-01
When performing LES of particle-turbulence interactions, proper modelling of the effect of subgrid-scale (SGS) fluid motions on the particle dynamics is critical for accurate prediction of particle dispersion. Existing particle SGS models recover the missing SGS fluid velocities required in the particle equation of motion by assuming stochastic evolution of SGS fluctuations seen by particles, or by deconvolving the LES solution with an approximate inverse of the filter. In this study, we investigate the use of the differential filter for deconvolution-based particle SGS modelling. Deconvolution with a differential filter is potentially an attractive alternative to the existing Pade-filter based approximate deconvolution techniques. Exact deconvolution can be done trivially with differential filter, because the filter is defined in the inverse-filter form, and the method can be easily extended to unstructured grids. LES of one-way coupled particle-turbulence interaction in isotropic turbulence is performed, and model performance is analysed in terms of particle dispersion statistics. A dynamic procedure for determining the coefficient related to the filter width is under development, and the resulting formulation will be compared to constant coefficient models. This study was supported by DOE PSAAP2 Program.
Evaluation of Leray, LANS and Verstappen regularizations in LES, without and with added SGS modeling
Winckelmans, G.; Bourgeois, N.; Collet, Y.; Duponcheel, M.
2009-11-01
Regularization approaches (Leray, LANS and Verstappen) for the ``restriction in the production of small-scales'' in turbulence simulations have regained some interest in the LES community, because of their potentially appealing properties due to filtering. Their potential is here investigated using the best possible numerics (dealiased pseudo-spectral code) and on simple problems: transition of the Taylor-Green vortex (TGV) and its ensuing turbulence, developed homogeneous isotropic turbulence (HIT). The filtered velocity field is obtained using discrete filters, also of various orders (2 and 6). Diagnostics include energy, enstrophy, and spectra. The performance of the regularizations on the TGV is first evaluated in inviscid mode (96^3 Euler), then in viscous mode at Re=1600 (256^3 DNS and 48^3 LES). Although they delay the production of small scales, none of the regularizations can perform LES when the flow has become turbulent: the small scales are still too energized, and thus added subgrid-scale (SGS) modeling is required. The combination of regularization and SGS modeling (here using the RVM multiscale model) is then also evaluated. Finally, 128^3 LES of fully developed HIT at very high Re is also investigated, providing the asymptotic behavior. In particular, it is found that the regularization helps increase a bit the true inertial subrange obtained with the RVM model.
Evaluation of Leray and Verstappen regularizations in LES, without and with added SGS modeling
Winckelmans, G.; Bourgeois, N.; Collet, Y.; Duponcheel, M.
2010-11-01
Regularization approaches (Leray and Verstappen) for the "restriction in the rate of production of small-scales" in turbulence simulations have regained some interest in the LES community. Their potential is here investigated using the best numerics (dealiased pseudo-spectral code) and on two cases: transition of the Taylor-Green vortex (TGV) and its ensuing turbulence, decaying homogeneous isotropic turbulence (HIT). The filtered velocity fields are obtained using discrete filters, also of various orders. Diagnostics include energy, enstrophy and spectra. The performance of the regularizations is first evaluated on the TGV in inviscid mode (96^3); then in viscous mode: 256^3 DNS at Re=1600, 128^3 LES at Re=5000 (compared to 1024^3 DNS). Although they indeed delay the rate of production of small scales, they cannot sustain LES when the flow has become turbulent: the small scales are still too energized. Added subgrid-scale (SGS) modeling is thus required. The combination of regularization and SGS modeling (here using the RVM multiscale model) is then also evaluated. Finally, 128^3 LES of fully developed HIT at very high Re is also investigated, providing the asymptotic behavior. The regularizations help increase the true inertial subrange obtained with the RVM model.
Subgrid-scale stresses and scalar fluxes constructed by the multi-scale turnover Lagrangian map
AL-Bairmani, Sukaina; Li, Yi; Rosales, Carlos; Xie, Zheng-tong
2017-04-01
The multi-scale turnover Lagrangian map (MTLM) [C. Rosales and C. Meneveau, "Anomalous scaling and intermittency in three-dimensional synthetic turbulence," Phys. Rev. E 78, 016313 (2008)] uses nested multi-scale Lagrangian advection of fluid particles to distort a Gaussian velocity field and, as a result, generate non-Gaussian synthetic velocity fields. Passive scalar fields can be generated with the procedure when the fluid particles carry a scalar property [C. Rosales, "Synthetic three-dimensional turbulent passive scalar fields via the minimal Lagrangian map," Phys. Fluids 23, 075106 (2011)]. The synthetic fields have been shown to possess highly realistic statistics characterizing small scale intermittency, geometrical structures, and vortex dynamics. In this paper, we present a study of the synthetic fields using the filtering approach. This approach, which has not been pursued so far, provides insights on the potential applications of the synthetic fields in large eddy simulations and subgrid-scale (SGS) modelling. The MTLM method is first generalized to model scalar fields produced by an imposed linear mean profile. We then calculate the subgrid-scale stress, SGS scalar flux, SGS scalar variance, as well as related quantities from the synthetic fields. Comparison with direct numerical simulations (DNSs) shows that the synthetic fields reproduce the probability distributions of the SGS energy and scalar dissipation rather well. Related geometrical statistics also display close agreement with DNS results. The synthetic fields slightly under-estimate the mean SGS energy dissipation and slightly over-predict the mean SGS scalar variance dissipation. In general, the synthetic fields tend to slightly under-estimate the probability of large fluctuations for most quantities we have examined. Small scale anisotropy in the scalar field originated from the imposed mean gradient is captured. The sensitivity of the synthetic fields on the input spectra is assessed by
Maulik, Romit
2016-01-01
In this paper, we introduce a relaxation filtering closure approach to account for subgrid scale effects in explicitly filtered large eddy simulations using the concept of anisotropic diffusion. We utilize the Perona-Malik diffusion model and demonstrate its shock capturing ability and spectral performance for solving the Burgers turbulence problem, which is a simplified prototype for more realistic turbulent flows showing the same quadratic nonlinearity. Our numerical assessments present the behavior of various diffusivity functions in conjunction with a detailed sensitivity analysis with respect to the free modeling parameters. In comparison to direct numerical simulation (DNS) and under-resolved DNS results, we find that the proposed closure model is efficient in the prevention of energy accumulation at grid cut-off and is also adept at preventing any possible spurious numerical oscillations due to shock formation under the optimal parameter choices. In contrast to other relaxation filtering approaches, it...
Modeling lightning-NOx chemistry on a sub-grid scale in a global chemical transport model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Gressent
2016-05-01
Full Text Available For the first time, a plume-in-grid approach is implemented in a chemical transport model (CTM to parameterize the effects of the nonlinear reactions occurring within high concentrated NOx plumes from lightning NOx emissions (LNOx in the upper troposphere. It is characterized by a set of parameters including the plume lifetime, the effective reaction rate constant related to NOx–O3 chemical interactions, and the fractions of NOx conversion into HNO3 within the plume. Parameter estimates were made using the Dynamical Simple Model of Atmospheric Chemical Complexity (DSMACC box model, simple plume dispersion simulations, and the 3-D Meso-NH (non-hydrostatic mesoscale atmospheric model. In order to assess the impact of the LNOx plume approach on the NOx and O3 distributions on a large scale, simulations for the year 2006 were performed using the GEOS-Chem global model with a horizontal resolution of 2° × 2.5°. The implementation of the LNOx parameterization implies an NOx and O3 decrease on a large scale over the region characterized by a strong lightning activity (up to 25 and 8 %, respectively, over central Africa in July and a relative increase downwind of LNOx emissions (up to 18 and 2 % for NOx and O3, respectively, in July. The calculated variability in NOx and O3 mixing ratios around the mean value according to the known uncertainties in the parameter estimates is at a maximum over continental tropical regions with ΔNOx [−33.1, +29.7] ppt and ΔO3 [−1.56, +2.16] ppb, in January, and ΔNOx [−14.3, +21] ppt and ΔO3 [−1.18, +1.93] ppb, in July, mainly depending on the determination of the diffusion properties of the atmosphere and the initial NO mixing ratio injected by lightning. This approach allows us (i to reproduce a more realistic lightning NOx chemistry leading to better NOx and O3 distributions on the large scale and (ii to focus on other improvements to reduce remaining uncertainties from processes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bogenschutz, Peter [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Moeng, Chin-Hoh [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)
2015-10-13
The PI’s at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Chin-Hoh Moeng and Peter Bogenschutz, have primarily focused their time on the implementation of the Simplified-Higher Order Turbulence Closure (SHOC; Bogenschutz and Krueger 2013) to the Multi-scale Modeling Framework (MMF) global model and testing of SHOC on deep convective cloud regimes.
A priori study of subgrid-scale features in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection
Dabbagh, F.; Trias, F. X.; Gorobets, A.; Oliva, A.
2017-10-01
At the crossroad between flow topology analysis and turbulence modeling, a priori studies are a reliable tool to understand the underlying physics of the subgrid-scale (SGS) motions in turbulent flows. In this paper, properties of the SGS features in the framework of a large-eddy simulation are studied for a turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection (RBC). To do so, data from direct numerical simulation (DNS) of a turbulent air-filled RBC in a rectangular cavity of aspect ratio unity and π spanwise open-ended distance are used at two Rayleigh numbers R a ∈{1 08,1 010 } [Dabbagh et al., "On the evolution of flow topology in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection," Phys. Fluids 28, 115105 (2016)]. First, DNS at Ra = 108 is used to assess the performance of eddy-viscosity models such as QR, Wall-Adapting Local Eddy-viscosity (WALE), and the recent S3PQR-models proposed by Trias et al. ["Building proper invariants for eddy-viscosity subgrid-scale models," Phys. Fluids 27, 065103 (2015)]. The outcomes imply that the eddy-viscosity modeling smoothes the coarse-grained viscous straining and retrieves fairly well the effect of the kinetic unfiltered scales in order to reproduce the coherent large scales. However, these models fail to approach the exact evolution of the SGS heat flux and are incapable to reproduce well the further dominant rotational enstrophy pertaining to the buoyant production. Afterwards, the key ingredients of eddy-viscosity, νt, and eddy-diffusivity, κt, are calculated a priori and revealed positive prevalent values to maintain a turbulent wind essentially driven by the mean buoyant force at the sidewalls. The topological analysis suggests that the effective turbulent diffusion paradigm and the hypothesis of a constant turbulent Prandtl number are only applicable in the large-scale strain-dominated areas in the bulk. It is shown that the bulk-dominated rotational structures of vortex-stretching (and its synchronous viscous dissipative structures) hold
A priori study of subgrid-scale flux of a passive scalar in isotropic homogeneous turbulence
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Chumakov, Sergei [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2008-01-01
We perform a direct numerical simulation (DNS) of forced homogeneous isotropic turbulence with a passive scalar that is forced by mean gradient. The DNS data are used to study the properties of subgrid-scale flux of a passive scalar in the framework of large eddy simulation (LES), such as alignment trends between the flux, resolved, and subgrid-scale flow structures. It is shown that the direction of the flux is strongly coupled with the subgrid-scale stress axes rather than the resolved flow quantities such as strain, vorticity, or scalar gradient. We derive an approximate transport equation for the subgrid-scale flux of a scalar and look at the relative importance of the terms in the transport equation. A particular form of LES tensor-viscosity model for the scalar flux is investigated, which includes the subgrid-scale stress. Effect of different models for the subgrid-scale stress on the model for the subgrid-scale flux is studied.
Statistical dynamical subgrid-scale parameterizations for geophysical flows
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O' Kane, T J; Frederiksen, J S [Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research, Bureau of Meteorology, 700 Collins St, Docklands, Melbourne, VIC (Australia) and CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Aspendale, VIC (Australia)], E-mail: t.okane@bom.gov.au
2008-12-15
Simulations of both atmospheric and oceanic circulations at given finite resolutions are strongly dependent on the form and strengths of the dynamical subgrid-scale parameterizations (SSPs) and in particular are sensitive to subgrid-scale transient eddies interacting with the retained scale topography and the mean flow. In this paper, we present numerical results for SSPs of the eddy-topographic force, stochastic backscatter, eddy viscosity and eddy-mean field interaction using an inhomogeneous statistical turbulence model based on a quasi-diagonal direct interaction approximation (QDIA). Although the theoretical description on which our model is based is for general barotropic flows, we specifically focus on global atmospheric flows where large-scale Rossby waves are present. We compare and contrast the closure-based results with an important earlier heuristic SSP of the eddy-topographic force, based on maximum entropy or statistical canonical equilibrium arguments, developed specifically for general ocean circulation models (Holloway 1992 J. Phys. Oceanogr. 22 1033-46). Our results demonstrate that where strong zonal flows and Rossby waves are present, such as in the atmosphere, maximum entropy arguments are insufficient to accurately parameterize the subgrid contributions due to eddy-eddy, eddy-topographic and eddy-mean field interactions. We contrast our atmospheric results with findings for the oceans. Our study identifies subgrid-scale interactions that are currently not parameterized in numerical atmospheric climate models, which may lead to systematic defects in the simulated circulations.
Wang, Qing; Zhao, Xinyu; Ihme, Matthias
2017-11-01
Particle-laden turbulent flows are important in numerous industrial applications, such as spray combustion engines, solar energy collectors etc. It is of interests to study this type of flows numerically, especially using large-eddy simulations (LES). However, capturing the turbulence-particle interaction in LES remains challenging due to the insufficient representation of the effect of sub-grid scale (SGS) dispersion. In the present work, a closure technique for the SGS dispersion using regularized deconvolution method (RDM) is assessed. RDM was proposed as the closure for the SGS dispersion in a counterflow spray that is studied numerically using finite difference method on a structured mesh. A presumed form of LES filter is used in the simulations. In the present study, this technique has been extended to finite volume method with an unstructured mesh, where no presumption on the filter form is required. The method is applied to a series of particle-laden turbulent jets. Parametric analyses of the model performance are conducted for flows with different Stokes numbers and Reynolds numbers. The results from LES will be compared against experiments and direct numerical simulations (DNS).
Analytical study on the SGS force around an elliptic Burgers vortex
Kobayashi, Hiromichi
2016-11-01
The subgrid-scale (SGS) force around an elliptic Burgers vortex is analytically examined. In turbulence, there are a lot of vortex-tubes whose cross sections are known to be approximated as the ellipse. In this study, the biaxial elliptic Burgers vortex is produced by adding the compressive and extensional background straining flow to the conventional Burgers vortex. By using a filtering operation, we revealed that the energy transfer by the Reynolds stress term applying the Bardina model exhibits negative correlation to that by the true SGS stress term. However, it has been recently reported that a combination of the Bardina Reynolds term and the eddy viscosity model gives good performance even for the coarse LES of turbulent channel flows. In order to understand that, we discuss some SGS forces: by the true SGS stress tensor, by the eddy viscosity model, by the modified Leonard term and by the Bardina Reynolds term. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 26420122.
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Larson, Vincent [Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States)
2016-11-25
The Multiscale Modeling Framework (MMF) embeds a cloud-resolving model in each grid column of a General Circulation Model (GCM). A MMF model does not need to use a deep convective parameterization, and thereby dispenses with the uncertainties in such parameterizations. However, MMF models grossly under-resolve shallow boundary-layer clouds, and hence those clouds may still benefit from parameterization. In this grant, we successfully created a climate model that embeds a cloud parameterization (“CLUBB”) within a MMF model. This involved interfacing CLUBB’s clouds with microphysics and reducing computational cost. We have evaluated the resulting simulated clouds and precipitation with satellite observations. The chief benefit of the project is to provide a MMF model that has an improved representation of clouds and that provides improved simulations of precipitation.
Shrestha, R. K.; Arora, V.; Melton, J. R.
2014-12-01
Vegetation is a dynamic component of the earth system that affects weather and climate at hourly to centennial time scales. However, most current dynamic vegetation models do not explicitly simulate competition among Plant Functional Types (PFTs). Here we use the coupled CLASS-CTEM model (Canadian Land Surface Scheme coupled to Canadian Terrestrial Ecosystem Model) to explicitly simulate competition between nine PFTs for available space using a modified version of Lotka - Volterra (LV) predator-prey equations. The nine PFTs include evergreen and deciduous needleleaf trees, evergreen and cold and drought deciduous broadleaf trees and C3 and C4 crops and grasses. The CLASS-CTEM model can be configured either in the composite (single tile) or the mosaic (multiple tiles) mode. Our results show that the model is sensitive to the chosen mode. The simulated fractional coverage of PFTs are similar between two approaches at some locations whereas at the other locations the two approaches yield different results. The simulated fractional coverage of PFTs are also compared with the available observations-based estimates. Simulated results at selected locations across the globe show that the model is able to realistically simulate the fractional coverage of tree and grass PFTs and the bare fraction, as well as the fractional coverage of individual tree and grass PFTs. Along with the observed patterns of vegetation distribution the CLASS-CTEM modelling framework is also able to simulate realistic succession patterns. Some differences remain and these are attributed to the coarse spatial resolution of the model (~3.75°) and the limited number of PFTs represented in the model.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Randall, David A. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Atmospheric Science
2015-11-01
We proposed to implement, test, and evaluate recently developed turbulence parameterizations, using a wide variety of methods and modeling frameworks together with observations including ARM data. We have successfully tested three different turbulence parameterizations in versions of the Community Atmosphere Model: CLUBB, SHOC, and IPHOC. All three produce significant improvements in the simulated climate. CLUBB will be used in CAM6, and also in ACME. SHOC is being tested in the NCEP forecast model. In addition, we have achieved a better understanding of the strengths and limitations of the PDF-based parameterizations of turbulence and convection.
Importance of subgrid-scale parameterization in numerical simulations of lake circulation
Wang, Yongqi
Two subgrid-scale modeling techniques--Smagorinsky's postulation for the horizontal eddy viscosity and the Mellor-Yamada level-2 model for the vertical eddy viscosity--are applied as turbulence closure conditions to numerical simulations of resolved-scale baroclinic lake circulations. The use of the total variation diminishing (TVD) technique in the numerical treatment of the advection terms in the governing equations depresses numerical diffusion to an acceptably low level and makes stable numerical performances possible with small eddy viscosities resulting from the turbulence closure parameterizations. The results show that, with regard to the effect of an external wind stress, the vertical turbulent mixing is mainly restricted to the topmost epilimnion with the order of magnitude for the vertical eddy viscosity of 10 -3 m 2 s -1, whilst the horizontal turbulent mixing may reach a somewhat deeper zone with an order of magnitude for the horizontal eddy viscosity of 0.1-1 m 2 s -1. Their spatial and temporal variations and influences on numerical results are significant. A comparison with prescribed constant eddy viscosities clearly shows the importance of subgrid-scale closures on resolved-scale flows in the lake circulation simulation. A predetermination of the eddy viscosities is inappropriate and should be abandoned. Their values must be determined by suitable subgrid-scale closure techniques.
Assessment of zero-equation SGS models for simulating indoor environment
Taghinia, Javad; Rahman, Md Mizanur; Tse, Tim K. T.
2016-12-01
The understanding of air-flow in enclosed spaces plays a key role to designing ventilation systems and indoor environment. The computational fluid dynamics aspects dictate that the large eddy simulation (LES) offers a subtle means to analyze complex flows with recirculation and streamline curvature effects, providing more robust and accurate details than those of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes simulations. This work assesses the performance of two zero-equation sub-grid scale models: the Rahman-Agarwal-Siikonen-Taghinia (RAST) model with a single grid-filter and the dynamic Smagorinsky model with grid-filter and test-filter scales. This in turn allows a cross-comparison of the effect of two different LES methods in simulating indoor air-flows with forced and mixed (natural + forced) convection. A better performance against experiments is indicated with the RAST model in wall-bounded non-equilibrium indoor air-flows; this is due to its sensitivity toward both the shear and vorticity parameters.
Wong, M.; Ovchinnikov, M.; Wang, M.; Larson, V. E.
2014-12-01
In current climate models, the model resolution is too coarse to explicitly resolve deep convective systems. Parameterization schemes are therefore needed to represent the physical processes at the sub-grid scale. Recently, an approach based on assumed probability density functions (PDFs) has been developed to help unify the various parameterization schemes used in current global models. In particular, a unified parameterization scheme called the Cloud Layers Unified By Binormals (CLUBB) scheme has been developed and tested successfully for shallow boundary-layer clouds. CLUBB's implementation in the Community Atmosphere Model, version 5 (CAM5) is also being extended to treat deep convection cases, but parameterizing subgrid-scale vertical transport of hydrometeors remains a challenge. To investigate the roots of the problem and possible solutions, we generate a high-resolution benchmark simulation of a deep convection case using a cloud-resolving model (CRM) called System for Atmospheric Modeling (SAM). We use the high-resolution 3D CRM results to assess the prognostic and diagnostic higher-order moments in CLUBB that are in relation to the subgrid-scale transport of hydrometeors. We also analyze the heat and moisture budgets in terms of CLUBB variables from the SAM benchmark simulation. The results from this study will be used to devise a better representation of vertical subgrid-scale transport of hydrometeors by utilizing the sub-grid variability information from CLUBB.
Near-wall Behavior of a Scale Self-Recognition Mixed SGS Model
Kihara, Mizuki; Minamoto, Yuki; Naka, Yoshitsugu; Fukushima, Naoya; Shimura, Masayasu; Tanahashi, Mamoru
2016-11-01
A Scale Self-Recognition Mixed SGS Model was developed in terms of GS-SGS energy transfer in homogenius isotropic turbulence by Fukushima et al. (2015). In the present research, the near-wall characteristics of the Smagorinsky coefficient, CS are investigated in terms of GS-SGS energy transfer by analyzing DNS data of turbulent channel flows at Reτ = 400, 800 and 1270. CS is dependent on grid anisotropy, and this cause dependences of CS on Reτ . It is revealed that CS obtained directly from the DNS data is independent of Reτ and dependent on only dimensionless wall distance, y+ and filter-width to Kolmogorov scale ratio corrected by f, f . Δ / η , when the grid anisotropy is isolated from CS by using the correction function f proposed by Scotti et al. (1993). The contributions of Leonard, cross and Reynolds terms to total energy transfer are also independent of Reτ and dependent on only y+ and f . Δ / η in the near-wall region. These results suggest that CS can be determined dynamically from f . Δ / η in the wall turbulence if η is sufficiently predicted from the grid scale quantities.
Evapotranspiration and cloud variability at regional sub-grid scales
Vila-Guerau de Arellano, Jordi; Sikma, Martin; Pedruzo-Bagazgoitia, Xabier; van Heerwaarden, Chiel; Hartogensis, Oscar; Ouwersloot, Huug
2017-04-01
In regional and global models uncertainties arise due to our incomplete understanding of the coupling between biochemical and physical processes. Representing their impact depends on our ability to calculate these processes using physically sound parameterizations, since they are unresolved at scales smaller than the grid size. More specifically over land, the coupling between evapotranspiration, turbulent transport of heat and moisture, and clouds lacks a combined representation to take these sub-grid scales interactions into account. Our approach is based on understanding how radiation, surface exchange, turbulent transport and moist convection are interacting from the leaf- to the cloud scale. We therefore place special emphasis on plant stomatal aperture as the main regulator of CO2-assimilation and water transpiration, a key source of moisture source to the atmosphere. Plant functionality is critically modulated by interactions with atmospheric conditions occurring at very short spatiotemporal scales such as cloud radiation perturbations or water vapour turbulent fluctuations. By explicitly resolving these processes, the LES (large-eddy simulation) technique is enabling us to characterize and better understand the interactions between canopies and the local atmosphere. This includes the adaption time of vegetation to rapid changes in atmospheric conditions driven by turbulence or the presence of cumulus clouds. Our LES experiments are based on explicitly coupling the diurnal atmospheric dynamics to a plant physiology model. Our general hypothesis is that different partitioning of direct and diffuse radiation leads to different responses of the vegetation. As a result there are changes in the water use efficiencies and shifts in the partitioning of sensible and latent heat fluxes under the presence of clouds. Our presentation is as follows. First, we discuss the ability of LES to reproduce the surface energy balance including photosynthesis and CO2 soil
Vlaykov, Dimitar G; Schmidt, Wolfram; Schleicher, Dominik R G
2016-01-01
Compressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence is ubiquitous in astrophysical phenomena ranging from the intergalactic to the stellar scales. In studying them, numerical simulations are nearly inescapable, due to the large degree of nonlinearity involved. However the dynamical ranges of these phenomena are much larger than what is computationally accessible. In large eddy simulations (LES), the resulting limited resolution effects are addressed explicitly by introducing to the equations of motion additional terms associated with the unresolved, subgrid-scale (SGS) dynamics. This renders the system unclosed. We derive a set of nonlinear structural closures for the ideal MHD LES equations with particular emphasis on the effects of compressibility. The closures are based on a gradient expansion of the finite-resolution operator (W.K. Yeo CUP 1993, ed. Galperin & Orszag) and require no assumptions about the nature of the flow or magnetic field. Thus the scope of their applicability ranges from the sub- to ...
A dynamic similarity model for large eddy simulation of turbulent combustion
Jaberi, F. A.; James, S.
1998-07-01
A dynamic similarity subgrid-scale (SGS) unmixedness model is presented for large eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent reacting flows. The model is assessed both a priori and a posteriori via data obtained by direct numerical simulations (DNS) of homogeneous compressible turbulent flows involving a single step Arrhenius reaction. The results of a priori analysis indicate that the local values of the SGS unmixedness are accurately predicted by the model. A posteriori results also indicate that the statistics of the resolved temperature and scalars as obtained by LES compare favorably with DNS values.
Assessment of the t-model as a SGS model for LES of high-Re turbulent flows
Chandy, Abhilash; Frankel, Steven
2008-11-01
The recently developed optimal prediction-based t-model (PNAS, 2007) is quantitatively assessed as a SGS turbulence model for LES of decaying homogeneous turbulence (DHT) and transition to turbulence for the Taylor-Green vortex (TGV) through comparisons to laboratory measurements and DNS. The t-model is based on the idea the motion of a vortex at one scale is influenced by the past history of motion of vortices in other scales (``long memory'' effects). t-model predictions are compared to the classic non-dynamic Smagorinsky model. Regarding the t-model, this work represents its first application to decaying turbulence with comparison to active-grid-generated decaying turbulence measurements of Kang et al. (J. Fluid Mech., 2003) at Reλ 720 and Re=3000 DNS of transition to turbulence in the TGV of Drikakis et al. (J. Turb., 2007). For DHT non-dynamic Smagorinsky is in excellent agreement with measurements for t.k.e. but higher-order moments show slight discrepancies and for TGV, energy decay rates agree reasonably well with DNS. Regarding the t-model, predictions are worse than Smagorinsky at the same grid resolution due to the insufficient resolution of small scales. Improved results are obtained at higher resolutions, but are still not as good as Smagorinsky.
Convective kinetic energy equation under the mass-flux subgrid-scale parameterization
Yano, Jun-Ichi
2015-03-01
The present paper originally derives the convective kinetic energy equation under mass-flux subgrid-scale parameterization in a formal manner based on the segmentally-constant approximation (SCA). Though this equation is long since presented by Arakawa and Schubert (1974), a formal derivation is not known in the literature. The derivation of this formulation is of increasing interests in recent years due to the fact that it can explain basic aspects of the convective dynamics such as discharge-recharge and transition from shallow to deep convection. The derivation is presented in two manners: (i) for the case that only the vertical component of the velocity is considered and (ii) the case that both the horizontal and vertical components are considered. The equation reduces to the same form as originally presented by Arakwa and Schubert in both cases, but with the energy dissipation term defined differently. In both cases, nevertheless, the energy "dissipation" (loss) term consists of the three principal contributions: (i) entrainment-detrainment, (ii) outflow from top of convection, and (iii) pressure effects. Additionally, inflow from the bottom of convection contributing to a growth of convection is also formally counted as a part of the dissipation term. The eddy dissipation is also included for a completeness. The order-of-magnitude analysis shows that the convective kinetic energy "dissipation" is dominated by the pressure effects, and it may be approximately described by Rayleigh damping with a constant time scale of the order of 102-103 s. The conclusion is also supported by a supplementary analysis of a cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulation. The Appendix discusses how the loss term ("dissipation") of the convective kinetic energy is qualitatively different from the conventional eddy-dissipation process found in turbulent flows.
Kim, SeHyun; Kim, Hyun Mee
2017-05-01
The ensemble prediction system (EPS) is widely used in research and at operation center because it can represent the uncertainty of predicted atmospheric state and provide information of probabilities. The high-resolution (so-called "convection-permitting") limited area EPS can represent the convection and turbulence related to precipitation phenomena in more detail, but it is also much sensitive to small-scale or sub-grid scale processes. The convection and turbulence are represented using physical processes in the model and model errors occur due to sub-grid scale processes that were not resolved. This study examined the effect of considering sub-grid scale uncertainties using the high-resolution limited area EPS of the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA). The developed EPS has horizontal resolution of 3 km and 12 ensemble members. The initial and boundary conditions were provided by the global model. The Random Parameters (RP) scheme was used to represent sub-grid scale uncertainties. The EPSs with and without the RP scheme were developed and the results were compared. During the one month period of July, 2013, a significant difference was shown in the spread of 1.5 m temperature and the Root Mean Square Error and spread of 10 m zonal wind due to application of the RP scheme. For precipitation forecast, the precipitation tended to be overestimated relative to the observation when the RP scheme was applied. Moreover, the forecast became more accurate for heavy precipitations and the longer forecast lead times. For two heavy rainfall cases occurred during the research period, the higher Equitable Threat Score was observed for heavy precipitations in the system with the RP scheme compared to the one without, demonstrating consistency with the statistical results for the research period. Therefore, the predictability for heavy precipitation phenomena that affected the Korean Peninsula increases if the RP scheme is used to consider sub-grid scale uncertainties
Xiao, Heng; Gustafson, William I.; Hagos, Samson M.; Wu, Chien-Ming; Wan, Hui
2015-06-01
To better understand the behavior of quasi-equilibrium-based convection parameterizations at higher resolution, we use a diagnostic framework to examine the resolution-dependence of subgrid-scale vertical transport of moist static energy as parameterized by the Zhang-McFarlane convection parameterization (ZM). Grid-scale input to ZM is supplied by coarsening output from cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulations onto subdomains ranging in size from 8 × 8 to 256 × 256 km2. Then the ZM-based parameterization of vertical transport of moist static energy for scales smaller than the subdomain size (w'h'>¯ZM) are compared to those directly calculated from the CRM simulations (w'h'>¯CRM) for different subdomain sizes. The ensemble mean w'h'>¯CRM decreases by more than half as the subdomain size decreases from 128 to 8 km across while w'h'>¯ZM decreases with subdomain size only for strong convection cases and increases for weaker cases. The resolution dependence of w'h'>¯ZM is determined by the positive-definite grid-scale tendency of convective available potential energy (CAPE) in the convective quasi-equilibrium (QE) closure. Further analysis shows the actual grid-scale tendency of CAPE (before taking the positive definite value) and w'h'>¯CRM behave very similarly as the subdomain size changes because they are both tied to grid-scale advective tendencies. We can improve the resolution dependence of w'h'>¯ZM significantly by averaging the grid-scale tendency of CAPE over an appropriately large area surrounding each subdomain before taking its positive definite value. Even though the ensemble mean w'h'>¯CRM decreases with increasing resolution, its variability increases dramatically. w'h'>¯ZM cannot capture such increase in the variability, suggesting the need for stochastic treatment of convection at relatively high spatial resolution (8 or 16 km).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vlaykov, Dimitar G., E-mail: Dimitar.Vlaykov@ds.mpg.de [Institut für Astrophysik, Universität Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut für Dynamik und Selbstorganisation, Am Faßberg 17, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Grete, Philipp [Institut für Astrophysik, Universität Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Schmidt, Wolfram [Hamburger Sternwarte, Universität Hamburg, Gojenbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg (Germany); Schleicher, Dominik R. G. [Departamento de Astronomía, Facultad Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Concepción, Av. Esteban Iturra s/n Barrio Universitario, Casilla 160-C (Chile)
2016-06-15
Compressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence is ubiquitous in astrophysical phenomena ranging from the intergalactic to the stellar scales. In studying them, numerical simulations are nearly inescapable, due to the large degree of nonlinearity involved. However, the dynamical ranges of these phenomena are much larger than what is computationally accessible. In large eddy simulations (LESs), the resulting limited resolution effects are addressed explicitly by introducing to the equations of motion additional terms associated with the unresolved, subgrid-scale dynamics. This renders the system unclosed. We derive a set of nonlinear structural closures for the ideal MHD LES equations with particular emphasis on the effects of compressibility. The closures are based on a gradient expansion of the finite-resolution operator [W. K. Yeo (CUP, 1993)] and require no assumptions about the nature of the flow or magnetic field. Thus, the scope of their applicability ranges from the sub- to the hyper-sonic and -Alfvénic regimes. The closures support spectral energy cascades both up and down-scale, as well as direct transfer between kinetic and magnetic resolved and unresolved energy budgets. They implicitly take into account the local geometry, and in particular, the anisotropy of the flow. Their properties are a priori validated in Paper II [P. Grete et al., Phys. Plasmas 23, 062317 (2016)] against alternative closures available in the literature with respect to a wide range of simulation data of homogeneous and isotropic turbulence.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. Meftah
2010-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper, direct numerical simulation databases have been generated to analyze the impact of the propagation of a spray flame on several subgrid scales (SGS models dedicated to the closure of the transport equations of the subgrid fluctuations of the mixture fraction Z and the progress variable c. Computations have been carried out starting from a previous inert database [22] where a cold flame has been ignited in the center of the mixture when the droplet segregation and evaporation rate were at their highest levels. First, a RANS analysis has shown a brutal increase of the mixture fraction fluctuations due to the fuel consumption by the flame. Indeed, local vapour mass fraction reaches then a minimum value, far from the saturation level. It leads to a strong increase of the evaporation rate, which is also accompanied by a diminution of the oxidiser level. In a second part of this paper, a detailed evaluation of the subgrid models allowing to close the variance and the dissipation rates of the mixture fraction and the progress variable has been carried out. Models that have been selected for their efficiency in inert flows have shown a very good behaviour in the framework of reactive flows.
On the refinement of the rotation rate based Smagorinsky model using velocity field gradients
Ghorbaniasl, Ghader; Ricks, Nathan; Siozos-Rousoulis, Leonidas; Degrez, Gérard; Contino, Francesco
2017-10-01
In this paper, a gradient-based refinement of the rotation rate-based Smagorinsky (RoSM) subgrid scale (SGS) model is presented. The refined model satisfies the Galilean invariance condition generally, without any assumptions. The suggested model retains the advantages offered by the original RoSM, thus being simple and efficient. It provides a Smagorinsky model constant that is always positive, with low fluctuations in space and time, without the need for any numerical stability control algorithms. The validity of the proposed SGS model is shown through three test cases, namely, a turbulent channel flow, subcritical flow past a stationary cylinder, and a spatially developing free round jet. The refined RoSM provides comparable results with the dynamic Smagorinsky, while matching well to reference data. The refined RoSM is shown to be computationally efficient, being 20% faster than the dynamic Smagorinsky model.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. R. Melton
2014-02-01
Full Text Available Terrestrial ecosystem models commonly represent vegetation in terms of plant functional types (PFTs and use their vegetation attributes in calculations of the energy and water balance as well as to investigate the terrestrial carbon cycle. Sub-grid scale variability of PFTs in these models is represented using different approaches with the "composite" and "mosaic" approaches being the two end-members. The impact of these two approaches on the global carbon balance has been investigated with the Canadian Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (CTEM v 1.2 coupled to the Canadian Land Surface Scheme (CLASS v 3.6. In the composite (single-tile approach, the vegetation attributes of different PFTs present in a grid cell are aggregated and used in calculations to determine the resulting physical environmental conditions (soil moisture, soil temperature, etc. that are common to all PFTs. In the mosaic (multi-tile approach, energy and water balance calculations are performed separately for each PFT tile and each tile's physical land surface environmental conditions evolve independently. Pre-industrial equilibrium CLASS-CTEM simulations yield global totals of vegetation biomass, net primary productivity, and soil carbon that compare reasonably well with observation-based estimates and differ by less than 5% between the mosaic and composite configurations. However, on a regional scale the two approaches can differ by > 30%, especially in areas with high heterogeneity in land cover. Simulations over the historical period (1959–2005 show different responses to evolving climate and carbon dioxide concentrations from the two approaches. The cumulative global terrestrial carbon sink estimated over the 1959–2005 period (excluding land use change (LUC effects differs by around 5% between the two approaches (96.3 and 101.3 Pg, for the mosaic and composite approaches, respectively and compares well with the observation-based estimate of 82.2 ± 35 Pg C over the same
Lagrangian filtered density function for LES-based stochastic modelling of turbulent dispersed flows
Innocenti, A; Chibbaro, S
2016-01-01
The Eulerian-Lagrangian approach based on Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) is one of the most promising and viable numerical tools to study turbulent dispersed flows when the computational cost of Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) becomes too expensive. The applicability of this approach is however limited if the effects of the Sub-Grid Scales (SGS) of the flow on particle dynamics are neglected. In this paper, we propose to take these effects into account by means of a Lagrangian stochastic SGS model for the equations of particle motion. The model extends to particle-laden flows the velocity-filtered density function method originally developed for reactive flows. The underlying filtered density function is simulated through a Lagrangian Monte Carlo procedure that solves for a set of Stochastic Differential Equations (SDEs) along individual particle trajectories. The resulting model is tested for the reference case of turbulent channel flow, using a hybrid algorithm in which the fluid velocity field is provided b...
Medvedev, A. S.; Yigit, E.; Kutepov, A.; Feofilov, A.
2011-12-01
Atmospheric fluctuations produced by GWs are a substantial source of momentum and energy in the thermosphere (Yigit et al., 2009). These fluctuations also affect radiative transfer and, ultimately, the radiative heating/cooling rates. Recently, Kutepov et al. (2007) developed a methodology to account for radiative effects of subgrid-scale GWs not captured by general circulation models (GCMs). It has been extended by Kutepov et al (2011) to account not only for wave-induced variations of temperature, but also of CO2 and atomic oxygen. It was shown that these GWs can cause additional cooling of up to 3 K/day around mesopause. A key parameter for calculating the additional cooling is the temperature variance associated with GWs, which is a subproduct of conventional GW schemes. In this study, the parameterization of Kutepov et al. (2011) has been implemented into a 3-D comprehensive GCM that incorporates the effects of unresolved GWs via the extended nonlinear scheme of Yigit et al. (2008). Simulated net effects of the additional radiative CO2 cooling on the temperature and wind in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere are presented and discussed for solstice conditions. 1. Kutepov, A. A, A. G. Feofilov, A. S. Medvedev, A. W. A. Pauldrach, and P. Hartogh (2007), Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L24807, doi:10.1029/2007GL032392. 2. Kutepov, A. A., A. G. Feofilov, A. S. Medvedev, U. Berger, and M. Kaufmann (2011), submitted to Geophys. Res. Letts. 3. Yigit, E., A. D. Aylward, and A. S. Medvedev (2008), J. Geophys. Res., 113, D19106, doi:10.1029/2008JD010135. 4. Yigit, E., A. S. Medvedev, A. D. Aylward, P. Hartogh, and M. J. Harris (2009), J. Geophys. Res., 114, D07101, doi:10.1029/2008JD011132.
Structure and modeling of turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Novikov, E.A. [Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)
1995-12-31
The {open_quotes}vortex strings{close_quotes} scale l{sub s} {approximately} LRe{sup -3/10} (L-external scale, Re - Reynolds number) is suggested as a grid scale for the large-eddy simulation. Various aspects of the structure of turbulence and subgrid modeling are described in terms of conditional averaging, Markov processes with dependent increments and infinitely divisible distributions. The major request from the energy, naval, aerospace and environmental engineering communities to the theory of turbulence is to reduce the enormous number of degrees of freedom in turbulent flows to a level manageable by computer simulations. The vast majority of these degrees of freedom is in the small-scale motion. The study of the structure of turbulence provides a basis for subgrid-scale (SGS) models, which are necessary for the large-eddy simulations (LES).
Final Report: Systematic Development of a Subgrid Scaling Framework to Improve Land Simulation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dickinson, Robert Earl [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)
2016-07-11
We carried out research to development improvements of the land component of climate models and to understand the role of land in climate variability and change. A highlight was the development of a 3D canopy radiation model. More than a dozen publications resulted.
Parameterization for subgrid-scale motion of ice-shelf calving fronts
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. Albrecht
2011-01-01
Full Text Available A parameterization for the motion of ice-shelf fronts on a Cartesian grid in finite-difference land-ice models is presented. The scheme prevents artificial thinning of the ice shelf at its edge, which occurs due to the finite resolution of the model. The intuitive numerical implementation diminishes numerical dispersion at the ice front and enables the application of physical boundary conditions to improve the calculation of stress and velocity fields throughout the ice-sheet-shelf system. Numerical properties of this subgrid modification are assessed in the Potsdam Parallel Ice Sheet Model (PISM-PIK for different geometries in one and two horizontal dimensions and are verified against an analytical solution in a flow-line setup.
Design and fabrication of SGS plutonium standards
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hsue, S.T.; Simmonds, S.M.; Longmire, V.L.; Long, S.M.
1991-01-01
This paper describes our experience of fabricating four sets of plutonium segmented gamma scanner (SGS) can standards. The fabrication involves careful planning, meticulous execution in weighing the plutonium oxide while minimizing contamination, chemical analyses by three different national laboratories to get accurate and independent plutonium concentrations, vertical scanning to assure mixing of the plutonium and the diluent, and finally the nondestructive verification measurement. By following these steps, we successfully fabricated 4 sets or 20 SGS can standards. 4 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.
Large Eddy Simulation of an SD7003 Airfoil: Effects of Reynolds number and Subgrid-scale modeling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sarlak Chivaee, Hamid
2017-01-01
This paper presents results of a series of numerical simulations in order to study aerodynamic characteristics of the low Reynolds number Selig-Donovan airfoil, SD7003. Large Eddy Simulation (LES) technique is used for all computations at chord-based Reynolds numbers 10,000, 24,000 and 60...
Ma, Yulong; Liu, Heping
2017-12-01
Atmospheric flow over complex terrain, particularly recirculation flows, greatly influences wind-turbine siting, forest-fire behaviour, and trace-gas and pollutant dispersion. However, there is a large uncertainty in the simulation of flow over complex topography, which is attributable to the type of turbulence model, the subgrid-scale (SGS) turbulence parametrization, terrain-following coordinates, and numerical errors in finite-difference methods. Here, we upgrade the large-eddy simulation module within the Weather Research and Forecasting model by incorporating the immersed-boundary method into the module to improve simulations of the flow and recirculation over complex terrain. Simulations over the Bolund Hill indicate improved mean absolute speed-up errors with respect to previous studies, as well an improved simulation of the recirculation zone behind the escarpment of the hill. With regard to the SGS parametrization, the Lagrangian-averaged scale-dependent Smagorinsky model performs better than the classic Smagorinsky model in reproducing both velocity and turbulent kinetic energy. A finer grid resolution also improves the strength of the recirculation in flow simulations, with a higher horizontal grid resolution improving simulations just behind the escarpment, and a higher vertical grid resolution improving results on the lee side of the hill. Our modelling approach has broad applications for the simulation of atmospheric flows over complex topography.
Ma, Yulong; Liu, Heping
2017-07-01
Atmospheric flow over complex terrain, particularly recirculation flows, greatly influences wind-turbine siting, forest-fire behaviour, and trace-gas and pollutant dispersion. However, there is a large uncertainty in the simulation of flow over complex topography, which is attributable to the type of turbulence model, the subgrid-scale (SGS) turbulence parametrization, terrain-following coordinates, and numerical errors in finite-difference methods. Here, we upgrade the large-eddy simulation module within the Weather Research and Forecasting model by incorporating the immersed-boundary method into the module to improve simulations of the flow and recirculation over complex terrain. Simulations over the Bolund Hill indicate improved mean absolute speed-up errors with respect to previous studies, as well an improved simulation of the recirculation zone behind the escarpment of the hill. With regard to the SGS parametrization, the Lagrangian-averaged scale-dependent Smagorinsky model performs better than the classic Smagorinsky model in reproducing both velocity and turbulent kinetic energy. A finer grid resolution also improves the strength of the recirculation in flow simulations, with a higher horizontal grid resolution improving simulations just behind the escarpment, and a higher vertical grid resolution improving results on the lee side of the hill. Our modelling approach has broad applications for the simulation of atmospheric flows over complex topography.
Applying an economical scale-aware PDF-based turbulence closure model in NOAA NCEP GCMs.
Krueger, S. K.; Belochitski, A.; Moorthi, S.; Bogenschutz, P.; Pincus, R.
2015-12-01
A novel unified representation of sub-grid scale (SGS) turbulence, cloudiness, and shallow convection is being implemented into the NOAA NCEP Global Forecasting System (GFS) general circulation model. The approach, known as Simplified High Order Closure (SHOC), is based on predicting a joint PDF of SGS thermodynamic variables and vertical velocity and using it to diagnose turbulent diffusion coefficients, SGS fluxes, condensation and cloudiness. Unlike other similar methods, only one new prognostic variable, turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), needs to be intoduced, making the technique computationally efficient.SHOC code was adopted for a global model environment from its origins in a cloud resolving model, and incorporated into NCEP GFS. SHOC was first tested in a non-interactive mode, a configuration where SHOC receives inputs from the host model, but its outputs are not returned to the GFS. In this configuration: a) SGS TKE values produced by GFS SHOC are consistent with those produced by SHOC in a CRM, b) SGS TKE in GFS SHOC exhibits a well defined diurnal cycle, c) there's enhanced boundary layer turbulence in the subtropical stratocumulus and tropical transition-to-cumulus areas d) buoyancy flux diagnosed from the assumed PDF is consistent with independently calculated Brunt-Vaisala frequency in identifying stable and unstable regions.Next, SHOC was coupled to GFS, namely turbulent diffusion coefficients computed by SHOC are now used in place of those currently produced by the GFS boundary layer and shallow convection schemes (Han and Pan, 2011), as well as condensation and cloud fraction diagnosed from the SGS PDF replace those calculated in the current large-scale cloudines scheme (Zhao and Carr, 1997). Ongoing activities consist of debugging the fully coupled GFS/SHOC.Future work will consist of evaluating model performance and tuning the physics if necessary, by performing medium-range NWP forecasts with prescribed initial conditions, and AMIP-type climate
2015-07-06
Grimmond, 2015: Proc. 9th International Conference on Urban Climate , Paris, France. Anderson W, Li Q, Bou-Zeid E, 2014: Proc. of American...represen- tative information is known about the macroscale attributes of these coher- ent motions, we have developed a sim- ple, semi -empirical model to...dust from arid landscapes on the Llano Estacado in west Texas and eastern New Mexico. • Under Review: National Science Foundation, Fluid Dynamics Program
Khani, Sina; Porté-Agel, Fernando
2017-12-01
The performance of the modulated-gradient subgrid-scale (SGS) model is investigated using large-eddy simulation (LES) of the neutral atmospheric boundary layer within the weather research and forecasting model. Since the model includes a finite-difference scheme for spatial derivatives, the discretization errors may affect the simulation results. We focus here on understanding the effects of finite-difference schemes on the momentum balance and the mean velocity distribution, and the requirement (or not) of the ad hoc canopy model. We find that, unlike the Smagorinsky and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) models, the calculated mean velocity and vertical shear using the modulated-gradient model, are in good agreement with Monin-Obukhov similarity theory, without the need for an extra near-wall canopy model. The structure of the near-wall turbulent eddies is better resolved using the modulated-gradient model in comparison with the classical Smagorinsky and TKE models, which are too dissipative and yield unrealistic smoothing of the smallest resolved scales. Moreover, the SGS fluxes obtained from the modulated-gradient model are much smaller near the wall in comparison with those obtained from the regular Smagorinsky and TKE models. The apparent inability of the LES model in reproducing the mean streamwise component of the momentum balance using the total (resolved plus SGS) stress near the surface is probably due to the effect of the discretization errors, which can be calculated a posteriori using the Taylor-series expansion of the resolved velocity field. Overall, we demonstrate that the modulated-gradient model is less dissipative and yields more accurate results in comparison with the classical Smagorinsky model, with similar computational costs.
Modeling jet and outflow feedback during star cluster formation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Federrath, Christoph [Monash Centre for Astrophysics, School of Mathematical Sciences, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia); Schrön, Martin [Department of Computational Hydrosystems, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research-UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Banerjee, Robi [Hamburger Sternwarte, Gojenbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg (Germany); Klessen, Ralf S., E-mail: christoph.federrath@monash.edu [Universität Heidelberg, Zentrum für Astronomie, Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Albert-Ueberle-Strasse 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)
2014-08-01
Powerful jets and outflows are launched from the protostellar disks around newborn stars. These outflows carry enough mass and momentum to transform the structure of their parent molecular cloud and to potentially control star formation itself. Despite their importance, we have not been able to fully quantify the impact of jets and outflows during the formation of a star cluster. The main problem lies in limited computing power. We would have to resolve the magnetic jet-launching mechanism close to the protostar and at the same time follow the evolution of a parsec-size cloud for a million years. Current computer power and codes fall orders of magnitude short of achieving this. In order to overcome this problem, we implement a subgrid-scale (SGS) model for launching jets and outflows, which demonstrably converges and reproduces the mass, linear and angular momentum transfer, and the speed of real jets, with ∼1000 times lower resolution than would be required without the SGS model. We apply the new SGS model to turbulent, magnetized star cluster formation and show that jets and outflows (1) eject about one-fourth of their parent molecular clump in high-speed jets, quickly reaching distances of more than a parsec, (2) reduce the star formation rate by about a factor of two, and (3) lead to the formation of ∼1.5 times as many stars compared to the no-outflow case. Most importantly, we find that jets and outflows reduce the average star mass by a factor of ∼ three and may thus be essential for understanding the characteristic mass of the stellar initial mass function.
ODY MARS GAMMA RAY SPECTROMETER 5 SGS V1.0
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ODY MARS GAMMA RAY SPECTROMETER 5 SGS (SGS) data set is a collection of data tables that contain a gamma spectrum and the associated engineering data that has...
Innocenti, Alessio; Marchioli, Cristian; Chibbaro, Sergio
2016-11-01
The Eulerian-Lagrangian approach based on Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) is one of the most promising and viable numerical tools to study particle-laden turbulent flows, when the computational cost of Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) becomes too expensive. The applicability of this approach is however limited if the effects of the Sub-Grid Scales (SGSs) of the flow on particle dynamics are neglected. In this paper, we propose to take these effects into account by means of a Lagrangian stochastic SGS model for the equations of particle motion. The model extends to particle-laden flows the velocity-filtered density function method originally developed for reactive flows. The underlying filtered density function is simulated through a Lagrangian Monte Carlo procedure that solves a set of Stochastic Differential Equations (SDEs) along individual particle trajectories. The resulting model is tested for the reference case of turbulent channel flow, using a hybrid algorithm in which the fluid velocity field is provided by LES and then used to advance the SDEs in time. The model consistency is assessed in the limit of particles with zero inertia, when "duplicate fields" are available from both the Eulerian LES and the Lagrangian tracking. Tests with inertial particles were performed to examine the capability of the model to capture the particle preferential concentration and near-wall segregation. Upon comparison with DNS-based statistics, our results show improved accuracy and considerably reduced errors with respect to the case in which no SGS model is used in the equations of particle motion.
Final Technical Report. Project Boeing SGS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bell, Thomas E. [The Boeing Company, Seattle, WA (United States)
2014-12-31
and maintain secure configuration of network devices resulting in reduced vulnerabilities for potential exploitation; Improved overall cyber security situational awareness through the integration of multiple discrete security technologies into a single cyber security reporting console; Improved ability to maintain the resiliency of critical systems in the face of a targeted cyber attack of other significant event; Improved ability to model complex networks for penetration testing and advanced training of cyber security personnel
HIGH-FIDELITY SIMULATION-DRIVEN MODEL DEVELOPMENT FOR COARSE-GRAINED COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hanna, Botros N.; Dinh, Nam T.; Bolotnov, Igor A.
2016-06-01
Nuclear reactor safety analysis requires identifying various credible accident scenarios and determining their consequences. For a full-scale nuclear power plant system behavior, it is impossible to obtain sufficient experimental data for a broad range of risk-significant accident scenarios. In single-phase flow convective problems, Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) and Large Eddy Simulation (LES) can provide us with high fidelity results when physical data are unavailable. However, these methods are computationally expensive and cannot be afforded for simulation of long transient scenarios in nuclear accidents despite extraordinary advances in high performance scientific computing over the past decades. The major issue is the inability to make the transient computation parallel, thus making number of time steps required in high-fidelity methods unaffordable for long transients. In this work, we propose to apply a high fidelity simulation-driven approach to model sub-grid scale (SGS) effect in Coarse Grained Computational Fluid Dynamics CG-CFD. This approach aims to develop a statistical surrogate model instead of the deterministic SGS model. We chose to start with a turbulent natural convection case with volumetric heating in a horizontal fluid layer with a rigid, insulated lower boundary and isothermal (cold) upper boundary. This scenario of unstable stratification is relevant to turbulent natural convection in a molten corium pool during a severe nuclear reactor accident, as well as in containment mixing and passive cooling. The presented approach demonstrates how to create a correction for the CG-CFD solution by modifying the energy balance equation. A global correction for the temperature equation proves to achieve a significant improvement to the prediction of steady state temperature distribution through the fluid layer.
Iapichino, L.; Federrath, C.; Klessen, R. S.
2017-08-01
The outskirts of galaxy clusters are characterized by the interplay of gas accretion and dynamical evolution involving turbulence, shocks, magnetic fields and diffuse radio emission. The density and velocity structure of the gas in the outskirts provide an effective pressure support and affect all processes listed above. Therefore, it is important to resolve and properly model the turbulent flow in these mildly overdense and relatively large cluster regions; this is a challenging task for hydrodynamical codes. In this work, grid-based simulations of a galaxy cluster are presented. The simulations are performed using adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) based on the regional variability of vorticity, and they include a subgrid scale (SGS) model for unresolved turbulence. The implemented AMR strategy is more effective in resolving the turbulent flow in the cluster outskirts than any previously used criterion based on overdensity. We study a cluster undergoing a major merger, which drives turbulence in the medium. The merger dominates the cluster energy budget out to a few virial radii from the centre. In these regions, the shocked intra-cluster medium is resolved and the SGS turbulence is modelled, and compared with diagnostics on larger length-scale. The volume-filling factor of the flow with a large vorticity is about 60 per cent at low redshift in the cluster outskirts, and thus smaller than in the cluster core. In the framework of modelling radio relics, this point suggests that upstream flow inhomogeneities might affect preexisting cosmic-ray population and magnetic fields, and the resulting radio emission.
Zhang, D.; Deen, N.G.; Kuipers, J.A.M.
2006-01-01
Numerical simulations of the bubbly flow in two square cross-sectioned bubble columns were conducted with the commercial CFD package CFX-4.4. The effect of the model constant used in the sub-grid scale (SGS) model, CS, as well as the interfacial closures for the drag, lift and virtual mass forces
He, Y.; Deen, N.G.; van Sint Annaland, M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.
2009-01-01
Numerical simulations were performed of a turbulent gas-particle multiphase flow in a circulating fluidized bed riser using a hard-sphere discrete particle model (DPM) for the particle phase and the Navier−Stokes equations for the gas phase, where the subgrid scale stresses (SGS) were modeled with
He, Y.; Deen, N.G.; van Sint Annaland, M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.
2009-01-01
Numerical simulations were performed of a turbulent gas-particle multiphase flow in a circulating fluidized bed riser using a hard-sphere discrete particle model (DPM) for the particle phase and the Navier−Stokes equations for the gas phase, where the subgrid scale stresses (SGS) were modeled with
He, Y; Deen, N.G.; van Sint Annaland, M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.
2008-01-01
A numerical simulation was performed on a turbulent gas-particle multi-phase flow in a circulating fluidized bed riser based on a hard-sphere discrete particle model (DPM) for the particle phase and the Navier-Stokes equations for the gas phase. The sub-grid scale stresses (SGS) were modeled with
Space-time multiscale methods for Large Eddy Simulation
Munts, E.A.
2006-01-01
The Variational Multiscale (VMS) method has appeared as a promising new approach to the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of turbulent flows. The key advantage of the VMS approach is that it allows different subgrid-scale (SGS) modeling assumptions to be made at different ranges of the resolved scales.
Top2 and Sgs1-Top3 Act Redundantly to Ensure rDNA Replication Termination.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kamilla Mundbjerg
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Faithful DNA replication with correct termination is essential for genome stability and transmission of genetic information. Here we have investigated the potential roles of Topoisomerase II (Top2 and the RecQ helicase Sgs1 during late stages of replication. We find that cells lacking Top2 and Sgs1 (or Top3 display two different characteristics during late S/G2 phase, checkpoint activation and accumulation of asymmetric X-structures, which are both independent of homologous recombination. Our data demonstrate that checkpoint activation is caused by a DNA structure formed at the strongest rDNA replication fork barrier (RFB during replication termination, and consistently, checkpoint activation is dependent on the RFB binding protein, Fob1. In contrast, asymmetric X-structures are formed independent of Fob1 at less strong rDNA replication fork barriers. However, both checkpoint activation and formation of asymmetric X-structures are sensitive to conditions, which facilitate fork merging and progression of replication forks through replication fork barriers. Our data are consistent with a redundant role of Top2 and Sgs1 together with Top3 (Sgs1-Top3 in replication fork merging at rDNA barriers. At RFB either Top2 or Sgs1-Top3 is essential to prevent formation of a checkpoint activating DNA structure during termination, but at less strong rDNA barriers absence of the enzymes merely delays replication fork merging, causing an accumulation of asymmetric termination structures, which are solved over time.
Evaluation of LES models for flow over bluff body from engineering ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22
Results are also discussed keeping in view limitations of LES methodology of modelling for practical problems and current developments. It is concluded that a one-equation model for subgrid kinetic energy is the best choice. Keywords. Subgrid scale stress models; engineering flows; flow over bluff body. 1. Introduction.
Predictor-Corrector LU-SGS Discontinuous Galerkin Finite Element Method for Conservation Laws
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xinrong Ma
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Efficient implicit predictor-corrector LU-SGS discontinuous Galerkin (DG approach for compressible Euler equations on unstructured grids is investigated by adding the error compensation of high-order term. The original LU-SGS and GMRES schemes for DG method are discussed. Van Albada limiter is employed to make the scheme monotone. The numerical experiments performed for the transonic inviscid flows around NACA0012 airfoil, RAE2822 airfoil, and ONERA M6 wing indicate that the present algorithm has the advantages of low storage requirements and high convergence acceleration. The computational efficiency is close to that of GMRES scheme, nearly 2.1 times greater than that of LU-SGS scheme on unstructured grids for 2D cases, and almost 5.5 times greater than that of RK4 on unstructured grids for 3D cases.
Xu, Kuan-Man; Cheng, Anning
2007-01-01
The effects of subgrid-scale condensation and transport become more important as the grid spacings increase from those typically used in large-eddy simulation (LES) to those typically used in cloud-resolving models (CRMs). Incorporation of these effects can be achieved by a joint probability density function approach that utilizes higher-order moments of thermodynamic and dynamic variables. This study examines how well shallow cumulus and stratocumulus clouds are simulated by two versions of a CRM that is implemented with low-order and third-order turbulence closures (LOC and TOC) when a typical CRM horizontal resolution is used and what roles the subgrid-scale and resolved-scale processes play as the horizontal grid spacing of the CRM becomes finer. Cumulus clouds were mostly produced through subgrid-scale transport processes while stratocumulus clouds were produced through both subgrid-scale and resolved-scale processes in the TOC version of the CRM when a typical CRM grid spacing is used. The LOC version of the CRM relied upon resolved-scale circulations to produce both cumulus and stratocumulus clouds, due to small subgrid-scale transports. The mean profiles of thermodynamic variables, cloud fraction and liquid water content exhibit significant differences between the two versions of the CRM, with the TOC results agreeing better with the LES than the LOC results. The characteristics, temporal evolution and mean profiles of shallow cumulus and stratocumulus clouds are weakly dependent upon the horizontal grid spacing used in the TOC CRM. However, the ratio of the subgrid-scale to resolved-scale fluxes becomes smaller as the horizontal grid spacing decreases. The subcloud-layer fluxes are mostly due to the resolved scales when a grid spacing less than or equal to 1 km is used. The overall results of the TOC simulations suggest that a 1-km grid spacing is a good choice for CRM simulation of shallow cumulus and stratocumulus.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mankouri, Hocine W; Ngo, Hien-Ping; Hickson, Ian D
2009-01-01
homologous recombination repair (HRR) intermediates. These roles are qualitatively similar to those of Sgs1, the yeast ortholog of the human Bloom's syndrome protein, BLM. However, whereas mutation of either ESC2 or SGS1 leads to the accumulation of unprocessed HRR intermediates in the presence of MMS...
Rmi1 stimulates decatenation of double Holliday junctions during dissolution by Sgs1-Top3
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cejka, Petr; Plank, Jody L; Bachrati, Csanad Z
2010-01-01
3 proteins are sufficient to migrate and disentangle a dHJ to produce exclusively non-crossover recombination products, in a reaction termed "dissolution." We show that Rmi1 stimulates dHJ dissolution at low Sgs1-Top3 protein concentrations, although it has no effect on the initial rate of Holliday...
M. T. Kiefer; S. Zhong; W. E. Heilman; J. J. Charney; X. Bian
2013-01-01
Efforts to develop a canopy flow modeling system based on the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) model are discussed. The standard version of ARPS is modified to account for the effect of drag forces on mean and turbulent flow through a vegetation canopy, via production and sink terms in the momentum and subgrid-scale turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) equations....
Cellier-Holzem, Elise; Esparza-Salas, Rodrigo; Garnier, Stéphane; Sorci, Gabriele
2010-10-01
Parasites are known to exert strong selection pressures on their hosts and, as such, favour the evolution of defence mechanisms. The negative impact of parasites on their host can have substantial consequences in terms of population persistence and the epidemiology of the infection. In natural populations, however, it is difficult to assess the cost of infection while controlling for other potentially confounding factors. For instance, individuals are repeatedly exposed to a variety of parasite strains, some of which can elicit immunological memory, further protecting the host from subsequent infections. Cost of infection is, therefore, expected to be particularly strong for primary infections and to decrease for individuals surviving the first infectious episode that are re-exposed to the pathogen. We tested this hypothesis experimentally using avian malaria parasites (Plasmodium relictum-lineage SGS1) and domestic canaries (Serinus canaria) as a model. Hosts were infected with a controlled dose of P. relictum as a primary infection and control birds were injected with non-infected blood. The changes in haematocrit and body mass were monitored during a 20 day period. A protein of the acute phase response (haptoglobin) was assessed as a marker of the inflammatory response mounted in response to the infection. Parasite intensity was also monitored. Surviving birds were then re-infected 37 days post primary infection. In agreement with the predictions, we found that primary infected birds paid a substantially higher cost in terms of infection-induced reduction in haematocrit compared with re-exposed birds. After the secondary infection, re-exposed hosts were also able to clear the infection at a faster rate than after the primary infection. These results have potential consequences for the epidemiology of avian malaria, since birds re-exposed to the pathogen can maintain parasitemia with low fitness costs, allowing the persistence of the pathogen within the host
High-resolution weather forecasting is affected by many aspects, i.e. model initial conditions, subgrid-scale cumulus convection and cloud microphysics schemes. Recent 12km grid studies using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model have identified the importance of inco...
Maher, G.D.; Hulshoff, S.J.
2014-01-01
The Variational Germano Identity [1, 2] is used to optimize the coefficients of residual-based subgrid-scale models that arise from the application of a Variational Multiscale Method [3, 4]. It is demonstrated that numerical iterative methods can be used to solve the Germano relations to obtain
Surface drag effects on simulated wind fields in high-resolution atmospheric forecast model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lim, Kyo Sun; Lim, Jong Myoung; Ji, Young Yong [Environmental Radioactivity Assessment Team,Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Hye Yum [NOAA/Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Princeton (United States); Hong, Jin Kyu [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2017-04-15
It has been reported that the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model generally shows a substantial over prediction bias at low to moderate wind speeds and winds are too geostrophic (Cheng and Steenburgh 2005), which limits the application of WRF model in the area that requires the accurate surface wind estimation such as wind-energy application, air-quality studies, and radioactive-pollutants dispersion studies. The surface drag generated by the subgrid-scale orography is represented by introducing a sink term in the momentum equation in their studies. The purpose of our study is to evaluate the simulated meteorological fields in the high-resolution WRF framework, that includes the parameterization of subgrid-scale orography developed by Mass and Ovens (2010), and enhance the forecast skill of low-level wind fields, which plays an important role in transport and dispersion of air pollutants including radioactive pollutants. The positive bias in 10-m wind speed is significantly alleviated by implementing the subgrid-scale orography parameterization, while other meteorological fields including 10-m wind direction are not changed. Increased variance of subgrid- scale orography enhances the sink of momentum and further reduces the bias in 10-m wind speed.
Bermúdez-López, Marcelino; Villoria, María Teresa; Esteras, Miguel; Jarmuz, Adam; Torres-Rosell, Jordi; Clemente-Blanco, Andres; Aragon, Luis
2016-06-01
The RecQ helicase Sgs1 plays critical roles during DNA repair by homologous recombination, from end resection to Holliday junction (HJ) dissolution. Sgs1 has both pro- and anti-recombinogenic roles, and therefore its activity must be tightly regulated. However, the controls involved in recruitment and activation of Sgs1 at damaged sites are unknown. Here we show a two-step role for Smc5/6 in recruiting and activating Sgs1 through SUMOylation. First, auto-SUMOylation of Smc5/6 subunits leads to recruitment of Sgs1 as part of the STR (Sgs1-Top3-Rmi1) complex, mediated by two SUMO-interacting motifs (SIMs) on Sgs1 that specifically recognize SUMOylated Smc5/6. Second, Smc5/6-dependent SUMOylation of Sgs1 and Top3 is required for the efficient function of STR. Sgs1 mutants impaired in recognition of SUMOylated Smc5/6 (sgs1-SIMΔ) or SUMO-dead alleles (sgs1-KR) exhibit unprocessed HJs at damaged replication forks, increased crossover frequencies during double-strand break repair, and severe impairment in DNA end resection. Smc5/6 is a key regulator of Sgs1's recombination functions. © 2016 Bermúdez-López et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.
King, Jonas G.; Vernick, Kenneth D.; Hillyer, Julián F.
2011-01-01
Mosquitoes transmit Plasmodium and certain arboviruses during blood feeding, when they are injected along with saliva. Mosquito saliva interferes with the host's hemostasis and inflammation response and influences the transmission success of some pathogens. One family of mosquito salivary gland proteins, named SGS, is composed of large bacterial-type proteins that in Aedes aegypti were implicated as receptors for Plasmodium on the basal salivary gland surface. Here, we characterize the biology of two SGSs in the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, and demonstrate their involvement in blood feeding. Western blots and RT-PCR showed that Sgs4 and Sgs5 are produced exclusively in female salivary glands, that expression increases with age and after blood feeding, and that protein levels fluctuate in a circadian manner. Immunohistochemistry showed that SGSs are present in the acinar cells of the distal lateral lobes and in the salivary ducts of the proximal lobes. SDS-PAGE, Western blots, bite blots, and immunization via mosquito bites showed that SGSs are highly immunogenic and form major components of mosquito saliva. Last, Western and bioinformatic analyses suggest that SGSs are secreted via a non-classical pathway that involves cleavage into a 300-kDa soluble fragment and a smaller membrane-bound fragment. Combined, these data strongly suggest that SGSs play an important role in blood feeding. Together with their role in malaria transmission, we propose that SGSs could be used as markers of human exposure to mosquito bites and in the development of disease control strategies. PMID:21965675
Jump, A S; Rico, L; Coll, M; Peñuelas, J
2012-06-01
Identification and quantification of spatial genetic structure (SGS) within populations remains a central element of understanding population structure at the local scale. Understanding such structure can inform on aspects of the species' biology, such as establishment patterns and gene dispersal distance, in addition to sampling design for genetic resource management and conservation. However, recent work has identified that variation in factors such as sampling methodology, population characteristics and marker system can all lead to significant variation in SGS estimates. Consequently, the extent to which estimates of SGS can be relied on to inform on the biology of a species or differentiate between experimental treatments is open to doubt. Following on from a recent report of unusually extensive SGS when assessed using amplified fragment length polymorphisms in the tree Fagus sylvatica, we explored whether this marker system led to similarly high estimates of SGS extent in other apparently similar populations of this species. In the three populations assessed, SGS extent was even stronger than this previously reported maximum, extending up to 360 m, an increase in up to 800% in comparison with the generally accepted maximum of 30-40 m based on the literature. Within this species, wide variation in SGS estimates exists, whether quantified as SGS intensity, extent or the Sp parameter. Consequently, we argue that greater standardization should be applied in sample design and SGS estimation and highlight five steps that can be taken to maximize the comparability between SGS estimates.
Wind Farm parametrization in the mesoscale model WRF
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Volker, Patrick; Badger, Jake; Hahmann, Andrea N.
2012-01-01
significantly lower computational costs compared to high resolution models. Due to the fact that its typical horizontal grid spacing is on the order of 2km, the energy extracted by the turbine, as well as the wake development inside the turbine- containing grid cells, are not described explicitly......, but are parametrized as another sub-grid scale process. In order to appropriately capture the wind farm wake recovery and its direction, two properties are important, among others, the total energy extracted by the wind farm and its velocity deficit distribution. In the considered parametrization the individual...... turbines produce a thrust dependent on the background velocity. For the sub-grid scale velocity deficit, the entrainment from the free atmospheric flow into the wake region, which is responsible for the expansion, is taken into account. Furthermore, since the model horizontal distance is several times...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mankouri, Hocine W; Ngo, Hien-Ping; Hickson, Ian D
2007-01-01
CSM2, PSY3, SHU1, and SHU2 (collectively referred to as the SHU genes) were identified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae as four genes in the same epistasis group that suppress various sgs1 and top3 mutant phenotypes when mutated. Although the SHU genes have been implicated in homologous recombination...
2013-05-28
..., Washington, DC 20229, tel. 202-344-1060. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Notice is hereby given pursuant to 19 CPR 151.12 and 19 CPR 151.13, that SGS North America, Inc., 300 George Street, East Alton, IL 62024, has... vegetable oils for customs purposes, in accordance with the provisions of 19 CPR 151.12 and 19 CPR 151.13...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hickson, Ian D; Mankouri, Hocine W
2011-01-01
structures) following replicative stress. Further characterization of these X structures may reveal why loss of BLM (the human Sgs1 ortholog) leads to the human cancer predisposition disorder, Bloom syndrome. In two recent complementary studies, we examined the nature of the X structures arising in yeast strains...
Modeling photosynthesis in sea ice-covered waters
Long, Matthew C.; Lindsay, Keith; Holland, Marika M.
2015-09-01
The lower trophic levels of marine ecosystems play a critical role in the Earth System mediating fluxes of carbon to the ocean interior. Many of the functional relationships describing biological rate processes, such as primary productivity, in marine ecosystem models are nonlinear functions of environmental state variables. As a result of nonlinearity, rate processes computed from mean fields at coarse resolution will differ from similar computations that incorporate small-scale heterogeneity. Here we examine how subgrid-scale variability in sea ice thickness impacts simulated net primary productivity (NPP) in a 1°×1° configuration of the Community Earth System Model (CESM). CESM simulates a subgrid-scale ice thickness distribution and computes shortwave penetration independently for each ice thickness category. However, the default model formulation uses grid-cell mean irradiance to compute NPP. We demonstrate that accounting for subgrid-scale shortwave heterogeneity by computing light limitation terms under each ice category then averaging the result is a more accurate invocation of the photosynthesis equations. Moreover, this change delays seasonal bloom onset and increases interannual variability in NPP in the sea ice zone in the model. The new treatment reduces annual production by about 32% in the Arctic and 19% in the Antarctic. Our results highlight the importance of considering heterogeneity in physical fields when integrating nonlinear biogeochemical reactions.
Kazlauskienė, Rita; Bernotienė, Rasa; Palinauskas, Vaidas; Iezhova, Tatjana A; Valkiūnas, Gediminas
2013-04-01
Plasmodium relictum is a widespread invasive agent of avian malaria, responsible for acute, chronic and debilitating diseases in many species of birds. Recent PCR-based studies revealed astonishing genetic diversity of avian malaria parasites (genus Plasmodium), with numerous genetic lineages deposited in GenBank. Many studies addressed distribution and evolutionary relationships of avian Plasmodium lineages, but information about patterns of development of different lineages in mosquito vectors remains insufficient. Here we present data on sporogonic development of 2 widespread mitochondrial cytochrome b lineages (cyt b) of P. relictum (pSGS1 and pGRW11) in mosquito Culex pipiens pipiens. Genetic distance between these lineages is 0.2%; they fall in a well-supported clade in the phylogenetic tree. Three P. relictum strains were isolated from common crossbill (Loxia curvirostra, lineage pSGS1), domestic canary (Serinus canaria domestica, pSGS1) and house sparrow (Passer domesticus, pGRW11). These strains were multiplied in domestic canaries and used as donors of malarial gametocytes to infect C. p. pipiens. Mosquitoes were allowed to take blood meal on infected canaries and then dissected on intervals to study development of sporogonic stages. All 3 strains developed synchronously and completed sporogony in this vector, with infective sporozoites reported in the salivary glands on the day 14 after infection. Ookinetes, oocysts and sporozoites of all strains were indistinguishable morphologically. This study shows that patterns of sporogonic development of the closely related lineages pSGS1 and pGRW11 and different strains of the lineage pSGS1 of P. relictum are similar indicating that phylogenetic trees based on the cyt b gene likely can be used for predicting sporogonic development of genetically similar avian malaria lineages in mosquito vectors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fangfang Li
2017-09-01
Full Text Available RNA silencing has an important role in defending against virus infection in plants. Plants with the deficiency of RNA silencing components often show enhanced susceptibility to viral infections. RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RDRs mediated-antiviral defense has a pivotal role in resistance to many plant viruses. In RDR6-mediated defense against viral infection, a plant-specific RNA binding protein, Suppressor of Gene Silencing 3 (SGS3, was also found to fight against some viruses in Arabidopsis. In this study, we showed that SGS3 from Nicotiana benthamiana (NbSGS3 is required for sense-RNA induced post-transcriptional gene silencing (S-PTGS and initiating sense-RNA-triggered systemic silencing. Further, the deficiency of NbSGS3 inhibited geminivirus-induced endogenous gene silencing (GIEGS and promoted geminivirus infection. During TRV-mediated NbSGS3 or N. benthamiana RDR6 (NbRDR6 silencing process, we found that their expression can be effectively fine-tuned. Plants with the knock-down of both NbSGS3 and NbRDR6 almost totally blocked GIEGS, and were more susceptible to geminivirus infection. These data suggest that NbSGS3 cooperates with NbRDR6 against GIEGS and geminivirus infection in N. benthamiana, which provides valuable information for breeding geminivirus-resistant plants.
Large Eddy Simulation of Turbulent Flows in Wind Energy
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chivaee, Hamid Sarlak
Reynolds numbers, and thereafter, the fully-developed infinite wind farm boundary later simulations are performed. Sources of inaccuracy in the simulations are investigated and it is found that high Reynolds number flows are more sensitive to the choice of the SGS model than their low Reynolds number......This research is devoted to the Large Eddy Simulation (LES), and to lesser extent, wind tunnel measurements of turbulent flows in wind energy. It starts with an introduction to the LES technique associated with the solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, discretized using a finite...... volume method. The study is followed by a detailed investigation of the Sub-Grid Scale (SGS) modeling. New SGS models are implemented into the computing code, and the effect of SGS models are examined for different applications. Fully developed boundary layer flows are investigated at low and high...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ida Nielsen
Full Text Available The conserved family of RecQ DNA helicases consists of caretaker tumour suppressors, that defend genome integrity by acting on several pathways of DNA repair that maintain genome stability. In budding yeast, Sgs1 is the sole RecQ helicase and it has been implicated in checkpoint responses, replisome stability and dissolution of double Holliday junctions during homologous recombination. In this study we investigate a possible genetic interaction between SGS1 and RAD9 in the cellular response to methyl methane sulphonate (MMS induced damage and compare this with the genetic interaction between SGS1 and RAD24. The Rad9 protein, an adaptor for effector kinase activation, plays well-characterized roles in the DNA damage checkpoint response, whereas Rad24 is characterized as a sensor protein also in the DNA damage checkpoint response. Here we unveil novel insights into the cellular response to MMS-induced damage. Specifically, we show a strong synergistic functionality between SGS1 and RAD9 for recovery from MMS induced damage and for suppression of gross chromosomal rearrangements, which is not the case for SGS1 and RAD24. Intriguingly, it is a Rad53 independent function of Rad9, which becomes crucial for genome maintenance in the absence of Sgs1. Despite this, our dissection of the MMS checkpoint response reveals parallel, but unequal pathways for Rad53 activation and highlights significant differences between MMS- and hydroxyurea (HU-induced checkpoint responses with relation to the requirement of the Sgs1 interacting partner Topoisomerase III (Top3. Thus, whereas earlier studies have documented a Top3-independent role of Sgs1 for an HU-induced checkpoint response, we show here that upon MMS treatment, Sgs1 and Top3 together define a minor but parallel pathway to that of Rad9.
Streaming Gibbs Sampling for LDA Model
Gao, Yang; Chen, Jianfei; Zhu, Jun
2016-01-01
Streaming variational Bayes (SVB) is successful in learning LDA models in an online manner. However previous attempts toward developing online Monte-Carlo methods for LDA have little success, often by having much worse perplexity than their batch counterparts. We present a streaming Gibbs sampling (SGS) method, an online extension of the collapsed Gibbs sampling (CGS). Our empirical study shows that SGS can reach similar perplexity as CGS, much better than SVB. Our distributed version of SGS,...
Marras, Simone; Suckale, Jenny; Giraldo, Francis X.; Constantinescu, Emil
2016-04-01
We present the solution of the viscous shallow water equations where viscosity is built as a residual-based subgrid scale model originally designed for large eddy simulation of compressible [1] and stratified flows [2]. The necessity of viscosity for a shallow water model not only finds motivation from mathematical analysis [3], but is supported by physical reasoning as can be seen by an analysis of the energetics of the solution. We simulated the flow of an idealized wave as it hits a set of obstacles. The kinetic energy spectrum of this flow shows that, although the inviscid Galerkin solutions -by spectral elements and discontinuous Galerkin [4]- preserve numerical stability in spite of the spurious oscillations in the proximity of the wave fronts, the slope of the energy cascade deviates from the theoretically expected values. We show that only a sufficiently small amount of dynamically adaptive viscosity removes the unwanted high-frequency modes while preserving the overall sharpness of the solution. In addition, it yields a physically plausible energy decay. This work is motivated by a larger interest in the application of a shallow water model to the solution of tsunami triggered coastal flows. In particular, coastal flows in regions around the world where coastal parks made of mitigation hills of different sizes and configurations are considered as a means to deviate the power of the incoming wave. References [1] M. Nazarov and J. Hoffman (2013) "Residual-based artificial viscosity for simulation of turbulent compressible flow using adaptive finite element methods" Int. J. Numer. Methods Fluids, 71:339-357 [2] S. Marras, M. Nazarov, F. X. Giraldo (2015) "Stabilized high-order Galerkin methods based on a parameter-free dynamic SGS model for LES" J. Comput. Phys. 301:77-101 [3] J. F. Gerbeau and B. Perthame (2001) "Derivation of the viscous Saint-Venant system for laminar shallow water; numerical validation" Discrete Contin. Dyn. Syst. Ser. B, 1:89?102 [4] F
High Order Numerical Methods for LES of Turbulent Flows with Shocks
Kotov, D. V.; Yee, H. C.; Hadjadj, A.; Wray, A.; Sjögreen, B.
2014-01-01
Simulation of turbulent flows with shocks employing explicit subgrid-scale (SGS) filtering may encounter a loss of accuracy in the vicinity of a shock. In this work we perform a comparative study of different approaches to reduce this loss of accuracy within the framework of the dynamic Germano SGS model. One of the possible approaches is to apply Harten's subcell resolution procedure to locate and sharpen the shock, and to use a one-sided test filter at the grid points adjacent to the exact shock location. The other considered approach is local disabling of the SGS terms in the vicinity of the shock location. In this study we use a canonical shock-turbulence interaction problem for comparison of the considered modifications of the SGS filtering procedure. For the considered test case both approaches show a similar improvement in the accuracy near the shock.
Xu, Kuan-Man; Cheng, Anning
2014-05-01
A high-resolution cloud-resolving model (CRM) embedded in a general circulation model (GCM) is an attractive alternative for climate modeling because it replaces all traditional cloud parameterizations and explicitly simulates cloud physical processes in each grid column of the GCM. Such an approach is called "Multiscale Modeling Framework." MMF still needs to parameterize the subgrid-scale (SGS) processes associated with clouds and large turbulent eddies because circulations associated with planetary boundary layer (PBL) and in-cloud turbulence are unresolved by CRMs with horizontal grid sizes on the order of a few kilometers. A third-order turbulence closure (IPHOC) has been implemented in the CRM component of the super-parameterized Community Atmosphere Model (SPCAM). IPHOC is used to predict (or diagnose) fractional cloudiness and the variability of temperature and water vapor at scales that are not resolved on the CRM's grid. This model has produced promised results, especially for low-level cloud climatology, seasonal variations and diurnal variations (Cheng and Xu 2011, 2013a, b; Xu and Cheng 2013a, b). Because of the enormous computational cost of SPCAM-IPHOC, which is 400 times of a conventional CAM, we decided to bypass the CRM and implement the IPHOC directly to CAM version 5 (CAM5). IPHOC replaces the PBL/stratocumulus, shallow convection, and cloud macrophysics parameterizations in CAM5. Since there are large discrepancies in the spatial and temporal scales between CRM and CAM5, IPHOC used in CAM5 has to be modified from that used in SPCAM. In particular, we diagnose all second- and third-order moments except for the fluxes. These prognostic and diagnostic moments are used to select a double-Gaussian probability density function to describe the SGS variability. We also incorporate a diagnostic PBL height parameterization to represent the strong inversion above PBL. The goal of this study is to compare the simulation of the climatology from these three
Drikakis, D.
2002-07-01
The paper describes the use of numerical methods for hyperbolic conservation laws as an embedded turbulence modelling approach. Different Godunov-type schemes are utilized in computations of Burgers' turbulence and a two-dimensional mixing layer. The schemes include a total variation diminishing, characteristic-based scheme which is developed in this paper using the flux limiter approach. The embedded turbulence modelling property of the above methods is demonstrated through coarsely resolved large eddy simulations with and without subgrid scale models. Copyright
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mankouri, Hocine W; Ashton, Thomas M; Hickson, Ian D
2011-01-01
and structurally unrelated Holliday junction (HJ) resolvases, Escherichia coli RusA or human GEN1(1-527), promotes the removal of these X-structures in vivo. Moreover, other types of DNA replication intermediates, including stalled replication forks and non-HRR-dependent X-structures, are refractory to RusA or GEN......The Sgs1-Rmi1-Top3 "dissolvasome" is required for the maintenance of genome stability and has been implicated in the processing of various types of DNA structures arising during DNA replication. Previous investigations have revealed that unprocessed (X-shaped) homologous recombination repair (HRR...
Srs2 and Sgs1-Top3 suppress crossovers during double-strand break repair in yeast.
Ira, Grzegorz; Malkova, Anna; Liberi, Giordano; Foiani, Marco; Haber, James E
2003-11-14
Very few gene conversions in mitotic cells are associated with crossovers, suggesting that these events are regulated. This may be important for the maintenance of genetic stability. We have analyzed the relationship between homologous recombination and crossing-over in haploid budding yeast and identified factors involved in the regulation of crossover outcomes. Gene conversions unaccompanied by a crossover appear 30 min before conversions accompanied by exchange, indicating that there are two different repair mechanisms in mitotic cells. Crossovers are rare (5%), but deleting the BLM/WRN homolog, SGS1, or the SRS2 helicase increases crossovers 2- to 3-fold. Overexpressing SRS2 nearly eliminates crossovers, whereas overexpression of RAD51 in srs2Delta cells almost completely eliminates the noncrossover recombination pathway. We suggest Sgs1 and its associated topoisomerase Top3 remove double Holliday junction intermediates from a crossover-producing repair pathway, thereby reducing crossovers. Srs2 promotes the noncrossover synthesis-dependent strand-annealing (SDSA) pathway, apparently by regulating Rad51 binding during strand exchange.
Srs2 and Sgs1–Top3 Suppress Crossovers during Double-Strand Break Repair in Yeast
Ira, Grzegorz; Malkova, Anna; Liberi, Giordano; Foiani, Marco; Haber, James E.
2015-01-01
Summary Very few gene conversions in mitotic cells are associated with crossovers, suggesting that these events are regulated. This may be important for the maintenance of genetic stability. We have analyzed the relationship between homologous recombination and crossing-over in haploid budding yeast and identified factors involved in the regulation of crossover outcomes. Gene conversions unaccompanied by a crossover appear 30 min before conversions accompanied by exchange, indicating that there are two different repair mechanisms in mitotic cells. Crossovers are rare (5%), but deleting the BLM/WRN homolog, SGS1, or the SRS2 helicase increases crossovers 2- to 3-fold. Overexpressing SRS2 nearly eliminates crossovers, whereas overexpression of RAD51 in srs2Δ cells almost completely eliminates the noncrossover recombination pathway. We suggest Sgs1 and its associated topoisomerase Top3 remove double Holliday junction intermediates from a crossover-producing repair pathway, thereby reducing crossovers. Srs2 promotes the noncrossover synthesis-dependent strand-annealing (SDSA) pathway, apparently by regulating Rad51 binding during strand exchange. PMID:14622595
Dall'Ozzo, Cédric; Carissimo, Bertrand; Milliez, Maya; Musson-Genon, Luc; Dupont, Eric
2013-04-01
The ability to simulate the whole diurnal cycle of the atmospheric boundary layer in order to study the complex turbulent structures remains a difficult topic. Consequently large-eddy simulations (LES) are performed with the open source CFD code Code_Saturne [Archambeau et al., 2004]. First the code is validated on an atmospheric convective case [Schmidt and Schumann, 1989] where different subgrid-scale (SGS) models are compared: two non-dynamical SGS models [Smagorinsky, 1963] [Nicoud and Ducros, 1999] and two dynamical SGS models [Germano et al., 1991 ; Lilly, 1992] [Wong and Lilly, 1994]. Then LES are performed to simulate the whole diurnal cycle of the Wangara experiment (Day 33-34). The results are compared to measurements , RANS "k-ɛ" model and other LES performed by [Basu et al., 2008] using a locally averaged scale-dependent dynamic (LASDD) SGS model. Thereafter the influence of the radiative forcing on the atmosphere is studied testing several SGS models. The results are especially discussed on nocturnal low level jet and potential temperature gradient in the stable boundary layer. References: [Archambeau et al., 2004] Archambeau F., Mehitoua N., Sakiz M. (2004). Code_Saturne: a finite volume code for the computation of turbulent incompressible flows. International Journal on Finite Volumes 1(1). [Basu et al., 2008] Basu S., Vinuesa J. F., and Swift A. (2008). Dynamic LES modeling of a diurnal cycle. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 47 :1156-1174. [Germano et al., 1991] Germano M., Piomelli U., Moin P., and Cabot W. H. (1991). A dynamic subgrid-scale eddy-viscosity model. Physics of Fluids, A3 :1760-1765. [Lilly, 1992] Lilly D. K. (1992). A proposed modification of the Germano subgrid-scale closure method. Physics of Fluids, A 4 :633-635. [Schmidt and Schumann, 1989] Schmidt H. and Schumann U. (1989). Coherent structure of the convective boundary layer derived from lage-eddy simulation. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 200 :511-562. [Smagorinsky
Bagherieh-Najjar, MB; de Vries, OMH; Kroon, JTM; Wright, EL; Elborough, KM; Hille, J; Dijkwel, PP
The Arabidopsis genome contains seven genes that belong to the RecQ family of ATP-dependent DNA helicases. RecQ members in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SGS1) and man (WRN, BLM and RecQL4) are involved in DNA recombination, repair and genome stability maintenance, but little is known about the function
Ristl, Robin; Kainz, Birgit; Stadlmayr, Gerhard; Schuster, Heinrich; Pum, Dietmar; Messner, Paul; Obinger, Christian; Schaffer, Christina
2012-09-01
Genetic fusion of two proteins frequently induces beneficial effects to the proteins, such as increased solubility, besides the combination of two protein functions. Here, we study the effects of the bacterial surface layer protein SgsE from Geobacillus stearothermophilus NRS 2004/3a on the folding of a C-terminally fused enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) moiety. Although GFPs are generally unable to adopt a functional confirmation in the bacterial periplasm of Escherichia coli cells, we observed periplasmic fluorescence from a chimera of a 150-amino-acid N-terminal truncation of SgsE and EGFP. Based on this finding, unfolding and refolding kinetics of different S-layer-EGFP chimeras, a maltose binding protein-EGFP chimera, and sole EGFP were monitored using green fluorescence as indicator for the folded protein state. Calculated apparent rate constants for unfolding and refolding indicated different folding pathways for EGFP depending on the fusion partner used, and a clearly stabilizing effect was observed for the SgsE_C fusion moiety. Thermal stability, as determined by differential scanning calorimetry, and unfolding equilibria were found to be independent of the fused partner. We conclude that the stabilizing effect SgsE_C exerts on EGFP is due to a reduction of degrees of freedom for folding of EGFP in the fused state.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hien-Ping Ngo
2010-08-01
Full Text Available Maintenance of telomere capping is absolutely essential to the survival of eukaryotic cells. Telomere capping proteins, such as Cdc13 and POT1, are essential for the viability of budding yeast and mammalian cells, respectively. Here we identify, for the first time, three genetic modifications that allow budding yeast cells to survive without telomere capping by Cdc13. We found that simultaneous inactivation of Sgs1, Exo1, and Rad9, three DNA damage response (DDR proteins, is sufficient to allow cell division in the absence of Cdc13. Quantitative amplification of ssDNA (QAOS was used to show that the RecQ helicase Sgs1 plays an important role in the resection of uncapped telomeres, especially in the absence of checkpoint protein Rad9. Strikingly, simultaneous deletion of SGS1 and the nuclease EXO1, further reduces resection at uncapped telomeres and together with deletion of RAD9 permits cell survival without CDC13. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis studies show that cdc13-1 rad9Delta sgs1Delta exo1Delta strains can maintain linear chromosomes despite the absence of telomere capping by Cdc13. However, with continued passage, the telomeres of such strains eventually become short and are maintained by recombination-based mechanisms. Remarkably, cdc13Delta rad9Delta sgs1Delta exo1Delta strains, lacking any Cdc13 gene product, are viable and can grow indefinitely. Our work has uncovered a critical role for RecQ helicases in limiting the division of cells with uncapped telomeres, and this may provide one explanation for increased tumorigenesis in human diseases associated with mutations of RecQ helicases. Our results reveal the plasticity of the telomere cap and indicate that the essential role of telomere capping is to counteract specific aspects of the DDR.
Zheng, Zhimin
2010-01-06
RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) is an important epigenetic mechanism for silencing transgenes and endogenous repetitive sequences such as transposons. The RD29A promoter-driven LUCIFERASE transgene and its corresponding endogenous RD29A gene are hypermethylated and silenced in the Arabidopsis DNA demethylase mutant ros1. By screening for second-site suppressors of ros1, we identified the RDM12 locus. The rdm12 mutation releases the silencing of the RD29A-LUC transgene and the endogenous RD29A gene by reducing the promoter DNA methylation. The rdm12 mutation also reduces DNA methylation at endogenous RdDM target loci, including transposons and other repetitive sequences. In addition, the rdm12 mutation affects the levels of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) from some of the RdDM target loci. RDM12 encodes a protein with XS and coiled-coil domains, and is similar to SGS3, which is a partner protein of RDR6 and can bind to double-stranded RNAs with a 5′ overhang, and is required for several post-transcriptional gene silencing pathways. Our results show that RDM12 is a component of the RdDM pathway, and suggest that RdDM may involve double-stranded RNAs with a 5′ overhang and the partnering between RDM12 and RDR2. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Exploitation of parallelism in climate models. Final report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baer, Ferdinand; Tribbia, Joseph J.; Williamson, David L.
2001-02-05
This final report includes details on the research accomplished by the grant entitled 'Exploitation of Parallelism in Climate Models' to the University of Maryland. The purpose of the grant was to shed light on (a) how to reconfigure the atmospheric prediction equations such that the time iteration process could be compressed by use of MPP architecture; (b) how to develop local subgrid scale models which can provide time and space dependent parameterization for a state-of-the-art climate model to minimize the scale resolution necessary for a climate model, and to utilize MPP capability to simultaneously integrate those subgrid models and their statistics; and (c) how to capitalize on the MPP architecture to study the inherent ensemble nature of the climate problem. In the process of addressing these issues, we created parallel algorithms with spectral accuracy; we developed a process for concurrent climate simulations; we established suitable model reconstructions to speed up computation; we identified and tested optimum realization statistics; we undertook a number of parameterization studies to better understand model physics; and we studied the impact of subgrid scale motions and their parameterization in atmospheric models.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Katrina Mitchel
Full Text Available The contributions of the Sgs1, Mph1, and Srs2 DNA helicases during mitotic double-strand break (DSB repair in yeast were investigated using a gap-repair assay. A diverged chromosomal substrate was used as a repair template for the gapped plasmid, allowing mismatch-containing heteroduplex DNA (hDNA formed during recombination to be monitored. Overall DSB repair efficiencies and the proportions of crossovers (COs versus noncrossovers (NCOs were determined in wild-type and helicase-defective strains, allowing the efficiency of CO and NCO production in each background to be calculated. In addition, the products of individual NCO events were sequenced to determine the location of hDNA. Because hDNA position is expected to differ depending on whether a NCO is produced by synthesis-dependent-strand-annealing (SDSA or through a Holliday junction (HJ-containing intermediate, its position allows the underlying molecular mechanism to be inferred. Results demonstrate that each helicase reduces the proportion of CO recombinants, but that each does so in a fundamentally different way. Mph1 does not affect the overall efficiency of gap repair, and its loss alters the CO-NCO by promoting SDSA at the expense of HJ-containing intermediates. By contrast, Sgs1 and Srs2 are each required for efficient gap repair, strongly promoting NCO formation and having little effect on CO efficiency. hDNA analyses suggest that all three helicases promote SDSA, and that Sgs1 and Srs2 additionally dismantle HJ-containing intermediates. The hDNA data are consistent with the proposed role of Sgs1 in the dissolution of double HJs, and we propose that Srs2 dismantles nicked HJs.
Mitchel, Katrina; Lehner, Kevin; Jinks-Robertson, Sue
2013-01-01
The contributions of the Sgs1, Mph1, and Srs2 DNA helicases during mitotic double-strand break (DSB) repair in yeast were investigated using a gap-repair assay. A diverged chromosomal substrate was used as a repair template for the gapped plasmid, allowing mismatch-containing heteroduplex DNA (hDNA) formed during recombination to be monitored. Overall DSB repair efficiencies and the proportions of crossovers (COs) versus noncrossovers (NCOs) were determined in wild-type and helicase-defective strains, allowing the efficiency of CO and NCO production in each background to be calculated. In addition, the products of individual NCO events were sequenced to determine the location of hDNA. Because hDNA position is expected to differ depending on whether a NCO is produced by synthesis-dependent-strand-annealing (SDSA) or through a Holliday junction (HJ)-containing intermediate, its position allows the underlying molecular mechanism to be inferred. Results demonstrate that each helicase reduces the proportion of CO recombinants, but that each does so in a fundamentally different way. Mph1 does not affect the overall efficiency of gap repair, and its loss alters the CO-NCO by promoting SDSA at the expense of HJ-containing intermediates. By contrast, Sgs1 and Srs2 are each required for efficient gap repair, strongly promoting NCO formation and having little effect on CO efficiency. hDNA analyses suggest that all three helicases promote SDSA, and that Sgs1 and Srs2 additionally dismantle HJ-containing intermediates. The hDNA data are consistent with the proposed role of Sgs1 in the dissolution of double HJs, and we propose that Srs2 dismantles nicked HJs.
Stochastic Climate Theory and Modelling
Franzke, Christian L E; Berner, Judith; Williams, Paul D; Lucarini, Valerio
2014-01-01
Stochastic methods are a crucial area in contemporary climate research and are increasingly being used in comprehensive weather and climate prediction models as well as reduced order climate models. Stochastic methods are used as subgrid-scale parameterizations as well as for model error representation, uncertainty quantification, data assimilation and ensemble prediction. The need to use stochastic approaches in weather and climate models arises because we still cannot resolve all necessary processes and scales in comprehensive numerical weather and climate prediction models. In many practical applications one is mainly interested in the largest and potentially predictable scales and not necessarily in the small and fast scales. For instance, reduced order models can simulate and predict large scale modes. Statistical mechanics and dynamical systems theory suggest that in reduced order models the impact of unresolved degrees of freedom can be represented by suitable combinations of deterministic and stochast...
Chan, Ming-Chung; Liu, Chun-Ho
2013-04-01
Recently, with the ever increasing urban areas in developing countries, the problem of air pollution due to vehicular exhaust arouses the concern of different groups of people. Understanding how different factors, such as urban morphology, meteorological conditions and human activities, affect the characteristics of street canyon ventilation, pollutant dispersion above urban areas and pollutant re-entrainment from the shear layer can help us improve air pollution control strategies. Among the factors mentioned above, thermal stratification is a significant one determining the pollutant transport behaviors in certain situation, e.g. when the urban surface is heated by strong solar radiation, which, however, is still not widely explored. The objective of this study is to gain an in-depth understanding of the effects of unstable thermal stratification on the flows and pollutant dispersion within and above urban street canyons through numerical modeling using large-eddy simulation (LES). In this study, LES equipped with one-equation subgrid-scale (SGS) model is employed to model the flows and pollutant dispersion within and above two-dimensional (2D) urban street canyons (flanked by idealized buildings, which are square solid bars in these models) under different intensities of unstable thermal stratifications. Three building-height-to-street-width (aspect) ratios, 0.5, 1 and 2, are included in this study as a representation of different building densities. The prevailing wind flow above the urban canopy is driven by background pressure gradient, which is perpendicular to the street axis, while the condition of unstable thermal stratification is induced by applying a higher uniform temperature on the no-slip urban surface. The relative importance between stratification and background wind is characterized by the Richardson number, with zero value as a neutral case and negative value as an unstable case. The buoyancy force is modeled by Boussinesq approximation and the
Large-eddy simulation of charged particle flows to model sandstorms
Rahman, Mustafa; Cheng, Wan; Samtaney, Ravi
2016-11-01
Intense electric fields and lightning have been observed in sandstorms. It is proposed to investigate the physical mechanisms essential for production and sustenance of large-scale electric fields in sandstorms. Our central hypothesis is that the turbulent transport of charged sand particles is a necessary condition to attain sustained large-scale electric fields in sandstorms. Our investigation relies on simulating turbulent two-phase (air and suspended sand particles) flows in which the flow of air is governed by the filtered Navier-Stokes equations with a subgrid-scale model in a Large-Eddy-Simulation setting, while dust particles are modeled using the Eulerian approach using a version of the Direct Quadrature Method of Moments. For the fluid phase, the LES of incompressible turbulent boundary layer employs stretched spiral vortex subgrid-scale model and a virtual wall model similar to the work of Cheng, Pullin & Samtaney. We will quantify the effects of different sand particle distributions, and turbulent intensities on the root-mean-square of the generated electric fields. Supported by KAUST OCRF under Award Number URF/1/1704-01-01. The supercomputer Shaheen at KAUST is used for all simulations.
Yang, X. I. A.; Meneveau, C.
2017-03-01
In recent years, there has been growing interest in large-eddy simulation (LES) modelling of atmospheric boundary layers interacting with arrays of wind turbines on complex terrain. However, such terrain typically contains geometric features and roughness elements reaching down to small scales that typically cannot be resolved numerically. Thus subgrid-scale models for the unresolved features of the bottom roughness are needed for LES. Such knowledge is also required to model the effects of the ground surface `underneath' a wind farm. Here we adapt a dynamic approach to determine subgrid-scale roughness parametrizations and apply it for the case of rough surfaces composed of cuboidal elements with broad size distributions, containing many scales. We first investigate the flow response to ground roughness of a few scales. LES with the dynamic roughness model which accounts for the drag of unresolved roughness is shown to provide resolution-independent results for the mean velocity distribution. Moreover, we develop an analytical roughness model that accounts for the sheltering effects of large-scale on small-scale roughness elements. Taking into account the shading effect, constraints from fundamental conservation laws, and assumptions of geometric self-similarity, the analytical roughness model is shown to provide analytical predictions that agree well with roughness parameters determined from LES. This article is part of the themed issue 'Wind energy in complex terrains'.
Yang, X I A; Meneveau, C
2017-04-13
In recent years, there has been growing interest in large-eddy simulation (LES) modelling of atmospheric boundary layers interacting with arrays of wind turbines on complex terrain. However, such terrain typically contains geometric features and roughness elements reaching down to small scales that typically cannot be resolved numerically. Thus subgrid-scale models for the unresolved features of the bottom roughness are needed for LES. Such knowledge is also required to model the effects of the ground surface 'underneath' a wind farm. Here we adapt a dynamic approach to determine subgrid-scale roughness parametrizations and apply it for the case of rough surfaces composed of cuboidal elements with broad size distributions, containing many scales. We first investigate the flow response to ground roughness of a few scales. LES with the dynamic roughness model which accounts for the drag of unresolved roughness is shown to provide resolution-independent results for the mean velocity distribution. Moreover, we develop an analytical roughness model that accounts for the sheltering effects of large-scale on small-scale roughness elements. Taking into account the shading effect, constraints from fundamental conservation laws, and assumptions of geometric self-similarity, the analytical roughness model is shown to provide analytical predictions that agree well with roughness parameters determined from LES.This article is part of the themed issue 'Wind energy in complex terrains'. © 2017 The Author(s).
Large-Eddy Simulation of the Evolving Stable Boundary Layer Over Flat Terrain
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Townsend, R
2002-01-02
The stable boundary layer (SBL) in the atmosphere is of considerable interest because it is often the worse case scenario for air pollution studies and health effect assessments associated with the accidental release of toxic material. Traditional modeling approaches used in such studies do not simulate the non-steady character of the velocity field, and hence often overpredict concentrations while underpredicting spatial coverage of potentially harmful concentrations of airborne material. The challenge for LES is to be able to resolve the rather small energy-containing eddies of the SBL while still maintaining an adequate domain size. This requires that the subgrid-scale (SGS) parameterization of turbulence incorporate an adequate representation of turbulent energy transfer. Recent studies have shown that both upscale and downscale energy transfer can occur simultaneously, but that overall the net transfer is downscale. Including the upscale transfer of turbulent energy (energy backscatter) is particularly important near the ground and under stably-stratified conditions. The goal of this research is to improve the ability to realistically simulate the SBL. The large-eddy simulation (LES) approach with its subgrid-scale (SGS) turbulence model does a better job of capturing the temporally and spatially varying features of the SBL than do Reynolds-averaging models. The scientific objectives of this research are: (1) to characterize features of the evolving SBL structure for a range of meteorological conditions (wind speed and surface cooling), (2) to simulate realistically the transfer of energy between resolved and subgrid scales, and (3) to apply results to improve simulation of dispersion in the SBL.
Representing glaciers in a regional climate model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kotlarski, Sven [Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg (Germany); ETH Zurich, Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, Zurich (Switzerland); Jacob, Daniela; Podzun, Ralf [Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg (Germany); Paul, Frank [University of Zurich, Department of Geography, Zurich (Switzerland)
2010-01-15
A glacier parameterization scheme has been developed and implemented into the regional climate model REMO. The new scheme interactively simulates the mass balance as well as changes of the areal extent of glaciers on a subgrid scale. The temporal evolution and the general magnitude of the simulated glacier mass balance in the European Alps are in good accordance with observations for the period 1958-1980, but the strong mass loss towards the end of the twentieth century is systematically underestimated. The simulated decrease of glacier area in the Alps between 1958 and 2003 ranges from -17.1 to -23.6%. The results indicate that observed glacier mass balances can be approximately reproduced within a regional climate model based on simplified concepts of glacier-climate interaction. However, realistic results can only be achieved by explicitly accounting for the subgrid variability of atmospheric parameters within a climate model grid box. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Brandt
2002-01-01
Full Text Available A tracer model, DREAM (the Danish Rimpuff and Eulerian Accidental release Model, has been developed for modelling transport, dispersion and deposition (wet and dry of radioactive material from accidental releases, as the Chernobyl accident. The model is a combination of a Lagrangian model, that includes the near source dispersion, and an Eulerian model describing the long-range transport. The performance of the transport model has previously been tested within the European Tracer Experiment, ETEX, which included transport and dispersion of an inert, non-depositing tracer from a controlled release. The focus of this paper is the model performance with respect to the total deposition of 137Cs, 134Cs and 131I from the Chernobyl accident, using different relatively simple and comprehensive parameterizations for dry- and wet deposition. The performance, compared to measurements, of using different combinations of two different wet deposition parameterizations and three different parameterizations of dry deposition has been evaluated, using different statistical tests. The best model performance, compared to measurements, is obtained when parameterizing the total deposition combined of a simple method for dry deposition and a subgrid-scale averaging scheme for wet deposition based on relative humidities. The same major conclusion is obtained for all the three different radioactive isotopes and using two different deposition measurement databases. Large differences are seen in the results obtained by using the two different parameterizations of wet deposition based on precipitation rates and relative humidities, respectively. The parameterization based on subgrid-scale averaging is, in all cases, performing better than the parameterization based on precipitation rates. This indicates that the in-cloud scavenging process is more important than the below cloud scavenging process for the submicron particles and that the precipitation rates are
Wall modeled LES of wind turbine wakes with geometrical effects
Bricteux, Laurent; Benard, Pierre; Zeoli, Stephanie; Moureau, Vincent; Lartigue, Ghislain; Vire, Axelle
2017-11-01
This study focuses on prediction of wind turbine wakes when geometrical effects such as nacelle, tower, and built environment, are taken into account. The aim is to demonstrate the ability of a high order unstructured solver called YALES2 to perform wall modeled LES of wind turbine wake turbulence. The wind turbine rotor is modeled using an Actuator Line Model (ALM) while the geometrical details are explicitly meshed thanks to the use of an unstructured grid. As high Reynolds number flows are considered, sub-grid scale models as well as wall modeling are required. The first test case investigated concerns a wind turbine flow located in a wind tunnel that allows to validate the proposed methodology using experimental data. The second test case concerns the simulation of a wind turbine wake in a complex environment (e.g. a Building) using realistic turbulent inflow conditions.
Two-fluid sub-grid-scale viscosity in nonlinear simulation of ballooning modes in a heliotron device
Miura, H.; Hamba, F.; Ito, A.
2017-07-01
A large eddy simulation (LES) approach is introduced to enable the study of the nonlinear growth of ballooning modes in a heliotron-type device, by solving fully 3D two-fluid magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations numerically over a wide range of parameter space, keeping computational costs as low as possible. A model to substitute the influence of scales smaller than the grid size, at sub-grid scale (SGS), and at the scales larger than it—grid scale (GS)—has been developed for LES. The LESs of two-fluid MHD equations with SGS models have successfully reproduced the growth of the ballooning modes in the GS and nonlinear saturation. The numerical results show the importance of SGS effects on the GS components, or the effects of turbulent fluctuation at small scales in low-wavenumber unstable modes, over the course of the nonlinear saturation process. The results also show the usefulness of the LES approach in studying instability in a heliotron device. It is shown through a parameter survey over many SGS model coefficients that turbulent small-scale components in experiments can contribute to keeping the plasma core pressure from totally collapsing.
Modeling the moist-convective atmosphere with a Quasi-3-D Multiscale Modeling Framework (Q3D MMF)
Jung, Joon-Hee; Arakawa, Akio
2014-03-01
The Q3D MMF (Quasi-Three-Dimensional Multiscale Modeling Framework) is a new generation of MMF that replaces the conventional subgrid-scale parameterizations in general circulation models (GCMs) with explicit simulations of cloud and associated processes by cloud-resolving models (CRMs). In the Q3D MMF, 3-D CRMs are applied to the channel domains that extend over GCM grid cells. To avoid "double counting" of the large-scale effects, only the eddy effects simulated by the CRMs are implemented into the GCM as far as the transports are concerned, while the total effects are implemented for diabatic processes. The CRMs recognize the large-scale horizontal inhomogeneity through the lateral boundary conditions obtained from the GCM through interpolation. To maintain compatibility between the GCM and CRMs, the averages of CRM variables over the GCM grid spacing are relaxed to the corresponding GCM variables with the advective time scale. To evaluate the Q3D MMF, a transition from a wave to strong vortices is simulated in an idealized horizontal domain. Comparison with a fully 3-D benchmark simulation shows that the Q3D MMF successfully predicts the evolution of the vortices. It also captures important statistics such as the domain-averaged surface precipitation rate, turbulent fluxes and subgrid-scale (co)variances. From tests with 3-D and 2-D CRMs, respectively, it is concluded that the ability to recognize large-scale inhomogeneities is primarily responsible for the successful performance of the Q3D MMF. It is also demonstrated that the use of two perpendicular sets of CRMs has positive impacts on the simulation.
The model evaluation of subsonic aircraft effect on the ozone and radiative forcing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rozanov, E.; Zubov, V.; Egorova, T.; Ozolin, Y. [Main Geophysical Observatory, St.Petersburg (Russian Federation)
1997-12-31
Two dimensional transient zonally averaged model was used for the evaluation of the effect of subsonic aircraft exhausts upon the ozone, trace gases and radiation in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. The mesoscale transformation of gas composition was included on the base of the box model simulations. It has been found that the transformation of the exhausted gases in sub-grid scale is able to influence the results of the modelling. The radiative forcing caused by gas, sulfate aerosol, soot and contrails changes was estimated as big as 0.12-0.15 W/m{sup 2} (0.08 W/m{sup 2} globally and annually averaged). (author) 10 refs.
Toward a Unified Representation of Atmospheric Convection in Variable-Resolution Climate Models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Walko, Robert [Univ. of Miami, Coral Gables, FL (United States)
2016-11-07
The purpose of this project was to improve the representation of convection in atmospheric weather and climate models that employ computational grids with spatially-variable resolution. Specifically, our work targeted models whose grids are fine enough over selected regions that convection is resolved explicitly, while over other regions the grid is coarser and convection is represented as a subgrid-scale process. The working criterion for a successful scheme for representing convection over this range of grid resolution was that identical convective environments must produce very similar convective responses (i.e., the same precipitation amount, rate, and timing, and the same modification of the atmospheric profile) regardless of grid scale. The need for such a convective scheme has increased in recent years as more global weather and climate models have adopted variable resolution meshes that are often extended into the range of resolving convection in selected locations.
Dual integral porosity shallow water model for urban flood modelling
Guinot, Vincent; Sanders, Brett F.; Schubert, Jochen E.
2017-05-01
With CPU times 2 to 3 orders of magnitude smaller than classical shallow water-based models, the shallow water equations with porosity are a promising tool for large-scale modelling of urban floods. In this paper, a new model formulation called the Dual Integral Porosity (DIP) model is presented and examined analytically and computationally with a series of benchmark tests. The DIP model is established from an integral mass and momentum balance whereby both porosity and flow variables are defined separately for control volumes and boundaries, and a closure scheme is introduced to link control volume- and boundary-based flow variables. Previously developed Integral Porosity (IP) models were limited to a single set of flow variables. A new transient momentum dissipation model is also introduced to account for the effects of sub-grid scale wave action on porosity model solutions, effects which are validated by fine-grid solutions of the classical shallow-water equations and shown to be important for achieving similarity in dam-break solutions. One-dimensional numerical test cases show that the proposed DIP model outperforms the IP model, with significantly improved wave propagation speeds, water depths and discharge calculations. A two-dimensional field scale test case shows that the DIP model performs better than the IP model in mapping the floods extent and is slightly better in reproducing the anisotropy of the flow field when momentum dissipation parameters are calibrated.
Cameron, M. A.; Jacobson, M. Z.; Naiman, A. D.; Lele, S. K.
2012-12-01
Aviation is an expanding industry, experiencing continued growth and playing an increasingly noticed role in upper tropospheric/lower stratospheric composition. Nitrogen oxides and other gas-phase emissions from aircraft react to affect ozone photochemistry. This research investigates the effects of treating aircraft gas-phase chemistry within an expanding layered plume versus at the grid scale. SMVGEAR II, a sparse-matrix, vectorized Gear-type solver for ordinary differential equations, is used to solve chemical equations at both the grid scale and subgrid scale. A Subgrid Plume Model (SPM) is used to advance the expanding plume, accounting for wind shear and diffusion. Simulations suggest that using a layered plume approach results in noticeably different final NOx concentrations, demonstrating the importance of these plume dynamics in predicting the effects of aircraft on ozone concentrations. Results showing the effects of a layered plume, single plume, and no plume on ozone after several hours will be presented.
Wall-Resolved Large-Eddy Simulation of Turbulent Flow Past a NACA0012 Airfoil
Gao, Wei; Zhang, Wei; Samtaney, Ravi
2014-11-01
Large-eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent flow past a NACA0012 airfoil is performed at angle of attack (AoA) 3o and Rec = 2 . 3 ×104 . The filtered incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are spatially discretized using an energy conservative fourth-order scheme developed by Morinishi et al. (J. of Comput. Phys., 1998), and the subgrid-scale (SGS) tensor is modeled by the stretched-vortex SGS model developed by Pullin and co-workers (Phys. of Fluids, 2000, J. of Fluid Mech., 2009). An extension of the original stretched-vortex SGS model is utilized to resolve the streak-like structures in the near-wall flow regions. The mean velocity and turbulence intensity profiles on airfoil surface and in wake are validated against experimental data reported in Dong-Ha Kim et al. (AIAA, 2009). To further verify our LES capacity, some high-order turbulence quantities are also compared with the DNS results produced by our in-house DNS code. The effect of grid-refinement on the wall-resolved LES approach is also discussed. Supported by KAUST OCRF funded CRG project on simulation of turbulent flows over bluff bodies and airfoils.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sommer de Gelicourt, Y
2004-03-15
Industrial oxalic precipitation processed in an un-baffled magnetically stirred tank, the Vortex Reactor, has been studied with uranium simulating plutonium. Modelling precipitation requires a mixing model for the continuous liquid phase and the solution of population balance for the dispersed solid phase. Being chemical reaction influenced by the degree of mixing at molecular scale, that commercial CFD code does not resolve, a sub-grid scale model has been introduced: the finite mode probability density functions, and coupled with a model for the liquid energy spectrum. Evolution of the dispersed phase has been resolved by the quadrature method of moments, first used here with experimental nucleation and growth kinetics, and an aggregation kernel based on local shear rate. The promising abilities of this local approach, without any fitting constant, are strengthened by the similarity between experimental results and simulations. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jun–Ichi Yano
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The research network “Basic Concepts for Convection Parameterization in Weather Forecast and Climate Models” was organized with European funding (COST Action ES0905 for the period of 2010–2014. Its extensive brainstorming suggests how the subgrid-scale parameterization problem in atmospheric modeling, especially for convection, can be examined and developed from the point of view of a robust theoretical basis. Our main cautions are current emphasis on massive observational data analyses and process studies. The closure and the entrainment–detrainment problems are identified as the two highest priorities for convection parameterization under the mass–flux formulation. The need for a drastic change of the current European research culture as concerns policies and funding in order not to further deplete the visions of the European researchers focusing on those basic issues is emphasized.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zamansky, Remi; Vinkovic, Ivana; Gorokhovski, Mikhael, E-mail: ivana.vinkovic@univ-lyonl.fr [Laboratoire de Mecanique des Fluides et d' Acoustique CNRS UMR 5509 Ecole Centrale de Lyon, 36, av. Guy de Collongue, 69134 Ecully Cedex (France)
2011-12-22
Inertial particle acceleration statistics are analyzed using DNS for turbulent channel flow. Along with effects recognized in homogeneous isotropic turbulence, an additional effect is observed due to high and low speed vortical structures aligned with the channel wall. In response to those structures, particles with moderate inertia experience strong longitudinal acceleration variations. DNS is also used in order to assess LES-SSAM (Subgrid Stochastic Acceleration Model), in which an approximation to the instantaneous non-filtered velocity field is given by simulation of both, filtered and residual, accelerations. This approach allow to have access to the intermittency of the flow at subgrid scale. Advantages of LES-SSAM in predicting particle dynamics in the channel flow at a high Reynolds number are shown.
Turbulent Combustion Study of Scramjet Problem
2015-08-01
334. Springer, 2005. [24] M. Germano, U. Piomelli, P. Moin, and W. H. Cabot . A dynamic subgrid scale eddy viscosity model. Phys. Fluids A, 3:1760–1765...2014. [46] Charles Meneveau, Thomas S Lund, and William H Cabot . A lagrangian dynamic subgrid-scale model of turbulence. Journal of Fluid Mechanics
Towards fully predictive large-eddy simulation of the atmospheric boundary layer
Matheou, G.; Chung, D.; Teixeira, J.
2012-12-01
The atmospheric boundary layer is host to a plethora of physical processes that strongly affect the energy balance of Earth, and consequently weather and climate. Large-eddy Simulation (LES) is an invaluable technique in the study and prediction of the boundary layer mainly because it can capture detailed flow structure including clouds. In spite of the widespread use of LES, predictions of atmospheric flows lack fidelity. We discuss the development of a novel state-of-the-art LES framework suitable for the simulation of atmospheric flows and focus on the effects of turbulent transport, including stable stratification and multi-phase/latent heat exchange physics. The main components of the LES framework are a high-order fully conservative finite difference discretization and the buoyancy-adjusted stretched-vortex subgrid-scale (SGS) model. The new stability correction of the SGS model accounts of the increasing anisotropy of turbulence motions as stratification increases in a way that is consistent with the physics of stratified turbulence. Moreover, the SGS model employs no flow adjustable parameters. Our aim is twofold: (i) using identical LES setup (e.g. advection scheme and SGS-model parameters), perform simulations of diverse boundary layers, including stable, convectively unstable, cumulus and stratocumulus convection; and (ii) investigate grid convergence of flow statistics. We show that the new LES framework accurately predicts a diverse set of atmospheric conditions and in all cases the statistics exhibit good grid resolution independence, even for resolutions that are typically considered coarse. Grid convergence criteria are also discussed.
Large-eddy simulation of nitrogen injection at trans- and supercritical conditions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Müller, Hagen; Pfitzner, Michael [Institute of Thermodynamics, Universität der Bundeswehr München, Werner-Heisenberg-Weg 39, 85577 Neubiberg (Germany); Niedermeier, Christoph A.; Matheis, Jan [Institute of Aerodynamics and Fluid Mechanics, Technische Universität München, Boltzmannstr. 15, 85748 Garching b. München (Germany); Hickel, Stefan, E-mail: S.Hickel@tudelft.nl [Institute of Aerodynamics and Fluid Mechanics, Technische Universität München, Boltzmannstr. 15, 85748 Garching b. München (Germany); Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Technische Universiteit Delft, Kluyverweg 1, 2629 HS Delft (Netherlands)
2016-01-15
Large-eddy simulations (LESs) of cryogenic nitrogen injection into a warm environment at supercritical pressure are performed and real-gas thermodynamics models and subgrid-scale (SGS) turbulence models are evaluated. The comparison of different SGS models — the Smagorinsky model, the Vreman model, and the adaptive local deconvolution method — shows that the representation of turbulence on the resolved scales has a notable effect on the location of jet break-up, whereas the particular modeling of unresolved scales is less important for the overall mean flow field evolution. More important are the models for the fluid’s thermodynamic state. The injected fluid is either in a supercritical or in a transcritical state and undergoes a pseudo-boiling process during mixing. Such flows typically exhibit strong density gradients that delay the instability growth and can lead to a redistribution of turbulence kinetic energy from the radial to the axial flow direction. We evaluate novel volume-translation methods on the basis of the cubic Peng-Robinson equation of state in the framework of LES. At small extra computational cost, their application considerably improves the simulation results compared to the standard formulation. Furthermore, we found that the choice of inflow temperature is crucial for the reproduction of the experimental results and that heat addition within the injector can affect the mean flow field in comparison to results with an adiabatic injector.
The Potsdam Parallel Ice Sheet Model (PISM-PIK – Part 1: Model description
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Winkelmann
2011-09-01
Full Text Available We present the Potsdam Parallel Ice Sheet Model (PISM-PIK, developed at the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research to be used for simulations of large-scale ice sheet-shelf systems. It is derived from the Parallel Ice Sheet Model (Bueler and Brown, 2009. Velocities are calculated by superposition of two shallow stress balance approximations within the entire ice covered region: the shallow ice approximation (SIA is dominant in grounded regions and accounts for shear deformation parallel to the geoid. The plug-flow type shallow shelf approximation (SSA dominates the velocity field in ice shelf regions and serves as a basal sliding velocity in grounded regions. Ice streams can be identified diagnostically as regions with a significant contribution of membrane stresses to the local momentum balance. All lateral boundaries in PISM-PIK are free to evolve, including the grounding line and ice fronts. Ice shelf margins in particular are modeled using Neumann boundary conditions for the SSA equations, reflecting a hydrostatic stress imbalance along the vertical calving face. The ice front position is modeled using a subgrid-scale representation of calving front motion (Albrecht et al., 2011 and a physically-motivated calving law based on horizontal spreading rates. The model is tested in experiments from the Marine Ice Sheet Model Intercomparison Project (MISMIP. A dynamic equilibrium simulation of Antarctica under present-day conditions is presented in Martin et al. (2011.
CFD analysis of bubble microlayer and growth in subcooled flow boiling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Owoeye, Eyitayo James, E-mail: msgenius10@ufl.edu; Schubring, DuWanye, E-mail: dlschubring@ufl.edu
2016-08-01
Highlights: • A new LES-microlayer model is introduced. • Analogous to the unresolved SGS in LES, analysis of bubble microlayer was performed. • The thickness of bubble microlayer was computed at both steady and transient states. • The macroscale two-phase behavior was captured with VOF coupled with AMR. • Numerical validations were performed for both the micro- and macro-region analyses. - Abstract: A numerical study of single bubble growth in turbulent subcooled flow boiling was carried out. The macro- and micro-regions of the bubble were analyzed by introducing a LES-microlayer model. Analogous to the unresolved sub-grid scale (SGS) in LES, a microlayer analysis was performed to capture the unresolved thermal scales for the micro-region heat transfer by deriving equations for the microlayer thickness at steady and transient states. The phase change at the macro-region was based on Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) interface tracking method coupled with adaptive mesh refinement (AMR). Large Eddy Simulation (LES) was used to model the turbulence characteristics. The numerical model was validated with multiple experimental data from the open literature. This study includes parametric variations that cover the operating conditions of boiling water reactor (BWR) and pressurized water reactor (PWR). The numerical model was used to study the microlayer thickness, growth rate, dynamics, and distortion of the bubble.
Eigenspace perturbations for structural uncertainty estimation of turbulence closure models
Jofre, Lluis; Mishra, Aashwin; Iaccarino, Gianluca
2017-11-01
With the present state of computational resources, a purely numerical resolution of turbulent flows encountered in engineering applications is not viable. Consequently, investigations into turbulence rely on various degrees of modeling. Archetypal amongst these variable resolution approaches would be RANS models in two-equation closures, and subgrid-scale models in LES. However, owing to the simplifications introduced during model formulation, the fidelity of all such models is limited, and therefore the explicit quantification of the predictive uncertainty is essential. In such scenario, the ideal uncertainty estimation procedure must be agnostic to modeling resolution, methodology, and the nature or level of the model filter. The procedure should be able to give reliable prediction intervals for different Quantities of Interest, over varied flows and flow conditions, and at diametric levels of modeling resolution. In this talk, we present and substantiate the Eigenspace perturbation framework as an uncertainty estimation paradigm that meets these criteria. Commencing from a broad overview, we outline the details of this framework at different modeling resolution. Thence, using benchmark flows, along with engineering problems, the efficacy of this procedure is established. This research was partially supported by NNSA under the Predictive Science Academic Alliance Program (PSAAP) II, and by DARPA under the Enabling Quantification of Uncertainty in Physical Systems (EQUiPS) project (technical monitor: Dr Fariba Fahroo).
Requirements for Large Eddy Simulation Computations of Variable-Speed Power Turbine Flows
Ameri, Ali A.
2016-01-01
Variable-speed power turbines (VSPTs) operate at low Reynolds numbers and with a wide range of incidence angles. Transition, separation, and the relevant physics leading to them are important to VSPT flow. Higher fidelity tools such as large eddy simulation (LES) may be needed to resolve the flow features necessary for accurate predictive capability and design of such turbines. A survey conducted for this report explores the requirements for such computations. The survey is limited to the simulation of two-dimensional flow cases and endwalls are not included. It suggests that a grid resolution necessary for this type of simulation to accurately represent the physics may be of the order of Delta(x)+=45, Delta(x)+ =2 and Delta(z)+=17. Various subgrid-scale (SGS) models have been used and except for the Smagorinsky model, all seem to perform well and in some instances the simulations worked well without SGS modeling. A method of specifying the inlet conditions such as synthetic eddy modeling (SEM) is necessary to correctly represent the inlet conditions.
Exploitation of parallelism in climate models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baer, F.; Tribbia, J.J.; Williamson, D.L.
1992-01-01
The US Department of Energy (DOE) through its CHAMMP initiative, hopes to develop the capability to make meaningful regional climate forecasts on time scales exceeding a decade, such capability to be based on numerical prediction type models. We propose research to contribute to each of the specific items enumerated in the CHAMMP announcement (Notice 9103); i.e., to consider theoretical limits to prediction of climate and climate change on appropriate time scales, to develop new mathematical techniques to utilize massively parallel processors (MPP), to actually utilize MPP's as a research tool, and to develop improved representations of some processes essential to climate prediction. To explore these initiatives, we will exploit all available computing technology, and in particular MPP machines. We anticipate that significant improvements in modeling of climate on the decadal and longer time scales for regional space scales will result from our efforts. This report summarizes the activities of our group during a part of the first year's effort to meet the objectives stated in our proposal. We will comment on three research foci, time compression studies, subgrid scale model studies, and distributed climate ensemble studies and additional significant technical matters.
Large Eddy Simulation of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Wakes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sina Shamsoddin
2014-02-01
Full Text Available In this study, large eddy simulation (LES is combined with a turbine model to investigate the wake behind a vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT in a three-dimensional turbulent flow. Two methods are used to model the subgrid-scale (SGS stresses: (a the Smagorinsky model; and (b the modulated gradient model. To parameterize the effects of the VAWT on the flow, two VAWT models are developed: (a the actuator swept-surface model (ASSM, in which the time-averaged turbine-induced forces are distributed on a surface swept by the turbine blades, i.e., the actuator swept surface; and (b the actuator line model (ALM, in which the instantaneous blade forces are only spatially distributed on lines representing the blades, i.e., the actuator lines. This is the first time that LES has been applied and validated for the simulation of VAWT wakes by using either the ASSM or the ALM techniques. In both models, blade-element theory is used to calculate the lift and drag forces on the blades. The results are compared with flow measurements in the wake of a model straight-bladed VAWT, carried out in the Institute de Méchanique et Statistique de la Turbulence (IMST water channel. Different combinations of SGS models with VAWT models are studied, and a fairly good overall agreement between simulation results and measurement data is observed. In general, the ALM is found to better capture the unsteady-periodic nature of the wake and shows a better agreement with the experimental data compared with the ASSM. The modulated gradient model is also found to be a more reliable SGS stress modeling technique, compared with the Smagorinsky model, and it yields reasonable predictions of the mean flow and turbulence characteristics of a VAWT wake using its theoretically-determined model coefficient.
Evaluation of LES models for flow over bluff body from engineering ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Three SGS stress closure LES models are evaluated for turbulent ﬂow over a square cylinder. Emphasis is placed on solving engineering-applicationtype problems on affordable computer resources and within reasonable turnaround times. Results are compared with available experimental data and previously published ...
Turbulent Plasmoid Reconnection
Widmer, Fabien; Yokoi, Nobumitsu
2016-01-01
The plasmoid instability may lead to fast magnetic reconnection through long current sheets(CS). It is well known that large-Reynolds-number plasmas easily become turbulent. We address the question whether turbulence enhances the energy conversion rate of plasmoid-unstable current sheets. We carry out appropriate numerical MHD simulations, but resolving simultaneously the relevant large-scale (mean-) fields and the corresponding small-scale, turbulent, quantities by means of direct numerical simulations (DNS) is not possible. Hence we investigate the influence of small scale turbulence on large scale MHD processes by utilizing a subgrid-scale (SGS) turbulence model. We verify the applicability of our SGS model and then use it to investigate the influence of turbulence on the plasmoid instability. We start the simulations with Harris-type and force-free CS equilibria in the presence of a finite guide field in the direction perpendicular to the reconnection plane. We use the DNS results to investigate the growt...
Large eddy simulations of compressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence
Grete, Philipp
2017-02-01
Supersonic, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence is thought to play an important role in many processes - especially in astrophysics, where detailed three-dimensional observations are scarce. Simulations can partially fill this gap and help to understand these processes. However, direct simulations with realistic parameters are often not feasible. Consequently, large eddy simulations (LES) have emerged as a viable alternative. In LES the overall complexity is reduced by simulating only large and intermediate scales directly. The smallest scales, usually referred to as subgrid-scales (SGS), are introduced to the simulation by means of an SGS model. Thus, the overall quality of an LES with respect to properly accounting for small-scale physics crucially depends on the quality of the SGS model. While there has been a lot of successful research on SGS models in the hydrodynamic regime for decades, SGS modeling in MHD is a rather recent topic, in particular, in the compressible regime. In this thesis, we derive and validate a new nonlinear MHD SGS model that explicitly takes compressibility effects into account. A filter is used to separate the large and intermediate scales, and it is thought to mimic finite resolution effects. In the derivation, we use a deconvolution approach on the filter kernel. With this approach, we are able to derive nonlinear closures for all SGS terms in MHD: the turbulent Reynolds and Maxwell stresses, and the turbulent electromotive force (EMF). We validate the new closures both a priori and a posteriori. In the a priori tests, we use high-resolution reference data of stationary, homogeneous, isotropic MHD turbulence to compare exact SGS quantities against predictions by the closures. The comparison includes, for example, correlations of turbulent fluxes, the average dissipative behavior, and alignment of SGS vectors such as the EMF. In order to quantify the performance of the new nonlinear closure, this comparison is conducted from the
Stochastic processes in climate modeling: from Lorenz to the El-Niño recharge oscillator and beyond
Ghil, M.; Chekroun, M. D.; Simonnet, E.
2009-04-01
In the past few years, much of the climate community's work has gone toward building highly detailed, IPCC-class general circulation models (GCMs) capable of simulating climate change. In this context, subgrid-scale physics has increasingly been modeled using stochastic processes, but the broader consequences of this approach have not yet been sufficiently explored. Stochastic subgrid-scale parametrizations have substantial non-local effects on the low-frequency dynamics itself. Moreover, due to the random forcing present in these parametrizations, traditional dynamical systems concepts — e.g., strange attractors and deterministic bifurcations — are no longer appropriate. In this talk, we present and apply mathematical concepts and tools developed by L. Arnold and his Bremen school during the last two decades. These tools have not been widely exploited so far in climate research, although they offer powerful theoretical and numerical ways of investigating stochastic models. More specifically, we use random dynamical systems (RDS) theory to analyze the stochastic dynamics of climate models. To illustrate our approach, we consider at first simple conceptual models. The first example is the well-known 3-variable Lorenz (1963) model, to which we add multiplicative noise. We show how to obtain a full description of the resulting stochastic dynamics by computing this model's random attractor and its associated invariant measure. The second example is Timmermann and Jin's (GRL, 2002) nonlinear recharge-discharge model of the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), a model that captures several essential features of ENSO physics. A multiplicative noise term is added to this TJ model to represent wind bursts. Numerical simulations of the modified TJ model's random attractor show that Smale horseshoes are excited by the multiplicative noise, even for a parameter regime in which a Hopf bifurcation occurs in the deterministic system; such intricate structures only arise in
Explicit filtering in large eddy simulation using a discontinuous Galerkin method
Brazell, Matthew J.
The discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method is a formulation of the finite element method (FEM). DG provides the ability for a high order of accuracy in complex geometries, and allows for highly efficient parallelization algorithms. These attributes make the DG method attractive for solving the Navier-Stokes equations for large eddy simulation (LES). The main goal of this work is to investigate the feasibility of adopting an explicit filter in the numerical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations with DG. Explicit filtering has been shown to increase the numerical stability of under-resolved simulations and is needed for LES with dynamic sub-grid scale (SGS) models. The explicit filter takes advantage of DG's framework where the solution is approximated using a polyno- mial basis where the higher modes of the solution correspond to a higher order polynomial basis. By removing high order modes, the filtered solution contains low order frequency content much like an explicit low pass filter. The explicit filter implementation is tested on a simple 1-D solver with an initial condi- tion that has some similarity to turbulent flows. The explicit filter does restrict the resolution as well as remove accumulated energy in the higher modes from aliasing. However, the ex- plicit filter is unable to remove numerical errors causing numerical dissipation. A second test case solves the 3-D Navier-Stokes equations of the Taylor-Green vortex flow (TGV). The TGV is useful for SGS model testing because it is initially laminar and transitions into a fully turbulent flow. The SGS models investigated include the constant coefficient Smagorinsky model, dynamic Smagorinsky model, and dynamic Heinz model. The constant coefficient Smagorinsky model is over dissipative, this is generally not desirable however it does add stability. The dynamic Smagorinsky model generally performs better, especially during the laminar-turbulent transition region as expected. The dynamic Heinz model which is
Residual-based multiscale turbulence modeling: Finite volume simulations of bypass transition
Calo, Victor Manuel
Variational multiscale concepts are used to construct subgrid-scale models for Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) of turbulence. The basic idea of this framework is to introduce, a priori, a decomposition of the solution into coarse and fine scales. The coarse scales are identified with the numerical approximation, while the fine scales are identified with the subgrid scales and need to be modeled. A residual-based fine-scale approximation is proposed by extending to the nonlinear realm algebraic approximations of the local Green's function. These approximations, based on the Stabilized Methods theory, may be thought of as the modeling component of the proposed approach. This new modeling concept is very different from the classical LES modeling ideas, which are dominated by the addition of ad hoc eddy viscosities. These newer variational multiscale ideas, and the older variants, have been implemented in a finite volume program that has enjoyed widespread use in turbulence simulations. The difficult problem of simulating the bypass transition of a boundary layer is examined from the point of view of the variational multiscale method and classical LES. The aim was to solve this problem as an LES and demonstrate the efficacy of the new residual-based modeling ideas in the process. Independent of the LES method, it was found that in order to accurately simulate bypass transition, the decay of input homogeneous, isotropic, free-stream turbulence must be the same for all meshes. A procedure was developed that enabled simulation of consistent energy decay with the range of meshes considered. The formulation is outlined and numerical results are presented and compared to a conventional LES approach, DNS results and experimental data. The new method performs as well as the state-of-the-art LES models and offers a promising new path for turbulence research in LES. However, it obviously needs further testing on a wider variety of flows and implementation in a variety of numerical
Frontiers in Atmospheric Chemistry Modelling
Colette, Augustin; Bessagnet, Bertrand; Meleux, Frederik; Rouïl, Laurence
2013-04-01
The first pan-European kilometre-scale atmospheric chemistry simulation is introduced. The continental-scale air pollution episode of January 2009 is modelled with the CHIMERE offline chemistry-transport model with a massive grid of 2 million horizontal points, performed on 2000 CPU of a high performance computing system hosted by the Research and Technology Computing Center at the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CCRT/CEA). Besides the technical challenge, which demonstrated the robustness of the selected air quality model, we discuss the added value in terms of air pollution modelling and decision support. The comparison with in-situ observations shows that model biases are significantly improved despite some spurious added spatial variability attributed to shortcomings in the emission downscaling process and coarse resolution of the meteorological fields. The increased spatial resolution is clearly beneficial for the detection of exceedances and exposure modelling. We reveal small scale air pollution patterns that highlight the contribution of city plumes to background air pollution levels. Up to a factor 5 underestimation of the fraction of population exposed to detrimental levels of pollution can be obtained with a coarse simulation if subgrid scale correction such as urban increments are ignored. This experiment opens new perspectives for environmental decision making. After two decades of efforts to reduce air pollutant emissions across Europe, the challenge is now to find the optimal trade-off between national and local air quality management strategies. While the first approach is based on sectoral strategies and energy policies, the later builds upon new alternatives such as urban development. The strategies, the decision pathways and the involvement of individual citizen differ, and a compromise based on cost and efficiency must be found. We illustrated how high performance computing in atmospheric science can contribute to this
Hailey Shin, Hyeyum; Dudhia, Jimy
2015-04-01
Evaluation of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) parameterization up to the present time has focused on profiles of mean and parameterized vertical flux, since the parameterization has been developed for horizontal resolution that cannot resolve any turbulence in the PBL. Meanwhile, recent increase in computing power has been allowing numerical weather prediction at horizontal resolution finer than 1 km, at which kilometer-scale large eddies in the PBL are partly resolvable. In this study, the performance of five PBL parameterizations in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is evaluated at sub-kilometer resolution. The evaluation focuses on resolved high-order turbulence statistics, given that modeling at the high resolution is aimed at improving the simulation of resolved fields. The five parameterizations include four nonlocal PBL schemes - the Yonsei University (YSU), Asymmetric Convective Model 2 (ACM2), Eddy Diffusivity Mass Flux (EDMF), and Total Energy Mass Flux (TEMF) schemes, and one local scheme - Mellor-Yamada-Nakanishi-Niino (MYNN) level 2.5 model. Key findings are as follows. 1) None of the PBL schemes are scale-aware. Instead, each PBL scheme has its own best performing resolution in parameterizing subgrid-scale (SGS) vertical transport and resolving eddies, and the resolution appears to be different between heat and momentum. 2) All the selected PBL schemes reproduce total vertical heat transport well, as resolved transport compensates defects of SGS transport. This interaction between the resolved and SGS transports is not found in momentum transport. 3) The local PBL scheme maintains a weakly stable temperature profile in the upper PBL, which was not accomplished by coarser-resolution simulations. 4) The best schemes in simulating mean, energy spectrum, and vertical-velocity histogram, i.e., the first-, second- and third-order statistics, do not coincide.
Wall-Modeled Large-Eddy Simulation of Turbulent Flow Past an Airfoil
Gao, Wei; Zhang, Wei; Samtaney, Ravi
2015-11-01
We present wall-modeled large-eddy simulations (WMLES) for turbulent flows incompressible past an airfoil. The virtual wall model, originally developed by Chung & Pullin (J. of Fluid Mech., 2009), is extended to generalized curvilinear coordinates and implemented using a body-fitted structured C-grid for airfoils. This model dynamically couples the outer resolved region with the wall region, and imposes a slip velocity boundary condition for the filtered velocity field on the ``virtual'' wall. The virtual wall model is combined with the stretched spiral vortex sub-grid scale model in a self-consistent framework, which is tested in WMLES of flow past a NACA0012 airfoil at different Reynolds number (Re) and angle of attack. The numerical results show that the wall model is able to accurately predict mean flow characteristics, including the formation of the separation bubble. Some high-order turbulence quantities are also compared with the direct numerical simulation results (Re =104) of flow past the same airfoil. We will present verification test cases to quantify the effectiveness of the wall model in both attached and separated flow regimes. Supported by the KAUST Office of Competitive Research Funds under Award No. URF/1/1394-01. The IBM Blue Gene/P Shaheen at KAUST was utilized for the simulations.
ASAM v2.7: a compressible atmospheric model with a Cartesian cut cell approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Jähn
2015-02-01
Full Text Available In this work, the fully compressible, three-dimensional, nonhydrostatic atmospheric model called All Scale Atmospheric Model (ASAM is presented. A cut cell approach is used to include obstacles and orography into the Cartesian grid. Discretization is realized by a mixture of finite differences and finite volumes and a state limiting is applied. Necessary shifting and interpolation techniques are outlined. The method can be generalized to any other orthogonal grids, e.g., a lat–long grid. A linear implicit Rosenbrock time integration scheme ensures numerical stability in the presence of fast sound waves and around small cells. Analyses of five two-dimensional benchmark test cases from the literature are carried out to show that the described method produces meaningful results with respect to conservation properties and model accuracy. The test cases are partly modified in a way that the flow field or scalars interact with cut cells. To make the model applicable for atmospheric problems, physical parameterizations like a Smagorinsky subgrid-scale model, a two-moment bulk microphysics scheme, and precipitation and surface fluxes using a sophisticated multi-layer soil model are implemented and described. Results of an idealized three-dimensional simulation are shown, where the flow field around an idealized mountain with subsequent gravity wave generation, latent heat release, orographic clouds and precipitation are modeled.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Tonttila
2011-09-01
Full Text Available The statistics of cloud base vertical velocity simulated by the non-hydrostatic mesoscale model AROME are compared with Cloudnet remote sensing observations at two locations: the ARM SGP site in central Oklahoma, and the DWD observatory at Lindenberg, Germany. The results show that AROME significantly underestimates the variability of vertical velocity at cloud base compared to observations at their nominal resolution; the standard deviation of vertical velocity in the model is typically 4–8 times smaller than observed, and even more during the winter at Lindenberg. Averaging the observations to the horizontal scale corresponding to the physical grid spacing of AROME (2.5 km explains 70–80 % of the underestimation by the model. Further averaging of the observations in the horizontal is required to match the model values for the standard deviation in vertical velocity. This indicates an effective horizontal resolution for the AROME model of at least 10 km in the presented case. Adding a TKE-term on the resolved grid-point vertical velocity can compensate for the underestimation, but only for altitudes below approximately the boundary layer top height. The results illustrate the need for a careful consideration of the scales the model is able to accurately resolve, as well as for a special treatment of sub-grid scale variability of vertical velocities in kilometer-scale atmospheric models, if processes such as aerosol-cloud interactions are to be included in the future.
On modeling internal gravity wave dynamics from infrasound propagation
Ribstein, Bruno; Millet, Christophe; Lott, Francois
2017-04-01
Low frequency acoustic waves (infrasounds) are generally used to remotely detect strong explosions, using their possibility of long-distance and coherent propagation. Numerical prediction of infrasounds is a complex issue due to constantly changing atmospheric conditions and to the random nature of small-scale flows. Although it is well-known that part of the upward propagating wave is refracted at stratospheric levels, where gravity waves significantly affect both the temperature and the wind, yet the process by which the gravity wave field changes some infrasound arrivals remains not well understood. In the present work, we use a stochastic parameterization to model the subgrid scale gravity wave field from atmospheric states provided by ECMWF. Numerical evidence are presented showing that regardless of whether the superimposed gravity wave field possesses relatively small or large features the sensitivity of ground-based infrasound signals can be significantly different. A version of the gravity wave parameterization previously tuned by co-authors for climate modeling purpose is shown to not retrieve the duration of recorded acoustic signals. A new version of the wave-parameterization is here proposed which more accurately predict the small scale content of gravity wave fields, especially in the middle atmosphere. Compare to other semi-empirical approaches one value of this new parameterization is that the gravity wave drag obtained is in agreement with observations.
Nemoto, Youkou; Hoshina, Katsuyuki; Kobayashi, Masaharu; Kimura, Masaru; Yamamoto, Sota; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Ohshima, Marie
2017-08-25
Previously, we developed an image-based modeling system (V-Modeler) to investigate geometric changes in stent grafts (SGs) following their implantation for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). The aims of the present study were to improve this system for clinical use, to chronologically analyze postoperative morphological changes in SGs, and to demonstrate scenarios of SG migration.Methods and Results:Contrast-enhanced computed tomography data from 36 patients who underwent endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) for AAAs were used, with 72 centerline paths, in total, analyzed for bilateral SG legs. The existing V-modeler system was modified by introducing a penalty term, optimizing the number of control points using Akaike's information criterion, and changing the degree of the function from 3 to 5. Geometric parameters were then analyzed immediately, as well as >1 year after EVAR. Eight migrations were found and although overall SG curvature and curvature at the distal (leg) site did not change, curvature at the proximal (trunk) site of SGs decreased over time. Subanalysis revealed that SGs with severe curvature showed the same trend, whereas distal curvature increased in the non-severe curvature group. In addition, proximal curvature decreased more in Excluder than Zenith devices. The present study demonstrates SG behavior after implantation with numerical values for SG length and curvature.
A Posteriori Study of a DNS Database Describing Super critical Binary-Species Mixing
Bellan, Josette; Taskinoglu, Ezgi
2012-01-01
Currently, the modeling of supercritical-pressure flows through Large Eddy Simulation (LES) uses models derived for atmospheric-pressure flows. Those atmospheric-pressure flows do not exhibit the particularities of high densitygradient magnitude features observed both in experiments and simulations of supercritical-pressure flows in the case of two species mixing. To assess whether the current LES modeling is appropriate and if found not appropriate to propose higher-fidelity models, a LES a posteriori study has been conducted for a mixing layer that initially contains different species in the lower and upper streams, and where the initial pressure is larger than the critical pressure of either species. An initially-imposed vorticity perturbation promotes roll-up and a double pairing of four initial span-wise vortices into an ultimate vortex that reaches a transitional state. The LES equations consist of the differential conservation equations coupled with a real-gas equation of state, and the equation set uses transport properties depending on the thermodynamic variables. Unlike all LES models to date, the differential equations contain, additional to the subgrid scale (SGS) fluxes, a new SGS term that is a pressure correction in the momentum equation. This additional term results from filtering of Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) equations, and represents the gradient of the difference between the filtered pressure and the pressure computed from the filtered flow field. A previous a priori analysis, using a DNS database for the same configuration, found this term to be of leading order in the momentum equation, a fact traced to the existence of high-densitygradient magnitude regions that populated the entire flow; in the study, models were proposed for the SGS fluxes as well as this new term. In the present study, the previously proposed constantcoefficient SGS-flux models of the a priori investigation are tested a posteriori in LES, devoid of or including, the
Tadeu Pereira, Gener; Ribeiro de Oliveira, Ismênia; De Bortoli Teixeira, Daniel; Arantes Camargo, Livia; Rodrigo Panosso, Alan; Marques, José, Jr.
2015-04-01
Phosphorus is one of the limiting nutrients for sugarcane development in Brazilian soils. The spatial variability of this nutrient is great, defined by the properties that control its adsorption and desorption reactions. Spatial estimates to characterize this variability are based on geostatistical interpolation. Thus, the assessment of the uncertainty of estimates associated with the spatial distribution of available P (Plabile) is decisive to optimize the use of phosphate fertilizers. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of sequential Gaussian simulation (sGs) and ordinary kriging (OK) in the modeling of uncertainty in available P estimates. A sampling grid with 626 points was established in a 200-ha experimental sugarcane field in Tabapuã, São Paulo State, Brazil. The soil was sampled in the crossover points of a regular grid with intervals of 50 m. From the observations, 63 points, approximately 10% of sampled points were randomly selected before the geostatistical modeling of the composition of a data set used in the validation process modeling, while the remaining 563 points were used for the predictions variable in a place not sampled. The sGs generated 200 realizations. From the realizations generated, different measures of estimation and uncertainty were obtained. The standard deviation, calculated point to point, all simulated maps provided the map of deviation, used to assess local uncertainty. The visual analysis of maps of the E-type and KO showed that the spatial patterns produced by both methods were similar, however, it was possible to observe the characteristic smoothing effect of the KO especially in regions with extreme values. The Standardized variograms of selected realizations sGs showed both range and model similar to the variogram of the Observed date of Plabile. The variogram KO showed a distinct structure of the observed data, underestimating the variability over short distances, presenting parabolic behavior near
Filtered mass density function for large-eddy simulation of turbulent reacting flows
Jaberi, F. A.; Colucci, P. J.; James, S.; Givi, P.; Pope, S. B.
1999-12-01
A methodology termed the ‘filtered mass density function’ (FMDF) is developed and implemented for large-eddy simulation (LES) of variable-density chemically reacting turbulent flows at low Mach numbers. This methodology is based on the extension of the ‘filtered density function’ (FDF) scheme recently proposed by Colucci et al. (1998) for LES of constant-density reacting flows. The FMDF represents the joint probability density function of the subgrid-scale (SGS) scalar quantities and is obtained by solution of its modelled transport equation. In this equation, the effect of chemical reactions appears in a closed form and the influences of SGS mixing and convection are modelled. The stochastic differential equations (SDEs) which yield statistically equivalent results to those of the FMDF transport equation are derived and are solved via a Lagrangian Monte Carlo scheme. The consistency, convergence, and accuracy of the FMDF and the Monte Carlo solution of its equivalent SDEs are assessed. In non-reacting flows, it is shown that the filtered results via the FMDF agree well with those obtained by the ‘conventional’ LES in which the finite difference solution of the transport equations of these filtered quantities is obtained. The advantage of the FMDF is demonstrated in LES of reacting shear flows with non-premixed reactants. The FMDF results are appraised by comparisons with data generated by direct numerical simulation (DNS) and with experimental measurements. In the absence of a closure for the SGS scalar correlations, the results based on the conventional LES are significantly different from those obtained by DNS. The FMDF results show a closer agreement with DNS. These results also agree favourably with laboratory data of exothermic reacting turbulent shear flows, and portray several of the features observed experimentally.
Castiglioni, Giacomo
Flows over airfoils and blades in rotating machinery, for unmanned and micro-aerial vehicles, wind turbines, and propellers consist of a laminar boundary layer near the leading edge that is often followed by a laminar separation bubble and transition to turbulence further downstream. Typical Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes turbulence models are inadequate for such flows. Direct numerical simulation is the most reliable, but is also the most computationally expensive alternative. This work assesses the capability of immersed boundary methods and large eddy simulations to reduce the computational requirements for such flows and still provide high quality results. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional simulations of a laminar separation bubble on a NACA-0012 airfoil at Rec = 5x104 and at 5° of incidence have been performed with an immersed boundary code and a commercial code using body fitted grids. Several sub-grid scale models have been implemented in both codes and their performance evaluated. For the two-dimensional simulations with the immersed boundary method the results show good agreement with the direct numerical simulation benchmark data for the pressure coefficient Cp and the friction coefficient Cf, but only when using dissipative numerical schemes. There is evidence that this behavior can be attributed to the ability of dissipative schemes to damp numerical noise coming from the immersed boundary. For the three-dimensional simulations the results show a good prediction of the separation point, but an inaccurate prediction of the reattachment point unless full direct numerical simulation resolution is used. The commercial code shows good agreement with the direct numerical simulation benchmark data in both two and three-dimensional simulations, but the presence of significant, unquantified numerical dissipation prevents a conclusive assessment of the actual prediction capabilities of very coarse large eddy simulations with low order schemes in general
Equilibrium-eulerian les model for turbulent poly-dispersed particle-laden flow
Icardi, Matteo
2013-04-01
An efficient Eulerian method for poly-dispersed particles in turbulent flows is implemented, verified and validated for a channel flow. The approach couples a mixture model with a quadrature-based moment method for the particle size distribution in a LES framework, augmented by an approximate deconvolution method to reconstructs the unfiltered velocity. The particle velocity conditioned on particle size is calculated with an equilibrium model, valid for low Stokes numbers. A population balance equation is solved with the direct quadrature method of moments, that efficiently represents the continuous particle size distribution. In this first study particulate processes are not considered and the capability of the model to properly describe particle transport is investigated for a turbulent channel flow. First, single-phase LES are validated through comparison with DNS. Then predictions for the two-phase system, with particles characterised by Stokes numbers ranging from 0.2 to 5, are compared with Lagrangian DNS in terms of particle velocity and accumulation at the walls. Since this phenomenon (turbophoresis) is driven by turbulent fluctuations and depends strongly on the particle Stokes number, the approximation of the particle size distribution, the choice of the sub-grid scale model and the use of an approximate deconvolution method are important to obtain good results. Our method can be considered as a fast and efficient alternative to classical Lagrangian methods or Eulerian multi-fluid models in which poly-dispersity is usually neglected.
Representation of the Antarctic circumpolar vortex mixing barrier in a Global Climate Model
Cameron, Chris; Conway, Jono; Bodeker, Greg; Renwick, James
2017-04-01
Dynamical processes that occur in the stratosphere between 15 and 50 km above Earth's surface can affect circulation in the troposphere and have an impact on weather and climate. The Antarctic Circumpolar Vortex (ACV) forms each winter and spring as a zone of strong stratospheric westerly winds surrounding Antarctica. The ACV presents a barrier to transport of air masses between middle and high-latitudes, and contributes to stratospheric temperatures above the polar region dropping sufficiently low in spring to allow for ozone loss. The processes controlling the permeability of the ACV, and how they are likely to respond to a changing climate and a recovering ozone hole, have not been well studied, and as a result are not well simulated in Global Climate Models, particularly in terms of sub-grid scale turbulent diffusion which is parameterized in the models. The UK Met Office Unified Model (UM) is used to examine vortex permeability using both the "New Dynamics" and the upgraded "ENDGame" dynamical cores. Results are compared against reanalysis representations of vortex permeability using the MERRA-2 and ERA-Interim reanalyses data sets, which have been shown to have superior performance in the Southern Hemisphere stratosphere when compared against NCEP-CFSR, and MERRA reanalyses. Results are expected to lead to improved representation of ACV transport process in Global Climate Models and subsequent improvements in climate modelling.
Hellgren, Olof; Kutzer, Megan; Bensch, Staffan; Valkiūnas, Gediminas; Palinauskas, Vaidas
2013-10-30
The merozoite surface protein 1 (msp1) is one of the most studied vaccine candidate genes in mammalian Plasmodium spp. to have been used for investigations of epidemiology, population structures, and immunity to infections. However methodological difficulties have impeded the use of nuclear markers such as msp1 in Plasmodium parasites causing avian malaria. Data from an infection transcriptome of the host generalist avian malaria parasite Plasmodium relictum was used to identify and characterize the msp1 gene from two different isolates (mtDNA lineages SGS1 and GRW4). The aim was to investigate whether the msp1 gene in avian malaria species shares the properties of the msp1 gene in Plasmodium falciparum in terms of block variability, conserved anchor points and repeat motifs, and further to investigate the degree to which the gene might be informative in avian malaria parasites for population and epidemiological studies. Reads from 454 sequencing of birds infected with avian malaria was used to develop Sanger sequencing protocols for the msp1 gene of P. relictum. Genetic variability between variable and conserved blocks of the gene was compared within and between avian malaria parasite species, including P. falciparum. Genetic variability of the msp1 gene in P. relictum was compared with six other nuclear genes and the mtDNA gene cytochrome b. The msp1 gene of P. relictum shares the same general pattern of variable and conserved blocks as found in P. falciparum, although the variable blocks exhibited less variability than P. falciparum. The variation across the gene blocks in P. falciparum spanned from being as conserved as within species variation in P. relictum to being as variable as between the two avian malaria species (P. relictum and Plasmodium gallinaceum) in the variable blocks. In P. relictum the highly conserved p19 region of the peptide was identified, which included two epidermal growth factor-like domains and a fully conserved GPI anchor point. This
Xu, Kuan-Man
2015-01-01
Low-level clouds cover nearly half of the Earth and play a critical role in regulating the energy and hydrological cycle. Despite the fact that a great effort has been put to advance the modeling and observational capability in recent years, low-level clouds remains one of the largest uncertainties in the projection of future climate change. Low-level cloud feedbacks dominate the uncertainty in the total cloud feedback in climate sensitivity and projection studies. These clouds are notoriously difficult to simulate in climate models due to its complicated interactions with aerosols, cloud microphysics, boundary-layer turbulence and cloud dynamics. The biases in both low cloud coverage/water content and cloud radiative effects (CREs) remain large. A simultaneous reduction in both cloud and CRE biases remains elusive. This presentation first reviews the effort of implementing the higher-order turbulence closure (HOC) approach to representing subgrid-scale turbulence and low-level cloud processes in climate models. There are two HOCs that have been implemented in climate models. They differ in how many three-order moments are used. The CLUBB are implemented in both CAM5 and GDFL models, which are compared with IPHOC that is implemented in CAM5 by our group. IPHOC uses three third-order moments while CLUBB only uses one third-order moment while both use a joint double-Gaussian distribution to represent the subgrid-scale variability. Despite that HOC is more physically consistent and produces more realistic low-cloud geographic distributions and transitions between cumulus and stratocumulus regimes, GCMs with traditional cloud parameterizations outperform in CREs because tuning of this type of models is more extensively performed than those with HOCs. We perform several tuning experiments with CAM5 implemented with IPHOC in an attempt to produce the nearly balanced global radiative budgets without deteriorating the low-cloud simulation. One of the issues in CAM5-IPHOC
New Approaches to Quantifying Transport Model Error in Atmospheric CO2 Simulations
Ott, L.; Pawson, S.; Zhu, Z.; Nielsen, J. E.; Collatz, G. J.; Gregg, W. W.
2012-01-01
In recent years, much progress has been made in observing CO2 distributions from space. However, the use of these observations to infer source/sink distributions in inversion studies continues to be complicated by difficulty in quantifying atmospheric transport model errors. We will present results from several different experiments designed to quantify different aspects of transport error using the Goddard Earth Observing System, Version 5 (GEOS-5) Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM). In the first set of experiments, an ensemble of simulations is constructed using perturbations to parameters in the model s moist physics and turbulence parameterizations that control sub-grid scale transport of trace gases. Analysis of the ensemble spread and scales of temporal and spatial variability among the simulations allows insight into how parameterized, small-scale transport processes influence simulated CO2 distributions. In the second set of experiments, atmospheric tracers representing model error are constructed using observation minus analysis statistics from NASA's Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA). The goal of these simulations is to understand how errors in large scale dynamics are distributed, and how they propagate in space and time, affecting trace gas distributions. These simulations will also be compared to results from NASA's Carbon Monitoring System Flux Pilot Project that quantified the impact of uncertainty in satellite constrained CO2 flux estimates on atmospheric mixing ratios to assess the major factors governing uncertainty in global and regional trace gas distributions.
Fundamental Physics and Model Assumptions in Turbulent Combustion Models for Aerospace Propulsion
2014-06-01
University, 2012. 9U.Piomelli, W. H. Cabot , P. Moin, and S. Lee, Subgridscale backscatter in turbulent and transitional flows. Physics of Fluids A, 3:1766...primitive equations. I. The basic experiment. Mon Weather Rev, 91:99-164, 1963. 15M. Germano, U. Piomelli, P. Moin, and W. Cabot . A dynamic subgrid-scale
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Evans, J.L.; Frank, W.M.; Young, G.S. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)
1996-04-01
Successful simulations of the global circulation and climate require accurate representation of the properties of shallow and deep convective clouds, stable-layer clouds, and the interactions between various cloud types, the boundary layer, and the radiative fluxes. Each of these phenomena play an important role in the global energy balance, and each must be parameterized in a global climate model. These processes are highly interactive. One major problem limiting the accuracy of parameterizations of clouds and other processes in general circulation models (GCMs) is that most of the parameterization packages are not linked with a common physical basis. Further, these schemes have not, in general, been rigorously verified against observations adequate to the task of resolving subgrid-scale effects. To address these problems, we are designing a new Integrated Cumulus Ensemble and Turbulence (ICET) parameterization scheme, installing it in a climate model (CCM2), and evaluating the performance of the new scheme using data from Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) sites.
Exploitation of parallelism in climate models. [Annual] report, 1 September 1991--29 February 1992
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baer, F.; Tribbia, J.J.; Williamson, D.L.
1992-05-01
The US Department of Energy (DOE) through its CHAMMP initiative, hopes to develop the capability to make meaningful regional climate forecasts on time scales exceeding a decade, such capability to be based on numerical prediction type models. We propose research to contribute to each of the specific items enumerated in the CHAMMP announcement (Notice 9103); i.e., to consider theoretical limits to prediction of climate and climate change on appropriate time scales, to develop new mathematical techniques to utilize massively parallel processors (MPP), to actually utilize MPP`s as a research tool, and to develop improved representations of some processes essential to climate prediction. To explore these initiatives, we will exploit all available computing technology, and in particular MPP machines. We anticipate that significant improvements in modeling of climate on the decadal and longer time scales for regional space scales will result from our efforts. This report summarizes the activities of our group during a part of the first year`s effort to meet the objectives stated in our proposal. We will comment on three research foci, time compression studies, subgrid scale model studies, and distributed climate ensemble studies and additional significant technical matters.
Modeling and analysis of large-eddy simulations of particle-laden turbulent boundary layer flows
Rahman, Mustafa M.
2017-01-05
We describe a framework for the large-eddy simulation of solid particles suspended and transported within an incompressible turbulent boundary layer (TBL). For the fluid phase, the large-eddy simulation (LES) of incompressible turbulent boundary layer employs stretched spiral vortex subgrid-scale model and a virtual wall model similar to the work of Cheng, Pullin & Samtaney (J. Fluid Mech., 2015). This LES model is virtually parameter free and involves no active filtering of the computed velocity field. Furthermore, a recycling method to generate turbulent inflow is implemented. For the particle phase, the direct quadrature method of moments (DQMOM) is chosen in which the weights and abscissas of the quadrature approximation are tracked directly rather than the moments themselves. The numerical method in this framework is based on a fractional-step method with an energy-conservative fourth-order finite difference scheme on a staggered mesh. This code is parallelized based on standard message passing interface (MPI) protocol and is designed for distributed-memory machines. It is proposed to utilize this framework to examine transport of particles in very large-scale simulations. The solver is validated using the well know result of Taylor-Green vortex case. A large-scale sandstorm case is simulated and the altitude variations of number density along with its fluctuations are quantified.
Exploitation of Parallelism in Climate Models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baer, F.; Tribbia, J.J.; Williamson, D.L.
1999-03-01
The US Department of Energy (DOE), through its CHAMMP initiative, hopes to develop the capability to make meaningful regional climate forecasts on time scales exceeding a decade, such capability to be based on numerical prediction type models. We propose research to contribute to each of the specific items enumerated in the CHAMMP announcement (Notice 91-3); i.e., to consider theoretical limits to prediction of climate and climate change on appropriate time scales, to develop new mathematical techniques to utilize massively parallel processors (MPP), to actually utilize MPPs as a research tool, and to develop improved representations of some processes essential to climate prediction. In particular, our goals are to: (1) Reconfigure the prediction equations such that the time iteration process can be compressed by use of MMP architecture, and to develop appropriate algorithms. (2) Develop local subgrid scale models which can provide time and space dependent parameterization for a state- of-the-art climate model to minimize the scale resolution necessary for a climate model, and to utilize MPP capability to simultaneously integrate those subgrid models and their statistics. (3) Capitalize on the MPP architecture to study the inherent ensemble nature of the climate problem. By careful choice of initial states, many realizations of the climate system can be determined concurrently and more realistic assessments of the climate prediction can be made in a realistic time frame. To explore these initiatives, we will exploit all available computing technology, and in particular MPP machines. We anticipate that significant improvements in modeling of climate on the decadal and longer time scales for regional space scales will result from our efforts.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y. G. Savvidis
2005-02-01
Full Text Available The research objective is the detection of the mechanism of the water mass exchange through a navigational channel connecting two adjacent coastal basins. The research involves the application of a mathematical model in parallel to in-situ measurements. The hydrodynamic circulation in the greater area of the NW Aegean Sea is modeled by means of a barotropic circulation model. Wind, Coriolis and Tide are the main forcings taken into account. The flow through the channel is resolved at a subgrid scale by means of a local open channel flow model. The comparison between field measurements, recorded during a limited period, and the model results supports the model verification. The study is integrated by an operational application of the model under various realistic forcings. The results help to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms regulating the water mass exchange and the consequent interaction between two adjacent connected coastal basins. From the case study of the Potidea channel it is revealed that the water mass exchange under mean wind forcing is of the same order as the one induced by the tidal forcing.
A Unified Detail-Preserving Liquid Simulation by Two-Phase Lattice Boltzmann Modeling.
Guo, Yulong; Liu, Xiaopei; Xu, Xuemiao
2017-05-01
Traditional methods in graphics to simulate liquid-air dynamics under different scenarios usually employ separate approaches with sophisticated interface tracking/reconstruction techniques. In this paper, we propose a novel unified approach which is easy and effective to produce a variety of liquid-air interface phenomena. These phenomena, such as complex surface splashes, bubble interactions, as well as surface tension effects, can co-exist in one single simulation, and are created within the same computational framework. Such a framework is unique in that it is free from any complicated interface tracking/reconstruction procedures. Our approach is developed from the two-phase lattice Boltzmann method with the mean field model, which provides a unified framework for interface dynamics but is numerically unstable under turbulent conditions. Considering the drawbacks of the existing approaches, we propose techniques to suppress oscillations for significant stability enhancement, as well as derive a new subgrid-scale model to further improve stability, faithfully preserving liquid-air interface details without excessive diffusion by taking into account the density variation. The whole framework is highly parallel, enabling very efficient implementation. Comparisons with the related approaches show superiority on stable simulations with detail preservation and multiphase phenomena simultaneously involved. A set of animation results demonstrate the effectiveness of our method.
Impact of Neutral Boundary-Layer Turbulence on Wind-Turbine Wakes: A Numerical Modelling Study
Englberger, Antonia; Dörnbrack, Andreas
2017-03-01
The wake characteristics of a wind turbine in a turbulent boundary layer under neutral stratification are investigated systematically by means of large-eddy simulations. A methodology to maintain the turbulence of the background flow for simulations with open horizontal boundaries, without the necessity of the permanent import of turbulence data from a precursor simulation, was implemented in the geophysical flow solver EULAG. These requirements are fulfilled by applying the spectral energy distribution of a neutral boundary layer in the wind-turbine simulations. A detailed analysis of the wake response towards different turbulence levels of the background flow results in a more rapid recovery of the wake for a higher level of turbulence. A modified version of the Rankine-Froude actuator disc model and the blade element momentum method are tested as wind-turbine parametrizations resulting in a strong dependence of the near-wake wind field on the parametrization, whereas the far-wake flow is fairly insensitive to it. The wake characteristics are influenced by the two considered airfoils in the blade element momentum method up to a streamwise distance of 14 D ( D = rotor diameter). In addition, the swirl induced by the rotation has an impact on the velocity field of the wind turbine even in the far wake. Further, a wake response study reveals a considerable effect of different subgrid-scale closure models on the streamwise turbulent intensity.
Taylor, Gregory E.; Zack, John W.; Manobianco, John
1994-01-01
NASA funded Mesoscale Environmental Simulations and Operations (MESO), Inc. to develop a version of the Mesoscale Atmospheric Simulation System (MASS). The model has been modified specifically for short-range forecasting in the vicinity of KSC/CCAS. To accomplish this, the model domain has been limited to increase the number of horizontal grid points (and therefore grid resolution) and the model' s treatment of precipitation, radiation, and surface hydrology physics has been enhanced to predict convection forced by local variations in surface heat, moisture fluxes, and cloud shading. The objective of this paper is to (1) provide an overview of MASS including the real-time initialization and configuration for running the data pre-processor and model, and (2) to summarize the preliminary evaluation of the model's forecasts of temperature, moisture, and wind at selected rawinsonde station locations during February 1994 and July 1994. MASS is a hydrostatic, three-dimensional modeling system which includes schemes to represent planetary boundary layer processes, surface energy and moisture budgets, free atmospheric long and short wave radiation, cloud microphysics, and sub-grid scale moist convection.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bernard Dugas
2012-02-01
Full Text Available Two one-dimensional (1-D column lake models have been coupled interactively with a developmental version of the Canadian Regional Climate Model. Multidecadal reanalyses-driven simulations with and without lakes revealed the systematic biases of the model and the impact of lakes on the simulated North American climate.The presence of lakes strongly influences the climate of the lake-rich region of the Canadian Shield. Due to their large thermal inertia, lakes act to dampen the diurnal and seasonal cycle of low-level air temperature. In late autumn and winter, ice-free lakes induce large sensible and latent heat fluxes, resulting in a strong enhancement of precipitation downstream of the Laurentian Great Lakes, which is referred to as the snow belt.The FLake (FL and Hostetler (HL lake models perform adequately for small subgrid-scale lakes and for large resolved lakes with shallow depth, located in temperate or warm climatic regions. Both lake models exhibit specific strengths and weaknesses. For example, HL simulates too rapid spring warming and too warm surface temperature, especially in large and deep lakes; FL tends to damp the diurnal cycle of surface temperature. An adaptation of 1-D lake models might be required for an adequate simulation of large and deep lakes.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baltink, H.K.; Holtslag, A.A.M. [Royal Netherlands Meteorological Inst., KNMI, De Bilt (Netherlands)
1997-10-01
From October 1994 through January 1997 the Tropospheric Energy Budget Experiment (TEBEX) was executed by KNMI. The main objectives are to study boundary layer processes and cloud variability on the sub-grid scale of present Global Climate Models and to improve the related sub-grid parametrizations. A suite of instruments was deployed to measure a large number of variables. Measurements to characterize ABL processes were focussed around the 200 m high meteorological observation tower of the KNMI in Cabauw. In the framework of TEBEX a 1290 MHz wind-profiler/RASS was installed in July 1994 at 300 m from tower. Data collected during TEBEX are used to assess the performance of a Regional Atmospheric Climate Model (RACMO). This climate model runs also in a operational forecast mode once a day. The diagnostic ABL-height (h{sub model}) is calculated from the RACMO forecast output. A modified Richardson`s number method extended with an excess parcel temperature is applied for all stability conditions. We present the preliminary results of a comparison of h{sub model} from forecasts with measured h{sub TS} derived from profiler and sodar data for July 1995. (au)
Model for predicting mountain wave field uncertainties
Damiens, Florentin; Lott, François; Millet, Christophe; Plougonven, Riwal
2017-04-01
Studying the propagation of acoustic waves throughout troposphere requires knowledge of wind speed and temperature gradients from the ground up to about 10-20 km. Typical planetary boundary layers flows are known to present vertical low level shears that can interact with mountain waves, thereby triggering small-scale disturbances. Resolving these fluctuations for long-range propagation problems is, however, not feasible because of computer memory/time restrictions and thus, they need to be parameterized. When the disturbances are small enough, these fluctuations can be described by linear equations. Previous works by co-authors have shown that the critical layer dynamics that occur near the ground produces large horizontal flows and buoyancy disturbances that result in intense downslope winds and gravity wave breaking. While these phenomena manifest almost systematically for high Richardson numbers and when the boundary layer depth is relatively small compare to the mountain height, the process by which static stability affects downslope winds remains unclear. In the present work, new linear mountain gravity wave solutions are tested against numerical predictions obtained with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. For Richardson numbers typically larger than unity, the mesoscale model is used to quantify the effect of neglected nonlinear terms on downslope winds and mountain wave patterns. At these regimes, the large downslope winds transport warm air, a so called "Foehn" effect than can impact sound propagation properties. The sensitivity of small-scale disturbances to Richardson number is quantified using two-dimensional spectral analysis. It is shown through a pilot study of subgrid scale fluctuations of boundary layer flows over realistic mountains that the cross-spectrum of mountain wave field is made up of the same components found in WRF simulations. The impact of each individual component on acoustic wave propagation is discussed in terms of
Simulation of Oxygen Disintegration and Mixing With Hydrogen or Helium at Supercritical Pressure
Bellan, Josette; Taskinoglu, Ezgi
2012-01-01
The simulation of high-pressure turbulent flows, where the pressure, p, is larger than the critical value, p(sub c), for the species under consideration, is relevant to a wide array of propulsion systems, e.g. gas turbine, diesel, and liquid rocket engines. Most turbulence models, however, have been developed for atmospheric-p turbulent flows. The difference between atmospheric-p and supercritical-p turbulence is that, in the former situation, the coupling between dynamics and thermodynamics is moderate to negligible, but for the latter it is very significant, and can dominate the flow characteristics. The reason for this stems from the mathematical form of the equation of state (EOS), which is the perfect-gas EOS in the former case, and the real-gas EOS in the latter case. For flows at supercritical pressure, p, the large eddy simulation (LES) equations consist of the differential conservation equations coupled with a real-gas EOS. The equations use transport properties that depend on the thermodynamic variables. Compared to previous LES models, the differential equations contain not only the subgrid scale (SGS) fluxes, but also new SGS terms, each denoted as a correction. These additional terms, typically assumed null for atmospheric pressure flows, stem from filtering the differential governing equations, and represent differences between a filtered term and the same term computed as a function of the filtered flow field. In particular, the energy equation contains a heat-flux correction (q-correction) that is the difference between the filtered divergence of the heat flux and the divergence of the heat flux computed as a function of the filtered flow field. In a previous study, there was only partial success in modeling the q-correction term, but in this innovation, success has been achieved by using a different modeling approach. This analysis, based on a temporal mixing layer Direct Numerical Simulation database, shows that the focus in modeling the q
MHD Modeling of the Solar Wind with Turbulence Transport and Heating
Goldstein, M. L.; Usmanov, A. V.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Breech, B.
2009-01-01
We have developed a magnetohydrodynamic model that describes the global axisymmetric steady-state structure of the solar wind near solar minimum with account for transport of small-scale turbulence associated heating. The Reynolds-averaged mass, momentum, induction, and energy equations for the large-scale solar wind flow are solved simultaneously with the turbulence transport equations in the region from 0.3 to 100 AU. The large-scale equations include subgrid-scale terms due to turbulence and the turbulence (small-scale) equations describe the effects of transport and (phenomenologically) dissipation of the MHD turbulence based on a few statistical parameters (turbulence energy, normalized cross-helicity, and correlation scale). The coupled set of equations is integrated numerically for a source dipole field on the Sun by a time-relaxation method in the corotating frame of reference. We present results on the plasma, magnetic field, and turbulence distributions throughout the heliosphere and on the role of the turbulence in the large-scale structure and temperature distribution in the solar wind.
Characterization of Dispersive Fluxes in Mesoscale Models Using LES of Flow over an Array of Cubes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adil Rasheed
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Field studies have shown that local climate is strongly influenced by urban structures. This influences both energy consumption and the pedestrian comfort. It is thus useful to be able to simulate the urban environment to take these effects into account in building and urban design. But for computational reasons, conventional computational fluid dynamics (CFD codes cannot be used directly on a grid fine enough to resolve all scales found in a city. For this, we use mesoscale models, variants of CFD codes in which the 3D conservation equations are solved on grids having a resolution of a few kilometers. At this resolution, the effects of subgrid scales need implicit representations. In other words, phenomena such as momentum and energy exchanges averaged over the mesoscale grid contribute necessary sources/sinks to the corresponding equations. Such spatial averaging results in additional terms called dispersive fluxes. Until now these fluxes have been ignored. To better understand these fluxes, we have conducted large eddy simulations (LESs over an array of cubes for different inter-cube spacings. The study shows that these fluxes are as important as the turbulent fluxes and exhibit trends which are related to the eddy formations inside the canopies.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Junhua Yang
2016-01-01
Full Text Available To improve the simulation performance of mesoscale models in the northeastern Tibetan Plateau, two reanalysis initial datasets (NCEP FNL and ERA-Interim and two MODIS (Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer land-use datasets (from 2001 and 2010 are used in WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting modeling. The model can reproduce the variations of 2 m temperature (T2 and 2 m relative humidity (RH2, but T2 is overestimated and RH2 is underestimated in the control experiment. After using the new initial drive and land use data, the simulation precision in T2 is improved by the correction of overestimated net energy flux at surface and the RH2 is improved due to the lower T2 and larger soil moisture. Due to systematic bias in WRF modeling for wind speed, we design another experiment that includes the Jimenez subgrid-scale orography scheme, which reduces the frequency of low wind speed and increases the frequency of high wind speed and that is more consistent with the observation. Meanwhile, the new drive and land-use data lead to lower boundary layer height and influence the potential temperature and wind speed in both the lower atmosphere and the upper layer, while the impact on water vapor mixing ratio is primarily concentrated in the lower atmosphere.
A priori tests of combustion models based on a CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2} Triple Flame
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Dombard, J.; Naud, B.; Jimenez Sanchez, C.
2008-07-01
This document reproduces the final project of Jerome Dombard, presented on June 25, 2008, for the obtention of the Master degree MIMSE (Master Ingenierie Mathematique, Statistique et Economique) of Bordeaux University (Universite Bordeaux 1). We make an a priori study of FPI/FGM-type turbulent combustion models using a 2D DNS of a triple flame. A reduced chemical scheme of 16 species and 12 reactions is used (ARM1, proposed by J.-Y. Chen at Berkeley University). The fuel (CH4/H2 mixture) and oxidizer (air) correspond to the inlet composition of the Sydney bluff-body stabilised flame experiments (flames HM1-3). First, we compute 1D laminar premixed flames. The purpose of those calculations is twofold: 1. check the differences between different computer programs and different treatments of molecular diffusion, and 2. calibrate the 2D-DNS of the laminar triple flame (mainly decide on the grid resolution). Then, the solution of the 2D laminar triple flame is used to test a priori FPI/FGM tables. Finally, preliminary considerations on sub-grid scale modelling in the context of Large Eddy Simulation are made. (Author) 14 refs.
Rhoades, A.; Ullrich, P. A.; Zarzycki, C. M.; Levy, M.; Taylor, M.
2014-12-01
Snowpack is crucial for the western USA, providing around 75% of the total fresh water supply (Cayan et al., 1996) and buffering against seasonal aridity impacts on agricultural, ecosystem, and urban water demands. The resilience of the California water system is largely dependent on natural stores provided by snowpack. This resilience has shown vulnerabilities due to anthropogenic global climate change. Historically, the northern Sierras showed a net decline of 50-75% in snow water equivalent (SWE) while the southern Sierras showed a net accumulation of 30% (Mote et al., 2005). Future trends of SWE highlight that western USA SWE may decline by 40-70% (Pierce and Cayan, 2013), snowfall may decrease by 25-40% (Pierce and Cayan, 2013), and more winter storms may tend towards rain rather than snow (Bales et al., 2006). The volatility of Sierran snowpack presents a need for scientific tools to help water managers and policy makers assess current and future trends. A burgeoning tool to analyze these trends comes in the form of variable-resolution global climate modeling (VRGCM). VRGCMs serve as a bridge between regional and global models and provide added resolution in areas of need, eliminate lateral boundary forcings, provide model runtime speed up, and utilize a common dynamical core, physics scheme and sub-grid scale parameterization package. A cubed-sphere variable-resolution grid with 25 km horizontal resolution over the western USA was developed for use in the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) within the Community Earth System Model (CESM). A 25-year three-member ensemble climatology (1980-2005) is presented and major snowpack metrics such as SWE, snow depth, snow cover, and two-meter surface temperature are assessed. The ensemble simulation is also compared to observational, reanalysis, and WRF model datasets. The variable-resolution model provides a mechanism for reaching towards non-hydrostatic scales and simulations are currently being developed with refined
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Rai, Raj K. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Berg, Larry K. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Pekour, Mikhail [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Shaw, William J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Kosovic, Branko [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado; Mirocha, Jeffrey D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California; Ennis, Brandon L. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico
2017-12-01
The assumption of sub-grid scale (SGS) horizontal homogeneity within a model grid cell, which forms the basis of SGS turbulence closures used by mesoscale models, becomes increasingly tenuous as grid spacing is reduced to a few kilometers or less, such as in many emerging high-resolution applications. Herein, we use the turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) budget equation to study the spatio-temporal variability in two types of terrain—complex (Columbia Basin Wind Energy Study [CBWES] site, north-eastern Oregon) and flat (ScaledWind Farm Technologies [SWiFT] site, west Texas) using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. In each case six-nested domains (three domains each for mesoscale and large-eddy simulation [LES]) are used to downscale the horizontal grid spacing from 10 km to 10 m using the WRF model framework. The model output was used to calculate the values of the TKE budget terms in vertical and horizontal planes as well as the averages of grid cells contained in the four quadrants (a quarter area) of the LES domain. The budget terms calculated along the planes and the mean profile of budget terms show larger spatial variability at CBWES site than at the SWiFT site. The contribution of the horizontal derivative of the shear production term to the total production shear was found to be 45% and 15% of the total shear, at the CBWES and SWiFT sites, respectively, indicating that the horizontal derivatives applied in the budget equation should not be ignored in mesoscale model parameterizations, especially for cases with complex terrain with <10 km scale.
Yang, Xiang I. A.; Park, George Ilhwan; Moin, Parviz
2017-10-01
Log-layer mismatch refers to a chronic problem found in wall-modeled large-eddy simulation (WMLES) or detached-eddy simulation, where the modeled wall-shear stress deviates from the true one by approximately 15 % . Many efforts have been made to resolve this mismatch. The often-used fixes, which are generally ad hoc, include modifying subgrid-scale stress models, adding a stochastic forcing, and moving the LES-wall-model matching location away from the wall. An analysis motivated by the integral wall-model formalism suggests that log-layer mismatch is resolved by the built-in physics-based temporal filtering. In this work we investigate in detail the effects of local filtering on log-layer mismatch. We show that both local temporal filtering and local wall-parallel filtering resolve log-layer mismatch without moving the LES-wall-model matching location away from the wall. Additionally, we look into the momentum balance in the near-wall region to provide an alternative explanation of how LLM occurs, which does not necessarily rely on the numerical-error argument. While filtering resolves log-layer mismatch, the quality of the wall-shear stress fluctuations predicted by WMLES does not improve with our remedy. The wall-shear stress fluctuations are highly underpredicted due to the implied use of LES filtering. However, good agreement can be found when the WMLES data are compared to the direct numerical simulation data filtered at the corresponding WMLES resolutions.
Large eddy simulation and direct numerical simulation of high speed turbulent reacting flows
Adumitroaie, V.; Frankel, S. H.; Madnia, C. K.; Givi, P.
The objective of this research is to make use of Large Eddy Simulation (LES) and Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) for the computational analyses of high speed reacting flows. Our efforts in the first phase of this research conducted within the past three years have been directed in several issues pertaining to intricate physics of turbulent reacting flows. In our previous 5 semi-annual reports submitted to NASA LaRC, as well as several technical papers in archival journals, the results of our investigations have been fully described. In this progress report which is different in format as compared to our previous documents, we focus only on the issue of LES. The reason for doing so is that LES is the primary issue of interest to our Technical Monitor and that our other findings were needed to support the activities conducted under this prime issue. The outcomes of our related investigations, nevertheless, are included in the appendices accompanying this report. The relevance of the materials in these appendices are, therefore, discussed only briefly within the body of the report. Here, results are presented of a priori and a posterior analyses for validity assessments of assumed Probability Density Function (PDF) methods as potential subgrid scale (SGS) closures for LES of turbulent reacting flows. Simple non-premixed reacting systems involving an isothermal reaction of the type A + B yields Products under both chemical equilibrium and non-equilibrium conditions are considered. A priori analyses are conducted of a homogeneous box flow, and a spatially developing planar mixing layer to investigate the performance of the Pearson Family of PDF's as SGS models. A posteriori analyses are conducted of the mixing layer using a hybrid one-equation Smagorinsky/PDF SGS closure. The Smagorinsky closure augmented by the solution of the subgrid turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) equation is employed to account for hydrodynamic fluctuations, and the PDF is employed for modeling the
Olivares-Espinosa, H.; Breton, S.-P.; Masson, C.; Dufresne, L.
2014-12-01
An Actuator Disk (AD) model is implemented in the CFD platform OpenFOAM® with the purpose of studying the characteristics of the turbulent flow in the wake of the rotor of a horizontal-axis wind turbine. This AD model is based on the blade-element theory and it employs airfoil data to calculate the distribution of forces over the disk of a conceptual 5 MW offshore wind turbine. A uniform, non-turbulent flow is used as inflow so the turbulence is only produced in the wake of the AD. Computations are performed using Large-Eddy Simulations (LES) to capture the unsteady fluctuations in the flow. Additionally, a classic Smagorinsky Sub-Grid Scale (SGS) technique is employed to model the unfiltered motions. This new AD implementation makes use of a control system to adjust the rotational velocity of the rotor (below rated power) to the local conditions of the wind flow. The preliminary results show that the wake characteristics are influenced by the force distribution on the disk when compared to the wake produced by a uniformly loaded AD. Also, we observe that the simulated rotor reacts correctly to the introduction of the control system, although operating below the optimal power.
Kravtsov, S.; Kondrashov, D.; Ghil, M.
2005-11-01
Predictive models are constructed to best describe an observed field’s statistics within a given class of nonlinear dynamics driven by a spatially coherent noise that is white in time. For linear dynamics, such inverse stochastic models are obtained by multiple linear regression (MLR). Nonlinear dynamics, when more appropriate, is accommodated by applying multiple polynomial regression (MPR) instead; the resulting model uses polynomial predictors, but the dependence on the regression parameters is linear in both MPR and MLR.The basic concepts are illustrated using the Lorenz convection model, the classical double-well problem, and a three-well problem in two space dimensions. Given a data sample that is long enough, MPR successfully reconstructs the model coefficients in the former two cases, while the resulting inverse model captures the three-regime structure of the system’s probability density function (PDF) in the latter case.A novel multilevel generalization of the classic regression procedure is introduced next. In this generalization, the residual stochastic forcing at a given level is subsequently modeled as a function of variables at this level and all the preceding ones. The number of levels is determined so that the lag-0 covariance of the residual forcing converges to a constant matrix, while its lag-1 covariance vanishes.This method has been applied to the output of a three-layer, quasigeostrophic model and to the analysis of Northern Hemisphere wintertime geopotential height anomalies. In both cases, the inverse model simulations reproduce well the multiregime structure of the PDF constructed in the subspace spanned by the dataset’s leading empirical orthogonal functions, as well as the detailed spectrum of the dataset’s temporal evolution. These encouraging results are interpreted in terms of the modeled low-frequency flow’s feedback on the statistics of the subgrid-scale processes.
A review of models in support of oil and gas exploration off the north coast of British Columbia
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Foreman, M.G.G.; Beauchemin, L.; Cherniawsky, J.Y.; Pena, M.A.; Cummins, P.F.; Sutherland, G.
2005-07-01
This report presents a timely review of numerical models that are needed to address scientific and environmental issues pertaining to the removal of the moratorium on offshore oil and gas exploration in northern British Columbia. Comprehensive ocean measurements and computer models are needed to obtain information of oceanic flows for the waters off British Columbia where the coastline is highly irregular with a variable bathymetry and a circulation that is driven by tides, wind and buoyancy forces. Numerical ocean models can clarify ocean processes by interpolating these observations and by providing a detailed and realistic view of the ocean. One of the challenges facing ocean modelling within the coastal environment is sub-grid scale parameterization. The objectives for modelling ocean circulation are to represent past events, predict future events and provide a better understanding of the underlying dynamics. The candidate circulation models presented in this report are the Princeton Ocean Model, the Eulerian-Lagrangian Circulation and Semi-Implicit Eulerian-Lagrangian Finite Element model, and the Regional Ocean Modeling System. Forecasting models are needed in the event that sufficient hydrocarbon reserves are found to warrant production. Specific recommendations are made for circulation, ecosystem, oil spill and drilling mud models. The models predict the physical, chemical and biological interactions that will alter the properties of oil or drilling muds once they are introduced into the ocean, as wells as the pathways by which they move in the environment. The report also pursues complementary needs for more observations to validate these modes and for the development of both high resolution surface wave model and a high resolution atmosphere model. It is expected that these recommendations will assist in the development of future science programs associated with oil and gas exploration. 179 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs., 2 appendices.
MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF FLOW PARAMETERS FOR SINGLE WIND TURBINE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
2016-01-01
Full Text Available It is known that on the territory of the Russian Federation the construction of several large wind farms is planned. The tasks connected with design and efficiency evaluation of wind farm work are in demand today. One of the possible directions in design is connected with mathematical modeling. The method of large eddy simulation developed within the direction of computational hydrodynamics allows to reproduce unsteady structure of the flow in details and to determine various integrated values. The calculation of work for single wind turbine installation by means of large eddy simulation and Actuator Line Method along the turbine blade is given in this work. For problem definition the numerical method in the form of a box was considered and the adapted unstructured grid was used.The mathematical model included the main equations of continuity and momentum equations for incompressible fluid. The large-scale vortex structures were calculated by means of integration of the filtered equations. The calculation was carried out with Smagorinsky model for determination of subgrid scale turbulent viscosity. The geometrical parametersof wind turbine were set proceeding from open sources in the Internet.All physical values were defined at center of computational cell. The approximation of items in equations was ex- ecuted with the second order of accuracy for time and space. The equations for coupling velocity and pressure were solved by means of iterative algorithm PIMPLE. The total quantity of the calculated physical values on each time step was equal to 18. So, the resources of a high performance cluster were required.As a result of flow calculation in wake for the three-bladed turbine average and instantaneous values of velocity, pressure, subgrid kinetic energy and turbulent viscosity, components of subgrid stress tensor were worked out. The re- ceived results matched the known results of experiments and numerical simulation, testify the opportunity
Development And Application Of Non-Hydrostatic Model To The Coastal Engineering Problems
Maderych, V.; Brovchenko, I.; Fenical, S.; Nikishov, V.; Terletska, K.
2007-12-01
The 3D non-hydrostatic free surface model developed by Kanarska and Maderich (2003) for stratified flows was further improved and has been used to simulate coastal processes. In the model the surface elevation, hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic components of pressure and velocity are calculated at sequential stages. Unlike most non-hydrostatic models, the 2-D depth-averaged momentum and continuity equations were integrated explicitly, whereas the 3-D equations were solved semi-implicitly at subsequent stages. The RANS and subgrid- scale eddy viscosity and diffusivity parameterization were implemented in the model to parameterize small-scale mixing. The model was applied to three coastal engineering problems. First, we used the model coupled with a 3D Lagrangian sediment transport model to predict scour caused by propeller jets of slowly maneuvering ships. The results of the simulations show good agreement with laboratory experiments and field ADCP measurements with tug boats. Second, the model was applied, while nested into the hydrostatic far-field counterpart model, for near-field simulation of cooling water discharge through submerged outfalls. Third, laboratory experiments and simulations were performed to estimate effects of large-amplitude internal solitary waves (ISW) on submerged structures and coastal bottom sediments. In the first series of experiments and simulations, the interaction of ISW-depressions with a rectangular bottom obstacle was investigated. In the second series, the ISW-depression was studied passing through a smooth local lateral constriction. The third series of laboratory experiments and simulations was conducted to investigate the dynamics of ISW of depressions reflecting from a steep slope. Contribution of V. Maderych in this work was supported by Hankuk University of Foreign Studies Research Fund of 2007.
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Benhamadouche, S., E-mail: sofiane.benhamadouche@edf.fr; Arenas, M.; Malouf, W.J.
2017-02-15
Highlights: • Wall-resolved LES can predict the flow through a square-edged orifice at Re = 25,000. • LES results are compared with the available experimental data and ISO 5167-2. • Pressure loss and discharge coefficients are in very good agreement with ISO 5167-2. • The present wall-resolved LES could be used as reference data for RANS validation. - Abstract: The orifice plate is a pressure differential device frequently used for flow measurements in pipes across different industries. The present study demonstrates the accuracy obtainable using a wall-resolved Large Eddy Simulation (LES) approach to predict the velocity, the Reynolds stresses, the pressure loss and the discharge coefficient for a flow through a square-edged orifice in a round pipe at a Reynolds number of 25,000. The ratio of the orifice diameter to the pipe diameter is β = 0.62, and the ratio of the orifice thickness to the pipe diameter is 0.11. The mesh is sized using refinement criteria at the wall and preliminary RANS results to ensure that the solution is resolved beyond an estimated Taylor micro-scale. The inlet condition is simulated using a recycling method, and the LES is run with a dynamic Smagorinsky sub-grid scale (SGS) model. The sensitivity to the SGS model and to the pressure–velocity coupling is shown to be small in the present study. The LES is compared with the available experimental data and ISO 5167-2. In general, the LES shows good agreement with the velocity from the experimental data. The profiles of the Reynolds stresses are similar, but an offset is observed in the diagonal stresses. The pressure loss and discharge coefficients are shown to be in very good agreement with the predictions of ISO 5167-2. Therefore, the wall-resolved LES is shown to be highly accurate in simulating the flow across a square-edged orifice.
The magnitude and causes of uncertainty in global model simulations of cloud condensation nuclei
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L. A. Lee
2013-09-01
Full Text Available Aerosol–cloud interaction effects are a major source of uncertainty in climate models so it is important to quantify the sources of uncertainty and thereby direct research efforts. However, the computational expense of global aerosol models has prevented a full statistical analysis of their outputs. Here we perform a variance-based analysis of a global 3-D aerosol microphysics model to quantify the magnitude and leading causes of parametric uncertainty in model-estimated present-day concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN. Twenty-eight model parameters covering essentially all important aerosol processes, emissions and representation of aerosol size distributions were defined based on expert elicitation. An uncertainty analysis was then performed based on a Monte Carlo-type sampling of an emulator built for each model grid cell. The standard deviation around the mean CCN varies globally between about ±30% over some marine regions to ±40–100% over most land areas and high latitudes, implying that aerosol processes and emissions are likely to be a significant source of uncertainty in model simulations of aerosol–cloud effects on climate. Among the most important contributors to CCN uncertainty are the sizes of emitted primary particles, including carbonaceous combustion particles from wildfires, biomass burning and fossil fuel use, as well as sulfate particles formed on sub-grid scales. Emissions of carbonaceous combustion particles affect CCN uncertainty more than sulfur emissions. Aerosol emission-related parameters dominate the uncertainty close to sources, while uncertainty in aerosol microphysical processes becomes increasingly important in remote regions, being dominated by deposition and aerosol sulfate formation during cloud-processing. The results lead to several recommendations for research that would result in improved modelling of cloud–active aerosol on a global scale.
Barnier, Bernard; Reynaud, Thierry; Beckmann, Aike; Böning, Claus; Molines, Jean-Marc; Barnard, Sally; Jia, Yanli
The time dependent circulation of the North Brazil Current is studied with three numerical ocean circulation models, which differ by the vertical coordinate used to formulate the primitive equations. The models are driven with the same surface boundary conditions and their horizontal grid-resolution (isotropic, 1/3° at the equator) is in principle fine enough to permit the generation of mesoscale eddies. Our analysis of the mean seasonal currents concludes that the volume transport of the North Brazil Current (NBC) at the equator is principally determined by the strength of the meridional overturning, and suggests that the return path of the global thermohaline circulation is concentrated in the NBC. Models which simulate a realistic overturning at 24°N of the order of 16-18 Sv also simulate a realistic NBC transport of nearly 35 Sv comparable to estimates deduced from the most recent observations. In all models, the major part of this inflow of warm waters from the South Atlantic recirculates in the zonal equatorial current system, but the models also agree on the existence of a permanent coastal mean flow to the north-west, from the equator into the Carribean Sea, in the form of a continuous current or a succession of eddies. Important differences are found between models in their representation of the eddy field. The reasons invoked are the use of different subgrid-scale parameterisations, and differences in stability of the NBC retroflection loop because of differences in the representation of the effect of bottom friction according to the vertical coordinate that is used. Finally, even if differences noticed between models in the details of the seasonal mean circulation and water mass properties could be explained by differences in the eddy field, nonetheless the major characteristics (mean seasonal currents, volume and heat transports) appears to be at first order driven by the strength of the thermohaline circulation.
Representation and evaluation of aerosol mixing state in a climate model
Bauer, S. E.; Prather, K. A.; Ault, A. P.
2011-12-01
Aerosol particles in the atmosphere are composed out of multiple chemical species. The aerosol mixing state is an important aerosol property that will determine the interaction of aerosols with the climate system via radiative forcings and cloud activation. Through the introduction of aerosol microphysics into climate models, aerosol mixing state is by now taken into account to a certain extend in climate models, and evaluation of mixing state is the next challenge. Here we use data from the Aerosol Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer (ATOFMS) and compare the results to the GISS-modelE-MATRIX model, a global climate model including a detailed aerosol micro-physical scheme. We use data from various field campaigns probing, urban, rural and maritime air masses and compare those to climatological and nudged simulations for the years 2005 to 2009. ATOFMS provides information about the size distributions of several mixing state classes, including the chemical components of black and organic carbon, sulfates, dust and salts. MATRIX simulates 16 aerosol populations, which definitions are based on mixing state. We have grouped ATOFMS and MATRIX data into similar mixing state classes and compare the size resolved number concentrations against each other. As a first result we find that climatological simulations are rather difficult to evaluate with field data, and that nudged simulations give a much better agreement. However this is not just caused by the better fit of natural - meteorological driven - aerosol components, but also due to the interaction between meteorology and aerosol formation. The model seems to get the right amount of mixing state of black carbon material with sulfate and organic components, but seems to always overestimate the fraction of black carbon that is externally mixed. In order to understand this bias between model and the ATOFMS data, we will look into microphysical processes near emission sources and investigate the climate relevance of these sub
Kaminski, J. W.; Neary, L.; Struzewska, J.; McConnell, J. C.; Lupu, A.; Jarosz, J.; Toyota, K.; Gong, S. L.; Côté, J.; Liu, X.; Chance, K.; Richter, A.
2008-06-01
Tropospheric chemistry and air quality processes were implemented on-line in the Global Environmental Multiscale weather prediction model. The integrated model, GEM-AQ, was developed as a platform to investigate chemical weather at scales from global to urban. The current chemical mechanism is comprised of 50 gas-phase species, 116 chemical and 19 photolysis reactions, and is complemented by a sectional aerosol module with 5 aerosols types. All tracers are advected using the semi-Lagrangian scheme native to GEM. The vertical transport includes parameterized subgrid-scale turbulence and large scale deep convection. Dry deposition is included as a flux boundary condition in the vertical diffusion equation. Wet deposition of gas-phase species is treated in a simplified way, and only below-cloud scavenging is considered. The emissions used include yearly-averaged anthropogenic, and monthly-averaged biogenic, ocean, soil, and biomass burning emission fluxes, as well as NOx from lightning. In order to evaluate the ability to simulate seasonal variations and regional distributions of trace gases such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide and carbon monoxide, the model was run for a period of five years (2001 2005) on a global uniform 1.5°×1.5° horizontal resolution domain and 28 hybrid levels extending up to 10 hPa. Model results were compared with observations from satellites, aircraft measurement campaigns and balloon sondes. We find that GEM-AQ is able to capture the spatial details of the chemical fields in the middle and lower troposphere. The modelled ozone consistently shows good agreement with observations, except over tropical oceans. The comparison of carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide with satellite measurements emphasizes the need for more accurate, year-specific emissions fluxes for biomass burning and anthropogenic sources. Other species also compare well with available observations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. W. Kaminski
2008-06-01
Full Text Available Tropospheric chemistry and air quality processes were implemented on-line in the Global Environmental Multiscale weather prediction model. The integrated model, GEM-AQ, was developed as a platform to investigate chemical weather at scales from global to urban. The current chemical mechanism is comprised of 50 gas-phase species, 116 chemical and 19 photolysis reactions, and is complemented by a sectional aerosol module with 5 aerosols types. All tracers are advected using the semi-Lagrangian scheme native to GEM. The vertical transport includes parameterized subgrid-scale turbulence and large scale deep convection. Dry deposition is included as a flux boundary condition in the vertical diffusion equation. Wet deposition of gas-phase species is treated in a simplified way, and only below-cloud scavenging is considered. The emissions used include yearly-averaged anthropogenic, and monthly-averaged biogenic, ocean, soil, and biomass burning emission fluxes, as well as NO_{x} from lightning. In order to evaluate the ability to simulate seasonal variations and regional distributions of trace gases such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide and carbon monoxide, the model was run for a period of five years (2001–2005 on a global uniform 1.5°×1.5° horizontal resolution domain and 28 hybrid levels extending up to 10 hPa. Model results were compared with observations from satellites, aircraft measurement campaigns and balloon sondes. We find that GEM-AQ is able to capture the spatial details of the chemical fields in the middle and lower troposphere. The modelled ozone consistently shows good agreement with observations, except over tropical oceans. The comparison of carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide with satellite measurements emphasizes the need for more accurate, year-specific emissions fluxes for biomass burning and anthropogenic sources. Other species also compare well with available observations.
Modeling of condensation, stratification, and mixing phenomena in a pool of water
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Li, H.; Kudinov, P.; Villanueva, W. (Royal Institute of Technology (KTH). Div. of Nuclear Power Safety, Stockholm (Sweden))
2010-12-15
This work pertains to the research program on Containment Thermal-Hydraulics at KTH. The objective is to evaluate and improve performance of methods, which are used to analyze thermal-hydraulics of steam suppression pools in a BWR plant under different abnormal transient and accident conditions. As a passive safety system, the function of steam pressure suppression pools is paramount to the containment performance. In the present work, the focus is on apparently-benign but intricate and potentially risk-significant scenarios in which thermal stratification could significantly impede the pool's pressure suppression capacity. For the case of small flow rates of steam influx, the steam condenses rapidly in the pool and the hot condensate rises in a narrow plume above the steam injection plane and spreads into a thin layer at the pool's free surface. When the steam flow rate increases significantly, momentum introduced by the steam injection and/or periodic expansion and shrink of large steam bubbles due to direct contact condensation can cause breakdown of the stratified layers and lead to mixing of the pool water. Accurate prediction of the pool thermal-hydraulics in such scenarios presents a computational challenge. Lumped-parameter models have no capability to predict temperature distribution of water pool during thermal stratification development. While high-order-accurate CFD (RANS, LES) methods are not practical due to excessive computing power needed to calculate 3D high-Rayleighnumber natural circulation flow in long transients. In the present work, a middleground approach is used, namely CFD-like model of the general purpose thermalhydraulic code GOTHIC. Each cell of 3D GOTHIC grid uses lumped parameter volume type closures for modeling of various heat and mass transfer processes at subgrid scale. We use GOTHIC to simulate POOLEX/PPOOLEX experiment, in order to (a) quantify errors due to GOTHIC's physical models and numerical schemes, and (b
On the influence of model physics on simulations of Arctic and Antarctic sea ice
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. Massonnet
2011-09-01
Full Text Available Two hindcast (1983–2007 simulations are performed with the global, ocean-sea ice models NEMO-LIM2 and NEMO-LIM3 driven by atmospheric reanalyses and climatologies. The two simulations differ only in their sea ice component, while all other elements of experimental design (resolution, initial conditions, atmospheric forcing are kept identical. The main differences in the sea ice models lie in the formulation of the subgrid-scale ice thickness distribution, of the thermodynamic processes, of the sea ice salinity and of the sea ice rheology. To assess the differences in model skill over the period of investigation, we develop a set of metrics for both hemispheres, comparing the main sea ice variables (concentration, thickness and drift to available observations and focusing on both mean state and seasonal to interannual variability. Based upon these metrics, we discuss the physical processes potentially responsible for the differences in model skill. In particular, we suggest that (i a detailed representation of the ice thickness distribution increases the seasonal to interannual variability of ice extent, with spectacular improvement for the simulation of the recent observed summer Arctic sea ice retreats, (ii the elastic-viscous-plastic rheology enhances the response of ice to wind stress, compared to the classical viscous-plastic approach, (iii the grid formulation and the air-sea ice drag coefficient affect the simulated ice export through Fram Strait and the ice accumulation along the Canadian Archipelago, and (iv both models show less skill in the Southern Ocean, probably due to the low quality of the reanalyses in this region and to the absence of important small-scale oceanic processes at the models' resolution (~1°.
weather@home 2: validation of an improved global-regional climate modelling system
Guillod, Benoit P.; Jones, Richard G.; Bowery, Andy; Haustein, Karsten; Massey, Neil R.; Mitchell, Daniel M.; Otto, Friederike E. L.; Sparrow, Sarah N.; Uhe, Peter; Wallom, David C. H.; Wilson, Simon; Allen, Myles R.
2017-05-01
Extreme weather events can have large impacts on society and, in many regions, are expected to change in frequency and intensity with climate change. Owing to the relatively short observational record, climate models are useful tools as they allow for generation of a larger sample of extreme events, to attribute recent events to anthropogenic climate change, and to project changes in such events into the future. The modelling system known as weather@home, consisting of a global climate model (GCM) with a nested regional climate model (RCM) and driven by sea surface temperatures, allows one to generate a very large ensemble with the help of volunteer distributed computing. This is a key tool to understanding many aspects of extreme events. Here, a new version of the weather@home system (weather@home 2) with a higher-resolution RCM over Europe is documented and a broad validation of the climate is performed. The new model includes a more recent land-surface scheme in both GCM and RCM, where subgrid-scale land-surface heterogeneity is newly represented using tiles, and an increase in RCM resolution from 50 to 25 km. The GCM performs similarly to the previous version, with some improvements in the representation of mean climate. The European RCM temperature biases are overall reduced, in particular the warm bias over eastern Europe, but large biases remain. Precipitation is improved over the Alps in summer, with mixed changes in other regions and seasons. The model is shown to represent the main classes of regional extreme events reasonably well and shows a good sensitivity to its drivers. In particular, given the improvements in this version of the weather@home system, it is likely that more reliable statements can be made with regards to impact statements, especially at more localized scales.
Critchell, Kay; Lambrechts, Jonathan
2016-03-01
Anthropogenic marine debris, mainly of plastic origin, is accumulating in estuarine and coastal environments around the world causing damage to fauna, flora and habitats. Plastics also have the potential to accumulate in the food web, as well as causing economic losses to tourism and sea-going industries. If we are to manage this increasing threat, we must first understand where debris is accumulating and why these locations are different to others that do not accumulate large amounts of marine debris. This paper demonstrates an advection-diffusion model that includes beaching, settling, resuspension/re-floating, degradation and topographic effects on the wind in nearshore waters to quantify the relative importance of these physical processes governing plastic debris accumulation. The aim of this paper is to prioritise research that will improve modelling outputs in the future. We have found that the physical characteristic of the source location has by far the largest effect on the fate of the debris. The diffusivity, used to parameterise the sub-grid scale movements, and the relationship between debris resuspension/re-floating from beaches and the wind shadow created by high islands also has a dramatic impact on the modelling results. The rate of degradation of macroplastics into microplastics also have a large influence in the result of the modelling. The other processes presented (settling, wind drift velocity) also help determine the fate of debris, but to a lesser degree. These findings may help prioritise research on physical processes that affect plastic accumulation, leading to more accurate modelling, and subsequently management in the future.
A New Ensemble of Perturbed-Input-Parameter Simulations by the Community Atmosphere Model
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Covey, C; Brandon, S; Bremer, P T; Domyancis, D; Garaizar, X; Johannesson, G; Klein, R; Klein, S A; Lucas, D D; Tannahill, J; Zhang, Y
2011-10-27
Uncertainty quantification (UQ) is a fundamental challenge in the numerical simulation of Earth's weather and climate, and other complex systems. It entails much more than attaching defensible error bars to predictions: in particular it includes assessing low-probability but high-consequence events. To achieve these goals with models containing a large number of uncertain input parameters, structural uncertainties, etc., raw computational power is needed. An automated, self-adapting search of the possible model configurations is also useful. Our UQ initiative at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has produced the most extensive set to date of simulations from the US Community Atmosphere Model. We are examining output from about 3,000 twelve-year climate simulations generated with a specialized UQ software framework, and assessing the model's accuracy as a function of 21 to 28 uncertain input parameter values. Most of the input parameters we vary are related to the boundary layer, clouds, and other sub-grid scale processes. Our simulations prescribe surface boundary conditions (sea surface temperatures and sea ice amounts) to match recent observations. Fully searching this 21+ dimensional space is impossible, but sensitivity and ranking algorithms can identify input parameters having relatively little effect on a variety of output fields, either individually or in nonlinear combination. Bayesian statistical constraints, employing a variety of climate observations as metrics, also seem promising. Observational constraints will be important in the next step of our project, which will compute sea surface temperatures and sea ice interactively, and will study climate change due to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide.
Evaluation of the JULES land surface model in simulating catchment hydrology in Southern Africa
MacKellar, N. C.; Dadson, S. J.; New, M.; Wolski, P.
2013-08-01
Land surface models (LSMs) are advanced tools which can be used to estimate energy, water and biogeochemical exchanges at regional scales. The inclusion of a river flow routing module in an LSM allows for the simulation of river discharge from a catchment and offers an approach to evaluate the response of the system to variations in climate and land-use, which can provide useful information for regional water resource management. This study offers insight into some of the pragmatic considerations of applying an LSM over a regional domain in Southern Africa. The objectives are to identify key parameter sensitivities and investigate differences between two runoff production schemes in physically contrasted catchments. The Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES) LSM was configured for a domain covering Southern Africa at a 0.5° resolution. The model was forced with meteorological input from the WATCH Forcing Data for the period 1981-2001 and sensitivity to various model configurations and parameter settings were tested. Both the PDM and TOPMODEL sub-grid scale runoff generation schemes were tested for parameter sensitivities, with the evaluation focussing on simulated river discharge in sub-catchments of the Orange, Okavango and Zambezi rivers. It was found that three catchments respond differently to the model configurations and there is no single runoff parameterization scheme or parameter values that yield optimal results across all catchments. The PDM scheme performs well in the upper Orange catchment, but poorly in the Okavango and Zambezi, whereas TOPMODEL grossly underestimates discharge in the upper Orange and shows marked improvement over PDM for the Okavango and Zambezi. A major shortcoming of PDM is that it does not realistically represent subsurface runoff in the deep, porous soils typical of the Okavango and Zambezi headwaters. The dry-season discharge in these catchments is therefore not replicated by PDM. TOPMODEL, however, simulates a more
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Toutant, A
2006-12-15
The complex interactions between interfaces and turbulence strongly impact the flow properties. Unfortunately, Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) have to entail a number of degrees of freedom proportional to the third power of the Reynolds number to correctly describe the flow behaviour. This extremely hard constraint makes it impossible to use DNS for industrial applications. Our strategy consists in using and improving DNS method in order to develop the Interfaces and Sub-grid Scales concept. ISS is a two-phase equivalent to the single-phase Large Eddy Simulation (LES) concept. The challenge of ISS is to integrate the two-way coupling phenomenon into sub-grid models. Applying a space filter, we have exhibited correlations or sub-grid terms that require closures. We have shown that, in two-phase flows, the presence of a discontinuity leads to specific sub-grid terms. Comparing the maximum of the norm of the sub-grid terms with the maximum of the norm of the advection tensor, we have found that sub-grid terms related to interfacial forces and viscous effect are negligible. Consequently, in the momentum balance, only the sub-grid terms related to inertia have to be closed. Thanks to a priori tests performed on several DNS data, we demonstrate that the scale similarity hypothesis, reinterpreted near discontinuity, provides sub-grid models that take into account the two-way coupling phenomenon. These models correspond to the first step of our work. Indeed, in this step, interfaces are smooth and, interactions between interfaces and turbulence occur in a transition zone where each physical variable varies sharply but continuously. The next challenge has been to determine the jump conditions across the sharp equivalent interface corresponding to the sub-grid models of the transition zone. We have used the matched asymptotic expansion method to obtain the jump conditions. The first tests on the velocity of the sharp equivalent interface are very promising (author)
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Magdeleine, S.
2009-11-15
This work is a part of a long term project that aims at using two-phase Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) in order to give information to averaged models. For now, it is limited to isothermal bubbly flows with no phase change. It could be subdivided in two parts: Firstly, theoretical developments are made in order to build an equivalent of Large Eddy Simulation (LES) for two phase flows called Interfaces and Sub-grid Scales (ISS). After the implementation of the ISS model in our code called Trio{sub U}, a set of various cases is used to validate this model. Then, special test are made in order to optimize the model for our particular bubbly flows. Thus we showed the capacity of the ISS model to produce a cheap pertinent solution. Secondly, we use the ISS model to perform simulations of bubbly flows in column. Results of these simulations are averaged to obtain quantities that appear in mass, momentum and interfacial area density balances. Thus, we processed to an a priori test of a complete one dimensional averaged model.We showed that this model predicts well the simplest flows (laminar and monodisperse). Moreover, the hypothesis of one pressure, which is often made in averaged model like CATHARE, NEPTUNE and RELAP5, is satisfied in such flows. At the opposite, without a polydisperse model, the drag is over-predicted and the uncorrelated A{sub i} flux needs a closure law. Finally, we showed that in turbulent flows, fluctuations of velocity and pressure in the liquid phase are not represented by the tested averaged model. (author)
Jung, J.
2016-12-01
The global atmospheric models based on the Multi-scale Modeling Framework (MMF) are able to explicitly resolve subgrid-scale processes by using embedded 2-D Cloud-Resolving Models (CRMs). Up to now, however, those models do not include the orographic effects on the CRM grid scale. This study shows that the effects of CRM grid-scale orography can be simulated reasonably well by the Quasi-3-D MMF (Q3D MMF), which has been developed as a second-generation MMF. In the Q3D framework, the surface topography can be included in the CRM component by using a block representation of the mountains, so that no smoothing of the topographic height is necessary. To demonstrate the performance of such a model, the orographic effects over a steep mountain are simulated in an idealized experimental setup with each of the Q3D MMF and the full 3-D CRM. The latter is used as a benchmark. Comparison of the results shows that the Q3D MMF is able to reproduce the horizontal distribution of orographic precipitation and the flow changes around mountains as simulated by the 3-D CRM, even though the embedded CRMs of the Q3D MMF recognize only some aspects of the complex 3-D topography. It is also shown that the use of 3-D CRMs in the Q3D framework, rather than 2-D CRMs, has positive impacts on the simulation of wind fields but does not substantially change the simulated precipitation.
Dadson, Simon
2015-04-01
The role of surface-water flooding in controlling fluxes of water and carbon between the land and the atmosphere is increasingly recognized in studies of the Earth system. Simultaneous advances in remote earth observation and large-scale land-surface and hydrological modeling promise improvements in our ability to understand these linkages, and suggest that improvements in prediction of river flow and inundation extents may result. Here we present an analysis of newly-available observational estimates of surface water inundation obtained through satellite Earth observation with results from simulations produced by using the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES) land-surface model operating at 0.5 degree resolution over the African continent. The model was forced with meteorological input from the WATCH Forcing Data for the period 1981-2001 and sensitivity to various model configurations and parameter settings were tested. Both the PDM and TOPMODEL sub-grid scale runoff generation schemes were tested for parameter sensitivities, with the evaluation focussing on simulated river discharge in sub-catchments of the Congo, Nile, Niger, Orange, Okavango and Zambezi rivers. It was found that whilst the water balance in each of the catchments can be simulated with acceptable accuracy, the individual responses of each river vary between model configurations so that there is no single runoff parameterization scheme or parameter values that yields optimal results across all catchments. We trace these differences to the model's representation of sub-surface flow and make some suggestions to improve the performance of large-scale land-surface models for use in similar applications. These findings suggest that the use of Earth observation data together with improved models of large-scale hydrology have the potential to improve our ability to predict surface-water flooding and to develop our understanding of the role of flooding in driving components of the water and carbon
Insights on TTL Dehydration Mechanisms from Microphysical Modelling of Aircraft Observations
Ueyama, R.; Pfister, L.; Jensen, E.
2014-01-01
The Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL), a transition layer between the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere in the tropics, serves as the entryway of various trace gases into the stratosphere. Of particular interest is the transport of water vapor through the TTL, as WV is an important greenhouse gas and also plays a significant role in stratospheric chemistry by affecting polar stratospheric cloud formation and the ozone budget. While the dominant control of stratospheric water vapor by tropical cold point temperatures via the "freeze-drying" process is generally well understood, the details of the TTL dehydration mechanisms, including the relative roles of deep convection, atmospheric waves and cloud microphysical processes, remain an active area of research. The dynamical and microphysical processes that influence TTL water vapor concentrations are investigated in simulations of cloud formation and dehydration along air parcel trajectories. We first confirm the validity of our Lagrangian models in a case study involving measurements from the Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX) flights over the central and eastern tropical Pacific in Oct-Nov 2011 and Jan-Feb 2013. ERA-Interim winds and seasonal mean heating rates from Yang et al. (2010) are used to advance parcels back in time from the flight tracks, and time-varying vertical profiles of water vapor along the diabatic trajectories are calculated in a one-dimensional cloud model as in Jensen and Pfister (2004) but with more reliable temperature field, wave and convection schemes. The simulated water vapor profiles demonstrate a significant improvement over estimates based on the Lagrangian Dry Point, agreeing well with aircraft observations when the effects of cloud microphysics, subgrid-scale gravity waves and convection are included. Following this approach, we examine the dynamical and microphysical control of TTL water vapor in the 30ºS-30ºN latitudinal belt and elucidate the dominant processes
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Fast, Jerome D.; Berg, Larry K.; Zhang, Kai; Easter, Richard C.; Ferrare, Richard A.; Hair, John; Hostetler, Chris A.; Liu, Ying; Ortega, Ivan; Sedlacek, Art; Shilling, John E.; Shrivastava, ManishKumar B.; Springston, Stephen R.; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Volkamer, Rainer M.; Wilson, Jacqueline M.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Zelenyuk-Imre, Alla
2016-08-22
The ability of the Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry (WRF-Chem) version 3.7 and the Community Atmosphere Model version 5.3 (CAM5) in simulating profiles of aerosol properties is quantified using extensive in situ and remote sensing measurements from the Two Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) conducted during July of 2012. TCAP was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program and was designed to obtain observations within two atmospheric columns; one fixed over Cape Cod, Massachusetts and the other several hundred kilometers over the ocean. The performance is quantified using most of the available aircraft and surface measurements during July, and two days are examined in more detail to identify the processes responsible for the observed aerosol layers. The higher resolution WRF-Chem model produced more aerosol mass in the free troposphere than the coarser resolution CAM5 model so that the fraction of aerosol optical thickness above the residual layer from WRF-Chem was more consistent with lidar measurements. We found that the free troposphere layers are likely due to mean vertical motions associated with synoptic-scale convergence that lifts aerosols from the boundary layer. The vertical displacement and the time period associated with upward transport in the troposphere depend on the strength of the synoptic system and whether relatively high boundary layer aerosol concentrations are present where convergence occurs. While a parameterization of subgrid scale convective clouds applied in WRF-Chem modulated the concentrations of aerosols aloft, it did not significantly change the overall altitude and depth of the layers.
Localness of energy cascade in hydrodynamic turbulence, II. Sharp spectral filter
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Aluie, Hussein [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Eyink, Gregory L [JOHNS HOPKINS UNIV.
2009-01-01
We investigate the scale-locality of subgrid-scale (SGS) energy flux and interband energy transfers defined by the sharp spectral filter. We show by rigorous bounds, physical arguments, and numerical simulations that the spectral SGS flux is dominated by local triadic interactions in an extended turbulent inertial range. Interband energy transfers are also shown to be dominated by local triads if the spectral bands have constant width on a logarithmic scale. We disprove in particular an alternative picture of 'local transfer by nonlocal triads,' with the advecting wavenumber mode at the energy peak. Although such triads have the largest transfer rates of all individual wavenumber triads, we show rigorously that, due to their restricted number, they make an asymptotically negligible contribution to energy flux and log-banded energy transfers at high wavenumbers in the inertial range. We show that it is only the aggregate effect of a geometrically increasing number of local wavenumber triads which can sustain an energy cascade to small scales. Furthermore, nonlocal triads are argued to contribute even less to the space-average energy flux than is implied by our rigorous bounds, because of additional cancellations from scale-decorrelation effects. We can thus recover the -4/3 scaling of nonlocal contributions to spectral energy flux predicted by Kraichnan's abridged Lagrangian-history direct-interaction approximation and test-field model closures. We support our results with numerical data from a 512{sup 3} pseudospectral simulation of isotropic turbulence with phase-shift dealiasing. We also discuss a rigorous counterexample of Eyink [Physica D 78, 222 (1994)], which showed that nonlocal wavenumber triads may dominate in the sharp spectral flux (but not in the SGS energy flux for graded filters). We show that this mathematical counter example fails to satisfy reasonable physical requirements for a turbulent velocity field, which are employed in our
Constraints on the Profiles of Total Water PDF in AGCMs from AIRS and a High-Resolution Model
Molod, Andrea
2012-01-01
Atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) cloud parameterizations generally include an assumption about the subgrid-scale probability distribution function (PDF) of total water and its vertical profile. In the present study, the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) monthly-mean cloud amount and relative humidity fields are used to compute a proxy for the second moment of an AGCM total water PDF called the RH01 diagnostic, which is the AIRS mean relative humidity for cloud fractions of 0.1 or less. The dependence of the second moment on horizontal grid resolution is analyzed using results from a high-resolution global model simulation.The AIRS-derived RH01 diagnostic is generally larger near the surface than aloft, indicating a narrower PDF near the surface, and varies with the type of underlying surface. High-resolution model results show that the vertical structure of profiles of the AGCM PDF second moment is unchanged as the grid resolution changes from 200 to 100 to 50 km, and that the second-moment profiles shift toward higher values with decreasing grid spacing.Several Goddard Earth Observing System, version 5 (GEOS-5), AGCM simulations were performed with several choices for the profile of the PDF second moment. The resulting cloud and relative humidity fields were shown to be quite sensitive to the prescribed profile, and the use of a profile based on the AIRS-derived proxy results in improvements relative to observational estimates. The AIRS-guided total water PDF profiles, including their dependence on underlying surface type and on horizontal resolution, have been implemented in the version of the GEOS-5 AGCM used for publicly released simulations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y. Zhang
2013-07-01
terrain and subgrid-scale meteorological phenomena, due to inaccuracies in model initialization parameterization (e.g., lack of soil temperature and moisture nudging, limitations in the physical parameterizations (e.g., shortwave radiation, cloud microphysics, cumulus parameterizations, and ice nucleation treatments as well as limitations in surface heat and moisture budget parameterizations (e.g., snow-related processes, subgrid-scale surface roughness elements, and urban canopy/heat island treatments and CO2 domes. While the use of finer grid resolutions of 0.125° and 0.025° shows some improvements for WS10, WD10, Precip, and some mesoscale events (e.g., strong forced convection and heavy precipitation, it does not significantly improve the overall statistical performance for all meteorological variables except for Precip. The WRF/Chem simulations with and without aerosols show that aerosols lead to reduced net shortwave radiation fluxes, 2 m temperature, 10 m wind speed, planetary boundary layer (PBL height, and precipitation and increase aerosol optical depth, cloud condensation nuclei, cloud optical depth, and cloud droplet number concentrations over most of the domain. These results indicate a need to further improve the model representations of the above parameterizations as well as aerosol–meteorology interactions at all scales.
Lee, Si-Yong; Carle, Steven F.; Fogg, Graham E.
2007-09-01
A covariance-based model-fitting approach is often considered valid to represent field spatial variability of hydraulic properties. This study examines the representation of geologic heterogeneity in two types of geostatistical models under the same mean and spatial covariance structure, and subsequently its effect on the hydraulic response to a pumping test based on 3D high-resolution numerical simulation and field data. Two geostatistical simulation methods, sequential Gaussian simulation (SGS) and transition probability indicator simulation (TPROGS) were applied to create conditional realizations of alluvial fan aquifer systems in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) area. The simulated K fields were then used in a numerical groundwater flow model to simulate a pumping test performed at the LLNL site. Spatial connectivity measures of high- K materials (channel facies) captured connectivity characteristics of each geostatistical model and revealed that the TPROGS model created an aquifer (channel) network having greater lateral connectivity. SGS realizations neglected important geologic structures associated with channel and overbank (levee) facies, even though the covariance model used to create these realizations provided excellent fits to sample covariances computed from exhaustive samplings of TPROGS realizations. Observed drawdown response in monitoring wells during a pumping test and its numerical simulation shows that in an aquifer system with strongly connected network of high- K materials, the Gaussian approach could not reproduce a similar behavior in simulated drawdown response found in TPROGS case. Overall, the simulated drawdown responses demonstrate significant disagreement between TPROGS and SGS realizations. This study showed that important geologic characteristics may not be captured by a spatial covariance model, even if that model is exhaustively determined and closely fits the exponential function.
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Raabe, A.; Moelders, N.; Klingspohn, M.; Simmel, M.
1998-12-31
A method to couple a meteorological and a hydrologic model was developed to describe the water cycle in a closed manner. Up to now mesoscale atmospheric models only considered the transport of water at the land surface without the linking to hydrologic runoff models, i.e., the water cycle was mostly unclosed at the land surface. In our case, the two models interact by a mass balance of water. The hydrologic model provides the fields of runoff availability for each part of the surface, which is influenced by the lateral movement of water and the meteorological model uses differences of this data in its soil wetness equation to predict the evapotranspiration. The coupling uses a resolution of the land surface of 1 km{sup 2}. The meteorological model reaches this resolution by use of an explicit subgrid in the atmospheric surface layer, while elsewhere a coarser grid is used to predict the water cycle relevant quantities. This subgrid scheme allows to produce subgrid-scale evapotranspiration in more detail and to heterogenize precipitation. Sensitivity studies show the influence of the coupling to the response of the water cycle relevant quantities when various types of the landuse data, soil moisture fields and cloud parametrization schemes are used. The explicit subgrid scheme can be used to link hydrologic models to other mesoscale atmospheric models, which is demonstrated for the model of the German Weather Service (Deutschland-Modell (DM)). (orig.) [Deutsch] Ein Verfahren zur Kopplung eines meteorologischen mit einem hydrologischen Modell wurde entwickelt um einen Ausschnitt des Wasserkreislaufes in geschlossener Form zu beschreiben. Bisher beruecksichtigten mesoskalige Atmosphaerenmodelle Wassertransporte an der Bodenoberflaeche ohne die Anbindung hydrologischer Flussgebietsmodelle, der Wasserkreislauf war an der Bodenoberflaeche meist nicht geschlossen. Hier treten die beiden Modelle ueber eine Wassermassenbilanz in Wechselwirkung, indem das hydrologische
Synergies Between Grace and Regional Atmospheric Modeling Efforts
Kusche, J.; Springer, A.; Ohlwein, C.; Hartung, K.; Longuevergne, L.; Kollet, S. J.; Keune, J.; Dobslaw, H.; Forootan, E.; Eicker, A.
2014-12-01
In the meteorological community, efforts converge towards implementation of high-resolution (monitoring systems based on numerical weather prediction (NWP) cores. This is driven by requirements of improving process understanding, better representation of land surface interactions, atmospheric convection, orographic effects, and better forecasting on shorter timescales. This is relevant for the GRACE community since (1) these models may provide improved atmospheric mass separation / de-aliasing and smaller topography-induced errors, compared to global (ECMWF-Op, ERA-Interim) data, (2) they inherit high temporal resolution from NWP models, (3) parallel efforts towards improving the land surface component and coupling groundwater models; this may provide realistic hydrological mass estimates with sub-diurnal resolution, (4) parallel efforts towards re-analyses, with the aim of providing consistent time series. (5) On the other hand, GRACE can help validating models and aids in the identification of processes needing improvement. A coupled atmosphere - land surface - groundwater modelling system is currently being implemented for the European CORDEX region at 12.5 km resolution, based on the TerrSysMP platform (COSMO-EU NWP, CLM land surface and ParFlow groundwater models). We report results from Springer et al. (J. Hydromet., accept.) on validating the water cycle in COSMO-EU using GRACE and precipitation, evapotranspiration and runoff data; confirming that the model does favorably at representing observations. We show that after GRACE-derived bias correction, basin-average hydrological conditions prior to 2002 can be reconstructed better than before. Next, comparing GRACE with CLM forced by EURO-CORDEX simulations allows identifying processes needing improvement in the model. Finally, we compare COSMO-EU atmospheric pressure, a proxy for mass corrections in satellite gravimetry, with ERA-Interim over Europe at timescales shorter/longer than 1 month, and spatial
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. Béal
2010-02-01
Full Text Available In biogeochemical models coupled to ocean circulation models, vertical mixing is an important physical process which governs the nutrient supply and the plankton residence in the euphotic layer. However, vertical mixing is often poorly represented in numerical simulations because of approximate parameterizations of sub-grid scale turbulence, wind forcing errors and other mis-represented processes such as restratification by mesoscale eddies. Getting a sufficient knowledge of the nature and structure of these errors is necessary to implement appropriate data assimilation methods and to evaluate if they can be controlled by a given observation system.
In this paper, Monte Carlo simulations are conducted to study mixing errors induced by approximate wind forcings in a three-dimensional coupled physical-biogeochemical model of the North Atlantic with a 1/4° horizontal resolution. An ensemble forecast involving 200 members is performed during the 1998 spring bloom, by prescribing perturbations of the wind forcing to generate mixing errors. The biogeochemical response is shown to be rather complex because of nonlinearities and threshold effects in the coupled model. The response of the surface phytoplankton depends on the region of interest and is particularly sensitive to the local stratification. In addition, the statistical relationships computed between the various physical and biogeochemical variables reflect the signature of the non-Gaussian behaviour of the system. It is shown that significant information on the ecosystem can be retrieved from observations of chlorophyll concentration or sea surface temperature if a simple nonlinear change of variables (anamorphosis is performed by mapping separately and locally the ensemble percentiles of the distributions of each state variable on the Gaussian percentiles. The results of idealized observational updates (performed with perfect observations and neglecting horizontal correlations
Assessment of regularization models for LES of high-Re turbulent flows
Chandy, Abhilash; Frankel, Steven
2008-11-01
Regularization-based SGS turbulence models for LES are quantitatively assessed for decaying homogeneous turbulence (DHT) and transition to turbulence for the Taylor-Green vortex (TGV) through comparisons to laboratory measurements and DNS respectively. LES predictions using the Leray-α, LANS-α, and Clark-α regularization-based SGS models are compared to the classic non-dynamic Smagorinsky model. Regarding the regularization models, this work represents their first application to relatively high Re decaying turbulence with comparison to the active-grid-generated decaying turbulence measurements of Kang et al. (JFM, 2003) at Reλ 720 and the Re=3000 DNS of transition to turbulence in the TGV of Drikakis et al. (J. Turb., 2007). For DHT the non-dynamic Smagorinsky model is in excellent agreement with measurements for t.k.e., but higher-order moments show slight discrepancies and for TGV, the energy decay rates agree reasonably well with DNS. Regarding the regularization models stable results are not obtained as compared to Smagorinsky at the same grid resolution for various values of α, and at higher resolutions, they are in worse agreement. However, with additional dissipation such as in mixed α-Smagorinsky models, results are acceptable, but show slight deviations from Smagorinsky.
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Liu, Yangwei, E-mail: liuyangwei@126.com [Group 404, National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Aero-Engine Aero-thermodynamics, School of Jet Propulsion, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191 (China); Lu, Lipeng [Group 404, National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Aero-Engine Aero-thermodynamics, School of Jet Propulsion, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191 (China); Laboratoire International Associe, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191 (China); Fang, Le [Laboratoire de Mecanique des Fluides et d' Acoustique, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, 69134 (France); Laboratoire International Associe, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191 (China); Gao, Feng [Group 404, National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Aero-Engine Aero-thermodynamics, School of Jet Propulsion, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191 (China)
2011-06-13
The correlation between the velocity helicity and the energy backscatter is proved in a DNS case of 256{sup 3}-grid homogeneous isotropic decaying turbulence. The helicity is then proposed to be employed to improve turbulence models and SGS models. Then Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model (SA) is modified with the helicity to take account of the energy backscatter, which is significant in the region of corner separation in compressors. By comparing the numerical results with experiments, it can be concluded that the modification for SA model with helicity can appropriately represent the energy backscatter, and greatly improves the predictive accuracy for simulating the corner separation flow in compressors. -- Highlights: → We study the relativity between the velocity helicity and the energy backscatter. → Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model is modified with the velocity helicity. → The modified model is employed to simulate corner separation in compressor cascade. → The modification can greatly improve the accuracy for predicting corner separation. → The helicity can represent the energy backscatter in turbulence and SGS models.
de Viron, O.; Van Camp, M. J.; Metivier, L.; Meurers, B.; Francis, O.; Wziontek, H.
2012-12-01
The time series from superconducting gravimeters (SGs) for observation periods during the years 2002 to 2011, the gravity effect obtained from different GRACE solutions and two global hydrological models are compared at 10 stations in Central Europe, using the three cornered hat method. This method allows assessing the standard deviation of the independent part of each time series from three autonomous observation techniques. The variance of the SG time series is also investigated, before and after subtracting the gravity effect from the GRACE solutions and the hydrological models. The difference between the techniques and solutions are discussed in terms of their characteristics and the periods of the hydrological signals (seasonal and interannual).
Uncertainties in modelling the climate impact of irrigation
de Vrese, Philipp; Hagemann, Stefan
2017-11-01
Irrigation-based agriculture constitutes an essential factor for food security as well as fresh water resources and has a distinct impact on regional and global climate. Many issues related to irrigation's climate impact are addressed in studies that apply a wide range of models. These involve substantial uncertainties related to differences in the model's structure and its parametrizations on the one hand and the need for simplifying assumptions for the representation of irrigation on the other hand. To address these uncertainties, we used the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology's Earth System model into which a simple irrigation scheme was implemented. In order to estimate possible uncertainties with regard to the model's more general structure, we compared the climate impact of irrigation between three simulations that use different schemes for the land-surface-atmosphere coupling. Here, it can be shown that the choice of coupling scheme does not only affect the magnitude of possible impacts but even their direction. For example, when using a scheme that does not explicitly resolve spatial subgrid scale heterogeneity at the surface, irrigation reduces the atmospheric water content, even in heavily irrigated regions. Contrarily, in simulations that use a coupling scheme that resolves heterogeneity at the surface or even within the lowest layers of the atmosphere, irrigation increases the average atmospheric specific humidity. A second experiment targeted possible uncertainties related to the representation of irrigation characteristics. Here, in four simulations the irrigation effectiveness (controlled by the target soil moisture and the non-vegetated fraction of the grid box that receives irrigation) and the timing of delivery were varied. The second experiment shows that uncertainties related to the modelled irrigation characteristics, especially the irrigation effectiveness, are also substantial. In general the impact of irrigation on the state of the land
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. Ringeval
2012-07-01
Full Text Available The quality of the global hydrological simulations performed by land surface models (LSMs strongly depends on processes that occur at unresolved spatial scales. Approaches such as TOPMODEL have been developed, which allow soil moisture redistribution within each grid-cell, based upon sub-grid scale topography. Moreover, the coupling between TOPMODEL and a LSM appears as a potential way to simulate wetland extent dynamic and its sensitivity to climate, a recently identified research problem for biogeochemical modelling, including methane emissions. Global evaluation of the coupling between TOPMODEL and an LSM is difficult, and prior attempts have been indirect, based on the evaluation of the simulated river flow. This study presents a new way to evaluate this coupling, within the ORCHIDEE LSM, using remote sensing data of inundated areas. Because of differences in nature between the satellite derived information – inundation extent – and the variable diagnosed by TOPMODEL/ORCHIDEE – area at maximum soil water content, the evaluation focuses on the spatial distribution of these two quantities as well as on their temporal variation. Despite some difficulties in exactly matching observed localized inundated events, we obtain a rather good agreement in the distribution of these two quantities at a global scale. Floodplains are not accounted for in the model, and this is a major limitation. The difficulty of reproducing the year-to-year variability of the observed inundated area (for instance, the decreasing trend by the end of 90s is also underlined. Classical indirect evaluation based on comparison between simulated and observed river flow is also performed and underlines difficulties to simulate river flow after coupling with TOPMODEL. The relationship between inundation and river flow at the basin scale in the model is analyzed, using both methods (evaluation against remote sensing data and river flow. Finally, we discuss the potential of
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vilsen, Søren B.; Tvedebrink, Torben; Mogensen, Helle Smidt
2015-01-01
ranging from 100 pg to 2 ng) conducted at The Section of Forensic Genetics, Department of Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, the method was compared to that of a naïve model that implies the removal of reads with a coverage of less than 5......We present a model fitting the distribution of non-systematic errors in STR second generation sequencing, SGS, analysis. The model fits the distribution of non-systematic errors, i.e. the noise, using a one-inflated, zero-truncated, negative binomial model. The model is a two component model....... The first component models the excess of singleton reads, while the second component models the remainder of the errors according to a truncated negative binomial distribution. We estimated the parameters of the model in two ways: (1) we maximised the likelihood using an explicitly calculated gradient...
Large-eddy simulation of separation and reattachment of a flat plate turbulent boundary layer
Cheng, W.
2015-11-11
© 2015 Cambridge University Press. We present large-eddy simulations (LES) of separation and reattachment of a flat-plate turbulent boundary-layer flow. Instead of resolving the near wall region, we develop a two-dimensional virtual wall model which can calculate the time- and space-dependent skin-friction vector field at the wall, at the resolved scale. By combining the virtual-wall model with the stretched-vortex subgrid-scale (SGS) model, we construct a self-consistent framework for the LES of separating and reattaching turbulent wall-bounded flows at large Reynolds numbers. The present LES methodology is applied to two different experimental flows designed to produce separation/reattachment of a flat-plate turbulent boundary layer at medium Reynolds number Reθ based on the momentum boundary-layer thickness θ. Comparison with data from the first case at demonstrates the present capability for accurate calculation of the variation, with the streamwise co-ordinate up to separation, of the skin friction coefficient, Reθ, the boundary-layer shape factor and a non-dimensional pressure-gradient parameter. Additionally the main large-scale features of the separation bubble, including the mean streamwise velocity profiles, show good agreement with experiment. At the larger Reθ = 11000 of the second case, the LES provides good postdiction of the measured skin-friction variation along the whole streamwise extent of the experiment, consisting of a very strong adverse pressure gradient leading to separation within the separation bubble itself, and in the recovering or reattachment region of strongly-favourable pressure gradient. Overall, the present two-dimensional wall model used in LES appears to be capable of capturing the quantitative features of a separation-reattachment turbulent boundary-layer flow at low to moderately large Reynolds numbers.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hua Li; Villanueva, W.; Kudinov, P. [Royal Institute of Technology (KTH). Div. of Nuclear Power Safety, Stockholm (Sweden)
2012-06-15
Performance of a boiling water reactor (BWR) containment is mostly determined by reliable operation of pressure suppression pool which serves as a heat sink to cool and condense steam released from the core vessel. Thermal stratification in the pool can significantly impede the pool's pressure suppression capacity. A source of momentum is required in order to break stratification and mix the pool. It is important to have reliable prediction of transient development of stratification and mixing in the pool in different regimes of steam injection. Previously, we have proposed to model the effect of steam injection on the mixing and stratification with the Effective Heat Source (EHS) and the Effective Momentum Source (EMS) models. The EHS model is used to provide thermal effect of steam injection on the pool, preserving heat and mass balance. The EMS model is used to simulate momentum induced by steam injection in different flow regimes. The EMS model is based on the combination of (1) synthetic jet theory, which predicts effective momentum if amplitude and frequency of flow oscillations in the pipe are given, and (2) model proposed by Aya and Nariai for prediction of the amplitude and frequency of oscillations at a given pool temperature and steam mass flux. The complete EHS/EMS models only require the steam mass flux, initial pool bulk temperature, and design-specific parameters, to predict thermal stratification and mixing in a pressure suppression pool. In this work we use EHS/EMS models implemented in containment thermal hydraulic code GOTHIC. The POOLEX/PPOOLEX experiments (Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland) are utilized, to (a) quantify errors due to GOTHIC's physical models and numerical schemes, (b) propose necessary improvements in GOTHIC sub-grid scale modeling, and (c) validate our proposed models. Specifically the data from POOLEX STB-21 and PPOOLEX STR-03 and STR-04 tests are used for validation of the EHS and EMS models in this
Dynamic simulation of a biomass domestic boiler under thermally thick considerations
Gómez, M. A.; Porteiro, J.; De la Cuesta de Cal, Daniel; Patiño, D.; Míguez, J. L.
2017-01-01
A biomass combustion model with a thermally thick approach is presented and applied to the simulation of a commercial biomass domestic boiler. A subgrid scale model is used to divide the particles into several grid points, each representing one of the different combustion stages. These grid points
Limited-are a modelling of stratocumulus over South-Eastern Pacific
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Andrejczuk
2012-04-01
Full Text Available This paper presents application of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model to limited-area modeling of atmospheric processes over the subtropical south-eastern Pacific, with the emphasis on the stratocumulus-topped boundary layer. The simulations cover a domain from the VAMOS (Variability of the American Monsoon Systems Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx field project conducted in the subtropical south-eastern Pacific in October and November 2008. We focus on a day where the UK's BAe-146 research aircraft encountered Pockets of Open Cells (POCs at the very western edge of its flight track, rather than on the entire campaign as investigated in previous limited-area modeling studies. Model results are compared to aircraft observations with the main conclusion that the simulated stratocumulus-topped boundary layer is significantly too shallow. This appears to be a combination of an already too shallow boundary layer in the dataset used to provide initial and lateral boundary conditions, and the inability of the WRF model to increase the boundary-layer height. Several sensitivity simulations, applying different subgrid-scale parameterizations available in the model, a larger computational domain and longer simulations, as well as a different dataset providing initial and lateral boundary conditions were all tried to improve the simulation. These changes appeared to have a rather small effect on the results. The model does simulate the formation of mesoscale cloud-free regions that one might consider similar to Pockets of Open Cells observed in nature. However, formation of these regions does not seem to be related to drizzle-induced transition from open- to closed-cell circulations as simulated by LES models. Instead, the cloud-free regions appear to result from mesoscale variations of the lower-tropspheric vertical velocity. Areas of negative vertical velocity with minima (a few cm s^{−1} near the
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Bangert
2011-05-01
Full Text Available We have extended the coupled mesoscale atmosphere and chemistry model COSMO-ART to account for the transformation of aerosol particles into cloud condensation nuclei and to quantify their interaction with warm cloud microphysics on the regional scale. The new model system aims to fill the gap between cloud resolving models and global scale models. It represents the very complex microscale aerosol and cloud physics as detailed as possible, whereas the continental domain size and efficient codes will allow for both studying weather and regional climate. The model system is applied in a first extended case study for Europe for a cloudy five day period in August 2005.
The model results show that the mean cloud droplet number concentration of clouds is correlated with the structure of the terrain, and we present a terrain slope parameter TS to classify this dependency. We propose to use this relationship to parameterize the probability density function, PDF, of subgrid-scale cloud updraft velocity in the activation parameterizations of climate models.
The simulations show that the presence of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN and clouds are closely related spatially. We find high aerosol and CCN number concentrations in the vicinity of clouds at high altitudes. The nucleation of secondary particles is enhanced above the clouds. This is caused by an efficient formation of gaseous aerosol precursors above the cloud due to more available radiation, transport of gases in clean air above the cloud, and humid conditions. Therefore the treatment of complex photochemistry is crucial in atmospheric models to simulate the distribution of CCN.
The mean cloud droplet number concentration and droplet diameter showed a close link to the change in the aerosol. To quantify the net impact of an aerosol change on the precipitation we calculated the precipitation susceptibility β for the whole model domain over a period of two days with
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, H.; Kudinov, P.; Villanueva, W. (Royal Institute of Technology (KTH). Div. of Nuclear Power Safety (Sweden))
2011-06-15
This work pertains to the research program on Containment Thermal-Hydraulics at KTH. The objective is to evaluate and improve performance of methods, which are used to analyze thermal-hydraulics of steam suppression pools in a BWR plant under different abnormal transient and accident conditions. The pressure suppression pool was designed to have the capability as a heat sink to cool and condense steam released from the core vessel and/or main steam line during loss of coolant accident (LOCA) or opening of safety relief valve in normal operation of BWRs. For the case of small flow rates of steam influx, thermal stratification could develop on the part above the blowdown pipe exit and significantly impede the pool's pressure suppression capacity. Once steam flow rate increases significantly, momentum introduced by the steam injection and/or periodic expansion and collapse of large steam bubbles due to direct contact condensation can destroy stratified layers and lead to mixing of the pool water. We use CFD-like model of the general purpose thermal-hydraulic code GOTHIC for addressing the issues of stratification and mixing in the pool. In the previous works we have demonstrated that accurate and computationally efficient prediction of the pool thermal-hydraulics in the scenarios with transition between thermal stratification and mixing, presents a computational challenge. The reason is that direct contact condensation phenomena, which drive oscillatory motion of the water in the blowdown pipes, are difficult to simulate with original GOTHIC models because of appearance of artificial oscillations due to numerical disturbances. To resolve this problem we propose to model the effect of steam injection on the mixing and stratification with the Effective Heat Source (EHS) model and the Effective Momentum Source (EMS) model. We use POOLEX/PPOOLEX experiment (Lappeenranta University of Technology in Finland), in order to (a) quantify errors due to GOTHIC
Planar Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities and transition to turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grinstein, Fernando F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gowardhan, Akshay [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ristorcelli, Ray [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2011-01-21
Extensive recent work has demonstrated that predictive under-resolved simulations of the velocity fields in turbulent flows are possible without resorting to explicit subgrid models. When using a class of physics-capturing high-resolution finite-volume numerical algorithms. This strategy is denoted implicit large eddy simulation (ILES, MILES). The performance of ILES in the substantially more difficult problem of under-resolved material mixing driven by under-resolved velocity fields and initial conditions (ICs) is a focus of the present work. Progress is presented in analyzing the effects of IC combined spectral content and thickness parametrizations. In the large eddy simulation (LES). the large energy containing structures are resolved, the smaller, presumably more isotropic, structures are filtered out, and effects of subgrid scales (SGS) are modeled. ILES effectively addresses the seemingly insurmountable issues posed to LES by under-resolution. by relying on the use of SGS modeling and filtering provided implicitly by a class of physics capturing numerics; extensive verification and validation in areas of engineering. geophysics. and astrophysics has been reported. In many areas of interest such as. inertial confinement fusion. understanding the collapse of the outer cores of supernovas. and supersonic combustion engines, vorticity is introduced at material interfaces by the impulsive loading of shock waves. and turbulence is generated via Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities (RMI). Given that ILES is based on locally-adaptive, non-oscillatory. finite-volume methods it is naturally suited to emulate shock physics. The unique combination of shock and turbulence emulation capabilities supports direct use of ILES as an effective simulation anzatz for RMI. Here, we further test this approach using a particular strategy based on a nominally-inviscid, Schmidt number {approx} 1, simulation model that uses the LANL RAGE code to investigate planar RMI. Issues of initial
Osinski, Robert; Maslowski, Wieslaw; Roberts, Andrew
2016-04-01
The atmosphere - sea ice - ocean fluxes and their contribution to rapid changes in the Arctic system are not well understood and generally are not resolved by global climate models (GCMs). While many significant model refinements have been made in the recent past, including the representation of sea ice rheology, surface albedo and ice-albedo feedback, other processes such as sea ice deformations, still require further studies and model advancements. Of particular potential interest here are linear kinematic features (LKFs), which control winter air-sea heat exchange and affect buoyancy forces in the ocean. Their importance in Arctic climate change, especially under an increasing first-year ice cover, is yet to be determined and their simulation requires representation of processes currently at sub-grid scale of most GCMs. To address some of the GCM limitations and to better understand the role of LKFs in air-sea exchange we use the Regional Arctic System Model (RASM), which allows high spatio-temporal resolution and regional focus on the Arctic. RASM is a fully coupled regional climate model, developed to study dynamic and thermodynamic processes and their coupling across the atmosphere-sea ice-ocean interface. It consists of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) atmospheric model, the Parallel Ocean Program (POP), the Community Ice Model (CICE) and the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) land hydrology model. The sea ice component has been upgraded to the Los Alamos Community Ice Model version 5.1 (CICE5.1), which allows either Elastic-Viscous-Plastic (EVP) or a new anisotropic (EPA) rheology. RASM's domain is pan-Arctic, with the ocean and sea ice components configured at an eddy-permitting horizontal resolution of 1/12-degree as well as 1/48-degree, for limited simulations. The atmosphere and land model components are configured at 50-km grids. All the components are coupled at a 20-minute time step. Results from multiple RASM simulations are analyzed and
2013-12-24
U., Moin, P. & Cabot , W. H. 1991 A dynamic subgrid-scale eddy-viscosity model. Physics of Fluids (A) 3 (7), 1760–1765. Gerritsen, M. & Olsson, P...projection method for locally refined grids. Journal of Computational Physics 127, 158–178. Moin, P., Squires, K., Cabot , W. & Lee, S. 1991 A dynamic
A simple model for wide area hydraulic modelling in data sparse areas.
Neal, J.; Schumann, G.; Bates, P.
2012-04-01
The simulation of wave propagation, level and discharge in large rivers systems at continental or global scales, for applications ranging from regional flood risk assessment to climate change impacts, requires computationally efficient hydraulic models that can be applied to locations where limited or no ground based data are available. Many existing global or large scale river routing schemes use kinematic or simpler wave models, which although computationally efficient, are unable to simulate backwatering and floodplain interactions that are key controllers of wave propagation in many large rivers. Diffusive wave models are often suggested as a more physically based alternative, however the lack of inertia in the scheme leads to long simulation times due to the very low slopes in large rivers. We present a Cartesian grid two-dimensional hydraulic model with a parameterised sub-grid scale representation of the 1D channel network that can be build entirely from remotely sensed data. For both channel and floodplain flows the model simulates a simplified shallow water wave (diffusion and inertia) using an explicit finite difference scheme, which was chosen because of its computational efficiency relative to both explicit diffusive and full shallow water wave models. The model was applied to an 800 km reach of the River Niger that includes the complex waterways and lakes of the Niger Inland Delta in Mali. This site has the advantage of having no or low vegetation cover and hence SRTM represents (close to) bare earth floodplain elevations. Floodplain elevation was defined at 1 km resolution from SRTM data to reduce pixel-to-pixel noise, while the widths of main rivers and floodplain channels were estimated from Landsat imagery. The channel bed was defined as a depth from the adjacent floodplain from hydraulic geometry principles using a power law relationship between channel width and depth. This was first approximated from empirical data from a range of other sites
Cumulus parameterizations in chemical transport models
Mahowald, Natalie M.; Rasch, Philip J.; Prinn, Ronald G.
1995-12-01
Global three-dimensional chemical transport models (CTMs) are valuable tools for studying processes controlling the distribution of trace constituents in the atmosphere. A major uncertainty in these models is the subgrid-scale parametrization of transport by cumulus convection. This study seeks to define the range of behavior of moist convective schemes and point toward more reliable formulations for inclusion in chemical transport models. The emphasis is on deriving convective transport from meteorological data sets (such as those from the forecast centers) which do not routinely include convective mass fluxes. Seven moist convective parameterizations are compared in a column model to examine the sensitivity of the vertical profile of trace gases to the parameterization used in a global chemical transport model. The moist convective schemes examined are the Emanuel scheme [Emanuel, 1991], the Feichter-Crutzen scheme [Feichter and Crutzen, 1990], the inverse thermodynamic scheme (described in this paper), two versions of a scheme suggested by Hack [Hack, 1994], and two versions of a scheme suggested by Tiedtke (one following the formulation used in the ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting) and ECHAM3 (European Centre and Hamburg Max-Planck-Institut) models [Tiedtke, 1989], and one formulated as in the TM2 (Transport Model-2) model (M. Heimann, personal communication, 1992). These convective schemes vary in the closure used to derive the mass fluxes, as well as the cloud model formulation, giving a broad range of results. In addition, two boundary layer schemes are compared: a state-of-the-art nonlocal boundary layer scheme [Holtslag and Boville, 1993] and a simple adiabatic mixing scheme described in this paper. Three tests are used to compare the moist convective schemes against observations. Although the tests conducted here cannot conclusively show that one parameterization is better than the others, the tests are a good measure of the
Large-eddy simulation of flow over a cylinder with from to : a skin-friction perspective
Cheng, Wan
2017-05-05
We present wall-resolved large-eddy simulations (LES) of flow over a smooth-wall circular cylinder up to , where is Reynolds number based on the cylinder diameter and the free-stream speed . The stretched-vortex subgrid-scale (SGS) model is used in the entire simulation domain. For the sub-critical regime, six cases are implemented with . Results are compared with experimental data for both the wall-pressure-coefficient distribution on the cylinder surface, which dominates the drag coefficient, and the skin-friction coefficient, which clearly correlates with the separation behaviour. In the super-critical regime, LES for three values of are carried out at different resolutions. The drag-crisis phenomenon is well captured. For lower resolution, numerical discretization fluctuations are sufficient to stimulate transition, while for higher resolution, an applied boundary-layer perturbation is found to be necessary to stimulate transition. Large-eddy simulation results at , with a mesh of , agree well with the classic experimental measurements of Achenbach (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 34, 1968, pp. 625-639) especially for the skin-friction coefficient, where a spike is produced by the laminar-turbulent transition on the top of a prior separation bubble. We document the properties of the attached-flow boundary layer on the cylinder surface as these vary with . Within the separated portion of the flow, mean-flow separation-reattachment bubbles are observed at some values of , with separation characteristics that are consistent with experimental observations. Time sequences of instantaneous surface portraits of vector skin-friction trajectory fields indicate that the unsteady counterpart of a mean-flow separation-reattachment bubble corresponds to the formation of local flow-reattachment cells, visible as coherent bundles of diverging surface streamlines.
Effects of Gravity on Sheared Turbulence Laden with Bubbles or Droplets
Elghobashi, Said; Lasheras, Juan
1996-01-01
This is a new project which started in May 1996. The main objective of the experimental/numerical study is to improve the understanding of the physics of two-way coupling between the dispersed phase and turbulence in a prototypical turbulent shear flow - homogeneous shear, laden with small liquid droplets (in gas) or gaseous bubbles (in liquid). The method of direct numerical simulation (DNS) is used to solve the full three-dimensional, time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations including the terms describing the two-way coupling between the dispersed phase and the carrier flow. The results include the temporal evolution of the three-dimensional energy and dissipation spectra and the rate of energy transfer across the energy spectrum to understand the fundamental physics of turbulence modulation, especially the effects of varying the magnitude of gravitational acceleration. The mean-square displacement and diffusivity of the droplets (or bubbles) of a given size and the preferential accumulation of droplets in low vorticity regions and bubbles in high vorticity regions will be examined in detail for different magnitudes of gravitational acceleration. These numerical results which will be compared with their corresponding measured data will provide a data base from which a subgrid-scale (SGS) model can be developed and validated for use in large-eddy simulation (LES) of particle-laden shear flows. Two parallel sets of experiments will be conducted: bubbles in an immiscible liquid and droplets in air. In both experiments homogeneous shear will be imposed on the turbulent carrier flow. The instantaneous velocities of the fluid and polydispersed-size particles (droplets or bubbles) will be measured simultaneously using a two-component Phase-Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA). Also, the velocity statistics and energy spectra for the carrier flow will be measured.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jablonowski, Christiane [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)
2015-07-14
The research investigates and advances strategies how to bridge the scale discrepancies between local, regional and global phenomena in climate models without the prohibitive computational costs of global cloud-resolving simulations. In particular, the research explores new frontiers in computational geoscience by introducing high-order Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) techniques into climate research. AMR and statically-adapted variable-resolution approaches represent an emerging trend for atmospheric models and are likely to become the new norm in future-generation weather and climate models. The research advances the understanding of multi-scale interactions in the climate system and showcases a pathway how to model these interactions effectively with advanced computational tools, like the Chombo AMR library developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The research is interdisciplinary and combines applied mathematics, scientific computing and the atmospheric sciences. In this research project, a hierarchy of high-order atmospheric models on cubed-sphere computational grids have been developed that serve as an algorithmic prototype for the finite-volume solution-adaptive Chombo-AMR approach. The foci of the investigations have lied on the characteristics of both static mesh adaptations and dynamically-adaptive grids that can capture flow fields of interest like tropical cyclones. Six research themes have been chosen. These are (1) the introduction of adaptive mesh refinement techniques into the climate sciences, (2) advanced algorithms for nonhydrostatic atmospheric dynamical cores, (3) an assessment of the interplay between resolved-scale dynamical motions and subgrid-scale physical parameterizations, (4) evaluation techniques for atmospheric model hierarchies, (5) the comparison of AMR refinement strategies and (6) tropical cyclone studies with a focus on multi-scale interactions and variable-resolution modeling. The results of this research project
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kunik, Claus
2012-07-10
flow, once again the approach will be applied on forced and mixed convection conditions at supercritical pressure. As benchmark, the same DNS data are used compared to the RANS analysis. Aim of this investigation is the evaluation of the main influences on the heat transfer, for example the turbulence in the near wall area. Therefore, the analysis of different subgrid scale (SGS) models and mesh resolution plays an important role in this section. At least, the developement and application of a variable SGS Prandtl number approach will be carried out, including a discussion of the gained results.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. I. Palmer
2011-12-01
Full Text Available A chemistry-transport model (CTM intercomparison experiment (TransCom-CH4 has been designed to investigate the roles of surface emissions, transport and chemical loss in simulating the global methane distribution. Model simulations were conducted using twelve models and four model variants and results were archived for the period of 1990–2007. All but one model transports were driven by reanalysis products from 3 different meteorological agencies. The transport and removal of CH4 in six different emission scenarios were simulated, with net global emissions of 513 ± 9 and 514 ± 14 Tg CH4 yr−1 for the 1990s and 2000s, respectively. Additionally, sulfur hexafluoride (SF6 was simulated to check the interhemispheric transport, radon (222Rn to check the subgrid scale transport, and methyl chloroform (CH3CCl3 to check the chemical removal by the tropospheric hydroxyl radical (OH. The results are compared to monthly or annual mean time series of CH4, SF6 and CH3CCl3 measurements from 8 selected background sites, and to satellite observations of CH4 in the upper troposphere and stratosphere. Most models adequately capture the vertical gradients in the stratosphere, the average long-term trends, seasonal cycles, interannual variations (IAVs and interhemispheric (IH gradients at the surface sites for SF6, CH3CCl3 and CH4. The vertical gradients of all tracers between the surface and the upper troposphere are consistent within the models, revealing vertical transport differences between models. An average IH exchange time of 1.39 ± 0.18 yr is derived from SF6 time series. Sensitivity simulations suggest that the estimated trends in exchange time, over the period of 1996–2007, are caused by a change of SF6 emissions towards the tropics. Using six sets of emission scenarios, we show that the decadal average CH4 growth rate likely reached equilibrium in the early 2000s due to the flattening of anthropogenic emission growth since the late 1990s. Up to
Simulations of Turbulent Flows with Strong Shocks and Density Variations: Final Report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sanjiva Lele
2012-10-01
The target of this SciDAC Science Application was to develop a new capability based on high-order and high-resolution schemes to simulate shock-turbulence interactions and multi-material mixing in planar and spherical geometries, and to study Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov turbulent mixing. These fundamental problems have direct application in high-speed engineering flows, such as inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsule implosions and scramjet combustion, and also in the natural occurrence of supernovae explosions. Another component of this project was the development of subgrid-scale (SGS) models for large-eddy simulations of flows involving shock-turbulence interaction and multi-material mixing, that were to be validated with the DNS databases generated during the program. The numerical codes developed are designed for massively-parallel computer architectures, ensuring good scaling performance. Their algorithms were validated by means of a sequence of benchmark problems. The original multi-stage plan for this five-year project included the following milestones: 1) refinement of numerical algorithms for application to the shock-turbulence interaction problem and multi-material mixing (years 1-2); 2) direct numerical simulations (DNS) of canonical shock-turbulence interaction (years 2-3), targeted at improving our understanding of the physics behind the combined two phenomena and also at guiding the development of SGS models; 3) large-eddy simulations (LES) of shock-turbulence interaction (years 3-5), improving SGS models based on the DNS obtained in the previous phase; 4) DNS of planar/spherical RM multi-material mixing (years 3-5), also with the two-fold objective of gaining insight into the relevant physics of this instability and aiding in devising new modeling strategies for multi-material mixing; 5) LES of planar/spherical RM mixing (years 4-5), integrating the improved SGS and multi-material models developed in stages 3 and 5. This final report is
Mathematical Modeling of Photochemical Air Pollution.
McRae, Gregory John
Air pollution is an environmental problem that is both pervasive and difficult to control. An important element of any rational control approach is a reliable means for evaluating the air quality impact of alternative abatement measures. This work presents such a capability, in the form of a mathematical description of the production and transport of photochemical oxidants within an urban airshed. The combined influences of advection, turbulent diffusion, chemical reaction, emissions and surface removal processes are all incorporated into a series of models that are based on the species continuity equations. A delineation of the essential assumptions underlying the formulation of a three-dimensional, a Lagrangian trajectory, a vertically integrated and single cell air quality model is presented. Since each model employs common components and input data the simpler forms can be used for rapid screening calculations and the more complex ones for detailed evaluations. The flow fields, needed for species transport, are constructed using inverse distance weighted polynomial interpolation techniques that map routine monitoring data onto a regular computational mesh. Variational analysis procedures are then employed to adjust the field so that mass is conserved. Initial concentration and mixing height distributions can be established with the same interpolation algorithms. Subgrid scale turbulent transport is characterized by a gradient diffusion hypothesis. Similarity solutions are used to model the surface layer fluxes. Above this layer different treatments of turbulent diffusivity are required to account for variations in atmospheric stability. Convective velocity scaling is utilized to develop eddy diffusivities for unstable conditions. The predicted mixing times are in accord with results obtained during sulfur hexafluoride (SF(,6)) tracer experiments. Conventional models are employed for neutral and stable conditions. A new formulation for gaseous deposition fluxes
Future snowfall in the Alps: projections based on the EURO-CORDEX regional climate models
Frei, Prisco; Kotlarski, Sven; Liniger, Mark A.; Schär, Christoph
2018-01-01
Twenty-first century snowfall changes over the European Alps are assessed based on high-resolution regional climate model (RCM) data made available through the EURO-CORDEX initiative. Fourteen different combinations of global and regional climate models with a target resolution of 12 km and two different emission scenarios are considered. As raw snowfall amounts are not provided by all RCMs, a newly developed method to separate snowfall from total precipitation based on near-surface temperature conditions and accounting for subgrid-scale topographic variability is employed. The evaluation of the simulated snowfall amounts against an observation-based reference indicates the ability of RCMs to capture the main characteristics of the snowfall seasonal cycle and its elevation dependency but also reveals considerable positive biases especially at high elevations. These biases can partly be removed by the application of a dedicated RCM bias adjustment that separately considers temperature and precipitation biases.Snowfall projections reveal a robust signal of decreasing snowfall amounts over most parts of the Alps for both emission scenarios. Domain and multi-model mean decreases in mean September-May snowfall by the end of the century amount to -25 and -45 % for representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, respectively. Snowfall in low-lying areas in the Alpine forelands could be reduced by more than -80 %. These decreases are driven by the projected warming and are strongly connected to an important decrease in snowfall frequency and snowfall fraction and are also apparent for heavy snowfall events. In contrast, high-elevation regions could experience slight snowfall increases in midwinter for both emission scenarios despite the general decrease in the snowfall fraction. These increases in mean and heavy snowfall can be explained by a general increase in winter precipitation and by the fact that, with increasing temperatures
Future snowfall in the Alps: projections based on the EURO-CORDEX regional climate models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Frei
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Twenty-first century snowfall changes over the European Alps are assessed based on high-resolution regional climate model (RCM data made available through the EURO-CORDEX initiative. Fourteen different combinations of global and regional climate models with a target resolution of 12 km and two different emission scenarios are considered. As raw snowfall amounts are not provided by all RCMs, a newly developed method to separate snowfall from total precipitation based on near-surface temperature conditions and accounting for subgrid-scale topographic variability is employed. The evaluation of the simulated snowfall amounts against an observation-based reference indicates the ability of RCMs to capture the main characteristics of the snowfall seasonal cycle and its elevation dependency but also reveals considerable positive biases especially at high elevations. These biases can partly be removed by the application of a dedicated RCM bias adjustment that separately considers temperature and precipitation biases.Snowfall projections reveal a robust signal of decreasing snowfall amounts over most parts of the Alps for both emission scenarios. Domain and multi-model mean decreases in mean September–May snowfall by the end of the century amount to −25 and −45 % for representative concentration pathway (RCP scenarios RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, respectively. Snowfall in low-lying areas in the Alpine forelands could be reduced by more than −80 %. These decreases are driven by the projected warming and are strongly connected to an important decrease in snowfall frequency and snowfall fraction and are also apparent for heavy snowfall events. In contrast, high-elevation regions could experience slight snowfall increases in midwinter for both emission scenarios despite the general decrease in the snowfall fraction. These increases in mean and heavy snowfall can be explained by a general increase in winter precipitation and by the fact that, with
Ott, L.; Putman, B.; Collatz, J.; Gregg, W.
2012-01-01
Column CO2 observations from current and future remote sensing missions represent a major advancement in our understanding of the carbon cycle and are expected to help constrain source and sink distributions. However, data assimilation and inversion methods are challenged by the difference in scale of models and observations. OCO-2 footprints represent an area of several square kilometers while NASA s future ASCENDS lidar mission is likely to have an even smaller footprint. In contrast, the resolution of models used in global inversions are typically hundreds of kilometers wide and often cover areas that include combinations of land, ocean and coastal areas and areas of significant topographic, land cover, and population density variations. To improve understanding of scales of atmospheric CO2 variability and representativeness of satellite observations, we will present results from a global, 10-km simulation of meteorology and atmospheric CO2 distributions performed using NASA s GEOS-5 general circulation model. This resolution, typical of mesoscale atmospheric models, represents an order of magnitude increase in resolution over typical global simulations of atmospheric composition allowing new insight into small scale CO2 variations across a wide range of surface flux and meteorological conditions. The simulation includes high resolution flux datasets provided by NASA s Carbon Monitoring System Flux Pilot Project at half degree resolution that have been down-scaled to 10-km using remote sensing datasets. Probability distribution functions are calculated over larger areas more typical of global models (100-400 km) to characterize subgrid-scale variability in these models. Particular emphasis is placed on coastal regions and regions containing megacities and fires to evaluate the ability of coarse resolution models to represent these small scale features. Additionally, model output are sampled using averaging kernels characteristic of OCO-2 and ASCENDS measurement
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
W. J. Riley
2011-07-01
Full Text Available Terrestrial net CH_{4} surface fluxes often represent the difference between much larger gross production and consumption fluxes and depend on multiple physical, biological, and chemical mechanisms that are poorly understood and represented in regional- and global-scale biogeochemical models. To characterize uncertainties, study feedbacks between CH_{4} fluxes and climate, and to guide future model development and experimentation, we developed and tested a new CH_{4} biogeochemistry model (CLM4Me integrated in the land component (Community Land Model; CLM4 of the Community Earth System Model (CESM1. CLM4Me includes representations of CH_{4} production, oxidation, aerenchyma transport, ebullition, aqueous and gaseous diffusion, and fractional inundation. As with most global models, CLM4 lacks important features for predicting current and future CH_{4} fluxes, including: vertical representation of soil organic matter, accurate subgrid scale hydrology, realistic representation of inundated system vegetation, anaerobic decomposition, thermokarst dynamics, and aqueous chemistry. We compared the seasonality and magnitude of predicted CH_{4} emissions to observations from 18 sites and three global atmospheric inversions. Simulated net CH_{4} emissions using our baseline parameter set were 270, 160, 50, and 70 Tg CH_{4} yr^{−1} globally, in the tropics, in the temperate zone, and north of 45° N, respectively; these values are within the range of previous estimates. We then used the model to characterize the sensitivity of regional and global CH_{4} emission estimates to uncertainties in model parameterizations. Of the parameters we tested, the temperature sensitivity of CH_{4} production, oxidation parameters, and aerenchyma properties had the largest impacts on net CH_{4} emissions, up to a factor of 4 and 10 at the regional and gridcell scales
Leutwyler, David; Fuhrer, Oliver; Cumming, Benjamin; Lapillonne, Xavier; Gysi, Tobias; Lüthi, Daniel; Osuna, Carlos; Schär, Christoph
2014-05-01
The representation of moist convection is a major shortcoming of current global and regional climate models. State-of-the-art global models usually operate at grid spacings of 10-300 km, and therefore cannot fully resolve the relevant upscale and downscale energy cascades. Therefore parametrization of the relevant sub-grid scale processes is required. Several studies have shown that this approach entails major uncertainties for precipitation processes, which raises concerns about the model's ability to represent precipitation statistics and associated feedback processes, as well as their sensitivities to large-scale conditions. Further refining the model resolution to the kilometer scale allows representing these processes much closer to first principles and thus should yield an improved representation of the water cycle including the drivers of extreme events. Although cloud-resolving simulations are very useful tools for climate simulations and numerical weather prediction, their high horizontal resolution and consequently the small time steps needed, challenge current supercomputers to model large domains and long time scales. The recent innovations in the domain of hybrid supercomputers have led to mixed node designs with a conventional CPU and an accelerator such as a graphics processing unit (GPU). GPUs relax the necessity for cache coherency and complex memory hierarchies, but have a larger system memory-bandwidth. This is highly beneficial for low compute intensity codes such as atmospheric stencil-based models. However, to efficiently exploit these hybrid architectures, climate models need to be ported and/or redesigned. Within the framework of the Swiss High Performance High Productivity Computing initiative (HP2C) a project to port the COSMO model to hybrid architectures has recently come to and end. The product of these efforts is a version of COSMO with an improved performance on traditional x86-based clusters as well as hybrid architectures with GPUs
Wang, H.; Easter, R. C.; Rasch, P. J.; Wang, M.; Liu, X.; Ghan, S. J.; Qian, Y.; Yoon, J.-H.; Ma, P.-L.; Vinoj, V.
2013-06-01
Many global aerosol and climate models, including the widely used Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5), have large biases in predicting aerosols in remote regions such as the upper troposphere and high latitudes. In this study, we conduct CAM5 sensitivity simulations to understand the role of key processes associated with aerosol transformation and wet removal affecting the vertical and horizontal long-range transport of aerosols to the remote regions. Improvements are made to processes that are currently not well represented in CAM5, which are guided by surface and aircraft measurements together with results from a multi-scale aerosol-climate model that explicitly represents convection and aerosol-cloud interactions at cloud-resolving scales. We pay particular attention to black carbon (BC) due to its importance in the Earth system and the availability of measurements. We introduce into CAM5 a new unified scheme for convective transport and aerosol wet removal with explicit aerosol activation above convective cloud base. This new implementation reduces the excessive BC aloft to better simulate observed BC profiles that show decreasing mixing ratios in the mid- to upper-troposphere. After implementing this new unified convective scheme, we examine wet removal of submicron aerosols that occurs primarily through cloud processes. The wet removal depends strongly on the subgrid-scale liquid cloud fraction and the rate of conversion of liquid water to precipitation. These processes lead to very strong wet removal of BC and other aerosols over mid- to high latitudes during winter months. With our improvements, the Arctic BC burden has a 10-fold (5-fold) increase in the winter (summer) months, resulting in a much-better simulation of the BC seasonal cycle as well. Arctic sulphate and other aerosol species also increase but to a lesser extent. An explicit treatment of BC aging with slower aging assumptions produces an additional 30-fold (5-fold) increase in the
Lightning Forecasts and Data Assimilation into Numerical Weather Prediction Models
MacGorman, D. R.; Mansell, E. R.; Fierro, A.; Ziegler, C.
2012-12-01
coverage even farther into remote regions and provides the most promising means for routine thunderstorm detection over oceans. On-going research is continually expanding the methods used to assimilate lightning data, which began with simple techniques for assimilating CG data and now are being extended to assimilate total lightning data. Most approaches either have used the lightning data simply to indicate where the subgrid scale convective parameterization of a model should produce deep convection or have used the lightning data to indicate how to modify a model variable related to thunderstorms, such as rainfall rate or water vapor mixing ratio. The developing methods for explicitly predicting lightning activity provide another, more direct means for assimilating total lightning data, besides providing information valuable to the general public and to many governmental and commercial enterprises. Such a direct approach could be particularly useful for ensemble techniques used to produce probabilistic thunderstorm forecasts.
Dadson, S. J.
2014-12-01
The role of surface-water flooding in controlling fluxes of water and carbon between the land and the atmosphere is increasingly recognized in studies of the Earth system. Simultaneous advances in remote earth observation and large-scale land-surface and hydrological modeling promise improvements in our ability to understand these linkages, and suggest that improvements in prediction of river flow and inundation extents may result. Here we present an analysis of newly-available observational estimates of surface water inundation obtained through satellite Earth observation with results from simulations produced by using the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES) land-surface model operating at 0.5 degree resolution over the African continent. The model was forced with meteorological input from the WATCH Forcing Data for the period 1981-2001 and sensitivity to various model configurations and parameter settings were tested. Both the PDM and TOPMODEL sub-grid scale runoff generation schemes were tested for parameter sensitivities, with the evaluation focussing on simulated river discharge in sub-catchments of the Congo, Nile, Niger, Orange, Okavango and Zambezi rivers. It was found that whilst the water balance in each of the catchments can be simulated with acceptable accuracy, the individual responses of each river vary between model configurations so that there is no single runoff parameterization scheme or parameter values that yields optimal results across all catchments. We trace these differences to the model's representation of sub-surface flow and make some suggestions to improve the performance of large-scale land-surface models for use in similar applications. Our findings also demonstrate links between episodes of extensive surface water flooding and large-scale climatic indices, although the pattern of correlations contains a level of spatial and temporal detail that warrants careful attention to the climatology of individual situations. These
Yeast as a model system to study RecQ helicase function
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ashton, Thomas M; Hickson, Ian David
2010-01-01
of roles for the Sgs1 and Rqh1 proteins in repair of double strand breaks, restart of stalled replication forks, processing of aberrant intermediates that arise during meiotic recombination, and maintenance of telomeres. In this review, we focus on the known roles of Sgs1 and Rqh1 and how studies in yeast...
Tang, Shuaiqi
Atmospheric vertical velocities and advective tendencies are essential as large-scale forcing data to drive single-column models (SCM), cloud-resolving models (CRM) and large-eddy simulations (LES). They cannot be directly measured or easily calculated with great accuracy from field measurements. In the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program, a constrained variational algorithm (1DCVA) has been used to derive large-scale forcing data over a sounding network domain with the aid of flux measurements at the surface and top of the atmosphere (TOA). We extend the 1DCVA algorithm into three dimensions (3DCVA) along with other improvements to calculate gridded large-scale forcing data. We also introduce an ensemble framework using different background data, error covariance matrices and constraint variables to quantify the uncertainties of the large-scale forcing data. The results of sensitivity study show that the derived forcing data and SCM simulated clouds are more sensitive to the background data than to the error covariance matrices and constraint variables, while horizontal moisture advection has relatively large sensitivities to the precipitation, the dominate constraint variable. Using a mid-latitude cyclone case study in March 3rd, 2000 at the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site, we investigate the spatial distribution of diabatic heating sources (Q1) and moisture sinks (Q2), and show that they are consistent with the satellite clouds and intuitive structure of the mid-latitude cyclone. We also evaluate the Q1 and Q2 in analysis/reanalysis, finding that the regional analysis/reanalysis all tend to underestimate the sub-grid scale upward transport of moist static energy in the lower troposphere. With the uncertainties from large-scale forcing data and observation specified, we compare SCM results and observations and find that models have large biases on cloud properties which could not be fully explained by the uncertainty from the large-scale forcing
Large eddy simulations of turbulent reacting jets
Garrick, Sean Clifford
The "filtered density function" methodology is implemented for large eddy simulation (LES) of three-dimensional planar and round jet flows, under both non-reaction and chemically reacting conditions. In this methodology, the effects of the unresolved scalar fluctuations are taken into account by considering the probability density function (PDF) of the sub-grid scale (SGS) scalar quantities in a stochastic manner. The influences of scalar mixing and convention within the sub-grid are taken into account via conventional methods. The FDF transport equation is solved numerically via a Lagrangian Monte Carlo scheme in which the solutions of equivalent stochastic differential equations (SDEs) are obtained. The consistency of the approach, the convergence of the FDF solution, and the performance of the closures employed in the FDF transport equation are assessed by comparisons with results obtained by conventional LES via a finite difference method (LES-FD). In non-reacting flows, the FDF solution yields results similar to those via LES-FD for the first two SGS moments. The advantage of the FDF methodology is demonstrated by its use in LES of reacting flows. In the absence of a closure for the SGS scalar fluctuations, the LES-FD results are significantly different from those obtained by the FDF. The FDF is also appraised by comparative assessments against experimental data for a non-heat releasing turbulent round jet involving the ozone-nitric oxide chemical reaction.
Bates, P. D.; Neal, J. C.; Fewtrell, T. J.
2012-12-01
In this we paper we consider two related questions. First, we address the issue of how much physical complexity is necessary in a model in order to simulate floodplain inundation to within validation data error. This is achieved through development of a single code/multiple physics hydraulic model (LISFLOOD-FP) where different degrees of complexity can be switched on or off. Different configurations of this code are applied to four benchmark test cases, and compared to the results of a number of industry standard models. Second we address the issue of how parameter sensitivity and transferability change with increasing complexity using numerical experiments with models of different physical and geometric intricacy. Hydraulic models are a good example system with which to address such generic modelling questions as: (1) they have a strong physical basis; (2) there is only one set of equations to solve; (3) they require only topography and boundary conditions as input data; and (4) they typically require only a single free parameter, namely boundary friction. In terms of complexity required we show that for the problem of sub-critical floodplain inundation a number of codes of different dimensionality and resolution can be found to fit uncertain model validation data equally well, and that in this situation Occam's razor emerges as a useful logic to guide model selection. We find also find that model skill usually improves more rapidly with increases in model spatial resolution than increases in physical complexity, and that standard approaches to testing hydraulic models against laboratory data or analytical solutions may fail to identify this important fact. Lastly, we find that in benchmark testing studies significant differences can exist between codes with identical numerical solution techniques as a result of auxiliary choices regarding the specifics of model implementation that are frequently unreported by code developers. As a consequence, making sound
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wang Woei-Fuh
2008-03-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background With the abundant information produced by microarray technology, various approaches have been proposed to infer transcriptional regulatory networks. However, few approaches have studied subtle and indirect interaction such as genetic compensation, the existence of which is widely recognized although its mechanism has yet to be clarified. Furthermore, when inferring gene networks most models include only observed variables whereas latent factors, such as proteins and mRNA degradation that are not measured by microarrays, do participate in networks in reality. Results Motivated by inferring transcriptional compensation (TC interactions in yeast, a stepwise structural equation modeling algorithm (SSEM is developed. In addition to observed variables, SSEM also incorporates hidden variables to capture interactions (or regulations from latent factors. Simulated gene networks are used to determine with which of six possible model selection criteria (MSC SSEM works best. SSEM with Bayesian information criterion (BIC results in the highest true positive rates, the largest percentage of correctly predicted interactions from all existing interactions, and the highest true negative (non-existing interactions rates. Next, we apply SSEM using real microarray data to infer TC interactions among (1 small groups of genes that are synthetic sick or lethal (SSL to SGS1, and (2 a group of SSL pairs of 51 yeast genes involved in DNA synthesis and repair that are of interest. For (1, SSEM with BIC is shown to outperform three Bayesian network algorithms and a multivariate autoregressive model, checked against the results of qRT-PCR experiments. The predictions for (2 are shown to coincide with several known pathways of Sgs1 and its partners that are involved in DNA replication, recombination and repair. In addition, experimentally testable interactions of Rad27 are predicted. Conclusion SSEM is a useful tool for inferring genetic networks, and the
Moreno, E.; Cervera, M.
2016-01-01
The objective of this work is to model computationally Bingham and Herschel-Bulkley viscoplastic fluids using stabilized mixed velocity/pressure finite elements. Numerical solutions for these viscoplastic flows are presented and assessed. The regularized viscoplastic models due to Papanastasiou is used. In the discrete model, the Orthogonal Subgrid scale (OSS) method is used. In this part II , numerical solutions for two problems of Bingham and Herschel-Bulkley confined flows are presente...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Churchfield Matthew J.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Simulator for On/Offshore Wind Farm Applications contains an OpenFOAM-based flow solver for performing large-eddy simulation of flow through wind plants. The solver computes the atmospheric boundary layer flow and models turbines with actuator lines. Until recently, the solver was limited to flows over flat terrain and could only use the standard Smagorinsky subgrid-scale model. In this work, we present our improvements to the flow solver that enable us to 1 use any OpenFOAM-standard subgrid-scale model and 2 simulate flow over complex terrain. We used the flow solver to compute a stably stratified atmospheric boundary layer using both the standard and the Lagrangian-averaged scale-independent dynamic Smagorinsky models. Surprisingly, the results using the standard Smagorinsky model compare well to other researchers' results of the same case, although it is often said that the standard Smagorinsky model is too dissipative for accurate stable stratification calculations. The scale-independent dynamic subgrid-scale model produced poor results, probably due to the spikes in model constant with values as high as 4.6. We applied a simple bounding of the model constant to remove these spikes, which caused the model to produce results much more in line with other researchers' results. We also computed flow over a simple hilly terrain and performed some basic qualitative analysis to verify the proper operation of the terrain-local surface stress model we employed.
Validation of effective momentum and heat flux models for stratification and mixing in a water pool
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hua Li; Villanueva, W.; Kudinov, P. [Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Div. of Nuclear Power Safety, Stockholm (Sweden)
2013-06-15
The pressure suppression pool is the most important feature of the pressure suppression system in a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) that acts primarily as a passive heat sink during a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) or when the reactor is isolated from the main heat sink. The steam injection into the pool through the blowdown pipes can lead to short term dynamic phenomena and long term thermal transient in the pool. The development of thermal stratification or mixing in the pool is a transient phenomenon that can influence the pool's pressure suppression capacity. Different condensation regimes depending on the pool's bulk temperature and steam flow rates determine the onset of thermal stratification or erosion of stratified layers. Previously, we have proposed to model the effect of steam injection on the mixing and stratification with the Effective Heat Source (EHS) and the Effective Momentum Source (EMS) models. The EHS model is used to provide thermal effect of steam injection on the pool, preserving heat and mass balance. The EMS model is used to simulate momentum induced by steam injection in different flow regimes. The EMS model is based on the combination of (i) synthetic jet theory, which predicts effective momentum if amplitude and frequency of flow oscillations in the pipe are given, and (ii) model proposed by Aya and Nariai for prediction of the amplitude and frequency of oscillations at a given pool temperature and steam mass flux. The complete EHS/EMS models only require the steam mass flux, initial pool bulk temperature, and design-specific parameters, to predict thermal stratification and mixing in a pressure suppression pool. In this work we use EHS/EMS models implemented in containment thermal hydraulic code GOTHIC. The PPOOLEX experiments (Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland) are utilized to (a) quantify errors due to GOTHIC's physical models and numerical schemes, (b) propose necessary improvements in GOTHIC sub-grid scale
Luo, Yali; Xu, Kuan-Man; Morrison, Hugh; McFarquhar, Greg M.; Wang, Zhien; Zhang, Gong
2007-01-01
factor of 3 due to interactions between the excessive LW radiative cooling and extra cloud water; heating caused by phase change of hydrometeors could affect the LWC and cloud top height by partially canceling out the LW radiative cooling. It is further shown that the resolved dynamical circulation appears to contribute more greatly to the evolution of the MPS cloud layers than the parameterized subgrid-scale circulation.
Seasonal River Flow Forecasting Using Multi-model Ensemble Climate Data
Lavers, D.; Prudhomme, C.; Hannah, D.; Troccoli, A.
2007-12-01
Developing skilful seasonal forecasting of river flows is important for many societal applications. Long-lead forecasts have potential to aid water management decision making and preparation for human response to hydrological extremes. The seasonal prediction of river flows has been a topic of increasing interest due to the recent 2004-06 drought and 2007 floods experienced in the UK. We compare the relative skill of predictions of river flow using: (1) a multi-Global Climate Model (GCM) ensemble data set and (2) downscaled multi-GCM data as input to a hydrological model. The period considered is 1980- 2001. The River Dyfi basin in West Wales, UK is the focus of this research. This basin is near natural, hence the climate-flow signal should be clearer. The DEMETER project is the source of the multi-model climate data, and this consists of 7 GCMs each with 9 ensemble members. Hindcasts with lead times up to 6 months are available from 1st February, 1st May, 1st August and 1st November initial conditions. Each hindcast was split into the first 3 and last 3 months, and the subsequent concatenation of the split hindcasts produced 2 time series (total of 7×9×2 ensemble series), which were run through the Probability Distributed Model (PDM). PDM is a lumped rainfall-runoff model that transforms rainfall and potential evaporation data to river flow at the basin outlet. PDM was calibrated with observations from 1980-1990, and then validated from 1991-2001. The coarse resolution of the DEMETER data (standardised to 2.5° × 2.5° resolution) means that the atmospheric motions at sub-grid scales are not captured by the models. The large spatial disparity between the GCM grids and the scale of the study (471.3 km2) lead to underestimation of precipitation by DEMETER models. This difference is addressed through the use of a statistical downscaling tool, the Statistical Downscaling Model (SDSM). The SDSM was calibrated on the ERA-40 re-analysis data set (from the ECMWF), as
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Burian, S. J. (Steven J.); Brown, M. J. (Michael J.); Ching, J. (Jason); Cheuk, M. L. (Mang Lung); Yuan, M. (May); McKinnon, A. T. (Andrew T.); Han, W. S. (Woo Suk)
2004-01-01
Accurate predictions of air quality and atmospheric dispersion at high spatial resolution rely on high fidelity predictions of mesoscale meteorological fields that govern transport and turbulence in urban areas. However, mesoscale meteorological models do not have the spatial resolution to directly simulate the fluid dynamics and thermodynamics in and around buildings and other urban structures that have been shown to modify micro- and mesoscale flow fields (e.g., see review by Bornstein 1987). Mesoscale models therefore have been adapted using numerous approaches to incorporate urban effects into the simulations (e.g., see reviews by Brown 2000 and Bornstein and Craig 2002). One approach is to introduce urban canopy parameterizations to approximate the drag, turbulence production, heating, and radiation attenuation induced by sub-grid scale buildings and urban surface covers (Brown 2000). Preliminary results of mesoscale meteorological and air quality simulations for Houston (Dupont et al. 2004) demonstrated the importance of introducing urban canopy parameterizations to produce results with high spatial resolution that accentuates variability, highlights important differences, and identifies critical areas. Although urban canopy parameterizations may not be applicable to all meteorological and dispersion models, they have been successfully introduced and demonstrated in many of the current operational and research mode mesoscale models, e.g., COAMPS (Holt et al. 2002), HOTMAC (Brown and Williams 1998), MM5 (e.g., Otte and Lacser 2001; Lacser and Otte 2002; Dupont et al. 2004), and RAMS (Rozoff et al. 2003). The primary consequence of implementing an urban parameterization in a mesoscale meteorological model is the need to characterize the urban terrain in greater detail. In general, urban terrain characterization for mesoscale modeling may be described as the process of collecting datasets of urban surface cover physical properties (e.g., albedo, emissivity) and
Favorable Street Canyon Aspect Ratios for Pollutant Removal- a Large-Eddy Simulation Approach
Chung, T. N.; Liu, C.
2010-12-01
Given the limited land resource, urbanization is one of the solutions to the current rapid economic development and population growth. Narrow streets flanked by high-rise buildings, also known as street canyons, are commonly found in metropolises nowadays. In recent years, this issue has been aroused the public awareness that the air pollutants from domestic sources and vehicular emissions are unable to be removed but trapped inside the street canopy level threatening human health and our living environment. A thorough understanding of the pollutant removal mechanism is the key step to rectify the current poor urban air quality. This study is therefore conceived to examine how the pollutant removal is related to the street width and building height. Large-eddy simulation (LES) with the one-equation subgrid-scale (SGS) turbulence model is employed to investigate the characteristic ventilation and pollutant transport in idealized two-dimensional (2D) street canyons of different building-height-to-street-width (aspect) ratios (ARs) h/b. Model validation is performed by comparing the LES results with those of k-ɛ turbulence model and laboratory experiments. A consistent trend of the pollutant exchange rate (PCH) among the LES, k-ɛ turbulence model, and experimental results is obtained. While its drag is largest, the street canyon of AR = 0.5 is found to be most favorable in the pollutant removal perspective. This finding seems contradict with the presumption that the smaller the AR (wider the street), the more efficient the pollutants removal. In the isolated roughness regime the flows in (wider) street canyons, the entrainment from the prevailing flow aloft down into the ground level purging pollutant away. On the contrary in the skimming flow regime, in (narrower) street canyons, the recirculating flows inside the street canyon are isolated from the prevailing flow in which the (vertical) pollutant removal is governed by roof-level intermittency. Unexpectedly, in
Zachary Patterson
2008-01-01
Social scientists appear to be divided into two camps: those who use models and those who do not. In order to understand this phenomenon, a clear understanding of what a model is is required. Unfortunately, this is more complicated than one might think. To be sure, few social scientists would have trouble identifying what they consider to be a model: defining what a model is, however, is more difficult. To echo Associate Justice Potter Stewart's famous quote about pornography, most social...
Large scale finite element solvers for the large eddy simulation of incompressible turbulent flows
Colomés Gené, Oriol
2016-01-01
In this thesis we have developed a path towards large scale Finite Element simulations of turbulent incompressible flows. We have assessed the performance of residual-based variational multiscale (VMS) methods for the large eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent incompressible flows. We consider VMS models obtained by different subgrid scale approximations which include either static or dynamic subscales, linear or nonlinear multiscale splitting, and different choices of the subscale space. W...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. S. Stuart
2013-10-01
Full Text Available The intentional enhancement of cloud albedo via controlled sea-spray injection from ships (marine cloud brightening has been proposed as a possible method to control anthropogenic global warming; however, there remains significant uncertainty in the efficacy of this method due to, amongst other factors, uncertainties in aerosol and cloud microphysics. A major assumption used in recent cloud- and climate-modeling studies is that all sea spray was emitted uniformly into some oceanic grid boxes, and thus these studies did not account for subgrid aerosol coagulation within the sea-spray plumes. We explore the evolution of these sea-salt plumes using a multi-shelled Gaussian plume model with size-resolved aerosol coagulation. We determine how the final number of particles depends on meteorological conditions, including wind speed and boundary-layer stability, as well as the emission rate and size distribution of aerosol emitted. Under previously proposed injection rates and typical marine conditions, we find that the number of aerosol particles is reduced by over 50%, but this reduction varies from under 10% to over 90% depending on the conditions. We provide a computationally efficient parameterization for cloud-resolving and global-scale models to account for subgrid-scale coagulation, and we implement this parameterization in a global-scale aerosol-climate model. While designed to address subgrid-scale coagulation of sea-salt particles, the parameterization is generally applicable for coagulation of subgrid-scale aerosol from point sources. We find that accounting for this subgrid-scale coagulation reduces cloud droplet number concentrations by 46% over emission regions, and reduces the global mean radiative flux perturbation from −1.5 W m−2 to −0.8 W m−2.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hall, Alex [University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Joint Institute for Regional Earth System Science and Engineering
2013-07-24
Stratocumulus and shallow cumulus clouds in subtropical oceanic regions (e.g., Southeast Pacific) cover thousands of square kilometers and play a key role in regulating global climate (e.g., Klein and Hartmann, 1993). Numerical modeling is an essential tool to study these clouds in regional and global systems, but the current generation of climate and weather models has difficulties in representing them in a realistic way (e.g., Siebesma et al., 2004; Stevens et al., 2007; Teixeira et al., 2011). While numerical models resolve the large-scale flow, subgrid-scale parameterizations are needed to estimate small-scale properties (e.g. boundary layer turbulence and convection, clouds, radiation), which have significant influence on the resolved scale due to the complex nonlinear nature of the atmosphere. To represent the contribution of these fine-scale processes to the resolved scale, climate models use various parameterizations, which are the main pieces in the model that contribute to the low clouds dynamics and therefore are the major sources of errors or approximations in their representation. In this project, we aim to 1) improve our understanding of the physical processes in thermal circulation and cloud formation, 2) examine the performance and sensitivity of various parameterizations in the regional weather model (Weather Research and Forecasting model; WRF), and 3) develop, implement, and evaluate the advanced boundary layer parameterization in the regional model to better represent stratocumulus, shallow cumulus, and their transition. Thus, this project includes three major corresponding studies. We find that the mean diurnal cycle is sensitive to model domain in ways that reveal the existence of different contributions originating from the Southeast Pacific land-masses. The experiments suggest that diurnal variations in circulations and thermal structures over this region are influenced by convection over the Peruvian sector of the Andes cordillera, while
A framework for Large Eddy Simulation (LES) based on spatiotemporal statistical information
Vedula, Prakash; Attar, Peter; Labryer, Allen
2013-11-01
We present a computational framework that will have the potential to not only improve the efficiency of computational predictions based on LES but will also be able to address a major drawback of many existing constructs of LES, namely inaccurate predictions of the underlying spatiotemporal structure. The latter drawback could be especially critical in prediction of tornado paths and jet-noise intensities. In our proposed framework, the relevant sub-grid scale stress models are constructed based on information that is consistent with the underlying spatiotemporal statistics. Unlike in many existing constructs of LES, the proposed sub-grid scale stress models include non-Markovian or memory terms whose origins can be explained based on the theory of optimal prediction. These optimal models for LES are studied using a one-dimensional Burgers equation with and without forcing. Results indicate that the proposed framework performs better than most existing frameworks of LES, by virtue of accurate predictions of spatiotemporal structure. The presence of coarse-grained temporal information in our sub-grid scale models also allows for faster simulations by allowing for larger time steps. Implications of these findings to more complicated turbulent flows will also be discussed.
Drolet, Jean-Philippe; Giroux, Bernard; Bouligand, Claire
2017-04-01
New technologies that allow geothermal energy production in colder conditions result in interest for geothermal exploration in low heat flux regions that were previously overlooked. The Province of Québec, eastern Canada, is such a case. It is a large and cold area with a low amount of heat flux measurements, and mapping the Curie point depth is appealing as an exploration tool due to the scarcity of the direct data. For that purpose, we have revisited a methodology to estimate the Curie point depth using a fractal source distribution model and aeromagnetic data. Our methodology relies on a statistical model of crustal magnetization having a constant magnetization direction and random magnetization amplitude. The shape of the radial average of the logarithm of the power spectrum of magnetic anomalies is predicted using this model. The model parameters (thickness and depth to the top of the magnetic layer, the fractal exponent β and the constant C') are obtained by calculating the best fit between the theoretical and observed radial power spectra using a non-linear least-square algorithm. Rather than using a constant value for the fractal exponent β over the whole study area, which would overcorrect the shape of the radially averaged power spectra in some zones, we propose a new calibration workflow based on heat flux measurements and lithology. This workflow includes the use of sequential Gaussian simulations (SGS) of heat flux data to enlarge the limited available dataset. The use of SGS also allows quantifying the uncertainty and the range of the predicted Curie point depths. This work contributes to mapping the Curie point depth at large scale and help identifying potential areas for further detailed exploration programs and potential geothermal energy production in the Province of Québec.
Quantifying Numerical Dissipation due to Filtering in Implicit LES
Cadieux, Francois; Domaradzki, Julian Andrzej
2015-11-01
Numerical dissipation plays an important role in LES and has given rise to the widespread use of implicit LES in the academic community. Recent results demonstrate that even with higher order codes, the use of stabilizing filters can act as a source of numerical dissipation strong enough to compare to an explicit subgrid-scale model (Cadieux et al., JFE 136-6). The amount of numerical dissipation added by such filtering operation in the simulation of a laminar separation bubble is quantified using a new method developed by Schranner et al., Computers & Fluids 114. It is then compared to a case where the filter is turned off, as well as the subgrid-scale dissipation that would be added by the σ model. The sensitivity of the method to the choice of subdomain location and size is explored. The effect of different derivative approximations and integration methods is also scrutinized. The method is shown to be robust and accurate for large subdomains. Results show that without filtering, numerical dissipation in the high order code is negligible, and that the filtering operation at the resolution considered adds substantial numerical dissipation in the same regions and at a similar rate as the σ subgrid-scale model would. NSF grant CBET-1233160.
Pongratz, Julia; Wilkenskjeld, Stiig; Kloster, Silvia; Reick, Christian
2014-05-01
Recent studies indicate that changes in surface climate and carbon fluxes caused by land management (i.e., modifications of vegetation structure without changing the type of land cover) can be as large as those caused by land cover change. Further, such effects may occur on substantial areas: while about one quarter of the land surface has undergone land cover change, another fifty percent are managed. This calls for integration of management processes in Earth system models (ESMs). This integration increases the importance of awareness and agreement on how to diagnose effects of land use in ESMs to avoid additional model spread and thus unnecessary uncertainties in carbon budget estimates. Process understanding of management effects, their model implementation, as well as data availability on management type and extent pose challenges. In this respect, a significant step forward has been done in the framework of the current IPCC's CMIP5 simulations (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5): The climate simulations were driven with the same harmonized land use dataset that, different from most datasets commonly used before, included information on two important types of management: wood harvest and shifting cultivation. However, these new aspects were employed by only part of the CMIP5 models, while most models continued to use the associated land cover maps. Here, we explore the consequences for the carbon cycle of including subgrid-scale land transformations ("gross transitions"), such as shifting cultivation, as example of the current state of implementation of land management in ESMs. Accounting for gross transitions is expected to increase land use emissions because it represents simultaneous clearing and regrowth of natural vegetation in different parts of the grid cell, reducing standing carbon stocks. This process cannot be captured by prescribing land cover maps ("net transitions"). Using the MPI-ESM we find that ignoring gross transitions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Juel-Christiansen, Carsten
2005-01-01
Artiklen fremhæver den visuelle rotation - billeder, tegninger, modeller, værker - som det privilligerede medium i kommunikationen af ideer imellem skabende arkitekter......Artiklen fremhæver den visuelle rotation - billeder, tegninger, modeller, værker - som det privilligerede medium i kommunikationen af ideer imellem skabende arkitekter...
Takemi, T.; Nakayama, H.
2010-12-01
Atmospheric flows in urban areas are highly turbulent owing not only to meteorological disturbances but also to complex and complicated distribution of roughness obstacles (i.e., buildings). Numerical modeling is an important research tool for this purpose. In previous meteorological models, urban areas are regarded as a very rough surface that has either a large roughness length or a slab of resistant layer. This type of simplified approaches is useful in cases of flows over urban areas with sparsely-distributed, low-rise buildings with uniform heights. However, recent urbanization makes urban surfaces covered with densely-distributed, high-rise buildings with variable heights. In order to numerically examine flows over such highly rough urban surfaces, a large-eddy simulation (LES) approach is promising. Recent studies have demonstrated that a numerical weather prediction (NWP) model such as the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is capable of performing LESs for turbulent flows in free convective regimes. However, the NWP models cannot easily perform LESs of flows in a neutral or a stable environment. In order to ensure the turbulent nature of flows in urban areas, an LES approach with a proper turbulence-generation technique is necessary. The present study proposes an approach to quantitatively simulate turbulent flows in a densely-built environment with the mixture of high-rise and low-rise buildings by coupling the WRF model and an LES model. The NWP model used here is the Advanced Research WRF (ARW) model, while the LES model is based on a filtered Navier-Stokes equation and a filtered continuity equation for incompressible flow without any thermal effects. The subgrid-scale eddy viscosity is parameterized by the standard Smagorinsky model. The LES model incorporates the information of building height over Tokyo as its lower boundary. The buildings are represented as an external forcing. The cases examined here are strong wind events over Tokyo: a
Large eddy simulations of laminar separation bubble
Cadieux, Francois
The flow over blades and airfoils at moderate angles of attack and Reynolds numbers ranging from ten thousand to a few hundred thousands undergoes separation due to the adverse pressure gradient generated by surface curvature. In many cases, the separated shear layer then transitions to turbulence and reattaches, closing off a recirculation region -- the laminar separation bubble. To avoid body-fitted mesh generation problems and numerical issues, an equivalent problem for flow over a flat plate is formulated by imposing boundary conditions that lead to a pressure distribution and Reynolds number that are similar to those on airfoils. Spalart & Strelet (2000) tested a number of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) turbulence models for a laminar separation bubble flow over a flat plate. Although results with the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model were encouraging, none of the turbulence models tested reliably recovered time-averaged direct numerical simulation (DNS) results. The purpose of this work is to assess whether large eddy simulation (LES) can more accurately and reliably recover DNS results using drastically reduced resolution -- on the order of 1% of DNS resolution which is commonly achievable for LES of turbulent channel flows. LES of a laminar separation bubble flow over a flat plate are performed using a compressible sixth-order finite-difference code and two incompressible pseudo-spectral Navier-Stokes solvers at resolutions corresponding to approximately 3% and 1% of the chosen DNS benchmark by Spalart & Strelet (2000). The finite-difference solver is found to be dissipative due to the use of a stability-enhancing filter. Its numerical dissipation is quantified and found to be comparable to the average eddy viscosity of the dynamic Smagorinsky model, making it difficult to separate the effects of filtering versus those of explicit subgrid-scale modeling. The negligible numerical dissipation of the pseudo-spectral solvers allows an unambiguous
Modeling of Surface Geometric Structure State After Integratedformed Milling and Finish Burnishing
Berczyński, Stefan; Grochała, Daniel; Grządziel, Zenon
2017-06-01
The article deals with computer-based modeling of burnishing a surface previously milled with a spherical cutter. This method of milling leaves traces, mainly asperities caused by the cutting crossfeed and cutter diameter. The burnishing process - surface plastic treatment - is accompanied by phenomena that take place right in the burnishing ball-milled surface contact zone. The authors present the method for preparing a finite element model and the methodology of tests for the assessment of height parameters of a surface geometrical structure (SGS). In the physical model the workpieces had a cuboidal shape and these dimensions: (width × height × length) 2×1×4.5 mm. As in the process of burnishing a cuboidal workpiece is affected by plastic deformations, the nonlinearities of the milled item were taken into account. The physical model of the process assumed that the burnishing ball would be rolled perpendicularly to milling cutter linear traces. The model tests included the application of three different burnishing forces: 250 N, 500 N and 1000 N. The process modeling featured the contact and pressing of a ball into the workpiece surface till the desired force was attained, then the burnishing ball was rolled along the surface section of 2 mm, and the burnishing force was gradually reduced till the ball left the contact zone. While rolling, the burnishing ball turned by a 23° angle. The cumulative diagrams depict plastic deformations of the modeled surfaces after milling and burnishing with defined force values. The roughness of idealized milled surface was calculated for the physical model under consideration, i.e. in an elementary section between profile peaks spaced at intervals of crossfeed passes, where the milling feed fwm = 0.5 mm. Also, asperities after burnishing were calculated for the same section. The differences of the obtained values fall below 20% of mean values recorded during empirical experiments. The adopted simplification in after
NPP Grassland: Central Plains Experimental Range (SGS), USA, 1939-1990, R1
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set records the productivity of a semiarid shortgrass prairie steppe located in the Central Plains Experimental Reserve (CPER)/Pawnee National Grassland in...
Shaalan, Abeer; Carpenter, Guy; Proctor, Gordon
2017-11-21
Salivary gland (SG) injurious agents are all translated into loss of salivation (xerostomia). An association has been established between activation of innate immunity and salivary gland injury and dysfunction. However, it remains unclear how the secretory epithelia respond by halting saliva production. C57BL/6 submandibular glands (SMGs) were acutely challenged using a single dose of the innate immune stimulant: polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly (I:C)). Secretory capacity of the infected SMGs was substantiated by assessing the flow rate in response to pilocarpine stimulation. Depletion of the acute inflammatory cells was achieved by pre-treating mice with RB6-8C5 depletion antibody. Flow cytometry, histology and immunohistochemistry were conducted to verify the immune cell depletion. Epithelial expression of saliva-driving molecules: muscarinic 3 receptor (M3R), aquaporin 5 water channel (AQP5), Na-K- CL-Cotransporter 1 (NKCC1) and transmembrane member 16A (TMEM16A), were characterized using RT-qPCR and immunohistochemistry. Tight junction (TJ) protein; zonula occludens (ZO-1) and basement membrane (BM) protein; laminin were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Innate immune challenge prompted dysfunction in the exocrine salivary glands (SGs). Dysregulated gene and protein expression of molecules that drive saliva secretion was substantiated. Aberrant expression of TJ and BM proteins followed innate immune activation. Hyposalivation in the current model was independent of myeloperoxidase (MPO)-positive, acute inflammatory cells. In the present study, we developed a novel injury model of the SGs, featuring acute secretory dysfunction and immediate structural disruptions. Our results ruled out the injurious role of aggressively infiltrating inflammatory cells. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Spädtke, P
2013-01-01
Modeling of technical machines became a standard technique since computer became powerful enough to handle the amount of data relevant to the specific system. Simulation of an existing physical device requires the knowledge of all relevant quantities. Electric fields given by the surrounding boundary as well as magnetic fields caused by coils or permanent magnets have to be known. Internal sources for both fields are sometimes taken into account, such as space charge forces or the internal magnetic field of a moving bunch of charged particles. Used solver routines are briefly described and some bench-marking is shown to estimate necessary computing times for different problems. Different types of charged particle sources will be shown together with a suitable model to describe the physical model. Electron guns are covered as well as different ion sources (volume ion sources, laser ion sources, Penning ion sources, electron resonance ion sources, and H$^-$-sources) together with some remarks on beam transport.
African Journals Online (AJOL)
distress, or culture—bound syndrome, not listed in DSM—lV. It may correspond to various DS/Vl-ll/ disorders, depending on its exact clinical presentation, e.g. dissociative disorder, adiustment disorder, or schizophrenia.1g As with other local idioms ot distress, the explanatory model takes precedence over the descriptive ...
Clonality as a driver of spatial genetic structure in populations of clonal tree species.
Dering, Monika; Chybicki, Igor Jerzy; Rączka, Grzegorz
2015-09-01
Random genetic drift, natural selection and restricted gene dispersal are basic factors of the spatial genetic structure (SGS) in plant populations. Clonal reproduction has a profound effect on population dynamics and genetic structure and thus emerges as a potential factor in contributing to and modelling SGS. In order to assess the impact of clonality on SGS we studied clonal structure and SGS in the population of Populus alba. Six hundred and seventy-two individuals were mapped and genotyped with 16 nuclear microsatellite markers. To answer the more general question regarding the relationship between SGS and clonality we used Sp statistics, which allows for comparisons of the extent of SGS among different studies, and the comparison of published data on SGS in clonal and non-clonal tree species. Sp statistic was extracted for 14 clonal and 27 non-clonal species belonging to 7 and 18 botanical families, respectively. Results of genetic investigations conducted in the population of P. alba showed over-domination of clonal reproduction, which resulted in very low clonal diversity (R = 0.12). Significant SGS was found at both ramet (Sp = 0.095) and genet level (Sp = 0.05) and clonal reproduction was indicated as an important but not sole driving factor of SGS. Within-population structure, probably due to family structure also contributed to high SGS. High mean dominance index (D = 0.82) indicated low intermingling among genets. Literature survey revealed that clonal tree species significantly differ from non-clonal species with respect to SGS, having 2.8-fold higher SGS. This led us to conclude that clonality is a life-history trait that can have deep impact on processes acting in populations of clonal tree species leading to significant SGS.
Fast, J. D.; Allan, J.; Bahreini, R.; Craven, J.; Emmons, L.; Ferrare, R.; Hayes, P. L.; Hodzic, A.; Holloway, J.; Hostetler, C.; Jimenez, J. L.; Jonsson, H.; Liu, S.; Liu, Y.; Metcalf, A.; Middlebrook, A.; Nowak, J.; Pekour, M.; Perring, A.; Russell, L.; Sedlacek, A.; Seinfeld, J.; Setyan, A.; Shilling, J.; Shrivastava, M.; Springston, S.; Song, C.; Subramanian, R.; Taylor, J. W.; Vinoj, V.; Yang, Q.; Zaveri, R. A.; Zhang, Q.
2014-03-01
The performance of the Weather Research and Forecasting regional model with chemistry (WRF-Chem) in simulating the spatial and temporal variations in aerosol mass, composition, and size over California is quantified using measurements collected during the California Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Experiment (CalNex) and the Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) conducted during May and June of 2010. The extensive meteorological, trace gas, and aerosol measurements collected at surface sites and along aircraft and ship transects during CalNex and CARES were combined with operational monitoring network measurements to create a single dataset that was used to evaluate the one configuration of the model. Simulations were performed that examined the sensitivity of regional variations in aerosol concentrations to anthropogenic emissions and to long-range transport of aerosols into the domain obtained from a global model. The configuration of WRF-Chem used in this study is shown to reproduce the overall synoptic conditions, thermally-driven circulations, and boundary layer structure observed in region that controls the transport and mixing of trace gases and aerosols. However, sub-grid scale variability in the meteorology and emissions as well as uncertainties in the treatment of secondary organic aerosol chemistry likely contribute to errors at a primary surface sampling site located at the edge of the Los Angeles basin. Differences among the sensitivity simulations demonstrate that the aerosol layers over the central valley detected by lidar measurements likely resulted from lofting and recirculation of local anthropogenic emissions along the Sierra Nevada. Reducing the default emissions inventory by 50% led to an overall improvement in many simulated trace gases and black carbon aerosol at most sites and along most aircraft flight paths; however, simulated organic aerosol was closer to observed when there were no adjustments to the primary organic
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vinkovic, I.
2005-07-15
In order to study atmospheric pollution and the dispersion of industrial stack emissions, a large eddy simulation with the dynamic Smagorinsky-Germano sub-grid-scale model is coupled with Lagrangian tracking of fluid particles containing scalar, solid particles and droplets. The movement of fluid particles at a sub-grid level is given by a three-dimensional Langevin model. The stochastic model is written in terms of sub-grid-scale statistics at a mesh level. By introducing a diffusion model, the coupling between the large-eddy simulation and the modified three-dimensional Langevin model is applied to passive scalar dispersion. The results are validated by comparison with the wind-tunnel experiments of Fackrell and Robins (1982). The equation of motion of a small rigid sphere in a turbulent flow is introduced. Solid particles and droplets are tracked in a Lagrangian way. The velocity of solid particles and droplets is considered to have a large scale component (directly computed by the large-eddy simulation) and a sub-grid scale part. Because of inertia and gravity effects, solid particles and droplets, deviate from the trajectories of the surrounding fluid particles. Therefore, a modified Lagrangian correlation timescale is introduced into the Langevin model previously developed for the sub-grid velocity of fluid particles. Two-way coupling and collisions are taken into account. The results of the large-eddy simulation with solid particles are compared with the wind-tunnel experiments of Nalpanis et al. (1993) and of Taniere et al. (1997) on sand particles in saltation and in modified saltation, respectively. A model for droplet coalescence and breakup is implemented which allows to predict droplet interactions under turbulent flow conditions in the frame of the Euler/Lagrange approach. Coalescence and breakup are considered as a stochastic process with simple scaling symmetry assumption for the droplet radius, initially proposed by Kolmogorov (1941). At high
Hybrid RANS/LES method for wind flow over complex terrain
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bechmann, Andreas; Sørensen, Niels N.
2010-01-01
), and this layer acts as wall model for the outer flow handled by LES. The well-known high Reynolds number two-equation k - turbulence model is used in the RANS layer and the model automatically switches to a two-equation k - subgrid scale stress model in the LES region. The approach can be used for flow over...... the turbulent kinetic energy, whereas the new method captures the high turbulence levels well but underestimates the mean velocity. The presented results are for a relative mild configuration of complex terrain, but the proposed method can also be used for highly complex terrain where the benefits of the new...
Reduction of the Oxidative Stress Status Using Steviol Glycosides in a Fish Model (Cyprinus carpio)
Sánchez-Aceves, Livier Mireya; Dublán-García, Octavio; López-Martínez, Leticia-Xochitl; Novoa-Luna, Karen Adriana; Galar-Martínez, Marcela; Hernández-Navarro, María Dolores
2017-01-01
Steviol glycosides are sweetening compounds from the Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni plant. This product is considered safe for human consumption and was approved as a food additive by the Food and Drugs Administration (FDA) and European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Its effects on the ecosystem have not been studied in depth; therefore, it is necessary to carry out ecotoxicological studies in organisms such as Cyprinus carpio. The present study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant activity by SGs on diverse tissues in C. carpio using oxidative stress (OS) biomarkers. To test the antioxidant activity, carps were exposed to four systems: (1) SGs free control, (2) CCl4 0.5 mL/kg, (3) SGs 1 g/L, and (4) CCl4 0.5 mL/kg + SGs 1 g/L at 96 h. The following biomarkers were analyzed: lipoperoxidation (LPX), hydroperoxide content (HPC), and protein carbonyl content (PCC), as well as antioxidant activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). It was found that both (3 and 4) systems' exposure decreases LPX, CHP, PCC, SOD, and CAT with respect to the CCl4 system. The results of this study demonstrate that the concentrations of SGs used are not capable of generating oxidative stress and, on the contrary, would appear to induce an antioxidant effect. PMID:28691017
Reduction of the Oxidative Stress Status Using Steviol Glycosides in a Fish Model (Cyprinus carpio
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Livier Mireya Sánchez-Aceves
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Steviol glycosides are sweetening compounds from the Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni plant. This product is considered safe for human consumption and was approved as a food additive by the Food and Drugs Administration (FDA and European Food Safety Authority (EFSA. Its effects on the ecosystem have not been studied in depth; therefore, it is necessary to carry out ecotoxicological studies in organisms such as Cyprinus carpio. The present study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant activity by SGs on diverse tissues in C. carpio using oxidative stress (OS biomarkers. To test the antioxidant activity, carps were exposed to four systems: (1 SGs free control, (2 CCl4 0.5 mL/kg, (3 SGs 1 g/L, and (4 CCl4 0.5 mL/kg + SGs 1 g/L at 96 h. The following biomarkers were analyzed: lipoperoxidation (LPX, hydroperoxide content (HPC, and protein carbonyl content (PCC, as well as antioxidant activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT. It was found that both (3 and 4 systems’ exposure decreases LPX, CHP, PCC, SOD, and CAT with respect to the CCl4 system. The results of this study demonstrate that the concentrations of SGs used are not capable of generating oxidative stress and, on the contrary, would appear to induce an antioxidant effect.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Misdariis A.
2013-11-01
Full Text Available In this article, Large Eddy Simulations (LES of Spark Ignition (SI engines are performed to evaluate the impact of the numerical set-upon the predictedflow motion and combustion process. Due to the high complexity and computational cost of such simulations, the classical set-up commonly includes “low” order numerical schemes (typically first or second-order accurate in time and space as well as simple turbulence models (such as the well known constant coefficient Smagorinsky model (Smagorinsky J. (1963 Mon. Weather Rev. 91, 99-164. The scope of this paper is to evaluate the feasibility and the potential benefits of using high precision methods for engine simulations, relying on higher order numerical methods and state-of-the-art Sub-Grid-Scale (SGS models. For this purpose, two high order convection schemes from the Two-step Taylor Galerkin (TTG family (Colin and Rudgyard (2000 J. Comput. Phys. 162, 338-371 and several SGS turbulence models, namely Dynamic Smagorinsky (Germano et al. (1991 Phys. Fluids 3, 1760-1765 and sigma (Baya Toda et al. (2010 Proc. Summer Program 2010, Stanford, Center for Turbulence Research, NASA Ames/Stanford Univ., pp. 193-202 are considered to improve the accuracy of the classically used Lax-Wendroff (LW (Lax and Wendroff (1964 Commun. Pure Appl. Math. 17, 381-398 - Smagorinsky set-up. This evaluation is performed considering two different engine configurations from IFP Energies nouvelles. The first one is the naturally aspirated four-valve spark-ignited F7P engine which benefits from an exhaustive experimental and numerical characterization. The second one, called Ecosural, is a highly supercharged spark-ignited engine. Unique realizations of engine cycles have been simulated for each set-up starting from the same initial conditions and the comparison is made with experimental and previous numerical results for the F7P configuration. For the Ecosural engine, experimental results are not available yet and only
Li, Hui; Stoddard, Mark B; Wang, Shuyi; Giorgi, Elena E; Blair, Lily M; Learn, Gerald H; Hahn, Beatrice H; Alter, Harvey J; Busch, Michael P; Fierer, Daniel S; Ribeiro, Ruy M; Perelson, Alan S; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Shaw, George M
2015-10-14
Despite the recent development of highly effective anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) drugs, the global burden of this pathogen remains immense. Control or eradication of HCV will likely require the broad application of antiviral drugs and development of an effective vaccine. A precise molecular identification of transmitted/founder (T/F) HCV genomes that lead to productive clinical infection could play a critical role in vaccine research, as it has for HIV-1. However, the replication schema of these two RNA viruses differ substantially, as do viral responses to innate and adaptive host defenses. These differences raise questions as to the certainty of T/F HCV genome inferences, particularly in cases where multiple closely related sequence lineages have been observed. To clarify these issues and distinguish between competing models of early HCV diversification, we examined seven cases of acute HCV infection in humans and chimpanzees, including three examples of virus transmission between linked donors and recipients. Using single-genome sequencing (SGS) of plasma vRNA, we found that inferred T/F sequences in recipients were identical to viral sequences in their respective donors. Early in infection, HCV genomes generally evolved according to a simple model of random evolution where the coalescent corresponded to the T/F sequence. Closely related sequence lineages could be explained by high multiplicity infection from a donor whose viral sequences had undergone a pretransmission bottleneck due to treatment, immune selection, or recent infection. These findings validate SGS, together with mathematical modeling and phylogenetic analysis, as a novel strategy to infer T/F HCV genome sequences. Despite the recent development of highly effective, interferon-sparing anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) drugs, the global burden of this pathogen remains immense. Control or eradication of HCV will likely require the broad application of antiviral drugs and the development of an effective
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Minghua [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)
2016-12-08
parameterization change, the intensity of shallow convection increases, leading to very different changes in precipitation partitions but little change in the total precipitation. The different precipitation partition however can manifest themselves in other measures of model performances including temperature and humidity. This study points to the need to treat model physical parameterizations as integrated system rather than individual components. Results from this study are published in Wang and Zhang (2013). Since shallow convection interacts with the deep convection scheme and surface turbulence to trigger the double ITCZ, we studied methods to improve the shallow convection scheme in climate models. We investigated the bulk budgets of the vertical velocity and its parameterization in convective cores, convective updrafts, and clouds by using large-eddy simulation (LES) of four shallow convection cases including one from ARM. We proposed optimal forms of the Simpson and Wiggert equation to calculate the vertical velocity in bulk mass flux convection schemes for convective cores, convective updrafts, and convective clouds as parameterization schemes. The new scheme is published in Wang and Zhang (2014). By using long-term radar-based ground measurements from ARM, we derived a scale-aware inhomogeneity parameterization of cloud liquid water in climate models. We found a relationship between the inhomogeneity parameter and the model grid size as well as atmospheric stability. This relationship is implemented in the CESM to describe the subgrid-scale cloud inhomogeneity. Relative to the default CESM with the finite-volume dynamic core at 2-degree resolution, the new parameterization leads to smaller cloud inhomogeneity and larger cloud liquid-water path in high latitudes, and the opposite effect in low latitudes, with the regional impact on shortwave cloud radiation effect of up to 10 W/m^{2}. This is due to both the smaller (larger) grid size in high (low) latitudes in
The role of dissipation and mixing in exchange flow through a contracting channel
Winters, Kraig B.; Seim, Harvey E.
2000-03-01
We investigate the transport of mass and momentum between layers in idealized exchange flow through a contracting channel. Lock-exchange initial value problems are run to approximately steady state using a three-dimensional, non-hydrostatic numerical model. The numerical model resolves the large-scale exchange flow and shear instabilities that form at the interface, parameterizing the effects of subgrid-scale turbulence. The closure scheme is based on an assumed steady, local balance of turbulent production and dissipation in a density-stratified fluid.
Large Eddy Simulation of the ventilated wave boundary layer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lohmann, Iris P.; Fredsøe, Jørgen; Sumer, B. Mutlu
2006-01-01
A Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of (1) a fully developed turbulent wave boundary layer and (2) case 1 subject to ventilation (i.e., suction and injection varying alternately in phase) has been performed, using the Smagorinsky subgrid-scale model to express the subgrid viscosity. The model was found...... slows down the flow in the full vertical extent of the boundary layer, destabilizes the flow and decreases the mean bed shear stress significantly; whereas suction generally speeds up the flow in the full vertical extent of the boundary layer, stabilizes the flow and increases the mean bed shear stress...
Large-eddy simulation of a backward facing step flow using a least-squares spectral element method
Chan, Daniel C.; Mittal, Rajat
1996-01-01
We report preliminary results obtained from the large eddy simulation of a backward facing step at a Reynolds number of 5100. The numerical platform is based on a high order Legendre spectral element spatial discretization and a least squares time integration scheme. A non-reflective outflow boundary condition is in place to minimize the effect of downstream influence. Smagorinsky model with Van Driest near wall damping is used for sub-grid scale modeling. Comparisons of mean velocity profiles and wall pressure show good agreement with benchmark data. More studies are needed to evaluate the sensitivity of this method on numerical parameters before it is applied to complex engineering problems.
Large eddy simulation of rotating turbulent flows and heat transfer by the lattice Boltzmann method
Liou, Tong-Miin; Wang, Chun-Sheng
2018-01-01
Due to its advantage in parallel efficiency and wall treatment over conventional Navier-Stokes equation-based methods, the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) has emerged as an efficient tool in simulating turbulent heat and fluid flows. To properly simulate the rotating turbulent flow and heat transfer, which plays a pivotal role in tremendous engineering devices such as gas turbines, wind turbines, centrifugal compressors, and rotary machines, the lattice Boltzmann equations must be reformulated in a rotating coordinate. In this study, a single-rotating reference frame (SRF) formulation of the Boltzmann equations is newly proposed combined with a subgrid scale model for the large eddy simulation of rotating turbulent flows and heat transfer. The subgrid scale closure is modeled by a shear-improved Smagorinsky model. Since the strain rates are also locally determined by the non-equilibrium part of the distribution function, the calculation process is entirely local. The pressure-driven turbulent channel flow with spanwise rotation and heat transfer is used for validating the approach. The Reynolds number characterized by the friction velocity and channel half height is fixed at 194, whereas the rotation number in terms of the friction velocity and channel height ranges from 0 to 3.0. A working fluid of air is chosen, which corresponds to a Prandtl number of 0.71. Calculated results are demonstrated in terms of mean velocity, Reynolds stress, root mean square (RMS) velocity fluctuations, mean temperature, RMS temperature fluctuations, and turbulent heat flux. Good agreement is found between the present LBM predictions and previous direct numerical simulation data obtained by solving the conventional Navier-Stokes equations, which confirms the capability of the proposed SRF LBM and subgrid scale relaxation time formulation for the computation of rotating turbulent flows and heat transfer.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Saulo R. Freitas
2009-06-01
Full Text Available Uma descrição geral da modelagem numérica da composição química da atmosfera é fornecida neste trabalho. Os papéis relevantes de alguns gases traço e aerossóis no balanço radiativo do planeta, na alteração do ciclo hidrológico e na poluição do ar são discutidos. Partindo da equação da continuidade, integrada no sistema de equações governantes da atmosfera, os diversos termos que constituem a emissão, deposição, reatividade química e transporte (resolvido e sub-grade são apresentados juntamente com formas de obter a solução numérica. Dentre os componentes desta equação, o termo de reatividade química se destaca pela complexidade do problema em si, na obtenção da solução numérica e no alto custo computacional envolvido. Exemplos são fornecidos utilizando o modelo CCATT-BRAMS com recente inclusão de reatividade química. Em particular, a simulação do ozônio troposférico constitui uma tarefa complexa pela falta de dados de emissões, porém resultados obtidos são compatíveis com outros modelos validados. Simulações numéricas realizadas, para a estação seca de 2002, permitiram estudar possíveis ciclos biogeoquímicos e corredores de formação e deposição de ozônio e aerossóis de queimadas, assim como o papel destes últimos na estabilização termodinâmica e precipitação.A general description of the numerical modeling of the atmospheric chemical composition is presented. The relevant role played by some trace gases and aerosols on the Earth radiative budget, hydrological cycle and air quality are discussed. The formulation for emission, deposition, chemical reactions and transport (resolved and sub-grid scale processes are introduced within the mass continuity equation integrated to the basic equations system for the Earth atmosphere. The numerical aspects of this formulation are as well discussed, specially the intrinsic complexity and the high computational costs of the chemical reactions
Abdel-Fattah, Mohamed I.; Metwalli, Farouk I.; Mesilhi, El Sayed I.
2018-02-01
3D static reservoir modeling of the Bahariya reservoirs using seismic and wells data can be a relevant part of an overall strategy for the oilfields development in South Umbarka area (Western Desert, Egypt). The seismic data is used to build the 3D grid, including fault sticks for the fault modeling, and horizon interpretations and surfaces for horizon modeling. The 3D grid is the digital representation of the structural geology of Bahariya Formation. When we got a reasonably accurate representation, we fill the 3D grid with facies and petrophysical properties to simulate it, to gain a more precise understanding of the reservoir properties behavior. Sequential Indicator Simulation (SIS) and Sequential Gaussian Simulation (SGS) techniques are the stochastic algorithms used to spatially distribute discrete reservoir properties (facies) and continuous reservoir properties (shale volume, porosity, and water saturation) respectively within the created 3D grid throughout property modeling. The structural model of Bahariya Formation exhibits the trapping mechanism which is a fault assisted anticlinal closure trending NW-SE. This major fault breaks the reservoirs into two major fault blocks (North Block and South Block). Petrophysical models classified Lower Bahariya reservoir as a moderate to good reservoir rather than Upper Bahariya reservoir in terms of facies, with good porosity and permeability, low water saturation, and moderate net to gross. The Original Oil In Place (OOIP) values of modeled Bahariya reservoirs show hydrocarbon accumulation in economic quantity, considering the high structural dips at the central part of South Umbarka area. The powerful of 3D static modeling technique has provided a considerable insight into the future prediction of Bahariya reservoirs performance and production behavior.
On the use of infrasound for constraining global climate models
Millet, Christophe; Ribstein, Bruno; Lott, Francois; Cugnet, David
2017-11-01
Numerical prediction of infrasound is a complex issue due to constantly changing atmospheric conditions and to the random nature of small-scale flows. Although part of the upward propagating wave is refracted at stratospheric levels, where gravity waves significantly affect the temperature and the wind, yet the process by which the gravity wave field changes the infrasound arrivals remains poorly understood. In the present work, we use a stochastic parameterization to represent the subgrid scale gravity wave field from the atmospheric specifications provided by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. It is shown that regardless of whether the gravity wave field possesses relatively small or large features, the sensitivity of acoustic waveforms to atmospheric disturbances can be extremely different. Using infrasound signals recorded during campaigns of ammunition destruction explosions, a new set of tunable parameters is proposed which more accurately predicts the small-scale content of gravity wave fields in the middle atmosphere. Climate simulations are performed using the updated parameterization. Numerical results demonstrate that a network of ground-based infrasound stations is a promising technology for dynamically tuning the gravity wave parameterization.
A subgrid parameterization scheme for precipitation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Turner
2012-04-01
Full Text Available With increasing computing power, the horizontal resolution of numerical weather prediction (NWP models is improving and today reaches 1 to 5 km. Nevertheless, clouds and precipitation formation are still subgrid scale processes for most cloud types, such as cumulus and stratocumulus. Subgrid scale parameterizations for water vapor condensation have been in use for many years and are based on a prescribed probability density function (PDF of relative humidity spatial variability within the model grid box, thus providing a diagnosis of the cloud fraction. A similar scheme is developed and tested here. It is based on a prescribed PDF of cloud water variability and a threshold value of liquid water content for droplet collection to derive a rain fraction within the model grid. Precipitation of rainwater raises additional concerns relative to the overlap of cloud and rain fractions, however. The scheme is developed following an analysis of data collected during field campaigns in stratocumulus (DYCOMS-II and fair weather cumulus (RICO and tested in a 1-D framework against large eddy simulations of these observed cases. The new parameterization is then implemented in a 3-D NWP model with a horizontal resolution of 2.5 km to simulate real cases of precipitating cloud systems over France.
A scale invariance criterion for LES parametrizations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Urs Schaefer-Rolffs
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Turbulent kinetic energy cascades in fluid dynamical systems are usually characterized by scale invariance. However, representations of subgrid scales in large eddy simulations do not necessarily fulfill this constraint. So far, scale invariance has been considered in the context of isotropic, incompressible, and three-dimensional turbulence. In the present paper, the theory is extended to compressible flows that obey the hydrostatic approximation, as well as to corresponding subgrid-scale parametrizations. A criterion is presented to check if the symmetries of the governing equations are correctly translated into the equations used in numerical models. By applying scaling transformations to the model equations, relations between the scaling factors are obtained by demanding that the mathematical structure of the equations does not change.The criterion is validated by recovering the breakdown of scale invariance in the classical Smagorinsky model and confirming scale invariance for the Dynamic Smagorinsky Model. The criterion also shows that the compressible continuity equation is intrinsically scale-invariant. The criterion also proves that a scale-invariant turbulent kinetic energy equation or a scale-invariant equation of motion for a passive tracer is obtained only with a dynamic mixing length. For large-scale atmospheric flows governed by the hydrostatic balance the energy cascade is due to horizontal advection and the vertical length scale exhibits a scaling behaviour that is different from that derived for horizontal length scales.
A Virtual Study of Grid Resolution on Experiments of a Highly-Resolved Turbulent Plume
Maisto, Pietro M. F.; Marshall, Andre W.; Gollner, Michael J.; Fire Protection Engineering Department Collaboration
2017-11-01
An accurate representation of sub-grid scale turbulent mixing is critical for modeling fire plumes and smoke transport. In this study, PLIF and PIV diagnostics are used with the saltwater modeling technique to provide highly-resolved instantaneous field measurements in unconfined turbulent plumes useful for statistical analysis, physical insight, and model validation. The effect of resolution was investigated employing a virtual interrogation window (of varying size) applied to the high-resolution field measurements. Motivated by LES low-pass filtering concepts, the high-resolution experimental data in this study can be analyzed within the interrogation windows (i.e. statistics at the sub-grid scale) and on interrogation windows (i.e. statistics at the resolved scale). A dimensionless resolution threshold (L/D*) criterion was determined to achieve converged statistics on the filtered measurements. Such a criterion was then used to establish the relative importance between large and small-scale turbulence phenomena while investigating specific scales for the turbulent flow. First order data sets start to collapse at a resolution of 0.3D*, while for second and higher order statistical moments the interrogation window size drops down to 0.2D*.
Moving contact lines on vibrating surfaces
Solomenko, Zlatko; Spelt, Peter; Scott, Julian
2017-11-01
Large-scale simulations of flows with moving contact lines for realistic conditions generally requires a subgrid scale model (analyses based on matched asymptotics) to account for the unresolved part of the flow, given the large range of length scales involved near contact lines. Existing models for the interface shape in the contact-line region are primarily for steady flows on homogeneous substrates, with encouraging results in 3D simulations. Introduction of complexities would require further investigation of the contact-line region, however. Here we study flows with moving contact lines on planar substrates subject to vibrations, with applications in controlling wetting/dewetting. The challenge here is to determine the change in interface shape near contact lines due to vibrations. To develop further insight, 2D direct numerical simulations (wherein the flow is resolved down to an imposed slip length) have been performed to enable comparison with asymptotic theory, which is also developed further. Perspectives will also be presented on the final objective of the work, which is to develop a subgrid scale model that can be utilized in large-scale simulations. The authors gratefully acknowledge the ANR for financial support (ANR-15-CE08-0031) and the meso-centre FLMSN for use of computational resources. This work was Granted access to the HPC resources of CINES under the allocation A0012B06893 made by GENCI.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ying Zhang
2015-02-01
Full Text Available A method combining rotor actuator disk model and embedded grid technique is presented in this paper, aimed at predicting the flow fields and aerodynamic characteristics of tilt rotor aircraft in conversion mode more efficiently and effectively. In this method, rotor’s influence is considered in terms of the momentum it impacts to the fluid around it; transformation matrixes among different coordinate systems are deduced to extend actuator method’s utility to conversion mode flow fields’ calculation. Meanwhile, an embedded grid system is designed, in which grids generated around fuselage and actuator disk are regarded as background grid and minor grid respectively, and a new method is presented for ‘donor searching’ and ‘hole cutting’ during grid assembling. Based on the above methods, flow fields of tilt rotor aircraft in conversion mode are simulated, with three-dimensional Navier–Stokes equations discretized by a second-order upwind finite-volume scheme and an implicit lower–upper symmetric Gauss–Seidel (LU-SGS time-stepping scheme. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed CFD method is very effective in simulating the conversion mode flow fields of tilt rotor aircraft.
Spatio-temporal Dynamics and Mechanisms of Stress Granule Assembly.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daisuke Ohshima
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Stress granules (SGs are non-membranous cytoplasmic aggregates of mRNAs and related proteins, assembled in response to environmental stresses such as heat shock, hypoxia, endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress, chemicals (e.g. arsenite, and viral infections. SGs are hypothesized as a loci of mRNA triage and/or maintenance of proper translation capacity ratio to the pool of mRNAs. In brain ischemia, hippocampal CA3 neurons, which are resilient to ischemia, assemble SGs. In contrast, CA1 neurons, which are vulnerable to ischemia, do not assemble SGs. These results suggest a critical role SG plays in regards to cell fate decisions. Thus SG assembly along with its dynamics should determine the cell fate. However, the process that exactly determines the SG assembly dynamics is largely unknown. In this paper, analyses of experimental data and computer simulations were used to approach this problem. SGs were assembled as a result of applying arsenite to HeLa cells. The number of SGs increased after a short latent period, reached a maximum, then decreased during the application of arsenite. At the same time, the size of SGs grew larger and became localized at the perinuclear region. A minimal mathematical model was constructed, and stochastic simulations were run to test the modeling. Since SGs are discrete entities as there are only several tens of them in a cell, commonly used deterministic simulations could not be employed. The stochastic simulations replicated observed dynamics of SG assembly. In addition, these stochastic simulations predicted a gamma distribution relative to the size of SGs. This same distribution was also found in our experimental data suggesting the existence of multiple fusion steps in the SG assembly. Furthermore, we found that the initial steps in the SG assembly process and microtubules were critical to the dynamics. Thus our experiments and stochastic simulations presented a possible mechanism regulating SG assembly.
Multi-dimensional upwinding-based implicit LES for the vorticity transport equations
Foti, Daniel; Duraisamy, Karthik
2017-11-01
Complex turbulent flows such as rotorcraft and wind turbine wakes are characterized by the presence of strong coherent structures that can be compactly described by vorticity variables. The vorticity-velocity formulation of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations is employed to increase numerical efficiency. Compared to the traditional velocity-pressure formulation, high order numerical methods and sub-grid scale models for the vorticity transport equation (VTE) have not been fully investigated. Consistent treatment of the convection and stretching terms also needs to be addressed. Our belief is that, by carefully designing sharp gradient-capturing numerical schemes, coherent structures can be more efficiently captured using the vorticity-velocity formulation. In this work, a multidimensional upwind approach for the VTE is developed using the generalized Riemann problem-based scheme devised by Parish et al. (Computers & Fluids, 2016). The algorithm obtains high resolution by augmenting the upwind fluxes with transverse and normal direction corrections. The approach is investigated with several canonical vortex-dominated flows including isolated and interacting vortices and turbulent flows. The capability of the technique to represent sub-grid scale effects is also assessed. Navy contract titled ``Turbulence Modelling Across Disparate Length Scales for Naval Computational Fluid Dynamics Applications,'' through Continuum Dynamics, Inc.
Mapping Learning and Game Mechanics for Serious Games Analysis in Engineering Education
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Callaghan, Michael; Savin-Baden, Maggi; McShane, Niall; Eguiluz, Augusto Gomez
In a world where students are increasing digitally tethered to powerful, always on mobile devices, new models of engagement and approaches to teaching and learning are required from educators. Serious games (SGs...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gh. Ghandhari
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Introduction: The rapid population growth in Iran and the corresponding increases in water demands, including drinking water, industry, agriculture and urban development and existing constraints necessitate optimal scheduling necessity in use of this crucial source. Furthermore, the phenomenon of climate change as a major challenge for humanity can be considered in future periods. Climate change is caused by human activity have also been identified as significant causes of recent climate change, referred to as "global warming". Climate change indicates an unusual change in the Earth's atmosphere and climate consequences of the different parts of planet Earth. Climate change may refer to a change in average weather conditions, or in the time variation of weather around longer-term average conditions. A Warmer climate exacerbates the hydrologic cycle, altering precipitation, magnitude and timing of runoff. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of climate change on water consumption and demand in Bar river basin of Neighbor. Climate change affects precipitation and temperature patterns and hence, may alter on water requirements and demand at three sectors; agriculture, industry and urban water. Materials and Methods: At present, Global coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs are the most frequently used models for projection of different climatic change scenarios. AOGCMs models represent the pinnacle of complexity in climate models and internalize as many processes as possible. These models are based on physical laws that are provided by mathematical relations. AOGCMs models used for climate studies and climate forecast are run at coarse spatial resolution and are unable to resolve important sub-grid scale features such as clouds and topography. As a result AOGCMs output cannot be used for local impact studies. Therefore, downscaling methods were developed to obtain local-scale weather and climate, particularly at
2006-12-01
equations. These SGS stres - ses are tuned to be consistent with physical insight (e.g., the Kolmogoroff turbulent energy spectrum) or with results from fully...C., 2003. Relative dispersion at the surface of the Gulf of Mexico . J. Mar. Res. 61, 285-312. Lavender, K., Davis, R., Owens, W., 2002. Observations...Northern Gulf of Mexico . J. Geophys. Res. 108 (1), 1-15. Orlanski, 1., 1976. A simple boundary condition for unbounded hyperbolic flows. J. Comp. Phys
Apeji, Yonni E; Oyi, Avosuahi R; Isah, Adamu B; Allagh, Teryila S; Modi, Sameer R; Bansal, Arvind K
2017-10-16
The development of novel excipients with enhanced functionality has been explored using particle engineering by co-processing. The aim of this study was to improve the functionality of tapioca starch (TS) for direct compression by co-processing with gelatin (GEL) and colloidal silicon dioxide (CSD) in optimized proportions. Design of Experiment (DoE) was employed to optimize the composition of the co-processed excipient using the desirability function and other supporting studies as a basis for selecting the optimized formulation. The co-processed excipient (SGS) was thereafter developed by the method of co-fusion. Flow and compaction studies of SGS were carried out in comparison to its parent component (TS) and physical mixture (SGS-PM). Tablets were prepared by direct compression (DC) containing ibuprofen (200 mg) as a model for poor compressibility using SGS, Prosolv®, and StarLac® as multifunctional excipients. The optimized composition of SGS corresponded to TS (90%), GEL (7.5%), and CSD (2.5%). The functionality of SGS was improved relative to SGS-PM in terms of flow and compression. Tablets produced with SGS were satisfactory and conformed to USP specifications for acceptable tablets. SGS performed better than Prosolv® in terms of disintegration and was superior to StarLac with respect to tensile strength and disintegration time. The application of DoE was successful in optimizing and developing a starch-based co-processed excipient that can be considered for direct compression tableting.
Large-eddy simulation of a fuel-lean premixed turbulent swirl-burner
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Galpin, Jeremy [IFP, B.P. 311, 92506 Rueil-Malmaison Cedex (France); INSA - CORIA - CNRS, Institut National des Sciences Appliquees de Rouen (France); Naudin, Alexandre; Vervisch, Luc; Domingo, Pascale [INSA - CORIA - CNRS, Institut National des Sciences Appliquees de Rouen (France); Angelberger, Christian; Colin, Olivier [IFP, B.P. 311, 92506 Rueil-Malmaison Cedex (France)
2008-10-15
Large-eddy simulation (LES) of a fuel-lean premixed turbulent swirling flame is performed, in the configuration of a burner experimentally studied by Meier et al. [Combust. Flame 150 (1-2) (2007) 2-26]. Measurements of velocity field, temperature, and major species concentrations are compared against LES results. The unresolved sub-grid scale turbulent species and temperature fluctuations are accounted for using a presumed probability density function and flamelet tabulated detailed chemistry. Before the turbulent burner is simulated, various strategies to introduce tabulated detailed chemistry into a fully compressible Navier-Stokes solver are discussed and tested for laminar flames. The objective is to ensure a proper coupling between chemical tables and unsteady solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations in their fully compressible form, accounting for the inherent constraints of high-performance computing. Comparisons of LES results with experiments are discussed in terms of filtered quantities, leading to the introduction of an extra term to account for the difference in filter sizes used in experiment and LES. Velocity, temperature, and major species LES fields are then compared against measurements. Most of the turbulent flame features are reproduced, and observed discrepancies are analyzed to seek out possible improvements of the subgrid-scale modeling. (author)
Modeling and simulation of turbulent multiphase flows
Li, Zhaorui
dilute spray simulations, a robust and efficient Eulerian-Lagrangian-Lagrangian mathematical/numerical LES model is employed. This is based on the filtered mass density function (FMDF) methodology and is applicable to two-phase turbulent reacting flows with two-way mass, momentum and energy coupling between phases included. In the LES/FMDF methodology, the "resolved" carrier gas velocity field is obtained by solving the filtered form of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations with a high-order finite difference scheme. The sugrid species, energy and combustion are modeled with the two-phase scalar FMDF transport equation, which is solved by a Lagrangian Monte Carlo method. The liquid droplet/spray is simulated with a non-equilibrium Lagrangian model and stochastic SGS closures. The two-way coupling is implemented through series of source/sink terms. The two-phase LES/FMDF is employed for systematic analysis of turbulent combustion in the double swirl spray burner and spray-controlled dump combustor for various flows and spray parameters. The effects of fuel type, spray/injection angle, mass loading ratio, droplet size and its distribution, fuel/air composition, wall, and other parameters on the combustion and turbulence are investigated.
Deploying Serious Games for Management in Higher Education: lessons learned and good practices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jannicke Baalsrud Hauge
2014-08-01
Full Text Available Deployment of serious games (SGs and their insertion in higher education (HE curricula is still low. The lacks papers describing deployment of SGs in HE critically showing educational benefits and providing guidelines and good practices for their use. With the present work, we intend to make a first step in this direction, by reporting our experience in using state of the art managerial SGs in MSc engineering/business courses in four different European universities. In order to describe and analyse the educational characteristics and effectiveness of each game, we propose to use two models that we have straightforwardly extracted from two major pedagogical paradigms: the Bloom’s revised cognitive learning goals taxonomy and the Kolb’s experiential learning cycle. Based on our experience, we also propose a set of lessons and good practices to incentivize and better support deployment of SGs in HE courses.
Stochastic Parametrization for the Impact of Neglected Variability Patterns
Kaiser, Olga; Hien, Steffen; Achatz, Ulrich; Horenko, Illia
2017-04-01
An efficient description of the gravity wave variability and the related spontaneous emission processes requires an empirical stochastic closure for the impact of neglected variability patterns (subgridscales or SGS). In particular, we focus on the analysis of the IGW emission within a tangent linear model which requires a stochastic SGS parameterization for taking the self interaction of the ageostrophic flow components into account. For this purpose, we identify the best SGS model in terms of exactness and simplicity by deploying a wide range of different data-driven model classes, including standard stationary regression models, autoregression and artificial neuronal networks models - as well as the family of nonstationary models like FEM-BV-VARX model class (Finite Element based vector autoregressive time series analysis with bounded variation of the model parameters). The models are used to investigate the main characteristics of the underlying dynamics and to explore the significant spatial and temporal neighbourhood dependencies. The best SGS model in terms of exactness and simplicity is obtained for the nonstationary FEM-BV-VARX setting, determining only direct spatial and temporal neighbourhood as significant - and allowing to drastically reduce the number of informations that are required for the optimal SGS. Additionally, the models are characterized by sets of vector- and matrix-valued parameters that must be inferred from big data sets provided by simulations - making it a task that can not be solved without deploying high-performance computing facilities (HPC).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Kyongjun; Yang, Kyung-Soo [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)
2017-04-15
Large Eddy simulation (LES) results of turbulent flow past a circular cylinder for the specified Reynolds numbers (Re = 63100, 126000, 252000) are presented. An immersed boundary method was employed to facilitate implementation of a circular cylinder in a Cartesian grid system. A dynamic subgrid-scale model, in which the model coefficient is dynamically determined by the current resolved flow field rather than assigned a prefixed constant, was implemented for accurate turbulence modeling. For better resolution near the cylinder surface and in the separated free-shear layers, a composite grid was used. Flow statistics including mean and rms values of force coefficients and Strouhal number of vortex shedding, are presented. Flow visualization using vorticity or Q contours are also shown. Our results are in better agreement with the MARIN measurements compared with RANS calculations reported in the previous ITTC workshop, confirming that LES is a more appropriate simulation methodology than a RANS approach to predict VIV for marine structures.
Filtered Mass Density Function for Large Eddy Simulation of Turbulent Reacting Flows
Jaberi, F. A.; Colucci, P. J.; James, S.; Givi, P.; Pope, S. B.
1997-11-01
A new methodology termed the ``filtered mass density function'' (FMDF) is developed and implemented for large eddy simulation (LES) of variable density chemically reacting turbulent flows at low Mach numbers. The FMDF represents the single point joint probability density function of the subgrid scale scalar quantities and is governed by its modeled transport equation. In this equation, the effects of chemical reaction appear in closed form but the influences of scalar mixing and convection within the subgrid are modeled. The stochastic differential equations (SDEs) which yield statistically equivalent results to that of the FMDF transport equation are derived and are solved via a Lagrangian Monte Carlo scheme. The consistency, the convergence, and the accuracy of FMDF and the Monte Carlo solution of its equivalent SDEs are demonstrated. The performance of the model is assessed by extensive comparisons with DNS and laboratory experimental data in two-dimensional (2D) and 3D reacting turbulent shear flows.
Large eddy simulation of water flow over series of dunes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jun LU
2011-12-01
Full Text Available Large eddy simulation was used to investigate the spatial development of open channel flow over a series of dunes. The three-dimensional filtered Navier-Stokes (N-S equations were numerically solved with the fractional-step method in sigma coordinates. The subgrid-scale turbulent stress was modeled with a dynamic coherent eddy viscosity model proposed by the authors. The computed velocity profiles are in good agreement with the available experimental results. The mean velocity and the turbulent Reynolds stress affected by a series of dune-shaped structures were compared and analyzed. The variation of turbulence statistics along the flow direction affected by the wavy bottom roughness has been studied. The turbulent boundary layer in a complex geographic environment can be simulated well with the proposed large eddy simulation (LES model.
Aeroacoustic Computations for Turbulent Airfoil Flows
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shen, Wen Zhong; Zhu, Wei Jun; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær
2009-01-01
instantaneous How solution is employed as input for the acoustic part. At low Mach numbers, the differences in scales and propagation speed between the flow and the acoustic field are quite large, and hence different meshes and time steps can be used for the two parts. The model is applied to compute flows past......The How-acoustic splitting technique for aeroacoustic computations is extended to simulate the propagation of acoustic waves generated by three-dimensional turbulent flows. In the flow part, a subgrid-scale turbulence model (the mixed model) is employed for large-eddy simulations. The obtained...... a NACA 0015 airfoil at a Mach number of 0.2 and a Reynolds number of 1.6 x 10(5) for different angles of attack. The flow solutions are validated by comparing lift and drag characteristics with experimental data. The comparisons show good agreements between the computed and measured airfoil lift...
Lesh, Richard; Carmona, Guadalupe; Post, Thomas
In this workshop, we will continue to reflect on a models and modeling perspective to understand how students and teachers learn and reason about real life situations encountered in a mathematics and science classroom. We will discuss the idea of a model as a conceptual system that is expressed by using external representational media, and that is…
A high-resolution code for large eddy simulation of incompressible turbulent boundary layer flows
Cheng, Wan
2014-03-01
We describe a framework for large eddy simulation (LES) of incompressible turbulent boundary layers over a flat plate. This framework uses a fractional-step method with fourth-order finite difference on a staggered mesh. We present several laminar examples to establish the fourth-order accuracy and energy conservation property of the code. Furthermore, we implement a recycling method to generate turbulent inflow. We use the stretched spiral vortex subgrid-scale model and virtual wall model to simulate the turbulent boundary layer flow. We find that the case with Reθ ≈ 2.5 × 105 agrees well with available experimental measurements of wall friction, streamwise velocity profiles and turbulent intensities. We demonstrate that for cases with extremely large Reynolds numbers (Reθ = 1012), the present LES can reasonably predict the flow with a coarse mesh. The parallel implementation of the LES code demonstrates reasonable scaling on O(103) cores. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Large Eddy Simulations of Turbulent Reacting Flows in an Opposed-Piston Two Stroke Engine
Srivastava, Shalabh; Schock, Harold; Jaberi, Farhad
2013-11-01
The two-phase filtered mass density function (FMDF) subgrid-scale model has been used for large eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent spray combustion in a generic single cylinder, opposed-piston, two-stroke engine configuration. The LES/FMDF is implemented via an efficient, hybrid numerical method in which the filtered compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved with a high-order, multi-block, compact differencing scheme, and the spray and FMDF are implemented with stochastic Lagrangian methods. The reliability and consistency of the numerical methods are established for the engine configuration by comparing the Eulerian and Lagrangian components of the LES/FMDF. The effects of various operating conditions like boost pressure, heat transfer model, fuel spray temperature, nozzle diameter, injection pressure, and injector configuration on the flow field, heat loss and the evolution of spray and combustion are studied.
Adaptive filtering for the lattice Boltzmann method
Marié, Simon; Gloerfelt, Xavier
2017-03-01
In this study, a new selective filtering technique is proposed for the Lattice Boltzmann Method. This technique is based on an adaptive implementation of the selective filter coefficient σ. The proposed model makes the latter coefficient dependent on the shear stress in order to restrict the use of the spatial filtering technique in sheared stress region where numerical instabilities may occur. Different parameters are tested on 2D test-cases sensitive to numerical stability and on a 3D decaying Taylor-Green vortex. The results are compared to the classical static filtering technique and to the use of a standard subgrid-scale model and give significant improvements in particular for low-order filter consistent with the LBM stencil.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xu Rang-Shu
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Numerical simulation is the main method to solve turbulence problems. As one of the three methods which are commonly used in large-eddy simulation model (LES is the most effective and promising research method. The basic idea of large-eddy simulation is that the large scale turbulent motion is directly simulated and we use the sub-grid scale model to simulate small-scale turbulent motion. Continuing alternative load exists in aero-engine combustion chamber during operation. This coupling phenomenon is an important reason to the combustion chamber fatigue failure. In this paper, the large-eddy simulation methods are described and applied in researching aero-engine combustion chamber multi-physics field coupling analysis. By comparing with the experimental results we verify the feasibility of this method and there is great significance of actual project.
Gravity Wave-induced High-altitude CO2 Ice Clouds in Mars' Atmosphere
Yigit, E.; Medvedev, A. S.; Hartogh, P.
2015-12-01
First general circulation model simulations that quantify and reproduce patches of cold air required for CO2 condensation and ice cloud formation in Mars' atmosphere are presented. Results suggest that these ice clouds are generated by lower atmospheric small-scale gravity waves (GWs) accounted for in the model with the interactively implemented spectral GW parameterization of Yiğit et al. (2008). Distributions of GW-induced temperature fluctuations and occurrences of supersaturation conditions are in a good qualitative agreement with observations of high-altitude CO2 ice clouds. Our study confirms the key role of subgrid-scale GWs in facilitating high-altitude CO2 cloud formation and predicts clouds at altitudes higher than have been observed to date.
Turbulent Statistics From Time-Resolved PIV Measurements of a Jet Using Empirical Mode Decomposition
Dahl, Milo D.
2013-01-01
Empirical mode decomposition is an adaptive signal processing method that when applied to a broadband signal, such as that generated by turbulence, acts as a set of band-pass filters. This process was applied to data from time-resolved, particle image velocimetry measurements of subsonic jets prior to computing the second-order, two-point, space-time correlations from which turbulent phase velocities and length and time scales could be determined. The application of this method to large sets of simultaneous time histories is new. In this initial study, the results are relevant to acoustic analogy source models for jet noise prediction. The high frequency portion of the results could provide the turbulent values for subgrid scale models for noise that is missed in large-eddy simulations. The results are also used to infer that the cross-correlations between different components of the decomposed signals at two points in space, neglected in this initial study, are important.
Influence of Turbulent Fluctuations on Detonation Propagation
Maxwell, Brian McN; Lau-Chapdelaine, Sebastien S M; Falle, Sam A E G; Sharpe, Gary J; Radulescu, Matei I
2016-01-01
The present study addresses the reaction zone structure and burning mechanism of unstable detonations. Experiments investigated mainly two-dimensional methane-oxygen cellular detonations in a thin channel geometry. The sufficiently high temporal resolution permitted to determine the PDF of the shock distribution, a power-law with an exponent of -3, and the burning rate of unreacted pockets from their edges - through surface turbulent flames with a speed approximately 3-7 times larger than the laminar one at the local conditions. Numerical simulations were performed using a novel Large Eddy Simulation method where the reactions due to both auto-ignition and turbulent transport and treated exactly at the sub-grid scale in a reaction-diffusion formulation. The model is an extension of Kerstein & Menon's Linear Eddy Model for Large Eddy Simulation to treat flows with shock waves and rapid gasdynamic transients. The two-dimensional simulations recovered well the amplification of the laminar flame speed owing t...
Cheng, Wan
2015-06-30
We describe large-eddy simulations of turbulent boundary-layer flow over a flat plate at high Reynolds number in the presence of an unsteady, three-dimensional flow separation/reattachment bubble. The stretched-vortex subgrid-scale model is used in the main flow domain combined with a wall-model that is a two-dimensional extension of that developed by Chung & Pullin (2009). Flow separation and re-attachment of the incoming boundary layer is induced by prescribing wall-normal velocity distribution on the upper boundary of the flow domain that produces an adverse-favorable stream-wise pressure distribution at the wall. The LES predicts the distribution of mean shear stress along the wall including the interior of the separation bubble. Several properties of the separation/reattachment flow are discussed.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cameron, Ian; Gani, Rafiqul
2011-01-01
requirements; model construction; model solution; model verification; model validation and finally model deployment and maintenance. Within the adopted methodology, each step is discussedthrough the consideration of key issues and questions relevant to the modelling activity. Practical advice, based on many...
Deteção e quantificação de leite pelo método ELISA no Laboratório SGS
Hipólito, Ana Sofia Morais
2017-01-01
Estima-se que atualmente cerca de 1 % a 2 % da população, e até 8 % das crianças, sofram de alguma alergia alimentar com sintomas que variam de relativamente leves a graves e, por vezes, até com consequências fatais. Muitos alimentos são popularmente conhecidos por provocarem alergia alimentar, como sejam o amendoim, as nozes, o trigo, a soja, o leite, o ovo, o peixe e o marisco. Estes alimentos são responsáveis por causar a maioria das reações alérgicas (> 90 %). Como tal, a população est...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Orlova, Anna; Tran, Thuy A. [Uppsala University, Division of Biomedical Radiation Sciences, Rudbeck Laboratory, Uppsala (Sweden); Ekblad, Torun; Karlstroem, Amelie Eriksson [Royal Institute of Technology, School of Biotechnology, Division of Molecular Biotechnology, Stockholm (Sweden); Tolmachev, Vladimir [Uppsala University, Division of Biomedical Radiation Sciences, Rudbeck Laboratory, Uppsala (Sweden); Uppsala University, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)
2010-02-15
Affibody molecules are a novel class of tumour-targeting proteins, which combine small size (7 kDa) and picomolar affinities. The Affibody molecule Z{sub HER2:342} has been suggested for imaging of HER2 expression in order to select patients for trastuzumab therapy. When optimizing chelators for {sup 99m}Tc-labelling, we have found that synthetic Z{sub HER2:342} conjugated with mercaptoacetyl-glycyl-glycyl-glycyl (maGGG) and mercaptoacetyl-glycyl-seryl-glycyl (maGSG) chelators provides relatively low renal uptake of radioactivity and could be suitable for therapy. maGGG-Z{sub HER2:342} and maGSG-Z{sub HER2:342} were labelled with {sup 186}Re and their biodistribution was studied in normal mice. Dosimetric evaluation and tumour targeting to HER2-overexpressed xenografts (SKOV-3) by {sup 186}Re-maGSG-Z{sub HER2:342} were studied. Gluconate-mediated labelling of maGGG-Z{sub HER2:342} and maGSG-Z{sub HER2:342} with {sup 186}Re provided a yield of more than 95% within 60 min. The conjugates were stable and demonstrated specific binding to HER2-expressing SKOV-3 cells. Biodistribution in normal mice demonstrated rapid blood clearance, low accumulation of radioactivity in the kidney and other organs, accumulating free perrhenate. Both {sup 186}Re-maGGG-Z{sub HER2:342} and {sup 186}Re-maGSG-Z{sub HER2:342} demonstrated lower renal uptake than their {sup 99m}Tc-labelled counterparts. {sup 186}Re-maGSG-Z{sub HER2:342} provided the lowest uptake in healthy tissues. Biodistribution of {sup 186}Re-maGSG-Z{sub HER2:342} in nude mice bearing SKOV-3 xenografts showed specific targeting of tumours. Tumour uptake 24 h after injection (5.84{+-}0.54%ID/g) exceeded the concentration in blood by more than 500-fold, and uptake in kidneys by about 8-fold. Preliminary dosimetric evaluation showed that dose-to-tumour should exceed dose-to-kidney by approximately 5-fold. Optimization of chelators improves biodistribution properties of rhenium-labelled small scaffold proteins and enables selection of promising radiotherapeutic agents based on the Affibody molecule. (orig.)
Kamarajugadda, Sai; Mazumder, Sandip
The effect of the cathode catalyst layer's structure and composition on the overall performance of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is investigated numerically. The starting point of the sub-grid scale catalyst layer model is the well-known flooded agglomerate concept. The proposed model addresses the effects of ionomer (Nafion) loading, catalyst (platinum) loading, platinum/carbon ratio, agglomerate size and cathode layer thickness. The sub-grid scale model is first validated against experimental data and previously published results, and then embedded within a two-dimensional validated computational fluid dynamics code that can predict the overall performance of the fuel cell. The integrated model is then used to explore a wide range of the compositional and structural parameter space, mentioned earlier. In each case, the model is able to correctly predict the trends observed by past experimental studies. It is found that the performance trends are often different at intermediate versus high current densities-the former being governed by agglomerate-scale (or local) losses, while the latter is governed by catalyst layer thickness-scale (or global) losses. The presence of an optimal performance with varying Nafion content in the cathode is more due to the local agglomerate-scale mass transport and conductivity losses in the polymer coating around the agglomerates than due to the amount of Nafion within the agglomerate. It is also found that platinum mass loading needs to be at a moderate level in order to optimize fuel cell performance, even if cost is to be disregarded.
ten Cate, J.M.
2015-01-01
Developing experimental models to understand dental caries has been the theme in our research group. Our first, the pH-cycling model, was developed to investigate the chemical reactions in enamel or dentine, which lead to dental caries. It aimed to leverage our understanding of the fluoride mode of
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Carlson, Kerstin
The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) was the first and most celebrated of a wave of international criminal tribunals (ICTs) built in the 1990s designed to advance liberalism through international criminal law. Model(ing) Justice examines the case law of the ICTY...
Simonse, W.L.
2014-01-01
Business model design does not always produce a “design” or “model” as the expected result. However, when designers are involved, a visual model or artifact is produced. To assist strategic managers in thinking about how they can act, the designers’ challenge is to combine both strategy and design
Computational and Experimental Study of Sprays from the Breakup of Water Sheets
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Jesper
. The velocity of each particle is simultaneously determined using particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) on focused images. Results are compared to PDA measurements. In shape and trends the data acquired with IPI and PDA are very similar, however due to different sampling methods employed by the two measuring...... three approaches: 1) a volume of fluid (VOF) method using laminar viscosity only, 2) a VOF method using subgrid-scale turbulence modeling, and 3) a two-fluid Euler/Euler method using the laminar viscosity only. The primary focus of the analysis is on the internal flow characteristics in the swirl....... In supplement, to the PDA measurements, interferometric particle imaging (IPI) measurements are carried out in a hollow-cone spray from a Danfoss pressure-swirl atomizer. IPI is a technique for determining the diameter of transparent and spherical particles in a whole field from out-of-focus particle images...
Estimating the effective Reynolds number in implicit large-eddy simulation.
Zhou, Ye; Grinstein, Fernando F; Wachtor, Adam J; Haines, Brian M
2014-01-01
In implicit large-eddy simulation (ILES), energy-containing large scales are resolved, and physics capturing numerics are used to spatially filter out unresolved scales and to implicitly model subgrid scale effects. From an applied perspective, it is highly desirable to estimate a characteristic Reynolds number (Re)-and therefore a relevant effective viscosity-so that the impact of resolution on predicted flow quantities and their macroscopic convergence can usefully be characterized. We argue in favor of obtaining robust Re estimates away from the smallest scales of the simulated flow-where numerically controlled dissipation takes place and propose a theoretical basis and framework to determine such measures. ILES examples include forced turbulence as a steady flow case, the Taylor-Green vortex to address transition and decaying turbulence, and simulations of a laser-driven reshock experiment illustrating a fairly complex turbulence problem of current practical interest.
Flux-corrected transport principles, algorithms, and applications
Kuzmin, Dmitri; Turek, Stefan
2005-01-01
Addressing students and researchers as well as CFD practitioners, this book describes the state of the art in the development of high-resolution schemes based on the Flux-Corrected Transport (FCT) paradigm. Intended for readers who have a solid background in Computational Fluid Dynamics, the book begins with historical notes by J.P. Boris and D.L. Book. Review articles that follow describe recent advances in the design of FCT algorithms as well as various algorithmic aspects. The topics addressed in the book and its main highlights include: the derivation and analysis of classical FCT schemes with special emphasis on the underlying physical and mathematical constraints; flux limiting for hyperbolic systems; generalization of FCT to implicit time-stepping and finite element discretizations on unstructured meshes and its role as a subgrid scale model for Monotonically Integrated Large Eddy Simulation (MILES) of turbulent flows. The proposed enhancements of the FCT methodology also comprise the prelimiting and '...
HolzäPfel, F.; Hofbauer, T.; Gerz, T.; Schumann, U.
After a brief introduction of the governing equations and numerical approaches that are used to simulate wake vortices in the atmosphere associated implications and restrictions are discussed. The complex interaction of turbulence and rotation in the vortex core region is not resolved appropriately and is controlled by the subgrid scale model. A local Richard-son number correction for strong streamline curvature effects is proposed that accounts for stabilizing effects of coherent rotation and reduces vortex core growth rates. Real case simulations demonstrate that LES is capable to reproduce complex wake vortex behaviour as the spectacular rebound observed at London Heathrow Int'l Airport. Various idealized cases with stably stratified, turbulent and sheared environments are used to reveal the mechanisms thatcontrol vortex decay.
Large Eddy Simulations and Experimental Investigation of Flow in a Swirl Stabilized Combustor
Kewlani, Gaurav
2012-01-09
Swirling flows are the preferred mode of flame stabilization in lean premixed gas turbine engine combustors. Developing a fundamental understanding of combustion dynamics and flame stability in such systems requires a detailed investigation of the complex interactions between fluid mechanics and combustion. The turbulent reacting flow in a sudden expansion swirl combustor is studied using compressible large eddy simulations (LES) and compared with experimental data measured using PIV. Different vortex breakdown structures are observed, as the mixture equivalence ratio is reduced, that progressively diminish the stability of the flame. Sub-grid scale combustion models such as the artificially thickened flame method and the partially stirred reactor approach, along with appropriate chemical schemes, are implemented to describe the flame. The numerical predictions for average velocity correspond well with experimental results, and higher accuracy is obtained using the more detailed reaction mechanism. Copyright © 2012 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc.
GPU Accelerated DG-FDF Large Eddy Simulator
Inkarbekov, Medet; Aitzhan, Aidyn; Sammak, Shervin; Givi, Peyman; Kaltayev, Aidarkhan
2017-11-01
A GPU accelerated simulator is developed and implemented for large eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent flows. The filtered density function (FDF) is utilized for modeling of the subgrid scale quantities. The filtered transport equations are solved via a discontinuous Galerkin (DG) and the FDF is simulated via particle based Lagrangian Monte-Carlo (MC) method. It is demonstrated that the GPUs simulations are of the order of 100 times faster than the CPU-based calculations. This brings LES of turbulent flows to a new level, facilitating efficient simulation of more complex problems. The work at Al-Faraby Kazakh National University is sponsored by MoES of RK under Grant 3298/GF-4.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1995-04-01
Atmospheric research at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) occurs in conjunction with the Atmospheric Chemistry Program (ACP) and with the Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) Program. Solicitations for proposals and peer review were used to select research projects for funding in FY 1995. Nearly all ongoing projects were brought to a close in FY 1994. Therefore, the articles in this volume include a summary of the long-term accomplishments as well as the FY 1994 progress made on these projects. The following articles present summaries of the progress in FY 1994 under these research tasks: continental and oceanic fate of pollutants; research aircraft operations; ASCOT program management; coupling/decoupling of synoptic and valley circulations; interactions between surface exchange processes and atmospheric circulations; and direct simulations of atmospheric turbulence. Climate change research at PNL is aimed at reducing uncertainties in the fundamental processes that control climate systems that currently prevent accurate predictions of climate change and its effects. PNL is responsible for coordinating and integrating the field and laboratory measurement programs, modeling studies, and data analysis activities of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program. In FY 1994, PNL scientists conducted 3 research projects under the ARM program. In the first project, the sensitivity of GCM grid-ad meteorological properties to subgrid-scale variations in surface fluxes and subgrid-scale circulation patterns is being tested in a single column model. In the second project, a new and computationally efficient scheme has been developed for parameterizing stratus cloud microphysics in general circulation models. In the last project, a balloon-borne instrument package is being developed for making research-quality measurements of radiative flux divergence profiles in the lowest 1,500 meters of the Earth`s atmosphere.
Software Package \\Nesvetay-3D" for modeling three-dimensional flows of monatomic rarefied gas
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. A. Titarev
2014-01-01
integral is guaranteed by means of a special procedure to calculate macroscopic variables. Another important part of the numerical method is the fast solution of the linear system for time increments of the distribution function. The solution is based on the LU-SGS approach so that the number of operations is linearly proportional to the number of cells in the spatial mesh. Large problems can be solved on hundreds of CPU cores using the Message Passing Interface (MPI.Performance and robustness of the numerical method and computer code are illustrated on a number of problems, including rarefied gas flows through microchannels into vacuum and external flows over re-entry vehicles on the high altitude of flight. Rarefied gas flows through simple and composite channels of circular cross sectional area are considered. Comparisons with the results of other authors and experimental data are shown.Good spatial mesh convergence of the method is demonstrated. For the flow in a composite channel the formation of a Mach disk is shown. One of the examples of external flow calculation is the analysis of rarefied gas flow over model winged re-entry space vehicle (RSV, which is a three-dimensional object of a very complex shape. The RSV is proposed by Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute (TsAGI. Its geometry includes a blunt fuselage, sweptwings, keel and flap. The flow pattern over the RSV and surface pressure distribution are shown.At present the work is under way to incorporate an implicit numerical scheme for time-dependent rarefied gas flows, an adaptation algorithm for the efficient modelling of hypersonic flows over complex objects and extension to the diatomic gas modelling on the bases of the Rykov kinetic model.
Advanced tomographic flow diagnostics for opaque multiphase fluids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Torczynski, J.R.; O`Hern, T.J.; Adkins, D.R.; Jackson, N.B.; Shollenberger, K.A.
1997-05-01
This report documents the work performed for the ``Advanced Tomographic Flow Diagnostics for Opaque Multiphase Fluids`` LDRD (Laboratory-Directed Research and Development) project and is presented as the fulfillment of the LDRD reporting requirement. Dispersed multiphase flows, particularly gas-liquid flows, are industrially important to the chemical and applied-energy industries, where bubble-column reactors are employed for chemical synthesis and waste treatment. Due to the large range of length scales (10{sup {minus}6}-10{sup 1}m) inherent in real systems, direct numerical simulation is not possible at present, so computational simulations are forced to use models of subgrid-scale processes, the accuracy of which strongly impacts simulation fidelity. The development and validation of such subgrid-scale models requires data sets at representative conditions. The ideal measurement techniques would provide spatially and temporally resolved full-field measurements of the distributions of all phases, their velocity fields, and additional associated quantities such as pressure and temperature. No technique or set of techniques is known that satisfies this requirement. In this study, efforts are focused on characterizing the spatial distribution of the phases in two-phase gas-liquid flow and in three-phase gas-liquid-solid flow. Due to its industrial importance, the bubble-column geometry is selected for diagnostics development and assessment. Two bubble-column testbeds are utilized: one at laboratory scale and one close to industrial scale. Several techniques for measuring the phase distributions at conditions of industrial interest are examined: level-rise measurements, differential-pressure measurements, bulk electrical impedance measurements, electrical bubble probes, x-ray tomography, gamma-densitometry tomography, and electrical impedance tomography.
Modelling SDL, Modelling Languages
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael Piefel
2007-02-01
Full Text Available Today's software systems are too complex to implement them and model them using only one language. As a result, modern software engineering uses different languages for different levels of abstraction and different system aspects. Thus to handle an increasing number of related or integrated languages is the most challenging task in the development of tools. We use object oriented metamodelling to describe languages. Object orientation allows us to derive abstract reusable concept definitions (concept classes from existing languages. This language definition technique concentrates on semantic abstractions rather than syntactical peculiarities. We present a set of common concept classes that describe structure, behaviour, and data aspects of high-level modelling languages. Our models contain syntax modelling using the OMG MOF as well as static semantic constraints written in OMG OCL. We derive metamodels for subsets of SDL and UML from these common concepts, and we show for parts of these languages that they can be modelled and related to each other through the same abstract concepts.
Lathyrogenic agents as therapy for subglottic stenosis--a pilot study.
Livingston, G L; Schild, J A
1987-11-01
The surgical repair of subglottic stenosis (SGS) is often unsuccessful because of recurrence of the scar contracture. Over the past few years, two lathyrogenic agents (compounds that inhibit collagen cross-linking) have been shown effective in prevention of stenosis in animal models that have deep caustic esophageal burns. Since the principles of induced lathyrism have not been applied to the treatment of laryngotracheal stenosis, a pilot study using a canine model was conducted to test the efficacy of penicillamine and N-acetyl-L-cysteine in reduction of the rate of reformation of SGS. In all six animals used, a complete, 10 to 15 mm thick, mature SGS was induced experimentally, then opened with a CO2 laser. The dogs that were treated with lathyrogenic agents exhibited a lower rate of re-stenosis (one maintained patency throughout the 5 weeks of treatment) when compared to the two control dogs. Histologic sections of the subglottis in each dog revealed severe cricoid collapse, necrosis, and scarring, and thus demonstrated similarities to SGS in human beings. The two lathyrogenic agents used in this study are already approved for human use and may represent a valuable form of adjunctive therapy in the surgical management of SGS.
Model-model Evaluasi Pendidikan
Qomari, Rohmad
2008-01-01
On learning literature, there many kind of learning model design, for example model developed by Winarno Surakhmad, Winkel, Hisyam Zaini et al., Briggs and Wager, Gerlach and Ely, and Kemp. Those models design have component and pattern that different each other, from model that have dominant quantitative measure like measurement model and model that using qualitative approach as illuminative model. By studying many models and broaden view not only to one model approach, and even combine (m...
Influence of Sub-grid-Scale Isentropic Transports on McRAS Evaluations using ARM-CART SCM Datasets
Sud, Y. C.; Walker, G. K.; Tao, W. K.
2004-01-01
In GCM-physics evaluations with the currently available ARM-CART SCM datasets, McRAS produced very similar character of near surface errors of simulated temperature and humidity containing typically warm and moist biases near the surface and cold and dry biases aloft. We argued it must have a common cause presumably rooted in the model physics. Lack of vertical adjustment of horizontal transport was thought to be a plausible source. Clearly, debarring such a freedom would force the incoming air to diffuse into the grid-cell which would naturally bias the surface air to become warm and moist while the upper air becomes cold and dry, a characteristic feature of McRAS biases. Since, the errors were significantly larger in the two winter cases that contain potentially more intense episodes of cold and warm advective transports, it further reaffirmed our argument and provided additional motivation to introduce the corrections. When the horizontal advective transports were suitably modified to allow rising and/or sinking following isentropic pathways of subgrid scale motions, the outcome was to cool and dry (or warm and moisten) the lower (or upper) levels. Ever, crude approximations invoking such a correction reduced the temperature and humidity biases considerably. The tests were performed on all the available ARM-CART SCM cases with consistent outcome. With the isentropic corrections implemented through two different numerical approximations, virtually similar benefits were derived further confirming the robustness of our inferences. These results suggest the need for insentropic advective transport adjustment in a GCM due to subgrid scale motions.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Poulsen, Helle
1996-01-01
This paper presents a functional modelling method called Actant Modelling rooted in linguistics and semiotics. Actant modelling can be integrated with Multilevel Flow Modelling (MFM) in order to give an interpretation of actants.......This paper presents a functional modelling method called Actant Modelling rooted in linguistics and semiotics. Actant modelling can be integrated with Multilevel Flow Modelling (MFM) in order to give an interpretation of actants....
Anaïs Schaeffer
2012-01-01
By analysing the production of mesons in the forward region of LHC proton-proton collisions, the LHCf collaboration has provided key information needed to calibrate extremely high-energy cosmic ray models. Average transverse momentum (pT) as a function of rapidity loss ∆y. Black dots represent LHCf data and the red diamonds represent SPS experiment UA7 results. The predictions of hadronic interaction models are shown by open boxes (sibyll 2.1), open circles (qgsjet II-03) and open triangles (epos 1.99). Among these models, epos 1.99 shows the best overall agreement with the LHCf data. LHCf is dedicated to the measurement of neutral particles emitted at extremely small angles in the very forward region of LHC collisions. Two imaging calorimeters – Arm1 and Arm2 – take data 140 m either side of the ATLAS interaction point. “The physics goal of this type of analysis is to provide data for calibrating the hadron interaction models – the well-known &...
Subharmonic energy-gap structure and heating effects in superconducting niobium point contacts
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Flensberg, Karsten; Hansen, Jørn Bindslev
1989-01-01
superconducting weak links that includes the heating effects self-consistently. Our model is combined with that of Octavio, Blonder, Klapwijk, and Tinkham [Phys. Rev. B 27, 6739 (1983)], which is based on the idea of multiple Andreev scattering in the contact. The shape and the temperature variation......We present experimental data of the temperature-dependent subharmonic energy-gap structure (SGS) in the current-voltage (I-V) curves of superconducting niobium point contacts. The observed SGS is modified by heating effects. We construct a model of the quasiparticle conductance of metallic...... of the calculated SGS is found to be in good agreement with the experimental curves for contacts with resistance larger than 5 Ω....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tea Ya. Danelyan
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The article states the general principles of structural modeling in aspect of the theory of systems and gives the interrelation with other types of modeling to adjust them to the main directions of modeling. Mathematical methods of structural modeling, in particular method of expert evaluations are considered.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Piccolo, Chiara; Heitzig, Martina
2011-01-01
This chapter presents various types of constitutive models and their applications. There are 3 aspects dealt with in this chapter, namely: creation and solution of property models, the application of parameter estimation and finally application examples of constitutive models. A systematic...... procedure is introduced for the analysis and solution of property models. Models that capture and represent the temperature dependent behaviour of physical properties are introduced, as well as equation of state models (EOS) such as the SRK EOS. Modelling of liquid phase activity coefficients are also...... covered, illustrating several models such as the Wilson equation and NRTL equation, along with their solution strategies. A section shows how to use experimental data to regress the property model parameters using a least squares approach. A full model analysis is applied in each example that discusses...
Comparison of two methods of phosphorus transport modelling in large areas
Jáchymová, Barbora; Krása, Josef; Borovec, Jakub
2015-04-01
transported dissolved phosphorus amount, based on the newly derived methodology. Study areas (four catchments of dozens of km sq) were chosen for their different characteristic (land-use, average slope, average altitude, P concentration in the soil) which influence rainfall-runoff behavior. Modelled results were compared with data measured during synthetic rainfall-runoff events using rainfall simulator. Results show, that the two presented methods provide similar results in intensively agriculturally used regions, when the commonly considered dissolved phosphorus share value of 5 % was used. The agreements of the methods was observed for three studied areas with significant average erosion intensity (above 4 t.ha-1.year-1). In the catchment with low erosion intensity (0.5 t.ha-1.year-1) the indirect method underestimates dissolved phosphorus amount transported in watercourses. This research is supported by grants: SGS14/180/OHK1/3T/11 Rainfall-runoff, erosion and transport processes - experimental research and QJ330118 "Using Remote Sensing for Monitoring of Soil Degradation by Erosion". BOROVEC, J., JAN, J., HEJZLAR, J., KRÁSA, J., ROSENDORF, P. (2012). Eutrophication potential of eroded particles in water reservoirs. In: Kosour, D. (ed.), Proceedings of Conference Water reservoirs 2012, 26. - 27. 9. 2012, Brno, The Czech Republic. Brno: pp. 57-61. JAN, J., BOROVEC, J., KOPÁČEK, J., HEJZLAR, J. (2013). What do results of common sequential fractionation and single-step extractions tell us about P binding with Fe and al compounds in non-calcareous sediments? Water Research, 2013, 47 (2): 547-557. SHARPLEY A. N.: Dependence of runoff phosphorus on extractable soil phosphorus. J. Environ. Qual., 1995, 24, 920-926.
Chang, CC
2012-01-01
Model theory deals with a branch of mathematical logic showing connections between a formal language and its interpretations or models. This is the first and most successful textbook in logical model theory. Extensively updated and corrected in 1990 to accommodate developments in model theoretic methods - including classification theory and nonstandard analysis - the third edition added entirely new sections, exercises, and references. Each chapter introduces an individual method and discusses specific applications. Basic methods of constructing models include constants, elementary chains, Sko
Healy, Richard W.; Scanlon, Bridget R.
2010-01-01
Simulation models are widely used in all types of hydrologic studies, and many of these models can be used to estimate recharge. Models can provide important insight into the functioning of hydrologic systems by identifying factors that influence recharge. The predictive capability of models can be used to evaluate how changes in climate, water use, land use, and other factors may affect recharge rates. Most hydrological simulation models, including watershed models and groundwater-flow models, are based on some form of water-budget equation, so the material in this chapter is closely linked to that in Chapter 2. Empirical models that are not based on a water-budget equation have also been used for estimating recharge; these models generally take the form of simple estimation equations that define annual recharge as a function of precipitation and possibly other climatic data or watershed characteristics.Model complexity varies greatly. Some models are simple accounting models; others attempt to accurately represent the physics of water movement through each compartment of the hydrologic system. Some models provide estimates of recharge explicitly; for example, a model based on the Richards equation can simulate water movement from the soil surface through the unsaturated zone to the water table. Recharge estimates can be obtained indirectly from other models. For example, recharge is a parameter in groundwater-flow models that solve for hydraulic head (i.e. groundwater level). Recharge estimates can be obtained through a model calibration process in which recharge and other model parameter values are adjusted so that simulated water levels agree with measured water levels. The simulation that provides the closest agreement is called the best fit, and the recharge value used in that simulation is the model-generated estimate of recharge.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Katrin Heer
Full Text Available Wind-borne pollinating wasps (Agaonidae can transport fig (Ficus sp., Moraceae pollen over enormous distances (> 100 km. Because of their extensive breeding areas, Neotropical figs are expected to exhibit weak patterns of genetic structure at local and regional scales. We evaluated genetic structure at the regional to continental scale (Panama, Costa Rica, and Peru for the free-standing fig species Ficus insipida. Genetic differentiation was detected only at distances > 300 km (Jost´s Dest = 0.68 ± 0.07 & FST = 0.30 ± 0.03 between Mesoamerican and Amazonian sites and evidence for phylogeographic structure (RST>>permuted RST was only significant in comparisons between Central and South America. Further, we assessed local scale spatial genetic structure (SGS, d ≤ 8 km in Panama and developed an agent-based model parameterized with data from F. insipida to estimate minimum pollination distances, which determine the contribution of pollen dispersal on SGS. The local scale data for F. insipida was compared to SGS data collected for an additional free-standing fig, F. yoponensis (subgenus Pharmacosycea, and two species of strangler figs, F. citrifolia and F. obtusifolia (subgenus Urostigma sampled in Panama. All four species displayed significant SGS (mean Sp = 0.014 ± 0.012. Model simulations indicated that most pollination events likely occur at distances > > 1 km, largely ruling out spatially limited pollen dispersal as the determinant of SGS in F. insipida and, by extension, the other fig species. Our results are consistent with the view that Ficus develops fine-scale SGS primarily as a result of localized seed dispersal and/or clumped seedling establishment despite extensive long-distance pollen dispersal. We discuss several ecological and life history factors that could have species- or subgenus-specific impacts on the genetic structure of Neotropical figs.
Physical modeling versus numerical modeling
Blacquière, G.; Veldhuizen, E. van
2003-01-01
Despite the widespread use of numerical modeling, there is still room for physical modeling today for many reasons. E.g., physical modeling is based on real wave propagation whereas numerical modeling is based on algorithms which are by necessity simplified and discretized versions of the 'real
Model-model Perencanaan Strategik
Tatang M Amirin
2005-01-01
The process of strategic planning, used to be called as long-term planning, consists of several components, including strategic analysis, setting strategic direction (covering of mission, vision, and values), and action planning. Many writers develop models representing the steps of the strategic planning process, i.e. basic planning model, problem-based planning model, scenario model, and organic or self-organizing model.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bækgaard, Lars
2001-01-01
The purpose of this chapter is to discuss conceptual event modeling within a context of information modeling. Traditionally, information modeling has been concerned with the modeling of a universe of discourse in terms of information structures. However, most interesting universes of discourse...... are dynamic and we present a modeling approach that can be used to model such dynamics.We characterize events as both information objects and change agents (Bækgaard 1997). When viewed as information objects events are phenomena that can be observed and described. For example, borrow events in a library can...
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Unnikrishnan, A.S.; Manoj, N.T.
Various numerical models used to study the dynamics and horizontal distribution of salinity in Mandovi-Zuari estuaries, Goa, India is discussed in this chapter. Earlier, a one-dimensional network model was developed for representing the complex...
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Singh, V.P; Frevert, D.K
2006-01-01
This book spans a variety of modeling areas, outlining 24 models that represent a variety of characteristics, such as physical bases, comprehensiveness, broad-based applicability, and use of modern tools...
Turner, Raymond
2009-01-01
Computational models can be found everywhere in present day science and engineering. In providing a logical framework and foundation for the specification and design of specification languages, Raymond Turner uses this framework to introduce and study computable models. In doing so he presents the first systematic attempt to provide computational models with a logical foundation. Computable models have wide-ranging applications from programming language semantics and specification languages, through to knowledge representation languages and formalism for natural language semantics. They are al
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sclütter, Flemming; Frigaard, Peter; Liu, Zhou
This report presents the model test results on wave run-up on the Zeebrugge breakwater under the simulated prototype storms. The model test was performed in January 2000 at the Hydraulics & Coastal Engineering Laboratory, Aalborg University. The detailed description of the model is given...
Bergsma, Wicher; Hagenaars, Jacques A
2009-01-01
Presents an overview of the basic principles of marginal modeling and offers a range of possible applications. This book includes many real world examples, explains the types of research questions for which marginal modeling is useful, and provides a description of how to apply marginal models for a great diversity of research questions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rocio Acuna-Hidalgo
2017-03-01
Full Text Available Schinzel-Giedion syndrome (SGS is a rare developmental disorder characterized by multiple malformations, severe neurological alterations and increased risk of malignancy. SGS is caused by de novo germline mutations clustering to a 12bp hotspot in exon 4 of SETBP1. Mutations in this hotspot disrupt a degron, a signal for the regulation of protein degradation, and lead to the accumulation of SETBP1 protein. Overlapping SETBP1 hotspot mutations have been observed recurrently as somatic events in leukemia. We collected clinical information of 47 SGS patients (including 26 novel cases with germline SETBP1 mutations and of four individuals with a milder phenotype caused by de novo germline mutations adjacent to the SETBP1 hotspot. Different mutations within and around the SETBP1 hotspot have varying effects on SETBP1 stability and protein levels in vitro and in in silico modeling. Substitutions in SETBP1 residue I871 result in a weak increase in protein levels and mutations affecting this residue are significantly more frequent in SGS than in leukemia. On the other hand, substitutions in residue D868 lead to the largest increase in protein levels. Individuals with germline mutations affecting D868 have enhanced cell proliferation in vitro and higher incidence of cancer compared to patients with other germline SETBP1 mutations. Our findings substantiate that, despite their overlap, somatic SETBP1 mutations driving malignancy are more disruptive to the degron than germline SETBP1 mutations causing SGS. Additionally, this suggests that the functional threshold for the development of cancer driven by the disruption of the SETBP1 degron is higher than for the alteration in prenatal development in SGS. Drawing on previous studies of somatic SETBP1 mutations in leukemia, our results reveal a genotype-phenotype correlation in germline SETBP1 mutations spanning a molecular, cellular and clinical phenotype.
Tomioka, Kimiko; Kurumatani, Norio; Hosoi, Hiroshi
2016-01-01
Background Population-based data examining the relationship between social participation (SP) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) are scarce. This study examined the cross-sectional relationship between SP and IADL in community-dwelling elderly persons. Methods Self-administered questionnaires were mailed to 23 710 residents aged ≥65 years in Nara, Japan (response rate: 74.2%). Data from 14 956 respondents (6935 males and 8021 females) without dependency in basic activities of daily living (ADL) were analyzed. The number, type, and frequency of participation in social groups (SGs) were used to measure SP. SGs included volunteer groups, sports groups, hobby groups, senior citizens’ clubs, neighborhood community associations, and cultural groups. IADL was evaluated using the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence. Logistic regression models stratified by gender were used. Results After adjustment for putative confounding factors, including demographics, health status, life-style habits, ADL, depression, cognitive function, social networks, social support, and social roles, participation in various SGs among both genders was inversely associated with poor IADL, showing a significant dose-response relationship between an increasing number of SGs and a lower proportion of those with poor IADL (P for trend <0.001). A significant inverse association between frequent participation and poor IADL was observed for all types of SGs among females, whereas the association was limited to sports groups and senior citizens’ clubs among males. Conclusions Our results show that participation in a variety of SGs is associated with independent IADL among the community-dwelling elderly, regardless of gender. However, the beneficial effects of frequent participation on IADL may be stronger for females than for males. PMID:27180933
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kimiko Tomioka
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Background: Population-based data examining the relationship between social participation (SP and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL are scarce. This study examined the cross-sectional relationship between SP and IADL in community-dwelling elderly persons. Methods: Self-administered questionnaires were mailed to 23 710 residents aged ≥65 years in Nara, Japan (response rate: 74.2%. Data from 14 956 respondents (6935 males and 8021 females without dependency in basic activities of daily living (ADL were analyzed. The number, type, and frequency of participation in social groups (SGs were used to measure SP. SGs included volunteer groups, sports groups, hobby groups, senior citizens’ clubs, neighborhood community associations, and cultural groups. IADL was evaluated using the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence. Logistic regression models stratified by gender were used. Results: After adjustment for putative confounding factors, including demographics, health status, life-style habits, ADL, depression, cognitive function, social networks, social support, and social roles, participation in various SGs among both genders was inversely associated with poor IADL, showing a significant dose-response relationship between an increasing number of SGs and a lower proportion of those with poor IADL (P for trend <0.001. A significant inverse association between frequent participation and poor IADL was observed for all types of SGs among females, whereas the association was limited to sports groups and senior citizens’ clubs among males. Conclusions: Our results show that participation in a variety of SGs is associated with independent IADL among the community-dwelling elderly, regardless of gender. However, the beneficial effects of frequent participation on IADL may be stronger for females than for males.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Blomhøj, Morten
2004-01-01
modelling, however, can be seen as a practice of teaching that place the relation between real life and mathematics into the centre of teaching and learning mathematics, and this is relevant at all levels. Modelling activities may motivate the learning process and help the learner to establish cognitive...... roots for the construction of important mathematical concepts. In addition competences for setting up, analysing and criticising modelling processes and the possible use of models is a formative aim in this own right for mathematics teaching in general education. The paper presents a theoretical...... framework, which has been used for designing modelling courses, analysing students’ modelling activities, identifying learning obstacles in the modelling process and to guide the teachers interaction with the students during their work. This will be illustrated with an example from a developmental project...
Russell, James J.; Theriot, Julie A.; Sood, Pranidhi; Marshall, Wallace F.; Laura F Landweber; Fritz-Laylin, Lillian; Polka, Jessica K.; Oliferenko, Snezhana; Gerbich, Therese; Gladfelter, Amy; Umen, James; Bezanilla, Magdalena; Lancaster, Madeline A.; He, Shuonan; Matthew C Gibson
2017-01-01
Model organisms are widely used in research as accessible and convenient systems to study a particular area or question in biology. Traditionally only a handful of organisms have been widely studied, but modern research tools are enabling researchers to extend the set of model organisms to include less-studied and more unusual systems. This Forum highlights a range of 'non-model model organisms' as emerging systems for tackling questions across the whole spectrum of biology (and beyond), the ...
Modelling in Business Model design
Simonse, W.L.
2013-01-01
It appears that business model design might not always produce a design or model as the expected result. However when designers are involved, a visual model or artefact is produced. To assist strategic managers in thinking about how they can act, the designers challenge is to combine strategy and
Frediani, M. E.; Hacker, J.; Anagnostou, E. N.; Hopson, T. M.
2015-12-01
This study aims at improving regional simulation of 10-meter wind speed by verifying PBL schemes for storms at different scales, including convective storms, blizzards, tropical storms and nor'easters over complex terrain in the northeast U.S. We verify a recently proposed sub-grid topographic drag scheme in stormy conditions and compare it with two PBL schemes (Mellor-Yamada and Yonsei University) from WRF-ARW over a region in the Northeast U.S. The scheme was designed to adjust the surface drag over regions with high subgrid-scale topographic variability. The schemes are compared using spatial, temporal, and pattern criteria against surface observations. The spatial and temporal criteria are defined by season, diurnal cycle, and topography; the pattern, is based on clusters derived using clustering analysis. Results show that the drag scheme reduces the positive bias of low wind speeds, but over-corrects the high wind speeds producing a magnitude-increasing negative bias with increasing speed. Both other schemes underestimate the most frequent low-speed mode and overestimate the high-speeds. Error characteristics of all schemes respond to seasonal and diurnal cycle changes. The Topo-wind experiment shows the best agreement with the observation quantiles in summer and fall, the best representation of the diurnal cycle in these seasons, and reduces the bias of all surface stations near the coast. In more stable conditions the Topo-wind scheme shows a larger negative bias. The cluster analysis reveals a correlation between bias and mean speed from the Mellor-Yamada and Yonsei University schemes that is not present when the drag scheme is used. When the drag scheme is used the bias correlates with wind direction; the bias increases when the meridional wind component is negative. This pattern corresponds to trajectories with more land interaction with the highest biases found in northwest circulation clusters.
Henri, Christopher V.; Fernàndez-Garcia, Daniel
2015-12-01
The interplay between the spatial variability of the aquifer hydraulic properties, mass transfer due to sub-grid heterogeneity and chemical reactions often complicates reactive transport simulations. It is well documented that hydro-biochemical properties are ubiquitously heterogeneous and that diffusion and slow advection at the sub-grid scale typically leads to the conceptualization of an aquifer as a multi-porosity system. Within this context, chemical reactions taking place in mobile/immobile water regions can be substantially different between each other. This paper presents a particle-based method that can efficiently simulate heterogeneity, network reactions and multi-rate mass transfer. The approach is based on the development of transition probabilities that describe the likelihood that particles belonging to a given species and mobile/immobile domain at a given time will be transformed into another species and mobile/immobile domain afterwards. The joint effect of mass transfer and sequential degradation is shown to be non-trivial. A characteristic rebound of degradation products can be observed. This late rebound of concentrations is not driven by any change in the flow regime (e.g., pumping ceases in the pump-and-treat remediation strategy) but due to the natural interplay between mass transfer and chemical reactions. To illustrate that the method can simultaneously represent mass transfer, spatially varying properties and network reactions without numerical problems, we have simulated the degradation of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) in a three-dimensional fully heterogeneous aquifer subjected to rate-limited mass transfer. Two types of degradation modes were considered to compare the effect of an active biofilm with that of clay pods present in the aquifer. Results of the two scenarios display significantly differences. Biofilms that promote the degradation of compounds in an immobile region are shown to significantly enhance degradation, rapidly producing daughter products and less tailing.
2016-01-01
This book provides a thorough introduction to the challenge of applying mathematics in real-world scenarios. Modelling tasks rarely involve well-defined categories, and they often require multidisciplinary input from mathematics, physics, computer sciences, or engineering. In keeping with this spirit of modelling, the book includes a wealth of cross-references between the chapters and frequently points to the real-world context. The book combines classical approaches to modelling with novel areas such as soft computing methods, inverse problems, and model uncertainty. Attention is also paid to the interaction between models, data and the use of mathematical software. The reader will find a broad selection of theoretical tools for practicing industrial mathematics, including the analysis of continuum models, probabilistic and discrete phenomena, and asymptotic and sensitivity analysis.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Braby, L.A.
1990-09-01
The biological effects of ionizing radiation exposure are the result of a complex sequence of physical, chemical, biochemical, and physiological interactions. One way to begin a search for an understanding of health effects of radiation is through the development of phenomenological models of the response. Many models have been presented and tested in the slowly evolving process of characterizing cellular response. A range of models covering different endpoints and phenomena has developed in parallel. Many of these models employ similar assumptions about some underlying processes while differing about the nature of others. An attempt is made to organize many of the models into groups with similar features and to compare the consequences of those features with the actual experimental observations. It is assumed that by showing that some assumptions are inconsistent with experimental observations, the job of devising and testing mechanistic models can be simplified. 43 refs., 13 figs.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Lars Bjørn; Vesterager, Johan
This report provides an overview of the existing models of global manufacturing, describes the required modelling views and associated methods and identifies tools, which can provide support for this modelling activity.The model adopted for global manufacturing is that of an extended enterprise....... One or more units from beyond the network may complement the extended enterprise. The common reference model for this extended enterprise will utilise GERAM (Generalised Enterprise Reference Architecture and Methodology) to provide an architectural framework for the modelling carried out within...... sharing many of the characteristics of a virtual enterprise. This extended enterprise will have the following characteristics: The extended enterprise is focused on satisfying the current customer requirement so that it has a limited life expectancy, but should be capable of being recreated to deal...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bækgaard, Lars
2001-01-01
are dynamic and we present a modeling approach that can be used to model such dynamics. We characterize events as both information objects and change agents (Bækgaard 1997). When viewed as information objects events are phenomena that can be observed and described. For example, borrow events in a library can......The purpose of this chapter is to discuss conceptual event modeling within a context of information modeling. Traditionally, information modeling has been concerned with the modeling of a universe of discourse in terms of information structures. However, most interesting universes of discourse...... be characterized by their occurrence times and the participating books and borrowers. When we characterize events as information objects we focus on concepts like information structures. When viewed as change agents events are phenomena that trigger change. For example, when borrow event occurs books are moved...
Marco Antonio Moreira
1996-01-01
The mental models subject is presented particularly in the light of Johnson-Laird’s theory. Views from different authors are also presented but the emphasis lies in Johson-Laird’s approach, proposing mental models as a third path in the images x propositions debate. In this perspective, the nature, content, and typology of mental models are discussed, as well as the issue of conciousness and computability. In addition, the methodology of research studies are provided. Essentially, the aim of ...
Wenninger, Magnus J
2012-01-01
Well-illustrated, practical approach to creating star-faced spherical forms that can serve as basic structures for geodesic domes. Complete instructions for making models from circular bands of paper with just a ruler and compass. Discusses tessellation, or tiling, and how to make spherical models of the semiregular solids and concludes with a discussion of the relationship of polyhedra to geodesic domes and directions for building models of domes. "". . . very pleasant reading."" - Science. 1979 edition.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Liu, Zhou; Frigaard, Peter
This report presents the model on wave run-up and run-down on the Zeebrugge breakwater under short-crested oblique wave attacks. The model test was performed in March-April 2000 at the Hydraulics & Coastal Engineering Laboratory, Aalborg University.......This report presents the model on wave run-up and run-down on the Zeebrugge breakwater under short-crested oblique wave attacks. The model test was performed in March-April 2000 at the Hydraulics & Coastal Engineering Laboratory, Aalborg University....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marco Antonio Moreira
1996-12-01
Full Text Available The mental models subject is presented particularly in the light of Johnson-Laird’s theory. Views from different authors are also presented but the emphasis lies in Johson-Laird’s approach, proposing mental models as a third path in the images x propositions debate. In this perspective, the nature, content, and typology of mental models are discussed, as well as the issue of conciousness and computability. In addition, the methodology of research studies are provided. Essentially, the aim of the paper is to provide an introduction to the mental models topic, having science education research in mind.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Mogens Peter; Shui, Wan; Johansson, Jens
2011-01-01
In this report a new turbulence model is presented.In contrast to the bulk of modern work, the model is a classical continuum model with a relatively simple constitutive equation. The constitutive equation is, as usual in continuum mechanics, entirely empirical. It has the usual Newton or Stokes...... term with stresses depending linearly on the strain rates. This term takes into account the transfer of linear momentum from one part of the fluid to another. Besides there is another term, which takes into account the transfer of angular momentum. Thus the model implies a new definition of turbulence...
Modeling Documents with Event Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Longhui Wang
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Currently deep learning has made great breakthroughs in visual and speech processing, mainly because it draws lessons from the hierarchical mode that brain deals with images and speech. In the field of NLP, a topic model is one of the important ways for modeling documents. Topic models are built on a generative model that clearly does not match the way humans write. In this paper, we propose Event Model, which is unsupervised and based on the language processing mechanism of neurolinguistics, to model documents. In Event Model, documents are descriptions of concrete or abstract events seen, heard, or sensed by people and words are objects in the events. Event Model has two stages: word learning and dimensionality reduction. Word learning is to learn semantics of words based on deep learning. Dimensionality reduction is the process that representing a document as a low dimensional vector by a linear mode that is completely different from topic models. Event Model achieves state-of-the-art results on document retrieval tasks.
Flores, J.; Kiss, S.; Cano, P.; Nijholt, Antinus; Zwiers, Jakob
2003-01-01
We concentrate our efforts on building virtual modelling environments where the content creator uses controls (widgets) as an interactive adjustment modality for the properties of the edited objects. Besides the advantage of being an on-line modelling approach (visualised just like any other on-line
Poortman, Sybilla; Sloep, Peter
2006-01-01
Educational models describes a case study on a complex learning object. Possibilities are investigated for using this learning object, which is based on a particular educational model, outside of its original context. Furthermore, this study provides advice that might lead to an increase in
Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.
2008-01-01
The use of mobile devices is often limited by the capacity of the employed batteries. The battery lifetime determines how long one can use a device. Battery modeling can help to predict, and possibly extend this lifetime. Many different battery models have been developed over the years. However,
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Løssing, Ulrik
1986-01-01
Ulrik Løssing har redigeret, illustreret og oversat: "Scribe Modeller System, Sheffield, november 1985" af forfatterne: Cedric Green, David Cooper og John Wells.......Ulrik Løssing har redigeret, illustreret og oversat: "Scribe Modeller System, Sheffield, november 1985" af forfatterne: Cedric Green, David Cooper og John Wells....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ravn, Anders P.; Staunstrup, Jørgen
1994-01-01
This paper proposes a model for specifying interfaces between concurrently executing modules of a computing system. The model does not prescribe a particular type of communication protocol and is aimed at describing interfaces between both software and hardware modules or a combination of the two...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gøtze, Jens Peter; Krentz, Andrew
2014-01-01
In this issue of Cardiovascular Endocrinology, we are proud to present a broad and dedicated spectrum of reviews on animal models in cardiovascular disease. The reviews cover most aspects of animal models in science from basic differences and similarities between small animals and the human...... pathology, to biomarkers in diagnosis and prognostic evaluation, to drug testing and targeted medicine....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Højgaard, Tomas; Hansen, Rune
The purpose of this paper is to introduce Didactical Modelling as a research methodology in mathematics education. We compare the methodology with other approaches and argue that Didactical Modelling has its own specificity. We discuss the methodological “why” and explain why we find it useful...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kindler, Ekkart
2009-01-01
, these notations have been extended in order to increase expressiveness and to be more competitive. This resulted in an increasing number of notations and formalisms for modelling business processes and in an increase of the different modelling constructs provided by modelling notations, which makes it difficult...... to compare modelling notations and to make transformations between them. One of the reasons is that, in each notation, the new concepts are introduced in a different way by extending the already existing constructs. In this chapter, we go the opposite direction: We show that it is possible to add most...... constructs and how they can be combined with more advanced constructs. Second, it will help combining different modelling notations with each other. Note that, though we introduce a notation for blocks in this chapter, we are not so much interested in promoting this notation here. The notation should just...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Veronica J. Rutledge
2013-01-01
The absence of industrial scale nuclear fuel reprocessing in the U.S. has precluded the necessary driver for developing the advanced simulation capability now prevalent in so many other countries. Thus, it is essential to model complex series of unit operations to simulate, understand, and predict inherent transient behavior and feedback loops. A capability of accurately simulating the dynamic behavior of advanced fuel cycle separation processes will provide substantial cost savings and many technical benefits. The specific fuel cycle separation process discussed in this report is the off-gas treatment system. The off-gas separation consists of a series of scrubbers and adsorption beds to capture constituents of interest. Dynamic models are being developed to simulate each unit operation involved so each unit operation can be used as a stand-alone model and in series with multiple others. Currently, an adsorption model has been developed within Multi-physics Object Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Off-gas Separation and REcoverY (OSPREY) models the adsorption of off-gas constituents for dispersed plug flow in a packed bed under non-isothermal and non-isobaric conditions. Inputs to the model include gas, sorbent, and column properties, equilibrium and kinetic data, and inlet conditions. The simulation outputs component concentrations along the column length as a function of time from which breakthrough data is obtained. The breakthrough data can be used to determine bed capacity, which in turn can be used to size columns. It also outputs temperature along the column length as a function of time and pressure drop along the column length. Experimental data and parameters were input into the adsorption model to develop models specific for krypton adsorption. The same can be done for iodine, xenon, and tritium. The model will be validated with experimental breakthrough curves. Customers will be given access to
Serious Games for education and training
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alessandro De Gloria
2014-02-01
Full Text Available Serious Games (SGs are gaining an ever increasing interest for education and traning. Exploiting the latest simulation and visualization technologies, SGs are able to contextualize the player’s experience in challenging, realistic environments, supporting situated cognition. However, we still miss methods and tools for effectively and deeply infusing pedagogy and instruction inside digital games. After presenting an overview of the state of the art of the SG taxonomies, the paper introduces the pedagogical theories and models most relevant to SGs and their implications on SG design. We also present a schema for a proper integration of games in education, supporting different goals in different steps of a formal education process. By analyzing a set of well-established SGs and formats, the paper presents the main mechanics and models that are being used in SG designs, with a particular focus on assessment, feedback and learning analytics. An overview of tools and models for SG design is also presented. Finally, based on the performed analysis, indications for future research in the field are provided.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kreiner, Svend; Christensen, Karl Bang
Rasch models; Partial Credit models; Rating Scale models; Item bias; Differential item functioning; Local independence; Graphical models......Rasch models; Partial Credit models; Rating Scale models; Item bias; Differential item functioning; Local independence; Graphical models...
von Larcher, Thomas; Blome, Therese; Klein, Rupert; Schneider, Reinhold; Wolf, Sebastian; Huber, Benjamin
2016-04-01
Handling high-dimensional data sets like they occur e.g. in turbulent flows or in multiscale behaviour of certain types in Geosciences are one of the big challenges in numerical analysis and scientific computing. A suitable solution is to represent those large data sets in an appropriate compact form. In this context, tensor product decomposition methods currently emerge as an important tool. One reason is that these methods often enable one to attack high-dimensional problems successfully, another that they allow for very compact representations of large data sets. We follow the novel Tensor-Train (TT) decomposition method to support the development of improved understanding of the multiscale behavior and the development of compact storage schemes for solutions of such problems. One long-term goal of the project is the construction of a self-consistent closure for Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of turbulent flows that explicitly exploits the tensor product approach's capability of capturing self-similar structures. Secondly, we focus on a mixed deterministic-stochastic subgrid scale modelling strategy currently under development for application in Finite Volume Large Eddy Simulation (LES) codes. Advanced methods of time series analysis for the databased construction of stochastic models with inherently non-stationary statistical properties and concepts of information theory based on a modified Akaike information criterion and on the Bayesian information criterion for the model discrimination are used to construct surrogate models for the non-resolved flux fluctuations. Vector-valued auto-regressive models with external influences form the basis for the modelling approach [1], [2], [4]. Here, we present the reconstruction capabilities of the two modeling approaches tested against 3D turbulent channel flow data computed by direct numerical simulation (DNS) for an incompressible, isothermal fluid at Reynolds number Reτ = 590 (computed by [3]). References [1] I
Modeling complexes of modeled proteins.
Anishchenko, Ivan; Kundrotas, Petras J; Vakser, Ilya A
2017-03-01
Structural characterization of proteins is essential for understanding life processes at the molecular level. However, only a fraction of known proteins have experimentally determined structures. This fraction is even smaller for protein-protein complexes. Thus, structural modeling of protein-protein interactions (docking) primarily has to rely on modeled structures of the individual proteins, which typically are less accurate than the experimentally determined ones. Such "double" modeling is the Grand Challenge of structural reconstruction of the interactome. Yet it remains so far largely untested in a systematic way. We present a comprehensive validation of template-based and free docking on a set of 165 complexes, where each protein model has six levels of structural accuracy, from 1 to 6 Å C α RMSD. Many template-based docking predictions fall into acceptable quality category, according to the CAPRI criteria, even for highly inaccurate proteins (5-6 Å RMSD), although the number of such models (and, consequently, the docking success rate) drops significantly for models with RMSD > 4 Å. The results show that the existing docking methodologies can be successfully applied to protein models with a broad range of structural accuracy, and the template-based docking is much less sensitive to inaccuracies of protein models than the free docking. Proteins 2017; 85:470-478. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Blacher, René
2010-01-01
Ce rapport complete les deux rapports précédents et apporte une explication plus simple aux résultats précédents : à savoir la preuve que les suites obtenues sont aléatoires.; In previous reports, we have show how to transform a text $y_n$ in a random sequence by using functions of Fibonacci $T_q$. Now, in this report, we obtain a clearer result by proving that $T_q(y_n)$ has the IID model as correct model. But, it is necessary to define correctly a correct model. Then, we study also this pro...
Hodges, Wilfrid
1993-01-01
An up-to-date and integrated introduction to model theory, designed to be used for graduate courses (for students who are familiar with first-order logic), and as a reference for more experienced logicians and mathematicians.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Computer simulations of past climate. Variables provided as model output are described by parameter keyword. In some cases the parameter keywords are a subset of all...
Searle, Shayle R
2012-01-01
This 1971 classic on linear models is once again available--as a Wiley Classics Library Edition. It features material that can be understood by any statistician who understands matrix algebra and basic statistical methods.
EPA's modeling community is working to gain insights into certain parts of a physical, biological, economic, or social system by conducting environmental assessments for Agency decision making to complex environmental issues.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vestergaard, Kristian
The development of the digital computer has been of great importance for the hydraulic engineer. Through many centuries hydraulic engineering was based on practical know-how, obtained through many hundred years experience. Gradually mathematical theories were introduced and accepted among...... the engineers, but as the scale and the complexity of the hydraulic works increased, the mathematical models became so complex that a mathematical solution could not be obtained. This created a demand for new methods and again the experimental investigation became popular, but this time as measurements on small......-scale models. But still the scale and complexity of hydraulic works were increasing, and soon even small-scale models reached a natural limit for some applications. In the mean time the modern computer was developed, and it became possible to solve complex mathematical models by use of computer-based numerical...
Regardt, Olle; Rönnbäck, Lars; Bergholtz, Maria; Johannesson, Paul; Wohed, Petia
Maintaining and evolving data warehouses is a complex, error prone, and time consuming activity. The main reason for this state of affairs is that the environment of a data warehouse is in constant change, while the warehouse itself needs to provide a stable and consistent interface to information spanning extended periods of time. In this paper, we propose a modeling technique for data warehousing, called anchor modeling, that offers non-destructive extensibility mechanisms, thereby enabling robust and flexible management of changes in source systems. A key benefit of anchor modeling is that changes in a data warehouse environment only require extensions, not modifications, to the data warehouse. This ensures that existing data warehouse applications will remain unaffected by the evolution of the data warehouse, i.e. existing views and functions will not have to be modified as a result of changes in the warehouse model.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lasrado, Lester Allan; Vatrapu, Ravi
2016-01-01
effects, unicausal reduction, and case specificity. Based on the developments in set theoretical thinking in social sciences and employing methods like Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA), Necessary Condition Analysis (NCA), and set visualization techniques, in this position paper, we propose...... and demonstrate a new approach to maturity models in the domain of Information Systems. This position paper describes the set-theoretical approach to maturity models, presents current results and outlines future research work....
Accelerated life models modeling and statistical analysis
Bagdonavicius, Vilijandas
2001-01-01
Failure Time DistributionsIntroductionParametric Classes of Failure Time DistributionsAccelerated Life ModelsIntroductionGeneralized Sedyakin's ModelAccelerated Failure Time ModelProportional Hazards ModelGeneralized Proportional Hazards ModelsGeneralized Additive and Additive-Multiplicative Hazards ModelsChanging Shape and Scale ModelsGeneralizationsModels Including Switch-Up and Cycling EffectsHeredity HypothesisSummaryAccelerated Degradation ModelsIntroductionDegradation ModelsModeling the Influence of Explanatory Varia
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Curtis, S.B.
1990-09-01
Several models and theories are reviewed that incorporate the idea of radiation-induced lesions (repairable and/or irreparable) that can be related to molecular lesions in the DNA molecule. Usually the DNA double-strand or chromatin break is suggested as the critical lesion. In the models, the shoulder on the low-LET survival curve is hypothesized as being due to one (or more) of the following three mechanisms: (1) interaction'' of lesions produced by statistically independent particle tracks; (2) nonlinear (i.e., linear-quadratic) increase in the yield of initial lesions, and (3) saturation of repair processes at high dose. Comparisons are made between the various approaches. Several significant advances in model development are discussed; in particular, a description of the matrix formulation of the Markov versions of the RMR and LPL models is given. The more advanced theories have incorporated statistical fluctuations in various aspects of the energy-loss and lesion-formation process. An important direction is the inclusion of physical and chemical processes into the formulations by incorporating relevant track structure theory (Monte Carlo track simulations) and chemical reactions of radiation-induced radicals. At the biological end, identification of repair genes and how they operate as well as a better understanding of how DNA misjoinings lead to lethal chromosome aberrations are needed for appropriate inclusion into the theories. More effort is necessary to model the complex end point of radiation-induced carcinogenesis.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Curtis, S.B.
1990-09-01
Several models and theories are reviewed that incorporate the idea of radiation-induced lesions (repairable and/or irreparable) that can be related to molecular lesions in the DNA molecule. Usually the DNA double-strand or chromatin break is suggested as the critical lesion. In the models, the shoulder on the low-LET survival curve is hypothesized as being due to one (or more) of the following three mechanisms: (1) ``interaction`` of lesions produced by statistically independent particle tracks; (2) nonlinear (i.e., linear-quadratic) increase in the yield of initial lesions, and (3) saturation of repair processes at high dose. Comparisons are made between the various approaches. Several significant advances in model development are discussed; in particular, a description of the matrix formulation of the Markov versions of the RMR and LPL models is given. The more advanced theories have incorporated statistical fluctuations in various aspects of the energy-loss and lesion-formation process. An important direction is the inclusion of physical and chemical processes into the formulations by incorporating relevant track structure theory (Monte Carlo track simulations) and chemical reactions of radiation-induced radicals. At the biological end, identification of repair genes and how they operate as well as a better understanding of how DNA misjoinings lead to lethal chromosome aberrations are needed for appropriate inclusion into the theories. More effort is necessary to model the complex end point of radiation-induced carcinogenesis.
Eck, Christof; Knabner, Peter
2017-01-01
Mathematical models are the decisive tool to explain and predict phenomena in the natural and engineering sciences. With this book readers will learn to derive mathematical models which help to understand real world phenomena. At the same time a wealth of important examples for the abstract concepts treated in the curriculum of mathematics degrees are given. An essential feature of this book is that mathematical structures are used as an ordering principle and not the fields of application. Methods from linear algebra, analysis and the theory of ordinary and partial differential equations are thoroughly introduced and applied in the modeling process. Examples of applications in the fields electrical networks, chemical reaction dynamics, population dynamics, fluid dynamics, elasticity theory and crystal growth are treated comprehensively.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2012-01-01
The relationship between representation and the represented is examined here through the notion of persistent modelling. This notion is not novel to the activity of architectural design if it is considered as describing a continued active and iterative engagement with design concerns – an evident...... characteristic of architectural practice. But the persistence in persistent modelling can also be understood to apply in other ways, reflecting and anticipating extended roles for representation. This book identifies three principle areas in which these extensions are becoming apparent within contemporary....... It also provides critical insight into the use of contemporary modelling tools and methods, together with an examination of the implications their use has within the territories of architectural design, realisation and experience....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nash, Ulrik William
2014-01-01
Firms consist of people who make decisions to achieve goals. How do these people develop the expectations which underpin the choices they make? The lens model provides one answer to this question. It was developed by cognitive psychologist Egon Brunswik (1952) to illustrate his theory of probabil......Firms consist of people who make decisions to achieve goals. How do these people develop the expectations which underpin the choices they make? The lens model provides one answer to this question. It was developed by cognitive psychologist Egon Brunswik (1952) to illustrate his theory...... of probabilistic functionalism, and concerns the environment and the mind, and adaptation by the latter to the former. This entry is about the lens model, and probabilistic functionalism more broadly. Focus will mostly be on firms and their employees, but, to fully appreciate the scope, we have to keep in mind...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2012-01-01
The relationship between representation and the represented is examined here through the notion of persistent modelling. This notion is not novel to the activity of architectural design if it is considered as describing a continued active and iterative engagement with design concerns – an evident....... It also provides critical insight into the use of contemporary modelling tools and methods, together with an examination of the implications their use has within the territories of architectural design, realisation and experience....... characteristic of architectural practice. But the persistence in persistent modelling can also be understood to apply in other ways, reflecting and anticipating extended roles for representation. This book identifies three principle areas in which these extensions are becoming apparent within contemporary...
2012-01-01
Background This work focuses on the computational modelling of osteomyelitis, a bone pathology caused by bacteria infection (mostly Staphylococcus aureus). The infection alters the RANK/RANKL/OPG signalling dynamics that regulates osteoblasts and osteoclasts behaviour in bone remodelling, i.e. the resorption and mineralization activity. The infection rapidly leads to severe bone loss, necrosis of the affected portion, and it may even spread to other parts of the body. On the other hand, osteoporosis is not a bacterial infection but similarly is a defective bone pathology arising due to imbalances in the RANK/RANKL/OPG molecular pathway, and due to the progressive weakening of bone structure. Results Since both osteoporosis and osteomyelitis cause loss of bone mass, we focused on comparing the dynamics of these diseases by means of computational models. Firstly, we performed meta-analysis on a gene expression data of normal, osteoporotic and osteomyelitis bone conditions. We mainly focused on RANKL/OPG signalling, the TNF and TNF receptor superfamilies and the NF-kB pathway. Using information from the gene expression data we estimated parameters for a novel model of osteoporosis and of osteomyelitis. Our models could be seen as a hybrid ODE and probabilistic verification modelling framework which aims at investigating the dynamics of the effects of the infection in bone remodelling. Finally we discuss different diagnostic estimators defined by formal verification techniques, in order to assess different bone pathologies (osteopenia, osteoporosis and osteomyelitis) in an effective way. Conclusions We present a modeling framework able to reproduce aspects of the different bone remodeling defective dynamics of osteomyelitis and osteoporosis. We report that the verification-based estimators are meaningful in the light of a feed forward between computational medicine and clinical bioinformatics. PMID:23095605
Cardey, Sylviane
2013-01-01
In response to the need for reliable results from natural language processing, this book presents an original way of decomposing a language(s) in a microscopic manner by means of intra/inter‑language norms and divergences, going progressively from languages as systems to the linguistic, mathematical and computational models, which being based on a constructive approach are inherently traceable. Languages are described with their elements aggregating or repelling each other to form viable interrelated micro‑systems. The abstract model, which contrary to the current state of the art works in int
Koprivnikar, Teja
2017-01-01
Epidemiološki modeli širjenja nalezljivih bolezni so matematični modeli, ki poskušajo pojasniti, kako se širijo nalezljive bolezni. Eden najbolj znanih modelov je model SIR. Leta 1927 sta ga oblikovala Kermack in McKendrick, zapišemo pa ga lahko s sistemom treh diferencialnih enačb. Proučevanje le-teh nam omogoča napovedovanje obnašanja določene bolezni v populaciji in s tem napoved, ali bo epidemija izbruhnila ali ne. V diplomskem delu predstavimo in analiziramo omenjeni model ter poskušamo ...
Holmes, Jon L.
1999-06-01
Molecular modeling has trickled down from the realm of pharmaceutical and research laboratories into the realm of undergraduate chemistry instruction. It has opened avenues for the visualization of chemical concepts that previously were difficult or impossible to convey. I am sure that many of you have developed exercises using the various molecular modeling tools. It is the desire of this Journal to become an avenue for you to share these exercises among your colleagues. It is to this end that Ron Starkey has agreed to edit such a column and to publish not only the description of such exercises, but also the software documents they use. The WWW is the obvious medium to distribute this combination and so accepted submissions will appear online as a feature of JCE Internet. Typical molecular modeling exercise: finding conformation energies. Molecular Modeling Exercises and Experiments is the latest feature column of JCE Internet, joining Conceptual Questions and Challenge Problems, Hal's Picks, and Mathcad in the Chemistry Curriculum. JCE Internet continues to seek submissions in these areas of interest and submissions of general interest. If you have developed materials and would like to submit them, please see our Guide to Submissions for more information. The Chemical Education Resource Shelf, Equipment Buyers Guide, and WWW Site Review would also like to hear about chemistry textbooks and software, equipment, and WWW sites, respectively. Please consult JCE Internet Features to learn more about these resources at JCE Online. Email Announcements Would you like to be informed by email when the latest issue of the Journal is available online? when a new JCE Software title is shipping? when a new JCE Internet article has been published or is available for Open Review? when your subscription is about to expire? A new feature of JCE Online makes this possible. Visit our Guestbook to learn how. When you submit the form on this page, which includes your email address
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aarti Sharma
2009-01-01
Full Text Available The use of computational chemistry in the development of novel pharmaceuticals is becoming an increasingly important tool. In the past, drugs were simply screened for effectiveness. The recent advances in computing power and the exponential growth of the knowledge of protein structures have made it possible for organic compounds to be tailored to decrease the harmful side effects and increase the potency. This article provides a detailed description of the techniques employed in molecular modeling. Molecular modeling is a rapidly developing discipline, and has been supported by the dramatic improvements in computer hardware and software in recent years.
Organization of tropical convection in low vertical wind shears: Role of updraft entrainment
Tompkins, Adrian M.; Semie, Addisu G.
2017-06-01
Radiative-convective equilibrium simulations with a 2 km horizontal resolution are conducted to investigate the impact on convective organization of different parameterizations for horizontal and vertical subgrid turbulence mixing. Three standard approaches for representing horizontal diffusion produce starkly differing mixing rates, particularly for the entrainment mixing into updrafts, which differ by more than an order of magnitude between the schemes. The simulations demonstrate that the horizontal subgrid mixing of water vapor is key, with high mixing rates a necessary condition for organization of convection to occur, since entrainment of dry air into updrafts suppresses convection. It is argued that diabatic budgets, while demonstrating the role of spatially heterogeneous radiative heating rates in driving organization, can overlook the role of physical processes such as updraft entrainment. These results may partially explain previous studies that showed that organization is more likely to occur at coarser resolutions, when entrainment is solely represented by subgrid-scale turbulence schemes, highlighting the need for benchmark simulations of higher horizontal resolution. The recommendation is for the use of larger ensembles to ensure robustness of conclusions to subgrid-scale parameterization assumptions when numerically investigating convective organization, possibly through a coordinated community model intercomparison effort.type="synopsis">type="main">Plain Language SummaryThunderstorms dry out the atmosphere since they produce rainfall. However, their efficiency at drying the atmosphere depends on how they are arranged; take a set of thunderstorms and sprinkle them randomly over the tropics and the troposphere will remain quite moist, but take that same number of thunderstorms and place them all close together in a "cluster" and the atmosphere will be much drier. Previous work has indicated that thunderstorms might start to cluster more as
Building Models and Building Modelling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørgensen, Kaj; Skauge, Jørn
2008-01-01
I rapportens indledende kapitel beskrives de primære begreber vedrørende bygningsmodeller og nogle fundamentale forhold vedrørende computerbaseret modulering bliver opstillet. Desuden bliver forskellen mellem tegneprogrammer og bygningsmodelleringsprogrammer beskrevet. Vigtige aspekter om......lering og bygningsmodeller. Det bliver understreget at modellering bør udføres på flere abstraktionsniveauer og i to dimensioner i den såkaldte modelleringsmatrix. Ud fra dette identificeres de primære faser af bygningsmodellering. Dernæst beskrives de basale karakteristika for bygningsmodeller. Heri...... inkluderes en præcisering af begreberne objektorienteret software og objektorienteret modeller. Det bliver fremhævet at begrebet objektbaseret modellering giver en tilstrækkelig og bedre forståelse. Endelig beskrives forestillingen om den ideale bygningsmodel som værende én samlet model, der anvendes gennem...
Goodwyn, Lauren; Salm, Sarah
2007-01-01
Teaching the anatomy of the muscle system to high school students can be challenging. Students often learn about muscle anatomy by memorizing information from textbooks or by observing plastic, inflexible models. Although these mediums help students learn about muscle placement, the mediums do not facilitate understanding regarding integration of…
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Morten S.; Frigaard, Peter
In the following, results from model tests with Zeebrugge breakwater are presented. The objective with these tests is partly to investigate the influence on wave run-up due to a changing waterlevel during a storm. Finally, the influence on wave run-up due to an introduced longshore current...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 7. Model Checking - Automated Verification of Computational Systems. Madhavan Mukund. General Article Volume 14 Issue 7 July 2009 pp 667-681. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hajj-Boutros, J. (Lebanese Univ., Mansourieh-El-Maten (Lebanon))
1989-04-01
An LRS Bianchi type II cosmological model is built with a state equation that is a function of the cosmic time t. The ratio p/{mu} is 1/3 when t {yields} 0 and is insignificant when t {yields} {infinity}. Thus, the matter content behaves like radiation for small t and like dust for large t.
Baart, F.; Donchyts, G.; van Dam, A.; Plieger, M.
2015-12-01
The emergence of interactive art has blurred the line between electronic, computer graphics and art. Here we apply this art form to numerical models. Here we show how the transformation of a numerical model into an interactive painting can both provide insights and solve real world problems. The cases that are used as an example include forensic reconstructions, dredging optimization, barrier design. The system can be fed using any source of time varying vector fields, such as hydrodynamic models. The cases used here, the Indian Ocean (HYCOM), the Wadden Sea (Delft3D Curvilinear), San Francisco Bay (3Di subgrid and Delft3D Flexible Mesh), show that the method used is suitable for different time and spatial scales. High resolution numerical models become interactive paintings by exchanging their velocity fields with a high resolution (>=1M cells) image based flow visualization that runs in a html5 compatible web browser. The image based flow visualization combines three images into a new image: the current image, a drawing, and a uv + mask field. The advection scheme that computes the resultant image is executed in the graphics card using WebGL, allowing for 1M grid cells at 60Hz performance on mediocre graphic cards. The software is provided as open source software. By using different sources for a drawing one can gain insight into several aspects of the velocity fields. These aspects include not only the commonly represented magnitude and direction, but also divergence, topology and turbulence .
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Improper practices of land use and land cover (LULC) including deforestation, expansion of agriculture and infrastructure development are deteriorating watershed conditions. Here, we have utilized remote sensing and GIS tools to study LULC dynamics using Cellular Automata (CA)–Markov model and pre- dicted the ...
Jang, Cheng-Shin; Huang, Han-Chen
2017-07-01
The Jiaosi Hot Spring Region is one of the most famous tourism destinations in Taiwan. The spring water is processed for various uses, including irrigation, aquaculture, swimming, bathing, foot spas, and recreational tourism. Moreover, the multipurpose uses of spring water can be dictated by the temperature of the water. To evaluate the suitability of spring water for these various uses, this study spatially characterized the spring water temperatures of the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region by integrating ordinary kriging (OK), sequential Gaussian simulation (SGS), and Geographic information system (GIS). First, variogram analyses were used to determine the spatial variability of spring water temperatures. Next, OK and SGS were adopted to model the spatial uncertainty and distributions of the spring water temperatures. Finally, the land use (i.e., agriculture, dwelling, public land, and recreation) was determined using GIS and combined with the estimated distributions of the spring water temperatures. A suitable development strategy for the multipurpose uses of spring water is proposed according to the integration of the land use and spring water temperatures. The study results indicate that the integration of OK, SGS, and GIS is capable of characterizing spring water temperatures and the suitability of multipurpose uses of spring water. SGS realizations are more robust than OK estimates for characterizing spring water temperatures compared to observed data. Furthermore, current land use is almost ideal in the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region according to the estimated spatial pattern of spring water temperatures.
Evaluation of segmented gamma scanner measurements on cans of recoverable scrap
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shull, A.H.; Weber, J.H.; MacMurdo, K.W.; Baker, L.B.
1991-12-31
Savannah River Site (SRS) has had a long-standing concern about the inability to measure recoverable scrap. A segmented gamma scanner (SGS) was evaluated for use in measuring cans of scrap materials. Four scrap cans were selected and re-packaged into containers that could be measured using calorimetry and gamma spectrometry. These scrap cans were later used as working standards for the SGS. In addition, replicate measurements were made on all cans of scrap currently stored with estimated values. Before accepting the SGS measurements on the cans, data from the replicate measurements of the standards and a limited number of process cans were analyzed to determine if there was a significant bias between the SGS and the calorimeter-gamma spectrometer measurements, if the random replication error would be acceptable for accountability, to set control limits for the workings standards, and to determine acceptable differences between replicate measurements. After completing the measurement of all process scrap cans in the inventory, the the final data were analyzed and estimates based on the two sets of data compared. The methodology used to determine the appropriate measurement error model, to estimate the measurement errors, to set control limits, and to determine the significance of the bias will be described as well as a comparison of the error estimates based on the preliminary versus final data.
Fast, J. D.; Shrivastava, M. B.; Fan, J.; Berg, L. K.; Chand, D.; Fortner, E.; Mei, F.; Pekour, M. S.; Shilling, J. E.; Springston, S. R.; Tomlinson, J. M.; Wang, J.
2014-12-01
Several recent studies have suggested that anthropogenic emissions enhance the production of biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Because Manaus, Brazil is an isolated large city within the Amazon rainforest, measurements collected within and outside of the downwind urban plume during the 2014 Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon) campaign (supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation and Measurement program) will provide valuable information needed by regional and global models to evaluate parameterizations of SOA. The isolated urban plume should also provide distinct patterns of mixing with biogenic emissions and eliminate complications of multiple anthropogenic sources found in most other regions of the world. The objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of preliminary simulations of the transport, mixing, and chemical evolution of the Manaus urban plume from the chemistry version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF-Chem) using the available surface and aircraft measurements collected during the first intensive observation period (IOP) of GoAmazon. Simulations are performed using both a 10 km or 2 km grid spacing as well as a newly developed treatment that couples a sectional aerosol model and its parameterization of SOA using a volatility basis set approach with resolved clouds and a sub-grid scale cloud parameterization. Since the first IOP of GoAmazon was conducted during the wet season, shallow and deep convection were observed on most days and likely impacts the transport and vertical mixing of the Manaus plume. Therefore, we are using the available field campaign cloud measurements to evaluate the impact of sub-grid scale clouds on the horizontal and vertical distribution of aerosols. Satellite data is also used to assess the regional variability in simulated clouds and precipitation. Analyses of the simulations during the first IOP will be presented. Simulations with and without anthropogenic emissions will
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bork Petersen, Franziska
2013-01-01
catwalks. Vibskov’s catwalk induces what the dance scholar Gabriele Brandstetter has labelled a ‘defigurative choregoraphy’: a straying from definitions, which exist in ballet as in other movement-based genres, of how a figure should move and appear (1998). The catwalk scenography in this instance...... focus centres on how the catwalk scenography evokes a ‘defiguration’ of the walking models and to what effect. Vibskov’s mobile catwalk draws attention to the walk, which is a key element of models’ performance but which usually functions in fashion shows merely to present clothes in the most...... advantageous manner. Stepping on the catwalk’s sloping, moving surfaces decelerates the models’ walk and makes it cautious, hesitant and shaky: suddenly the models lack exactly the affirmative, staccato, striving quality of motion, and the condescending expression that they perform on most contemporary...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2012-01-01
The relationship between representation and the represented is examined here through the notion of persistent modelling. This notion is not novel to the activity of architectural design if it is considered as describing a continued active and iterative engagement with design concerns – an evident....... It also provides critical insight into the use of contemporary modelling tools and methods, together with an examination of the implications their use has within the territories of architectural design, realisation and experience....... on this subject, this book makes essential reading for anyone considering new ways of thinking about architecture. In drawing upon both historical and contemporary perspectives this book provides evidence of the ways in which relations between representation and the represented continue to be reconsidered...
Barr, Michael
2002-01-01
Acyclic models is a method heavily used to analyze and compare various homology and cohomology theories appearing in topology and algebra. This book is the first attempt to put together in a concise form this important technique and to include all the necessary background. It presents a brief introduction to category theory and homological algebra. The author then gives the background of the theory of differential modules and chain complexes over an abelian category to state the main acyclic models theorem, generalizing and systemizing the earlier material. This is then applied to various cohomology theories in algebra and topology. The volume could be used as a text for a course that combines homological algebra and algebraic topology. Required background includes a standard course in abstract algebra and some knowledge of topology. The volume contains many exercises. It is also suitable as a reference work for researchers.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aarti Sharma
2009-12-01
Full Text Available
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
This book reflects and expands on the current trend in the building industry to understand, simulate and ultimately design buildings by taking into consideration the interlinked elements and forces that act on them. This approach overcomes the traditional, exclusive focus on building tasks, while....... The chapter authors were invited speakers at the 5th Symposium "Modelling Behaviour", which took place at the CITA in Copenhagen in September 2015....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Arnoldi, Jakob
The article discusses the use of algorithmic models for so-called High Frequency Trading (HFT) in finance. HFT is controversial yet widespread in modern financial markets. It is a form of automated trading technology which critics among other things claim can lead to market manipulation. Drawing....... The article analyses these challenges and argues that we witness a new post-social form of human-technology interaction that will lead to a reconfiguration of professional codes for financial trading....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Plimpton, Steven James; Heffernan, Julieanne; Sasaki, Darryl Yoshio; Frischknecht, Amalie Lucile; Stevens, Mark Jackson; Frink, Laura J. Douglas
2005-11-01
Understanding the properties and behavior of biomembranes is fundamental to many biological processes and technologies. Microdomains in biomembranes or ''lipid rafts'' are now known to be an integral part of cell signaling, vesicle formation, fusion processes, protein trafficking, and viral and toxin infection processes. Understanding how microdomains form, how they depend on membrane constituents, and how they act not only has biological implications, but also will impact Sandia's effort in development of membranes that structurally adapt to their environment in a controlled manner. To provide such understanding, we created physically-based models of biomembranes. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and classical density functional theory (DFT) calculations using these models were applied to phenomena such as microdomain formation, membrane fusion, pattern formation, and protein insertion. Because lipid dynamics and self-organization in membranes occur on length and time scales beyond atomistic MD, we used coarse-grained models of double tail lipid molecules that spontaneously self-assemble into bilayers. DFT provided equilibrium information on membrane structure. Experimental work was performed to further help elucidate the fundamental membrane organization principles.
Pulsating Instability of Turbulent Thermonuclear Flames in Type Ia Supernovae
Poludnenko, Alexei Y.
2014-01-01
Presently, one of the main explosion scenarios of type Ia supernovae (SNIa), aimed at explaining both "normal" and subluminous events, is the thermonuclear incineration of a white-dwarf in a single-degenerate system. The underlying engine of such explosions is the turbulent thermonuclear flame. Modern, large-scale, multidimensional simulations of SNIa cannot resolve the internal flame structure, and instead must include a subgrid-scale prescription for the turbulent-flame properties. As a result, development of robust, parameter-free, large-scale models of SNIa crucially relies on the detailed understanding of the turbulent flame properties during each stage of the flame evolution. Due to the complexity of the flame dynamics, such understanding must be validated by the first-principles direct numerical simulations (DNS). In our previous work, we showed that sufficiently fast turbulent flames are inherently susceptible to the development of detonations, which may provide the mechanism for the deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) in the delayed-detonation model of SNIa. Here we extend this study by performing detailed analysis of the turbulent flame properties at turbulent intensities below the critical threshold for DDT. We carried out a suite of 3D DNS of turbulent flames for a broad range of turbulent intensities and system sizes using a simplified, single-step, Arrhenius-type reaction kinetics. Our results show that at the later stages of the explosion, as the turbulence intensity increases prior to the possible onset of DDT, the flame front will become violently unstable. We find that the burning rate exhibits periodic pulsations with the energy release rate varying by almost an order of magnitude. Furthermore, such flame pulsations can produce pressure waves and shocks as the flame speed approaches the critical Chapman-Jouguet deflagration speed. Finally, in contrast with the current theoretical understanding, such fast turbulent flames can propagate at
MODEL-MODEL PENILAIAN SEKURITAS
Imron Rosyadi
2006-01-01
The valuation of securities is very important, it caused by the target of financial management that was to maximize the wealth of stockholder by means of maximize value of the firm. In this article, the writer showed the valuation models of securities such as, obligation, common stock, and preference stock. The obligation value is present value from annuity (payment of fixed interest rate each period) and added by present value of principal loan. Whereas in valuation of stock, at ...
From Reference Model to Component Model
Albani, Antonia; Zaha, Johannes Maria
2005-01-01
Stable component models are an essential prerequisite for developingcustomer-individual business applications. Thereby the information for theidentification and specification of their components is gained from domainmodels. Reference models constitute a potential source for building enterprisespecificdomain models. Based on the analysis of existing reference models,this article shows how information available through reference models can beused for the development of stable component models. ...
Progress on Implementing Additional Physics Schemes into ...
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has a team of scientists developing a next generation air quality modeling system employing the Model for Prediction Across Scales – Atmosphere (MPAS-A) as its meteorological foundation. Several preferred physics schemes and options available in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model are regularly used by the USEPA with the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to conduct retrospective air quality simulations. These include the Pleim surface layer, the Pleim-Xiu (PX) land surface model with fractional land use for a 40-class National Land Cover Database (NLCD40), the Asymmetric Convective Model 2 (ACM2) planetary boundary layer scheme, the Kain-Fritsch (KF) convective parameterization with subgrid-scale cloud feedback to the radiation schemes and a scale-aware convective time scale, and analysis nudging four-dimensional data assimilation (FDDA). All of these physics modules and options have already been implemented by the USEPA into MPAS-A v4.0, tested, and evaluated (please see the presentations of R. Gilliam and R. Bullock at this workshop). Since the release of MPAS v5.1 in May 2017, work has been under way to implement these preferred physics options into the MPAS-A v5.1 code. Test simulations of a summer month are being conducted on a global variable resolution mesh with the higher resolution cells centered over the contiguous United States. Driving fields for the FDDA and soil nudging are
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stubkjær, Erik
2005-01-01
to the modeling of an industrial sector, as it aims at rendering the basic concepts that relate to the domain of real estate and the pertinent human activities. The palpable objects are pieces of land and buildings, documents, data stores and archives, as well as persons in their diverse roles as owners, holders...... of assets, experts, and holders of authority. More subtle objects are rights and restrictions, which relate persons through enforceable rules and commitments. The objective of this fabric of complex relations is to provide a stable and yet flexible frame for legal-economic dispositions that are related...
A comparison of benefit and economic value between two sound therapy tinnitus management options.
Newman, Craig W; Sandridge, Sharon A
2012-02-01
economic value is a function of preexisting perceived tinnitus activity limitation/participation restriction. Both SGs and NTT provide significant reduction in perceived tinnitus handicap, with benefit being more pronounced for those patients having greater tinnitus problems at the beginning of therapy. Although the economic models favored the SGs over the NTT, there are several other critical factors that clinicians must take into account when recommending a specific sound therapy option. These include initial tinnitus severity complaints and a number of patient preference variables such as sound preference, listening acceptability, and lifestyle. American Academy of Audiology.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wadbro John
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Most studies assessing health effects of neighborhood characteristics either use self-reports or objective assessments of the environment, the latter often based on Geographical Information Systems (GIS. While objective measures require detailed landscape data, self-assessments may yield confounded results. In this study we demonstrate how self-assessments of green neighborhood environments aggregated to narrow area units may serve as an appealing compromise between objective measures and individual self-assessments. Methods The study uses cross-sectional data (N = 24,847 from a public health survey conducted in the county of Scania, southern Sweden, in 2008 and validates the Scania Green Score (SGS, a new index comprising five self-reported green neighborhood qualities (Culture, Lush, Serene, Spacious and Wild. The same qualities were also assessed objectively using landscape data and GIS. A multilevel (ecometric model was used to aggregate individual self-reports to assessments of perceived green environmental attributes for areas of 1,000 square meters. We assessed convergent and concurrent validity for self-assessments of the five items separately and for the sum score, individually and area-aggregated. Results Correlations between the index scores based on self-assessments and the corresponding objective assessments were clearly present, indicating convergent validity, but the agreement was low. The correlation was even more evident for the area-aggregated SGS. All three scores (individual SGS, area-aggregated SGS and GIS index score were associated with neighborhood satisfaction, indicating concurrent validity. However, while individual SGS was associated with vitality, this association was not present for aggregated SGS and the GIS-index score, suggesting confounding (single-source bias when individual SGS was used. Conclusions Perceived and objectively assessed qualities of the green neighborhood environment correlate
Lam, Patricia; Zhao, Lifang; McFarlane, Heather E.; Aiga, Mytyl; Lam, Vivian; Hooker, Tanya S.; Kunst, Ljerka
2012-01-01
The cuticle is a protective layer that coats the primary aerial surfaces of land plants and mediates plant interactions with the environment. It is synthesized by epidermal cells and is composed of a cutin polyester matrix that is embedded and covered with cuticular waxes. Recently, we have discovered a novel regulatory mechanism of cuticular wax biosynthesis that involves the ECERIFERUM7 (CER7) ribonuclease, a core subunit of the exosome. We hypothesized that at the onset of wax production, the CER7 ribonuclease degrades an mRNA specifying a repressor of CER3, a wax biosynthetic gene whose protein product is required for wax formation via the decarbonylation pathway. In the absence of this repressor, CER3 is expressed, leading to wax production. To identify the putative repressor of CER3 and to unravel the mechanism of CER7-mediated regulation of wax production, we performed a screen for suppressors of the cer7 mutant. Our screen resulted in the isolation of components of the RNA-silencing machinery, RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE1 and SUPPRESSOR OF GENE SILENCING3, implicating RNA silencing in the control of cuticular wax deposition during inflorescence stem development in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). PMID:22689894
Global cloud liquid water path simulations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lemus, L. [Southern Hemisphere Meteorology, Clayton, Victoria (Australia); Rikus, L. [Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Martin, C.; Platt, R. [CSIRO, Aspendale, Victoria (Australia)
1997-01-01
A new parameterization of cloud liquid water and ice content has been included in the Bureau of Meteorology Global Assimilation and Prediction System. The cloud liquid water content is derived from the mean cloud temperatures in the model using an empirical relationship based on observations. The results from perpetual January and July simulations are presented and show that the total cloud water path steadily decreases toward high latitudes, with two relative maxima at midlatitudes and a peak at low latitudes. To validate the scheme, the simulated fields need to be processed to produce liquid water paths that can be directly compared with the corresponding field derived from Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) data. This requires the identification of cloud ice water content within the parameterization and a prescription to account for the treatment of strongly precipitating subgrid-scale cloud. The resultant cloud liquid water paths agree qualitatively with the SSM/I data but show some systematic errors that are attributed to corresponding errors in the model`s simulation of cloud amounts. Given that a more quantitative validation requires substantial improvement in the model`s diagnostic cloud scheme, the comparison with the SSM/I data indicates that the cloud water path, derived from the cloud liquid water content parameterization introduced in this paper, is consistent with the observations and can be usefully incorporated in the prediction system. 40 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.
Refinement, Validation and Application of Cloud-Radiation Parameterization in a GCM
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dr. Graeme L. Stephens
2009-04-30
The research performed under this award was conducted along 3 related fronts: (1) Refinement and assessment of parameterizations of sub-grid scale radiative transport in GCMs. (2) Diagnostic studies that use ARM observations of clouds and convection in an effort to understand the effects of moist convection on its environment, including how convection influences clouds and radiation. This aspect focuses on developing and testing methodologies designed to use ARM data more effectively for use in atmospheric models, both at the cloud resolving model scale and the global climate model scale. (3) Use (1) and (2) in combination with both models and observations of varying complexity to study key radiation feedback Our work toward these objectives thus involved three corresponding efforts. First, novel diagnostic techniques were developed and applied to ARM observations to understand and characterize the effects of moist convection on the dynamical and thermodynamical environment in which it occurs. Second, an in house GCM radiative transfer algorithm (BUGSrad) was employed along with an optimal estimation cloud retrieval algorithm to evaluate the ability to reproduce cloudy-sky radiative flux observations. Assessments using a range of GCMs with various moist convective parameterizations to evaluate the fidelity with which the parameterizations reproduce key observable features of the environment were also started in the final year of this award. The third study area involved the study of cloud radiation feedbacks and we examined these in both cloud resolving and global climate models.
Large eddy simulation of dam-break-driven swash on a rough-planar beach
Kim, Yeulwoo; Zhou, Zheyu; Hsu, Tian-Jian; Puleo, Jack A.
2017-02-01
Turbulence characteristics in the swash zone are investigated using a 3-D large eddy simulation model. The numerical model is implemented based on OpenFOAM which solves the filtered Navier-Stokes equations for two immiscible fluids with a standard Smagorinsky subgrid-scale closure. The numerical model is validated with laboratory data for swash flow driven by a dam-break apparatus. The model results demonstrate that the main characteristics of turbulence in the swash zone are different from those in the surf zone, which are mainly induced by surface wave breaking. During uprush phase, bore-generated turbulence has 2-D turbulence characteristics because of limited water depth. Near-bed-generated turbulence is mainly observed during backwash. Turbulence production and turbulent dissipation rate estimated from the model results indicate an imbalance, possibly due to advection at swash front and large roughness used. Touching down of turbulent coherent structure (TCS) is observed during uprush, which drives intense bed shear stress. During the backwash, interaction between TCS and bed is less clear. However, finger-like patterns in the spatial extent of bed shear stress and vertical components of vorticity are predicted during the backwash. The location of the strongest finger patterns in the vertical direction is collocated with that of maximum turbulence production. These finger patterns are likely caused by boundary layer instabilities injected vertically from the bed.
Stress granules: sites of mRNA triage that regulate mRNA stability and translatability.
Kedersha, N; Anderson, P
2002-11-01
Mammalian stress granules (SGs) are cytoplasmic domains into which mRNAs are sorted dynamically in response to phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 2alpha, a key regulatory step in translational initiation. The activation of one or more of the eIF2alpha kinases leads to SG assembly by decreasing the levels of eIF2-GTP-tRNA(Met), the ternary complex that is normally required for loading the initiator methionine onto the 48 S preinitiation complex to begin translation. This stress-induced scarcity of eIF2-GTP-tRNA(Met) allows the RNA-binding proteins TIA-1 (T-cell internal antigen-1) and TIAR (TIA-1-related protein) to bind the 48 S complex in lieu of the ternary complex, thereby promoting polysome disassembly and the concurrent routing of the mRNA into a SG. The actual formation of SGs occurs upon auto-aggregation of the prion-like C-termini of TIA-1 proteins; this aggregation is reversed in vivo by overexpression of the heat-shock protein (HSP) chaperone HSP70. Remarkably, HSP70 mRNA is excluded from SGs and is preferentially translated during stress, indicating that the RNA composition of the SG is selective. Moreover, the effects of HSP70 on TIA aggregation suggest a feedback loop whereby HSP70 synthesis is auto-regulated. Proteins that promote mRNA stability [e.g. HuR (Hu protein R)] and destabilize mRNA [i.e. tristetraprolin (TTP)] are also recruited to SGs, suggesting that SGs effect a process of mRNA triage, by promoting polysome disassembly and routing mRNAs to cytoplasmic domains enriched for HuR and TTP. This model reveals connections between the eIF2alpha kinase system, mRNA stability and cellular chaperone levels.
1989-01-01
A wooden model of the ALEPH experiment and its cavern. ALEPH was one of 4 experiments at CERN's 27km Large Electron Positron collider (LEP) that ran from 1989 to 2000. During 11 years of research, LEP's experiments provided a detailed study of the electroweak interaction. Measurements performed at LEP also proved that there are three – and only three – generations of particles of matter. LEP was closed down on 2 November 2000 to make way for the construction of the Large Hadron Collider in the same tunnel. The cavern and detector are in separate locations - the cavern is stored at CERN and the detector is temporarily on display in Glasgow physics department. Both are available for loan.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Boštjan Kerbler
2006-01-01
Full Text Available The paper systematically describes special regression methods – discrete choice models – known as probability models. The meaning of models and their methodological characteristics are described, as well as different types of models, especially binary-choice models and censored regression models. We considered three most commonly used approaches to estimating such models – logit, probit and tobit model.
Afsarmanesh, H.; Camarinha-Matos, L.M.; Camarinha-Matos, L.M.; Afsarmanesh, H.
2008-01-01
A framework is defined for ARCON reference modeling, introducing multiple modeling perspectives of: Environment characteristics, life cycle stages, and modeling intents. This novel modeling framework takes into account contributions from previous related works, mainly on enterprise modeling, and
Large-eddy simulation of flow past a circular cylinder
Cheng, Wan; Pullin, Dale; Samtaney, Ravi; Zhang, Wei
2015-11-01
Wall-modeled, large-eddy simulations (LES) about a smooth-walled circular cylinder are described. The cylinder is of diameter D and is of extent 3 D in the span-wise direction. The stretched-vortex sub-grid scale model is used away from the cylinder wall, including regions of large-scale separated flow. At the wall this is coupled directly to an extended version of the virtual-wall model (VWM) of Chung & Pullin (2009). Here the wall-adjacent flow is modeled by wall-normal integration of both components of the wall-parallel momentum equation across a thin wall-layer whose thickness is small compared to that of the local boundary layer. This provides a wall-parallel, cell-scale estimate of the surface stress-vector field across the entire cylinder surface, and, with further assumptions, gives a slip-velocity boundary condition for the outer-flow LES. Flow separation is captured. The LES are done with a fourth-order accurate finite-difference method with span-wise periodic boundary conditions. A third-order semi-implicit Runge-Kutta method is used for temporal discretization. The LES methodology is verified by comparison with DNS at ReD = 3 , 900 . LES at larger Reynolds number will be discussed. Supported partially by KAUST OCRF Award No. URF/1/1394-01 and partially by NSF award CBET 1235605.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Tonttila
2013-08-01
Full Text Available A new method for parameterizing the subgrid variations of vertical velocity and cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC is presented for general circulation models (GCMs. These parameterizations build on top of existing parameterizations that create stochastic subgrid cloud columns inside the GCM grid cells, which can be employed by the Monte Carlo independent column approximation approach for radiative transfer. The new model version adds a description for vertical velocity in individual subgrid columns, which can be used to compute cloud activation and the subgrid distribution of the number of cloud droplets explicitly. Autoconversion is also treated explicitly in the subcolumn space. This provides a consistent way of simulating the cloud radiative effects with two-moment cloud microphysical properties defined at subgrid scale. The primary impact of the new parameterizations is to decrease the CDNC over polluted continents, while over the oceans the impact is smaller. Moreover, the lower CDNC induces a stronger autoconversion of cloud water to rain. The strongest reduction in CDNC and cloud water content over the continental areas promotes weaker shortwave cloud radiative effects (SW CREs even after retuning the model. However, compared to the reference simulation, a slightly stronger SW CRE is seen e.g. over mid-latitude oceans, where CDNC remains similar to the reference simulation, and the in-cloud liquid water content is slightly increased after retuning the model.
Prytz, Erik R.; Huuse, Øyvind; Müller, Bernhard; Bartl, Jan; Sætran, Lars Roar
2017-07-01
Turbulent flow at Reynolds numbers 5 . 104 to 106 around the NREL S826 airfoil used for wind turbine blades is simulated using delayed detached eddy simulation (DDES). The 3D domain is built as a replica of the low speed wind tunnel at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) with the wind tunnel walls considered as slip walls. The subgrid turbulent kinetic energy is used to model the sub-grid scale in the large eddy simulation (LES) part of DDES. Different Reynoldsaveraged Navier-Stokes (RANS) models are tested in ANSYS Fluent. The realizable k - ∈ model as the RANS model in DDES is found to yield the best agreement of simulated pressure distributions with the experimental data both from NTNU and the Technical University of Denmark (DTU), the latter for a shorter spanwise domain. The present DDES results are in excellent agreement with LES results from DTU. Since DDES requires much fewer cells in the RANS region near the wing surface than LES, DDES is computationally much more efficient than LES. Whereas DDES is able to predict lift and drag in close agreement with experiment up to stall, pure 2D RANS simulations fail near stall. After testing different numerical settings, time step sizes and grids for DDES, a Reynolds number study is conducted. Near stall, separated flow structures, so-called stall cells, are observed in the DDES results.
Model Manipulation for End-User Modelers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Acretoaie, Vlad
, and proposes the VM* family of model manipulation languages addressing them. This family consists of the Visual Model Query Language (VMQL), the Visual Model Constraint Language (VMCL), and the Visual Model Transformation Language (VMTL). They allow modelers to specify and execute queries, constraints......End-user modelers are domain experts who create and use models as part of their work. They are typically not Software Engineers, and have little or no programming and meta-modeling experience. However, using model manipulation languages developed in the context of Model-Driven Engineering often...... integration, the VM* Runtime is deployed as a collection of lightweight Web Services. The claim that VM* languages offer end-user modelers superior learnability compared to existing model manipulation languages is verified empirically via user experiments complemented by qualitative evidence....
78 FR 25482 - Notice of Revised Determination on Reconsideration
2013-05-01
..., INC., SGS NORTH AMERICA, INC., SHARED SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, INC., SERVICE PAINTING INC., SGS NORTH..., Inc., Shared Systems ] Technology, Inc., Service Painting Inc., SGS North America, Inc., Shared..., Service Painting, Inc., SGS North America, Inc., Shared Systems Technology, Inc., Service Painting Inc...
Direct Numerical Simulation of Turbulent Condensation in Clouds
Shariff, K.; Paoli, R.
2004-01-01
In this brief, we investigate the turbulent condensation of a population of droplets by means of a direct numerical simulation. To that end, a coupled Navier-Stokes/Lagrangian solver is used where each particle is tracked and its growth by water vapor condensation is monitored exactly. The main goals of the study are to find out whether turbulence broadens the droplet size distribution, as observed in in situ measurements. The second issue is to understand if and for how long a correlation between the droplet radius and the local supersaturation exists for the purpose of modeling sub-grid scale microphysics in cloud-resolving codes. This brief is organized as follows. In Section 2 the governing equations are presented, including the droplet condensation model. The implementation of the forcing procedure is described in Section 3. The simulation results are presented in Section 4 together with a sketch of a simple stochastic model for turbulent condensation. Conclusions and the main outcomes of the study are given in Section 5.
King, David, Jr.; Manson, Russell; Trout, Joseph; Decicco, Nicholas; Rios, Manny
2015-04-01
Wake vortices are generated by airplanes in flight. These vortices decay slowly and may persist for several minutes after their creation. These vortices and associated smaller scale turbulent structures present a hazard to incoming flights. It is for this reason that incoming flights are timed to arrive after these vortices have dissipated. Local weather conditions, mainly prevailing winds, can affect the transport and evolution of these vortices; therefore, there is a need to fully understand localized wind patterns at the airport-sized mircoscale. Here we have undertaken a computational investigation into the impacts of localized wind flows and physical structures on the velocity field at Atlantic City International Airport. The simulations are undertaken in OpenFOAM, an open source computational fluid dynamics software package, using an optimized geometric mesh of the airport. Initial conditions for the simulations are based on historical data with the option to run simulations based on projected weather conditions imported from the Weather Research & Forcasting (WRF) Model. Sub-grid scale turbulence is modeled using a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) approach. The initial results gathered from the WRF Model simulations and historical weather data analysis are presented elsewhere.
Rahman, Mustafa; Samtaney, Ravi
2015-11-01
We present results of solid particles suspension and transport in a fully-developed turbulent boundary layer flow using large-eddy simulation of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. We adopt the Eulerian-Eulerian approach to simulating particle laden flow with a large number of particles, in which the particles are characterized by statistical descriptors. For the particulate phase, the direct quadrature method of moments (DQMOM) is chosen in which the weights and abscissas of the quadrature approximation are tracked directly rather than the moments themselves. The underlying approach in modeling the turbulence of fluid phase utilizes the stretched spiral vortex subgrid-scale model and a virtual wall model similar to the work proposed by Inoue & Pullin (J. Fluid Mech. 2011). The solver is verified against simple analytical solutions and the computational results are found to be in a good agreement with these. The capability of the new numerical solver will be exercised to investigate turbulent transport of sand in sandstorms. Finally, the adequacy and limitations of the solver will be discussed. Supported by the KAUST Office of Competitive Research Funds under Award No. URF/1/1704-01.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boivin, M.
1996-12-31
An investigation of dilute dispersed turbulent two-way coupling two-phase flows has been undertaken with the hemp of Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) on stationary-forced homogeneous isotropic turbulence. The particle relaxation times range from the Kolmogorov to the Eulerian time scales and the load goes up to 1. The analyses is made within the Eulerian-model framework, enhanced by the National Hydraulics Laboratory Lagrangian approach, which is extended here to include inverse coupling and Reynolds effects. Particles are found to dissipate on average turbulence energy. The spectra of the fluid-particle exchange energy rate show that small particles drag the fluid at high wavenumbers, which explains the observed relative increase of small scale energy. A spectral analysis points as responsible mechanism the transfer of fluid-particle covariance by fluid turbulence. Regarding the modeling, he Reynolds dependency and the load contribution are found crucial for good predictions of the dispersed phase moments. A study for practical applications with Large Eddy Simulations (LES) has yielded: LES can be used two-way coupling two-phase flows provided that a dynamic mixed sub-grid scale model is adopted and the particle relaxation time is larger than the cutoff filter one; the inverse coupling should depend more on the position of this relaxation time with respect to the Eulerian one than to the Kolmogorov one. (author) 67 refs.
Discrete Filters for Large Eddy Simulation of Forced Compressible MHD Turbulence
Chernyshov, Alexander A; Petrosyan, Arakel S
2013-01-01
In present study, we discuss results of applicability of discrete filters for large eddy simulation (LES) method of forced compressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulent flows with the scale-similarity model. Influences and effects of discrete filter shapes on the scale-similarity model are examined in physical space using a finite-difference numerical schemes. We restrict ourselves to the Gaussian filter and the top-hat filter. Representations of this subgrid-scale model which correspond to various 3- and 5-point approximations of both Gaussian and top-hat filters for different values of parameter $\\epsilon$ (the ratio of the mesh size to the cut-off lengthscale of the filter) are investigated. Discrete filters produce more discrepancies for magnetic field. It is shown that the Gaussian filter is more sensitive to the parameter $\\epsilon$ than the top-hat filter in compressible forced MHD turbulence. The 3-point filters at $\\epsilon=2$ and $\\epsilon=3$ give the least accurate results and the 5-point Gaussi...
Simulating marine propellers with vortex particle method
Wang, Youjiang; Abdel-Maksoud, Moustafa; Song, Baowei
2017-01-01
The vortex particle method is applied to compute the open water characteristics of marine propellers. It is based on the large-eddy simulation technique, and the Smagorinsky-Lilly sub-grid scale model is implemented for the eddy viscosity. The vortex particle method is combined with the boundary element method, in the sense that the body is modelled with boundary elements and the slipstream is modelled with vortex particles. Rotational periodic boundaries are adopted, which leads to a cylindrical sector domain for the slipstream. The particle redistribution scheme and the fast multipole method are modified to consider the rotational periodic boundaries. Open water characteristics of three propellers with different skew angles are calculated with the proposed method. The results are compared with the ones obtained with boundary element method and experiments. It is found that the proposed method predicts the open water characteristics more accurately than the boundary element method, especially for high loading condition and high skew propeller. The influence of the Smagorinsky constant is also studied, which shows the results have a low sensitivity to it.
Present-day irrigation mitigates heat extremes
Thiery, Wim; Davin, Edouard L.; Lawrence, David M.; Hirsch, Annette L.; Hauser, Mathias; Seneviratne, Sonia I.
2017-02-01
Irrigation is an essential practice for sustaining global food production and many regional economies. Emerging scientific evidence indicates that irrigation substantially affects mean climate conditions in different regions of the world. Yet how this practice influences climate extremes is currently unknown. Here we use ensemble simulations with the Community Earth System Model to assess the impacts of irrigation on climate extremes. An evaluation of the model performance reveals that irrigation has a small yet overall beneficial effect on the representation of present-day near-surface climate. While the influence of irrigation on annual mean temperatures is limited, we find a large impact on temperature extremes, with a particularly strong cooling during the hottest day of the year (-0.78 K averaged over irrigated land). The strong influence on extremes stems from the timing of irrigation and its influence on land-atmosphere coupling strength. Together these effects result in asymmetric temperature responses, with a more pronounced cooling during hot and/or dry periods. The influence of irrigation is even more pronounced when considering subgrid-scale model output, suggesting that local effects of land management are far more important than previously thought. Our results underline that irrigation has substantially reduced our exposure to hot temperature extremes in the past and highlight the need to account for irrigation in future climate projections.
Numerical and Experimental Study of Wake Redirection Techniques in a Boundary Layer Wind Tunnel
Wang, J.; Foley, S.; Nanos, E. M.; Yu, T.; Campagnolo, F.; Bottasso, C. L.; Zanotti, A.; Croce, A.
2017-05-01
The aim of the present paper is to validate a wind farm LES framework in the context of two distinct wake redirection techniques: yaw misalignment and individual cyclic pitch control. A test campaign was conducted using scaled wind turbine models in a boundary layer wind tunnel, where both particle image velocimetry and hot-wire thermo anemometers were used to obtain high quality measurements of the downstream flow. A LiDAR system was also employed to determine the non-uniformity of the inflow velocity field. A high-fidelity large-eddy simulation lifting-line model was used to simulate the aerodynamic behavior of the system, including the geometry of the wind turbine nacelle and tower. A tuning-free Lagrangian scale-dependent dynamic approach was adopted to improve the sub-grid scale modeling. Comparisons with experimental measurements are used to systematically validate the simulations. The LES results are in good agreement with the PIV and hot-wire data in terms of time-averaged wake profiles, turbulence intensity and Reynolds shear stresses. Discrepancies are also highlighted, to guide future improvements.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Song, J.; Wesely, M. L.
1999-10-08
The parameterized subgrid-scale surface fluxes (PASS) model uses satellite data and limited surface observations to infer root-zone available moisture content and evapotranspiration rate with moderate spatial resolution over extended terrestrial areas. The ultimate goal of this work is to produce estimates of water loss by evapotranspiration, for application in hydrological models. The major advantage to the method is that it can be applied to areas having diverse surface characteristics where direct surface flux measurements either do not exist or are not feasible and where meteorological data are available from only a limited number of ground stations. The emphasis of this work with the PASS model is on improving (1) methods of using satellite remote sensing data to derive the essential parameters for individual types of surfaces over large areas, (2) algorithms for describing the interactions of near-surface atmospheric conditions with surface processes, and (3) algorithms for computing surface energy and water vapor flux at a scale close to the size of a satellite-derived image pixel. The PASS approach is being developed and tested further with observations from the 1997 Cooperative Atmosphere-Surface Exchange Study (CASES-97) at the Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiments (ABLE) site in the Walnut River Watershed (WRW), an area of about 5,000 km{sup 2} in southern Kansas. Here the authors describe some of the progress made since the previous report.
Characterization of Surfaces and the Estimation of Shock Induced Vorticity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jameson, L; Ray, J; Peyser, T
2002-09-17
When shocks impinge on a surface separating fluids of two different densities, one observes the development and growth of various vortical structures. The flow induced by this Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instability depends on a variety of factors such as the shock strength, the density ratio of the fluids and the exact form of the surface perturbation. The most common way to model the form of the surface perturbation is through Fourier analysis which is suitable for large-scale sinusoidal structures and is straightforward mathematically. In surfaces of practical interest, however, to a wide range of application, there may also be a broad spectrum of high frequency modes in addition to the lower frequency modes described by Fourier methods. We propose here that these high frequency modes can be efficiently quantified in terms of wavelet analysis. From a numerical point of view, the scale that the roughness occurs at is far to small to numerically resolve and thus we propose that our new methodology can be used to model the subgrid scale generation of vorticity. Thus the combination of wavelet analysis and Fourier analysis will be used to model the generation of vorticity for the RM instability.
Numerical investigation of the boundary layer separation in chemical oxygen iodine laser
Huai, Ying; Jia, Shuqin; Wu, Kenan; Jin, Yuqi; Sang, Fengting
2017-11-01
Large eddy simulation is carried out to model the flow process in a supersonic chemical oxygen iodine laser. Unlike the common approaches relying on the tensor representation theory only, the model in the present work is an explicit anisotropy-resolving algebraic Subgrid-scale scalar flux formulation. With an accuracy in capturing the unsteady flow behaviours in the laser. Boundary layer separation initiated by the adverse pressure gradient is identified using Large Eddy Simulation. To quantify the influences of flow boundary layer on the laser performance, the fluid computations coupled with a physical optics loaded cavity model is developed. It has been found that boundary layer separation has a profound effect on the laser outputs due to the introduced shock waves. The F factor of the output beam decreases to 10% of the original one when the boundary transit into turbulence for the setup depicted in the paper. Because the pressure is always greater on the downstream of the boundary layer, there will always be a tendency of boundary separation in the laser. The results inspire designs of the laser to apply positive/passive control methods avoiding the boundary layer perturbation.
Meyers, Johan; Meneveau, Charles; Geurts, Bernard J.
2010-12-01
A suite of large-eddy simulations (LESs) of decaying homogeneous isotropic turbulence at high Reynolds numbers is performed and compared to wind-tunnel experiments in the tradition of Comte-Bellot and Corrsin. The error-landscape approach is used for the evaluation of the Smagorinsky model, and the results are used to identify an optimal combination of model parameter and resolution in a statistically robust fashion. The use of experimental reference data in the error-landscape approach allows to evaluate the optimal Smagorinsky coefficient at high Reynolds numbers and to perform detailed comparisons with analytical predictions. We demonstrate, using a pseudospectral discretization, that the optimal so-called Smagorinsky trajectory obtained from the error-landscape analysis converges at high simulation resolutions to the high-Re theoretical Lilly prediction for the Smagorinsky coefficient. Using modified wavenumbers in the same spectral code, the current study also presents error-landscape results based on LES with "second-order" discretization errors. By slightly revising Lilly's analysis, we show that including the effect of numerical discretization when evaluating the strain-rate tensor needed in the subgrid-scale model leads to a good prediction of the optimal Smagorinsky parameter obtained from the corresponding error-landscape. Using similar analytical tools, we further demonstrate that the dynamic procedure can also be adapted to better account for the effects of discretization and test-filter shape.
Estimation of turbulence dissipation rate by Large eddy PIV method in an agitated vessel
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kysela Bohuš
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The distribution of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate is important for design of mixing apparatuses in chemical industry. Generally used experimental methods of velocity measurements for measurement in complex geometries of an agitated vessel disallow measurement in resolution of small scales close to turbulence dissipation ones. Therefore, Particle image velocity (PIV measurement method improved by large eddy Ply approach was used. Large eddy PIV method is based on modeling of smallest eddies by a sub grid scale (SGS model. This method is similar to numerical calculations using Large Eddy Simulation (LES and the same SGS models are used. In this work the basic Smagorinsky model was employed and compared with power law approximation. Time resolved PIV data were processed by Large Eddy PIV approach and the obtained results of turbulent kinetic dissipation rate were compared in selected points for several operating conditions (impeller speed, operating liquid viscosity.
The IMACLIM model; Le modele IMACLIM
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2003-07-01
This document provides annexes to the IMACLIM model which propose an actualized description of IMACLIM, model allowing the design of an evaluation tool of the greenhouse gases reduction policies. The model is described in a version coupled with the POLES, technical and economical model of the energy industry. Notations, equations, sources, processing and specifications are proposed and detailed. (A.L.B.)
Modelling live forensic acquisition
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Grobler, MM
2009-06-01
Full Text Available This paper discusses the development of a South African model for Live Forensic Acquisition - Liforac. The Liforac model is a comprehensive model that presents a range of aspects related to Live Forensic Acquisition. The model provides forensic...
Vertical Overlap of Probability Density Functions of Cloud and Precipitation Hydrometeors
Ovchinnikov, M.; Lim, K. S. S.; Larson, V. E.; Wong, M.; Thayer-Calder, K.; Ghan, S. J.
2016-12-01
Coarse-resolution climate models increasingly rely on probability density functions (PDFs) to represent subgrid-scale variability of prognostic variables. While PDFs characterize the horizontal variability, a separate treatment is needed to account for the vertical structure of clouds and precipitation. When sub-columns are drawn from these PDFs for microphysics or radiation parameterizations, appropriate vertical correlations must be enforced via PDF overlap specifications. This study evaluates the representation of PDF overlap in the Subgrid Importance Latin Hypercube Sampler (SILHS) employed in the assumed PDF turbulence and cloud scheme called the Cloud Layers Unified By Binormals (CLUBB). PDF overlap in CLUBB-SILHS simulations of continental and tropical oceanic deep convection is compared with overlap of PDF of various microphysics variables in cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulations of the same cases that explicitly predict the 3D structure of cloud and precipitation fields. CRM results show that PDF overlap varies significantly between different hydrometeor types, as well as between PDFs of mass and number mixing ratios for each species, - a distinction that the current SILHS implementation does not make. Specifically, faster falling species, such as rain and graupel, exhibit significantly higher vertical coherence in their distributions than slow falling cloud liquid and ice. Development of a PDF overlap treatment linked to hydrometeor properties, such as fall speeds, in addition to the currently implemented dependency on the turbulent convective length scale will be discussed.
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Ovchinnikov, Mikhail [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Lim, Kyo-Sun Sunny [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon Republic of Korea; Larson, Vincent E. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee Wisconsin USA; Wong, May [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder Colorado USA; Thayer-Calder, Katherine [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder Colorado USA; Ghan, Steven J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA
2016-11-05
Coarse-resolution climate models increasingly rely on probability density functions (PDFs) to represent subgrid-scale variability of prognostic variables. While PDFs characterize the horizontal variability, a separate treatment is needed to account for the vertical structure of clouds and precipitation. When sub-columns are drawn from these PDFs for microphysics or radiation parameterizations, appropriate vertical correlations must be enforced via PDF overlap specifications. This study evaluates the representation of PDF overlap in the Subgrid Importance Latin Hypercube Sampler (SILHS) employed in the assumed PDF turbulence and cloud scheme called the Cloud Layers Unified By Binormals (CLUBB). PDF overlap in CLUBB-SILHS simulations of continental and tropical oceanic deep convection is compared with overlap of PDF of various microphysics variables in cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulations of the same cases that explicitly predict the 3D structure of cloud and precipitation fields. CRM results show that PDF overlap varies significantly between different hydrometeor types, as well as between PDFs of mass and number mixing ratios for each species, - a distinction that the current SILHS implementation does not make. In CRM simulations that explicitly resolve cloud and precipitation structures, faster falling species, such as rain and graupel, exhibit significantly higher coherence in their vertical distributions than slow falling cloud liquid and ice. These results suggest that to improve the overlap treatment in the sub-column generator, the PDF correlations need to depend on hydrometeor properties, such as fall speeds, in addition to the currently implemented dependency on the turbulent convective length scale.
Santos-Muñoz, D.; Martin, M. L.; Valero, F.; Luna, M. Y.; Morata, A.; Sebastian, L. I.
2009-09-01
A short-range ensemble precipitation forecast system has been constructed over the Iberian Peninsula and Balearics by means of the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University-National Centre for Atmospheric Research Model (MM5). The ensemble system consists of ten members, each run with a different combination of two different initial conditions from global models, IFS-ECMWF and GFS-NCEP, and five different subgrid-scale physics configurations for three months period of 2006. The mesoscale verification is made by using observational precipitation data of the Spanish Climatic Network. To ensure the quality individual members the forecast distribution of each member has been studied, showing good agreement with the observed precipitation distribution. The created short-range ensemble shows high spread-skill correlation values for daily precipitation. However, the asymmetric shape of the rank histogram indicates some underdispersion, suggesting an under-forecasting behaviour. Talagrand diagrams have been created for different precipitation thresholds to analyze more deeply the system calibration, showing a nearly flat shape on the lower bins and a clear accumulation on the higher interval, indicating that the system is well bias affected. The Relative Operating Characteristic curves show a very outstanding area indicating the good discrimination capacity for each of the thresholds. The reliability diagrams are also indicative of the good reliability of the forecasting system, depicting in general good agreement between forecast probability and the mean observed frequency. Because of that, the verification proves the usefulness of the forecasting system over the study area.
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Kim, Jong Chan; Yoo, Kwang Hee; Sung, Hong Gye [Korea Aerospace University, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)
2011-10-15
To conduct a comprehensive study on the flow characteristics and acoustic oscillation in a gas turbine combustor, a 3D large-eddy simulation (LES) was implemented. The formulation consists of the Favre-filtered conservation equations of mass, momentum, and energy. The subgrid-scale dynamics are modeled using a compressible flow version of the Smagorinsky model. To investigate the dominant coherent structure, the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) method was used for post-processing. The combustor of concern is the LM6000, lean-premixed dry low-NOx annular combustor, developed by General Electric Aircraft Engines (GEAE). Four important characteristics of swirl flow are visualized: vortex breakdown, procession and dissipation of vortical structures, recirculation zones, and helical waves immediately downstream of the swirl injector. It is shown that the turbulent motion of swirl flow directly affects acoustic oscillation through the cycle and spectral analysis. The four most dominant acoustic modes are extracted from the flow field by the POD analysis. The transverse modes in the y and z directions are dominant in all four modes, since the pressure fields are significantly affected by swirl flow.
Griffin, Brian M.; Larson, Vincent E.
2016-11-01
Microphysical processes, such as the formation, growth, and evaporation of precipitation, interact with variability and covariances (e.g., fluxes) in moisture and heat content. For instance, evaporation of rain may produce cold pools, which in turn may trigger fresh convection and precipitation. These effects are usually omitted or else crudely parameterized at subgrid scales in weather and climate models.A more formal approach is pursued here, based on predictive, horizontally averaged equations for the variances, covariances, and fluxes of moisture and heat content. These higher-order moment equations contain microphysical source terms. The microphysics terms can be integrated analytically, given a suitably simple warm-rain microphysics scheme and an approximate assumption about the multivariate distribution of cloud-related and precipitation-related variables. Performing the integrations provides exact expressions within an idealized context.A large-eddy simulation (LES) of a shallow precipitating cumulus case is performed here, and it indicates that the microphysical effects on (co)variances and fluxes can be large. In some budgets and altitude ranges, they are dominant terms. The analytic expressions for the integrals are implemented in a single-column, higher-order closure model. Interactive single-column simulations agree qualitatively with the LES. The analytic integrations form a parameterization of microphysical effects in their own right, and they also serve as benchmark solutions that can be compared to non-analytic integration methods.
Large-eddy simulation of a solid-particles suspension in a turbulent boundary layer
Rahman, Mustafa; Samtaney, Ravi
2014-11-01
We decribe a framework for the large-eddy simulation of solid particles suspended and transported within an incompressible turbulent boundary layer. The underlying approach to simulate the solid-particle laden flow is Eulerian-Eulerian in which the particles are characterized by statistical descriptors. For the fluid phase, the large-eddy simulation (LES) of incompressible turbulent boundary layer employs stretched spiral vortex subgrid-scale model and a virtual wall model similar to the work of Inoue & Pullin (J. Fluid Mech. 2011). Furthermore, a recycling method to generate turbulent inflow is implemented. For the particle phase, the direct quadrature method of moments (DQMOM) is chosen in which the weights and abscissas of the quadrature approximation are tracked directly rather than the moments themselves. The numerical method in this framework is based on a fractional-step method with an energy-conservative fourth-order finite difference scheme on a staggered mesh. It is proposed to utilize this framework to examine transport of sand in desert sandstorms. Supported by KAUST OCRF funded CRG project on simulation of sandstorms.
Heat transfer in rotor/stator cavity
Tuliszka-Sznitko, Ewa; Majchrowski, Wojciech; Kiełczewski, Kamil
2011-12-01
In the paper we analyze the results of DNS/LES of the flow with heat transfer in the rotor/stator cavity. The rotor and the outer cylinder are heated. Computations have been performed for wide range of Reynolds numbers and aspect ratios. Computations are based on the efficient pseudo-spectral Chebyshev-Fourier method. In LES we used a Lagrangian dynamic subgrid-scale model of turbulence. Analysis allowed to check the influence of the aspect ratio and Reynolds number on the statistics and the structure of the flow. We analyzed all six Reynolds stress tensor components, turbulent fluctuations, three turbulent heat fluxes and different structural parameters which can be useful for modeling purposes. The distributions of Nusselt numbers obtained for different Re and aspect rations along disks are given. We also investigated influence of thermal Rosssby number as well as distributions of temperature along heated disk on statistics. Computations have shown that turbulence is mostly concentrated in the stator boundary layer with a maximum at the junction between the stator and the outer cylinder. The results are compared to the experimental and numerical data taken from literature.
Irrigation mitigates against heat extremes
Thiery, Wim; Fischer, Erich; Visser, Auke; Hirsch, Annette L.; Davin, Edouard L.; Lawrence, Dave; Hauser, Mathias; Seneviratne, Sonia I.
2017-04-01
Irrigation is an essential practice for sustaining global food production and many regional economies. Emerging scientific evidence indicates that irrigation substantially affects mean climate conditions in different regions of the world. Yet how this practice influences climate extremes is currently unknown. Here we use gridded observations and ensemble simulations with the Community Earth System Model to assess the impacts of irrigation on climate extremes. While the influence of irrigation on annual mean temperatures is limited, we find a large impact on temperature extremes, with a particularly strong cooling during the hottest day of the year (-0.78 K averaged over irrigated land). The strong influence on hot extremes stems from the timing of irrigation and its influence on land-atmosphere coupling strength. Together these effects result in asymmetric temperature responses, with a more pronounced cooling during hot and/or dry periods. The influence of irrigation is even more pronounced when considering subgrid-scale model output, suggesting that local effects of land management are far more important than previously thought. Finally we find that present-day irrigation is partly masking GHG-induced warming of extreme temperatures, with particularly strong effects in South Asia. Our results overall underline that irrigation substantially reduces our exposure to hot temperature extremes and highlight the need to account for irrigation in future climate projections.
Lin, P.; Pratt, D. T.
1987-01-01
A hybrid method has been developed for the numerical prediction of turbulent mixing in a spatially-developing, free shear layer. Most significantly, the computation incorporates the effects of large-scale structures, Schmidt number and Reynolds number on mixing, which have been overlooked in the past. In flow field prediction, large-eddy simulation was conducted by a modified 2-D vortex method with subgrid-scale modeling. The predicted mean velocities, shear layer growth rates, Reynolds stresses, and the RMS of longitudinal velocity fluctuations were found to be in good agreement with experiments, although the lateral velocity fluctuations were overpredicted. In scalar transport, the Monte Carlo method was extended to the simulation of the time-dependent pdf transport equation. For the first time, the mixing frequency in Curl's coalescence/dispersion model was estimated by using Broadwell and Breidenthal's theory of micromixing, which involves Schmidt number, Reynolds number and the local vorticity. Numerical tests were performed for a gaseous case and an aqueous case. Evidence that pure freestream fluids are entrained into the layer by large-scale motions was found in the predicted pdf. Mean concentration profiles were found to be insensitive to Schmidt number, while the unmixedness was higher for higher Schmidt number. Applications were made to mixing layers with isothermal, fast reactions. The predicted difference in product thickness of the two cases was in reasonable quantitative agreement with experimental measurements.
Large Eddy Simulation of Unstably Stratified Turbulent Flow over Urban-Like Building Arrays
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bobin Wang
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Thermal instability induced by solar radiation is the most common condition of urban atmosphere in daytime. Compared to researches under neutral conditions, only a few numerical works studied the unstable urban boundary layer and the effect of buoyancy force is unclear. In this paper, unstably stratified turbulent boundary layer flow over three-dimensional urban-like building arrays with ground heating is simulated. Large eddy simulation is applied to capture main turbulence structures and the effect of buoyancy force on turbulence can be investigated. Lagrangian dynamic subgrid scale model is used for complex flow together with a wall function, taking into account the large pressure gradient near buildings. The numerical model and method are verified with the results measured in wind tunnel experiment. The simulated results satisfy well with the experiment in mean velocity and temperature, as well as turbulent intensities. Mean flow structure inside canopy layer varies with thermal instability, while no large secondary vortex is observed. Turbulent intensities are enhanced, as buoyancy force contributes to the production of turbulent kinetic energy.
Effects of soil moisture variations on deposition velocities above vegetation.
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Wesely, M. L.; Song, J.; McMillen, R. T.; Meyers, T. P.; Environmental Research; Northern Illinois Univ.; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
2001-01-01
The parameterized subgrid-scale surface flux (PASS) model provides a simplified means of using remote sensing data from satellites and limited surface meteorological information to estimate the influence of soil moisture on bulk canopy stomatal resistances to the uptake of gases over extended areas. PASS-generated estimates of bulk canopy stomatal resistance were used in a dry deposition module to compute gas deposition velocities with a horizontal resolution of 200 m for approximately 5000 km{sup 2} of agricultural crops and rangeland. Results were compared with measurements of O{sub 3} flux and concentrations made during April and May 1997 at two surface stations and from an aircraft. The trend in simulated O{sub 3} deposition velocity during soil moisture drydown over a period of a few days matched the trend observed at the two surface stations. For areas under the aircraft flight paths, the variability in simulated O{sub 3} deposition velocity was substantially smaller than the observed variability, while the averages over tens of kilometers were usually in agreement within 0.1 cm s{sup -1}. Model results indicated that soil moisture can have a major role in deposition of O{sub 3} and other substances strongly affected by canopy stomatal resistance.