WorldWideScience

Sample records for subfamilies students identified

  1. First contact pheromone identified for a longhorned beetle (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in the subfamily Prioninae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annie E. Spikes; Matthew A. Paschen; Jocelyn G. Miller; Jardel A. Moreira; Paul B. Hamel; Nathan M. Schiff; Matthew D. Ginzel

    2010-01-01

    Little is known of the reproductive behavior of longhorned beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in the subfamily Prioninae. Mallodon dasystomus (Say), the hardwood stump borer, is a widely distributed prionine that is native to the southern U.S. Here, we explored the chemically-mediated mating behavior of M dasystomus, and tested the hypothesis that males recognize...

  2. iNR-PhysChem: a sequence-based predictor for identifying nuclear receptors and their subfamilies via physical-chemical property matrix.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Xiao

    Full Text Available Nuclear receptors (NRs form a family of ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate a wide variety of biological processes, such as homeostasis, reproduction, development, and metabolism. Human genome contains 48 genes encoding NRs. These receptors have become one of the most important targets for therapeutic drug development. According to their different action mechanisms or functions, NRs have been classified into seven subfamilies. With the avalanche of protein sequences generated in the postgenomic age, we are facing the following challenging problems. Given an uncharacterized protein sequence, how can we identify whether it is a nuclear receptor? If it is, what subfamily it belongs to? To address these problems, we developed a predictor called iNR-PhysChem in which the protein samples were expressed by a novel mode of pseudo amino acid composition (PseAAC whose components were derived from a physical-chemical matrix via a series of auto-covariance and cross-covariance transformations. It was observed that the overall success rate achieved by iNR-PhysChem was over 98% in identifying NRs or non-NRs, and over 92% in identifying NRs among the following seven subfamilies: NR1--thyroid hormone like, NR2--HNF4-like, NR3--estrogen like, NR4--nerve growth factor IB-like, NR5--fushi tarazu-F1 like, NR6--germ cell nuclear factor like, and NR0--knirps like. These rates were derived by the jackknife tests on a stringent benchmark dataset in which none of protein sequences included has ≥60% pairwise sequence identity to any other in a same subset. As a user-friendly web-server, iNR-PhysChem is freely accessible to the public at either http://www.jci-bioinfo.cn/iNR-PhysChem or http://icpr.jci.edu.cn/bioinfo/iNR-PhysChem. Also a step-by-step guide is provided on how to use the web-server to get the desired results without the need to follow the complicated mathematics involved in developing the predictor. It is anticipated that iNR-PhysChem may

  3. Cytochrome P450 CYP3A in marsupials: cloning and characterisation of the second identified CYP3A subfamily member, isoform 3A78 from koala (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Merhibi, Adaweyah; Ngo, Suong N T; Crittenden, Tamara A; Marchant, Ceilidh L; Stupans, Ieva; McKinnon, Ross A

    2011-11-01

    Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are critically important in the oxidative metabolism of a diverse array of xenobiotics and endogenous substrates. Previously, we cloned and characterised the CYP2C, CYP4A, and CYP4B gene subfamilies from marsupials and demonstrated important species-differences in both activity and tissue expression of these CYP enzymes. Recently, we isolated the Eastern grey kangaroo CYP3A70. Here we have cloned and characterised the second identified member of marsupial CYP3A gene subfamily, CYP3A78 from the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus). In addition, we have examined the gender-differences in microsomal erythromycin N-demethylation activity (a CYP3A marker) and CYP3A protein expression across test marsupial species. Significant differences in hepatic erythromycin N-demethylation activity were observed between male and female koalas, with the activity detected in female koalas being 2.5-fold higher compared to that in male koalas (p<0.01). No gender-differences were observed in tammar wallaby or Eastern grey kangaroo. Immunoblot analysis utilising anti-human CYP3A4 antibody detected immunoreactive proteins in liver microsomes from all test male and female marsupials including the koala, tammar wallaby, and Eastern grey kangaroo, with no gender-differences detected across test marsupials. A 1610 bp koala hepatic CYP3A complete cDNA, designated CYP3A78, was cloned by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction approaches. It displays 64% nucleotide and 57% amino acid sequence identity to the Eastern grey kangaroo CYP3A70. The CYP3A78 cDNA encodes a protein of 515 amino acids, shares approximately 68% nucleotide and 56% amino acid sequence identity to human CYP3A4, and displays high sequence similarity to other published mammalian CYP3As from human, monkey, cow, pig, dog, rat, rabbit, mouse, hamster, and guinea pig. Collectively, this study provides primary molecular data regarding koala hepatic CYP3A78 gene and enables further functional analyses of CYP

  4. A putative autonomous 20.5 kb-CACTA transposon insertion in an F3'H allele identifies a new CACTA transposon subfamily in Glycine max

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vodkin Lila

    2008-12-01

    in the gray trichome allele t*. Conclusion The molecular characterization of a 20.5 kb insertion in the flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H gene of a soybean gray pubescence allele (t* identified the structure of a CACTA transposon designated Tgmt*. Besides the terminal inverted repeats and subterminal repeated motifs,Tgmt* encoded a large gene with two putative functions that are required for excision and transposition of a CACTA element, a transposase and the DNA binding protein known to associate to the subterminal repeated motifs. The degree of dissimilarity between Tgmt* transposase and subterminal repeated motifs with those of previously characterized defective CACTA elements (Tgm1-7 were evidence of the existence of two subfamilies of CACTA transposons in soybean, an observation not previously reported in other plants. In addition, our analyses of a genetically active and potentially autonomous element sheds light on the complete structure of a soybean element that is useful for annotation of the repetitive fraction of the soybean genome sequence and may prove useful for transposon tagging or transposon display experiments in different genetic lines.

  5. Identifying Teaching Methods that Engage Entrepreneurship Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, Peter; Metcalfe, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Entrepreneurship education particularly requires student engagement because of the complexity of the entrepreneurship process. The purpose of this paper is to describe how an established measure of engagement can be used to identify relevant teaching methods that could be used to engage any group of entrepreneurship students.…

  6. Teaching science students to identify entrepreneurial opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nab, J.

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation describes a research project on teaching science students to identify entrepreneurial opportunities, which is a core competence for entrepreneurs that should be emphasized in education. This research consists of four studies. The first case study aims at finding design strategies

  7. A systems biology approach identifies a R2R3 MYB gene subfamily with distinct and overlapping functions in regulation of aliphatic glucosinolates.

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    Ida Elken Sønderby

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glucosinolates are natural metabolites in the order Brassicales that defend plants against both herbivores and pathogens and can attract specialized insects. Knowledge about the genes controlling glucosinolate regulation is limited. Here, we identify three R2R3 MYB transcription factors regulating aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis in Arabidopsis by combining several systems biology tools. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: MYB28 was identified as a candidate regulator of aliphatic glucosinolates based on its co-localization within a genomic region controlling variation both in aliphatic glucosinolate content (metabolite QTL and in transcript level for genes involved in the biosynthesis of aliphatic glucosinolates (expression QTL, as well as its co-expression with genes in aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis. A phylogenetic analysis with the R2R3 motif of MYB28 showed that it and two homologues, MYB29 and MYB76, were members of an Arabidopsis-specific clade that included three characterized regulators of indole glucosinolates. Over-expression of the individual MYB genes showed that they all had the capacity to increase the production of aliphatic glucosinolates in leaves and seeds and induce gene expression of aliphatic biosynthetic genes within leaves. Analysis of leaves and seeds of single knockout mutants showed that mutants of MYB29 and MYB76 have reductions in only short-chained aliphatic glucosinolates whereas a mutant in MYB28 has reductions in both short- and long-chained aliphatic glucosinolates. Furthermore, analysis of a double knockout in MYB28 and MYB29 identified an emergent property of the system since the absence of aliphatic glucosinolates in these plants could not be predicted by the chemotype of the single knockouts. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: It seems that these cruciferous-specific MYB regulatory genes have evolved both overlapping and specific regulatory capacities. This provides a unique system within which to

  8. Identifying students with dyslexia in higher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tops, Wim; Callens, Maaike; Lammertyn, Jan; Van Hees, Valerie; Brysbaert, Marc

    2012-01-01

    An increasing number of students with dyslexia enter higher education. As a result, there is a growing need for standardized diagnosis. Previous research has suggested that a small number of tests may suffice to reliably assess students with dyslexia, but these studies were based on post hoc

  9. Tetrahymena metallothioneins fall into two discrete subfamilies.

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    Silvia Díaz

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Metallothioneins are ubiquitous small, cysteine-rich, multifunctional proteins which can bind heavy metals.We report the results of phylogenetic and gene expression analyses that include two new Tetrahymena thermophila metallothionein genes (MTT3 and MTT5. Sequence alignments of all known Tetrahymena metallothioneins have allowed us to rationalize the structure of these proteins. We now formally subdivide the known metallothioneins from the ciliate genus Tetrahymena into two well defined subfamilies, 7a and 7b, based on phylogenetic analysis, on the pattern of clustering of Cys residues, and on the pattern of inducibility by the heavy metals Cd and Cu. Sequence alignment also reveals a remarkably regular, conserved and hierarchical modular structure of all five subfamily 7a MTs, which include MTT3 and MTT5. The former has three modules, while the latter has only two. Induction levels of the three T. thermophila genes were determined using quantitative real time RT-PCR. Various stressors (including heavy metals brought about dramatically different fold-inductions for each gene; MTT5 showed the highest fold-induction. Conserved DNA motifs with potential regulatory significance were identified, in an unbiased way, upstream of the start codons of subfamily 7a MTs. EST evidence for alternative splicing in the 3' UTR of the MTT5 mRNA with potential regulatory activity is reported.The small number and remarkably regular structure of Tetrahymena MTs, coupled with the experimental tractability of this model organism for studies of in vivo function, make it an attractive system for the experimental dissection of the roles, structure/function relationships, regulation of gene expression, and adaptive evolution of these proteins, as well as for the development of biotechnological applications for the environmental monitoring of toxic substances.

  10. Personality Preferences in Students Identified as Gifted

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    Bjercke, Carol

    2006-01-01

    School achievement and even intelligence have been linked to personality styles. Extroversion (the desire to be surrounded by people) and introversion (the desire to be alone in a quiet area) are two of these styles. More students and teachers tend to be extroverted, so this style is more prominent in schools. Extroverts and introverts have almost…

  11. Subfamily logos: visualization of sequence deviations at alignment positions with high information content

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    Beitz Eric

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recognition of relevant sequence deviations can be valuable for elucidating functional differences between protein subfamilies. Interesting residues at highly conserved positions can then be mutated and experimentally analyzed. However, identification of such sites is tedious because automated approaches are scarce. Results Subfamily logos visualize subfamily-specific sequence deviations. The display is similar to classical sequence logos but extends into the negative range. Positive, upright characters correspond to residues which are characteristic for the subfamily, negative, upside-down characters to residues typical for the remaining sequences. The symbol height is adjusted to the information content of the alignment position. Residues which are conserved throughout do not appear. Conclusion Subfamily logos provide an intuitive display of relevant sequence deviations. The method has proven to be valid using a set of 135 aligned aquaporin sequences in which established subfamily-specific positions were readily identified by the algorithm.

  12. Identifying the Multiple Intelligences of Your Students

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    McClellan, Joyce A.; Conti, Gary J.

    2008-01-01

    One way of addressing individual differences among adult learners is to identify the Multiple Intelligences of the learner. Multiple Intelligences refers to the concept developed by Howard Gardner that challenges the traditional view of intelligence and explains the presence of nine different Multiple Intelligences. The purpose of this study was…

  13. Schools or Students? Identifying High School Effects on Student Suspensions

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    Baker-Smith, E. Christine

    2015-01-01

    Evidence is clear that discipline in high school is associated with negative outcomes across the life course. Not only are suspensions related to declining academic trajectories during high school in the form of attendance and academic achievement, students suspended once are also more likely to be suspended again and also substantially increase…

  14. Pharmacy students' ability to identify plagiarism after an educational intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degeeter, Michelle; Harris, Kira; Kehr, Heather; Ford, Carolyn; Lane, Daniel C; Nuzum, Donald S; Compton, Cynthia; Gibson, Whitney

    2014-03-12

    Objective. To determine if an educational intervention in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) degree program increases pharmacy students' ability to identify plagiarism. Methods. First-year (P1), second-year (P2), and third-year (P3) pharmacy students attended an education session during which types of plagiarism and methods for avoiding plagiarism were reviewed. Students completed a preintervention assessment immediately prior to the session and a postintervention assessment the following semester to measure their ability. Results. Two hundred fifty-two students completed both preintervention and postintervention assessments. There was a 4% increase from preintervention to postintervention in assessment scores for the overall student sample (pplagiarism can significantly improve students' ability to identify plagiarism.

  15. Family and academic performance: identifying high school student profiles

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    Alicia Aleli Chaparro Caso López

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify profiles of high school students, based on variables related to academic performance, socioeconomic status, cultural capital and family organization. A total of 21,724 high school students, from the five municipalities of the state of Baja California, took part. A K-means cluster analysis was performed to identify the profiles. The analyses identified two clearly-defined clusters: Cluster 1 grouped together students with high academic performance and who achieved higher scores for socioeconomic status, cultural capital and family involvement, whereas Cluster 2 brought together students with low academic achievement, and who also obtained lower scores for socioeconomic status and cultural capital, and had less family involvement. It is concluded that the family variables analyzed form student profiles that can be related to academic achievement.

  16. Identifying and addressing student difficulties with the ideal gas law

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    Kautz, Christian Hans

    This dissertation reports on an in-depth investigation of student understanding of the ideal gas law. The research and curriculum development were mostly conducted in the context of algebra- and calculus-based introductory physics courses and a sophomore-level thermal physics course. Research methods included individual demonstration interviews and written questions. Student difficulties with the quantities: pressure, volume, temperature, and the number of moles were identified. Data suggest that students' incorrect and incomplete microscopic models about gases contribute to the difficulties they have in answering questions posed in macroscopic terms. In addition, evidence for general reasoning difficulties is presented. These research results have guided the development of curriculum to address the student difficulties that have been identified.

  17. Identifying learning characteristics of the gifted Students in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The failure of schools, teachers and counsellors to identify gifted students as well as responding to their unique characteristics and learning needs give rise to this paper. Gifted learners possess high level of intelligence than their peers, but are disadvantaged in the sense that they are not given the opportunity to reach their ...

  18. Critical Thinking Skills among Elementary School Students: Comparing Identified Gifted and General Education Student Performance

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    Kettler, Todd

    2014-01-01

    Education reform efforts, including the current adoption of Common Core State Standards, have increased attention to teaching critical thinking skills to all students. This study investigated the critical thinking skills of fourth-grade students from a school district in Texas, including 45 identified gifted students and 163 general education…

  19. Identifying and addressing specific student difficulties in advanced thermal physics

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    Smith, Trevor I.

    As part of an ongoing multi-university research study on student understanding of concepts in thermal physics at the upper division, I identified several student difficulties with topics related to heat engines (especially the Carnot cycle), as well as difficulties related to the Boltzmann factor. In an effort to address these difficulties, I developed two guided-inquiry worksheet activities (a.k.a. tutorials) for use in advanced undergraduate thermal physics courses. Both tutorials seek to improve student understanding of the utility and physical background of a particular mathematical expression. One tutorial focuses on a derivation of Carnot's theorem regarding the limit on thermodynamic efficiency, starting from the Second Law of Thermodynamics. The other tutorial helps students gain an appreciation for the origin of the Boltzmann factor and when it is applicable; focusing on the physical justification of its mathematical derivation, with emphasis on the connections between probability, multiplicity, entropy, and energy. Student understanding of the use and physical implications of Carnot's theorem and the Boltzmann factor was assessed using written surveys both before and after tutorial instruction within the advanced thermal physics courses at the University of Maine and at other institutions. Classroom tutorial sessions at the University of Maine were videotaped to allow in-depth scrutiny of student successes and failures following tutorial prompts. I also interviewed students on various topics related to the Boltzmann factor to gain a more complete picture of their understanding and inform tutorial revisions. Results from several implementations of my tutorials at the University of Maine indicate that students did not have a robust understanding of these physical principles after lectures alone, and that they gain a better understanding of relevant topics after tutorial instruction; Fisher's exact tests yield statistically significant improvement at the

  20. Meeting Unique Student Needs: Dual-Identified Students and Teacher Self-Efficacy

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    Dornayi, Hassan Mohsen

    2017-01-01

    This study explored the connection between how confident teachers feel about their skills in teaching dual-identified students and the types and amounts of training they have received. Additionally, this study attempted to find out what the needs of teachers were in order to help them feel more confident in their abilities to teach these students.…

  1. Designing an Adaptive Web-Based Learning System Based on Students' Cognitive Styles Identified Online

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    Lo, Jia-Jiunn; Chan, Ya-Chen; Yeh, Shiou-Wen

    2012-01-01

    This study developed an adaptive web-based learning system focusing on students' cognitive styles. The system is composed of a student model and an adaptation model. It collected students' browsing behaviors to update the student model for unobtrusively identifying student cognitive styles through a multi-layer feed-forward neural network (MLFF).…

  2. The PANTHER database of protein families, subfamilies, functions and pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Mi, Huaiyu; Lazareva-Ulitsky, Betty; Loo, Rozina; Kejariwal, Anish; Vandergriff, Jody; Rabkin, Steven; Guo, Nan; Muruganujan, Anushya; Doremieux, Olivier; Campbell, Michael J.; Kitano, Hiroaki; Thomas, Paul D.

    2004-01-01

    PANTHER is a large collection of protein families that have been subdivided into functionally related subfamilies, using human expertise. These subfamilies model the divergence of specific functions within protein families, allowing more accurate association with function (ontology terms and pathways), as well as inference of amino acids important for functional specificity. Hidden Markov models (HMMs) are built for each family and subfamily for classifying additional protein sequences. The l...

  3. Identifying Student Types in a Gamified Learning Experience

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    Barata, Gabriel; Gama, Sandra; Jorge, Joaquim; Gonçalves, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Gamification of education is a recent trend, and early experiments showed promising results. Students seem not only to perform better, but also to participate more and to feel more engaged with gamified learning. However, little is known regarding how different students are affected by gamification and how their learning experience may vary. In…

  4. Prairie Restoration Project: Alternatives for Identifying Gifted Students

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    Salisbury, Katie E.; Rule, Audrey C.; Vander Zanden, Sarah M.

    2016-01-01

    An authentic, challenging curriculum engaged middle school students from an urban district in exploratory work related to restoring a small prairie at the school. Integrated science-literacy-arts activities were coupled with a system of thinking skills that helped students view issues from different perspectives. Impassioned guest speakers and an…

  5. Initiating a Developmental Motor Skills Program for Identified Primary Students.

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    Harville, Valerie Terrill

    A physical education specialist at an elementary school in one of the fastest growing sections of the country developed and implemented a developmental motor skills program for primary school students. The program focused on: (1) developing a method of referring students for testing; (2) providing a specialized motor diagnostic test; (3) improving…

  6. Instructor and course evaluation based on student-identified criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, M O

    1977-02-01

    Students have come to school for an education and it is their right to evaluate the quality of the education they are receiving. They should not have to demand or even ask for the privilege of saying what they think. Instructors should be providing the opportunity for evaluation by requesting that information from the students. No value judgment can be totally objective, but an instrument composed of mutually agreed upon statements should encourage the greatest possible degree of objectivity. Using one accepted form throughout the school, all students would be considering the same characteristics and traits for every instructor and course evaluated. Each instructor would receive similar information about personal performance and about the course presented. Students would be free to talk to the faculty or to add comments if they so desired; but, a questionnaire used in every course would allow and even encourage responses from every student enrolled. Faculty responsibility would not end with the preparation and implementation of an evaluation instrument. Instructors would have to let the students know their opinions are important and will be considered in curricular and instructional decisions. Faculty and students would be communicating and hopefully fulfilling the needs of and responsibilities to each other.

  7. Identifying developmental features in students' clinical reasoning to inform teaching.

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    Pinnock, Ralph; Anakin, Megan; Lawrence, Julie; Chignell, Helen; Wilkinson, Tim

    2018-04-27

    There is increasing evidence that students at different levels of training may benefit from different methods of learning clinical reasoning. Two of the common methods of teaching are the "whole - case" format and the "serial cue" approach. There is little empirical evidence to guide teachers as to which method to use and when to introduce them. We observed 23 students from different stages of training to examine how they were taking a history and how they were thinking whilst doing this. Each student interviewed a simulated patient who presented with a straightforward and a complex presentation. We inferred how students were reasoning from how they took a history and how they described their thinking while doing this. Early in their training students can only take a generic history. Only later in training are they able to take a focused history, remember the information they have gathered, use it to seek further specific information, compare and contrast possibilities and analyze their data as they are collecting it. Early in their training students are unable to analyze data during history taking. When they have started developing illness scripts, they are able to benefit from the "serial cue" approach of teaching clinical reasoning.

  8. Nursing students in Iran identify the clinical environment stressors.

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    Najafi Doulatabad, Shahla; Mohamadhosaini, Sima; Ghafarian Shirazi, Hamid Reza; Mohebbi, Zinat

    2015-06-01

    Stress at clinical environment is one of the cases that could affect the education quality among nursing students. The study aims to investigate Iranian nursing students' perceptions on the stressors in clinical environment in the South Western part of Iran. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in 2010 to include 300 nursing students after their completion of second clinical nursing course in a hospital environment. Data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire, with focus on the clinical environment stressors from personal, educational and training viewpoints. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software (IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY, USA) and descriptive statistics tests. Among the various stressors, the highest scores were given to the faculty (71 ± 19.77), followed by the students' personal characteristics (43.15 ± 21.79). Given that faculty-related factors provoked more stress in nursing students, nursing administration should diligently evaluate and improve communication skills among faculty to reduce student stress and enhance learning. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. Identifying Stressors and Reactions to Stressors in Gifted and Non-Gifted Students

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    Amini, Marzieh

    2005-01-01

    Using the Student Life Stress Inventory and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, stressors and reactions to stressors were identified in gifted high school students and compared with non-gifted students. Altogether, 340 boys and girls (156 gifted and 184 non-gifted students) from four high schools in Shiraz (two high schools for gifted and two…

  10. Identifying Students at Risk: An Examination of Computer-Adaptive Measures and Latent Class Growth Analysis

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    Keller-Margulis, Milena; McQuillin, Samuel D.; Castañeda, Juan Javier; Ochs, Sarah; Jones, John H.

    2018-01-01

    Multitiered systems of support depend on screening technology to identify students at risk. The purpose of this study was to examine the use of a computer-adaptive test and latent class growth analysis (LCGA) to identify students at risk in reading with focus on the use of this methodology to characterize student performance in screening.…

  11. Fostering Students' Competence in Identifying Business Opportunities in Entrepreneurship Education

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    Karimi, Saeid; Biemans, Harm J. A.; Lans, Thomas; Aazami, Mousa; Mulder, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Opportunity identification and, in particular, the generation of new business ideas is becoming an important element of entrepreneurship education. Researchers and educators, however, struggle with how opportunity identification competence can be enhanced. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to test the ability of students to generate new…

  12. Identifying Maths Anxiety in Student Nurses and Focusing Remedial Work

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    Bull, Heather

    2009-01-01

    Maths anxiety interferes with maths cognition and thereby increases the risk of maths errors. To initiate strategies for preventing anxiety-related errors progressing into nursing practice, this study explored the hypothesis that student nurses experience high maths anxiety in association with poor maths performance, and that high maths anxiety is…

  13. Identifying Influencers in High School Student ICT Career Choice

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    Babin, Ron; Grant, Kenneth A.; Sawal, Lea

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the role of influencers in Canadian high school student decisions to pursue Information and Communications Technology (ICT) careers and education. With growing rates of retirements of ICT workers expected over the next 10-15 years, industry representatives are concerned that the shortfall in replacement workers will have a…

  14. Effectiveness of Student Admission Essays in Identifying Attrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Judith

    2003-01-01

    From a longitudinal sample of nursing students, 193 completers and 43 noncompleters were compared, revealing significant differences in the groups' mean scores on admission essays but not admission grade point averages. Content analysis revealed how completers had internalized the role of nurse. (Contains 12 references.) (SK)

  15. Identifying student stuck states in programmingassignments using machine learning

    OpenAIRE

    Lindell, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Intelligent tutors are becoming more popular with the increased use of computersand hand held devices in the education sphere. An area of research isinvestigating how machine learning can be used to improve the precision andfeedback of the tutor. This thesis compares machine learning clustering algorithmswith various distance functions in an attempt to cluster together codesnapshots of students solving a programming task. It investigates whethera general non-problem specific implementation of...

  16. Taxonomic Study of the Subfamily Lycorininae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae from Korea

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    Jong-Wook Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Korean species of the subfamily Lycorininae Cushman & Rohwer are reviewed. This subfamily along with three species, Lycorina triangulifera Holmgren, 1859, L. spilonotae Chao, 1980, and L. ruficornis Kasparyan, 2007, are reported for the first time from Korea. In this genus, five species have been reported from the Eastern Palaearctic region, six species from China and two species from Japan. Some species of this subfamily is known as parasitoids of Crambidae and Tortricidae. We report three newly recorded species from Korea, Lycorina triangulifera, L. spilonotae, and L. ruficornis, and provide diagnoses with photographs of lycorinine species and a key to the Korean species.

  17. The Use of a Performance Assessment for Identifying Gifted Lebanese Students: Is DISCOVER Effective?

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    Sarouphim, Ketty M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of DISCOVER, a performance- based assessment in identifying gifted Lebanese students. The sample consisted of 248 students (121 boys, 127 girls) from Grades 3-5 at two private schools in Beirut, Lebanon. Students were administered DISCOVER and the Raven Standard Progressive Matrices…

  18. Comparison of Cursive Handwriting Instruction Programs among Students without Identified Problems

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    Shimel, Kristin; Candler, Catherine; Neville-Smith, Marsha

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of cursive handwriting programs in improving letter legibility and form in third-grade students without identified handwriting problems. Four months into the school year, cursive handwriting was assessed for a sample of convenience of 50 third-grade students. Subsequently, students received…

  19. Modeling Success: Using Preenrollment Data to Identify Academically At-Risk Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gansemer-Topf, Ann M.; Compton, Jonathan; Wohlgemuth, Darin; Forbes, Greg; Ralston, Ekaterina

    2015-01-01

    Improving student success and degree completion is one of the core principles of strategic enrollment management. To address this principle, institutional data were used to develop a statistical model to identify academically at-risk students. The model employs multiple linear regression techniques to predict students at risk of earning below a…

  20. Gender Fair Efficacy of Concept Mapping Tests in Identifying Students' Difficulties in High School Organic Chemistry

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    Gafoor, Kunnathodi Abdul; Shilna, V.

    2014-01-01

    In view of the perceived difficulty of organic chemistry unit for high schools students, this study examined the usefulness of concept mapping as a testing device to assess students' difficulty in the select areas. Since many tests used for identifying students misconceptions and difficulties in school subjects are observed to favour one or the…

  1. Supporting Teachers in Identifying Students' Learning Styles in Learning Management Systems: An Automatic Student Modelling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Sabine; Kinshuk; Liu, Tzu-Chien

    2009-01-01

    In learning management systems (LMSs), teachers have more difficulties to notice and know how individual students behave and learn in a course, compared to face-to-face education. Enabling teachers to know their students' learning styles and making students aware of their own learning styles increases teachers' and students' understanding about…

  2. Identifying Creatively Gifted Students: Necessity of a Multi-Method Approach

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    Ambrose, Laura; Machek, Greg R.

    2015-01-01

    The process of identifying students as creatively gifted provides numerous challenges for educators. Although many schools assess for creativity in identifying students for gifted and talented services, the relationship between creativity and giftedness is often not fully understood. This article reviews commonly used methods of creativity…

  3. Developing a Model for Identifying Students at Risk of Failure in a First Year Accounting Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Malcolm; Therry, Len; Whale, Jacqui

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on the process involved in attempting to build a predictive model capable of identifying students at risk of failure in a first year accounting unit in an Australian university. Identifying attributes that contribute to students being at risk can lead to the development of appropriate intervention strategies and support…

  4. Identifying and Addressing Student Difficulties and Misconceptions: Examples from Physics and from Materials Science and Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Here I present my work identifying and addressing student difficulties with several materials science and physics topics. In the first part of this thesis, I present my work identifying student difficulties and misconceptions about the directional relationships between net force, velocity, and acceleration in one dimension. This is accomplished…

  5. The Relationship between Race and Students' Identified Career Role Models and Perceived Role Model Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunanayake, Danesh; Nauta, Margaret M.

    2004-01-01

    The authors examined whether college students' race was related to the modal race of their identified career role models, the number of identified career role models, and their perceived influence from such models. Consistent with A. Bandura's (1977, 1986) social learning theory, students tended to have role models whose race was the same as…

  6. Identifying At-Risk Students in General Chemistry via Cluster Analysis of Affective Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Julia Y. K.; Bauer, Christopher F.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify academically at-risk students in first-semester general chemistry using affective characteristics via cluster analysis. Through the clustering of six preselected affective variables, three distinct affective groups were identified: low (at-risk), medium, and high. Students in the low affective group…

  7. Sequence Analysis and Characterization of Active Human Alu Subfamilies Based on the 1000 Genomes Pilot Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konkel, Miriam K; Walker, Jerilyn A; Hotard, Ashley B; Ranck, Megan C; Fontenot, Catherine C; Storer, Jessica; Stewart, Chip; Marth, Gabor T; Batzer, Mark A

    2015-08-29

    The goal of the 1000 Genomes Consortium is to characterize human genome structural variation (SV), including forms of copy number variations such as deletions, duplications, and insertions. Mobile element insertions, particularly Alu elements, are major contributors to genomic SV among humans. During the pilot phase of the project we experimentally validated 645 (611 intergenic and 34 exon targeted) polymorphic "young" Alu insertion events, absent from the human reference genome. Here, we report high resolution sequencing of 343 (322 unique) recent Alu insertion events, along with their respective target site duplications, precise genomic breakpoint coordinates, subfamily assignment, percent divergence, and estimated A-rich tail lengths. All the sequenced Alu loci were derived from the AluY lineage with no evidence of retrotransposition activity involving older Alu families (e.g., AluJ and AluS). AluYa5 is currently the most active Alu subfamily in the human lineage, followed by AluYb8, and many others including three newly identified subfamilies we have termed AluYb7a3, AluYb8b1, and AluYa4a1. This report provides the structural details of 322 unique Alu variants from individual human genomes collectively adding about 100 kb of genomic variation. Many Alu subfamilies are currently active in human populations, including a surprising level of AluY retrotransposition. Human Alu subfamilies exhibit continuous evolution with potential drivers sprouting new Alu lineages. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  8. Molecular systematics of selected genera of subfamily mimosoidae-fabaceae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinwari, Z.K.; Jamil, K.; Zahra, N.B.

    2014-01-01

    Family Mimosoidae-Fabaceae is of economic importance to local communities for its medicinal usage. It has commercial value, but the parts sold in the market are difficult to identify on the basis of morphological characters and therefore needs molecular systematics approaches. Hence, the utility of potential DNA barcodes for selected Acacia and Albizia species by using three cpDNA regions rbcL, matK and trnH-psbA was tested in this study. Our study suggests that the rbcL region can be used to identify these species and discriminate among them more effectively than matK and trnH-psbA. The latter regions proved to be less successful in sequencing particularly trnH-psbA. Therefore, rbcL is an improved and efficient tool for species identification of these medicinal plants and may be recommended for a broad series of subfamily Mimosoideae (Family: Fabaceae) plants, making it a potential DNA barcode for these taxa. Sequence data obtained from rbcL and matK also indicated that Acacia and Albizia are polyphyletic. The phylogenetic analysis on the basis of rbcL proved that Acacia nilotica and Acacia nilotica ssp. hemispherica are closely related as they form the sister groups. (author)

  9. Moving Towards Sustainable Food Consumption : Identifying Barriers to Sustainable Student Diets

    OpenAIRE

    Ede, James; Graine, Sophia; Rhodes, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Adopting more sustainable consumption habits has been identified as a necessary step in the progression towards a sustainable society. In the area of sustainable consumption, personal food behaviour represents a strong leverage point. University students have been identified as a strategic audience; habits established during this transformative period can track forward into later life. This study seeks to identify the barriers inhibiting students from eating more sustainably. Perceived benefi...

  10. An Exploration of the Psychosocial Characteristics of High Achieving Students and Identified Gifted Students: Implications for Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchotte, Jennifer A.; Suhr, Diana; Alfurayh, Naif F.; Graefe, Amy K.

    2016-01-01

    High achieving students or "bright children" are often denied access to gifted services because they do not meet "gifted" criteria. Although psychosocial factors play an integral role in academic success, and can be useful in providing a clearer picture of student need, they are seldom considered in the decision to identify a…

  11. Identifying Students' Expectancy-Value Beliefs: A Latent Class Analysis Approach to Analyzing Middle School Students' Science Self-Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Julia; Ing, Marsha; Nylund-Gibson, Karen; Brown, Richard S.

    2017-01-01

    This study extends current research by organizing information about students' expectancy-value achievement motivation, in a way that helps parents and teachers identify specific entry points to encourage and support students' science aspirations. This study uses latent class analysis to describe underlying differences in ability beliefs, task…

  12. Students' Understanding on Newton's Third Law in Identifying the Reaction Force in Gravity Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shaona; Zhang, Chunbin; Xiao, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In the past three decades, previous researches showed that students had various misconceptions of Newton's Third Law. The present study focused on students' difficulties in identifying the third-law force pair in gravity interaction situations. An instrument involving contexts with gravity and non-gravity associated interactions was designed and…

  13. Identifying Students' Characteristic Learning Behaviors in an Intelligent Tutoring System Fostering Self-Regulated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchet, Francois; Azevedo, Roger; Kinnebrew, John S.; Biswas, Gautam

    2012-01-01

    Identification of student learning behaviors, especially those that characterize or distinguish students, can yield important insights for the design of adaptation and feedback mechanisms in Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS). In this paper, we analyze trace data to identify distinguishing patterns of behavior in a study of 51 college students…

  14. Identifying Engineering Students' English Sentence Reading Comprehension Errors: Applying a Data Mining Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yea-Ru; Ouyang, Chen-Sen; Chang, Yukon

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to propose a diagnostic approach to identify engineering students' English reading comprehension errors. Student data were collected during the process of reading texts of English for science and technology on a web-based cumulative sentence analysis system. For the analysis, the association-rule, data mining technique…

  15. Suicidality and Intersectionality among Students Identifying as Nonheterosexual and with a Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Matthew T.; Merrin, Gabriel J.; Espelage, Dorothy L.; Grant, Nickholas J.; Bub, Kristen L.

    2018-01-01

    Research about students with disabilities and students identifying as LGBQ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, or questioning) reveals that both populations report more suicidality and peer victimization and less school connectedness than do their peers. No study has previously examined the intersection of these identities with regard to peer victimization,…

  16. Revisiting Teaching Archetypes: Identifying Dominant Shaping Influences on Student Teacher's Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugrue, Ciaran

    2004-01-01

    The primary aim of this article is to identify and interrogate the lay theories of contemporary student teachers and to indicate and illustrate the manner in which these "theories" manifest both continuity and change when contrasted with teaching archetypes and previously articulated lay theories of student teachers in the setting. It is…

  17. Prospective Mathematics Teachers' Ability to Identify Mistakes Related to Angle Concept of Sixth Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Cigdem; Erbay, Hatice Nur; Guner, Pinar

    2017-01-01

    In the present study we try to highlight prospective mathematics teachers' ability to identify mistakes of sixth grade students related to angle concept. And also we examined prospective mathematics teachers' knowledge of angle concept. Study was carried out with 30 sixth-grade students and 38 prospective mathematics teachers. Sixth grade students…

  18. Grades and Graduation: A Longitudinal Risk Perspective to Identify Student Dropouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Alex J.

    2010-01-01

    Studies of student risk of school dropout have shown that present predictors of at-risk status do not accurately identify a large percentage of students who eventually drop out. Through the analysis of the entire Grade 1-12 longitudinal cohort-based grading histories of the class of 2006 for two school districts in the United States, the author…

  19. Stories of Social Class: Self-Identified Mexican Male College Students Crack the Silence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Jana L.; Donovan, Jody; Guido-DiBrito, Florence

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the meaning of social class in the lives of five self-identified Mexican male college students. Participants shared the significant influence social class has on their college experience. Intersections of social class and students' Mexican identity are illuminated throughout the findings. Themes include: social class rules and…

  20. Identifying Important Career Indicators of Undergraduate Geoscience Students Upon Completion of Their Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C. E.; Keane, C. M.; Houlton, H. R.

    2012-12-01

    The American Geosciences Institute (AGI) decided to create the National Geoscience Student Exit Survey in order to identify the initial pathways into the workforce for these graduating students, as well as assess their preparedness for entering the workforce upon graduation. The creation of this survey stemmed from a combination of experiences with the AGI/AGU Survey of Doctorates and discussions at the following Science Education Research Center (SERC) workshops: "Developing Pathways to Strong Programs for the Future", "Strengthening Your Geoscience Program", and "Assessing Geoscience Programs". These events identified distinct gaps in understanding the experiences and perspectives of geoscience students during one of their most profound professional transitions. Therefore, the idea for the survey arose as a way to evaluate how the discipline is preparing and educating students, as well as identifying the students' desired career paths. The discussions at the workshops solidified the need for this survey and created the initial framework for the first pilot of the survey. The purpose of this assessment tool is to evaluate student preparedness for entering the geosciences workforce; identify student decision points for entering geosciences fields and remaining in the geosciences workforce; identify geosciences fields that students pursue in undergraduate and graduate school; collect information on students' expected career trajectories and geosciences professions; identify geosciences career sectors that are hiring new graduates; collect information about salary projections; overall effectiveness of geosciences departments regionally and nationally; demonstrate the value of geosciences degrees to future students, the institutions, and employers; and establish a benchmark to perform longitudinal studies of geosciences graduates to understand their career pathways and impacts of their educational experiences on these decisions. AGI's Student Exit Survey went through

  1. Novel Active Learning Experiences for Students to Identify Barriers to Independent Living for People with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, Polly; Burch, Lillian; Moore, Katherine; Hodges, Mary Sue

    2016-07-01

    This article describes interactive learning about independent living for people with disabilities and features the partnership of the College of Nursing and a Center for Independent Living (CIL). Using qualitative descriptive approach, students' written reflections were analyzed. Through "Xtreme Challenge," 82 undergraduate nursing students participated in aspects of independent living as well as identifying barriers. Students were engaged and learned to consider the person before the disability. Moreover, students valued the activity leaders' openness, which facilitated understanding the point of view of a person with disability. The value of partnership was evident as it allowed students to participate in active learning, which led to growth in the affective domain. Students became aware of potential education resources through the CIL. This article will guide educators in designing experiences that teach nursing care at the individual, family, and community level for people living with disabilities. © 2015 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.

  2. Checklist of the subfamilies Mirinae and Orthotylinae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Miridae in western parts of Kerman Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Shamsi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A faunal study was carried out on the subfamilies Mirinae and Orthotylinae (Heteroptera: Miridae from different parts of western Kerman Province on various host plants. In total 16 species belonging to 14 genera were collected and identified from different host plants and localities.

  3. Medical Student Perceptions of Global Surgery at an Academic Institution: Identifying Gaps in Global Health Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Ambar; Xu, Tim; Murray, Matthew; Casey, Kathleen M

    2017-12-01

    Robust global health demands access to safe, affordable, timely surgical care for all. The long-term success of global surgery requires medical students to understand and engage with this emerging field. The authors characterized medical students' perceptions of surgical care relative to other fields within global health. An optional, anonymous survey was given to all Johns Hopkins medical students from February to March 2016 to assess perceptions of surgical care and its role in global health. Of 480 students, 365 (76%) completed the survey, with 150 (41%) reporting global health interests. One-third (34%) of responding students felt that surgical care is one of two fields with the greatest potential global health impact in the future, second to infectious disease (49%). A minority (28%) correctly identified that trauma results in more deaths worldwide than obstetric complications or HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria combined. Relative to other examined fields, students perceived surgical care as the least preventive and cost-effective, and few students (3%) considered adequate surgical care the best indicator of a robust health care system. Students believed that practicing in a surgical field was least amenable to pursuing a global health career, citing several barriers. Medical students have several perceptions of global surgery that contradict current evidence and literature, which may have implications for their career choices. Opportunities to improve students' global health knowledge and awareness of global surgery career paths include updating curricula, fostering meaningful international academic opportunities, and creating centers of global surgery and global health consortia.

  4. Gene Structures, Classification, and Expression Models of the DREB Transcription Factor Subfamily in Populus trichocarpa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunlin Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We identified 75 dehydration-responsive element-binding (DREB protein genes in Populus trichocarpa. We analyzed gene structures, phylogenies, domain duplications, genome localizations, and expression profiles. The phylogenic construction suggests that the PtrDREB gene subfamily can be classified broadly into six subtypes (DREB A-1 to A-6 in Populus. The chromosomal localizations of the PtrDREB genes indicated 18 segmental duplication events involving 36 genes and six redundant PtrDREB genes were involved in tandem duplication events. There were fewer introns in the PtrDREB subfamily. The motif composition of PtrDREB was highly conserved in the same subtype. We investigated expression profiles of this gene subfamily from different tissues and/or developmental stages. Sixteen genes present in the digital expression analysis had high levels of transcript accumulation. The microarray results suggest that 18 genes were upregulated. We further examined the stress responsiveness of 15 genes by qRT-PCR. A digital northern analysis showed that the PtrDREB17, 18, and 32 genes were highly induced in leaves under cold stress, and the same expression trends were shown by qRT-PCR. Taken together, these observations may lay the foundation for future functional analyses to unravel the biological roles of Populus’ DREB genes.

  5. The BBX subfamily IV: additional cogs and sprockets to fine-tune light-dependent development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, Felipe

    2013-04-01

    Plants depend on light during all phases of its life cycle, and have evolved a complex signaling network to constantly monitor its surroundings. Photomorphogenesis, a process during which the plant reprograms itself in order to dwell life in presence of light is one of the most studied phenomena in plants. Recent mutant analyses using model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and protein interaction assays have unraveled a new set of players, an 8-member subfamily of B-box proteins, known as BBX subfamily IV. For the members of this subfamily, positive (BBX21, BBX22) as well as negative (BBX24) functions have been described for its members, showing a strong association to two major players of the photomorphogenic cascade, HY5 and COP1. The roles of these new BBX regulators are not restricted to photomorphogenesis, but also have functions in other facets of light-dependent development. Therefore this newly identified set of regulators has opened up new insights into the understanding of the fine-tuning of this complex process.

  6. Molecular Evolutionary Characterization of a V1R Subfamily Unique to Strepsirrhine Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Anne D.; Chan, Lauren M.; dos Reis, Mario; Larsen, Peter A.; Campbell, C. Ryan; Rasoloarison, Rodin; Barrett, Meredith; Roos, Christian; Kappeler, Peter; Bielawski, Joseph; Yang, Ziheng

    2014-01-01

    Vomeronasal receptor genes have frequently been invoked as integral to the establishment and maintenance of species boundaries among mammals due to the elaborate one-to-one correspondence between semiochemical signals and neuronal sensory inputs. Here, we report the most extensive sample of vomeronasal receptor class 1 (V1R) sequences ever generated for a diverse yet phylogenetically coherent group of mammals, the tooth-combed primates (suborder Strepsirrhini). Phylogenetic analysis confirms our intensive sampling from a single V1R subfamily, apparently unique to the strepsirrhine primates. We designate this subfamily as V1Rstrep. The subfamily retains extensive repertoires of gene copies that descend from an ancestral gene duplication that appears to have occurred prior to the diversification of all lemuriform primates excluding the basal genus Daubentonia (the aye-aye). We refer to the descendent clades as V1Rstrep-α and V1Rstrep-β. Comparison of the two clades reveals different amino acid compositions corresponding to the predicted ligand-binding site and thus potentially to altered functional profiles between the two. In agreement with previous studies of the mouse lemur (genus, Microcebus), the majority of V1Rstrep gene copies appear to be intact and under strong positive selection, particularly within transmembrane regions. Finally, despite the surprisingly high number of gene copies identified in this study, it is nonetheless probable that V1R diversity remains underestimated in these nonmodel primates and that complete characterization will be limited until high-coverage assembled genomes are available. PMID:24398377

  7. Are your students ready for anatomy and physiology? Developing tools to identify students at risk for failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gultice, Amy; Witham, Ann; Kallmeyer, Robert

    2015-06-01

    High failure rates in introductory college science courses, including anatomy and physiology, are common at institutions across the country, and determining the specific factors that contribute to this problem is challenging. To identify students at risk for failure in introductory physiology courses at our open-enrollment institution, an online pilot survey was administered to 200 biology students. The survey results revealed several predictive factors related to academic preparation and prompted a comprehensive analysis of college records of >2,000 biology students over a 5-yr period. Using these historical data, a model that was 91% successful in predicting student success in these courses was developed. The results of the present study support the use of surveys and similar models to identify at-risk students and to provide guidance in the development of evidence-based advising programs and pedagogies. This comprehensive approach may be a tangible step in improving student success for students from a wide variety of backgrounds in anatomy and physiology courses. Copyright © 2015 The American Physiological Society.

  8. In Search of Black Swans: Identifying Students at Risk of Failing Licensing Examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Cassandra; Hammond, Robert; Gula, Lorne; Tithecott, Gary; Chahine, Saad

    2018-03-01

    To determine which admissions variables and curricular outcomes are predictive of being at risk of failing the Medical Council of Canada Qualifying Examination Part 1 (MCCQE1), how quickly student risk of failure can be predicted, and to what extent predictive modeling is possible and accurate in estimating future student risk. Data from five graduating cohorts (2011-2015), Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry, Western University, were collected and analyzed using hierarchical generalized linear models (HGLMs). Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to evaluate the accuracy of predictive models and determine whether they could be used to predict future risk, using the 2016 graduating cohort. Four predictive models were developed to predict student risk of failure at admissions, year 1, year 2, and pre-MCCQE1. The HGLM analyses identified gender, MCAT verbal reasoning score, two preclerkship course mean grades, and the year 4 summative objective structured clinical examination score as significant predictors of student risk. The predictive accuracy of the models varied. The pre-MCCQE1 model was the most accurate at predicting a student's risk of failing (AUC 0.66-0.93), while the admissions model was not predictive (AUC 0.25-0.47). Key variables predictive of students at risk were found. The predictive models developed suggest, while it is not possible to identify student risk at admission, we can begin to identify and monitor students within the first year. Using such models, programs may be able to identify and monitor students at risk quantitatively and develop tailored intervention strategies.

  9. Information literacy in science writing: how students find, identify, and use scientific literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klucevsek, Kristin M.; Brungard, Allison B.

    2016-11-01

    For undergraduate students to achieve science literacy, they must first develop information literacy skils. These skills align with Information Literacy Standards and include determining appropriate databases, distinguishing among resource types, and citing resources ethically. To effectively improve information literacy and science literacy, we must identify how students interact with authentic scientific texts. In this case study, we addressed this aim by embedding a science librarian into a science writing course, where students wrote a literature review on a research topic of their choice. Library instruction was further integrated through the use of an online guide and outside assistance. To evaluate the evolution of information literacy in our students and provide evidence of student practices, we used task-scaffolded writing assessments, a reflection, and surveys. We found that students improved their ability and confidence in finding research articles using discipline-specific databases as well as their ability to distinguish primary from secondary research articles. We also identified ways students improperly used and cited resources in their writing assignments. While our results reveal a better understanding of how students find and approach scientific research articles, additional research is needed to develop effective strategies to improve long-term information literacy in the sciences.

  10. Dental School Administrators' Attitudes Towards Providing Support Services for LGBT-Identified Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar-Horenstein, Linda S; Morris, Dustin R

    2015-08-01

    A lack of curriculum time devoted to teaching dental students about the needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered (LGBT) health care patient needs and biases against LGBT students and faculty have been reported. Understanding dental school administrators' attitudes about LGBT students' needs might provide further insight into these long-standing issues. The aims of this study were to develop a survey to assess dental administrators' attitudes regarding the support services they believe LGBT-identified students need, to identify dental schools' current diversity inclusion policies, and to determine what types of support dental schools currently provide to LGBT students. A survey developed with the aid of a focus group, cognitive interviewing, and pilot testing was sent to 136 assistant and associate deans and deans of the 65 U.S. and Canadian dental schools. A total of 54 responses from 43 (66%) schools were received from 13 deans, 29 associate deans, and 11 assistant deans (one participant did not report a position), for a 40% response rate. The findings suggest there is a considerable lack of knowledge or acknowledgment of LGBT dental students' needs. Future studies are needed to show the importance of creating awareness about meeting the needs of all dental student groups, perhaps through awareness campaigns initiated by LGBT students.

  11. Eliciting, Identifying, Interpreting, and Responding to Students' Ideas: Teacher Candidates' Growth in Formative Assessment Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotwals, Amelia Wenk; Birmingham, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    With the goal of helping teacher candidates become well-started beginners, it is important that methods courses in teacher education programs focus on high-leverage practices. Using responsive teaching practices, specifically eliciting, identifying, interpreting, and responding to students' science ideas (i.e., formative assessment), can be used to support all students in learning science successfully. This study follows seven secondary science teacher candidates in a yearlong practice-based methods course. Course assignments (i.e., plans for and reflections on teaching) as well as teaching videos were analyzed using a recursive qualitative approach. In this paper, we present themes and patterns in teacher candidates' abilities to elicit, identify, interpret, and respond to students' ideas. Specifically, we found that those teacher candidates who grew in the ways in which they elicited students' ideas from fall to spring were also those who were able to adopt a more balanced reflection approach (considering both teacher and student moves). However, we found that even the teacher candidates who grew in these practices did not move toward seeing students' ideas as nuanced; rather, they saw students' ideas in a dichotomous fashion: right or wrong. We discuss implications for teacher preparation, specifically for how to promote productive reflection and tools for better understanding students' ideas.

  12. Perceived stress among medical students: To identify its sources and coping strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubhada Gade

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Stress in medical education is common and process-oriented. It often exerts a negative effect on their academic performance, physical health, and psychological well being. Aims: This study aims at identification of such susceptible students in the early stage i.e. first year of medical education, and to provide them essential support in the form of an intervention program to lessen the negative consequences of stress. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out among the First MBBS students of NKP Salve Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Center, Nagpur, India. A 41-item questionnaire was designed to assess the sources of stress and their severity. Likert′s 5-point scale was used to quantify the extent of severity on each item. Coping strategies adopted by students were assessed by using a 22-item stress inventory, and a questionnaire based on 19 institutional stress-reducing factors was used to identify its role. Results: The survey resulted into an overall response rate of 87% (131 out of 150 students. Median stress level based on 41 items was evaluated for each student. About 29% (40 students had median stress level greater than 3. Female students were more stressed (17.19% than male students (14.93%. The study revealed that students generally adopt active coping strategies rather than avoidant strategies like alcohol and drug abuse. The study indicated that emotional support system is a major stress-relieving factor for students. Conclusion: Prevalence of perceived stress is high among medical students. It seems that academic-related problems are greater perceived stressors. Review of academics, exam schedules and patterns, better interaction with the faculty and proper guidance, intervention programs and counseling could certainly help a lot to reduce stress in medical students.

  13. Identifying Students Struggling in Courses by Analyzing Exam Grades, Self-reported Measures and Study Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bianca Clavio; Bemman, Brian; Knoche, Hendrik

    2018-01-01

    . In this paper, we present a set of instrument`s designed to identify at-risk undergraduate students in a Problem-based Learning (PBL) university, using an introductory programming course between two campus locations as a case study. Collectively, these instruments form the basis of a proposed learning ecosystem...... in the prediction model. Results of a multiple linear regression model found several significant assessment predictors related to how often students attempted self-guided course assignments and their self-reported programming experience, among others.......Technical educations often experience poor student performance and consequently high rates of attrition. Providing students with early feedback on their learning progress can assist students in self-study activities or in their decision-making process regarding a change in educational direction...

  14. Identifying strategies to assist final semester nursing students to develop numeracy skills: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramjan, Lucie M; Stewart, Lyn; Salamonson, Yenna; Morris, Maureen M; Armstrong, Lyn; Sanchez, Paula; Flannery, Liz

    2014-03-01

    It remains a grave concern that many nursing students within tertiary institutions continue to experience difficulties with achieving medication calculation competency. In addition, universities have a moral responsibility to prepare proficient clinicians for graduate practice. This requires risk management strategies to reduce adverse medication errors post registration. To identify strategies and potential predictors that may assist nurse academics to tailor their drug calculation teaching and assessment methods. This project builds on previous experience and explores students' perceptions of newly implemented interventions designed to increase confidence and competence in medication calculation. This mixed method study surveyed students (n=405) enrolled in their final semester of study at a large, metropolitan university in Sydney, Australia. Tailored, contextualised interventions included online practice quizzes, simulated medication calculation scenarios developed for clinical practice classes, contextualised 'pen and paper' tests, visually enhanced didactic remediation and 'hands-on' contextualised workshops. Surveys were administered to students to determine their perceptions of interventions and to identify whether these interventions assisted with calculation competence. Test scores were analysed using SPSS v. 20 for correlations between students' perceptions and actual performance. Qualitative open-ended survey questions were analysed manually and thematically. The study reinforced that nursing students preferred a 'hands-on,' contextualised approach to learning that was 'authentic' and aligned with clinical practice. Our interventions assisted with supporting students' learning and improvement of calculation confidence. Qualitative data provided further insight into students' awareness of their calculation errors and preferred learning styles. Some of the strongest predictors for numeracy skill performance included (1) being an international student, (2

  15. Using a personality inventory to identify risk of distress and burnout among early stage medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bughi, Stephanie A; Lie, Desiree A; Zia, Stephanie K; Rosenthal, Jane

    2017-01-01

    Distress and burnout are common among medical students and negatively impact students' physical, mental, and emotional health. Personality inventories such as the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), used in medical education, may have a role in identifying burnout risk early. The authors conducted a cross-sectional survey study among 185 1st year medical students with the MBTI, the general well-being schedule (GWB), and Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey (MBI-SS). Descriptive statistics and one-way MANOVAs were used to identify the prevalence and differences in MBTI preferences and distress/burnout risk. Response rate was 185/185 (100%). Distress (GWB) was reported by 84/185 (45.4%). High scores on exhaustion were reported by 118/182 (64.8%), cynicism by 76/182 (41.8%), and decreased professional efficacy by 38/182 (20.9%) for the three dimensions of the MBI-SS. Only 21/182 (11.5%) of respondents had high scores on all three dimensions of burnout. Students with MBTI preferences for extraversion reported greater positive well-being (P burnout are prevalent early in medical training. The significant difference between extraversion and introversion in relation to distress and burnout deserves further study. Use of a personality inventory may help identify students at risk of burnout and allow appropriate early stress management.

  16. Identifying and Addressing Student Difficulties with the Millikan Oil Drop Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, Stephen

    2009-05-01

    The Millikan oil drop experiment has been characterized as one of the ‘most beautiful’ physics experiments of all time and, certainly, as one of the most frustrating of all the exercises in the undergraduate physics laboratory. A literature review reveals that work done on addressing student difficulties in performing the oil drop experiment has, to date, not achieved a significant measure of success. The historical background of the oil drop experiment is well established in the literature from the perspective of historians of science, but not so from the perspective of teachers and students of science. A summary of historical details surrounding the original experiment suitable for use in revising the instructional approach is presented. Both Millikan and his graduate student, Fletcher, are featured with the view to emphasizing details that humanize the protagonists and that are likely to raise student interest. The issue of the necessary reliance on presuppositions in doing speculative research is raised, both from the historical account and from the insights of university physics students who heard the historical account and performed the experiment. Difficulties current students have in performing the experiment are discussed from the perspective of Hodson (Stud Sci Educ 22:85-142, 1993) framework and the students’ own observations. Last, further historical materials are outlined that may be used to encourage student insight into the fundamental nature of electricity. It is proposed that these aspects are essential as a basis for identifying and addressing student difficulties with the Millikan oil drop experiment.

  17. Are Your Students Ready for Anatomy and Physiology? Developing Tools to Identify Students at Risk for Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gultice, Amy; Witham, Ann; Kallmeyer, Robert

    2015-01-01

    High failure rates in introductory college science courses, including anatomy and physiology, are common at institutions across the country, and determining the specific factors that contribute to this problem is challenging. To identify students at risk for failure in introductory physiology courses at our open-enrollment institution, an online…

  18. Lost in translation: Cultural divides in communication skills teaching identified in the ICCH 2016 student symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopper, Heather K; Mohamed, Nasteha A; Seegel, Max; Gorina, Kseniya; Silverman, Jonathan; Rosenbaum, Marcy

    2017-11-01

    To provide a platform for learners' voices at an international conference on communication in healthcare. A group of medical students were invited to explore their experiences with communication skills learning at a symposium at the 2016 International Conference on Communication in Healthcare in Heidelberg, DE. Students from the US, Denmark, Germany, and Russia discussed their experiences with communication skills curriculum at their institutions. We identified divides that have challenged our ability to develop and maintain strong communication skills: 1) valuation of communication skills vs. other topics, 2) curricular theory vs. practice, 3) evaluation vs. feedback, 4) preclinical vs. clinical learning, and 5) the medical student vs. practicing clinician role. The points of transition we identified on the road of communication skills teaching highlight opportunities to strengthen the educational experience for students. Without an effort to address these divides, however, our communication skills may be lost in translation. Students value communication skills teaching during their medical education and there are opportunities to translate this to countries that currently lack robust curricula and to the real-life post-graduate setting. Support is necessary from students, teachers, and administrators, and focus on translation of skills during role transitions is needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. What do medical students understand by research and research skills? Identifying research opportunities within undergraduate projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch-Eaton, Deborah; Drewery, Sarah; Elton, Sarah; Emmerson, Catherine; Marshall, Michelle; Smith, John A; Stark, Patsy; Whittle, Sue

    2010-01-01

    Undergraduate research exposure leads to increased recruitment into academic medicine, enhanced employability and improved postgraduate research productivity. Uptake of undergraduate research opportunities is reported to be disappointing, and little is known about how students perceive research. To investigate opportunities for undergraduate participation in research, recognition of such opportunities, and associated skills development. A mixed method approach, incorporating student focus and study groups, and documentary analysis at five UK medical schools. Undergraduates recognised the benefits of acquiring research skills, but identified practical difficulties and disadvantages of participating. Analysis of 905 projects in four main research skill areas - (1) research methods; (2) information gathering; (3) critical analysis and review; (4) data processing - indicated 52% of projects provided opportunities for students to develop one or more skills, only 13% offered development in all areas. In 17%, project descriptions provided insufficient information to determine opportunities. Supplied with information from a representative sample of projects (n = 80), there was little consensus in identifying skills among students or between students and researchers. Consensus improved dramatically following guidance on how to identify skills. Undergraduates recognise the benefits of research experience but need a realistic understanding of the research process. Opportunities for research skill development may not be obvious. Undergraduates require training to recognise the skills required for research and enhanced transparency in potential project outcomes.

  20. Beta-blockers for exams identify students at high risk of psychiatric morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butt, Jawad H.; Dalsgaard, Søren; Torp-Pedersen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Beta-blockers relieve the autonomic symptoms of exam-related anxiety and may be beneficial in exam-related and performance anxiety, but knowledge on related psychiatric outcomes is unknown. We hypothesized that beta-blocker therapy for exam-related anxiety identifies young students...... at risk of later psychiatric events. Methods: Using Danish nationwide administrative registries, we studied healthy students aged 14-30 years (1996-2012) with a first-time claimed prescription for a beta-blocker during the exam period (May-June); students who were prescribed a beta-blocker for medical...... reasons were excluded. We matched these students on age, sex, and time of year to healthy and study active controls with no use of beta-blockers. Risk of incident use of antidepressants, incident use of other psychotropic medications, and suicide attempts was examined by cumulative incidence curves...

  1. Development and Application of Diagnostic Test to Identify Students' Misconceptions of Quantum Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halim, A.A.; Meerah, T.S.; Lilia Halim

    2009-01-01

    A study on students' misconceptions on quantum physics is rarely being done, because the target audience is quite small. It is important to understand quantum physics concepts correctly especially for science students. This study was under taken to help students identify their misconceptions at the early stage. The aim of this study is to develop a diagnostic test which can access the students' misconceptions, and use the findings for the benefits of quantum physics courses. A multiple-choice Quantum Physics Diagnostic Test (QPDT), that involves concepts of light, atomic model, particle-wave dualism, wave function, and potential energy, was administered to 200 university students. The results shows that many students use the classical concepts to describe the quantum phenomenon. For example students describe light only as a wave, an electron only as a particle, and that the atomic structure is parallel to the solar system. To overcome these problems, it is suggested that lecturers spend more time in explaining the basic definitions and using analogies in quantum physics teaching. (author)

  2. Identifying Mental Health Elements among Technical University Students Using Fuzzy Delphi Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pua, P. K.; Lai, C. S.; Lee, M. F.

    2017-08-01

    Mental health is a part of our daily life that is often experienced. As a student, mental health issue often encounters a variety of difficult challenges at the higher education institution. A student with good mental health can handle and cope the normal stress of life, capable work productivity, enhance academic performance and able to make contribute to the community. However, rapidly transformation and changing of society have been impacted on students’ mental health, and it will be deteriorated and negatively impact on students if it absence of preventive controlled. This study aimed to identify the element of mental health among the technical university students. A total of 11 experts were selected to analyze the fuzziness consensus of experts. All collected data was analyzed by using the fuzzy Delphi method and the result shows that there are 4 elements of 8 elements that fulfill the requirement consensus of experts, which threshold value is equal and less than 0.2, the percentage of the expert group is more than 75%. The four elements were depression, anxiety, stress, and fear are often experienced by technical university students. In conclusion, precocious actions have to be taken by university and counseling center, parents and non-government organization in order to mitigate the mental health problem faced by students to improve the quality lifestyle students at the university.

  3. Reassessment of Species Diversity of the Subfamily Denticollinae (Coleoptera: Elateridae through DNA Barcoding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taeman Han

    Full Text Available The subfamily Denticollinae is a taxonomically diverse group in the family Elateridae. Denticollinae includes many morphologically similar species and crop pests, as well as many undescribed species at each local fauna. To construct a rapid and reliable identification system for this subfamily, the effectiveness of molecular species identification was assessed based on 421 cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI sequences of 84 morphologically identified species. Among the 84 morphospecies, molecular species identification of 60 species (71.4% was consistent with their morphological identifications. Six cryptic and/or pseudocryptic species with large genetic divergence (>5% were confirmed by their sympatric or allopatric distributions. However, 18 species, including a subspecies, had ambiguous genetic distances and shared overlapping intra- and interspecific genetic distances (range: 2.12%-3.67% suggesting incomplete lineage sorting, introgression of mitochondrial genome, or affection by endosymbionts, such as Wolbachia infection, between species and simple genetic variation within species. In this study, we propose a conservative threshold of 3.6% for convenient molecular operational taxonomic unit (MOTU identification in the subfamily Denticollinae based on the results of pairwise genetic distances analyses using neighbor-joining, mothur, Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery analysis, and tree-based species delimitation by Poisson Tree Processes analysis. Using the 3.6% threshold, we identified 87 MOTUs and found 8 MOTUs in the interval between 2.5% to 3.5%. Evaluation of MOTUs identified in this range requires integrative species delimitation, including review of morphological and ecological differences as well as sensitive genetic markers. From this study, we confirmed that COI sequence is useful for reassessing species diversity for polymorphic and polytypic species occurring in sympatric and allopatric distributions, and for a single species having

  4. Students' Performance When Aurally Identifying Musical Harmonic Intervals: Experimentation of a Teaching Innovation Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsatí, Imma; Miranda, Joaquim; Amador, Miquel; Godall, Pere

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to measure the performance reached by students (N = 138) when aurally identifying musical harmonic intervals (from m2 to P8) after having experienced a teaching innovation proposal for the Music Conservatories of Catalonia (Spain) based on observational methodology. Its design took into account several issues, which had…

  5. Choking under Pressure: When an Additional Positive Stereotype Affects Performance for Domain Identified Male Mathematics Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Harriet E. S.; Crisp, Richard J.

    2007-01-01

    This research aimed to establish if the presentation of two positive stereotypes would result in choking under pressure for identified male mathematics students. Seventy-five 16 year old men, who had just commenced their AS-level study, were either made aware of their gender group membership (single positive stereotype), their school group…

  6. Using an Educational Electronic Documentation System to Help Nursing Students Accurately Identify Nursing Diagnoses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pobocik, Tamara J.

    2013-01-01

    The use of technology and electronic medical records in healthcare has exponentially increased. This quantitative research project used a pretest/posttest design, and reviewed how an educational electronic documentation system helped nursing students to identify the accurate related to statement of the nursing diagnosis for the patient in the case…

  7. Identifying Gifted Students in Puerto Rico: Validation of a Spanish Translation of the Gifted Rating Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado, Javier I.; Pfeiffer, Steven; Petscher, Yaacov

    2015-01-01

    The challenge of correctly identifying gifted students is a critical issue. Gifted education in Puerto Rico is marked by insufficient support and a lack of appropriate identification methods. This study examined the reliability and validity of a Spanish translation of the "Gifted Rating Scales-School Form" (GRS) with a sample of 618…

  8. Using Predictive Modelling to Identify Students at Risk of Poor University Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Pengfei; Maloney, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Predictive modelling is used to identify students at risk of failing their first-year courses and not returning to university in the second year. Our aim is twofold. Firstly, we want to understand the factors that lead to poor first-year experiences at university. Secondly, we want to develop simple, low-cost tools that would allow universities to…

  9. Trichomes morphology as a taxonomic marker in the subfamily heliotropioideae (boraginaceae from Pakistan and Kashmir)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parveen, A.

    2009-01-01

    Trichomes morphology of the subfamily heliotropioideae (Boraginaceae representing by 18 spectes has been examined by light and scanning microscope. Within the subfamily Heliotropoideae trichomes are generally eglandular rarely glandular as in Heliotropium ohioglossum Boiss. Within the subfamily Heliotropoideae 1-celled unicellular and two celled uniseriate trichomes are observed. Shape of the trichomes usually comical with pointed tims and distinct trichomes base. However few species have indistinct trichome base. The data is significantly useful at specific and generic level within the subfamily Heliotropioideae. (author)

  10. Beta-Blockers for Exams Identify Students at High Risk of Psychiatric Morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Jawad H; Dalsgaard, Søren; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Køber, Lars; Gislason, Gunnar H; Kruuse, Christina; Fosbøl, Emil L

    2017-04-01

    Beta-blockers relieve the autonomic symptoms of exam-related anxiety and may be beneficial in exam-related and performance anxiety, but knowledge on related psychiatric outcomes is unknown. We hypothesized that beta-blocker therapy for exam-related anxiety identifies young students at risk of later psychiatric events. Using Danish nationwide administrative registries, we studied healthy students aged 14-30 years (1996-2012) with a first-time claimed prescription for a beta-blocker during the exam period (May-June); students who were prescribed a beta-blocker for medical reasons were excluded. We matched these students on age, sex, and time of year to healthy and study active controls with no use of beta-blockers. Risk of incident use of antidepressants, incident use of other psychotropic medications, and suicide attempts was examined by cumulative incidence curves for unadjusted associations and multivariable cause-specific Cox proportional hazard analyses for adjusted hazard ratios (HRs). We identified 12,147 healthy students with exam-related beta-blocker use and 12,147 matched healthy students with no current or prior use of beta-blockers (median age, 19 years; 80.3% women). Among all healthy students, 0.14% had a first-time prescription for a beta-blocker during the exam period with the highest proportion among students aged 19 years (0.39%). Eighty-one percent of the students filled only that single prescription for a beta-blocker during follow-up. During follow-up, 2225 (18.3%) beta-blocker users and 1400 (11.5%) nonbeta-blocker users were prescribed an antidepressant (p beta-blocker users and 658 (5.4%) nonbeta-blocker users were prescribed a psychotropic drug (p beta-blocker users and 6 (0.05%) nonbeta-blocker users attempted suicide (p = 0.03). Exam-related beta-blocker use was associated with an increased risk of antidepressant use (adjusted HRs, 1.68 [95% confidence intervals (CIs), 1.57-1.79], p beta-blockers during the exam period was

  11. Modeling Retention at a Large Public University: Can At-Risk Students Be Identified Early Enough to Treat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singell, Larry D.; Waddell, Glen R.

    2010-01-01

    We examine the extent to which readily available data at a large public university can be used to a priori identify at-risk students who may benefit from targeted retention efforts. Although it is possible to identify such students, there remains an inevitable tradeoff in any resource allocation between not treating the students who are likely to…

  12. "Business Ethics Everywhere": An Experiential Exercise to Develop Students' Ability to Identify and Respond to Ethical Issues in Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Susan D.; Comer, Debra R.

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces an experiential exercise that enhances students' ability to identify ethical issues and to respond to them in ways that consider the relationship between organizational factors and ethical action. Students identify a required number of ethical incidents in their workplaces during a specified period. Students submit a…

  13. First and second year medical students identify and self-stereotype more as doctors than as students: a questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burford, Bryan; Rosenthal-Stott, Harriet E S

    2017-11-13

    The emergence of medical students' professional identity is important. This paper considers this in a snapshot of the early years of undergraduate medical education. From the perspective of social identity theory, it also considers self-stereotyping, the extent to which individuals associate with attributes identified as typical of groups. Paper questionnaires were completed by first and second year medical students following teaching sessions at the beginning (October) and end (April) of the academic year. Questionnaires consisted of scales measuring the strength and importance of identity and self-stereotyping, referent to 'doctors' and 'students'. Linear mixed effects regression considered longitudinal and cross-sectional effects of progress through the course, and differences in responses to 'doctor' and 'student' measures. In October, responses were received from 99% (n = 102) and 75% (n = 58) of first and second year cohorts respectively, and in April from 81% (n = 83) and 73% (n = 56). Response rates were over 95% of those present. Linear mixed effects regression found that all 'doctor'-referent measures were higher than 'student' measures. Strength of identity and self-stereotyping decreased between beginning and end of the year (across both groups). Men indicated lower importance of identity than women, also across both groups. There were no differences between year groups. Self-stereotyping was predicted more by importance of identification with a group than by strength of identification. Findings reinforce observations that medical students identify strongly as doctors from early in their studies, and that this identification is greater than as students. Decreases over time are surprising, but may be explained by changing group salience towards the end of the academic year. The lack of a gender effect on strength of identification contrasts with the literature, but may reflect students' lack of 'performance' of professional identity, while the

  14. Characteristics of Effective Simulation (Preclinical) Teachers as Identified by Dental Students: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAndrew, Maureen; Mucciolo, Thomas W; Jahangiri, Leila

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this qualitative research study was to identify and categorize criteria for simulation teacher quality preferences as reported by dental students. Second-year dental students at New York University College of Dentistry in 2015 were given a two-question, open-ended survey asking what qualities they liked most and least in a simulation or preclinical teacher. Responses were collected until data saturation was reached. Key words in the responses were identified and coded based on similar relationships and then were grouped into defined categories. A total of 168 respondents out of the target group of 363 students (46.3%) provided 1,062 written comments. Three core themes-character, competence, and communication-emerged from 16 defined categories, which were validated using references from the educational literature. The theme of character encompassed eight of the defined categories (motivation, available, caring, patience, professionalism, empathy, fairness, and happiness) and accounted for 50% of the total student responses. The theme of competence comprised five categories (expertise, knowledgeable, efficient, skillful, and effective) and represented 34% of all responses. The communication theme covered the remaining three categories (feedback, approachable, and interpersonal communication) and contained 17% of the responses. Positive and negative comments in the category of motivation accounted for 11.2% of all student responses. Expertise was the next highest category with 9.3% of the responses, followed closely by 9.1% in the category of available. Among these students, the top five attributes of simulation teachers were motivation, expertise, available, caring, and feedback. While the study did not attempt to correlate these findings with improved student performance, the results can be used in the development of assessment tools for faculty and targeted faculty development programs.

  15. Identifying the Dominant Personality Profiles in Medical Students: Implications for Their Well-Being and Resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eley, Diann S; Leung, Janni; Hong, Barry A; Cloninger, Kevin M; Cloninger, C Robert

    2016-01-01

    There is a high prevalence of stress, depression, and burn-out in medical students. Medical students differ widely in personality traits, self-perceptions, and values that may have an impact on their well-being. This study aimed to investigate variability in their personality profiles in relation to their potential for well-being and resilience. Participants were 808 medical students from The University of Queensland. An online questionnaire collected socio-demographics and the Temperament and Character Inventory to assess personality traits. Latent profile analyses identified students' trait profiles. Two distinct personality profiles were identified. Profile 1 ("Resilient") characterized 60% of the sample and was distinguished by low Harm Avoidance combined with very high Persistence, Self-Directedness and Cooperativeness compared to Profile 2 ("Conscientious"). Both Profiles had average levels of Reward Dependence and Novelty Seeking and low levels of Self-Transcendence. Profiles did not differ by age, gender, or country of birth, but rural background students were more likely to have Profile 1. While both Profiles indicate mature and healthy personalities, the combination of traits in Profile 1 is more strongly indicative of well-being and resilience. Finding two distinct profiles of personality highlights the importance of considering combinations of traits and how they may interact with medical students' potential for well-being. Although both profiles of students show healthy personalities, many may lack the resilience to maintain well-being over years of medical training. Programs that develop character and personality self-awareness would enhance their well-being and prepare them to promote the health of their patients.

  16. Baccalaureate Nursing Students' Abilities in Critically Identifying and Evaluating the Quality of Online Health Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theron, Maggie; Redmond, Anne; Borycki, Elizabeth M

    2017-01-01

    Both the Internet and social media have become important tools that patients and health professionals, including health professional students, use to obtain information and support their decision-making surrounding health care. Students in the health sciences require increased competence to select, appraise, and use online sources to adequately educate and support patients and advocate for patient needs and best practices. The purpose of this study was to ascertain if second year nursing students have the ability to critically identify and evaluate the quality of online health information through comparisons between student and expert assessments of selected online health information postings using an adapted Trust in Online Health Information scale. Interviews with experts provided understanding of how experts applied the selected criteria and what experts recommend for implementing nursing informatics literacy in curriculums. The difference between student and expert assessments of the quality of the online information is on average close to 40%. Themes from the interviews highlighted several possible factors that may influence informatics competency levels in students, specifically regarding the critical appraisal of the quality of online health information.

  17. Postsecondary Students With Psychiatric Disabilities Identify Core Services and Key Ingredients to Supporting Education Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biebel, Kathleen; Mizrahi, Raphael; Ringeisen, Heather

    2017-10-26

    Accessing and successfully completing postsecondary educational opportunities may be challenging for those living with psychiatric disabilities. This exploratory study highlights the experiences of individuals with psychiatric disabilities participating in postsecondary educational support initiatives. Investigators conducted case studies with 3 education support initiatives across the United States. Focus groups revealed what concrete supported education services were helpful and key ingredients in delivering education supports. Access to specialists, mindfulness techniques, help with time management and procrastination, and facilitating classroom accommodations were identified as critical. Developing authentic relationships with supported education staff, flexibility in service delivery and access to student peers living with psychiatric disabilities were noted as key ingredients in service delivery. Incorporating the voice of students with psychiatric disabilities into supported education services can increase access, involvement, and retention, therein providing more supports to students with psychiatric disabilities achieving their postsecondary education goals. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Identifying Students learning Styles as a Way to Promote Learning Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Sadegh Tabrizi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The major part of peoples knowledge, skills and abilities are achieved during the complex process called learning. Learning is not simply the product of mere intelligence and capabilities of individual; it also depends on other factors such as personality traits, personal interests, and t ype of duty and di fferent methods and st yles. The understanding of each individual fits with his/her learning style. The aim of this study was to determine the learning st yles of Health Care Management students in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. Methods: Learning styles of 55 Health Services Management students in Tabriz Health and Nutrition Faculty were evaluated in 2009 using a twelve-question Kolb questionnaire in a descriptive study. The data was anal yzed using SPSS. And the frequency of students learning styles was identified by their ages and averages. Results: In this study, 69% of the students were female and the dominant learning method was Assimilator (42%. Other styles with a regard to their frequency were Diverge (24%, Coverage (22%and Accommodator (12%. In the present study,no statistically significant relationship was found in learning styles between the gender (p= 0.644and average (p = 0.676of the students. Conclusion: Assimilator and Diverge methods were the most common ones among the management students. Hence, to improve the quality of learning in this group of students, it is proposed that the teachers use interactive and creative teaching methods such as small and la rge group discussion,brain storming, problem solving, debate-based learning, self-learning and lecturing.

  19. Identification and characterization of a novel gene differentially expressed in zebrafish cross-subfamily cloned embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ya-Ping

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cross-species nuclear transfer has been shown to be a potent approach to retain the genetic viability of a certain species near extinction. However, most embryos produced by cross-species nuclear transfer were compromised because that they were unable to develop to later stages. Gene expression analysis of cross-species cloned embryos will yield new insights into the regulatory mechanisms involved in cross-species nuclear transfer and embryonic development. Results A novel gene, K31, was identified as an up-regulated gene in fish cross-subfamily cloned embryos using SSH approach and RACE method. K31 complete cDNA sequence is 1106 base pairs (bp in length, with a 342 bp open reading frame (ORF encoding a putative protein of 113 amino acids (aa. Comparative analysis revealed no homologous known gene in zebrafish and other species database. K31 protein contains a putative transmembrane helix and five putative phosphorylation sites but without a signal peptide. Expression pattern analysis by real time RT-PCR and whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH shows that it has the characteristics of constitutively expressed gene. Sub-cellular localization assay shows that K31 protein can not penetrate the nuclei. Interestingly, over-expression of K31 gene can cause lethality in the epithelioma papulosum cyprinid (EPC cells in cell culture, which gave hint to the inefficient reprogramming events occurred in cloned embryos. Conclusion Taken together, our findings indicated that K31 gene is a novel gene differentially expressed in fish cross-subfamily cloned embryos and over-expression of K31 gene can cause lethality of cultured fish cells. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the determination of novel genes involved in nucleo-cytoplasmic interaction of fish cross-subfamily cloned embryos.

  20. Identifying the influence of gender on motivation and engagement levels in student physiotherapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, Susan

    2015-04-01

    There is an increasing focus in higher education on the role of learner characteristics and their influence on academic performance. Educators are interested in how students engage with learning activities as they progress through the curriculum. A previous study highlighted gender effects in academic performance in student physiotherapists, despite comparable entry scores. The aim of this study was to determine variation in student motivation and engagement, across the four year levels of the physiotherapy program at The University of Notre Dame Australia while considering gender and age. A cross-sectional design was adopted surveying 233 students utilising the Motivation and Engagement Scale - University/College (MES-UC), to review motivational thoughts and behaviours influencing learning. RESULTS identified gender effects with males having on average significantly lower scores for planning, task management and persistence; and higher scores for disengagement from their studies. Females displayed higher average scores for anxiety particularly in their first year and final clinical year. RESULTS were consistent with gender effects noted in academic performance throughout the program for previous student cohorts. The application of the MES-UC early in course would highlight to educators the areas where intervention can be targeted. Early individualized intervention is recommended to address learner characteristics influencing performance.

  1. Using an educational electronic documentation system to help nursing students accurately identify patient data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pobocik, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    This quantitative research study used a pretest/posttest design and reviewed how an educational electronic documentation system helped nursing students to identify the accurate "related to" statement of the nursing diagnosis for the patient in the case study. Students in the sample population were senior nursing students in a bachelor of science nursing program in the northeastern United States. Two distinct groups were used for a control and intervention group. The intervention group used the educational electronic documentation system for three class assignments. Both groups were given a pretest and posttest case study. The Accuracy Tool was used to score the students' responses to the related to statement of a nursing diagnosis given at the end of the case study. The scores of the Accuracy Tool were analyzed, and then the numeric scores were placed in SPSS, and the paired t test scores were analyzed for statistical significance. The intervention group's scores were statistically different from the pretest scores to posttest scores, while the control group's scores remained the same from pretest to posttest. The recommendation to nursing education is to use the educational electronic documentation system as a teaching pedagogy to help nursing students prepare for nursing practice. © 2014 NANDA International, Inc.

  2. Identification of multiple distinct Snf2 subfamilies with conserved structural motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaus, Andrew; Martin, David M A; Barton, Geoffrey J; Owen-Hughes, Tom

    2006-01-01

    The Snf2 family of helicase-related proteins includes the catalytic subunits of ATP-dependent chromatin remodelling complexes found in all eukaryotes. These act to regulate the structure and dynamic properties of chromatin and so influence a broad range of nuclear processes. We have exploited progress in genome sequencing to assemble a comprehensive catalogue of over 1300 Snf2 family members. Multiple sequence alignment of the helicase-related regions enables 24 distinct subfamilies to be identified, a considerable expansion over earlier surveys. Where information is known, there is a good correlation between biological or biochemical function and these assignments, suggesting Snf2 family motor domains are tuned for specific tasks. Scanning of complete genomes reveals all eukaryotes contain members of multiple subfamilies, whereas they are less common and not ubiquitous in eubacteria or archaea. The large sample of Snf2 proteins enables additional distinguishing conserved sequence blocks within the helicase-like motor to be identified. The establishment of a phylogeny for Snf2 proteins provides an opportunity to make informed assignments of function, and the identification of conserved motifs provides a framework for understanding the mechanisms by which these proteins function.

  3. Flight patterns and sex ratio of beetles of the subfamily Dynastinae (Coleoptera, Melolonthidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Simões Corrêa de Albuquerque

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Dynastinae is one of the most representative subfamilies of Melolonthidae (Scarabaeoidea and has considerable ecological importance due mainly to interactions with plants of the families Araceae and Annonaceae. This relationship has led to the evolution of nocturnal activity patterns, which are influenced by environmental conditions. In the present study, abiotic factors were investigated to comprehend the influence on the flight patterns and identify the sex ratio of beetles from this subfamily. A study was conducted at Campo de Instrução Marechal Newton Cavalcanti in northeastern Brazil between December 2010 and November 2011. Thirteen species of Dynastinae were identified, most of which were from the genus Cyclocephala. Abundance and richness were greater in the dry season. Six species exhibited peak flight activity at specific periods of the night. More females than males were recorded for Cyclocephala distincta and C. paraguayensis. The present findings suggest that rainfall reduces the flight activity of these beetles and different time schedules may be related to mating behavior, foraging behavior and the avoidance of interspecific resource competition.

  4. Identifying Opportunities for Peer Learning: An Observational Study of Medical Students on Clinical Placements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Joanna H; Canny, Benedict J; Haines, Terry P; Molloy, Elizabeth K

    2017-01-01

    Phenomenon: Peer assisted learning (PAL) is frequently employed and researched in preclinical medical education. Fewer studies have examined PAL in the clinical context: These have focused mainly on the accuracy of peer assessment and potential benefits to learner communication and teamwork skills. Research has also examined the positive and negative effects of formal, structured PAL activities in the clinical setting. Given the prevalence of PAL activities during preclinical years, and the unstructured nature of clinical placements, it is likely that nonformal PAL activities are also undertaken. How PAL happens formally and informally and why students find PAL useful in this clinical setting remain poorly understood. This study aimed to describe PAL activities within the context of clinical placement learning and to explore students' perceptions of these activities. An ethnographic study was conducted to gather empirical data on engagement in clinical placement learning activities, including observations and interviews with students in their 1st clinical year, along with their supervising clinicians. Thematic analysis was used to interrogate the data. On average, students used PAL for 5.19 hours per week in a range of activities, of a total of 29.29 hours undertaking placements. PAL was recognized as a means of vicarious learning and had greater perceived value when an educator was present to guide or moderate the learning. Trust between students was seen as a requirement for PAL to be effective. Students found passive observation a barrier to PAL and were able to identify ways to adopt an active stance when observing peers interacting with patients. For example, learners reported that the expectation that they had to provide feedback to peers after task observation, resulted in them taking on a more critical gaze where they were encouraged to consider notions of good practice. Insights: Students use PAL in formal (i.e., tutorial) and nonformal (e.g., peer

  5. Predicting performance at medical school: can we identify at-risk students?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaban S

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Sami Shaban, Michelle McLeanDepartment of Medical Education, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, United Arab EmiratesBackground: The purpose of this study was to examine the predictive potential of multiple indicators (eg, preadmission scores, unit, module and clerkship grades, course and examination scores on academic performance at medical school, with a view to identifying students at risk.Methods: An analysis was undertaken of medical student grades in a 6-year medical school program at the Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates, over the past 14 years.Results: While high school scores were significantly (P < 0.001 correlated with the final integrated examination, predictability was only 6.8%. Scores for the United Arab Emirates university placement assessment (Common Educational Proficiency Assessment were only slightly more promising as predictors with 14.9% predictability for the final integrated examination. Each unit or module in the first four years was highly correlated with the next unit or module, with 25%–60% predictability. Course examination scores (end of years 2, 4, and 6 were significantly correlated (P < 0.001 with the average scores in that 2-year period (59.3%, 64.8%, and 55.8% predictability, respectively. Final integrated examination scores were significantly correlated (P < 0.001 with National Board of Medical Examiners scores (35% predictability. Multivariate linear regression identified key grades with the greatest predictability of the final integrated examination score at three stages in the program.Conclusion: This study has demonstrated that it may be possible to identify “at-risk” students relatively early in their studies through continuous data archiving and regular analysis. The data analysis techniques used in this study are not unique to this institution.Keywords: at-risk students, grade

  6. Using the WHO-5 Well-Being Index to Identify College Students at Risk for Mental Health Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Andrew; Boucher, Laura A.; Campbell, Duncan G.; Polyakov, Anita

    2017-01-01

    There is a clear need for colleges to do a better job of identifying students who may benefit from treatment and encouraging those students to actually seek help (Hunt & Eisenberg, 2010). Indeed, research suggests that population-based screening can encourage college students who are at risk for mental health problems to seek treatment (Kim,…

  7. Effect of Modifying Intervention Set Size with Acquisition Rate Data among Students Identified with a Learning Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haegele, Katherine; Burns, Matthew K.

    2015-01-01

    The amount of information that students can successfully learn and recall at least 1 day later is called an acquisition rate (AR) and is unique to the individual student. The current study extended previous drill rehearsal research with word recognition by (a) using students identified with a learning disability in reading, (b) assessing set sizes…

  8. Secondary Engineering Design Graphics Educator Service Load of Students with Identified Categorical Disabilities and Limited English Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Jeremy V.; Li, Songze; Williams, Thomas O.

    2014-01-01

    The ever-changing student population of engineering design graphics students necessitates broader sets of instructor adeptness. Specifically, preparedness to educate and provide adequate educational access to content for students with identified categorical disabilities and Limited English Proficiency (LEP) is now an essential readiness skill for…

  9. Development and Assessment of a Diagnostic Tool to Identify Organic Chemistry Students' Alternative Conceptions Related to Acid Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClary, LaKeisha M.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2012-01-01

    The central goal of this study was to create a new diagnostic tool to identify organic chemistry students' alternative conceptions related to acid strength. Twenty years of research on secondary and college students' conceptions about acids and bases has shown that these important concepts are difficult for students to apply to qualitative problem…

  10. A Comparison of Multiple Facets of Self-Concept in Gifted vs. Non-Identified Israeli Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidner, Moshe; Shani-Zinovich, Inbal

    2015-01-01

    This study compares facets of self-concept in gifted and non-identified Israeli adolescent students. The self-concept mean score profile of gifted vs. non-selected Israeli students was significantly different, with gifted students reporting higher mean levels of academic self-concept, but lower mean levels of social, personal, and physical…

  11. Identifying the Components of Effective Learning Environments Based on Health Students\\' Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousefi Afrashteh M

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Effective learning environment can lead to establish and strengthen the appropriate conditions of learning in higher education. This study aimed to identify and define the factors associated with effective learning environment in the field of health education. Participants & Methods: This qualitative study with content analysis approach was conducted in 2013. Participants were 9 graduate and 7 undergraduate students of health majors that were selected using purposive sampling method. Data were recorded by interview and were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Findings: Analysis of the data revealed 4 themes and 13 classes active and interactive teaching (participating viewpoints of students in educational planning, engaging students in class discussions, providing practical examples to understand the content, relaxing about expressed thoughts, the possibility of constructive criticism master plan of activities and according to the conditions and individual differences between students, Joyful atmosphere (academic motivation, the joy of learning and attendance, a sense of acceptance and respect from teachers and classroom dynamics and vitality and fatigue, relation of courses with professional needs (knowledge of the needs of the job in training course content and related training to the needs of job opportunities and professors’ scientific and power and expert (expertise and scientific capabilities in the field of teaching. Conclusion: 4 major themes and their characteristics can help to organize the learning environment in medical education.

  12. Identify and analyze the opportunities and threats of social networks for shahid Beheshti University students

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    R. Tavalaee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the growth of information and communication technology in societies Especially among students, the use of these technologies has become as part of regular working people. Social networks as one of the most important and widely in cyberspace which is Used by many people in various fields. application of social network by students as young and educated population is important.In this regard, this study aimed to investigate and identify the opportunities and threats for shahid Beheshti University students in social network. This study aims to develop a practical and descriptive methodology. Information obtained from the questionnaires using SPSS statistical analysis software in two parts: descriptive and inferential statistics were analyzed.The results indicate that five variables related to social networking opportunities, including e-learning, leisure, organized social groups, the possibility of dialogue and culture, as well as five variables related to social networking threats, including transfer value unethical, abusive, spreading false information, internet & Communications destructive addiction, has a significant positive effect on students.

  13. The regulatory framework of special medical group students' physical education: identifying the problem.

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    Mazur Valerij Anatol'evich

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The question of regulatory framework for special medical group students' physical education, and their physical condition in particular is elaborated. It is found that in the current program the identified question is missing, although the assessment of individual performance standards for the physical condition of the students was envisaged in the programs of 1977 and 1982. The need for such an assessment is indicated by the large number of Ukrainian and foreign pediatricians and specialists in therapeutic physical culture. At the same time the standards for assessing these indicators are not developed. It complicates the formation of positive motivation of students to regular classes, and does not promote their self-confidence, capabilities and effectiveness of monitoring the effectiveness of exercise in various forms. The findings suggest the need to define the optimal composition of the bulk of tests and functional tests to assess the physical condition of special medical group students with various diseases and to develop appropriate indicators for their evaluation standards.

  14. Identification and analysis of evolutionary selection pressures acting at the molecular level in five forkhead subfamilies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, Christina D; Rannala, Bruce; Walter, Michael A

    2008-09-24

    Members of the forkhead gene family act as transcription regulators in biological processes including development and metabolism. The evolution of forkhead genes has not been widely examined and selection pressures at the molecular level influencing subfamily evolution and differentiation have not been explored. Here, in silico methods were used to examine selection pressures acting on the coding sequence of five multi-species FOX protein subfamily clusters; FoxA, FoxD, FoxI, FoxO and FoxP. Application of site models, which estimate overall selection pressures on individual codons throughout the phylogeny, showed that the amino acid changes observed were either neutral or under negative selection. Branch-site models, which allow estimated selection pressures along specified lineages to vary as compared to the remaining phylogeny, identified positive selection along branches leading to the FoxA3 and Protostomia clades in the FoxA cluster and the branch leading to the FoxO3 clade in the FoxO cluster. Residues that may differentiate paralogs were identified in the FoxA and FoxO clusters and residues that differentiate orthologs were identified in the FoxA cluster. Neutral amino acid changes were identified in the forkhead domain of the FoxA, FoxD and FoxP clusters while positive selection was identified in the forkhead domain of the Protostomia lineage of the FoxA cluster. A series of residues under strong negative selection adjacent to the N- and C-termini of the forkhead domain were identified in all clusters analyzed suggesting a new method for refinement of domain boundaries. Extrapolation of domains among cluster members in conjunction with selection pressure information allowed prediction of residue function in the FoxA, FoxO and FoxP clusters and exclusion of known domain function in residues of the FoxA and FoxI clusters. Consideration of selection pressures observed in conjunction with known functional information allowed prediction of residue function and

  15. Identification and analysis of evolutionary selection pressures acting at the molecular level in five forkhead subfamilies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rannala Bruce

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Members of the forkhead gene family act as transcription regulators in biological processes including development and metabolism. The evolution of forkhead genes has not been widely examined and selection pressures at the molecular level influencing subfamily evolution and differentiation have not been explored. Here, in silico methods were used to examine selection pressures acting on the coding sequence of five multi-species FOX protein subfamily clusters; FoxA, FoxD, FoxI, FoxO and FoxP. Results Application of site models, which estimate overall selection pressures on individual codons throughout the phylogeny, showed that the amino acid changes observed were either neutral or under negative selection. Branch-site models, which allow estimated selection pressures along specified lineages to vary as compared to the remaining phylogeny, identified positive selection along branches leading to the FoxA3 and Protostomia clades in the FoxA cluster and the branch leading to the FoxO3 clade in the FoxO cluster. Residues that may differentiate paralogs were identified in the FoxA and FoxO clusters and residues that differentiate orthologs were identified in the FoxA cluster. Neutral amino acid changes were identified in the forkhead domain of the FoxA, FoxD and FoxP clusters while positive selection was identified in the forkhead domain of the Protostomia lineage of the FoxA cluster. A series of residues under strong negative selection adjacent to the N- and C-termini of the forkhead domain were identified in all clusters analyzed suggesting a new method for refinement of domain boundaries. Extrapolation of domains among cluster members in conjunction with selection pressure information allowed prediction of residue function in the FoxA, FoxO and FoxP clusters and exclusion of known domain function in residues of the FoxA and FoxI clusters. Conclusion Consideration of selection pressures observed in conjunction with known

  16. Using Market Research to Characterize College Students and Identify Potential Targets for Influencing Health Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Carla J.; Ling, Pamela M.; Guo, Hongfei; Windle, Michael; Thomas, Janet L.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.; An, Lawrence C.

    2013-01-01

    Marketing campaigns, such as those developed by the tobacco industry, are based on market research, which defines segments of a population by assessing psychographic characteristics (i.e., attitudes, interests). This study uses a similar approach to define market segments of college smokers, to examine differences in their health behaviors (smoking, drinking, binge drinking, exercise, diet), and to determine the validity of these segments. A total of 2,265 undergraduate students aged 18–25 years completed a 108-item online survey in fall 2008 assessing demographic, psychographic (i.e., attitudes, interests), and health-related variables. Among the 753 students reporting past 30-day smoking, cluster analysis was conducted using 21 psychographic questions and identified three market segments – Stoic Individualists, Responsible Traditionalists, and Thrill-Seeking Socializers. We found that segment membership was related to frequency of alcohol use, binge drinking, and limiting dietary fat. We then developed three messages targeting each segment and conducted message testing to validate the segments on a subset of 73 smokers representing each segment in spring 2009. As hypothesized, each segment indicated greater relevance and salience for their respective message. These findings indicate that identifying qualitatively different subgroups of young adults through market research may inform the development of engaging interventions and health campaigns targeting college students. PMID:25264429

  17. Educator's ability to identify students with coordination disorders: A review of literature

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    Michalis Anastasiadis

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available According to research 5-7% of the total school population face motor learning difficulties such as Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD. In addition to that, recent findings regarding comorbidity revealed that specific learning difficulties such as Dyslexia are very often co-exist with movement difficulties such as DCD. School environment seems to be an ideal setting for early identification, assessment and in-school intervention. Therefore, educators' knowledge regarding DCD and their ability to identify and assess children with movement difficulties are crucial dimensions for an effective interventional management. The goal of the current paper was a review of the relative literature. The findings reveal that, without specific education, the educators have limited ability to recognize children with DCD. Furthermore, research has shown that well informed and educated educators can be very effective in identification and classification of students with movement difficulties. As a result, early intervention strategies can be developed and applied to help the students and their families. Therefore the current article provides a review of literature regarding the ability of the educators to identify their students with motor coordination difficulties. A review of the most commonly used identification instruments was also provided.

  18. Towards a conceptual framework for identifying student difficulties with solving Real-World Problems in Physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niss, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops a conceptual framework for identifying the challenges and obstacles university students encounter when solving real-world problems involving Physics. The framework is based on viewing problem solving as a modelling process. In order to solve a real-world problem, the problem...... solver has to go through the steps and do the tasks of such a process. The paper presents a theoretical analysis of what it takes to solve three real-world problems, demonstrating how the framework presented captures the essential aspects of solving them. Moreover, it is argued that three steps critical...... for real-world problem solving – initial analysis of the problem situation, choice of relevant physical theory (the so-called paradigmatic choice) and mathematization – are not covered by existing models of problem solving in Physics. Finally, the existing research on student difficulties with problem...

  19. Performance of student software development teams: the influence of personality and identifying as team members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Conal; Bizumic, Boris; Reynolds, Katherine; Smithson, Michael; Johns-Boast, Lynette; van Rooy, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    One prominent approach in the exploration of the variations in project team performance has been to study two components of the aggregate personalities of the team members: conscientiousness and agreeableness. A second line of research, known as self-categorisation theory, argues that identifying as team members and the team's performance norms should substantially influence the team's performance. This paper explores the influence of both these perspectives in university software engineering project teams. Eighty students worked to complete a piece of software in small project teams during 2007 or 2008. To reduce limitations in statistical analysis, Monte Carlo simulation techniques were employed to extrapolate from the results of the original sample to a larger simulated sample (2043 cases, within 319 teams). The results emphasise the importance of taking into account personality (particularly conscientiousness), and both team identification and the team's norm of performance, in order to cultivate higher levels of performance in student software engineering project teams.

  20. A consistent nomenclature of antimicrobial peptides isolated from frogs of the subfamily Phyllomedusinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiche, Mohamed; Ladram, Ali; Nicolas, Pierre

    2008-11-01

    A growing number of cationic antimicrobial peptides have been isolated from the skin of hylid frogs belonging to the Phyllomedusinae subfamily. The amino acid sequences of these peptides are currently located in several databases under identifiers with no consistent system of nomenclature to describe them. In order to provide a workable terminology for antimicrobial peptides from Phyllomedusid frogs, we have made a systematic effort to collect, analyze, and classify all the Phyllomedusid peptide sequences available in databases. We propose that frogs belonging to the Phyllomedusinae subfamily should be described by the species names set out in Amphibian Species of the World: http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/index.php, American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA. Multiple alignments analysis of at least 80 antimicrobial peptides isolated from 12 Phyllomedusinae species were distributed in seven distinct peptide families including dermaseptin, phylloseptin, plasticin, dermatoxin, phylloxin, hyposin and orphan peptides, and will be considered as the name of the headgroup of each family. The parent peptide's name should be followed by the first upper letter of the species for orthologous peptides and publication date determines priority. For example, the abbreviation B for bicolor and H for hypochondrialis. When two species begin with the same letter, two letters in upper case should be used (the first letter followed by the second or the third letter and so on). For example, the abbreviation DI for distincta, DU for duellmani, VA for vaillanti and VN for vanzolinii. Paralogous peptides should bear letter(s) in upper case followed by numbers.

  1. A Rationally Designed Agonist Defines Subfamily IIIA Abscisic Acid Receptors As Critical Targets for Manipulating Transpiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Aditya S; Peterson, Francis C; Yarmolinsky, Dmitry; Merilo, Ebe; Verstraeten, Inge; Park, Sang-Youl; Elzinga, Dezi; Kaundal, Amita; Helander, Jonathan; Lozano-Juste, Jorge; Otani, Masato; Wu, Kevin; Jensen, Davin R; Kollist, Hannes; Volkman, Brian F; Cutler, Sean R

    2017-11-17

    Increasing drought and diminishing freshwater supplies have stimulated interest in developing small molecules that can be used to control transpiration. Receptors for the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) have emerged as key targets for this application, because ABA controls the apertures of stomata, which in turn regulate transpiration. Here, we describe the rational design of cyanabactin, an ABA receptor agonist that preferentially activates Pyrabactin Resistance 1 (PYR1) with low nanomolar potency. A 1.63 Å X-ray crystallographic structure of cyanabactin in complex with PYR1 illustrates that cyanabactin's arylnitrile mimics ABA's cyclohexenone oxygen and engages the tryptophan lock, a key component required to stabilize activated receptors. Further, its sulfonamide and 4-methylbenzyl substructures mimic ABA's carboxylate and C6 methyl groups, respectively. Isothermal titration calorimetry measurements show that cyanabactin's compact structure provides ready access to high ligand efficiency on a relatively simple scaffold. Cyanabactin treatments reduce Arabidopsis whole-plant stomatal conductance and activate multiple ABA responses, demonstrating that its in vitro potency translates to ABA-like activity in vivo. Genetic analyses show that the effects of cyanabactin, and the previously identified agonist quinabactin, can be abolished by the genetic removal of PYR1 and PYL1, which form subclade A within the dimeric subfamily III receptors. Thus, cyanabactin is a potent and selective agonist with a wide spectrum of ABA-like activities that defines subfamily IIIA receptors as key target sites for manipulating transpiration.

  2. Identifying veterinary students' capacity for moral behavior concerning animal ethics issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrinder, Joy M; Phillips, Clive J C

    2014-01-01

    Veterinarians face unique animal ethics challenges as practitioners and policy advisors to government and industry. Changing societal attitudes, cultural diversity, and the often conflicting needs and interests of patients and clients contribute to moral distress. Yet little has been done to identify veterinarians' capacity to address these animal ethics issues. In this study, first-year and final-year veterinary students in an Australian university were surveyed to explore moral sensitivity, moral motivation, and moral character and their relationship with moral reasoning. The majority of students were concerned about animal ethics issues and had experienced moral distress in relation to the treatment of animals. Most believed that veterinarians should address the wider social issues of animal protection and that veterinary medicine should require a commitment to animals' interests over owners'/caregivers' interests. There was less agreement that the veterinary profession was sufficiently involved in addressing animal ethics issues. The principal motivators for studying veterinary medicine were, in declining importance, enjoyment in working with animals, helping sick and injured animals, and improving the way animals are treated. However, most students had taken little or no action to address animal ethics issues. These results suggest that both first- and fifth-year veterinary students are sensitive to animal ethics issues and are motivated to prioritize the interests of animals but have little experience in taking action to address these issues. Further research is needed to determine ways to identify and assess these moral behavior components in veterinary education to develop veterinarians' capacity to address animal ethics issues.

  3. Identifying Student and Teacher Difficulties in Interpreting Atomic Spectra Using a Quantum Model of Emission and Absorption of Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savall-Alemany, Francisco; Domènech-Blanco, Josep Lluís; Guisasola, Jenaro; Martínez-Torregrosa, Joaquín

    2016-01-01

    Our study sets out to identify the difficulties that high school students, teachers, and university students encounter when trying to explain atomic spectra. To do so, we identify the key concepts that any quantum model for the emission and absorption of electromagnetic radiation must include to account for the gas spectra and we then design two…

  4. Unequal subfamily proportions among honey bee queen and worker brood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley; Oldroyd

    1997-12-01

    Queens from three colonies of feral honey bees, Apis mellifera were removed and placed in separate nucleus colonies. For each colony, eggs and larvae were taken from the nucleus and placed in the main hive on each of 3-4 consecutive weeks. Workers in the queenless parts selected young larvae to rear as queens. Queen pupae, together with the surrounding worker pupae, were removed from each colony and analysed at two to three microsatellite loci to determine their paternity. In all three colonies, the paternity of larvae chosen by the bees to rear as queens was not a random sample of the paternities in the worker brood, with certain subfamilies being over-represented in queens. These results support an important prediction of kin selection theory: when colonies are queenless, unequal relatedness within colonies could lead to the evolution of reproductive competition, that is some subfamilies achieving greater reproductive success than others. The mechanism by which such dominance is achieved could be through a system of kin recognition and nepotism, but we conclude that genetically based differential attractiveness of larvae for rearing as queens is more likely.Copyright 1997 The Association for the Study of Animal BehaviourCopyright 1997The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  5. School-Based Screening to Identify At-Risk Students Not Already Known to School Professionals: The Columbia Suicide Screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Holly C.; Schonfeld, Irvin Sam; Davies, Mark; Hicks, Roger C.; Turner, J. Blake; Shaffer, David

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to determine the degree of overlap between students identified through school-based suicide screening and those thought to be at risk by school administrative and clinical professionals. Methods. Students from 7 high schools in the New York metropolitan area completed the Columbia Suicide Screen; 489 of the 1729 students screened had positive results. The clinical status of 641 students (73% of those who had screened positive and 23% of those who had screened negative) was assessed with modules from the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children. School professionals nominated by their principal and unaware of students' screening and diagnostic status were asked to indicate whether they were concerned about the emotional well-being of each participating student. Results. Approximately 34% of students with significant mental health problems were identified only through screening, 13.0% were identified only by school professionals, 34.9% were identified both through screening and by school professionals, and 18.3% were identified neither through screening nor by school professionals. The corresponding percentages among students without mental health problems were 9.1%, 24.0%, 5.5%, and 61.3%. Conclusions. School-based screening can identify suicidal and emotionally troubled students not recognized by school professionals. PMID:19059865

  6. The tomato RLK superfamily: phylogeny and functional predictions about the role of the LRRII-RLK subfamily in antiviral defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Tetsu; Deguchi, Michihito; Brustolini, Otávio J B; Santos, Anésia A; Silva, Fabyano F; Fontes, Elizabeth P B

    2012-12-02

    Receptor-like kinases (RLKs) play key roles during development and in responses to the environment. Despite the relevance of the RLK family and the completion of the tomato genome sequencing, the tomato RLK family has not yet been characterized, and a framework for functional predictions of the members of the family is lacking. To generate a complete list of all the members of the tomato RLK family, we performed a phylogenetic analysis using the Arabidopsis family as a template. A total of 647 RLKs were identified in the tomato genome, which were organized into the same subfamily clades as Arabidopsis RLKs. Only eight of 58 RLK subfamilies exhibited specific expansion/reduction compared to their Arabidopsis counterparts. We also characterized the LRRII-RLK family by phylogeny, genomic analysis, expression profile and interaction with the virulence factor from begomoviruses, the nuclear shuttle protein (NSP). The LRRII subfamily members from tomato and Arabidopsis were highly conserved in both sequence and structure. Nevertheless, the majority of the orthologous pairs did not display similar conservation in the gene expression profile, indicating that these orthologs may have diverged in function after speciation. Based on the fact that members of the Arabidopsis LRRII subfamily (AtNIK1, AtNIK2 and AtNIK3) interact with the begomovirus nuclear shuttle protein (NSP), we examined whether the tomato orthologs of NIK, BAK1 and NsAK genes interact with NSP of Tomato Yellow Spot Virus (ToYSV). The tomato orthologs of NSP interactors, SlNIKs and SlNsAK, interacted specifically with NSP in yeast and displayed an expression pattern consistent with the pattern of geminivirus infection. In addition to suggesting a functional analogy between these phylogenetically classified orthologs, these results expand our previous observation that NSP-NIK interactions are neither virus-specific nor host-specific. The tomato RLK superfamily is made-up of 647 proteins that form a

  7. The tomato RLK superfamily: phylogeny and functional predictions about the role of the LRRII-RLK subfamily in antiviral defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakamoto Tetsu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Receptor-like kinases (RLKs play key roles during development and in responses to the environment. Despite the relevance of the RLK family and the completion of the tomato genome sequencing, the tomato RLK family has not yet been characterized, and a framework for functional predictions of the members of the family is lacking. Results To generate a complete list of all the members of the tomato RLK family, we performed a phylogenetic analysis using the Arabidopsis family as a template. A total of 647 RLKs were identified in the tomato genome, which were organized into the same subfamily clades as Arabidopsis RLKs. Only eight of 58 RLK subfamilies exhibited specific expansion/reduction compared to their Arabidopsis counterparts. We also characterized the LRRII-RLK family by phylogeny, genomic analysis, expression profile and interaction with the virulence factor from begomoviruses, the nuclear shuttle protein (NSP. The LRRII subfamily members from tomato and Arabidopsis were highly conserved in both sequence and structure. Nevertheless, the majority of the orthologous pairs did not display similar conservation in the gene expression profile, indicating that these orthologs may have diverged in function after speciation. Based on the fact that members of the Arabidopsis LRRII subfamily (AtNIK1, AtNIK2 and AtNIK3 interact with the begomovirus nuclear shuttle protein (NSP, we examined whether the tomato orthologs of NIK, BAK1 and NsAK genes interact with NSP of Tomato Yellow Spot Virus (ToYSV. The tomato orthologs of NSP interactors, SlNIKs and SlNsAK, interacted specifically with NSP in yeast and displayed an expression pattern consistent with the pattern of geminivirus infection. In addition to suggesting a functional analogy between these phylogenetically classified orthologs, these results expand our previous observation that NSP-NIK interactions are neither virus-specific nor host-specific. Conclusions The tomato RLK

  8. First and second year medical students identify and self-stereotype more as doctors than as students: a questionnaire study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Burford

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The emergence of medical students’ professional identity is important. This paper considers this in a snapshot of the early years of undergraduate medical education. From the perspective of social identity theory, it also considers self-stereotyping, the extent to which individuals associate with attributes identified as typical of groups. Method Paper questionnaires were completed by first and second year medical students following teaching sessions at the beginning (October and end (April of the academic year. Questionnaires consisted of scales measuring the strength and importance of identity and self-stereotyping, referent to ‘doctors’ and ‘students’. Linear mixed effects regression considered longitudinal and cross-sectional effects of progress through the course, and differences in responses to ‘doctor’ and ‘student’ measures. Results In October, responses were received from 99% (n = 102 and 75% (n = 58 of first and second year cohorts respectively, and in April from 81% (n = 83 and 73% (n = 56. Response rates were over 95% of those present. Linear mixed effects regression found that all ‘doctor’-referent measures were higher than ‘student’ measures. Strength of identity and self-stereotyping decreased between beginning and end of the year (across both groups. Men indicated lower importance of identity than women, also across both groups. There were no differences between year groups. Self-stereotyping was predicted more by importance of identification with a group than by strength of identification. Conclusions Findings reinforce observations that medical students identify strongly as doctors from early in their studies, and that this identification is greater than as students. Decreases over time are surprising, but may be explained by changing group salience towards the end of the academic year. The lack of a gender effect on strength of identification contrasts with the literature

  9. A students' survey of cultural competence as a basis for identifying gaps in the medical curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeleman, Conny; Hermans, Jessie; Lamkaddem, Majda; Suurmond, Jeanine; Stronks, Karien; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise

    2014-10-11

    competence of medical students and physicians identified gaps in knowledge and culturally competent behaviour. Such data can be used to guide improvement efforts to the diversity content of educational curricula. Based on this study, improvements should focus on increasing knowledge and improving diversity-sensitive consultation behaviour and less on reflection skills. The weak association between overall self-perceived cultural competence and assessed knowledge, reflection ability and consultation behaviour supports the hypothesis that measures of sell-perceived competence are insufficient to assess actual cultural competence.

  10. Origin and evolution of GALA-LRR, a new member of the CC-LRR subfamily: from plants to bacteria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey V Kajava

    Full Text Available The phytopathogenic bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum encodes type III effectors, called GALA proteins, which contain F-box and LRR domains. The GALA LRRs do not perfectly fit any of the previously described LRR subfamilies. By applying protein sequence analysis and structural prediction, we clarify this ambiguous case of LRR classification and assign GALA-LRRs to CC-LRR subfamily. We demonstrate that side-by-side packing of LRRs in the 3D structures may control the limits of repeat variability within the LRR subfamilies during evolution. The LRR packing can be used as a criterion, complementing the repeat sequences, to classify newly identified LRR domains. Our phylogenetic analysis of F-box domains proposes the lateral gene transfer of bacterial GALA proteins from host plants. We also present an evolutionary scenario which can explain the transformation of the original plant LRRs into slightly different bacterial LRRs. The examination of the selective evolutionary pressure acting on GALA proteins suggests that the convex side of their horse-shoe shaped LRR domains is more prone to positive selection than the concave side, and we therefore hypothesize that the convex surface might be the site of protein binding relevant to the adaptor function of the F-box GALA proteins. This conclusion provides a strong background for further functional studies aimed at determining the role of these type III effectors in the virulence of R. solanacearum.

  11. RINL, guanine nucleotide exchange factor Rab5-subfamily, is involved in the EphA8-degradation pathway with odin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Kajiho

    Full Text Available The Rab family of small guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases plays a vital role in membrane trafficking. Its active GTP-bound state is driven by guanine nucleotide-exchange factors (GEFs. Ras and Rab interactor (or Ras interaction/interference-like (RINL, which contains a conserved VPS9 domain critical for GEF action, was recently identified as a new Rab5 subfamily GEF in vitro. However, its detailed function and interacting molecules have not yet been fully elucidated. Here we found that RINL has GEF activity for the Rab5 subfamily proteins by measuring their GTP-bound forms in cultured cells. We also found that RINL interacts with odin, a member of the ankyrin-repeat and sterile-alpha motif (SAM domain-containing (Anks protein family. In addition, the Eph tyrosine kinase receptor EphA8 formed a ternary complex with both RINL and odin. Interestingly, RINL expression in cultured cells reduced EphA8 levels in a manner dependent on both its GEF activity and interaction with odin. In addition, knockdown of RINL increased EphA8 level in HeLa cells. Our findings suggest that RINL, as a GEF for Rab5 subfamily, is implicated in the EphA8-degradation pathway via its interaction with odin.

  12. Crystal structure of Staphylococcus aureus Zn-glyoxalase I: new subfamily of glyoxalase I family

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chirgadze, Yuri N. [Institute of Protein Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino 142290, Moscow Region, Russia; Boshkova, Eugenia A. [Institute of Protein Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino 142290, Moscow Region, Russia; Battaile, Kevin P. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Hauptman–Woodward Medical Research Institute, IMCA-CAT, Argonne, IL 60439, USA; Mendes, Vitor G. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1GA, UK; Lam, Robert [Campbell Family Cancer Research Institute, Ontario Cancer Institute, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2C4, Canada; Chan, Tiffany S. Y. [Campbell Family Cancer Research Institute, Ontario Cancer Institute, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2C4, Canada; Romanov, Vladimir [Campbell Family Cancer Research Institute, Ontario Cancer Institute, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2C4, Canada; Pai, Emil F. [Campbell Family Cancer Research Institute, Ontario Cancer Institute, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2C4, Canada; Department of Biochemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada; Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada; Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada; Chirgadze, Nickolay Y. [Campbell Family Cancer Research Institute, Ontario Cancer Institute, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2C4, Canada; Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada; X-CHIP Technologies Inc., Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    2017-01-16

    The crystal structures of protein SA0856 from Staphylococcus aureus in its apo-form and in complex with a Zn2+-ion have been presented. The 152 amino acid protein consists of two similar domains with α + β topology. In both crystalline state and in solution, the protein forms a dimer with monomers related by a twofold pseudo-symmetry rotation axis. A sequence homology search identified the protein as a member of the structural family Glyoxalase I. We have shown that the enzyme possesses glyoxalase I activity in the presence of Zn2+, Mg2+, Ni2+, and Co2+, in this order of preference. Sequence and structure comparisons revealed that human glyoxalase I should be assigned to a subfamily A, while S. aureus glyoxalase I represents a new subfamily B, which includes also proteins from other bacteria. Both subfamilies have a similar protein chain fold but rather diverse sequences. The active sites of human and staphylococcus glyoxalases I are also different: the former contains one Zn-ion per chain; the latter incorporates two of these ions. In the active site of SA0856, the first Zn-ion is well coordinated by His58, Glu60 from basic molecule and Glu40*, His44* from adjacent symmetry-related molecule. The second Zn3-ion is coordinated only by residue His143 from protein molecule and one acetate ion. We suggest that only single Zn1-ion plays the role of catalytic center. The newly found differences between the two subfamilies could guide the design of new drugs against S. aureus, an important pathogenic micro-organism.

  13. Using Two-Tier Test to Identify Primary Students' Conceptual Understanding and Alternative Conceptions in Acid Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayrak, Beyza Karadeniz

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify primary students' conceptual understanding and alternative conceptions in acid-base. For this reason, a 15 items two-tier multiple choice test administered 56 eighth grade students in spring semester 2009-2010. Data for this study were collected using a conceptual understanding scale prepared to include…

  14. On the correct name for some subfamilies of Mustelidae (Mammalia, Carnivora

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    Fabio Oliveira do Nascimento

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mustelids (Mustelidae exhibit a wide morphological and ecological diversity, ranging from aquatic to semi arboreal and fossorial forms. It is the most diversity family in Carnivora, and this has promoted a great number of taxonomic arrangements for subfamilies, which can range from two to 15 depending on the author. The relatively recent use of molecular data has helped to elucidate the classification of mustelids, and eight subfamilies are currently recognized: Mustelinae, Galictinae, Helictidinae, Martinae, Melinae, Mellivorinae, Taxidiinae and Lutrinae. However, some of these subfamilies have nomenclatural problems, not receiving the oldest available name. The subfamily that includes martens (Martes, Charronia and Pekania, tayra (Eira and wolverine (Gulo has received the name of Martinae Wagner, 1841, but the oldest available name is Guloninae Gray, 1825. This problem also occurs for the subfamily that includes the grisons (Galictis, Patagonian weasel (Lyncodon, marbled polecat (Vormela and striped weasels (Ictonyx and Poecilogale, which are known as Grisoninae Pocock, 1921, but the correct name for this group is Ictonychinae, Pocock, 1921. The subfamily that includes ferret badgers (Melogale retains the name Helictidinae Gray, 1865, because its validity is not affected when the type-genus of the subfamily becomes a junior synonym of another genus. Furthermore, a list of the extant subfamilies of Mustelidae and their respective synonyms and included genera is provided.

  15. Phantoms of Gondwana?-phylogeny of the spider subfamily Mynogleninae (Araneae: Linyphiidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frick, Holger; Scharff, Nikolaj

    2014-01-01

    This is the first genus-level phylogeny of the subfamily Mynogleninae. It is based on 190 morphological characters scored for 44 taxa: 37 mynoglenine taxa (ingroup) representing 15 of the 17 known genera and seven outgroup taxa representing the subfamilies Stemonyphantinae, Linyphiinae (Linyphiin...

  16. Comparative Mitogenomic Analysis of Species Representing Six Subfamilies in the Family Tenebrionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Li Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To better understand the architecture and evolution of the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome, mitogenomes of ten specimens representing six subfamilies in Tenebrionidae were selected, and comparative analysis of these mitogenomes was carried out in this study. Ten mitogenomes in this family share a similar gene composition, gene order, nucleotide composition, and codon usage. In addition, our results show that nucleotide bias was strongly influenced by the preference of codon usage for A/T rich codons which significantly correlated with the G + C content of protein coding genes (PCGs. Evolutionary rate analyses reveal that all PCGs have been subjected to a purifying selection, whereas 13 PCGs displayed different evolution rates, among which ATPase subunit 8 (ATP8 showed the highest evolutionary rate. We inferred the secondary structure for all RNA genes of Tenebrio molitor (Te2 and used this as the basis for comparison with the same genes from other Tenebrionidae mitogenomes. Some conserved helices (stems and loops of RNA structures were found in different domains of ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs and the cloverleaf structure of transfer RNAs (tRNAs. With regard to the AT-rich region, we analyzed tandem repeat sequences located in this region and identified some essential elements including T stretches, the consensus motif at the flanking regions of T stretch, and the secondary structure formed by the motif at the 3′ end of T stretch in major strand, which are highly conserved in these species. Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses using mitogenomic data strongly support the relationships among six subfamilies: ((Tenebrionidae incertae sedis + (Diaperinae + Tenebrioninae + (Pimeliinae + Lagriinae, which is consistent with phylogenetic results based on morphological traits.

  17. The nuclear receptor gene family in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, contains a novel subfamily group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogeler, Susanne; Galloway, Tamara S; Lyons, Brett P; Bean, Tim P

    2014-05-15

    Nuclear receptors are a superfamily of transcription factors important in key biological, developmental and reproductive processes. Several of these receptors are ligand- activated and through their ability to bind endogenous and exogenous ligands, are potentially vulnerable to xenobiotics. Molluscs are key ecological species in defining aquatic and terrestrial habitats and are sensitive to xenobiotic compounds in the environment. However, the understanding of nuclear receptor presence, function and xenobiotic disruption in the phylum Mollusca is limited. Here, forty-three nuclear receptor sequences were mined from the genome of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas. They include members of NR0-NR5 subfamilies, notably lacking any NR6 members. Phylogenetic analyses of the oyster nuclear receptors have been conducted showing the presence of a large novel subfamily group not previously reported, which is named NR1P. Homologues to all previous identified nuclear receptors in other mollusc species have also been determined including the putative heterodimer partner retinoid X receptor, estrogen receptor and estrogen related receptor. C. gigas contains a highly diverse set of nuclear receptors including a novel NR1 group, which provides important information on presence and evolution of this transcription factor superfamily in invertebrates. The Pacific oyster possesses two members of NR3, the sex steroid hormone receptor analogues, of which there are 9 in humans. This provides increasing evidence that steroid ligand specific expansion of this family is deuterostome specific. This new knowledge on divergence and emergence of nuclear receptors in C. gigas provides essential information for studying regulation of molluscan gene expression and the potential effects of xenobiotics.

  18. Molecular characterization of two sub-family specific monoclonal antibodies to meningococcal Factor H binding protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lo Passo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Factor H binding protein (FHbp is a component of two licensed vaccines for prevention of sepsis and meningitis caused by serogroup B meningococci. FHbp binds human Factor H (FH, which contributes to evasion of host immunity and FHbp sequence variants can be classified into two sub-families. Antibodies against FHbp elicit complement-mediated killing and can inhibit recruitment of FH to the bacterial surface. We report epitope mapping studies of two murine IgG mAbs, designated JAR 31 and JAR 36, isolated from a mouse immunized with FHbp in sub-family A, which is present in ∼30–40% of invasive isolates. In the present study, we tested the reactivity of mAbs JAR 31 and JAR 36 with seven natural FHbp sequence variants from different phylogenic groups. We screened bacteriophage-displayed peptide libraries to identify amino acid residues contributing to the JAR 36 epitope. Based on the reactivities of mAbs JAR 31 and JAR 36 with the seven FHbp variants, and the frequent occurrences of aspartate (D and lysine (K residues in the JAR 36-bound phage peptides, we selected six residues in the carboxyl-terminal region of FHbp for replacement with alanine (A. The D201A and K203A substitutions respectively eliminated and decreased binding of mAbs JAR 31 and JAR 36 to FHbp. These substitutions did not affect binding of the control mAb JAR 33 or of human FH. JAR 31 or JAR 36 mediated cooperative complement-mediated bactericidal activity with other anti-FHbp mAbs. The identification of two amino acid residues involved in the epitopes recognized by these anti-FHbp mAbs may contribute to a more complete understanding of the spatial requirements for cooperative anti-FHbp mAb bactericidal activity. Keywords: Biochemistry, Immunology, Microbiology, Molecular biology

  19. Using formative feedback to identify and support first-year chemistry students with missing or misconceptions. A Practice Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwen Lawrie

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Students entering tertiary studies possess a diverse range of prior experiences in their academic preparation for tertiary chemistry so academics need tools to enable them to respond to issues in diversity in conceptual models possessed by entering students. Concept inventories can be used to provide formative feedback to help students identify concepts that they need to address to improve construction of subsequent understanding enabling their learning.Modular, formative learning activities that can be administered inside or outside of class in first year chemistry courses have been developed. These activities address key missing and mis-conceptions possessed by incoming student. Engagement in these learning activities by students and academics will help shift the culture of diagnostic and formative assessment within the tertiary context and address issues around the secondary/tertiary transition. This diagnostic/intervention framework is currently being trialed across five Australian tertiary institutions encompassing a large heterogeneous sample of students.

  20. Development and Application of an Instrument to Identify Students Misconceptions: Diffusion and Osmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misischia, Cynthia M.

    2010-01-01

    A large number of undergraduate students have naive understandings about the processes of Diffusion and Osmosis. Some students overcome these misconceptions, but others do not. The study involved nineteen undergraduate movement science students at a Midwest University. Participants' were asked to complete a short answer (fill-in the blank) test,…

  1. Instructor Credibility across Disciplines: Identifying Students' Differentiated Expectations of Instructor Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermiller, Carl; Ruppert, Bryan; Atwood, April

    2012-01-01

    Business communication instructors can face a unique set of challenges to maintain their credibility with students. Communication plays an important role in the instructor-student relationship, and students judge instructors' ability to teach communication based on their ability to practice what they teach. The authors' empirical study shows that…

  2. Seeing the Chemistry around Me--Helping Students Identify the Relevance of Chemistry to Everyday Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Tracy Lynn

    2012-01-01

    The study attempted to determine whether the use of a series of reading and response assignments decreased students' perceptions of chemistry difficulty and enhanced students' perceptions of the relevance of chemistry in their everyday lives. Informed consent volunteer students enrolled in General Chemistry II at a community college in the…

  3. Students with Self-Identified Special Educational Needs and Disabilities (Si-SEND): Flourishing or Languishing!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypiec, Grace; Askell-Williams, Helen; Slee, Phillip; Rudzinski, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Students' wellbeing is an essential component of their ability to function well, not only at school but also in all life domains. Many studies have investigated student wellbeing. However, empirical studies about the wellbeing of students with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND) are scarce. Furthermore, many studies have adopted a…

  4. Uncovering Problems and Identifying Coping Strategies of Middle Eastern University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alazzi, Khaled; Chiodo, John J.

    2006-01-01

    For international college students, the failure to achieve their educational goals regarding their program of study creates a large amount of stress. These international students experience pressure to succeed from their families, sponsoring agencies, or even the communities from their home country. For Middle Eastern students who come to study at…

  5. Identifying the Camouflage: Uncovering and Supporting the Transition Experiences of Military and Veteran Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Klotz, Denise N.; Gansemer-Topf, Ann M.

    2017-01-01

    This study summarizes the qualitative findings from a multi-institutional study about the college transition experiences of military and veteran students, specifically students' articulation of their needs. Findings reveal (a) a lack of inprocessing, (b) need for community, and (c) institutional invisibility. Using the Student Veteran Transition…

  6. Anatomy of 31 species from Mimosoideae (Leguminosae) subfamily on Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, H; Williams, J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper is about the wood anatomy of 31 species, belonging to 17 genera, of the Mimosoideae subfamily (Leguminosae), proceeding from different geographical regions of Venezuela. For each species, one to five individuals were studied. The descriptions were realized according to the IAWA Committee(1989). The studied species may be divided in two groups according to the presence or absence of septate fibers. All species of Inga showed septate fibers, whereas Albizia and Enterolobium included species with septate fibers and also species with non-septate fibers. The quantitative characteristics of the vessels and the width of rays showed sufficient variation as to be considered important characteristics from ataxonomic point of view. The most common parenchyma type was vasicetric, aliform and confluent. In Calliandra laxa, Prosopis juliflora and Zygia longifolia the main parenchyma type was in wide bands; whereas in Cedrelinga cateniformis, the main parenchyma type was thin vasicentric. All species studied, with the exception of Cedrelinga cateniformis, presented prismatic crystals in the parenchymatous axials cells. In spite of finding certain anatomical uniformity, it was possible to elaborate a key for the identification of the studied species.

  7. Mid-tertiary dispersal, not gondwanan vicariance explains distribution patterns in the wax palm subfamily (Ceroxyloideae: Arecaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trénel, Philipp; Gustafsson, Mats H.G.; Baker, William J.

    2007-01-01

    The Ceroxyloideae is a small but heterogeneous subfamily of palms (Arecaceae, Palmae). It includes a Caribbean lineage (tribe Cyclospathae), a southern hemisphere disjunction (tribe Ceroxyleae), and an amphi-Andean element (tribe Phytelepheae), until recently considered a distinct subfamily (Phyt...

  8. Teaching assistants’ performance at identifying common introductory student difficulties in mechanics revealed by the Force Concept Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Maries

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Force Concept Inventory (FCI has been widely used to assess student understanding of introductory mechanics concepts by a variety of educators and physics education researchers. One reason for this extensive use is that many of the items on the FCI have strong distractor choices which correspond to students’ alternate conceptions in mechanics. Instruction is unlikely to be effective if instructors do not know the common alternate conceptions of introductory physics students and explicitly take into account students’ initial knowledge states in their instructional design. Here, we discuss research involving the FCI to evaluate one aspect of the pedagogical content knowledge of teaching assistants (TAs: knowledge of introductory student alternate conceptions in mechanics as revealed by the FCI. For each item on the FCI, the TAs were asked to identify the most common incorrect answer choice of introductory physics students. This exercise was followed by a class discussion with the TAs related to this task, including the importance of knowing student difficulties in teaching and learning. Then, we used FCI pretest and post-test data from a large population (∼900 of introductory physics students to assess the extent to which TAs were able to identify alternate conceptions of introductory students related to force and motion. In addition, we carried out think-aloud interviews with graduate students who had more than two semesters of teaching experience in recitations to examine how they reason about the task. We find that while the TAs, on average, performed better than random guessing at identifying introductory students’ difficulties with FCI content, they did not identify many common difficulties that introductory physics students have after traditional instruction. We discuss specific alternate conceptions, the extent to which TAs are able to identify them, and results from the think-aloud interviews that provided valuable information

  9. Multiple choice questions are superior to extended matching questions to identify medicine and biomedical sciences students who perform poorly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eijsvogels, Thijs M H; van den Brand, Tessa L; Hopman, Maria T E

    2013-11-01

    In recent years, medical faculties at Dutch universities have implemented a legally binding study advice to students of medicine and biomedical sciences during their propaedeutic phase. Appropriate examination is essential to discriminate between poor (grade age and examination preference on this score. Data were collected for 452 first-year medical and biomedical science students during three distinct course examinations: one examination with EMQ only, one with MCQ only and one mixed examination (including EMQ and MCQ). Logistic regression analysis revealed that MCQ examination was 3 times better in identifying poor students compared with EMQ (RR 3.0, CI 2.0-4.5), whereas EMQ better detected excellent students (average grade ≥8) (RR 1.93, CI 1.47-2.53). Mixed examination had comparable characteristics to MCQ. Sex and examination preference did not impact the score of the student. Students ≥20 years had a 4-fold higher risk ratio of obtaining a poor grade (<6) compared with students ≤18 years old (RR 4.1, CI 2.1-8.0). Given the strong discriminative capacity of MCQ examinations to identify poor students, we recommend the use of this type of examination during the propaedeutic phase of medicine and biomedical science study programmes, in the light of the binding study advice.

  10. Using appreciative inquiry to help students identify strategies to overcome handicaps of their learning styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Latha Rajendra; Chacko, Thomas Vengail

    2012-01-01

    In India, as in some other neighboring Asian countries, students and teachers are generally unaware of the differences in the learning styles among learners, which can handicap students with learning styles alien to the common teaching/learning modality within the institution. This study aims to find out whether making students aware of their learning styles and then using the Appreciative Inquiry approach to help them discover learning strategies that worked for them and others with similar learning styles within the institution made them perceive that this experience improved their learning and performance in exams. The visual, auditory, read-write, and kinesthetic (VARK) inventory of learning styles questionnaire was administered to all 100 first-year medical students of the Father Muller's Medical College in Mangalore India to make them aware of their individual learning styles. An Appreciate Inquiry intervention was administered to 62 student volunteers who were counseled about the different learning styles and their adaptive strategies. Pre and post intervention change in student's perception about usefulness of knowing learning styles on their learning, learning behavior, and performance in examinations was collected from the students using a prevalidated questionnaire. Post intervention mean scores showed a significant change (P learning style and discovering strategies that worked within the institutional environment. There was agreement among students that the intervention helped them become more confident in learning (84%), facilitating learning in general (100%), and in understanding concepts (100%). However, only 29% of the students agreed that the intervention has brought about their capability improvement in application of learning and 31% felt it improved their performance in exams. Appreciate Inquiry was perceived as useful in helping students discover learning strategies that work for different individual learning styles and sharing them within

  11. Awareness of Sexual Violence Services among LGBQ-Identified College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Corina; Perkins, Wendy

    2017-01-01

    The sexual victimization of sexual minorities enrolled in college is not a topic that has been well researched. The present study examines the awareness that college minority students have of services they can access in the event they experience sexual violence. The results indicate that many students are unaware of specific services that they can…

  12. Identifying Student Resources in Reasoning about Entropy and the Approach to Thermal Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loverude, Michael

    2015-01-01

    As part of an ongoing project to examine student learning in upper-division courses in thermal and statistical physics, we have examined student reasoning about entropy and the second law of thermodynamics. We have examined reasoning in terms of heat transfer, entropy maximization, and statistical treatments of multiplicity and probability. In…

  13. Why Do People Share Content? Identifying Why Students Support Sharing Course Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromp, Gerhard Wieger; Long, Phillip D.

    2013-01-01

    To establish which factors predict student intentions to contribute towards an OpenCourseWare site, an online questionnaire was distributed among University of Queensland students via email. The 320 participants completed items that were based on the theory of planned behaviour and were designed to measure attitudes, subjective norms and perceived…

  14. Identifying ESL Students at Linguistic Risk on a State Minimal Competency Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James Dean

    1992-01-01

    Ninth grade students of limited English proficiency (SLEP) in Hawaii were studied to determine their characteristics on Hawaii Test of Essential Competencies (HSTEC), how they compare to norm on test, and degree to which performance on HSTEC can be predicted. Results indicate that SLEP students can be considered separate population within total…

  15. Identifying College Students Likely to Participate in a Travel Abroad Volunteer Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonis, Sarath A.; Relyea, Clint

    2014-01-01

    Foreign travel provides excellent opportunities for college students to broaden their global mindset. While empirical research focusing on variables that influence student participation in study abroad programs are available, there is a paucity of research that focuses on travel abroad programs relating to participating in volunteer projects.…

  16. Identify the Motivational Factors to Affect the Higher Education Students to Learn Using Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Hon Keung; Cheng, Alison Lai Fong; Ho, Wing Man

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is twofold. Firstly, engineering students' motivation in using technology for learning in one of Hong Kong universities is investigated. Secondly, new research model about students' perception in using technology for learning is developed. Survey was employed and the questionnaires were distributed to targeted university…

  17. Identifying Achievement Goals and Their Relationship to Academic Achievement in Undergraduate Pharmacy Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainsbury, Erica; Rose, Grenville; Smith, Lorraine

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To compare the achievement goal orientations of first-year with those of third-year undergraduate Australian pharmacy students and to examine the relationship of goal orientations to academic achievement. Methods. The Achievement Goal Questionnaire was administered to first-year and third-year students during class time. Students’ grades were obtained from course coordinators. Results. More first-year students adopted performance-approach and mastery-approach goals than did third-year students. Performance-approach goals were positively correlated with academic achievement in the first year. Chinese Australian students scored the highest in adopting performance-approach goals. Vietnamese Australian students adopted mastery-avoidance goals more than other ethnicities. First-year students were more strongly performance approach goal-oriented than third-year students. Conclusion. Adopting performance-approach goals was positively correlated with academic achievement, while adopting avoidance goals was not. Ethnicity has an effect on the adoption of achievement goals and academic achievement. PMID:25258438

  18. The Empowering Schools Project: Identifying the Classroom and School Characteristics That Lead to Student Empowerment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Chris Michael; Lewis, Rhonda K.; Brown, Kyrah; Karibo, Brittany; Scott, Angela; Park, Elle

    2017-01-01

    In an education system marred by inequity, urban schools in the United States are faced with the challenge of helping students from marginalized groups succeed. While many strategies have been tried, most are built on deficit-based models that blame students and teachers for a lack of achievement and ignore the role of power within the school…

  19. Identifying Students with Mental Health Issues: A Guide for Classroom Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Robbie J.

    2016-01-01

    Child and adolescent mental health is a growing concern in schools. Students suffering from mental health conditions struggle in the school environment if their needs are not being met. Teachers play an important role in the identification of these students. This article highlights the distinctions between externalizing and internalizing behaviors…

  20. Identifying Students' Conceptions of Basic Principles in Sequence Stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Juan S.; Riggs, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    Sequence stratigraphy is a major research subject in the geosciences academia and the oil industry. However, the geoscience education literature addressing students' understanding of the basic concepts of sequence stratigraphy is relatively thin, and the topic has not been well explored. We conducted an assessment of 27 students' conceptions of…

  1. Identifying Student Competencies in Macro Practice: Articulating the Practice Wisdom of Field Instructors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regehr, Cheryl; Bogo, Marion; Donovan, Kirsten; Lim, April; Anstice, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Although a growing literature examines competencies in clinical practice, competencies of students in macro social work practice have received comparatively little attention. A grounded-theory methodology was used to elicit field instructor views of student competencies in community, organization, and policy contexts. Competencies described by…

  2. Identifying Student Traits and Motives to Service-Learn: Public Service Orientation among New College Freshmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Robert K.; Stritch, Justin M.; Kellough, J. Edward; Brewer, Gene A.

    2015-01-01

    Among college students, public service motives influence choice of major or job. Although the link between public service motives and prosocial behavior has been established among working adults, researchers have not adequately examined how these motives affect the reported behavior of precareer students. In this article, the authors explored how…

  3. Identified Phases in the Building and Maintaining of Positive Teacher-Student Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newberry, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Teacher-student relationships are accepted as influential but the dynamics of those relationships are not well understood, especially with difficult students. A series of interviews were combined with classroom observations and written reflections to understand in what ways a teacher negotiated her relationship with a behaviorally challenging…

  4. An Educational System to Help Students Assess Website Features and Identify High-Risk Websites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajiyama, Tomoko; Echizen, Isao

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose an effective educational system to help students assess Web site risk by providing an environment in which students can better understand a Web site's features and determine the risks of accessing the Web site for themselves. Design/methodology/approach: The authors have enhanced a prototype…

  5. The Grasp of Physics Concepts of Motion: Identifying Particular Patterns in Students' Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obaidat, Ihab; Malkawi, Ehab

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated the grasp of some of the basic concepts of motion by students taking the introductory physics course in Mechanics at United Arab Emirates University (UAEU). We have developed a short research-based multiple-choice test where we were able to extract some information about the state of knowledge of the students. In general, the…

  6. Using ACT Subscores to Identify at Risk Students in Business Statistics and Principles of Management Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welborn, Cliff Alan; Lester, Don; Parnell, John

    2015-01-01

    The American College Test (ACT) is utilized to determine academic success in business core courses at a midlevel state university. Specifically, subscores are compared to subsequent student grades in selected courses. The results indicate that ACT Mathematics and English subscores are a valid predictor of success or failure of business students in…

  7. Synopsis Of The subfamily Spiranthoideae (Orchidaceae) In Colombia, Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duenas Gomez, Hilda del Carmen; Fernandez Alonso, Jose Luis

    2009-01-01

    As second and last contribution to the synoptic treatment of the Spiranthoideae for Colombia, the synopsis of the tribes Spirantheae (subtribes Cyclopogoninae: 3 genera, 41 species and Stenorrhynchidinae: 9 genera, 15 species) and Cranichideae (5 genera, 53 species), is presented. The most diverse genera in these tribes are: Cranichis (20 species), Cyclopogon (17), Ponthieva (15) and Pelexia (14). As part of the results of this study: a)- The transfer of Cybebus from the subtribe Spiranthinae (where it was commonly placed) to the subtribe Stenorhinchidinae, is proposed, based on the floral morphology (the rostellum and viscidium structure). b)- two genera are reported for Colombia as new records, each one with one species: Lyroglossa (L. grisebachii) and Helonoma; for the latter the new combination Helonoma peruviana (Szlach.) Salazar, Duenas and Fern. Alonso is proposed. c) New records in the previously known list of Colombian orchids are presented: Coccineorchis (C. cristata, C. navarrensis), Cyclopogon (C. maldonadoanus, C. olivaceus, C. rimbachii), Pelexia (P. hirta, P. palmorchidis), Ponthieva (P. venusta), and Sarcoglottis (S. grandiflora, S. maasorum, S. neglecta, S. stergiosii). d)- And additional 19 new records of species belonging to Aspidogyne and Microchilus, not reported in Duenas and Fernandez-Alonso (2007), are also included. e)- Finally an analysis of the distribution and diversity of the genera of this subfamily, according to altitude ranges in Colombia is presented. This group has predominant Andean distribution, being found mainly between 1300 and 3600 m of altitude. Genera broadly distributed as Microchilus, Gomphichis, Cyclopogon, Pelexia, Sarcoglottis, Coccineorchis, Stenorrhynchos, Cranichis and Ponthieva, are found almost from the level up to 3000 m, in all the regions of the country. In contrast, Beloglottis, Brachystele, Cybebus, Eltroplectris, Hapalorchis, Helonoma, Lankesterella, Lyroglossa, Kreodanthus, Pteroglossa and Sauroglossum

  8. An Action Research Inquiry into the Relationship Among Aerobic Activities, Memory, and Stress with Students Identified as Gifted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Denise Marie

    Students identified as gifted come from varying socio-economic strata and nationalities with a range of talents and temperaments comprising a diverse community. They may experience stress for a variety of reasons. Although a certain amount of stress can enhance the learning process, too much stress can impede learning, especially memory. Strategies have been offered for relieving stress, yet the benefits of physical activities as stress reducers for the gifted have frequently been overlooked. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship among aerobic activity, stress, and memory ability in students in an elementary school gifted program. An exceptional aspect of this research was that the students were an integral part of their own study. As co-researchers they had a vested interest in what they were doing, enhancing the significance of the experience and heightening learning. This action research project conducted in a mid-western school district with fourth and fifth grade students examined the impact of aerobic movement on physical indicators of stress and memory. The study lasted twelve weeks with data collected on physical indicators of stress, memory test scores, parent observations, interviews with students, a parent focus group session, observational data, student comments, and investigator/teacher journal. By infusing regular exercise into curricula, stress levels in students identified as gifted were examined. Students' scores on declarative memory tasks conducted with and without an accompanying aerobic activity were documented. Students learned of the delicate relationship between stress and memory as they studied the physiology of the brain. Twenty-four hour retention rates of declarative memory items were higher when a 20-minute aerobic activity intervention preceded the memory activity. Perceived stress levels were lowered for 14 of the 16 co-researchers. Students indicated a positive attitude toward physical activity and its

  9. A students' survey of cultural competence as a basis for identifying gaps in the medical curriculum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seeleman, Conny; Hermans, Jessie; Lamkaddem, Majda; Suurmond, Jeanine; Stronks, Karien; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise

    2014-01-01

    Assessing the cultural competence of medical students that have completed the curriculum provides indications on the effectiveness of cultural competence training in that curriculum. However, existing measures for cultural competence mostly rely on self-perceived cultural competence. This paper

  10. A novel MSCRAMM sub-family in Coagulase negative staphylococcal species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srishtee eArora

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Coagulase negative staphylococci are important opportunistic pathogens. Staphylococcus epidermidis, a coagulase negative staphylococcus, is the third leading cause of nosocomial infections in the US. Surface proteins like Microbial Surface Components Recognizing Adhesive Matrix Molecules (MSCRAMMs are major virulence factors of pathogenic gram positive bacteria. Here, we identified a new chimeric protein; SesJ in S. epidermidis, which represents a prototype of a new subfamily of MSCRAMMs. Structural predictions show that SesJ has structural features characteristic of a MSCRAMM along with a N-Terminal repeat region and an Aspartic acid containing repeat region, features that have not been previously observed in staphylococcal MSCRAMMs but have been found in other surface proteins from gram positive bacteria. We identified and analyzed structural homologs of SesJ in three other coagulase negative staphylococci. These homologs of SesJ have an identical structural organization but varying sequence identities within the domains. Using flow cytometry, we also show that SesJ is expressed constitutively on the surface of a representative S. epidermidis strain, from early exponential to stationary growth phase. Thus SesJ is positioned to interact with protein targets in the environment and play a role in S. epidermidis virulence.

  11. A qualitative study to identify barriers to deployment and student training in the use of automated external defibrillators in schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zinckernagel, Line; Hansen, Carolina Malta; Rod, Morten Hulvej

    2017-01-01

    such as delayed access have been reported. The purpose of this study was to identify barriers to the implementation of defibrillator training of students and deployment of defibrillators in schools. Methods: A qualitative study based on semi-structured individual interviews and focus groups with a total of 25......Background: Student training in use of automated external defibrillators and deployment of such defibrillators in schools is recommended to increase survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Low implementation rates have been observed, and even at schools with a defibrillator, challenges...... to their perception of student training but not for their considerations on the relevance of their placement at schools. Conclusions: It is crucial for implementation of automated external defibrillators in schools to inform staff about how they work and are operated and that students are an appropriate target group...

  12. Identifying potential types of guidance for supporting student inquiry when using virtual and remote labs in science: a literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zacharia, Zacharias C.; Manoli, Constantinos; Xenofontos, Nikoletta; de Jong, Anthonius J.M.; Pedaste, Margus; van Riesen, Siswa; Kamp, E.T.; Kamp, Ellen T.; Mäeots, Mario; Siiman, Leo; Tsourlidaki, Eleftheria

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review is to identify specific types of guidance for supporting student use of online labs, that is, virtual and remote labs, in an inquiry context. To do so, we reviewed the literature on providing guidance within computer supported inquiry learning (CoSIL) environments in science

  13. A Canine Audience: The Effect of Animal-Assisted Therapy on Reading Progress among Students Identified with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griess, Julie Omodio

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the use of animal-assisted therapy with students identified with a learning disability and limited reading success. Initially, reading progress was defined as the participants' comprehension rate obtained from an oral Informal Reading Inventory (IRI) passage. The nature of the Informal Reading Inventory requires the…

  14. TIMSS 2011 Student and Teacher Predictors for Mathematics Achievement Explored and Identified via Elastic Net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jin Eun

    2018-01-01

    A substantial body of research has been conducted on variables relating to students' mathematics achievement with TIMSS. However, most studies have employed conventional statistical methods, and have focused on selected few indicators instead of utilizing hundreds of variables TIMSS provides. This study aimed to find a prediction model for students' mathematics achievement using as many TIMSS student and teacher variables as possible. Elastic net, the selected machine learning technique in this study, takes advantage of both LASSO and ridge in terms of variable selection and multicollinearity, respectively. A logistic regression model was also employed to predict TIMSS 2011 Korean 4th graders' mathematics achievement. Ten-fold cross-validation with mean squared error was employed to determine the elastic net regularization parameter. Among 162 TIMSS variables explored, 12 student and 5 teacher variables were selected in the elastic net model, and the prediction accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity were 76.06, 70.23, and 80.34%, respectively. This study showed that the elastic net method can be successfully applied to educational large-scale data by selecting a subset of variables with reasonable prediction accuracy and finding new variables to predict students' mathematics achievement. Newly found variables via machine learning can shed light on the existing theories from a totally different perspective, which in turn propagates creation of a new theory or complement of existing ones. This study also examined the current scale development convention from a machine learning perspective.

  15. TIMSS 2011 Student and Teacher Predictors for Mathematics Achievement Explored and Identified via Elastic Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Eun Yoo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A substantial body of research has been conducted on variables relating to students' mathematics achievement with TIMSS. However, most studies have employed conventional statistical methods, and have focused on selected few indicators instead of utilizing hundreds of variables TIMSS provides. This study aimed to find a prediction model for students' mathematics achievement using as many TIMSS student and teacher variables as possible. Elastic net, the selected machine learning technique in this study, takes advantage of both LASSO and ridge in terms of variable selection and multicollinearity, respectively. A logistic regression model was also employed to predict TIMSS 2011 Korean 4th graders' mathematics achievement. Ten-fold cross-validation with mean squared error was employed to determine the elastic net regularization parameter. Among 162 TIMSS variables explored, 12 student and 5 teacher variables were selected in the elastic net model, and the prediction accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity were 76.06, 70.23, and 80.34%, respectively. This study showed that the elastic net method can be successfully applied to educational large-scale data by selecting a subset of variables with reasonable prediction accuracy and finding new variables to predict students' mathematics achievement. Newly found variables via machine learning can shed light on the existing theories from a totally different perspective, which in turn propagates creation of a new theory or complement of existing ones. This study also examined the current scale development convention from a machine learning perspective.

  16. Identifying the Misconceptions of Natural Science (IPA Using CRI (Certanty of Response Index at the Primary School Students in Tarakan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhsinah Annisa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to identify the misconceptions of Natural Science (IPA on primary school students in Tarakan. The output of this study is presented into a national scientific journal with ISSN. This study absolutely contributes to the schools and the education providers (universities. This study can identify the misconceptions of what happens to the students, so that teachers know how to handle and remediate these misconceptions. This study employs quantitative descriptive research. The population is the sixth grade students of primary schools in Tarakan. It is because the students of this grade have got the learning material on force, light, and simple machine. The technique.;s used in taking the sample is cluster sampling by considering on the three criteria, namely: superior, medium, and low school category which is based on the mean scores of final test (UAS on natural science subject. So, the sixth grade students of SDN A, SDN B Tarakan, and SDN C Tarakan are chosen as the sample of this study. The instrument of this research is a written test in a form of multiple choice test equiped with the CRI (certainty of response index answer sheet. The data are collected by distributing multiple-choice test which is consisted of 40 questions that are equipped with the CRI answer sheet.

  17. Identifying Students' Difficulties When Learning Technical Skills via a Wireless Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingying; Wen, Ming-Lee; Jou, Min

    2016-01-01

    Practical training and actual application of acquired knowledge and techniques are crucial for the learning of technical skills. We established a wireless sensor network system (WSNS) based on the 5E learning cycle in a practical learning environment to improve students' reflective abilities and to reduce difficulties for the learning of technical…

  18. Identifying Key Features of Student Performance in Educational Video Games and Simulations through Cluster Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Deirdre; Chung, Gregory K. W. K.

    2012-01-01

    The assessment cycle of "evidence-centered design" (ECD) provides a framework for treating an educational video game or simulation as an assessment. One of the main steps in the assessment cycle of ECD is the identification of the key features of student performance. While this process is relatively simple for multiple choice tests, when…

  19. A Survey of School Psychologists' Practices for Identifying Mentally Retarded Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodrich, David L.; Barry, Christine T.

    1991-01-01

    Surveyed school psychologists regarding identification of mentally retarded students. The Wechsler scales were the most frequently used tests for deriving intelligence quotient scores, which together with adaptive behavior scale scores were rated as most influential in identification-placement decisions. The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales were…

  20. Identifying Student Difficulties with Entropy, Heat Engines, and the Carnot Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Trevor I.; Christensen, Warren M.; Mountcastle, Donald B.; Thompson, John R.

    2015-01-01

    We report on several specific student difficulties regarding the second law of thermodynamics in the context of heat engines within upper-division undergraduate thermal physics courses. Data come from ungraded written surveys, graded homework assignments, and videotaped classroom observations of tutorial activities. Written data show that students…

  1. Identifying Academic & Social Risk Factors of Baccalaureate Nursing Students Using the College Persistence Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Kelly J.; Shirley, Janet A.; Kennedy, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Background: Student success in a baccalaureate nursing program is of utmost importance at a southern College of Nursing (CON).CON faculty wanted to understand better what academic/ social risk factors attributed to attrition in the first year of the nursing program. The purpose of this study was to determine academic and social risk factors…

  2. Using Virtual Worlds to Identify Multidimensional Student Engagement in High School Foreign Language Learning Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Laura Beth

    2012-01-01

    Virtual world environments have evolved from object-oriented, text-based online games to complex three-dimensional immersive social spaces where the lines between reality and computer-generated begin to blur. Educators use virtual worlds to create engaging three-dimensional learning spaces for students, but the impact of virtual worlds in…

  3. Identifying and Addressing the Mental Health Needs of Online Students in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Bonny

    2014-01-01

    89% of colleges and universities in the United States offer online courses and of those institutions 58% offer degree programs that are completely online (Parker, Lenhart & Moore, 2011).Providing online student services is an important component of these distance programs and is often required by accrediting bodies. Health and wellness…

  4. Identifying the Individual Differences among Students during Learning and Teaching Process by Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubat, Ulas

    2018-01-01

    It is important for teachers to know variables such as physical characteristics, intelligence, perception, gender, ability, learning styles, which are individual differences of the learners. An effective and productive learning-teaching process can be planned by considering these individual differences of the students. Since the learners' own…

  5. Information Literacy in Science Writing: How Students Find, Identify, and Use Scientific Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klucevsek, Kristin M.; Brungard, Allison B.

    2016-01-01

    For undergraduate students to achieve science literacy, they must first develop information literacy skils. These skills align with Information Literacy Standards and include determining appropriate databases, distinguishing among resource types, and citing resources ethically. To effectively improve information literacy and science literacy, we…

  6. Students' Self-Identified Long-Term Leadership Development Goals: An Analysis by Gender and Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosch, David M.; Boyd, Barry L.; Duran, Kristina M.

    2014-01-01

    Leadership development goal statements of 92 undergraduate students enrolled in a multi-year self-directed leadership development program were analyzed using content and thematic analyses to investigate patterns of similarities and differences across gender and race. This qualitative analysis utilized a theoretical framework that approached…

  7. Workshops Increase Students' Proficiency at Identifying General and APA-Style Writing Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Terrence D.; Marek, Pam

    2013-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness of 20- to 30-min workshops on recognition of errors in American Psychological Association-style writing, 58 introductory psychology students attended one of the three workshops (on grammar, mechanics, or references) and completed error recognition tests (pretest, initial posttest, and three follow-up tests). As a…

  8. Identifying and Remediating Student Misconceptions in Introductory Biology via Writing-to-Learn Assignments and Peer Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Audrey S; Finkenstaedt-Quinn, Solaire A; Olsen, Laura J; Gere, Anne Ruggles; Shultz, Ginger V

    2018-06-01

    Student misconceptions are an obstacle in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics courses and unless remediated may continue causing difficulties in learning as students advance in their studies. Writing-to-learn assignments (WTL) are characterized by their ability to promote in-depth conceptual learning by allowing students to explore their understanding of a topic. This study sought to determine whether and what types of misconceptions are elicited by WTL assignments and how the process of peer review and revision leads to remediation or propagation of misconceptions. We examined four WTL assignments in an introductory biology course in which students first wrote about content by applying it to a realistic scenario, then participated in a peer-review process before revising their work. Misconceptions were identified in all four assignments, with the greatest number pertaining to protein structure and function. Additionally, in certain contexts, students used scientific terminology incorrectly. Analysis of the drafts and peer-review comments generated six profiles by which misconceptions were addressed through the peer-review process. The prevalent mode of remediation arose through directed peer-review comments followed by correction during revision. It was also observed that additional misconceptions were elicited as students revised their writing in response to general peer-review suggestions.

  9. Occupational Therapy ’s Role in an Interprofessional Student-Run Free Clinic: Challenges and Opportunities Identified

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oaklee Rogers

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Student-run free clinics (SRFCs provide services to underserved populations while enhancing student education. Occupational therapy (OT participation in integrated care SRFCs is an emerging area of practice and enhances the interprofessional model necessary for holistic patient care. The Student Health Outreach for Wellness (SHOW organization, located in Phoenix, Arizona, is a SRFC comprised of three state universities that incorporates nine different health professional programs to deliver interprofessional care, including OT. The SHOW clinic provides direct care services where student volunteers practice clinical and interprofessional skills under the guidance of licensed health care providers. OT preceptors and students participate in team-based assessment and care delivery to practice their discipline-specific treatment knowledge of upper-extremity impairments, musculoskeletal pain, medication management, fall prevention, and behavioral health issues, among many others. OT integration into the clinic provides students and preceptors an opportunity to build a unique skill set in interprofessional care, educate other disciplines about OT, and become emerging leaders in the field. Challenges for OT involvement in this SRFC include recruitment and sustainability of volunteers and lack of knowledge and understanding about the role of OT on an interprofessional team. Further research is needed to identify additional benefits of OT services in SFRCs.

  10. The first mitochondrial genome for the fishfly subfamily Chauliodinae and implications for the higher phylogeny of Megaloptera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuyu Wang

    Full Text Available Megaloptera are a basal holometabolous insect order with larvae exclusively predacious and aquatic. The evolutionary history of Megaloptera attracts great interest because of its antiquity and important systematic status in Holometabola. However, due to the difficulties identifying morphological apomorphies for the group, controversial hypotheses on the monophyly and higher phylogeny of Megaloptera have been proposed. Herein, we describe the complete mitochondrial (mt genome of a fishfly species, Neochauliodes punctatolosus Liu & Yang, 2006, representing the first mt genome of the subfamily Chauliodinae. A phylogenomic analysis was carried out based on the mt genomic sequences of 13 mt protein-coding genes (PCGs and two rRNA genes of nine Neuropterida species, comprising all three orders of Neuropterida and all families and subfamilies of Megaloptera. Both maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses highly support the monophyly of Megaloptera, which was recovered as the sister of Neuroptera. Within Megaloptera, the sister relationship between Corydalinae and Chauliodinae was corroborated. The divergence time estimation suggests that stem lineage of Neuropterida and Coleoptera separated in the Early Permian. The interordinal divergence within Neuropterida might have occurred in the Late Permian.

  11. Role for ribosome-associated complex and stress-seventy subfamily B (RAC-Ssb) in integral membrane protein translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Sampson, Ligia; Döring, Kristina; Lin, Yuping; Yu, Vivian Y; Bukau, Bernd; Kramer, Günter; Cate, Jamie H D

    2017-12-01

    Targeting of most integral membrane proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum is controlled by the signal recognition particle, which recognizes a hydrophobic signal sequence near the protein N terminus. Proper folding of these proteins is monitored by the unfolded protein response and involves protein degradation pathways to ensure quality control. Here, we identify a new pathway for quality control of major facilitator superfamily transporters that occurs before the first transmembrane helix, the signal sequence recognized by the signal recognition particle, is made by the ribosome. Increased rates of translation elongation of the N-terminal sequence of these integral membrane proteins can divert the nascent protein chains to the ribosome-associated complex and stress-seventy subfamily B chaperones. We also show that quality control of integral membrane proteins by ribosome-associated complex-stress-seventy subfamily B couples translation rate to the unfolded protein response, which has implications for understanding mechanisms underlying human disease and protein production in biotechnology. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. NEED ANALYSIS FOR IDENTIFYING ESP MATERIALS FOR MEDICAL RECORD STUDENTS IN APIKES CITRA MEDIKA SURAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beta Setiawati

    2016-06-01

    and quantitative methods. The outcomesof this study showed the real necessities of students in learning English to prepare their future at the field of medical record and health information. Findings of the need analysis demonstrate that all four of the language skills were necessary for their academic studies and their target career. There are certain topics related to English for medical record such as medical record staff’ duties, ethical and legal issues in medical record, Hospital statistics, Medical record filling system, Health information system, and so on. Accordingly, this study proposes new ESP materials based on the stakeholders’ needs.It is suggested that textbook or handout of English for Medical Record will be made based on the Need Analysis by ESP designers and ESP lecturers involve actively recognizing the progressive needs of medical record students.

  13. A students? survey of cultural competence as a basis for identifying gaps in the medical curriculum

    OpenAIRE

    Seeleman, Conny; Hermans, Jessie; Lamkaddem, Majda; Suurmond, Jeanine; Stronks, Karien; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise

    2014-01-01

    Background Assessing the cultural competence of medical students that have completed the curriculum provides indications on the effectiveness of cultural competence training in that curriculum. However, existing measures for cultural competence mostly rely on self-perceived cultural competence. This paper describes the outcomes of an assessment of knowledge, reflection ability and self-reported culturally competent consultation behaviour, the relation between these assessments and self-percei...

  14. Using Three-Tier Test to Identify the Quantity of Student that Having Misconception on Newton's Laws of Motion Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emi Sulistri

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify students quantity who are having the misconception on Newton's laws of motion concept using a Three-tiered Test. The sampling technique used in this study is purposive sampling technique and has been conducted on 56 students at Senior High School. A three-tier "Newton’s Law Of Motion Test" with 10 items is using as instrument to collected date in this study. The results showed that the quantity of students who experienced misconception with the highest category is on the concept of determining the relationship between the mass of objects and the time required for free fall that is equal to 89.3%. While the lowest category is in the concept of explaining the relationship between acceleration, mass and force with the time required for the object to fall freely that is equal to 26.8%.

  15. Development of Two-Tier Diagnostic Test Pictorial-Based for Identifying High School Students Misconceptions on the Mole Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siswaningsih, W.; Firman, H.; Zackiyah; Khoirunnisa, A.

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to develop the two-tier pictorial-based diagnostic test for identifying student misconceptions on mole concept. The method of this study is used development and validation. The development of the test Obtained through four phases, development of any items, validation, determination key, and application test. Test was developed in the form of pictorial consisting of two tier, the first tier Consist of four possible answers and the second tier Consist of four possible reasons. Based on the results of content validity of 20 items using the CVR (Content Validity Ratio), a number of 18 items declared valid. Based on the results of the reliability test using SPSS, Obtained 17 items with Cronbach’s Alpha value of 0703, the which means that items have accepted. A total of 10 items was conducted to 35 students of senior high school students who have studied the mole concept on one of the high schools in Cimahi. Based on the results of the application test, student misconceptions were identified in each label concept in mole concept with the percentage of misconceptions on the label concept of mole (60.15%), Avogadro’s number (34.28%), relative atomic mass (62, 84%), relative molecule mass (77.08%), molar mass (68.53%), molar volume of gas (57.11%), molarity (71.32%), chemical equation (82.77%), limiting reactants (91.40%), and molecular formula (77.13%).

  16. Applying an Evidence-Based Assessment Model to Identify Students at Risk for Perceived Academic Problems following Concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Danielle M; Burns, Alison R; Youngstrom, Eric A; Vaughan, Christopher G; Sady, Maegan D; Gioia, Gerard A

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the utility of an evidence-based assessment (EBA) model to establish a multimodal set of tools for identifying students at risk for perceived post-injury academic problems. Participants included 142 students diagnosed with concussion (age: M=14.95; SD=1.80; 59% male), evaluated within 4 weeks of injury (median=16 days). Demographics, pre-injury history, self- and parent-report measures assessing symptom severity and executive functions, and cognitive test performance were examined as predictors of self-reported post-injury academic problems. Latent class analysis categorized participants into "high" (44%) and "low" (56%) levels of self-reported academic problems. Receiver operating characteristic analyses revealed significant discriminative validity for self- and parent-reported symptom severity and executive dysfunction and self-reported exertional response for identifying students reporting low versus high academic problems. Parent-reported symptom ratings [area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC)=.79] and executive dysfunction (AUC=.74), and self-reported ratings of executive dysfunction (AUC=.84), symptoms (AUC=.80), and exertional response (AUC=.70) each classified students significantly better than chance (psperspective in the management of concussion by applying traditional strengths of neuropsychological assessment to clinical decision making. (JINS, 2016, 22, 1038-1049).

  17. Drug and Alcohol Exposed Children: Implications for Special Education for Students Identified as Behaviorally Disordered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Anne M.

    1991-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on children prenatally exposed to drugs and alcohol, the potential impact on the educational and social services systems, and implications for programing for children identified as behaviorally disordered. (Author/JDD)

  18. Homologous subfamilies of human alphoid repetitive DNA on different nucleolus organizing chromosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joergensen, A.L.; Bostock, C.J.; Bak, A.L.

    1987-01-01

    The organization of alphoid repeated sequences on human nucleolus-organizing (NOR) chromosomes 13, 21, and 22 has been investigated. Analysis of hybridization of alphoid DNA probes to Southern transfers of restriction enzyme-digested DNA fragments from hybrid cells containing single human chromosomes shows that chromosomes 13 and 21 share one subfamily of alphoid repeats, whereas a different subfamily may be held in common by chromosomes 13 and 22. The sequences of cloned 680-base-pair EcoRI fragments of the alphoid DNA from chromosomes 13 and 21 show that the basic unit of this subfamily is indistinguishable on each chromosome. The sequence of cloned 1020-base-pair Xba I fragments from chromosome 22 is related to, but distinguishable from, that of the 680-base-pair EcoRI alphoid subfamily of chromosomes 13 and 21. These results suggest that, at some point after they originated and were homogenized, different subfamilies of alphoid sequences must have exchanged between chromosomes 13 and 21 and separately between chromosomes 13 and 22

  19. Identifying Predictors of Student Satisfaction and Student Motivation in the Framework of Assuring Quality in the Delivery of Higher Education Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Stukalina

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the quality of educational services provided by a university is a crucial aspect of the education managers’ strategy in the customer-driven education context, quality assurance in education being an essential issue to be promoted in European higher education institutions. Students’ evaluation of the educational services (that is consumer-oriented assessment can be regarded as one of the most significant educational management tools used for stimulating quality enhancement in a university. It is vital for supporting decision-making process. A special emphasis may be put on monitoring student satisfaction with the educational services and student motivation toward studies. Understanding the central factors that are supposed to influence and predict student satisfaction and student motivation may provide education managers with best possible solutions to improve quality of the educational services in a higher education institution. This paper presents the results of an empirical study performed in Riga Technical University. The study was aimed at identifying the basic determinants (predictors of student satisfaction and motivation in the framework of the ESP (English for Specific Purposes course.

  20. Identifying the Factors Leading to Success: How an Innovative Science Curriculum Cultivates Student Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scogin, Stephen C.

    2016-01-01

    "PlantingScience" is an award-winning program recognized for its innovation and use of computer-supported scientist mentoring. Science learners work on inquiry-based experiments in their classrooms and communicate asynchronously with practicing plant scientist-mentors about the projects. The purpose of this study was to identify specific…

  1. Performance of Student Software Development Teams: The Influence of Personality and Identifying as Team Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Conal; Bizumic, Boris; Reynolds, Katherine; Smithson, Michael; Johns-Boast, Lynette; van Rooy, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    One prominent approach in the exploration of the variations in project team performance has been to study two components of the aggregate personalities of the team members: conscientiousness and agreeableness. A second line of research, known as self-categorisation theory, argues that identifying as team members and the team's performance norms…

  2. Whole genome comparisons of Fragaria, Prunus and Malus reveal different modes of evolution between Rosaceous subfamilies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sook; Cestaro, Alessandro; Troggio, Michela; Main, Dorrie; Zheng, Ping; Cho, Ilhyung; Folta, Kevin M; Sosinski, Bryon; Abbott, Albert; Celton, Jean-Marc; Arús, Pere; Shulaev, Vladimir; Verde, Ignazio; Morgante, Michele; Rokhsar, Daniel; Velasco, Riccardo; Sargent, Daniel James

    2012-04-04

    Rosaceae include numerous economically important and morphologically diverse species. Comparative mapping between the member species in Rosaceae have indicated some level of synteny. Recently the whole genome of three crop species, peach, apple and strawberry, which belong to different genera of the Rosaceae family, have been sequenced, allowing in-depth comparison of these genomes. Our analysis using the whole genome sequences of peach, apple and strawberry identified 1399 orthologous regions between the three genomes, with a mean length of around 100 kb. Each peach chromosome showed major orthology mostly to one strawberry chromosome, but to more than two apple chromosomes, suggesting that the apple genome went through more chromosomal fissions in addition to the whole genome duplication after the divergence of the three genera. However, the distribution of contiguous ancestral regions, identified using the multiple genome rearrangements and ancestors (MGRA) algorithm, suggested that the Fragaria genome went through a greater number of small scale rearrangements compared to the other genomes since they diverged from a common ancestor. Using the contiguous ancestral regions, we reconstructed a hypothetical ancestral genome for the Rosaceae 7 composed of nine chromosomes and propose the evolutionary steps from the ancestral genome to the extant Fragaria, Prunus and Malus genomes. Our analysis shows that different modes of evolution may have played major roles in different subfamilies of Rosaceae. The hypothetical ancestral genome of Rosaceae and the evolutionary steps that lead to three different lineages of Rosaceae will facilitate our understanding of plant genome evolution as well as have a practical impact on knowledge transfer among member species of Rosaceae.

  3. Whole genome comparisons of Fragaria, Prunus and Malus reveal different modes of evolution between Rosaceous subfamilies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Sook

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rosaceae include numerous economically important and morphologically diverse species. Comparative mapping between the member species in Rosaceae have indicated some level of synteny. Recently the whole genome of three crop species, peach, apple and strawberry, which belong to different genera of the Rosaceae family, have been sequenced, allowing in-depth comparison of these genomes. Results Our analysis using the whole genome sequences of peach, apple and strawberry identified 1399 orthologous regions between the three genomes, with a mean length of around 100 kb. Each peach chromosome showed major orthology mostly to one strawberry chromosome, but to more than two apple chromosomes, suggesting that the apple genome went through more chromosomal fissions in addition to the whole genome duplication after the divergence of the three genera. However, the distribution of contiguous ancestral regions, identified using the multiple genome rearrangements and ancestors (MGRA algorithm, suggested that the Fragaria genome went through a greater number of small scale rearrangements compared to the other genomes since they diverged from a common ancestor. Using the contiguous ancestral regions, we reconstructed a hypothetical ancestral genome for the Rosaceae 7 composed of nine chromosomes and propose the evolutionary steps from the ancestral genome to the extant Fragaria, Prunus and Malus genomes. Conclusion Our analysis shows that different modes of evolution may have played major roles in different subfamilies of Rosaceae. The hypothetical ancestral genome of Rosaceae and the evolutionary steps that lead to three different lineages of Rosaceae will facilitate our understanding of plant genome evolution as well as have a practical impact on knowledge transfer among member species of Rosaceae.

  4. Identification and Structure-Function Analysis of Subfamily Selective G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase Inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homan, Kristoff T.; Larimore, Kelly M.; Elkins, Jonathan M.; Szklarz, Marta; Knapp, Stefan; Tesmer, John J.G. [Michigan; (Oxford)

    2015-02-13

    Selective inhibitors of individual subfamilies of G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) would serve as useful chemical probes as well as leads for therapeutic applications ranging from heart failure to Parkinson’s disease. To identify such inhibitors, differential scanning fluorimetry was used to screen a collection of known protein kinase inhibitors that could increase the melting points of the two most ubiquitously expressed GRKs: GRK2 and GRK5. Enzymatic assays on 14 of the most stabilizing hits revealed that three exhibit nanomolar potency of inhibition for individual GRKs, some of which exhibiting orders of magnitude selectivity. Most of the identified compounds can be clustered into two chemical classes: indazole/dihydropyrimidine-containing compounds that are selective for GRK2 and pyrrolopyrimidine-containing compounds that potently inhibit GRK1 and GRK5 but with more modest selectivity. The two most potent inhibitors representing each class, GSK180736A and GSK2163632A, were cocrystallized with GRK2 and GRK1, and their atomic structures were determined to 2.6 and 1.85 Å spacings, respectively. GSK180736A, developed as a Rho-associated, coiled-coil-containing protein kinase inhibitor, binds to GRK2 in a manner analogous to that of paroxetine, whereas GSK2163632A, developed as an insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor inhibitor, occupies a novel region of the GRK active site cleft that could likely be exploited to achieve more selectivity. However, neither compound inhibits GRKs more potently than their initial targets. This data provides the foundation for future efforts to rationally design even more potent and selective GRK inhibitors.

  5. Systematics of the subfamily Poeciliinae Bonaparte (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae, with an emphasis on the tribe Cnesterodontini Hubbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Franco Lucinda

    Full Text Available Osteological and soft anatomical features of representatives of poeciliine genera were studied to test the monophyly of the poeciliine tribes and to advance a hypothesis of relationships within the subfamily. The resultant hypothesis supports the proposal of a new classification for the subfamily Poeciliinae. Diagnoses are provided for suprageneric clades. The tribe Tomeurini is resurrected and the new tribes Brachyrhaphini and Priapichthyini as well as the supertribe Poeciliini are described. New usages of old tribe names are proposed based on the phylogenetic framework.

  6. Primary factors identified in sport science students' coaching philosophies : sport education and community involvement

    OpenAIRE

    Liandi van den Berg

    2014-01-01

    Youth sport coaches have a great influence on the experiences and development of children who participate in organized sport. Given this influence of coaches on children and the huge participation numbers of children in sports, coach education programmes received increasing research attention over the past 30 years. Numerous important facets of coach educational programmes have been identified, of which the first key developmental domain as indicated by the President's Council on Fitness, Spo...

  7. Constructing New Theory for Identifying Students with Emotional Disturbance: A Constructivist Approach to Grounded Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Dori Barnett

    2012-01-01

    A grounded theory study that examined how practitioners in a county alternative and correctional education setting identify youth with emotional and behavioral difficulties for special education services provides an exemplar for a constructivist approach to grounded theory methodology. Discussion focuses on how a constructivist orientation to grounded theory methodology informed research decisions, shaped the development of the emergent grounded theory, and prompted a way of thinking about da...

  8. Submission to GenBank of the Plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP) Subfamily in Cotton – GenBank Accession No. GU998827-GU998830 and GenBank Accession TPA;inferential No. BK007045-BK007052

    Science.gov (United States)

    The plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIP) are one of the five aquaporin protein subfamilies. Aquaporin proteins are known to facilitate water transport through biological membranes. In order to identify NIP aquaporin gene candidates in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), in silico and molecular clon...

  9. IDENTIFYING FACTORS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO THE SATISFACTION OF STUDENTS IN E-LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent CALLI,

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been an increasing interest in the application of e-learning through the enhancement of internet and computer technologies. Satisfaction has appeared as a key factor in order to develop efficient course content in line with students’ demands and expectations. Thus, a lot of research has been conducted on the concept of satisfaction in electronic environments. Satisfaction has been seen to be the most significant variable on loyalty and usage intention in marketing and information science terms, which can also be highly related to academic success. In this regard, this study set out to investigate the effects of several variables on the learning processes of 930 e-learning students in the Sakarya University distance learning program. The findings of the research indicated that factors perceived playfulness, perceived ease of use and multimedia content effectiveness had a significant effect on perceived usefulness. Furthermore, it was concluded that satisfaction was affected by perceived usefulness, perceived playfulness and multimedia content effectivenes

  10. Enhancing the Employability of Chinese International Students: Identifying Achievements and Gaps in the Research Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemeng Cao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article shows what achievements have been made by existing studies on graduate employability, and what gaps need to be filled in this field. It starts with a retrospective account of the changing concept of employability, followed by a presentation of the practices that have been used to support graduate employability enhancement in different countries. Moreover, this article gives a critical review of Chinese contexts of graduate labour market. Last but not least, limitations of existing studies are identified, which reflect an expectation for future research on graduate employability to meet the demand of an increasingly international dimension of higher education.

  11. Constructing New Theory for Identifying Students with Emotional Disturbance: A Constructivist Approach to Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dori Barnett

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A grounded theory study that examined how practitioners in a county alternative and correctional education setting identify youth with emotional and behavioral difficulties for special education services provides an exemplar for a constructivist approach to grounded theory methodology. Discussion focuses on how a constructivist orientation to grounded theory methodology informed research decisions, shaped the development of the emergent grounded theory, and prompted a way of thinking about data collection and analysis. Implications for future research directions and policy and practice in the field of special and alternative education are discussed.

  12. Transformation from student to occupational therapist: Using the Delphi technique to identify the threshold concepts of occupational therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicola-Richmond, Kelli M; Pépin, Geneviève; Larkin, Helen

    2016-04-01

    Understanding and facilitating the transformation from occupational therapy student to practitioner is central to the development of competent and work-ready graduates. However, the pivotal concepts and capabilities that need to be taught and learnt in occupational therapy are not necessarily explicit. The threshold concepts theory of teaching and learning proposes that every discipline has a set of transformational concepts that students must acquire in order to progress. As students acquire the threshold concepts, they develop a transformed way of understanding content related to their course of study which contributes to their developing expertise. The aim of this study was to identify the threshold concepts of occupational therapy. The Delphi technique, a data collection method that aims to demonstrate consensus in relation to important questions, was used with three groups comprising final year occupational therapy students (n = 11), occupational therapy clinicians (n = 21) and academics teaching occupational therapy (n = 10) in Victoria, Australia. Participants reached consensus regarding 10 threshold concepts for the occupational therapy discipline. These are: understanding and applying the models and theories of occupational therapy; occupation; evidence-based practice; clinical reasoning; discipline specific skills and knowledge; practising in context; a client-centred approach; the occupational therapist role; reflective practice and; a holistic approach. The threshold concepts identified provide valuable information for the discipline. They can potentially inform the development of competencies for occupational therapy and provide guidance for teaching and learning activities to facilitate the transformation to competent practitioner. © 2015 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  13. Identifying Keys to Success in Innovative Teaching: Student Engagement and Instructional Practices as Predictors of Student Learning in a Course Using a Team-Based Learning Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa M. Alvarez-Bell

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available When implementing innovative teaching techniques, instructors often seek to gauge the success of their methods. Proposing one approach to assessing classroom innovation, this study examines the ability of students’ ratings of engagement and instructional practices to predict their learning in a cooperative (team-based framework. After identifying the factor structures underlying measures of student engagement and instructional practices, these factors were used as predictors of self-reported student learning in a general chemistry course delivered using a team-based learning approach. Exploratory factor analyses showed a four-factor structure of engagement: teamwork involvement, investment in the learning process, feelings about team-based learning, level of academic challenge; and a three-factor structure of instructional practices: instructional guidance, fostering self-directed learning skills, and cognitive level. Multiple linear regression revealed that feelings about team-based learning and perceptions of instructional guidance had significant effects on learning, beyond other predictors, while controlling gender, GPA, class level, number of credit hours, whether students began college at their current institution, expected highest level of education, racial or ethnic identification, and parental level of education. These results yield insight into student perceptions about team-based learning, and how to measure learning in a team-based learning framework, with implications for how to evaluate innovative instructional methods.

  14. Using Content-Aligned Assessments to Identify Weaknesses in Students' Understanding of Fundamental Weather and Climate Ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertheim, J.; Willard, S.

    2011-12-01

    ). But a much more prevalent issue is that most students lack schematic knowledge for any concept tested, as demonstrated by results indicative of random guessing on items that require cognitive demands beyond declarative knowledge. For example, 83% of students know that the maximum height of the sun in the sky above a given place can change during July, but only 32% know both that it changes continuously through the month and could correctly identify if it gets higher or lower. These basic elements of an accurate mental model are needed to explain annual temperature patterns. If students do not have an accurate understanding of processes controlling key elements of the climate system, it is unsurprising that they struggle to comprehend how these elements interact within the system itself. The results of this study underscore the need to 1) ensure that fundamentals are given the necessary attention, even as our expectations for students become increasingly sophisticated; 2) define grade appropriate, coherent, functioning conceptual models for each climate idea and for each grade level; and 3) develop instructional materials that build schematic knowledge.

  15. Characterization of ppGalNAc-T18, a member of the vertebrate-specific Y subfamily of UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-galactosamine:polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xing; Wang, Jing; Li, Wei; Xu, Yingjiao; Shao, Dong; Xie, Yinyin; Xie, Wenxian; Kubota, Tomomi; Narimatsu, Hisashi; Zhang, Yan

    2012-05-01

    The first step of mucin-type O-glycosylation is catalyzed by members of the UDP-GalNAc:polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase (ppGalNAc-T; EC 2.4.1.41) family. Each member of this family has unique substrate specificity and expression profiles. In this report, we describe a new subfamily of ppGalNAc-Ts, designated the Y subfamily. The Y subfamily consists of four members, ppGalNAc-T8, -T9, -T17 and -T18, in which the conserved YDX(5)WGGENXE sequence in the Gal/GalNAc-T motif of ppGalNAc-Ts is mutated to LDX(5)YGGENXE. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Y subfamily members only exist in vertebrates. All four Y subfamily members lack in vitro GalNAc-transferase activity toward classical substrates possibly because of the UDP-GalNAc-binding pocket mutants. However, ppGalNAc-T18, the newly identified defining member, was localized in the endoplasmic reticulum rather than the Golgi apparatus in lung carcinoma cells. The knockdown of ppGalNAc-T18 altered cell morphology, proliferation potential and changed cell O-glycosylation. ppGalNAc-T18 can also modulate the in vitro GalNAc-transferase activity of ppGalNAc-T2 and -T10, suggesting that it may be a chaperone-like protein. These findings suggest that the new Y subfamily of ppGalNAc-Ts plays an important role in protein glycosylation; characterizing their functions will provide new insight into the role of ppGalNAc-Ts.

  16. Sonorensin: an antimicrobial peptide, belonging to the heterocycloanthracin subfamily of bacteriocins, from a new marine isolate, Bacillus sonorensis MT93.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Lipsy; Singh, Gurdeep; Choudhary, Vikas; Sahoo, Debendra K

    2014-05-01

    Marine environments are the greatest fronts of biodiversity, representing a resource of unexploited or unknown microorganisms and new substances having potential applications. Among microbial products, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have received great attention recently due to their applications as food preservatives and therapeutic agents. A new marine soil isolate producing an AMP was identified as Bacillus sonorensis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. It produced an AMP that showed a broad spectrum of activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The peptide, named sonorensin, was purified to homogeneity using a combination of chromatographic techniques. The intact molecular mass of the purified peptide, 6,274 Da, as revealed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF), was in agreement with Tricine-SDS-PAGE analysis. A PCR array of primers was used to identify AMP structural genes, which allowed the successful amplification of the related genes from strain MT93. The putative open reading frame of sonorensin was amplified, cloned into the pET-32a(+) vector, expressed as a thioredoxin (Trx) fusion protein in Escherichia coli, and then purified. Sequence alignment analysis revealed that the bacteriocin being reported could belong to new subfamily of bacteriocins, heterocycloanthracin. The peptide indicated its potential as a biocontrol agent or food antimicrobial agent, due to its antimicrobial activity against bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. This is the first report of the production, purification, and characterization of wild-type and recombinant bacteriocin by B. sonorensis and the first bacteriocin of the heterocycloanthracin subfamily to be characterized.

  17. Flora of subfamily Prunoideae of family Rosaceae in botanical garden of Dnipropetrovsk university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Opanasenko

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The present state of genofond of the 24 taxa collection of subfamily Prunoideae Focke (family Rosaceae Juss in DNU botanical garden has been analysed. Valuable genotypes for practical use in the development of landscape, farm horticulture and further selection were marked out. The ways of further exploit was planned.

  18. Seed morphology and anatomy and its utility in recognizing subfamilies and tribes of Zingiberaceae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedict, John C.; Smith, Selena Y.; Collinson, Margaret E.; Leong-Skornickova, Jana; Specht, Chelsea D.; Marone, Federica; Xiao, Xianghui; Parkinson, Dilworth Y.

    2015-11-01

    PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Recent phylogenetic analyses based on molecular data suggested that the monocot family Zingiberaceae be separated into four subfamilies and four tribes. Robust morphological characters to support these clades are lacking. Seeds were analyzed in a phylogenetic context to test independently the circumscription of clades and to better understand evolution of seed characters within Zingiberaceae. METHODS: Seventy-five species from three of the four subfamilies were analyzed using synchrotron based x-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM) and scored for 39 morphoanatomical characters. KEY RESULTS: Zingiberaceae seeds are some of the most structurally complex seeds in angiosperms. No single seed character was found to distinguish each subfamily, but combinations of characters were found to differentiate between the subfamilies. Recognition of the tribes based on seeds was possible for Globbeae, but not for Alpinieae, Riedelieae, or Zingibereae, due to considerable variation. CONCLUSIONS: SRXTM is an excellent, nondestructive tool to capture morphoanatomical variation of seeds and allows for the study of taxa with limited material available. Alpinioideae, Siphonochiloideae, Tamijioideae, and Zingiberoideae are well supported based on both molecular and morphological data, including multiple seed characters. Globbeae are well supported as a distinctive tribe within the Zingiberoideae, but no other tribe could be differentiated using seeds due to considerable homoplasy when compared with currently accepted relationships based on molecular data. Novel seed characters suggest tribal affinities for two currently unplaced Zingiberaceae taxa: Siliquamomum may be related to Riedelieae and Monolophus to Zingibereae, but further work is needed before formal revision of the family.

  19. Generic revision of the subfamily Cenocoeliinae Szépligeti (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van C.

    1994-01-01

    The genera of the subfamily Cenocoeliinae Szépligeti are revised, keyed and illustrated. The genera Capitonius Brullé, 1846, Aulacodes Cresson, 1865, Lestricus Reinhard, 1866, Promachus Cresson, 1887, and Evaniomorpha Szépligeti, 1901, are re-instated. One new genus is described and illustrated:

  20. Wood anatomy of the Euphorbiaceae, in particular of the subfamily Phyllanthoideae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mennega, Alberta M.W.

    1985-01-01

    The great variety in wood structure of the large family Euphorbiaceae makes it impossible to describe briefly a general wood pattern. Nevertheless, a more or less clear division into four anatomical groups can be made. A short overview is given of the wood structure of the uni-ovulate subfamilies

  1. Revision of the subfamily Euphorinae (excluding the tribe Meteorini Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, X.; Achterberg, van C.

    1997-01-01

    The subfamily Euphorinae (excluding the tribe Meteorini Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from China is revised. In total 150 species, belonging to 24 genera, are treated and keyed. One genus (Heia gen. nov.; type species: Heia robustipes spec. nov.) and 69 species are described as new to science.

  2. Phylogeny of Celastraceae subfamily Hippocrateoideae inferred from morphological characters and nuclear and plastid loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughenour, Jennifer M; Simmons, Mark P; Lombardi, Julio A; Yakobson, Kendra; Archer, Robert H

    2011-05-01

    The phylogeny of Celastraceae subfamily Hippocrateoideae (∼ 100 species and 19 genera in the Old and New World tropics) was inferred using morphological characters together with plastid (matK, trnL-F) and nuclear (ITS and 26S rDNA) genes. The subfamily is easily recognized by the synapomorphies of transversely flattened, deeply lobed capsules and seeds with membranous basal wings or narrow stipes together with bisexual, 5-merous flowers that generally have an extrastaminal disk and three stamens. Hippocrateoideae, like Salacioideae, are inferred to have an Old World origin. The narrow stipes of Neotropical species that are water-dispersed are inferred to be derived within the subfamily from ancestral species with wind-dispersed winged seeds. Helictonema, a monotypic genus endemic to tropical Africa, has a small, white, spongy aril that is located at the base of the seed wing and appears to be unique within Hippocrateoideae. Our inference that Helictonema is sister to the remaining members of the subfamily, considered in the context of Sarawakodendron being sister to Salacioideae, suggests that small arils and capsular fruit were primitive within both subfamilies. The aril became dramatically enlarged within Salacioideae, in which the fruits are berries, and lost entirely within Hippocrateoideae, in which the fruits are transversely flattened capsules. All five Old World taxa of Prionostemma and all eight currently recognized species within Simirestis are transferred to Pristimera, one South African variety of Pristimera is raised to species level, and all three taxa in Pristimera subgenus Trochantha are transferred to the new genus Trochantha. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Identifying the relationship between spiritual quotient and mental health in the students of Lorestan university of medical sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sharareh khodabakhshi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, the students' mental health has attracted a lot of attention. Many factors effect on the mental health. Nowadays, spirituality is considered as one of the important aspects of the humanistic action, which has a permanent relation with health and recovery, so the main goal of this investigation is to identify the relationship between spiritual Quotient and mental health of the students of Lorestan university of medical sciences. Materials and Methods: The descriptive correlation method was applied in this investigation. The statistical population of this research consistsed of all the students (2238 of Lorestan university of medical sciences. Cochran's formula was used to determine the sample size, and 330 students were selected by the arbitrary relative categorized method. The instruments for data gathering were Goldberg's GHa-23 (1972 and spiritual intelligence of Badie et al. The instruments credit was measured through content validty and the reliability of the questionnaires using Cronbach's alpha method. Besides the indexes of the descriptive statistics such as mean and standard deviation, inferential statistics tests such as Pearson's coefficient correlation and multiple regression analysis and independent T test were utilized to analyze the data and testing the research hypothesizes. Results: The results showed that there is a positive relationship between spiritual quotient and the dimensions of the mental health (community orientation and moral dimension. "The ability to confront and deal with the problem", "moral virtues", "self-consciousness, love and interest". The dimension of "self-consciousness, love and interest" and "community orientation" have a significant role in predicting the mental health. Conclusion: Spiritual quotient has a positive influence on the individuals' mental health. The results show that people with a moral life are more healthy from the viewpoint of phycology.

  4. Identifying motivators and barriers to student completion of instructor evaluations: A multi-faceted, collaborative approach from four colleges of pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuley, James W; Backo, Jennifer Lynn; Sobota, Kristen Finley; Metzger, Anne H; Ulbrich, Timothy

    To identify motivators and barriers to pharmacy student completion of instructor evaluations, and to develop potential strategies to improve the evaluation process. Completed at four Ohio Colleges of Pharmacy, Phase I consisted of a student/faculty survey and Phase II consisted of joint student/faculty focus groups to discuss Phase I data and to problem solve. In Phase I, the top three student-identified and faculty-perceived motivators to completion of evaluations were to (1) make the course better, (2) earn bonus points, and (3) improve the instructor's teaching. The top three student-identified barriers to completion of evaluations were having to (1) evaluate multiple instructors, (2) complete several evaluations around the same time, and (3) complete lengthy evaluations. Phase II focus groups identified a number of potential ways to enhance the motivators and reduce barriers, including but not limited to making sure faculty convey to students that the feedback they provide is useful and to provide examples of how student feedback has been used to improve their teaching/the course. Students and faculty identified motivators and barriers to completing instructor evaluations and were willing to work together to improve the process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Animal-Assisted Literacy Instruction for Students with Identified Learning Disabilities: Examining the Effects of Incorporating a Therapy Dog into Guided Oral Reading Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treat, Wendy Abigail

    2013-01-01

    Literacy acquisition is imperative to successful academic progress and to successful participation in our society. Students with identified learning disabilities are often among those who struggle to acquire literacy skills. The following dissertation shares the results of a reading intervention study in which nine students with identified…

  6. Identifying and Integrating Relevant Educational/Instructional Technology (E/IT) for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CLD) Students with Disabilities in Urban Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Monica R.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this manuscript is to address the significant void in the literature related to technology integration for culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) students with disabilities living in urban communities. Given that the vast majority of CLD students attend school within urban districts, the focus of this article is to (a) identify and…

  7. Nine novel microsatellite markers for the army ant Simopelta pergandei (subfamily Ponerinae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronauer, D.J.C.; Boomsma, J.J.; Pierce, N.E.

    2011-01-01

    Simopelta (subfamily Ponerinae) army ants are specialized predators of other ants in New World tropical forests. Although they show a striking convergence in overall life-history with the well known army ants of the subfamilies Aenictinae, Dorylinae, and Ecitoninae, the genus has been little...... studied. We developed and characterized nine novel microsatellite loci for S. pergandei with 2-8 observed alleles (mean: 5.2) and expected heterozygosities between 0.16 and 0.87 (mean: 0.68). Three of these loci reliably cross-amplified in a second species, S. pentadentata, with 4-8 alleles (mean: 8.......0) and expected heterozygosities between 0.32 and 0.85 (mean: 0.65). These genetic markers will be useful in studying the sociobiology and molecular ecology of Simopelta army ants and in elucidating convergent evolutionary trajectories that have culminated in the army ant lifestyle...

  8. Variability of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid Occurrence in Species of the Grass Subfamily Pooideae (Poaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesseling, Anne-Maria; Demetrowitsch, Tobias J.; Schwarz, Karin; Ober, Dietrich

    2017-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are a class of secondary metabolites found in various unrelated angiosperm lineages including cool-season grasses (Poaceae, subfamily Pooideae). Thesinine conjugates, saturated forms of PA that are regarded as non-toxic, have been described to occur in the two grass species Lolium perenne and Festuca arundinacea (Poaceae, subfamily Pooideae). In a wider screen, we tested various species of the Pooideae lineage, grown under controlled conditions, for their ability to produce thesinine conjugates or related structures. Using an LC-MS based targeted metabolomics approach we were able to show that PA biosynthesis in grasses is limited to a group of very closely related Pooideae species that produce a limited diversity of PA structures. High variability in PA levels was observed even between individuals of the same species. These individual accumulation patterns are discussed with respect to a possible function and evolution of this type of alkaloid. PMID:29250094

  9. Variability of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid Occurrence in Species of the Grass Subfamily Pooideae (Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Maria Wesseling

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs are a class of secondary metabolites found in various unrelated angiosperm lineages including cool-season grasses (Poaceae, subfamily Pooideae. Thesinine conjugates, saturated forms of PA that are regarded as non-toxic, have been described to occur in the two grass species Lolium perenne and Festuca arundinacea (Poaceae, subfamily Pooideae. In a wider screen, we tested various species of the Pooideae lineage, grown under controlled conditions, for their ability to produce thesinine conjugates or related structures. Using an LC-MS based targeted metabolomics approach we were able to show that PA biosynthesis in grasses is limited to a group of very closely related Pooideae species that produce a limited diversity of PA structures. High variability in PA levels was observed even between individuals of the same species. These individual accumulation patterns are discussed with respect to a possible function and evolution of this type of alkaloid.

  10. Molecular Phylogenetics of the Serranid Subfamily Epinephelinae: Speciation and Biogeography in a Nearshore Marine Fish Clade

    OpenAIRE

    Craig, Matthew T,

    2005-01-01

    The processes that shape present day distributions of marine organisms have remained a central topic in evolutionary biology, conservation biology, and ecology. In this thesis, genetic data from mitochondrial and nuclear genes were used to create a phylogenetic hypothesis for the groupers of the subfamily Epinephelinae as a means of evaluating the current taxonomy of the group and the geography of speciation in marine organisms. The molecular phylogenetic hypothesis presented in Chap...

  11. Plastid Genome Evolution in the Early-Diverging Legume Subfamily Cercidoideae (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-Huan Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The subfamily Cercidoideae is an early-branching legume lineage, which consists of 13 genera distributed in the tropical and warm temperate Northern Hemisphere. A previous study detected two plastid genomic variations in this subfamily, but the limited taxon sampling left the overall plastid genome (plastome diversification across the subfamily unaddressed, and phylogenetic relationships within this clade remained unresolved. Here, we assembled eight plastomes from seven Cercidoideae genera and conducted phylogenomic-comparative analyses in a broad evolutionary framework across legumes. The plastomes of Cercidoideae all exhibited a typical quadripartite structure with a conserved gene content typical of most angiosperm plastomes. Plastome size ranged from 151,705 to 165,416 bp, mainly due to the expansion and contraction of inverted repeat (IR regions. The order of genes varied due to the occurrence of several inversions. In Tylosema species, a plastome with a 29-bp IR-mediated inversion was found to coexist with a canonical-type plastome, and the abundance of the two arrangements of isomeric molecules differed between individuals. Complete plastome data were much more efficient at resolving intergeneric relationships of Cercidoideae than the previously used selection of only a few plastid or nuclear loci. In sum, our study revealed novel insights into the structural diversification of plastomes in an early-branching legume lineage, and, thus, into the evolutionary trajectories of legume plastomes in general.

  12. Pollen morphology of the subfamily arecoideae griff. (family-arecaceae) from pakistan and kashmir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasheed, A.A.; Perveen, A.; Abid, R.

    2016-01-01

    Pollen morphological characters are potentially informative in the systematic of monocotyledons including (Arecaceae), at supra and infra familial level. The pollen morphology of 8 species (subfamily Arecoideae) clearly shows that the qualitative pollen characters (such as aperture, exine pattern and shape) are found to be taxonomically important as compared to the quantitative characters (such as size of the grain and exine thickness).Considerable pollen variations have been found within the subfamily Arecoideae with regard to size, shape, aperture type and exine pattern. For instance, 7 out of 8 species have monosulcate pollen (i.e., 87.5%) and a remaining species (viz., Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) have trichotomosulcate pollen. The pollen are frequently elliptical, but in some cases rounded-triangular pollen were also found. Similarly, there is a great diversity in exine pattern such as punctate, reticulate, vermiculate, spinose, rugulate and perforate or combination of these types have also been found, but the most predominant pattern is the reticulate type. On the basis of pollen aperture, size and exine pattern, four pollen types have been recognized such as Areca-type, Dypsis-type, Cocos-type and Elaies-type. The data obtained from the palynological studies have been analyzed by Agglomerative cluster analysis choosing the Euclidean distance and Ward's method for a group linkage method. The objective of the present work is to classify studied taxa on the basis of pollen characters and to quantify the species relationships representing the subfamily Arecoideae based on numerical techniques. (author)

  13. Genome wide identification and expression analysis of Homeodomain leucine zipper subfamily IV (HDZ IV gene family from Musa accuminata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashutosh ePandey

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The homedodomain zipper family (HD-ZIP of transcription factors is present only in plants and plays important role in the regulation of plant-specific processes. The subfamily IV of HDZ transcription factors (HD-ZIP IV has primarily been implicated in the regulation of epidermal structure development. Though this gene family is present in all lineages of land plants, members of this gene family have not been identified in banana, which is one of the major staple fruit crops. In the present work, we identified 21 HDZIV genes in banana by the computational analysis of banana genome resource. Our analysis suggested that these genes putatively encode proteins having all the characteristic domains of HDZIV transcription factors. The phylogenetic analysis of the banana HDZIV family genes further confirmed that after separation from a common ancestor, the banana and poales lineages might have followed distinct evolutionary paths. Further, we conclude that segmental duplication played a major role in the evolution of banana HDZIV genes. All the identified banana HDZIV genes expresses in different banana tissue, however at varying levels. The transcript levels of some of the banana HDZIV genes were also detected in banana fruit pulp, suggesting their putative role in fruit attributes. A large number of genes of this family showed modulated expression under drought and salinity stress. Taken together, the present work lays a foundation for elucidation of functional aspects of the banana HDZIV genes and for their possible use in the banana improvement programs.

  14. Freyinae, a major new subfamily of Neotropical jumping spiders (Araneae: Salticidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, G B

    2015-11-02

    Freyinae, new subfamily, is described for a group of genera of Neotropical jumping spiders that can be distinguished from other non-ant mimic salticoid Neotropical salticids by having the following three morphological features: a slightly more elongate carapace, a distinctive prolateral tibial macrosetae arrangement (medially placed subdistal and subproximal macrosetae, with a subdorsal medial macroseta in some males), and an unusual dorsoventrally thick tegulum basal division (although one or two of these features are sometimes lost). It includes 20 genera previously considered valid, of which 19 are retained: Akela Peckham & Peckham, 1896, Aphirape C.L. Koch, 1850, Asaracus C.L. Koch, 1846, Capidava Simon, 1902, Chira Peckham & Peckham, 1896, Edilemma Ruiz & Brescovit, 2006, Eustiromastix Simon, 1902, Freya C.L. Koch, 1850, Frigga C.L. Koch, 1850, Kalcerrytus Galiano, 2000, Nycerella Galiano, 1982, Onofre Ruiz & Brescovit, 2007, Pachomius Peckham & Peckham, 1896, Phiale C.L. Koch, 1846, Rishaschia Makhan, 2006, Sumampattus Galiano, 1983, Trydarssus Galiano, 1995, Tullgrenella Mello‑Leitão, 1941, and Wedoquella Galiano, 1984. Romitia Caporiacco, 1947 (and its synonym Uspachus Galiano, 1995) is synonymized with Pachomius, new synonymy. New genera described in the subfamily are: Drizztius, Leptofreya, Megafreya, Philira, Tarkas, Triggella, and Xanthofreya. The following nomenclatorial changes are made: New synonyms: Freya demarcata Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936 = Freya (sub Cyrene) albosignata (F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901); Freya (sub Cyrene) grisea (F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901) = Freya (sub Cyrene) infuscata (F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901); Freya (sub Cyrene) emarginata (F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901) and Nycerella (sub Heraclea) sanguinea paradoxa (Peckham & Peckham, 1896) = Nycerella (sub Heraclea) sanguinea (Peckham & Peckham, 1896); Pachomius (sub Phiale) maculosus (Chickering, 1946) = Phiale (sub Cyrene) bilobata (F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901); Phiale (sub Cyrene) mediocava (F

  15. What's Important to Me: Identifying At-Risk and Resilient Students through Narrative Writing about Personal Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepney, Cesalie T.; Elias, Maurice J.; Epstein, Yakov M.

    2015-01-01

    The study explored whether aspects of elementary students' writing about their personal values could predict if students were considered more at risk or more resilient. Essays from 176 fifth-grade students (79.54% African American, 20.46% Hispanic) from a low-income, urban district in New Jersey were analyzed using the Linguistic Inquiry and Word…

  16. Insect Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Toxin Cry2Ab Is Conferred by Mutations in an ABC Transporter Subfamily A Protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wee Tek Tay

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of conventional chemical insecticides and bacterial toxins to control lepidopteran pests of global agriculture has imposed significant selection pressure leading to the rapid evolution of insecticide resistance. Transgenic crops (e.g., cotton expressing the Bt Cry toxins are now used world wide to control these pests, including the highly polyphagous and invasive cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera. Since 2004, the Cry2Ab toxin has become widely used for controlling H. armigera, often used in combination with Cry1Ac to delay resistance evolution. Isolation of H. armigera and H. punctigera individuals heterozygous for Cry2Ab resistance in 2002 and 2004, respectively, allowed aspects of Cry2Ab resistance (level, fitness costs, genetic dominance, complementation tests to be characterised in both species. However, the gene identity and genetic changes conferring this resistance were unknown, as was the detailed Cry2Ab mode of action. No cross-resistance to Cry1Ac was observed in mutant lines. Biphasic linkage analysis of a Cry2Ab-resistant H. armigera family followed by exon-primed intron-crossing (EPIC marker mapping and candidate gene sequencing identified three independent resistance-associated INDEL mutations in an ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC transporter gene we named HaABCA2. A deletion mutation was also identified in the H. punctigera homolog from the resistant line. All mutations truncate the ABCA2 protein. Isolation of further Cry2Ab resistance alleles in the same gene from field H. armigera populations indicates unequal resistance allele frequencies and the potential for Bt resistance evolution. Identification of the gene involved in resistance as an ABC transporter of the A subfamily adds to the body of evidence on the crucial role this gene family plays in the mode of action of the Bt Cry toxins. The structural differences between the ABCA2, and that of the C subfamily required for Cry1Ac toxicity, indicate differences in the

  17. College students identify university support for basic needs and life skills as key ingredient in addressing food insecurity on campus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler D. Watson

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A recent University of California (UC systemwide survey showed that 42% of UC college students experience food insecurity, consistent with other studies among U.S. college students. As part of UC's efforts to understand and address student food insecurity, we conducted 11 focus group interviews across four student subpopulations at UC Los Angeles (n = 82. We explored student experiences, perceptions and concerns related to both food insecurity and food literacy, which may help protect students against food insecurity. Themes around food insecurity included student awareness about food insecurity, cost of university attendance, food insecurity consequences, and coping strategies. Themes around food literacy included existing knowledge and skills, enjoyment and social cohesion, and learning in the dining halls. Unifying themes included the campus food environment not meeting student needs, a desire for practical financial and food literacy “life skills” training, and skepticism about the university's commitment to adequately address student basic needs. The results of this study broadly suggest there is opportunity for the university to address student food insecurity through providing food literacy training, among other strategies.

  18. Information Seeking Behavior & Information Resources Management:Mental Process Selecting Subjects & Identifying Information Needs Case study: Graduate Students in Women seminaries of Shiraz of Academic year 1393- 1394(

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohre Eftekhar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is Information Resources Management: Mental Process Selecting Subjects &  Identifying Information Needs. The research method used in this study is a Quantitative method. Sampling is purposeful. This means that it includes graduate Students in Women seminaries of Shiraz who have information-seeking experience and are able to express their views and information needs. The sample was selected according to the random sampling method with Cochran formula from 710 students. According to this sampling method there is 241 Graduate Students included in 1392-1393 seminaries year of  Women seminaries of Shiraz. This is a survey research Which has been carried out by employing a questionnaire and SPSS for windows to analyze data. The results showed that students for selecting subjects,  identifying information needs used methods and media such as Prying Mind, reviewing of information resources, Consulting with subject specialists.

  19. Phylogeny and evolutionary patterns in the Dwarf crayfish subfamily (Decapoda: Cambarellinae.

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    Carlos Pedraza-Lara

    Full Text Available The Dwarf crayfish or Cambarellinae, is a morphologically singular subfamily of decapod crustaceans that contains only one genus, Cambarellus. Its intriguing distribution, along the river basins of the Gulf Coast of United States (Gulf Group and into Central México (Mexican Group, has until now lacked of satisfactory explanation. This study provides a comprehensive sampling of most of the extant species of Cambarellus and sheds light on its evolutionary history, systematics and biogeography. We tested the impact of Gulf Group versus Mexican Group geography on rates of cladogenesis using a maximum likelihood framework, testing different models of birth/extinction of lineages. We propose a comprehensive phylogenetic hypothesis for the subfamily based on mitochondrial and nuclear loci (3,833 bp using Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood methods. The phylogenetic structure found two phylogenetic groups associated to the two main geographic components (Gulf Group and Mexican Group and is partially consistent with the historical structure of river basins. The previous hypothesis, which divided the genus into three subgenera based on genitalia morphology was only partially supported (P = 0.047, resulting in a paraphyletic subgenus Pandicambarus. We found at least two cases in which phylogenetic structure failed to recover monophyly of recognized species while detecting several cases of cryptic diversity, corresponding to lineages not assigned to any described species. Cladogenetic patterns in the entire subfamily are better explained by an allopatric model of speciation. Diversification analyses showed similar cladogenesis patterns between both groups and did not significantly differ from the constant rate models. While cladogenesis in the Gulf Group is coincident in time with changes in the sea levels, in the Mexican Group, cladogenesis is congruent with the formation of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. Our results show how similar allopatric

  20. Current status of subfamily Ichneumoninae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) from Malaysia and Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norhafiza, A. F.; Idris, A. B.

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, 25 genera and 38 species under 10 tribes (Alomyini, Compsophorini, Goedartiini, Heresiarchini, Ichneumonini, Ischnojoppini, Joppocryptini, Listrodromini, Oedicephalini and Platylabini) of the subfamily Ichneumoninae housed in the Centre for Insect Systematics, UKM and Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research (National University of Singapore) are reported from Malaysia and Singapore. The tribe Heresiarchini has the greatest number of species (13) followed by Ichneumonini with six species. Imeria is the largest genus which contains five species recorded. Six species in this study are new records for Malaysia.

  1. A view of dyslexia in context: implications for understanding differences in essay writing experience amongst higher education students identified as dyslexic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Christine; Sellman, Edward

    2013-08-01

    This article applies socio-cultural theories to explore how differences in essay writing experience are constituted for a group of students identified as dyslexic. It reports on a qualitative study with eleven student writers, seven of whom are formally identified as dyslexic, from the schools of archaeology, history and philosophy in a 'traditional' UK university. Semi-structured interviews before, during and after writing a coursework essay revealed well-documented dyslexia-related difficulties and also strong differences in how writing was experienced. The multiple and fluid dimensions that construct these differences suggest the importance of position within the context, previous and developing writing and learning experience, and metacognitive, meta-affective and metalinguistic awareness. They also suggest tensions between specialist and inclusive policies in relation to writing pedagogy for students identified as dyslexic. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. [Alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, anxiety and depression among second-year medical students. Identify in order to act].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaysse, Benoît; Gignon, Maxime; Zerkly, Salah; Ganry, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption and illicit drug use among students have negative repercussions on their health, education and society in general. Medical students are no exception. The objective of this study was to evaluate the consumption of alcohol, tobacco and cannabis as well as levels of anxiety and depression of students admitted to the second year of medical studies based on anonymous self-administered questionnaires containing the following tests: AUDIT, Fagerstrom, CAST and HAD. 198 of the 207 students involved agreed to participate. Excessive alcohol consumption was higher among women than among men (35% versus 22%), but fewer women were alcohol-dependent (2% versus 8%) (p students were tobacco smokers, with no signs of dependence in 80% of cases. 15% of students smoked cannabis and 52% of them presented problem use. 21% of women had a suspected anxiety disorder and 23% had a proven anxiety disorder, versus 17% and 6% of men, respectively (p = 0.002). 3% had a suspected depressive disorder and 0.5% had a proven depressive disorder. High-risk alcohol consumption was significantly correlated with high-risk cannabis use. No correlation was demonstrated between anxiety or depression and these consumptions. Doctors appear to be particularly affected by psychological disorders or addictions and medical students are paradoxically less likely than the general population to receive appropriate care. Universities must provide monitoring and support for students in order to improve their health, but also to enable them to provide care and appropriate educational messages to their patients.

  3. Formative Research to Identify Perceptions of E-Cigarettes in College Students: Implications for Future Health Communication Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Kathleen; Crook, Brittani; Lazard, Allison; Mackert, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This formative study examined perceptions of e-cigarettes in college students with the goal of informing future health communication campaigns. Differences between e-cigarette users and nonusers were also examined. Participants: Thirty undergraduate students were recruited from a large southwestern public university (15 users, 15…

  4. Identifying Effective Design Features of Technology-Infused Inquiry Learning Modules: A Two-Year Study of Students' Inquiry Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ying-Shao; Fang, Su-Chi; Zhang, Wen-Xin; Hsin-Kai, Wu; Wu, Pai-Hsing; Hwang, Fu-Kwun

    2016-01-01

    The two-year study aimed to explore how students' development of different inquiry abilities actually benefited from the design of technology-infused learning modules. Three learning modules on the topics of seasons, environmental issues and air pollution were developed to facilitate students' inquiry abilities: questioning, planning, analyzing,…

  5. Where's Your Thesis Statement and What Happened to Your Topic Sentences? Identifying Organizational Challenges in Undergraduate Student Argumentative Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ryan T.; Pessoa, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    The authors examine the challenges students faced in trying to write organized texts using effective thesis statements and topic sentences by analyzing argumentative history essays written by multilingual students enrolled in an undergraduate history course. They use the notions of macro-Theme (i.e., thesis statement) and hyper-Theme (i.e., topic…

  6. Identifying Students' Intercultural Communicative Competence at the Beginning of Their Placement: Towards the Enhancement of Study Abroad Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez Almarza, G.; Durán Martínez, R.; Beltrán Llavador, F.

    2015-01-01

    A pre-placement questionnaire was completed by a cohort of 30 students participating in the Erasmus exchange programmes from the University of Salamanca, placed in British universities, and by a group of 25 Nottingham Trent University students hosted by diverse Spanish universities. The questionnaire was then analysed with the aim of providing a…

  7. Student-Identified Strengths and Challenges of Using Blackboard for Group Projects in a Social Work Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa B. Littlefield

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Blackboard (TM provides social work educators integrated online communication tools that they can employ to facilitate student learning through features such as e-mail, discussion forums, file exchange, virtual classroom, and links to online resources. This study describes students’ experiences using Blackboard (TM to support a group project assignment. The majority of students found it easy to use and useful for the project, and indicated that they would like to use it in other courses. In addition, students gained technical skills as a result of the group project. Students’ group project grades and final course grades were comparable to those in other sections of the same course taught by this investigator. The findings of this study suggest that online technology can be used to facilitate group assignments for MSW students. The benefits include increased efficiency of group functioning and increased accountability of group members. The challenges include technical problems and student resistance to using the technology.

  8. Paralog-divergent Features May Help Reduce Off-target Effects of Drugs: Hints from Glucagon Subfamily Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhining Sa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Side effects from targeted drugs remain a serious concern. One reason is the nonselective binding of a drug to unintended proteins such as its paralogs, which are highly homologous in sequences and have similar structures and drug-binding pockets. To identify targetable differences between paralogs, we analyzed two types (type-I and type-II of functional divergence between two paralogs in the known target protein receptor family G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs at the amino acid level. Paralogous protein receptors in glucagon-like subfamily, glucagon receptor (GCGR and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R, exhibit divergence in ligands and are clinically validated drug targets for type 2 diabetes. Our data showed that type-II amino acids were significantly enriched in the binding sites of antagonist MK-0893 to GCGR, which had a radical shift in physicochemical properties between GCGR and GLP-1R. We also examined the role of type-I amino acids between GCGR and GLP-1R. The divergent features between GCGR and GLP-1R paralogs may be helpful in their discrimination, thus enabling the identification of binding sites to reduce undesirable side effects and increase the target specificity of drugs.

  9. Evolution of the miR5200-FLOWERING LOCUS T flowering time regulon in the temperate grass subfamily Pooideae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, Meghan; Schubert, Marian; Preston, Jill C; Fjellheim, Siri

    2017-09-01

    Flowering time is a carefully regulated trait controlled primarily through the action of the central genetic regulator, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT). Recently it was demonstrated that a microRNA, miR5200, targets the end of the second exon of FT under short-day photoperiods in the grass subfamily Pooideae, thus preventing FT transcripts from reaching threshold levels under non-inductive conditions. Pooideae are an interesting group in that they rapidly diversified from the tropics into the northern temperate region during a major global cooling event spanning the Eocene-Oligocene transition. We hypothesize that miR5200 photoperiod-sensitive regulation of Pooideae flowering time networks assisted their transition into northern seasonal environments. Here, we test predictions derived from this hypothesis that miR5200, originally found in bread wheat and later identified in Brachypodium distachyon, (1) was present in the genome of the Pooideae common ancestor, (2) is transcriptionally regulated by photoperiod, and (3) is negatively correlated with FT transcript abundance, indicative of miR5200 regulating FT. Our results demonstrate that miR5200 did evolve at or around the base of Pooideae, but only acquired photoperiod-regulated transcription within the Brachypodium lineage. Based on expression profiles and previous data, we posit that the progenitor of miR5200 was co-regulated with FT by an unknown mechanism. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins H, H', and F are members of a ubiquitously expressed subfamily of related but distinct proteins encoded by genes mapping to different chromosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honoré, B; Rasmussen, H H; Vorum, H

    1995-01-01

    Molecular cDNA cloning, two-dimensional gel immunoblotting, and amino acid microsequencing identified three sequence-unique and distinct proteins that constitute a subfamily of ubiquitously expressed heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins corresponding to hnRNPs H, H', and F. These proteins share...... epitopes and sequence identity with two other proteins, isoelectric focusing sample spot numbers 2222 (37.6 kDa; pI 6.5) and 2326 (39.5 kDa; pI 6.6), indicating that the subfamily may contain additional members. The identity between hnRNPs H and H' is 96%, between H and F 78%, and between H' and F 75......%, respectively. The three proteins contain three repeats, which we denote quasi-RRMs (qRRMs) since they have a remote similarity to the RNA recognition motif (RRM). The three qRRMs of hnRNP H, with a few additional NH2-terminal amino acids, were constructed by polymerase chain reaction amplification and used...

  11. pocketZebra: a web-server for automated selection and classification of subfamily-specific binding sites by bioinformatic analysis of diverse protein families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suplatov, Dmitry; Kirilin, Eugeny; Arbatsky, Mikhail; Takhaveev, Vakil; Svedas, Vytas

    2014-07-01

    The new web-server pocketZebra implements the power of bioinformatics and geometry-based structural approaches to identify and rank subfamily-specific binding sites in proteins by functional significance, and select particular positions in the structure that determine selective accommodation of ligands. A new scoring function has been developed to annotate binding sites by the presence of the subfamily-specific positions in diverse protein families. pocketZebra web-server has multiple input modes to meet the needs of users with different experience in bioinformatics. The server provides on-site visualization of the results as well as off-line version of the output in annotated text format and as PyMol sessions ready for structural analysis. pocketZebra can be used to study structure-function relationship and regulation in large protein superfamilies, classify functionally important binding sites and annotate proteins with unknown function. The server can be used to engineer ligand-binding sites and allosteric regulation of enzymes, or implemented in a drug discovery process to search for potential molecular targets and novel selective inhibitors/effectors. The server, documentation and examples are freely available at http://biokinet.belozersky.msu.ru/pocketzebra and there are no login requirements. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  12. Genome-wide identification of nuclear receptor (NR) genes and the evolutionary significance of the NR1O subfamily in the monogonont rotifer Brachionus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Duck-Hyun; Kim, Hui-Su; Hwang, Dae-Sik; Kim, Hee-Jin; Hagiwara, Atsushi; Lee, Jae-Seong; Jeong, Chang-Bum

    2017-10-01

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) are a large family of transcription factors that are involved in many fundamental biological processes. NRs are considered to have originated from a common ancestor, and are highly conserved throughout the whole animal taxa. Therefore, the genome-wide identification of NR genes in an animal taxon can provide insight into the evolutionary tendencies of NRs. Here, we identified all the NR genes in the monogonont rotifer Brachionus spp., which are considered an ecologically key species due to their abundance and world-wide distribution. The NR family was composed of 40, 32, 29, and 32 genes in the genomes of the rotifers B. calyciflorus, B. koreanus, B. plicatilis, and B. rotundiformis, respectively, which were classified into seven distinct subfamilies. The composition of each subfamily was highly conserved between species, except for NR1O genes, suggesting that they have undergone sporadic evolutionary processes for adaptation to their different environmental pressures. In addition, despite the dynamics of NR evolution, the significance of the conserved endocrine system, particularly for estrogen receptor (ER)-signaling, in rotifers was discussed on the basis of phylogenetic analyses. The results of this study may help provide a better understanding the evolution of NRs, and expand our knowledge of rotifer endocrine systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Rediscovered and new perisphaerine cockroaches from SW China with a review of subfamilial diagnosis (Blattodea: Blaberidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin-Ran; Wang, Li-Li; Wang, Zong-Qing

    2018-04-17

    The taxonomic records of Chinese perisphaerine cockroaches were scattered in literature, and therefore a dedicated study is desired to update our knowledge. This paper reviews the subfamilial diagnosis and Chinese species, mostly from southwestern China. We provide high-definition habitus photos and drawings, the latter emphasizes the genitalia of both sexes, which are generalized with diagrams, abstracted from specimens examined. A total of 18 species are recorded in four genera, including Perisphaerus, or pill cockroach, the type genus of the subfamily. Two new genera and three new species are proposed: Achatiblatta achates gen. sp. nov., Frumentiforma frumentiformis gen. sp. nov., and Pseudoglomeris montana sp. nov.. Pseudoglomeris has five new junior synonyms: Corydidarum, Trichoblatta, Kurokia, Glomerexis, and Glomeriblatta; the following combinations are thus revived or new: Ps. aerea comb. nov., Ps. angustifolia comb. nov., Ps. beybienkoi comb. nov., Ps. fallax comb. nov., Ps. magnifica comb. rev., Ps. montshadskii comb. nov., Ps. nigra comb. nov., Ps. sculpta comb. nov., Ps. semisulcata comb. rev., Ps. tibetana comb. nov., and Ps. valida moderata comb. nov.. The following species are revalidated and combinations revived: Pe. pygmaeus comb. rev., Ps. dubia comb. sp. rev., and Ps. planiuscla comb. sp. rev.

  14. Two CRM protein subfamilies cooperate in the splicing of group IIB introns in chloroplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakura, Yukari; Bayraktar, Omer Ali; Barkan, Alice

    2008-11-01

    Chloroplast genomes in angiosperms encode approximately 20 group II introns, approximately half of which are classified as subgroup IIB. The splicing of all but one of the subgroup IIB introns requires a heterodimer containing the peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase homolog CRS2 and one of two closely related proteins, CAF1 or CAF2, that harbor a recently recognized RNA binding domain called the CRM domain. Two CRS2/CAF-dependent introns require, in addition, a CRM domain protein called CFM2 that is only distantly related to CAF1 and CAF2. Here, we show that CFM3, a close relative of CFM2, associates in vivo with those CRS2/CAF-dependent introns that are not CFM2 ligands. Mutant phenotypes in rice and Arabidopsis support a role for CFM3 in the splicing of most of the introns with which it associates. These results show that either CAF1 or CAF2 and either CFM2 or CFM3 simultaneously bind most chloroplast subgroup IIB introns in vivo, and that the CAF and CFM subunits play nonredundant roles in splicing. These results suggest that the expansion of the CRM protein family in plants resulted in two subfamilies that play different roles in group II intron splicing, with further diversification within a subfamily to accommodate multiple intron ligands.

  15. Functional interactome of Aquaporin 1 sub-family reveals new physiological functions in Arabidopsis Thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ragab Abdel Gawwad

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Aquaporins are channel proteins found in plasma membranes and intercellular membranes of different cellular compartments, facilitate the water flux, solutes and gases across the cellular plasma membranes. The present study highlights the sub-family plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP predicting the 3-D structure and analyzing the functional interactome of it homologs. PIP1 homologs integrate with many proteins with different plant physiological roles in Arabidopsis thaliana including; PIP1A and PIP1B: facilitate the transport of water, diffusion of amino acids and/or peptides from the vacuolar compartment to the cytoplasm, play a role in the control of cell turgor and cell expansion and involved in root water uptake respectively. In addition we found that PIP1B plays a defensive role against Pseudomonas syringae infection through the interaction with the plasma membrane Rps2 protein. Another substantial function of PIP1C via the interaction with PIP2E is the response to nematode infection. Generally, PIP1 sub-family interactome controlling many physiological processes in plant cell like; osmoregulation in plants under high osmotic stress such as under a high salt, response to nematode, facilitate the transport of water across cell membrane and regulation of floral initiation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

  16. A qualitative study to identify barriers to deployment and student training in the use of automated external defibrillators in schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zinckernagel, Line; Hansen, Carolina Malta; Rod, Morten Hulvej

    2017-01-01

    to their perception of student training but not for their considerations on the relevance of their placement at schools. Conclusions: It is crucial for implementation of automated external defibrillators in schools to inform staff about how they work and are operated and that students are an appropriate target group...... for defibrillator training. Furthermore, it is important to provide schools with a basis for decision making about when to install defibrillators, and to ensure that school staff and students are informed about their placement.......Background: Student training in use of automated external defibrillators and deployment of such defibrillators in schools is recommended to increase survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Low implementation rates have been observed, and even at schools with a defibrillator, challenges...

  17. Moving Beyond Drinking to Have a Good Time: a Person-Centered Approach to Identifying Reason Typologies in Legal-Aged College Student Drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weybright, Elizabeth H; Cooper, Brittany R; Beckmeyer, Jonathon; Bumpus, Matthew F; Hill, Laura G; Agley, Jon

    2016-08-01

    Alcohol use, reasons for use, and consequences of use continue to be a major concern in college student populations. This is especially true for students of legal drinking age who may experience different reasons for and greater negative consequences of alcohol use than students under 21 years old. Although multiple studies have used person-centered approaches to understand motivations for and ultimately prevent alcohol use, few have identified multiple typologies of reasons for alcohol use. The current study used latent class analysis to identify homogeneous subtypes of reasons for alcohol use and how classification was associated with alcohol-related consequences in college students aged 21 years old and older (N = 2300) from the 2013 Indiana College Substance Use Survey. Four profiles of reasons for alcohol use emerged across males and females: social drinkers, feel good drinkers, relaxed escaping drinkers, and emotion coping drinkers. Although the likelihood of consequences differed across gender, the emotion coping drinkers were more likely to experience all negative consequences, suggesting that it was a high-risk class. In general, this pattern of risk continued with the feel good drinkers and female relaxed escaping drinkers. These results can help optimize college substance use prevention and intervention efforts to (1) identify and understand characteristics of high- and low-risk student drinkers and (2) tailor the content of interventions to those specific profiles resulting in more effective approaches to reducing alcohol use.

  18. eHealth Literacy and Health Behaviors Affecting Modern College Students: A Pilot Study of Issues Identified by the American College Health Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, Rebecca Katherine; Collins, William Bart; Wilson, Kari; Linnemeier, Georgiann; Englebert, Andrew Mark

    2017-12-19

    The eHealth Literacy Scale (eHEALS) has been widely adopted by researchers to understand how eHealth literacy can be put into context. eHealth researchers need to know how to promote positive health behavior changes across college students, given the importance of the Internet to acquire and use health information. The American College Health Association identified a set of key health issues that affect college students today. By understanding how eHEALS might be related to college students' maintenance of their health and their use of online health resources, researchers will be provided with a better understanding of eHealth literacy and its pragmatic implications for health campaigns and future interventions. The goal of the study was to examine what eHEALS reveals about college student health behaviors identified by the American College Health Association. To understand college student current health maintenance and their intentions to maintain their health and use online resources, the theory of planned behavior was used as the theoretical framework for the study. Data were collected via a survey of 422 college students that included the eHEALS measure and questions about health issues based on the recommendations of the American College Health Association. These questions asked about college student current health, subsequent use of online health resources, and their intention to maintain their health and make use of such resources in the future. eHEALS was positively and significantly associated with all 8 areas of health issues identified by the American College Health Association for college student current maintenance of health and use of online health resources and for future intention of health maintenance and use of online resources. Key issues that emerged with eHealth literacy were maintaining safe sex practices and seeking out related information, seeking out information on an exercise regime, information on vaccinations, and maintaining a balanced

  19. Kids Identifying and Defeating Stroke (KIDS): development and implementation of a multiethnic health education intervention to increase stroke awareness among middle school students and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen Conley, Kathleen; Juhl Majersik, Jennifer; Gonzales, Nicole R; Maddox, Katherine E; Pary, Jennifer K; Brown, Devin L; Moyé, Lemuel A; Espinosa, Nina; Grotta, James C; Morgenstern, Lewis B

    2010-01-01

    The Kids Identifying and Defeating Stroke (KIDS) project is a 3-year prospective, randomized, controlled, multiethnic school-based intervention study. Project goals include increasing knowledge of stroke signs and treatment and intention to immediately call 911 among Mexican American (MA) and non-Hispanic White (NHW) middle school students and their parents. This article describes the design, implementation, and interim evaluation of this theory-based intervention. Intervention students received a culturally appropriate stroke education program divided into four 50-minute classes each year during the sixth, seventh, and eighth grades. Each class session also included a homework assignment that involved the students' parents or other adult partners. Interim-test results indicate that this educational intervention was successful in improving students' stroke symptom and treatment knowledge and intent to call 911 upon witnessing a stroke compared with controls. The authors conclude that this school-based educational intervention to reduce delay time to hospital arrival for stroke shows early promise.

  20. Identifying the Behavior Patterns That Influence on Students' Achievement in Psychological Foundations of Learning and Development: A Case of Mekelle University, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekar, J. Master Arul; Eyasu, Mengesha

    2018-01-01

    Generally, the behavior patterns concerns a social significance of values. This paper highlights the various behavior patterns like planner behavior, solution oriented behavior, and prescriptive behavior patterns. The main objective of the present study is to identify the behavior patterns that influence on students' achievement in psychological…

  1. Action Research of a Color-Coded, Onset-Rime Decoding Intervention: Examining the Effects with First Grade Students Identified as at Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Candace A.; Rafferty, Lisa A.; Camizzi, Mariya A.; Max, Caroline A.; Van Blargan, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Many students who struggle to obtain the alphabetic principle are at risk for being identified as having a reading disability and would benefit from additional explicit phonics instruction as a remedial measure. In this action research case study, the research team conducted two experiments to investigate the effects of a color-coded, onset-rime,…

  2. Binary Logistic Regression Analysis in Assessment and Identifying Factors That Influence Students' Academic Achievement: The Case of College of Natural and Computational Science, Wolaita Sodo University, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zewude, Bereket Tessema; Ashine, Kidus Meskele

    2016-01-01

    An attempt has been made to assess and identify the major variables that influence student academic achievement at college of natural and computational science of Wolaita Sodo University in Ethiopia. Study time, peer influence, securing first choice of department, arranging study time outside class, amount of money received from family, good life…

  3. Identifying and Supporting English Learner Students with Learning Disabilities: Key Issues in the Literature and State Practice. REL 2015-086

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, Elizabeth; Haas, Eric; Ferriere, Karen

    2015-01-01

    While the literature on learning disabilities and on second-language acquisition is relatively extensive within the field of education, less is known about the specific characteristics and representation of English learner students with learning disabilities. Because there are no definitive resources and processes for identifying and determining…

  4. How Can Medical Students Add Value? Identifying Roles, Barriers, and Strategies to Advance the Value of Undergraduate Medical Education to Patient Care and the Health System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo, Jed D; Dekhtyar, Michael; Hawkins, Richard E; Wolpaw, Daniel R

    2017-09-01

    As health systems evolve, the education community is seeking to reimagine student roles that combine learning with meaningful contributions to patient care. The authors sought to identify potential stakeholders regarding the value of student work, and roles and tasks students could perform to add value to the health system, including key barriers and associated strategies to promote value-added roles in undergraduate medical education. In 2016, 32 U.S. medical schools in the American Medical Association's (AMA's) Accelerating Change in Education Consortium met for a two-day national meeting to explore value-added medical education; 121 educators, systems leaders, clinical mentors, AMA staff leadership and advisory board members, and medical students were included. A thematic qualitative analysis of workshop discussions and written responses was performed, which extracted key themes. In current clinical roles, students can enhance value by performing detailed patient histories to identify social determinants of health and care barriers, providing evidence-based medicine contributions at the point-of-care, and undertaking health system research projects. Novel value-added roles include students serving as patient navigators/health coaches, care transition facilitators, population health managers, and quality improvement team extenders. Six priority areas for advancing value-added roles are student engagement, skills, and assessments; balance of service versus learning; resources, logistics, and supervision; productivity/billing pressures; current health systems design and culture; and faculty factors. These findings provide a starting point for collaborative work to positively impact clinical care and medical education through the enhanced integration of value-added medical student roles into care delivery systems.

  5. The Role of the Students in the CLIL Classroom A New Perspective to Identify Types of Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David González Gándara

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A good deal of authors have spotted the crucial factors to get into account in order to classify tasks for their study. Although the role of the student in the task has been studied before, it has not been considered as a key factor in some of the most influential models. I propose a new perspective to describe it. It consists in a combination of the participation of the students in the input of tasks and their participation in the output. A case study has been carried out to address the statistical effects of the factor proposed in two variables: the amount of As-units (Foster, Tonkyn, & Wigglesworth, 2000 in the L2 produced in the classroom, and among them, the amount of initiating moves (Leech & Weisser, 2003. Transcripts of the audio and video recordings taken during eight CLIL Science lessons taught to an intact class of ten students of grades 1 and 2 were analysed. The results showed that the role of the students in the input had a significant effect on the variables measured. The teacher produced more As-units in general and initiating moves in particular, while the students produced less As-units while still producing more initiating moves.

  6. The Challenges for Persistence with Two-Year College Student Transfers and How One Survey Attempts to Identify Pathways of Success for Geoscience Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C. E.; Van Der Hoeven Kraft, K.; Wolfe, B.

    2014-12-01

    With the rapid growth in enrollments at two-year colleges (2YCs), these institutions provide a rich talent pool for future science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) graduates at four-year universities, particularly students from underrepresented groups (American Geosciences Institute [AGI], 2014). This is particularly true for the geosciences because over 25% of recent geoscience graduates with a bachelor's degree attended a 2YC for at least one semester (AGI, 2013). However, it is difficult to successfully track 2YC transfers because many 2YC students do not complete an associate's degree and very few institutions offer a geoscience-specific associate's degree. In order to recruit future geoscientists from this pool of students, researchers need to better understand the barriers these students face when trying to transfer and how they are able to successfully navigate these barriers. During spring 2014 graduation, AGI surveyed students completing their bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees about their educational background, experiences and future plans after graduation. Those graduates who attended a 2YC for at least one semester provided insight into their enrollment decisions as they transferred into a four-year university. The sample from this survey represents 154 responses from a total of 596 responses. General demographics reveal an older population (average age: 30, median: 27), a higher percent of male students (54% male, 40% female) and Caucasians (76%, 10% non Caucasian) than a traditional 2YC student. Students attending 2YC nationally are on average 28 years old (median: 24), are 57% women, and are 51% Caucasian (AACC Fast Facts, 2014). In addition, responses indicated some of the factors that influenced their ability to successfully transfer into 4-year geoscience programs including personal motivation and successful transfer of credits.

  7. eHealth Literacy and Health Behaviors Affecting Modern College Students: A Pilot Study of Issues Identified by the American College Health Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, William Bart; Wilson, Kari; Linnemeier, Georgiann; Englebert, Andrew Mark

    2017-01-01

    Background The eHealth Literacy Scale (eHEALS) has been widely adopted by researchers to understand how eHealth literacy can be put into context. eHealth researchers need to know how to promote positive health behavior changes across college students, given the importance of the Internet to acquire and use health information. The American College Health Association identified a set of key health issues that affect college students today. By understanding how eHEALS might be related to college students’ maintenance of their health and their use of online health resources, researchers will be provided with a better understanding of eHealth literacy and its pragmatic implications for health campaigns and future interventions. Objective The goal of the study was to examine what eHEALS reveals about college student health behaviors identified by the American College Health Association. To understand college student current health maintenance and their intentions to maintain their health and use online resources, the theory of planned behavior was used as the theoretical framework for the study. Methods Data were collected via a survey of 422 college students that included the eHEALS measure and questions about health issues based on the recommendations of the American College Health Association. These questions asked about college student current health, subsequent use of online health resources, and their intention to maintain their health and make use of such resources in the future. Results eHEALS was positively and significantly associated with all 8 areas of health issues identified by the American College Health Association for college student current maintenance of health and use of online health resources and for future intention of health maintenance and use of online resources. Key issues that emerged with eHealth literacy were maintaining safe sex practices and seeking out related information, seeking out information on an exercise regime, information on

  8. Identification and expression analysis of zebrafish polypeptide α-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase Y-subfamily genes during embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Yoshiaki; Nakamura, Naosuke; Kawai, Tamiko; Kaneda, Eiichi; Takahashi, Yui; Miyake, Ayumi; Itoh, Nobuyuki; Kurosaka, Akira

    2014-09-01

    Mucin-type glycosylation is one of the most common posttranslational modifications of secretory and membrane proteins and has diverse physiological functions. The initial biosynthesis of mucin-type carbohydrates is catalyzed by UDP-GalNAc: polypeptide α-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferases (GalNAc-Ts) encoded by GALNT genes. Among these, GalNAc-T8, -T9, -T17, and -T18 form a characteristic subfamily called "Y-subfamily" and have no or very low in vitro transferase activities when assayed with typical mucin peptides as acceptor substrates. Although the Y-subfamily isozymes have been reported to be possibly involved in various diseases, their in vivo functions have not been reported. Here, we isolated zebrafish Y-subfamily galnt genes, and determined their spatial and temporal expressions during the early development of zebrafish. Our study demonstrated that all the Y-subfamily isozymes were well conserved in zebrafish with GalNAc-T18 having two orthologs, galnt18a and galnt18b, and with the other three isozymes each having a corresponding ortholog, galnt8, galnt9, and galnt17. The galnt8 was expressed in the cephalic mesoderm and hatching gland during early developmental stages, and differently expressed in the head, somatic muscles, and liver in the later stages. The other three orthologs also exhibited the characteristic expression patterns, although their expressions were generally strong in the nervous systems. In addition to the expression in the brain, galnt17 and galnt18a were expressed in the somitic muscles, and galnt18a and galnt18b in the notochord. These expression patterns may contribute to the functional analysis of the Y-subfamily, whose physiological roles still remain to be elucidated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Relevance of the NR4A sub-family of nuclear orphan receptors in trophoblastic BeWo cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Sudha Saryu; Gupta, Satish Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Nur-77, a member of the NR4A sub-family of nuclear orphan receptors, is downregulated in the placentae of pre-eclamptic women. Here, we investigate the relevance of Nor-1, Nurr-1 and Nur-77 in trophoblastic cell differentiation. Their transcript levels were found to be significantly upregulated in BeWo cells treated with forskolin. The maximum increase was observed after 2 h, with a second peak in the expression levels after 48 h. The expression of NR4A sub-family members was also found to be upregulated in BeWo cells after treatment with hCG and GnRH. A similar significant increase was observed at the respective protein levels after 2 and 48 h of treatment with forskolin, hCG or GnRH. Silencing Nor-1, Nurr-1 or Nur-77 individually did not show any effect on forskolin-, hCG- and/or GnRH-mediated BeWo cell fusion and/or hCG secretion. After silencing any one member of the NR4A sub-family, an increase in the transcript levels of the other sub-family members was observed, indicating a compensatory effect due to their functional redundancy. Simultaneously silencing all three NR4A sub-family members significantly downregulated forskolin- and hCG-mediated BeWo cell fusion and/or hCG secretion. However, a considerable amount of cell death occurred after forskolin or hCG treatment as compared to the control siRNA-transfected cells. These results suggest that the NR4A sub-family of nuclear orphan receptors has a role in trophoblastic cell differentiation.

  10. Identifying Pre-High School Students' Science Class Motivation Profiles to Increase Their Science Identification and Persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittum, Jessica R.; Jones, Brett D.

    2017-01-01

    One purpose of this study was to determine whether patterns existed in pre-high school students' motivation-related perceptions of their science classes. Another purpose was to examine the extent to which these patterns were related to their science identification, gender, grade level, class effort, and intentions to persist in science. We…

  11. Exploring Students Intentions to Study Computer Science and Identifying the Differences among ICT and Programming Based Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakos, Michail N.

    2014-01-01

    Computer Science (CS) courses comprise both Programming and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) issues; however these two areas have substantial differences, inter alia the attitudes and beliefs of the students regarding the intended learning content. In this research, factors from the Social Cognitive Theory and Unified Theory of…

  12. Identifying and Intervening with Students Exhibiting Signs of Gaming Addiction and Other Addictive Behaviors: Implications for Professional School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, W. Bryce; Young, Tabitha

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses strategies professional school counselors can use to recognize and intervene with students who are presenting with signs of addictive behaviors. First, the authors present a definition of addictive behaviors. The authors then define and discuss the most common addictive behaviors impacting adolescents, with a special…

  13. Mental Health Services, Free Appropriate Public Education, and Students with Disabilities: Legal Considerations in Identifying, Evaluating, and Providing Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yell, Mitchell; Smith, Carl; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Losinski, Mickey

    2018-01-01

    In the past few years, the provision of mental health services in public schools has received considerable attention. When students with disabilities are eligible for special education and related services under the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), mental health services are required if such services are needed to provide…

  14. Multiple choice questions are superior to extended matching questions to identify medicine and biomedical sciences students who perform poorly.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijsvogels, T.M.H.; Brand, T.L. van den; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, medical faculties at Dutch universities have implemented a legally binding study advice to students of medicine and biomedical sciences during their propaedeutic phase. Appropriate examination is essential to discriminate between poor (grade <6), moderate (grade 6-8) and excellent

  15. A Spreadsheet-Based Visualized Mindtool for Improving Students' Learning Performance in Identifying Relationships between Numerical Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chiu-Lin; Hwang, Gwo-Jen

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a spreadsheet-based visualized Mindtool was developed for improving students' learning performance when finding relationships between numerical variables by engaging them in reasoning and decision-making activities. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, an experiment was conducted on the "phenomena of climate…

  16. Identifying College Students at Risk for Learning Disabilities: Evidence for Use of the Learning Difficulties Assessment in Postsecondary Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Steven T.; Roy, Soma; Medina, Steffanie

    2013-01-01

    This article describes research supporting the use of the Learning Difficulties Assessment (LDA), a normed and no-cost, web-based survey that assesses difficulties with reading, writing, spelling, mathematics, listening, concentration, memory, organizational skills, sense of control, and anxiety in college students. Previous research has supported…

  17. A Grounded Theory for Identifying Students with Emotional Disturbance: Promising Practices for Assessment, Intervention, and Service Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Dori

    2012-01-01

    A qualitative grounded theory study examined how practicing professionals involved in the ED identification process reconstructed the category of "emotional disturbance" as it applied to students in an alternative educational setting. A grounded theory integrates six emergent themes and essentially reframes the existing ED criteria in contemporary…

  18. Item and test analysis to identify quality multiple choice questions (MCQS from an assessment of medical students of Ahmedabad, Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanju Gajjar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multiple choice questions (MCQs are frequently used to assess students in different educational streams for their objectivity and wide reach of coverage in less time. However, the MCQs to be used must be of quality which depends upon its difficulty index (DIF I, discrimination index (DI and distracter efficiency (DE. Objective: To evaluate MCQs or items and develop a pool of valid items by assessing with DIF I, DI and DE and also to revise/ store or discard items based on obtained results. Settings: Study was conducted in a medical school of Ahmedabad. Materials and Methods: An internal examination in Community Medicine was conducted after 40 hours teaching during 1 st MBBS which was attended by 148 out of 150 students. Total 50 MCQs or items and 150 distractors were analyzed. Statistical Analysis: Data was entered and analyzed in MS Excel 2007 and simple proportions, mean, standard deviations, coefficient of variation were calculated and unpaired t test was applied. Results: Out of 50 items, 24 had "good to excellent" DIF I (31 - 60% and 15 had "good to excellent" DI (> 0.25. Mean DE was 88.6% considered as ideal/ acceptable and non functional distractors (NFD were only 11.4%. Mean DI was 0.14. Poor DI (< 0.15 with negative DI in 10 items indicates poor preparedness of students and some issues with framing of at least some of the MCQs. Increased proportion of NFDs (incorrect alternatives selected by < 5% students in an item decrease DE and makes it easier. There were 15 items with 17 NFDs, while rest items did not have any NFD with mean DE of 100%. Conclusion: Study emphasizes the selection of quality MCQs which truly assess the knowledge and are able to differentiate the students of different abilities in correct manner.

  19. On the entomofauna of Mt. Durmitor (Northern Montenegro: Braconid wasps of the subfamily Opiinae (Braconidae, Hymenoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brajković M.M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Braconids are primary parasites of other insects and their eggs, larvae, and adults, and species have been recently discovered that lay their eggs in plant seeds. Classified into about 25 genera, more than 1,400 species of Opiinae are known at the present time in the world fauna. They have been registered in all zoogeographic regions. The Opiinae are solitary endoparasites of the larvae of cyclorhaphous Diptera, most often those of species belonging to the families Agromyzidae, Tephritidae, Anthomyiidae Ephydridae. In investigations conducted on Mt. Durmitor since 1982, we have up to now established 10 species of braconids of the subfamily Opiinae (Opius peterseni Fi., O. caudatus Wesm., O. parvungula Th., O. levisWesm., O. pallipesWesm., O. quasiquisti Fi., O. exilis Hal., O. filicornis Th., O. lugens Hal., and O. meracus Fi, eight of which are new for the fauna of Serbia and Montenegro.

  20. Molecular phylogeny of moth-specialized spider sub-family Cyrtarachninae, which includes bolas spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanikawa, Akio; Shinkai, Akira; Miyashita, Tadashi

    2014-11-01

    The evolutionary process of the unique web architectures of spiders of the sub-family Cyrtarachninae, which includes the triangular web weaver, bolas spider, and webless spider, is thought to be derived from reduction of orbicular 'spanning-thread webs' resembling ordinal orb webs. A molecular phylogenetic analysis was conducted to explore this hypothesis using orbicular web spiders Cyrtarachne, Paraplectana, Poecilopachys, triangular web spider Pasilobus, bolas spiders Ordgarius and Mastophora, and webless spider Celaenia. The phylogeny inferred from partial sequences of mt-COI, nuclear 18S-rRNA and 28S-rRNA showed that the common ancestor of these spiders diverged into two clades: a spanning-thread web clade and a bolas or webless clade. This finding suggests that the triangular web evolved by reduction of an orbicular spanning web, but that bolas spiders evolved in the early stage, which does not support the gradual web reduction hypothesis.

  1. A Taxonomic Review of the Sword-tailed Cricket Subfamily Trigonidiinae (Orthoptera: Ensifera: Gryllidae from Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Woo Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Korean population of the sword-tailed cricket subfamily Trigonidiinae is reviewed for the first time. Four members of the crickets are confirmed based on the examined material, those are Metioche japonica (Ichikawa, 2001, Svistella bifasciata (Shiraki, 1911, Homoeoxipha obliterata (Caudell, 1927 and Natula matsuurai Sugimoto, 2001, each of them belonging to a different genera. Among them, the former two are reconfirmed since earlier records, and latter two are newly recognized genera and species from the far southern provinces Jeollanam-do and Jeju-do Island in Korea. The type locality of both crickets is Japan, and are also only previously referred to in Japan, but their distributional ranges include neighboring South Korea. A key to the species, descriptions, photographs, figures, and oscillograms of male’s calling sounds are provided to aid their identification.

  2. Getting from A to B-exploring the activation motifs of the class B adhesion G protein-coupled receptor subfamily G member 4/GPR112

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornelia Peeters, Miriam; Mos, Iris; Lenselink, Eelke B

    2016-01-01

    The adhesion G protein-coupled receptors (ADGRs/class B2 G protein-coupled receptors) constitute an ancient family of G protein-coupled receptors that have recently been demonstrated to play important roles in cellular and developmental processes. Here, we describe a first insight...... into the structure-function relationship of ADGRs using the family member ADGR subfamily G member 4 (ADGRG4)/GPR112 as a model receptor. In a bioinformatics approach, we compared conserved, functional elements of the well-characterized class A and class B1 secretin-like G protein-coupled receptors with the ADGRs. We...... identified several potential equivalent motifs and subjected those to mutational analysis. The importance of the mutated residues was evaluated by examining their effect on the high constitutive activity of the N-terminally truncated ADGRG4/GPR112 in a 1-receptor-1-G protein Saccharomyces cerevisiae...

  3. A novel fractal approach for predicting G-protein-coupled receptors and their subfamilies with support vector machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Guoping; Li, Yong; Wang, Feichi; Wang, Siwen; Hu, Xuehai

    2015-01-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are seven membrane-spanning proteins and regulate many important physiological processes, such as vision, neurotransmission, immune response and so on. GPCRs-related pathways are the targets of a large number of marketed drugs. Therefore, the design of a reliable computational model for predicting GPCRs from amino acid sequence has long been a significant biomedical problem. Chaos game representation (CGR) reveals the fractal patterns hidden in protein sequences, and then fractal dimension (FD) is an important feature of these highly irregular geometries with concise mathematical expression. Here, in order to extract important features from GPCR protein sequences, CGR algorithm, fractal dimension and amino acid composition (AAC) are employed to formulate the numerical features of protein samples. Four groups of features are considered, and each group is evaluated by support vector machine (SVM) and 10-fold cross-validation test. To test the performance of the present method, a new non-redundant dataset was built based on latest GPCRDB database. Comparing the results of numerical experiments, the group of combined features with AAC and FD gets the best result, the accuracy is 99.22% and Matthew's correlation coefficient (MCC) is 0.9845 for identifying GPCRs from non-GPCRs. Moreover, if it is classified as a GPCR, it will be further put into the second level, which will classify a GPCR into one of the five main subfamilies. At this level, the group of combined features with AAC and FD also gets best accuracy 85.73%. Finally, the proposed predictor is also compared with existing methods and shows better performances.

  4. Frames of exponentials:lower frame bounds for finite subfamilies, and approximation of the inverse frame operator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Lindner, Alexander M

    2001-01-01

    We give lower frame bounds for finite subfamilies of a frame of exponentials {e(i lambdak(.))}k is an element ofZ in L-2(-pi,pi). We also present a method for approximation of the inverse frame operator corresponding to {e(i lambdak(.))}k is an element ofZ, where knowledge of the frame bounds for...

  5. ROLE OF ATP BINDING CASSETTE SUB-FAMILY MEMBER 2 (ABCG2) IN MOUSE EMBRYONIC STEM CELL DEVELOPMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ATP binding cassette sub-family member 2 (ABCG2), is a member of the ABC transporter superfamily and a principal xenobiotic transporter. ABCG2 is also highly expressed in certain stem cell populations where it is thought to be related to stem cell plasticity, although the role o...

  6. Australian water mites of the subfamily Notoaturinae Besch (Acari: Hydrachnidia: Aturidae), with the description of 24 new species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, H.

    2010-01-01

    New data are presented on the subfamily Notoaturinae from Australia. Twenty-four new species are described: Austraturus aculeatus n. sp., A. canaliculatus n. sp., A. lamingtonensis n. sp., A. longigenitalis n. sp., A. montanus n. sp., A. otwayensis n. sp., A. tasmanicus n. sp., Azugaturus

  7. Whole genome identification, phylogeny and evolution of the cytochrome P450 family 2 (CYP2) sub-families in birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida, Daniela; Maldonado, Emanuel; Khan, Imran

    2016-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily defends organisms from endogenous and noxious environmental compounds, and thus is crucial for survival. However, beyond mammals the molecular evolution of CYP2 subfamilies is poorly understood. Here, we characterized the CYP2 family across 48 novel avian who...

  8. Shadow Education in Malaysia: Identifying the Determinants of Spending and Amount of Time Attending Private Supplementary Tutoring of Upper Secondary School Students

    OpenAIRE

    Chang Da Wan; Benedict Weerasena

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the determinants of spending and the amount of time attending private supplementary tutoring, or commonly known as private tuition, in Malaysia. Based on 343 self-reported questionnaires with upper secondary students across three states in Malaysia and using multiple regression analysis, we identified ethnicity, father’s level of education and past academic performance as significant determinants of spending and amount of time attending private tuition. However, interestin...

  9. Functional characterization of AGAMOUS-subfamily members from cotton during reproductive development and in response to plant hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, Stéfanie Menezes; Artico, Sinara; Lima, Cássio; Nardeli, Sarah Muniz; Berbel, Ana; Oliveira-Neto, Osmundo Brilhante; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria Fátima; Ferrándiz, Cristina; Madueño, Francisco; Alves-Ferreira, Márcio

    2017-03-01

    Expression analysis of the AG -subfamily members from G. hirsutum during flower and fruit development. Reproductive development in cotton, including the fruit and fiber formation, is a complex process; it involves the coordinated action of gene expression regulators, and it is highly influenced by plant hormones. Several studies have reported the identification and expression of the transcription factor family MADS-box members in cotton ovules and fibers; however, their roles are still elusive during the reproductive development in cotton. In this study, we evaluated the expression profiles of five MADS-box genes (GhMADS3, GhMADS4, GhMADS5, GhMADS6 and GhMADS7) belonging to the AGAMOUS-subfamily in Gossypium hirsutum. Phylogenetic and protein sequence analyses were performed using diploid (G. arboreum, G. raimondii) and tetraploid (G. barbadense, G. hirsutum) cotton genomes, as well as the AG-subfamily members from Arabidopsis thaliana, Petunia hybrida and Antirrhinum majus. qPCR analysis showed that the AG-subfamily genes had high expression during flower and fruit development in G. hirsutum. In situ hybridization analysis also substantiates the involvement of AG-subfamily members on reproductive tissues of G. hirsutum, including ovule and ovary. The effect of plant hormones on AG-subfamily genes expression was verified in cotton fruits treated with gibberellin, auxin and brassinosteroid. All the genes were significantly regulated in response to auxin, whereas only GhMADS3, GhMADS4 and GhMADS7 genes were also regulated by brassinosteroid treatment. In addition, we have investigated the GhMADS3 and GhMADS4 overexpression effects in Arabidopsis plants. Interestingly, the transgenic plants from both cotton AG-like genes in Arabidopsis significantly altered the fruit size compared to the control plants. This alteration suggests that cotton AG-like genes might act regulating fruit formation. Our results demonstrate that members of the AG-subfamily in G. hirsutum

  10. Formative research to identify perceptions of e-cigarettes in college students: Implications for future health communication campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Kathleen; Crook, Brittani; Lazard, Allison; Mackert, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Objective This formative study examined perceptions of e-cigarettes in college students with the goal of informing future health communication campaigns. Differences between e-cigarette users and nonusers were also examined. Participants: Thirty undergraduate students were recruited from a large southwestern public university (15 users, 15 nonusers). Methods Structured interviews were conducted and transcripts were coded for themes. Results Although users had more favorable attitudes toward e-cigarettes, both users and nonusers believed that e-cigarettes produce water vapor and reported that e-cigarettes were less harmful than conventional cigarettes. Potential health consequences and addiction concerns were the most common perceived threats for both users and nonusers. Both nonusers and users cited social stigma as a perceived disadvantage of e-cigarette use. Conclusions Ultimately, themes with particular relevance to future health communication campaigns included negative perceptions of e-cigarette users and social stigma, as well as harm perceptions and potential health consequences associated with e-cigarette use. PMID:26979833

  11. Diagnostic performance of dental students in identifying mandibular condyle fractures by panoramic radiography and the usefulness of reference images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Bong Hae

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of dental students in detection of mandibular condyle fractures and the effectiveness of reference panoramic images. Forty-six undergraduates evaluated 25 panoramic radiographs for condylar fractures and the data were analyzed through receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. After a month, they were divided into two homogeneous groups based on the first results and re-evaluated the images with (group A) or without (group B) reference images. Eight reference images included indications showing either typical condylar fractures or anatomic structures which could be confused with fractures. Paired t-test was used for statistical analysis of the difference between the first and the second evaluations for each group, and student's t-test was used between the two groups in the second evaluation. The intra- and inter-observer agreements were evaluated with Kappa statistics. Intra- and inter-observer agreements were substantial (k=0.66) and moderate (k=0.53), respectively. The area under the ROC curve (Az) in the first evaluation was 0.802. In the second evaluation, it was increased to 0.823 for group A and 0.814 for group B. The difference between the first and second evaluations for group A was statistically significant (p<0.05), however there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in the second evaluation. Providing reference images to less experienced clinicians would be a good way to improve the diagnostic ability in detecting condylar fracture.

  12. Structure and dynamics of the human pleckstrin DEP domain: distinct molecular features of a novel DEP domain subfamily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civera, Concepcion; Simon, Bernd; Stier, Gunter; Sattler, Michael; Macias, Maria J

    2005-02-01

    Pleckstrin1 is a major substrate for protein kinase C in platelets and leukocytes, and comprises a central DEP (disheveled, Egl-10, pleckstrin) domain, which is flanked by two PH (pleckstrin homology) domains. DEP domains display a unique alpha/beta fold and have been implicated in membrane binding utilizing different mechanisms. Using multiple sequence alignments and phylogenetic tree reconstructions, we find that 6 subfamilies of the DEP domain exist, of which pleckstrin represents a novel and distinct subfamily. To clarify structural determinants of the DEP fold and to gain further insight into the role of the DEP domain, we determined the three-dimensional structure of the pleckstrin DEP domain using heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy. Pleckstrin DEP shares main structural features with the DEP domains of disheveled and Epac, which belong to different DEP subfamilies. However, the pleckstrin DEP fold is distinct from these structures and contains an additional, short helix alpha4 inserted in the beta4-beta5 loop that exhibits increased backbone mobility as judged by NMR relaxation measurements. Based on sequence conservation, the helix alpha4 may also be present in the DEP domains of regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) proteins, which are members of the same DEP subfamily. In pleckstrin, the DEP domain is surrounded by two PH domains. Structural analysis and charge complementarity suggest that the DEP domain may interact with the N-terminal PH domain in pleckstrin. Phosphorylation of the PH-DEP linker, which is required for pleckstrin function, could regulate such an intramolecular interaction. This suggests a role of the pleckstrin DEP domain in intramolecular domain interactions, which is distinct from the functions of other DEP domain subfamilies found so far.

  13. Plastid phylogenomics of the cool-season grass subfamily: clarification of relationships among early-diverging tribes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarela, Jeffery M; Wysocki, William P; Barrett, Craig F; Soreng, Robert J; Davis, Jerrold I; Clark, Lynn G; Kelchner, Scot A; Pires, J Chris; Edger, Patrick P; Mayfield, Dustin R; Duvall, Melvin R

    2015-05-04

    Whole plastid genomes are being sequenced rapidly from across the green plant tree of life, and phylogenetic analyses of these are increasing resolution and support for relationships that have varied among or been unresolved in earlier single- and multi-gene studies. Pooideae, the cool-season grass lineage, is the largest of the 12 grass subfamilies and includes important temperate cereals, turf grasses and forage species. Although numerous studies of the phylogeny of the subfamily have been undertaken, relationships among some 'early-diverging' tribes conflict among studies, and some relationships among subtribes of Poeae have not yet been resolved. To address these issues, we newly sequenced 25 whole plastomes, which showed rearrangements typical of Poaceae. These plastomes represent 9 tribes and 11 subtribes of Pooideae, and were analysed with 20 existing plastomes for the subfamily. Maximum likelihood (ML), maximum parsimony (MP) and Bayesian inference (BI) robustly resolve most deep relationships in the subfamily. Complete plastome data provide increased nodal support compared with protein-coding data alone at nodes that are not maximally supported. Following the divergence of Brachyelytrum, Phaenospermateae, Brylkinieae-Meliceae and Ampelodesmeae-Stipeae are the successive sister groups of the rest of the subfamily. Ampelodesmeae are nested within Stipeae in the plastome trees, consistent with its hybrid origin between a phaenospermatoid and a stipoid grass (the maternal parent). The core Pooideae are strongly supported and include Brachypodieae, a Bromeae-Triticeae clade and Poeae. Within Poeae, a novel sister group relationship between Phalaridinae and Torreyochloinae is found, and the relative branching order of this clade and Aveninae, with respect to an Agrostidinae-Brizinae clade, are discordant between MP and ML/BI trees. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses strongly support Airinae and Holcinae as the successive sister groups of a Dactylidinae

  14. Evaluation of Changes in Ghanaian Students' Attitudes Towards Science Following Neuroscience Outreach Activities: A Means to Identify Effective Ways to Inspire Interest in Science Careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yawson, Nat Ato; Amankwaa, Aaron Opoku; Tali, Bernice; Shang, Velma Owusua; Batu, Emmanuella Nsenbah; Asiemoah, Kwame; Fuseini, Ahmed Denkeri; Tene, Louis Nana; Angaandi, Leticia; Blewusi, Isaac; Borbi, Makafui; Aduku, Linda Nana Esi; Badu, Pheonah; Abbey, Henrietta; Karikari, Thomas K

    2016-01-01

    The scientific capacity in many African countries is low. Ghana, for example, is estimated to have approximately twenty-three researchers per a million inhabitants. In order to improve interest in science among future professionals, appropriate techniques should be developed and employed to identify barriers and correlates of science education among pre-university students. Young students' attitudes towards science may affect their future career choices. However, these attitudes may change with new experiences. It is, therefore, important to evaluate potential changes in students' attitudes towards science after their exposure to experiences such as science outreach activities. Through this, more effective means of inspiring and mentoring young students to choose science subjects can be developed. This approach would be particularly beneficial in countries such as Ghana, where: (i) documented impacts of outreach activities are lacking; and (ii) effective means to develop scientist-school educational partnerships are needed. We have established an outreach scheme, aimed at helping to improve interaction between scientists and pre-university students (and their teachers). Outreach activities are designed and implemented by undergraduate students and graduate teaching assistants, with support from faculty members and technical staff. Through this, we aim to build a team of trainee scientists and graduates who will become ambassadors of science in their future professional endeavors. Here, we describe an approach for assessing changes in junior high school students' attitudes towards science following classroom neuroscience outreach activities. We show that while students tended to agree more with questions concerning their perceptions about science learning after the delivery of outreach activities, significant improvements were obtained for only two questions, namely "I enjoy science lessons" and "I want to be a scientist in the future." Furthermore, there was a

  15. Identifying What Student Affairs Professionals Value: A Mixed Methods Analysis of Professional Competencies Listed in Job Descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, John L.; Bresciani, Marilee J.

    2012-01-01

    This mixed method study explored the professional competencies that administrators expect from entry-, mid-, and senior-level professionals as reflected in 1,759 job openings posted in 2008. Knowledge, skill, and dispositional competencies were identified during the qualitative phase of the study. Statistical analysis of the prevalence of…

  16. Diagnostic performance of dental students in identifying mandibular condyle fractures by panoramic radiography and the usefulness of reference images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Bong Hae [School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of dental students in detection of mandibular condyle fractures and the effectiveness of reference panoramic images. Forty-six undergraduates evaluated 25 panoramic radiographs for condylar fractures and the data were analyzed through receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. After a month, they were divided into two homogeneous groups based on the first results and re-evaluated the images with (group A) or without (group B) reference images. Eight reference images included indications showing either typical condylar fractures or anatomic structures which could be confused with fractures. Paired t-test was used for statistical analysis of the difference between the first and the second evaluations for each group, and student's t-test was used between the two groups in the second evaluation. The intra- and inter-observer agreements were evaluated with Kappa statistics. Intra- and inter-observer agreements were substantial (k=0.66) and moderate (k=0.53), respectively. The area under the ROC curve (Az) in the first evaluation was 0.802. In the second evaluation, it was increased to 0.823 for group A and 0.814 for group B. The difference between the first and second evaluations for group A was statistically significant (p<0.05), however there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in the second evaluation. Providing reference images to less experienced clinicians would be a good way to improve the diagnostic ability in detecting condylar fracture.

  17. Analysis of the grape MYB R2R3 subfamily reveals expanded wine quality-related clades and conserved gene structure organization across Vitis and Arabidopsis genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matus, José Tomás; Aquea, Felipe; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2008-01-01

    Background The MYB superfamily constitutes the most abundant group of transcription factors described in plants. Members control processes such as epidermal cell differentiation, stomatal aperture, flavonoid synthesis, cold and drought tolerance and pathogen resistance. No genome-wide characterization of this family has been conducted in a woody species such as grapevine. In addition, previous analysis of the recently released grape genome sequence suggested expansion events of several gene families involved in wine quality. Results We describe and classify 108 members of the grape R2R3 MYB gene subfamily in terms of their genomic gene structures and similarity to their putative Arabidopsis thaliana orthologues. Seven gene models were derived and analyzed in terms of gene expression and their DNA binding domain structures. Despite low overall sequence homology in the C-terminus of all proteins, even in those with similar functions across Arabidopsis and Vitis, highly conserved motif sequences and exon lengths were found. The grape epidermal cell fate clade is expanded when compared with the Arabidopsis and rice MYB subfamilies. Two anthocyanin MYBA related clusters were identified in chromosomes 2 and 14, one of which includes the previously described grape colour locus. Tannin related loci were also detected with eight candidate homologues in chromosomes 4, 9 and 11. Conclusion This genome wide transcription factor analysis in Vitis suggests that clade-specific grape R2R3 MYB genes are expanded while other MYB genes could be well conserved compared to Arabidopsis. MYB gene abundance, homology and orientation within particular loci also suggests that expanded MYB clades conferring quality attributes of grapes and wines, such as colour and astringency, could possess redundant, overlapping and cooperative functions. PMID:18647406

  18. Analysis of the grape MYB R2R3 subfamily reveals expanded wine quality-related clades and conserved gene structure organization across Vitis and Arabidopsis genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arce-Johnson Patricio

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The MYB superfamily constitutes the most abundant group of transcription factors described in plants. Members control processes such as epidermal cell differentiation, stomatal aperture, flavonoid synthesis, cold and drought tolerance and pathogen resistance. No genome-wide characterization of this family has been conducted in a woody species such as grapevine. In addition, previous analysis of the recently released grape genome sequence suggested expansion events of several gene families involved in wine quality. Results We describe and classify 108 members of the grape R2R3 MYB gene subfamily in terms of their genomic gene structures and similarity to their putative Arabidopsis thaliana orthologues. Seven gene models were derived and analyzed in terms of gene expression and their DNA binding domain structures. Despite low overall sequence homology in the C-terminus of all proteins, even in those with similar functions across Arabidopsis and Vitis, highly conserved motif sequences and exon lengths were found. The grape epidermal cell fate clade is expanded when compared with the Arabidopsis and rice MYB subfamilies. Two anthocyanin MYBA related clusters were identified in chromosomes 2 and 14, one of which includes the previously described grape colour locus. Tannin related loci were also detected with eight candidate homologues in chromosomes 4, 9 and 11. Conclusion This genome wide transcription factor analysis in Vitis suggests that clade-specific grape R2R3 MYB genes are expanded while other MYB genes could be well conserved compared to Arabidopsis. MYB gene abundance, homology and orientation within particular loci also suggests that expanded MYB clades conferring quality attributes of grapes and wines, such as colour and astringency, could possess redundant, overlapping and cooperative functions.

  19. Shifting the Focus to Student Learning: Characteristics of Effective Teaching Practice As Identified by Experienced Pre-service Faculty Advisors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Maynes

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Cochrane-Smith and Power identify trends in teacher education programs with some relating to heightened teacher accountability for students’ learning. In this paper we provide a model that identifies characteristics believed to be critical elements related to a teacher’s conceptual focus shifting from an emphasis on their teaching to their students’ learning and we have grounded these characteristics in current educational research. Through focus group inquiry, we have identified those teacher characteristics thought to account for effective teaching practice. These characteristics include: a professional growth perspective, passion and enthusiasm for the  content, pedagogical content knowledge, a rich instructional repertoire of strategies, awareness of assessment for, as, and of learning, ability to read the body language  of the learner, caring classroom management strategies, and instructional efforts (e.g., social justice. Our research data provide a conceptual framework for further study.

  20. Species-specific evolution of class I MHC genes in iguanas (order: Squamata; subfamily: Iguaninae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaberman, Scott; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2008-07-01

    Over the last few decades, the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) has emerged as a model for understanding the influence of natural selection on genetic diversity in populations as well as for investigating the genetic basis of host resistance to pathogens. However, many vertebrate taxa remain underrepresented in the field of MHC research, preventing its application to studies of disease, evolution, and conservation genetics in these groups. This is particularly true for squamates, which are by far the most diversified order of non-avian reptiles but have not been the subject of any recent MHC studies. In this paper, we present MHC class I complementary DNA data from three squamate species in the subfamily Iguaninae (iguanas): the Galápagos marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus), the Galápagos land iguana (Conolophus subcristatus), and the green iguana (Iguana iguana). All sequences obtained are related to the few published class I genes from other squamates. There is evidence for multiple loci in each species, and the conserved alpha-3 domain appears to be evolving in a species-specific manner. Conversely, there is some indication of shared polymorphism between species in the peptide-binding alpha-1 and alpha-2 domains, suggesting that these two regions have different phylogenetic histories. The great similarity between alpha-3 sequences in marine iguanas in particular suggests that concerted evolution is acting to homogenize class I loci within species. However, while less likely, the data are also compatible with a birth and death model of evolution.

  1. Out of Africa:Miocene Dispersal, Vicariance, and Extinction within Hyacinthaceae Subfamily Urgineoideae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Syed Shujait Ali; Martin Pfosser; Wolfgang Wetschnig; Mario MartnezAzorn; Manuel B. Crespo; Yan Yu

    2013-01-01

    Disjunct distribution patterns in plant lineages are usually explained according to three hypotheses:vicariance, geodispersal, and long-distance dispersal. The role of these hypotheses is tested in Urgineoideae (Hyacinthaceae), a subfamily disjunctly distributed in Africa, Madagascar, India, and the Mediterranean region. The potential ancestral range, dispersal routes, and factors responsible for the current distribution in Urgineoideae are investigated using divergence time estimations. Urgineoideae originated in Southern Africa approximately 48.9 Mya. Two independent dispersal events in the Western Mediterranean region possibly occurred during Early Oligocene and Miocene (29.9-8.5 Mya) via Eastern and Northwestern Africa. A dispersal from Northwestern Africa to India could have occurred between 16.3 and 7.6 Mya. Vicariance and extinction events occurred approximately 21.6 Mya. Colonization of Madagascar occurred between 30.6 and 16.6 Mya, after a single transoceanic dispersal event from Southern Africa. The current disjunct distributions of Urgineoideae are not satisfactorily explained by Gondwana fragmentation or dispersal via boreotropical forests, due to the younger divergence time estimates. The flattened winged seeds of Urgineoideae could have played an important role in long-distance dispersal by strong winds and big storms, whereas geodispersal could have also occurred from Southern Africa to Asia and the Mediterranean region via the so-called arid and high-altitude corridors.

  2. Low dose trichloroethylene alters cytochrome P450 - 2C subfamily expression in the developing chick heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makwana, Om; Ahles, Lauren; Lencinas, Alejandro; Selmin, Ornella I.; Runyan, Raymond B.

    2013-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is an organic solvent and common environmental contaminant. TCE exposure is associated with heart defects in humans and animal models. Primary metabolism of TCE in adult rodent models is by specific hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes (Lash et al., 2000). As association of TCE exposure with cardiac defects is in exposed embryos prior to normal liver development, we investigated metabolism of TCE in the early embryo. Developing chick embryos were dosed in ovo with environmentally relevant doses of TCE (8 ppb and 800 ppb) and RNA was extracted from cardiac and extra-cardiac tissue (whole embryo without heart). Real time PCR showed upregulation of CYP2H1 transcripts in response to TCE exposure in the heart. No detectable cytochrome expression was found in extra-cardiac tissue. As seen previously, the dose response was non-monotonic and 8ppb elicited stronger upregulation than 800 ppb. Immunostaining for CYP2C subfamily expression confirmed protein expression and showed localization in both myocardium and endothelium. TCE exposure increased protein expression in both tissues. These data demonstrate that the earliest embryonic expression of phase I detoxification enzymes is in the developing heart. Expression of these CYPs is likely to be relevant to the susceptibility of the developing heart to environmental teratogens. PMID:22855351

  3. Crusticorallina gen. nov., a nongeniculate genus in the subfamily Corallinoideae (Corallinales, Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hind, Katharine R; Gabrielson, Paul W; P Jensen, Cassandra; Martone, Patrick T

    2016-12-01

    Molecular phylogenetic analyses of 18S rDNA (SSU) gene sequences confirm the placement of Crusticorallina gen. nov. in Corallinoideae, the first nongeniculate genus in an otherwise geniculate subfamily. Crusticorallina is distinguished from all other coralline genera by the following suite of morpho-anatomical characters: (i) sunken, uniporate gametangial and bi/tetrasporangial conceptacles, (ii) cells linked by cell fusions, not secondary pit connections, (iii) an epithallus of 1 or 2 cell layers, (iv) a hypothallus that occupies 50% or more of the total thallus thickness, (v) elongate meristematic cells, and (vi) trichocytes absent. Four species are recognized based on rbcL, psbA and COI-5P sequences, C. painei sp. nov., the generitype, C. adhaerens sp. nov., C. nootkana sp. nov. and C. muricata comb. nov., previously known as Pseudolithophyllum muricatum. Type material of Lithophyllum muricatum, basionym of C. muricata, in TRH comprises at least two taxa, and therefore we accept the previously designated lectotype specimen in UC that we sequenced to confirm its identity. Crusticorallina species are very difficult to distinguish using morpho-anatomical and/or habitat characters, although at specific sites, some species may be distinguished by a combination of morpho-anatomy, habitat and biogeography. The Northeast Pacific now boasts six coralline endemic genera, far more than any other region of the world. © 2016 Phycological Society of America.

  4. Markiana nigripinnis (Perugia, 1891 as a putative member of the subfamily Stevardiinae (Characiformes: Characidae: spermatic evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarianna Martins Baicere-Silva

    Full Text Available The genus Markiana was until recently recognized as incertae sedis in the family Characidae, even though alternative placements for this genus have been advanced since its original description. More recently, it was hypothesized that Markiana nigripinnis is part of a clade informally named the Astyanax clade, indicating the putative close relationship of Markiana with the genus Astyanax. Examination of sperm ultrastructure of representatives of Astyanax and M. nigripinnis shows no evidence for this hypothesized close relationship. Rather, the spermatozoa of M. nigripinnis share characters found in spermatozoa of the non-inseminating members of the subfamily Stevardiinae, such as an angle of nuclear rotation equal to 85º resulting in a lateral position of the double nuclear fossa and flagellum. As with the non-inseminating Stevardiinae, sperm nuclei are also slightly elongate toward the flagellum, the proximal centriole is partially inside the nuclear fossa and anterior and oblique to the distal centriole, and the midpiece is short and strongly asymmetric. Additionally, M. nigripinnis shares with the other members of the Stevardiinae the presence of only four teeth in the inner row of the premaxillary and a short triangular ectopterygoid, which is never more than twice the length of the palatine.

  5. Molecular phylogeny of the highly diversified catfish subfamily Loricariinae (Siluriformes, Loricariidae) reveals incongruences with morphological classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covain, Raphaël; Fisch-Muller, Sonia; Oliveira, Claudio; Mol, Jan H; Montoya-Burgos, Juan I; Dray, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    The Loricariinae belong to the Neotropical mailed catfish family Loricariidae, the most species-rich catfish family. Among loricariids, members of the Loricariinae are united by a long and flattened caudal peduncle and the absence of an adipose fin. Despite numerous studies of the Loricariidae, there is no comprehensive phylogeny of this morphologically highly diversified subfamily. To fill this gap, we present a molecular phylogeny of this group, including 350 representatives, based on the analysis of mitochondrial and nuclear genes (8426 positions). The resulting phylogeny indicates that Loricariinae are distributed into two sister tribes: Harttiini and Loricariini. The Harttiini tribe, as classically defined, constitutes a paraphyletic assemblage and is here restricted to the three genera Harttia, Cteniloricaria, and Harttiella. Two subtribes are distinguished within Loricariini: Farlowellina and Loricariina. Within Farlowellina, the nominal genus formed a paraphyletic group, as did Sturisoma and Sturisomatichthys. Within Loricariina, Loricaria, Crossoloricaria, and Apistoloricaria are also paraphyletic. To solve these issues, and given the lack of clear morphological diagnostic features, we propose here to synonymize several genera (Quiritixys with Harttia; East Andean members of Crossoloricaria, and Apistoloricaria with Rhadinoloricaria; Ixinandria, Hemiloricaria, Fonchiiichthys, and Leliella with Rineloricaria), to restrict others (Crossoloricaria, and Sturisomatichthys to the West Andean members, and Sturisoma to the East Andean species), and to revalidate the genus Proloricaria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Using the MMPI-2-RF to discriminate psychometrically identified schizotypic college students from a matched comparison sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Helen K; Bolinskey, P Kevin; Novi, Jonathan H; Hudak, Daniel V; James, Alison V; Myers, Kevin R; Schuder, Kelly M

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the extent to which the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) profiles of 52 individuals making up a psychometrically identified schizotypes (SZT) sample could be successfully discriminated from the protocols of 52 individuals in a matched comparison (MC) sample. Replication analyses were performed with an additional 53 pairs of SZT and MC participants. Results showed significant differences in mean T-score values between these 2 groups across a variety of MMPI-2-RF scales. Results from discriminant function analyses indicate that schizotypy can be predicted effectively using 4 MMPI-2-RF scales and that this method of classification held up on replication. Additional results demonstrated that these MMPI-2-RF scales nominally outperformed MMPI-2 scales suggested by previous research as being indicative of schizophrenia liability. Directions for future research with the MMPI-2-RF are suggested.

  7. Taxonomy of the genus Brachyteles Spix, 1823 and its phylogenetic position within the subfamily Atelinae Gray, 1825

    OpenAIRE

    José Eduardo Serrano Villavicencio

    2016-01-01

    Muriquis, genus Brachyteles Spix, 1823, are the largest of the extant New World primates, and they are one of the three extant genera of the subfamily Atelinae along with Ateles (spider monkeys) and Lagothrix (wooly monkeys). The taxonomy of Brachyteles has constantly changed since its first description in the 19th century. First treated as a monotypic genus, and after several modifications in the number of species, Brachyteles currently contains two species, B. arachnoides (Southern muriqui)...

  8. Identifying educational priorities for occupational therapy students to prepare for mental health practice in Australia and New Zealand: Opinions of practising occupational therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlan, Justin Newton; Pépin, Geneviève; Haracz, Kirsti; Ennals, Priscilla; Webster, Jayne S; Meredith, Pamela J; Batten, Rachel; Bowman, Siann; Bonassi, Marianne; Bruce, Rosie

    2015-10-01

    The effective preparation of occupational therapy students for mental health practice is critical to facilitate positive consumer outcomes, underpin optimal practice and support new graduates' professional identity. This project was established to determine a set of 'educational priorities' for occupational therapy students to prepare them for current (and future) entry-level practice in mental health, from the perspective of mental health occupational therapists in Australia and New Zealand. The study included two phases. In Phase One, participants identified what they considered to be important educational priorities for occupational therapy students to prepare them for practice in mental health. For Phase Two, an 'expert panel' was assembled to review and rank these using a Policy Delphi approach. Eighty-five participants provided educational priorities in Phase One. These were grouped into a total of 149 educational themes. In Phase Two, the expert panel (consisting of 37 occupational therapists from diverse locations and practice settings) prioritised these themes across three Delphi rounds. A final priority list was generated dividing educational themes into three prioritised categories: 29 'Essential', 25 'Important' and 44 'Optional' priorities. Highest-ranked priorities were: clinical reasoning, client-centred practice, therapeutic use of self, functional implications of mental illness, therapeutic use of occupation and mental health fieldwork experience. The priority list developed as part of this project provides additional information to support the review of occupational therapy curricula across Australia and New Zealand to ensure that new graduates are optimally prepared for mental health practice. © 2015 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  9. The Crystal Structure of Streptococcus pyogenes Uridine Phosphorylase Reveals a Distinct Subfamily of Nucleoside Phosphorylases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, Timothy H.; Christoffersen, S.; Allan, Paula W.; Parker, William B.; Piskur, Jure; Serra, I.; Terreni, M.; Ealick, Steven E. (Cornell); (Pavia); (Lund); (Southern Research)

    2011-09-20

    Uridine phosphorylase (UP), a key enzyme in the pyrimidine salvage pathway, catalyzes the reversible phosphorolysis of uridine or 2'-deoxyuridine to uracil and ribose 1-phosphate or 2'-deoxyribose 1-phosphate. This enzyme belongs to the nucleoside phosphorylase I superfamily whose members show diverse specificity for nucleoside substrates. Phylogenetic analysis shows Streptococcus pyogenes uridine phosphorylase (SpUP) is found in a distinct branch of the pyrimidine subfamily of nucleoside phosphorylases. To further characterize SpUP, we determined the crystal structure in complex with the products, ribose 1-phosphate and uracil, at 1.8 {angstrom} resolution. Like Escherichia coli UP (EcUP), the biological unit of SpUP is a hexamer with an ?/? monomeric fold. A novel feature of the active site is the presence of His169, which structurally aligns with Arg168 of the EcUP structure. A second active site residue, Lys162, is not present in previously determined UP structures and interacts with O2 of uracil. Biochemical studies of wild-type SpUP showed that its substrate specificity is similar to that of EcUP, while EcUP is {approx}7-fold more efficient than SpUP. Biochemical studies of SpUP mutants showed that mutations of His169 reduced activity, while mutation of Lys162 abolished all activity, suggesting that the negative charge in the transition state resides mostly on uracil O2. This is in contrast to EcUP for which transition state stabilization occurs mostly at O4.

  10. Multilocus molecular phylogeny of the suckermouth armored catfishes (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) with a focus on subfamily Hypostominae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lujan, Nathan K; Armbruster, Jonathan W; Lovejoy, Nathan R; López-Fernández, Hernán

    2015-01-01

    The Neotropical catfish family Loricariidae is the fifth most species-rich vertebrate family on Earth, with over 800 valid species. The Hypostominae is its most species-rich, geographically widespread, and ecomorphologically diverse subfamily. Here, we provide a comprehensive molecular phylogenetic reappraisal of genus-level relationships in the Hypostominae based on our sequencing and analysis of two mitochondrial and three nuclear loci (4293bp total). Our most striking large-scale systematic discovery was that the tribe Hypostomini, which has traditionally been recognized as sister to tribe Ancistrini based on morphological data, was nested within Ancistrini. This required recognition of seven additional tribe-level clades: the Chaetostoma Clade, the Pseudancistrus Clade, the Lithoxus Clade, the 'Pseudancistrus' Clade, the Acanthicus Clade, the Hemiancistrus Clade, and the Peckoltia Clade. Results of our analysis, which included type- and non-type species for every valid genus in Hypostominae, support the reevaluation and restriction of several historically problematic genera, including Baryancistrus, Cordylancistrus, Hemiancistrus, and Peckoltia. Much of the deep lineage diversity in Hypostominae is restricted to Guiana Shield and northern Andean drainages, with three tribe-level clades still largely restricted to the Guiana Shield. Of the six geographically widespread clades, a paraphyletic assemblage of three contain lineages restricted to drainages west of the Andes Mountains, suggesting that early diversification of the Hypostominae predated the late Miocene surge in Andean uplift. Our results also highlight examples of trophic ecological diversification and convergence in the Loricariidae, including support for three independent origins of highly similar and globally unique morphological specializations for eating wood. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparative anatomy of the cheek muscles within the Centromochlinae subfamily (Ostariophysi, Siluriformes, Auchenipteridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmento-Soares, Luisa Maria; Porto, Marcovan

    2006-02-01

    Glanidium melanopterum Miranda Ribeiro, a typical representative of the subfamily Centromochlinae (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae), is herein described myologically and compared to other representative species within the group, Glanidium ribeiroi, G. leopardum, Tatia neivai, T. intermedia, T. creutzbergi, Centromochlus heckelii, and C. existimatus. The structure of seven pairs of striated cephalic muscles was compared anatomically: adductor mandibulae, levator arcus palatini, dilatator operculi, adductor arcus palatini, extensor tentaculi, retractor tentaculi, and levator operculi. We observed broad adductor mandibulae muscles in both Glanidium and Tatia, catfishes with depressed heads and smaller eyes. Similarities between muscles were observed: the presence of a large aponeurotic insertion for the levator arcus palatini muscle; an adductor arcus palatini muscle whose origin spread over the orbitosphenoid, pterosphenoid, and parasphenoid; and the extensor tentaculi muscle broadly attached to the autopalatine. There is no retractor tentaculi muscle in either the Glanidium or Tatia species. On the other hand, in Centromochlus, with forms having large eyes and the tallest head, the adductor mandibulae muscles are slim; there is a thin aponeurotic or muscular insertion for the levator arcus palatini muscle; the adductor arcus palatini muscle originates from a single osseous process, forming a keel on the parasphenoid; the extensor tentaculi muscle is loosely attached to the autopalatine, permitting exclusive rotating and sliding movements between this bone and the maxillary. The retractor tentaculi muscle is connected to the maxilla through a single tendon, so that both extensor and retractor tentaculi muscles contribute to a wide array of movements of the maxillary barbels. A discussion on the differences in autopalatine-maxillary movements among the analyzed groups is given. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Revision of Drusinae subfamily (Trichoptera, Limnephilidae: divergence by paraproct and paramere: speciation in isolation by integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oláh, János

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years we have described over 70 new incipient sibling limnephild species applying the discovered Trichoptera speciation traits of the paraproct and paramere for species recognition and delimitation. In this revision on Drusinae subfamily, comprising 177 species, we have applied these subtle, but rapid and stable speciation traits and described 49 new sibling species from the “well studied” European mountain ranges. Discussing the theoretical background we have elaborated and adapted a new character state ranking system of phenomics to revise the long-neglected taxonomy of the Drusinae subfamily and synonymised the Cryptothrix, Monocentra, Metanoea, Leptodrusus, Anomalopterygella, Hadimina genera with the Drusus genus. These old genera of artificial constructs were established exclusively by divergences of secondary sexual traits known already to have only species level ranking value. According to our new character ranking system in the Drusinae subfamily, beside the Drusus genus, only the Ecclisopteryx genus has been retained having robust generic level divegences of paraproct loss and ancestral duplication of spine organising centre on the paramere pattern. Speciation trait function of the peg-packed surface on the paraproct head in Drusus genus moved to the gonopod apices and integrated into variously shaped stimulatory organ in the Ecclisopteryx genus. In the Drusus genus the ancestral divergence of the single spine organising centre has integrated 11 species groups with remarkably stable paramere spine pattern. Based upon ancestral divergences in the paraproct architecture we have differenciated 28 species complexes inside the 11 species groups. The delineation of the 163 mostly incipient siblings species, inside the 28 species complexes with 44 new Drusus species, was based primarily on the divergences of speciation trait, that is in the stimulatory head shape of the apical arms on the dorsal branches of the paraproct

  13. Necessidades especiais de escolares com diabetes mellitus tipo 1 identificadas por familiares Special needs of students with diabetes mellitus type 1 identified by relatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Moron Saes Braga

    2012-09-01

    purpose of this study was to identify the special needs of children with diabetes mellitus type 1. The participants were 37 family members of students in treatment in an outpatient center at a state of São Paulo medical school. A semi-structured interview was carried, which was audio recorded and transcribed for analysis. The results showed that all participants informed the school informed about their child's condition, however 29,7% reported that inclusion or access to school was difficult, due to the teacher being uninformed about diabetes control, inadequate school lunches, and preconceptions of peers and school supervisor, or the student's embarrassment. Absenteeism occurred among 70,3% of the students, mainly due to doctor appointments. Special needs were identified by 32,4%, including meals, performance in school tasks and the need to better inform school professionals about the condition. Furthermore, 72,9% reported some kind of support to cope with diabetes had been provided, mainly by health professionals. In order to improve their child's development at school 51,3% presented suggestions such as including appropriate school meals, better preparation of school for dealing with diabetes, i.e. lectures and training for teachers. Our suggestion is that there should be a closer relationship between the school and health services, but the first step towards intersector integration is to identify the needs of students with chronic diseases, such as this study showed, by focusing on diabetes mellitus and its impact on the school.

  14. Kids Identifying and Defeating Stroke (KIDS): Development and Implementation of a Multi-Ethnic Health Education Intervention to Increase Stroke Awareness Among Middle School Students and Their Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Kathleen M; Majersik, Jennifer; Gonzales, Nicole R; Maddox, Katherine E; Pary, Jennifer K; Brown, Devin L; Moyé, Lemuel A; Espinosa, Nina; Grotta, James C; Morgenstern, Lewis B

    2009-01-01

    The KIDS (Kids Identifying and Defeating Stroke) Program is a three-year prospective, randomized, controlled, multiethnic school-based intervention study. Program goals include increasing knowledge of stroke signs and treatment and intention to immediately call 911 among Mexican American (MA) and non-Hispanic white (NHW) middle school students and their parents. This article describes the design, implementation and interim evaluation of this theory-based intervention. Intervention students received a culturally appropriate stroke education program divided into four 50-minute classes each year during the 6th, 7th, and 8th grades. Each class session also included a homework assignment that involved the students’ parents or other adult partners. Interim-test results indicate that this educational intervention was successful in improving students’ stroke symptom and treatment knowledge and intent to call 911 upon witnessing a stroke compared with controls (p<0.001). We conclude that this school-based educational intervention to reduce delay time to hospital arrival for stroke shows early promise. PMID:18332150

  15. Shadow Education in Malaysia: Identifying the Determinants of Spending and Amount of Time Attending Private Supplementary Tutoring of Upper Secondary School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Da Wan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the determinants of spending and the amount of time attending private supplementary tutoring, or commonly known as private tuition, in Malaysia. Based on 343 self-reported questionnaires with upper secondary students across three states in Malaysia and using multiple regression analysis, we identified ethnicity, father’s level of education and past academic performance as significant determinants of spending and amount of time attending private tuition. However, interestingly, we found that while geographical location and participation in internal tuition in schools were also determinants of spending, these two were not significant in determining the amount of time attending private supplementary tutoring. The identification of determinants of spending and amount of time, and in addition, the differences between these two illustrates the economic and educational dimensions of shadow education. More importantly, the insight also contributes to the formulation of possible interventions that can improve quality and reduce inequality in the mainstream education system.

  16. Effects of Singapore Model Method with Explicit Instruction on Math Problem Solving Skills of Students at Risk for or Identified with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Angela Irene

    2016-01-01

    Over the last two decades, students in Singapore consistently scored above students from other nations on the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS; Provasnik et al., 2012). In contrast, students in the United States have not performed as well on international and national mathematics assessments and students with…

  17. Alu Sb2 subfamily is present in all higher primates but was most succesfully amplified in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richer, C.; Zietkiewicz, E.; Labuda, D. [Universite de Montreal, Que (Canada)

    1994-09-01

    Alu repeats can be classified into subfamilies which amplified in primate genomes at different evolutionary time periods. A young Alu subfamily, Sb2, with a characteristic 7-nucleotide duplication at position 256, has been described in seven human loci. An Sb2 insertion found near the HD gene was unique to two HD families, indicating that Sb2 was still retropositionally active. Here, we have shown that the Sb2 insertion in the CHOL locus was similarly rare, being absent in 120 individuals of Caucasian, Oriental and Black origin. In contrast, Sb2 inserts in five other loci were found fixed (non-polymorphic), based on measurements in the same population sample, but absent from orthologous positions in higher apes. This suggest that Sb2 repeats spread relatively early in the human lineage following divergence from other primates and that these elements may be human-specific. By quantitative PCR, we investigated the presence of Sb2 sequences in different primate DNA, using one PCR primer anchored at the 5{prime} Alu-end and the other complementary to the duplicated Sb2-specific segment. With an Sb2-containing plasmid as a standard, we estimated the number of Sb2 repeats at 1500-1800 copies per human haploid equivalent; corresponding numbers in chimpanzee and gorilla were almost two orders of magnitude lower, while the signal observed in orangutan and gibbon DNAs was consistent with the presence of a single copy. The analysis of 22 human, 11 chimpanzee and 10 gorilla sequences indicates that the Alu Sb2 dispersed independently in these three primate lineages; gorilla consensus differs from the human Sb2 sequence by one position, while all chimpanzee repeats have their linker expanded by up to eight A-residues. Should they be thus considered as separate subfamilies? It is possible that sequence modifications with respect to the human consensus are responsible for poor retroposition of Sb2 in apes.

  18. Sea snakes in Australian waters (Serpentes: subfamilies Hydrophiinae and Laticaudinae)—a review with an updated identification key

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Redsted Rasmussen, Arne; Sanders, Kate Laura; Guinea, Michael L

    2014-01-01

    Sea snakes (Elapidae, subfamilies Hydrophiinae and Laticaudinae) reach high species richness in the South China Sea and in the Australian region; however, most countries in the two regions still lack up-to-date checklists and identification tools for these snakes. We present an updated reviewed...... checklist and a new complete identification key to sea snakes in Australian waters. The identification key includes 29 species documented and 4 possibly occurring taxa and is based mostly on easy-to-use external characters. We find no evidence for breeding populations of Laticauda in Australian waters...

  19. Cloning of MASK, a novel member of mammalian germinal center kinase-III subfamily, with apoptosis-inducing properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dan, Ippeita; Ong, Shao-En; Watanabe, Norinobu M

    2002-01-01

    We have cloned a novel human GCK family kinase that has been designated as MASK (Mst3 and SOK1-related kinase). MASK is widely expressed and encodes a protein of 416 amino acid residues, with an N-terminal kinase domain and a unique C-terminal region. Like other GCK-III subfamily kinases, MASK do...... apoptosis upon overexpression in mammalian cells that is abrogated by CrmA, suggesting involvement of MASK in the apoptotic machinery in mammalian cells. Udgivelsesdato: 2002-Feb-22...

  20. Modelling and mutational analysis of Aspergillus nidulans UreA, a member of the subfamily of urea/H+ transporters in fungi and plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanguinetti, Manuel; Amillis, Sotiris; Pantano, Sergio; Scazzocchio, Claudio; Ramón, Ana

    2014-01-01

    We present the first account of the structure–function relationships of a protein of the subfamily of urea/H+ membrane transporters of fungi and plants, using Aspergillus nidulans UreA as a study model. Based on the crystal structures of the Vibrio parahaemolyticus sodium/galactose symporter (vSGLT) and of the Nucleobase-Cation-Symport-1 benzylhydantoin transporter from Microbacterium liquefaciens (Mhp1), we constructed a three-dimensional model of UreA which, combined with site-directed and classical random mutagenesis, led to the identification of amino acids important for UreA function. Our approach allowed us to suggest roles for these residues in the binding, recognition and translocation of urea, and in the sorting of UreA to the membrane. Residues W82, Y106, A110, T133, N275, D286, Y388, Y437 and S446, located in transmembrane helixes 2, 3, 7 and 11, were found to be involved in the binding, recognition and/or translocation of urea and the sorting of UreA to the membrane. Y106, A110, T133 and Y437 seem to play a role in substrate selectivity, while S446 is necessary for proper sorting of UreA to the membrane. Other amino acids identified by random classical mutagenesis (G99, R141, A163, G168 and P639) may be important for the basic transporter's structure, its proper folding or its correct traffic to the membrane. PMID:24966243

  1. Role of NH2-terminal hydrophobic motif in the subcellular localization of ATP-binding cassette protein subfamily D: Common features in eukaryotic organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Asaka; Asahina, Kota; Okamoto, Takumi; Kawaguchi, Kosuke; Kostsin, Dzmitry G.; Kashiwayama, Yoshinori; Takanashi, Kojiro; Yazaki, Kazufumi; Imanaka, Tsuneo; Morita, Masashi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • ABCD proteins classifies based on with or without NH 2 -terminal hydrophobic segment. • The ABCD proteins with the segment are targeted peroxisomes. • The ABCD proteins without the segment are targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum. • The role of the segment in organelle targeting is conserved in eukaryotic organisms. - Abstract: In mammals, four ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins belonging to subfamily D have been identified. ABCD1–3 possesses the NH 2 -terminal hydrophobic region and are targeted to peroxisomes, while ABCD4 lacking the region is targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Based on hydropathy plot analysis, we found that several eukaryotes have ABCD protein homologs lacking the NH 2 -terminal hydrophobic segment (H0 motif). To investigate whether the role of the NH 2 -terminal H0 motif in subcellular localization is conserved across species, we expressed ABCD proteins from several species (metazoan, plant and fungi) in fusion with GFP in CHO cells and examined their subcellular localization. ABCD proteins possessing the NH 2 -terminal H0 motif were localized to peroxisomes, while ABCD proteins lacking this region lost this capacity. In addition, the deletion of the NH 2 -terminal H0 motif of ABCD protein resulted in their localization to the ER. These results suggest that the role of the NH 2 -terminal H0 motif in organelle targeting is widely conserved in living organisms

  2. A new member of the GM130 golgin subfamily is expressed in the optic lobe anlagen of the metamorphosing brain of Manduca sexta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiou-Miin Wang

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available During metamorphosis of the insect brain, the optic lobe anlagen generate the proliferation centers for the visual cortices. We show here that, in the moth Manduca sexta, an 80 kDa Golgi complex protein (Ms-golgin80 is abundantly expressed in the cytoplasm of neuroblasts and ganglion mother cells in the optic lobe anlagen and proliferation centers. The predicted amino acid sequence for Ms-golgin80 is similar to that of several members of the GM130 subfamily of Golgi-associated proteins, including rat GM130 and human golgin-95. Homologs of Ms-golgin80 from Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Brugia malayi were identified through homology sequence search. Sequence similarities are present in three regions: the N-terminus, an internal domain of 89 amino acids, and another domain of 89 amino acids near the C-terminus. Structural similarities further suggest that these molecules play the same cellular role as GM130. GM130 is involved in the docking and fusion of coatomer (COP I coated vesicles to the Golgi membranes; it also regulates the fragmentation and subsequent reassembly of the Golgi complex during mitosis. Abundant expression of Ms-golgin80 in neuroblasts and ganglion mother cells and its reduced expression in the neuronal progeny of these cells suggest that this protein may be involved in the maintenance of the proliferative state.

  3. AOX1-Subfamily Gene Members in Olea europaea cv. "Galega Vulgar"-Gene Characterization and Expression of Transcripts during IBA-Induced in Vitro Adventitious Rooting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velada, Isabel; Grzebelus, Dariusz; Lousa, Diana; M Soares, Cláudio; Santos Macedo, Elisete; Peixe, Augusto; Arnholdt-Schmitt, Birgit; G Cardoso, Hélia

    2018-02-17

    Propagation of some Olea europaea L. cultivars is strongly limited due to recalcitrant behavior in adventitious root formation by semi-hardwood cuttings. One example is the cultivar "Galega vulgar". The formation of adventitious roots is considered a morphological response to stress. Alternative oxidase (AOX) is the terminal oxidase of the alternative pathway of the plant mitochondrial electron transport chain. This enzyme is well known to be induced in response to several biotic and abiotic stress situations. This work aimed to characterize the alternative oxidase 1 (AOX1)-subfamily in olive and to analyze the expression of transcripts during the indole-3-butyric acid (IBA)-induced in vitro adventitious rooting (AR) process. OeAOX1a (acc. no. MF410318) and OeAOX1d (acc. no. MF410319) were identified, as well as different transcript variants for both genes which resulted from alternative polyadenylation events. A correlation between transcript accumulation of both OeAOX1a and OeAOX1d transcripts and the three distinct phases (induction, initiation, and expression) of the AR process in olive was observed. Olive AOX1 genes seem to be associated with the induction and development of adventitious roots in IBA-treated explants. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the stimulus needed for the induction of adventitious roots may help to develop more targeted and effective rooting induction protocols in order to improve the rooting ability of difficult-to-root cultivars.

  4. A role for calcium in the regulation of ATP-binding cassette, sub-family C, member 3 (ABCC3) gene expression in a model of epidermal growth factor-mediated breast cancer epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Teneale A; Azimi, Iman; Thompson, Erik W; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J; Monteith, Gregory R

    2015-03-13

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process implicated in cancer metastasis, is associated with the transcriptional regulation of members of the ATP-binding cassette superfamily of efflux pumps, and drug resistance in breast cancer cells. Epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced EMT in MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells is calcium signal dependent. In this study induction of EMT was shown to result in the transcriptional up-regulation of ATP-binding cassette, subfamily C, member 3 (ABCC3), a member of the ABC transporter superfamily, which has a recognized role in multidrug resistance. Buffering of cytosolic free calcium inhibited EGF-mediated ABCC3 increases, indicating a calcium-dependent mode of regulation. Silencing of TRPM7 (an ion channel involved in EMT associated vimentin induction) did not inhibit ABCC3 up-regulation. Silencing of the store operated calcium entry (SOCE) pathway components ORAI1 and STIM1 also did not alter ABCC3 induction by EGF. However, the calcium permeable ion channel transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily C, member 1 (TRPC1) appears to contribute to the regulation of both basal and EGF-induced ABCC3 mRNA. Improved understanding of the relationship between calcium signaling, EMT and the regulation of genes important in therapeutic resistance may help identify novel therapeutic targets for breast cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Identifying Self-Efficacy and Financial Behaviors as Predictors of Undergraduate College Students' Financial Literacy at a Land Grant University in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hucul, Donna T.

    2015-01-01

    Financial literacy has become a serious concern in the wake of the Great Recession of 2008. This study explored the financial literacy of undergraduate college students, who as a group constitute a distinct cohort of learners, emerging adults. The college student population represents a financially at-risk group facing mounting student loan debt.…

  6. Plastome-Wide Nucleotide Substitution Rates Reveal Accelerated Rates in Papilionoideae and Correlations with Genome Features Across Legume Subfamilies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Erika N; Ruhlman, Tracey A; Weng, Mao-Lun; Khiyami, Mohammad A; Sabir, Jamal S M; Hajarah, Nahid H; Alharbi, Njud S; Rabah, Samar O; Jansen, Robert K

    2017-04-01

    This study represents the most comprehensive plastome-wide comparison of nucleotide substitution rates across the three subfamilies of Fabaceae: Caesalpinioideae, Mimosoideae, and Papilionoideae. Caesalpinioid and mimosoid legumes have large, unrearranged plastomes compared with papilionoids, which exhibit varying levels of rearrangement including the loss of the inverted repeat (IR) in the IR-lacking clade (IRLC). Using 71 genes common to 39 legume taxa representing all the three subfamilies, we show that papilionoids consistently have higher nucleotide substitution rates than caesalpinioids and mimosoids, and rates in the IRLC papilionoids are generally higher than those in the IR-containing papilionoids. Unsurprisingly, this pattern was significantly correlated with growth habit as most papilionoids are herbaceous, whereas caesalpinioids and mimosoids are largely woody. Both nonsynonymous (dN) and synonymous (dS) substitution rates were also correlated with several biological features including plastome size and plastomic rearrangements such as the number of inversions and indels. In agreement with previous reports, we found that genes in the IR exhibit between three and fourfold reductions in the substitution rates relative to genes within the large single-copy or small single-copy regions. Furthermore, former IR genes in IR-lacking taxa exhibit accelerated rates compared with genes contained in the IR.

  7. Analysis of Comparative Sequence and Genomic Data to Verify Phylogenetic Relationship and Explore a New Subfamily of Bacterial Lipases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Masomian

    Full Text Available Thermostable and organic solvent-tolerant enzymes have significant potential in a wide range of synthetic reactions in industry due to their inherent stability at high temperatures and their ability to endure harsh organic solvents. In this study, a novel gene encoding a true lipase was isolated by construction of a genomic DNA library of thermophilic Aneurinibacillus thermoaerophilus strain HZ into Escherichia coli plasmid vector. Sequence analysis revealed that HZ lipase had 62% identity to putative lipase from Bacillus pseudomycoides. The closely characterized lipases to the HZ lipase gene are from thermostable Bacillus and Geobacillus lipases belonging to the subfamily I.5 with ≤ 57% identity. The amino acid sequence analysis of HZ lipase determined a conserved pentapeptide containing the active serine, GHSMG and a Ca(2+-binding motif, GCYGSD in the enzyme. Protein structure modeling showed that HZ lipase consisted of an α/β hydrolase fold and a lid domain. Protein sequence alignment, conserved regions analysis, clustal distance matrix and amino acid composition illustrated differences between HZ lipase and other thermostable lipases. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that this lipase represented a new subfamily of family I of bacterial true lipases, classified as family I.9. The HZ lipase was expressed under promoter Plac using IPTG and was characterized. The recombinant enzyme showed optimal activity at 65 °C and retained ≥ 97% activity after incubation at 50 °C for 1h. The HZ lipase was stable in various polar and non-polar organic solvents.

  8. A tandem array of UDP-glycosyltransferases from the UGT73C subfamily glycosylate sapogenins, forming a spectrum of mono- and bisdesmosidic saponins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erthmann, Pernille Østerbye; Agerbirk, Niels; Bak, Søren

    2018-05-01

    This study identifies six UGT73Cs all able to glucosylate sapogenins at positions 3 and/or 28 which demonstrates that B. vulgaris has a much richer arsenal of UGTs involved in saponin biosynthesis than initially anticipated. The wild cruciferous plant Barbarea vulgaris is resistant to some insects due to accumulation of two monodesmosidic triterpenoid saponins, oleanolic acid 3-O-β-cellobioside and hederagenin 3-O-β-cellobioside. Insect resistance depends on the structure of the sapogenin aglycone and the glycosylation pattern. The B. vulgaris saponin profile is complex with at least 49 saponin-like metabolites, derived from eight sapogenins and including up to five monosaccharide units. Two B. vulgaris UDP-glycosyltransferases, UGT73C11 and UGT73C13, O-glucosylate sapogenins at positions 3 and 28, forming mainly 3-O-β-D-glucosides. The aim of this study was to identify UGTs responsible for the diverse saponin oligoglycoside moieties observed in B. vulgaris. Twenty UGT genes from the insect resistant genotype were selected and heterologously expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana and/or Escherichia coli. The extracts were screened for their ability to glycosylate sapogenins (oleanolic acid, hederagenin), the hormone 24-epibrassinolide and sapogenin monoglucosides (hederagenin and oleanolic acid 3-O-β-D-glucosides). Six UGTs from the UGT73C subfamily were able to glucosylate both sapogenins and both monoglucosides at positions 3 and/or 28. Some UGTs formed bisdesmosidic saponins efficiently. At least four UGT73C genes were localized in a tandem array with UGT73C11 and possibly UGT73C13. This organization most likely reflects duplication events followed by sub- and neofunctionalization. Indeed, signs of positive selection on several amino acid sites were identified and modelled to be localized on the UGT protein surface. This tandem array is proposed to initiate higher order bisdesmosidic glycosylation of B. vulgaris saponins, leading to the recently discovered

  9. HCV Proteins and Immunoglobulin Variable Gene (IgV Subfamilies in HCV-Induced Type II Mixed Cryoglobulinemia: A Concurrent Pathogenetic Role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Sautto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The association between hepatitis C virus (HCV infection and type II mixed cryoglobulinemia (MCII is well established, but the role played by distinct HCV proteins and by specific components of the anti-HCV humoral immune response remains to be clearly defined. It is widely accepted that HCV drives the expansion of few B-cell clones expressing a restricted pool of selected immunoglobulin variable (IgV gene subfamilies frequently endowed with rheumatoid factor (RF activity. Moreover, the same IgV subfamilies are frequently observed in HCV-transformed malignant B-cell clones occasionally complicating MCII. In this paper, we analyze both the humoral and viral counterparts at the basis of cryoglobulins production in HCV-induced MCII, with particular attention reserved to the single IgV subfamilies most frequently involved.

  10. HCV proteins and immunoglobulin variable gene (IgV) subfamilies in HCV-induced type II mixed cryoglobulinemia: a concurrent pathogenetic role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sautto, Giuseppe; Mancini, Nicasio; Solforosi, Laura; Diotti, Roberta A; Clementi, Massimo; Burioni, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    The association between hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and type II mixed cryoglobulinemia (MCII) is well established, but the role played by distinct HCV proteins and by specific components of the anti-HCV humoral immune response remains to be clearly defined. It is widely accepted that HCV drives the expansion of few B-cell clones expressing a restricted pool of selected immunoglobulin variable (IgV) gene subfamilies frequently endowed with rheumatoid factor (RF) activity. Moreover, the same IgV subfamilies are frequently observed in HCV-transformed malignant B-cell clones occasionally complicating MCII. In this paper, we analyze both the humoral and viral counterparts at the basis of cryoglobulins production in HCV-induced MCII, with particular attention reserved to the single IgV subfamilies most frequently involved.

  11. Current knowledge on bioacoustics of the subfamily Lophyohylinae (Hylidae, Anura and description of Ocellated treefrog Itapotihyla langsdorffii vocalizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Rodriguez Forti

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Anuran vocalizations, such as advertisement and release calls, are informative for taxonomy because species recognition can be based on those signals. Thus, a proper acoustic description of the calls may support taxonomic decisions and may contribute to knowledge about amphibian phylogeny. Methods Here we present a perspective on advertisement call descriptions of the frog subfamily Lophyohylinae, through a literature review and a spatial analysis presenting bioacoustic coldspots (sites with high diversity of species lacking advertisement call descriptions for this taxonomic group. Additionally, we describe the advertisement and release calls of the still poorly known treefrog, Itapotihyla langsdorffii. We analyzed recordings of six males using the software Raven Pro 1.4 and calculated the coefficient of variation for classifying static and dynamic acoustic properties. Results and Discussion We found that more than half of the species within the subfamily do not have their vocalizations described yet. Most of these species are distributed in the western and northern Amazon, where recording sampling effort should be strengthened in order to fill these gaps. The advertisement call of I. langsdorffii is composed of 3–18 short unpulsed notes (mean of 13 ms long, presents harmonic structure, and has a peak dominant frequency of about 1.4 kHz. This call usually presents amplitude modulation, with decreasing intensity along the sequence of notes. The release call is a simple unpulsed note with an average duration of 9 ms, and peak dominant frequency around 1.8 kHz. Temporal properties presented higher variations than spectral properties at both intra- and inter-individual levels. However, only peak dominant frequency was static at intra-individual level. High variability in temporal properties and lower variations related to spectral ones is usual for anurans; The first set of variables is determined by social environment or temperature

  12. Class and Home Problems. Identify-Solve-Broadcast Your Own Transport Phenomenon: Student-Created YouTube Videos to Foster Active Learning in Mass and Heat Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Fei; Khera, Eshita

    2016-01-01

    Despite the instinctive perception of mass and heat transfer principles in daily life, productive learning in this course continues to be one of the greatest challenges for undergraduate students in chemical engineering. In an effort to enhance student learning in classroom, we initiated an innovative active-learning method titled…

  13. Teachers' Experiences in the General Education Classroom with Students Identified with Emotional Behavioral Disorders at a Title I Southeast Texas High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigee, Alicia D.

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological research study investigated the experiences of teachers' in the general education classroom with students with emotional behavior disorders. The five questions that guided the research examined teacher's use of strategies, administration support, and need the training to educate students with emotional behavioral…

  14. The Attainment of a Science Degree by African American College Students at Arizona State University: An Investigation to Identify the Barriers and Affordances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Quintin

    2012-01-01

    Historically, African American students have been underrepresented in the fields of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). If African American students continue to be underrepresented in STEM fields, they will not have access to valuable and high-paying sectors of the economy. Despite the number of African Americans in these…

  15. Validation and Application of the Survey of Teaching Beliefs and Practices for Undergraduates (STEP-U): Identifying Factors Associated with Valuing Important Workplace Skills among Biology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marbach-Ad, Gili; Rietschel, Carly; Thompson, Katerina V.

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel assessment tool for measuring biology students' values and experiences across their undergraduate degree program. Our Survey of Teaching Beliefs and Practices for Undergraduates (STEP-U) assesses the extent to which students value skills needed for the workplace (e.g., ability to work in groups) and their experiences with…

  16. Identifying the Value of the ACT Score as a Predictor of Student Success in Respiratory Care, Radiography, and Nursing at Southeast Kentucky Community and Technical College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott-Robbins, Rebecca Jon

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate--by utilizing data obtained from the Kentucky Community and Technical College System (KCTCS) PeopleSoft database-- whether the American College Testing (ACT) assessment was a predictor of student success for students who had graduated from respiratory, radiography, and nursing programs at Southeast…

  17. Digital collaborative learning: identifying what students value [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/55h

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Hemingway

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Digital technologies are changing the learning landscape and connecting classrooms to learning environments beyond the school walls.  Online collaborations among students, teachers, and scientists are new opportunities for authentic science experiences.  Here we present findings generated on PlantingScience (www.plantingscience.org, an online community where scientists from more than 14 scientific societies have mentored over 14,000 secondary school students as they design and think through their own team investigations on plant biology.  The core intervention is online discourse between student teams and scientist mentors to enhance classroom-based plant investigations.  We asked: (1 what attitudes about engaging in authentic science do students reveal, and (2 how do student attitudes relate to design principles of the program? Lexical analysis of open-ended survey questions revealed that students most highly value working with plants and scientists.  By examining student responses to this cognitive apprenticeship model, we provide new perspectives on the importance of the personal relationships students form with scientists and plants when working as members of a research community. These perspectives have implications for plant science instruction and e-mentoring programs.

  18. Key to the subfamilies, tribes and genera of adult Dytiscidae of Argentina (Coleoptera: Adephaga Clave para los adultos de las subfamilias, tribus y géneros de Dytiscidae de la Argentina (Coleoptera: Adephaga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María L. Libonatti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Dytiscids constitute the world's most speciose family of water beetles, whose identifi cation in Argentina is problematic with current keys. In this work, a key (both in English and Spanish to the eight subfamilies, 16 tribes and 31 genera of adult Dytiscidae of Argentina is presented. The key was constructed using stable qualitative characters of the external morphology and chaetotaxy, easily visualizable and interpretable. Characters such as size and shape of the body, color pattern and geographic distribution were also used. Illustrations of a great number of morphological structures as well as SEM micrographs were included to aid in the interpretation of the text. One subfamily (Hydrodytinae and fi ve genera (Agaporomorphus Zimmermann, Bidessodes Régimbart, Hydrodytes Miller, Queda Sharp and an unpublished genus of the subfamily Laccophilinae are cited for the fi rst time for Argentina.Los ditíscidos constituyen la familia más numerosa de escarabajos acuáticos a nivel mundial, cuya identifi cación en la Argentina resulta problemática con las claves actuales. En este trabajo, se presenta una clave (en inglés y español para los adultos de las ocho subfamilias, 16 tribus y 31 géneros de Dytiscidae de la Argentina. La clave fue construida priorizando la inclusión de caracteres cualitativos estables de la morfología externa y quetotaxia, fácilmente visibles e interpretables. También, se utilizaron caracteres como el tamaño y la forma del cuerpo, el patrón de coloración y la distribución geográfi ca. Se incluyeron ilustraciones de un gran número de estructuras morfológicas y fotografías tomadas con el microscopio electrónico, para ayudar a la interpretación del texto. Se citan, por primera vez para la Argentina, una subfamilia (Hydrodytinae y cinco géneros (Agaporomorphus Zimmermann, Bidessodes Régimbart, Hydrodytes Miller, Queda Sharp y un género inédito de la subfamilia Laccophilinae.

  19. Evaluating the effectiveness of a training program that builds teachers' capability to identify and appropriately refer middle and high school students with mental health problems in Brazil: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Marlene A; Gadelha, Ary A; Moriyama, Taís S; Bressan, Rodrigo A; Bordin, Isabel A

    2014-02-28

    In Brazil, like many countries, there has been a failure to identify mental health problems (MHP) in young people and refer them to appropriate care and support. The school environment provides an ideal setting to do this. Therefore, effective programs need to be developed to train teachers to identify and appropriately refer children with possible MHP. We aimed to evaluate teachers' ability to identify and appropriately refer students with possible MHP, and the effectiveness of a psychoeducational strategy to build teachers' capability in this area. To meet the first objective, we conducted a case-control study using a student sample. To meet the second, we employed longitudinal design with repeated measures before and after introducing the psychoeducational strategy using a teacher sample. In the case control study, the Youth Self-Report was used to investigate internalizing and externalizing problems. Before training, teachers selected 26 students who they thought were likely to have MHP. Twenty-six non-selected students acted as controls and were matched by gender, age and grade. The underlying principle was that if teachers could identify abnormal behaviors among their actual students, those with some MHP would likely be among the case group and those without among the control group. In the longitudinal study, 32 teachers were asked to evaluate six vignettes that highlighted behaviors indicating a high risk for psychosis, depression, conduct disorder, hyperactivity, mania, and normal adolescent behavior. We calculated the rates of correct answers for identifying the existence of some MHP and the need for referral before and after training; teachers were not asked to identify the individual conditions. Teachers were already able to identify the most symptomatic students, who had both internalizing and externalizing problems, as possibly having MHP, but teachers had difficulty in identifying students with internalizing problems alone. At least 50.0% of teachers

  20. A Species-Level Phylogeny of Extant Snakes with Description of a New Colubrid Subfamily and Genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Alex; McKelvy, Alexander D; Grismer, L Lee; Bell, Charles D; Lailvaux, Simon P

    2016-01-01

    With over 3,500 species encompassing a diverse range of morphologies and ecologies, snakes make up 36% of squamate diversity. Despite several attempts at estimating higher-level snake relationships and numerous assessments of generic- or species-level phylogenies, a large-scale species-level phylogeny solely focusing on snakes has not been completed. Here, we provide the largest-yet estimate of the snake tree of life using maximum likelihood on a supermatrix of 1745 taxa (1652 snake species + 7 outgroup taxa) and 9,523 base pairs from 10 loci (5 nuclear, 5 mitochondrial), including previously unsequenced genera (2) and species (61). Increased taxon sampling resulted in a phylogeny with a new higher-level topology and corroborate many lower-level relationships, strengthened by high nodal support values (> 85%) down to the species level (73.69% of nodes). Although the majority of families and subfamilies were strongly supported as monophyletic with > 88% support values, some families and numerous genera were paraphyletic, primarily due to limited taxon and loci sampling leading to a sparse supermatrix and minimal sequence overlap between some closely-related taxa. With all rogue taxa and incertae sedis species eliminated, higher-level relationships and support values remained relatively unchanged, except in five problematic clades. Our analyses resulted in new topologies at higher- and lower-levels; resolved several previous topological issues; established novel paraphyletic affiliations; designated a new subfamily, Ahaetuliinae, for the genera Ahaetulla, Chrysopelea, Dendrelaphis, and Dryophiops; and appointed Hemerophis (Coluber) zebrinus to a new genus, Mopanveldophis. Although we provide insight into some distinguished problematic nodes, at the deeper phylogenetic scale, resolution of these nodes may require sampling of more slowly-evolving nuclear genes.

  1. A Species-Level Phylogeny of Extant Snakes with Description of a New Colubrid Subfamily and Genus

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvy, Alexander D.; Grismer, L. Lee; Bell, Charles D.; Lailvaux, Simon P.

    2016-01-01

    Background With over 3,500 species encompassing a diverse range of morphologies and ecologies, snakes make up 36% of squamate diversity. Despite several attempts at estimating higher-level snake relationships and numerous assessments of generic- or species-level phylogenies, a large-scale species-level phylogeny solely focusing on snakes has not been completed. Here, we provide the largest-yet estimate of the snake tree of life using maximum likelihood on a supermatrix of 1745 taxa (1652 snake species + 7 outgroup taxa) and 9,523 base pairs from 10 loci (5 nuclear, 5 mitochondrial), including previously unsequenced genera (2) and species (61). Results Increased taxon sampling resulted in a phylogeny with a new higher-level topology and corroborate many lower-level relationships, strengthened by high nodal support values (> 85%) down to the species level (73.69% of nodes). Although the majority of families and subfamilies were strongly supported as monophyletic with > 88% support values, some families and numerous genera were paraphyletic, primarily due to limited taxon and loci sampling leading to a sparse supermatrix and minimal sequence overlap between some closely-related taxa. With all rogue taxa and incertae sedis species eliminated, higher-level relationships and support values remained relatively unchanged, except in five problematic clades. Conclusion Our analyses resulted in new topologies at higher- and lower-levels; resolved several previous topological issues; established novel paraphyletic affiliations; designated a new subfamily, Ahaetuliinae, for the genera Ahaetulla, Chrysopelea, Dendrelaphis, and Dryophiops; and appointed Hemerophis (Coluber) zebrinus to a new genus, Mopanveldophis. Although we provide insight into some distinguished problematic nodes, at the deeper phylogenetic scale, resolution of these nodes may require sampling of more slowly-evolving nuclear genes. PMID:27603205

  2. Validation and Application of the Survey of Teaching Beliefs and Practices for Undergraduates (STEP-U): Identifying Factors Associated with Valuing Important Workplace Skills among Biology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marbach-Ad, Gili; Rietschel, Carly; Thompson, Katerina V.

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel assessment tool for measuring biology students’ values and experiences across their undergraduate degree program. Our Survey of Teaching Beliefs and Practices for Undergraduates (STEP-U) assesses the extent to which students value skills needed for the workplace (e.g., ability to work in groups) and their experiences with teaching practices purported to promote such skills (e.g., group work). The survey was validated through factor analyses in a large sample of biology seniors (n = 1389) and through response process analyses (five interviewees). The STEP-U skills items were characterized by two underlying factors: retention (e.g., memorization) and transfer (e.g., knowledge application). Multiple linear regression models were used to examine relationships between classroom experiences, values, and student characteristics (e.g., gender, cumulative grade point average [GPA], and research experience). Student demographic and experiential factors predicted the extent to which students valued particular skills. Students with lower GPAs valued retention skills more than those with higher GPAs. Students with research experience placed greater value on scientific writing and interdisciplinary understanding. Greater experience with specific teaching practices was associated with valuing the corresponding skills more highly. The STEP-U can provide feedback vital for designing curricula that better prepare students for their intended postgraduate careers. PMID:27856547

  3. Over-expression in Escherichia coli, purification and reconstitution in liposomes of the third member of the OCTN sub-family: The mouse carnitine transporter OCTN3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scalise, Mariafrancesca; Galluccio, Michele; Pochini, Lorena [Department of Cell Biology, University of Calabria, Via P. Bucci 4c, 87036 Arcavacata di Rende (Italy); Indiveri, Cesare, E-mail: indiveri@unical.it [Department of Cell Biology, University of Calabria, Via P. Bucci 4c, 87036 Arcavacata di Rende (Italy)

    2012-05-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer mOCTN3 transport protein has been cloned in pET-21a(+) and over-expressed in Escherichia coli. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The expressed mOCTN3 has been purified to homogeneity by Ni-chelating chromatography. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The protein solubilised in Triton X-100 has been reconstituted in liposomes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recombinant mOCTN3 catalyses transport of carnitine by a uniport mode. -- Abstract: pET-21a(+)-mOCTN3-6His was constructed and used for over-expression in Escherichia coli Rosetta(DE3)pLysS. After IPTG induction a protein with apparent molecular mass of 53 kDa was collected in the insoluble fraction of the cell lysate and purified by Ni{sup 2+}-chelating chromatography with a yield of 2 mg/l of cell culture. The over-expressed protein was identified with mOCTN3 by anti-His antibody and reconstitution in liposomes. mOCTN3 required peculiar conditions for optimal expression and reconstitution in liposomes. The protein catalyzed a time dependent [{sup 3}H]carnitine uptake which was stimulated by intraliposomal ATP and nearly independent of the pH. The K{sub m} for carnitine was 36 {mu}M. [{sup 3}H]carnitine transport was inhibited by carnitine analogues and some Cys and NH{sub 2} reagents. This paper represents the first outcome in over-expressing, in active form, the third member of the OCTN sub-family, mOCTN3, in E. coli.

  4. Over-expression in Escherichia coli, purification and reconstitution in liposomes of the third member of the OCTN sub-family: The mouse carnitine transporter OCTN3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scalise, Mariafrancesca; Galluccio, Michele; Pochini, Lorena; Indiveri, Cesare

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► mOCTN3 transport protein has been cloned in pET-21a(+) and over-expressed in Escherichia coli. ► The expressed mOCTN3 has been purified to homogeneity by Ni-chelating chromatography. ► The protein solubilised in Triton X-100 has been reconstituted in liposomes. ► Recombinant mOCTN3 catalyses transport of carnitine by a uniport mode. -- Abstract: pET-21a(+)-mOCTN3-6His was constructed and used for over-expression in Escherichia coli Rosetta(DE3)pLysS. After IPTG induction a protein with apparent molecular mass of 53 kDa was collected in the insoluble fraction of the cell lysate and purified by Ni 2+ -chelating chromatography with a yield of 2 mg/l of cell culture. The over-expressed protein was identified with mOCTN3 by anti-His antibody and reconstitution in liposomes. mOCTN3 required peculiar conditions for optimal expression and reconstitution in liposomes. The protein catalyzed a time dependent [ 3 H]carnitine uptake which was stimulated by intraliposomal ATP and nearly independent of the pH. The K m for carnitine was 36 μM. [ 3 H]carnitine transport was inhibited by carnitine analogues and some Cys and NH 2 reagents. This paper represents the first outcome in over-expressing, in active form, the third member of the OCTN sub-family, mOCTN3, in E. coli.

  5. Validation and Application of the Survey of Teaching Beliefs and Practices for Undergraduates (STEP-U): Identifying Factors Associated with Valuing Important Workplace Skills among Biology Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marbach-Ad, Gili; Rietschel, Carly; Thompson, Katerina V

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel assessment tool for measuring biology students' values and experiences across their undergraduate degree program. Our Survey of Teaching Beliefs and Practices for Undergraduates (STEP-U) assesses the extent to which students value skills needed for the workplace (e.g., ability to work in groups) and their experiences with teaching practices purported to promote such skills (e.g., group work). The survey was validated through factor analyses in a large sample of biology seniors (n = 1389) and through response process analyses (five interviewees). The STEP-U skills items were characterized by two underlying factors: retention (e.g., memorization) and transfer (e.g., knowledge application). Multiple linear regression models were used to examine relationships between classroom experiences, values, and student characteristics (e.g., gender, cumulative grade point average [GPA], and research experience). Student demographic and experiential factors predicted the extent to which students valued particular skills. Students with lower GPAs valued retention skills more than those with higher GPAs. Students with research experience placed greater value on scientific writing and interdisciplinary understanding. Greater experience with specific teaching practices was associated with valuing the corresponding skills more highly. The STEP-U can provide feedback vital for designing curricula that better prepare students for their intended postgraduate careers. © 2016 G. Marbach-Ad et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  6. Structure of Human B12 Trafficking Protein CblD Reveals Molecular Mimicry and Identifies a New Subfamily of Nitro-FMN Reductases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Kazuhiro; Gherasim, Carmen; Banerjee, Ruma; Koutmos, Markos

    2015-12-04

    In mammals, B12 (or cobalamin) is an essential cofactor required by methionine synthase and methylmalonyl-CoA mutase. A complex intracellular pathway supports the assimilation of cobalamin into its active cofactor forms and delivery to its target enzymes. MMADHC (the methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria type D protein), commonly referred to as CblD, is a key chaperone involved in intracellular cobalamin trafficking, and mutations in CblD cause methylmalonic aciduria and/or homocystinuria. Herein, we report the first crystal structure of the globular C-terminal domain of human CblD, which is sufficient for its interaction with MMADHC (the methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria type C protein), or CblC, and for supporting the cytoplasmic cobalamin trafficking pathway. CblD contains an α+β fold that is structurally reminiscent of the nitro-FMN reductase superfamily. Two of the closest structural relatives of CblD are CblC, a multifunctional enzyme important for cobalamin trafficking, and the activation domain of methionine synthase. CblD, CblC, and the activation domain of methionine synthase share several distinguishing features and, together with two recently described corrinoid-dependent reductive dehalogenases, constitute a new subclass within the nitro-FMN reductase superfamily. We demonstrate that CblD enhances oxidation of cob(II)alamin bound to CblC and that disease-causing mutations in CblD impair the kinetics of this reaction. The striking structural similarity of CblD to CblC, believed to be contiguous in the cobalamin trafficking pathway, suggests the co-option of molecular mimicry as a strategy for achieving its function. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. First record of the subfamily Anoplophilinae (Orthoptera: Rhaphidophoridae) from Russia with description of a new species of the genus Alpinanoplophilus Ishikawa, 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storozhenko, Sergey Yu

    2015-06-17

    The subfamily Anoplophilinae (Rhaphidophopridae) is recorded from Russia for the first time. Alpinanoplophilus kurilensis Storozhenko, sp. nov. is described from Kunashir Island. The holotype of the new species is deposited in the Zoological Institute of Russian Academy of Science (St. Petersburg, Russia). A revised key to the species of the genus Alpinanoplophilus Ishikawa, 1993 is provided.

  8. Structure, computational and biochemical analysis of PcCel45A endoglucanase from Phanerochaete chrysosporium and catalytic mechanisms of GH45 subfamily C members

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godoy, Andre S.; Pereira, Caroline S.; Ramia, Marina Paglione

    2018-01-01

    The glycoside hydrolase family 45 (GH45) of carbohydrate modifying enzymes is mostly comprised of ß-1,4-endoglucanases. Significant diversity between the GH45 members has prompted the division of this family into three subfamilies: A, B and C, which may differ in terms of the mechanism, general a...

  9. Phylogenetic and functional characterization of ten P450 genes from the CYP6AE subfamily of Helicoverpa armigera involved in xenobiotic metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Yu; Wang, Huidong; Liu, Zhi

    2018-01-01

    450s in this subfamily can metabolise imidacloprid, but with lower efficiency than Bemisia tabaci CYP6CM1vQ. CYP6AE20 had virtually no metabolic competence to these four compounds but could metabolise several model fluorogenic substrates. These results showed the broad substrate spectrum of H...

  10. Morphology of dental bones and teeth of selected representatives of the subfamily Anguinae (Squamata, Anguidae); Morfologia dentalnej kosti a zubov vybranych zastupcov podcelade Anguinae (Squamata, Anguinae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobiasova, K [Univerzita Komenskeho v Bratislave, Prirodovedecka fakulta, Katedra ekologie, 84215 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2012-04-25

    The present study is focused on the comparative morphology of dental bones and teeth of all genuses of the subfamily Anguinae. The research did not show any relevant difference, which would serve as the basis for the return use of the original generic names. (authors)

  11. Mostly Plants. Individualized Biology Activities on: I. Investigating Bread Mold; II. Transpiration; III. Botany Project; IV. Collecting/Preserving/Identifying Leaves; [and] V. Student Science Laboratory Write-Ups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Paul R.

    Individualized biology activities for secondary students are presented in this teaching guide. The guide is divided into five sections: (1) investigating bread mold; (2) investigating transpiration; (3) completing a botany project; (4) collecting, preserving, and identifying leaves; and (5) writing up science laboratory investigations. The…

  12. Global Health Education: a cross-sectional study among German medical students to identify needs, deficits and potential benefits (Part 2 of 2: Knowledge gaps and potential benefits).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozorgmehr, Kayvan; Menzel-Severing, Johannes; Schubert, Kirsten; Tinnemann, Peter

    2010-10-08

    In Germany, educational deficits or potential benefits involved in global health education have not been analysed till now. We assess the importance medical students place on learning about social determinants of health (SDH) and assess their knowledge of global health topics in relation to (i) mobility patterns, their education in (ii) tropical medicine or (iii) global health. Cross-sectional study among medical students from all 36 medical schools in Germany using a web-based, semi-structured questionnaire. Participants were recruited via mailing-lists of students' unions, all medical students registered in 2007 were eligible to participate in the study. We captured international mobility patterns, exposure to global health learning opportunities and attitudes to learning about SDH. Both an objective and subjective knowledge assessment were performed. 1126 online-replies were received and analysed. International health electives in developing countries correlated significantly with a higher importance placed on all provided SDH (p ≤ 0.006). Participation in tropical medicine (p educational system' (p = 0.007) and the 'health system structure' (p = 0.007), while the item 'politics' was marginally significant (p = 0.053).In the knowledge assessment students achieved an average score of 3.6 (SD 1.5; Mdn 4.0), 75% achieved a score of 4.0 or less (Q25 = 3.0; Q75 = 4.0) from a maximum achievable score of 8.0. A better performance was associated with international health electives (p = 0.032), participation in tropical medicine (p = 0.038) and global health (p = 0.258) courses. The importance medical students in our sample placed on learning about SDH strongly interacts with students' mobility, and participation in tropical medicine and global health courses. The knowledge assessment revealed deficits and outlined needs to further analyse education gaps in global health. Developing concerted educational interventions aimed at fostering students' engagement with SDH

  13. The phylogeny of the family Lacertidae (Reptilia) based on nuclear DNA sequences: convergent adaptations to arid habitats within the subfamily Eremiainae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Werner; Pavlicev, Mihaela

    2007-09-01

    The family Lacertidae encompasses more than 250 species distributed in the Palearctis, Ethiopis and Orientalis. Lacertids have been subjected in the past to several morphological and molecular studies to establish their phylogeny. However, the problems of convergent adaptation in morphology and of excessively variable molecular markers have hampered the establishment of well supported deeper phylogenetic relationships. Particularly the adaptations to xeric environments have often been used to establish a scenario for the origin and radiation of major lineages within lacertids. Here we present a molecular phylogenetic study based on two nuclear marker genes and representatives of 37 lacertid genera and distinct species groups (as in the case of the collective genus Lacerta). Roughly 1600 bp of the nuclear rag1 and c-mos genes were sequenced and analyzed. While the results provide good support to the hitherto suggested main subfamilies of Gallotiinae (Gallotia and Psammodromus), Eremiainae and Lacertinae [Harris, D.J., Arnold, E.N., Thomas, R.H., 1998. Relationships of lacertid lizards (Reptilia: Lacertidae) estimated from mitochondrial DNA sequences and morphology. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 265, 1939-1948], they also suggest unexpected relationships. In particular, the oriental genus Takydromus, previously considered the sister-group to the three subfamilies, is nested within Lacertinae. Moreover, the genera within the Eremiainae are further divided into two groups, roughly corresponding to their respective geographical distributions in the Ethiopian and the Saharo-Eurasian ranges. The results support an independent origin of adaptations to xeric conditions in different subfamilies. The relationships within the subfamily Lacertinae could not be resolved with the markers used. The species groups of the collective genus Lacerta show a bush-like topology in the inferred Bayesian tree, suggesting rapid radiation. The composition of the subfamilies Eremiainae and Lacertinae

  14. Establishing the need and identifying goals for a curriculum in medical business ethics: a survey of students and residents at two medical centers in Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Elena M; Bakanas, Erin; Gursahani, Kamal; DuBois, James M

    2014-10-09

    In recent years, issues in medical business ethics (MBE), such as conflicts of interest (COI), Medicare fraud and abuse, and the structure and functioning of reimbursement systems, have received significant attention from the media and professional associations in the United States. As a result of highly publicized instances of financial interests altering physician decision-making, major professional organizations and government bodies have produced reports and guidelines to encourage self-regulation and impose rules to limit physician relationships with for-profit entities. Nevertheless, no published curricula exist in the area of MBE. This study aimed to establish a baseline level of knowledge and the educational goals medical students and residents prioritize in the area of MBE. 732 medical students and 380 residents at two academic medical centers in the state of Missouri, USA, completed a brief survey indicating their awareness of major MBE guidance documents, knowledge of key MBE research, beliefs about the goals of an education in MBE, and the areas of MBE they were most interested in learning more about. Medical students and residents had little awareness of recent and major reports on MBE topics, and had minimal knowledge of basic MBE facts. Residents scored statistically better than medical students in both of these areas. Medical students and residents were in close agreement regarding the goals of an MBE curriculum. Both groups showed significant interest in learning more about MBE topics with an emphasis on background topics such as "the business aspects of medicine" and "health care delivery systems". The content of major reports by professional associations and expert bodies has not trickled down to medical students and residents, yet both groups are interested in learning more about MBE topics. Our survey suggests potentially beneficial ways to frame and embed MBE topics into the larger framework of medical education.

  15. Longitudinal Effect of a Volunteer Tutoring Program on Reading Skills of Students Identified as At-Risk for Reading Failure: A Two-Year Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Matthew K.; Senesac, Barbara J.; Silberglitt, Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    There is a recent interest in volunteer tutoring programs and research has suggested effectiveness in improving reading skills. Previous research found that the Help One Student to Succeed (HOSTS) volunteer tutoring program increased reading fluency and comprehension over a 5-month interval (Burns, Senesac, & Symington, 2004). The current…

  16. A Polychoric Correlation to Identify the Principle Component in Classifying Single Tuition Fee Capabilities on the Students Socio-Economic Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yustanti, W.; Anistyasari, Y.

    2018-01-01

    The government has issued the regulation number 55 of 2013 about the enactment of a single tuition fee based on the socio-economic conditions of each student. All public universities are required to implement this policy. Therefore, each university needs to create a formulation that can be used to categorize a student into which cost group. The results of the data collection found that the parameters used to determine the classification of tuition fees between one universities with another are different. In this research, taken a sampling of student data at one public university which is using 43 predictor variables and 8 categories of single tuition. The sample data used are socioeconomic data of students of 2016 and 2017 classes received through public university entrance selections. The results of this study reveal that from 43 variables, there are 16 variables which are the most significant in influencing single tuition category with goodness-of-fit index is 0.866. This value means that the proposed model can indicate student’s ability to pay the tuition fee.

  17. Hands-On or Video-Based Learning with ANTicipation? A Comparative Approach to Identifying Student Motivation and Learning Enjoyment during a Lesson about Ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammet, Rebecca; Kutta, Anna-Maria; Dreesmann, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The observation of living animals in school laboratories provides authentic views of biological research. Various studies stress the importance of primary experiences in biology classes. However, educational films may serve as an alternative in some cases. The aim of this study was to investigate student motivation before and after treatments,…

  18. Identifying most important skills for PhD students in Food Science and Technology: a comparison between industry and academic stakeholders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelo González-Martínez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there is an increasing need of new skills for PhD students to face the future labour market prospects. PhD graduates must have qualities attractive not only in academia but also outside, in both manufacture and service-oriented enterprises, in small innovative companies, and in the civil services and public administration, among others. To know what the needs of these future employees are, is of great importance to be able to improve their personal and academic formation. The aim of this work was, in the framework of the EC-funded ISEKI_Food 4 network, to evaluate the most desirable specific and soft skills that PhD students should acquire by the end of their doctoral studies. To this aim, several surveys were conducted and sent to the different stakeholders (academia and food industry partners in order to collect the information needed. Results showed that competences related to research skills and techniques, research management, personal effectiveness and communication skills were considered to be the most valuable skills to be acquired by our PhD students to meet the future needs of the labour market.  The importance of these skills was appreciated differently, depending on the stakeholder. To sum up, some recommendations to integrate such valuable skills into the curricula of the PhD student are given.

  19. Movement Issues Identified in Movement ABC2 Checklist Parent Ratings for Students with Persisting Dysgraphia, Dyslexia, and OWL LD and Typical Literacy Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Kathleen; Henderson, Sheila; Barnett, Anna L.; Abbott, Robert D.; Berninger, Virginia

    2018-01-01

    Movement, which draws on motor skills and executive functions for managing them, plays an important role in literacy learning (e.g., movement of mouth during oral reading and movement of hand and fingers during writing); but relatively little research has focused on movement skills in students with specific learning disabilities as the current…

  20. A QUICK KEY TO THE SUBFAMILIES AND GENERA OF ANTS OF THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, D

    2007-09-04

    This taxonomic key was devised to support development of a Rapid Bioassessment Protocol using ants at the Savannah River Site. The emphasis is on 'rapid' and, because the available keys contained a very large number of genera not known to occur at the Savannah River Site, we found that the available keys were unwieldy. Because these keys contained many more genera than we would ever encounter and because this larger number of genera required more couplets in the key and often required examination of characters that are difficult to assess without higher magnifications (60X or higher), more time was required to process samples. In developing this set of keys I emphasized character states that are easier for nonspecialists to recognize. I recognize that the character sets used may lead to some errors but I believe that the error rate will be small and, for the purpose of rapid bioassessment, this error rate will be acceptable provided that overall sample sizes are adequate. Oliver and Beattie (1996a, 1996b) found that for rapid assessment of biodiversity the same results were found when identifications were done to morphospecies by people with minimal expertise as when the same data sets were identified by subject matter experts. Basset et al. (2004) concluded that it was not as important to correctly identify all species as it was to be sure that the study included as many functional groups as possible. If your study requires high levels of accuracy, it is highly recommended that, when you key out a specimen and have any doubts concerning the identification, you should refer to keys in Bolton (1994) or to the other keys used to develop this area specific taxonomic key.

  1. The role of the interleukin-10 subfamily members in immunoglobulin production by human B cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hummelshoj, L; Ryder, L P; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2006-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-10 has been shown to have various effects on B cells, including positively affecting the production of immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG. Several human IL-10-related molecules have been identified. These include IL-19, IL-20, IL-22, IL-24, IL-26, IL-28 and IL-29. To determine...... the effects of the IL-10 analogues on the class switch recombination in B cells, we analysed Ig production from naïve B cells stimulated with these cytokines in the presence of anti-CD40. None of the cytokines were found to induce Ig production by themselves in the presence of anti-CD40 Ab. However, all...... cytokines inhibited the production of IgA and IgG induced by anti-CD40 Ab alone. In combination with anti-CD40 Ab and IL-4, IgG4 were inhibited in cultures stimulated with IL-20, IL-22, IL-26, IL-28 and IL-29 compared with IL-4 and anti-CD40 Ab alone, whereas all IL-10 analogues increased the production...

  2. Significant Microsynteny with New Evolutionary Highlights Is Detected through Comparative Genomic Sequence Analysis of Maize CCCH IX Gene Subfamily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Jun Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available CCCH zinc finger proteins, which are characterized by the presence of three cysteine residues and one histidine residue, play important roles in RNA processing in plants. Subfamily IX CCCH proteins were recently shown to function in stress tolerances. In this study, we analyzed CCCH IX genes in Zea mays, Oryza sativa, and Sorghum bicolor. These genes, which are almost intronless, were divided into four groups based on phylogenetic analysis. Microsynteny analysis revealed microsynteny in regions of some gene pairs, indicating that segmental duplication has played an important role in the expansion of this gene family. In addition, we calculated the dates of duplication by Ks analysis, finding that all microsynteny blocks were formed after the monocot-eudicot divergence. We found that deletions, multiplications, and inversions were shown to have occurred over the course of evolution. Moreover, the Ka/Ks ratios indicated that the genes in these three grass species are under strong purifying selection. Finally, we investigated the evolutionary patterns of some gene pairs conferring tolerance to abiotic stress, laying the foundation for future functional studies of these transcription factors.

  3. Molecular Docking Analysis of Ginger Active Compound on Transient Receptor Potential Cation Channel Subfamily V Member 1 (TRPV1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fifteen Aprila Fajrin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Ginger had been reported to ameliorate painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN in an animal model. Gingerol and shogaol were active compounds of ginger that potentially act on transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1, a key receptor in PDN. This study aims to predict the binding of gingerol and shogaol to TRPV1 using an in silico model. The ligands of the docking study were 3 chemical compounds of each gingerol and shogaol, i.e. 6-shogaol, 8-shogaol, 10-shogaol, 6-gingerol, 8 gingerol and 10-gingerol. Capsaicin, a TRPV1 agonist, was used as a native ligand. The TRPV1 structure was taken from Protein Data Bank (ID 3J9J. The docking analysis was performed using Autodock Vina. The result showed that among the ginger active compounds, 6-shogaol had the strongest binding energy (-7.10 kcal/mol to TRPV1. The 6-shogaol lacked the potential hydrogen bond to Ile265 of TRPV1 protein, which capsacin had. However, it's binding energy towards TRPV1 was not significantly different compared to capsaicin. Therefore, 6-shogaol had potential to be developed as a treatment for PDN.

  4. The phylogeny of the social wasp subfamily Polistinae: evidence from microsatellite flanking sequences, mitochondrial COI sequence, and morphological characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strassmann Joan E

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social wasps in the subfamily Polistinae (Hymenoptera: Vespidae have been important in studies of the evolution of sociality, kin selection, and within colony conflicts of interest. These studies have generally been conducted within species, because a resolved phylogeny among species is lacking. We used nuclear DNA microsatellite flanking sequences, mitochondrial COI sequence, and morphological characters to generate a phylogeny for the Polistinae (Hymenoptera using 69 species. Results Our phylogeny is largely concordant with previous phylogenies at higher levels, and is more resolved at the species level. Our results support the monophyly of the New World subgenera of Polistini, while the Old World subgenera are a paraphyletic group. All genera for which we had more than one exemplar were supported as monophyletic except Polybia which is not resolved, and may be paraphyletic. Conclusion The combination of DNA sequences from flanks of microsatellite repeats with mtCOI sequences and morphological characters proved to be useful characters establishing relationships among the different subgenera and species of the Polistini. This is the first detailed hypothesis for the species of this important group.

  5. G Protein-coupled Receptor Kinases of the GRK4 Protein Subfamily Phosphorylate Inactive G Protein-coupled Receptors (GPCRs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingyong; Homan, Kristoff T; Vishnivetskiy, Sergey A; Manglik, Aashish; Tesmer, John J G; Gurevich, Vsevolod V; Gurevich, Eugenia V

    2015-04-24

    G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) kinases (GRKs) play a key role in homologous desensitization of GPCRs. It is widely assumed that most GRKs selectively phosphorylate only active GPCRs. Here, we show that although this seems to be the case for the GRK2/3 subfamily, GRK5/6 effectively phosphorylate inactive forms of several GPCRs, including β2-adrenergic and M2 muscarinic receptors, which are commonly used as representative models for GPCRs. Agonist-independent GPCR phosphorylation cannot be explained by constitutive activity of the receptor or membrane association of the GRK, suggesting that it is an inherent ability of GRK5/6. Importantly, phosphorylation of the inactive β2-adrenergic receptor enhanced its interactions with arrestins. Arrestin-3 was able to discriminate between phosphorylation of the same receptor by GRK2 and GRK5, demonstrating preference for the latter. Arrestin recruitment to inactive phosphorylated GPCRs suggests that not only agonist activation but also the complement of GRKs in the cell regulate formation of the arrestin-receptor complex and thereby G protein-independent signaling. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Vaccinomics Approach for Designing Potential Peptide Vaccine by Targeting Shigella spp. Serine Protease Autotransporter Subfamily Protein SigA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arafat Rahman Oany

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Shigellosis, a bacillary dysentery, is closely associated with diarrhoea in human and causes infection of 165 million people worldwide per year. Casein-degrading serine protease autotransporter of enterobacteriaceae (SPATE subfamily protein SigA, an outer membrane protein, exerts both cytopathic and enterotoxic effects especially cytopathic to human epithelial cell type-2 (HEp-2 and is shown to be highly immunogenic. In the present study, we have tried to impose the vaccinomics approach for designing a common peptide vaccine candidate against the immunogenic SigA of Shigella spp. At first, 44 SigA proteins from different variants of S. flexneri, S. dysenteriae, S. boydii, and S. sonnei were assessed to find the most antigenic protein. We retrieved 12 peptides based on the highest score for human leukocyte antigen (HLA supertypes analysed by NetCTL. Initially, these peptides were assessed for the affinity with MHC class I and class II alleles, and four potential core epitopes VTARAGLGY, FHTVTVNTL, HTTWTLTGY, and IELAGTLTL were selected. From these, FHTVTVNTL and IELAGTLTL peptides were shown to have 100% conservancy. Finally, IELAGTLTL was shown to have the highest population coverage (83.86% among the whole world population. In vivo study of the proposed epitope might contribute to the development of functional and unique widespread vaccine, which might be an operative alleyway to thwart dysentery from the world.

  7. A Reply to ''Reinterpretation of Students' Ideas When Reasoning about Particle Model Illustrations. A Response to ''Using Animations in Identifying General Chemistry Students' Misconceptions and Evaluating Their Knowledge Transfer Relating to Particle Position in Physical Changes'' by Smith and Villarreal (2015)''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K. Christopher; Villarreal, Savannah

    2015-01-01

    In this reply to Elon Langbeheim's response to an article recently published in this journal, authors Smith and Villarreal identify several types of general chemistry students' misconceptions concerning the concept of particle position during physical change. They focus their response on one of the misconceptions identified as such: Given a solid…

  8. Differential epigenetic regulation of TOX subfamily high mobility group box genes in lung and breast cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathewos Tessema

    Full Text Available Aberrant cytosine methylation affects regulation of hundreds of genes during cancer development. In this study, a novel aberrantly hypermethylated CpG island in cancer was discovered within the TOX2 promoter. TOX2 was unmethylated in normal cells but 28% lung (n = 190 and 23% breast (n = 80 tumors were methylated. Expression of two novel TOX2 transcripts identified was significantly reduced in primary lung tumors than distant normal lung (p<0.05. These transcripts were silenced in methylated lung and breast cancer cells and 5-Aza-2-deoxycytidine treatment re-expressed both. Extension of these assays to TOX, TOX3, and TOX4 genes that share similar genomic structure and protein homology with TOX2 revealed distinct methylation profiles by smoking status, histology, and cancer type. TOX was almost exclusively methylated in breast (43% than lung (5% cancer, whereas TOX3 was frequently methylated in lung (58% than breast (30% tumors. TOX4 was unmethylated in all samples and showed the highest expression in normal lung. Compared to TOX4, expression of TOX, TOX2 and TOX3 in normal lung was 25, 44, and 88% lower, respectively, supporting the premise that reduced promoter activity confers increased susceptibility to methylation during lung carcinogenesis. Genome-wide assays revealed that siRNA-mediated TOX2 knockdown modulated multiple pathways while TOX3 inactivation targeted neuronal development and function. Although these knockdowns did not result in further phenotypic changes of lung cancer cells in vitro, the impact on tissue remodeling, inflammatory response, and cell differentiation pathways suggest a potential role for TOX2 in modulating tumor microenvironment.

  9. Trauma exposure and heavy drinking and drug use among college students: Identifying the roles of negative and positive affect lability in a daily diary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Nicole H; Bold, Krysten W; Contractor, Ateka A; Sullivan, Tami P; Armeli, Stephen; Tennen, Howard

    2018-04-01

    Trauma exposure is linked to heavy drinking and drug use among college students. Extant research reveals positive associations between negative affect lability and both trauma exposure and alcohol use. This study aimed to extend past research by using daily diary methods to test whether (a) individuals with (versus without) trauma exposure experience greater negative and positive affect lability, (b) negative and positive affect lability are associated with heavy drinking and drug use, and (c) negative and positive affect lability mediate the relations between trauma exposure and heavy drinking and drug use. Participants were 1640 college students (M age=19.2, 54% female, 80% European American) who provided daily diary data for 30days via online surveys. Daily diaries assessed negative and positive affect and substance use (i.e., percent days of heavy drinking, percent days of drug use, total number of drugs used). Individuals with (versus without) a history of trauma exposure demonstrated higher levels of negative and positive affect lability. Negative, but not positive, affect lability was associated with percent days of heavy drinking, percent days of drug use, and total number of drugs used, and mediated the associations between trauma exposure and heavy drinking and drug use outcomes. Findings provide support for the underlying role of negative affect lability in the relations between trauma exposure and heavy drinking and drug use among college students, suggesting that treatments targeting negative affect lability may potentially serve to reduce heavy drinking and drug use among trauma-exposed college students. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Global Health Education: a cross-sectional study among German medical students to identify needs, deficits and potential benefits (Part 1 of 2: Mobility patterns & educational needs and demands).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozorgmehr, Kayvan; Schubert, Kirsten; Menzel-Severing, Johannes; Tinnemann, Peter

    2010-10-08

    In recent years, education and training in global health has been the subject of recurring debate in many countries. However, in Germany, there has been no analysis of the educational needs or demands of medical students, or the educational deficits or potential benefits involved in global health education. Our purpose is to analyse international health elective patterns of medical students enrolled at German universities and assess whether or how they prepare for their electives abroad. We examine the exposure of medical students enrolled at German universities to training courses in tropical medicine or global health and assess students' perceived needs and demands for education in global health. Cross-sectional study among medical students in Germany including all 36 medical schools during the second half of the year 2007. All registered medical students were eligible to participate in the study. Recruitment occurred via electronic mailing-lists of students' unions. We developed a web-based, semi-structured questionnaire to capture students' international mobility patterns, preparation before electives, destination countries, exposure to and demand for global health learning opportunities. 1126 online-replies were received and analysed from all registered medical students in Germany (N = 78.067). 33.0% of all respondents (370/1126) declared at least one international health elective and of these, 36.0% (133/370) completed their electives in developing countries. 36.0% (131/363) did not prepare specifically at all, 59.0% (214/363) prepared either by self-study or declared a participation in specific preparation programmes. 87.8% of 5th and 6th year students had never participated in a global health course and 72.6% (209/288) had not completed a course in tropical medicine. 94.0% (861/916) endorsed the idea of introducing global health into medical education. Students in our sample are highly mobile during their studies. International health electives are common

  11. Identification and characterization of a member of Rab subfamily, Rab8, from Clonorchis sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Pei; He, Lei; Yu, Jinyun; Xie, Zhizhi; Chen, Xueqing; Mao, Qiang; Liang, Chi; Huang, Yan; Lu, Gang; Yu, Xinbing

    2015-05-01

    The Rabs act as a binary molecular switch that utilizes the conformational changes associated with the GTP/GDP cycle to elicit responses from target proteins. It regulates a broad spectrum of cellular processes including cell proliferation, cytoskeletal assembly, and intracellular membrane trafficking in eukaryotes. The Rab8 from Clonorchis sinensis (CsRab8) was composed of 199 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence shared above 50% identities with other species from trematode, tapeworm, mammal, insecta, nematode, and reptile, respectively. The homologous analysis of sequences showed the conservative domains: G1 box (GDSGVGKS), G2 box (T), G3 box (DTAG), G4 box (GNKCDL), and G5 box. In addition, the structure modeling had also shown other functional domains: GTP/Mg(2+) binding sites, switch I region, and switch II region. A phylogenic tree analysis indicated that the CsRab8 was clustered with the Rab from Schistosoma japonicum, and trematode and tapeworm came from the same branch, which was different from an evolutional branch built by other species, such as mammal animal, insecta, nematode, and reptile. The recombinant CsRab8 protein was expressed in Escherichia coli and the purified protein was a soluble molecule by 12% sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis. CsRab8 was identified as a component of excretory/secretory products of C. sinensis by western blot analysis. The transcriptional level of CsRab8 at metacercaria stage was the highest at the four stages and higher by 56.49-folds than that at adult worm, 1.23-folds than that at excysted metacercaria, and 2.69-folds than that at egg stage. Immunohistochemical localization analysis showed that CsRab8 was specifically distributed in the tegument, vitellarium, eggs, and testicle of adult worms, and detected on the vitellarium and tegument of metacercaria. Combined with the results, CsRab8 is indispensable for survival and development of parasites, especially for regulating

  12. The Leadership Factor: Identifying  Leadership Skills and Characteristics Essential For Student Achievement in High Poverty Elementary Schools in the Commonwealth of Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Owens, Anita Michelle

    2016-01-01

    The success of a school is primarily dependent upon leadership (Marzano, McNulty, and Waters, 2005). A principal's skills greatly impact teaching and learning; thus, the degree to which a school is successful depends on an effective leader with a vision for transforming a school. Research from the early 2000s until now suggests that a challenge exists for schools as they seek to decrease the achievement gap and attain success for all students, especially those in low-income areas (Brock and ...

  13. Cloning and characterization of PAK5, a novel member of mammalian p21-activated kinase-II subfamily that is predominantly expressed in brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pandey, A.; Dan, I.; Kristiansen, T.Z.

    2002-01-01

    cloned a novel human PAK family kinase that has been designated as PAK5. PAK5 contains a CDC42/Rac1 interactive binding (CRIB) motif at the N-terminus and a Ste20-like kinase domain at the C-terminus. PAK5 is structurally most related to PAK4 and PAK6 to make up the PAK-II subfamily. We have shown...

  14. Molecular Evolution of the CYP2D Subfamily in Primates: Purifying Selection on Substrate Recognition Sites without the Frequent or Long-Tract Gene Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasukochi, Yoshiki; Satta, Yoko

    2015-01-01

    The human cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 gene is a member of the CYP2D gene subfamily, along with the CYP2D7P and CYP2D8P pseudogenes. Although the CYP2D6 enzyme has been studied extensively because of its clinical importance, the evolution of the CYP2D subfamily has not yet been fully understood. Therefore, the goal of this study was to reveal the evolutionary process of the human drug metabolic system. Here, we investigate molecular evolution of the CYP2D subfamily in primates by comparing 14 CYP2D sequences from humans to New World monkey genomes. Window analysis and statistical tests revealed that entire genomic sequences of paralogous genes were extensively homogenized by gene conversion during molecular evolution of CYP2D genes in primates. A neighbor-joining tree based on genomic sequences at the nonsubstrate recognition sites showed that CYP2D6 and CYP2D8 genes were clustered together due to gene conversion. In contrast, a phylogenetic tree using amino acid sequences at substrate recognition sites did not cluster the CYP2D6 and CYP2D8 genes, suggesting that the functional constraint on substrate specificity is one of the causes for purifying selection at the substrate recognition sites. Our results suggest that the CYP2D gene subfamily in primates has evolved to maintain the regioselectivity for a substrate hydroxylation activity between individual enzymes, even though extensive gene conversion has occurred across CYP2D coding sequences. PMID:25808902

  15. Molecular cloning and 3D model of first cytochrome P450 from CYP3A subfamily in saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Rabia

    2017-10-18

    Cytochrome P450s (CYPs) play critical role in oxidative metabolism of numerous xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. The first CYP3A subfamily member in saltwater crocodile has been cloned and modelled for three-dimensional (3D) structure. The full-length cDNA was obtained employing reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) strategy and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The cDNA sequence of 1659 nucleotides includes 132 nucleotides from 5' untranslated region (UTR), an open reading frame of 1527 nucleotides encoding 509 amino acids designated as CYP3A163. The alignment of CYP3A163 sequence with CYP3A subfamily across the lineages exhibit the loss of 1 residue in birds and 7 residues in mammals in comparison to reptiles suggesting the adaptation processes during evolution. The amino acid identity of CYP3A163 with Alligator mississippiensis CYP3A77 and Homo sapiens CYP3A4 is 91% and 62% respectively. The 3D structure of CYP3A163 modelled using human CYP3A4 structure as a template with Phyre 2 software, represents high similarity with its functionally important motifs and catalytic domain. Both sequence and structure of CYP3A163 display the common and conserved features of CYP3A subfamily. Overall, this study provides primary molecular and structural data of CYP3A163 required to investigate the xenobiotic metabolism in saltwater crocodiles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The ZNF75 zinc finger gene subfamily: Isolation and mapping of the four members in humans and great apes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villa, A.; Strina, D.; Frattini, A. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Milan (Italy)] [and others

    1996-07-15

    We have previously reported the characterization of the human ZNF75 gene located on Xq26, which has only limited homology (less than 65%) to other ZF genes in the databases. Here, we describe three human zinc finger genes with 86 to 95% homology to ZNF75 at the nucleotide level, which represent all the members of the human ZNF75 subfamily. One of these, ZNF75B, is a pseudogene mapped to chromosome 12q13. The other two, ZNF75A and ZNF75C, maintain on ORF in the sequenced region, and at least the latter is expressed in the U937 cell line. They were mapped to chromosomes 16 and 11, respectively. All these genes are conserved in chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans. The ZNF75B homologue is a pseudogene in all three great apes, and in chimpanzee it is located on chromosome 10 (phylogenetic XII), at p13 (corresponding to the human 12q13). The chimpanzee homologue of ZNF75 is also located on the Xq26 chromosome, in the same region, as detected by in situ hybridization. As expected, nucleotide changes were clearly more abundant between human and organutan than between human and chimpanzee or gorilla homologues. Members of the same class were more similar to each other than to the other homologues within the same species. This suggests that the duplication and/or retrotranscription events occurred in a common ancestor long before great ape speciation. This, together with the existance of at least two genes in cows and horses, suggests a relatively high conservation of this gene family. 20 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Convergent, Parallel and Correlated Evolution of Trophic Morphologies in the Subfamily Schizothoracinae from the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Delin; Chao, Yan; Guo, Songchang; Zhao, Lanying; Li, Taiping; Wei, Fulei; Zhao, Xinquan

    2012-01-01

    Schizothoracine fishes distributed in the water system of the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau (QTP) and adjacent areas are characterized by being highly adaptive to the cold and hypoxic environment of the plateau, as well as by a high degree of diversity in trophic morphology due to resource polymorphisms. Although convergent and parallel evolution are prevalent in the organisms of the QTP, it remains unknown whether similar evolutionary patterns have occurred in the schizothoracine fishes. Here, we constructed for the first time a tentative molecular phylogeny of the schizothoracine fishes based on the complete sequences of the cytochrome b gene. We employed this molecular phylogenetic framework to examine the evolution of trophic morphologies. We used Pagel's maximum likelihood method to estimate the evolutionary associations of trophic morphologies and food resource use. Our results showed that the molecular and published morphological phylogenies of Schizothoracinae are partially incongruent with respect to some intergeneric relationships. The phylogenetic results revealed that four character states of five trophic morphologies and of food resource use evolved at least twice during the diversification of the subfamily. State transitions are the result of evolutionary patterns including either convergence or parallelism or both. Furthermore, our analyses indicate that some characters of trophic morphologies in the Schizothoracinae have undergone correlated evolution, which are somewhat correlated with different food resource uses. Collectively, our results reveal new examples of convergent and parallel evolution in the organisms of the QTP. The adaptation to different trophic niches through the modification of trophic morphologies and feeding behaviour as found in the schizothoracine fishes may account for the formation and maintenance of the high degree of diversity and radiations in fish communities endemic to QTP. PMID:22470515

  18. Transient receptor potential melastatin subfamily member 2 cation channel regulates detrimental immune cell invasion in ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelderblom, Mathias; Melzer, Nico; Schattling, Benjamin; Göb, Eva; Hicking, Gordon; Arunachalam, Priyadharshini; Bittner, Stefan; Ufer, Friederike; Herrmann, Alexander M; Bernreuther, Christian; Glatzel, Markus; Gerloff, Christian; Kleinschnitz, Christoph; Meuth, Sven G; Friese, Manuel A; Magnus, Tim

    2014-11-01

    Brain injury during stroke results in oxidative stress and the release of factors that include extracellular Ca(2+), hydrogen peroxide, adenosine diphosphate ribose, and nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate. These alterations of the extracellular milieu change the activity of transient receptor potential melastatin subfamily member 2 (TRPM2), a nonselective cation channel expressed in the central nervous system and the immune system. Our goal was to evaluate the contribution of TRPM2 to the tissue damage after stroke. In accordance with current quality guidelines, we independently characterized Trpm2 in a murine ischemic stroke model in 2 different laboratories. Gene deficiency of Trpm2 resulted in significantly improved neurological outcome and decreased infarct size. Besides an already known moderate neuroprotective effect of Trpm2 deficiency in vitro, ischemic brain invasion by neutrophils and macrophages was particularly reduced in Trpm2-deficient mice. Bone marrow chimeric mice revealed that Trpm2 deficiency in the peripheral immune system is responsible for the protective phenotype. Furthermore, experiments with mixed bone marrow chimeras demonstrated that Trpm2 is essential for the migration of neutrophils and, to a lesser extent, also of macrophages into ischemic hemispheres. Notably, the pharmacological TRPM2 inhibitor, N-(p-amylcinnamoyl)anthranilic acid, was equally protective in the stroke model. Although a neuroprotective effect of TRPM2 in vitro is well known, we can show for the first time that the detrimental role of TRPM2 in stroke primarily depends on its role in activating peripheral immune cells. Targeting TRPM2 systemically represents a promising therapeutic approach for ischemic stroke. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Morphological "primary homology" and expression of AG-subfamily MADS-box genes in pines, podocarps, and yews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund, Marie; Carlsbecker, Annelie; Engström, Peter; Vergara-Silva, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    The morphological variation among reproductive organs of extant gymnosperms is remarkable, especially among conifers. Several hypotheses concerning morphological homology between various conifer reproductive organs have been put forward, in particular in relation to the pine ovuliferous scale. Here, we use the expression patterns of orthologs of the ABC-model MADS-box gene AGAMOUS (AG) for testing morphological homology hypotheses related to organs of the conifer female cone. To this end, we first developed a tailored 3'RACE procedure that allows reliable amplification of partial sequences highly similar to gymnosperm-derived members of the AG-subfamily of MADS-box genes. Expression patterns of two novel conifer AG orthologs cloned with this procedure-namely PodAG and TgAG, obtained from the podocarp Podocarpus reichei and the yew Taxus globosa, respectively-are then further characterized in the morphologically divergent female cones of these species. The expression patterns of PodAG and TgAG are compared with those of DAL2, a previously discovered Picea abies (Pinaceae) AG ortholog. By treating the expression patterns of DAL2, PodAG, and TgAG as character states mapped onto currently accepted cladogram topologies, we suggest that the epimatium-that is, the podocarp female cone organ previously postulated as a "modified" ovuliferous scale-and the canonical Pinaceae ovuliferous scale can be legitimally conceptualized as "primary homologs." Character state mapping for TgAG suggests in turn that the aril of Taxaceae should be considered as a different type of organ. This work demonstrates how the interaction between developmental-genetic data and formal cladistic theory could fruitfully contribute to gymnosperm systematics. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. National Assessment of College Student Learning: Identifying College Graduates' Essential Skills in Writing, Speech and Listening, and Critical Thinking. Final Project Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Elizabeth A.; And Others

    This study used an iterative Delphi survey process of about 600 faculty, employers, and policymakers to identify writing, speech and listening, and critical thinking skills that college graduates should achieve to become effective employees and citizens (National Education Goal 6). Participants reached a consensus about the importance in critical…

  1. Towards a molecular taxonomic key of the Aurantioideae subfamily using chloroplastic SNP diagnostic markers of the main clades genotyped by competitive allele-specific PCR.

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    Oueslati, Amel; Ollitrault, Frederique; Baraket, Ghada; Salhi-Hannachi, Amel; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2016-08-18

    Chloroplast DNA is a primary source of molecular variations for phylogenetic analysis of photosynthetic eukaryotes. However, the sequencing and analysis of multiple chloroplastic regions is difficult to apply to large collections or large samples of natural populations. The objective of our work was to demonstrate that a molecular taxonomic key based on easy, scalable and low-cost genotyping method should be developed from a set of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) diagnostic of well-established clades. It was applied to the Aurantioideae subfamily, the largest group of the Rutaceae family that includes the cultivated citrus species. The publicly available nucleotide sequences of eight plastid genomic regions were compared for 79 accessions of the Aurantioideae subfamily to search for SNPs revealing taxonomic differentiation at the inter-tribe, inter-subtribe, inter-genus and interspecific levels. Diagnostic SNPs (DSNPs) were found for 46 of the 54 clade levels analysed. Forty DSNPs were selected to develop KASPar markers and their taxonomic value was tested by genotyping 108 accessions of the Aurantioideae subfamily. Twenty-seven markers diagnostic of 24 clades were validated and they displayed a very high rate of transferability in the Aurantioideae subfamily (only 1.2 % of missing data on average). The UPGMA from the validated markers produced a cladistic organisation that was highly coherent with the previous phylogenetic analysis based on the sequence data of the eight plasmid regions. In particular, the monophyletic origin of the "true citrus" genera plus Oxanthera was validated. However, some clarification remains necessary regarding the organisation of the other wild species of the Citreae tribe. We validated the concept that with well-established clades, DSNPs can be selected and efficiently transformed into competitive allele-specific PCR markers (KASPar method) allowing cost-effective highly efficient cladistic analysis in large collections at

  2. Crystal structures of two transcriptional regulators from Bacillus cereus define the conserved structural features of a PadR subfamily.

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    Guntur Fibriansah

    Full Text Available PadR-like transcriptional regulators form a structurally-related family of proteins that control the expression of genes associated with detoxification, virulence and multi-drug resistance in bacteria. Only a few members of this family have been studied by genetic, biochemical and biophysical methods, and their structure/function relationships are still largely undefined. Here, we report the crystal structures of two PadR-like proteins from Bacillus cereus, which we named bcPadR1 and bcPadR2 (products of gene loci BC4206 and BCE3449 in strains ATCC 14579 and ATCC 10987, respectively. BC4206, together with its neighboring gene BC4207, was previously shown to become significantly upregulated in presence of the bacteriocin AS-48. DNA mobility shift assays reveal that bcPadR1 binds to a 250 bp intergenic region containing the putative BC4206-BC4207 promoter sequence, while in-situ expression of bcPadR1 decreases bacteriocin tolerance, together suggesting a role for bcPadR1 as repressor of BC4206-BC4207 transcription. The function of bcPadR2 (48% identical in sequence to bcPadR1 is unknown, but the location of its gene just upstream from genes encoding a putative antibiotic ABC efflux pump, suggests a role in regulating antibiotic resistance. The bcPadR proteins are structurally similar to LmrR, a PadR-like transcription regulator in Lactococcus lactis that controls expression of a multidrug ABC transporter via a mechanism of multidrug binding and induction. Together these proteins define a subfamily of conserved, relatively small PadR proteins characterized by a single C-terminal helix for dimerization. Unlike LmrR, bcPadR1 and bcPadR2 lack a central pore for ligand binding, making it unclear whether the transcriptional regulatory roles of bcPadR1 and bcPadR2 involve direct ligand recognition and induction.

  3. Elephant Endotheliotropic Herpesviruses EEHV1A, EEHV1B, and EEHV2 from Cases of Hemorrhagic Disease Are Highly Diverged from Other Mammalian Herpesviruses and May Form a New Subfamily

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    Richman, Laura K.; Zong, Jian-Chao; Latimer, Erin M.; Lock, Justin; Fleischer, Robert C.; Heaggans, Sarah Y.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT A family of novel endotheliotropic herpesviruses (EEHVs) assigned to the genus Proboscivirus have been identified as the cause of fatal hemorrhagic disease in 70 young Asian elephants worldwide. Although EEHV cannot be grown in cell culture, we have determined a total of 378 kb of viral genomic DNA sequence directly from clinical tissue samples from six lethal cases and two survivors. Overall, the data obtained encompass 57 genes, including orthologues of 32 core genes common to all herpesviruses, 14 genes found in some other herpesviruses, plus 10 novel genes, including a single large putative transcriptional regulatory protein (ORF-L). On the basis of differences in gene content and organization plus phylogenetic analyses of conserved core proteins that have just 20% to 50% or less identity to orthologues in other herpesviruses, we propose that EEHV1A, EEHV1B, and EEHV2 could be considered a new Deltaherpesvirinae subfamily of mammalian herpesviruses that evolved as an intermediate branch between the Betaherpesvirinae and Gammaherpesvirinae. Unlike cytomegaloviruses, EEHV genomes encode ribonucleotide kinase B subunit (RRB), thymidine kinase (TK), and UL9-like origin binding protein (OBP) proteins and have an alphaherpesvirus-like dyad symmetry Ori-Lyt domain. They also differ from all known betaherpesviruses by having a 40-kb large-scale inversion of core gene blocks I, II, and III. EEHV1 and EEHV2 DNA differ uniformly by more than 25%, but EEHV1 clusters into two major subgroups designated EEHV1A and EEHV1B with ancient partially chimeric features. Whereas large segments are nearly identical, three nonadjacent loci totaling 15 kb diverge by between 21 and 37%. One strain of EEHV1B analyzed is interpreted to be a modern partial recombinant with EEHV1A. IMPORTANCE Asian elephants are an endangered species whose survival is under extreme pressure in wild range countries and whose captive breeding populations in zoos are not self-sustaining. In 1999, a

  4. Subcellular location of Arabidopsis thaliana subfamily a1 β-galactosidases and developmental regulation of transcript levels of their coding genes.

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    Moneo-Sánchez, María; Izquierdo, Lucía; Martín, Ignacio; Labrador, Emilia; Dopico, Berta

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this work is to gain insight into the six members of the a1 subfamily of the β-galactosidases (BGAL) from Arabidopsis thaliana. First, the subcellular location of all these six BGAL proteins from a1 subfamily has been established in the cell wall by the construction of transgenic plants producing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) fused to the BGAL proteins. BGAL12 is also located in the endoplasmic reticulum. Our study of the AtBGAL transcript accumulation along plant development indicated that all AtBGAL transcript appeared in initial stages of development, both dark- and light-grown seedlings, being AtBGAL1, AtBGAL2 and AtBGAL3 transcripts the predominant ones in the latter condition, mainly in the aerial part and with levels decreasing with age. The high accumulation of transcript of AtBGAL4 in basal internodes and in leaves at the end of development, and their strong increase after treatment both with BL and H 3 BO 3 point to an involvement of BGAL4 in cell wall changes leading to the cease of elongation and increased rigidity. The changes of AtBGAL transcript accumulation in relation to different stages and conditions of plant development, suggest that each of the different gene products have a plant-specific function and provides support for the proposed function of the subfamily a1 BGAL in plant cell wall remodelling for cell expansion or for cell response to stress conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Two ways of legumin-precursor processing in conifers. Characterization and evolutionary relationships of Metasequoia cDNAs representing two divergent legumin gene subfamilies.

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    Häger, K P; Wind, C

    1997-06-15

    Subunit monomers and oligomers of crystalloid-type legumins are major components of SDS-soluble fractions from Metasequoia glyptostroboides (Dawn redwood, Taxodiaceae) seed proteins. The subunits are made up of disulfide linked alpha-polypeptides and beta-polypeptides with molecular masses of 33 kDa and 23-25 kDa, respectively. Unusually for legumins, those from Metasequoia are glycosylated and the carbohydrate moieties are residing in the C-terminal region of the respective beta-polypeptides. A Metasequoia endosperm cDNA library has been constructed and legumin-encoding transcripts representing two divergent gene subfamilies have been characterized. Intersubfamily comparisons reveal 75% identity at the amino acid level and the values range from 53-35% when the legumin precursors deduced were compared with those from angiosperms. The predicted sequences together with data from amino acid sequencing prove that post-translational processing of Metasequoia prolegumins is directed to two different processing sites, each of them specific for one of the legumin subfamilies. The sites involved differ in their relative position and in the junction to be cleaved: Metasequoia legumin precursors MgLeg18 and MgLeg26 contain the conventional post-translational Asn-Gly processing site, which is generally regarded as highly conserved. In contrast, the MgLeg4 precursor is lacking this site and post-translational cleavage is directed to an unusual Asn-Thr processing site located in its hypervariable region, causing N-terminal extension of the beta-polypeptide relative to those hitherto known. Evidence is given that the unusual variant of processing also occurs in other conifers. Phylogenetic analysis reveals the precursors concerned as representatives of a distinct legumin subfamily, originating from duplication of an ancestral gene prior to or at the beginning of Taxodiaceae diversification.

  6. Expression analysis of two gene subfamilies encoding the plasma membrane H+-ATPase in Nicotiana plumbaginifolia reveals the major transport functions of this enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriau, L; Michelet, B; Bogaerts, P; Lambert, L; Michel, A; Oufattole, M; Boutry, M

    1999-07-01

    The plasma membrane H+-ATPase couples ATP hydrolysis to proton transport, thereby establishing the driving force for solute transport across the plasma membrane. In Nicotiana plumbaginifolia, this enzyme is encoded by at least nine pma (plasma membrane H+-ATPase) genes. Four of these are classified into two gene subfamilies, pma1-2-3 and pma4, which are the most highly expressed in plant species. We have isolated genomic clones for pma2 and pma4. Mapping of their transcript 5' end revealed the presence of a long leader that contained small open reading frames, regulatory features typical of other pma genes. The gusA reporter gene was then used to determine the expression of pma2, pma3 and pma4 in N. tabacum. These data, together with those obtained previously for pma1, led to the following conclusions. (i) The four pma-gusA genes were all expressed in root, stem, leaf and flower organs, but each in a cell-type specific manner. Expression in these organs was confirmed at the protein level, using subfamily-specific antibodies. (ii) pma4-gusA was expressed in many cell types and notably in root hair and epidermis, in companion cells, and in guard cells, indicating that in N. plumbaginifolia the same H+-ATPase isoform might be involved in mineral nutrition, phloem loading and control of stomata aperture. (iii) The second gene subfamily is composed, in N. plumbaginifolia, of a single gene (pma4) with a wide expression pattern and, in Arabidopsis thaliana, of three genes (aha1, aha2, aha3), at least two of them having a more restrictive expression pattern. (iv) Some cell types expressed pma2 and pma4 at the same time, which encode H+-ATPases with different enzymatic properties.

  7. The subfamily-specific interaction between Kv2.1 and Kv6.4 subunits is determined by interactions between the N- and C-termini.

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    Elke Bocksteins

    Full Text Available The "silent" voltage-gated potassium (KvS channel subunit Kv6.4 does not form electrically functional homotetramers at the plasma membrane but assembles with Kv2.1 subunits, generating functional Kv2.1/Kv6.4 heterotetramers. The N-terminal T1 domain determines the subfamily-specific assembly of Kv1-4 subunits by preventing interactions between subunits that belong to different subfamilies. For Kv6.4, yeast-two-hybrid experiments showed an interaction of the Kv6.4 N-terminus with the Kv2.1 N-terminus, but unexpectedly also with the Kv3.1 N-terminus. We confirmed this interaction by Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET and co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP using N-terminal Kv3.1 and Kv6.4 fragments. However, full-length Kv3.1 and Kv6.4 subunits do not form heterotetramers at the plasma membrane. Therefore, additional interactions between the Kv6.4 and Kv2.1 subunits should be important in the Kv2.1/Kv6.4 subfamily-specificity. Using FRET and co-IP approaches with N- and C-terminal fragments we observed that the Kv6.4 C-terminus physically interacts with the Kv2.1 N-terminus but not with the Kv3.1 N-terminus. The N-terminal amino acid sequence CDD which is conserved between Kv2 and KvS subunits appeared to be a key determinant since charge reversals with arginine substitutions abolished the interaction between the N-terminus of Kv2.1 and the C-terminus of both Kv2.1 and Kv6.4. In addition, the Kv6.4(CKv3.1 chimera in which the C-terminus of Kv6.4 was replaced by the corresponding domain of Kv3.1, disrupted the assembly with Kv2.1. These results indicate that the subfamily-specific Kv2.1/Kv6.4 heterotetramerization is determined by interactions between Kv2.1 and Kv6.4 that involve both the N- and C-termini in which the conserved N-terminal CDD sequence plays a key role.

  8. AOX1-Subfamily Gene Members in Olea europaea cv. “Galega Vulgar”—Gene Characterization and Expression of Transcripts during IBA-Induced in Vitro Adventitious Rooting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lousa, Diana; M. Soares, Cláudio; Santos Macedo, Elisete; Arnholdt-Schmitt, Birgit

    2018-01-01

    Propagation of some Olea europaea L. cultivars is strongly limited due to recalcitrant behavior in adventitious root formation by semi-hardwood cuttings. One example is the cultivar ”Galega vulgar”. The formation of adventitious roots is considered a morphological response to stress. Alternative oxidase (AOX) is the terminal oxidase of the alternative pathway of the plant mitochondrial electron transport chain. This enzyme is well known to be induced in response to several biotic and abiotic stress situations. This work aimed to characterize the alternative oxidase 1 (AOX1)-subfamily in olive and to analyze the expression of transcripts during the indole-3-butyric acid (IBA)-induced in vitro adventitious rooting (AR) process. OeAOX1a (acc. no. MF410318) and OeAOX1d (acc. no. MF410319) were identified, as well as different transcript variants for both genes which resulted from alternative polyadenylation events. A correlation between transcript accumulation of both OeAOX1a and OeAOX1d transcripts and the three distinct phases (induction, initiation, and expression) of the AR process in olive was observed. Olive AOX1 genes seem to be associated with the induction and development of adventitious roots in IBA-treated explants. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the stimulus needed for the induction of adventitious roots may help to develop more targeted and effective rooting induction protocols in order to improve the rooting ability of difficult-to-root cultivars. PMID:29462998

  9. Revision of the subfamily Opiinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae from Hunan (China, including thirty-six new species and two new genera

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    Li Xi-Ying

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The species of the subfamily Opiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae from Hunan (Oriental China are revised and illustrated. Thirty-six new species are described: Apodesmia bruniclypealis Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., A. melliclypealis Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Areotetes albiferus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Areotetes carinuliferus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., A. striatiferus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Coleopioides diversinotum Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., C. postpectalis Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Fopius dorsopiferus Li, van Achterberg & Tan, sp. n., Indiopius chenae Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Opiognathus aulaciferus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., O. brevibasalis Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Opius crenuliferus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., O. malarator Li, van Achterberg & Tan, sp. n., O. monilipalpis Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., O. pachymerus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., O. songi Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., O. youi Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., O. zengi Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Phaedrotoma acuticlypeata Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., P.angiclypeata Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., P. antenervalis Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., P. depressiclypealis Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., P. flavisoma Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., P. nigrisoma Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., P. protuberator Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., P. rugulifera Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Li & van Achterberg, P. striatinota Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., P. vermiculifera Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Rhogadopsis latipennis Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., R. longicaudifera Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., R. maculosa Li, van Achterberg & Tan, sp. n., R. obliqua Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., R. sculpturator Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Utetes longicarinatus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n. and Xynobius notauliferus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n. Areotetes van Achterberg & Li, gen. n. (type species: Areotetes carinuliferus sp. n. and Coleopioides van Achterberg & Li, gen. n. (type species: Coleopioides

  10. Revision of the subfamily Opiinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) from Hunan (China), including thirty-six new species and two new genera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xi-Ying; van Achterberg, Cornelis; Tan, Ji-Cai

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The species of the subfamily Opiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from Hunan (Oriental China) are revised and illustrated. Thirty-six new species are described: Apodesmia bruniclypealis Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Apodesmia melliclypealis Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Areotetes albiferus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Areotetes carinuliferus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Areotetes striatiferus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Coleopioides diversinotum Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Coleopioides postpectalis Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Fopius dorsopiferus Li, van Achterberg & Tan, sp. n., Indiopius chenae Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Opiognathus aulaciferus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Opiognathus brevibasalis Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Opius crenuliferus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Opius malarator Li, van Achterberg & Tan, sp. n., Opius monilipalpis Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Opius pachymerus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Opius songi Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Opius youi Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Opius zengi Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Phaedrotoma acuticlypeata Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Phaedrotoma angiclypeata Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Phaedrotoma antenervalis Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Phaedrotoma depressiclypealis Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Phaedrotoma flavisoma Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Phaedrotoma nigrisoma Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Phaedrotoma protuberator Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Phaedrotoma rugulifera Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Li & van Achterberg,Phaedrotoma striatinota Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Phaedrotoma vermiculifera Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Rhogadopsis latipennis Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Rhogadopsis longicaudifera Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Rhogadopsis maculosa Li, van Achterberg & Tan, sp. n., Rhogadopsis obliqua Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Rhogadopsis sculpturator Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Utetes longicarinatus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n. and Xynobius notauliferus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n. Areotetes

  11. Survey of familial glaucoma shows a high incidence of cytochrome P450, family 1, subfamily B, polypeptide 1 (CYP1B1) mutations in non-consanguineous congenital forms in a Spanish population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millá, Elena; Mañé, Begoña; Duch, Susana; Hernan, Imma; Borràs, Emma; Planas, Ester; Dias, Miguel de Sousa; Carballo, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To identify myocilin (MYOC) and cytochrome P450, family 1, subfamily B, polypeptide 1 (CYP1B1) mutations in a Spanish population with different clinical forms of familial glaucoma or ocular hypertension (OHT). Methods Index patients from 226 families participated in this study. Patients were diagnosed with familial glaucoma or OHT by complete ophthalmologic examination. Screening for MYOC mutations was performed in 207 index patients: 96 with adult-onset primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), 21 with primary congenital glaucoma (PCG), 18 with juvenile-onset open-angle glaucoma (JOAG), five with Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome (ARS), and 67 with other types of glaucoma. One hundred two of the families (including all those in whom a MYOC mutation was detected) were also screened for CYP1B1 mutations: 45 POAG, 25 PCG, 21 JOAG, four ARS, and seven others. Results We examined 292 individuals (patients and relatives) with a positive family history of glaucoma or OHT. We identified two novel MYOC variants, p.Lys39Arg and p.Glu218Lys, in two families with POAG, and six previously reported MYOC mutations in seven families with POAG (four), JOAG (one), PCG (one), and normotensive glaucoma (one). CYP1B1 mutations were found in 16 index patients with PCG (nine), POAG (three), JOAG (two), and ARS (two). Conclusions The high percentage (9/25=36%) of mutations in CYP1B1 found in non-consanguineous patients with congenital glaucoma mandates genetic testing. However, the percentage of mutations (9/207=4.4%) in MYOC associated with glaucoma is relatively low in our population. The variable phenotype expression of glaucoma, even in families, cannot be explained with a digenic mechanism between MYOC and CYP1B1. PMID:23922489

  12. The Exiguobacterium sibiricum 255-15 GtfC Enzyme Represents a Novel Glycoside Hydrolase 70 Subfamily of 4,6-α-Glucanotransferase Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangoiti, Joana; Pijning, Tjaard; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

    2016-01-15

    The glycoside hydrolase 70 (GH70) family originally was established for glucansucrase enzymes found solely in lactic acid bacteria synthesizing α-glucan polysaccharides from sucrose (e.g., GtfA). In recent years, we have characterized GtfB and related Lactobacillus enzymes as 4,6-α-glucanotransferase enzymes. These GtfB-type enzymes constitute the first GH70 subfamily of enzymes that are unable to act on sucrose as a substrate but are active with maltodextrins and starch, cleave α1→4 linkages, and synthesize linear α1→6-glucan chains. The GtfB disproportionating type of activity results in the conversion of malto-oligosaccharides into isomalto/malto-polysaccharides with a relatively high percentage of α1→6 linkages. This paper reports the identification of the members of a second GH70 subfamily (designated GtfC enzymes) and the characterization of the Exiguobacterium sibiricum 255-15 GtfC enzyme, which is also inactive with sucrose and displays 4,6-α-glucanotransferase activity with malto-oligosaccharides. GtfC differs from GtfB in synthesizing isomalto/malto-oligosaccharides. Biochemically, the GtfB- and GtfC-type enzymes are related, but phylogenetically, they clearly constitute different GH70 subfamilies, displaying only 30% sequence identity. Whereas the GtfB-type enzyme largely has the same domain order as glucansucrases (with α-amylase domains A, B, and C plus domains IV and V), this GtfC-type enzyme differs in the order of these domains and completely lacks domain V. In GtfC, the sequence of conserved regions I to IV of clan GH-H is identical to that in GH13 (I-II-III-IV) but different from that in GH70 (II-III-IV-I because of a circular permutation of the (β/α)8 barrel. The GtfC 4,6-α-glucanotransferase enzymes thus represent structurally and functionally very interesting evolutionary intermediates between α-amylase and glucansucrase enzymes. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. A new species of Glaphyropoma: the first subterranean copionodontine catfish and the first occurrence of opercular odontodes in the subfamily (Siluriformes: Trichomycteridae

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    Maria Elina Bichuette

    Full Text Available A new species of the rare copionodontine genus Glaphyropoma is described from subterranean waters in the Diamantina Plateau, Bahia State, central northeastern Brazil. This is the first troglomorphic species in the subfamily Copionodontinae. It is distinguished from all other copionodontines by the presence of opercular odontodes, and further distinguished from its only congener, G. rodriguesi, by the reduction of dark integumentary pigmentation. The new species shares the single synapomorphy previously proposed for Glaphyropoma, the marked narrowing of the first hypobranchial and indirect character evidence also supports its inclusion in the genus. The presence of opercular odontodes in the new species, in combination with a reviewed hypothesis of sister group relationship between Copionodontinae and Trichogeninae, indicate that the absence of opercular odontodes in previously-known copionodontines is secondary, rather than primitive.

  14. The effects of IL-20 subfamily cytokines on reconstituted human epidermis suggest potential roles in cutaneous innate defense and pathogenic adaptive immunity in psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa, Susan M; Valdez, Patricia A; Wu, Jianfeng; Jung, Kenneth; Zhong, Fiona; Hall, Linda; Kasman, Ian; Winer, Jane; Modrusan, Zora; Danilenko, Dimitry M; Ouyang, Wenjun

    2007-02-15

    IL-19, IL-20, IL-22, IL-24, and IL-26 are members of the IL-10 family of cytokines that have been shown to be up-regulated in psoriatic skin. Contrary to IL-10, these cytokines signal using receptor complex R1 subunits that are preferentially expressed on cells of epithelial origin; thus, we henceforth refer to them as the IL-20 subfamily cytokines. In this study, we show that primary human keratinocytes (KCs) express receptors for these cytokines and that IL-19, IL-20, IL-22, and IL-24 induce acanthosis in reconstituted human epidermis (RHE) in a dose-dependent manner. These cytokines also induce expression of the psoriasis-associated protein S100A7 and keratin 16 in RHE and cause persistent activation of Stat3 with nuclear localization. IL-22 had the most pronounced effects on KC proliferation and on the differentiation of KCs in RHE, inducing a decrease in the granular cell layer (hypogranulosis). Furthermore, gene expression analysis performed on cultured RHE treated with these cytokines showed that IL-19, IL-20, IL-22, and IL-24 regulate many of these same genes to variable degrees, inducing a gene expression profile consistent with inflammatory responses, wound healing re-epithelialization, and altered differentiation. Many of these genes have also been found to be up-regulated in psoriatic skin, including several chemokines, beta-defensins, S100 family proteins, and kallikreins. These results confirm that IL-20 subfamily cytokines are important regulators of epidermal KC biology with potentially pivotal roles in the immunopathology of psoriasis.

  15. Regulation of protease-activated receptor 1 signaling by the adaptor protein complex 2 and R4 subfamily of regulator of G protein signaling proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Buxin; Siderovski, David P; Neubig, Richard R; Lawson, Mark A; Trejo, Joann

    2014-01-17

    The G protein-coupled protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) is irreversibly proteolytically activated by thrombin. Hence, the precise regulation of PAR1 signaling is important for proper cellular responses. In addition to desensitization, internalization and lysosomal sorting of activated PAR1 are critical for the termination of signaling. Unlike most G protein-coupled receptors, PAR1 internalization is mediated by the clathrin adaptor protein complex 2 (AP-2) and epsin-1, rather than β-arrestins. However, the function of AP-2 and epsin-1 in the regulation of PAR1 signaling is not known. Here, we report that AP-2, and not epsin-1, regulates activated PAR1-stimulated phosphoinositide hydrolysis via two different mechanisms that involve, in part, a subset of R4 subfamily of "regulator of G protein signaling" (RGS) proteins. A significantly greater increase in activated PAR1 signaling was observed in cells depleted of AP-2 using siRNA or in cells expressing a PAR1 (420)AKKAA(424) mutant with defective AP-2 binding. This effect was attributed to AP-2 modulation of PAR1 surface expression and efficiency of G protein coupling. We further found that ectopic expression of R4 subfamily members RGS2, RGS3, RGS4, and RGS5 reduced activated PAR1 wild-type signaling, whereas signaling by the PAR1 AKKAA mutant was minimally affected. Intriguingly, siRNA-mediated depletion analysis revealed a function for RGS5 in the regulation of signaling by the PAR1 wild type but not the AKKAA mutant. Moreover, activation of the PAR1 wild type, and not the AKKAA mutant, induced Gαq association with RGS3 via an AP-2-dependent mechanism. Thus, AP-2 regulates activated PAR1 signaling by altering receptor surface expression and through recruitment of RGS proteins.

  16. Crystal Structure of Perakine Reductase, Founding Member of a Novel Aldo-Keto Reductase (AKR) Subfamily That Undergoes Unique Conformational Changes during NADPH Binding*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lianli; Chen, Yixin; Rajendran, Chitra; Mueller, Uwe; Panjikar, Santosh; Wang, Meitian; Mindnich, Rebekka; Rosenthal, Cindy; Penning, Trevor M.; Stöckigt, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    Perakine reductase (PR) catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of the aldehyde perakine to yield the alcohol raucaffrinoline in the biosynthetic pathway of ajmaline in Rauvolfia, a key step in indole alkaloid biosynthesis. Sequence alignment shows that PR is the founder of the new AKR13D subfamily and is designated AKR13D1. The x-ray structure of methylated His6-PR was solved to 2.31 Å. However, the active site of PR was blocked by the connected parts of the neighbor symmetric molecule in the crystal. To break the interactions and obtain the enzyme-ligand complexes, the A213W mutant was generated. The atomic structure of His6-PR-A213W complex with NADPH was determined at 1.77 Å. Overall, PR folds in an unusual α8/β6 barrel that has not been observed in any other AKR protein to date. NADPH binds in an extended pocket, but the nicotinamide riboside moiety is disordered. Upon NADPH binding, dramatic conformational changes and movements were observed: two additional β-strands in the C terminus become ordered to form one α-helix, and a movement of up to 24 Å occurs. This conformational change creates a large space that allows the binding of substrates of variable size for PR and enhances the enzyme activity; as a result cooperative kinetics are observed as NADPH is varied. As the founding member of the new AKR13D subfamily, PR also provides a structural template and model of cofactor binding for the AKR13 family. PMID:22334702

  17. Functional diversity for biomass deconstruction in family 5 subfamily 5 (GH5_5) of fungal endo-β1,4-glucanases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bingyao; Walton, Jonathan D

    2017-05-01

    Endo-β1,4-glucanases in glycosyl hydrolase family 5 (GH5) are ubiquitous enzymes in the multicellular fungi and are common components of enzyme cocktails for biomass conversion. We recently showed that an endo-glucanase of subfamily 5 of GH5 (GH5_5) from Sporotrichum thermophile (StCel5A) was more effective at releasing glucose from pretreated corn stover, when part of an eight-component synthetic enzyme mixture, compared to its closely related counterpart from Trichoderma reesei, TrCel5A. StCel5A and TrCel5A belong to different clades of GH5_5 (GH5_5_1 and GH5_5_2, respectively). To test whether the superior activity of StCel5A was a general property of all enzymes in the GH5_5_2 clade, StCel5A, TrCel5A, and two additional members of each subfamily were expressed in a common host that had been engineered to suppress its native cellulases (T. reesei Δxyr1) and compared against each other alone on pure substrates, in synthetic mixtures on pure substrates, and against each other in synthetic mixtures on real biomass. The results indicated that superiority is a unique property of StCel5A and not of GH5_5_2 generally. The six Cel5A enzymes had significant differences in relative activities on different substrates, in specific activities, and in sensitivities to mannan inhibition. Importantly, the behavior of the six endo-glucanases on pure cellulose substrates did not predict their behavior in combination with other cellulolytic enzymes on a real lignocellulosic biomass substrate.

  18. Differential Expression Patterns in Chemosensory and Non-Chemosensory Tissues of Putative Chemosensory Genes Identified by Transcriptome Analysis of Insect Pest the Purple Stem Borer Sesamia inferens (Walker)

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Ya-Nan; Jin, Jun-Yan; Jin, Rong; Xia, Yi-Han; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Deng, Jian-Yu; Dong, Shuang-Lin

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A large number of insect chemosensory genes from different gene subfamilies have been identified and annotated, but their functional diversity and complexity are largely unknown. A systemic examination of expression patterns in chemosensory organs could provide important information. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We identified 92 putative chemosensory genes by analysing the transcriptome of the antennae and female sex pheromone gland of the purple stem borer Sesamia inferens, am...

  19. Characterization of the Paenibacillus beijingensis DSM 24997 GtfD and its glucan polymer products representing a new glycoside hydrolase 70 subfamily of 4,6-α-glucanotransferase enzymes.

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    Joana Gangoiti

    Full Text Available Previously we have reported that the Gram-negative bacterium Azotobacter chroococcum NCIMB 8003 uses the 4,6-α-glucanotransferase GtfD to convert maltodextrins and starch into a reuteran-like polymer consisting of (α1→4 glucan chains connected by alternating (α1→4/(α1→6 linkages and (α1→4,6 branching points. This enzyme constituted the single evidence for this reaction and product specificity in the GH70 family, mostly containing glucansucrases encoded by lactic acid bacteria (http://www.CAZy.org. In this work, 4 additional GtfD-like proteins were identified in taxonomically diverse plant-associated bacteria forming a new GH70 subfamily with intermediate characteristics between the evolutionary related GH13 and GH70 families. The GtfD enzyme encoded by Paenibacillus beijingensis DSM 24997 was characterized providing the first example of a reuteran-like polymer synthesizing 4,6-α-glucanotransferase in a Gram-positive bacterium. Whereas the A. chroococcum GtfD activity on amylose resulted in the synthesis of a high molecular polymer, in addition to maltose and other small oligosaccharides, two reuteran-like polymer distributions are produced by P. beijingensis GtfD: a high-molecular mass polymer and a low-molecular mass polymer with an average Mw of 27 MDa and 19 kDa, respectively. Compared to the A. chroooccum GtfD product, both P. beijingensis GtfD polymers contain longer linear (α1→4 sequences in their structure reflecting a preference for transfer of even longer glucan chains by this enzyme. Overall, this study provides new insights into the evolutionary history of GH70 enzymes, and enlarges the diversity of natural enzymes that can be applied for modification of the starch present in food into less and/or more slowly digestible carbohydrate structures.

  20. Sobre um novo gênero neotrópico da subfamília Tanypodinae (Diptera, Chironomidae On a new neotropical genus of the subfamily Tanypodinae (Diptera, Chironomidae

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    Sebastião José de Oliveira

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available A new neotropical genus and a new species of a non-biting midge for the subfamily Tanypodinae from Brazil are described. The new genus is near Tanypus Meigen, 1803 and Procladius Skuse, 1889, but differs of both by wings and male terminalia.

  1. Leaf and stem CO/sub 2/ uptake in the three subfamilies of the Cactaceae. [Pereskia aculeata; Pereskia grandifolia; Maihuenia poeppigii; Carnegiea gigantea; Ferocactus acanthodes; Coryphantha vivipara; Mammillaria dioica; Opuntia ficus-inidica; Pereskiopsis porteri; Quiabentia chacoensis; Austrocylindropuntia subulata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobel, P.S.; Hartsock, T.L.

    1986-04-01

    Net CO/sub 2/ uptake over 24-hour periods was examined for the leaves and for the stems of 11 species of cacti representing all three subfamilies. For Pereskia aculeata, Pereskia grandifolia, and Maihuenia poeppigii (subfamily Pereskioideae), all the net shoot CO/sub 2/ uptake was by the leaves and during the daytime. In contrast, for the leafless species Carnegiea gigantea, Ferocactus acanthodes, Coryphantha vivipara, and Mammillaria dioica (subfamily Cactoideae), all the shoot net CO/sub 2/ uptake was by the stems and at night. Similarly, for leafless Opuntia ficus-indica (subfamily Opuntioideae), all net CO/sub 2/ uptake occurred at night. For leafy members of the Opuntioideae (Pereskiopsis porteri, Quiabentia chacoensis, Austrocylindropuntia subulata), at least 88% of the shoot CO/sub 2/ uptake over 24 hours was by the leaves and some CO/sub 2/ uptake occurred at night. Leaves responded to the instantaneous level of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) during the daytime, as occurs for C/sub 3/ plants, whereas nocturnal CO/sub 2/ uptake by stems of O. ficus-indica and F. acanthodes responded to the total daily PAR, as occurs for Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants. Thus, under the well-watered conditions employed, the Pereskioideae behaved as C/sub 3/ plants, the Cactoideae behaved as CAM plants, and the Opuntioideae exhibited characteristics of both pathways.

  2. Identifying the Effects of Education on Burnout in Parents whose Children have Cancer and Presenting Educational-Moral Pattern for Nurses and Nursing Educators in order to Use it in Students' Education

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    Nooshin Beheshtipour

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The parents, whose children have cancer, experience a high level of stress and discomfort. The parents' effort in order to adapt to stressful situation depends on the availability and use of supportive sources including appropriate notices, social support, using appropriate financial sources and their employment status (7. Giving clear information about disease and treatment to parents in order to obtain a sense of control on opportunities and appropriate planning is helpful. The goal of this article is to identify the effects of education on burnout in parents whose children have cancer and presenting educational-moral pattern for nurses and nursing educators in order to use it in students' education. This research is semi-experimental and interventional and the method is simple sampling based on the goal of selection and it is divided into experimental and control groups. The collected data are analyzed by SPSS software, independent-t statistical methods, repeated measure test and paired-t test. The results show that educational-moral intervention influences on the decrease of burnout in parents whose children have cancer.

  3. Student-on-Student Sexual Harassment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Frances E.

    2011-01-01

    No school board member, administrator, or teacher wants to see a student suffering from taunts of the student's peers, but with budget cutbacks, reductions in force, and increased class size, teachers and administrators are stretched too thin to easily identify, investigate, and remedy student-on-student harassment. But school districts must…

  4. A QUICK KEY TO THE SUBFAMILIES AND GENERA OF ANTS OF THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE, AIKEN, SC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, D

    2006-10-04

    This taxonomic key was devised to support development of a Rapid Bioassessment Protocol using ants at the Savannah River Site. The emphasis is on ''rapid'' and, because the available keys contained a large number of genera not known to occur at the Savannah River Site, we found that the available keys were unwieldy. Because these keys contained more genera than we would likely encounter and because this larger number of genera required both more couplets in the key and often required examination of characters that are difficult to assess without higher magnifications (60X or higher) more time was required to process samples. In developing this set of keys I recognize that the character sets used may lead to some errors but I believe that the error rate will be small and, for the purpose of rapid bioassessment, this error rate will be acceptable provided that overall sample sizes are adequate. Oliver and Beattie (1996a, 1996b) found that for rapid assessment of biodiversity the same results were found when identifications were done to morphospecies by people with minimal expertise as when the same data sets were identified by subject matter experts. Basset et al. (2004) concluded that it was not as important to correctly identify all species as it was to be sure that the study included as many functional groups as possible. If your study requires high levels of accuracy, it is highly recommended that when you key out a specimen and have any doubts concerning the identification, you should refer to keys in Bolton (1994) or to the other keys used to develop this area specific taxonomic key.

  5. A novel MADS-box gene subfamily with a sister-group relationship to class B floral homeotic genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, A; Kaufmann, K; Freialdenhoven, A; Vincent, C; Li, M-A; Saedler, H; Theissen, G

    2002-02-01

    Class B floral homeotic genes specify the identity of petals and stamens during the development of angiosperm flowers. Recently, putative orthologs of these genes have been identified in different gymnosperms. Together, these genes constitute a clade, termed B genes. Here we report that diverse seed plants also contain members of a hitherto unknown sister clade of the B genes, termed B(sister) (B(s)) genes. We have isolated members of the B(s) clade from the gymnosperm Gnetum gnemon, the monocotyledonous angiosperm Zea mays and the eudicots Arabidopsis thaliana and Antirrhinum majus. In addition, MADS-box genes from the basal angiosperm Asarum europaeum and the eudicot Petunia hybrida were identified as B(s) genes. Comprehensive expression studies revealed that B(s) genes are mainly transcribed in female reproductive organs (ovules and carpel walls). This is in clear contrast to the B genes, which are predominantly expressed in male reproductive organs (and in angiosperm petals). Our data suggest that the B(s) genes played an important role during the evolution of the reproductive structures in seed plants. The establishment of distinct B and B(s) gene lineages after duplication of an ancestral gene may have accompanied the evolution of male microsporophylls and female megasporophylls 400-300 million years ago. During flower evolution, expression of B(s) genes diversified, but the focus of expression remained in female reproductive organs. Our findings imply that a clade of highly conserved close relatives of class B floral homeotic genes has been completely overlooked until recently and awaits further evaluation of its developmental and evolutionary importance. Electronic supplementary material to this paper can be obtained by using the Springer Link server located at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00438-001-0615-8.

  6. Giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) population dynamics and bamboo (subfamily Bambusoideae) life history: a structured population approach to examining carrying capacity when the prey are semelparous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, J.; Ackleh, A.S.; Leonard, B.P.; Wang, Hongfang

    1999-01-01

    The giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca, is a highly specialized Ursid whose diet consists almost entirely of various species of bamboo. Bamboo (Bambusoideae) is a grass subfamily whose species often exhibit a synchronous semelparity. Synchronous semelparity can create local drops in carrying capacity for the panda. We modeled the interaction of pandas and their bamboo food resources with an age structured panda population model linked to a natural history model of bamboo biomass dynamics based on literature values of bamboo biomass, and giant panda life history dynamics. This paper reports the results of our examination of the interaction between pandas and their bamboo food resource and its implications for panda conservation. In the model all panda populations were well below the carrying capacity of the habitat. The giant panda populations growth was most sensitive to changes in birth rates and removal of reproductive aged individuals. Periodic starvation that has been documented in conjunction with bamboo die-offs is probably related to the inability to move to other areas within the region where bamboo is still available. Based on the results of this model, giant panda conservation should concentrate on keeping breeding individuals in the wild, keep corridors to different bamboo species open to pandas, and to concentrate research on bamboo life history.

  7. An ATP-binding cassette subfamily G full transporter is essential for the retention of leaf water in both wild barley and rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guoxiong; Komatsuda, Takao; Ma, Jian Feng; Nawrath, Christiane; Pourkheirandish, Mohammad; Tagiri, Akemi; Hu, Yin-Gang; Sameri, Mohammad; Li, Xinrong; Zhao, Xin; Liu, Yubing; Li, Chao; Ma, Xiaoying; Wang, Aidong; Nair, Sudha; Wang, Ning; Miyao, Akio; Sakuma, Shun; Yamaji, Naoki; Zheng, Xiuting; Nevo, Eviatar

    2011-07-26

    Land plants have developed a cuticle preventing uncontrolled water loss. Here we report that an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) subfamily G (ABCG) full transporter is required for leaf water conservation in both wild barley and rice. A spontaneous mutation, eibi1.b, in wild barley has a low capacity to retain leaf water, a phenotype associated with reduced cutin deposition and a thin cuticle. Map-based cloning revealed that Eibi1 encodes an HvABCG31 full transporter. The gene was highly expressed in the elongation zone of a growing leaf (the site of cutin synthesis), and its gene product also was localized in developing, but not in mature tissue. A de novo wild barley mutant named "eibi1.c," along with two transposon insertion lines of rice mutated in the ortholog of HvABCG31 also were unable to restrict water loss from detached leaves. HvABCG31 is hypothesized to function as a transporter involved in cutin formation. Homologs of HvABCG31 were found in green algae, moss, and lycopods, indicating that this full transporter is highly conserved in the evolution of land plants.

  8. Transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily C, member 5 (TRPC5) is a cold-transducer in the peripheral nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Katharina; Lennerz, Jochen K; Hein, Alexander; Link, Andrea S; Kaczmarek, J Stefan; Delling, Markus; Uysal, Serdar; Pfeifer, John D; Riccio, Antonio; Clapham, David E

    2011-11-01

    Detection and adaptation to cold temperature is crucial to survival. Cold sensing in the innocuous range of cold (>10-15 °C) in the mammalian peripheral nervous system is thought to rely primarily on transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels, most notably the menthol receptor, TRPM8. Here we report that TRP cation channel, subfamily C member 5 (TRPC5), but not TRPC1/TRPC5 heteromeric channels, are highly cold sensitive in the temperature range 37-25 °C. We found that TRPC5 is present in mouse and human sensory neurons of dorsal root ganglia, a substantial number of peripheral nerves including intraepithelial endings, and in the dorsal lamina of the spinal cord that receives sensory input from the skin, consistent with a potential TRPC5 function as an innocuous cold transducer in nociceptive and thermosensory nerve endings. Although deletion of TRPC5 in 129S1/SvImJ mice resulted in no temperature-sensitive behavioral changes, TRPM8 and/or other menthol-sensitive channels appear to underpin a much larger component of noxious cold sensing after TRPC5 deletion and a shift in mechanosensitive C-fiber subtypes. These findings demonstrate that highly cold-sensitive TRPC5 channels are a molecular component for detection and regional adaptation to cold temperatures in the peripheral nervous system that is distinct from noxious cold sensing.

  9. Comparative studies of a new subfamily of human Ste20-like kinases: homodimerization, subcellular localization, and selective activation of MKK3 and p38.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yustein, Jason T; Xia, Liang; Kahlenburg, J Michelle; Robinson, Dan; Templeton, Dennis; Kung, Hsing-Jien

    2003-09-18

    The Sterile-20 or Ste20 family of serine/threonine kinases is a group of signaling molecules whose physiological roles within mammalian cells are just starting to be elucidated. Here, in this report we present the characterization of three human Ste20-like kinases with greater than 90% similarity within their catalytic domains that define a novel subfamily of Ste20s. Members of this kinase family include rat thousand and one (TAO1) and chicken KFC (kinase from chicken). For the lack of a consensus nomenclature in the literature, in this report, we shall call this family hKFC (for their homology to chicken KFC) and the three members hKFC-A, hKFC-B, and hKFC-C, respectively. These kinases have many similarities including an aminoterminal kinase domain, a serine-rich region, and a coiled-coil configuration within the C-terminus. All three kinases are able to activate the p38 MAP kinase pathway through the specific activation of the upstream MKK3 kinase. We also offer evidence, both theoretical and biochemical, showing that these kinases can undergo self-association. Despite these similarities, these kinases differ in tissue distribution, apparent subcellular localization, and feature structural differences largely within the carboxyl-terminal sequence.

  10. The Voltage-Gated Potassium Channel Subfamily KQT Member 4 (KCNQ4) Displays Parallel Evolution in Echolocating Bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Han, Naijian; Franchini, Lucía F.; Xu, Huihui; Pisciottano, Francisco; Elgoyhen, Ana Belén; Rajan, Koilmani Emmanuvel; Zhang, Shuyi

    2012-01-01

    Bats are the only mammals that use highly developed laryngeal echolocation, a sensory mechanism based on the ability to emit laryngeal sounds and interpret the returning echoes to identify objects. Although this capability allows bats to orientate and hunt in complete darkness, endowing them with great survival advantages, the genetic bases underlying the evolution of bat echolocation are still largely unknown. Echolocation requires high-frequency hearing that in mammals is largely dependent on somatic electromotility of outer hair cells. Then, understanding the molecular evolution of outer hair cell genes might help to unravel the evolutionary history of echolocation. In this work, we analyzed the molecular evolution of two key outer hair cell genes: the voltage-gated potassium channel gene KCNQ4 and CHRNA10, the gene encoding the α10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit. We reconstructed the phylogeny of bats based on KCNQ4 and CHRNA10 protein and nucleotide sequences. A phylogenetic tree built using KCNQ4 amino acid sequences showed that two paraphyletic clades of laryngeal echolocating bats grouped together, with eight shared substitutions among particular lineages. In addition, our analyses indicated that two of these parallel substitutions, M388I and P406S, were probably fixed under positive selection and could have had a strong functional impact on KCNQ4. Moreover, our results indicated that KCNQ4 evolved under positive selection in the ancestral lineage leading to mammals, suggesting that this gene might have been important for the evolution of mammalian hearing. On the other hand, we found that CHRNA10, a gene that evolved adaptively in the mammalian lineage, was under strong purifying selection in bats. Thus, the CHRNA10 amino acid tree did not show echolocating bat monophyly and reproduced the bat species tree. These results suggest that only a subset of hearing genes could underlie the evolution of echolocation. The present work continues to

  11. Functional characterization of a first avian cytochrome P450 of the CYP2D subfamily (CYP2D49.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Cai

    Full Text Available The CYP2D family members are instrumental in the metabolism of 20-25% of commonly prescribed drugs. Although many CYP2D isoforms have been well characterized in other animal models, research concerning the chicken CYP2Ds is limited. In this study, a cDNA encoding a novel CYP2D enzyme (CYP2D49 was cloned from the chicken liver for the first time. The CYP2D49 cDNA contained an open reading frame of 502 amino acids that shared 52%-57% identities with other CYP2Ds. The gene structure and neighboring genes of CYP2D49 are conserved and similar to those of human CYP2D6. Additionally, similar to human CYP2D6, CYP2D49 is un-inducible in the liver and expressed predominantly in the liver, kidney and small intestine, with detectable levels in several other tissues. Metabolic assays of the CYP2D49 protein heterologously expressed in E. coli and Hela cells indicated that CYP2D49 metabolized the human CYP2D6 substrate, bufuralol, but not debrisoquine. Moreover, quinidine, a potent inhibitor of human CYP2D6, only inhibited the bufuralol 1'-hydroxylation activity of CYP2D49 to a negligible degree. All these results indicated that CYP2D49 had functional characteristics similar to those of human CYP2D6 but measurably differed in the debrisoquine 4'-hydroxylation and quinidine inhibitory profile. Further structure-function investigations that employed site-directed mutagenesis and circular dichroism spectroscopy identified the importance of Val-126, Glu-222, Asp-306, Phe-486 and Phe-488 in keeping the enzymatic activity of CYP2D49 toward bufuralol as well as the importance of Asp-306, Phe-486 and Phe-488 in maintaining the conformation of CYP2D49 protein. The current study is only the first step in characterizing the metabolic mechanism of CYP2D49; further studies are still required.

  12. Phylogenetic analysis of the spider mite sub-family Tetranychinae (Acari: Tetranychidae based on the mitochondrial COI gene and the 18S and the 5' end of the 28S rRNA genes indicates that several genera are polyphyletic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Matsuda

    Full Text Available The spider mite sub-family Tetranychinae includes many agricultural pests. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS region of nuclear ribosomal RNA genes and the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI gene of mitochondrial DNA have been used for species identification and phylogenetic reconstruction within the sub-family Tetranychinae, although they have not always been successful. The 18S and 28S rRNA genes should be more suitable for resolving higher levels of phylogeny, such as tribes or genera of Tetranychinae because these genes evolve more slowly and are made up of conserved regions and divergent domains. Therefore, we used both the 18S (1,825-1,901 bp and 28S (the 5' end of 646-743 bp rRNA genes to infer phylogenetic relationships within the sub-family Tetranychinae with a focus on the tribe Tetranychini. Then, we compared the phylogenetic tree of the 18S and 28S genes with that of the mitochondrial COI gene (618 bp. As observed in previous studies, our phylogeny based on the COI gene was not resolved because of the low bootstrap values for most nodes of the tree. On the other hand, our phylogenetic tree of the 18S and 28S genes revealed several well-supported clades within the sub-family Tetranychinae. The 18S and 28S phylogenetic trees suggest that the tribes Bryobiini, Petrobiini and Eurytetranychini are monophyletic and that the tribe Tetranychini is polyphyletic. At the genus level, six genera for which more than two species were sampled appear to be monophyletic, while four genera (Oligonychus, Tetranychus, Schizotetranychus and Eotetranychus appear to be polyphyletic. The topology presented here does not fully agree with the current morphology-based taxonomy, so that the diagnostic morphological characters of Tetranychinae need to be reconsidered.

  13. Cytochrome P450 CYP3A in marsupials: cloning and identification of the first CYP3A subfamily member, isoform 3A70 from Eastern gray kangaroo (Macropus giganteus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Merhibi, Adaweyah; Ngo, Suong N T; Marchant, Ceilidh L; Height, Tamara A; Stupans, Ieva; McKinnon, Ross A

    2012-09-15

    Australian marsupials are unique fauna that have evolved and adapted to unique environments and thus it is likely that their detoxification systems differ considerably from those of well-studied eutherian mammals. Knowledge of these processes in marsupials is therefore vital to understanding the consequences of exposure to xenobiotics. Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are critically important in the oxidative metabolism of a diverse array of both xenobiotics and endogenous substrates. In this study we have cloned and characterized CYP3A70, the first identified member of the CYP3A gene subfamily from Eastern gray kangaroo (Macropus giganteus). A 1665 base pair kangaroo hepatic CYP3A complete cDNA, designated CYP3A70, was cloned by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction approaches, which encodes a protein of 506 amino acids. The CYP3A70 cDNA shares approximately 71% nucleotide and 65% amino acid sequence homology to human CYP3A4 and displays high sequence similarity to other published mammalian CYP3As from human, monkey, cow, pig, dog, rat, rabbit, mouse, hamster, and guinea pig. Transfection of the CYP3A70 cDNAs into 293T cells resulted in stable cell lines expressing a CYP3A immuno-reactive protein that was recognized by a goat anti-human CYP3A4 polyclonal antibody. The anti-human CYP3A4 antibody also detected immunoreactive proteins in liver microsomes from all test marsupials, including the kangaroo, koala, wallaby, and wombat, with multiple CYP3A immunoreactive bands observed in kangaroo and wallaby tissues. Relatively, very low CYP catalytic activity was detected for the kangaroo CYP3A70 cDNA-expressed proteins (19.6 relative luminescent units/μg protein), which may be due to low protein expression levels. Collectively, this study provides primary molecular data regarding the Eastern kangaroo hepatic CYP3A70 gene and enables further functional analyses of CYP3A enzymes in marsupials. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Identifying Information Focuses in Listening Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-yan

    2011-01-01

    The study explains the process of learners' listening comprehension within Halliday's information theory in functional grammar, including the skills of identifying focuses while listening in college English teaching. Identifying information focuses in listening is proved to improve the students' communicative listening ability by the means of a…

  15. Intragastric Dai-Kenchu-To, a Japanese herbal medicine, stimulates colonic motility via transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Daisuke; Shibata, Chikashi; Imoto, Hirofumi; Naitoh, Takeshi; Miura, Koh; Unno, Michiaki

    2013-08-01

    Japanese herbal medicine, also known as Kampo, is used for various diseases in Japan. One of those medicines, Dai-Kenchu-To (DKT), is considered clinically effective for adhesive bowel obstruction and chronic constipation. Although scientific evidence of DKT to improve adhesive bowel obstruction was shown in several previous reports, mechanism of DKT to improve constipation remains unknown. Our aim was to study the effect of intragastric DKT on colonic motility and defecation, and the involvement of various receptors in DKT-induced colonic contractions. Five beagle dogs were instructed with serosal strain-gauge force transducers to measure circular muscle activity at the proximal, middle, and distal colon. Dogs are suitable for a present study to administer the drugs repeatedly to the same individual and look at its effect on colonic motility. We studied the effects of DKT (2.5 or 5 g) administered into the stomach on colonic motility. Muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine, nicotinic receptor antagonist hexamthonium, or 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 receptor antagonist ondansetron was injected intravenously 10 min before DKT administration. Capsazepine, an antagonist to transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1), was administered into the stomach 5 min before DKT administration. Intragastric DKT (2.5 or 5 g) induced colonic contractions within 10 min after administration but did not induce defecation. Pretreatment with atropine, hexamthonium, ondansetron, or capsazepine inhibited DKT-induced colonic contractions. These results indicate that orally administered DKT stimulates colonic motility via TRPV1, muscarinic, nicotinic, and 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 receptors, thereby providing scientific support for the efficacy of oral DKT in chronic constipation.

  16. Sex difference in induction of hepatic CYP2B and CYP3A subfamily enzymes by nicardipine and nifedipine in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konno, Yoshihiro; Sekimoto, Masashi; Nemoto, Kiyomitsu; Degawa, Masakuni

    2004-01-01

    Male and female of F344 rats were treated per os with nicardipine (Nic) and nifedipine (Nif), and changes in the levels of mRNA and protein of hepatic cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes, CYP2B1, CYP2B2, CYP3A1, CYP3A2, CYP3A9, and CYP3A18 were examined. Furthermore, hepatic microsomal activities for pentoxyresorufin O-dealkylation (PROD) and nifedipine oxidation, which are mainly mediated by CYP2B and CYP3A subfamily enzymes, respectively, were measured. Analyses of RT-PCR and Western blotting revealed that Nic and Nif induced predominantly CYP3A and CYP2B enzymes, respectively. As for the gene activation of CYP2B enzymes, especially CYP2B1, Nif showed high capacity in both sexes of rats, whereas Nic did a definite capacity in the males but little in the females. Gene activations of CYP3A1, CYP3A2, and CYP3A18 by Nic occurred in both sexes of rats, although that of CYP3A9 did only in the male rats. Although gene activations of CYP3A1 and CYP3A2 by Nif were observed in both sexes of rats, a slight activation of the CYP3A9 gene occurred only in female rats, and the CYP3A18 gene activation, in neither male nor female rats. Thus, changes in levels of the mRNA or protein of CYP2B and CYP3A enzymes, especially CYP2B1 and CYP3A2, were closely correlated with those in hepatic PROD and nifedipine oxidation activities, respectively. The present findings demonstrate for the first time the sex difference in the Nic- and Nif-mediated induction of hepatic P450 enzymes in rats and further indicate that Nic and Nif show different specificities and sex dependencies in the induction of hepatic P450 enzymes

  17. Association with the Plasma Membrane Is Sufficient for Potentiating Catalytic Activity of Regulators of G Protein Signaling (RGS) Proteins of the R7 Subfamily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntean, Brian S; Martemyanov, Kirill A

    2016-03-25

    Regulators of G protein Signaling (RGS) promote deactivation of heterotrimeric G proteins thus controlling the magnitude and kinetics of responses mediated by G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). In the nervous system, RGS7 and RGS9-2 play essential role in vision, reward processing, and movement control. Both RGS7 and RGS9-2 belong to the R7 subfamily of RGS proteins that form macromolecular complexes with R7-binding protein (R7BP). R7BP targets RGS proteins to the plasma membrane and augments their GTPase-accelerating protein (GAP) activity, ultimately accelerating deactivation of G protein signaling. However, it remains unclear if R7BP serves exclusively as a membrane anchoring subunit or further modulates RGS proteins to increase their GAP activity. To directly answer this question, we utilized a rapidly reversible chemically induced protein dimerization system that enabled us to control RGS localization independent from R7BP in living cells. To monitor kinetics of Gα deactivation, we coupled this strategy with measuring changes in the GAP activity by bioluminescence resonance energy transfer-based assay in a cellular system containing μ-opioid receptor. This approach was used to correlate changes in RGS localization and activity in the presence or absence of R7BP. Strikingly, we observed that RGS activity is augmented by membrane recruitment, in an orientation independent manner with no additional contributions provided by R7BP. These findings argue that the association of R7 RGS proteins with the membrane environment provides a major direct contribution to modulation of their GAP activity. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. 2D or Not 2D? Testing the Utility of 2D Vs. 3D Landmark Data in Geometric Morphometrics of the Sculpin Subfamily Oligocottinae (Pisces; Cottoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buser, Thaddaeus J; Sidlauskas, Brian L; Summers, Adam P

    2018-05-01

    We contrast 2D vs. 3D landmark-based geometric morphometrics in the fish subfamily Oligocottinae by using 3D landmarks from CT-generated models and comparing the morphospace of the 3D landmarks to one based on 2D landmarks from images. The 2D and 3D shape variables capture common patterns across taxa, such that the pairwise Procrustes distances among taxa correspond and the trends captured by principal component analysis are similar in the xy plane. We use the two sets of landmarks to test several ecomorphological hypotheses from the literature. Both 2D and 3D data reject the hypothesis that head shape correlates significantly with the depth at which a species is commonly found. However, in taxa where shape variation in the z-axis is high, the 2D shape variables show sufficiently strong distortion to influence the outcome of the hypothesis tests regarding the relationship between mouth size and feeding ecology. Only the 3D data support previous studies which showed that large mouth sizes correlate positively with high percentages of elusive prey in the diet. When used to test for morphological divergence, 3D data show no evidence of divergence, while 2D data show that one clade of oligocottines has diverged from all others. This clade shows the greatest degree of z-axis body depth within Oligocottinae, and we conclude that the inability of the 2D approach to capture this lateral body depth causes the incongruence between 2D and 3D analyses. Anat Rec, 301:806-818, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. A REVISION OF THE PLIOCENE NATICIDS OF NORTHERN AND CENTRAL ITALY. II. THE SUBFAMILY NATICINAE: ADDITIONS TO COCHLIS, TANEA AND TECTONATICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCA PEDRIALI

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is the second in a series devoted to the revision of the Pliocene naticids of Northern and Central Italy. It concludes the section covering the calcareous operculum-bearing Naticinae and expands to 18 the total number of species and subspecies of this subfamily recovered so far from the Pliocene deposits of Italy. Of the six taxa considered in this study, two (epigloafuniculata and fredianii fully match the characters of the genus Cochlis Röding, 1798, one (koeneni is assigned to the genus Tanea Marwick, 1931, the rest (astensis, prietoi and tectula belong to the genus Tectonatica Sacco, 1890. All the six taxa considered in this paper are described and commented in the systematic account. One, Cochlis fredianii, is proposed as new. In the chapter treating the generic assignment of the studied taxa, the range of Tanea, hitherto used to allocate several Indo-Pacific species, is extended to the Mediterranean Basin as well, and the relations between Tectonatica and Cryptonatica Dall, 1892 are discussed. This study further demonstrates that the morphological characters of the teleoconch are of low significance in species recognition. In fact, should the characters be ranked, the operculum comes first and is the primary element, sufficient to distinguish each species. The protoconch and the color pattern are the second and third relevant attributes that can be used diagnostically for several taxa, but not always. The other shell features appear to be useful tools in separating species only occasionally. Some species lack distinctive shell characters and do require operculate specimens in order to be confidently 

  20. Potential role of melastatin-related transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M gene expression in the pathogenesis of urinary bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceylan, Gülay Güleç; Önalan, Ebru Etem; Kuloğlu, Tuncay; Aydoğ, Gülten; Keleş, İbrahim; Tonyali, Şenol; Ceylan, Cavit

    2016-12-01

    Urinary bladder cancer is one of the most common malignancies of the urinary tract. Ion channels and calcium homeostasis are involved in almost all basic cellular mechanisms. The transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M (TRPM) takes its name from the melastatin protein, which is classified as potential tumor suppressor. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no previous studies in the literature investigating the role of these ion channels in bladder cancer. The present study aimed to determine whether bladder cancer is associated with mRNA expression levels of TRPM ion channel genes, and whether there is the potential to conduct further studies to establish novel treatment modalities. The present study included a total of 47 subjects, of whom 40 were bladder cancer patients and 7 were controls. Following the histopathological evaluation for bladder carcinoma, the mRNA and protein expression of TRPM were examined by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and immunohistochemistry in tumor and normal tissues, in order to determine whether there is a difference in the expression of these channels in tumor and normal tissues. Immunoreactivity for TRPM2, TRPM4, TRPM7 and TRPM8 was observed in epithelial bladder cells in the two groups. RT-qPCR revealed a significant increase in TRPM7 expression in bladder cancer tissue compared to the controls (healthy bladder tissue), whereas no differences in TRPM2 or TRPM4 expression levels were observed. There were significant reductions in the expression levels of TRPM5 and TRPM8 in bladder cancer tissues. In the present study, the effects of TRP ion channels on the formation of bladder cancer was investigated. This study is instructive for TRPM2, TRPM4, TRPM5, TRPM7 and TRPM8 and their therapeutic role in bladder cancer. The results support the fact that these gens can be novel targets and can also be tested for during the treatment of bladder cancer.

  1. Selective ATP-Binding Cassette Subfamily C Gene Expression and Proinflammatory Mediators Released by BEAS-2B after PM2.5, Budesonide, and Cotreated Exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarline Encarnación-Medina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available ATP-binding cassette subfamily C (ABCC genes code for phase III metabolism proteins that translocate xenobiotic (e.g., particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5 and drug metabolites outside the cells. IL-6 secretion is related with the activation of the ABCC transporters. This study assesses ABCC1–4 gene expression changes and proinflammatory cytokine (IL-6, IL-8 release in human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B exposed to PM2.5 organic extract, budesonide (BUD, used to control inflammation in asthmatic patients, and a cotreatment (Co-T: PM2.5 and BUD. A real-time PCR assay shows that ABCC1 was upregulated in BEAS-2B exposed after 6 and 7 hr to PM2.5 extract or BUD but downregulated after 6 hr of the Co-T. ABCC3 was downregulated after 6 hr of BUD and upregulated after 6 hr of the Co-T exposures. ABCC4 was upregulated after 5 hr of PM2.5 extract, BUD, and the Co-T exposures. The cytokine assay revealed an increase in IL-6 release by BEAS-2B exposed after 5 hr to PM2.5 extract, BUD, and the Co-T. At 7 hr, the Co-T decreases IL-6 release and IL-8 at 6 hr. In conclusion, the cotreatment showed an opposite effect on exposed BEAS-2B as compared with BUD. The results suggest an interference of the BUD therapeutic potential by PM2.5.

  2. Identifying What Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardrip, Peter; Evancho, Jeffrey; McNamara, Annie

    2018-01-01

    A question like "what do you want your children to be like when they leave your class?" seems simple on the surface, but it quickly becomes complex when teachers are asked to name, prioritize, and document the kinds of student learning and engagement they value most. This article shares the ongoing work of a regional learning community…

  3. Thoughts on identifiers

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    As business processes and information transactions have become an inextricably intertwined with the Web, the importance of assignment, registration, discovery, and maintenance of identifiers has increased. In spite of this, integrated frameworks for managing identifiers have been slow to emerge. Instead, identification systems arise (quite naturally) from immediate business needs without consideration for how they fit into larger information architectures. In addition, many legacy identifier systems further complicate the landscape, making it difficult for content managers to select and deploy identifier systems that meet both the business case and long term information management objectives. This presentation will outline a model for evaluating identifier applications and the functional requirements of the systems necessary to support them. The model is based on a layered analysis of the characteristics of identifier systems, including: * Functional characteristics * Technology * Policy * Business * Social T...

  4. Identifiability in stochastic models

    CERN Document Server

    1992-01-01

    The problem of identifiability is basic to all statistical methods and data analysis, occurring in such diverse areas as Reliability Theory, Survival Analysis, and Econometrics, where stochastic modeling is widely used. Mathematics dealing with identifiability per se is closely related to the so-called branch of ""characterization problems"" in Probability Theory. This book brings together relevant material on identifiability as it occurs in these diverse fields.

  5. Identifying and Fostering Higher Levels of Geometric Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škrbec, Maja; Cadež, Tatjana Hodnik

    2015-01-01

    Pierre M. Van Hiele created five levels of geometric thinking. We decided to identify the level of geometric thinking in the students in Slovenia, aged 9 to 11 years. The majority of students (60.7%) are at the transition between the zero (visual) level and the first (descriptive) level of geometric thinking. Nearly a third (31.7%) of students is…

  6. Identifying Strategic Scientific Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    As NCI's central scientific strategy office, CRS collaborates with the institute's divisions, offices, and centers to identify research opportunities to advance NCI's vision for the future of cancer research.

  7. Identifying Breast Cancer Oncogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    cells we observed that it promoted transformation of HMLE cells, suggesting a tumor suppressive role of Merlin in breast cancer (Figure 4B). A...08-1-0767 TITLE: Identifying Breast Cancer Oncogenes PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Yashaswi Shrestha...Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 W81XWH-08-1-0767 Identifying Breast Cancer Oncogenes Yashaswi Shrestha Dana-Farber

  8. Unusual evolutionary conservation and further species-specific adaptations of a large family of nonclassical MHC class Ib genes across different degrees of genome ploidy in the amphibian subfamily Xenopodinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edholm, Eva-Stina; Goyos, Ana; Taran, Joseph; De Jesús Andino, Francisco; Ohta, Yuko; Robert, Jacques

    2014-06-01

    Nonclassical MHC class Ib (class Ib) genes are a family of highly diverse and rapidly evolving genes wherein gene numbers, organization, and expression markedly differ even among closely related species rendering class Ib phylogeny difficult to establish. Whereas among mammals there are few unambiguous class Ib gene orthologs, different amphibian species belonging to the anuran subfamily Xenopodinae exhibit an unusually high degree of conservation among multiple class Ib gene lineages. Comparative genomic analysis of class Ib gene loci of two divergent (~65 million years) Xenopodinae subfamily members Xenopus laevis (allotetraploid) and Xenopus tropicalis (diploid) shows that both species possess a large cluster of class Ib genes denoted as Xenopus/Silurana nonclassical (XNC/SNC). Our study reveals two distinct phylogenetic patterns among these genes: some gene lineages display a high degree of flexibility, as demonstrated by species-specific expansion and contractions, whereas other class Ib gene lineages have been maintained as monogenic subfamilies with very few changes in their nucleotide sequence across divergent species. In this second category, we further investigated the XNC/SNC10 gene lineage that in X. laevis is required for the development of a distinct semi-invariant T cell population. We report compelling evidence of the remarkable high degree of conservation of this gene lineage that is present in all 12 species of the Xenopodinae examined, including species with different degrees of ploidy ranging from 2, 4, 8 to 12 N. This suggests that the critical role of XNC10 during early T cell development is conserved in amphibians.

  9. Amphibious shelter-builder Oniscidea species from the New World with description of a new subfamily, a new genus and a new species from Brazilian cave (Isopoda, Synocheta, Styloniscidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila A Souza

    Full Text Available The new subfamily Iuiuniscinae, Styloniscidae, is erected for the new genus Iuiuniscus and the new species I. iuiuensis, which is described from cave of the State of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. A special ecological character is shown here for the first time for a New World Oniscidea: the construction of mud shelters. An introduction addressing the systematics of Synocheta with emphasis on Styloniscidae Vandel, 1952 is provided, as well as general comments about the dependence of water in some Oniscidea and ecological traits of amphibious Synocheta. The problems referring to nomenclature, taxonomy and the interrelationships in Styloniscidae are discussed.

  10. Amphibious shelter-builder Oniscidea species from the New World with description of a new subfamily, a new genus and a new species from Brazilian cave (Isopoda, Synocheta, Styloniscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Leila A; Ferreira, Rodrigo L; Senna, André R

    2015-01-01

    The new subfamily Iuiuniscinae, Styloniscidae, is erected for the new genus Iuiuniscus and the new species I. iuiuensis, which is described from cave of the State of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. A special ecological character is shown here for the first time for a New World Oniscidea: the construction of mud shelters. An introduction addressing the systematics of Synocheta with emphasis on Styloniscidae Vandel, 1952 is provided, as well as general comments about the dependence of water in some Oniscidea and ecological traits of amphibious Synocheta. The problems referring to nomenclature, taxonomy and the interrelationships in Styloniscidae are discussed.

  11. Identifying Knowledge and Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Coutinho Lourenço de Lima

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I discuss how the principle of identifying knowledge which Strawson advances in ‘Singular Terms and Predication’ (1961, and in ‘Identifying Reference and Truth-Values’ (1964 turns out to constrain communication. The principle states that a speaker’s use of a referring expression should invoke identifying knowledge on the part of the hearer, if the hearer is to understand what the speaker is saying, and also that, in so referring, speakers are attentive to hearers’ epistemic states. In contrasting it with Russell’s Principle (Evans 1982, as well as with the principle of identifying descriptions (Donnellan 1970, I try to show that the principle of identifying knowledge, ultimately a condition for understanding, makes sense only in a situation of conversation. This allows me to conclude that the cooperative feature of communication (Grice 1975 and reference (Clark andWilkes-Gibbs 1986 holds also at the understanding level. Finally, I discuss where Strawson’s views seem to be unsatisfactory, and suggest how they might be improved.

  12. Identifying a K-10 Developmental Framework for Teaching Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulton, Janette

    2014-01-01

    The intention of the study was to identify predictable opportunities for teachers to scaffold middle year students' philosophical learning. Such opportunities were identified in terms of students' readiness to learn certain behaviours in the context of a "community of inquiry". Thus it was hoped that the project would provide a useful…

  13. Problems Identifying Independent and Dependent Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatham, Keith R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses one step from the scientific method--that of identifying independent and dependent variables--from both scientific and mathematical perspectives. It begins by analyzing an episode from a middle school mathematics classroom that illustrates the need for students and teachers alike to develop a robust understanding of…

  14. Identifying Ethical Hypernorms for Accounting Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Philip H.; Mintz, Steven; Naser-Tavakolian, Mohsen; O'Shaughnessy, John

    2012-01-01

    Accounting educators have a unique role in academe because students learn about codes of ethics that will guide their actions as professionals. We identify hypernorms related to internal auditing educators that reflect unethical behaviors believed to be universally unacceptable by that community. We then compare the results to a prior survey of…

  15. Identifying and Managing Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Janice M.

    1999-01-01

    The role of the college or university chief financial officer in institutional risk management is (1) to identify risk (physical, casualty, fiscal, business, reputational, workplace safety, legal liability, employment practices, general liability), (2) to develop a campus plan to reduce and control risk, (3) to transfer risk, and (4) to track and…

  16. Internally readable identifying tag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jefferts, K.B.; Jefferts, E.R.

    1980-01-01

    A method of identifying non-metallic objects by means of X-ray equipment is described in detail. A small metal pin with a number of grooves cut in a pre-determined equi-spaced pattern is implanted into the non-metallic object and by decoding the groove patterns using X-ray equipment, the object is uniquely identified. A specific example of such an application is in studying the migratory habits of fish. The pin inserted into the snout of the fish is 0.010 inch in diameter, 0.040 inch in length with 8 possible positions for grooves if spaced 0.005 inch apart. With 6 of the groove positions available for data, the capacity is 2 6 or 64 combinations; clearly longer pins would increase the data capacity. This method of identification is a major advance over previous techniques which necessitated destruction of the fish in order to recover the identification tag. (UK)

  17. Identifying Breast Cancer Oncogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    tyrosine kinases with an SH3, SH2 and catalytic domain, it lacks a native myristylation signal shared by most members of this class [14], [38]. The...therapeutics and consequently, improve clinical outcomes. We aim to identify novel drivers of breast oncogenesis. We hypothesize that a kinase gain-of...human mammary epithelial cells. A pBabe-Puro-Myr-Flag kinase open reading frame (ORF) library was screened in immortalized human mammary epithelial

  18. Rock disposal problems identified

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, R

    1978-06-01

    Mathematical models are the only way of examining the return of radioactivity from nuclear waste to the environment over long periods of time. Work in Britain has helped identify areas where more basic data is required, but initial results look very promising for final disposal of high level waste in hard rock repositories. A report by the National Radiological Protection Board of a recent study, is examined.

  19. Students in Action Initiative

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, Theresa; Mottiar, Ziene; Quinn, Bernadette; Gorman, Catherine; Griffin, Kevin; Craggs, Ruth; Quinn, Deirdre

    2015-01-01

    The Students in Action Project in the School of Hospitality Management and Tourism was established in 2012 as a way of engaging students and working with stakeholders in a destination. The overall aim of the project was to immerse students in an active collaborative learning environment within the destination to identify ways in which tourism could be enhanced. In the 2014/2015 academic year the project involved over 300 students from a variety of programmes and modules working with local sta...

  20. Identifying phenomenal consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schier, Elizabeth

    2009-03-01

    This paper examines the possibility of finding evidence that phenomenal consciousness is independent of access. The suggestion reviewed is that we should look for isomorphisms between phenomenal and neural activation spaces. It is argued that the fact that phenomenal spaces are mapped via verbal report is no problem for this methodology. The fact that activation and phenomenal space are mapped via different means does not mean that they cannot be identified. The paper finishes by examining how data addressing this theoretical question could be obtained.

  1. Systematics and phylogeny of the Neotropical treehopper subfamily Nicomiinae (Hemiptera, Membracidae Sistemática e filogenia das cigarrinhas neotropicais da subfamília Nicomiinae (Hemiptera, Membracidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse L. Albertson

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Morphological characters of adults of the treehopper subfamily Nicomiinae Haupt, 1929 (Hemiptera, Membracidae including seven genera (Eudonica gen. nov.; Euwalkeria Goding, 1926; Holdgatiella Evans, 1962; Nicomia Stål, 1858; Nodonica Dietrich, McKamey& Deitz, 2001; Stalomia gen. nov.; and Tolania Stål, 1858 and 22 species (16 new are described and illustrated. Keys are provided for genera and for species of Euwalkeria, Holdgatiella, and Nicomia. Nomenclatural changes, based on study of the primary type material of 15 species, include three new combinations, one new synonymy, and reinstatement of one junior synonym. Eudonica has one species, Eudonica nanella sp. nov.; Euwalkeria has five species, including four new species: E. colorata sp. nov., E. distincta sp. nov., E. perdita sp. nov., E. rubrica sp. nov.; Holdgatiella has two species, one of which is described as new: Holdgatiella chiloensis sp. nov.; Nicomia has twelve species, nine of which are described as new: N. buccina sp. nov., N. harenosa sp. nov., N. inscripta sp. nov., N. jucunda sp. nov., N. monticola sp. nov., N. nigrifasciata sp. nov., N. notidana sp. nov., N. pulchella sp. nov., N. serrata sp. nov.; Nodonica has one species, Nodonica bispinigera Dietrich, McKamey & Deitz; and Stalomia has one species, Stalomia veruta sp. nov. Tolania contains eleven previously described species and nearly 60 new species, which will be treated in a later publication. Three new combinations are proposed: one species described in Nicomia is placed in the tribe Abelini (Centrotinae as Abelus retrospinosus (Lethierry comb. nov.; one species previously placed in Nicomia is transferred to the genus Tolania as T. obliqua (Walker, 1858, comb. nov.; one species described in Holdgatiella is placed in the genus Tolania as T. stria (Cryan & Deitz, 2002, comb. nov. One new synonymy is proposed: Hoplophera [sic] cicadoides Walker, 1862, syn. nov., a junior synonym of Nicomia interrupta Stål, 1858. Nicomia

  2. Core group approach to identify college students at risk for sexually transmitted infections "Core group" para identificar universitários em risco para infecções sexualmente transmissíveis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A Sánchez-Alemán

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the core group for sexually transmitted infections (STI among college students. METHODS: Cross-sectional study carried out in a convenience sample comprising 711 college students of the public university of Morelos, Mexico, between 2001 and 2003. Sociodemographic and sexual behavior information were collected using self-applied questionnaires. Herpes simplex 2 (HSV-2 infection was tested in the blood. The number of sexual partners in the last year and cocaine consumption were used as indicators to construct the dependent variable "level of STI risk" in three categories: low, medium and high risk (core group. A multinomial analysis was conducted to evaluate whether different sex behaviors were associated with the variable "level of STI risk". RESULTS: There was significant association between HSV-2 seroprevalence and the variable "level of STI risk": 13%, 5.6% and 3.8% were found in high (core group, medium and low categories, respectively. There were gender differences regarding the core group. Men started having sexual intercourse earlier, had more sex partners, higher alcohol and drug consumption, higher frequency of sex intercourse with sex workers, exchanging sex for money, occasional and concurrent partners compared to women. CONCLUSIONS: The study findings suggest existing contextual characteristics in the study population that affect their sex behavior. In Mexico, the cultural conception of sexuality is determined mainly by gender differences where men engage in higher risky sexual behavior than women.OBJETIVO: Identificar al grupo core de infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS en una población de estudiantes universitarios mexicanos. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio transversal en una muestra por conveniencia que incluyó 711 estudiantes de una universidad pública de Morelos, México, entre 2001 y 2003. Las características sociodemográficas y de comportamiento sexual se obtuvieron mediante un cuestionario auto

  3. List identifies threatened ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-09-01

    The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) announced on 9 September that it will develop a new Red List of Ecosystems that will identify which ecosystems are vulnerable or endangered. The list, which is modeled on the group's Red List of Threatened Species™, could help to guide conservation activities and influence policy processes such as the Convention on Biological Diversity, according to the group. “We will assess the status of marine, terrestrial, freshwater, and subterranean ecosystems at local, regional, and global levels,” stated Jon Paul Rodriguez, leader of IUCN's Ecosystems Red List Thematic Group. “The assessment can then form the basis for concerted implementation action so that we can manage them sustainably if their risk of collapse is low or restore them if they are threatened and then monitor their recovery.”

  4. Global Microbial Identifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wielinga, Peter; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2017-01-01

    ) will likely also enable a much better understanding of the pathogenesis of the infection and the molecular basis of the host response to infection. But the full potential of these advances will only transpire if the data in this area become transferable and thereby comparable, preferably in open-source...... of microorganisms, for the identification of relevant genes and for the comparison of genomes to detect outbreaks and emerging pathogens. To harness the full potential of WGS, a shared global database of genomes linked to relevant metadata and the necessary software tools needs to be generated, hence the global...... microbial identifier (GMI) initiative. This tool will ideally be used in amongst others in the diagnosis of infectious diseases in humans and animals, in the identification of microorganisms in food and environment, and to track and trace microbial agents in all arenas globally. This will require...

  5. Radiograph identifying means

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheldon, A.D.

    1983-01-01

    A flexible character-indentable plastics embossing tape is backed by and bonded to a lead strip, not more than 0.025 inches thick, to form a tape suitable for identifying radiographs. The lead strip is itself backed by a relatively thin and flimsy plastics or fabric strip which, when removed, allows the lead plastic tape to be pressure-bonded to the surface to be radiographed. A conventional tape-embossing gun is used to indent the desired characters in succession into the lead-backed tape, without necessarily severing the lead; and then the backing strip is peeled away to expose the layer of adhesive which pressure-bonds the indented tape to the object to be radiographed. X-rays incident on the embossed tape will cause the raised characters to show up dark on the subsequently-developed film, whilst the raised side areas will show up white. Each character will thus stand out on the developed film. (author)

  6. A new genus and species of entocytherid ostracod (Ostracoda: Entocytheridae) from the John Day River Basin of Oregon, U.S.A., with a key to genera of the subfamily Entocytherinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Patricia G; Williams, Bronwyn W

    2017-06-07

    Targeted sampling efforts by the authors for the signal crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus, from its native range in the John Day River Basin, Oregon, U.S.A. yielded entocytherid ostracods with a male copulatory complex so clearly different from other entocytherines that a new genus, Aurumcythere gen. nov. is proposed to receive them. This newly proposed, apparently nonsclerotized, genus with hook and spur-like prominences of the posteroventral end of the peniferum is the first new genus of the subfamily Entocytherinae named since Hobbs & Peters described Aphelocythere (= Waltoncythere) in 1977. Aurumcythere gen. nov. represents only the second genus of entocytherid known from the Pacific Northwest. Lack of sclerotization in Aurumcythere gen. nov. provides new insight into poorly understood mating behaviors of entocytherid ostracods.

  7. Identifying Inputs to Leadership Development within an Interdisciplinary Leadership Minor

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKim, Aaron J.; Sorensen, Tyson J.; Velez, Jonathan J.

    2015-01-01

    Researchers conducted a qualitative analysis of students' experiences while enrolled in an interdisciplinary leadership minor with the intent to determine programmatic inputs that spur leadership development. Based on students' reflections, three domains of programmatic inputs for leadership development within the minor were identified. These…

  8. Identifying Food Safety Concerns when Communication Barriers Exist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Jack A.; Dawson, Mary; Madera, Juan M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Students must be prepared to lead a diverse workforce. The objective of this study was to establish a teaching method that helps students identify barriers to food safety while working in a simulated environment with communication barriers. This study employed a perspective taking exercise based upon the principles of social learning…

  9. Differential expression patterns in chemosensory and non-chemosensory tissues of putative chemosensory genes identified by transcriptome analysis of insect pest the purple stem borer Sesamia inferens (Walker.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Nan Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A large number of insect chemosensory genes from different gene subfamilies have been identified and annotated, but their functional diversity and complexity are largely unknown. A systemic examination of expression patterns in chemosensory organs could provide important information. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We identified 92 putative chemosensory genes by analysing the transcriptome of the antennae and female sex pheromone gland of the purple stem borer Sesamia inferens, among them 87 are novel in this species, including 24 transcripts encoding for odorant binding proteins (OBPs, 24 for chemosensory proteins (CSPs, 2 for sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs, 39 for odorant receptors (ORs and 3 for ionotropic receptors (IRs. The transcriptome analyses were validated and quantified with a detailed global expression profiling by Reverse Transcription-PCR for all 92 transcripts and by Quantitative Real Time RT-PCR for selected 16 ones. Among the chemosensory gene subfamilies, CSP transcripts are most widely and evenly expressed in different tissues and stages, OBP transcripts showed a clear antenna bias and most of OR transcripts are only detected in adult antennae. Our results also revealed that some OR transcripts, such as the transcripts of SNMP2 and 2 IRs were expressed in non-chemosensory tissues, and some CSP transcripts were antenna-biased expression. Furthermore, no chemosensory transcript is specific to female sex pheromone gland and very few are found in the heads. CONCLUSION: Our study revealed that there are a large number of chemosensory genes expressed in S. inferens, and some of them displayed unusual expression profile in non-chemosensory tissues. The identification of a large set of putative chemosensory genes of each subfamily from a single insect species, together with their different expression profiles provide further information in understanding the functions of these chemosensory genes in S. inferens as

  10. Differential expression patterns in chemosensory and non-chemosensory tissues of putative chemosensory genes identified by transcriptome analysis of insect pest the purple stem borer Sesamia inferens (Walker).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya-Nan; Jin, Jun-Yan; Jin, Rong; Xia, Yi-Han; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Deng, Jian-Yu; Dong, Shuang-Lin

    2013-01-01

    A large number of insect chemosensory genes from different gene subfamilies have been identified and annotated, but their functional diversity and complexity are largely unknown. A systemic examination of expression patterns in chemosensory organs could provide important information. We identified 92 putative chemosensory genes by analysing the transcriptome of the antennae and female sex pheromone gland of the purple stem borer Sesamia inferens, among them 87 are novel in this species, including 24 transcripts encoding for odorant binding proteins (OBPs), 24 for chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 2 for sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs), 39 for odorant receptors (ORs) and 3 for ionotropic receptors (IRs). The transcriptome analyses were validated and quantified with a detailed global expression profiling by Reverse Transcription-PCR for all 92 transcripts and by Quantitative Real Time RT-PCR for selected 16 ones. Among the chemosensory gene subfamilies, CSP transcripts are most widely and evenly expressed in different tissues and stages, OBP transcripts showed a clear antenna bias and most of OR transcripts are only detected in adult antennae. Our results also revealed that some OR transcripts, such as the transcripts of SNMP2 and 2 IRs were expressed in non-chemosensory tissues, and some CSP transcripts were antenna-biased expression. Furthermore, no chemosensory transcript is specific to female sex pheromone gland and very few are found in the heads. Our study revealed that there are a large number of chemosensory genes expressed in S. inferens, and some of them displayed unusual expression profile in non-chemosensory tissues. The identification of a large set of putative chemosensory genes of each subfamily from a single insect species, together with their different expression profiles provide further information in understanding the functions of these chemosensory genes in S. inferens as well as other insects.

  11. Student Modeling and Machine Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Sison , Raymund; Shimura , Masamichi

    1998-01-01

    After identifying essential student modeling issues and machine learning approaches, this paper examines how machine learning techniques have been used to automate the construction of student models as well as the background knowledge necessary for student modeling. In the process, the paper sheds light on the difficulty, suitability and potential of using machine learning for student modeling processes, and, to a lesser extent, the potential of using student modeling techniques in machine le...

  12. Educational Context: Preparing Accounting Students to Identify Ethical Dilemmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billiot, Mary Jo; Daniel, David; Glandon, Sid; Glandon, TerryAnn

    2012-01-01

    We examine the effect of different contexts in an educational process on measures of ethical sensitivity and levels of moral reasoning of accounting majors in the first Intermediate Accounting course. The educational process compared a context that centers on ethical issues with one that focuses on technical accounting issues. At the end of the…

  13. Developing an instrument to identify MBChB students' approaches ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The constructs of deep, surface and achieving approaches to learning are well defined in the literature and amply supported by research. Quality learning results from a deep approach to learning, and a deep-achieving approach to learning is regarded as the most adaptive approach institutionally. It is therefore felt that ...

  14. Can Students Identify the Relevant Information to Solve a Problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lishan; Yu, Shengquan; Li, Baoping; Wang, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Solving non-routine problems is one of the most important skills for the 21st century. Traditional paper-pencil tests cannot assess this type of skill well because of their lack of interactivity and inability to capture procedural data. Tools such as MicroDYN and MicroFIN have proved to be trustworthy in assessing complex problem-solving…

  15. Identifying high ability students: a contribution from neuropsychological indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Cortat Simonetti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some data on the convergence between psychometric intelligence measurements (IQ tests and physiological signs of mental activity found in high ability adolescents. The research study focus on a small group of 15 subjects submitted to electric encephalograms, previously chosen from a larger group of 77 classmates on the basis of scores on the WISC-III IQ Test. The results suggest continuous predominance of Alpha waves for the gifted group (higher frequency percentile and higher amplitude what was not observed in the group without any superior intellectual ability. Even taking into account methodological limitations, this study may contribute to the understanding of a relationship between the intellectual quotient (IQ and alpha waves frequency and amplitude, as observed during performance on cognitive tasks. Such results may suggest a possibility to complement psychometric measures with encephalic registers in giftedness research studies.

  16. Identifying and Overcoming Threshold Concepts and Conceptions: Introducing a Conception-Focused Curriculum to Course Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, Gerald F.; Burch, Jana J.; Bradley, Thomas P.; Heller, Nathan A.

    2015-01-01

    Educators have been challenged to identify threshold concepts and develop transformed students. This stands in stark contrast to many curriculum design and delivery models that currently view students as repositories of knowledge. In this article, we argue that educators can reach both goals, identify stumbling blocks and transforming students,…

  17. SPARQL-enabled identifier conversion with Identifiers.org

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimalaratne, Sarala M.; Bolleman, Jerven; Juty, Nick; Katayama, Toshiaki; Dumontier, Michel; Redaschi, Nicole; Le Novère, Nicolas; Hermjakob, Henning; Laibe, Camille

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: On the semantic web, in life sciences in particular, data is often distributed via multiple resources. Each of these sources is likely to use their own International Resource Identifier for conceptually the same resource or database record. The lack of correspondence between identifiers introduces a barrier when executing federated SPARQL queries across life science data. Results: We introduce a novel SPARQL-based service to enable on-the-fly integration of life science data. This service uses the identifier patterns defined in the Identifiers.org Registry to generate a plurality of identifier variants, which can then be used to match source identifiers with target identifiers. We demonstrate the utility of this identifier integration approach by answering queries across major producers of life science Linked Data. Availability and implementation: The SPARQL-based identifier conversion service is available without restriction at http://identifiers.org/services/sparql. Contact: sarala@ebi.ac.uk PMID:25638809

  18. SPARQL-enabled identifier conversion with Identifiers.org.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimalaratne, Sarala M; Bolleman, Jerven; Juty, Nick; Katayama, Toshiaki; Dumontier, Michel; Redaschi, Nicole; Le Novère, Nicolas; Hermjakob, Henning; Laibe, Camille

    2015-06-01

    On the semantic web, in life sciences in particular, data is often distributed via multiple resources. Each of these sources is likely to use their own International Resource Identifier for conceptually the same resource or database record. The lack of correspondence between identifiers introduces a barrier when executing federated SPARQL queries across life science data. We introduce a novel SPARQL-based service to enable on-the-fly integration of life science data. This service uses the identifier patterns defined in the Identifiers.org Registry to generate a plurality of identifier variants, which can then be used to match source identifiers with target identifiers. We demonstrate the utility of this identifier integration approach by answering queries across major producers of life science Linked Data. The SPARQL-based identifier conversion service is available without restriction at http://identifiers.org/services/sparql. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  19. International Student Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Clayton

    2016-01-01

    This article, with a focus on North American postsecondary education, identifies international students as a strategic enrollment management institutional priority; presents themes in the international student retention, satisfaction, and success research literature; and describes related best practices. It also presents the findings from an…

  20. Does Students' Expectation of Teachers Affect Students' Evaluation of Teachers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babski, Carl

    This report gives an extensive review of the literature dealing with student evaluation of faculty, and investigates the effect of a previously unexplored variable, students' expectations of the teaching-learning situation. Eight student perceptions of the teaching-learning situation were identified: dogmatic, erotic, moral, therapeutic,…

  1. Screening College Students for Hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faigel, Harris C.

    1992-01-01

    Describes one college's mandatory mass cholesterol screening for new students. Each year, over 30 beginning students with unknown hypercholesterolemia were detected. The program suggests that mass screening efficiently and economically identifies students who would benefit from cholesterol reduction, a modifiable risk in coronary artery disease.…

  2. The Music Student with Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, Matthew C.; Morgan, Joseph A.; Laverghetta, Thomas S.

    2012-01-01

    The teacher-student relationship can afford the music educator an opportunity to be the first to identify behaviors associated with epilepsy. A case of a student with epilepsy, based on the authors' experience, is described in which the music educators were the first and only individuals to become aware of a change in the student's behavior, after…

  3. Student difficulties with Gauss' law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanim, Stephen

    2000-09-01

    Many students in introductory courses have difficulty solving Gauss' law problems. Through interviews with students and analysis of solutions to homework and examination questions we have identified some specific conceptual difficulties that often contribute to students' inability to solve quantitative Gauss' law problems. We give examples of common difficulties and discuss instructional implications.

  4. Students in Action: Engaging Students with Destination Stakeholders

    OpenAIRE

    Craggs, Ruth; Gorman, Catherine; Griffin, Kevin; mottiar, ziene; Quinn, Deirdre; Quinn, Bernadette; Ryan, Theresa

    2015-01-01

    The Students in Action Project in the School of Hospitality Management and Tourism was established in 2012 as a way of engaging students and working with stakeholders in a destination. The overall aim of the project was to immerse students in an active collaborative learning environment within the destination to identify ways in which tourism could be enhanced. In the 2014/2015 academic year the project involved over 300 students from a variety of programmes and modules working with local sta...

  5. Using the Developmental Gene Bicoid to Identify Species of Forensically Important Blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Hwan Park

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Identifying species of insects used to estimate postmortem interval (PMI is a major subject in forensic entomology. Because forensic insect specimens are morphologically uniform and are obtained at various developmental stages, DNA markers are greatly needed. To develop new autosomal DNA markers to identify species, partial genomic sequences of the bicoid (bcd genes, containing the homeobox and its flanking sequences, from 12 blowfly species (Aldrichina grahami, Calliphora vicina, Calliphora lata, Triceratopyga calliphoroides, Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya pinguis, Phormia regina, Lucilia ampullacea, Lucilia caesar, Lucilia illustris, Hemipyrellia ligurriens and Lucilia sericata; Calliphoridae: Diptera were determined and analyzed. This study first sequenced the ten blowfly species other than C. vicina and L. sericata. Based on the bcd sequences of these 12 blowfly species, a phylogenetic tree was constructed that discriminates the subfamilies of Calliphoridae (Luciliinae, Chrysomyinae, and Calliphorinae and most blowfly species. Even partial genomic sequences of about 500 bp can distinguish most blowfly species. The short intron 2 and coding sequences downstream of the bcd homeobox in exon 3 could be utilized to develop DNA markers for forensic applications. These gene sequences are important in the evolution of insect developmental biology and are potentially useful for identifying insect species in forensic science.

  6. Using the Developmental Gene Bicoid to Identify Species of Forensically Important Blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seong Hwan; Park, Chung Hyun; Zhang, Yong; Piao, Huguo; Chung, Ukhee; Kim, Seong Yoon; Ko, Kwang Soo; Yi, Cheong-Ho; Jo, Tae-Ho; Hwang, Juck-Joon

    2013-01-01

    Identifying species of insects used to estimate postmortem interval (PMI) is a major subject in forensic entomology. Because forensic insect specimens are morphologically uniform and are obtained at various developmental stages, DNA markers are greatly needed. To develop new autosomal DNA markers to identify species, partial genomic sequences of the bicoid (bcd) genes, containing the homeobox and its flanking sequences, from 12 blowfly species (Aldrichina grahami, Calliphora vicina, Calliphora lata, Triceratopyga calliphoroides, Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya pinguis, Phormia regina, Lucilia ampullacea, Lucilia caesar, Lucilia illustris, Hemipyrellia ligurriens and Lucilia sericata; Calliphoridae: Diptera) were determined and analyzed. This study first sequenced the ten blowfly species other than C. vicina and L. sericata. Based on the bcd sequences of these 12 blowfly species, a phylogenetic tree was constructed that discriminates the subfamilies of Calliphoridae (Luciliinae, Chrysomyinae, and Calliphorinae) and most blowfly species. Even partial genomic sequences of about 500 bp can distinguish most blowfly species. The short intron 2 and coding sequences downstream of the bcd homeobox in exon 3 could be utilized to develop DNA markers for forensic applications. These gene sequences are important in the evolution of insect developmental biology and are potentially useful for identifying insect species in forensic science. PMID:23586044

  7. Identifying Opportunities for Vertical Integration of Biochemistry and Clinical Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendelberger, Karen J.; Burke, Rebecca; Haas, Arthur L.; Harenwattananon, Marisa; Simpson, Deborah

    1998-01-01

    Objectives: Retention of basic science knowledge, as judged by National Board of Medical Examiners' (NBME) data, suffers due to lack of apparent relevance and isolation of instruction from clinical application, especially in biochemistry. However, the literature reveals no systematic process for identifying key biochemical concepts and associated clinical conditions. This study systematically identified difficult biochemical concepts and their common clinical conditions as a critical step towards enhancing relevance and retention of biochemistry.Methods: A multi-step/ multiple stakeholder process was used to: (1) identify important biochemistry concepts; (2) determine students' perceptions of concept difficulty; (3) assess biochemistry faculty, student, and clinical teaching scholars' perceived relevance of identified concepts; and (4) identify associated common clinical conditions for relevant and difficult concepts. Surveys and a modified Delphi process were used to gather data, subsequently analyzed using SPSS for Windows.Results: Sixteen key biochemical concepts were identified. Second year medical students rated 14/16 concepts as extremely difficult while fourth year students rated nine concepts as moderately to extremely difficult. On average, each teaching scholar generated common clinical conditions for 6.2 of the 16 concepts, yielding a set of seven critical concepts and associated clinical conditions.Conclusions: Key stakeholders in the instructional process struggle to identify biochemistry concepts that are critical, difficult to learn and associated with common clinical conditions. However, through a systematic process beginning with identification of concepts and associated clinical conditions, relevance of basic science instruction can be enhanced.

  8. UDP-Glycosyltransferases from the UGT73C Subfamily in Barbarea vulgaris Catalyze Sapogenin 3-O-Glucosylation in Saponin-Mediated Insect Resistance1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, Jörg M.; Drok, Sylvia; Shinoda, Tetsuro; Sanmiya, Kazutsuka; Nielsen, Jens Kvist; Khakimov, Bekzod; Olsen, Carl Erik; Hansen, Esben Halkjær; Kuzina, Vera; Ekstrøm, Claus Thorn; Hauser, Thure; Bak, Søren

    2012-01-01

    Triterpenoid saponins are bioactive metabolites that have evolved recurrently in plants, presumably for defense. Their biosynthesis is poorly understood, as is the relationship between bioactivity and structure. Barbarea vulgaris is the only crucifer known to produce saponins. Hederagenin and oleanolic acid cellobioside make some B. vulgaris plants resistant to important insect pests, while other, susceptible plants produce different saponins. Resistance could be caused by glucosylation of the sapogenins. We identified four family 1 glycosyltransferases (UGTs) that catalyze 3-O-glucosylation of the sapogenins oleanolic acid and hederagenin. Among these, UGT73C10 and UGT73C11 show highest activity, substrate specificity and regiospecificity, and are under positive selection, while UGT73C12 and UGT73C13 show lower substrate specificity and regiospecificity and are under purifying selection. The expression of UGT73C10 and UGT73C11 in different B. vulgaris organs correlates with saponin abundance. Monoglucosylated hederagenin and oleanolic acid were produced in vitro and tested for effects on P. nemorum. 3-O-β-d-Glc hederagenin strongly deterred feeding, while 3-O-β-d-Glc oleanolic acid only had a minor effect, showing that hydroxylation of C23 is important for resistance to this herbivore. The closest homolog in Arabidopsis thaliana, UGT73C5, only showed weak activity toward sapogenins. This indicates that UGT73C10 and UGT73C11 have neofunctionalized to specifically glucosylate sapogenins at the C3 position and demonstrates that C3 monoglucosylation activates resistance. As the UGTs from both the resistant and susceptible types of B. vulgaris glucosylate sapogenins and are not located in the known quantitative trait loci for resistance, the difference between the susceptible and resistant plant types is determined at an earlier stage in saponin biosynthesis. PMID:23027665

  9. Creativity Styles of Freshman Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V. K.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    First-year college students (n=182) were tested to determine their beliefs about and approaches to creative endeavors. Students self-identified as creative employed a greater number of techniques such as brainstorming and were less motivated by the goal of developing a final product, compared to those identified as least creative. (JDD)

  10. Pharmacy Students’ Ability to Identify Plagiarism After an Educational Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Kira; Kehr, Heather; Ford, Carolyn; Lane, Daniel C.; Nuzum, Donald S.; Compton, Cynthia; Gibson, Whitney

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To determine if an educational intervention in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) degree program increases pharmacy students’ ability to identify plagiarism. Methods. First-year (P1), second-year (P2), and third-year (P3) pharmacy students attended an education session during which types of plagiarism and methods for avoiding plagiarism were reviewed. Students completed a preintervention assessment immediately prior to the session and a postintervention assessment the following semester to measure their ability. Results. Two hundred fifty-two students completed both preintervention and postintervention assessments. There was a 4% increase from preintervention to postintervention in assessment scores for the overall student sample (pplagiarism can significantly improve students’ ability to identify plagiarism. PMID:24672066

  11. Identifying School Psychologists' Intercultural Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puyana, Olivia E.; Edwards, Oliver W.

    2016-01-01

    School psychologists are encouraged to analyze their intercultural sensitivity because they may be subject to personal attitudes and beliefs that pejoratively influence their work with students and clients who are culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD). However, gaps remain in the literature regarding whether school psychologists are prepared…

  12. Near Identifiability of Dynamical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadaegh, F. Y.; Bekey, G. A.

    1987-01-01

    Concepts regarding approximate mathematical models treated rigorously. Paper presents new results in analysis of structural identifiability, equivalence, and near equivalence between mathematical models and physical processes they represent. Helps establish rigorous mathematical basis for concepts related to structural identifiability and equivalence revealing fundamental requirements, tacit assumptions, and sources of error. "Structural identifiability," as used by workers in this field, loosely translates as meaning ability to specify unique mathematical model and set of model parameters that accurately predict behavior of corresponding physical system.

  13. Sustaining Student Engagement in Learning Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateh, Comfort M.; Charpentier, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    Many students perceive science to be a difficult subject and are minimally engaged in learning it. This article describes a lesson that embedded an activity to engage students in learning science. It also identifies features of a science lesson that are likely to enhance students' engagement and learning of science and possibly reverse students'…

  14. Deweyan Democratic Learning Communities and Student Marginalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbour, Clifford P.; Ebie, Gwyn

    2011-01-01

    Community colleges have long been recognized as enrolling a disproportionate share of first-generation college students, low-income students, women, and students of color. Additionally, community colleges have significant enrollments of students who identify as immigrants; lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT); and disabled. Many of these…

  15. Pharmacy Students' Attitudes Toward Debt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Taehwan; Yusuf, Akeem A; Hadsall, Ronald S

    2015-05-25

    To examine pharmacy students' attitudes toward debt. Two hundred thirteen pharmacy students at the University of Minnesota were surveyed using items designed to assess attitudes toward debt. Factor analysis was performed to identify common themes. Subgroup analysis was performed to examine whether students' debt-tolerant attitudes varied according to their demographic characteristics, past loan experience, monthly income, and workload. Principal component extraction with varimax rotation identified 3 factor themes accounting for 49.0% of the total variance: tolerant attitudes toward debt (23.5%); contemplation and knowledge about loans (14.3%); and fear of debt (11.2%). Tolerant attitudes toward debt were higher if students were white or if they had had past loan experience. These 3 themes in students' attitudes toward debt were consistent with those identified in previous research. Pharmacy schools should consider providing a structured financial education to improve student management of debt.

  16. The NOAA Dataset Identifier Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Beaujardiere, J.; Mccullough, H.; Casey, K. S.

    2013-12-01

    The US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) initiated a project in 2013 to assign persistent identifiers to datasets archived at NOAA and to create informational landing pages about those datasets. The goals of this project are to enable the citation of datasets used in products and results in order to help provide credit to data producers, to support traceability and reproducibility, and to enable tracking of data usage and impact. A secondary goal is to encourage the submission of datasets for long-term preservation, because only archived datasets will be eligible for a NOAA-issued identifier. A team was formed with representatives from the National Geophysical, Oceanographic, and Climatic Data Centers (NGDC, NODC, NCDC) to resolve questions including which identifier scheme to use (answer: Digital Object Identifier - DOI), whether or not to embed semantics in identifiers (no), the level of granularity at which to assign identifiers (as coarsely as reasonable), how to handle ongoing time-series data (do not break into chunks), creation mechanism for the landing page (stylesheet from formal metadata record preferred), and others. Decisions made and implementation experience gained will inform the writing of a Data Citation Procedural Directive to be issued by the Environmental Data Management Committee in 2014. Several identifiers have been issued as of July 2013, with more on the way. NOAA is now reporting the number as a metric to federal Open Government initiatives. This paper will provide further details and status of the project.

  17. Survey of Poetry Reading Strategy as the Modern Tool to Identify Poetry Reading Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Shirin Shafiei; Zainal, Zaidah

    2016-01-01

    This study examines common strategies that English as a Foreign language (EFL) students employ when reading English poetry. To identify the strategies, a survey was designed for data collection from TESL students. The result shows that students significantly tend to use the strategies that require their creativity to construct new ideas in the…

  18. ATP-binding cassette subfamily A, member 4 intronic variants c.4773+3A>G and c.5461-10T>C cause Stargardt disease due to defective splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Frida; Westin, Ida Maria; Österman, Lennart; Sandgren, Ola; Burstedt, Marie; Holmberg, Monica; Golovleva, Irina

    2018-02-20

    Inherited retinal dystrophies (IRDs) represent a group of progressive conditions affecting the retina. There is a great genetic heterogeneity causing IRDs, and to date, more than 260 genes are associated with IRDs. Stargardt disease, type 1 (STGD1) or macular degeneration with flecks, STGD1 represents a disease with early onset, central visual impairment, frequent appearance of yellowish flecks and mutations in the ATP-binding cassette subfamily A, member 4 (ABCA4) gene. A large number of intronic sequence variants in ABCA4 have been considered pathogenic although their functional effect was seldom demonstrated. In this study, we aimed to reveal how intronic variants present in patients with Stargardt from the same Swedish family affect splicing. The splicing of the ABCA4 gene was studied in human embryonic kidney cells, HEK293T, and in human retinal pigment epithelium cells, ARPE-19, using a minigene system containing variants c.4773+3A>G and c.5461-10T>C. We showed that both ABCA4 variants, c.4773+3A>G and c.5461-10T>C, cause aberrant splicing of the ABCA4 minigene resulting in exon skipping. We also demonstrated that splicing of ABCA4 has different outcomes depending on transfected cell type. Two intronic variants c.4773+3A>G and c.5461-10T>C, both predicted to affect splicing, are indeed disease-causing mutations due to skipping of exons 33, 34, 39 and 40 of ABCA4 gene. The experimental proof that ABCA4 mutations in STGD patients affect protein function is crucial for their inclusion to future clinical trials; therefore, functional testing of all ABCA4 intronic variants associated with Stargardt disease by minigene technology is desirable. © 2018 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Comprehensive behavioral analysis of mice deficient in Rapgef2 and Rapgef6, a subfamily of guanine nucleotide exchange factors for Rap small GTPases possessing the Ras/Rap-associating domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeta, Kazuhiro; Hattori, Satoko; Ikutomo, Junji; Edamatsu, Hironori; Bilasy, Shymaa E; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Kataoka, Tohru

    2018-05-10

    Rapgef2 and Rapgef6 define a subfamily of guanine nucleotide exchange factors for Rap small GTPases, characterized by the possession of the Ras/Rap-associating domain. Previous genomic analyses suggested their possible involvement in the etiology of schizophrenia. We recently demonstrated the development of an ectopic cortical mass (ECM), which resembles the human subcortical band heterotopia, in the dorsal telencephalon-specific Rapgef2 conditional knockout (Rapgef2-cKO) brains. Additional knockout of Rapgef6 in Rapgef2-cKO mice resulted in gross enlargement of the ECM whereas knockout of Rapgef6 alone (Rapgef6-KO) had no discernible effect on the brain morphology. Here, we performed a battery of behavioral tests to examine the effects of Rapgef2 or Rapgef6 deficiency on higher brain functions. Rapgef2-cKO mice exhibited hyperlocomotion phenotypes. They showed decreased anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze and the open-field tests as well as increased depression-like behavior in the Porsolt forced swim and tail suspension tests. They also exhibited increased sociability especially in novel environments. They showed defects in cognitive function as evidenced by reduced learning ability in the Barnes circular maze test and by impaired working memory in the T maze tests. In contrast, although Rapgef6 and Rapgef2 share similarities in biochemical roles, Rapgef6-KO mice exhibited mild behavioral abnormalities detected with a number of behavioral tests, such as hyperlocomotion phenotype in the open-field test and the social interaction test with a novel environment and working-memory defects in the T-maze test. In conclusion, although there were differences in their brain morphology and the magnitude of the behavioral abnormalities, Rapgef2-cKO mice and Rapgef6-KO mice exhibited hyperlocomotion phenotype and working-memory defect, both of which could be recognized as schizophrenia-like behavior.

  20. Upregulated Expression of Transient Receptor Potential Cation Channel Subfamily V Receptors in Mucosae of Patients with Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Patients with a History of Alcohol Consumption or Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakibara, Akiko; Sakakibara, Shunsuke; Kusumoto, Junya; Takeda, Daisuke; Hasegawa, Takumi; Akashi, Masaya; Minamikawa, Tsutomu; Hashikawa, Kazunobu; Terashi, Hiroto; Komori, Takahide

    2017-01-01

    Transient receptor potential cation channel (subfamily V, members 1-4) (TRPV1-4) are expressed in skin and neurons and activated by external stimuli in normal mucosae of all oral cavity sites. The oral cavity is exposed to various stimuli, including temperature, mechanical stimuli, chemical substances, and changes in pH, and, notably, the risk factors for oncogenic transformation in oral squamous epithelium are the same as the external stimuli received by TRPV1-4 receptors. Hence, we examined the relationship between oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and TRPV1-4 expression. Oral SCC patients (n = 37) who underwent surgical resection were included in this study. We investigated the expression of TRPV1-4 by immunohistochemical staining and quantification of TRPV1-4 mRNA in human oral mucosa. In addition, we compared the TRPV1-4 levels in mucosa from patients with SCC to those in normal oral mucosa. The receptors were expressed in oral mucosa at all sites (tongue, buccal mucosa, gingiva, and oral floor) and the expression was stronger in epithelia from patients with SCC than in normal epithelia. Furthermore, alcohol consumption and tobacco use were strongly associated with the occurrence of oral cancer and were found to have a remarkable influence on TRPV1-4 receptor expression in normal oral mucosa. In particular, patients with a history of alcohol consumption demonstrated significantly higher expression levels. Various external stimuli may influence the behavior of cancer cells. Overexpression of TRPV1-4 is likely to be a factor in enhanced sensitivity to external stimuli. These findings could contribute to the establishment of novel strategies for cancer therapy or prevention.

  1. The reprogramming factor nuclear receptor subfamily 5, group A, member 2 cannot replace octamer-binding transcription factor 4 function in the self-renewal of embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyeng-Won; Oh, Hye-Rim; Lee, Jaeyoung; Lim, Bobae; Han, Yong-Mahn; Oh, Junseo; Kim, Jungho

    2014-02-01

    Although octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct-4) is one of the most intensively studied factors in mammalian development, no cellular genes capable of replacing Oct-4 function in embryonic stem (ES) cells have been found. Recent data show that nuclear receptor subfamily 5, group A, member 2 (Nr5a2) is able to replace Oct-4 function in the reprogramming process; however, it is unclear whether Nr5a2 can replace Oct-4 function in ES cells. In this study, the ability of Nr5a2 to maintain self-renewal and pluripotency in ES cells was investigated. Nr5a2 localized to the nucleus in ES cells, similarly to Oct-4. However, expression of Nr5a2 failed to rescue the stem cell phenotype or to maintain the self-renewal ability of ES cells. Furthermore, as compared with Oct-4-expressing ES cells, Nr5a2-expressing ES cells showed a reduced number of cells in S-phase, did not expand normally, and did not remain in an undifferentiated state. Ectopic expression of Nr5a2 in ES cells was not able to activate transcription of ES cell-specific genes, and gene expression profiling demonstrated differences between Nr5a2-expressing and Oct-4-expressing ES cells. In addition, Nr5a2-expressing ES cells were not able to form teratomas in nude mice. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that the gene regulation properties of Nr5a2 and Oct-4 and their abilities to confer self-renewal and pluripotency of ES cells differ. The present study provides strong evidence that Nr5a2 cannot replace Oct-4 function in ES cells. © 2013 FEBS.

  2. Medical Students Raising Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druce, Maralyn R; Hickey, Andrea; Warrens, Anthony N; Westwood, Olwyn M R

    2016-09-16

    After a number of high-profile incidents and national reports, it has become clear that all health professionals and all medical students must be able to raise concerns about a colleague's behavior if this behavior puts patients, colleagues, or themselves at risk.Detailed evidence from medical students about their confidence to raise concerns is limited, together with examples of barriers, which impair their ability to do so. We describe a questionnaire survey of medical students in a single-center, examining self-reported confidence about raising concerns in a number of possible scenarios. Thematic analysis was applied to comments about barriers identified.Although 80% of respondents felt confident to report a patient safety issue, students were less confident around issues of probity, attitude, and conduct. This needs to be addressed to create clear mechanisms to raise concerns, as well as support for students during the process.

  3. Engineering students' sustainability approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, S.

    2014-05-01

    Sustainability issues are increasingly important in engineering work all over the world. This article explores systematic differences in self-assessed competencies, interests, importance, engagement and practices of newly enrolled engineering students in Denmark in relation to environmental and non-environmental sustainability issues. The empirical base of the article is a nation-wide, web-based survey sent to all newly enrolled engineering students in Denmark commencing their education in the fall term 2010. The response rate was 46%. The survey focused on a variety of different aspects of what can be conceived as sustainability. By means of cluster analysis, three engineering student approaches to sustainability are identified and described. The article provides knowledge on the different prerequisites of engineering students in relation to the role of sustainability in engineering. This information is important input to educators trying to target new engineering students and contribute to the provision of engineers equipped to meet sustainability challenges.

  4. Identifying bully victims: definitional versus behavioral approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jennifer Greif; Felix, Erika D; Sharkey, Jill D; Furlong, Michael J; Kras, Jennifer E

    2013-06-01

    Schools frequently assess bullying and the Olweus Bully/Victimization Questionnaire (BVQ; Olweus, 1996) is the most widely adopted tool for this purpose. The BVQ is a self-report survey that uses a definitional measurement method--describing "bullying" as involving repeated, intentional aggression in a relationship where there is an imbalance of power and then asking respondents to indicate how frequently they experienced this type of victimization. Few studies have examined BVQ validity and whether this definitional method truly identifies the repetition and power differential that distinguish bullying from other forms of peer victimization. This study examined the concurrent validity of the BVQ definitional question among 435 students reporting peer victimization. BVQ definitional responses were compared with responses to a behavioral measure that did not use the term "bullying" but, instead, included items that asked about its defining characteristics (repetition, intentionality, power imbalance). Concordance between the two approaches was moderate, with an area under the receiver operating curve of .72. BVQ responses were more strongly associated with students indicating repeated victimization and multiple forms of victimization, than with power imbalance in their relationship with the bully. Findings indicate that the BVQ is a valid measure of repeated victimization and a broad range of victimization experiences but may not detect the more subtle and complex power imbalances that distinguish bullying from other forms of peer victimization. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Promotion of students' mastery goal orientations : does TARGET work?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lüftenegger, Marko; van de Schoot, Rens; Schober, Barbara; Finsterwald, Monika; Spiel, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Achievement goal orientations are important for students' ongoing motivation. Students with a mastery goal orientation show the most advantageous achievement and motivational patterns. Much research has been conducted to identify classroom structures which promote students' mastery goal orientation.

  6. Discriminant Analysis of Student Loan Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyl, Edward A.; McGann, Anthony F.

    1977-01-01

    The use of discriminant analysis in identifying potentially "good" versus potentially "bad" student loans is explained. The technique is applied to a sample of 200 student loan applications at the University of Wyoming. (LBH)

  7. Emotions in veterinary surgical students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langebæk, Rikke; Eika, Berit; Pedersen, Lene Tanggaard

    2012-01-01

    A surgical educational environment is potentially stressful and can negatively affect students' learning. The aim of the present study was to investigate the emotions experienced by veterinary students in relation to their first encounter with live-animal surgery and to identify possible sources...... of positive and negative emotions, respectively. During a Basic Surgical Skills course, 155 veterinary fourth-year students completed a survey. Of these, 26 students additionally participated in individual semi-structured interviews. The results of the study show that students often experienced a combination...

  8. Identifying and Responding to Personal Stressors: Utilizing Photo Elicitation in Health Education Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Theresa

    2014-01-01

    The "Photo Elicitation Project" teaching idea applies the techniques of photo elicitation to stress prevention and management. This activity is designed to help students identify their personal stressors and to determine which stress prevention strategies are most useful for them. Objectives: students will be able to (a) identify current…

  9. Identifying tier one key suppliers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, Steve

    2013-01-01

    In today's global marketplace, businesses are becoming increasingly reliant on suppliers for the provision of key processes, activities, products and services in support of their strategic business goals. The result is that now, more than ever, the failure of a key supplier has potential to damage reputation, productivity, compliance and financial performance seriously. Yet despite this, there is no recognised standard or guidance for identifying a tier one key supplier base and, up to now, there has been little or no research on how to do so effectively. This paper outlines the key findings of a BCI-sponsored research project to investigate good practice in identifying tier one key suppliers, and suggests a scalable framework process model and risk matrix tool to help businesses effectively identify their tier one key supplier base.

  10. Football refereeing: Identifying innovative methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza MohammadKazemi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to identify the potentials innovation in football industry. Data were collected from 10 national and international referees, assistant referees and referees’ supervisors in Iran. In this study, technological innovations are identified that assist better refereeing performances. The analysis revealed a significant relationship between using new technologies and referees ‘performance. The results indicate that elite referees, assistant referees and supervisors agreed to use new technological innovations during the game. According to their comments, this kind of technology causes the referees’ performance development.

  11. Identifying 21st Century STEM Competencies Using Workplace Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyewon

    2016-01-01

    Gaps between science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education and required workplace skills have been identified in industry, academia, and government. Educators acknowledge the need to reform STEM education to better prepare students for their future careers. We pursue this growing interest in the skills needed for STEM…

  12. Using an Online Dictionary for Identifying the Meanings of Verb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article reports on the results of a study which investigated the use of an online dictionary by Chinese EFL learners in identifying the meanings of verb phrases. Thirty-two stu-dents with English as major subject participated in a meaning determination task with and without the help of the Macmillan English Dictionary ...

  13. Identifying Indicators Related to Constructs for Engineering Design Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelmsen, Cheryl A.; Dixon, Raymond A.

    2016-01-01

    This study ranked constructs articulated by Childress and Rhodes (2008) and identified the key indicators for each construct as a starting point to explore what should be included on an instrument to measure the engineering design process and outcomes of students in high schools that use the PLTW and EbDTM curricula in Idaho. A case-study design…

  14. Identifying and Evaluating External Validity Evidence for Passing Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis-Becker, Susan L.; Buckendahl, Chad W.

    2013-01-01

    A critical component of the standard setting process is collecting evidence to evaluate the recommended cut scores and their use for making decisions and classifying students based on test performance. Kane (1994, 2001) proposed a framework by which practitioners can identify and evaluate evidence of the results of the standard setting from (1)…

  15. Identifying Students’ Misconceptions on Basic Algorithmic Concepts Through Flowchart Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahimi, E.; Barendsen, E.; Henze, I.; Dagienė, V.; Hellas, A.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a flowchart-based approach to identifying secondary school students’ misconceptions (in a broad sense) on basic algorithm concepts is introduced. This approach uses student-generated flowcharts as the units of analysis and examines them against plan composition and construct-based

  16. SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC DATA USED FOR IDENTIFYING ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to unique social and demographic characteristics, various segments of the population may experience exposures different from those of the general population, which, in many cases, may be greater. When risk assessments do not characterize subsets of the general population, the populations that may experience the greatest risk remain unidentified. When such populations are not identified, the social and demographic data relevant to these populations is not considered when preparing exposure estimates, which can underestimate exposure and risk estimates for at-risk populations. Thus, it is necessary for risk or exposure assessors characterizing a diverse population, to first identify and then enumerate certain groups within the general population who are at risk for greater contaminant exposures. The document entitled Sociodemographic Data Used for Identifying Potentially Highly Exposed Populations (also referred to as the Highly Exposed Populations document), assists assessors in identifying and enumerating potentially highly exposed populations. This document presents data relating to factors which potentially impact an individual or group's exposure to environmental contaminants based on activity patterns (how time is spent), microenvironments (locations where time is spent), and other socio-demographic data such as age, gender, race and economic status. Populations potentially more exposed to various chemicals of concern, relative to the general population

  17. SNP interaction pattern identifier (SIPI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Hui Yi; Chen, Dung Tsa; Huang, Po Yu

    2017-01-01

    Motivation: Testing SNP-SNP interactions is considered as a key for overcoming bottlenecks of genetic association studies. However, related statistical methods for testing SNP-SNP interactions are underdeveloped. Results: We propose the SNP Interaction Pattern Identifier (SIPI), which tests 45...

  18. Identifying the Gifted Child Humorist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fern, Tami L.

    1991-01-01

    This study attempted to identify gifted child humorists among 1,204 children in grades 3-6. Final identification of 13 gifted child humorists was determined through application of such criteria as funniness, originality, and exemplary performance or product. The influence of intelligence, development, social factors, sex differences, family…

  19. Identifying high-risk medication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sædder, Eva; Brock, Birgitte; Nielsen, Lars Peter

    2014-01-01

    salicylic acid, and beta-blockers; 30 drugs or drug classes caused 82 % of all serious MEs. The top ten drugs involved in fatal events accounted for 73 % of all drugs identified. CONCLUSION: Increasing focus on seven drugs/drug classes can potentially reduce hospitalizations, extended hospitalizations...

  20. QUEST for Quality for Students: A Student Quality Concept. Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán Palomares, Fernando Miguel; Todorovski, Blazhe; Kažoka, Asnate; Saarela, Henni

    2013-01-01

    This is the final publication of the QUEST for Quality for Students (QUEST) project, run by the European Students' Union. The QUEST project has managed to analyse students' views on the quality of higher education to identify areas in which students can become increasingly involved in quality assurance and enhancement processes. This publication…