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Sample records for subcutaneous grass pollen

  1. Short-term subcutaneous grass pollen immunotherapy under the umbrella of anti-IL-4: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaker, Adam M; Shamji, Mohamed H; Dumitru, Florentina A; Calderon, Moises A; Scadding, Guy W; Makatsori, Melina; Jones, Ieuan; He, Qiuling A; Subramanian, Kulandayan K; Arm, Jonathan P; Durham, Stephen R; Schmidt-Weber, Carsten B

    2016-02-01

    Allergen immunotherapy is currently the only disease-modifying treatment available for allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma. We sought to evaluate the induction of sustained tolerance to allergen when anti-IL-4 was combined with a suboptimal course of grass pollen subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) using the allergen-induced skin late-phase response (LPR) and exploratory immune monitoring as surrogate markers of therapeutic response. In this randomized, double-blind, 3-group parallel design trial, 37 participants with seasonal allergic rhinitis received suboptimal SCIT (30,000 standardized quality units) in combination with anti-IL-4 (VAK694) and suboptimal SCIT (30,000 standardized quality units) plus placebo antibody or double placebo (placebo SCIT and placebo antibody) restricted to 13 weeks before the grass pollen season. The primary end point was the size of the LPR at 12 months. Exploratory end points included measures of the immunomodulatory activity of treatment by using IL-4 and IL-10 FluoroSpot assays, flow cytometry of T cells, and measurement of IgE, IgG4, and facilitated antigen binding. Both active treatment arms led to a substantial and sustained reduction of the LPR with no additional suppression with addition of anti-IL-4. Treatment with anti-IL-4 and SCIT compared with SCIT alone led to a sustained reduction in allergen-specific IL-4-producing cell counts (P pollen season. The combination of anti-IL-4 with SCIT provided no additional benefit over SCIT alone in suppressing the allergen-induced skin LPR. A larger trial is needed to assess whether the observed ex vivo downregulation of TH2 responses might translate into clinical benefit. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Grass pollen immunotherapy: where are we now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Würtzen, Peter A; Gupta, Shashank; Brand, Stephanie; Andersen, Peter S

    2016-01-01

    During allergen immunotherapy (AIT), the allergic patient is exposed to the disease-inducing antigens (allergens) in order to induce clinical and immunological tolerance and obtain disease modification. Large trials of grass AIT with highly standardized subcutaneous and sublingual tablet vaccines have been conducted to document the clinical effect. Induction of blocking antibodies as well as changes in the balance between T-cell phenotypes, including induction of regulatory T-cell subtypes, have been demonstrated for both treatment types. These observations increase the understanding of the immunological mechanism behind the clinical effect and may make it possible to use the immunological changes as biomarkers of clinical effect. The current review describes the recent mechanistic findings for subcutaneous immunotherapy and sublingual immunotherapy/tablet treatment and discusses how the observed immunological changes translate into a scientific foundation for the observed clinical effects of grass pollen immunotherapy and lead to new treatment strategies for grass AIT.

  3. Pretreatment IgE sensitization patterns determine the molecular profile of the IgG4 response during updosing of subcutaneous immunotherapy with timothy grass pollen extract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmid, Johannes Martin; Würtzen, Peter Adler; Dahl, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    (Alutard SQ) or to an open control group. IgE and IgG4 concentrations were determined for the major allergens Phl p 1 or Phl p 5 by using ImmunoCAP and for 8 grass pollen molecules by using Immuno Solid-phase Allergy Chip (ISAC) before treatment and after updosing. RESULTS: Levels of specific IgE against...

  4. Immunological comparison of allergen immunotherapy tablet treatment and subcutaneous immunotherapy against grass allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasbjerg, K; Backer, V; Lund, G

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: IgE-mediated allergic rhinitis to grass pollen can successfully be treated with either allergen immunotherapy tablets (SLIT tablet) or SQ-standardized subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT). The efficacy of these two treatment modalities for grass allergy is comparable, but the immunological...

  5. The importance of cross-reactivity in grass pollen allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksić Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the data obtained from in vivo and in vitro testing in Serbia, a significant number of patients have allergic symptoms caused by grass pollen. We examined the protein composition of grass pollens (Dactylis glomerata, Lolium perenne and Phleum pratense and cross-reactivity in patients allergic to grass pollen from our region. The grass pollen allergen extract was characterized by SDS-PAGE, while cross-reactivity of single grass pollens was revealed by immunoblot analysis. A high degree of cross-reactivity was demonstrated for all three single pollens in the sera of allergic patients compared to the grass pollen extract mixture. Confirmation of the existence of cross-reactivity between different antigenic sources facilitates the use of monovalent vaccines, which are easier to standardize and at the same time prevent further sensitization of patients and reduces adverse reactions. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172049 i br. 172024

  6. Seasonal variation in diurnal atmospheric grass pollen concentration profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peel, Robert George; Ørby, Pia Viuf; Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the diurnal atmospheric grass pollen concentration profile within the Danish city of Aarhus was shown to change in a systematic manner as the pollen season progressed. Although diurnal grass pollen profiles can differ greatly from day-to-day, it is common practice to establish...... the time of day when peak concentrations are most likely to occur using seasonally averaged diurnal profiles. Atmospheric pollen loads are highly dependent upon emissions, and different species of grass are known to flower and emit pollen at different times of the day and during different periods...... of the pollen season. Pollen concentrations are also influenced by meteorological factors - directly through those parameters that govern pollen dispersion and transport, and indirectly through the weather-driven flowering process. We found that three different profiles dominated the grass pollen season...

  7. Adverse Events During Immunotherapy Against Grass Pollen-Induced Allergic Rhinitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasbjerg, Kristian; Dalhoff, Kim Peder; Backer, Vibeke

    2015-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) triggered by grass pollen is a common disease, affecting millions of people worldwide. Treatment consists of symptom-alleviating drugs, such as topical corticosteroids or antihistamines. Another option is potentially curative immunotherapy, currently available as sublingual...... and subcutaneous treatment. We investigated the potential differences in the prevalence and severity of adverse events related to subcutaneous and sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) against grass pollen-induced AR. A thorough literature search was performed with PubMed and EMBASE. The findings were compared...... no systematically collected safety data. No sufficiently powered randomized trials comparing sublingual and subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) were available, but general safety assessments indicate that sublingual tablet treatment is safer than subcutaneous treatment. Not all commonly used immunotherapy drugs...

  8. Post-treatment efficacy of discontinuous treatment with 300IR 5-grass pollen sublingual tablet in adults with grass pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Didier, A; Malling, H-J; Worm, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Sustained efficacy over three pollen seasons of pre- and co-seasonal treatment with 300IR 5-grass pollen sublingual tablet has been demonstrated in adults with moderate-severe grass pollen-associated allergic rhinoconjunctivitis....

  9. Sustained effects of grass pollen AIT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, S R

    2011-07-01

    We report the sustained efficacy of the SQ-standardized grass allergy immunotherapy tablet Grazax® (Phleum pratense 75000 SQ-T/2,800 BAU, ALK, Denmark) from a 5-year randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III trial. Adults with moderate-to-severe grass pollen allergy inadequately controlled by symptomatic medications were followed for 2 years after the completion of 3 years of treatment. The active group demonstrated a 31% reduction in median rhinoconjunctivitis symptom score over the season compared with placebo. Individual symptom scores favoured active treatment. Combined symptom and medication scores demonstrated a 33% reduction in medians with active treatment. Persistent clinical efficacy was accompanied by prolonged increases in allergen-specific IgG(4) antibodies and IgE-blocking factor, confirming clinical and immunological tolerance for at least 2 years after the treatment completion. No safety issues were identified during follow-up. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Differences in grass pollen allergen exposure across Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beggs, Paul J.; Katelaris, Constance H.; Medek, Danielle; Johnston, Fay H.; Burton, Pamela K.; Campbell, Bradley; Jaggard, Alison K.; Vicendese, Don; Bowman, David M.J.S.; Godwin, Ian; Huete, Alfredo R.; Erbas, Bircan; Green, Brett J.; Newnham, Rewi M.; Newbigin, Ed; Haberle, Simon G.; Davies, Janet M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma are important chronic diseases posing serious public health issues in Australia with associated medical, economic, and societal burdens. Pollen are significant sources of clinically relevant outdoor aeroallergens, recognised as both a major trigger for, and cause of, allergic respiratory diseases. This study aimed to provide a national, and indeed international, perspective on the state of Australian pollen data using a large representative sample. Methods Atmospheric grass pollen concentration is examined over a number of years within the period 1995 to 2013 for Brisbane, Canberra, Darwin, Hobart, Melbourne, and Sydney, including determination of the ‘clinical’ grass pollen season and grass pollen peak. Results The results of this study describe, for the first time, a striking spatial and temporal variability in grass pollen seasons in Australia, with important implications for clinicians and public health professionals, and the Australian grass pollen-allergic community. Conclusions These results demonstrate that static pollen calendars are of limited utility and in some cases misleading. This study also highlights significant deficiencies and limitations in the existing Australian pollen monitoring and data. Implications Establishment of an Australian national pollen monitoring network would help facilitate advances in the clinical and public health management of the millions of Australians with asthma and allergic rhinitis. PMID:25648730

  11. Grass pollen, aeroallergens, and clinical symptoms in Ciudad Real, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feo Brito, F; Mur Gimeno, P; Carnés, J; Fernández-Caldas, E; Lara, P; Alonso, A M; García, R; Guerra, F

    2010-01-01

    In allergic individuals, onset of symptoms is related to atmospheric pollen grain counts and aeroallergen concentrations. However, this relationship is not always clear. To analyze the correlation between grass pollen grain and aeroallergen concentrations in Ciudad Real, Spain, during the year 2004 and establish their association with symptoms in patients with allergic asthma, rhinitis, or both. Two different samplers were used to assess allergen exposure: a Burkard spore trap to collect pollen grains and a high-volume air sampler to collect airborne particles. Individual filters were extracted daily in phosphate-buffered serum and analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on serum containing high titers of specific immunoglobulin (Ig) E to grasses. The study population comprised 27 grass-allergic patients whose symptoms and medication were recorded daily. Grass pollens were detected between April 28 and July 18. There was a positive correlation between pollen grain counts and symptoms (r = 0.62; P > .001). Grass aeroallergens were detected not only during the grass pollination period, but also before and after this period. There was also a very significant correlation between aeroallergen levels and symptoms (r = 0.76; P < .0001). The threshold level for grass pollen was 35 grains/m3. Grass-related allergenic activity is present throughout the year, demonstrating the existence of aeroallergens outside the pollen season. Symptoms in allergic patients may be related to airborne particle concentrations. This fact should be taken into account in the clinical follow-up and management of allergic patients.

  12. SQ grass sublingual allergy immunotherapy tablet for disease-modifying treatment of grass pollen allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Ronald; Roberts, Graham; de Blic, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    America and throughout Europe for the treatment of adults and children (≥5 years old) with grass pollen-induced ARC. OBJECTIVE: The clinical evidence for the use of SQ grass SLIT-tablet as a disease-modifying treatment for grass pollen ARC is discussed in this review. METHODS: The review included...... the suitability of SQ grass SLIT-tablet for patients with clinically relevant symptoms to multiple Pooideae grass species, single-season efficacy, safety, adherence, coseasonal initiation, and cost-effectiveness. The data from the long-term SQ grass SLIT-tablet clinical trial that evaluated a clinical effect 2...

  13. Do urban canyons influence street level grass pollen concentrations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peel, Robert George; Kennedy, Roy; Smith, Matt

    2014-01-01

    In epidemiological studies, outdoor exposure to pollen is typically estimated using rooftop monitoring station data, whilst exposure overwhelmingly occurs at street level. In this study the relationship between street level and roof level grass pollen concentrations was investigated for city cent...

  14. Budget impact analysis of two immunotherapy products for treatment of grass pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rønborg SM

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Steen M Rønborg,1 Ulrik G Svendsen,2 Jesper S Micheelsen,3 Lars Ytte,4 Jakob N Andreasen,5 Lars Ehlers61The Pulmonology and Allergy Clinic of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, 2Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, 3Private ENT practice, Aalborg, 4General Practice Aalborg, 5ALK, Hørsholm, 6Aalborg University, Aalborg, DenmarkBackground: Grass pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis constitutes a large burden for society. Up to 20% of European and United States (US populations suffer from respiratory allergies, including grass pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. The majority of patients are treated with symptomatic medications; however, a large proportion remains uncontrolled despite use of such treatments. Specific immunotherapy is the only treatment documented to target the underlying cause of the disease, leading to a sustained effect after completion of treatment. The aim of this study was to compare the economic consequences of treating patients suffering from allergic rhinoconjunctivitis with either a grass allergy immunotherapy tablet (AIT or subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT.Methods: A budget impact analysis was applied comparing SQ-standardized grass AIT (Grazax®; Phleum pratense, 75,000 SQ-T/2,800 BAU; ALK, Denmark with SCIT (Alutard®; P. pratense, 100,000 SQ-U/mL; ALK, Denmark. Budget impact analysis included health care utilization measured in physical units based on systematic literature reviews, guidelines, and expert opinions, as well as valuation in unit costs based on drug tariffs, physician fees, and wage statistics. Budget impact analysis was conducted from a Danish health care perspective.Results: Treating patients suffering from allergic rhinoconjunctivitis with grass AIT instead of grass SCIT resulted in a total reduction in treatment costs of €1291 per patient during a treatment course. This cost saving implies that approximately 40% more patients could be treated with grass AIT per year without influencing the cost of

  15. Efficacy and safety of 5-grass-pollen sublingual immunotherapy tablets in pediatric allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahn, Ulrich; Tabar, Ana; Kuna, Piotr

    2009-01-01

    of this tablet in children and adolescents with grass pollen-related allergic rhinitis. METHODS: In this multinational, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 278 children (5-17 years of age) with grass pollen-related rhinoconjunctivitis (confirmed by means of a positive grass pollen skin prick test...

  16. Magnitude of efficacy measurements in grass allergy immunotherapy trials is highly dependent on pollen exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Durham, S R; Nelson, H. S.; Nolte, H.; Bernstein, D I; Creticos, P S; Li, Z; Andersen, J. S.

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective was to evaluate the association between grass pollen exposure, allergy symptoms and impact on measured treatment effect after grass sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT)-tablet treatment. Methods The association between grass pollen counts and total combined rhinoconjunctivitis symptom and medication score (TCS) was based on a post hoc analysis of data collected over six trials and seven grass pollen seasons across North America and Europe, including 2363 subjects treated w...

  17. Grass pollen immunotherapy inhibits seasonal increases in basophils and eosinophils in the nasal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, D R; Irani, A M; Walker, S M; Jacobson, M R; Mackay, I S; Schwartz, L B; Durham, S R

    2001-11-01

    Symptoms of allergic rhinitis are accompanied by infiltration of the nasal mucosa with inflammatory cells, predominantly eosinophils and metachromatic cells (basophils and mast cells). Specific immunotherapy (IT) reduces mucosal eosinophilia and numbers of metachromatic cells in the epithelium. A specific marker distinguishing basophils from mast cells was recently developed. The basophil-specific monoclonal antibody 2D7 was used to determine the influence of subcutaneous IT on numbers of nasal mucosal basophils compared with the effects of IT on neutrophils, eosinophils and mast cells. During a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of grass pollen IT in 44 adults with severe summer hay fever, nasal biopsies were taken at baseline, out of the pollen season, and at the peak of the pollen season following 2 years treatment. Biopsies were processed for immunohistochemistry for basophils (2D7+), mast cells (AA1+), eosinophils (MBP+) and neutrophils (neutrophil elastase+). In placebo-treated (PL) patients there were significant seasonal increases in basophils (P pollen immunotherapy was associated with inhibition of seasonal increases in basophils and eosinophils, but not mast cells or neutrophils within the nasal epithelium. Immunotherapy may act, at least in part, by reducing seasonal recruitment of basophils and eosinophils into the epithelium.

  18. Magnitude of efficacy measurements in grass allergy immunotherapy trials is highly dependent on pollen exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, S R; Nelson, H S; Nolte, H; Bernstein, D I; Creticos, P S; Li, Z; Andersen, J S

    2014-05-01

    The objective was to evaluate the association between grass pollen exposure, allergy symptoms and impact on measured treatment effect after grass sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT)-tablet treatment. The association between grass pollen counts and total combined rhinoconjunctivitis symptom and medication score (TCS) was based on a post hoc analysis of data collected over six trials and seven grass pollen seasons across North America and Europe, including 2363 subjects treated with grass SLIT-tablet or placebo. Daily pollen counts were obtained from centralized pollen databases. The effect of treatment on the relationship between the TCS and pollen counts was investigated, and the relative difference between grass SLIT-tablet and placebo as a function of average grass pollen counts was modelled by linear regression. The magnitude of treatment effect based on TCS was greater with higher pollen exposure (P pollen exposure during the first period of the season, with predicted reduction in TCS = 12% + 0.35% × pollen count (slope significantly different from 0, P = 0.003; R(2)  = 0.66). Corresponding correlations to the entire grass pollen season and to the peak season were equally good, whereas there was a poor correlation between difference in measured efficacy and pollen exposure during the last part of the season. In seasonal allergy trials with grass SLIT-tablet, the observed treatment effect is highly dependent on pollen exposure with the magnitude being greater with higher pollen exposure. This is an important relationship to consider when interpreting individual clinical trial results. © 2014 The Authors. Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. How far can we simplify in vitro diagnostics for grass pollen allergy?: A study with 17 whole pollen extracts and purified natural and recombinant major allergens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ree, R.; van Leeuwen, W. A.; Aalberse, R. C.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Current diagnostics for grass pollen allergy are composed of mixtures of pollen of different grass species. Their complex composition hampers accurate standardization. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate whether mixtures of grass pollen extracts can be replaced by a single

  20. Network meta-analysis shows commercialized subcutaneous and sublingual grass products have comparable efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Harold; Cartier, Shannon; Allen-Ramey, Felicia; Lawton, Simon; Calderon, Moises A

    2015-01-01

    Subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) and sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) have been shown to effectively treat grass pollen allergies, although direct comparisons are sparse. To estimate the relative efficacy of SLIT tablets compared with SCIT and SLIT drops in commercially available products though network meta-analysis. A literature search of MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Library publications. Randomized, double-blind clinical trials of SCIT, SLIT drops, and SLIT tablets for grass pollen were included. Bayesian network meta-analyses estimated the standardized mean difference (SMD) across 3 immunotherapy modalities on allergic rhinoconjunctivitis symptom and medication score data from publications or received from authors. Both fixed and random effects models were investigated. Thirty-seven studies were included in meta-analyses for symptom scores and 31 studies for medication scores. In the random effects model, SCIT and SLIT tablets were significantly different from placebo for symptom scores: SMDs (95% CI) of -0.32 (-0.45 to -0.18) and -0.32 (-0.41 to -0.23), respectively. No significant difference was identified for SLIT drops compared with placebo (SMD, -0.17; -0.37 to 0.04). For medication scores, significant differences compared with placebo were observed for SCIT (SMD, -0.33; 95% CI, -0.52 to -0.13), SLIT tablets (SMD, -0.23; 95% CI, -0.29 to -0.17), and SLIT drops (SMD, -0.44; 95% CI, -0.83 to -0.06). Network meta-analysis revealed no significant differences in SMDs (95% credible interval) for symptom scores (0.0145 [-0.19 to 0.23]) or medication scores (0.133 [-0.31 to 0.57]) between SLIT tablets and SCIT, or for symptom scores (-0.175 [-0.37 to 0.02]) and medication scores (0.188 [-0.18 to 0.56]) between SLIT tablets and SLIT drops. The comparisons for grass pollen immunotherapy products commercialized in at least 1 country indicate comparable reductions in allergic rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms and supplemental medication use for SLIT tablets

  1. Unique and cross-reactive T cell epitope peptides of the major Bahia grass pollen allergen, Pas n 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etto, Tamara; de Boer, Carmela; Prickett, Sara; Gardner, Leanne M; Voskamp, Astrid; Davies, Janet M; O'Hehir, Robyn E; Rolland, Jennifer M

    2012-01-01

    Bahia grass pollen (BaGP) is a major cause of allergic rhinitis. Subcutaneous allergen-specific immunotherapy is effective for grass pollen allergy, but is unsuitable for patients with moderate to severe asthma due to the risk of anaphylaxis. T cell-reactive but IgE nonreactive peptides provide a safer treatment option. This study aimed to identify and characterize dominant CD4(+) T cell epitope peptides of the major BaGP allergen, Pas n 1. Pas n 1-specific T cell lines generated from the peripheral blood of BaGP-allergic subjects were tested for proliferative and cytokine response to overlapping 20-mer Pas n 1 peptides. Cross-reactivity to homologous peptides from Lol p 1 and Cyn d 1 of Ryegrass and Bermuda grass pollen, respectively, was assessed using Pas n 1 peptide-specific T cell clones. MHC class II restriction of Pas n 1 peptide T cell recognition was determined by HLA blocking assays and peptide IgE reactivity tested by dot blotting. Three Pas n 1 peptides showed dominant T cell reactivity; 15 of 18 (83%) patients responded to one or more of these peptides. T cell clones specific for dominant Pas n 1 peptides showed evidence of species-specific T cell reactivity as well as cross-reactivity with other group 1 grass pollen allergens. The dominant Pas n 1 T cell epitope peptides showed HLA binding diversity and were non-IgE reactive. The immunodominant T cell-reactive Pas n 1 peptides are candidates for safe immunotherapy for individuals, including those with asthma, who are allergic to Bahia and possibly other grass pollens. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Purification of the major group 1 allergen from Bahia grass pollen, Pas n 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Alexander C; Davies, Janet M; Dang, Thanh D; Rolland, Jennifer M; O'Hehir, Robyn E

    2011-01-01

    Group 1 grass pollen allergens are glycoproteins of the β-expansin family. They are a predominant component of pollen and are potent allergens with a high frequency of serum IgE reactivity in grass pollen-allergic patients. Bahia grass is distinct from temperate grasses and has a prolonged pollination period and wide distribution in warmer climates. Here we describe the purification of the group 1 pollen allergen, Pas n 1, from Bahia grass (Paspalum notatum), an important subtropical aeroallergen source. Pas n 1 was purified from an aqueous Bahia grass pollen extract by ammonium sulphate precipitation, hydrophobic interaction and size exclusion chromatography, and assessed by one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, immunoblotting and ELISA. Pas n 1 was purified to a single 29-kDa protein band containing two dominant isoforms detected by an allergen-specific monoclonal antibody and serum IgE of a Bahia grass pollen-allergic donor. The frequency of serum IgE reactivity with purified Pas n 1 in 51 Bahia grass pollen-allergic patients was 90.6%. Serum IgE reactivity with purified Pas n 1 was highly correlated with serum IgE reactivity with Bahia grass pollen extract and recombinant Pas n 1 (r = 0.821 and 0.913, respectively). Pas n 1 is a major allergen reactive at high frequency with serum IgE of Bahia grass pollen-allergic patients. Purified natural Pas n 1 has utility for improved specific diagnosis and immunotherapy for Bahia grass pollen allergy. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Protocol for a double-blind randomised controlled trial of low dose intradermal grass pollen immunotherapy versus a histamine control on symptoms and medication use in adults with seasonal allergic rhinitis (PollenLITE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slovick, Anna; Douiri, Abdel; Kelly, Joanna; Guerra, Andrea; Muir, Rachel; Tsioulos, Konstantinos; Murphy, Caroline; Shamji, Mohamed H; Ying, Sun; Durham, Stephen R; Till, Stephen J

    2013-08-21

    Subcutaneous immunotherapy with high dose grass pollen (typically microgram quantities) was first described over 100 years ago. This treatment suppresses allergen-induced cutaneous late responses, with lesser effects on early responses. We previously reported that repeated 2-weekly intradermal injections of grass pollen - containing approximately 7 ng of major allergen Phl p 5 - led to a progressive suppression of the allergen-induced cutaneous response, and that by the sixth injection, this was inhibited by over 90%. The purpose of this trial is to investigate the clinical efficacy of intradermal desensitisation with low doses (i.e. nanogram quantities) of grass pollen allergen for seasonal allergic rhinitis. The Pollen Low dose Intradermal therapy Evaluation (PollenLITE) is a single centre double-blind randomised parallel group controlled trial of the efficacy and safety of intradermal grass pollen injections plus standard treatment, versus histamine injections plus standard treatment, in adults with moderate-severe grass pollen-induced allergic rhinitis ('summer hay fever'). A minimum of ninety adults with a history of moderate-severe persistent allergic rhinitis during the UK grass pollen season will be randomised into two equal groups to receive 7 or 8 intradermal injections of grass pollen extract (containing approximately 7 ng of major allergen Phl p 5) or histamine, before the grass pollen season. In the summer, participants will score their symptoms, medication requirements, visual analogue scores, and complete EuroQOL (EQ-5D-5 L) and mini Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaires. Global assessments will also be recorded at the end of the pollen season. Blood samples will be collected from all participants for mechanistic immune assays. Skin punch biopsies will also be collected in 40 participants selected at random from intradermal injection sites after the grass pollen season for mechanistic assays. Finally, to investigate if the

  4. Long-term clinical efficacy of grass-pollen immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, S R; Walker, S M; Varga, E M; Jacobson, M R; O'Brien, F; Noble, W; Till, S J; Hamid, Q A; Nouri-Aria, K T

    1999-08-12

    Pollen immunotherapy is effective in selected patients with IgE-mediated seasonal allergic rhinitis, although it is questionable whether there is long-term benefit after the discontinuation of treatment. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the discontinuation of immunotherapy for grass-pollen allergy in patients in whom three to four years of this treatment had previously been shown to be effective. During the three years of this trial, primary outcome measures were scores for seasonal symptoms and the use of rescue medication. Objective measures included the immediate conjunctival response and the immediate and late skin responses to allergen challenge. Cutaneous-biopsy specimens obtained 24 hours after intradermal allergen challenge were examined for T-cell infiltration and the presence of cytokine-producing T helper cells (TH2 cells) (as evidenced by the presence of interleukin-4 messenger RNA). A matched group of patients with hay fever who had not received immunotherapy was followed as a control for the natural course of the disease. Scores for seasonal symptoms and the use of rescue antiallergic medication, which included short courses of prednisolone, remained low after the discontinuation of immunotherapy, and there was no significant difference between patients who continued immunotherapy and those who discontinued it. Symptom scores in both treatment groups (median areas under the curve in 1995, 921 for continuation of immunotherapy and 504 for discontinuation of immunotherapy; P=0.60) were markedly lower than those in the group that had not received immunotherapy (median value in 1995, 2863). Although there was a tendency for immediate sensitivity to allergen to return late after discontinuation, there was a sustained reduction in the late skin response and associated CD3+ T-cell infiltration and interleukin-4 messenger RNA expression. Immunotherapy for grass-pollen allergy for three to four years induces prolonged

  5. Development and characterization of a recombinant, hypoallergenic, peptide-based vaccine for grass pollen allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focke-Tejkl, Margarete; Weber, Milena; Niespodziana, Katarzyna; Neubauer, Angela; Huber, Hans; Henning, Rainer; Stegfellner, Gottfried; Maderegger, Bernhard; Hauer, Martina; Stolz, Frank; Niederberger, Verena; Marth, Katharina; Eckl-Dorna, Julia; Weiss, Richard; Thalhamer, Josef; Blatt, Katharina; Valent, Peter; Valenta, Rudolf

    2015-05-01

    Grass pollen is one of the most important sources of respiratory allergies worldwide. This study describes the development of a grass pollen allergy vaccine based on recombinant hypoallergenic derivatives of the major timothy grass pollen allergens Phl p 1, Phl p 2, Phl p 5, and Phl p 6 by using a peptide-carrier approach. Fusion proteins consisting of nonallergenic peptides from the 4 major timothy grass pollen allergens and the PreS protein from hepatitis B virus as a carrier were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by means of chromatography. Recombinant PreS fusion proteins were tested for allergenic activity and T-cell activation by means of IgE serology, basophil activation testing, T-cell proliferation assays, and xMAP Luminex technology in patients with grass pollen allergy. Rabbits were immunized with PreS fusion proteins to characterize their immunogenicity. Ten hypoallergenic PreS fusion proteins were constructed, expressed, and purified. According to immunogenicity and induction of allergen-specific blocking IgG antibodies, 4 hypoallergenic fusion proteins (BM321, BM322, BM325, and BM326) representing Phl p 1, Phl p 2, Phl p 5, and Phl p 6 were included as components in the vaccine termed BM32. BM321, BM322, BM325, and BM326 showed almost completely abolished allergenic activity and induced significantly reduced T-cell proliferation and release of proinflammatory cytokines in patients' PBMCs compared with grass pollen allergens. On immunization, they induced allergen-specific IgG antibodies, which inhibited patients' IgE binding to all 4 major allergens of grass pollen, as well as allergen-induced basophil activation. A recombinant hypoallergenic grass pollen allergy vaccine (BM32) consisting of 4 recombinant PreS-fused grass pollen allergen peptides was developed for safe immunotherapy of grass pollen allergy. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Satellite Phenology Observations Inform Peak Season of Allergenic Grass Pollen Aerobiology across Two Continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huete, A. R.; Devadas, R.; Davies, J.

    2015-12-01

    Pollen exposure and prevalence of allergenic diseases have increased in many parts of the world during the last 30 years, with exposure to aeroallergen grass pollen expected to intensify with climate change, raising increased concerns for allergic diseases. The primary contributing factors to higher allergenic plant species presence are thought to be climate change, land conversion, and biotic mixing of species. Conventional methods for monitoring airborne pollen are hampered by a lack of sampling sites and heavily rely on meteorology with less attention to land cover updates and monitoring of key allergenic species phenology stages. Satellite remote sensing offers an alternative method to overcome the restrictive coverage afforded by in situ pollen networks by virtue of its synoptic coverage and repeatability of measurements that enable timely updates of land cover and land use information and monitoring landscape dynamics and interactions with human activity and climate. In this study, we assessed the potential of satellite observations of urban/peri-urban environments to directly inform landscape conditions conducive to pollen emissions. We found satellite measurements of grass cover phenological evolution to be highly correlated with in situ aerobiological grass pollen concentrations in five urban centres located across two hemispheres (Australia and France). Satellite greenness data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) were found to be strongly synchronous with grass pollen aerobiology in both temperate grass dominated sites (France and Melbourne), as well as in Sydney, where multiple pollen peaks coincided with the presence of subtropical grasses. Employing general additive models (GAM), the satellite phenology data provided strong predictive capabilities to inform airborne pollen levels and forecast periods of grass pollen emissions at all five sites. Satellite phenology offer promising opportunities of improving public health risk

  7. Allergen Microarray Indicates Pooideae Sensitization in Brazilian Grass Pollen Allergic Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Ferreira de Sousa Moreira

    Full Text Available Grass pollen, in particular from Lolium multiflorum is a major allergen source in temperate climate zones of Southern Brazil. The IgE sensitization profile of Brazilian grass pollen allergic patients to individual allergen molecules has not been analyzed yet.To analyze the IgE sensitization profile of a Brazilian grass pollen allergic population using individual allergen molecules.We analyzed sera from 78 grass pollen allergic patients for the presence of IgE antibodies specific for 103 purified micro-arrayed natural and recombinant allergens by chip technology. IgE-ELISA inhibition experiments with Lolium multiflorum, Phleum pratense extracts and a recombinant fusion protein consisting of Phl p 1, Phl p 2, Phl p 5 and Phl p 6 were performed to investigate cross-reactivities.Within the Brazilian grass pollen allergic patients, the most frequently recognized allergens were Phl p 1 (95%, Phl p 5 (82%, Phl p 2 (76% followed by Phl p 4 (64%, Phl p 6 (45%, Phl p 11 (18% and Phl p 12 (18%. Most patients were sensitized only to grass pollen allergens but not to allergens from other sources. A high degree of IgE cross-reactivity between Phleum pratense, Lolium multiflorum and the recombinant timothy grass fusion protein was found.Component-resolved analysis of sera from Brazilian grass pollen allergic patients reveals an IgE recognition profile compatible with a typical Pooideae sensitization. The high degree of cross-reactivity between Phleum pratense and Lolium multiflorum allergens suggests that diagnosis and immunotherapy can be achieved with timothy grass pollen allergens in the studied population.

  8. Safety and tolerability of grass pollen tablets in sublingual immunotherapy--a phase-1 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, T H; Poulsen, Lars K.; Melac, M

    2006-01-01

    A single-centre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Aims: To compare the safety and tolerability of four different sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) regimes in grass pollen allergic rhinitis....

  9. Monoclonal antibodies to the major Lolium perenne (rye grass) pollen allergen Lol p I (Rye I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, C R; Marsh, D G

    1986-12-01

    Thirteen monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were produced against Lol p I (Rye I), the major Lolium perenne (rye grass) pollen allergen. Spleen cells from A/J and SJL mice immunized with highly purified Lol p I (Lol I) were allowed to fuse with cells from the non-secreting Sp2/0-Ag14 myeloma cell line. Each MAb was analyzed for antigenic specificity by radioimmunoassay (RIA) using 125I-Lol I. The epitope specificities of seven of the MAbs were examined by competitive binding against a labelled standard MAb for the Lol I antigen (Ag). The dissociation constant, Kd, of one MAb (No. 3.2) that was studied most extensively was determined by double Ab RIA to be 3.5 X 10(-6) L/M. This MAb recognized the related 27,000-30,000 Group I glycoproteins found in the pollens of nine other species of grass pollens tested, including weak binding to Bermuda grass Group I (Cyn d I), which by conventional analysis using polyclonal anti-Lol I serum shows no detectable binding. Monoclonal antibody No. 3.2 was coupled covalently to Sepharose 4B and used to prepare highly purified Lol I from a partially purified rye pollen extract. Finally, an RIA was developed which permitted the analysis of the Group I components in rye grass and nine other grass pollen species. The latter assay is likely to prove useful in the standardization of grass pollen extracts according to their Group I contents.

  10. Evaluation of Molecular Basis of Cross Reactivity between Rye and Bermuda Grass Pollen Allergens

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    Ruby Tiwari

    2009-01-01

    Conclusions: Our data suggests that a possible explanation for the limited cross reactivity between the Pooids and Chloridoids may, in part, be due to the absence of group 5 allergen from Chloridoid grasses. This approach of using purified proteins may be applied to better characterize the cross allergenicity patterns between different grass pollen allergens.

  11. Classification of grass pollen through the quantitative analysis of surface ornamentation and texture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mander, Luke; Li, Mao; Mio, Washington; Fowlkes, Charless C; Punyasena, Surangi W

    2013-11-07

    Taxonomic identification of pollen and spores uses inherently qualitative descriptions of morphology. Consequently, identifications are restricted to categories that can be reliably classified by multiple analysts, resulting in the coarse taxonomic resolution of the pollen and spore record. Grass pollen represents an archetypal example; it is not routinely identified below family level. To address this issue, we developed quantitative morphometric methods to characterize surface ornamentation and classify grass pollen grains. This produces a means of quantifying morphological features that are traditionally described qualitatively. We used scanning electron microscopy to image 240 specimens of pollen from 12 species within the grass family (Poaceae). We classified these species by developing algorithmic features that quantify the size and density of sculptural elements on the pollen surface, and measure the complexity of the ornamentation they form. These features yielded a classification accuracy of 77.5%. In comparison, a texture descriptor based on modelling the statistical distribution of brightness values in image patches yielded a classification accuracy of 85.8%, and seven human subjects achieved accuracies between 68.33 and 81.67%. The algorithmic features we developed directly relate to biologically meaningful features of grass pollen morphology, and could facilitate direct interpretation of unsupervised classification results from fossil material.

  12. Mass spectrometric analysis of electrophoretically separated allergens and proteases in grass pollen diffusates

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    Geczy Carolyn L

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pollens are important triggers for allergic asthma and seasonal rhinitis, and proteases released by major allergenic pollens can injure airway epithelial cells in vitro. Disruption of mucosal epithelial integrity by proteases released by inhaled pollens could promote allergic sensitisation. Methods Pollen diffusates from Kentucky blue grass (Poa pratensis, rye grass (Lolium perenne and Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon were assessed for peptidase activity using a fluorogenic substrate, as well as by gelatin zymography. Following one- or two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, Coomassie-stained individual bands/spots were excised, subjected to tryptic digestion and analysed by mass spectrometry, either MALDI reflectron TOF or microcapillary liquid chromatography MS-MS. Database searches were used to identify allergens and other plant proteins in pollen diffusates. Results All pollen diffusates tested exhibited peptidase activity. Gelatin zymography revealed high Mr proteolytic activity at ~ 95,000 in all diffusates and additional proteolytic bands in rye and Bermuda grass diffusates, which appeared to be serine proteases on the basis of inhibition studies. A proteolytic band at Mr ~ 35,000 in Bermuda grass diffusate, which corresponded to an intense band detected by Western blotting using a monoclonal antibody to the timothy grass (Phleum pratense group 1 allergen Phl p 1, was identified by mass spectrometric analysis as the group 1 allergen Cyn d 1. Two-dimensional analysis similarly demonstrated proteolytic activity corresponding to protein spots identified as Cyn d 1. Conclusion One- and two-dimensional electrophoretic separation, combined with analysis by mass spectrometry, is useful for rapid determination of the identities of pollen proteins. A component of the proteolytic activity in Bermuda grass diffusate is likely to be related to the allergen Cyn d 1.

  13. Projected carbon dioxide to increase grass pollen and allergen exposure despite higher ozone levels.

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    Jennifer M Albertine

    Full Text Available One expected effect of climate change on human health is increasing allergic and asthmatic symptoms through changes in pollen biology. Allergic diseases have a large impact on human health globally, with 10-30% of the population affected by allergic rhinitis and more than 300 million affected by asthma. Pollen from grass species, which are highly allergenic and occur worldwide, elicits allergic responses in 20% of the general population and 40% of atopic individuals. Here we examine the effects of elevated levels of two greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide (CO2, a growth and reproductive stimulator of plants, and ozone (O3, a repressor, on pollen and allergen production in Timothy grass (Phleum pratense L.. We conducted a fully factorial experiment in which plants were grown at ambient and/or elevated levels of O3 and CO2, to simulate present and projected levels of both gases and their potential interactive effects. We captured and counted pollen from flowers in each treatment and assayed for concentrations of the allergen protein, Phl p 5. We found that elevated levels of CO2 increased the amount of grass pollen produced by ∼50% per flower, regardless of O3 levels. Elevated O3 significantly reduced the Phl p 5 content of the pollen but the net effect of rising pollen numbers with elevated CO2 indicate increased allergen exposure under elevated levels of both greenhouse gases. Using quantitative estimates of increased pollen production and number of flowering plants per treatment, we estimated that airborne grass pollen concentrations will increase in the future up to ∼200%. Due to the widespread existence of grasses and the particular importance of P. pratense in eliciting allergic responses, our findings provide evidence for significant impacts on human health worldwide as a result of future climate change.

  14. Identifying urban sources as cause of elevated grass pollen concentrations using GIS and remote sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Ørby, Pia Viuf; Becker, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    between the three urban traps and an operational trap located just 60 km away. This finding suggests that during intense flowering, the grass pollen concentration mirrors the local source distribution and is thus a local-scale phenomenon. Model simulations aimed at assessing population exposure to pollen...... levels are therefore recommended to take into account both local sources and local atmospheric transport, and not to rely only on describing regional to long-range transport of pollen. The derived pollen source inventory can be entered into local-scale atmospheric transport models in combination...

  15. Results from the 5-year SQ grass sublingual immunotherapy tablet asthma prevention (GAP) trial in children with grass pollen allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valovirta, Erkka; Petersen, Thomas H; Piotrowska, Teresa; Laursen, Mette K; Andersen, Jens S; Sørensen, Helle F; Klink, Rabih

    2017-07-06

    Allergy immunotherapy targets the immunological cause of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and allergic asthma and has the potential to alter the natural course of allergic disease. The primary objective was to investigate the effect of the SQ grass sublingual immunotherapy tablet compared with placebo on the risk of developing asthma. A total of 812 children (5-12 years), with a clinically relevant history of grass pollen allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and no medical history or signs of asthma, were included in the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, comprising 3 years of treatment and 2 years of follow-up. There was no difference in time to onset of asthma, defined by prespecified asthma criteria relying on documented reversible impairment of lung function (primary endpoint). Treatment with the SQ grass sublingual immunotherapy tablet significantly reduced the risk of experiencing asthma symptoms or using asthma medication at the end of trial (odds ratio = 0.66, P year posttreatment follow-up, and during the entire 5-year trial period. Also, grass allergic rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms were 22% to 30% reduced (P years). At the end of the trial, the use of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis pharmacotherapy was significantly less (27% relative difference to placebo, P < .001). Total IgE, grass pollen-specific IgE, and skin prick test reactivity to grass pollen were all reduced compared to placebo. Treatment with the SQ grass sublingual immunotherapy tablet reduced the risk of experiencing asthma symptoms and using asthma medication, and had a positive, long-term clinical effect on rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms and medication use but did not show an effect on the time to onset of asthma. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Five-grass pollen 300IR SLIT tablets: efficacy and safety in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, Susanne; Agertoft, Lone; Seidenberg, Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    -grass pollen tablet or placebo daily in a pre- (4 months) and co-seasonal protocol. The severity of six symptoms (sneezing, rhinorrhoea, nasal congestion, nasal and ocular pruritis, and tearing) was scored, and rescue medication use was recorded daily during the pollen season. Patient satisfaction was recorded...... and ocular symptoms, use of rescue medication, satisfaction with treatment and compliance. Children (5-11 yr) and adolescents (12-17 yr) with grass pollen-allergic rhinoconjunctivitis were included in a multinational, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study and received either a 300IR five...... at the season end. A total of 161 children and 117 adolescents were evaluated (n = 267). 300IR SLIT was effective over the whole season (p = 0.0010) and at the pollen peak (p = 0.0009). The adjusted mean difference between 300IR and placebo groups was significant for both nasal (p = 0.0183) and ocular (p

  17. ASSESSING HUMAN EXPOSURE TO GRASS POLLEN IN DENMARK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peel, Robert George; Hertel, Ole; Herbert, Rob

    Objectives: Exposure to pollen is typically assessed using data collected at fixed roof-top monitoring stations, which give a general picture of airborne pollen concentrations over a wide region. Actual exposure levels can be obtained through personal exposure monitoring. This is typically done u...

  18. Demonstration of carbohydrate-specific immunoglobulin G4 antibodies in sera of patients receiving grass pollen immunotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ree, R.; Aalberse, R. C.

    1995-01-01

    From a group of 92 patients receiving grass pollen immunotherapy, and selected on grounds of high IgG4 titers against Lol p I, sera were tested for IgG4 antibodies against the glycosylated grass pollen allergen Lol p XI. In 72 of 92 cases IgG4 antibodies were demonstrated. The N-glycan of Lol p XI

  19. [Case of pollinosis to grass pollens who presented with dyspnea successfully treated by rush immunotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Yasusuke; Takamasu, Tetsuya; Inuo, Chisato; Aikawa, Hiroyuki; Kurihara, Kazuyuki

    2007-11-01

    We present a 15 years old boy who experienced unusual symptoms for pollen allergy, and successfully treated by rush immunotherapy. The patient started to complain erythema and edema on his face and serous rhinorrhea at 10 years old when going out. He entered baseball team at junior high school, and subsequently experienced choking sensation, dyspnea, face edema, and it was sometimes impossible to continue play. He was diagnosed as bronchial asthma at some hospital, and prescribed many anti-asthma medications including inhaled corticosteroid, which did not take effect. His symptoms deteriorated in summer and ameliorated in winter. When he was 15 years old, he was referred to us by a pediatrician for reassessment of his symptoms. Flow-volume curve was normal, and bronchial provocation test (acetylcholine and histamine), and exercise challenge were negative. IgE antibodies specific to grass pollens were highly positive. We made a diagnosis of pollinosis to grass pollens instead of bronchial asthma. Oral antihistamines and intranasal corticosteroid partially improved his symptoms. We started rush-immunotherapy of grass-pollens (oats and bromegrass), Japanese cedar, and ragweed. His symptoms improved dramatically on the next season of grass pollens.

  20. An immunoblotting analysis of cross-reactivity between melon, and plantago and grass pollens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Ortiz, J C; Ventas, P; Cosmes, P; López-Asunsolo, A

    1996-01-01

    It is known that most patients with type I allergy to pollens also suffer intolerance to fruits. Recently, an epidemiological and CAP-inhibition study has shown a new clustering of allergy between melon and Plantago and grass pollens. The aim of the present study was to confirm these results by immunoblotting analysis and inhibition of immunoblotting. Sera from 3 patients with confirmed allergy to melon, and Dactylis glomerata and Plantago lanceolata pollens were used for the in vitro studies. SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting analysis with a pool of sera revealed that several distinct protein bands were shared by the three extracts at 14, 31, and a spectrum between 40 and 70 kDa, approximately. Immunoblotting inhibition experiments, performed with extracts of melon, Plantago and Dactylis, showed that all allergens of melon blotting were almost completely inhibited by grass and Plantago pollen extracts. Inversely, the melon extract was capable of inhibiting IgE-binding to various allergens of Dactylis at high mol mass and partially to the band at 14 kDa. Moreover, the melon almost totally inhibited the IgE-binding capacity to the proteins of Plantago extract. Taken together, the results support the presence of structurally similar allergens in melon, Plantago and grass pollens, and that all allergenic epitopes of the melon are present in these pollens.

  1. Sustained 3-year efficacy of pre- and coseasonal 5-grass-pollen sublingual immunotherapy tablets in patients with grass pollen-induced rhinoconjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didier, Alain; Worm, Margitta; Horak, Friedrich; Sussman, Gordon; de Beaumont, Olivier; Le Gall, Martine; Melac, Michel; Malling, Hans-Jorgen

    2011-09-01

    Seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis affects millions of persons. The efficacy of allergen sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) was demonstrated in previous short-term studies. We sought to evaluate the sustained efficacy of 2 dosing regimens of a pre- and coseasonal treatment with 300 IR (index of reactivity) 5-grass-pollen SLIT tablets (Oralair) compared with placebo assessed by using the average adjusted symptom score (AAdSS) at season 3 in adults with grass pollen-induced rhinoconjunctivitis. Six hundred thirty-three patients were treated for either 2 or 4 months before and then during the grass pollen season with active or placebo treatment for 3 consecutive seasons. The primary outcome was the AAdSS, a symptom score adjusted for rescue medication use, after 3 consecutive treatment seasons. Secondary outcomes were symptoms and rescue medication score, quality-of-life, and safety assessments. The mean AAdSS was reduced by 36.0% and 34.5% at season 3 in the 2- and 4-month pre- and coseasonal active treatment groups, respectively, compared with that in the placebo group (P ISSs and the medication score, with a marked improvement in quality of life for both active groups compared with the placebo group at season 3. Most treatment-emergent adverse events were local reactions expected with SLIT, decreasing in number and intensity in each treatment season. Sustained efficacy of 2- and 4-month pre- and coseasonal treatment with the 300 IR tablet over 3 pollen seasons was demonstrated, with reduction in symptoms and rescue medication use. The treatment was well tolerated. Adverse events decreased in number and intensity over the 3 seasons. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Results from the 5-year SQ grass sublingual immunotherapy tablet asthma prevention (GAP) trial in children with grass pollen allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valovirta, Erkka; Petersen, Thomas H; Piotrowska, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Allergy immunotherapy targets the immunological cause of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and allergic asthma and has the potential to alter the natural course of allergic disease. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective was to investigate the effect of the SQ grass sublingual immunotherapy tablet...... compared with placebo on the risk of developing asthma. METHODS: A total of 812 children (5-12 years), with a clinically relevant history of grass pollen allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and no medical history or signs of asthma, were included in the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial......, comprising 3 years of treatment and 2 years of follow-up. RESULTS: There was no difference in time to onset of asthma, defined by prespecified asthma criteria relying on documented reversible impairment of lung function (primary endpoint). Treatment with the SQ grass sublingual immunotherapy tablet...

  3. Specific IgE response to different grass pollen allergen components in children undergoing sublingual immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcucci Francesco

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grass pollen is a major cause of respiratory allergy worldwide and contain a number of allergens, some of theme (Phl p 1, Phl p 2, Phl p 5, and Phl 6 from Phleum pratense, and their homologous in other grasses are known as major allergens. The administration of grass pollen extracts by immunotherapy generally induces an initial rise in specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE production followed by a progressive decline during the treatment. Some studies reported that immunotherapy is able to induce a de novo sensitisation to allergen component previously unrecognized. Methods We investigated in 30 children (19 males and 11 females, mean age 11.3 years, 19 treated with sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT by a 5-grass extract and 11 untreated, the sIgE and sIgG4 response to the different allergen components. Results Significant increases (p  Conclusions These findings confirm that the initial phase of SLIT with a grass pollen extract enhances the sIgE synthesis and show that the sIgE response concerns the same allergen components which induce IgE reactivity during natural exposure.

  4. Grass pollen immunotherapy for seasonal rhinitis and asthma: a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, S M; Pajno, G B; Lima, M T; Wilson, D R; Durham, S R

    2001-01-01

    Grass pollen immunotherapy significantly reduces hay fever symptoms and medication requirements. Effects on seasonal asthma are less clear, and concerns over safety persist. The goal of this study was to assess the effects of grass pollen immunotherapy on symptoms, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and quality of life in seasonal rhinitis and asthma. Forty-four patients with severe summer hay fever (of whom 36 reported seasonal chest symptoms and 28 had seasonal bronchial hyperresponsiveness) participated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study. After symptom monitoring for one summer, participants received injections of a depot grass pollen vaccine (n = 22) or matched placebo injections (n = 22) in a rapid updosing cluster regimen for 4 weeks, followed by monthly injections for 2 years. Outcome measures included hay fever symptoms and medication use, health-related quality of life, and measurements of nonspecific bronchial responsiveness. Significant reductions were observed in the immunotherapy group compared with the placebo group in hay fever symptoms (49%, 15%; P =.01), medication scores (80%, 18%; P =.007), and seasonal chest symptoms (90%, 11%; P pollen season was less in the immunotherapy group than in the placebo group (median difference [95% CI], 0.8 [0.18-1.5]; P =.02). During the pollen season there was no change in airway methacholine PC(20) (provocation concentration producing a 20% fall in FEV(1)) in the immunotherapy-treated group (P =.5), compared with an almost 3 doubling-dose decrease in the placebo-treated group (P =.01, between-group difference). There were no significant local or systemic side effects during the study. Grass pollen immunotherapy improves quality of life in seasonal allergic rhinitis and reduces seasonal asthma symptoms and bronchial hyperresponsiveness.

  5. Comparative and Evolutionary Analysis of Grass Pollen Allergens Using Brachypodium distachyon as a Model System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Akanksha; Sharma, Niharika; Bhalla, Prem; Singh, Mohan

    2017-01-01

    Comparative genomics have facilitated the mining of biological information from a genome sequence, through the detection of similarities and differences with genomes of closely or more distantly related species. By using such comparative approaches, knowledge can be transferred from the model to non-model organisms and insights can be gained in the structural and evolutionary patterns of specific genes. In the absence of sequenced genomes for allergenic grasses, this study was aimed at understanding the structure, organisation and expression profiles of grass pollen allergens using the genomic data from Brachypodium distachyon as it is phylogenetically related to the allergenic grasses. Combining genomic data with the anther RNA-Seq dataset revealed 24 pollen allergen genes belonging to eight allergen groups mapping on the five chromosomes in B. distachyon. High levels of anther-specific expression profiles were observed for the 24 identified putative allergen-encoding genes in Brachypodium. The genomic evidence suggests that gene encoding the group 5 allergen, the most potent trigger of hay fever and allergic asthma originated as a pollen specific orphan gene in a common grass ancestor of Brachypodium and Triticiae clades. Gene structure analysis showed that the putative allergen-encoding genes in Brachypodium either lack or contain reduced number of introns. Promoter analysis of the identified Brachypodium genes revealed the presence of specific cis-regulatory sequences likely responsible for high anther/pollen-specific expression. With the identification of putative allergen-encoding genes in Brachypodium, this study has also described some important plant gene families (e.g. expansin superfamily, EF-Hand family, profilins etc) for the first time in the model plant Brachypodium. Altogether, the present study provides new insights into structural characterization and evolution of pollen allergens and will further serve as a base for their functional

  6. Comparative and Evolutionary Analysis of Grass Pollen Allergens Using Brachypodium distachyon as a Model System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akanksha Sharma

    Full Text Available Comparative genomics have facilitated the mining of biological information from a genome sequence, through the detection of similarities and differences with genomes of closely or more distantly related species. By using such comparative approaches, knowledge can be transferred from the model to non-model organisms and insights can be gained in the structural and evolutionary patterns of specific genes. In the absence of sequenced genomes for allergenic grasses, this study was aimed at understanding the structure, organisation and expression profiles of grass pollen allergens using the genomic data from Brachypodium distachyon as it is phylogenetically related to the allergenic grasses. Combining genomic data with the anther RNA-Seq dataset revealed 24 pollen allergen genes belonging to eight allergen groups mapping on the five chromosomes in B. distachyon. High levels of anther-specific expression profiles were observed for the 24 identified putative allergen-encoding genes in Brachypodium. The genomic evidence suggests that gene encoding the group 5 allergen, the most potent trigger of hay fever and allergic asthma originated as a pollen specific orphan gene in a common grass ancestor of Brachypodium and Triticiae clades. Gene structure analysis showed that the putative allergen-encoding genes in Brachypodium either lack or contain reduced number of introns. Promoter analysis of the identified Brachypodium genes revealed the presence of specific cis-regulatory sequences likely responsible for high anther/pollen-specific expression. With the identification of putative allergen-encoding genes in Brachypodium, this study has also described some important plant gene families (e.g. expansin superfamily, EF-Hand family, profilins etc for the first time in the model plant Brachypodium. Altogether, the present study provides new insights into structural characterization and evolution of pollen allergens and will further serve as a base for their

  7. Critical appraisal of Timothy grass pollen extract GRAZAX in the management of allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaparrotta, Alessandra; Attanasi, Marina; Petrosino, Marianna I; Di Filippo, Paola; Di Pillo, Sabrina; Chiarelli, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is one of the most common diseases of adult and pediatric age, associated with grass pollen (GP) allergy in >50% cases, with a consistent impact on quality of life of affected patients. A grass allergen tablet, containing standardized extract derived from Timothy grass (Phleum pratense) pollen and ~15 μg major allergen P. pratense (rPhl p 5), may be the future of allergen-specific immunotherapy (IT) for GP allergy. The aim of this review was to critically evaluate the role of Timothy GP extract IT for the management of allergic rhinitis. For this purpose, we have tried to analyze potential mechanisms of action at the basis of Timothy GP extract, we have reviewed efficacy studies to establish potential benefits and clinical response, and we have also evaluated safety and tolerability profiles and patient focus perspective, such as quality of life, satisfaction and acceptability, and compliance to this IT.

  8. Intradermal grass pollen immunotherapy increases TH2 and IgE responses and worsens respiratory allergic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slovick, Anna; Douiri, Abdel; Muir, Rachel; Guerra, Andrea; Tsioulos, Konstantinos; Hay, Evie; Lam, Emily P S; Kelly, Joanna; Peacock, Janet L; Ying, Sun; Shamji, Mohamed H; Cousins, David J; Durham, Stephen R; Till, Stephen J

    2017-06-01

    Repeated low-dose grass pollen intradermal allergen injection suppresses allergen-induced cutaneous late-phase responses comparably with conventional subcutaneous and sublingual immunotherapy. We sought to evaluate the efficacy and safety of grass pollen intradermal immunotherapy in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. We randomly assigned 93 adults with grass pollen-induced allergic rhinitis to receive 7 preseasonal intradermal allergen injections (containing 7 ng of Phl p 5 major allergen) or a histamine control. The primary end point was daily combined symptom-medication scores during the 2013 pollen season (area under the curve). Analysis was by intention to treat. Skin biopsy specimens were collected after intradermal allergen challenges, and late-phase responses were measured 4 and 7, 10, or 13 months after treatment. There was no significant difference in the primary end point between treatment arms (active, n = 46; control, n = 47; median difference, 14; 95% CI, -172.5 to 215.1; P = .80). Among secondary end points, nasal symptoms were worse in the intradermal treatment group, as measured based on daily (median difference, 35; 95% CI, 4.0-67.5; P = .03) and visual analog scale (median difference, 53; 95% CI, -11.6 to 125.2; P = .05) scores. In a per-protocol analysis intradermal immunotherapy was further associated with worse asthma symptoms and fewer symptom-free days. Intradermal immunotherapy increased serum Phleum pratense-specific IgE levels (P = .001) compared with those in the control arm. T cells cultured from biopsy specimens of subjects undergoing intradermal immunotherapy had higher expression of the TH2 surface marker CRTH2 (P = .04) and lower expression of the TH1 marker CXCR3 (P = .01), respectively. Late-phase responses remained inhibited 7 months after treatment (P = .03). Intradermal allergen immunotherapy suppressed skin late-phase responses but was not clinically effective and resulted in worsening of respiratory

  9. Grass pollen seasons in Poland against a background of the meteorological conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Myszkowska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper refers to the estimation of Poaceae pollen seasons in Poland in selected areas. The aim of the study was to present the long-term variability of the start, end and duration of grass pollen seasons and the seasonal pollen index (SPI in Poland against a background of the meteorological conditions over pollen seasons. The study was performed in eight Polish cities in 1992–2014 (the common seasons were 2003–2012. Pollen season start was relatively stable in the studied period, the seasons began about the 10th of May, a bit earlier in the south part of Poland. Pollen season ends were more changeable in comparison to the season start and fluctuated from the middle of July to the middle of September. SPI clearly depended on temperature and precipitation in April–August. Daily maximum pollen concentrations were achieved between the end of May and the first decade of July and no evident relationship between this day and weather conditions was found, apart from 2004.

  10. Accuracy and Consistency of Grass Pollen Identification by Human Analysts Using Electron Micrographs of Surface Ornamentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Mander

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Humans frequently identify pollen grains at a taxonomic rank above species. Grass pollen is a classic case of this situation, which has led to the development of computational methods for identifying grass pollen species. This paper aims to provide context for these computational methods by quantifying the accuracy and consistency of human identification. Methods: We measured the ability of nine human analysts to identify 12 species of grass pollen using scanning electron microscopy images. These are the same images that were used in computational identifications. We have measured the coverage, accuracy, and consistency of each analyst, and investigated their ability to recognize duplicate images. Results: Coverage ranged from 87.5% to 100%. Mean identification accuracy ranged from 46.67% to 87.5%. The identification consistency of each analyst ranged from 32.5% to 87.5%, and each of the nine analysts produced considerably different identification schemes. The proportion of duplicate image pairs that were missed ranged from 6.25% to 58.33%. Discussion: The identification errors made by each analyst, which result in a decline in accuracy and consistency, are likely related to psychological factors such as the limited capacity of human memory, fatigue and boredom, recency effects, and positivity bias.

  11. The dominant 55 kDa allergen of the subtropical Bahia grass (Paspalum notatum) pollen is a group 13 pollen allergen, Pas n 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Janet M; Voskamp, Astrid; Dang, Thanh D; Pettit, Benjamin; Loo, Dorothy; Petersen, Arnd; Hill, Michelle M; Upham, John W; Rolland, Jennifer M; O'Hehir, Robyn E

    2011-03-01

    Bahia grass, Paspalum notatum, is an important pollen allergen source with a long season of pollination and wide distribution in subtropical and temperate regions. We aimed to characterize the 55 kDa allergen of Bahia grass pollen (BaGP) and ascertain its clinical importance. BaGP extract was separated by 2D-PAGE and immunoblotted with serum IgE of a grass pollen-allergic patient. The amino-terminal protein sequence of the predominant allergen isoform at 55 kDa had similarity with the group 13 allergens of Timothy grass and maize pollen, Phl p 13 and Zea m 13. Four sequences obtained by rapid amplification of the allergen cDNA ends represented multiple isoforms of Pas n 13. The predicted full length cDNA for Pas n 13 encoded a 423 amino acid glycoprotein including a signal peptide of 28 residues and with a predicted pI of 7.0. Tandem mass spectrometry of tryptic peptides of 2D gel spots identified peptides specific to the deduced amino acid sequence for each of the four Pas n 13 cDNA, representing 47% of the predicted mature protein sequence of Pas n 13. There was 80.6% and 72.6% amino acid identity with Zea m 13 and Phl p 13, respectively. Reactivity with a Phl p 13-specific monoclonal antibody AF6 supported designation of this allergen as Pas n 13. The allergen was purified from BaGP extract by ammonium sulphate precipitation, hydrophobic interaction and size exclusion chromatography. Purified Pas n 13 reacted with serum IgE of 34 of 71 (48%) grass pollen-allergic patients and specifically inhibited IgE reactivity with the 55 kDa band of BaGP for two grass pollen-allergic donors. Four isoforms of Pas n 13 from pI 6.3-7.8 had IgE-reactivity with grass pollen allergic sera. The allergenic activity of purified Pas n 13 was demonstrated by activation of basophils from whole blood of three grass pollen-allergic donors tested but not control donors. Pas n 13 is thus a clinically relevant pollen allergen of the subtropical Bahia grass likely to be important in eliciting

  12. Critical appraisal of Timothy grass pollen extract GRAZAX® in the management of allergic rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scaparrotta A

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Alessandra Scaparrotta, Marina Attanasi, Marianna I Petrosino, Paola Di Filippo, Sabrina Di Pillo, Francesco Chiarelli Department of Pediatrics, University of Chieti, Chieti, Italy Abstract: Allergic rhinitis is one of the most common diseases of adult and pediatric age, associated with grass pollen (GP allergy in >50% cases, with a consistent impact on quality of life of affected patients. A grass allergen tablet, containing standardized extract derived from Timothy grass (Phleum pratense pollen and ~15 µg major allergen P. pratense (rPhl p 5, may be the future of allergen-specific immunotherapy (IT for GP allergy. The aim of this review was to critically evaluate the role of Timothy GP extract IT for the management of allergic rhinitis. For this purpose, we have tried to analyze potential mechanisms of action at the basis of Timothy GP extract, we have reviewed efficacy studies to establish potential benefits and clinical response, and we have also evaluated safety and tolerability profiles and patient focus perspective, such as quality of life, satisfaction and acceptability, and compliance to this IT. Keywords: Timothy grass pollen extract, allergic rhinitis, Grazax, efficacy, safety, compliance

  13. Mutants of the major ryegrass pollen allergen, Lol p 5, with reduced IgE-binding capacity: candidates for grass pollen-specific immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swoboda, Ines; De Weerd, Nicole; Bhalla, Prem L; Niederberger, Verena; Sperr, W R; Valent, Peter; Kahlert, Helga; Fiebig, Helmut; Verdino, Petra; Keller, Walter; Ebner, Christof; Spitzauer, Susanne; Valenta, Rudolf; Singh, Mohan B

    2002-01-01

    More than 400 million individuals are sensitized to grass pollen allergens. Group 5 allergens represent the most potent grass pollen allergens recognized by more than 80 % of grass pollen allergic patients. The aim of our study was to reduce the allergenic activity of group 5 allergens for specific immunotherapy of grass pollen allergy. Based on B- and T-cell epitope mapping studies and on sequence comparison of group 5 allergens from different grasses, point mutations were introduced by site-directed mutagenesis in highly conserved sequence domains of Lol p 5, the group 5 allergen from ryegrass. We obtained Lol p 5 mutants with low IgE-binding capacity and reduced allergenic activity as determined by basophil histamine release and by skin prick testing in allergic patients. Circular dichroism analysis showed that these mutants exhibited an overall structural fold similar to the recombinant Lol p 5 wild-type allergen. In addition, Lol p 5 mutants retained the ability to induce proliferation of group 5 allergen-specific T cell lines and clones. Our results demonstrate that a few point mutations in the Lol p 5 sequence yield mutants with reduced allergenic activity that represent potential vaccine candidates for immunotherapy of grass pollen allergy.

  14. Grass Pollen Affects Survival and Development of Larval Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmare, Yelfwagash; Hopkins, Richard J; Tekie, Habte; Hill, Sharon R; Ignell, Rickard

    2017-09-01

    Nutrients in breeding sites are critical for the survival and development of malaria mosquitoes, having a direct impact on vectorial capacity. Yet, there is a limited understanding about the natural larval diet and its impact on the individual fitness of mosquitoes. Recent studies have shown that gravid Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae) are attracted by and oviposit in grass-associated habitats. The pollen provided by these grasses is a potential source of nutrients for the larvae. Here, we assess the effect of Typha latifolia L. (Poales: Typhaceae), Echinochloa pyramidalis Lamarck, Pennisetum setaceum Forsskål, and Zea mays L. pollen on larval survival and rate of development in An. arabiensis under laboratory conditions. In addition, we characterize the carbon to nitrogen ratio and the size of pollen grains as a measure of diet quality. Carbon-rich pollen with a small grain size (T. latifolia and P. setaceum; 9.7 ± 0.3 × 103 and 5.5 ± 0.2 × 104 µm3, respectively) resulted in enhanced rates of development of An. arabiensis. In contrast, the larva fed on the nitrogen-rich control diet (TetraMin) was slower to develop, but demonstrated the highest larval survival. Larvae fed on carbon-rich and large-grained Z. mays pollen (4.1 ± 0.2 × 105 µm3) survived at similar levels as those fed on the control diet and also took a longer time to develop compared with larvae fed on the other pollens. While males and females did not appear to develop differently on the different pollen diets, males consistently emerged faster than their female counterparts. These results are discussed in relation to integrated vector management. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  15. Grass pollen immunotherapy decreases the number of mast cells in the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, S R; Varney, V A; Gaga, M; Jacobson, M R; Varga, E M; Frew, A J; Kay, A B

    1999-11-01

    Allergen injection immunotherapy is effective for summer hay fever and reduces cutaneous sensitivity to grass pollen. We have addressed whether this effect of immunotherapy may be due to a decrease in mast cell numbers in the skin. Total mast cells and mast cell subtypes in the dermis were measured by dual immunocytochemistry in 40 adult patients who had received either 'active' grass pollen immunotherapy or placebo injections for 9 months in a double-blind clinical trial. Clinical improvement in hay fever was accompanied by a greater than 10-fold reduction in the immediate cutaneous response to grass pollen (P = 0. 0002) and a sevenfold decrease in mast cell numbers in the skin (P = 0.0001). The number of mast cells after immunotherapy correlated with the clinical response in terms of seasonal symptoms (r = 0.61, P = 0.001) and rescue medication use (r = 0.75, P = 0.0001). Specific double immunostaining showed that the majority of mast cells (greater than 60%) were tryptase/chymase-positive (MCTC) and the remainder tryptase-only (MCT) cells. Following immunotherapy both subtypes were equally reduced. One mechanism by which immunotherapy may act is to reduce mast cell numbers with a consequent reduction in immediate allergic sensitivity.

  16. The Prevalence of Grass Pollen-Related Allergic Rhinoconjunctivitis in Elite Amateur Irish Athletes

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Grace, M

    2016-09-01

    Allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (AR\\/C), has been shown to impact upon athletic performance. The championships of the unique, amateur Irish sports of hurling and Gaelic football (collectively known as GAA) take place during the prime pollen months of summer. Elite GAA players must perform optimally when most exposed to pollen. Elite GAA subjects (n=254) underwent skin prick testing to 6 aeroallergens and completed a validated questionnaire (AQUA), producing a score indicating likelihood of having allergy. The prevalence of allergy (positive to at least one aeroallergen on SPT and positive AQUA score) was 27.1% (n=69). Sixteen and a half percent (n=42) of the subjects tested had grass pollen AR\\/C while 22% (n=54) had house dust mite AR\\/C, though none were on standard medical therapies or had used allergen-specific immunotherapy. Grass pollen AR\\/C prevalence appears as common in elite Irish athletes as it is in other countries. It appears to be mild rather than well controlled in these subjects.

  17. Group 13 allergens as environmental and immunological markers for grass pollen allergy: studies by immunogold field emission scanning and transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grote, Monika; Swoboda, Ines; Valenta, Rudolf; Reichelt, Rudolf

    2005-04-01

    Polygalacturonases were recently identified as important grass pollen allergens and designated group 13 allergens. The objective of the present study was to investigate the presence of group 13 grass pollen allergens in different grass species, their release and ultrastructural location in dry and hydrated grass pollen. Nitrocellulose-blotted allergen extracts from 12 wild and cultivated grass genera were probed with a rabbit antiserum raised against purified recombinant timothy grass pollen allergen, Phl p 13. The release kinetics of Phl p 13 from timothy grass pollen hydrated for 0.5 min to 3 h were analyzed by immunoblotting. Phl p 13 was localized in dry and hydrated grass pollen grains by immunogold field emission scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Group 13 allergens were detected in all 12 wild and cultivated grass genera representing the major subfamilies of the Poaceae. Ultrastructurally, the allergen was located in the wall and in the cytoplasm of timothy grass pollen grains. In the cytoplasm, Phl p 13 was associated with polysaccharide particles and as yet undescribed stacks of microtubule-like structures. After hydration in rain water, pollen grains expel cytoplasmic particles of respirable size containing Phl p 13, which becomes detectable in aqueous supernatants already after 0.5 min. Group 13 allergens represent one set of marker allergens which specifically occur in pollen of the major grass subfamilies and are rapidly released in association with respirable particles after pollen hydration. They may be considered as environmental markers for grass pollen exposure and group 13-specific IgE antibodies as immunological markers for genuine grass pollen sensitization. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

  18. Demonstration of human, rye grass pollen extract-specific, helper and suppressor stimulating activity of modified allergens by effects on in vitro hapten-specific antibody production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, A W; Johansson, S G

    1989-01-01

    An in vivo system is described in which penicilloyl antibody was produced from peripheral leucocytes of a grass pollen-sensitive patient who had received penicillin therapy, by challenge of the cells with penicilloyl-grass pollen extract conjugate. Incubation of these leucocytes with a number of modified preparations of grass pollen extract with various T-cell-stimulating properties was shown to affect penicilloyl antibody production. Both chymotryptically fragmented rye grass pollen extract and a conjugate of f met-leu-phe and rye grass pollen extract enhanced penicilloyl-specific antibody similarly to the enhancement induced by unmodified extract, though at high concentration some suppression was seen. A conjugate of polysarcosine and rye grass pollen extract, previously shown to cause antibody suppression in mice, was similarly suppressive for penicilloyl-specific antibody. The system therefore shows potential for the evaluation of the effects of modified allergen treatment on antibody levels via T-cell mechanisms.

  19. Major grass pollen allergen Lol p 1 binds to diesel exhaust particles: implications for asthma and air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, R B; Suphioglu, C; Taylor, P; Desai, R; Watson, H C; Peng, J L; Bursill, L A

    1997-03-01

    Grass pollen allergens are known to be present in the atmosphere in a range of particle sizes from whole pollen grains (approx. 20 to 55 microns in diameter) to smaller size fractions Lol p 1, immunogold labelling with specific monoclonal antibodies and a high voltage transmission electron-microscopic imaging technique. DECP are visualized as small carbon spheres, each 30-60 nm in diameter, forming fractal aggregates about 1-2 microns in diameter. Here we test our hypothesis and show by in vitro experiments that the major grass pollen allergen, Lol p 1, binds to one defined class of fine particles, DECP. DECP are in the respirable size range, can bind to the major grass pollen allergen Lol p 1 under in vitro conditions and represent a possible mechanism by which allergens can become concentrated in polluted air and thus trigger attacks of asthma.

  20. Efficacy and safety of 5-grass pollen sublingual immunotherapy tablets in patients with different clinical profiles of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malling, Hans-Jørgen; Montagut, A; Melac, M

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The optimal dose of grass pollen tablets for sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) in allergic rhinoconjunctivitis patients was previously established in a multinational, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 628 adults. Patients were randomized to receive once-daily 5-grass...... pollen sublingual tablets of 100 IR (index of reactivity), 300 IR or 500 IR, or placebo starting 4 months before the pollen season. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this complementary analysis was to determine whether 300 IR 5-grass pollen SLIT-tablets is effective in different subtypes of patients who are allergic......: The risk-benefit ratio validates the use of 300 IR tablets in clinical practice in all of these patient subgroups, regardless of severity profile, sensitization status and presence of asthma....

  1. Grass pollen immunotherapy induces mucosal and peripheral IL-10 responses and blocking IgG activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri-Aria, Kayhan T; Wachholz, Petra A; Francis, James N; Jacobson, Mikila R; Walker, Samantha M; Wilcock, Louisa K; Staple, Steven Q; Aalberse, Robert C; Till, Stephen J; Durham, Stephen R

    2004-03-01

    T regulatory cells and IL-10 have been implicated in the mechanism of immunotherapy in patients with systemic anaphylaxis following bee stings. We studied the role of IL-10 in the induction of clinical, cellular, and humoral tolerance during immunotherapy for local mucosal allergy in subjects with seasonal pollinosis. Local and systemic IL-10 responses and serum Ab concentrations were measured before/after a double-blind trial of grass pollen (Phleum pratense, Phl P) immunotherapy. We observed local increases in IL-10 mRNA-positive cells in the nasal mucosa after 2 years of immunotherapy, but only during the pollen season. IL-10 protein-positive cells were also increased and correlated with IL-10 mRNA(+) cells. These changes were not observed in placebo-treated subjects or in healthy controls. Fifteen and 35% of IL-10 mRNA signals were colocalized to CD3(+) T cells and CD68(+) macrophages, respectively, whereas only 1-2% of total CD3(+) cells and 4% of macrophages expressed IL-10. Following immunotherapy, peripheral T cells cultured in the presence of grass pollen extract also produced IL-10. Immunotherapy resulted in blunting of seasonal increases in serum allergen Phl p 5-specific IgE, 60- to 80-fold increases in Phl p 5-specific IgG, and 100-fold increases in Phl p 5-specific IgG4. Post-immunotherapy serum exhibited inhibitory activity, which coeluted with IgG4, and blocked IgE-facilitated binding of allergen-IgE complexes to B cells. Both the increases in IgG and the IgG "blocking" activity correlated with the patients' overall assessment of improvement. Thus, grass pollen immunotherapy may induce allergen-specific, IL-10-dependent "protective" IgG4 responses.

  2. Induction of IL-10+CD4+CD25+ T cells by grass pollen immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, James N; Till, Stephen J; Durham, Stephen R

    2003-06-01

    Immunotherapy involves the modulation of allergen-specific T-cell responses, either T(H)2-to-T(H)1 immune deviation or, in bee venom-treated patients, induction of IL-10 production by CD4+CD25+ T cells. IL-10-producing CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells have emerged as potential mediators of immune tolerance in numerous murine models of immunopathology. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of IL-10 production and CD4+CD25+ T cells in the response to grass pollen immunotherapy. PBMCs were isolated from patients after 1 year of grass pollen immunotherapy and from matched untreated atopic and healthy control subjects. After 6 days of in vitro stimulation with Phleum pratense, production of IL-10, IL-5, IL-4, and IFN-gamma and proliferation and numbers of CD4+CD25+ T cells were measured. T cells were then stimulated for a further 5 hours with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and ionomycin and assessed for intracellular IL-10 by means of flow cytometry. Patients undergoing immunotherapy produced significantly more IL-10 than atopic control subjects (patients undergoing immunotherapy, 116 +/- 21 pg/mL [n = 11]; atopic patients, 30 +/- 5 pg/mL [n = 11]; P pollen immunotherapy results in a population of circulating T cells that express the IL-10(+) CD4+CD25+ phenotype in response to allergen restimulation.

  3. Molecular basis of IgE-recognition of Lol p 5, a major allergen of rye-grass pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suphioglu, C; Blaher, B; Rolland, J M; McCluskey, J; Schäppi, G; Kenrick, J; Singh, M B; Knox, R B

    1998-04-01

    Grass pollen, especially of rye-grass (Lolium perenne). represents an important cause of type I allergy. Identification of IgE-binding (allergenic) epitopes of major grass pollen allergens is essential for understanding the molecular basis of interaction between allergens and human IgE antibodies and therefore facilitates the devising of safer and more effective diagnostic and immunotherapy reagents. The aim of this study was to identify the allergenic epitopes of Lol p 5, a major allergen of rye-grass pollen, immunodissect these epitopes further so that the amino acid residues critical for antibody binding can be determined and investigate the conservation and nature of these epitopes within the context of the natural grass pollen allergens. Peptides, 12-13 amino acid residues long and overlapping each other by 4 amino acid residues, based on the entire deduced amino acid sequence of the coding region of Lol p 5, were synthesised and assayed for IgE-binding. Two strong IgE-binding epitopes (Lol p 5 (49-60) and (265-276), referred to as peptides 7 and 34, respectively) were identified. These epitopes were further resolved by truncated peptides and amino acid replacement studies and the amino acid residues critical for IgE-binding determined (Lol p 5 (49-60) residue Lys57 and (265-276) residue Lys275). Sequences of these epitopes were conserved in related allergens and may form the conserved allergenic domains responsible for the cross-reactivity observed between pollen allergens of taxonomically related grasses. Furthermore, due to its strong IgE-reactivity, synthetic peptide Lol p 5 (265-276) was used to affinity-purify specific IgE antibodies which recognised proteins of other clinically important grass pollens. further indicating presence of allergenic cross-reactivity at the level of allergenic epitope. Moreover, Lol p 5 (265 276) demonstrated a strong capacity to inhibit IgE-binding to natural rye-grass pollen proteins highlighting the antibody accessibility

  4. Rhinitis symptoms caused by grass pollen are associated with elevated basophile allergen sensitivity and a larger grass-specific immunoglobulin E fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidarn, M; Košnik, M; Silar, M; Grahek, A; Korošec, P

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms responsible for the difference between clinically irrelevant IgE-sensitization and allergic rhinitis are not fully understood. We evaluated the humoral and cellular mechanisms that may be associated with the presence of allergic rhinitis symptoms. We selected 26 subjects with positive grass pollen skin tests and IgE antibodies to Timothy (g6) and the major grass allergens rPhl p 1, 5b. Fourteen of those patients reported a history of allergic rhinitis. During winter, we performed a grass pollen CD63 basophile activation test using four log allergen concentrations, followed by a grass nasal provocation test (NPT). We obtained symptom scores in the subsequent pollination season. We showed that subjects with a positive NPT have significantly higher CD63 basophile grass pollen responsiveness than NPT-negative subjects, preferably at submaximal allergen concentrations, which represent cellular sensitivity. Moreover, basophile sensitivity positively correlated with the size of the grass-specific IgE fraction in relation to total IgE, and it was highly predictive of allergic rhinitis symptoms in the following pollination season. Allergic rhinitis symptoms are significantly associated with allergen-specific basophile sensitivity. In vitro evaluation of basophile sensitivity should prove useful for distinguishing clinical phenotype of allergic sensitization. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. When did C4 Photosynthesis originate: New evidence from δ13C analysis of single grass-pollen grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, M. A.; Nelson, D. M.; Pearson, A.; Hu, F.

    2009-12-01

    C4 grasses account for >20% of global primary productivity and dominate tropical, subtropical, and warm-temperate grassland ecosystems. Thus it is vital to understand when and why C4 photosynthesis first evolved in the grass family (Poaceae). However, because of limitations of most proxies, the origin of C4 grasses remains ambiguous. Grass pollen is morphologically indistinct below the family level, making pollen analysis a crude instrument for studying C4-grass evolution. Previous studies have investigated the timing of C4 evolution using molecular tools and δ13C records from n-alkanes, ungulate teeth, and paleosols, but they yield disparate results. Molecular clocks suggest that C4 grasses first evolved between 27 and 36 Ma (million years before present), coincident with the Oligocene decline in pCO2 from >1000 to <500 ppm. In contrast, δ13C-based approaches do not detect the presence of C4 grasses until the middle Miocene, indicating that they were previously uncommon or absent on the landscape. To investigate when C4 photosynthesis first appeared in the grass family, we utilized Single Pollen Isotope Ratio AnaLysis (SPIRAL), a technique that reliably distinguishes C4 from C3 grass pollen via δ13C. We analyzed 837 single grains of grass pollen from eight lacustrine geological samples (~100 grains/sample) from France and Spain spanning the earliest Oligocene to middle Miocene. To distinguish C3/C4 ratios, we used an optimal threshold value of -19.2‰ adjusted for small (~1‰) temporal variations in atmospheric δ13C. Initial results provide unequivocal evidence of C4 grass pollen in all samples (24-57% C4 grass pollen ±9.2% on average) lending further credence to the molecular data, which posits that C4 grasses appeared as early as the Late Eocene, which is a plausible outcome when considering alternate schemes of dating phylogenetic trees. A C4 origin prior to pCO2 reaching its lowest levels of the Cenozoic at the Oligocene/Miocene boundary indicates that

  6. Satisfaction and quality of life of allergic patients following sublingual five-grass pollen tablet immunotherapy in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío Antolín-Amerigo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Five-grass pollen tablet is an effective and well-tolerated therapy for patients with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC. This trial sought to determine the satisfaction and health-related quality of life (HRQoL of patients undergoing this treatment. Methods: This was a cross-sectional, multicentre, observational, naturalistic study, following a discontinuous pre- and coseasonal five-grass pollen regimen over two seasons in Spain (2012, 2013. The HRQoL of the patients was measured with the specific Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (RQLQ for adults, adolescent (AdolRQLQ, or paediatric (PRQLQ patients. Treatment satisfaction was assessed by the Satisfaction Scale for Patients Receiving Allergen Immunotherapy (ESPIA questionnaire. Patients/investigators were surveyed on beliefs and attitudes towards the five-grass pollen tablet. ARC evolution according to allergic rhinitis and its impact on asthma (ARIA criteria and treatment adherence were evaluated. Results: Among the 591 ARC patients included, the mean (SD HRQoL scores were 1.40 (1.1 in adults, 1.33 (1.1 in adolescents, and 1.15 (1.1 in children, indicating low levels of impairment (scale 0–6. ESPIA answers showed high levels of satisfaction, with an average score of 69.2 (scale 0–100. According to ARIA criteria, 88.2% of patients reported improvement of ARC. Moreover, this was accompanied by a reduced use of symptomatic medication. Adherence to treatment was estimated at 96.8%. In general, both patients and specialists exhibited a positive attitude towards five-grass pollen tablet treatment. Conclusion: ARC patients treated with five-grass pollen tablet showed favourable levels of HRQoL and treatment satisfaction, with concomitant improvements in ARC and symptomatic medication use, which translated into high levels of treatment adherence and a positive attitude towards five-grass pollen tablet.

  7. Development and validation of a 5-day-ahead hay fever forecast for patients with grass-pollen-induced allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Weger, Letty A; Beerthuizen, Thijs; Hiemstra, Pieter S; Sont, Jacob K

    2014-08-01

    One-third of the Dutch population suffers from allergic rhinitis, including hay fever. In this study, a 5-day-ahead hay fever forecast was developed and validated for grass pollen allergic patients in the Netherlands. Using multiple regression analysis, a two-step pollen and hay fever symptom prediction model was developed using actual and forecasted weather parameters, grass pollen data and patient symptom diaries. Therefore, 80 patients with a grass pollen allergy rated the severity of their hay fever symptoms during the grass pollen season in 2007 and 2008. First, a grass pollen forecast model was developed using the following predictors: (1) daily means of grass pollen counts of the previous 10 years; (2) grass pollen counts of the previous 2-week period of the current year; and (3) maximum, minimum and mean temperature (R (2)=0.76). The second modeling step concerned the forecasting of hay fever symptom severity and included the following predictors: (1) forecasted grass pollen counts; (2) day number of the year; (3) moving average of the grass pollen counts of the previous 2 week-periods; and (4) maximum and mean temperatures (R (2)=0.81). Since the daily hay fever forecast is reported in three categories (low-, medium- and high symptom risk), we assessed the agreement between the observed and the 1- to 5-day-ahead predicted risk categories by kappa, which ranged from 65 % to 77 %. These results indicate that a model based on forecasted temperature and grass pollen counts performs well in predicting symptoms of hay fever up to 5 days ahead.

  8. Prevalence and treatment profile of patients with grass pollen and house dust mite allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worm, Margitta; Lee, Hae-Hyuk; Kostev, Karel

    2013-07-01

    In Europe, grass pollen and house dust mites are the most common allergens responsible for IgE-mediated allergies. The aim of our study was to examine the data provided by various medical practices specialized in allergic diseases in Germany regarding patients with rhinoconjunctivitis in terms of demographic data and the prescribed treatment by different medical specialists. Data from patients who were diagnosed with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis were taken from the "disease-analyzer" database (IMS Health GmbH) and analyzed. The data assessment was anonymous in accordance with the guidelines for data protection. The information collected included specific data about diagnosis and treatment in private practices in Germany. The majority of patients with grass pollen allergy were treated by their general practitioners, while those with house dust mite allergy were treated by a specialist with a background in allergic diseases (pulmonologists, otorhinolaryngologists, and dermatologists). Treatment was primarily symptomatic, usually consisting of antihistamines. Allergen-specific immunotherapy, the only causal treatment for IgE-mediated allergies at present, was performed rarely. The data suggest the need for an interaction and knowledge transfer between various specialists in order to improve patient-centered care in regard to allergic diseases. © The Authors • Journal compilation © Blackwell Verlag GmbH, Berlin.

  9. Seasonal Local Allergic Rhinitis in Areas With High Concentrations of Grass Pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanca-Lopez, N; Campo, P; Salas, M; García Rodríguez, C; Palomares, F; Blanca, M; Canto, G; Feo Brito, F; Rondon, C

    2016-01-01

    Local allergic rhinitis (LAR) is a phenotype of allergic rhinitis characterized by the presence of a localized immune response in the nasal mucosa of patients with negative skin prick test (SPT) results and undetectable serum specific IgE (sIgE). It unknown whether LAR is limited to areas with low or moderate aeroallergen exposure. To explore the presence of LAR and the clinical and immunological characteristics of this entity in geographic areas with high grass pollen loads. A cross-sectional observational study was carried out in 2 hospitals in central Spain (Madrid and Ciudad Real). Sixty-one patients with seasonal rhinitis and negative SPT results and undetectable serum sIgE were evaluated using a clinical questionnaire, determination of serum total IgE, and a nasal allergen provocation test (NAPT) with Phleum species. The response to NAPT was monitored using assessment of nasal symptoms, acoustic rhinometry, and determination of sIgE, tryptase, and eosinophil cationic protein in the nasal cavity. Seasonal LAR was detected in 37 patients (61%) using the techniques described above. Eleven percent of patients with LAR were adolescents or children, and 14% reported onset of rhinitis in childhood. Most patients reported persistent-moderate seasonal nasal symptoms, and 41% reported worsening of the disease during the last 2 years. Conjunctivitis was the most common comorbidity, affecting 95% of cases. LAR to grass pollen is relevant in patients with seasonal symptoms indicative of allergic rhinitis but with a negative skin test result who live in areas with high allergenic pollen loads. This entity should be included the differential diagnosis of rhinitis.

  10. Optimisation of grass pollen nasal allergen challenge for assessment of clinical and immunological outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scadding, Guy W; Calderon, Moises A; Bellido, Virginia; Koed, Gitte Konsgaard; Nielsen, Niels-Christian; Lund, Kaare; Togias, Alkis; Phippard, Deborah; Turka, Laurence A; Hansel, Trevor T; Durham, Stephen R; Wurtzen, Peter Adler

    2012-10-31

    Nasal allergen challenge can be used to assess the clinical and immunological aspects of rhinitis due to inhalant allergens. We aimed to develop a reproducible technique for grass pollen nasal allergen challenge and to study biomarkers within nasal secretions. 20 Grass pollen allergic individuals underwent nasal challenges with purified Timothy grass allergen. An initial dose-titration challenge was used to determine dose-response characteristics. Subsequently, volunteers underwent 3 further challenges using individualised threshold doses. Symptom scores, visual analogue scores, and peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF) were recorded at baseline and up to 6h after challenge. Nasal secretions were collected at each time point using synthetic filter papers or absorptive polyurethane sponges and analysed for IL-4, -5, -10, -13, IFN-γ, Tryptase and Eosinophil Cationic Protein (ECP). Challenges gave reproducible symptom scores and decreased PNIF. Tryptase levels in nasal fluid peaked at 5 min after challenge and returned to baseline levels at 1h. ECP, IL-5, IL-13 and IL-4 levels were increased from 2-3 h and showed progressive increases to 5-6 h. Sponges proved the superior nasal fluid sampling technique. We have developed a reproducible nasal allergen challenge technique. This may be used as a surrogate clinical endpoint in trials assessing the efficacy of treatments for allergic rhinitis. Tryptase in local nasal secretions is a potential biomarker of the early phase response; ECP and the Th2 cytokines IL-5, -13 and -4 markers of late phase allergic responses. Our model allows correlation between clinical responses and local biomarkers following nasal allergen challenge. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of grass pollen immunotherapy on clinical and local immune response to nasal allergen challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scadding, G W; Eifan, A O; Lao-Araya, M; Penagos, M; Poon, S Y; Steveling, E; Yan, R; Switzer, A; Phippard, D; Togias, A; Shamji, M H; Durham, S R

    2015-06-01

    Nasal allergen provocations may be useful in investigating the pathophysiology of allergic rhinitis and effects of treatments. To use grass pollen nasal allergen challenge (NAC) to investigate the effects of allergen immunotherapy in a cross-sectional study. We studied nasal and cutaneous responses in untreated subjects with seasonal grass-pollen allergic rhinitis (n = 14) compared with immunotherapy-treated allergics (n = 14), plus a nonatopic control group (n = 14). Volunteers underwent a standardized NAC with 2000 biological units of timothy grass allergen (equivalent to 1.3 μg major allergen, Phl p5). Nasal fluid was collected and analysed by ImmunoCAP and multiplex assays. Clinical response was assessed by symptom scores and peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF). Cutaneous response was measured by intradermal allergen injection. Retrospective seasonal symptom questionnaires were also completed. Immunotherapy-treated patients had lower symptom scores (P = 0.04) and higher PNIF (P = 0.02) after challenge than untreated allergics. They had reduced early (P = 0.0007) and late (P < 0.0001) skin responses, and lower retrospective seasonal symptom scores (P < 0.0001). Compared to untreated allergics, immunotherapy-treated patients had reduced nasal fluid concentrations of IL-4, IL-9 and eotaxin (all P < 0.05, 8 h level and/or area under the curve comparison), and trends for reduced IL-13 (P = 0.07, area under the curve) and early-phase tryptase levels (P = 0.06). Nasal allergen challenge is sensitive in the detection of clinical and biological effects of allergen immunotherapy and may be a useful surrogate marker of treatment efficacy in future studies. © 2015 The Authors. Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Effect of 2 Years of Treatment With Sublingual Grass Pollen Immunotherapy on Nasal Response to Allergen Challenge at 3 Years Among Patients With Moderate to Severe Seasonal Allergic Rhinitis: The GRASS Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scadding, Guy W; Calderon, Moises A; Shamji, Mohamed H; Eifan, Aarif O; Penagos, Martin; Dumitru, Florentina; Sever, Michelle L; Bahnson, Henry T; Lawson, Kaitie; Harris, Kristina M; Plough, Audrey G; Panza, Joy Laurienzo; Qin, Tielin; Lim, Noha; Tchao, Nadia K; Togias, Alkis; Durham, Stephen R

    2017-02-14

    Sublingual immunotherapy and subcutaneous immunotherapy are effective in seasonal allergic rhinitis. Three years of continuous treatment with subcutaneous immunotherapy and sublingual immunotherapy has been shown to improve symptoms for at least 2 years following discontinuation of treatment. To assess whether 2 years of treatment with grass pollen sublingual immunotherapy, compared with placebo, provides improved nasal response to allergen challenge at 3-year follow-up. A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled, 3-parallel-group study performed in a single academic center, Imperial College London, of adult patients with moderate to severe seasonal allergic rhinitis (interfering with usual daily activities or sleep). First enrollment was March 2011, last follow-up was February 2015. Thirty-six participants received 2 years of sublingual immunotherapy (daily tablets containing 15 µg of major allergen Phleum p 5 and monthly placebo injections), 36 received subcutaneous immunotherapy (monthly injections containing 20 µg of Phleum p 5 and daily placebo tablets) and 34 received matched double-placebo. Nasal allergen challenge was performed before treatment, at 1 and 2 years of treatment, and at 3 years (1 year after treatment discontinuation). Total nasal symptom scores (TNSS; range; 0 [best] to 12 [worst]) were recorded between 0 and 10 hours after challenge. The minimum clinically important difference for change in TNSS within an individual is 1.08. The primary outcome was TNSS comparing sublingual immunotherapy vs placebo at year 3. Subcutaneous immunotherapy was included as a positive control. The study was not powered to compare sublingual immunotherapy with subcutaneous immunotherapy. Among 106 randomized participants (mean age, 33.5 years; 34 women [32.1%]), 92 completed the study at 3 years. In the intent-to-treat population, mean TNSS score for the sublingual immunotherapy group was 6.36 (95% CI, 5.76 to 6.96) at pretreatment and 4.73 (95% CI, 3.97 to 5

  13. The safety and efficacy of subcutaneous birch pollen immunotherapy - a one-year, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødtger, Uffe; Poulsen, L K; Jacobi, H H

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is only very limited documentation of the efficacy and safety of high-dose subcutaneous birch pollen immunotherapy (IT) in double-blind, placebo-controlled (DBPC) studies. Birch pollen is a major cause of allergic morbidity in northern Europe and in eastern parts of North America...

  14. The safety and efficacy of subcutaneous birch pollen immunotherapy - a one-year, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødtger, U; Poulsen, Lars K.; Jacobi, H H

    2002-01-01

    There is only very limited documentation of the efficacy and safety of high-dose subcutaneous birch pollen immunotherapy (IT) in double-blind, placebo-controlled (DBPC) studies. Birch pollen is a major cause of allergic morbidity in northern Europe and in eastern parts of North America....

  15. Inhibition of allergen-IgE binding to B cells by IgG antibodies after grass pollen immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachholz, Petra A; Soni, Nanna Kristensen; Till, Stephen J; Durham, Stephen R

    2003-11-01

    Among atopic individuals, levels of allergen-specific IgG antibodies have been inversely associated with the degree of allergen sensitization. Additionally, allergen-specific IgG antibodies are markedly increased by allergen injection immunotherapy. These observations have led to proposals that allergen-specific IgG antibodies might have protective properties in atopic individuals. We hypothesized that after grass pollen immunotherapy, these antibodies disrupt IgE-dependent allergen processing by antigen-presenting cells. We have developed a novel flow cytometric assay based on detection of allergen-IgE binding to the low-affinity IgE receptor on B cells to examine the blocking effects of sera collected from 18 patients who participated in a double-blind, controlled trial of grass pollen immunotherapy for 1 year. In all 10 patients who received active therapy, there was induction of activity that inhibited allergen-IgE binding to B cells (P =.02, vs placebo subjects), as well as subsequent allergen presentation to T cells. This activity copurified with IgG and was allergen specific, because sera taken from patients treated with grass pollen immunotherapy but who were also birch pollen sensitive did not inhibit IgE-birch pollen allergen binding to B cells. We conclude that allergen-specific IgG antibodies induced by immunotherapy can disrupt formation of allergen-IgE complexes that bind to antigen-presenting cells and facilitate allergen presentation.

  16. Mechanisms, safety and efficacy of a B cell epitope-based vaccine for immunotherapy of grass pollen allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Zieglmayer

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: The B cell epitope-based recombinant grass pollen allergy vaccine BM32 is well tolerated and few doses are sufficient to suppress immediate allergic reactions as well as allergen-specific T cell responses via a selective induction of allergen-specific IgG antibodies. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01445002.

  17. Allergen specificity of IgG(4)-expressing B cells in patients with grass pollen allergy undergoing immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Louisa K; Bowen, Holly; Calvert, Rosaleen A; Dodev, Tihomir S; Shamji, Mohamed H; Beavil, Andrew J; McDonnell, James M; Durham, Stephen R; Gould, Hannah J

    2012-09-01

    Serum IgG(4) responses to allergen immunotherapy are well documented as blocking allergen binding to receptor-bound IgE on antigen-presenting cells and effector cells, but the molecular characteristics of treatment-induced IgG(4), particularly in relation to expressed antibody, are poorly defined. We aimed to clone and express recombinant IgG(4) from patients receiving grass pollen immunotherapy using single B cells to obtain matched heavy- and light-chain pairs. IgG(4)(+) B cells were enriched from blood samples taken from 5 patients receiving grass pollen immunotherapy. Matched heavy- and light-chain variable-region sequences were amplified from single IgG(4)(+) B cells. Variable regions were cloned and expressed as recombinant IgG(4). Binding analysis of grass pollen-specific IgG(4) was performed by using surface plasmon resonance. Functional assays were used to determine IgE blocking activity. In a separate experiment grass pollen-specific antibodies were depleted from serum samples to determine the proportion of grass pollen-specific IgG(4) within total IgG(4). Depletion of grass pollen-specific antibodies from serum led to a modest reduction in total IgG(4) levels. Matched heavy- and light-chain sequences were cloned from single IgG(4)(+) B cells and expressed as recombinant IgG(4). We identified an IgG(4) that binds with extremely high affinity to the grass pollen allergen Phl p 7. Furthermore, we found that a single specific mAb can block IgE-mediated facilitated allergen presentation, as well as IgE-mediated basophil activation. Although increases in IgG(4) levels cannot be wholly accounted for within the allergen-specific fraction, allergen immunotherapy might result in the production of high-affinity allergen-specific blocking IgG(4). Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Sensitization to cereals and peanut evidenced by skin prick test and specific IgE in food-tolerant, grass pollen allergic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Maria; Schnoor, Heidi J; Malling, Hans-Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    The botanical relation between grass and cereal grains may be relevant when diagnosing food allergy to cereals. The aim was to investigate the diagnostic specificity of skin prick test (SPT) and specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) tests to cereals and peanut in grass pollen allergic subjects without...... history of, and clinically reactions to foods botanically related to grass....

  19. Allergy to grass pollen: mapping of Dactylis glomerata and Phleum pratense allergens for dogs by two-dimensional immunoblotting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Miguel Lourenço Martins

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Much less is known about grass-pollen allergens to dogs, when compared with humans. Genetic-based patterns might play an important role in sensitization profiles, conditioning the success of allergen-specific immunotherapy. Aim : Mapping of Dactylis glomerata ( D. glomerata and Phleum pratense ( P. pratense allergens for grass pollen-sensitized atopic dogs, for better understanding how individual allergograms may influence the response to grass-pollen immunotherapy. Material and methods : To identify D. glomerata and P. pratense allergoms for dogs, 15 individuals allergic to grass pollen and sensitized to D. glomerata and P. pratense were selected. D. glomerata and P. pratense proteomes were separated by isoelectric focusing (IEF, one-dimensional (1-D and two-dimensional (2-D sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. Separated proteins were blotted onto Polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF membranes and allergens were identified by patient sera IgE in Western Blotting (WB. Results : In D. glomerata , 17 allergens were identified from IEF and 11 from 1-D SDS-PAGE, while from P. pratense , 18 and 6 allergens were identified, respectively. From 2-D SDS-PAGE 13 spots were identified from D. glomerata and 27 from P. pratense . Conclusions : Several similarities were found between dog and human D. glomerata and P. pratense sensitization profiles but no relationship between clinical signs and a specific pattern of allergen recognition was observed. Similarities were found in each patient pattern of sensitization between D. glomerata and P. pratense , also suggesting cross-reactive phenomena. Further molecular epidemiology approach is needed to understand the role of the sensitization pattern in allergen-specific immunotherapy effectiveness in grass-pollen allergic dogs.

  20. Peripheral erythrocytes decrease upon specific respiratory challenge with grass pollen allergen in sensitized mice and in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordakieva, Galateja; Wallmann, Julia; Schmutz, René; Lemell, Patrick; Wegmann, Michael; Nittke, Thomas; Mittlböck, Martina; Fehrenbach, Heinz; Godnic-Cvar, Jasminka; Zieglmayer, René; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika

    2014-01-01

    Specific hyper-responsiveness towards an allergen and non-specific airway hyperreactivity both impair quality of life in patients with respiratory allergic diseases. We aimed to investigate cellular responses following specific and non-specific airway challenges locally and systemically in i) sensitized BALB/c mice challenged with grass pollen allergen Phl p 5, and in ii) grass pollen sensitized allergic rhinitis subjects undergoing specific airway challenge in the Vienna Challenge Chamber (VCC). BALB/c mice (n = 20) were intraperitoneally immunized with grass pollen allergen Phl p 5 and afterwards aerosol challenged with either the specific allergen Phl p 5 (n = 10) or the non-specific antigen ovalbumin (OVA) (n = 10). A protocol for inducing allergic asthma as well as allergic rhinitis, according to the united airway concept, was used. Both groups of exposed mice showed significantly reduced physical activity after airway challenge. Specific airway challenge further resulted in goblet cell hyperplasia, enhanced mucous secretion, intrapulmonary leukocyte infiltration and lymphoid follicle formation, associated with significant expression of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 in splenocytes and also partially in lung tissue. Concerning circulating blood cell dynamics, we observed a significant drop of erythrocyte counts, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels in both mouse groups, challenged with allergen or OVA. A significant decrease in circulating erythrocytes and hematocrit levels after airway challenges with grass pollen allergen was also found in grass pollen sensitized human rhinitis subjects (n = 42) at the VCC. The effects on peripheral leukocyte counts in mice and humans however were opposed, possibly due to the different primary inflammation sites. Our data revealed that, besides significant leukocyte dynamics, particularly erythrocytes are involved in acute hypersensitivity reactions to respiratory allergens. A rapid recruitment of erythrocytes to the lungs to compensate

  1. Peripheral erythrocytes decrease upon specific respiratory challenge with grass pollen allergen in sensitized mice and in human subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galateja Jordakieva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Specific hyper-responsiveness towards an allergen and non-specific airway hyperreactivity both impair quality of life in patients with respiratory allergic diseases. We aimed to investigate cellular responses following specific and non-specific airway challenges locally and systemically in i sensitized BALB/c mice challenged with grass pollen allergen Phl p 5, and in ii grass pollen sensitized allergic rhinitis subjects undergoing specific airway challenge in the Vienna Challenge Chamber (VCC. METHODS AND RESULTS: BALB/c mice (n = 20 were intraperitoneally immunized with grass pollen allergen Phl p 5 and afterwards aerosol challenged with either the specific allergen Phl p 5 (n = 10 or the non-specific antigen ovalbumin (OVA (n = 10. A protocol for inducing allergic asthma as well as allergic rhinitis, according to the united airway concept, was used. Both groups of exposed mice showed significantly reduced physical activity after airway challenge. Specific airway challenge further resulted in goblet cell hyperplasia, enhanced mucous secretion, intrapulmonary leukocyte infiltration and lymphoid follicle formation, associated with significant expression of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 in splenocytes and also partially in lung tissue. Concerning circulating blood cell dynamics, we observed a significant drop of erythrocyte counts, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels in both mouse groups, challenged with allergen or OVA. A significant decrease in circulating erythrocytes and hematocrit levels after airway challenges with grass pollen allergen was also found in grass pollen sensitized human rhinitis subjects (n = 42 at the VCC. The effects on peripheral leukocyte counts in mice and humans however were opposed, possibly due to the different primary inflammation sites. CONCLUSION: Our data revealed that, besides significant leukocyte dynamics, particularly erythrocytes are involved in acute hypersensitivity reactions to respiratory allergens

  2. Grass pollen immunotherapy induces Foxp3-expressing CD4+ CD25+ cells in the nasal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulovic, Suzana; Jacobson, Mikila R; Durham, Stephen R; Nouri-Aria, Kayhan T

    2008-06-01

    Regulatory T (Treg) cells play an important role in controlling allergic inflammation. The transcription factor Foxp3 regulates the development and function of natural and adaptive CD4(+)CD25(+) Treg cells. We sought to examine the effect of grass pollen injection immunotherapy on the numbers of Foxp3(+)CD4(+) and Foxp3(+)CD25(+) T cells in and out of season and their expression of IL-10 in the nasal mucosa of patients with hay fever. Nasal biopsy specimens were obtained from untreated patients with hay fever, participants with grass pollen allergy who had received 2 years of immunotherapy, and healthy control subjects. Dual-immunofluorescence microscopy was used to enumerate and colocalize Foxp3 expression to CD4(+) and CD25(+) T cells in the nasal mucosa. Triple staining was performed to colocalize Foxp3(+) cells to CD3(+)CD25(+) and CD3(+) IL-10-expressing cells. At peak season, numbers of Foxp3(+)CD25(+) (P = .02) and Foxp3(+)CD4(+) (P = .03) cells were significantly increased in the nasal mucosa of immunotherapy-treated patients compared with numbers before treatment. Foxp3(+)CD25(+) (P = .03) and Foxp3(+)CD4(+) (P = .04) cells were also greater in immunotherapy-treated patients out of season compared with those in untreated patients with hay fever. Within the immunotherapy-treated group, 20% of CD3(+)CD25(+) cells expressed Foxp3, and 18% of Foxp3(+)CD3(+) cells were IL-10 positive. The presence of local Foxp3(+)CD25(+)CD3(+) cells in the nasal mucosa, their increased numbers after immunotherapy, and their association with clinical efficacy and suppression of seasonal allergic inflammation support a putative role for Treg cells in the induction of allergen-specific tolerance in human subjects.

  3. Grass pollen sublingual immunotherapy for seasonal rhinoconjunctivitis: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, M Torres; Wilson, D; Pitkin, L; Roberts, A; Nouri-Aria, K; Jacobson, M; Walker, S; Durham, S

    2002-04-01

    Previous studies suggest that sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) represents a safer alternative to injection immunotherapy but equivalent efficacy is yet to be confirmed. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of SLIT in grass pollen-induced seasonal rhinoconjunctivitis. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial in 56 adults over 18 months. Outcome measures included diary scores of seasonal symptoms and medication use, overall assessments, conjunctival and intradermal provocation tests and serum antibody measurements. To investigate possible mechanisms, sublingual biopsies were taken for measurement of local T cells, antigen-presenting cells and IL-12 mRNA expression. There were no significant differences between the immunotherapy (IT) and placebo groups for diary symptom scores (P = 0.48) or rescue medication (P = 0.19). The patients' overall assessment of hayfever severity compared with previous years showed a highly significant improvement in favour of the IT group (P pollen sublingual immunotherapy was well tolerated. Although there was no significant change in diary scores, the improvement in overall assessments, which correlated with inhibition of the late skin response and increases in serum IgG4 : IgE ratio, indicates the need for larger, dose-ranging studies.

  4. Molecular cloning, expression and immunological characterisation of Lol p 5C, a novel allergen isoform of rye grass pollen demonstrating high IgE reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suphioglu, C; Mawdsley, D; Schäppi, G; Gruehn, S; de Leon, M; Rolland, J M; O'Hehir, R E

    1999-12-03

    A novel isoform of a major rye grass pollen allergen Lol p 5 was isolated from a cDNA expression library. The new isoform, Lol p 5C, shares 95% amino acid sequence identity with Lol p 5A. Both isoforms demonstrated shared antigenic activity but different allergenic activities. Recombinant Lol p 5C demonstrated 100% IgE reactivity in 22 rye grass pollen sensitive patients. In comparison, recombinant Lol p 5A showed IgE reactivity in less than 64% of the patients. Therefore, Lol p 5C represents a novel and highly IgE-reactive isoform allergen of rye grass pollen.

  5. Immunochemical studies of Lolium perenne (rye grass) pollen allergens, Lol p I, II, and III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, A A; Kihara, T K; Marsh, D G

    1987-12-15

    It was reported earlier that human immune responses to three perennial rye grass (Lolium perenne) pollen allergens, Lol p I, II, and III, are associated with histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR3. Rye-allergic people are often concordantly sensitive to all three of these allergens. Since earlier studies suggested that these antigens are non-cross-reactive, their immunologic relatedness by double antibody radioimmunoassay (DARIA) was studied in order to understand further the immunochemical basis for the concordant recognition of the three allergens. Direct binding DARIA studies were performed with human sera from 189 allergic subjects. Inhibition DARIA studies were carried out with 17 human sera from grass-allergic patients who were on grass immunotherapy, one goat anti-serum, and six rabbit antisera. None of the sera detected any significant degree of two-way cross-reactivity between Lol p I and II, or between Lol p I and III. However, the degree of two-way cross-reactivity between Lol p II and III exhibited by individual human and animal antisera varied between undetectable and 100%. In general, the degree of cross-reactivity between Lol p II and III was higher among human sera than among animal sera. Taken together with earlier findings that antibody responses to Lol p I, II and III are associated with HLA-HDR3, and that most Lol p II and III responders are also Lol p I responders, but not vice versa, our present results suggest the following: the HLA-DR3-encoded Ia molecule recognizes a similar immunodominant Ia recognition site (agretope) shared between Lol p I and Lol p II and/or III; in addition, Lol p I appears to contain unique Ia recognition site(s) not present in Lol p II and III. However, further epitope analyses are required to investigate these possibilities.

  6. Cloning and sequencing of Lol pI, the major allergenic protein of rye-grass pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, I J; Smith, P M; Pollock, J; Theerakulpisut, P; Avjioglu, A; Davies, S; Hough, T; Singh, M B; Simpson, R J; Ward, L D

    1991-02-25

    We have isolated a full length cDNA clone encoding the major glycoprotein allergen Lol pI. The clone was selected using a combination of immunological screening of a cDNA expression library and PCR amplification of Lol pI-specific transcripts. Lol pI expressed in bacteria as a fusion protein shows recognition by specific IgE antibodies present in sera of grass pollen-allergic subjects. Northern analysis has shown that the Lol pI transcripts are expressed only in pollen of rye-grass. Molecular cloning of Lol pI provides a molecular genetic approach to study the structure-function relationship of allergens.

  7. Grass pollen immunotherapy: IL-10 induction and suppression of late responses precedes IgG4 inhibitory antibody activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, James N; James, Louisa K; Paraskevopoulos, Giannis; Wong, Cheukyee; Calderon, Moises A; Durham, Stephen R; Till, Stephen J

    2008-05-01

    Grass pollen immunotherapy is an effective treatment for seasonal allergic rhinitis that provides the opportunity to study the induction and maintenance of allergen-specific immune tolerance. We investigated the relationship between clinical responsiveness, regulatory cytokine production, and antibody responses to allergen during 1 year of immunotherapy. Eighteen subjects with severe seasonal allergic rhinitis were randomized double-blind to receive active or placebo injections of an alum-adsorbed grass pollen vaccine (Alutard SQ). Subjects underwent repeated testing of early- and late-phase skin responses to intradermal allergen, and cellular responses to grass pollen allergen were tested. Sera were tested for allergen-specific IgG4, IgA, and inhibitory activity in biologic assays of IgE responses. Grass pollen immunotherapy was effective in reducing overall symptom scores (P < .05) and conjunctival reactivity (P < .05). In the active group significant IL-10 production occurred early at low allergen doses and at a similar time as inhibition of late skin responses at 2 to 4 weeks. Serum allergen-specific IgG4, IgA, and inhibitory antibody activity for basophil histamine release and IgE-facilitated allergen binding to B cells occurred later, at 6 to 12 weeks, at higher allergen doses and preceded inhibition of early skin responses. IL-10 responses occur early but at immunotherapy doses that are not clinically effective. Later induction of inhibitory antibodies, including IgG4 and IgA, might be required for efficacy through modulation of IgE-mediated events.

  8. Effector cell signature in peripheral blood following nasal allergen challenge in grass pollen allergic individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamji, M H; Bellido, V; Scadding, G W; Layhadi, J A; Cheung, D K M; Calderon, M A; Asare, A; Gao, Z; Turka, L A; Tchao, N; Togias, A; Phippard, D; Durham, S R

    2015-02-01

    Several studies have demonstrated the time course of inflammatory mediators in nasal fluids following nasal allergen challenge (NAC), whereas the effects of NAC on cells in the periphery are unknown. We examined the time course of effector cell markers (for basophils, dendritic cells and T cells) in peripheral blood after nasal grass pollen allergen challenge. Twelve participants with seasonal allergic rhinitis underwent a control (diluent) challenge followed by NAC after an interval of 14 days. Nasal symptoms and peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF) were recorded along with peripheral basophil, T-cell and dendritic cell responses (flow cytometry), T-cell proliferative responses (thymidine incorporation), and cytokine expression (FluoroSpot assay). Robust increases in nasal symptoms and decreases in PNIF were observed during the early (0-1 h) response and modest significant changes during the late (1-24 h) response. Sequential peaks in peripheral blood basophil activation markers were observed (CD107a at 3 h, CD63 at 6 h, and CD203c(bright) at 24 h). T effector/memory cells (CD4(+) CD25(lo) ) were increased at 6 h and accompanied by increases in CD80(+) and CD86(+) plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs). Ex vivo grass antigen-driven T-cell proliferative responses and the frequency of IL-4(+) CD4(+) T cells were significantly increased at 6 h after NAC when compared to the control day. Basophil, T-cell, and dendritic cell activation increased the frequency of allergen-driven IL-4(+) CD4(+) T cells, and T-cell proliferative responses are detectable in the periphery after NAC. These data confirm systemic cellular activation following a local nasal provocation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Mast cell and eosinophil activation during early phase of grass pollen-induced ocular allergic reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrzejczak-Czechowicz, Monika; Lewandowska-Polak, Anna; Jarzebska, Marzanna; Kowalski, Marek L

    2011-01-01

    Both mast cells and eosinophils were implicated in the pathophysiology of allergic conjunctivitis; however, the potential role of eosinophils in an early phase of allergic reaction has not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to assess the relation between clinical symptoms and sequence of mast cells and eosinophils specific mediators release into tear fluid during conjunctival allergen provocation. Patients with grass pollen rhinoconjunctivitis (n = 38) and healthy volunteers (n = 10) were challenged with increasing doses of allergen applied on the conjunctiva. The clinical symptoms were assessed by clinical score. Tear fluid was collected from 12 patients before provocation, at 20 and 40 minutes after positive response. Tryptase and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) were measured using UniCap and 15-hydroxyeicosanoid acid (15-HETE) with a specific immunoassay. All allergic patients (but no control subjects) had a positive clinical response to the challenge. In 1 patient symptoms appeared after 50 BU/mL of grass allergen administration, in 3 patients symptoms appeared after 500 BU/mL (7.9% of patients), in 14 patients symptoms appeared after 1600 BU/mL (36.8%), and in 20 patients symptoms appeared after 5000 BU/mL (52.6%). The allergen dose was not correlated with the skin-prick test diameter. The mean tryptase concentration increased at 20 minutes from "nondetectable" to 5.89 ± 1.97 micrograms/L and then decreased to 1.77 ± 1.07 micrograms/L (n = 12; p allergic reaction in conjunctiva and activation of eosinophils is preceded by activation of mast cells.

  10. Clinical efficacy of sublingual and subcutaneous birch pollen allergen-specific immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khinchi, M S; Poulsen, Lars K.; Carat, F

    2004-01-01

    Both sublingual allergen-specific immunotherapy (SLIT) and subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) have a documented clinical efficacy, but only few comparative studies have been performed.......Both sublingual allergen-specific immunotherapy (SLIT) and subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) have a documented clinical efficacy, but only few comparative studies have been performed....

  11. Effect of grass pollen immunotherapy with Alutard SQ on quality of life in seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, R J; Frew, A J; Corrigan, C J; Durham, S R

    2007-11-01

    Treatment of allergic rhinitis with subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy is effective in terms of reductions in symptoms and seasonal use of reliever medication. Its effect on quality of life (QoL), reflecting the impact of symptoms on work/school performance and leisure activities is, however, important and often overlooked. To assess effect on QoL of specific immunotherapy with two doses of Alutard SQ Phleum pratense in patients with moderately to severe seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis inadequately controlled by standard drug therapy. Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of 410 patients with seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. Participants were randomized (2 : 1 : 1) to receive Alutard SQ P. pratense (ALK-Abelló) at maintenance doses of 100,000 SQ-U (203 subjects), 10,000 SQ-U (104 subjects) or placebo (103 subjects) given by subcutaneous injections. The groups were well matched for demographics and baseline symptoms. Quality of life was assessed using the Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire which covers seven domains of health before and in the peak of the pollen season. While all domain scores were significantly improved when comparing 100,000 SQ-U with placebo, two domain scores were significantly improved when comparing 10,000 SQ-U with placebo. When comparing 100,000 SQ-U with 10,000 SQ-U, four domain scores were significantly improved. Treatment with Alutard SQ significantly improved the seasonal QoL of patients suffering from allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. The improvement was more pronounced and wider ranging in patients who received the higher 100,000 SQ-U maintenance dose.

  12. Complete amino acid sequence of a Lolium perenne (perennial rye grass) pollen allergen, Lol p II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, A A; Shenbagamurthi, P; Marsh, D G

    1989-07-05

    The complete amino acid sequence of a Lolium perenne (rye grass) pollen allergen, Lol p II was determined by automated Edman degradation of the protein and selected fragments. Cleavage of the protein by enzymatic and chemical techniques established an unambiguous sequence for the protein. Lol p II contains 97 amino acid residues, with a calculated molecular weight of 10,882. The protein lacks cysteine and glutamine and shows no evidence of glycosylation. Theoretical predictions by Fraga's (Fraga, S. (1982) Can. J. Chem. 60, 2606-2610) and Hopp and Woods' (Hopp, T. P., and Woods, K. R. (1981) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 78, 3824-3828) methods indicate the presence of four hydrophilic regions, which may contribute to sequential or parts of conformational B-cell epitopes. Analysis of amphipathic regions by Berzofsky's method indicates the presence of a highly amphipathic region, which may contain, or contribute to, an Ia/T-cell epitope. This latter segment of Lol p II was found to be highly homologous with an antibody-binding segment of the major rye allergen Lol p I and may explain why immune responsiveness to both the allergens is associated with HLA-DR3.

  13. Grass pollen immunotherapy: symptomatic improvement correlates with reductions in eosinophils and IL-5 mRNA expression in the nasal mucosa during the pollen season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, D R; Nouri-Aria, K T; Walker, S M; Pajno, G B; O'Brien, F; Jacobson, M R; Mackay, I S; Durham, S R

    2001-06-01

    Tissue eosinophilia and infiltration by T(H)2-type T cells are characteristic features of allergic rhinitis both after allergen challenge and during natural allergen exposure. Specific immunotherapy inhibits allergen-induced nasal eosinophilia. We sought to assess, in the context of a randomized trial, the relationships between symptomatic improvement after immunotherapy and eosinophil numbers and IL-5 expression in the nasal mucosa during the pollen season. Nasal biopsy specimens were taken from 37 adults with severe summer hay fever at baseline (out of season) and at peak season after 2 years of treatment with a depot grass pollen extract or placebo. Biopsy specimens were processed for immunohistochemistry by using mAbs against eosinophils (EG2), T cells (CD3), and IL-2 receptor-positive cells (CD25), as well as for in situ hybridization by using a sulfur 35-labeled antisense riboprobe directed against IL-5. Immunotherapy significantly reduced symptoms (49%, P =.01) and medication requirements (80%, P =.007) compared with placebo. There was a 400% increase (P =.004) in eosinophils during the pollen season in placebo-treated patients, which was inhibited in the immunotherapy group (20% increase, P =.04 between groups). Seasonal increases were also observed for CD25(+) cells (P =.002), CD3(+) cells (P =.02), and IL-5 mRNA-expressing cells (P =.03) in the placebo group but not in the immunotherapy group. A significant correlation was observed between eosinophils and IL-5 expression (r = 0.5, P pollen immunotherapy may result, at least in part, from inhibition of IL-5-dependent tissue eosinophilia during the pollen season.

  14. Long-term clinical efficacy in grass pollen-induced rhinoconjunctivitis after treatment with SQ-standardized grass allergy immunotherapy tablet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Stephen R; Emminger, Waltraud; Kapp, Alexander; Colombo, Giselda; de Monchy, Jan G R; Rak, Sabina; Scadding, Glenis K; Andersen, Jens S; Riis, Bente; Dahl, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Sustained and disease-modifying effects of sublingual immunotherapy have never before been confirmed in a large-scale randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. We sought to investigate sustained efficacy 1 year after a 3-year period of daily treatment with the SQ-standardized grass allergy immunotherapy tablet Grazax (Phleum pratense 75,000 SQ-T/2,800 BAU; ALK-Abelló, Hørsholm, Denmark). A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III trial including adults with a history of moderate-to-severe grass pollen induced rhinoconjunctivitis inadequately controlled by symptomatic medications. The analysis set comprised 257 subjects at the follow-up. Efficacy end points were rhinoconjunctivitis symptom and medication scores, quality of life, and percentages of symptom and medication free days. Immunologic end points included grass pollen-specific serum IgG4 and IgE-blocking factor. Safety was assessed based on adverse events. Significant improvements in efficacy were consistently shown during 3 years' treatment. One year after treatment, the active group showed sustained reductions in mean rhinoconjunctivitis symptom scores (26%, P < .001) and medication scores (29%, P = .022) when compared with placebo. This level was similar to the efficacy observed during the 3-year treatment period. The differences in percentages of symptom- and medication-free days were significant during and 1 year after treatment. The active group also reported sustained and significant improvements in quality of life. Sustained clinical benefit was accompanied by immunologic changes. No safety issues were identified. Three years of treatment with the SQ-standardized grass allergy immunotherapy tablet resulted in consistent clinical improvement and accompanying immunologic changes that were sustained 1 year after treatment, which is indicative of disease modification and associated long-term benefits. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by

  15. Evaluation of two grass pollen extracts for immunotherapy by serum determinations of specific IgE and IgG4 antibodies towards purified Timothy grass pollen allergens (Phl p 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 11, 12 in patients undergoing hyposensitization treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Enzo Rossi

    2002-01-01

    Conclusions: These results indicate that grass pollen immunotherapy elicits an array of antibody specificities that reflect the allergen content and the potency of allergen extracts; this could be of pivotal importance to define optimal allergen extract doses.

  16. Lol p XI, a new major grass pollen allergen, is a member of a family of soybean trypsin inhibitor-related proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ree, R; Hoffman, D R; van Dijk, W; Brodard, V; Mahieu, K; Koeleman, C A; Grande, M; van Leeuwen, W A; Aalberse, R C

    1995-05-01

    Monoclonal antibodies were obtained against an unknown allergen from Lolium perenne grass pollen. The allergen had an apparent molecular mass of 18 kd on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Earlier immunoblotting studies had shown that carbohydrate-specific IgG antibodies recognize an antigen of similar size. We sought to characterize the allergen biochemically and immunologically. The amino acid sequence of the allergen was determined by automated Edman degradation, and its monosaccharide composition was determined by gas chromatographic analysis. A panel of 270 grass pollen-positive sera was assessed in a RAST with the purified allergen. Protease digestion (proteinase K) and chemical deglycosylation (trifluoromethane sulfonic acid) were used to distinguish between carbohydrate and peptide epitopes for IgE antibodies. The allergen was shown to be a glycoprotein with a molecular mass of 16 kd, of which 8% is carbohydrate. Its amino acid sequence shares 32% homology with soybean trypsin inhibitor (Kunitz) but lacks its active site. No homology was found with known grass pollen allergens, hence it was designated Lol p XI. A high degree of homology (44%) was found with a tree pollen allergen, Ole e I, the major allergen of olive pollen. More than 65% of grass pollen-positive sera had IgE against Lol p XI. IgE reactivity was demonstrated both with the carbohydrate moiety and the peptide backbone. Lol p XI is a new major grass pollen allergen carrying an IgE-binding carbohydrate determinant. Lol p XI is structurally related to the major allergen from olive pollen.

  17. Measurement of IgE antibodies against purified grass pollen allergens (Lol p 1, 2, 3 and 5) during immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ree, R; Van Leeuwen, W A; Dieges, P H; Van Wijk, R G; De Jong, N; Brewczyski, P Z; Kroon, A M; Schilte, P P; Tan, K Y; Simon-Licht, I F; Roberts, A M; Stapel, S O; Aalberse, R C

    1997-01-01

    IgE titres tend to rise early after the start of immunotherapy, followed by a decline to pre-immunotherapy levels or lower. We were interested to know whether the early increase in IgE antibodies includes new specificities of IgE, and whether these responses persist. Sera of 64 patients undergoing grass pollen immunotherapy were tested for IgE against four purified grass pollen allergens: Lol p 1, 2, 3, and 5. At least two serum samples were taken, one before the start of therapy and one between 5 and 18 months after the first immunization (mean: 10 months). The mean IgE responses to Lol p 1, 2 and 3 showed a moderate but not significant increase. In contrast, the mean IgE response to Lol p 5 showed a significant decrease of > 30%. IgE against total Lohum perenne pollen extract moderately increased (> 20%), showing that a RAST for total pollen is not always indicative for the development of IgE against its major allergens. For > 40% of the patients it was found that IgE against one or more of the four allergens increased, while IgE against the remaining allergen(s) decreased. For 10 sera the ratio of IgE titres against at least two allergens changed by at least a factor of 5. The changes in specific IgE also included conversions from negative (< 0.1 RU) to positive (0.6 to 5.0 RU) for five patients. For two patients, the induction of these 'new' IgE antibodies against major allergens was shown to result in a response that was persistent over several years. Although active induction of new IgE specificities by immunotherapy was not really proven, the observations in this study indicate that monitoring of IgE against purified (major) allergens is necessary to evaluate changes in specific IgE in a reliable way.

  18. Pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... automatic dryer rather than hanging them outside. Otherwise pollen can collect on clothing and be carried indoors. This content is ... Health Sciences 111 T.W. Alexander Drive Durham, N.C. 27709 NIEHS Staff: Request an Update ...

  19. Pollen

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past vegetation and climate derived from pollen found in lake and ocean sediments. Parameter keywords describe what was measured in this data set....

  20. Recombinant pollen allergens from Dactylis glomerata: preliminary evidence that human IgE cross-reactivity between Dac g II and Lol p I/II is increased following grass pollen immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, A M; Van Ree, R; Cardy, S M; Bevan, L J; Walker, M R

    1992-07-01

    We previously described the isolation of three identical complementary DNA (cDNA) clones, constructed from Orchard/Cocksfoot grass (Dactylis glomerata) anther messenger RNA (mRNA), expressing a 140,000 MW beta-galactosidase fusion protein recognized by IgE antibodies in atopic sera. Partial nucleotide sequencing and inferred amino acid sequence showed greater than 90% homology with the group II allergen from Lolium perenne (Lol II) indicating they encode the group II equivalent, Dac g II. Western blot immunoprobing of recombinant lysates with rabbit polyclonal, mouse monoclonal and human polyclonal antisera demonstrates immunological identity between recombinant Dac g II, Lol p I and Lol p II. Similar cross-identity is observed with pollen extracts from three other grass species: Festuca rubra, Phleum pratense and Anthoxanthum odoratum. Recombinant Dac g II was recognized by species- and group-cross-reactive human IgE antibodies in 33% (4/12) of sera randomly selected from grass-sensitive individuals and in 67% (14/21) of sera from patients receiving grass pollen immunotherapy, whilst 0/4 sera from patients receiving venom immunotherapy alone contained Dac g II cross-reactive IgE. Cross-reactive IgG4 antibodies were detectable in 95% of sera from grass pollen immunotherapy patients. These preliminary data suggest that conventional grass pollen allergoid desensitization immunotherapy may induce IgE responses to a cross-reactive epitope(s) co-expressed by grass pollen groups I and II (and possibly group III) allergens.

  1. Personal exposure to grass pollen: relating inhaled dose to background concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peel, Robert George; Hertel, Ole; Smith, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Background: Very few studies on human exposure to allergenic pollen have been conducted using direct methods, with background concentrations measured at city center monitoring stations typically taken as a proxy for exposure despite the inhomogeneous nature of atmospheric pollen concentrations. A...

  2. Effect of Two Years of Treatment with Sublingual Grass Pollen Immunotherapy on Nasal Response to Allergen Challenge at Three Years among Patients with Moderate to Severe Seasonal Allergic Rhinitis: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scadding, Guy W.; Calderon, Moises A.; Shamji, Mohamed H.; Eifan, Aarif O.; Penagos, Martin; Dumitru, Florentina; Sever, Michelle L.; Bahnson, Henry T; Lawson, Kaitie; Harris, Kristina M.; Plough, Audrey G.; Panza, Joy Laurienzo; Qin, Tielin; Lim, Noha; Tchao, Nadia K.; Togias, Alkis; Durham, Stephen R.

    2017-01-01

    Importance Sublingual immunotherapy and subcutaneous immunotherapy are effective in seasonal allergic rhinitis. Three years of continuous treatment with subcutaneous immunotherapy and sublingual immunotherapy has been shown to improve symptoms for at least two years following discontinuation of treatment. Objective To assess whether 2 years of treatment with grass pollen sublingual immunotherapy compared with placebo provides improved nasal response to allergen challenge at 3 year follow-up. Design, Setting, Participants A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled, 3-parallel group study performed in a single academic centre, Imperial College London, including adult patients with moderate-to-severe seasonal allergic rhinitis (interfering with usual daily activities or sleep). First enrolment was March 2011, last follow-up February 2015. Intervention Thirty-six participants received 2 years sublingual immunotherapy (daily tablets containing 15 microgram of major allergen Phleum p 5 and monthly placebo injections), 36 received subcutaneous immunotherapy (monthly injections containing 20 micrograms of Phleum p 5 and daily placebo tablets) and 34 received matched double-placebo. Nasal allergen challenge was performed before treatment, at 1 and 2 years and at 3 years (1 year after treatment discontinuation). Main outcomes and measures Total nasal symptom scores (TNSS, range 0 (best) to 12 (worst) were recorded during 0–10 hours after challenge. The minimum clinically important difference for change in TNSS within an individual is 1.08. The primary outcome was TNSS comparing sublingual immunotherapy to placebo at year 3. Subcutaneous immunotherapy was included as a positive control. The study was not powered to compare sublingual immunotherapy with subcutaneous immunotherapy. Results Among 106 participants who were randomized (mean age 33.5 years, 32.1% female), 92 completed the study at 3 years. Imputed TNSS scores [mean (95% confidence intervals)] pre-treatment and

  3. Lol p XI, a new major grass pollen allergen, is a member of a family of soybean trypsin inhibitor-related proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ree, R.; Hoffman, D. R.; van Dijk, W.; Brodard, V.; Mahieu, K.; Koeleman, C. A.; Grande, M.; van Leeuwen, W. A.; Aalberse, R. C.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Monoclonal antibodies were obtained against an unknown allergen from Lolium perenne grass pollen. The allergen had an apparent molecular mass of 18 kd on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Earlier immunoblotting studies had shown that carbohydrate-specific IgG

  4. Once-daily sublingual allergen-specific immunotherapy improves quality of life in patients with grass pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis: a double-blind, randomised study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rak, Sabina; Yang, William H; Pedersen, Martin R; Durham, Stephen R

    2007-03-01

    The effect of sublingual immunotherapy on quality of life (QoL) was examined in patients with grass pollen-induced rhinoconjunctivitis. Patients (n = 855) were randomised to once-daily grass allergen tablets (2,500; 25,000; or 75,000 SQ-T Phleum pratense extract; GRAZAX or placebo. Treatment was initiated 8 weeks before the start of the grass pollen season and continued throughout. If symptoms were present, patients received loratadine or placebo rescue medication. There were three major findings: in patients using loratadine, grass allergen tablets provided QOL benefits over placebo; Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (RQLQ) score was 17% (p = 0.006) and 20% (p = 0.020) greater with 75,000 SQ-T tablet than with placebo at first and second seasonal visit, respectively; in patients not using loratadine, grass allergen tablets improved QoL more than placebo; RQLQ score was 21% greater (p = 0.021) with 75,000 SQ-T tablet at second seasonal visit; grass tablets (without loratadine) had a greater effect on QoL than loratadine alone. RQLQ score was 26% (p = 0.014) greater with 75,000 SQ-T tablets than loratadine at second seasonal visit. These data show that sublingual immunotherapy with grass allergen tablets improves QOL in allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, reduces symptoms, and that this effect is greater than rescue antihistamine alone.

  5. Sensitization to cereals and peanut evidenced by skin prick test and specific IgE in food-tolerant, grass pollen allergic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martens Maria

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The botanical relation between grass and cereal grains may be relevant when diagnosing food allergy to cereals. The aim was to investigate the diagnostic specificity of skin prick test (SPT and specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE tests to cereals and peanut in grass pollen allergic subjects without history of, and clinically reactions to foods botanically related to grass. Methods 70 subjects (41 females; mean age 32 years and 20 healthy controls (13 females; mean age 24 years were tested by open food challenge (OFC with cereals and peanut. SPT and sIgE both with Immulite® (Siemens and ImmunoCAP® (Phadia to grass and birch pollen, cereals, peanut and bromelain were performed. Results Of the 65 OFC-negative subjects 29-46% (SPT, depending on cut-off, 20% (Immulite and 38% (ImmunoCAP had positive results to one or more of the foods tested. Controls were negative in all tests. Cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCD as evidenced by reaction to bromelain could explain only a minority of the measured IgE-sensitizations. Conclusion Grass pollen allergic patients with documented food tolerance to cereals and peanut may express significant sensitization. False-positive cereal or peanut allergy diagnoses may be a quantitatively important problem both in routine clinical work and epidemiological studies.

  6. Sublingual immunotherapy with grass pollen is not effective in symptomatic youngsters in primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roder, Esther; Berger, Marjolein Y.; Hop, Wim C. J.; Bernsen, Roos M. D.; de Groot, Hans; van Wijk, Roy Gerth

    Background: Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is considered safer and more convenient than subcutaneous therapy and therefore has been proposed as especially suitable for children and in primary care. Most efficacy studies in children lack power to be conclusive, and all have been performed in

  7. The effect of exposure to sulphuric acid on the early asthmatic response to inhaled grass pollen allergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunnicliffe, W S; Evans, D E; Mark, D; Harrison, R M; Ayres, J G

    2001-10-01

    Particulate sulphates, including sulphuric acid (H2SO4), are important components of the ambient aerosol in some areas and are regarded as air pollutants with potentially important human health effects. Challenge studies suggest little or no effect of H2SO4 exposure on lung function in asthmatic adults, although some epidemiological studies demonstrate an effect of acid species on symptoms in subjects with asthma. To date, the effect of H2SO4 on allergen responsiveness has not been studied. The effect of exposure to particulate H2SO4 on the early asthmatic response to grass pollen allergen has been investigated in 13 adults with mild asthma. After establishment of the provocative dose of allergen producing a 15% fall in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEVI) (PD15) for each subject, they were exposed to air, 100 microg m(-3) or 1,000 g x m(-3) H2SO4 for 1 h, double-blind in random order > or =2 weeks apart, through a head dome delivery system 14 h after each exposure subject underwent a fixed-dose allergen challenge (PD15). Ten subjects completed the study. The mean early asthmatic responses (maximum percentage change in FEV1 during the first 2 h after challenge) following air, 100 microg x m(-3) H2SO4, and 1,000 microg m(-3) H2SO4, were -14.1%, -16.7%, and -18.4%, respectively. The difference between 1,000 microg x m(-3) H2SO4 and air was significant (mean difference: -4.3%, 95% confidence interval (CI: -1.2-7.4%, p=0.013). The difference between air and 100 microg m(-3) H2SO4 approached significance (mean difference: -2.6%, 95% CI: 0.0-5.3%, p = 0.051). These results suggest that, at least at high mass concentration, sulphuric acid can potentiate the early asthmatic response of mild asthmatic subjects to grass pollen allergen, although the effect is limited.

  8. The nasal mucosal late allergic reaction to grass pollen involves type 2 inflammation (IL-5 and IL-13), the inflammasome (IL-1β), and complement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaker, B R; Malkov, V A; Mogg, R; Ruddy, M K; Nicholson, G C; Tan, A J; Tribouley, C; Chen, G; De Lepeleire, I; Calder, N A; Chung, H; Lavender, P; Carayannopoulos, L N; Hansel, T T

    2017-03-01

    Non-invasive mucosal sampling (nasosorption and nasal curettage) was used following nasal allergen challenge with grass pollen in subjects with allergic rhinitis, in order to define the molecular basis of the late allergic reaction (LAR). It was found that the nasal LAR to grass pollen involves parallel changes in pathways of type 2 inflammation (IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13), inflammasome-related (IL-1β), and complement and circadian-associated genes. A grass pollen nasal spray was given to subjects with hay fever followed by serial sampling, in which cytokines and chemokines were measured in absorbed nasal mucosal lining fluid, and global gene expression (transcriptomics) assessed in nasal mucosal curettage samples. Twelve of 19 subjects responded with elevations in interleukin (IL)-5, IL-13, IL-1β and MIP-1β/CCL4 protein levels in the late phase. In addition, in these individuals whole-genome expression profiling showed upregulation of type 2 inflammation involving eosinophils and IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13; neutrophil recruitment with IL-1α and IL-1β; the alternative pathway of complement (factor P and C5aR); and prominent effects on circadian-associated transcription regulators. Baseline IL-33 mRNA strongly correlated with these late-phase responses, whereas a single oral dose of prednisone dose-dependently reversed most nasal allergen challenge-induced cytokine and transcript responses. This study shows that the LAR to grass pollen involves a range of inflammatory pathways and suggests potential new biomarkers and therapeutic targets. Furthermore, the marked variation in mucosal inflammatory events between different patients suggests that in the future precision mucosal sampling may enable rational specific therapy.

  9. An immunodiagnostic assay for quantitation of specific IgE to the major pollen allergen component, Pas n 1, of the subtropical Bahia grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timbrell, Victoria L; Riebelt, Lindsay; Simmonds, Claire; Solley, Graham; Smith, William B; Mclean-Tooke, Andrew; van Nunen, Sheryl; Smith, Peter K; Upham, John W; Langguth, Daman; Davies, Janet M

    2014-01-01

    Pollens of the Panicoideae subfamily of grasses including Bahia (Paspalum notatum) are important allergen sources in subtropical regions of the world. An assay for specific IgE to the major molecular allergenic component, Pas n 1, of Bahia grass pollen (BaGP) would have immunodiagnostic utility for patients with pollen allergy in these regions. Biotinylated Pas n 1 purified from BaGP was coated onto streptavidin ImmunoCAPs. Subjects were assessed by clinical history of allergic rhinitis and skin prick test (SPT) to aeroallergens. Serum total, BaGP-specific and Pas n 1-specific IgE were measured. Pas n 1 IgE concentrations were highly correlated with BaGP SPT (r = 0.795, p Pas n 1 IgE, the diagnostic sensitivity (92.4%) and specificity (93.1%) for the detection of BaGP allergy was high (area under receiver operator curve 0.960, p Pas n 1 IgE in non-atopic subjects (0.01 kU/l, n = 67) and those with other allergies (0.02 kU/l, n = 59) showed no inter-group difference, whilst grass pollen-allergic patients with allergic rhinitis showed elevated Pas n 1 IgE (6.71 kU/l, n = 182, p Pas n 1 IgE appears to account for most of the BaGP-specific IgE. This molecular component immunoassay for Pas n 1 IgE has potential utility to improve the sensitivity and accuracy of diagnosis of BaGP allergy for patients in subtropical regions. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Grass pollen immunotherapy for hayfever is associated with increases in local nasal but not peripheral Th1:Th2 cytokine ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachholz, Petra A; Nouri-Aria, Kayhan T; Wilson, Duncan R; Walker, Samantha M; Verhoef, Adrienne; Till, Stephen J; Durham, Stephen R

    2002-01-01

    Grass pollen immunotherapy is the only treatment for hayfever that is both effective and confers long-term benefit. Immunotherapy may act by altering the local nasal mucosal T helper type 2 (Th2) to type 1 (Th1) cytokine balance either by down-regulation and/or immune deviation of T-lymphocyte responses. There is controversy as to whether these changes are detectable in peripheral blood. We therefore examined both local nasal and peripheral T-cell responses to allergen exposure in the same subjects before and after immunotherapy. In a double-blind trial of grass pollen immunotherapy, nasal biopsies were obtained at baseline and during the peak pollen season following 2 years of immunotherapy. Placebo-treated patients showed a seasonal increase in CD3(+) T cells (P = 0.02) and in interleukin-5 (IL-5) mRNA(+) cells (P = 0.03) and no change in interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma ) mRNA(+) cells (P = 0.2) in the nasal mucosa. In contrast, in the immunotherapy-treated group, there were no changes in the number of CD3(+) T cells (P = 0.3) and IL-5 mRNA+ cells (P = 0.2) but a significant increase in the number of IFN-gamma mRNA(+) cells (P = 0.03). Furthermore, clinical improvement in the immunotherapy-treated group was accompanied by a seasonal increase in the ratio of IFN-gamma to IL-5 mRNA(+) cells in the nasal mucosa (P = 0.03). In contrast, there were no significant changes in peripheral T-cell proliferative responses or cytokine production for IFN-gamma or IL-5 in response to grass pollen either within or between the two treatment groups. We conclude that successful grass pollen immunotherapy was associated with an increase in the ratio of IFN-gamma to IL-5 mRNA(+) cells in the nasal mucosa, whereas these changes were not reflected by alterations in peripheral blood T-cell proliferative responses or cytokine production before/after treatment.

  11. Bee Pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bee Pollen Extract, Buckwheat Pollen, Extrait de Pollen d’Abeille, Honeybee Pollen, Honey Bee Pollen, Maize Pollen, Pine Pollen, Polen de Abeja, Pollen, Pollen d'Abeille, Pollen d’Abeille de Miel, Pollen de ...

  12. Subcutaneous adipose fatty acid profiles and related rumen bacterial populations of steers fed red clover or grass hay diets containing flax or sunflower-seed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee M Petri

    Full Text Available Steers were fed 70∶30 forage∶concentrate diets for 205 days, with either grass hay (GH or red clover silage (RC, and either sunflower-seed (SS or flaxseed (FS, providing 5.4% oil in the diets. Compared to diets containing SS, FS diets had elevated (P<0.05 subcutaneous trans (t-18:1 isomers, conjugated linoleic acids and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA. Forage and oilseed type influenced total n-3 PUFA, especially α-linolenic acid (ALA and total non-conjugated diene biohydrogenation (BH in subcutaneous fat with proportions being greater (P<0.05 for FS or GH as compared to SS or RC. Of the 25 bacterial genera impacted by diet, 19 correlated with fatty acids (FA profile. Clostridium were most abundant when levels of conjugated linolenic acids, and n-3 PUFA's were found to be the lowest in subcutaneous fat, suggestive of their role in BH. Anerophaga, Fibrobacter, Guggenheimella, Paludibacter and Pseudozobellia were more abundant in the rumen when the levels of VA in subcutaneous fat were low. This study clearly shows the impact of oilseeds and forage source on the deposition of subcutaneous FA in beef cattle. Significant correlations between rumen bacterial genera and the levels of specific FA in subcutaneous fat maybe indicative of their role in determining the FA profile of adipose tissue. However, despite numerous correlations, the dynamics of rumen bacteria in the BH of unsaturated fatty acid and synthesis of PUFA and FA tissue profiles require further experimentation to determine if these correlations are consistent over a range of diets of differing composition. Present results demonstrate that in order to achieve targeted FA profiles in beef, a multifactorial approach will be required that takes into consideration not only the PUFA profile of the diet, but also the non-oil fraction of the diet, type and level of feed processing, and the role of rumen microbes in the BH of unsaturated fatty acid.

  13. Single dose topical corticosteroid inhibits IL-5 and IL-13 in nasal lavage following grass pollen challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erin, E M; Leaker, B R; Zacharasiewicz, A S; Higgins, L A; Williams, T J; Boyce, M J; de Boer, P; Durham, S R; Barnes, P J; Hansel, T T

    2005-12-01

    Nasal lavage is a noninvasive method of obtaining inflammatory exudates following nasal allergen challenge (NAC), and permits cells and released mediators to be evaluated. To determine the effects of a single dose of topical steroid on eosinophils and levels of chemokines and cytokines in nasal lavage fluid following NAC in patients with allergic rhinitis. Patients with grass pollen seasonal allergic rhinitis (n = 32) out of the allergy season received either nasal budesonide (100 microg per nostril) or matched placebo before allergen challenge in a double blind two-way crossover design. A semi-automated mixed bead array system was employed to measure multiple chemokines and cytokines in small volumes (50 microl) of nasal lavage supernatants. Following NAC there was a rapid onset of nasal symptoms together with nasal eosinophilia, and the appearance of IL-5 and IL-13 in lavages between 4 and 8 h. Elevated levels of eotaxin, RANTES, IL-8 and MCP-1 were also detected following allergen challenge. A single dose of nasal budesonide caused a decrease in symptoms (P < 0.05) and nasal eosinophils (P < 0.05) with selective abrogation of IL-5 and IL-13 responses (P < 0.05), but a lack of effect on levels of eotaxin, RANTES, IL-8 and MCP-1. This study suggests that a single dose of nasal steroid has the capacity to selectively abolish IL-5 and IL-13 responses following NAC. This model should be convenient for testing novel anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory agents intended for the treatment of allergic rhinitis.

  14. Characterization of the human T cell response to rye grass pollen allergens Lol p 1 and Lol p 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, M D; Papalia, L; Eusebius, N P; O'Hehir, R E; Rolland, J M

    2002-12-01

    Knowledge of dominant T cell epitopes of major allergens recognized by allergic individuals is required to improve efficacy and safety of allergen immunotherapy. Rye grass pollen (RGP) is the most important source of seasonal aeroallergens in temperate climates and Lol p 1 and Lol p 5 are the two major IgE-reactive allergens. This study aimed to characterize the T cell response to these allergens using a large panel of RGP-sensitive individuals. Short-term RGP-specific T cell lines (TCL) were generated from 38 RGP-sensitive subjects and stimulated with Lol p 1 and/or Lol p 5 allergens and synthetic 20-mer peptides. Proliferative responses were determined by 3H-thymidine uptake and IL-5 and IFN-gamma in culture supernatants analysed by ELISA. Of 17 subjects tested for reactivity to both allergens 16 (94%) responded to Lol p 1 and/or Lol p 5, establishing these as major T cell-reactive allergens. Sites of T cell reactivity were spread throughout the allergen molecules but regions of high reactivity were found. For Lol p 1 these spanned residues 19-38, 109-128, 154-173, 190-209, and for Lol p 5 37-56, 100-119, 145-164, 154-173, 190-209, 217-236 and 226-245. IL-5 and IFN-gamma were produced by T cells cultured with proliferation-inducing peptides. T cell responses to RGP major allergens have been extensively characterized, providing fundamental information for developing T cell-targeted immunotherapy for RGP allergy.

  15. IN SUBJECTS ALLERGIC TO GRASS POLLEN, BASOPHIL SENSITIVITY DECREASES DURING SUBCUTANEOUS IMMUNOTHERAPY DUE TO BOTH HUMORAL FACTORS AND CELLULAR DESENSITIZATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmid, Johannes Martin; Dahl, Ronald; Hoffmann, Hans Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    Johannes Martin Schmid, Ronald Dahl, and Hans Juergen Hoffmann Department of Respiratory Medicine, Aarhus, Denmark Background: The major effect of SCIT is a change in allergen specific immunoglobulin. We measure the contribution of competing immunoglobulin to the effect of SCIT in patients......X with an about six-fold decrease in cellular sensitivity. Conclusion: We found an increasing protective effect of SCIT after 1 year of treatment measured by basophil activation test. During the early treatment period, this effect is primarily based on a shift towards protecting IgX, while there seems...

  16. Influence of seasonal exposure to grass pollen on local and peripheral blood IgE repertoires in patients with allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Chang B; James, Louisa K; Vander Heiden, Jason A; Uduman, Mohamed; Durham, Stephen R; Kleinstein, Steven H; Kipling, David; Gould, Hannah J

    2014-09-01

    Previous studies of immunoglobulin gene sequences in patients with allergic diseases using low-throughput Sanger sequencing have limited the analytic depth for characterization of IgE repertoires. We used a high-throughput, next-generation sequencing approach to characterize immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene (IGH) repertoires in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis (AR) with the aim of better understanding the underlying disease mechanisms. IGH sequences in matched peripheral blood and nasal biopsy specimens from nonallergic healthy control subjects (n = 3) and patients with grass pollen-related AR taken in season (n = 3) or out of season (n = 4) were amplified and pyrosequenced on the 454 GS FLX+ System. A total of 97,610 IGH (including 8,135 IgE) sequences were analyzed. Use of immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable region gene families 1 (IGHV1) and 5 (IGHV5) was higher in IgE clonotypic repertoires compared with other antibody classes independent of atopic status. IgE repertoires measured inside the grass pollen season were more diverse and more mutated (particularly in the biopsy specimens) and had more evidence of antigen-driven selection compared with those taken outside of the pollen season or from healthy control subjects. Clonal relatedness was observed for IgE between the blood and nasal biopsy specimens. Furthermore in patients with AR, but not healthy control subjects, we found clonal relatedness between IgE and IgG classes. This is the first report that exploits next-generation sequencing to determine local and peripheral blood IGH repertoires in patients with respiratory allergic disease. We demonstrate that natural pollen exposure was associated with changes in IgE repertoires that were suggestive of ongoing germinal center reactions. Furthermore, these changes were more often apparent in nasal biopsy specimens compared with peripheral blood and in patients with AR compared with healthy control subjects. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by

  17. Functional rather than immunoreactive levels of IgG4 correlate closely with clinical response to grass pollen immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamji, M H; Ljørring, C; Francis, J N; Calderon, M A; Larché, M; Kimber, I; Frew, A J; Ipsen, H; Lund, K; Würtzen, P A; Durham, S R

    2012-02-01

    Induction of allergen-specific IgG(4) antibodies is the most consistent immunological finding in immunotherapy trials. However, quantitative assessments of IgG(4) antibodies have not proven beneficial in evaluating clinical changes during or after immunotherapy. In the current study, we investigated the relationship between clinical outcome and allergen-specific IgG(4) titres or functional antibody responses following immunotherapy. We hypothesized that functional assays of serum IgG-associated inhibitory activity such as inhibition of IgE-allergen interactions (IgE-blocking factor) and inhibition of CD23-dependent IgE-facilitated allergen binding (IgE-FAB) correlate more closely with clinical outcome and may be biomarkers of clinical response. In an 8-month dose-response randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study, 221 polysensitized subjects with severe seasonal rhinitis received Alutard SQ, Phleum pratense 100,000 SQ-U, 10,000 SQ-U or placebo injections. Serum specimens were collected before treatment, after up-dosing, during the peak season and at the end of the study. Allergen-specific IgG(4) titres and IgG-associated inhibitory activity were evaluated. A time- and dose-dependent increase in serum inhibitory activity for both the IgE-blocking factor and IgE-FAB was observed, which paralleled increases in grass pollen-specific IgG(4) antibodies. A modest but significant inverse relationship was demonstrated between postimmunotherapy serum inhibitory activity and combined symptom-rescue medication scores (IgE-FAB: r = -0.25, P = 0.0002; IgE-blocking factor: r = -0.28, P < 0.0001), whereas this was not observed for immunoreactive IgG(4) levels (r = -0.11, P = 0.12). Functional assays of inhibitory IgG(4) and IgE-blocking factor may be more useful surrogates of clinical response than IgG(4). Whether these antibody effects may serve as predictive biomarkers of clinical efficacy in individual patients requires further investigation. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. Two-dimensional gel electrophoretic analyses of Kentucky bluegrass and rye grass pollen allergens. Detection with a murine monoclonal anti-Poa p I antibody and amino terminal amino acid sequence of Poa p I allergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekramoddoullah, A K

    1990-01-01

    Allergenic extracts of Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) and rye grass (Lolium perenne) pollen were shown by 2-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis to consist of several hundred protein components. The pollen extracts of the two related grasses had unique 2-D gel patterns. Two major grass pollen allergens, Poa p I and Lol p I, and their isoforms (i.e. isoallergens) were detected and localized on 2-D gels by immunoblotting with anti-Poa p I antibody mAb 60. Poa p I isoallergens were less acidic than Lol p I isoallergens. The relative proportion of four Poa p I isoallergens was (in decreasing pI): A, 13%; B, 37%; and D, 15%. The amino terminal amino acid sequences of the two major isoallergens of Poa p I were identical. However, the amino acid composition of these isoallergens showed enough differences to account for their charge differences. The amino terminal amino acid sequence of two major Poa p I isoallergens had a 70% homology in 20 amino acid overlap with the previously published amino terminal amino acid sequence of rye grass pollen allergen R-7.

  19. Rabbit IgG directed to a synthetic C-terminal peptide of the major grass pollen allergen Lol p I inhibits human basophil histamine release induced by natural Lol p I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ree, R.; Aalberse, R. C.

    1995-01-01

    The potential role of allergen-specific IgG antibodies as 'blocking' antibodies in allergen-induced human basophil histamine release was investigated. This was studied in a model with the major grass pollen allergen Lol p I and polyclonal rabbit antisera directed against this allergen and against a

  20. Sublingual grass pollen immunotherapy is associated with increases in sublingual Foxp3-expressing cells and elevated allergen-specific immunoglobulin G4, immunoglobulin A and serum inhibitory activity for immunoglobulin E-facilitated allergen binding to B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scadding, G W; Shamji, M H; Jacobson, M R; Lee, D I; Wilson, D; Lima, M T; Pitkin, L; Pilette, C; Nouri-Aria, K; Durham, S R

    2010-04-01

    The mechanisms of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) are less well understood than those of subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT). To determine the effects of grass-pollen SLIT on oral mucosal immune cells, local regulatory cytokines, serum allergen-specific antibody subclasses and B cell IgE-facilitated allergen binding (IgE-FAB). Biopsies from the sublingual mucosa of up to 14 SLIT-treated atopics, nine placebo-treated atopics and eight normal controls were examined for myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) (CD1c), plasmacytoid dendritic cells (CD303), mast cells (AA1), T cells (CD3) and Foxp3 using immunofluorescence microscopy. IL-10 and TGF-beta mRNA expression were identified by in situ hybridization. Allergen-specific IgG and IgA subclasses and serum inhibitory activity for binding of allergen-IgE complexes to B cells (IgE-FAB) were measured before, during and on the completion of SLIT. Foxp3(+) cells were increased in the oral epithelium of SLIT- vs. placebo-treated atopics (P=0.04). Greater numbers of subepithelial mDCs were present in placebo-treated, but not in SLIT-treated, atopics compared with normal controls (P=0.05). There were fewer subepithelial mast cells and greater epithelial T cells in SLIT- compared with placebo-treated atopics (P=0.1 for both). IgG(1) and IgG(4) were increased following SLIT (Ppollen extract is associated with increased Foxp3(+) cells in the sublingual epithelium and systemic humoral changes as observed previously for SCIT.

  1. Peptide-induced immune regulation by a promiscuous and immunodominant CD4T-cell epitope of Timothy grass pollen: a role of Cbl-b and Itch in regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, Stephen J; Raynsford, Eleanor J; Reynolds, Catherine J; Quigley, Kathryn J; Grzybowska-Kowalczyk, Agnieszka; Saggar, Lavina R; Goldstone, Andrea; Maillere, Bernard; Kwok, William W; Altmann, Daniel M; Durham, Stephen R; Boyton, Rosemary J

    2014-04-01

    T-cell targeted peptide epitope tolerogens from grass pollen allergens may be useful in treating seasonal allergic rhinitis, but there is urgent need for optimisation of approaches from improved understanding of mechanism. We sought to identify human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR1-restricted epitopes from the Timothy grass pollen allergen, Phleum pratense, and characterise T-cell immune regulation following intranasal administration of a single, immunodominant epitope. T-cell epitopes within P pratense were identified using HLA-DR1 transgenic mice and tetramer-guided epitope mapping (TGEM) in HLA-DR1-positive individuals with grass allergy. An immunodominant epitope was tested in HLA-DR1 transgenics for impact on responses to whole Phl p5 b or peptide. Microarrays and quantitative PCR were used to characterise T-cell immunity. Peptide 26 (p26) was identified in HLA-DR1 transgenic mice and by TGEM analysis of HLA-DR1-positive individuals with grass allergy. p26 shows promiscuous binding to a wide range of HLA class II alleles, making it of relevance across immunogenetically diverse patients. The epitope is conserved in rye and velvet grass, making it applicable across a spectrum of grass pollen allergy. Intranasal pretreatment of mice with p26 results in significantly reduced T-cell responses. Transcriptomic array analysis in mice showed T-cell regulation in the intranasal treatment group associated with increased expression of members of the Cbl-b and Itch E3 ubiquitin ligase pathway. We defined an immunodominant P pratense epitope, p26, with broad binding across multiple HLA class II alleles. Intranasal treatment of mice with p26 results in T-cell regulation to whole allergen, involving the Cbl-b and Itch regulatory pathway.

  2. A Recombinant Fragment of Human Surfactant Protein D Suppresses Basophil Activation, Th2 and B Cell Responses in Grass Pollen-induced Allergic Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaseem, Asif S; Singh, Iesha; Pathan, Ansar A; Layhadi, Janice A; Parkin, Rebecca; Alexandra, Fedina; Durham, Stephen R; Kishore, Uday; Shamji, Mohamed H

    2017-09-15

    rfhSP-D has been shown to suppress house dust mite and Aspergillus fumigatus-induced allergic inflammation in murine models. We sought to elucidate the effect of rfhSP-D on FcεRI and CD23-mediated grass pollen induced allergic inflammatory responses. rfhSP-D, containing homotrimeric neck and lectin domains, was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (λDE3) pLysS. PBMCs and sera were obtained from grass pollen allergic individuals (n=27). The effect of rfhSP-D on basophil activation and histamine release was measured by flow cytometry. IgE-facilitated allergen binding and presentation was assessed by flow cytometry. Th2 cytokines were measured in cell culture supernatants. The effect of rfhSP-D on IgE production by B cells when stimulated with CD40L, IL-4 and IL-21 was also determined. rfhSP-D bound to Phleum pratense in a dose- and calcium-dependent manner. Allergen-induced basophil responsiveness and histamine release was inhibited in the presence of rfhSP-D, as measured by CD63, CD203c (P=0.0086,P=0.04205), and intracellular-labelled DAO (P=0.0003,P=0.0148). The binding of allergen-IgE complexes to B cells was reduced by 51%(P=0.002) in the presence of rfhSP-D. This decrease was concomitant with reduction in CD23 expression on B cells (P<0.001). rfhSP-D suppressed allergen-driven CD27-CD4+CRTH2+ T cell proliferation (P<0.01), IL-4 and IL-5 levels (all,P<0.01). Moreover, rfhSP-D inhibited CD40L/IL-4 and IL-21-mediated IgE production(77.12%; P=0.02) by B cells. For the first time, we show that rfhSP-D inhibited allergen-induced basophil responses at a single cell, level and suppressed CD23-mediated facilitated allergen presentation and Th2 cytokine production. In addition, rfhSP-D inhibited IgE synthesis by B cells, which is also a novel observation.

  3. Quality of life improvement after a three-year course of sublingual immunotherapy in patients with house dust mite and grass pollen induced allergic rhinitis: results from real-life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakova, Silviya Mihaylova; Staevska, Maria Toncheva; Novakova, Plamena Ivanova; Yoncheva, Manuela Dimitrova; Bratoycheva, Maria Stoykova; Musurlieva, Nina Mihaylova; Tzekov, Valeri Dimitrov; Nicolov, Dimitar Georgiev

    2017-09-29

    Along with its high prevalence, the burden of allergic rhinitis rests upon the serious impact on quality of life of patients. Allergic rhinitis is associated with impairments in daily activities, work and school performance, and practical problems. Patients suffer from sleep disorders and emotional problems. Тhe advantages of sublingual immunotherapy on quality of life have only recently begun to emerge. The objective of this prospective real-life study was to evaluate the effect of a three-year course of sublingual immunotherapy with house dust mite (HDM) and grass pollen extracts on quality of life in adults with allergic rhinitis. A total number of 191 adult patients [105 (54,979%) men; mean age 27.3 years (SD-6.14)] with moderate to severe allergic rhinitis and clinically relevant sensitization to house dust mites or grass pollen were prospectively evaluated in the course of management of their disease. Health-related quality of life was assessed by Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire at baseline and after three-year course of sublingual immunotherapy. The mean overall Qol score assessed at baseline and at the end of the third year of treatment decreased significantly in patients treated with HDM extract (from 2.95 to 0.76) as well as with Grass pollen extract (from 2.83 to 1.22) (р life provided evidence that a three-year course of SLIT with HDM extract as well as with grass pollen extract significantly increased QoL in patients with allergic rhinitis.

  4. Evaluation of a Novel Rapid Test System for the Detection of Allergic Sensitization to Timothy Grass Pollen against Established Laboratory Methods and Skin Prick Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Lucassen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Type I hypersensitivity is driven by allergen specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE and thus sIgE represents a marker for modern allergy diagnosis. Recently, a rapid assay for the detection of sIgE, termed as (Allergy Lateral Flow Assay ALFA, has been developed. The objective of our study is the evaluation of a scanner-based system for the semiquantitative interpretation of ALFA results. Agreement to Skin Prick Test (SPT, Allergopharma, ALLERG-O-LIQ System (Dr. Fooke, and ImmunoCAP (Phadia was investigated using 50 sera tested for specific IgE to timothy grass pollen (g6. 35/50 sera were positive by SPT, ALLERG-O-LIQ, and ImmunoCAP. Excellent agreement was observed between ALFA results and SPT, ImmunoCAP, and ALLERG-O-LIQ. Area under the curve (AUC values were found at 1.0, and 100% sensitivity and specificity was found versus all other methods. Visual- and scanner-based interpretation of the ALFA results revealed excellent agreement.

  5. Complete primary structure of a Lolium perenne (perennial rye grass) pollen allergen, Lol p III: comparison with known Lol p I and II sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, A A; Shenbagamurthi, P; Marsh, D G

    1989-10-17

    The complete amino acid sequence of a Lolium perenne (rye grass) pollen allergen, Lol p III, determined by the automated Edman degradation of the protein and its selected fragments, is reported in this paper. Cleavage by enzymatic and chemical techniques established unambiguously the sequence for this 97-residue protein (Mr = 10,909), which lacks cysteine and shows no evidence of glycosylation. The sequence of Lol p III is very similar to that of another L. perenne allergen, Lol p II, which was sequenced recently; of the 97 positions in the two proteins, 57 are occupied by identical amino acids (59% identity). In addition, both allergens share a similar structure with an antibody-binding fragment of a third L. perenne allergen, Lol p I. Since human antibody responsiveness to all these three allergens is associated with HLA-DR3, and since the structure common to the three molecules shows high degrees of amphipathicity in Lol p II and III, we speculate that this common segment in the three molecules might contain or contribute to the respectively Ia/T-cell sites.

  6. EFFECTIVENESS OF SUBCUTANEOUS ALLERGEN-SPECIFIC IMMUNOTHERAPY WITH TREE POLLEN ALLERGEN EXTRACT ADSORBED ON CALCIUM PHOSPHATE IN CHILDREN WITH ALLERGIC RHINOCONJUNCTIVITIS: RESULTS OF A 2 YEAR-LONG OBSERVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Shakhova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed at evaluating effectiveness and safety of subcutaneous allergen-specific immunotherapy (scASIT with tree pollen allergen extract adsorbed on calcium phosphate at allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in children. Patients and methods: open-label prospective study of 50 children and adolescents (5-17 years of age with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis caused by high sensitivity to tree pollen allergens. The first group involved the patients undergoing scASIT for 2 years 6 months (n = 23, the control group – the patients (n = 27 not undergoing any specific immunotherapy. Results: scASIT was accompanied by a statistically significant (in comparison with the control group reduction in intensity of rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms (6.1 ± 3.1; 11.8 ± 4.5; p = 0.00002, reduction in the use of symptomatic drugs (1.0 ± 0.4; 1.8 ± 0.3; p = 0.000004 and improvement of quality of all spheres of children’s life – physical (p = 0.001, social (p = 0.04, emotional (p = 0.001 and role functioning (p = 0.03. Systemic side reactions were not observed in the patients. Local reactions were observed in 23% of all allergen injections. Conclusions: the authors established high effectiveness and safety of scASIT with tree pollen allergen extract adsorbed on calcium phosphate suspension at allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in children. 

  7. Survey of airborne pollens in Seoul, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H S; Chung, D H; Joo, Y J

    1994-02-01

    The daily pollen counts in the air of Seoul, Korea were measured using a rotorod sampler from June 1990 to July 1992. Two distinct pollen periods were noted: tree pollens such as alder, poplar, willow, oak and pine appeared in the spring from March to May, and weed pollens, such as Artemisia spp., Ambrosia spp. and Hop japanese appeared in the autumn from August to September. Various kinds of grass pollen appeared from June to September. The study indicated that there were two pollen peaks in Seoul composed of tree pollens in spring and weed pollens in autumn.

  8. Grass pollen immunotherapy induces an allergen-specific IgA2 antibody response associated with mucosal TGF-beta expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilette, Charles; Nouri-Aria, Kayhan T; Jacobson, Mikila R; Wilcock, Louisa K; Detry, Bruno; Walker, Samantha M; Francis, James N; Durham, Stephen R

    2007-04-01

    Allergen immunotherapy (IT) has long-term efficacy in IgE-mediated allergic rhinitis and asthma. IT has been shown to modify lymphocyte responses to allergen, inducing IL-10 production and IgG Abs. In contrast, a putative role for IgA and local TGF-beta-producing cells remains to be determined. In 44 patients with seasonal rhinitis/asthma, serum IgA1, IgA2, and polymeric (J chain-containing) Abs to the major allergen Phl p 5 were determined by ELISA before and after a 2-year double-blind trial of grass pollen (Phleum pratense) injection IT. Nasal TGF-beta expression was assessed by in situ hybridization. Sera from five IT patients were fractionated for functional analysis of the effects of IgA and IgG Abs on IL-10 production by blood monocytes and allergen-IgE binding to B cells. Serum Phl p 5-specific IgA2 Abs increased after a 2-year treatment (approximately 8-fold increase, p = 0.002) in contrast to IgA1. Increases in polymeric Abs to Phl p 5 (approximately 2-fold increase, p = 0.02) and in nasal TGF-beta mRNA (p = 0.05) were also observed, and TGF-beta mRNA correlated with serum Phl p 5 IgA2 (r = 0.61, p = 0.009). Post-IT IgA fractions triggered IL-10 secretion by monocytes while not inhibiting allergen-IgE binding to B cells as observed with IgG fractions. This study shows for the first time that the IgA response to IT is selective for IgA2, correlates with increased local TGF-beta expression, and induces monocyte IL-10 expression, suggesting that IgA Abs could thereby contribute to the tolerance developed in IT-treated allergic patients.

  9. Development of a sublingual allergy vaccine for grass pollinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Frati

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Franco Frati1,2, Silvia Scurati1, Paola Puccinelli1, Marie David3, Cecile Hilaire4, Maurizio Capecce4, Francesco Marcucci2, Cristoforo Incorvaia51Medical and Scientific Department, Stallergenes, Milan, Italy; 2University Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties and Public Health, Perugia, Italy; 3Laboratoire Stallergenes, Antony, France; 4Marketing Department, Stallergenes, Milan, Italy; 5Allergy/Pulmonary Rehabilitation Unit, ICP Hospital, Milan, ItalyAbstract: Grass pollen is a very common cause of allergic rhinitis and asthma. The only treatment targeting the underlying causes of allergy is immunotherapy (IT. Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT has been introduced to solve the problem of systemic reactions to subcutaneous IT (SCIT. This article evaluates the characteristics of the allergen extract, Staloral, in terms of practical administration, effectiveness, safety, and mechanism of action. Efficacy data were obtained from double-blind, placebo-controlled studies using Staloral in patients sensitized to grass pollen, while practical administration, cost-effectiveness, and mechanism of action data were provided by well designed studies. The efficacy and safety of Staloral, as demonstrated by review of published studies which used doses up to 1125 times those administered with SCIT, shows that this allergen extract has optimal characteristics for treating patients with seasonal allergies due to grass pollens. The main mechanism of action is the interaction between dendritic cells of the oral mucosa and the subsequent tolerance induced in T-cells.Keywords: allergen extracts, high-dose, efficacy, safety, sublingual immunotherapy

  10. Chemotaxonomy as a tool for interpreting the cryptic diversity of Poaceae pollen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Julier, A.C.M.; Jardine, P.E.; Coe, A.L.; Gosling, W.D.; Lomax, B.H.; Fraser, W.T.

    2016-01-01

    The uniform morphology of different species of Poaceae (grass) pollen means that identification to below family level using light microscopy is extremely challenging. Poor taxonomic resolution reduces recoverable information from the grass pollen record, for example, species diversity and

  11. Distinct modulation of allergic T cell responses by subcutaneous versus sublingual allergen-specific immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulten, Véronique; Tripple, Victoria; Andersen, Kristian Aasbjerg

    2016-01-01

    mechanisms involved have not been fully explored. OBJECTIVE: To compare changes in the allergen-specific T cell response induced by subcutaneous versus sublingual administration of allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT). METHODS: Grass pollen allergic patients were randomized into groups receiving either SCIT......: The most dominant immunological changes on a cellular level was a decrease in IL-5 in the SCIT group and a significant, transient increase of IL-10 observed after 10 months of treatment in both treated groups. The distinct routes of AIT administration may induce different immune-modulatory mechanisms...

  12. Atmospheric pollen count in Monterrey, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Díaz, Sandra N; Rodríguez-Ortiz, Pablo G; Arias-Cruz, Alfredo; Macías-Weinmann, Alejandra; Cid-Guerrero, Dagoberto; Sedo-Mejia, Giovanni A

    2010-01-01

    There are few reports of pollen count and identification in Mexico; therefore, it is important to generate more information on the subject. This study was designed to describe the prevalence of pollen in the city of Monterrey, Mexico, during the year 2004. Atmospheric pollen was collected with a Hirst air sampler, with an airflow of 10 L/minute during 2004. Pollen was identified with light microscopy; the average monthly pollen count as well as total was calculated from January 2004 to January 2005. The months with the highest concentration of pollen were February and March (289 and 142 grains/m(3) per day, respectively), and July and November had the lowest concentration (20 and 11 grains/m(3) per day, respectively). Most of the pollen recollected corresponded to tree pollen (72%). Fraxinus spp had the highest concentration during the year (19 grains/m(3) per day; 27.5% of the total concentration of pollen). Tree pollen predominated from January through March; with Fraxinus spp, Morus spp, Celtis spp, Cupressus spp, and Pinus spp as the most important. Weed pollen predominated in May, June, and December and the most frequently identified, were Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae, Ambrosia spp, and Parietaria spp. The highest concentration of grass pollen was reported during the months of May, June, September, October, and December with Gramineae/Poaceae predominating. Tree pollen was the most abundant during the year, with the ash tree having the highest concentration. Weed and grass pollen were perennial with peaks during the year.

  13. Allergenicity and crossreactivity of buffalo grass ( Stenotaphrum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. In the subtropical climate of South Africa, grasses of the subfamily Panicoideae are predominant. Bermuda grass has previously been shown to be an important local allergen, and immunoglobulin E (IgE) epitopes of Bermuda grass extracts are known to be distinct from those of the Pooid pollen extracts.

  14. Efficacy and safety of subcutaneous immunotherapy with a biologically standardized extract of Ambrosia artemisiifolia pollen: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirone, C; Albert, F; Tosi, A; Mocchetti, F; Mosca, S; Giorgino, M; Pecora, S; Parmiani, S; Ortolani, C

    2004-09-01

    The allergological relevance of Ambrosia in Europe is growing but the efficacy of the injective immunotherapy for this allergen has been documented only in Northern America. We sought to study the safety and efficacy of injective immunotherapy in European patients sensitized to Ambrosia artemisiifolia. Thirty-two patients (18 M/14 F, mean age 36.78, range 23-60 years) suffering from rhinoconjunctivitis and/or asthma and sensitized to Ambrosia were enrolled and randomized in a double-blind, placebo-controlled (DBPC) study lasting 1 year. A maintenance dose corresponding to 7.2 microg of Amb a 1 was administered at 4-week intervals after the build-up. During the second and the third year, all patients were under active therapy in an open fashion. Symptom and medication scores, skin reactivity to Ambrosia (parallel line biological assay), and pollen counts were assessed throughout the trial. Twenty-three patients completed the trial. No severe adverse event was observed. During the DBPC phase, actively treated patients showed an improvement in asthmatic symptoms (P=0.02) and drug (P=0.0068) scores days with asthmatic symptoms (P=0.003), days with rhinitis symptoms (P=0.05), and days with intake of drugs (P=0.0058), as compared to before therapy. No improvement for any of these parameters was detected in the placebo group. Moreover, the number of days with rhinitis and asthma was significantly higher in the placebo as compared to the active group (P=0.048 and PAmbrosia.

  15. Recombinant pollen allergens from Dactylis glomerata: preliminary evidence that human IgE cross-reactivity between Dac g II and Lol p I/II is increased following grass pollen immunotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roberts, A. M.; van Ree, R.; Cardy, S. M.; Bevan, L. J.; Walker, M. R.

    1992-01-01

    We previously described the isolation of three identical complementary DNA (cDNA) clones, constructed from Orchard/Cocksfoot grass (Dactylis glomerata) anther messenger RNA (mRNA), expressing a 140,000 MW beta-galactosidase fusion protein recognized by IgE antibodies in atopic sera. Partial

  16. Distinct modulation of allergic T cell responses by subcutaneous versus sublingual allergen-specific immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulten, Véronique; Tripple, Victoria; Andersen, Kristian Aasbjerg

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only curative treatment for type I allergy. It can be administered subcutaneously (SCIT) or sublingually (SLIT). The clinical efficacy of these two treatment modalities appears to be similar, but potential differences in the immunological...... mechanisms involved have not been fully explored. OBJECTIVE: To compare changes in the allergen-specific T cell response induced by subcutaneous versus sublingual administration of allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT). METHODS: Grass pollen allergic patients were randomized into groups receiving either SCIT...... was observed starting 10 months after treatment was commenced. At 24 months, T cell responses showed IL-5 levels significantly below the before treatment baseline. No significant reduction of IL-5 was observed in the SLIT or untreated group. However, a significant transient increase in IL-10 production after...

  17. Pollen-Associated Microbiome Correlates with Pollution Parameters and the Allergenicity of Pollen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Obersteiner

    Full Text Available Pollen allergies have been rapidly increasing over the last decades. Many allergenic proteins and non-allergenic adjuvant compounds of pollen are involved in the plant defense against environmental or microbial stress. The first aim of this study was to analyze and compare the colonizing microbes on allergenic pollen. The second aim was to investigate detectable correlations between pollen microbiota and parameters of air pollution or pollen allergenicity. To reach these aims, bacterial and fungal DNA was isolated from pollen samples of timothy grass (Phleum pratense, n = 20 and birch trees (Betula pendula, n = 55. With this isolated DNA, a terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was performed. One result was that the microbial diversity on birch tree and timothy grass pollen samples (Shannon/Simpson diversity indices was partly significantly correlated to allergenicity parameters (Bet v 1/Phl p 5, pollen-associated lipid mediators. Furthermore, the microbial diversity on birch pollen samples was correlated to on-site air pollution (nitrogen dioxide (NO2, ammonia (NH3, and ozone (O3. What is more, a significant negative correlation was observed between the microbial diversity on birch pollen and the measured NO2 concentrations on the corresponding trees. Our results showed that the microbial composition of pollen was correlated to environmental exposure parameters alongside with a differential expression of allergen and pollen-associated lipid mediators. This might translate into altered allergenicity of pollen due to environmental and microbial stress.

  18. [Allergy, pollen and the environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terán, Luis Manuel; Haselbarth-López, Michelle Marie Margarete; Quiroz-García, David Leonor

    2009-01-01

    Allergic respiratory diseases such asthma and allergic rhinitis are a health problem throughout the world. In Mexico City, pollens are an important cause of allergic respiratory disease. Both, the geographic location- and the vegetation surrounding this City favor the distribution of pollens leading to respiratory disease in susceptible patients. Aerobiological studies have shown that during the mild dry winter there is a large amount of pollens in the environment with tree pollens being the most abundant of all. The most frequent tree pollens found in Mexico City include Fraxinus, Cupressaseae, Alnus, Liquidambar, Callistemon, Pinus, and Casuarina. In contrast, grass- and weed pollens predominate during the summer (rainy season) including Compositae, Cheno-Am, Ambrosia and Gramineae. An additional health problem in Mexico City is the air pollution that exerts a direct effect on individuals. This in turn increases pollen allergenicity by disrupting them leading to the release of their particles which then penetrate the human airways causing disease. Thus, the polluted environment along with global warming which is also known to increase pollen quantities by inducing longer pollen seasons may represent a health risk to Mexico City inhabitants.

  19. Allergénicité des Granules Cytoplasmiques de Pollen

    OpenAIRE

    Abou Chakra, Oussama

    2009-01-01

    Grass pollen is one of the most important aeroallergen vectors in Europe. It highly contributes to respiratory allergic diseases such as asthma or allergic rhinitis. In contact to water or airborne pollutants, pollen grains can release microparticles or pollen cytoplasmic granules. Because of their size (

  20. The importance of the stationary and individual pollen monitoring for the diagnostic of pollen allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Myszkowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate pollen seasons of selected taxa with particular reference to allergic taxa such as birch (Betula sp., grasses (Poaceae, mugwort (Artemisia sp. in Cracow in 2003 and 2004 (project number 3 PO5D 034 24 funded by the State Committee for Scientific Research. Pollen concentrations obtained using the stationary Burkard trap and personal Partrap FA 52 were compared. The volumetric method was used in the study. Average daily concentrations (pollen grains × m-3 were obtained by counting pollen grains every hour along 4 longitudinal transects and applying an appropriate conversion factor. Duration of the pollen season was determined using the 95% method. Variations in annual totals of pollen grains (birch and mugwort, in start dates (especially for grasses and in the season duration (birch and grasses were found. The comparison of pollen concentrations obtained using the stationary and personal traps at the same place showed non statistically significant correlation for all the studied taxa and statistically significant correlations for birch, mugwort and grasses (Spearman rank correlation. However, the statistically significant differences between the concentrations obtained using Burkard and Partrap carried by patients (Wilcoxon's test were noted. Very low concentrations of pollen grains measured indoor (work, flats and the influence of the local plants growing in separate place (courtyard of the Allergology Department on the pollen concentration were found.

  1. Occupational allergy to flowers: immunoblot analysis of allergens in freesia, gerbera and chrysanthemum pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Toorenenbergen, A W

    2014-10-01

    High exposure to pollen from ornamental flowers can induce an IgE-mediated occupational allergy in florists and horticulture workers. We investigated IgE-binding antigens in chrysanthemum, freesia and gerbera pollen by immunoblot analysis and analysed the cross-reactivity of these pollen with birch, grass and mugwort pollen. In immunoblots with chrysanthemum pollen, major IgE-binding structures were seen with a molecular weight (MW) of approximately 25, 45 and 65 kD. In the immunoblots with freesia pollen, IgE from freesia pollen was directed against two proteins with an MW of approximately 15 kD. Most sera showed IgE binding to an approximately 15 kD band in gerbera pollen; with some sera additional bands were seen in the range of 30-50 kD. IgE binding to chrysanthemum pollen was inhibited by mugwort pollen only, whereas IgE binding to freesia pollen was suppressed by birch, grass and mugwort pollen. The inhibitory activity of birch and grass pollen extract on IgE binding to gerbera pollen extract was serum dependent and ranged from no inhibition to complete inhibition. Occupational exposure to many different flowers induced IgE against all three types of pollen. Exposure in greenhouses to gerbera flowers elicited mainly IgE against gerbera pollen. Mugwort pollen extract inhibited IgE binding to pollen from all three flowers. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Subcutaneous Injections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Maria

    This thesis is about visualization and characterization of the tissue-device interaction during subcutaneous injection. The tissue pressure build-up during subcutaneous injections was measured in humans. The insulin pen FlexTouchr (Novo Nordisk A/S) was used for the measurements and the pressure...... build-up was evaluated indirectly from the changes in the flow rate between subcutaneous injections and air injections. This method enabled the tissue counter pressure to be evaluated without a formal clinical study approval. The measurements were coupled to a model for the pressure evolution...... in subcutaneous tissue, based on mass conservation and flow in a porous medium. From the measurements the flow permeability and bulk modulus of the tissue were determined. In the adipose tissue the drug forms a bolus from where it is absorbed by the blood capillaries. The spatial distribution of the injected...

  3. Pollen associated microbiome and its relationship to pollution and allergens

    OpenAIRE

    Obersteiner, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    In the past decades the prevalence of pollen-related respiratory allergies has increased rapidly. Causative agents are mostly airborne pollen grains of trees and grasses. The allergenic potential of these pollen grains depends on the amount of produced allergenic proteins (Bet v 1, Phl p 5) and non-allergenic adjuvant compounds, so called PALMs (pollen-associated lipid mediators). These compounds also play a role in the defense mechanisms of plants against biotic and abiotic stress. The f...

  4. Rabbit IgG directed to a synthetic C-terminal peptide of the major grass pollen allergen Lol p I inhibits human basophil histamine release induced by natural Lol p I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ree, R; Aalberse, R C

    1995-03-01

    The potential role of allergen-specific IgG antibodies as 'blocking' antibodies in allergen-induced human basophil histamine release was investigated. This was studied in a model with the major grass pollen allergen Lol p I and polyclonal rabbit antisera directed against this allergen and against a synthetic peptide of its C terminus. When allergen and antibodies were allowed to preincubate, Lol p I induced histamine release was inhibited up to 85% by the antiserum against Lol p I. By omitting preincubation, and thereby more closely mimicking an in vivo situation, up to 55% inhibition was realized. This indicates that allergen-specific IgG can act as 'blocking' antibody without preincubation. Immunization of rabbits with a synthetic C-terminal peptide of Lol p I resulted in antibodies reactive with natural Lol p I. Despite their 100-fold lower avidity for Lol p I (as compared with antinatural Lol p I), these antibodies had the capacity to inhibit Lol p I induced histamine release for > 90% (up to 50% without preincubation). This indicates that it is possible to block histamine release induced by a major allergen with low-avidity IgG antibodies directed against a minor proportion of the allergen (25 amino acids). IgE antibodies from the donors studied were unreactive with this synthetic peptide, indicating that for blocking activity identical epitope specificity of IgE and IgG is not essential. This opens interesting perspectives for application of synthetic peptides in immunotherapy, distinct from their effects on T cell reactivity.

  5. Trends and threshold exceedances analysis of airborne pollen concentrations in Metropolitan Santiago Chile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Toro A

    Full Text Available Pollen is one of the primary causes of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in urban centers. In the present study, the concentrations of 39 different pollens in the Santiago de Chile metropolitan area over the period 2009-2013 are characterized. The pollen was monitored daily using Burkard volumetric equipment. The contribution of each type of pollen and the corresponding time trends are evaluated. The concentrations of the pollens are compared with the established threshold levels for the protection of human health. The results show that the total amount of pollen grains originating from trees, grasses, weeds and indeterminate sources throughout the period of the study was 258,496 grains m-3, with an annual average of 51,699 ± 3,906 grains m-3 year-1. The primary source of pollen is Platanus orientalis, which produces 61.8% of the analyzed pollen. Grass pollen is the third primary component of the analyzed pollen, with a contribution of 5.82%. Among the weeds, the presence of Urticacea (3.74% is remarkable. The pollination pattern of the trees is monophasic, and the grasses have a biphasic pattern. The trends indicate that the total pollen and tree pollen do not present a time trend that is statistically significant throughout the period of the study, whereas the grass pollen and weed pollen concentrations in the environment present a statistically significant decreasing trend. The cause of this decrease is unclear. The pollen load has doubled over the past decade. When the observed concentrations of the pollens were compared with the corresponding threshold levels, the results indicated that over the period of the study, the pollen concentrations were at moderate, high and very high levels for an average of 293 days per year. Systematic counts of the pollen grains are an essential method for diagnosing and treating patients with pollinosis and for developing forestation and urban planning strategies.

  6. Sustained effect of SQ-standardized grass allergy immunotherapy tablet on rhinoconjunctivitis quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frølund, L; Durham, S R; Calderon, M; Emminger, W; Andersen, J S; Rask, P; Dahl, R

    2010-06-01

    The prevalence of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis has increased significantly over the past decades with grass pollen being a common trigger. The impact of allergy on patient's quality of life is substantial. To investigate the sustained effect on quality of life during the grass pollen season 1 year after 3 years of treatment with the SQ-standardized grass allergy immunotherapy tablet (AIT), Graza (Phleum pratense 75,000 SQ-T/2800 BAU; ALK, Denmark). The trial was a randomized, parallel-group, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in adult subjects with a history of moderate-severe grass pollen induced rhinoconjunctivitis inadequately controlled by symptomatic medications. Subjects received 3 years of grass AIT (n = 157) or placebo (n = 126), followed by 1 year of follow-up. Quality of life assessments were based on the standardized rhinoconjunctivitis quality of life questionnaire (RQLQ(S)); completed weekly during the entire grass pollen season. During follow-up, the overall RQLQ(S) score for the entire grass pollen season was significantly improved in the active group (relative difference to placebo: 23%, P = 0.004). The improvement was higher during the peak pollen season (28%, P = 0.001). The treatment effect of grass AIT during the follow-up year and the previous three treatment years was similar. Improvements were found in all seven RQLQ(S) domains. The RQLQ(S) as a function of the weekly average pollen counts showed a clear separation between the treatment groups (P pollen exposure.

  7. Allergies, asthma, and pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reactive airway - pollen; Bronchial asthma - pollen; Triggers - pollen; Allergic rhinitis - pollen ... Things that make allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. It is important to know your triggers because avoiding them is your first step toward feeling better. ...

  8. Poaceae, Secale spp. and Artemisia spp. pollen in the air at two sites of different degrees of urbanisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruczek, Aleksandra; Puc, Małgorzata; Wolski, Tomasz

    2017-03-21

    Among herbal plants, most cases of allergic reactions, like seasonal inflammation of nasal mucosa, conjunctivitis and pollen asthma, are related to the allergens from grass pollen. As the blossoming and pollination of rye is known to start the pollen season of grasses, information about the airborne rye pollen count permits alerting the people allergic to certain allergens contained in rye pollen. An important cause of allergy is also the pollen from wormwood, blossoming in late summer, as its two main allergens produce cross-reactions with many other plant allergens. The aim of the study was to evaluate the risk of allergic reactions in persons with pollinosis on the basis of the pollen calendar, analysis of concentrations of pollen grains of grass and rye, and comparison of diurnal pattern of airborne pollen grain concentrations at two sites with different degrees of urbanisation (Gudowo in the country and the city of Szczecin) in 2012-2014. The concentration of pollen was measured by the volume method. Length of the pollination season was determined by the method of 98%, assuming that the beginning and the end of the pollen season are the days on which 1% and 99% of the annual sum of pollen appeared. The first pollen grains to appear in the air are those produced by rye, followed by those produced by grass and wormwood. The pollen seasons of grasses and wormwood started about one week earlier in Gudowo than in Szczecin, while the pollen season of rye started at almost the same time in the country and in the city. Airborne pollen counts of grasses, rye and wormwood were much higher in the country than in the city. The differences most probably result from the different floristic composition at these two sites and reflect the local contribution of the taxa studied in the country. The risk of allergy caused by the pollen of the taxa analysed was much higher in Gudowo (in the country), than in Szczecin city.

  9. Trisetum paniceum (wild oats) pollen counts and aeroallergens in the ambient air of Madrid, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, M; Martínez-Cócera, C; Fernández-Caldas, E; Carnés Sánchez, J; Boluda, L; Tejada, J; Subiza, J L; Subiza, J; Jerez, M

    2002-06-01

    Madrid has a short but intensive grass pollen season, in which 79% of the total grass pollen load is released from the middle of May to the middle of June. The main objectives of this study were to quantify Trisetum paniceum (wild oats) aeroallergen in the atmosphere in Madrid from February to December 1996 and to correlate the aeroallergen concentrations with grass pollen counts. Two different samplers were used to assess allergen exposure; a Burkard spore trap was used to collect pollen grains and a high-volume air sampler to collect airborne particles. A total of 182 air filters were collected and extracted in 1 ml of PBS and analysed by ELISA inhibition, using pooled sera from highly allergic individuals. T. paniceum aeroallergens were detected not only during the grass pollen season, but also before and after. Wild oat allergens had two main peaks of 1 and 1.9 microg/m(3), occurring in late May and July, respectively. The time series analysis established the existence of lags between the two main variables pollen counts and aeroallergen activity. Analysis of the data by the Spearman rank test and linear regression showed a weak correlation between grass allergenic activity and grass pollen counts (Spearman's rho = 0.29). Data obtained from time series analysis demonstrated that grass allergenic activity correlated strongly with current and 5-week-old grass pollen grain counts (r(2) = 0.73). Wild oats allergenic activity was detected during the entire year and not only during the pollen season. This fact is an important aspect to be considered in the clinical follow-up and treatment of grass pollen-sensitised patients in Madrid. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  10. PollenCALC: Software for estimation of pollen compatibility of self-incompatible allo- and autotetraploid species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguirre, Andrea A; Wollenweber, Bernd; Frei, Ursula K

    2012-01-01

    Background Self-incompatibility (SI) is a biological mechanism to avoid inbreeding in allogamous plants. In grasses, this mechanism is controlled by a two-locus system (S-Z). Calculation of male and female gamete frequencies is complex for tetraploid species. We are not aware of any software...... available for predicting pollen haplotype frequencies and pollen compatibility in tetraploid species. Results PollenCALC is a software tool written in C++ programming language that can predict pollen compatibility percentages for polyploid species with a two-locus (S, Z) self-incompatibility system...

  11. Allergy to Parietaria officinalis pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvitanović, S

    1999-03-01

    Parietaria pollen allergens (officinalis, judaica, lusitanica, creatica) are one of the most common causes of pollinosis in the Mediterranean (Spain, France, Italy, and Croatia). Parietaria has very long period of pollination, often reaching peaks of more than 500 grains/m3 of air at the beginning of June, and very strong allergenic properties. There is a significantly positive correlation for the newcomers between the intensity of the skin test reaction and concentration of specific serum IgE with the length of residence in the area, whereas autochthonous patients show a negative correlation between the age and intensity of hypersensitivity. This suggests that the environment encountered at birth may have a decisive role in the development of allergic respiratory diseases. Due to structurally similar pollen antigens in different Parietaria species, they are all equally useful in diagnosis and treatment of allergy, regardless of the pollen species to which the patient is sensitive or the prevalent species in the area. In our hands, specific immunotherapy with subcutaneous injections of partially purified, characterized, and standardized pollen extract of Parietaria allergen proved effective. It was possible to define an optimal maintenance dose of antigen per injection. During (years of) therapy, we observed an initial increase in total serum IgE concentration and increase in allergen-specific serum IgG blocking antibodies, decrease in allergen-specific serum IgE concentration and amount of histamine released from peripheral blood leukocytes challenged in vitro with the allergen, as well as in symptom and additional medication scores.

  12. [Is it necessary to test children having summer respiratory problems with cereal pollens?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelong, M; Thibaudon, M; Thelliez, P H

    1989-12-01

    We tested 100 children with clinical signs that occurred in spring or summer. Prick tests were made with extracts of wild grass pollens (Dactylis, Phleum, Lolium) and with separate cereal pollens (Wheat, oats, Sweet-corn Barley and Rye). In 20 children whose test was negative for wild grass pollen, we saw no sensitization to cereals. In 80 children with grass pollenosis, Barley and Rye are the cereals that gave the most positive prick tests, whilst sweet corn is the cereal with most negative tests.

  13. Hyposensitization therapy with whole pollen extract or purified allergens monitored by immunoblotting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarolim, E; Matthiesen, F; Skov, P S

    1990-01-01

    Patients allergic to grass pollen were hyposensitized with two major allergenic components or whole extract of timothy grass pollen. Specific IgE, IgG1, and IgG4 formed during immunotherapy were analyzed by immunoblotting. Similar antibody-binding patterns were observed in both patient groups....... Inhibition experiments using allergenic components isolated by preparative sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicated that all antigenic components of timothy grass pollen detected in immunoblot dispose of private and cross-reactive determinants for binding of human IgE. The worse...

  14. Considerations About Pollen Used for the Production of Allergen Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codina, Rosa; Crenshaw, Rodger C; Lockey, Richard F

    2015-01-01

    Pollen is a biological product obtained to manufacture tree, weed, and grass allergen extracts, used to diagnose and treat allergies. Genetic and environmental factors affect the composition of pollen, e.g., the plant varieties from which pollen are obtained, weather, and levels of air pollution during plant growth. Therefore, appropriate guidelines and training of personnel to perform the activities associated with pollen are essential to produce appropriate allergen extracts. Various regulatory institutions, which vary in different countries, including the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the USA, control how such products should be produced. For example, the FDA regulates the manufacturing of pollen extracts but not the quality of the pollen used to prepare them, relying on each manufacturer to set its own standards to do so. To the contrary, European regulatory agencies, including the European Medicines Agency, control both the quality of the pollen and the manufacturing process to produce pollen extracts. Regulatory agencies, allergen manufacturers, scientific institutions, and pollen collection entities should collaborate to develop and implement guidelines appropriate for worldwide use for both the collection and processing of pollen raw materials. This article provides an overview of the subject of pollen for use in allergen extracts. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Pollen calendar of Lublin, 1995-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Piotrowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The measurements of pollen fall were carried out in Lublin in 1995 - 2000 years by the gravimetric method. The modified Durham sampler was applied, located at 9 m above ground level. On the base of results 6 year observations - the pollen calendar for Lublin was prepared. The following 15 plant taxa were taken under consideration: Alnus, Corylus, Cupressaceae, Populus, Fraxinus, Betula, Quercus, Pinaceae, Poaceae, Rumex, Plantago, Urtica, Chenopodiaceae, Artemisia and Ambrosia. The anemophilous plants' pollen season in Lublin began in half of February and lasted till half of September. First appeared pollen grains of decidous tress' and shrubs, then the coniferous. High values of pollen fall of these plants were noted till the end of May. Start of grass pollen season was recorded from the half of May, and at the latter part of this month, also other herbaceous plants. The highest concentrations of pollen were found in April and May when trees and shrubs pollinated. The highest annual totals were marked for plants of the following taxa: Betula, Poaceae, Pinaceae, Alnus, Urtica.

  16. [The effect of climate change on pollen allergy in the Netherlands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Weger, Letty A; Hiemstra, Pieter S

    2009-01-01

    Climate change can exert a range of effects on pollen, which might have consequences for pollen-allergic patients. New allergenic pollen types might appear in the Netherlands, like common ragweed and olive, which result in allergy patients developing allergies that scarcely occur in the Netherlands at present. Trees, such as birches and planes, might produce larger quantities of pollen, which could result in more severe symptoms. The pollen season might become longer thereby extending the period in which patients suffer from allergy symptoms. This extension of the pollen season could be due to a prolonged flowering period of certain species, e.g. grasses, or the appearance of new species that flower in late summer, e.g. common ragweed. Climate change could cause an increase in heavy thunderstorms on summer days in the grass pollen season, which are known to increase the chance of asthma exacerbations.

  17. Characteristics of airborne pollen in Incheon and Seoul (2015-2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Hye Ju; Moon, Soon Jeong; Hwang, Seon Yeong; Kim, Jeong Hee; Jang, Hae Ji; Jo, Jung Heum; Sung, Tae Jung; Lim, Dae Hyun

    2017-07-01

    Pollen allergens are one of the main contributors to the development and/or aggravation of allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, and asthma. An examination of the airborne pollen in residential areas should be conducted to aid the diagnosis and treatment of allergic diseases. Airborne pollen samples were collected from 2 sites in Incheon and 2 in Seoul from 2015 to 2016. The highest monthly concentration of airborne pollen was observed in May and September each year. Pollen from 32 families and 50 genera was identified over the 2 years; of these, Pinus spp. showed the highest pollen concentration (41.6%), followed by Quercus spp. (25.3%), and Humulus spp. (15.3%), the latter of which had the highest concentration among weed pollen. The total pollen concentration was significantly higher in Incheon than in Seoul (p = 0.001 in 2015, p pollen from weed species (Cupressaceae, Humulus spp., Artemisia spp., Ambrosia spp., and Chenopodiaceae) and grass species (Gramineae) were significantly higher (p Pollen was distributed from February to November. The first pollen identified in both regions in each year was Alnus spp. Overall, the total concentration of Quercus spp., Betula spp., Humulus spp., Artemisia spp., Ambrosia spp., and Chenopodiaceae pollen increased significantly over the 2 years. Region-specific differences exist in the pollen of major allergenic plants. Continuous monitoring of pollen is thus essential for management of pollen-related allergic disorders in each region.

  18. Characteristics of airborne pollen in Incheon and Seoul (2015–2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Hye Ju; Moon, Soon Jeong; Hwang, Seon Yeong; Kim, Jeong Hee; Jang, Hae Ji; Jo, Jung Heum; Sung, Tae Jung

    2017-01-01

    Background Pollen allergens are one of the main contributors to the development and/or aggravation of allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, and asthma. Objective An examination of the airborne pollen in residential areas should be conducted to aid the diagnosis and treatment of allergic diseases. Methods Airborne pollen samples were collected from 2 sites in Incheon and 2 in Seoul from 2015 to 2016. Results The highest monthly concentration of airborne pollen was observed in May and September each year. Pollen from 32 families and 50 genera was identified over the 2 years; of these, Pinus spp. showed the highest pollen concentration (41.6%), followed by Quercus spp. (25.3%), and Humulus spp. (15.3%), the latter of which had the highest concentration among weed pollen. The total pollen concentration was significantly higher in Incheon than in Seoul (p = 0.001 in 2015, p pollen from weed species (Cupressaceae, Humulus spp., Artemisia spp., Ambrosia spp., and Chenopodiaceae) and grass species (Gramineae) were significantly higher (p Pollen was distributed from February to November. The first pollen identified in both regions in each year was Alnus spp. Overall, the total concentration of Quercus spp., Betula spp., Humulus spp., Artemisia spp., Ambrosia spp., and Chenopodiaceae pollen increased significantly over the 2 years. Conclusion Region-specific differences exist in the pollen of major allergenic plants. Continuous monitoring of pollen is thus essential for management of pollen-related allergic disorders in each region. PMID:28765818

  19. Airborne pollen spectrum and hay fever type prevalence in Vinnitsa, central Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Valeriivna Rodinkova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the main pollen spectrum in relation to patients’ sensitivity determined in the ambient air of Vinnitsa city located in central Ukraine. The study performed by gravimetric sampling in the years 1999–2000 and by volumetric sampling in the years 2009–2014 showed that Urtica, Betula, Pinus, Alnus, Fraxinus, Ambrosia, Artemisia, Juglans, Carpinus, Populus, Quercus, Acer, Salix, Poaceae, Amarathaceae, and Polygonaceae pollen grains are prevalent among the airborne allergen types in the urban atmosphere. The principal pollen types remain the same but over time their quantities have changed. The relative abundance of Carpinus and Amaranthaceae airborne pollen decreased while the fraction of Urtica pollen increased in the last decade. From 50 to 69 pollen types were determined in the ambient air depending on the season. From 24 to 27 pollen types represented woody plants and from 22 to 46 pollen types belonged to the herbaceous plants. A considerable decrease in herbal pollen types is noted in the Vinnitsa air at present. It was shown that children were sensitive to weed pollen grains, including ragweed, mugwort, and grass, while adults were more sensitive to tree and grass pollen grains. Further studies of the pollen spectrum in the ambient air of this city are required in order to control the hay fever symptoms.

  20. Efficient and sensitive identification and quantification of airborne pollen using next-generation DNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraaijeveld, Ken; de Weger, Letty A; Ventayol García, Marina; Buermans, Henk; Frank, Jeroen; Hiemstra, Pieter S; den Dunnen, Johan T

    2015-01-01

    Pollen monitoring is an important and widely used tool in allergy research and creation of awareness in pollen-allergic patients. Current pollen monitoring methods are microscope-based, labour intensive and cannot identify pollen to the genus level in some relevant allergenic plant groups. Therefore, a more efficient, cost-effective and sensitive method is needed. Here, we present a method for identification and quantification of airborne pollen using DNA sequencing. Pollen is collected from ambient air using standard techniques. DNA is extracted from the collected pollen, and a fragment of the chloroplast gene trnL is amplified using PCR. The PCR product is subsequently sequenced on a next-generation sequencing platform (Ion Torrent). Amplicon molecules are sequenced individually, allowing identification of different sequences from a mixed sample. We show that this method provides an accurate qualitative and quantitative view of the species composition of samples of airborne pollen grains. We also show that it correctly identifies the individual grass genera present in a mixed sample of grass pollen, which cannot be achieved using microscopic pollen identification. We conclude that our method is more efficient and sensitive than current pollen monitoring techniques and therefore has the potential to increase the throughput of pollen monitoring. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Evaluation of Pollen Apps Forecasts: The Need for Quality Control in an eHealth Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastl, Katharina; Berger, Uwe; Kmenta, Maximilian

    2017-05-08

    Pollen forecasts are highly valuable for allergen avoidance and thus raising the quality of life of persons concerned by pollen allergies. They are considered as valuable free services for the public. Careful scientific evaluation of pollen forecasts in terms of accurateness and reliability has not been available till date. The aim of this study was to analyze 9 mobile apps, which deliver pollen information and pollen forecasts, with a focus on their accurateness regarding the prediction of the pollen load in the grass pollen season 2016 to assess their usefulness for pollen allergy sufferers. The following number of apps was evaluated for each location: 3 apps for Vienna (Austria), 4 apps for Berlin (Germany), and 1 app each for Basel (Switzerland) and London (United Kingdom). All mobile apps were freely available. Today's grass pollen forecast was compared throughout the defined grass pollen season at each respective location with measured grass pollen concentrations. Hit rates were calculated for the exact performance and for a tolerance in a range of ±2 and ±4 pollen per cubic meter. In general, for most apps, hit rates score around 50% (6 apps). It was found that 1 app showed better results, whereas 3 apps performed less well. Hit rates increased when calculated with tolerances for most apps. In contrast, the forecast for the "readiness to flower" for grasses was performed at a sufficiently accurate level, although only two apps provided such a forecast. The last of those forecasts coincided with the first moderate grass pollen load on the predicted day or 3 days after and performed even from about a month before well within the range of 3 days. Advertisement was present in 3 of the 9 analyzed apps, whereas an imprint mentioning institutions with experience in pollen forecasting was present in only three other apps. The quality of pollen forecasts is in need of improvement, and quality control for pollen forecasts is recommended to avoid potential harm to

  2. Pollen-related allergy in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, G; Spieksma, F T; Liccardi, G; Jäger, S; Russo, M; Kontou-Fili, K; Nikkels, H; Wüthrich, B; Bonini, S

    1998-06-01

    The increasing mobility of Europeans for business and leisure has led to a need for reliable information about exposure to seasonal airborne allergens during travel abroad. Over the last 10 years or so, aeropalynologic and allergologic studies have progressed to meet this need, and extensive international networks now provide regular pollen and hay-fever forecasts. Europe is a geographically complex continent with a widely diverse climate and a wide spectrum of vegetation. Consequently, pollen calendars differ from one area to another; however, on the whole, pollination starts in spring and ends in autumn. Grass pollen is by far the most frequent cause of pollinosis in Europe. In northern Europe, pollen from species of the family Betulaceae is a major cause of the disorder. In contrast, the mild winters and dry summers of Mediterranean areas favor the production of pollen types that are rarely found in central and northern areas of the continent (e.g., the genera Parietaria, Olea, and Cupressus). Clinical and aerobiologic studies show that the pollen map of Europe is changing also as a result of cultural factors (e.g., importation of plants for urban parklands) and greater international travel (e.g., the expansion of the ragweed genus Ambrosia in France, northern Italy, Austria, and Hungary). Studies on allergen-carrying paucimicronic or submicronic airborne particles, which penetrate deep into the lung, are having a relevant impact on our understanding of pollinosis and its distribution throughout Europe.

  3. Kangaroo grass

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-04-06

    Apr 6, 2009 ... Aamir Saleem1, Sarwat N. Mirza1, Irshad Ahmad Khan1* and Jennifer Franklin2. 1Department of Forestry and Range Management, PMAS-Arid Agriculture University .... as soil moisture approaches field capacity (Nolan, 1994). Because Kangaroo grass grows under a wide range of conditions, it has a wide ...

  4. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in pollen and pollen products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempf, Michael; Heil, Sandra; Hasslauer, Iris; Schmidt, Lukas; von der Ohe, Katharina; Theuring, Claudine; Reinhard, Annika; Schreier, Peter; Beuerle, Till

    2010-02-01

    Recently, 1,2-dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) ester alkaloids, found predominantly as their N-oxides (PANOs, pyrrolizidine N-oxides), have been reported in both honey and in pollen obtained directly from PA plants and pollen loads collected by bees, raising the possibility of health risks for consumers of these products. We confirm these findings in regard to floral pollen, using pollen collected directly from flowers of the known PA plants Senecio jacobaea, S. vernalis, Echium vulgare and pollinia of Phalaenopsis hybrids, and we extend analyses of 1,2-unsaturated PAs and 1,2-unsaturated PANOs to include bee-pollen products currently being sold in supermarkets and on the Internet as food supplements. PA content of floral pollen ranged from 0.5 to 5 mg/g. The highest values were observed in pollen obtained from Senecio species. Up to 95% of the PAs are found as PANOs. Detailed studies with S. vernalis revealed unique PA patterns in pollen and flowers. While seneciphylline was the most prominent PA in S. vernalis pollen, the flowers were dominated by senecionine. To analyze trace amounts of 1,2-unsaturated PAs in pollen products, our previously elaborated method consisting of strong cation exchange-SPE, two reduction steps followed by silylation and subsequent capillary high-resolution GC-MS using SIM mode was applied. In total, 55 commercially available pollen products were analyzed. Seventeen (31%) samples contained 1,2-unsaturated PAs in the range from 1.08 to 16.35 microg/g, calculated as retronecine equivalents. The 1,2-unsaturated PA content of pollen products is expressed in terms of a single sum parameter and no background information such as foraged plants, pollen analysis, etc. was needed to analyze the samples. The detection limit of overall procedure and the reliable quantitation limit were 0.003 and 0.01 microg/g, respectively.

  5. Food allergy to apple and specific immunotherapy with birch pollen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kirsten Skamstrup; Khinchi, Marianne Søndergaard; Skov, Per Stahl

    2004-01-01

    Conflicting results concerning the effect of specific pollen immunotherapy (SIT) on allergy to plant foods have been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of SIT using a birch pollen extract on food allergy with focus on allergy to apple. Seventy-four birch pollen......-allergic patients were included in a double-blind, double-dummy, and placebo-controlled comparison of sublingual-swallow (SLIT) and subcutaneous (SCIT) administration of a birch pollen extract. Sixty-nine percent of these patients reported allergy to apple. The clinical reactivity to apple was evaluated by open....... Therefore, oral allergy syndrome (OAS) to apple should not be considered as a main criterion for selecting patients for birch pollen immunotherapy at present....

  6. A 15-Year-Old Boy with Anterior Chest Pain, Progressive Dyspnea, and Subcutaneous Emphysema of the Neck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Scichilone

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the case of an adolescent who was admitted to the hospital because of sudden occurrence of chest pain, dyspnea and subcutaneous emphysema. On admission, physical examination revealed subcutaneous crepitations in the superior part of the rib cage, and auscultation of the chest showed widespread wheezing. The radiological assessment confirmed the diagnosis of pneumomediastinum and pneumothorax. A follow-up CT scan performed one week after the admission showed almost complete resolution of the radiological alterations. At the following visits, the patient was asymptomatic, but reported to have suffered from frequent episodes of rhinorrea, sneezing, nasal blockage, and sometimes, chest tightness, especially during exposure to pets and/or windy weather. Skin prick testing showed sensitivities to dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and farinae, grass pollen and dog dander. Spirometry documented significant improvement in lung function after short-acting bronchodilator, allowing for the diagnosis of asthma to be made. Although pneumomediastinum may be a complication of various respiratory diseases, including asthma, it has never been reported as the first presentation of underlying bronchial asthma. Herein, the physiopathological mechanisms, the diagnostic procedures and treatment of pneumomediastinum in asthma are discussed. We suggest that the diagnosis of asthma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pneumomediastinum in adolescence.

  7. Optimization of conditions for in vitro pollen germination and pollen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pollen germination and pollen tube growth might have a significant effect on fruit and seed production. This study was conducted to investigate the best medium for pollen germination and pollen tube growth of date palm male. Significant differences in percentages of pollen germination and pollen tube growth were ...

  8. Incidence of Betulaceae pollen and pollinosis in Zagreb, Croatia, 2002-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peternel, Renata; Milanović, Sanja Musić; Hrga, Ivana; Mileta, Tatjana; Culig, Josip

    2007-01-01

    Pollen allergy is characterized by seasonal allergic manifestations affecting patients during the plant pollen season. The aim of this study was to analyze the Betulaceae pollen pattern in Zagreb (2002-2005) and to determine the incidence of sensitization to these pollen types in patients with seasonal respiratory allergy. Twenty-four-hour pollen counts were carried out using volumetric procedure. Skin prick test were performed on a total of 864 patients aged 18-80Pollen of the representatives of the family Betulaceae accounted for a significant proportion of total pollen (34% on an average), predominated by Betula pollen and considerably lower proportion of Alnus sp. and Corylus sp. pollen. Alder and hazel pollen first occurred in the air in February throughout the study period. The highest airborne pollen concentration of these taxa was recorded in February and March. The birch pollen season generally peaked in April. Only 2.67% of patients showed birch pollen monosensitization. The proportion of patients with polysensitization to Betulaceae pollen was considerably greater (12.88%), whereas polysensitization to Betulaceae, Poaceae and Ambrosia pollen was recorded in the highest proportion of patients (26.23%). According to age, the highest and lowest rate of allergy was recorded in the 31-50 and >51 age groups, respectively (46.22% vs 23.12%). Female predominance was observed across all age groups. The patients with monosensitization to birch pollen had the most severe symptoms in April. In the patients with poylsensitization to alder, hazel and birch pollen who developed cross-reaction, initial symptoms occurred as early as February, with abrupt exacerbation in March and April. The most severe condition was observed in the patients allergic to birch, hazel, alder, grass and ragweed pollen, with symptoms present throughout the year and exacerbation in spring and late summer months.

  9. Antioxidant properties of pollen

    OpenAIRE

    Aličić, Damir; Šubarić, Drago; Jašić, Midhat; Pašalić, Hatidža; Ačkar, Đurđica

    2014-01-01

    Today, bee pollen is commonly used in folk medicine and its pharmacy effects have not yet been scientifically proven. The composition and chemistry of bee pollen are not yet standardized nor defined in pharmacopoeia, and may vary due to its botanical and geographical origin, the plant species, environmental conditions, age and status of plants. Because of this, the type of bee pollen depends on the available bee pasture and types of plant species visited by bees. Bee pollen contains nutrition...

  10. Pollen reference collection digitization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ercan, F.E.Z.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/41250085X; Donders, T.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/290469872; Bijl, P.K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314028110; Wagner, F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/173870783

    2016-01-01

    The extensive Utrecht University pollen reference collection holds thousands of pollen samples of many species and genera from all over the world and has been a basis for the widely-used North West European Pollen Flora. These samples are fixed on glass slides for microscopy use, but the aging

  11. THE PRINCIPAL AIRBORNE AND ALLERGENIC POLLEN SPECIES IN TIMIŞOARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta IANOVICI

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The most predominant source of allergens in the outdoor environment is pollen, the male gametophyte of flowering plants. Allergenic pollen has been identified in many flowering plant species including grass, weed, tree and crop species. Occurrence of pollens is monitored almost throughout Europe. We report here the results of the monitoring of airborne pollen concentrations throughout 1999 to 2007 from Timişoara (România. A total of 18 allergenic pollen types were identified of which Ambrosia artemisiifolia pollen showed maximum concentration. Pollens of many plants located in public or private gardens may cause pollinosis in predisposed individuals. In this study we suggest a list of recommended plants for public and private green.

  12. Pollen exposure and hospitalization due to asthma exacerbations: daily time series in a European city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Nicholas J.; Alcock, Ian; Wheeler, Benedict W.; Hajat, Shakoor; Sarran, Christophe; Clewlow, Yolanda; McInnes, Rachel N.; Hemming, Deborah; White, Mathew; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Fleming, Lora E.

    2017-05-01

    Exposure to pollen can contribute to increased hospital admissions for asthma exacerbation. This study applied an ecological time series analysis to examine associations between atmospheric concentrations of different pollen types and the risk of hospitalization for asthma in London from 2005 to 2011. The analysis examined short-term associations between daily pollen counts and hospital admissions in the presence of seasonal and long-term patterns, and allowed for time lags between exposure and admission. Models were adjusted for temperature, precipitation, humidity, day of week, and air pollutants. Analyses revealed an association between daily counts (continuous) of grass pollen and adult hospital admissions for asthma in London, with a 4-5-day lag. When grass pollen concentrations were categorized into Met Office pollen `alert' levels, `very high' days (vs. `low') were associated with increased admissions 2-5 days later, peaking at an incidence rate ratio of 1.46 (95%, CI 1.20-1.78) at 3 days. Increased admissions were also associated with `high' versus `low' pollen days at a 3-day lag. Results from tree pollen models were inconclusive and likely to have been affected by the shorter pollen seasons and consequent limited number of observation days with higher tree pollen concentrations. Future reductions in asthma hospitalizations may be achieved by better understanding of environmental risks, informing improved alert systems and supporting patients to take preventive measures.

  13. Subcutaneous granuloma annulare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhar Sandipan

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Two cases of subcutaneous granuloma annulare are reported. Clinical presentation was in the form of hard subcutaneous nodules, histopathology confirmed the clinical diagnosis. The cases were unique because of onset in adult age, occurrence over unusual sites and absence of classical lesions of granuloma annulare elsewhere.

  14. First annual register of allergenic pollen in Talca, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardones, P; Grau, M; Araya, J; Córdova, A; Pereira, I; Peñailillo, P; Silva, R; Moraga, A; Aguilera-Insunza, R; Yepes-Nuñez, J J; Palomo, I

    2013-01-01

    There are no data on atmospheric pollen in Talca. In the present work, our aim is to describe the amount of pollen grain in the atmosphere of the city of Talca likely to cause pollinosis of its inhabitants. A volumetric Hirst sampler (Burkard seven-day recording device) was used to study pollen levels. It was placed in the centre of Talca from May 2007 to April 2008. The highest airborne presence of pollen, as measured in weekly averages, was Platanus acerifolia with a maximum weekly daily average of 203 grains/m³ registered during September and October. The second highest was Acer pseudoplatanus with a maximum weekly daily average of 116 grains/m³. Populus spp. had a maximum weekly daily average 103 grains/m³. Olea europaea reached 19 grains/m³ in November. Grasses presented high levels of pollen counts with a maximum weekly daily average of 27 grains/m³ from the end of August until the end of January. Pollens of Plantago spp. Rumex acetosella and Chenopodium spp. had a similar distribution and were present from October to April with maximum weekly daily average of 7 grains/m³, 7 grains/m³ and 3 grains/m³ respectively. Significant concentrations of Ambrosia artemisiifolia were detected from February until April. The population of Talca was exposed to high concentrations of allergenic pollen, such as P. acerifolia, A. pseudoplatanus, and grasses in the months of August through November. The detection of O. europaea and A. artemisiifolia is important as these are emergent pollens in the city of Talca. Aerobiological monitoring will provide the community with reliable information about the level of allergenic pollens, improving treatment and quality of life of patients with respiratory allergy. Copyright © 2011 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Hypersensitivity to pollen allergens on the Adriatic coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvitanović, Slavica; Znaor, Ljubo; Perisić, Dubravka; Grbić, Dragica

    2004-06-01

    This paper describes a study of air concentrations of pollens and a calendar of pollination around the town of Split on the Croatian Adriatic in 1994. High pollen concentrations of Parietaria officinalis dominated during the year (up to 20% from April to June) followed by the pollens of Pistacia lentiscus, Olea europaea, Pinus halepensis, Juniperus oxycedrus, Acacia baileyana, Artemisia vulgaris, Ambrosia elatior and Cistus monspeliensis. In 1994-95, skin prick tests using commercially available standard inhalation allergens and specially prepared pollen allergens were performed on 3,500 patients with allergic respiratory symptoms. About 30% were allergic to standard pollen allergens (mixed grass pollen, mixed tree pollen, Parietaria officinalis and Pittosporum tobira). Hypersensitivity to more than one allergen was found in 45% of patients, whereas 15% did not react to any of the standard allergens. Additional testing with newly prepared individual allergens (P. lentiscus, O. europaea, P. halepensis, A. baileyana, C. monspeliensis, A. vulgaris, A. elatior) revealed hypersensitivity in a number of patients, but 36% showed no reaction. This finding suggests that further studies of this kind are needed for additional identification, isolation, and characterisation of pollen allergens that are present in the Adriatic coast.

  16. Species and quantity of airborne pollens in Shanghai as monitored by gravitational and volumetric methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liying; Xu, Yanhua; Wang, Yiwei; Lou, Yueyan; Xu, Yiping; Guo, Yinshi

    2017-03-01

    The prevalence of allergic diseases has markedly increased in the last decades. It is therefore important to assess the distribution of airborne pollen, the most important aeroallergen, for allergic disease prevention and control. To identify the species and quantity of airborne pollens, and observe their distribution characteristics in Shanghai, using gravitational (Durham Sampler) and volumetric (Rotorod Sampler 40) methods simultaneously. In addition, the correlation between both methods was analyzed to provide effective preventive measures for pollen-sensitized individuals. Pollen counts were monitored in the same area from November 1, 2009 to October 31, 2010 by samplers set at the same height and site. Pollen concentrations as well as any association between the two methods were determined. Two pollen concentration peaks in Shanghai were observed from March to May (spring) and September to October (autumn). In spring, tree pollen was the main species, with a predominance of Broussonetia. In autumn, grass pollen predominated, with mostly Humulus. Thirty-two species were identified by both gravitational and volumetric methods. Five and seven additional species were identified exclusively by the gravitational and volumetric methods, respectively. Pollen counts obtained from both devices were significantly correlated (Ppollen counts in central urban Shanghai, showing two annual peaks. Broussonetia and Humulus were the predominant spring and autumn pollens, respectively. Pollen counts obtained by both methods were clearly correlated. Regional airborne pollen monitoring offers preventive measures for sensitized individuals and provides useful clinical information.

  17. Modification of concentration-response curves to inhaled methacholine after the pollen season in subjects with pollen induced rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, L.; López, M.; Bertó, J. M.; Peris, A.

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND--The effect of cessation of exposure to pollen on the concentration-response curves to inhaled methacholine was investigated. METHODS--Methacholine inhalation challenges (up to 200 mg/ml) were performed in 13 non-asthmatic patients with grass and/or Parietaria pollen-induced rhinitis during the pollen season, and one and four months after it. Concentration-response curves were characterised by their PC20, position, and plateau. RESULTS--Geometric mean methacholine PC20 increased from 6.4 mg/ml during the pollen season to 28.2 mg/ml and 54.9 mg/ml one and four months after the end of season, respectively. The mean (SE) level of the plateau decreased from 30.5 (4.3%) in the pollen season to 23.3 (3.7)% and 20.1 (3.3)% one and four months after the end of pollen season, respectively. Although the methacholine concentration that produced 50% of the maximal response increased from 2.9 mg/ml to 4.3 mg/ml and 6.0 mg/ml, the differences were not significant. CONCLUSIONS--In non-asthmatic patients with pollen-induced rhinitis cessation of exposure to pollen is associated with significant modifications in the methacholine threshold value and level of plateau, and with a small shift in the concentration-response curves to the right. PMID:8066569

  18. Tracking maize pollen development by the Leaf Collar Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begcy, Kevin; Dresselhaus, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    An easy and highly reproducible nondestructive method named the Leaf Collar Method is described to identify and characterize the different stages of pollen development in maize. In plants, many cellular events such as meiosis, asymmetric cell division, cell cycle regulation, cell fate determination, nucleus movement, vacuole formation, chromatin condensation and epigenetic modifications take place during pollen development. In maize, pollen development occurs in tassels that are confined within the internal stalk of the plant. Hence, identification of the different pollen developmental stages as a tool to investigate above biological processes is impossible without dissecting the entire plant. Therefore, an efficient and reproducible method is necessary to isolate homogeneous cell populations at individual stages throughout pollen development without destroying the plant. Here, we describe a method to identify the various stages of pollen development in maize. Using the Leaf Collar Method in the maize inbreed line B73, we have determined the duration of each stage from pollen mother cells before meiosis to mature tricellular pollen. Anther and tassel size as well as percentage of pollen stages were correlated with vegetative stages, which are easily recognized. The identification of stage-specific genes indicates the reproducibility of the method. In summary, we present an easy and highly reproducible nondestructive method to identify and characterize the different stages of pollen development in maize. This method now opens the way for many subsequent physiological, morphological and molecular analyses to study, for instance, transcriptomics, metabolomics, DNA methylation and chromatin patterns during normal and stressful conditions throughout pollen development in one of the economically most important grass species.

  19. Horse chestnut pollen quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćalić Dušica

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollen quality of horse chestnut, expressed as pollen productivity, viability and germination was studied. Anthers of horse chestnut genotypes had pollen production from 3.66 to 5.06 x 103 pollen grains per anther, depending of genotype. Also, pollen of horse chestnut Ah1-Ah4 genotypes showed different viability (from 56 to 68%, after staining with fluorescein diacetate. Pollen germination of Ah1-Ah4 genotypes varied from 50-66% on basic medium. Inclusion of polyethylene glycol-PEG from 10%, 15% and 20% v/w increased pollen germination. The best results were achieved on medium with the largest PEG concentration. On these medium 76-91% pollen grains were germinated, depending of genotype. The best pollen quality, for all tested parameters, had genotype Ah2. Knowledge about morphology, production, viability, in vitro germination, tube growth as well as pollen: ovule ratio can be of great importance for future pollen biology studies. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 173015

  20. Immunotherapy is allergen-specific: a double-blind trial of mite or timothy extract in mite and grass dual-allergic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreborg, S; Lee, T H; Kay, A B; Durham, S R

    2012-01-01

    One hundred years ago, Noon [Lancet 1911;1:1572-1573], using conjunctival provocation testing (CPT), was the first to demonstrate the effectiveness of subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) in grass-allergic subjects with hay fever. In this centenary year, we present data that, by use of CPT and allergen-specific IgG, replicate this observation and additionally confirm the allergen specificity of SCIT by using a double-blind design employing either grass or mite SCIT in dual grass- and mite-allergic individuals. Twenty adults (11 females) with perennial rhinoconjunctivitis and exacerbation of symptoms during the grass pollen season and in the autumn had immediate skin and conjunctival sensitivity and raised specific IgE to both Dermatophagoides farinae and Phleum pratense. Participants were randomly assigned to either timothy or D. farinae immunotherapy for 3 years. CPT and specific IgG tests to both allergens were performed annually. After 3 years, subjects gave their blinded overall evaluation. Six mild-to-moderate general reactions occurred in 2 timothy- and 4 mite-treated patients. Four of these patients and 2 other patients withdrew from the study. Seven patients in each group completed the study. After 3 years of immunotherapy, the timothy CPT threshold concentration had increased 16- fold in timothy-treated patients (p < 0.05; between-group change, p < 0.05). The increase in the mite CPT threshold in mite- compared to grass-treated patients was 31-fold (p < 0.05). The overall assessment of conjunctival sensitivity was highly significant in favour of treatment (p < 0.015), as was that of allergen-specific IgG (p < 0.0001). Allergen immunotherapy is allergen species-specific, as judged by decreased conjunctival sensitivity and changes in allergen-specific IgG concentrations. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Atmospheric pollen season in Zagreb (Croatia) and its relationship with temperature and precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peternel, Renata; Srnec, Lidija; Čulig, Josip; Zaninović, Ksenija; Mitić, Božena; Vukušić, Ivan

    . The number of individuals allergic to plant pollen has recently been on a constant increase, especially in large cities and industrial areas. Therefore, monitoring of airborne pollen types and concentrations during the pollen season is of the utmost medical importance. The research reported in this paper aims to determine the beginning, course and end of the pollen season for the plants in the City of Zagreb, to identify allergenic plants, and to assess the variation in airborne pollen concentration as a function of temperature and precipitation changes for the year 2002. A volumetric Hirst sampler was used for airborne pollen sampling. Qualitative and quantitative pollen analysis was performed under a light microscope (magnification ×400). In the Zagreb area, 12 groups of highly allergenic plants (alder, hazel, cypress, birch, ash, hornbeam, grasses, elder, nettles, sweet chestnut, artemisia and ambrosia) were identified. Birch pollen predominated in spring, the highest concentrations being recorded in February and March. Grass pollen prevailed in May and June, and pollen of herbaceous plants of the genus Urtica (nettle) and of ambrosia in July, August and September. Air temperature was mostly higher or considerably higher than the annual average in those months, which resulted in a many days with high and very high airborne pollen concentrations. The exception was April, when these concentrations were lower because of high levels of precipitation. This also held for the first half of August and the second half of September. Pollen-sensitive individuals were at high risk from February till October because of the high airborne pollen concentrations, which only showed a transient decrease when the temperature fell or there was precipitation.

  2. Possible role of climate changes in variations in pollen seasons and allergic sensitizations during 27 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariano, Renato; Canonica, Giorgio Walter; Passalacqua, Giovanni

    2010-03-01

    Climate changes may affect the quality and amount of airborne allergenic pollens. The direct assessment of such an effect requires long observation periods and a restricted geographic area. To assess variations in pollens and allergic sensitizations across 27 years in relation to climate change in a specific region. We recorded pollen counts, season durations, and prevalences of sensitizations for 5 major pollens (birch, cypress, olive, grass, and Parietaria) in western Liguria between 1981 and 2007. Pollen counts were performed using a Hirst-type trap, and sensitizations were assessed by means of skin prick testing. Meteorologic data for the same period included average temperatures, direct radiation, humidity, number of sunny days, and rainfall. There was a progressive increase in the duration of the pollen seasons for Parietaria (+85 days), olive (+18 days), and cypress (+18 days), with an overall advance of their start dates. For Parietaria, there was an advance of 2 months in 2006 vs 1981. Also, the total pollen load progressively increased for the considered species (approximately 25% on average) except for grasses. Percentages of patients sensitized to the pollens increased throughout the years, whereas the percentage of individuals sensitized to house dust mite remained stable. These behaviors paralleled the constant increase in direct radiation, temperature, and number of days with a temperature greater than 30 degrees C. The progressive climate changes, with increased temperatures, may modify the global pollen load and affect the rate of allergic sensitization across long periods.

  3. PollenCALC: Software for estimation of pollen compatibility of self-incompatible allo- and autotetraploid species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguirre Andrea

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-incompatibility (SI is a biological mechanism to avoid inbreeding in allogamous plants. In grasses, this mechanism is controlled by a two-locus system (S-Z. Calculation of male and female gamete frequencies is complex for tetraploid species. We are not aware of any software available for predicting pollen haplotype frequencies and pollen compatibility in tetraploid species. Results PollenCALC is a software tool written in C++ programming language that can predict pollen compatibility percentages for polyploid species with a two-locus (S, Z self-incompatibility system. The program predicts pollen genotypes and frequencies based on defined meiotic parameters for allo- or autotetraploid species with a gametophytic S-Z SI system. These predictions can be used to obtain expected values for for diploid and for (allo- or autotetraploidy SI grasses. Conclusion The information provided by this calculator can be used to predict compatibility of pair-crosses in plant breeding applications, to analyze segregation distortion for S and Z genes, as well as linked markers in mapping populations, hypothesis testing of the number of S and Z alleles in a pair cross, and the underlying genetic model.

  4. Subcutaneous Zygomycosis Basidiobolomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sethuraman G

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Subcutaneous zygomycosis, also known as basidiobolomycosis, is a rare disease caused by the fungus Basidiobolus ranarum. Since its first description in 1954, may cases have been reported. In India, so far only few cases have been described. We report this entity in a 3 year- old female child who had firm to hard swelling of the right upper extremely and chest. Histopathology showed short aseptate hyphae surrounded by eosinophilic material within the granulomatous tissue response, in the subcutaneous tissue. She responded dramatically to saturated solution of potassium iodide.

  5. Changes in the concentration of pollen over an 11-year period in a Polish urban environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Majkowska-Wojciechowska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that climate change can influence plant reproductive systems and have an impact on the increase in allergenic pollen in atmospheric air; highly allergenic pollen may intensify the allergic response in people. The aim of our study was to evaluate the seasonal dynamic concentration of the most allergenic pollen taxa, i.e., the following trees: Alnus, Corylus, Betula, and herbaceous plants: grasses (Poaceae, Artemisia, and Ambrosia, in the long-term period of 2003–2013 in the city of Lodz, Poland. Weekly airborne pollen concentrations were evaluated with a volumetric Lansoni pollen trap. The beginning and the end of the season were calculated by the 98% method. The birch (Betula pollen was at the highest level and accounted for 79%, followed by alder (Alnus – 19%, and hazel (Corylus – 2%. Among the herbaceous taxa, grasses (Poaceae pollen dominated – 79%, followed by mugwort (Artemisia – 18%, and ragweed (Ambrosia – 3%. Our findings indicate a lack of qualitative and quantitative change in the pollen produced over the 11-year period.

  6. Examination of climatological wind patterns and simulated pollen dispersion in a complex island environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viner, Brian J; Arritt, Raymond W; Westgate, Mark E

    2017-03-29

    Complex terrain creates small-scale circulations which affect pollen dispersion but may be missed by meteorological observing networks and coarse-grid meteorological models. On volcanic islands, these circulations result from differing rates of surface heating between land and sea as well as rugged terrain. We simulated the transport of bentgrass, ryegrass, and maize pollen from 30 sources within the agricultural regions of the Hawaiian island Kaua'i during climatological conditions spanning season conditions and the La Niña, El Niño, and neutral phases of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. Both pollen size and source location had major effects on predicted dispersion over and near the island. Three patterns of pollen dispersion were identified in response to prevailing wind conditions: southwest winds transported pollen inland, funneling pollen grains through valleys; east winds transported pollen over the ocean, with dispersive tails for the smallest pollen grains following the mean wind and extending as far as the island of Ni'ihau 35 km away; and northeast winds moved pollen inland counter to the prevailing flow due to a sea breeze circulation that formed over the source region. These results are the first to predict the interactions between complex island terrain and local climatology on grass pollen dispersion. They demonstrate how numerical modeling can provide guidance for field trials by illustrating the common flow regimes present in complex terrain, allowing field trials to focus on areas where successful sampling is more likely to occur.

  7. Examination of climatological wind patterns and simulated pollen dispersion in a complex island environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viner, Brian J.; Arritt, Raymond W.; Westgate, Mark E.

    2017-08-01

    Complex terrain creates small-scale circulations which affect pollen dispersion but may be missed by meteorological observing networks and coarse-grid meteorological models. On volcanic islands, these circulations result from differing rates of surface heating between land and sea as well as rugged terrain. We simulated the transport of bentgrass, ryegrass, and maize pollen from 30 sources within the agricultural regions of the Hawaiian island Kaua'i during climatological conditions spanning season conditions and the La Niña, El Niño, and neutral phases of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. Both pollen size and source location had major effects on predicted dispersion over and near the island. Three patterns of pollen dispersion were identified in response to prevailing wind conditions: southwest winds transported pollen inland, funneling pollen grains through valleys; east winds transported pollen over the ocean, with dispersive tails for the smallest pollen grains following the mean wind and extending as far as the island of Ni'ihau 35 km away; and northeast winds moved pollen inland counter to the prevailing flow due to a sea breeze circulation that formed over the source region. These results are the first to predict the interactions between complex island terrain and local climatology on grass pollen dispersion. They demonstrate how numerical modeling can provide guidance for field trials by illustrating the common flow regimes present in complex terrain, allowing field trials to focus on areas where successful sampling is more likely to occur.

  8. Airborne Pollen Records of Shomolu Local Government Area in Lagos State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiwalade A. ADENIYI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Data on the prevalence of pollen in the atmosphere is limited and almost non-existent for Lagos State and Nigeria. Pollen grains are known to be highly allergenic and thus they are potential causes of respiratory diseases. To investigate airborne incidence of pollen, so as to construct a pollen calendar and contribute to current trends in the development of aeropalynology/allergy study in Nigeria, three highly populated locations in Shomolu Local Government areas of Lagos State: University of Lagos, Bariga and Gbagada, were sampled. Aero-samplers were harvested monthly from January 2013 to December 2013. After acetolysis treatment and analysis, the total pollen count was 4393, belonging to 38 pollen taxa and 29 families. The main taxa include Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Amaranthaceae, Ludwigia and Alchornea. Monthly pollen counts were highest in October and lowest in June. Almost three-quarters of the total pollen content came from grasses and weeds. This composition reflects the ornamental and grassland flora of the town, as well as the natural vegetation surrounding the urban area. The total pollen concentration correlates positively with the temperature and negatively with the wind, rainfall and relative humidity, which was similar in the dominant taxa Amaranthaceae and Alchornea. Dominant taxa Cyperaceae and Ludwigia have significant positive correlation with wheezing cough. Results from this work will form the basis for a forecast service required to inform and educate the general public and allergy sufferers about pollen distribution in Lagos State.

  9. Subcutaneous encapsulated fat necrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aydin, Dogu; Berg, Jais O

    2016-01-01

    We have described subcutaneous encapsulated fat necrosis, which is benign, usually asymptomatic and underreported. Images have only been published on two earlier occasions, in which the necrotic nodules appear "pearly" than the cloudy yellow surface in present case. The presented image may help...

  10. Subcutaneous granuloma annulare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhar Sandipan

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Two cases of subcutaneos granuloma annulare are reported. Clinical presentation was in the form of hard subcutaneous nodules; histopathology confirmed the clinical diagnosis. The cases were unique because of onset in adult hood, occurrence over unusual sites and absence of classical lesions of granuloma annulare elsewhere.

  11. High exposure to endotoxin in farming is associated with less new-onset pollen sensitisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elholm, Grethe; Schlünssen, Vivi; Doekes, Gert

    2017-01-01

    in relation to cumulative endotoxin exposure during follow-up, considering early life farm exposure. RESULTS: Endotoxin exposure during follow-up was significantly associated with less new onset of specifically grass and birch pollen sensitisation. For the highest versus lowest quartile of cumulative...... was not associated with significant changes in cat dander and house dust mite sensitisation. CONCLUSIONS: High exposure to endotoxin during young adulthood appears to protect against new onset of pollen sensitisation, independent of childhood farm exposure....

  12. Reevaluation of pollen quantitation by an automatic pollen counter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muradil, Mutarifu; Okamoto, Yoshitaka; Yonekura, Syuji; Chazono, Hideaki; Hisamitsu, Minako; Horiguchi, Shigetoshi; Hanazawa, Toyoyuki; Takahashi, Yukie; Yokota, Kunihiko; Okumura, Satoshi

    2010-01-01

    Accurate and detailed pollen monitoring is useful for selection of medication and for allergen avoidance in patients with allergic rhinitis. Burkard and Durham pollen samplers are commonly used, but are labor and time intensive. In contrast, automatic pollen counters allow simple real-time pollen counting; however, these instruments have difficulty in distinguishing pollen from small nonpollen airborne particles. Misidentification and underestimation rates for an automatic pollen counter were examined to improve the accuracy of the pollen count. The characteristics of the automatic pollen counter were determined in a chamber study with exposure to cedar pollens or soil grains. The cedar pollen counts were monitored in 2006 and 2007, and compared with those from a Durham sampler. The pollen counts from the automatic counter showed a good correlation (r > 0.7) with those from the Durham sampler when pollen dispersal was high, but a poor correlation (r pollen dispersal was low. The new correction method, which took into account the misidentification and underestimation, improved this correlation to r > 0.7 during the pollen season. The accuracy of automatic pollen counting can be improved using a correction to include rates of underestimation and misidentification in a particular geographical area.

  13. The number of FceRI receptors on basophils decreases during subcutaneous immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmid, J. M.; Dahl, R.; Hoffmann, H. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Allergen specific immunotherapy is the only disease modifying treatment of allergic diseases. It induces complex cellular and humoral changes leading to an inhibition of type-1 allergic reactions. Method: Twenty four young grass pollen allergic adults suffering from seasonal rhino...

  14. Citrus allergy from pollen to clinical symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Anna Iorio

    Full Text Available Allergy to citrus fruits is often associated with pollinosis and sensitization to other plants due to a phenomenon of cross-reactivity. The aims of the present study were to highlight the cross-reactivity among citrus and the major allergenic pollens/fruits, throughout clinical and molecular investigations, and to evaluate the sensitization frequency to citrus fruits in a population of children and adults with pollinosis. We found a relevant percentage of sensitisation (39% to citrus fruits in the patients recruited and in all of them the IgE-mediated mechanism has been confirmed by the positive response to the prick-to-prick test. RT-PCR experiments showed the expression of Cit s 1, Cit s 3 and a profilin isoform, already described in apple, also in Citrus clementine pollen. Data of multiple sequence alignments demonstrated that Citrus allergens shared high percentage identity values with other clinically relevant species (i.e. Triticum aestivum, Malus domestica, confirming the possible cross-allergenicity citrus/grasses and citrus/apple. Finally, a novelty of the present work has been the expression of two phospholipaseA2 isoforms (PLA2 α and β in Citrus as well as in Triticum pollens; being PLA2 able to generate pro-inflammatory factors, this enzyme could participate in the activation of the allergenic inflammatory cascade.

  15. Anaphylaxis in a 4-year-old male caused by contact with grasses: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramón, Germán Darío; Croce, Victor H; Chérrez Ojeda, Iván

    2017-01-01

    Acute urticaria is the presence of urticaria for anaphylaxis, a life-threatening condition. Urticaria must be differentiated from anaphylaxis because the latter may require emergency treatment. We describe a child with anaphylaxis exposed to grasses on two occasions. We described a 4-year-old male child with anaphylaxis exposed to grasses. Patient also suffered mild neurologic/respiratory symptoms but it is unlikely that he had anaphylaxis. Skin-prick tests were positive to Cynodon dactylis, Phalaris arundinacea and Festuca elatior. Little is known about the importance of pollens as a cause of urticaria in young children. The case reported here is particularly interesting because, to the best of our knowledge, anaphylaxis due to pollen exposure in children aged <4 years has not been reported before. We strongly encourage all physicians searching for the cause of acute urticaria (allergists, dermatologists, primary-care physicians) to consider the possibility of pollen allergy, and to screen these patients for pollen sensitization.

  16. Massive subcutaneous emphysema with pneumoscrotopenis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chest injury commonly leads to subcutaneous emphysema of the chest, neck and face. It is usually non-life threatening. Massive subcutaneous emphysema may occur and very rarely may spread to involve the scrotal sac and subcutaneous tissue planes of the penis to cause pneumoscrotopenis. This case report presents ...

  17. A prognostic pollen emissions model for climate models (PECM1.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, Matthew C.; Steiner, Allison L.

    2017-11-01

    We develop a prognostic model called Pollen Emissions for Climate Models (PECM) for use within regional and global climate models to simulate pollen counts over the seasonal cycle based on geography, vegetation type, and meteorological parameters. Using modern surface pollen count data, empirical relationships between prior-year annual average temperature and pollen season start dates and end dates are developed for deciduous broadleaf trees (Acer, Alnus, Betula, Fraxinus, Morus, Platanus, Populus, Quercus, Ulmus), evergreen needleleaf trees (Cupressaceae, Pinaceae), grasses (Poaceae; C3, C4), and ragweed (Ambrosia). This regression model explains as much as 57 % of the variance in pollen phenological dates, and it is used to create a climate-flexible phenology that can be used to study the response of wind-driven pollen emissions to climate change. The emissions model is evaluated in the Regional Climate Model version 4 (RegCM4) over the continental United States by prescribing an emission potential from PECM and transporting pollen as aerosol tracers. We evaluate two different pollen emissions scenarios in the model using (1) a taxa-specific land cover database, phenology, and emission potential, and (2) a plant functional type (PFT) land cover, phenology, and emission potential. The simulated surface pollen concentrations for both simulations are evaluated against observed surface pollen counts in five climatic subregions. Given prescribed pollen emissions, the RegCM4 simulates observed concentrations within an order of magnitude, although the performance of the simulations in any subregion is strongly related to the land cover representation and the number of observation sites used to create the empirical phenological relationship. The taxa-based model provides a better representation of the phenology of tree-based pollen counts than the PFT-based model; however, we note that the PFT-based version provides a useful and climate-flexible emissions model for the

  18. A prognostic pollen emissions model for climate models (PECM1.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Wozniak

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We develop a prognostic model called Pollen Emissions for Climate Models (PECM for use within regional and global climate models to simulate pollen counts over the seasonal cycle based on geography, vegetation type, and meteorological parameters. Using modern surface pollen count data, empirical relationships between prior-year annual average temperature and pollen season start dates and end dates are developed for deciduous broadleaf trees (Acer, Alnus, Betula, Fraxinus, Morus, Platanus, Populus, Quercus, Ulmus, evergreen needleleaf trees (Cupressaceae, Pinaceae, grasses (Poaceae; C3, C4, and ragweed (Ambrosia. This regression model explains as much as 57 % of the variance in pollen phenological dates, and it is used to create a climate-flexible phenology that can be used to study the response of wind-driven pollen emissions to climate change. The emissions model is evaluated in the Regional Climate Model version 4 (RegCM4 over the continental United States by prescribing an emission potential from PECM and transporting pollen as aerosol tracers. We evaluate two different pollen emissions scenarios in the model using (1 a taxa-specific land cover database, phenology, and emission potential, and (2 a plant functional type (PFT land cover, phenology, and emission potential. The simulated surface pollen concentrations for both simulations are evaluated against observed surface pollen counts in five climatic subregions. Given prescribed pollen emissions, the RegCM4 simulates observed concentrations within an order of magnitude, although the performance of the simulations in any subregion is strongly related to the land cover representation and the number of observation sites used to create the empirical phenological relationship. The taxa-based model provides a better representation of the phenology of tree-based pollen counts than the PFT-based model; however, we note that the PFT-based version provides a useful and climate-flexible emissions

  19. Subcutaneous bronchogenic cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Manchanda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bronchogenic cysts occur due to the anomalous development of the primitive tracheobronchial tree early in fetal life. They are usually present in middle mediastinum. Rarely, they have been found in other locations. We describe two patients with subcutaneous bronchogenic cysts located over manubrium sterni with special emphasis on the difficulties in pre-operative diagnosis. The two boys were managed by complete excision of the cysts. The children are well on follow-up.

  20. Aeroallergen analyses and their clinical relevance. II. Sampling by high-volume airsampler with immunochemical quantification versus Burkard pollen trap sampling with morphologic quantification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, C R; Weeke, E R; Nielsen, J

    1992-01-01

    operated 24 h a day. They were placed less than 5 m apart, and estimation of the pollen amount was made on a day-to-day basis during the pollen seasons, and on a weekly basis outside the seasons. The occurrence of the 3 clinically most important allergenic types of pollen, birch, grass, and mugwort......, was analysed, and close correlations between the 2 sampling techniques were found (rs 0.5-0.8, p 1 SQ-U/m3, respectively...

  1. Characterization of Phleum pratense pollen extracts by 2-D DIGE and allergen immunoreactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Hendrik; Gelhaus, Christoph; Nebendahl, Melanie; Janssen, Ottmar; Petersen, Arnd

    2010-12-01

    The allergen content of standardized pollen material is crucial for an effective diagnosis and treatment. However, variations in IgE reactivities of allergic patients to different preparations of Phleum pratense pollen have been reported. In order to define and directly compare the allergen composition of pollen preparations provided by different suppliers, a comprehensive proteome analysis of three different timothy grass pollen extracts was performed. More than 140 proteins were annotated comprising the pollen proteome/allergome in a global 2-D map. With regard to the individual pollen preparations, several major differences in the overall protein composition were detected that also affected known Phleum allergens and their isoforms. Importantly, these differences were also reflected at the level of antibody reactivities in 1-D and 2-D immunoblots. As a consequence, it is suggested that the observed differences should be taken into consideration aiming for a standardized diagnosis and therapy of grass pollen allergies as recommended by international medical agencies. Copyright © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RECENT POLLEN DEPOSITION AND AIRBORNE POLLEN CONCENTRATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SPIEKSMA, FTM; NIKKELS, BH; BOTTEMA, S

    In the reconstruction of past or recent vegetation the study of deposited pollen plays an important role. As reference value, very often the pollen content of moss polsters (''moss cushions'') is assessed to estimate the pollen deposition (''influx'') from the air. Recently, the data from

  3. Hybridizing pines with diluted pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Z. Callaham

    1967-01-01

    Diluted pollens would have many uses by the tree breeder. Dilutions would be particularly advantageous in making many controlled pollinations with a limited amount of pollen. They also would be useful in artificial mass pollinations of orchards or single trees. Diluted pollens might help overcome troublesome genetic barriers to crossing. Feasibility o,f using diluted...

  4. Germination and storage of pollen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, T.

    1955-01-01

    Germination of pear pollen markedly improved when boric acid was added to the medium. The pollen was more sensitive to boron in water than in 10 % sugar solution. Supplying weak solutions of boron to pear branches before flowering resulted in a good germination of the pollen in sugar solution

  5. Subcutaneous Phycomycosis in a Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjiri R. Naniwadekar

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Subcutaneous phycomycosis is a rare entity. We hereby report a case of subcutaneous phycomycosis in 18 months old female child who presented with a painless, non-tender swelling on the thigh. Skin biopsy showed eosinophilic granuloma lying deep in the subcutaneous tissue, with sparse hyphae. Culture on Sabouraud's dextrose agar showed characteristic colonies. Patient was started on oral potassium iodide. The swelling was completely resolved after one month of treatment.

  6. Skin prick test reactivity in allergic rhinitis patients to airborne pollens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkara, Ismuhan Potoglu; Cingi, Cemal; Ayranci, Unal; Gurbuz, Kezban Melek; Pehlivan, Sevil; Tokur, Suleyman

    2009-04-01

    The aim was to investigate the impact of atmospheric pollen in determining allergic rhinitis. It was conducted with 130 patients with allergic rhinitis in three different sites in Eskisehir, Turkey, in 2000-2001, using a gravimetric method with a Durham sampler. Skin prick test results, the symptoms of patients and their findings all confirmed the presence of allergic reactions to pollen allergens in the patients observed. During the period, a total of 47,082 pollen grains/cm(2) belonging to 45 taxa were recorded. Of the total pollen grains, 81.0% were arboreal and 18% non-arboreal. The majority of the investigated pollen grains were from Pinaceae, Salix spp., Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae, Cupressaceae and Poaceae. Pollen concentrations reached the highest level in May (54.36%). The pollen allergens provoking severe sensitization were grasscereal mixtures (58.5%), followed by arboreals (33.8%). All patients (100.0%) were sensitive to grass. This study emphasizes the significance of determining the types and concentrations of pollen with a view to comparing changes in highly concentrated allergens.

  7. Subcutaneous adipose tissue classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sbarbati

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The developments in the technologies based on the use of autologous adipose tissue attracted attention to minor depots as possible sampling areas. Some of those depots have never been studied in detail. The present study was performed on subcutaneous adipose depots sampled in different areas with the aim of explaining their morphology, particularly as far as regards stem niches. The results demonstrated that three different types of white adipose tissue (WAT can be differentiated on the basis of structural and ultrastructural features: deposit WAT (dWAT, structural WAT (sWAT and fibrous WAT (fWAT. dWAT can be found essentially in large fatty depots in the abdominal area (periumbilical. In the dWAT, cells are tightly packed and linked by a weak net of isolated collagen fibers. Collagenic components are very poor, cells are large and few blood vessels are present. The deep portion appears more fibrous then the superficial one. The microcirculation is formed by thin walled capillaries with rare stem niches. Reinforcement pericyte elements are rarely evident. The sWAT is more stromal; it is located in some areas in the limbs and in the hips. The stroma is fairly well represented, with a good vascularity and adequate staminality. Cells are wrapped by a basket of collagen fibers. The fatty depots of the knees and of the trochanteric areas have quite loose meshes. The fWAT has a noteworthy fibrous component and can be found in areas where a severe mechanic stress occurs. Adipocytes have an individual thick fibrous shell. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates evident differences among subcutaneous WAT deposits, thus suggesting that in regenerative procedures based on autologous adipose tissues the sampling area should not be randomly chosen, but it should be oriented by evidence based evaluations. The structural peculiarities of the sWAT, and particularly of its microcirculation, suggest that it could represent a privileged source for

  8. Metagenomics at Grass Roots

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    bacteria from forest soils. Figure 1E also shows seasonal shifts in abundance of rhizospheric bacterial communities of the two grasses, adding yet another layer of complexity. Similar trends were evident from fungal and faunal OTUs identified in these grass rhizospheres, where many OTUs had no significant match.

  9. A synteny-based draft genome sequence of the forage grass Lolium perenne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Stephen L; Nagy, Istvan; Pfeifer, Matthias; Armstead, Ian; Swain, Suresh; Studer, Bruno; Mayer, Klaus; Campbell, Jacqueline D; Czaban, Adrian; Hentrup, Stephan; Panitz, Frank; Bendixen, Christian; Hedegaard, Jakob; Caccamo, Mario; Asp, Torben

    2015-11-01

    Here we report the draft genome sequence of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne), an economically important forage and turf grass species that is widely cultivated in temperate regions worldwide. It is classified along with wheat, barley, oats and Brachypodium distachyon in the Pooideae sub-family of the grass family (Poaceae). Transcriptome data was used to identify 28,455 gene models, and we utilized macro-co-linearity between perennial ryegrass and barley, and synteny within the grass family, to establish a synteny-based linear gene order. The gametophytic self-incompatibility mechanism enables the pistil of a plant to reject self-pollen and therefore promote out-crossing. We have used the sequence assembly to characterize transcriptional changes in the stigma during pollination with both compatible and incompatible pollen. Characterization of the pollen transcriptome identified homologs to pollen allergens from a range of species, many of which were expressed to very high levels in mature pollen grains, and are potentially involved in the self-incompatibility mechanism. The genome sequence provides a valuable resource for future breeding efforts based on genomic prediction, and will accelerate the development of new varieties for more productive grasslands. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Development of a regional-scale pollen emission and transport modeling framework for investigating the impact of climate change on allergic airway disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, R.; Duhl, T.; Salam, M. T.; House, J. M.; Flagan, R. C.; Avol, E. L.; Gilliland, F. D.; Guenther, A.; Chung, S. H.; Lamb, B. K.; VanReken, T. M.

    2014-03-01

    Exposure to bioaerosol allergens such as pollen can cause exacerbations of allergenic airway disease (AAD) in sensitive populations, and thus cause serious public health problems. Assessing these health impacts by linking the airborne pollen levels, concentrations of respirable allergenic material, and human allergenic response under current and future climate conditions is a key step toward developing preventive and adaptive actions. To that end, a regional-scale pollen emission and transport modeling framework was developed that treats allergenic pollens as non-reactive tracers within the coupled Weather Research and Forecasting Community Multiscale Air Quality (WRF/CMAQ) modeling system. The Simulator of the Timing and Magnitude of Pollen Season (STaMPS) model was used to generate a daily pollen pool that can then be emitted into the atmosphere by wind. The STaMPS is driven by species-specific meteorological (temperature and/or precipitation) threshold conditions and is designed to be flexible with respect to its representation of vegetation species and plant functional types (PFTs). The hourly pollen emission flux was parameterized by considering the pollen pool, friction velocity, and wind threshold values. The dry deposition velocity of each species of pollen was estimated based on pollen grain size and density. An evaluation of the pollen modeling framework was conducted for southern California (USA) for the period from March to June 2010. This period coincided with observations by the University of Southern California's Children's Health Study (CHS), which included O3, PM2.5, and pollen count, as well as measurements of exhaled nitric oxide in study participants. Two nesting domains with horizontal resolutions of 12 and 4 km were constructed, and six representative allergenic pollen genera were included: birch tree, walnut tree, mulberry tree, olive tree, oak tree, and brome grasses. Under the current parameterization scheme, the modeling framework tends to

  11. Resistance of Napier grass clones to Napier grass Stunt Disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach) is the major livestock fodder under intensive and semi-intensive systems in East Africa. However, the productivity of the grass is constrained by Napier grass Stunt Disease (NSD). The purpose of this study was to identify Napier grass clones with resistance to NSD.

  12. cDNA cloning and immunological characterization of the rye grass allergen Lol p I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, M; Ishioka, G Y; Walker, L E; Chesnut, R W

    1990-09-25

    The complete amino acid sequence of two "isoallergenic" forms of Lol p I, the major rye grass (Lolium perenne) pollen allergen, was deduced from cDNA sequence analysis. cDNA clones isolated from a Lolium perenne pollen library contained an open reading frame coding for a 240-amino acid protein. Comparison of the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence of two of these clones revealed four changes at the amino acid level and numerous nucleotide differences. Both clones contained one possible asparagine-linked glycosylation site. Northern blot analysis shows one RNA species of 1.2 kilobases. Based on the complete amino acid sequence of Lol p I, overlapping peptides covering the entire molecule were synthesized. Utilizing these peptides we have identified a determinant within the Lol p I molecule that is recognized by human leukocyte antigen class II-restricted T cells obtained from persons allergic to rye grass pollen.

  13. Effectiveness of allergen-specific immunotherapy with pollen allergens in children from the viewpoint of molecular allergology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Nedelska

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Allergen-specific immunotherapy as elimination procedures is the only method of treatment and prevention of allergic disorders formation and exacerbation of clinical symptoms. One of the approaches to molecular diagnosis is choice of allergen for allergen-specific immunotherapy (ASIT. The purpose of our study was to identify possible reasons of failure of ASIT with pollen allergens (predominantly weeds in children with seasonal allergic rhinitis (hay fever and/or bronchial asthma based on studying hypersensitivity to the allergens, analysis of anamnestic data. Materials and methods. Allergy skin prick tests were conducted to 192 children (middle age 9.8 ± 2.7 years with the seasonal symptoms of rhinitis and/or bronchial asthma according to standard methodology with pollen allergens of Immunolog Ltd (Vinnytsia. We evaluated positive results as 5 mm and higher diameter of papula/hyperemia. The anamnestic survey was carried out in 52 patients by means of the questionnaire that contained questions about cross allergy (pollen-food, oral allergy syndrome, concomitant pathology of upper respiratory tract and effectiveness of АSІТ, which is elaborated by us. Results. The skin prick tests show that in 192 patients, who have hay fever, ragweed, sunflower sensibilization predominates (56 and 58 %, correspondingly. About 10–20 % of children are sensitive to cereals (ryegrass, fescue. To the allergens of poplar, acacia, couch-grass, oak, mint, nettle, walnut, the positive reactions of prick tests were observed in 3–7 children, that is 1.5–3.6 %. According to our results, 23 % of patients had sensibilization to 5 and more pollen allergens. 52 % of children had concomitant food allergy, 15 % of patients have reactions of the lips, oral cavity when using certain products, mostly tomatoes, nuts, seeds (they were diagnosed oral allergy syndrome. Also, one third of children have varying degrees of adenoid hypertrophy, tonsils hypertrophy

  14. Ventilation scheme, room location and meteorological factors influence indoor birch pollen concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochner, Susanne; Matiu, Michael; Michaelis, Rico; Menzel, Annette

    2017-04-01

    known from literature, indoor concentrations additionally depended on the previously measured concentrations, indicative of accumulation of pollen inside the rooms. Two follow-up studies on grass pollen at the TUM building in Freising (2015) and a KIT building in Garmisch-Partenkirchen (2016) largely confirmed these findings on indoor concentrations of allergenic pollen.

  15. Airborne pollen spectrum of Dnіpropetrovsk city as a basis of hay fever control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Rodinkova

    2013-02-01

    other representatives of Asteraceae constituted of 5% each. The most abundant tree pollen rain (4% from total annual count was produced by the Populus species. Betula pollen was the next having up 2% of annual pollen rain in Dnipropetrovsk. As can be seen, the first arboreal spring-summer pollination wave was not massive in Dnipropetrovsk. It was represented by Populus, Betula, Acer, Fraxinus, Quercus, Ulmus, Pinus, Juglans pollen spread in the end of March, whole April and the first weeks of May mostly. However, the second wave was intensively seen from the mid of July till the mid of October. Important airborne pollen producing taxa were Artemisisia, Ambrosia, Asteraceae, Chenopodiaceae, Urtica, Plantago, Polygonaceae pollen at that time. Important airborne pollen allergens of Poaceae family (grasses held the 7th position in the total annual pollen rain and were recorded between two pollination waves from the mid of May till the end of June mostly. The worst period for the patients was associated with the Betula, Acer and Quercus pollination from 13th of April  till the mid of May and with Ambrosia and Artemisia pollination from 28th of July, till September, 30. The present airborne pollen calendar should be considered while diagnosing the hay fever symptoms in sensitive patients. It’s important to continue the pollen count and control in Dnіpropetrovsk due to constant changing of climatic and anthropogenic conditions impacting the pollen production and release.

  16. Allergenic pollen season variations in the past two decades under changing climate in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Bielory, Leonard; Mi, Zhongyuan; Cai, Ting; Robock, Alan; Georgopoulos, Panos

    2015-04-01

    Many diseases are linked with climate trends and variations. In particular, climate change is expected to alter the spatiotemporal dynamics of allergenic airborne pollen and potentially increase occurrence of allergic airway disease. Understanding the spatiotemporal patterns of changes in pollen season timing and levels is thus important in assessing climate impacts on aerobiology and allergy caused by allergenic airborne pollen. Here, we describe the spatiotemporal patterns of changes in the seasonal timing and levels of allergenic airborne pollen for multiple taxa in different climate regions at a continental scale. The allergenic pollen seasons of representative trees, weeds and grass during the past decade (2001-2010) across the contiguous United States have been observed to start 3.0 [95% Confidence Interval (CI), 1.1-4.9] days earlier on average than in the 1990s (1994-2000). The average peak value and annual total of daily counted airborne pollen have increased by 42.4% (95% CI, 21.9-62.9%) and 46.0% (95% CI, 21.5-70.5%), respectively. Changes of pollen season timing and airborne levels depend on latitude, and are associated with changes of growing degree days, frost free days, and precipitation. These changes are likely due to recent climate change and particularly the enhanced warming and precipitation at higher latitudes in the contiguous United States. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Analysis of airborne ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. pollen in Timisoara, 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta IANOVICI

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Ambrosia artemisiifolia (ragweed is an annual, herbaceous, with high invasive potential, wind-pollinated plant that is important allergenic weed belonging to the Asteraceae plant family. Allergenic airpollen can interact with other components of environmental global change in a synergic way increasing the risks to public health. Analysis of the pollen count was performed on the basis of the data collected in Timişoara in the season of 2004. Airborne ragweed pollen concentrations, measured continuously with a volumetric method are compared with respect to both their quantitative and seasonal aspects. A weekly programmed Hirst spore-trap was used to sample airborne pollen grains, calibrated to handle a flow of 10 L/min of air, which roughly corresponds to a human breathing rhythm. In Timisoara the Lanzoni model was used. The daily quantities of pollen are expressed as numbers of pollen grains per cubic meter of air per day (PG/m3.The pollen seasons show 3 main parts: tree season (February–April, grass season (May–July, weed season (July–October. In September 65,71% of the total aeropollen concentration is due to Ambrosia. The highest concentration of ragweed pollen was 220 PG/m3.Ambrosia artemisiifolia have a pronounced invasive character. Since 1910, having been spread all over the country, it has become the most common weed in Romania. There is an urgent need to organize interventions to stop ragweed expansion and to clear the areas already polluted.

  18. GRASS GIS Vector Processing: Towards GRASS 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Markus; Landa, Martin; Petrasova, Anna; Petras, Vaclav; Chemin, Yann; Neteler, Markus

    2014-05-01

    The upcoming GRASS GIS 7 release improves not only raster processing and general design but the vector processing in the first place. GRASS GIS, as a topological GIS, recognizes that the topology plays the key role in the vector processing and analysis. Topology ensures that adjacent geographic components in a single vector map are related. In contrast to non-topological GIS, a border common to two areas exists only once and is shared between the two areas. Topological representation of vector data helps to produce and maintain vector maps with clean geometry as well as enables the user to perform certain analyses that can not be conducted with non-topological or spaghetti data. Non-topological vector data are automatically converted to a topological representation upon import. Further more, various cleaning tools exist to remove non-trivial topological errors. In the upcoming GRASS GIS 7 release the vector library was particularly improved to make it faster and more efficient with an improved internal vector file format. This new topological format reduces memory and disk space requirements, leading to a generally faster processing. Opening an existing vector requires less memory providing additionally support for large files. The new spatial index performs queries faster (compared to GRASS GIS 6 more than 10 times for large vectors). As a new option the user can select a file-based version of the spatial index for large vector data. All topological cleaning tools have been optimized with regard to processing speed, robustness, and system requirements. The topological engine comes with a new prototype for direct read/write support of Simple Features API/OGR. Additionally vector data can be directly exchanged with topological PostGIS 2 databases. Considering the wide spread usage of ESRI Shapefile, a non-topological format for vector data exchange, it is particularly advantageous that GRASS GIS 7 offers advanced cleaning tools. For power users and programmers, the

  19. Sublingual immunotherapy with once-daily grass allergen tablets: a randomized controlled trial in seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Stephen R; Yang, William H; Pedersen, Martin R; Johansen, Niels; Rak, Sabina

    2006-04-01

    Specific immunotherapy is the only treatment modality that has the potential to alter the natural course of allergic diseases. Sublingual immunotherapy has been developed to facilitate access to this form of treatment and to minimize serious adverse events. To investigate the efficacy and safety of sublingual grass allergen tablets in seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. A multinational, multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled trial conducted during 2002 and 2003. Fifty-five centers in 8 countries included 855 participants age 18 to 65 years who gave a history of grass pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and had a positive skin prick test and elevated serum allergen-specific IgE to Phleum pratense. Participants were randomized to 2500, 25,000, or 75,000 SQ-T grass allergen tablets (GRAZAX; ALK-Abelló, Hørsholm, Denmark) or placebo for sublingual administration once daily. Mean duration of treatment was 18 weeks. Average rhinoconjunctivitis scores during the season showed moderate reductions of symptoms (16%) and medication use (28%) for the grass allergen tablet 75,000 SQ-T (P = .0710; P = .0470) compared with placebo. Significantly better rhinoconjunctivitis quality of life scores (P = .006) and an increased number of well days (P = .041) were also observed. Efficacy was increased in the subgroup of patients who completed the recommended preseasonal treatment of at least 8 weeks before the grass pollen season (symptoms, 21%, P = .0020; and medication use, 29%, P = .0120). No safety concerns were observed. This study confirms dose-dependent efficacy of the grass allergen tablet. Although further studies are required, the greater tolerability of the tablet may permit immunotherapy to be available to a much broader group of patients with impaired quality of life caused by grass pollen allergy. For patients with grass pollen allergy, sublingual immunotherapy is well tolerated and can reduce symptoms and improve quality of life.

  20. On impact of transport conditions on variability of the seasonal pollen index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofiev, M

    2017-01-01

    This discussion paper reveals the contribution of pollen transport conditions to the inter-annual variability of the seasonal pollen index (SPI). This contribution is quantified as a sensitivity of the pollen model predictions to meteorological variability and is shown to be a noticeable addition to the SPI variability caused by plant reproduction cycles. A specially designed SILAM model re-analysis of pollen seasons 1980-2014 was performed, resulting in the 35 years of the SPI predictions over Europe, which was used to compute the SPI inter-annual variability. The current paper presents the results for birch and grass. Throughout the re-analysis, the source term formulations and habitation maps were kept constant, which allowed attributing the obtained variability exclusively to the pollen release and transport conditions during the flowering seasons. It is shown that the effect is substantial: it amounts to 10-20% (grass) and 20-40% (birch) of the observed SPI year-to-year changes reported in the literature. The phenomenon has well-pronounced spatial- and species-specific patterns. The findings were compared with observation-based statistical models for the SPI prediction, showing that such models highlight the same processes as the analysis with the SILAM model.

  1. Predicting onset and duration of airborne allergenic pollen season in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Bielory, Leonard; Cai, Ting; Mi, Zhongyuan; Georgopoulos, Panos

    2015-02-01

    Allergenic pollen is one of the main triggers of Allergic Airway Disease (AAD) affecting 5%-30% of the population in industrialized countries. A modeling framework has been developed using correlation and collinearity analyses, simulated annealing, and stepwise regression based on nationwide observations of airborne pollen counts and climatic factors to predict the onsets and durations of allergenic pollen seasons of representative trees, weeds and grass in the contiguous United States. Main factors considered are monthly, seasonal and annual mean temperatures and accumulative precipitations, latitude, elevation, Growing Degree Day (GDD), Frost Free Day (FFD), Start Date (SD) and Season Length (SL) in the previous year. The estimated mean SD and SL for birch (Betula), oak (Quercus), ragweed (Ambrosia), mugwort (Artemisia) and grass (Poaceae) pollen season in 1994-2010 are mostly within 0-6 days of the corresponding observations for the majority of the National Allergy Bureau (NAB) monitoring stations across the contiguous US. The simulated spatially resolved maps for onset and duration of allergenic pollen season in the contiguous US are consistent with the long term observations.

  2. A detailed 2,000-year late holocene pollen record from lower Pahranagat Lake, Southern Nevada, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemphill, M.L.; Wigand, P.E. [Univ. and Community College System of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Preliminary analysis of 128 pollen samples and seven radiocarbon dates from a 5-meter long, 10-cm diameter sediment core retrieved from Lower Pahranagat Lake (elevation - 975 in), Lincoln County, Nevada, gives us a rare, continuous, record of vegetation change at an interval of every 14 years over the last 2,000 years. During this period increasing Pinus (pine) pollen values with respect to Juniperus Ouniper pollen values reflect the increasing dominance of pinyon in southern Nevada woodlands during the last 2,000 years. Today Pinus pollen values indicate that pinyon pine is more frequent in the southern Great Basin since the end of the Neoglacial 2,000 years ago. During the same time frame, a general decrease in Poaceae (grass) pollen values with respect to Artemisia (sagebrush) pollen values reflect the general trend of increasing dominance of steppe and desert scrub species with respect to grasses. Variations in these two species reflect not only the generally more xeric nature of climate during the last 2,000 years, but also periods of summer shifted rainfall - 1,500 years ago that encouraged both a period of grass and pinyon expansion. The ratio of aquatic to littoral pollen types indicates generally deeper water conditions 2 to 1 ka and more variable, but predominately more marshy, conditions at the site during most of the last 1 ka. Investigation of ostracodes from the same record being conducted by Dr. R. Forester at the USGS corroborate the pollen record by evidencing shifts between open and closed hydrologic systems including lake, marsh and even stream habitats. Analysis of an additional 10 meters of core recovered in the summer of 1994 with a basal date of 5.6 ka promises to provide the best record of middle through late Holocene vegetation and climate history for southern Nevada.

  3. Zea mI, the maize homolog of the allergen-encoding Lol pI gene of rye grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadwater, A H; Rubinstein, A L; Chay, C H; Klapper, D G; Bedinger, P A

    1993-09-15

    Sequence analysis of a pollen-specific cDNA from maize has identified a homolog (Zea mI) of the gene (Lol pI) encoding the major allergen of rye-grass pollen. The protein encoded by the partial cDNA sequence is 59.3% identical and 72.7% similar to the comparable region of the reported amino acid sequence of Lol pIA. Southern analysis indicates that this cDNA represents a member of a small multigene family in maize. Northern analysis shows expression only in pollen, not in vegetative or female floral tissues. The timing of expression is developmentally regulated, occurring at a low level prior to the first pollen mitosis and at a high level after this postmeiotic division. Western analysis detects a protein in maize pollen lysates using polyclonal antiserum and monoclonal antibodies directed against purified Lolium perenne allergen.

  4. Subcutaneous granuloma annulare: radiologic appearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kransdorf, M.J. [Saint Mary`s Hospital, Richmond, VA (United States). Dept. of Radiol.]|[Department of Radiologic Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC (United States); Murphey, M.D. [Department of Radiologic Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC (United States)]|[Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)]|[Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Temple, H.T. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville, Virginia (United States)]|[Department of Orthopedic Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC (United States)

    1998-05-01

    Objective. Granuloma annulare is an uncommon benign inflammatory dermatosis characterized by the formation of dermal papules with a tendency to form rings. There are several clinically distinct forms. The subcutaneous form is the most frequently encountered by radiologists, with the lesion presenting as a superficial mass. There are only a few scattered reports of the imaging appearance of this entity in the literature. We report the radiologic appearance of five cases of subcutaneous granuloma annulare. Design and patients. The radiologic images of five patients (three male, two female) with subcutaneous granuloma annulare were retrospectively studied. Mean patient age was 6.4 years (range, 2-13 years). The lesions occurred in the lower leg (two), foot, forearm, and hand. MR images were available for all lesions, gadolinium-enhanced imaging in three cases, radiographs in four, and bone scintigraphy in one. Results. Radiographs showed unmineralized nodular masses localized to the subcutaneous adipose tissue. The size range, in greatest dimension on imaging studies, was 1-4 cm. MR images show a mass with relatively decreased signal intensity on all pulse sequences, with variable but generally relatively well defined margins. There was extensive diffuse enhancement following gadolinium administration. Conclusion. The radiologic appearance of subcutaneous granuloma annulare is characteristic, typically demonstrating a nodular soft-tissue mass involving the subcutaneous adipose tissue. MR images show a mass with relatively decreased signal intensity on all pulse sequences and variable but generally well defined margins. There is extensive diffuse enhancement following gadolinium administration. Radiographs show a soft-tissue mass or soft-tissue swelling without evidence of bone involvement or mineralization. This radiologic appearance in a young individual is highly suggestive of subcutaneous granuloma annulare. (orig.) With 3 figs., 17 refs.

  5. Pollen morphology of the Alangiaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reitsma, Tj.

    1970-01-01

    This paper presents a pollen-morphological study of Alangium, a genus mainly restricted to the tropics of the Old World, of which 18 of the 19 known species were studied. The pollen grains, studied with the use of a light microscope, a transmission electron microscope and a scanning electron

  6. Parietaria profilin shows only limited cross-reactivity with birch and grass profilins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asero, Riccardo; Mistrello, Gianni; Roncarolo, Daniela; Amato, Stefano

    2004-02-01

    In patients showing multiple reactivity to seasonal airborne allergens, a skin prick test (SPT) with Parietaria pollen scores frequently negative, suggesting that profilin from Parietaria might not share IgE-binding epitopes with profilin from botanically unrelated airborne allergens. This study investigated the immunologic cross-reactivity between profilins from Parietaria, grass and birch pollen. 36 patients hypersensitive to birch profilin, Bet v 2, underwent SPT with Parietaria, and IgE to both whole Parietaria pollen and Phleum profilin were sought in their sera by ELISA. In ELISA inhibition studies, IgE reactivity to Phleum profilin was measured before and after absorption of sera from Parietaria reactors with both whole Parietaria pollen extract, and Par j 1/Par j 2 fraction. Further, their IgE reactivity to whole Parietaria pollen was measured before and after absorption with the Par j 1/Par j 2 fraction. All sera showed IgE reactivity to Phleum profilin. Only 14/36 (39%) patients had a positive SPT to Parietaria and 17/36 (47%) showed IgE to Parietaria. Absorption of sera from Parietaria reactors with whole Parietaria extract caused a marked reduction in IgE reactivity to grass profilin; in contrast, absorption of sera with the Par j 1/Par j 2 fraction did not exert any inhibitory effect on IgE reactivity to grass profilin. Absorption of sera with the Par j 1/Par j 2 fraction markedly reduced IgE reactivity to whole Parietaria extract in 8/9 cases. Less than 50% of patients sensitized to birch and grass profilin cross-react to Parietaria profilin. In most cases, cross-reactors are hypersensitive to major, specific Parietaria allergens as well. This findings may be of practical relevance when the prescription of specific immunotherapy is considered. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  7. Meiosis in elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum, pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (Poaceae, Poales and their interspecific hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Helena Techio

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The cultivated and sexually compatible species Pennisetum purpureum (elephant grass, 2n = 4x = 28 and Pennisetum glaucum (pearl millet, 2n = 2x = 14 can undergo hybridization which favors the amplification of their genetic background and the introgression of favorable alleles into breeding programs. The main problem with interspecific hybrids of these species is infertility due to triploidy (2n = 3x = 21. This study describes meiosis in elephant grass x pearl millet hybrids and their progenitors. Panicles were prepared according to the conventional protocol for meiotic studies and Alexander’s stain was used for assessing pollen viability. Pearl millet accessions presented regular meiosis with seven bivalents and high pollen viability. For elephant grass, 14 bivalents in diakinesis and metaphase I were observed. The BAG 63 elephant grass accession, derived from tissue culture, presented a high frequency of meiotic abnormalities. The three hybrid accessions presented a high frequency of abnormalities characterized by irregular chromosomal segregation which resulted in the formation of sterile pollen.

  8. The capturing of pollens in the atmosphere of La Laguna City, Tenerife, Canary Islands 1990-1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Cobaleda, I; De la Torre Morin, F; García Robaina, J C; Hardisson de la Torre, A

    1997-01-01

    This paper forms part of a Doctorate Thesis, carried out in the Allergy and Immunology Department of the Nuestra Señora de la Candelaria Hospital, Tenerife, entitled "Epidemiology of Pollens on the Island of Tenerife. Allergy to Pollen". This paper deals with the capturing of pollen in the atmosphere of the city of La Laguna, Tenerife, during the period 1990-1995, and demonstrates that the Occidental Islands of the Canarian Archipelago are similar to a miniature continent with a special microclimate and a large amount of vegetation, where all classes of pollen can be found given the large variety of plants and trees including native species. High concentrations of more than 50 grains of pollen per m3 can be found in the air of the Occidental Islands, above all wild grasses, cultivated grasses, weeds, Artemisa vulgaris, Parietaria officinalis and Plantago lanceolata, and in a lowe proportion, Cupressaceae, Pinaceas, Mercurialis and Rumex. We have pollen concentrations very similar to other parts of the continent.

  9. Pollen rain and pollen representation across a forest-páramo ecotone in northern Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moscol Olivera, M.; Duivenvoorden, J.F.; Hooghiemstra, H.

    2009-01-01

    Modern pollen spectra were studied in forest and páramo vegetation from the Guandera area, northern Ecuador. Pollen representation was estimated by comparing the presence of plant taxa from a recent vegetation survey with the pollen spectra in moss polsters and pollen traps. In total, 73 pollen taxa

  10. Sensitization rates of airborne pollen and mold in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Hyun Park

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available &lt;B&gt;Purpose:&lt;/b&gt; Aeroallergens are important causative factors of allergic diseases. Previous studies on aeroallergen sensitization rates investigated patients groups that had visited pediatric allergy clinics. In contrast, we investigated sensitization rates in a general population group of elementary school to teenage students in Incheon, Jeju, and Ulsan. &lt;b&gt;Methods:&lt;/B&gt; After obtaining parental consent, skin-prick tests were performed on 5,094 students between March and June 2010. Elementary school students were tested for 18 common aeroallergens, whereas middle and high school students were tested for 25 allergens. The 25 allergens included &lt;I&gt;Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae&lt;/I&gt;, pollen (birch, alder, oak, Japanese cedar, pine, willow, elm, maple, Bermuda grass, timothy grass, rye grass, orchard grass, meadow grass, vernal grass, mugwort, Japanese hop, fat hen, ragweed, and plantain, and mold (&lt;I&gt;Penicillatum, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, and Alternaria&lt;/I&gt;. &lt;b&gt;Results:&lt;/b&gt; The sensitization rates in descending order were 25.79% (&lt;I&gt;D. pteronyssinus&lt;/I&gt; , 18.66% (&lt;I&gt;D. farinae&lt;/I&gt; , 6.20% (mugwort, and 4.07% (willow in Incheon; 33.35% (&lt;I&gt;D. pteronyssinus&lt;/I&gt; , 24.78% (&lt;I&gt;D. farinae&lt;/I&gt;, 15.36% (Japanese cedar, and 7.33% (Alternaria in Jeju; and 32.79% (D. pteronyssinus, 30.27% (D. farinae, 10.13% (alder, and 8.68% (birch in Ulsan. The dust mite allergen showed the highest sensitization rate among the 3 regions. The sensitization rate of tree pollen was the highest in Ulsan, whereas that of Alternaria was the highest in Jeju. The ragweed sensitization rates were 0.99% in Incheon, 1.07% in Jeju, and 0.81% in Ulsan. &lt;b&gt;Conclusion:&lt;/b&gt; The

  11. GUI development for GRASS GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Landa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses GUI development for GRASS GIS. Sophisticated native GUI for GRASS is one of the key points (besides the new 2D/3D raster library, vector architecture improvements, etc. for the future development of GRASS. In 2006 the GRASS development team decided to start working on the new generation of GUI instead of improving the current GUI based on Tcl/Tk.

  12. Pollen Sterility—A Promising Approach to Gene Confinement and Breeding for Genetically Modified Bioenergy Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert P. Kausch

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Advanced genetic and biotechnology tools will be required to realize the full potential of food and bioenergy crops. Given current regulatory concerns, many transgenic traits might never be deregulated for commercial release without a robust gene confinement strategy in place. The potential for transgene flow from genetically modified (GM crops is widely known. Pollen-mediated transfer is a major component of gene flow in flowering plants and therefore a potential avenue for the escape of transgenes from GM crops. One approach for preventing and/or mitigating transgene flow is the production of trait linked pollen sterility. To evaluate the feasibility of generating pollen sterility lines for gene confinement and breeding purposes we tested the utility of a promoter (Zm13Pro from a maize pollen-specific gene (Zm13 for driving expression of the reporter gene GUS and the cytotoxic gene barnase in transgenic rice (Oryza sativa ssp. Japonica cv. Nipponbare as a monocot proxy for bioenergy grasses. This study demonstrates that the Zm13 promoter can drive pollen-specific expression in stably transformed rice and may be useful for gametophytic transgene confinement and breeding strategies by pollen sterility in food and bioenergy crops.

  13. (IITA) Improved Spear Grass

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SproDell

    ensure food security and combat poverty (Chikoye, Avav, Ellis-Jones, Kormawa,. Udensi, Tarawali and Nielson, 2005). One of such chronic weeds that has been a menace to sustainable food production in the forest/savanna transition zone of. Nigeria is Imperata cylindrinca (spear grass) (Avav and Okereke, 1999). It is a.

  14. Metagenomics at Grass Roots

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 22; Issue 3. Metagenomics at Grass Roots. Sudeshna ... benefit human health, agriculture, and ecosystemfunctions. This article provides a brief history of technicaladvances in metagenomics, including DNA sequencing methods,and some case studies.

  15. GRASS GERMPLASM FOR DIGESTIBILITY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One procedure involved digesting grass samples in prepared cellulase solution without any pre-treatment (CSD), and the other procedure used an acid pepsin pre-treatment prior to digestion in the prepared cellulase solution (APCS). The CSD procedure in comparison to APCS generally underestimated in vitro dry matter ...

  16. Can larval lacewings Chrysoperla externa (Hagen: (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae be reared on pollen?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Alves de Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify the viability of exclusive use of elephant grass pollen, Pennisetum purpureum (Schum, to feed larvae of the lacewing Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861. The insects were kept at 24ºC and the duration and survival rate of each instar and the larval and pupal phases were recorded. The diet provided complete development of the larvae. The average duration of the first and second instars was the same (6.9 days, while the third instar lasted an average of 10.0 days and the pupal phase 13.2 days. The average survival of the larvae was above 80% for the first, second and third instars, and 70.0% and 33.3% for the larval and pupal phase, respectively. These results indicate that the exclusive use of elephant grass pollen can provide complete development of the immature stages of this predator.

  17. Pollen germination and pollen tube growth in ZP maize lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerović Radosav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on the in vitro pollen germination at 26°, 28°, 32° and 35°C for 24h of male parental lines, pollen tube growth in vivo in cross pollination of female and male parental lines that make couples in four hybrids: ZP 504 su (♀ ZPPL 51 × ♂ ZPPL 67; ZP 677 (♀ ZPPL 17 × ♂ ZPPL 201; ZP 704 (♀ ZPPL 109 × ♂ ZPPL 79, ZP 611 k (♀ ZPPL 126 × ♂ ZPPL 105, and the open pollination of female parental lines of the above mentioned hybrids. Pollen germination in vitro and pollen tube growth dynamics in vivo showed different genotypic specificities with the tests applied. The obtained results were discussed in the context of reproductive biology of ZP maize lines and aimed to create the preconditions for successful management and direction of the process in practice - seed production in certain environmental conditions.

  18. SUBCUTANEOUS BASIDIOBOLOMYCOSIS: A CASE REPORT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-07-09

    Jul 9, 2013 ... E-mail: sackey@sky.com. Conflict of interest: None declared. SUMMARY. Basidiobolomycosis is an uncommon chronic deep fungal infection in which gradually enlarging granulomas form, usually in the subcutaneous fat tissues of the limbs, chest or trunk of immunocompetent hosts, primarily children.

  19. Pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous cervical emphysema ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. EZECHUKWU

    2012-09-08

    Sep 8, 2012 ... department with a history of increasing difficulty with breathing and ... ward and commenced on intravenous antibiotics and high flow oxygen. He made remarkable improvement with complete resolution of subcutaneous emphysema on the 4th day ... the left lateral decubitus position.18 Our patient met most.

  20. Pyrexial therapy in subcutaneous phycomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reddy BSN

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of subcutaneous phycomycosis occurring in a 2 ½ year old child is reported for its rarity, clinical interest and paucity of literature. The condition failed to resolve with conventional antimycotics but improved with the administration of concomitant pyrexial therapy.

  1. Pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous cervical emphysema ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. EZECHUKWU

    2012-09-08

    Sep 8, 2012 ... to trauma or pathological disease state3, with gastroin- testinal and respiratory diseases most commonly impli- cated.4,5. The respiratory disease commonly associated with pneu- momediastinum and subcutaneous cervical emphysema is bronchial asthma.6 Pneumonia, though a very com- mon childhood ...

  2. Specialized Bees Fail to Develop on Non-Host Pollen : Do Plants Chemically Protect Their Pollen ?

    OpenAIRE

    Praz, Christophe J.; Müller, Andreas; Dorn, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Bees require large amounts of pollen for their own reproduction. While several morphological flower traits are known to have evolved to protect plants against excessive pollen harvesting by bees, little is known on how selection to minimize pollen loss acts on the chemical composition of pollen. In this study, we traced the larval development of four solitary bee species, each specialized on a different pollen source, when reared on non-host pollen by transferring unhatched eggs of one specie...

  3. Climate change: consequences on the pollination of grasses in Perugia (Central Italy). A 33-year-long study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofia, Ghitarrini; Emma, Tedeschini; Veronica, Timorato; Giuseppe, Frenguelli

    2017-01-01

    Many works carried out in the last decades have shown that the pollen season for taxa flowering in winter and spring, in temperate regions, has tended to be earlier, probably due to the continuous rise in temperature. The mean annual temperature in Perugia, Central Italy, was about 0.5 °C higher in the last three decades compared with that registered from 1952 to 1981. The increase of temperature took place mainly in winter and spring, while no significant variation was recorded during the summer and autumn. This scenario shows variations in the timing and behavior of flowering of many spontaneous plants such as grasses, whose phenology is strongly influenced by air temperature. This work reports fluctuations in the airborne grass pollen presence in Perugia over a 33-year period (1982-2014), in order to study the influence of the warming registered in recent years on the behavior of pollen release of this taxon. The grass pollen season in Perugia typically lasts from the beginning of May to late July. The start dates showed a marked trend to an earlier beginning of the season (-0.4 day/year), as well as a strong correlation with the average temperatures of March and April. The peak is reached around 30th May, but the annual pollen index (API) is following a decreasing trend. The correlation between starting dates and spring temperatures could be interesting for the constitution of a forecasting model capable of predicting the presence of airborne grass pollen, helping to plan therapies for allergic people.

  4. Pollen Aquaporins: The Solute Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Di Giorgio, Juliana A; Soto, Gabriela C; Muschietti, Jorge P; Amodeo, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    In the recent years, the biophysical properties and presumed physiological role of aquaporins (AQPs) have been expanded to specialized cells where water and solute exchange are crucial traits. Complex but unique processes such as stomatal movement or pollen hydration and germination have been addressed not only by identifying the specific AQP involved but also by studying how these proteins integrate and coordinate cellular activities and functions. In this review, we referred specifically to pollen-specific AQPs and analyzed what has been assumed in terms of transport properties and what has been found in terms of their physiological role. Unlike that in many other cells, the AQP machinery in mature pollen lacks plasma membrane intrinsic proteins, which are extensively studied for their high water capacity exchange. Instead, a variety of TIPs and NIPs are expressed in pollen. These findings have altered the initial understanding of AQPs and water exchange to consider specific and diverse solutes that might be critical to sustaining pollen's success. The spatial and temporal distribution of the pollen AQPs also reflects a regulatory mechanism that allowing a properly adjusting water and solute exchange.

  5. Pollen Forecast and Dispersion Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Monica; Di Giuseppe, Fabio; Medaglia, Carlo Maria; Travaglini, Alessandro; Tocci, Raffaella; Brighetti, M. Antonia; Petitta, Marcello

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study is monitoring, mapping and forecast of pollen distribution for the city of Rome using in-situ measurements of 10 species of common allergenic pollens and measurements of PM10. The production of daily concentration maps, associated to a mobile phone app, are innovative compared to existing dedicated services to people who suffer from respiratory allergies. The dispersal pollen is one of the most well-known causes of allergic disease that is manifested by disorders of the respiratory functions. Allergies are the third leading cause of chronic disease and it is estimated that tens millions of people in Italy suffer from it. Recent works reveal that during the last few years there was a progressive increase of affected subjects, especially in urban areas. This situation may depend: on the ability to transport of pollutants, on the ability to react between pollutants and pollen and from a combination of other irritants, existing in densely populated and polluted urban areas. The methodology used to produce maps is based on in-situ measurements time series relative to 2012, obtained from networks of air quality and pollen stations in the metropolitan area of Rome. The monitoring station aerobiological of University of Rome "Tor Vergata" is located at the Department of Biology. The instrument used to pollen monitoring is a volumetric sampler type Hirst (Hirst 1952), Model 2000 VPPS Lanzoni; the data acquisition is carried out as reported in Standard UNI 11008:2004 - "Qualità dell'aria - Metodo di campionamento e conteggio dei granuli pollinici e delle spore fungine aerodisperse" - the protocol that describes the procedure for measuring of the concentration of pollen grains and fungal spores dispersed into the atmosphere, and reported in the "Manuale di gestione e qualità della R.I.M.A" (Travaglini et. al. 2009). All 10 allergenic pollen are monitored since 1996. At Tor Vergata university is also operating a meteorological station (SP2000, CAE

  6. Attacking invasive grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Jon E.

    2015-01-01

    In grasslands fire may play a role in the plant invasion process, both by creating disturbances that potentially favour non-native invasions and as a possible tool for controlling alien invasions. Havill et al. (Applied Vegetation Science, 18, 2015, this issue) determine how native and non-native species respond to different fire regimes as a first step in understanding the potential control of invasive grasses.

  7. Characteristics of T-cell and B-cell immune respoonses to pollen allergens in Bulgarian patients with pollinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHIVKA KOSTOVA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of the pollen allergens and identification of the main T-cell and B-cell epitopes is of crucial importance, since the clarification of the cellular and molecular mechanisms will allow long-term control of this type allergic diseases and development of safe immunotherapeutic medication. The objective of this study was to identify which pollen allergens are responsible for the T-cell activation in atopic patients with pollinosis and to determine whether the same allergens are responsible for the IgE-mediated reactions. Thirty-seven patients with pollinosis and thirteen non-allergic subjects were recruited. Peripheral blood samples were collected out of the pollen season. T-cell responses (IFN-γ production towards different pollen allergens and levels of pollen specific IgE and IgG in the sera were measured by ELISA. The T-cell reactivity in most patients was directed towards the grass pollen B1, tree pollen I and autumn pollen B5. 70% of the allergic individuals responded to allergens from Lolium perenne, 84% to Dactylis glomerata, 11% to Phleum pratense, 65% to Betula pendula and 70% to Taxus baccata. Elevated serum levels of specific IgE in the allergic patients (p<0.01 were measured against the tree pollen I and autumn pollen, which include widespread deciduous trees (birch, willow, poplar and yew and Artemisia absinthium, respectively. Our results show that the T-cell reactivity and antibody responses may be directed towards different or the same allergens. In addition, we propose that short synthetic peptides, which contain overlapping T- and B-cell epitopes can be used for specific immunotherapy treatment if they lack antibody recognition domains.

  8. The Impacts of Maximum Temperature and Climate Change to Current and Future Pollen Distribution in Skopje, Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Kendrovski

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND. The goal of the present paper was to assess the impact of current and future burden of the ambient temperature to pollen distributions in Skopje. METHODS. In the study we have evaluated a correlation between the concentration of pollen grains in the atmosphere of Skopje and maximum temperature, during the vegetation period of 1996, 2003, 2007 and 2009 as a current burden in context of climate change. For our analysis we have selected 9 representative of each phytoallergen group (trees, grasses, weeds. The concentration of pollen grains has been monitored by a Lanzoni volumetric pollen trap. The correlation between the concentration of pollen grains in the atmosphere and selected meteorological variable from weekly monitoring has been studied with the help of linear regression and correlation coefficients. RESULTS. The prevalence of the sensibilization of standard pollen allergens in Skopje during the some period shows increasing from 16,9% in 1996 to 19,8% in 2009. We detect differences in onset of flowering, maximum and end of the length of seasons for pollen. The pollen distributions and risk increases in 3 main periods: early spring, spring and summer which are the main cause of allergies during these seasons. The largest increase of air temperature due to climate change in Skopje is expected in the summer season. CONCLUSION. The impacts of climate change by increasing of the temperature in the next decades very likely will include impacts on pollen production and differences in current pollen season. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(1.000: 35-40

  9. Injectable agents affecting subcutaneous fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, David Lk; Cohen, Joel L; Green, Jeremy B

    2015-09-01

    Mesotherapy is an intradermal or subcutaneous injection of therapeutic agents to induce local effects, and was pioneered in Europe during the 1950s. For the past 2 decades, there has been significant interest in the use of mesotherapy for minimally invasive local fat contouring. Based on the theorized lipolytic effects of the agent phosphatidylcholine, initial attempts involved its injection into subcutaneous tissue. With further studies, however, it became apparent that the activity attributed to phosphatidylcholine mesotherapy was due to the adipolytic effects of deoxycholate, a detergent used to solubilize phosphatidylcholine. Since then, clinical trials have surfaced that demonstrate the efficacy of a proprietary formulation of deoxycholate for local fat contouring. Current trials on mesotherapy with salmeterol, a b-adrenergic agonist and lipolysis stimulator, are underway-with promising preliminary results as well. ©2015 Frontline Medical Communications.

  10. Principles of subcutaneous port placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonda, Shaun J; Li, Ruizong

    2011-12-01

    The introduction of totally implantable subcutaneous devices in the early 1980s provided patients with secure, reliable venous access and also gave them the ability to move more freely and have a more normal lifestyle with these devices in place. The most common totally implantable device used today is the subcutaneous port. These ports consist of an injection port connected to a catheter. Ports provide a number of advantages compared with other venous catheters; the most important is the reduced risk of infection. These devices have significantly lower rates of infection than nontunneled and tunneled catheters. Additional advantages include less frequent irrigation and minimal home care, and they are less prone to environmental or cutaneous contamination when not being accessed. This article will focus on the placement of these ports. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Subcutaneous emphysema during status astmaticus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, E.

    1985-09-01

    Spontaneous subcutaneous accumulations of air in the soft parts of the thorax during an asthmatic crisis (status asthmaticus) are rarely seen. The pathomechanism of the phenomenon, which may lead to the formation of an emphysema of the soft parts via the pneumomediastinum, is discussed, and the possible complications which must be taken into account are pointed out. The value of radiological examination of the thorax in children suffering from asthma bronchiale, is explained briefly. (orig.).

  12. Epidural, paraspinal, and subcutaneous lipomatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sener, R. Nuri [Department of Radiology, Ege University Hospital, Bornova, Izmir (Turkey)

    2003-09-01

    A unique case of idiopathic diffuse lipomatosis is reported. The patient was an 11-year-old boy with diffuse lipomatosis in the epidural space, paraspinal muscles, and thoracolumbar subcutaneous regions. Epidural lipomatosis involved the entire thoracolumbar spine and was associated with filar thickening and lipoma. In addition, paraspinal muscles, especially the erector spinae group, had diffuse fatty infiltration. The ultimate clinical effect of this fatty tissue was urinary dysfunction, radicular pain and hypoesthesia in both legs and difficulty walking. (orig.)

  13. Comparative long-term trend analysis of daily weather conditions with daily pollen concentrations in Brussels, Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruffaerts, Nicolas; De Smedt, Tom; Delcloo, Andy; Simons, Koen; Hoebeke, Lucie; Verstraeten, Caroline; Van Nieuwenhuyse, An; Packeu, Ann; Hendrickx, Marijke

    2017-10-01

    A clear rise in seasonal and annual temperatures, a gradual increase of total radiation, and a relative trend of change in seasonal precipitation have been observed for the last four decades in Brussels (Belgium). These local modifications may have a direct and indirect public health impact by altering the timing and intensity of allergenic pollen seasons. In this study, we assessed the statistical correlations (Spearman's test) between pollen concentration and meteorological conditions by using long-term daily datasets of 11 pollen types (8 trees and 3 herbaceous plants) and 10 meteorological parameters observed in Brussels between 1982 and 2015. Furthermore, we analyzed the rate of change in the annual cycle of the same selected pollen types by the Mann-Kendall test. We revealed an overall trend of increase in daily airborne tree pollen (except for the European beech tree) and an overall trend of decrease in daily airborne pollen from herbaceous plants (except for Urticaceae). These results revealed an earlier onset of the flowering period for birch, oak, ash, plane, grasses, and Urticaceae. Finally, the rates of change in pollen annual cycles were shown to be associated with the rates of change in the annual cycles of several meteorological parameters such as temperature, radiation, humidity, and rainfall.

  14. Aerobiological study of pollen and mold in Seoul, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Won Oh

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In a large number of allergic individuals, inhalant allergens are important causative and triggering agents in respiratory allergies. It is essential to survey the pollen and mold around the patient’s environment for the diagnosis and treatment of airborne allergy. Rotorod samplers were installed at well-ventilated places in seven collecting stations in Seoul, the capital of Korea, which has a population of 12 million. Airborne particles carrying allergens were collected daily from each station for 2 years (1 October 1995 to 30 September 1997. After being stained with Calberla’s fuchsin, they were identified, counted and recorded. The weather in Seoul was also recorded. Pollen was found from the middle of February through to the end of December. The peak date for pollen was 12 May (peak mean daily count: 701 grains/m3/day and for mold it was 23 June (peak mean daily count: 936 spores/m3/day. Alder, birch, pine, oak, maple, elm, juniper, willow, and gingko trees were prevalent during the tree season, lasting from the middle of February to late July. Then sagebrush, ragweed, Japanese hop, and pigweed followed during the weed season, which lasts from the middle of July to the end of December. In skin prick test results, house dust mite was the most common positive allergen in Seoul, followed by cockroach. Among the pollens, mugwort was the most common positive, followed by ragweed mix, alder, birch, and grasses mix. Among the molds, there were high counts of Cladosporium and Alternaria during the year, excluding January. Ascospore of Lepto-spheria was highest during the monsoon season.

  15. Knockin' on pollen's door: live cell imaging of early polarization events in germinating Arabidopsis pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, Frank; Konrad, Sebastian S. A.; Sprunck, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    Pollen tubes are an excellent system for studying the cellular dynamics and complex signaling pathways that coordinate polarized tip growth. Although several signaling mechanisms acting in the tip-growing pollen tube have been described, our knowledge on the subcellular and molecular events during pollen germination and growth site selection at the pollen plasma membrane is rather scarce. To simultaneously track germinating pollen from up to 12 genetically different plants we developed an inexpensive and easy mounting technique, suitable for every standard microscope setup. We performed high magnification live-cell imaging during Arabidopsis pollen activation, germination, and the establishment of pollen tube tip growth by using fluorescent marker lines labeling either the pollen cytoplasm, vesicles, the actin cytoskeleton or the sperm cell nuclei and membranes. Our studies revealed distinctive vesicle and F-actin polarization during pollen activation and characteristic growth kinetics during pollen germination and pollen tube formation. Initially, the germinating Arabidopsis pollen tube grows slowly and forms a uniform roundish bulge, followed by a transition phase with vesicles heavily accumulating at the growth site before switching to rapid tip growth. Furthermore, we found the two sperm cells to be transported into the pollen tube after the phase of rapid tip growth has been initiated. The method presented here is suitable to quantitatively study subcellular events during Arabidopsis pollen germination and growth, and for the detailed analysis of pollen mutants with respect to pollen polarization, bulging, or growth site selection at the pollen plasma membrane. PMID:25954283

  16. Static and elevated pollen traps do not provide an accurate assessment of personal pollen exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penel, V; Calleja, M; Pichot, C; Charpin, D

    2017-03-01

    Background. Volumetric pollen traps are commonly used to assess pollen exposure. These traps are well suited for estimating the regional mean airborne pollen concentration but are likely not to provide an accurate index of personal exposure. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that hair sampling may provide different pollen counts from those from pollen traps, especially when the pollen exposure is diverse. Methods. We compared pollen counts in hair washes to counts provided by stationary volumetric and gravimetric pollen traps in 2 different settings: urban with volunteers living in short distance from one another and from the static trap and suburban in which volunteers live in a scattered environment, quite far from the static trap. Results. Pollen counts in hair washes are in full agreement with trap counts for uniform pollen exposure. In contrast, for diverse pollen exposure, .individual pollen counts in hair washes vary strongly in quantity and taxa composition between individuals and dates. These results demonstrate that the pollen counts method (hair washes vs. stationary pollen traps) may lead to different absolute and relative contributions of taxa to the total pollen count. Conclusions. In a geographic area with a high diversity of environmental exposure to pollen, static pollen traps, in contrast to hair washes, do not provide a reliable estimate of this higher diversity.

  17. A comparative, volumetric survey of airborne pollen in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (1991-1997) and Cherry Hill, New Jersey (1995-1997).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorin, D J; Lee, J J; Belecanech, G A; Goldstein, M F; Dunsky, E H

    2001-11-01

    Aeroallergen sampling provides information regarding the onset, duration, and severity of the pollen season that clinicians use to guide allergen selection for skin testing and treatment. This atmospheric survey reports: 1) airborne pollen contributors in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (1991 to 1997) and suburban Cherry Hill, New Jersey (1995 to 1997); 2) pollen onset, duration, and peak level; and 3) the relationship between airborne pollen and selected meteorologic variables. At both locations, separated by 11 km. sampling was performed with a volumetric Rotorod Sampler (Sampling Technologies, Minnetonka, MN). In Philadelphia and Cherry Hill, respectively, 3-year average measurements included 75.0 and 74.2% tree pollen, 10.2 and 8.3% grass pollen, and 14.8 and 17.5% weed pollen. Prominent airborne pollen taxa were Acer, Quercus, Betula, Pinus, Cupressaceae, Poaceae, Ambrosia, and Rumex. The tree, grass, and weed pollen seasons extended from mid-March to mid-June, late April to mid-June, and mid-August to late September, respectively. A secondary Poaceae pollen peak occurred in September. There was a statistically significant correlation between simultaneous weekly average pollen levels in Philadelphia and in Cherry Hill (Acer, r(p) = 0.987, Quercus, r(p) = 0.645, Betula, r(p) = 0.896, Pinus, r(p) = 0.732, Cupressaceae, r(p) = 0.695, Poaceae, r(p) = 0.950, Ambrosia, r(p) = 0.903, and Rumex, r(p) = 0.572, P pollen levels were positively influenced by same-day high temperature (r(s) = 0.333 in Philadelphia and r(s) = 0.426 in Cherry Hill, P Ambrosia pollen levels were inversely influenced by same-day total precipitation (r(s) = -0.174 in Philadelphia and r(s) = -0.257 in Cherry Hill, P airborne pollen were seen from late April to early May and in early September. Pollen onset, duration, and year-to-year variability were similar at both sites. An awareness of local aeroallergen patterns is critical in the effective testing and treatment of atopic individuals.

  18. Subcutaneous Immunotherapy Improves the Symptomatology of Allergic Rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourenço, Edmir Américo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The relevance of allergic rhinitis is unquestionable. This condition affects people's quality of life and its incidence has increased over the last years. Objective Thus, this study aims to analyze the effectiveness of subcutaneous injectable immunotherapy in cases of nasal itching, sneeze, rhinorrhea and nasal congestion in allergic rhinitis patients. Methods In the present study, the same researcher analyzed the records of 281 patients. Furthermore, the researchers identified allergens through puncture cutaneous tests using standardized extracts containing acari, fungi, pet hair, flower pollen, and feathers. Then, the patients underwent treatment with subcutaneous specific immunotherapy, using four vaccine vials for desensitization, associated with environmental hygiene. The authors analyzed conditions of nasal itching, sneeze, rhinorrhea, and nasal congestion throughout the treatment, and assigned them with a score ranging from zero (0, meaning absence of these symptoms to three (3, for severe cases. The symptoms were statistically compared in the beginning, during, and after treatment. Results In this study, authors analyzed the cases distribution according to age and the evolution of symptomatology according to the scores, comparing all phases of treatment. The average score for the entire population studied was 2.08 before treatment and 0.44 at the end. These results represent an overall improvement of ∼79% in symptomatology of allergic rhinitis in the studied population. Conclusion The subcutaneous immunotherapy as treatment of allergic rhinitis led to a reduction in all symptoms studied, improving the quality of life of patients, proving itself as an important therapeutic tool for these pathological conditions.

  19. Trends in prevalence of allergic rhinitis and correlation with pollen counts in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei, Thomas; Gassner, Ewald

    2008-11-01

    but with a slight tendency to decrease. In Locarno, most of the pollen species also show a decreasing trend, while in Zurich, the development is somewhat different as the pollen counts of most of the pollen types have been increasing. It is interesting, however, that some of the pollen counts of this station (grass, stinging nettle, mugwort and ragweed) have been decreasing in the period 1982--2007.

  20. [Methods of cryopreservation of pollen in Fritillaria thunbergii Miq].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, X

    1991-07-01

    The effects of cryomethods, cryoprotectants, pollen age and pollen water content on the viability of pollen in Fritillaria thunbergii after cryopreservation were studied. The viability came highest (56.4%) when pollen of the flowering day (20% pollen water content) was treated by step-cooling. Hybridization in the fields showed that cryopreserved pollen could go to seed as well.

  1. Plants remember past weather: a study for atmospheric pollen concentrations of Ambrosia, Poaceae and Populus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyasovszky, István; Makra, László; Csépe, Zoltán; Sümeghy, Zoltán; Deák, Áron József; Pál-Molnár, Elemér; Tusnády, Gábor

    2015-10-01

    After extreme dry (wet) summers or years, pollen production of different taxa may decrease (increase) substantially. Accordingly, studying effects of current and past meteorological conditions on current pollen concentrations for different taxa have of major importance. The purpose of this study is separating the weight of current and past weather conditions influencing current pollen productions of three taxa. Two procedures, namely multiple correlations and factor analysis with special transformation are used. The 11-year (1997-2007) data sets include daily pollen counts of Ambrosia (ragweed), Poaceae (grasses) and Populus (poplar), as well as daily values of four climate variables (temperature, relative humidity, global solar flux and precipitation). Multiple correlations of daily pollen counts with simultaneous values of daily meteorological variables do not show annual course for Ambrosia, but do show definite trends for Populus and Poaceae. Results received using the two methods revealed characteristic similarities. For all the three taxa, the continental rainfall peak and additional local showers in the growing season can strengthen the weight of the current meteorological elements. However, due to the precipitation, big amount of water can be stored in the soil contributing to the effect of the past climate elements during dry periods. Higher climate sensitivity (especially water sensitivity) of the herbaceous taxa ( Ambrosia and Poaceae) can be definitely established compared to the arboreal Populus. Separation of the weight of the current and past weather conditions for different taxa involves practical importance both for health care and agricultural production.

  2. National Allergy Bureau Pollen and Mold Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search AAAAI National Allergy Bureau Pollen and Mold Report Date: March 02, 2018 Location: San Antonio (2), ... 01/2018 ( click here to view ). Our Allergen Report Email Service can automatically email you daily pollen ...

  3. Pollen from Glycine species survive cryogenic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, R K; Hymowitz, T

    2003-01-01

    Pollen of 12 genotypes of the annual soybean and its wild perennial relatives were stored without pre-desiccation at low temperatures (-20 C and -196 C) and tested for their viability in vitro. The influence of cryopreserved pollen on pod set and seed production was also investigated. Cryopreserved pollen of all the genotypes showed germination in vitro. Pollen of annual soybean stored at -20 C retained their viability for 4 months, however, pollen of its wild perennial relatives at same storage conditions failed to germinate in vitro. Flowers pollinated with cryopreserved pollen had similar pod set and number of seeds/pod as those pollinated with fresh pollen. Results of this study suggest that cryopreservation of pollen can be used successfully for soybean breeding, and also offers the possibility of conserving the haploid gene pool of soybean and wild perennial species in a cryobank facility.

  4. [The epidemiology of pollen allergy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpin, D; Caillaud, D

    2014-04-01

    The prevalence of seasonal allergic rhinitis can be established through surveys performed in a sample of the general population. These surveys are based on a questionnaire, which could lead to an overestimate of prevalence rates, and on measurements of specific IgE, which need to be interpreted in the light of the responses to the questionnaire. Such surveys are few in France and need to be updated. Risk factors for seasonal allergic rhinitis are genetic, epigenetic and environmental. Relationships between exposure to pollen and health can be documented through ecological and panel surveys. Panel surveys may give information on threshold levels and dose-response relationships. In addition to pollen exposure, global warming and air pollutants act as cofactors. Monitoring of both pollen exposure and its health effects should be encouraged and strengthened. Copyright © 2014 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Contribution to EPMA to airbone pollen analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães, Fernanda M. G.; Duque, L.; Ribeiro, H.; Sousa, R.; Abreu, I.

    2012-01-01

    As a component of aerosol, pollen is found in suspension with other mineralogical and anthropogenic particles that can adhere to the pollen wall. The aim of this study was to determine possible alterations that pollen grains suffer under different meteorological conditions in the coastal city of Porto, Portugal. For this study, 2 airborne pollen types were taken into account: Poaceae and Alnus spp sampled in July 2010 and February 2011, respectively. Quantitative analysis and X-ra...

  6. Subcutaneous Leiomyosarcoma of the Frenulum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Mendis

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Leiomyosarcomas of the penis are rare, with only 29 reported cases to date. We record the case of a patient who presented with a 2-year history of a seemingly indolent penile skin lesion. On histopathology of the local resection, a diagnosis of subcutaneous leiomyosarcoma was made. Specifically, leiomyosarcoma of the penile frenulum has not been clearly reported previously. The patient underwent a further excision to ensure an adequate resection margin and has had no disease recurrence at subsequent follow-up. Our case was of a lesion that, although clinically benign, was malignant and this possibility should be borne in mind when assessing patients.

  7. Pollen viability in Quercus robur L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batos Branislava

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The variability of viability (germination rate and the length of pollen tubes of fresh pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L. pollen grains was studied in vitro on a medium containing 15% sucrose. Spatial variability was studied by sampling fresh pollen grains from a total of thirteen trees at four different sites in the area of Belgrade (Košutnjak, Banovo Brdo, Ada Ciganlija and Bojčin Forest in a single year (2011. In order to assess temporal variability and determine the effects of climate change on a small time scale, we studied the viability of the pollen grains collected from one tree at the Banovo Brdo site in six different years (2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2011 and 2012. Interindividual variability was tested on the pollen grains sampled from eight trees at Ada Ciganlija in 2004. The percentage values of the pollen grain germination rate and the pollen tube length showed no statistically significant differences between the sites. However, the studied characteristics of the pollen grain viability (germination rate and pollen tube length showed statistically significant differences in both temporal (between the pollen collection years and interindividual variability. This type of research makes a valuable contribution to pedunculate oak breeding programs through the identification of trees with stable production and a good quality of pollen. Furthermore, it can be important in defining the patterns of spatial, temporal and individual variability of pollen grain viability under the influence of climate factors, which are showing compelling changing trends from year to year.

  8. Effects of fluorides and sulphur dioxide on pollen germination and growth of the pollen tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Mejnartowicz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The action of fluorides and sulphur dioxides from emissions from a phosphate fertilizer factory significantly reduced the germination of Scots pine pollen grains. The pollen tube length indicated that its growth is uninhibited even though the pollen was collected under conditions of air-pollution. There are statistically significant differences showing longer tubes in the sensitive trees pollen grains. l he ageing of pollen from the sensitive trees occurs probably more rapidly than in the tolerant trees.

  9. Presternal subcutaneous bronchogenic cyst in adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Sung Mo; Lee, Sang Min; Kang, Haeyoun; Choi, Hye Jeong

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Subcutaneous bronchogenic cysts have been described rarely, particularly among adolescents. Only a few reports have described the ultrasonographic features of bronchogenic cysts, characterizing them as nonspecific cystic masses with or without internal echogenic foci or debris. Therefore, it is hard to differentiate subcutaneous bronchogenic cysts from other subcutaneous cystic tumors ultrasonographically. We report a case of presternal subcutaneous bronchogenic cyst in an 18-year-old man with unusual ultrasonographic findings. Ultrasonography revealed a small, oval, cystic mass containing a well-circumscribed, heterogeneously hypoechoic, egg-shaped lesion in the dependent portion of the mass within the subcutaneous fat layer overlying the sternum. Surgical excision was performed, and the cystic mass was diagnosed as a bronchogenic cyst. On pathological examination, the internal, heterogeneously hypoechoic, ball-like lesion was found to be mucous material within the cyst. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a presternal subcutaneous bronchogenic cyst presenting with a ball-like lesion inside of the cyst. This unusual ultrasonographic feature can be a clue to the diagnosis of subcutaneous bronchogenic cyst. In conclusion, if an anechoic cyst containing an internal, well-circumscribed, hypoechoic ball-like lesion is seen in the presternal subcutaneous fat layer, subcutaneous bronchogenic cyst should be considered in the differential diagnosis of subcutaneous cystic masses. PMID:28151916

  10. Pollen characteristics and in vitro pollen germination of Cedrus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... 2Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Biology, 67100 İncivez,. Zonguldak,Turkey. ..... Forest Genetic Resources Working Papers, Regional. Updates. Rome, pp. 64-67. Fernando DD, Owens JN, Von Aderkas P (1998). In-vitro fertilization from co-cultured pollen tubes ...

  11. Birch pollen influence the severity of atopic eczema – prospective clinical cohort pilot study and ex vivo penetration study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fölster-Holst R

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Regina Fölster-Holst,1 Jagoda Galecka,1 Sigo Weißmantel,1 Ute Dickschat,2 Frank Rippke,3 Kerstin Bohnsack,3 Thomas Werfel,4 Katja Wichmann,4 Matthias Buchner,1 Thomas Schwarz,1 Annika Vogt,5 Jürgen Lademann,5 Martina C Meinke5 1Department of Dermatology, Venerology and Allergy, University of Kiel, 2Wörth, 3Beiersdorf AG, Hamburg, 4Department of Dermatology, Venerology and Allergy, Division of Immunodermatology and Allergy Research, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, 5Department of Dermatology, Venerology and Allergology, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany Abstract: There is little clinical evidence for a correlation between the severity of atopic eczema (AE and pollen exposition. To obtain more data, we performed a clinical cohort pilot study about the influence of pollen on AE between sensitized and nonsensitized subjects and an experimental study addressing the cutaneous penetration of pollen into the skin. Fifty-five patients were monitored during birch pollen season. To study the cutaneous penetration, grass pollen allergens were applied on excised skin and the uptake in CD1c-expressing dendritic cells was investigated. The correlation between environmental pollen load and severity of the Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD score and pruritus was observed, regardless of the status of sensitization. The sensitized group recovered significantly worse after the birch pollen season. Remarkably higher amounts of pollen allergens taken up by CD1c cells were detected in epidermal cells derived from skin explants with a disturbed epidermal barrier. These findings suggest an exacerbating role of pollen in AE utilizing the epidermal route. Keywords: aeroallergens, atopic eczema, seasonality, skin antigen-presenting cells, skin barrier penetration

  12. Identification of some Malaysian grasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrard, J.Th.

    1935-01-01

    When BUSE gave an enumeration of the grasses collected by JUNGHUHN in Java and Sumatra, he mentioned under Paspalum a species, described by RETZIUS in the year 1781 as Paspalum hirsutum. BUSE identified a grass from Sumatra as being the species of RETZIUS, on account of the description, having

  13. Economic evaluation of SQ-standardized grass allergy immunotherapy tablet (Grazax® in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldson S

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Sarah Ronaldson,1 Matthew Taylor,1 Peter G Bech,2 Ruth Shenton,1 Albrecht Bufe3 1York Health Economics Consortium, York, UK; 2ALK-Abelló A/S, Hørsholm, Denmark; 3Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Bochum, Germany Background: Grass pollen-induced rhinoconjunctivitis is a common allergic respiratory disorder affecting over 20% of the UK population in terms of quality of life and sleep, work, and school patterns. The SQ-standardized grass allergy immunotherapy tablet (AIT has been demonstrated as a disease-modifying treatment which gives a sustained effect even after completion of a treatment course. The objective of this study was to provide an economic assessment of whether treatment with the SQ-standardized grass AIT, Grazax® (Phleum pratense in combination with symptomatic medications is preferable to the standard of care using symptomatic medications only. The analysis was performed for children with grass pollen-induced rhinoconjunctivitis, with or without concomitant asthma, in the UK. Methods: The model evaluated the two treatment regimens in a cohort of 1,000 children from a payer’s perspective. Treatment was modeled in terms of management of symptoms, impact on resource use, and development of allergic asthma. The analysis modeled the use of SQ-standardized grass AIT and the sustained effects of treatment over a 9-year time horizon (ie, 3 years of treatment, with modeled long-term benefits. Data inputs were drawn from a recent clinical trial, published studies, and databases. Results: SQ-standardized grass AIT improves patient outcomes, generating an incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year gained of £12,168. This is below commonly accepted thresholds in the UK. Conclusion: The resulting incremental cost per QALY falls below commonly accepted willingness to pay thresholds. Therefore, the SQ-standardized grass AIT is a cost-effective option for the treatment of grass pollen-induced rhinoconjunctivitis in the UK pediatric population

  14. [Subcutaneous teicoplanin for children with infectious endocarditis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpentier, E; Roméo, B; El Samad, Y; Geslin-Lichtenberger, L; Maingourd, Y; Tourneux, P

    2013-07-01

    Infectious endocarditis in children requires prolonged antibiotic therapy. In adults, antibiotics administrated subcutaneously such as teicoplanin are an alternative to intravenous treatment. We report the use of subcutaneous teicoplanin, after an initial antibiotic treatment administrated intravenously, for 2 children treated for infectious endocarditis following an initial cardiac surgery. Serum concentrations of teicoplanin were within the target range after the adaptation in the teicoplanin subcutaneous dosages. The treatment was effective for both cases. No specific side effects related to the treatment were reported. Subcutaneous administration could be used for prolonged antibiotic therapy for the treatment of infectious endocarditis in children, after an initial intravenous treatment. Variability of the bioavailability of antibiotics administrated subcutaneously requires regular testing. Prospective, randomized trials comparing intravenous and subcutaneous administration of teicoplanin should be conducted to assess the efficacy and safety of this treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect on quality of life of the mixed house dust mite/weed pollen extract immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lisha; Guan, Kai

    2016-07-01

    Although many patients with allergic rhinitis have symptoms due to sensitization to more than one kind of allergens, and mixed allergen extracts are widely used for immunotherapy, there are few published trials. Our study aimed to evaluate the effect of multiple-allergen immunotherapy on improving the symptoms and quality of life of allergic rhinitis patients. We performed a 1-year single-center observation study of subcutaneous immunotherapy using house dust mite extract (n = 12), weed pollen extract (n = 21), or mixed house dust mite/weed pollen extract (n = 11) in 44 allergic rhinitis patients. All the allergens responsible for the symptom of each patient were included in his immunotherapy. Symptom score, medication score, and quality of life of the patients were evaluated before and after 1-year immunotherapy. Quality of life was evaluated with the Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire. In all 3 groups receiving subcutaneous immunotherapy, significant improvement of symptom score, medication score, and quality of life was found vs. baseline at 1 year, irrespective of the allergen used. In the weed pollen season, the changes of quality of life questionnaire score after 1-year treatment were not significantly different between the weed pollen group (1.55 ± 1.24) and the mixed house dust mite/weed pollen group (1.14 ± 1.01). The same happened in the nonpollen seasons, during which dust mite immunotherapy (1.23 ± 1.63) and mixed immunotherapy (0.60 ± 0.47) did not show significantly different effect on the quality of life. The multiple-allergen immunotherapy might be effective in polysensitized allergic rhinitis patients, and could improve their quality of life. Our result did not show significant difference between the effects of multiple-allergen immunotherapy and mono-allergen immunotherapy.

  16. Subcutaneous Emphysema—Beyond the Pneumoperitoneum

    OpenAIRE

    Ott, Douglas E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Subcutaneous emphysema and gas extravasation outside of the peritoneal cavity during laparoscopy has consequences. Knowledge of the circumstances that increase the potential for subcutaneous emphysema is necessary for safe laparoscopy. Methods: A literature review and a PubMed search are the basis for this review. Conclusions: The known risk factors leading to subcutaneous emphysema during laparoscopy are multiple attempts at abdominal entry, improper cannula placement, loose fitt...

  17. A Simple, Inexpensive Pollen Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. E. Hoekstra

    1965-01-01

    Pollen plays a role of vital importance in the sexual reproduction of all plants but it is especially important in forestry. With few exceptions, sexual reproduction is the only link between succeeding generations in the forest. To be sure, vegetative reproduction is important for special purposes, but it will probably not be used on a mass scale in timber...

  18. Sensitivity to Parietaria pollen in Izmir, Turkey as determined by skin prick and serum specific IgE values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzioğlu, E; Sin, A; Kokuludağ, A; Kirmaz, C; Erdem, N; Sebik, F; Kabakçi, T

    1998-01-01

    As the first study of its kind in the Aegean region of Turkey, we examined the incidence of sensitivity to Parietaria pollen in patients with allergic rhinitis and/or asthma living in the Mediterranean climate of the Aegean coast. On the Mediterranean, there are characteristic climatic conditions (mild winters, dry summers, etc.) which facilitate the growth of a typical vegetation and the production of allergenic pollen, such as that from Parietaria. These pollen types differ greatly from those of central and northern Europe. We skin tested 132 patients with a clinical history of seasonal rhinitis and/or asthma symptoms. Each patient was skin tested with extracts of grass, weed, tree and cereal pollens, and serum samples were collected for specific IgE assays for Parietaria. Sixty-nine of the 132 patients (52%) showed skin reactivity to Parietaria; seven of these (10%) had monosensitization to Parietaria. Fifty-six out of 69 patients (81%) had specific IgE in their serum to Parietaria pollen. Based on skin test reactions, we concluded that Parietaria is important in terms of clinical symptoms and that it is the most common weed pollen in the Aegean region in Turkey.

  19. Extending juvenility in grasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaeppler, Shawn; de Leon Gatti, Natalia; Foerster, Jillian

    2017-04-11

    The present invention relates to compositions and methods for modulating the juvenile to adult developmental growth transition in plants, such as grasses (e.g. maize). In particular, the invention provides methods for enhancing agronomic properties in plants by modulating expression of GRMZM2G362718, GRMZM2G096016, or homologs thereof. Modulation of expression of one or more additional genes which affect juvenile to adult developmental growth transition such as Glossy15 or Cg1, in conjunction with such modulation of expression is also contemplated. Nucleic acid constructs for down-regulation of GRMZM2G362718 and/or GRMZM2G096016 are also contemplated, as are transgenic plants and products produced there from, that demonstrate altered, such as extended juvenile growth, and display associated phenotypes such as enhanced yield, improved digestibility, and increased disease resistance. Plants described herein may be used, for example, as improved forage or feed crops or in biofuel production.

  20. Equine grass sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirie, R S; Jago, R C; Hudson, N P H

    2014-09-01

    Equine grass sickness (EGS; equine dysautonomia) is a polyneuronopathy affecting both the central and the peripheral nervous systems of horses. As the name implies, EGS almost exclusively affects grazing horses, resulting in the development of a characteristic array of clinical signs, most of which can be attributed to neuronal degeneration in the autonomic and enteric nervous systems. Varying disease severities occur, largely determined by the extent of neuronal degeneration in the myenteric and submucous plexuses of the enteric nervous system. Extensive neuronal degeneration, as seen in acute and subacute forms of EGS, results in intestinal dysmotility, the severity of which is incompatible with survival. In comparison, a proportion of chronic forms of EGS, characterised by less severe neuronal degeneration, will survive. Despite extensive research efforts since EGS was first reported over 100 years ago, the precise aetiology remains elusive. This article reviews much of the scientific literature on EGS, covering epidemiology, pathology, diagnosis, treatment and aetiological hypotheses. © 2014 EVJ Ltd.

  1. A study of the human immune response to Lolium perenne (rye) pollen and its components, Lol p I and Lol p II (Rye I and Rye II). II. Longitudinal variation of antibody levels in relation to symptomatology and pollen exposure and correction of seasonally elevated antibody levels to basal values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidhoff, L R; Ehrlich-Kautzky, E; Meyers, D A; Marsh, D G

    1987-11-01

    This study used a standardized, dialyzed, Lolium perenne (ryegrass) pollen extract and two of its well-characterized components, Lol p I (Rye I) and Lol p II (Rye II), to characterize the longitudinal variation of both IgE and IgG antibody (Ab) levels, as well as total serum IgE levels, in 20 grass-allergic subjects followed for 13 months. Ab levels declined toward a basal level just before, and increased just after, the grass-pollination season, returning to the same basal level just before the next grass-pollination season. The least complex allergen, Lol II, demonstrated the most uniform pattern of variation in both IgE and IgG Ab levels. Total serum IgE levels demonstrated the least regular pattern of variation. Grass-pollen counts were strongly correlated with symptom-medication scores for these subjects (rs = 0.87). Initial values were correlated with the rise in total IgE and IgE Ab to Lol II across the grass-pollen season. Skin test results were correlated with initial IgE Ab levels for L. perenne pollen extract and Lol II. Finally, a procedure for correcting IgE Ab levels to basal values was proposed and tested. The correction procedure, for each IgE Ab, was based on the average rise during the grass-pollination season (or average decline after the grass-pollination season) observed for all subjects with that IgE Ab.

  2. Taraxacum officinale pollen depresses seed set of montane wildflowers through pollen allelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deirdre Loughnan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Plant species that share pollinators can suffer from interspecific pollen deposition. Male reproductive success is inevitably reduced by the loss of pollen to flowers of another species. Female reproductive success can be affected by reduced stigmatic area or, more strongly, through allelopathic effects by which the admixture of some foreign pollen reduces seed or fruit set. We tested for allelopathic effects of Taraxacum officinale (Asteracaeae pollen on the seed set of montane wildflowers Erythronium grandiflorum (Liliaceae and Erysimum capitatum (Brassicaceae, by hand-pollinating plants with pollen mixtures. Taraxacum is a common invasive species, which produces allelopathic chemicals in its root and vegetative tissue, making it a likely candidate for pollen allelopathy. Flowers of both species produced fewer well-developed seeds when pollinated with pollen mixtures containing Taraxacum pollen. The pollen-allelopathic potential of weedy dandelion may add to its ability to disrupt communities that it invades.

  3. Antiaging Effect of Pine Pollen in Human Diploid Fibroblasts and in a Mouse Model Induced by D-Galactose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gen-Xiang Mao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper was designed to investigate the effect of pine pollen against aging in human diploid fibroblast 2BS cells and in an accelerated aging model, which was established by subcutaneous injections with D-galactose daily for 8 weeks in C57BL/6J mice. Pine pollen (1 mg/mL and 2 mg/mL is proved to delay the replicative senescence of 2BS cells as evidenced by enhanced cell proliferation, decreased SA-β-Gal activity, and reversed expression of senescence-associated molecular markers, such as p53, p21Waf1, p16INK4a, PTEN, and p27Kip1 in late PD cells. Besides, pine pollen reversed D-galactose-induced aging effects in neural activity and inflammatory cytokine levels, as indicated by improved memory latency time and reduced error rate in step-down test and decreased concentrations of IL-6 and TNF-α in model mice. Similar to the role of AGEs (advanced glycation endproducts formation inhibitor aminoguanidine (AG, pine pollen inhibited D-galactose-induced increment of AGEs levels thus reversed the aging phenotypes in model mice. Furthermore, the declined antioxidant activity was obviously reversed upon pine pollen treatment, which may account for its inhibitory effect on nonenzymatic glycation (NEG in vivo. Our finding presents pine pollen as an attractive agent with potential to retard aging and attenuate age-related diseases in humans.

  4. Frontal subcutaneous blood flow, and epi- and subcutaneous temperatures during scalp cooling in normal man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, J; Friberg, L; Gaardsting, O

    1985-01-01

    during cooling and rewarming and to measure the effect of scalp cooling on subcutaneous scalp blood flow, subcutaneous blood flow and epi- and subcutaneous temperatures were measured in the frontal region at the hairline border before and during cooling with a cooling helmet, during spontaneous rewarming...

  5. Gentamicin concentrations in human subcutaneous tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Hanne; Kallehave, Finn Lasse; Kolmos, Hans Jørn Jepsen

    1996-01-01

    in human subcutaneous adipose tissue by a microdialysis technique. Seven healthy young volunteers each had four microdialysis probes placed in the fat (subcutaneous) layer of the abdominal skin. After the administration of a 240-mg gentamicin intravenous bolus, consecutive measurements of the drug...

  6. Facilitated subcutaneous immunoglobulin administration (fSCIg)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blau, Igor-Wolfgang; Conlon, Niall; Petermann, Robert

    2016-01-01

    and diverse medical needs that treatments for SID management should strive to meet. In this special report, we study the opportunities provided by facilitated subcutaneous immunoglobulin administration (fSCIg) to treat patients for whom the conventional routes (intravenous and subcutaneous) are sub...

  7. Gentamicin concentrations in human subcutaneous tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Hanne; Kallehave, Finn Lasse; Kolmos, Hans Jørn Jepsen

    1996-01-01

    Wound infections frequently originate from the subcutaneous tissue. The effect of gentamicin in subcutaneous tissue has, however, normally been evaluated from concentrations in blood or wound fluid. The aim of the present study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic properties of gentamicin in hu...... the presence of sufficient concentrations in the adipose tissue to be effective against common bacteria....

  8. The long pollen tube journey and in vitro pollen germination of Phalaenopsis orchids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jhun-Chen; Fang, Su-Chiung

    2016-06-01

    Pollen biology in P. aphrodite. Orchids have a distinct reproductive program. Pollination triggers ovule development and differentiation within flowers, and fertilization occurs days to months after pollination. It is unclear how pollen tubes travel through the developing ovaries during ovule development and when pollen tubes arrive at the mature embryo sac to achieve fertilization. Here, we report a robust staining protocol to image and record the timing of pollen germination, progressive growth of pollen tubes in ovaries, and arrival of pollen tubes at embryo sacs in Phalaenopsis aphrodite. The pollen germinated and pollen tubes entered the ovary 3 days after pollination. Pollen tubes continued to grow and filled the entire cavity of the ovary as the ovary elongated and ovules developed. Pollen tubes were found to enter the matured embryo sacs at approximately 60-65 days after pollination in an acropetal manner. Moreover, these temporal changes in developmental events such as growth of pollen tubes and fertilization were associated with expression of molecular markers. In addition, we developed an in vitro pollen germination protocol, which is valuable to enable studies on pollen tube guidance and tip growth regulation in Phalaenopsis orchids and possibly in other orchid species.

  9. Pollen development in Annona cherimola Mill. (Annonaceae. Implications for the evolution of aggregated pollen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hormaza Jose I

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In most flowering plants, pollen is dispersed as monads. However, aggregated pollen shedding in groups of four or more pollen grains has arisen independently several times during angiosperm evolution. The reasons behind this phenomenon are largely unknown. In this study, we followed pollen development in Annona cherimola, a basal angiosperm species that releases pollen in groups of four, to investigate how pollen ontogeny may explain the rise and establishment of this character. We followed pollen development using immunolocalization and cytochemical characterization of changes occurring from anther differentiation to pollen dehiscence. Results Our results show that, following tetrad formation, a delay in the dissolution of the pollen mother cell wall and tapetal chamber is a key event that holds the four microspores together in a confined tapetal chamber, allowing them to rotate and then bind through the aperture sites through small pectin bridges, followed by joint sporopollenin deposition. Conclusion Pollen grouping could be the result of relatively minor ontogenetic changes beneficial for pollen transfer or/and protection from desiccation. Comparison of these events with those recorded in the recent pollen developmental mutants in Arabidopsis indicates that several failures during tetrad dissolution may convert to a common recurring phenotype that has evolved independently several times, whenever this grouping conferred advantages for pollen transfer.

  10. Pollen development in Annona cherimola Mill. (Annonaceae). Implications for the evolution of aggregated pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lora, Jorge; Testillano, Pilar S; Risueño, Maria C; Hormaza, Jose I; Herrero, Maria

    2009-10-29

    In most flowering plants, pollen is dispersed as monads. However, aggregated pollen shedding in groups of four or more pollen grains has arisen independently several times during angiosperm evolution. The reasons behind this phenomenon are largely unknown. In this study, we followed pollen development in Annona cherimola, a basal angiosperm species that releases pollen in groups of four, to investigate how pollen ontogeny may explain the rise and establishment of this character. We followed pollen development using immunolocalization and cytochemical characterization of changes occurring from anther differentiation to pollen dehiscence. Our results show that, following tetrad formation, a delay in the dissolution of the pollen mother cell wall and tapetal chamber is a key event that holds the four microspores together in a confined tapetal chamber, allowing them to rotate and then bind through the aperture sites through small pectin bridges, followed by joint sporopollenin deposition. Pollen grouping could be the result of relatively minor ontogenetic changes beneficial for pollen transfer or/and protection from desiccation. Comparison of these events with those recorded in the recent pollen developmental mutants in Arabidopsis indicates that several failures during tetrad dissolution may convert to a common recurring phenotype that has evolved independently several times, whenever this grouping conferred advantages for pollen transfer.

  11. In children allergic to ragweed pollen, nasal inflammation is not influenced by monosensitization or polysensitization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelardi M

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Matteo Gelardi,1 Mariangela Bosoni,2 Marco Morelli,2 Silvia Beretta,2 Cristoforo Incorvaia,3 Serena Buttafava,4 Massimo Landi,5 Simonetta Masieri,6 Franco Frati,4 Nicola Quaranta,1 Gian Vincenzo Zuccotti21Otolaryngology Section, Department of Neuroscience and Sensory Organs, University of Bari, 2Department of Pediatrics, Luigi Sacco Hospital, University of Milan, 3Allergy/Pulmonary Rehabilitation Unit, ICP Hospital, 4Medical and Scientific Department, Stallergenes Italy, Milan, 5Department of Pediatrics, ASL TO1, Turin, 6Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, ItalyBackground: In patients polysensitized to pollen allergens, the priming effect, by which the sensitivity of the nasal mucosa to an allergen is increased by the previous exposure to another allergen, is a known phenomenon. This study was aimed at evaluating the degree of nasal inflammation, assessed by nasal cytology, in children with allergic rhinitis (AR from ragweed pollen according to being monosensitized or polysensitized.Methods: The study included 47 children. Of them, 24 suffered from AR caused by sensitization to grass pollen and ragweed pollen (group A and 23 were sensitized only to ragweed pollen (group B. In all patients, the severity of AR was assessed according to the Allergic Rhinitis and Its Impact on Asthma guidelines, and comorbidities were also evaluated.Results: In group A, 16.7% of children had a mild intermittent AR, 4.2% a moderate-to-severe intermittent, 33.3% a mild persistent, and 45.8% a moderate-to-severe persistent; in group B, 26.1% of children had a mild intermittent AR, 0% a moderate-to-severe intermittent, 52.2% a mild persistent, and 21.7% a moderate-to-severe persistent. No significant difference was detected in the number of the considered comorbidities between the two groups. The cell counts of neutrophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes/plasma cells, and mast cells were high but not significantly different in the two groups

  12. Volumetric assessment of airborne pollen and spore levels in Rochester, Minnesota, 1992 through 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decco, M L; Wendland, B I; O'Connell, E J

    1998-03-01

    To reassess airborne pollen counts and to study spore counts by volumetric collection in Rochester, Minnesota. Samples of pollen and spores were collected from the top of a six-story building in downtown Rochester by use of a rotational rod sampler, which was activated for 30 seconds every 10 minutes for 24 hours a day, 5 days a week, from mid-April to mid-October 1992 through 1995. Particles were stained with Calberla's fluid and viewed microscopically by transmitted light. Identifications were substantiated by comparison with field-collected "known" materials and standard reference guides. Data were expressed as "particles retained/cubic meter of air sampled." Because the methods of collection varied, only qualitative comparisons could be made with a study done in Rochester more than 3 1/2 decades earlier. For tree pollens, a similar progression of appearance and seasonal duration were noted for most species. Alder (Alnus), willow (Salix), and hickory-pecan (Carya), however, were found to have distinctly longer seasons, and walnut (Julgans) was detected 2 weeks earlier in the season. The most frequently detected tree pollen had changed from oak (Quercus) to apple and crab apple (Malus), which was not reported at all previously. Ragweed (Ambrosia) was still found to peak at the end of August and had a similar duration. Study of grass and nettle pollen as well as the Amaranthaceae-Chenopodiaceae complex yielded findings similar to those in the prior investigation. Fungal spores were detected from April through October and represented a substantial percentage of the airborne allergens; Cladosporium, ascospores, and basidiospores were the most common. Volumetric assessment of airborne pollen and spore levels in Rochester, Minnesota, yielded useful information for clinicians in southern Minnesota that could help direct skin test selection.

  13. [Sensitization to airborne ragweed pollen--a cause of allergic respiratory diseases in Germany?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehme, M W J; Gabrio, T; Dierkesmann, R; Felder-Kennel, A; Flicker-Klein, A; Joggerst, B; Kersting, G; König, M; Link, B; Maisner, V; Wetzig, J; Weidner, U; Behrendt, H

    2009-07-01

    Allergic skin and respiratory diseases show a high prevalence in most industrial countries. In addition, during the last years ragweed colonization has increased in Europe. Ambrosia pollen ( AMBROSIA ARTEMISIIFOLIA L. - common ragweed) are highly allergenic. Due to the late flowering time (august/September) of ragweed this can result in increasing health threats for allergic populations. This is of particular importance for those who already are sensitive to some grass or tree pollen. These individuals can then suffer from allergies during nearly the whole year. The present study examined the prevalence of sensitization to ragweed in German children and possible health implications. Between 2004 and 2007 sera of 1323 10-years old children in Baden Württemberg were tested in-vitro for specific IgE-antibodies against common aeroallergens including ragweed pollen. Specific IgE-antibodies to extracts of common ragweed pollen were present in 10 - 17 % of the tested sera depending on the year of investigation. The determined specific IgE-antibodies may be the result of a direct sensitization to ragweed pollen or correspond to cross-reactivity to other plants of the asteraceae subfamily or some nutritional allergens. The detection of sensitization to ragweed pollen does not prove actual allergic disease. However, a ragweed derived allergy should be considered in the differential diagnosis when allergic symptoms are present in direct connection to the flowering-time of ragweed. Ragweed plants should be removed and the spread of the plant 'restricted', as experiences in other countries with already wide spreading show.

  14. Grass fungal endophytes and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craven, Kelly

    2015-03-10

    The invention provides isolated fungal endophytes and synthetic combinations thereof with host grass plants. Methods for inoculating grass plant with the endophytes, for propagating the grass-endophyte combinations, and for producing feeds and biofuels from grass-endophyte combinations are also provided.

  15. Subcutaneous Emphysema—Beyond the Pneumoperitoneum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background: Subcutaneous emphysema and gas extravasation outside of the peritoneal cavity during laparoscopy has consequences. Knowledge of the circumstances that increase the potential for subcutaneous emphysema is necessary for safe laparoscopy. Methods: A literature review and a PubMed search are the basis for this review. Conclusions: The known risk factors leading to subcutaneous emphysema during laparoscopy are multiple attempts at abdominal entry, improper cannula placement, loose fitting cannula/skin and fascial entry points, use of >5 cannulas, use of cannulas as fulcrums, torque of the laparoscope, increased intra-abdominal pressure, procedures lasting >3.5 hours, and attention to details. New additional risk factors acting as direct factors leading to subcutaneous emphysema risk and occurrence are total gas volume, gas flow rate, valveless trocar systems, and robotic fulcrum forces. Recognizing this spectrum of factors that leads to subcutaneous emphysema will yield greater patient safety during laparoscopic procedures. PMID:24680136

  16. Pollen parameters estimates of genetic variability among newly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimates of some pollen parameters where used to assess the genetic diversity among some newly selected Nigerian Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.). Standard procedures were used to determine the pollen parameters such as: percentage pollen fertility, percentage pollen sterility, pollen diameters as well as anther ...

  17. Breeding for Grass Seed Yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Studer, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Seed yield is a trait of major interest for many fodder and amenity grass species and has received increasing attention since seed multiplication is economically relevant for novel grass cultivars to compete in the commercial market. Although seed yield is a complex trait and affected...... by agricultural practices as well as environmental factors, traits related to seed production reveal considerable genetic variation, prerequisite for improvement by direct or indirect selection. This chapter first reports on the biological and physiological basics of the grass reproduction system, then highlights...... important aspects and components affecting the seed yield potential and the agronomic and environmental aspects affecting the utilization and realization of the seed yield potential. Finally, it discusses the potential of plant breeding to sustainably improve total seed yield in fodder and amenity grasses....

  18. Grass and weed killer poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002838.htm Grass and weed killer poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Many weed killers contain dangerous chemicals that are harmful if ...

  19. Pollen-Associated Microbiome Correlates with Pollution Parameters and the Allergenicity of Pollen

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Obersteiner, Andrea; Gilles, Stefanie; Frank, Ulrike; Beck, Isabelle; Häring, Franziska; Ernst, Dietrich; Rothballer, Michael; Hartmann, Anton; Traidl-Hoffmann, Claudia; Schmid, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Pollen allergies have been rapidly increasing over the last decades. Many allergenic proteins and non-allergenic adjuvant compounds of pollen are involved in the plant defense against environmental or microbial stress...

  20. Sustained 3-year efficacy of pre- and coseasonal 5-grass-pollen sublingual immunotherapy tablets in patients with grass pollen-induced rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Didier, Alain; Worm, Margitta; Horak, Friedrich

    2011-01-01

    Seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis affects millions of persons. The efficacy of allergen sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) was demonstrated in previous short-term studies.......Seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis affects millions of persons. The efficacy of allergen sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) was demonstrated in previous short-term studies....

  1. Grass pollen symptoms interfere with the recollection of birch pollen symptoms - a prospective study of suspected, asymptomatic skin sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assing, K; Bodtger, U; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2007-01-01

    Asymptomatic skin sensitization (AS) is a risk factor for the development of allergic symptoms. A meticulous definition of this condition requires a systematic assessment of clinical symptoms before inclusion....

  2. PCR-based cloning and immunological characterization of Parietaria judaica pollen profilin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asturias, J A; Ibarrola, I; Eseverri, J L; Arilla, M Carmen; González-Rioja, R; Martínez, A

    2004-01-01

    Profilin has been described as an allergen present in pollen of trees, grasses and weeds. Since Parietaria judaica profilin has a molecular mass similar to other Parietaria allergens (Par j 1 and Par j 2) in the 14-10 kDa range, it is difficult to assess the prevalence of profilin by immunoblotting or to obtain sufficient amounts of purified native profilin for investigation and diagnosis. The aim of this study was to identify P. judaica profilin by PCR-based cDNA cloning and to elucidate its allergenic characteristics. Two cDNA clones encoding P. judaica pollen profilin were isolated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification using degenerate primers. Sequencing of both clones (Par j 3.0101 and Par j 3.0102) demonstrated a high amino acid sequence homology. Immunodetection of P. judaica pollen after isoelectrofocusing and incubation with rabbit antiserum against profilin indicated the existence of at least 2 isoforms. Expression in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) was carried out using a vector based in the T7 expression system, and the recombinant allergen was isolated by affinity chromatography on poly-(L-proline)-Sepharose. Cross-reactivity has been found between recombinant P. judaica pollen profilin and profilins from other botanical unrelated plants.

  3. Early Pollen Sensitization in Children Is Dependent upon Regional Aeroallergen Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Wong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Aeroallergen sensitization occurs at an earlier age than previously noted. The purpose of this paper was to identify which pollens cause early sensitization in young children presenting with rhinitis symptoms. Methods. This paper was a retrospective analysis of skin test results from 2- to 8-year-old patients presenting with a history consistent with allergic rhinitis. Patients were tested to aeroallergens common to the Great Basin along with a histamine and saline control. Pollen counts were obtained from a Reno, NV-certified counting station. Results. 123 children less than 8 years of age were identified. Over 50% of these children were sensitized to at least one aeroallergen. Chemopodaciae, timothy, alfalfa, black walnut, olive, mountain cedar and willow were predominating sensitizing aeroallergens of the Great Basin Region. Pollen counts were notable for a early spring peak for the tree season, grass season in May and weed season in August. Pollen levels continued to November at low levels. Discussion. Aeroallergens causing early sensitization differed from those which had predominately been reported in other regions of the United States. Pediatric allergists should consider performing a local review of sensitizing aeroallergens in their region to assist with identification and management of allergic rhinitis in their youngest patients. Please make style changes as appropriate.

  4. A catalogue of Irish pollen diagrams

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Fraser

    2013-01-01

    PUBLISHED The first Irish pollen diagram was published by Gunnar Erdtman in the Irish Naturalists? Journal in 1927. Since then over 471 pollen diagrams have been produced from locations throughout Ireland from a range of sites and time spans. The data from these pollen diagrams can be used to reconstruct vegetation dynamics over long time scales and so facilitate the investigation of climate change impacts, plant migration and the scale of human induced landscape change. In this paper we ...

  5. Airborne Pollen Concentration in Kütahya

    OpenAIRE

    BIÇAKCI, Adem

    1999-01-01

    The airborne pollen cocentration in the atmosphere of Kütahya was determined by gravimetry with a Durham sampler in 1996. During this study, 23 taxa of arboreal and 14 taxa of herbaceous pollen grains were collected and identified. Pollen from the following taxa were also found to be prevalent in the atmosphere of Kütahya: Pinus L., Cupressaceae, Platanus orientalis L., Quercus L., Oleaceae, Gramineae, Urticaceae, Chenopodiaceae/ Amaranthaceae, Compositae and Plantago L. The effects of meteor...

  6. In vitro pollen germination, pollen tube growth and longevity in some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-03

    Aug 3, 2011 ... and data were analyzed with SAS software. Significant differences were observed among the ... of culture medium in pollen grain germination and the best storage conditions for different species of ... pollen viability and the in vitro culture method to deter- mine pollen germination rate in 'Longquan No.

  7. Seed set, pollen morphology and pollen surface composition response to heat stress in field pea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yunfei; Lahlali, Rachid; Karunakaran, Chithra; Kumar, Saroj; Davis, Arthur R; Bueckert, Rosalind A

    2015-11-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is a major legume crop grown in a semi-arid climate in Western Canada, where heat stress affects pollination, seed set and yield. Seed set and pod growth characteristics, along with in vitro percentage pollen germination, pollen tube growth and pollen surface composition, were measured in two pea cultivars (CDC Golden and CDC Sage) subjected to five maximum temperature regimes ranging from 24 to 36 °C. Heat stress reduced percentage pollen germination, pollen tube length, pod length, seed number per pod, and the seed-ovule ratio. Percentage pollen germination of CDC Sage was greater than CDC Golden at 36 °C. No visible morphological differences in pollen grains or the pollen surface were observed between the heat and control-treated pea. However, pollen wall (intine) thickness increased due to heat stress. Mid-infrared attenuated total reflectance (MIR-ATR) spectra revealed that the chemical composition (lipid, proteins and carbohydrates) of each cultivar's pollen grains responded differently to heat stress. The lipid region of the pollen coat and exine of CDC Sage was more stable compared with CDC Golden at 36 °C. Secondary derivatives of ATR spectra indicated the presence of two lipid types, with different amounts present in pollen grains from each cultivar. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Pectic arabinan side chains are essential for pollen cell wall integrity during pollen development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cankar, Katarina; Kortstee, Anne; Toonen, Marcel A.J.

    2014-01-01

    transgenes were not transmitted to the next generation when these lines were used as a pollen donor, suggesting male sterility. Viability of mature pollen was severely decreased in potato lines with reduced pectic arabinan, but not in lines with altered galactan side chains. Anthers and pollen of different...

  9. [2001 survey of pollen in Wakayama City with a real-time pollen counter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seno, Satoshi; Dake, Yoshihiro; Sakoda, Takema; Saito, Yuko; Ikeda, Hiroki; Kitano, Hiroya; Kitajima, Kazutomo; Enomoto, Tadao

    2002-03-01

    Self-care is gradually being recognized as important in the treatment of pollinosis, based up to now on data on airborne pollen. To determine the real-time numbers of airborne pollen would be more useful in self-care, however, so we studied the usefulness of the real-time pollen counter. Between Feb. 2, 2001, and Apr. 26, 2001, 4 types of airborne pollen i.e., Japanese cedar, Japanese cypress, black alder, and beech observed in Wakayama City were counted with a Durham pollen counter and a real-time pollen counter (Yamato Manufacturing Co. Ltd.). Correlation between the 2 pollen counters was r = 0.69 for Japanese cedar in March and r = 0.89 for Japanese cypress in April. A high correlation was observed between outcomes of the 2 pollen counters. The amount of pollen from black alder and beech was less than that from Japanese cedar and cypress. Unexpected peaks were observed not related to the pollen number is apparently due to snow. We have taken measure against snow, so we concluded that the real-time pollen counter was useful in counting the amount of airborne pollen over time.

  10. In Vitro Pollen Viability and Pollen Germination in Cherry Laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melekber Sulusoglu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollen quality is important for growers and breeders. This study was carried out to determine in vitro pollen viability and pollen germination in seven genotypes of cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.. Two pollen viability tests, TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride and IKI (iodine potassium iodide, were used. Pollen traits of genotypes were studied using an in vitro medium containing 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% sucrose to determine the best sucrose concentrations for germination. In the second step, the germinated pollen was counted 1, 4, 6, 10, 12, 24, and 48 hours later until there was no further germination. The viability rates were different according to genotypes and tests used. The IKI and TTC staining tests and pollen germination had low correlation (r2 = 0.0614 and r2 = 0.0015, resp.. Painted pollen rate was higher and pollen was well-stained with IKI test and pollen viability estimated with TTC staining test was better than that estimated with the IKI staining test. 15% sucrose gave the best germination rates in most of the genotypes. Pollen germination rates were recorded periodically from one hour to 48 hours in 15% sucrose and the results showed that pollen germination rates increased after 6 hours of being placed in culture media.

  11. Acute dermatomyositis associated with generalized subcutaneous edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ki-Hong; Lim, Sung-Ryoun; Kim, Yeon-Joo; Lee, Kyung-Ju; Myung, Dae-Seong; Jeong, Hae-Chang; Yoon, Woong; Lee, Shin-Seok; Park, Yong-Wook

    2008-06-01

    Generalized subcutaneous edema is an uncommon manifestation of inflammatory myopathy. We report a 48-year-old female patient who presented with severe generalized edema, an erythematous skin rash, dysphagia and proximal muscle weakness. She was diagnosed with dermatomyositis from the clinical signs, increased muscle enzymes, electromyographic findings and a muscle biopsy. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed increased signal intensity in the muscular and subcutaneous layers. The conditions causing generalized edema were excluded. It was concluded that the generalized edema was secondary to dermatomyositis. Aggressive treatments with high-dose glucocorticoids and immunosuppressive agents were used to control the severe subcutaneous edema.

  12. Comparison of six disease severity scores for allergic rhinitis against pollen counts a prospective analysis at population and individual level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florack, Jakob; Brighetti, Maria Antonia; Perna, Serena; Pizzulli, Antonio; Pizzulli, Antje; Tripodi, Salvatore; Costa, Corrado; Travaglini, Alessandro; Pelosi, Simone; Bianchi, Annamaria; Tsilochristou, Olympia; Gabrielli, Francesca; Matricardi, Paolo Maria

    2016-06-01

    Many different symptom (medication) scores are nowadays used as measures of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis severity in individual patients and in clinical trials. Their differences contribute to the heterogeneity of the primary end-point in meta-analyses, so that calls for symptom (medication) score harmonization have been launched. To prospectively compare six different severity scores for allergic rhinitis (AR) against pollen counts at both population and individual levels. Two groups of children with seasonal AR and grass pollen sensitization were recruited in Ascoli, Italy (n = 76) and Berlin, Germany (n = 29). Symptoms and drug intake were monitored daily for 40 and 30 days of the grass pollen season in 2011 (Ascoli) and 2013 (Berlin), respectively, through an Internet-based platform (AllergyMonitor(™) , TPS Production srl, Rome, Italy). From the gathered data, the informatics platform automatically generated one symptom score (RTSS) and five symptom-medication scores (RC-ACS(©) , ACS, RTSS[LOCF], RTSS[WC] and AdSS). Values were then statistically normalized for reciprocal comparison and matched against the daily variations of local grass pollen counts (Spearman's rank correlation). The grass pollen counts were higher in Ascoli than in Berlin (peak values 194 vs. 59 grains/m(3) ). At population level, the trajectories of the normalized average values of the six scores differed only slightly in both studies and correlated well with the pollen counts (ranges r(2) : 0.38-0.50 in Ascoli, 0.41-0.56 in Berlin). By contrast, in individual patients, trajectories of different scores were often quite heterogeneous. The RTSS[WC] had a very low discriminatory power and generated in many patients long, flat horizontal segments. Disease severity scores for seasonal AR, as evaluated via an Internet-based platform, tend to provide similar results at population level but can often produce heterogeneous slopes in individual patients. The choice of the disease severity

  13. Pollen immunotherapy reduces the development of asthma in children with seasonal rhinoconjunctivitis (the PAT-study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Christian; Dreborg, Sten; Ferdousi, Hosne A

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Children with allergic rhinitis are likely to develop asthma. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether specific immunotherapy can prevent the development of asthma and reduce bronchial hyperresponsiveness in children with seasonal allergic...... rhinoconjunctivitis. METHODS: From 6 pediatric allergy centers, 205 children aged 6 to 14 years (mean age, 10.7 years) with grass and/or birch pollen allergy but without any other clinically important allergy were randomized either to receive specific immunotherapy for 3 years or to an open control group. All...

  14. Immunological comparison of allergen immunotherapy tablet treatment and subcutaneous immunotherapy against grass allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasbjerg, K; Backer, V; Lund, G

    2014-01-01

    with regular serum measurements of specific IgE, IgG4, IgE-blocking factor, facilitated antigen presentation (FAP), and basophil activation test (BAT). Nasal challenges were used to assess changes in nasal sensitivity. RESULTS: After 15 months of treatment IgG4, IgE-blocking factor, FAP, and BAT values...

  15. Aperture number influences pollen survival in Arabidopsis mutants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Prieu, Charlotte; Matamoro-Vidal, Alexis; Raquin, Christian; Dobritsa, Anna; Mercier, Raphaël; Gouyon, Pierre-Henri; Albert, Béatrice

    2016-01-01

    .... Thus, morphological or structural adaptations might exist to help pollen adjust to sudden volume changes, though little is known about the correlation between pollen morphology and its ability...

  16. Aerodynamics and pollen ultrastructure in Ephedra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolinder, Kristina; Niklas, Karl J; Rydin, Catarina

    2015-03-01

    Pollen dispersal is affected by the terminal settling velocity (Ut) of the grains, which is determined by their size, bulk density, and by atmospheric conditions. The likelihood that wind-dispersed pollen is captured by ovulate organs is influenced by the aerodynamic environment created around and by ovulate organs. We investigated pollen ultrastructure and Ut of Ephedra foeminea (purported to be entomophilous), and simulated the capture efficiency of its ovules. Results were compared with those from previously studied anemophilous Ephedra species.• Ut was determined using stroboscopic photography of pollen in free fall. The acceleration field around an "average" ovule was calculated, and inflight behavior of pollen grains was predicted using computer simulations. Pollen morphology and ultrastructure were investigated using SEM and STEM.• Pollen wall ultrastructure was correlated with Ut in Ephedra. The relative proportion and amount of granules in the infratectum determine pollen bulk densities, and (together with overall size) determine Ut and thus dispersal capability. Computer simulations failed to reveal any functional traits favoring anemophilous pollen capture in E. foeminea.• The fast Ut and dense ultrastructure of E. foeminea pollen are consistent with functional traits that distinguish entomophilous species from anemophilous species. In anemophilous Ephedra species, ovulate organs create an aerodynamic microenvironment that directs airborne pollen to the pollination drops. In E. foeminea, no such microenvironment is created. Ephedroid palynomorphs from the Cretaceous share the ultrastructural characteristics of E. foeminea, and at least some may, therefore, have been produced by insect-pollinated plants. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  17. Massive Subcutaneous Emphysema in Robotic Sacrocolpopexy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Hatice; Cremins, Angela; Jones, Keisha A.

    2013-01-01

    The advent of robotic surgery has increased the popularity of laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy. Carbon dioxide insufflation, an essential component of laparoscopy, may rarely cause massive subcutaneous emphysema, which may be coincident with life-threatening situations such as hypercarbia, pneumothorax, and pneumomediastinum. Although the literature contains several reports of massive subcutaneous emphysema after a variety of laparoscopic procedures, we were not able to identify any report of this complication associated with laparoscopic or robotic sacrocolpopexy. Massive subcutaneous emphysema occurred in 3 women after robotic sacrocolpopexy in our practice. The patients had remarkable but reversible physical deformities lasting up to 1 week. A valveless endoscopic dynamic pressure system was used in all 3 of our cases. Our objective is to define the risk of massive subcutaneous emphysema during robotic sacrocolpopexy in light of these cases and discuss probable predisposing factors including the use of valveless endoscopic dynamic pressure trocars. PMID:23925018

  18. Recurrent, giant subcutaneous leiomyosarcoma of the thigh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Chuanping, MD

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of recurrent, massive subcutaneous leiomyosarcoma involving the left thigh in a 29-year-old male from Madagascar. The patient had earlier undergone local resection of subcutaneous leiomyosarcoma a half year before. After surgical intervention, local recurrence developed at this site and was rapidly growing. The patient was surgically treated with a 2-cm-wide margin local excision in our hospital. The patient has remained recurrence free at 1-year follow-up.

  19. Specialized bees fail to develop on non-host pollen: do plants chemically protect their pollen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praz, Christophe J; Müller, Andreas; Dorn, Silvia

    2008-03-01

    Bees require large amounts of pollen for their own reproduction. While several morphological flower traits are known to have evolved to protect plants against excessive pollen harvesting by bees, little is known on how selection to minimize pollen loss acts on the chemical composition of pollen. In this study, we traced the larval development of four solitary bee species, each specialized on a different pollen source, when reared on non-host pollen by transferring unhatched eggs of one species onto the pollen provisions of another species. Pollen diets of Asteraceae and Ranunculus (Ranunculaceae) proved to be inadequate for all bee species tested except those specialized on these plants. Further, pollen of Sinapis (Brassicaceae) and Echium (Boraginaceae) failed to support larval development in one bee species specialized on Campanula (Campanulaceae). Our results strongly suggest that pollen of these four taxonomic groups possess protective properties that hamper digestion and thus challenge the general view of pollen as an easy-to-use protein source for flower visitors.

  20. The coexistence of bicellular and tricellular pollen in Annona cherimola (Annonaceae): Implications for pollen evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lora, Jorge; Herrero, María; Hormaza, José I

    2009-04-01

    Most angiosperms release bicellular pollen. However, in about one-third of extant angiosperms, the second pollen mitosis occurs before anthesis such that pollen is tricellular upon release. The shift from bicellular to tricellular development has occurred several times independently, but its causes are largely unknown. In this work, we observed the coexistence of both kinds of pollen at anther dehiscence in Annona cherimola, a species that belongs to the basal angiosperm family Annonaceae. Examination of pollen cell number during anther development showed that this coexistence was due to a late mitosis starting shortly before pollen shedding. Both types of pollen germinated equally well over the course of development. Because variable proportions of bicellular and tricellular pollen were observed at different sampling times, we tested the role of temperature by performing field and growth chamber experiments, which showed that higher temperatures near anthesis advanced the time of pollen mitosis II. The results show that selection could favor the production of tricellular pollen under certain environmental circumstances that prime rapid pollen germination and provide evidence of a system in which developmental variation persists, but that can be modified by external factors such as temperature.

  1. A Review of the Effects of Major Atmospheric Pollutants on Pollen Grains, Pollen Content, and Allergenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Sénéchal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes the available data related to the effects of air pollution on pollen grains from different plant species. Several studies carried out either on in situ harvested pollen or on pollen exposed in different places more or less polluted are presented and discussed. The different experimental procedures used to monitor the impact of pollution on pollen grains and on various produced external or internal subparticles are listed. Physicochemical and biological effects of artificial pollution (gaseous and particulate on pollen from different plants, in different laboratory conditions, are considered. The effects of polluted pollen grains, subparticles, and derived aeroallergens in animal models, in in vitro cell culture, on healthy human and allergic patients are described. Combined effects of atmospheric pollutants and pollen grains-derived biological material on allergic population are specifically discussed. Within the notion of “polluen,” some methodological biases are underlined and research tracks in this field are proposed.

  2. A Review of the Effects of Major Atmospheric Pollutants on Pollen Grains, Pollen Content, and Allergenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sénéchal, Hélène; Visez, Nicolas; Charpin, Denis; Shahali, Youcef; Peltre, Gabriel; Biolley, Jean-Philippe; Lhuissier, Franck; Couderc, Rémy; Yamada, Ohri; Malrat-Domenge, Audrey; Pham-Thi, Nhân; Poncet, Pascal; Sutra, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    This review summarizes the available data related to the effects of air pollution on pollen grains from different plant species. Several studies carried out either on in situ harvested pollen or on pollen exposed in different places more or less polluted are presented and discussed. The different experimental procedures used to monitor the impact of pollution on pollen grains and on various produced external or internal subparticles are listed. Physicochemical and biological effects of artificial pollution (gaseous and particulate) on pollen from different plants, in different laboratory conditions, are considered. The effects of polluted pollen grains, subparticles, and derived aeroallergens in animal models, in in vitro cell culture, on healthy human and allergic patients are described. Combined effects of atmospheric pollutants and pollen grains-derived biological material on allergic population are specifically discussed. Within the notion of “polluen,” some methodological biases are underlined and research tracks in this field are proposed. PMID:26819967

  3. Pollen productivity and morphology of pollen grains in two cultivars of honeyberry (Lonicera kamtschatica (Sevast. Pojark.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Bożek

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the years 2004-2006, investigations on the abundance of pollen production in two cultivars of Lonicera kamtschatica (Sevast. Pojark. - Atut and Duet, were conducted at the Felin Experimental Farm of the Agricultural University in Lublin. Moreover, the viability of pollen grains was estimated and measurements of their size were taken. Ten flowers of both studied cultivars supplied 11.42 mg of pollen and the average pollen productivity per 1 ha of a several-years-old plantation was 30.04 kg. The pollen of the observed plants was eagerly collected by honey bees. Pollen grains of both cultivars are suboblate. Considering their size, they can be described as large ones (P=47.55 µm, E=60.37 µm. Pollen viability for both cultivars is high, about 95%.

  4. The pollen tube paradigm revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Jens; Geitmann, Anja

    2012-12-01

    The polar growth process characterizing pollen tube elongation has attracted numerous modeling attempts over the past years. While initial models focused on recreating the correct cellular geometry, recent models are increasingly based on experimentally assessed cellular parameters such as the dynamics of signaling processes and the mechanical properties of the cell wall. Recent modeling attempts have therefore substantially gained in biological relevance and predictive power. Different modeling methods are explained and the power and limitations of individual models are compared. Focus is on several recent models that use closed feedback loops in order to generate limit cycles representing the oscillatory behavior observed in growing tubes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Transgenic lilies via pollen mediated transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leede-Plegt, van der L.M.; Kronenburg-van de Ven, van B.C.E.; Franken, J.; Tuyl, van J.M.; Tunen, van A.J.; Dons, J.J.M.

    1997-01-01

    We have developed a procedure for the production of transgenic lilies by using the pollen grain as vector for DNA delivery. First, a particle gun was used for the introduction of the NPTII gene (for kanamycin resistance) into pollen of lily (Lilium longiflorum), cv ‘Gelria’. Subsequently the

  6. A combinatorial approach to angiosperm pollen morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mander, Luke

    2016-11-30

    Angiosperms (flowering plants) are strikingly diverse. This is clearly expressed in the morphology of their pollen grains, which are characterized by enormous variety in their shape and patterning. In this paper, I approach angiosperm pollen morphology from the perspective of enumerative combinatorics. This involves generating angiosperm pollen morphotypes by algorithmically combining character states and enumerating the results of these combinations. I use this approach to generate 3 643 200 pollen morphotypes, which I visualize using a parallel-coordinates plot. This represents a raw morphospace. To compare real-world and theoretical morphologies, I map the pollen of 1008 species of Neotropical angiosperms growing on Barro Colorado Island (BCI), Panama, onto this raw morphospace. This highlights that, in addition to their well-documented taxonomic diversity, Neotropical rainforests also represent an enormous reservoir of morphological diversity. Angiosperm pollen morphospace at BCI has been filled mostly by pollen morphotypes that are unique to single plant species. Repetition of pollen morphotypes among higher taxa at BCI reflects both constraint and convergence. This combinatorial approach to morphology addresses the complexity that results from large numbers of discrete character combinations and could be employed in any situation where organismal form can be captured by discrete morphological characters. © 2016 The Author(s).

  7. Pollen morphology and taxonomy in the Loganiaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punt, W.; Leenhouts, P.W.

    1967-01-01

    The Loganiaceae is a heterogeneous, eurypalynous family with colpate, colporate or porate pollen grains (Erdtman 1952). Some years ago Dr. Leeuwenberg, specialist in the taxonomy of African Loganiaceae, asked the senior author to undertake an investigation of the pollen grains of that family.

  8. Ragweed pollen in the air of Szczecin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puc, Małgorzata

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the ragweed (Ambrosia) pollination in Szczecin (western Poland) in the years 2000-2002. Measurements were performed by the volumetric and gravimetric method. Pollen seasons were defined as the periods of 90 % of the total catch. Ragweed pollen is known as a very potent aeroallergen. In recent years ragweed appeared in Europe in hitherto unknown localities, and the number of people allergic to the allergens of this plant has been gradually increasing. In the period of the study a strong tendency towards increasing ragweed pollen counts in the air of Szczecin was noted. Of the three years studied, the lowest concentration of ragweed pollen observed in 2000 equalled a few pollen grains in 1 m(3) per 24 h. In 2001, the highest airborne concentration of 30 grains in 1 m(3) per 24 h was noted at the end of August. The annual pollen count of ragweed in 2002 was 3 times higher than in 2001. The pollen season started in the second decade of August and lasted until the beginning of September. The highest airborne concentration of 98 grains in 1 m(3) per 24 h was noted at the beginning of September on a sunny day with strong wind. The pollen count of ragweed was found to depend on the weather conditions, especially on wind speed and relative humidity, diversity of local flora and long distance transportation.

  9. Pollen used to produce allergen extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codina, Rosa; Lockey, Richard F

    2017-02-01

    To review the use of pollen for the production of allergen extracts to diagnose and treat allergic diseases, examine the associated regulations, and highlight candidate areas for improvement. A PubMed search was performed using focused keywords combined with a review of regulatory documents and industry guidelines. The information obtained through literature, documents, and industry was scrutinized and used with personal experience and expertise to write this article. Both genetic and environmental factors affect the allergenic composition of pollen because it is a biologically active pharmaceutical ingredient obtained from nature. The potential effect of airborne contaminants in pollen requires major attention but can be properly addressed through careful collection practices, combined with a proper interpretation of the data on purity obtained for each pollen lot. The regulations associated with pollen used to manufacture allergen extracts in the United States and Europe and the numbers of pollen allergen extracts commercially available in both areas of the world differ. A critical parameter to select the appropriate extracts for diagnosis and allergen immunotherapy is to understand the phenomenon of cross-reactivity among pollen families, genera, and species. Physicians should be aware of the factors responsible for the qualitative and quantitative composition of pollen allergen extracts and the associated regulations to produce suitable extracts to diagnose and treat allergic diseases. Collaboration and cooperation among allergen manufacturing companies and regulatory agencies are necessary. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Pollen viability and membrane lipid composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilsen, van D.G.J.L.

    1993-01-01

    In this thesis membrane lipid composition is studied in relation to pollen viability during storage. Chapter 1 reviews pollen viability, membranes in the dry state and membrane changes associated with cellular aging. This chapter is followed by a study of age-related changes in phospholipid

  11. Characterization of pollen by vibrational spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Boris

    2010-12-01

    Classification, discrimination, and biochemical assignment of vibrational spectra of pollen samples belonging to 43 different species of the order Pinales has been made using three different vibrational techniques. The comparative study of transmission (KBr pellet) and attenuated total reflection (ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and FT-Raman spectroscopies was based on substantial variability of pollen grain size, shape, and relative biochemical composition. Depending on the penetration depth of the probe light, vibrational techniques acquire predominant information either on pollen grain walls (FT-Raman and ATR-FT-IR) or intracellular material (transmission FT-IR). Compared with the other two methods, transmission FT-IR obtains more comprehensive information and as a result achieves superior spectral identification and discrimination of pollen. The results strongly indicate that biochemical similarities of pollen grains belonging to the same plant genus or family lead to similar features in corresponding vibrational spectra. The exploitation of that property in aerobiological monitoring was demonstrated by simple and rapid pollen identification based on relatively small spectral libraries, with the same (or better) taxonomic resolution as that provided by optical microscopy. Therefore, the clear correlation between vibrational spectra and pollen grain morphology, biochemistry, and taxonomy is obtained, while successful pollen identification illustrates the practicability of such an approach in environmental studies.

  12. A late-Quaternary perspective, on atmospheric pCO2, climate, and fire as drivers of C4-grass abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Michael A; Nelson, David M; Street-Perrott, F Alayne; Verschuren, Dirk; Hul, Feng Sheng

    2015-03-01

    Various environmental factors, including atmospheric CO2 (pCO2), regional climate, and fire, have been invoked as primary drivers of long-term variation in C4 grass abundance. Evaluating these hypotheses has been difficult because available paleorecords often lack information on past C4 grass abundance or potential environmental drivers. We analyzed carbon isotope ratios (delta13C) of individual grains of grass pollen in the sediments of two East African lakes to infer changes in the relative abundance of C3 vs. C4 grasses during the past 25 000 years. Results were compared with concurrent changes in pCO2, temperature, moisture balance, and fire activity. Our grass-pollen delta13C analysis reveals a dynamic history of grass-dominated vegetation in equatorial East Africa: C4 grasses have not consistently dominated lowland areas, and high-elevation grasses have not always been predominantly C3. On millennial timescales, C4 grass abundance does not correlate with charcoal influx at either site, suggesting that fire was not a major proximate control of the competitive balance between C3 and C4 grasses. Above the present-day treeline on Mt. Kenya, C4 grass abundance declined from an average of approximately 90% during the glacial period to less than approximately 60% throughout the Holocene, coincident with increases in pCO2 and temperature, and shifts in moisture balance. In the lowland savanna southeast of Mt. Kilimanjaro, C4 grass abundance showed no such directional trend, but fluctuated markedly in association with variation in rainfall amount and seasonal-drought severity. These results underscore spatiotemporal variability in the relative influence of pCO2 and climate on the interplay of C3 and C4 grasses and shed light on an emerging conceptual model regarding the expansion of C4-dominated grasslands in Earth's history. They also suggest that future changes in the C3/C4 composition of grass-dominated ecosystems will likely exhibit striking spatiotemporal

  13. Frontal subcutaneous blood flow, and epi- and subcutaneous temperatures during scalp cooling in normal man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, J; Friberg, L; Gaardsting, O

    1985-01-01

    Cooling of the scalp has been found to prevent hair loss following cytostatic treatment, but in order to obtain the hair preserving effect the subcutaneous temperature has to be reduced below 22 degrees C. In order to establish the relationship between epicutaneous and subcutaneous temperatures...... epicutaneous and subcutaneous temperatures could be demonstrated with the regression equation: s = 0.9 c + 4.9 (r = 0.99). In eight of the 10 subjects the subcutaneous temperature could be reduced below 22 degrees C with the applied technique. It is concluded that the hair preserving effect of scalp cooling...

  14. MICROBIAL QUALITY OF HONEY MIXTURE WITH POLLEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Mareček

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The aim of this study was evaluation of microbial quality in raw materials (honey, pollen and evaluation of microbial quality in honey mixture with pollen (2.91 % and 3.85 % and also dynamics of microbial groups in honey mixtures with pollen after 14 days storage at the room temperature (approximately 25 °C and in cold store (8 °C. We used dilution plating method for testing of samples. Detections of total plate microbial count (aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms, sporulating bacteria, coliform bacteria, Bifidobacterium sp., Lactobacillus sp. and microscopic fungi were performed. In general, counts of microorganisms decreased in honey mixture with pollen compared to raw pollen and these counts increased compared to natural honey. Total plate count was 5.37 log KTJ.g-1 in pollen; 1.36 log KTJ.g-1 in honey; 2.97 log KTJ.g-1 in honey mixture with 2.91 % pollen and 2.04 log KTJ.g-1 in honey mixture with 3.85 % pollen. Coliform bacteria were detected in pollen (1.77 log KTJ.g-1. Then, we found coliform bacteria in one sample of honey mixtures with pollen (2.91 % - 1.00 log KTJ.g-1.Bifidobacterium species were detected only in raw pollen. We did not findLactobacillus sp. in any of the samples. Microscopic fungi were detected on two cultivating media. Yeasts were present in pollen sample (average 5.39 log KTJ.g-1, honey mixture with 2.91 % pollen (average 2.51 log KTJ.g-1 and honey mixture with 3.85 % pollen (average 1.58 log KTJ.g-1. Filamentous microscopic fungi were detectable in pollen (average 3.38 log KTJ.g-1, in honey (only on one medium: 1.00 log KTJ.g-1, in honey mixture with 2.91 % pollen (average 1.15 log KTJ.g-1 and in honey mixture with 3.85 % pollen (1.71 %. Raw pollen contained microscopic fungi as Absidiasp., Mucor sp., Alternaria sp. andEmericella nidulans. Honey mixture with 2.91 % pollen after storage (14 days contained lower microbial counts when compared with the sample

  15. New insights into ragweed pollen allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordas-Le Floch, Véronique; Groeme, Rachel; Chabre, Henri; Baron-Bodo, Véronique; Nony, Emmanuel; Mascarell, Laurent; Moingeon, Philippe

    2015-11-01

    Pollen allergens from short ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) cause severe respiratory allergies in North America and Europe. To date, ten short ragweed pollen allergens belonging to eight protein families, including the recently discovered novel major allergen Amb a 11, have been recorded in the International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS) allergen database. With evidence that other components may further contribute to short ragweed pollen allergenicity, a better understanding of the allergen repertoire is a requisite for the design of proper diagnostic tools and efficient immunotherapies. This review provides an update on both known as well as novel candidate allergens from short ragweed pollen, identified through a comprehensive characterization of the ragweed pollen transcriptome and proteome.

  16. Immersion freezing of birch pollen washing water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, S.; Wex, H.; Niedermeier, D.; Pummer, B.; Grothe, H.; Hartmann, S.; Tomsche, L.; Clauss, T.; Voigtländer, J.; Ignatius, K.; Stratmann, F.

    2013-11-01

    Birch pollen grains are known to be ice nucleating active biological particles. The ice nucleating activity has previously been tracked down to biological macromolecules that can be easily extracted from the pollen grains in water. In the present study, we investigated the immersion freezing behavior of these ice nucleating active (INA) macromolecules. Therefore we measured the frozen fractions of particles generated from birch pollen washing water as a function of temperature at the Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS). Two different birch pollen samples were considered, with one originating from Sweden and one from the Czech Republic. For the Czech and Swedish birch pollen samples, freezing was observed to start at -19 and -17 °C, respectively. The fraction of frozen droplets increased for both samples down to -24 °C. Further cooling did not increase the frozen fractions any more. Instead, a plateau formed at frozen fractions below 1. This fact could be used to determine the amount of INA macromolecules in the droplets examined here, which in turn allowed for the determination of nucleation rates for single INA macromolecules. The main differences between the Swedish birch pollen and the Czech birch pollen were obvious in the temperature range between -17 and -24 °C. In this range, a second plateau region could be seen for Swedish birch pollen. As we assume INA macromolecules to be the reason for the ice nucleation, we concluded that birch pollen is able to produce at least two different types of INA macromolecules. We were able to derive parameterizations for the heterogeneous nucleation rates for both INA macromolecule types, using two different methods: a simple exponential fit and the Soccer ball model. With these parameterization methods we were able to describe the ice nucleation behavior of single INA macromolecules from both the Czech and the Swedish birch pollen.

  17. (Kangaroo grass) at various growth stages

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-04-06

    Apr 6, 2009 ... Key words: Kangaroo grass, biomass, dry matter, rangeland, growth stages. INTRODUCTION ..... sativa L.) pastures. Ph.D Dissertation presented to ... Production curves for the six most important grass species in the western ...

  18. Pollen competition between two sympatric Orchis species (Orchidaceae): the overtaking of conspecific of heterospecific pollen as a reproductive barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luca, A; Palermo, A M; Bellusci, F; Pellegrino, G

    2015-01-01

    The frequency of hybrid formation in angiosperms depends on how and when heterospecific pollen is transferred to the stigma, and on the success of that heterospecific pollen at fertilising ovules. We applied pollen mixtures to stigmas to determine how pollen interactions affect siring success and the frequency of hybrid formation between two species of Mediterranean deceptive orchid. Plants of Orchis italica and O. anthropophora were pollinated with conspecific and heterospecific pollen (first conspecific pollen then heterospecific pollen and vice versa) and molecular analysis was used to check the paternity of the seeds produced. In this pair of Mediterranean orchids, competition between conspecific and heterospecific pollen functions as a post-pollination pre-zygotic barrier limiting the frequency of the formation of hybrids in nature. Flowers pollinated with heterospecific pollen can remain receptive for the arrival of conspecific pollen for a long time. There is always an advantage of conspecific pollen for fruit formation, whether it comes before or after heterospecific pollen, because it overtakes the heterospecific pollen. The conspecific pollen advantage exhibited in O. italica and O. anthropophora is likely to result from the reduced germination of heterospecific pollen or retarded growth of heterospecific pollen tubes in the stigma and ovary. Overall, the results indicate that our hybrid zone represents a phenomenon of little evolutionary consequence, and the conspecific pollen advantage maintains the genetic integrity of the parental species. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  19. Subcutaneous Fat Necrosis of the Newborn: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Kyung Sik; Cho, Bum Sang; Bae, Il Hun; Lee, Seung Young; Jeon, Min Hee; Lee, Ok Jun; Kim, Mi Jung [Chungbuk National University College of Medicine, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-09-15

    Subcutaneous fat necrosis in the newborn is an uncommon transient disorder of the subcutaneous adipose tissue that develops after birth. We describe the characteristic ultrasonography and CT findings of a case of pathologically confirmed subcutaneous fat necrosis located at the subcutaneous fat layer of the neck, back, and shoulders with a review of the literature

  20. Pollen dispersal in sugar beet production fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmency, Henri; Klein, Etienne K; De Garanbé, Thierry Gestat; Gouyon, Pierre-Henri; Richard-Molard, Marc; Muchembled, Claude

    2009-04-01

    Pollen-mediated gene flow has important implications for biodiversity conservation and for breeders and farmers' activities. In sugar beet production fields, a few sugar beet bolters can produce pollen as well as be fertilized by wild and weed beet. Since the crop, the wild beets, and the weed beets are the same species and intercross freely, the question of pollen flow is an important issue to determine the potential dispersal of transgenes from field to field and to wild habitats. We report here an experiment to describe pollen dispersal from a small herbicide-resistant sugar beet source towards male sterile target plants located along radiating lines up to 1,200 m away. Individual dispersal functions were inferred from statistical analyses and compared. Pollen limitation, as expected in root-production fields, was confirmed at all the distances from the pollen source. The number of resistant seeds produced by bait plants best fitted a fat-tailed probability distribution curve of pollen grains (power-law) dependent on the distance from the pollen source. A literature survey confirmed that power-law function could fit in most cases. The b coefficient was lower than 2. The number of fertilized flowers by background (herbicide-susceptible) pollen grains was uniform across the whole field. Airborne pollen had a fertilization impact equivalent to that of one adjacent bolter. The individual dispersal function from different pollen sources can be integrated to provide the pollen cloud composition for a given target plant, thus allowing modeling of gene flow in a field, inter-fields in a small region, and also in seed-production area. Long-distance pollen flow is not negligible and could play an important role in rapid transgene dispersal from crop to wild and weed beets in the landscape. The removing of any bolting, herbicide-resistant sugar beet should be compulsory to prevent the occurrence of herbicide-resistant weed beet, thus preventing gene flow to wild

  1. Dual function of novel pollen coat (surface proteins: IgE-binding capacity and proteolytic activity disrupting the airway epithelial barrier.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Elfatih H Bashir

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The pollen coat is the first structure of the pollen to encounter the mucosal immune system upon inhalation. Prior characterizations of pollen allergens have focused on water-soluble, cytoplasmic proteins, but have overlooked much of the extracellular pollen coat. Due to washing with organic solvents when prepared, these pollen coat proteins are typically absent from commercial standardized allergenic extracts (i.e., "de-fatted", and, as a result, their involvement in allergy has not been explored. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a unique approach to search for pollen allergenic proteins residing in the pollen coat, we employed transmission electron microscopy (TEM to assess the impact of organic solvents on the structural integrity of the pollen coat. TEM results indicated that de-fatting of Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass pollen (BGP by use of organic solvents altered the structural integrity of the pollen coat. The novel IgE-binding proteins of the BGP coat include a cysteine protease (CP and endoxylanase (EXY. The full-length cDNA that encodes the novel IgE-reactive CP was cloned from floral RNA. The EXY and CP were purified to homogeneity and tested for IgE reactivity. The CP from the BGP coat increased the permeability of human airway epithelial cells, caused a clear concentration-dependent detachment of cells, and damaged their barrier integrity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Using an immunoproteomics approach, novel allergenic proteins of the BGP coat were identified. These proteins represent a class of novel dual-function proteins residing on the coat of the pollen grain that have IgE-binding capacity and proteolytic activity, which disrupts the integrity of the airway epithelial barrier. The identification of pollen coat allergens might explain the IgE-negative response to available skin-prick-testing proteins in patients who have positive symptoms. Further study of the role of these pollen coat proteins in allergic

  2. DESIGN OF GRASS BRIQUETTE MACHINE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    manually or with hydraulic press to produce briquettes for use in stove. However, there is sufficient literature suggesting the use of grass species for animal husbandry. Odia [5] examined the energy potential dried leaves and agricultural residues. As a follow up on the previous research attempts on biomass fuel, this work is ...

  3. Brassica oleracea pollen, a new source of occupational allergens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermanides, H. K.; Laheÿ-de Boer, A. M.; Zuidmeer, L.; Guikers, C.; van Ree, R.; Knulst, A. C.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vegetable pollen is a rare source of occupational allergens. Occupational allergy has only been described in the case of paprika pollen and tomato pollen. We describe a new source of occupational pollen allergy. AIM: To study the incidence and the impact of broccoli and cauliflower

  4. Pollen diversity, viability and floral structure of some Musa genotypes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment was designed to study the floral structure, pollen morphology and the potential pollen viability of five Musa genotypes obtained from the Musa field ... Three different types of pollen were encountered viz, big, moderate and small pollens with corresponding big, moderate and small apertures and pores.

  5. (Cocos nucifera) pollens for removal of Cu (II)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGO

    determine the suitability of coconut pollen treated with reactive dyes as adsorbents for heavy metals such as copper and zinc, and elucidate the mechanisms of heavy metal adsorption onto the dyed coconut pollen. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Coconut pollens. Coconut pollens utilized for this study were collected from ...

  6. In vitro pollen quantity, viability and germination tests in quince

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-11-21

    Nov 21, 2011 ... Quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) cvs. Ekmek, Eşme, Limon, Ege 2, Ege 22, Ege 25 and Quince-A rootstock pollens were collected in April from the unopened pink balloon-stage flowers on mature trees. The pollen amount was between 20063 pollen/flower ('Ege 25') and 11906 pollen/flower ('Limon').

  7. Alnus as a disturbing factor in pollen diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, C.R.

    1959-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that percentages of pollen in a pollen diagram do not express the exact composition of forests in earlier times. This inaccuracy is due to several factors, for instance the different quantities of pollen produced by plants, the distance of transport etc. A pollen diagram

  8. In vitro pollen quantity, viability and germination tests in quince ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) cvs. Ekmek, Esme, Limon, Ege 2, Ege 22, Ege 25 and Quince-A rootstock pollens were collected in April from the unopened pink balloon-stage flowers on mature trees. The pollen amount was between 20063 pollen/flower ('Ege 25') and 11906 pollen/flower ('Limon') with hemacytometer.

  9. Frontal subcutaneous blood flow, and epi- and subcutaneous temperatures during scalp cooling in normal man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, J; Friberg, L; Gaardsting, O

    1985-01-01

    Cooling of the scalp has been found to prevent hair loss following cytostatic treatment, but in order to obtain the hair preserving effect the subcutaneous temperature has to be reduced below 22 degrees C. In order to establish the relationship between epicutaneous and subcutaneous temperatures d...

  10. A combinatorial morphospace for angiosperm pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mander, Luke

    2016-04-01

    The morphology of angiosperm (flowering plant) pollen is extraordinarily diverse. This diversity results from variations in the morphology of discrete anatomical components. These components include the overall shape of a pollen grain, the stratification of the exine, the number and form of any apertures, the type of dispersal unit, and the nature of any surface ornamentation. Different angiosperm pollen morphotypes reflect different combinations of these discrete components. In this talk, I ask the following question: given the anatomical components of angiosperm pollen that are known to exist in the plant kingdom, how many unique biologically plausible combinations of these components are there? I explore this question from the perspective of enumerative combinatorics using an algorithm I have written in the Python programming language. This algorithm (1) calculates the number of combinations of these components; (2) enumerates those combinations; and (3) graphically displays those combinations. The result is a combinatorial morphospace that reflects an underlying notion that the process of morphogenesis in angiosperm pollen can be thought of as an n choose k counting problem. I compare the morphology of extant and fossil angiosperm pollen grains to this morphospace, and suggest that from a combinatorial point of view angiosperm pollen is not as diverse as it could be, which may be a result of developmental constraints.

  11. Specific hyposensitization in patients allergic to Parietaria officinalis pollen allergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvitanović, S; Zekan, L; Capkun, V; Marusić, M

    1994-01-01

    The effects of specific hyposensitization in 40 patients with Parietaria officinalis-sensitive seasonal rhinoconjunctivitis were studied during three years of treatment. The patients were treated with subcutaneous injections of a new, partially purified, characterized and standardized pollen extract of P. officinalis allergen (alum-absorbed depot preparation). Treatment was applied from November to mid March and it was clinically assessed during the plant flowering season (mid March to end of June). Laboratory tests were performed yearly when beginning and ending treatment. Serum concentrations of P. officinalis pollen allergen-specific IgE antibodies decreased (first year: from 18.7 +/- 7.7 to 17.9 +/- 7.6 PRU/ml; second year: from 16.3 +/- 7.1 to 14.1 +/- 6.6 PRU/ml; third year: from 12.3 +/- 5.6 to 10.9 +/- 5.6 PRU/ml) and those of specific IgG increased (first year: from 15.3 +/- 13.2 to 21.7 +/- 14.0%; second year: from 28.5 +/- 13.0 to 36.3 +/- 15.9%; third year: from 29.9 +/- 14.1 to 38.9 +/- 16.8%) during the treatment. Histamine release from peripheral blood leukocytes challenged in vitro with the allergen decreased during the three years of the treatment (first year: from 42.3 +/- 13.0 to 33.1 +/- 10.8%; second year: from 31.9 +/- 11.9 to 19.1 +/- 8.5%; third year: from 19.4 +/- 4.6 to 14.3 +/- 4.6%), whereas the size of skin test reaction and the percentage of eosinophils among white blood cells remained unchanged.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Airborne pollen content of Kuşadası

    OpenAIRE

    TOSUNOĞLU, Aycan; YENİGÜN, Ayşe; BIÇAKÇI, Adem; ELİAÇIK, Kayı

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric pollen grains of Kuşadası were captured using Durham samplers and investigated in 2005. The total number of pollen grains and the pollen grains/cm2 were calculated from slides that were changed weekly. During the study period a total of 12,980 pollen grains/cm2 belonging to 44 identified taxa and unidentified pollen grains were recorded at 2 stations. At the first station (S1), 7346 pollen grains were counted per cm2, while only 5634 pollen grains were counted at the second statio...

  13. The comparison of pollen abundance in air and honey samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrida Šaulienė

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Honey as a food has long been used in human nutrition and is still popular. Honey is important because of its therapeutic, prophylactic and strengthening value. Pollen is one of the most decisive components that ensure the quality and type of honey. Modern society becomes more and more sensitive to airborne pollen. Therefore, it is crucial to determine the composition of allergenic plant pollen in natural honey. For this purpose, we studied and compared pollen abundance in honey and air samples collected in Lithuania. Standard methods for pollen investigation in air and honey were used in this study. The botanical diversity of pollen identified in honey and air samples indicates 10 morphotypes: 8 of woody plants and 2 of herbaceous plants, in both the honey and air samples. Salix pollen counts in the honey were found to be highest among airborne pollen from May to September. The anemophilous allergenic pollen constituted 44 % of the total pollen detected in the honey.

  14. Variation in Pollen-Donor Composition among Pollinators in an Entomophilous Tree Species, Castanea crenata, Revealed by Single-Pollen Genotyping

    OpenAIRE

    Yoichi Hasegawa; Yoshihisa Suyama; Kenji Seiwa

    2015-01-01

    Background In plants, reproductive success is largely determined by the composition of pollen (i.e., self-pollen and outcross-pollen from near and distant pollen-donors) transported as a result of pollinator foraging behavior (e.g., pollen carryover). However, little evidence is available on how and to what extent the pollen carryover affects the pollen-donor composition and on which insect taxa are effective outcross-pollen transporters under field conditions. In this study, we explored role...

  15. Bee Pollen: Chemical Composition and Therapeutic Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Komosinska-Vassev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bee pollen is a valuable apitherapeutic product greatly appreciated by the natural medicine because of its potential medical and nutritional applications. It demonstrates a series of actions such as antifungal, antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, anticancer immunostimulating, and local analgesic. Its radical scavenging potential has also been reported. Beneficial properties of bee pollen and the validity for their therapeutic use in various pathological condition have been discussed in this study and with the currently known mechanisms, by which bee pollen modulates burn wound healing process.

  16. Subcutaneous epinephrine vs nebulized salbutamol in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, A; Madan, A

    2001-12-01

    This study was conducted to compare the efficacy of the subcutaneous epinephrine with nebulized salbutamol. Fifty asthmatic children in the age range of 6-14 years were divided into two equal groups. Group I children were given subcutaneous epinephrine and Group II were nebulized with salbutamol. Patients were observed at 15, 20, 30, 60, 120, 180 and 240 minute intervals. Both the groups had comparable mean increase in peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR %) (Group I 27.7 +/- 0.7; Group II 28.8 +/- 0.06, p >0.05). In Group I there was significant increase in systolic blood pressure, 30 minutes after the start of treatment, however it settled on its own by 60 minutes. Both the groups had satisfactory improvement in clinical parameters which continued upto 4 hours after start of treatment. Subcutaneous epinephrine can be safely used if nebulizers are not available.

  17. Hypertrophic Obesity and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over the past 50 years, scientists have recognized that not all adipose tissue is alike, and that health risk is associated with the location as well as the amount of body fat. Different depots are sufficiently distinct with respect to fatty-acid storage and release as to probably play unique roles in human physiology. Whether fat redistribution causes metabolic disease or whether it is a marker of underlying processes that are primarily responsible is an open question. CONTENT: The limited expandability of the subcutaneous adipose tissue leads to inappropriate adipose cell expansion (hypertrophic obesity with local inflammation and a dysregulated and insulin-resistant adipose tissue. The inability to store excess fat in the subcutaneous adipose tissue is a likely key mechanism for promoting ectopic fat accumulation in tissues and areas where fat can be stored, including the intra-abdominal and visceral areas, in the liver, epi/pericardial area, around vessels, in the myocardium, and in the skeletal muscles. Many studies have implicated ectopic fat accumulation and the associated lipotoxicity as the major determinant of the metabolic complications of obesity driving systemic insulin resistance, inflammation, hepatic glucose production, and dyslipidemia. SUMMARY: In summary, hypertrophic obesity is due to an impaired ability to recruit and differentiate available adipose precursor cells in the subcutaneous adipose tissue. Thus, the subcutaneous adipose tissue may be particular in its limited ability in certain individuals to undergo adipogenesis during weight increase. Inability to promote subcutaneous adipogenesis under periods of affluence would favor lipid overlow and ectopic fat accumulation with negative metabolic consequences. KEYWORDS: obesity, adipogenesis, subcutaneous adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue, adipocyte dysfunction.

  18. [Ambrosia pollen under high surveillance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibaudon, M; Lachasse, C

    2004-11-01

    The pollinic season of ambrosia in 2003 present strong disturbances due to the meteorology of the end of this summer. The areas with the allergenic risk are concentrated on the area of Rhône-Alpes (more than 40 days with a risk equal to or higher than 3) and on the peripheral areas: the area Centre Auvergne with Saint Etienne, Clermont-Ferrand and Montlucon with approximately 10 days with a the allergenic risk equal to or higher than 3; the Saône-Savoie area with the towns of Macon and Grenoble with about twenty days with a allergenic risk equal to or higher than 3 and Dijon, Châlon-sur-Saône with 6 days with a allergic risk equal to or higher than 3; the Mediterranean area with the towns of Avignon and Aix-in-Provence presenting ten days with allergenic risk equal to or higher than 3, Marseille and Toulon with 7 days with a allergenic risk equal to or higher than 3. The allergic risk related to the ambrosia in 2003 had peaks overall less high, but the season is spread out and had during until September 20. The daily peaks for the Rhône-Dauphiné-Drôme area were noted between 6 h and 8 h or 8 h and 10 h, for 2003. On the peripheral areas, we remark a diversity of the daily peaks (Châlon-sur-Saône between 18 h and 20 h). Are these pollens local grains or immigrants grains? On Lyon I (Gerland), the follow-up of the data of the ambrosia since 1987 permit to remark a stagnation of the number of days with an allergic risk, despite a reduction of the number of pollens.

  19. Ozone affects pollen viability and NAD(P)H oxidase release from Ambrosia artemisiifolia pollen

    OpenAIRE

    Pasqualini, Stefania; Tedeschini, Emma; Frenguelli, Giuseppe; Wopfner, Nicole; Ferreira, Fatima; D’Amato, Gennaro; Ederli, Luisa

    2011-01-01

    Air pollution is frequently proposed as a cause of the increased incidence of allergy in industrialised countries. We investigated the impact of ozone (O3) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) and allergen content of ragweed pollen (Ambrosia artemisiifolia). Pollen was exposed to acute O3 fumigation, with analysis of pollen viability, ROS and nitric oxide (NO) content, activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAD[P]H) oxidase, and expression of major allergens. There was decreased...

  20. Combined subcutaneous, intrathoracic and abdominal splenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadrashid, Reza; Paak, Neda; Salehi, Ahad

    2010-09-01

    We report a case of combined subcutaneous, intrathoracic, and abdominal splenosis who presented with attacks of flushing, tachycardia and vague abdominal pain. The patient's past medical history included a splenectomy due to abdominal trauma and years later, a lung lobectomy due to recurrent pneumonia. An enhancing solid mass adjacent to the upper pole of the left kidney and nodular pleural based lesions in the left hemi-thorax along with nodular lesions in subcutaneous tissue of the left chest wall suggested possible adrenal malignancy with multiple metastases. Histopathologic examination demonstrated benign lesions of ectopic splenic tissue.

  1. Pollen productivity and morphology of pollen grains in two cultivars of honeyberry (Lonicera kamtschatica (Sevast.) Pojark.)

    OpenAIRE

    Małgorzata Bożek

    2012-01-01

    In the years 2004-2006, investigations on the abundance of pollen production in two cultivars of Lonicera kamtschatica (Sevast.) Pojark. - Atut and Duet, were conducted at the Felin Experimental Farm of the Agricultural University in Lublin. Moreover, the viability of pollen grains was estimated and measurements of their size were taken. Ten flowers of both studied cultivars supplied 11.42 mg of pollen and the average pollen productivity per 1 ha of a several-years-old plantation was 30.04 kg...

  2. Identification of teosinte, maize, and Tripsacum in Mesoamerica by using pollen, starch grains, and phytoliths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, Irene; Moreno, J Enrique; Piperno, Dolores R

    2007-11-06

    We examined pollen grains and starch granules from a large number of modern populations of teosinte (wild Zea spp.), maize (Zea mays L.), and closely related grasses in the genus Tripsacum to assess their strengths and weaknesses in studying the origins and early dispersals of maize in its Mesoamerican cradle of origin. We report new diagnostic criteria and question the accuracy of others used previously by investigators to identify ancient maize where its wild ancestor, teosinte, is native. Pollen grains from teosinte overlap in size with those of maize to a much greater degree than previously reported, making the differentiation of wild and domesticated maize in palynological studies difficult. There is presently no valid method for separating maize and teosinte pollen on a morphological basis. Starch grain analysis, a recently developed tool of archaeobotany, appears to be of significant utility in distinguishing the seeds of teosinte from maize. We propose that the differences in starch grain morphology and size between wild and domesticated maize defined in this study may be associated with domestication genes in Zea that have been documented in the starch biosynthesis pathway. As previously reported, phytoliths effectively discriminate the female reproductive structures of Tripsacum, teosinte, and maize. Multiproxy microfossil studies of archaeological and paleoecological contexts appear to be effective tools for investigating the earliest stages of maize domestication and dispersals.

  3. Pollen-projektiga Rootsis / Lembit Jakobson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jakobson, Lembit

    2009-01-01

    Avastusõppe projektist "Pollen" Eesti (2006-2009) mille eesmärk on kõiki lapsi kaasav uurimisõpe. Kevadisel koolivaheajal tutvus kümmekond Eesti õpetajat uurimisõppega Stockholmi kahes algkoolis

  4. Evolutionarily conserved phenylpropanoid pattern on angiosperm pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellenberg, Christin; Vogt, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    The male gametophyte of higher plants appears as a solid box containing the essentials to transmit genetic material to the next generation. These consist of haploid generative cells that are required for reproduction, and an invasive vegetative cell producing the pollen tube, both mechanically protected by a rigid polymer, the pollen wall, and surrounded by a hydrophobic pollen coat. This coat mediates the direct contact to the biotic and abiotic environments. It contains a mixture of compounds required not only for fertilization but also for protection against biotic and abiotic stressors. Among its metabolites, the structural characteristics of two types of phenylpropanoids, hydroxycinnamic acid amides and flavonol glycosides, are highly conserved in Angiosperm pollen. Structural and functional aspects of these compounds will be discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Intraspecific variation in pollen viability, germination and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oleaceae) cultivars 'Koroneiki', 'Mastoidis' and 'Kalamata' was studied with scanning electron microscopy to identify genotype- distinguishing characters that could be employed for morphological cultivar discrimination. Pollen viability and germination ...

  6. Bee Pollen: Chemical Composition and Therapeutic Application

    OpenAIRE

    Katarzyna Komosinska-Vassev; Pawel Olczyk; Justyna Kaźmierczak; Lukasz Mencner; Krystyna Olczyk

    2015-01-01

    Bee pollen is a valuable apitherapeutic product greatly appreciated by the natural medicine because of its potential medical and nutritional applications. It demonstrates a series of actions such as antifungal, antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, anticancer immunostimulating, and local analgesic. Its radical scavenging potential has also been reported. Beneficial properties of bee pollen and the validity for their therapeutic use in various pathological condition ha...

  7. Transmissible Venereal Tumor with Subcutaneous and Bone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A five year old entire mixed breed dog was admitted to the University of Nairobi's small animal clinic with a 5-months history of subcutaneous masses. Physical examination revealed firm and mobile masses in the subcuticular tissues, on the mandible and the transverse processes of the lumbar vertebrae. Visual inspection ...

  8. Radiological case: subcutaneous and mediastinal enfisema

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento, J.; Gomes, M.; Moreira, C.; Macedo, F.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT We present the case of a 5 year old asmathic girl admitted to the hospital for acute non traumatic edema and crepitus of the face, neck and upper thorax. Thoracic x-ray (not shown) and thoracic and neck CT were performed, showing extensive subcutaneous and mediastinal enfisema. These are rare complications of asthma. The imaging features are described.

  9. Case Report Pneumomediastinum and Subcutaneous Emphysema ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    wheezing and neck pain. He was diagnosed asthmatic at the age of eleven and had been admitted on a few occasions for acute exacerbations in the prior ten years. He had salbutamol tablets regularly. At this index presentation, he was noted to have subcutaneous swelling and crepitus over the neck and upper anterior ...

  10. Thoracic duct lymphography by subcutaneous contrast agent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 4-year-old male Japanese Shiba Inu presented with recurrent chylothorax. The thoracic duct was successfully imaged using computed tomography after the injection of an iodine contrast agent into the subcutaneous tissue surrounding the anus. The thoracic duct was successfully ligated and pericardectomy performed via ...

  11. Anthropometrical Profile, Skinfold Tickness and Subcutaneous Fat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The threatening health problems resulting from excess subcutaneous fat depositions have been reported by the world Health Organization. Also noteworthy is that childhood obesity is a pointer to adult obesity. This necessitated a study on the anthropometrical profiles of adolescents of Southeast Nigeria using ...

  12. Case Report: Pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous cervical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The occurrence of pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous cervical emphysema as complications of childhood pneumonia is very unusual. They results most often from respiratory manoeuvres that produce high intrathoracic pressure. Although they are largely benign, pneumomediastinum can cause compression of major ...

  13. Ragweed (Ambrosia) pollen source inventory for Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karrer, G; Skjøth, C A; Šikoparija, B; Smith, M; Berger, U; Essl, F

    2015-08-01

    This study improves the spatial coverage of top-down Ambrosia pollen source inventories for Europe by expanding the methodology to Austria, a country that is challenging in terms of topography and the distribution of ragweed plants. The inventory combines annual ragweed pollen counts from 19 pollen-monitoring stations in Austria (2004-2013), 657 geographical observations of Ambrosia plants, a Digital Elevation Model (DEM), local knowledge of ragweed ecology and CORINE land cover information from the source area. The highest mean annual ragweed pollen concentrations were generally recorded in the East of Austria where the highest densities of possible growth habitats for Ambrosia were situated. Approximately 99% of all observations of Ambrosia populations were below 745m. The European infection level varies from 0.1% at Freistadt in Northern Austria to 12.8% at Rosalia in Eastern Austria. More top-down Ambrosia pollen source inventories are required for other parts of Europe. A method for constructing top-down pollen source inventories for invasive ragweed plants in Austria, a country that is challenging in terms of topography and ragweed distribution. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Pollen as atmospheric cloud condensation nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Allison L.; Brooks, Sarah D.; Deng, Chunhua; Thornton, Daniel C. O.; Pendleton, Michael W.; Bryant, Vaughn

    2015-05-01

    Anemophilous (wind-dispersed) pollen grains are emitted in large quantities by vegetation in the midlatitudes for reproduction. Pollen grains are coarse particles (5-150 µm) that can rupture when wet to form submicron subpollen particles (SPP) that may have a climatic role. Laboratory CCN experiments of six fresh pollen samples show that SPP activate as CCN at a range of sizes, requiring supersaturations from 0.81 (± 0.07)% for 50 nm particles, 0.26 (± 0.03)% for 100 nm particles, and 0.12 (± 0.00)% for 200 nm particles. Compositional analyses indicate that SPP contain carbohydrates and proteins. The SPP contribution to global CCN is uncertain but could be important depending on pollen concentrations outside the surface layer and the number of SPP generated from a single pollen grain. The production of hygroscopic SPP from pollen represents a novel, biologically driven cloud formation pathway that may influence cloud optical properties and lifetimes, thereby influencing climate.

  15. Plant Sterol Diversity in Pollen from Angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villette, Claire; Berna, Anne; Compagnon, Vincent; Schaller, Hubert

    2015-08-01

    Here we have examined the composition of free sterols and steryl esters of pollen from selected angiosperm species, as a first step towards a comprehensive analysis of sterol biogenesis in the male gametophyte. We detected four major sterol structural groups: cycloartenol derivatives bearing a 9β,19-cyclopropyl group, sterols with a double bond at C-7(8), sterols with a double bond at C-5(6), and stanols. All these groups were unequally distributed among species. However, the distribution of sterols as free sterols or as steryl esters in pollen grains indicated that free sterols were mostly Δ(5)-sterols and that steryl esters were predominantly 9β,19-cyclopropyl sterols. In order to link the sterol composition of a pollen grain at anthesis with the requirement for membrane lipid constituents of the pollen tube, we germinated pollen grains from Nicotiana tabacum, a model plant in reproductive biology. In the presence of radiolabelled mevalonic acid and in a time course series of measurements, we showed that cycloeucalenol was identified as the major neosynthesized sterol. Furthermore, the inhibition of cycloeucalenol neosynthesis by squalestatin was in full agreement with a de novo biogenesis and an apparent truncated pathway in the pollen tube.

  16. Influence of Pollen Nutrition on Honey Bee Health: Do Pollen Quality and Diversity Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pasquale, Garance; Salignon, Marion; Le Conte, Yves; Belzunces, Luc P.; Decourtye, Axel; Kretzschmar, André; Suchail, Séverine; Brunet, Jean-Luc; Alaux, Cédric

    2013-01-01

    Honey bee colonies are highly dependent upon the availability of floral resources from which they get the nutrients (notably pollen) necessary to their development and survival. However, foraging areas are currently affected by the intensification of agriculture and landscape alteration. Bees are therefore confronted to disparities in time and space of floral resource abundance, type and diversity, which might provide inadequate nutrition and endanger colonies. The beneficial influence of pollen availability on bee health is well-established but whether quality and diversity of pollen diets can modify bee health remains largely unknown. We therefore tested the influence of pollen diet quality (different monofloral pollens) and diversity (polyfloral pollen diet) on the physiology of young nurse bees, which have a distinct nutritional physiology (e.g. hypopharyngeal gland development and vitellogenin level), and on the tolerance to the microsporidian parasite Nosemaceranae by measuring bee survival and the activity of different enzymes potentially involved in bee health and defense response (glutathione-S-transferase (detoxification), phenoloxidase (immunity) and alkaline phosphatase (metabolism)). We found that both nurse bee physiology and the tolerance to the parasite were affected by pollen quality. Pollen diet diversity had no effect on the nurse bee physiology and the survival of healthy bees. However, when parasitized, bees fed with the polyfloral blend lived longer than bees fed with monofloral pollens, excepted for the protein-richest monofloral pollen. Furthermore, the survival was positively correlated to alkaline phosphatase activity in healthy bees and to phenoloxydase activities in infected bees. Our results support the idea that both the quality and diversity (in a specific context) of pollen can shape bee physiology and might help to better understand the influence of agriculture and land-use intensification on bee nutrition and health. PMID:23940803

  17. Influence of pollen nutrition on honey bee health: do pollen quality and diversity matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garance Di Pasquale

    Full Text Available Honey bee colonies are highly dependent upon the availability of floral resources from which they get the nutrients (notably pollen necessary to their development and survival. However, foraging areas are currently affected by the intensification of agriculture and landscape alteration. Bees are therefore confronted to disparities in time and space of floral resource abundance, type and diversity, which might provide inadequate nutrition and endanger colonies. The beneficial influence of pollen availability on bee health is well-established but whether quality and diversity of pollen diets can modify bee health remains largely unknown. We therefore tested the influence of pollen diet quality (different monofloral pollens and diversity (polyfloral pollen diet on the physiology of young nurse bees, which have a distinct nutritional physiology (e.g. hypopharyngeal gland development and vitellogenin level, and on the tolerance to the microsporidian parasite Nosemaceranae by measuring bee survival and the activity of different enzymes potentially involved in bee health and defense response (glutathione-S-transferase (detoxification, phenoloxidase (immunity and alkaline phosphatase (metabolism. We found that both nurse bee physiology and the tolerance to the parasite were affected by pollen quality. Pollen diet diversity had no effect on the nurse bee physiology and the survival of healthy bees. However, when parasitized, bees fed with the polyfloral blend lived longer than bees fed with monofloral pollens, excepted for the protein-richest monofloral pollen. Furthermore, the survival was positively correlated to alkaline phosphatase activity in healthy bees and to phenoloxydase activities in infected bees. Our results support the idea that both the quality and diversity (in a specific context of pollen can shape bee physiology and might help to better understand the influence of agriculture and land-use intensification on bee nutrition and health.

  18. Grass pollen immunotherapy induces mucosal and peripheral IL-10 responses and blocking IgG activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nouri-Aria, Kayhan T.; Wachholz, Petra A.; Francis, James N.; Jacobson, Mikila R.; Walker, Samantha M.; Wilcock, Louisa K.; Staple, Steven Q.; Aalberse, Robert C.; Till, Stephen J.; Durham, Stephen R.

    2004-01-01

    T regulatory cells and IL-10 have been implicated in the mechanism of immunotherapy in patients with systemic anaphylaxis following bee stings. We studied the role of IL-10 in the induction of clinical, cellular, and humoral tolerance during immunotherapy for local mucosal allergy in subjects with

  19. Basophil Sensitivity Decreases During the Updosing of SCIT in Subjects Allergic to Grass Pollen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmid, Johannes Martin; Dahl, Ronald; Hoffmann, Hans Jürgen

    ).This corresponds to an approximately 14-fold reduction in basophil sensitivity. No significant changes were observed in the baseline, washed cells or control group. CONCLUSIONS: We show that the main mechanism leading to a reduction of basophil sensitivity is humoral. PII: S0091-6749(10)02749-1 doi:10.1016...

  20. Flowering and the Pollen Fertility in Iranian Garlic Clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Abbasifar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Garlic (Allium sativum L. cannot produce seed because it is a sterile plant. For studying bolting and determination of pollen fertility, 68 Iranian garlic clones were gathered from different parts of Iran and evaluated in Research Field of Horticultural Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University in 2010-2011 and 2011-2012. For determining the pollen fertility, some tests including specific RAPD marker, pollen germination, pollen viability detection using acetocarmine and in vitro culture of ovules and fruits were used. Results showed that 37 of Iranian garlic clones could produce scape and inflorescence. The percentage range of pollen stained with acetocarmine was from 0.5 up to 20 percent showing infertility of pollens. Lack of two markers (OPJ121300 and OPJ121700 and pollen tube growth proved the infertility of garlic clones pollen. Fruits and embryo sac were alive for more than two months, showing their potential for producing seeds following pollination with fertile pollens.

  1. A first test of elemental allelopathy via heterospecific pollen receipt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wipf, Heidi M-L; Meindl, George A; Ashman, Tia-Lynn

    2016-03-01

    Coflowering plants often share pollinators and may receive mixed species pollen loads. Although detrimental effects of heterospecific pollen receipt have been documented, trait-based modifiers of interactions on the stigma remain largely unknown. Chemicals that mediate interactions between sporophytes could also influence pollen-pollen or pollen-style interactions. We test for the first time whether nickel (Ni) accumulation in pollen can lead to "elemental allelopathy" and intensify the fitness consequences of heterospecific pollen receipt. We grew Ni-hyperaccumulator Streptanthus polygaloides in soils augmented with three concentrations of Ni, measured pollen Ni concentration, and hand-pollinated non-Ni hyperaccumulator Mimulus guttatus. We assayed pollen germination, tube growth and seeds of M. guttatus after pure and mixed species pollinations. Streptanthus polygaloides pollen accumulated Ni in proportion to soil availability and at levels significantly greater than M. guttatus pollen. Although receipt of S. polygaloides pollen increased M. guttatus pollen germination, it decreased the proportion of pollen tubes reaching the ovary and seed number. Increased Ni in pollen, however, did not significantly intensify the effect of S. polygaloides pollen receipt on M. guttatus seed production. Different levels of Ni in the pollen of S. polygaloides achieved in the greenhouse did not significantly reduce the fitness of M. guttatus. Stigma tolerance to Ni may also have contributed to the lack of response to increased Ni in heterospecific pollen. This study paves the way for additional tests in other metal hyperaccumulators and recipients, and to identify mechanisms of interactions on the stigma. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  2. Allergy to Diplotaxis erucoides pollen: occupational sensitization and cross-reactivity with other common pollens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ortega, P; Bartolomé, B; Enrique, E; Gaig, P; Richart, C

    2001-07-01

    Diplotaxis erucoides is a common weed of the Brassicaceae family widespread in southern and central Europe. A total of 410 consecutive patients referred for allergy study of rhinoconjunctivitis and/or asthma were skin tested with D. erucoides pollen, 14 proving positive. A purified D. erucoides pollen extract was prepared to perform quantitative skin tests, provocation tests, immunoblotting, and EIA inhibition in the 14 sensitized patients. Three patients, directly involved in viniculture, had rhinoconjunctivitis related to D. erucoides pollen. No D. erucoides-related symptoms were observed in most patients, who were also sensitized to Artemisia pollen. RAST was positive in 12/14 patients and nasal provocation tests in 9/12. The molecular masses of the most prevalent IgE-binding proteins ranged from 26 to 27.5 and from 31 to 34 kDa. D. erucoides pollen inhibited the IgE-binding of other sensitizing pollens in the three viniculture workers, whereas both Artemisia and D. erucoides pollen produced similar heterologous inhibition in the pooled serum of the remaining, nonclinically affected, D. erucoides-sensitized patients. D. erucoides pollen may be an important prevalent aeroallergen, particularly in rural areas. It may act as an occupational allergen in vineyard workers, in whom it seems to be the primary sensitizing agent, playing a secondary cross-reactive role in other sensitized patients.

  3. Estimates of common ragweed pollen emission and dispersion over Europe using RegCM-pollen model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L.; Solmon, F.; Vautard, R.; Hamaoui-Laguel, L.; Torma, Cs. Zs.; Giorgi, F.

    2015-11-01

    Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) is a highly allergenic and invasive plant in Europe. Its pollen can be transported over large distances and has been recognized as a significant cause of hayfever and asthma (D'Amato et al., 2007; Burbach et al., 2009). To simulate production and dispersion of common ragweed pollen, we implement a pollen emission and transport module in the Regional Climate Model (RegCM) version 4 using the framework of the Community Land Model (CLM) version 4.5. In the online model environment where climate is integrated with dispersion and vegetation production, pollen emissions are calculated based on the modelling of plant distribution, pollen production, species-specific phenology, flowering probability, and flux response to meteorological conditions. A pollen tracer model is used to describe pollen advective transport, turbulent mixing, dry and wet deposition. The model is then applied and evaluated on a European domain for the period 2000-2010. To reduce the large uncertainties notably due to ragweed density distribution on pollen emission, a calibration based on airborne pollen observations is used. Resulting simulations show that the model captures the gross features of the pollen concentrations found in Europe, and reproduce reasonably both the spatial and temporal patterns of flowering season and associated pollen concentrations measured over Europe. The model can explain 68.6, 39.2, and 34.3 % of the observed variance in starting, central, and ending dates of the pollen season with associated root mean square error (RMSE) equal to 4.7, 3.9, and 7.0 days, respectively. The correlation between simulated and observed daily concentrations time series reaches 0.69. Statistical scores show that the model performs better over the central Europe source region where pollen loads are larger. From these simulations health risks associated common ragweed pollen spread are then evaluated through calculation of exposure time above health

  4. Ozone affects pollen viability and NAD(P)H oxidase release from Ambrosia artemisiifolia pollen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasqualini, Stefania, E-mail: spas@unipg.it [Department of Applied Biology, University of Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Tedeschini, Emma; Frenguelli, Giuseppe [Department of Applied Biology, University of Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Wopfner, Nicole; Ferreira, Fatima [Department of Molecular Biology, CD Laboratory for Allergy Diagnosis and Therapy, University of Salzburg, Salzburg (Austria); D' Amato, Gennaro [Division of Respiratory and Allergic Diseases, ' A. Cardarelli' High Speciality Hospital, Naples (Italy); Ederli, Luisa [Department of Applied Biology, University of Perugia, Perugia (Italy)

    2011-10-15

    Air pollution is frequently proposed as a cause of the increased incidence of allergy in industrialised countries. We investigated the impact of ozone (O{sub 3}) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) and allergen content of ragweed pollen (Ambrosia artemisiifolia). Pollen was exposed to acute O{sub 3} fumigation, with analysis of pollen viability, ROS and nitric oxide (NO) content, activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAD[P]H) oxidase, and expression of major allergens. There was decreased pollen viability after O{sub 3} fumigation, which indicates damage to the pollen membrane system, although the ROS and NO contents were not changed or were only slightly induced, respectively. Ozone exposure induced a significant enhancement of the ROS-generating enzyme NAD(P)H oxidase. The expression of the allergen Amb a 1 was not affected by O{sub 3}, determined from the mRNA levels of the major allergens. We conclude that O{sub 3} can increase ragweed pollen allergenicity through stimulation of ROS-generating NAD(P)H oxidase. - Highlights: > O{sub 3} reduces the viability of ragweed pollen. > ROS and allergens of ragweed pollen were not affected by O{sub 3} exposure. > O{sub 3} enhances the activity of the ROS-generating enzyme NAD(P)H oxidase. > O{sub 3} increases ragweed pollen allergenicity through NAD(P)H-oxidase stimulation. - This study focuses on the effects of the atmospheric pollutant ozone on ROS content and NAD(P)H oxidase activity of ragweed pollen grains.

  5. Subcutaneous implantable defibrillator: State-of-the art 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Akerström, Finn; Arias, Miguel A; Pachón, Marta; Puchol, Alberto; Jiménez-López, Jesús

    2013-01-01

    The subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (S-ICD) has recently been approved for commercial use in Europe, New Zealand and the United States. It is comprised of a pulse generator, placed subcutaneously in a left lateral position, and a parasternal subcutaneous lead-electrode with two sensing electrodes separated by a shocking coil. Being an entirely subcutaneous system it avoids important periprocedural and long-term complications associated with transvenous implantable cardiove...

  6. A meta-analysis of sublingual allergen immunotherapy and pharmacotherapy in pollen-induced seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devillier, Philippe; Dreyfus, Jean-François; Demoly, Pascal; Calderón, Moisés A

    2014-05-01

    The capacity of sublingual allergen immunotherapy (SLIT) to provide effective symptom relief in pollen-induced seasonal allergic rhinitis is often questioned, despite evidence of clinical efficacy from meta-analyses and well-powered, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials. In the absence of direct, head-to-head, comparative trials of SLIT and symptomatic medication, only indirect comparisons are possible. We performed a meta-analysis of classes of products (second-generation H1-antihistamines, nasal corticosteroids and grass pollen SLIT tablet formulations) and single products (the azelastine-fluticasone combination MP29-02, and the leukotriene receptor antagonist montelukast) for the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis in adults, adolescents and/or children. We searched the literature for large (n >100 in the smallest treatment arm) double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials. For each drug or drug class, we performed a meta-analysis of the effect on symptom scores. For each selected trial, we calculated the relative clinical impact (according to a previously published method) on the basis of the reported post-treatment or season-long nasal or total symptom scores: 100 × (scorePlacebo - scoreActive)/scorePlacebo. Twenty-eight publications on symptomatic medication trials and ten on SLIT trials met our selection criteria (total number of patients: n = 21,223). The Hedges' g values from the meta-analyses confirmed the presence of a treatment effect for all drug classes. In an indirect comparison, the weighted mean (range) relative clinical impacts were -29.6% (-23% to -37%) for five-grass pollen SLIT tablets, -19.2% (-6% to -29%) for timothy pollen SLIT tablets, -23.5% (-7% to -54%) for nasal corticosteroids, -17.1% (-15% to -20%) for MP29-02, -15.0% (-3% to -26%) for H1-antihistamines and -6.5% (-3% to -10%) for montelukast. In an indirect comparison, grass pollen SLIT tablets had a greater mean relative clinical impact

  7. Fluctuation of birch (Betula L. pollen seasons in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Puc

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Birch pollen grains are one of the most important groups of atmospheric biological particles that induce allergic processes. The fluctuation pattern of birch pollen seasons in selected cities of Poland is presented. Measurements were performed by the volumetric method (Burkard and Lanzoni 2000 pollen samplers. The distributions of the data were not normal (Shapiro–Wilk test and statistical error risk was estimated at a significance level of α = 0.05. Pollen season was defined as the period in which 95% of the annual total catch occurred. The linear trend for the selected features of the pollen season, skewness, kurtosis and coefficient of variation (V% were also analyzed. During the 12–14 years of study, the beginnings of birch pollen seasons were observed 7–14 days earlier, the ends were noted 5–10 days earlier, and the days with maximum values occurred 7–14 days earlier compared to the long-term data. The left-skewed distribution of the pollen season starts in most sampling sites confirms the short-lasting occurrence of pollen in the air. The threat of birch pollen allergens was high during the pollen seasons. If vegetation is highly diverse, flowering and pollen release are extended in time, spread over different weeks and occur at different times of the day. Flowering time and pollen release are affected by insolation, convection currents, wind, and turbulence. Therefore, pollen seasons are characterized by great inter-annual variability.

  8. L-band radar scattering from grass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, N.; O'Neill, P.; Le Vine, D.; Lang, R.; Khadr, N.

    1992-01-01

    A radar system based on a network analyzer has been developed to study the backscatter from vegetation. The radar is operated at L-band. Radar measurements of a grass field were made in 1991. The radar returns from the grass were measured at three incidence angles. Ground truth and canopy parameters such as blade and stem dimensions, moisture content of the grass and the soil, and blade and stem density, were measured. These parameters are used in a distorted Born approximation model to compute the backscatter coefficients from the grass layer. The model results are compared with the radar data.

  9. Subcutaneous filariasis: An unusual case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valand Arvindbhai

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Wuchereria bancrofti presented in subcutaneous nodule is a very rare presentation. Wuchereria bancrofti first reported by Bancrofti in Brisbane in 1876 and the name filaria Bancrofti was given in 1877 and the generic name was given in 1878. A 15-year-old male patient′s known case of pulmonary Koch′s with incidentally detected subcutaneous nodule on right arm pit, cytology from the nodule shows many sheathed microfilaria along with segment of an adult female worm. Wet mount peripheral blood smear shows nocturnal motile microfilaria. The Wuchereria bancrofti is known to be associated with pulmonary Koch′s. Nocturnal motility and cytomorphological features differentiate Wuchereria bancrofti from Wuchereria loa loa . After giving diethyl carbamazine (DEC 6 mg/kg for 21 days without disturbing anti Koch′s treatment schedule and microfilaria disappeared from peripheral blood.

  10. Checklist of Serengeti Ecosystem Grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Emma Victoria; Elia Ntandu, John; Ficinski, Paweł; Vorontsova, Maria

    2016-01-01

    We present the first taxonomic checklist of the Poaceae species of the Serengeti, Tanzania. A review of the literature and herbarium specimens recorded 200 species of grasses, in line with similar studies in other parts of East Africa. The checklist is supported by a total of 939 herbarium collections. Full georeferenced collection data is made available alongside a summary checklist in pdf format. More than a quarter of the species are known from a single collection highlighting the need for further research, especially concerning the rare species and their distribution.

  11. Grass-on-grass competition along a catenal gradient in mesic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interactions between mature grass plants and grass seedlings have been found to be both facilitative and competitive. To examine the effects of aboveground and belowground competition on seedling biomass and the effects of soil depth on competitive interactions, seedlings of three locally common grass species ...

  12. Primary Sonographic Diagnosis of Subcutaneous Cysticercosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M E Shivu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a 40-year-old woman with a small diffuse swelling on the left side of her face. She was diagnosed with intramuscular cysticercosis in the masseter muscle (case of disseminated cysticercosis involving the muscular system and subcutaneous tissues with surrounding phlegmon on high-resolution ultrasound and managed conservatively. To our knowledge, the imaging findings of disseminated muscular cysUcercosis have been reported before only a few numbers of times. In this case, the correct diagnosis was made on the basis of high-resolution sonography of the subcutaneous tissue and muscles. It showed multiple oval to circular, predominantly anechoic lesions, which were around 1 cm in diameter. Most of these cystic lesions showed a hyperechoic focus within suggestive of a scolex. There was no increased vascularity surrounding the lesions. Thus, sonography can primarily make the correct diagnosis of disseminated muscular cysticercosis if such lesions are seen. In endemic areas, cysticercosis should be considered one of the differential diagnosis of the subcutaneous swellings.

  13. Occupational Allergy to Peach (Prunus persica) Tree Pollen and Potential Cross-Reactivity between Rosaceae Family Pollens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nannan; Yin, Jia; Mak, Philip; Wen, Liping

    2015-10-01

    Orchard workers in north China are highly exposed to orchard pollens, especially peach and other Rosaceae family pollens during pollination season. The aim of this study was to investigate whether occupational allergy to peach tree pollen as a member of Rosaceae family is IgE-mediated and to evaluate the cross-reactivity among Rosaceae family pollens. Allergen skin test and conjunctival challenge test were performed; enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA), inhibiting ELISA, western immunoblotting and inhibiting western immunoblotting were done with Rosaceae family orchard pollens, including peach, apricot, cherry, apple and pear tree pollens. Mass spectrometry was also performed to probe the main allergen component and cross-reactive protein. Sensitizations to peach pollen were found in both skin test and conjunctival challenge in the patients. Serum specific IgE to three pollens (peach, apricot and cherry) were detected through ELISA. When peach pollen used as solid phase, ELISA inhibition revealed other four kinds of pollens capable of inducing partial to strong inhibitions (45% to 87%), with the strongest inhibition belonging to apricot pollen (87%). Western blotting showed predominant IgE binding to a 20 KD protein among these pollens, which appeared to be a cross-reactive allergen component through western blotting inhibition. It was recognized as a protein homologous to glutathione s-transferase 16 from Arabidopsis thaliana. Peach and other Rosaceae family tree pollen may serve as a potential cause of IgE mediated occupational respiratory disease in orchard workers in north China.

  14. Defining pollen exposure times for clinical trials of allergen immunotherapy for pollen-induced rhinoconjunctivitis - an EAACI position paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaar, O; Bastl, K; Berger, U; Buters, J; Calderon, M A; Clot, B; Darsow, U; Demoly, P; Durham, S R; Galán, C; Gehrig, R; Gerth van Wijk, R; Jacobsen, L; Klimek, L; Sofiev, M; Thibaudon, M; Bergmann, K C

    2017-05-01

    Clinical efficacy of pollen allergen immunotherapy (AIT) has been broadly documented in randomized controlled trials. The underlying clinical endpoints are analysed in seasonal time periods predefined based on the background pollen concentration. However, any validated or generally accepted definition from academia or regulatory authorities for this relevant pollen exposure intensity or period of time (season) is currently not available. Therefore, this Task Force initiative of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) aimed to propose definitions based on expert consensus. A Task Force of the Immunotherapy and Aerobiology and Pollution Interest Groups of the EAACI reviewed the literature on pollen exposure in the context of defining relevant time intervals for evaluation of efficacy in AIT trials. Underlying principles in measuring pollen exposure and associated methodological problems and limitations were considered to achieve a consensus. The Task Force achieved a comprehensive position in defining pollen exposure times for different pollen types. Definitions are presented for 'pollen season', 'high pollen season' (or 'peak pollen period') and 'high pollen days'. This EAACI position paper provides definitions of pollen exposures for different pollen types for use in AIT trials. Their validity as standards remains to be tested in future studies. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Bee plant inventory and the pollen potentiality of Menagesha Suba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , of which 27 plant species were the major pollen source plants in the area. Nutritional analysis indicated that pollen from Andropogon abyssinicus, Cyanotis barbata, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus globulus, Justicia ladanoides, Justicia ...

  16. Changes in pollinator fauna cause spatial variation in pollen limitation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    José M. Gómez; Mohamed Abdelaziz; Juan Lorite; A. Jesús Muñoz-Pajares; Francisco Perfectti

    2010-01-01

    .... In this study, we test the effect that changes in flower-visitor abundance, diversity and identity exert on the occurrence and strength of pollen limitation by experimentally quantifying pollen...

  17. MONITORING THE ALLERGENIC POLLEN FROM THE AIRPLANCTON IN 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Ianovici

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is intended to determine the annual dissemination means of the pollen grains in the Timisoara’s atmosphere for the year 2000. In this study we present a pollenic calendar for the mentioned region. In the investigated area, the season with maximum pollen concentration was late summer-fall (August. In the first months of the monitoring period, prevailed the pollen coming from anemophile trees and in the last months the pollen coming from anemophile herbaceous plants. Ambrosia, Poaceae, Urtica and Artemisia gave the highest pollen quantities identified in the airplancton. During the studied year, there were identified 23 pollen types. The most important anemophile taxa were: wooden magnoliates (14, herbaceous magnoliates (6, liliates (1 and pinnates (2. The monitoring supplied us with valuable information regarding the dissemination of some anthropophile species (Ambrosia whose pollen is known as a strong allergen.

  18. Pollen-based biome reconstructions for Latin America at 0, 6000 and 18 000 radiocarbon years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, R.; Harrison, S.P.; Hooghiemstra, H.; Markgraf, Vera; Van Boxel, J. H.; Ager, T.; Almeida, L.; Anderson, R.; Baied, C.; Behling, H.; Berrio, J.C.; Burbridge, R.; Bjorck, S.; Byrne, R.; Bush, M.B.; Cleef, A.M.; Duivenvoorden, J.F.; Flenley, J.R.; De Oliveira, P.; Van Geel, B.; Graf, K.J.; Gosling, W.D.; Harbele, S.; Van Der Hammen, T.; Hansen, B.C.S.; Horn, S.P.; Islebe, G.A.; Kuhry, P.; Ledru, M.-P.; Mayle, F.E.; Leyden, B.W.; Lozano-Garcia, S.; Melief, A.B.M.; Moreno, P.; Moar, N.T.; Prieto, A.; Van Reenen, G. B.; Salgado-Labouriau, M. L.; Schasignbitz, F.; Schreve-Brinkman, E. J.; Wille, M.

    2009-01-01

    The biomisation method is used to reconstruct Latin American vegetation at 6000±500 and 18 000±1000 radiocarbon years before present (14C yr BP) from pollen data. Tests using modern pollen data from 381 samples derived from 287 locations broadly reproduce potential natural vegetation. The strong temperature gradient associated with the Andes is recorded by a transition from high altitude cool grass/shrubland and cool mixed forest to mid-altitude cool temperate rain forest, to tropical dry, seasonal and rain forest at low altitudes. Reconstructed biomes from a number of sites do not match the potential vegetation due to local factors such as human impact, methodological artefacts and mechanisms of pollen representivity of the parent vegetation. At 6000±500 14C yr BP 255 samples are analysed from 127 sites. Differences between the modern and the 6000±500 14C yr BP reconstruction are comparatively small. Patterns of change relative to the modern reconstruction are mainly to biomes characteristic of drier climate in the north of the region with a slight more mesic shift in the south. Cool temperate rain forest remains dominant in western South America. In northwestern South America a number of sites record transitions from tropical seasonal forest to tropical dry forest and tropical rain forest to tropical seasonal forest. Sites in Central America also show a change in biome assignment to more mesic vegetation, indicative of greater plant available moisture, e.g. on the Yucat??n peninsula sites record warm evergreen forest, replacing tropical dry forest and warm mixed forest presently recorded. At 18 000±1000 14C yr BP 61 samples from 34 sites record vegetation that reflects a generally cool and dry environment. Cool grass/shrubland prevalent in southeast Brazil, Amazonian sites record tropical dry forest, warm temperate rain forest and tropical seasonal forest. Southernmost South America is dominated by cool grass/shrubland, a single site retains cool temperate

  19. Pollen-based biome reconstructions for Latin America at 0, 6000 and 18 000 radiocarbon years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, R.; Harrison, S. P.; Hooghiemstra, H.; Markgraf, V.; van Boxel, J. H.; Ager, T.; Almeida, L.; Anderson, R.; Baied, C.; Behling, H.; Berrio, J. C.; Burbridge, R.; Björck, S.; Byrne, R.; Bush, M. B.; Cleef, A. M.; Duivenvoorden, J. F.; Flenley, J. R.; de Oliveira, P.; van Geel, B.; Graf, K. J.; Gosling, W. D.; Harbele, S.; van der Hammen, T.; Hansen, B. C. S.; Horn, S. P.; Islebe, G. A.; Kuhry, P.; Ledru, M.-P.; Mayle, F. E.; Leyden, B. W.; Lozano-García, S.; Melief, A. B. M.; Moreno, P.; Moar, N. T.; Prieto, A.; van Reenen, G. B.; Salgado-Labouriau, M. L.; Schäbitz, F.; Schreve-Brinkman, E. J.; Wille, M.

    2009-02-01

    The biomisation method is used to reconstruct Latin American vegetation at 6000±500 and 18 000±1000 radiocarbon years before present (14C yr BP) from pollen data. Tests using modern pollen data from 381 samples derived from 287 locations broadly reproduce potential natural vegetation. The strong temperature gradient associated with the Andes is recorded by a transition from high altitude cool grass/shrubland and cool mixed forest to mid-altitude cool temperate rain forest, to tropical dry, seasonal and rain forest at low altitudes. Reconstructed biomes from a number of sites do not match the potential vegetation due to local factors such as human impact, methodological artefacts and mechanisms of pollen representivity of the parent vegetation. At 6000±500 14C yr BP 255 samples are analysed from 127 sites. Differences between the modern and the 6000±500 14C yr BP reconstruction are comparatively small. Patterns of change relative to the modern reconstruction are mainly to biomes characteristic of drier climate in the north of the region with a slight more mesic shift in the south. Cool temperate rain forest remains dominant in western South America. In northwestern South America a number of sites record transitions from tropical seasonal forest to tropical dry forest and tropical rain forest to tropical seasonal forest. Sites in Central America also show a change in biome assignment to more mesic vegetation, indicative of greater plant available moisture, e.g. on the Yucatán peninsula sites record warm evergreen forest, replacing tropical dry forest and warm mixed forest presently recorded. At 18 000±1000 14C yr BP 61 samples from 34 sites record vegetation that reflects a generally cool and dry environment. Cool grass/shrubland prevalent in southeast Brazil, Amazonian sites record tropical dry forest, warm temperate rain forest and tropical seasonal forest. Southernmost South America is dominated by cool grass/shrubland, a single site retains cool temperate

  20. Differential skin test reactivity to pollens in pollen food allergy syndrome versus allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta, Von; Scott, David R; Chin, William K; Wineinger, Nathan E; Kelso, John M; White, Andrew A

    2015-01-01

    Pollen food allergy syndrome (PFAS), also called oral allergy syndrome, is a form of food allergy in which uncooked foods cause allergic symptoms generally limited to the oral mucosa. It occurs in a subset of patients with pollen allergy, although not all patients have prominent rhinitis symptoms. PFAS is related to antigenic similarity between the pollen and food allergen. The size of skin test reactions in a group of subjects with pollen sensitivity with PFAS was compared with a group of subjects who were pollen sensitive and without PFAS. Self-reported rhinitis symptoms between the two groups were compared to identify if symptom severity differed. Twenty subjects with PFAS and 20 subjects with seasonal allergic rhinitis without PFAS were enrolled in the study. All the subjects underwent standard skin-prick testing to a panel of common allergens, including select fresh fruits and vegetables. The subjects completed a Mini Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire as part of their clinical evaluation. The subjects with PFAS and those without PFAS were compared statistically. The subjects with PFAS had significantly larger-sized skin-prick test results specific to pollens (p allergic rhinitis and PFAS reported milder nasal symptoms in relation to pollen skin test result size when compared with allergic rhinitis controls without PFAS. Our study outlined basic differences between two seemingly similar patient groups with a particularly striking discordance between skin test result sizes and rhinitis symptoms. This discordance should be explored further to increase mechanistic understanding of allergen cross-reactivity in PFAS.

  1. Modern pollen deposition in Long Island Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuning, Kristina R.M.; Fransen, Lindsey; Nakityo, Berna; Mecray, Ellen L.; Bucholtz ten Brink, Marilyn R.

    2000-01-01

    Palynological analyses of 20 surface sediment samples collected from Long Island Sound show a pollen assemblage dominated by Carya, Betula, Pinus, Quercus, Tsuga, and Ambrosia, as is consistent with the regional vegetation. No trends in relative abundance of these pollen types occur either from west to east or associated with modern riverine inputs throughout the basin. Despite the large-scale, long-term removal of fine-grained sediment from winnowed portions of the eastern Sound, the composition of the pollen and spore component of the sedimentary matrix conforms to a basin-wide homogeneous signal. These results strongly support the use of select regional palynological boundaries as chronostratigraphic tools to provide a framework for interpretation of the late glacial and Holocene history of the Long Island Sound basin sediments.

  2. Cell Wall Composition, Biosynthesis and Remodeling during Pollen Tube Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Claude Mollet; Christelle Leroux; Flavien Dardelle; Arnaud Lehner

    2013-01-01

    The pollen tube is a fast tip-growing cell carrying the two sperm cells to the ovule allowing the double fertilization process and seed setting. To succeed in this process, the spatial and temporal controls of pollen tube growth within the female organ are critical. It requires a massive cell wall deposition to promote fast pollen tube elongation and a tight control of the cell wall remodeling to modify the mechanical properties. In addition, during its journey, the pollen tube interacts with...

  3. Studies on dyed coconut ( Cocos nucifera ) pollens for removal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ability of undyed and dyed coconut pollens to remove Cu(II) and Zn(II) from single ion solutions was been studied. The experiments were carried out using coconut pollens (1.0 g) undyed coconut pollens, UDCP, and dyed coconut pollens, DCPI, DCPII and DCPIII of different particle sizes: 0.40, 0.63 and 0.80 mm, ...

  4. Pollen Dispersion Forecast At Regional Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangin, A.; Asthma Forecast System Team

    The forecast of the pollen concentration is generally based on an identification of sim- ilar coincidence of measured pollen at given points and meteorological data that is searched in an archive and which, with the help of experts, allows building a predicted value. This may be classified under the family of statistical approaches for forecast- ing. While palynologists make these methods more and more accurate with the help of innovative techniques of regression against empirical rules and/or evolving mathe- matical structures (e.g. neural networks), the spatial dispersion of the pollen is not or poorly considered, mainly because it requires a lot of means and technique that are not familiar to this scientific discipline. The research on pollen forecasts are presently mainly focused on the problematic of modeling the behavior of pollen trends and sea- sons at one location regardless of the topography, the locations of emitters, the relative strengths of emitter, in one word the Sspatial backgroundT. This research work was a & cedil;successful attempt to go a step further combining this SlocalT approach with a trans- & cedil;port/dispersion modeling allowing the access to mapping of concentration. The areas of interest that were selected for the demonstration of feasibility were 200x200km zones centered on Cordoba, Barcelona and Bologna and four pollen types were ex- amined, namely: Cupressaceae, Olea europaea, Poaceae and Parietaria. At the end of this three-year European project in December 2001, the system was fully deployed and validated. The multidisciplinary team will present the original methodologies that were derived for modeling the numerous aspects of this problem and also some con- clusions regarding potential extent to other areas and taxa.

  5. Ragweed pollen collected along high‐traffic roads shows a higher allergenicity than pollen sampled in vegetated areas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ghiani, A; Aina, R; Asero, R; Bellotto, E; Citterio, S

    2012-01-01

    Pollutants may affect pollen allergenicity and thus the prevalence of allergies. Although a few studies are available in literature, the connection between pollution and the allergenic potential of pollen has yet to be clearly defined...

  6. The clinical relevance of sensitization to pollen-related fruits and vegetables in unselected pollen-sensitized adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osterballe, M.; Hansen, T.K.; Mørtz, Charlotte G

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have described cross-reactivity between fresh fruits, vegetables and pollen. However, no data demonstrates the clinical relevance of sensitization to pollen-related fruits and vegetables in unselected pollen-sensitized adults with and without symptoms in the pollen...... season. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to estimate the clinical relevance of sensitization to pollen-related fruits and vegetables in unselected pollen-sensitized adults and to examine the diagnostic value of skin-prick test (SPT), histamine release and specific IgE compared with the outcome...... of oral challenge. METHODS: In total, 936 unselected adults (female : male 479 : 457, median age 33.7 years) were examined for pollen sensitization and clinical cross-reactivity with pollen-related fruits and vegetables by questionnaire, SPT, histamine release, specific IgE and oral challenge. RESULTS...

  7. Composition of polyphenol and polyamide compounds in common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) pollen and sub-pollen particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihajlovic, Luka; Radosavljevic, Jelena; Burazer, Lidija; Smiljanic, Katarina; Cirkovic Velickovic, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    Phenolic composition of Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. pollen and sub-pollen particles (SPP) aqueous extracts was determined, using a novel extraction procedure. Total phenolic and flavonoid content was determined, as well as the antioxidative properties of the extract. Main components of water-soluble pollen phenolics are monoglycosides and malonyl-mono- and diglycosides of isorhamnetin, quercetin and kaempferol, while spermidine derivatives were identified as the dominant polyamides. SPP are similar in composition to pollen phenolics (predominant isorhamnetin and quercetin monoglycosides), but lacking small phenolic molecules (pollen. For the first time in any pollen species, SPP and pollen phenolic compositions were compared in detail, with an UHPLC/ESI-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS-MS approach, revealing the presence of spermidine derivatives in both SPP and pollen, not previously reported in Ambrosia species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Pollen Biology of Ornamental Ginger (Hedychium spp. J. Koenig)

    Science.gov (United States)

    An improved in vitro pollen germination assay was developed to assess the viability of stored Hedychium pollen. The effect of polyethylene glycol (PEG) (10, 15, and 20% w/v) on pollen germination and tube growth was evaluated for H. longicornutum and two commercial Hedychium cultivars, ‘Orange Brush...

  9. Pollen Contents Of Commercial Honeys Of Opi, Nsukka, Enugu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The composition of the contributing plant species shows that the honey samples were multifloral honeys derived from a wide range of nectar and pollen sources. Also, pollen types of trees and shrubs of entomophilous plants were predominant in the samples. The qualitative and quantitative composition of pollen grains in ...

  10. Exploring storage protocols for yam ( Dioscorea spp.) pollen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Implementation of pollen genebanks allows the conservation of plant genetic resources at the haploid level, pollen genetic manipulations, scheduling of hybrid seed production and improvement of breeding efficiency. To establish pollen storage protocols for various genotypes of West African yams, laboratory experiments ...

  11. Hygroscopic weight gain of pollen grains from Juniperus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunderson, Landon D; Levetin, Estelle

    2015-05-01

    Juniperus pollen is highly allergenic and is produced in large quantities across Texas, Oklahoma, and New Mexico. The pollen negatively affects human populations adjacent to the trees, and since it can be transported hundreds of kilometers by the wind, it also affects people who are far from the source. Predicting and tracking long-distance transport of pollen is difficult and complex. One parameter that has been understudied is the hygroscopic weight gain of pollen. It is believed that juniper pollen gains weight as humidity increases which could affect settling rate of pollen and thus affect pollen transport. This study was undertaken to examine how changes in relative humidity affect pollen weight, diameter, and settling rate. Juniperus ashei, Juniperus monosperma, and Juniperus pinchotii pollen were applied to greased microscope slides and placed in incubation chambers under a range of temperature and humidity levels. Pollen on slides were weighed using an analytical balance at 2- and 6-h intervals. The size of the pollen was also measured in order to calculate settling rate using Stokes' Law. All pollen types gained weight as humidity increased. The greatest settling rate increase was exhibited by J. pinchotii which increased by 24 %.

  12. Pollen morphology of the genus Begonia in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den R.G.

    1985-01-01

    The morphology of the pollen grains of African Begonias is described, leading to the recognition of 15 pollen types. These pollen types are assumed to constitute natural units produced by evolution and the main purpose of this study has been to reconstruct the course

  13. Physicochemical characteristics and pollen spectrum of some north ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The qualities of seventeen honey samples harvested from the North-East areas of Algeria were evaluated by determining the pollen spectrum, pollen number quantity and physicochemical attributes. Pollen analysis can therefore be useful to determine the geographical and botanical origin of honeys. The following ...

  14. Determination of pollen viability, germination ratios and morphology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While the differences in anther number/flower were not significantly different among genotypes, there were significant differences in pollen number for both anther and flower bases. 44- 2005-01 and Canino had the highest pollen numbers. Pollen morphology was also evaluated using a Scanning Electron Microscope ...

  15. Phenology and pollen studies of some species of Annonaceae in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phenology and pollen studies were investigated in some species of Annonaceae in Nigeria to help in providing pollen data and record of flowering patterns of the species studied. Phenological data for flowering and fruiting were tracked once a week for both rainy and dry seasons. Pollen grains from fresh anthers of the ...

  16. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fermentation Effects on Pollen: Archaeological Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal A. Dozier

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pollen is the reproductive agent of flowering plants; palynology is utilized by archaeologists because sporopollenin, a major component in the exine of pollen grains, is resistant to decay and morphologically distinctive. Wine, beer, and mead have been identified in the archaeological record by palynological assessment due to indicator species or due to a pollen profile similar to that recovered from honey, a common source of sugar in a variety of fermented beverages. While most palynologists have assumed that pollen grains are resistant to alcoholic fermentation, a recent study in food science implies that pollen is a yeast nutrient because pollen-enriched meads produce more alcohol. The experiment presented here explores the potential distortion of the pollen record through fermentation by brewing a traditional, pollen-rich mead with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this experiment, the pollen grains did not undergo any discernible morphological changes nor were distorted in the pollen profile. Any nutrition that the yeast garners from the pollen therefore leaves sporopollenin intact. These results support palynological research on residues of alcoholic beverages and confirms that the fermentation process does not distort the pollen profile of the original substance. The paper concludes with the potential and limits of palynological study to assess fermentation within the archaeological record.

  17. Glutathione synthesis is essential for pollen germination in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The antioxidant glutathione fulfills many important roles during plant development, growth and defense in the sporophyte, however the role of this important molecule in the gametophyte generation is largely unclear. Bioinformatic data indicate that critical control enzymes are negligibly transcribed in pollen and sperm cells. Therefore, we decided to investigate the role of glutathione synthesis for pollen germination in vitro in Arabidopsis thaliana accession Col-0 and in the glutathione deficient mutant pad2-1 and link it with glutathione status on the subcellular level. Results The depletion of glutathione by buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis, reduced pollen germination rates to 2-5% compared to 71% germination in wildtype controls. The application of reduced glutathione (GSH), together with BSO, restored pollen germination and glutathione contents to control values, demonstrating that inhibition of glutathione synthesis is responsible for the decrease of pollen germination in vitro. The addition of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to media containing BSO restored pollen germination to control values, which demonstrated that glutathione depletion in pollen grains triggered disturbances in auxin metabolism which led to inhibition of pollen germination. Conclusions This study demonstrates that glutathione synthesis is essential for pollen germination in vitro and that glutathione depletion and auxin metabolism are linked in pollen germination and early elongation of the pollen tube, as IAA addition rescues glutathione deficient pollen. PMID:21439079

  18. Aerodynamics of saccate pollen and its implications for wind pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendemann, Andrew B; Wang, George; Mertz, Meredith L; McWilliams, Ryan T; Thatcher, Scott L; Osborn, Jeffrey M

    2007-08-01

    Pollen grains of many wind-pollinated plants contain 1-3 air-filled bladders, or sacci. Sacci are thought to help orient the pollen grain in the pollination droplet. Sacci also increase surface area of the pollen grain, yet add minimal mass, thereby increasing dispersal distance; however, this aerodynamic hypothesis has not been tested in a published study. Using scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy, mathematical modeling, and the saccate pollen of three extant conifers with structurally different pollen grains (Pinus, Falcatifolium, Dacrydium), we developed a computational model to investigate pollen flight. The model calculates terminal settling velocity based on structural characters of the pollen grain, including lengths, widths, and depths of the main body and sacci; angle of saccus rotation; and thicknesses of the saccus wall, endoreticulations, intine, and exine. The settling speeds predicted by the model were empirically validated by stroboscopic photography. This study is the first to quantitatively demonstrate the adaptive significance of sacci for the aerodynamics of wind pollination. Modeling pollen both with and without sacci indicated that sacci can reduce pollen settling speeds, thereby increasing dispersal distance, with the exception of pollen grains having robust endoreticulations and those with thick saccus walls. Furthermore, because the mathematical model is based on structural characters and error propagation methods show that the model yields valid results when sample sizes are small, the flight dynamics of fossil pollen can be investigated. Several fossils were studied, including bisaccate (Pinus, Pteruchus, Caytonanthus), monosaccate (Gothania), and nonsaccate (Monoletes) pollen types.

  19. Modelling of strategic grass harvest management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiessen, M.; Mourik, van S.; Evert, van F.K.

    2017-01-01

    Grass harvest plays a crucial role in milk production. Farmers face the problem of timing the harvest with respect to quality (crude protein content) and quantity (dry matter yield). Literature suggests that harvesting more frequently and thereby keeping the grass short (light harvesting) will

  20. POTENTIALS OF AGRICULTURAL WASTE AND GRASSES IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shima

    gamba grass and bagasse was 0.8 (RK<1) while pineapple leaf and maize stalk have Runkel ratio of 0.9 (RK<1). Peel from maize cob and Bahaman grass have Runkel Ratio of 1. (RK=1). Calculated fibre derivatives indicated that the non wood raw materials were good in pulp and papermaking. Key words: Non-wood fibre, ...

  1. Sonographic Appearance of Dermal and Subcutaneous Sarcoidosis: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Ja Yoon; Bae, Young A; Hong, Hyeok Jin; Kwon, Kye Won [Dept. of Radiology, Bundang Jesaeng General Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease of unknown origin that mainly involves lung and skin, but rarely involves subcutaneous tissue. While some studies have reported on CT or MR imaging findings of subcutaneous sarcoidosis, there is only one report on sonographic findings of subcutaneous sarcoidosis, recently published in the US. Familiarity with ultrasonographic findings of subcutaneous sarcoidosis might be helpful for the early diagnosis in patient with palpable nodules and image follow-up for subcutaneous sarcoidosis. Here we report on the sonographic appearance of subcutaneous sarcoidosis involving dermal and subcutaneous tissue over axilla and sole, a case diagnosed as sarcoidosis and improved by steroid treatment, along with a review of the relevant literature.

  2. Pollen lipidomics: lipid profiling exposes a notable diversity in 22 allergenic pollen and potential biomarkers of the allergic immune response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Elfatih H Bashir

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/AIM: Pollen grains are the male gametophytes that deliver sperm cells to female gametophytes during sexual reproduction of higher plants. Pollen is a major source of aeroallergens and environmental antigens. The pollen coat harbors a plethora of lipids that are required for pollen hydration, germination, and penetration of the stigma by pollen tubes. In addition to proteins, pollen displays a wide array of lipids that interact with the human immune system. Prior searches for pollen allergens have focused on the identification of intracellular allergenic proteins, but have largely overlooked much of the extracellular pollen matrix, a region where the majority of lipid molecules reside. Lipid antigens have attracted attention for their potent immunoregulatory effects. By being in close proximity to allergenic proteins on the pollen surface when they interact with host cells, lipids could modify the antigenic properties of proteins. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a comparative pollen lipid profiling of 22 commonly allergenic plant species by the use of gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy, followed by detailed data mining and statistical analysis. Three experiments compared pollen lipid profiles. We built a database library of the pollen lipids by matching acquired pollen-lipid mass spectra and retention times with the NIST/EPA/NIH mass-spectral library. We detected, identified, and relatively quantified more than 106 lipid molecular species including fatty acids, n-alkanes, fatty alcohols, and sterols. Pollen-derived lipids stimulation up-regulate cytokines expression of dendritic and natural killer T cells co-culture. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Here we report on a lipidomic analysis of pollen lipids that can serve as a database for identifying potential lipid antigens and/or novel candidate molecules involved in allergy. The database provides a resource that facilitates studies on the role of lipids in the

  3. Pollen calendar of the city of Salamanca (Spain). Aeropalynological analysis for 1981-1982 and 1991-1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Prieto, M; Lorente Toledano, F; Romo Cortina, A; Dávila González, I; Laffond Yges, E; Calvo Bullón, A

    1998-01-01

    We report a study on the contents of airborne pollen in the city of Salamanca (Spain) aimed at establishing a pollen calendar for the city for the yearly periods of maximum concentrations, relating these with quantifiable atmospheric variables over two two-year periods with an interval of 10 years between them: 1981-82 and 1991-92. The pollen was captured with Burkard spore-traps, based on Hirst's volumetric method. Determinations were made daily and were used to make preparations, previously stained with basic fuscin, for study under light microscopy at x 1,000 magnification. 946 preparations were analyzed, corresponding to the same number of days distributed over 150 weeks of the periods studied. The results afforded the identification of 48 different types of pollen grain: Grasses (Poaceae), Olea europea (olive), Quercus rotundifolia (Holm-oak), other Quercus spp. (Q. pyrenaica, Q. suber, Q. faginea, etc.), Cupressaceae (Cupressus sempervivens, C. arizonica, Juniperus communis etc.), Plantago (Plantago lanceolata, Plantago media, etc.), Pinaceae (Pinus communis, Abies alba, etc.), Rumex sp. (osier), Urtica dioica (nettle), Parietaria (Parietaria officinalis, P. judaica), Chenopodio-Amaranthaceae (Chenopodium sp., Amaranthus sp., Salsola kali, etc.), Artemisia vulgaris (Artemisia), other Compositae (Taraxacum officinalis, Hellianthus sp. etc.), Castanea sativa (Chestnut), Ligustrum sp. (privet), Betula sp. (birch), Alnus sp. (common alder), Fraxinus sp (ash), Populus sp. (poplar), Salix sp. (willow), Ulmus sp. (elm), Platanus sp. (plantain, plane), Carex sp. (sweet flag), Erica sp. (common heather), Leguminosae or Fabaceae:--Papillionaceae (Medicago sp.; Cercis sp., Robina sp.)--Cesalpinoideae Acacia sp. (Acacia),--Mimosoideae: Sophora japonica, Umbelliferae (Foeniculum sp., Cirsium sp., etc.), Centaurea sp., Cistus sp. (rock rose), Typha sp (bulrush), Mirtaceae (Myrtus communis), Juglans regia (Walnut), Galium verum, Filipendula sp. (spirea/drop wort), Rosaceae

  4. Effects of pollen load size on seed paternity in wild radish: the roles of pollen competition and mate choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Diane L; Shaner, Marieken G M; Oliva, Jon-Paul

    2007-08-01

    For sexual selection to be important in plants, it must occur at pollen load sizes typical of field populations. However, studies of the impact of pollen load size on pollen competition have given mixed results, perhaps because so few of these studies directly examined the outcome of mating when pollen load size was varied. We asked whether seed paternity after mixed pollination of wild radish was affected by pollen load sizes ranging from 22 to 220 pollen grains per stigma. We examined the seed siring abilities of 12 pollen donors across 11 maternal plants. Seed paternity was statistically indistinguishable across the pollen load sizes even though, overall, the pollen donors sired different numbers of seeds. This lack of effect of pollen load size on seed paternity may have occurred because fruit abortion and early abortion or failure of fertilization of seeds increased as load size decreased. Thus, failures of fruits and seeds sired by poorer pollen donors may keep seed paternity constant across pollen load sizes.

  5. Climate warming and the decline of Taxus airborne pollen in urban pollen rain (Emilia Romagna, northern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercuri, A M; Torri, P; Casini, E; Olmi, L

    2013-01-01

    Woody plant performance in a changing global environment has always been at the centre of palaeoenvironmental and long-term climate reconstructions carried out by means of pollen analysis. In Mediterranean regions, Taxus constitutes the highest percentage in past pollen diagrams from cold or cool periods, and therefore it is generally considered a good index to infer climate features from past records. However, a comparison of these inferences with the true current trends in pollen production has not been attemped until now. This study reports the decline of airborne pollen of Taxus observed in Emilia Romagna, a region of northern Italy, during the period 1990-2007. Phenological observations on four male specimens and microscopic examination of fresh pollen were made in order to check Taxus flowering time and pollen morphology. Airborne pollen was monitored through continuous sampling with a Hirst volumetric sampler. In the 18-year long period of investigation, Taxus pollen production has decreased, while total woody pollen abundance in air has increased. The trend of the Taxus pollen season shows a delay at the beginning, a shortening of the pollen period, and an advance of the end of the pollen season. This was interpreted as a response to climate warming. In particular, Taxus follows the behaviour of winter-flowering plants, and therefore earlier pollination is favoured at low autumn temperatures, while late pollination occurs more often, most likely after warm autumn temperatures. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  6. Pollen morphology of the dichapetalaceae with special reference to evolutionary trends and mutual relationships of pollen types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punt, W.

    Pollen grains of all three genera of Dichapetalaceae (Dichapetalum, Stephanopodium and Tapura) comprising about 150 species have been studied. Twenty-nine pollen types were recognized and the family has to be considered eurypalynous. A key to the pollen types is added. Based on evolutionary trends

  7. Ragweed pollen collected along high-traffic roads shows a higher allergenicity than pollen sampled in vegetated areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiani, A; Aina, R; Asero, R; Bellotto, E; Citterio, S

    2012-07-01

    Pollutants may affect pollen allergenicity and thus the prevalence of allergies. Although a few studies are available in literature, the connection between pollution and the allergenic potential of pollen has yet to be clearly defined. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of traffic-related pollution on the allergenicity of ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) pollen through a field-based experiment. Mature pollen grains were collected from ragweed plants grown along main roadsides and in vegetated areas of Po river plain. The percentage of sub-pollen particle-releasing grains (SPPGs) was evaluated immediately after sampling by microscope and image analysis. Immunochemistry and LC-MS/MS were applied to assess the whole allergenicity and the allergen pattern characterizing the different pollen samples. No statistical difference was detected in the percentage of SPPGs among pollen samples. Specifically, after hydration, the mean percentage was very low (pollen collected along high-traffic roads showed a higher whole allergenicity than pollen from low-traffic roads and vegetated areas which showed a reactivity similar to that of the commercial pollen 'Allergon', used as a standard. The detected higher allergenicity levels were attributed to both quantitative and qualitative differences in allergen pattern. Our findings show that pollen collected at different sites contains different amount and number of allergens and suggest that traffic-related pollution enhances ragweed pollen allergenicity, which may contribute to the increasing prevalence of ragweed allergy in Lombardy plain. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Recent pollen spectra from the deciduous and coniferous-deciduous forests of Northeastern Minnesota: a study in pollen dispersal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, C.R.

    1966-01-01

    Pollen samples were taken along nine transects across local vegetational belts bordering bogs or ponds in overall deciduous and coniferous-deciduous forest regions. Three types of pollen rain are distinguished: local, extralocal, and regional. Local pollen rain is derived from plants that grow at or

  9. [Pollen information of airborne Japanese cedar pollen using a simulation method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Y; Kawashima, S; Aikawa, S

    1996-04-01

    We have developed a simulation method of airborne Cryptomeria japonica pollen distribution on a map displayed visually on a TV screen. Each patient can be available the information where the place he or she lives. The pollen season in 1995, we served the information about airborne pollen distribution on a map and C. japonica flowering areas on a map to a local resident through TV broadcasting. To verify the simulation method, comparison was made between the result from actual pollen counting and from simulation. It was clarified that both results were comparatively agreed on daily basis. Problem about compatibility among personal computers were solved to rewrite the program of displaying the image using Visual Basic for MS-Windows and create image files. The files can be read continuously by animation software. We think the information can be offered to local resident, local clinicians and patients waiting at the clinics by use of computer networks.

  10. Surgical management of subcutaneous Colletotrichum gloeosporioides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allton, David R; Parvez, Najma; Ranganath, Sangeetha; Jinadatha, Chetan

    2015-01-01

    A 52-year-old male patient with a history of sarcoidosis and over 10 years of chronic low-dose glucocorticoid use, cirrhosis and type 2 diabetes mellitus presented with two painful, enlarging subcutaneous nodules ultimately identified as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Two attempts at needle aspiration of the larger nodule resulted in rapid reaccumulation. Complete surgical excision of both nodules resulted in complete resolution without the use of any concomitant antifungals. Patient had no recurrence at 2 years of follow-up. PMID:25737220

  11. Subcutaneous myiasis caused by Dermatobia hominis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logar, J; Beović, B; Triller, C; Rakovec, S

    2001-01-01

    A case of subcutaneous myiasis caused by the larvae of the Dermatobia hominis fly is described, involving the ankle region of a 25-y-old man who had returned from Peru. After removal of 4 larvae from the affected sites, the lesions healed in 2 weeks without further treatment. Because of the increasing number of people travelling to tropical America, physicians in Slovenia will have to consider Dermatobia myiasis in the differential diagnosis of furuncular lesions in patients with a relevant travel history.

  12. Switching between intravenous and subcutaneous trastuzumab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gligorov, Joseph; Curigliano, Giuseppe; Müller, Volkmar

    2017-01-01

    AIM: To assess the safety and tolerability of switching between subcutaneous (SC) and intravenous (IV) trastuzumab in the PrefHer study (NCT01401166). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with HER2-positive early breast cancer completed (neo)adjuvant chemotherapy and were randomised to receive four....... Rates of clinically important events, including grade ≥3 AEs, serious AEs, AEs leading to study drug discontinuation and cardiac AEs, were low and similar between treatment arms (safety signals for trastuzumab were observed. CONCLUSIONS: PrefHer revealed...... that switching from IV to SC trastuzumab (hand-held syringe or SID) or vice versa did not impact the known safety profile of trastuzumab....

  13. Monitoring, modelling and forecasting of the pollen season

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheifinger, Helfried; Belmonte, Jordina; Buters, Jeroen

    2013-01-01

    The section about monitoring covers the development of phenological networks, remote sensing of the season cycle of the vegetation, the emergence of the science of aerobiology and, more specifically, aeropalynology, pollen sampling instruments, pollen counting techniques, applications of aeropaly......The section about monitoring covers the development of phenological networks, remote sensing of the season cycle of the vegetation, the emergence of the science of aerobiology and, more specifically, aeropalynology, pollen sampling instruments, pollen counting techniques, applications...... and computational intelligence methods are also briefly described. Numerical pollen forecast systems are especially challenging. The question, which of the models, regression or process-based models is superior, cannot yet be answered....

  14. Analysis of airborne pollen grains in Kırklareli

    OpenAIRE

    ERKAN, Perihan; BIÇAKCI, Adem; Aybeke, Mehmet; Malyer, Hulusi

    2011-01-01

    A continuous aeropalynological survey of the atmosphere of Kırklareli was carried out from January 2002 to December 2003 by means of the gravimetric method using Durham apparatus. Weekly pollen grains in per cm2 were calculated. During these 2 years, a total of 11,758 pollen grains were recorded. Pollen fall in the years 2002-2003 comprised grains belonging 46 taxa. Of these taxa, 26 belonged to arboreal and 20 taxa non-arboreal plants. In 2002, 6011 pollen grains and, in 2003, 5747 pollen gr...

  15. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE STUDY OF THE ATMOSPHERIC POLLEN IN 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta IANOVICI

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is intended to emphasize the annual dynamics of the pollen grains of the SW Romanian airplancton. In the investigated area, for the year 2001, the maximum pollen quantity was reached in March and August. During the studied year, 24 pollen types were collected and identified. In Timisoara, the most important anemophile taxa belong to wooden magnoliates (14, herbaceous magnoliates (6, liliates (2 and pinnates (2. Responsible for the greatest pollen quantities are Poaceae (18.32%, Ambrosia (14.89%, Artemisia (9.54%, Urtica (7.67%, Betula (4.87%, Populus (4.68%. In this study we present the pollenic calendar with weekly dynamics.

  16. Extensive Pollen Flow but Few Pollen Donors and High Reproductive Variance in an Extremely Fragmented Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Martínez, Santiago C.; Aparicio, Abelardo

    2012-01-01

    Analysing pollen movement is a key to understanding the reproductive system of plant species and how it is influenced by the spatial distribution of potential mating partners in fragmented populations. Here we infer parameters related to levels of pollen movement and diversity of the effective pollen cloud for the wind-pollinated shrub Pistacia lentiscus across a highly disturbed landscape using microsatellite loci. Paternity analysis and the indirect KinDist and Mixed Effect Mating models were used to assess mating patterns, the pollen dispersal kernel, the effective number of males (Nep) and their relative individual fertility, as well as the existence of fine-scale spatial genetic structure in adult plants. All methods showed extensive pollen movement, with high rates of pollen flow from outside the study site (up to 73–93%), fat-tailed dispersal kernels and large average pollination distances (δ = 229–412 m). However, they also agreed in detecting very few pollen donors (Nep = 4.3–10.2) and a large variance in their reproductive success: 70% of males did not sire any offspring among the studied female plants and 5.5% of males were responsible for 50% of pollinations. Although we did not find reduced levels of genetic diversity, the adult population showed high levels of biparental inbreeding (14%) and strong spatial genetic structure (Sp = 0.012), probably due to restricted seed dispersal and scarce safe sites for recruitment. Overall, limited seed dispersal and the scarcity of successful pollen donors can be contributing to generate local pedigrees and to increase inbreeding, the prelude of genetic impoverishment. PMID:23152842

  17. Extensive pollen flow but few pollen donors and high reproductive variance in an extremely fragmented landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael G Albaladejo

    Full Text Available Analysing pollen movement is a key to understanding the reproductive system of plant species and how it is influenced by the spatial distribution of potential mating partners in fragmented populations. Here we infer parameters related to levels of pollen movement and diversity of the effective pollen cloud for the wind-pollinated shrub Pistacia lentiscus across a highly disturbed landscape using microsatellite loci. Paternity analysis and the indirect KinDist and Mixed Effect Mating models were used to assess mating patterns, the pollen dispersal kernel, the effective number of males (N(ep and their relative individual fertility, as well as the existence of fine-scale spatial genetic structure in adult plants. All methods showed extensive pollen movement, with high rates of pollen flow from outside the study site (up to 73-93%, fat-tailed dispersal kernels and large average pollination distances (δ = 229-412 m. However, they also agreed in detecting very few pollen donors (N(ep = 4.3-10.2 and a large variance in their reproductive success: 70% of males did not sire any offspring among the studied female plants and 5.5% of males were responsible for 50% of pollinations. Although we did not find reduced levels of genetic diversity, the adult population showed high levels of biparental inbreeding (14% and strong spatial genetic structure (S(p = 0.012, probably due to restricted seed dispersal and scarce safe sites for recruitment. Overall, limited seed dispersal and the scarcity of successful pollen donors can be contributing to generate local pedigrees and to increase inbreeding, the prelude of genetic impoverishment.

  18. Pollen morphology of some European Rosaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reitsma, Tj.

    1966-01-01

    In this preliminary investigation attention was paid to pollen morphology of West-European species of the Rosaceae. Some new terms were used like fastigium, endocingulus etc. The terminology of Iversen and Troels-Smith has been followed in addition to improvements by Erdtman. A key is given to the

  19. The LI-rings in pollen tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Q. Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Monoclonal antibodies, which recognize the specific epitopes for pectins and arabinogalactan proteins, in connection with confocal laser scanning microscopy demonstrated the presence of a ring-like structure in the cell wall of pollen tubes of flowering plants.

  20. Cotton transformation via pollen tube pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Zhang, Baohong; Wang, Qinglian

    2013-01-01

    Although many gene transfer methods have been employed for successfully obtaining transgenic cotton, the major constraint in cotton improvement is the limitation of genotype because the majority of transgenic methods require plant regeneration from a single transformed cell which is limited by cotton tissue culture. Comparing with other plant species, it is difficult to induce plant regeneration from cotton; currently, only a limited number of cotton cultivars can be cultured for obtaining regenerated plants. Thus, development of a simple and genotype-independent genetic transformation method is particularly important for cotton community. In this chapter, we present a simple, cost-efficient, and genotype-independent cotton transformation method-pollen tube pathway-mediated transformation. This method uses pollen tube pathway to deliver transgene into cotton embryo sacs and then insert foreign genes into cotton genome. There are three major steps for pollen tube pathway-mediated genetic transformation, which include injection of -foreign genes into pollen tube, integration of foreign genes into plant genome, and selection of transgenic plants.

  1. Anaphylactic reaction after ingestion of bee pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyman, J P

    1994-01-01

    Bee pollen allergy, although relatively rare, can present a life-threatening medical emergency. Conventional treatment of anaphylaxis is indicated, and further allergic workup is not necessary. There is little awareness of this hazard among the general population. Warnings to include product labeling of potential adverse reactions in sensitive individuals are urgently needed to protect the public from this hazard.

  2. Pollen Grains, Random Walks and Einstein

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 12. Pollen Grains, Random Walks and Einstein. Sriram Ramaswamy. Volume 10 Issue 12 December 2005 pp 106-124. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/010/12/0106-0124 ...

  3. Pollen Grains, Random Walks and Einstein

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 3. Pollen Grains, Random Walks and Einstein. Sriram Ramaswamy. General Article Volume 5 Issue 3 March 2000 pp 16-34. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/005/03/0016-0034 ...

  4. The morphology of pollen presenter and polymorphism of pollen grains Taraxacum officinale F. H. Wigg.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of the structure of the pollen presenter of Taraxacum officinale and morphology of pollen grains was conducted based on plant material sampled from three different sites. One of them was a forest meadow situated away from the city, and the other two were located in the city centre of Lublin. Light and electron scanning microscopy were used in the study. The pollen presenter in Taraxacum officinale occurs at the upper part of the style situated over the androecium and on the outer part of the stigma. Numerous unicellular trichomes are found on the entire surface of the epidermis of the presenter. The function of the presenter consists in transferring pollen grains above the androecium and corolla petals. Its activity does not stop after pollen release from anthers. Taraxacum pollen grains represent the Crepis - type. Most frequently, they are tricolporate, radially symmetric and isopolar. In terms of the size, they are included in medium-sized grains. In the material examined, many deformed and asymmetric grains were observed, though they were marked by high viability at the level of 96.5-99%. Grains with the largest average lengths of the equatorial and polar axes were found in plants sampled from the meadow situated out of town. In the plant material from all sites, grains with disturbances of the external structure occurred.

  5. Ozone affects pollen viability and NAD(P)H oxidase release from Ambrosia artemisiifolia pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualini, Stefania; Tedeschini, Emma; Frenguelli, Giuseppe; Wopfner, Nicole; Ferreira, Fatima; D'Amato, Gennaro; Ederli, Luisa

    2011-10-01

    Air pollution is frequently proposed as a cause of the increased incidence of allergy in industrialised countries. We investigated the impact of ozone (O(3)) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) and allergen content of ragweed pollen (Ambrosia artemisiifolia). Pollen was exposed to acute O(3) fumigation, with analysis of pollen viability, ROS and nitric oxide (NO) content, activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAD[P]H) oxidase, and expression of major allergens. There was decreased pollen viability after O(3) fumigation, which indicates damage to the pollen membrane system, although the ROS and NO contents were not changed or were only slightly induced, respectively. Ozone exposure induced a significant enhancement of the ROS-generating enzyme NAD(P)H oxidase. The expression of the allergen Amb a 1 was not affected by O(3), determined from the mRNA levels of the major allergens. We conclude that O(3) can increase ragweed pollen allergenicity through stimulation of ROS-generating NAD(P)H oxidase. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Pectic arabinan side chains are essential for pollen cell wall integrity during pollen development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cankar, Katarina; Kortstee, Anne; Toonen, Marcel A J; Wolters-Arts, Mieke; Houbein, Rudolf; Mariani, Celestina; Ulvskov, Peter; Jorgensen, Bodil; Schols, Henk A; Visser, Richard G F; Trindade, Luisa M

    2014-05-01

    Pectin is a complex polysaccharide and an integral part of the primary plant cell wall and middle lamella, contributing to cell wall mechanical strength and cell adhesion. To understand the structure-function relationships of pectin in the cell wall, a set of transgenic potato lines with altered pectin composition was analysed. The expression of genes encoding enzymes involved in pectin acetylation, degradation of the rhamnogalacturonan backbone and type and length of neutral side chains, arabinan and galactan in particular, has been altered. Upon crossing of different transgenic lines, some transgenes were not transmitted to the next generation when these lines were used as a pollen donor, suggesting male sterility. Viability of mature pollen was severely decreased in potato lines with reduced pectic arabinan, but not in lines with altered galactan side chains. Anthers and pollen of different developmental stages were microscopically examined to study the phenotype in more detail. Scanning electron microscopy of flowers showed collapsed pollen grains in mature anthers and in earlier stages cytoplasmic protrusions at the site of the of kin pore, eventually leading to bursting of the pollen grain and leaking of the cytoplasm. This phenomenon is only observed after the microspores are released and the tapetum starts to degenerate. Timing of the phenotype indicates a role for pectic arabinan side chains during remodelling of the cell wall when the pollen grain is maturing and dehydrating. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. In vitro pollen germination and pollen viability in passion fruit (Passiflora spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taliane Leila Soares

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of Passiflora species for ornamental purposes has been recently developed, but little is known about pollen viability and the potential for crossing different species. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pollen viability of six Passiflora species collected from different physiological stages of development through in vitro germination and histochemical analysis using dyes. The pollen was collected in three stages (pre-anthesis, anthesis and post-anthesis. Three compositions of culture medium were used to evaluate the in vitro germination, and two dyes (2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride, or TTC, and Lugol's solution were used for the histochemical analysis. The culture medium containing 0.03% Ca(NO3 4H2O, 0.02% of Mg(SO4 .7H2O, 0.01% of KNO3, 0,01% of H3BO3, 15% sucrose, and 0.8% agar, pH 7.0, showed a higher percentage of pollen grains germinated. Anthesis is the best time to collect pollen because it promotes high viability and germination. The Lugol's solution and TTC dye overestimated the viability of pollen, as all accessions showed high viability indices when compared with the results obtained in vitro.

  8. Impedance Flow Cytometry: A Novel Technique in Pollen Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Heidmann

    Full Text Available An efficient and reliable method to estimate plant cell viability, especially of pollen, is important for plant breeding research and plant production processes. Pollen quality is determined by classical methods, like staining techniques or in vitro pollen germination, each having disadvantages with respect to reliability, analysis speed, and species dependency. Analysing single cells based on their dielectric properties by impedance flow cytometry (IFC has developed into a common method for cellular characterisation in microbiology and medicine during the last decade. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the potential of IFC in plant cell analysis with the focus on pollen.Developing and mature pollen grains were analysed during their passage through a microfluidic chip to which radio frequencies of 0.5 to 12 MHz were applied. The acquired data provided information about the developmental stage, viability, and germination capacity. The biological relevance of the acquired IFC data was confirmed by classical staining methods, inactivation controls, as well as pollen germination assays.Different stages of developing pollen, dead, viable and germinating pollen populations could be detected and quantified by IFC. Pollen viability analysis by classical FDA staining showed a high correlation with IFC data. In parallel, pollen with active germination potential could be discriminated from the dead and the viable but non-germinating population.The presented data demonstrate that IFC is an efficient, label-free, reliable and non-destructive technique to analyse pollen quality in a species-independent manner.

  9. Impedance Flow Cytometry: A Novel Technique in Pollen Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidmann, Iris; Schade-Kampmann, Grit; Lambalk, Joep; Ottiger, Marcel; Di Berardino, Marco

    2016-01-01

    An efficient and reliable method to estimate plant cell viability, especially of pollen, is important for plant breeding research and plant production processes. Pollen quality is determined by classical methods, like staining techniques or in vitro pollen germination, each having disadvantages with respect to reliability, analysis speed, and species dependency. Analysing single cells based on their dielectric properties by impedance flow cytometry (IFC) has developed into a common method for cellular characterisation in microbiology and medicine during the last decade. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the potential of IFC in plant cell analysis with the focus on pollen. Developing and mature pollen grains were analysed during their passage through a microfluidic chip to which radio frequencies of 0.5 to 12 MHz were applied. The acquired data provided information about the developmental stage, viability, and germination capacity. The biological relevance of the acquired IFC data was confirmed by classical staining methods, inactivation controls, as well as pollen germination assays. Different stages of developing pollen, dead, viable and germinating pollen populations could be detected and quantified by IFC. Pollen viability analysis by classical FDA staining showed a high correlation with IFC data. In parallel, pollen with active germination potential could be discriminated from the dead and the viable but non-germinating population. The presented data demonstrate that IFC is an efficient, label-free, reliable and non-destructive technique to analyse pollen quality in a species-independent manner.

  10. Pollen Processing Behavior of Heliconius Butterflies: A Derived Grooming Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikl, Anna-Laetitia; Krenn, Harald W.

    2011-01-01

    Pollen feeding behaviors Heliconius and Laparus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) represent a key innovation that has shaped other life history traits of these neotropical butterflies. Although all flower visiting Lepidoptera regularly come in contact with pollen, only Heliconius and Laparus butterflies actively collect pollen with the proboscis and subsequently take up nutrients from the pollen grains. This study focused on the behavior of pollen processing and compared the movement patterns with proboscis grooming behavior in various nymphalid butterflies using video analysis. The proboscis movements of pollen processing behavior consisted of a lengthy series of repeated coiling and uncoiling movements in a loosely coiled proboscis position combined with up and down movements and the release of saliva. The proboscis-grooming behavior was triggered by contamination of the proboscis in both pollen feeding and non-pollen feeding nymphalid butterflies. Proboscis grooming movements included interrupted series of coiling and uncoiling movements, characteristic sideways movements, proboscis lifting, and occasionally full extension of the proboscis. Discharge of saliva was more pronounced in pollen feeding species than in non-pollen feeding butterfly species. We conclude that the pollen processing behavior of Heliconius and Laparus is a modified proboscis grooming behavior that originally served to clean the proboscis after contamination with particles. PMID:22208893

  11. Allergenic pollen in the atmosphere of Kayseri, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ince, Ali; Kart, Levent; Demir, Ramazan; Ozyurt, M Sabri

    2004-01-01

    Airborne pollen are important allergens that cause sensitization in allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma. Our aim was to detect the pollen in the atmosphere of Kayseri, to present a pollen calendar, and to detect the allergenic level of these pollen by performing skin tests on patients. Atmospheric pollen were collected by Durham gravimetric samplers in Kayseri between March and November in the years 1996 and 1997. In our study, we observed pollen belonging to 43 different taxa. The total number of pollen per cm2 was found to be 1,330.8 in 1996 and 1,182.5 in 1997. Most of the pollen were from the taxa Pinus, Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae, Cupressaceae, Populus and Quercus in decreasing order. In the skin tests, pollen of the taxa Poaceae and Chenopodiaceae were found to give the most frequent allergic reactions. It was concluded that preparing an airborne pollen calendar could be useful for medical practice. Nevertheless the skin test data did not really correlate with the aerobiologic data, as skin test reactivity is related to the allergenicity of the pollen and not just to ambient exposure.

  12. The medical and scientific responsibility of pollen information services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastl, Katharina; Berger, Markus; Bergmann, Karl-Christian; Kmenta, Maximilian; Berger, Uwe

    2017-01-01

    Pollen information as such is highly valuable and was considered so far as a self-evident good free for the public. The foundation for reliable and serious pollen information is the careful, scientific evaluation of pollen content in the air. However, it is essential to state and define now the requirements for pollen data and qualifications needed for institutions working with pollen data in the light of technical developments such as automated pollen counting and various political interests in aerobiology including attempts to finally acknowledge pollen and spores as relevant biological particles in the air worth being considered for pollution and health directives. It has to be emphasized that inadequate pollen forecasts are a considerable health risk for pollen allergy sufferers. Therefore, the responsibility of institutions involved in pollen monitoring and forecasting is high and should be substantiated with respective qualifications and know-how. We suggest here for the first time a portfolio of quality criteria and demand rigorous scientific monitoring and certification of such institutions in the interest and for the protection of persons affected by a pollen allergy.

  13. Meteorological variables connected with airborne ragweed pollen in Southern Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makra, L; Juhász, M; Borsos, E; Béczi, R

    2004-09-01

    About 30% of the Hungarian population has some type of allergy, 65% of them have pollen sensitivity, and at least 60% of this pollen sensitivity is caused by ragweed. The short (or common) ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia = Ambrosia elatior) has the most aggressive pollen of all. Clinical investigations prove that its allergenic pollen is the main reason for the most massive, most serious and most long-lasting pollinosis. The air in the Carpathian Basin is the most polluted with ragweed pollen in Europe. The aim of the study is to analyse how ragweed pollen concentration is influenced by meteorological elements in a medium-sized city, Szeged, Southern Hungary. The data basis consists of daily ragweed pollen counts and averages of 11 meteorological parameters for the 5-year daily data set, between 1997 and 2001. The study considers some of the ragweed pollen characteristics for Szeged. Application of the Makra test indicates the same period for the highest pollen concentration as that established by the main pollination period. After performing factor analysis for the daily ragweed pollen counts and the 11 meteorological variables examined, four factors were retained that explain 84.4% of the total variance of the original 12 variables. Assessment of the daily pollen number was performed by multiple regression analysis and results based on deseasonalised and original data were compared.

  14. Insights into a hydration regulating system in Cupressus pollen grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danti, R; Della Rocca, G; Calamassi, R; Mori, B; Mariotti Lippi, M

    2011-08-01

    Hydration, rupture and exine opening due to the sudden and large expansion of intine are typical of taxoid-type pollen grains. A hemispheric outgrowth external to the exine was observed on Cupressus and Juniperus pollen grains before the intine swelling and exine release. However, the actual existence of this permanent or temporary structure and its precise role in pollen hydration is still being debated. The aim of this paper is to collect information on the actual presence of this peculiar outgrowth on the surface of the Cupressus pollen grain, its structure, composition and function. Pollen grains of several Cupressus species were observed using various techniques and methodologies, under light and fluorescence microscopy, phase-contrast microscopy, confocal microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and an environmental scanning electron microscope. Observations were also performed on other species with taxoid-type pollen grains. A temporary structure located just above the pore was observed on Cupressus pollen grains, as well as on other taxoid-type pollens. It is hemispheric, layered, and consists of polysaccharides and proteins. The latter are confined to its inner part. Its presence seems to regulate the entrance of water into the grains at the beginning of pollen hydration. The presence of a temporary structure over the pore of taxoid-type pollen grains was confirmed and its structure was resolved using several stains and observation techniques. This structure plays a role in the first phases of pollen hydration.

  15. Pollen clumping and wind dispersal in an invasive angiosperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michael D; Chamecki, Marcelo; Brush, Grace S; Meneveau, Charles; Parlange, Marc B

    2009-09-01

    Pollen dispersal is a fundamental aspect of plant reproductive biology that maintains connectivity between spatially separated populations. Pollen clumping, a characteristic feature of insect-pollinated plants, is generally assumed to be a detriment to wind pollination because clumps disperse shorter distances than do solitary pollen grains. Yet pollen clumps have been observed in dispersion studies of some widely distributed wind-pollinated species. We used Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed; Asteraceae), a successful invasive angiosperm, to investigate the effect of clumping on wind dispersal of pollen under natural conditions in a large field. Results of simultaneous measurements of clump size both in pollen shedding from male flowers and airborne pollen being dispersed in the atmosphere are combined with a transport model to show that rather than being detrimental, clumps may actually be advantageous for wind pollination. Initial clumps can pollinate the parent population, while smaller clumps that arise from breakup of larger clumps can cross-pollinate distant populations.

  16. Exceptional preservation of Miocene pollen: plasmolysis captured in salt?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durska, W.

    2016-07-01

    Exceptionally well-preserved Miocene pollen from the Bochnia salt mine of southern Poland is reported herein. The halite deposits within the salt mine belonging to Late Badenian (Miocene) marine evaporites originated in the Paratethys. Rounded and angular structures are present inside pollen grains. On the basis of the similarity with plasmolyzed pollen grains of modern plants, these structures are considered to represent cytoplasms plasmolyzed in the condensed brine prior to fossilization. Two forms of plasmolyzed cytoplasms (concave and convex) can be observed in modern pollen. Both are distinguished in the investigated fossil material. In porate and colporate grains the shape of the plasmolyzed cellular content is concave while in inaperturate it is convex. The plasmolysis form depends on the type of apertures and pollen shape. The percentage of pollen with fossilized cytoplasms within individual taxa is a valuable environmental indicator, as it depends on the proximity of the pollen-producing plant assemblages to the depositional setting. (Author)

  17. Pollen features of hazelnut (Corylus avellana L. from different habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Nikolaieva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study general morphological characteristics of pollen grains of Corylus avellana L. Seven samples of pollen were investigated. Samples were collected from different habitats in Ukraine – from botanical gardens (Kyiv, Kamianets-Podilskyi and natural habitats (Kyiv region, Kamianets-Podilskyi, and Sumy region. We studied such morphological traits of pollen grains as length of polar and equatorial axes, diameter of pores, and shape of the pollen grain (elongation index. Analysis of morphological characters of pollen was carried out using electron microscope. Comparison of data was performed with the data of the base polleninfo.org. During research the differences in these parameters were marked. Pollen grains of C. avellana are generally isopolar, from suboblate to oblate or oblate-spheroidal, and contain 3 pores. The article contains an attempt to explain the size variations noted for the pollen collected from different habitats.

  18. The airborne pollen calendar for Lublin, central-eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Piotrowska-Weryszko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An aerobiological study was conducted to investigate the quantity and quality of pollen in the atmosphere of Lublin in central-eastern Poland. Pollen monitoring was carried out in the period 2001–2012 using a Hirst-type volumetric spore trap. The atmospheric pollen season in Lublin lasted, on average, from the end of January to the beginning of October. The mean air temperature during the study period was found to be higher by 1.1 °C than the mean temperature in the period 1951–2000. 56 types of pollen of plants belonging to 41 families were identified. 28 types represented woody plants and 28 represented herbaceous plants. The study distinguished 5 plant taxa the pollen of which was present most abundantly in the air of Lublin, which altogether accounted for 73.4%:[i] [b]Betula[/b], Urtica, Pinus, [b]Poaceae[/b], and [/i][b][i]Alnus[/i][/b]. The mean annual pollen index was 68 706; the largest amount of pollen was recorded in April and accounted for 33.3% of the annual pollen index. The pollen calendar included 28 allergenic plant taxa. The pollen of woody plants had the highest percentage in the pollen spectrum, on average 58.4%. The parameters of the pollen calendar for Lublin were compared with the calendar for central-eastern Europe with regard to the start of the pollen season of particular taxa. The pollen calendar for Lublin was demonstrated to show greater similarity to the calendar for Münster (Germany than to the calendar for Bratislava (Slovakia.

  19. Biomonitoring of heavy metals by pollen in urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalbande, D M; Dhadse, Sharda N; Chaudhari, P R; Wate, S R

    2008-03-01

    Abstract Industrial development and consumption of petroleum products leads to increase air pollution levels especially in urban and industrial areas. Heavy metal components associated with air pollutants have far reaching effects with respect to economic and ecological importance of pollens. The pollens are male reproductive organs of the plant and travel through air from flower to flower for pollination purpose. During this period they are exposed to air pollutants. Present investigation thus pertains to study of effect of air pollutants on pollens especially biosorption and bioaccumulation of heavy metals. The pollens of three commonly occurring plants namely Cassia siamea, Cyperus rotundus, Kigelia pinnata have been studied from the NH-6 of Nagpur city, India. The pollens exposed to polluted air showed the presence of higher concentrations of Ca, Al and Fe as compared to unexposed pollens. Higher concentration of these metals was observed in Cyperus rotundus followed by Cassia siamea and Kigelia pinnata. These results indicate that pollens act as good indicator of air pollution giving results in short time of exposure of 5-10 h. Apart from this, it is also reported that some of these metals play crucial role in the metabolic activity in pollens for example Calcium is necessary for growth of pollen tube and other metabolic activities in pollens. The presence of these metals in pollens may also enhance the allergenicity of the pollens. Similarly accumulation of heavy metals may also deteriorate the quality of pollen for their economical use. The viability of pollen is also affected by these pollutants in sensitive species leading to impairment of their fertility.

  20. The 'traveling salesman problem': a new approach for identification of differences among pollen allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosman, E; Eshel, A; Waisel, Y

    1997-04-01

    It is not easy to identify the specific plant species that causes an allergic response in a certain patient at a certain time. This is further complicated by the fact that closely related plant species cause similar allergic responses. A novel mathematical technique is used for analysis of skin responses of a large number of patients to several groups of allergens for improvement of the understanding of their similarity or dissimilarity and their status regarding cross-reactivity. The responses of 153 atopic patients to 42 different pollen extracts were tested by skin prick tests. Among the responses of patients to various extracts, a measure of dissimilarity was introduced and calculated for all pairs of allergens. A matrix-structuring technique, based on a solution of the 'Travelling Salesman Problem', was used for clustering of the investigated allergens into groups according to patients' responses. The discrimination among clusters was confirmed by statistical analysis. Sub groups can be discerned even among allergens of closely related plants, i.e. allergens that are usually regarded as fully cross-reactive. A few such cases are demonstrated for various cultivars of olives and pecans and for various sources of date palms, turf grasses, three wild chenopods and an amaranth. The usefulness of the proposed approach for the understanding of similarity and dissimilarity among various pollen allergens is demonstrated.

  1. Isolation, expression and immunological characterization of a calcium-binding protein from Parietaria pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonura, A; Gulino, L; Trapani, A; Di Felice, G; Tinghino, R; Amoroso, S; Geraci, D; Valenta, R; Westritschnig, K; Scala, E; Mari, A; Colombo, P

    2008-05-01

    The diagnosis and therapy of allergic disorders are usually performed with crude extracts which are a heterogeneous mixture of proteins with different allergenic potency. The knowledge of the allergenic composition is a key step for diagnostic and therapeutic options. Parietaria judaica pollen represents one of the main sources of allergens in the Mediterranean area and its major allergens have already been identified (Par j 1 and Par j 2). In addition, inhibition studies performed using a calcium-binding protein (CBP) from grass pollen (Phl p 7) showed the presence of a homologue of this cross-reactive allergen in the Parietaria extract. Screening of a cDNA library allowed us to isolate a 480bp cDNA containing the information for an 87 AA long protein with high level of homology to calcium-binding proteins from other allergenic sources. It was expressed as a recombinant allergen in Escherichia coli and purified by affinity chromatography. Its expression allowed us to study the prevalence of this allergen in a population of allergic patients in southern Europe. Immunoblotting and inhibition studies showed that this allergen shares a pattern of IgE epitopes in common with other 2-EF-hand calcium-binding proteins from botanically non-related species. The immunological properties of the Pj CBP were investigated by CD63 activation assay and CFDA-SE staining. In conclusion, DNA recombinant technology allowed the isolation, expression and immunological characterization of a cross-reactive calcium-binding protein allergen from Parietaria judaica pollen.

  2. Pollen chemistry as a tool for reconstructing past solar and ultraviolet irradiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, Phillip; Fraser, Wesley; Lomax, Barry; Gosling, William

    2016-04-01

    Despite the importance of solar irradiance as a dominant control on Earth's energy budget, no proxy has been developed that can provide records on timescales of over 10 000 years. No independent empirical record of solar irradiance therefore exists prior to the Holocene, limiting our understanding of the relationships between solar energy inputs, global climate and biotic change over longer timescales. Here, we present a novel proxy based on the chemical composition of sporopollenin, the primary component of the outer walls of pollen and spores (sporomorphs). Sporopollenin chemistry is responsive to levels of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation exposure, via a concomitant change in the concentration of phenolic compounds. This relationship offers the possibility of using fossil sporomorph chemistry as a proxy for past UV-B flux, and by extension total solar irradiance (TSI). Fourier Transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy provides an efficient, economical and non-destructive method for measuring phenolic compound concentration on small sample sizes (≤30 sporomorphs/sample). The high preservation potential of sporomorphs in the geologic record, and the conserved nature of sporopollenin chemistry and UV-B response across the Embryophyta, means that this new proxy has the potential to reconstruct UV-B and TSI flux over much longer timescales than has previously been possible. We demonstrate the utility of this proxy with two chemopalynological datasets. Orbital cyclicity is reconstructed using grass pollen from a 150 000 year long sediment record from Lake Bosumtwi in Ghana, and changes in solar output over the last 600 years are reconstructed using pine pollen from Nar Lake in Turkey. This proxy provides a new approach for quantifying and understanding the relationship between UV-B flux, solar insolation and past climate. The unpicking of this information offers the tantalising potential to determine how changes in solar irradiance have driven long-term changes in

  3. Genome sequence analysis of the model grass Brachypodium distachyon: insights into grass genome evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulman, Al

    2009-08-09

    Three subfamilies of grasses, the Erhardtoideae (rice), the Panicoideae (maize, sorghum, sugar cane and millet), and the Pooideae (wheat, barley and cool season forage grasses) provide the basis of human nutrition and are poised to become major sources of renewable energy. Here we describe the complete genome sequence of the wild grass Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium), the first member of the Pooideae subfamily to be completely sequenced. Comparison of the Brachypodium, rice and sorghum genomes reveals a precise sequence- based history of genome evolution across a broad diversity of the grass family and identifies nested insertions of whole chromosomes into centromeric regions as a predominant mechanism driving chromosome evolution in the grasses. The relatively compact genome of Brachypodium is maintained by a balance of retroelement replication and loss. The complete genome sequence of Brachypodium, coupled to its exceptional promise as a model system for grass research, will support the development of new energy and food crops

  4. Tomato pollen respiration in relation to in vitro germination and pollen tube growth under favourable and stress-inducing temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karapanos, I C; Akoumianakis, K A; Olympios, C M; Passam, Harold Christopher

    2010-09-01

    Tomato pollen germination, pollen tube growth and respiratory activity were recorded during incubation in a liquid medium for 7 h over a temperature range of 15-35 degrees C. Although the initial rate of respiration was highest at 30 degrees C, both at 30 degrees C and 35 degrees C respiration decreased after the first hour of incubation due to high temperature impairment of germination and pollen tube growth. The total per cent germination of pollen over the 7-h period was maximal at 15 degrees C whereas pollen tube length was maximal at 25 degrees C. Although the production of CO(2) measured at hourly intervals throughout the incubation period did not correlate to a statistically significant level with either the per cent pollen germination or the length of the pollen tubes alone, nevertheless from 2 h after the start of incubation, it closely correlated with the values for germination x pollen tube length, indicating that the respiratory activity of tomato pollen at a given time is a function of both the per cent germination and the pollen tube growth. We suggest therefore that the rate of respiration might be preferable to a simple germination test for the assessment of pollen germination ability since it expresses not only the pollen germination potential but also the growth vigour of the pollen tubes. In addition, where in vitro tests are designed to assess pollen germination-temperature interactions, they should employ a long incubation period (e.g. 7 h) to permit differences in sensitivity to temperature to be observed.

  5. Prevention of follicular penetration: barrier-enhancing formulations against the penetration of pollen allergens into hair follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinke, M C; Patzelt, A; Richter, H; Schanzer, S; Sterry, W; Filbry, A; Bohnsack, K; Rippke, F; Galecka, J; Fölster-Holst, R; Lademann, J

    2011-01-01

    The hair follicles could be a reservoir for topically applied substances. They are not only surrounded by a close network of blood capillaries, which makes them interesting for drug delivery, but they are also the host of dendritic cells, which are important for immunomodulation. Previously, pollen allergens were shown to penetrate into the hair follicles. The application of barrier-enhancing formulations might represent an effective strategy to prevent pollen protein penetration into the hair follicle. In the present study, porcine skin areas were pretreated with 4 barrier-enhancing emulsions. One skin area served as control and remained without pretreatment. Afterwards, fluorescein-isothiocyanate-labeled grass pollen proteins were applied to the porcine skin samples, and their penetration was investigated via fluorescent laser scanning microscopy. It was shown that the barrier-enhancing formulations were able to significantly reduce the penetration of exogenous proteins into the hair follicles, the extent of such reduction depending on the formulation. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Identification of T-cell epitopes of Lol p 9, a major allergen of ryegrass (Lolium perenne) pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaher, B; Suphioglu, C; Knox, R B; Singh, M B; McCluskey, J; Rolland, J M

    1996-07-01

    T-cell recognition of Lol p 9, a major allergen of ryegrass pollen, was investigated by using a T-cell line and T-cell clones generated from the peripheral blood of an atopic donor. The T-cell line reacted with purified Lol p 9, as well as with crude ryegrass pollen extract, but failed to cross-react with Bermuda grass pollen extract. All of six T-cell clones generated from this line proliferated in response to Lol p 9. Epitope mapping was carried out with a panel of 34 overlapping synthetic peptides, which spanned the entire sequence of the Lol p 9 12R isoform. The T-cell line responded to two of the peptides, Lol p 9 (105-116) and Lol p 9 (193-204), whereas reactivity with one or other of these peptides was shown by five T-cell clones. These two peptides contained sequences consistent with motifs previously reported for major histocompatibility complex class II-restricted peptides. HLA antibody blocking studies showed that presentation of peptide Lol p 9 (105-116) to one T-cell clone was HLA-DR-restricted; this clone expressed a T helper cell phenotype (CD3+, CD4+) and the T-cell receptor alpha beta. The identification of immunodominant T-cell epitope(s) on allergens is essential for devising safer and more effective immunotherapy strategies, which can interrupt the chain of events leading to allergic disease.

  7. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF MUSCLE AFTER POLLEN APPLICATION IN NUTRITION OF BROILER CHICKENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimíra Kňazovická

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE Principle purpose of this study was to monitor the chemical composition of breast and thigh muscular part of chickens of hybrid combination Ross 308 and to verify the differences due to use of pollen extract in feed mixture at a dose of 400 and 800 mg.kg-1 during the feeding of 42 days. We did not find significant differences (P≥0.05 in followed chemical compounds of thigh muscle with the skin and subcutaneous fat between the groups with and without application of pollen extract: in contents of water (68.49-70.12 g.100g-1, protein (18.82-18.98 g.100g-1, fat (9.96-11.53 g.100g-1 and in energy value (692.20-752.36 kJ.100g-1. Significant differences (P≤0.05 were found only in protein content of breast muscle between the control group (23.96 g.100g-1 and experimental group I (23.28 g.100g-1. Values of water content (73.97-74.32 g.100g-1, fat content (1.07-1.40 g.100g-1 and energy (441.65-446.64 kJ.100g-1 in breast muscle between the evaluated groups were balanced (P≥0.05. The results show that pollen extract at the concentration used in feed mixture did not effect basic chemical composition of the most valuable parts of the chicken Ross 308 carcass and we can apply it in their nutrition. Application at a dose of 800 mg.kg-1 seems to be more positive.doi:10.5219/190

  8. An introduction to the grasses of Ethiopia and Eritrea | Phillips ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopia together with Eritrea has a rich grass flora comprising over 600 species. Grasses typical of each of the vegetation types found in the area are discussed. Grasses from specialised edaphic conditions are considered, and also weed, pasture and lawn grasses. The paper concludes with a section on the importance of ...

  9. Identification of sweet chesnut pollen in bee pollen pellet using using molecular analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Žiarovská

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Castanea sativa posses many characteristics that are used by human for different purposes, not only as a part of the food. One of them is the utilization of the sweet chesnut pollen for its pharmacological benefits. Actually, no information about the DNA based identification of the sweet chesnut exist. Here, an identification of Castanea sativa based on the specific DNA fragment amplification is described for the first time. Sweet chesnut identification was performed in the very complex sample of bee pollen pellets that were identified as to contain sweet chesnut pollen grains by morphological analysis. First, bioinformatic analysis was performed to find a Castanea sativa conservative part of galactol synthase gene. BLAST alignment of the CDS of GolS1 gene was performed by BLASTtn against plants nucleotide sequences in the NCBI database to ensure for the specifity or existing nucleotide differences. Then, specific primers were subsequently designed and PCR amplification was performed. All the PCRs have run in duplicates for pollen pellet sample and two independent samples of Castanea sativa pure pollen. Restriction cleavage of the PCR amplified fragment was performed to confirm the specifity of the obtained PCR product with the positive confirmation as the predicted three restriction fragments were obtained that fully correspond by the length to those from virtual clevage. Restriction endonuclease Hpy166II was used in restriction cleavage analysis. Castanea sativa pollen grains were confirmed reliable in multifloral pollen pellet by PCR and this approach has the potential to be used effectively for the authentication purposes of sweet chesnut.

  10. Pampas Grass - Orange Co. [ds351

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This dataset provides the known distribution of pampas grass (Cortaderia selloana) in southern Orange County. The surveys were conducted from May to June, 2007 and...

  11. Imaging spectroscopy for characterisation of grass swards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schut, A.G.T.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords: Imaging spectroscopy, imaging spectrometry, remote sensing, reflection, reflectance, grass sward, white clover, recognition, characterisation, ground cover, growth monitoring, stress detection, heterogeneity quantificationThe potential of imaging spectroscopy as a tool for characterisation

  12. Karl Konrad Grass jumalainimeste uurijana / Alar Laats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laats, Alar

    2006-01-01

    Karl Konrad Grass oli 19. sajandil Dorpati keiserliku ülikooli usuteaduskonna Uue Testamendi õppejõud, kes tegeles hobi korras idakristluse (vene sektid) uurimisega. Tema peateoseks on uurimus "Die russischen Sekten". Ettekanne konverentsil 15.-16. aprill 2005. a.

  13. ALLERGENICITY AND CROSS- REACTIVITY OF BUFFALO GRASS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    such as Pennisetum clandestinum (Kikuyu), Cynodon dactylon. (Bermuda), and Stenotaphrum secundatum (buffalo); for pastures. (Digitaria erianthe); garden ornamentals (e.g. Pennisetum villosum); and for erosion control, Pennisetum and Eragrostis. Lolium perenne (rye grass), of the subfamily Pooideae, has been.

  14. Cell Wall Composition, Biosynthesis and Remodeling during Pollen Tube Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Mollet

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The pollen tube is a fast tip-growing cell carrying the two sperm cells to the ovule allowing the double fertilization process and seed setting. To succeed in this process, the spatial and temporal controls of pollen tube growth within the female organ are critical. It requires a massive cell wall deposition to promote fast pollen tube elongation and a tight control of the cell wall remodeling to modify the mechanical properties. In addition, during its journey, the pollen tube interacts with the pistil, which plays key roles in pollen tube nutrition, guidance and in the rejection of the self-incompatible pollen. This review focuses on our current knowledge in the biochemistry and localization of the main cell wall polymers including pectin, hemicellulose, cellulose and callose from several pollen tube species. Moreover, based on transcriptomic data and functional genomic studies, the possible enzymes involved in the cell wall remodeling during pollen tube growth and their impact on the cell wall mechanics are also described. Finally, mutant analyses have permitted to gain insight in the function of several genes involved in the pollen tube cell wall biosynthesis and their roles in pollen tube growth are further discussed.

  15. Pollen Ultrastructure of Genus Dendrobium Orchids as a Learning Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lika Dwi Apriani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Anggrek genus Dendrobium merupakan salah satu genus dari divisi spermatophyta yang merupakan kelompok tumbuhan yang berkembang dengan menggunakan biji. Tumbuhan berbiji tentu memiliki bunga sebagai alat perkembangan generatifnya. Perkembangan generatif pada bunga artinya pertemuan antara sel gamet jantan dan sel gamet betina. Sel gamet betina pada tumbuhan dihasilkan oleh putik, sedangkan sel gamet jantan disebut serbuk sari atau pollen. Genus Dendrobium merupakan salah satu kekayaan alam Indonesia, jumlahnya diperkirakan mencapai 275 spesies. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui bagaimana ultrastruktur pollen anggrek genus Dendrobium dari sepuluh spesies yang diamati menggunakan SEM. Jenis penelitian ini adalah deskriptif kualitatif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan unit pollen untuk semua spesies yaitu kategori pollinia, sedangkan untuk polaritas pollen adalah apolar. Jenis aperture kesepuluh spesies yang diamati mempunyai aperture dengan pola yang tidak beraturan dan lebih dari enam yang disebut colpate. Bentuk pollen dari semua spesies yang diteliti bentuknya adalah subprolate hingga prolate dan ukuran pollen termasuk dalam kategori minuta hingga media. Ornamentasi pollen atau skluptur pollen tidak teridentifikasi dikarenakan ukuran pollen yang terlalu kecil, permukaan pollen terlihat kurang jelas. Sumber belajar yang digunakan adalah atlas.

  16. Cell Wall Composition, Biosynthesis and Remodeling during Pollen Tube Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollet, Jean-Claude; Leroux, Christelle; Dardelle, Flavien; Lehner, Arnaud

    2013-03-07

    The pollen tube is a fast tip-growing cell carrying the two sperm cells to the ovule allowing the double fertilization process and seed setting. To succeed in this process, the spatial and temporal controls of pollen tube growth within the female organ are critical. It requires a massive cell wall deposition to promote fast pollen tube elongation and a tight control of the cell wall remodeling to modify the mechanical properties. In addition, during its journey, the pollen tube interacts with the pistil, which plays key roles in pollen tube nutrition, guidance and in the rejection of the self-incompatible pollen. This review focuses on our current knowledge in the biochemistry and localization of the main cell wall polymers including pectin, hemicellulose, cellulose and callose from several pollen tube species. Moreover, based on transcriptomic data and functional genomic studies, the possible enzymes involved in the cell wall remodeling during pollen tube growth and their impact on the cell wall mechanics are also described. Finally, mutant analyses have permitted to gain insight in the function of several genes involved in the pollen tube cell wall biosynthesis and their roles in pollen tube growth are further discussed.

  17. Genomic expression profiling of mature soybean (Glycine max pollen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Mohan B

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pollen, the male partner in the reproduction of flowering plants, comprises either two or three cells at maturity. The current knowledge of the pollen transcriptome is limited to the model plant systems Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa which have tri-cellular pollen grains at maturity. Comparative studies on pollen of other genera, particularly crop plants, are needed to understand the pollen gene networks that are subject to functional and evolutionary conservation. In this study, we used the Affymetrix Soybean GeneChip® to perform transcriptional profiling on mature bi-cellular soybean pollen. Results Compared to the sporophyte transcriptome, the soybean pollen transcriptome revealed a restricted and unique repertoire of genes, with a significantly greater proportion of specifically expressed genes than is found in the sporophyte tissue. Comparative analysis shows that, among the 37,500 soybean transcripts addressed in this study, 10,299 transcripts (27.46% are expressed in pollen. Of the pollen-expressed sequences, about 9,489 (92.13% are also expressed in sporophytic tissues, and 810 (7.87% are selectively expressed in pollen. Overall, the soybean pollen transcriptome shows an enrichment of transcription factors (mostly zinc finger family proteins, signal recognition receptors, transporters, heat shock-related proteins and members of the ubiquitin proteasome proteolytic pathway. Conclusion This is the first report of a soybean pollen transcriptional profile. These data extend our current knowledge regarding regulatory pathways that govern the gene regulation and development of pollen. A comparison between transcription factors up-regulated in soybean and those in Arabidopsis revealed some divergence in the numbers and kinds of regulatory proteins expressed in both species.

  18. THE DISPERSION OF HERBACEOUS PLANT POLLEN IN ITO CITY, SHIZUOKA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Mayumi; Makiyama, Kiyoshi; Okazaki, Kenji; Hisamatsu, Kenichi

    2016-08-01

    Airborne pollen was examined in Ito City, Shizuoka for the purpose of treatment and prophylaxis pollen allergies because the patients with pollen allergy to herbaceous plants have recently increased. Setting up a Durham's sampler, we measured airborne pollen identified and classified: Poaceae, Polygonaceae, Amaranthaceae, Urticaceae, Cannabaceae, Ambrosia and Artemisia indica.We studied whether each airborne pollen count has something to do with weather condition (2004-2015). Average total airborne Poaceae pollen count and standard deviation from January to June was 19.4±5.5 cells/cm(2), average total airborne Polygonaceae pollen count and standard deviation from April to September was 11.6±13.4 cells/cm(2). Airborne Poaceae, Amaranthaceae, Cannabaceae, Uriticaceae. Ambrosia and Artamisia indica pollen count from July to Deccember in order: 34.0±15.5 cells/cm(2), 1.3±1.1 cells/cm(2), 8.7±6.4cells/cm(2), 4.9±6.4 cells/cm(2), 10.5±7.8 cells/cm(2), and 13.6±16.3 cells/cm(2).Cannabaceae admitted that its airborne pollen count has negative correlation to the rainfall.Artemisia indica admitted that its airborne pollen count has negative correlation to the average temperature. Herbaceous plants pollen doesn't cause allergies because it is much less than tree pollen in ItoCity.It is thought that the diversity of the plants keep the people from having a serious allergy to pollen with awarm weather in this area.

  19. [ANSYS simulation of subcutaneous pustule electrical characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Baohua; Wang, Xuan; Zhu, Honglian; Wang, Guoyong

    2011-12-01

    With the growing number of clinical surgery, post-operative surgical wound infection has become a very difficult clinical problem. In the treatments of it, non-invasive test of wound infection and healing status has a significance in clinical medicine practice. In this paper, beginning with the electrical properties of skin tissue structure and on the basis of the electromagnetism and the human anatomy, using the finite element analysis software, we applied safe voltage on the 3D skin model, performed the subcutaneous pustule simulation study and gained the relational curve between depth and radius of the pustule model. The simulation results suggested that the method we put forward could be feasible, and it could provide basis for non-invasive detection of wound healing and wound infection status.

  20. Sensitization profiles in birch pollen-allergic patients with and without oral allergy syndrome to apple: lessons from multiplexed component-resolved allergy diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebo, D G; Bridts, C H; Verweij, M M; De Knop, K J; Hagendorens, M M; De Clerck, L S; Stevens, W J

    2010-02-01

    Component-resolved diagnosis (CRD) using microarray technology has recently been introduced into the field of clinical allergology. To further validate the use of CRD by microarray technology in allergy diagnosis. Thiry-seven patients allergic to birch pollen were included. The discriminative value of apple-specific IgE (sIgE), recombinant Mal d 1 (rMal d 1) sIgE, apple skin prick test and rMal d 1 on the microarray was assessed between patients with a birch-related oral allergy syndrome to apple (OAS(+), n=20) and healthy control individuals (HC, n=8) without a history of inhalant allergies or apple-induced OAS. An additional comparative analysis was carried out with individuals allergic to birch pollen allergy without OAS (OAS(-); n=17). rMal d 1 coupled to the microarray constitutes a discriminative marker between OAS(+) and HC with a sensitivity 95% and a specificity of 100%. However, in parallel with the traditional sIgE assay, 15 out of 17 OAS(-) individuals (88%) also displayed IgE reactivity to rMal d 1 coupled to the microarray. OAS(-) individuals are more frequently sensitized to mite (about three to four times), cat and dog dander (about two to three times) and grass pollen (about 1.5 times) as compared with OAS(+) patients. At first glance, CRD by microarray seems to be a reliable instrument in the diagnosis of apple-mediated OAS in birch pollen allergy. However, for discriminating between sensitization and a real allergy, micro-arrayed rMal d 1 offers no advantage over conventional quantification of rMal d 1 sIgE. Most interestingly, within a single run, birch pollen-allergic patients without OAS to apple were shown to display a broader sensitization to classical inhalant allergens than birch pollen-allergic patients with an apple-related OAS.

  1. Hyaluronidase facilitated subcutaneous immunoglobulin in primary immunodeficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolles S

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Stephen Jolles Department of Immunology, University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff, UK Abstract: Immunoglobulin (Ig-replacement therapy represents the mainstay of treatment for patients with primary antibody deficiency and is administered either intravenously (IVIg or subcutaneously (SCIg. While hyaluronidase has been used in clinical practice for over 50 years, the development of a high-purity recombinant form of this enzyme (recombinant human hyaluronidase PH20 has recently enabled the study of repeated and more prolonged use of hyaluronidase in facilitating the delivery of SC medicines. It has been used in a wide range of clinical settings to give antibiotics, local anesthetics, insulin, morphine, fluid replacement, and larger molecules, such as antibodies. Hyaluronidase has been used to help overcome the limitations on the maximum volume that can be delivered into the SC space by enabling dispersion of SCIg and its absorption into lymphatics. The rate of facilitated SCIg (fSCIg infusion is equivalent to that of IVIg, and the volume administered at a single site can be greater than 700 mL, a huge increase over conventional SCIg, at 20–40 mL. The use of fSCIg avoids the higher incidence of systemic side effects of IVIg, and it has higher bioavailability than SCIg. Data on the long-term safety of this approach are currently lacking, as fSCIg has only recently become available. fSCIg may help several areas of patient management in primary antibody deficiency, and the extent to which it may be used in future will depend on long-term safety data and cost–benefit analysis. Keywords: enzyme facilitated IgG infusion, recombinant human hyaluronidase PH20, subcutaneous immunoglobulin, intravenous immunoglobulin, primary immunodeficiency disease

  2. Genetic compatibility determines endophyte-grass combinations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Saikkonen

    Full Text Available Even highly mutually beneficial microbial-plant interactions, such as mycorrhizal- and rhizobial-plant exchanges, involve selfishness, cheating and power-struggles between the partners, which depending on prevailing selective pressures, lead to a continuum of interactions from antagonistic to mutualistic. Using manipulated grass-endophyte combinations in a five year common garden experiment, we show that grass genotypes and genetic mismatches constrain genetic combinations between the vertically (via host seeds transmitted endophytes and the out-crossing host, thereby reducing infections in established grass populations. Infections were lost in both grass tillers and seedlings in F(1 and F(2 generations, respectively. Experimental plants were collected as seeds from two different environments, i.e., meadows and nearby riverbanks. Endophyte-related benefits to the host included an increased number of inflorescences, but only in meadow plants and not until the last growing season of the experiment. Our results illustrate the importance of genetic host specificity and trans-generational maternal effects on the genetic structure of a host population, which act as destabilizing forces in endophyte-grass symbioses. We propose that (1 genetic mismatches may act as a buffering mechanism against highly competitive endophyte-grass genotype combinations threatening the biodiversity of grassland communities and (2 these mismatches should be acknowledged, particularly in breeding programmes aimed at harnessing systemic and heritable endophytes to improve the agriculturally valuable characteristics of cultivars.

  3. Madagascar's grasses and grasslands: anthropogenic or natural?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besnard, Guillaume; Forest, Félix; Malakasi, Panagiota; Moat, Justin; Clayton, W. Derek; Ficinski, Paweł; Savva, George M.; Nanjarisoa, Olinirina P.; Razanatsoa, Jacqueline; Randriatsara, Fetra O.; Kimeu, John M.; Luke, W. R. Quentin; Kayombo, Canisius; Linder, H. Peter

    2016-01-01

    Grasses, by their high productivity even under very low pCO2, their ability to survive repeated burning and to tolerate long dry seasons, have transformed the terrestrial biomes in the Neogene and Quaternary. The expansion of grasslands at the cost of biodiverse forest biomes in Madagascar is often postulated as a consequence of the Holocene settlement of the island by humans. However, we show that the Malagasy grass flora has many indications of being ancient with a long local evolutionary history, much predating the Holocene arrival of humans. First, the level of endemism in the Madagascar grass flora is well above the global average for large islands. Second, a survey of many of the more diverse areas indicates that there is a very high spatial and ecological turnover in the grass flora, indicating a high degree of niche specialization. We also find some evidence that there are both recently disturbed and natural stable grasslands: phylogenetic community assembly indicates that recently severely disturbed grasslands are phylogenetically clustered, whereas more undisturbed grasslands tend to be phylogenetically more evenly distributed. From this evidence, it is likely that grass communities existed in Madagascar long before human arrival and so were determined by climate, natural grazing and other natural factors. Humans introduced zebu cattle farming and increased fire frequency, and may have triggered an expansion of the grasslands. Grasses probably played the same role in the modification of the Malagasy environments as elsewhere in the tropics. PMID:26791612

  4. Investigating atmospheric transport of Ambrosia pollen from the Pannonian Plain towards the Balkan region with DEHM-Pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambelas Skjoth, C.

    2009-04-01

    The pollen grains of Ambrosia spp. are considered to be important aeroallergens. The threshold value for clinical symptoms for ragweed pollen grains for the majority of sensitised patients is below 20 grains/m3. Ambrosia pollen appears to induce asthma about twice as often as other pollen. Each ragweed plant produces millions of pollen grains that are small (18-22 μm) and suitable for long-range transport when conditions are favourable. In this study we use DEHM-Pollen to investigate if the Pannonian Plain could be the source area for observed episodes of Ambrosia pollen in the Balkans. A possible Ambrosia pollen inventory for various regions in the Pannonian Plain was constructed using detailed land cover data from Serbia, Hungary, Austria, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovakia, Romania and Czech Republic in combination with measurements of the annual load of Ambrosia pollen in the source areas. A simple unified pollen release model (SUPREME) was calibrated against daily measurements from Novi Sad in Serbia and implemented in DEHM-Pollen with the Ambrosia pollen inventory. Model simulations was then performed with DEHM-Pollen for the months August and September 2007 and compared with measurements from stations outside the Pannonian Plain. The simulations several times indicate regional scale transport from the Pannonian Plain towards the Balkan region including the 26th - 27th of August and the 1st and 2nd September. During these episode air masses passed over parts of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Southern Serbia, Albania and Macedonia. The verifying measurements at Skopje (Macedonia) show episodes of elevated Ambrosia pollen concentration the 26th -27th of August and for the 1st and 2nd of September. The model experiments with DEHM-Pollen strongly indicate that the Pannonian Plain alone can be a source to significant Ambrosia pollen concentrations in the Balkans. The methods and the model results look promising with respect to future numerical forecasting of Ambrosia

  5. Flow cytometric analysis of pollen grains collected from individual bees provides information about pollen load composition and foraging behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kron, Paul; Kwok, Allison; Husband, Brian C

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the species composition of pollen on pollinators has applications in agriculture, conservation and evolutionary biology. Current identification methods, including morphological analysis, cannot always discriminate taxa at the species level. Recent advances in flow cytometry techniques for pollen grains allow rapid testing of large numbers of pollen grains for DNA content, potentially providing improved species resolution. A test was made as to whether pollen loads from single bees (honey-bees and bumble-bees) could be classified into types based on DNA content, and whether good estimates of proportions of different types could be made. An examination was also made of how readily DNA content can be used to identify specific pollen species. The method allowed DNA contents to be quickly found for between 250 and 9391 pollen grains (750-28 173 nuclei) from individual honey-bees and between 81 and 11 512 pollen grains (243-34 537 nuclei) for bumble-bees. It was possible to identify a minimum number of pollen species on each bee and to assign proportions of each pollen type (based on DNA content) present. The information provided by this technique is promising but is affected by the complexity of the pollination environment (i.e. number of flowering species present and extent of overlap in DNA content). Nevertheless, it provides a new tool for examining pollinator behaviour and between-species or cytotype pollen transfer, particularly when used in combination with other morphological, chemical or genetic techniques.

  6. Pollen flow in the distylous Palicourea fendleri (Rubiaceae): an experimental test of the Disassortative Pollen Flow Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Pablo; Bosque, Carlos

    2003-05-01

    The Disassortative Pollen Flow Hypothesis proposed by Darwin postulates that the relative position of anthers and stigmas in distylous flowers enhances pollen flow between flowers of different morphs (legitimate pollination), in comparison to flow between flowers of the same morph (illegitimate pollination). In order to test this hypothesis, we measured pollen transport, mediated by a trained Copper-rumped Hummingbird (Amazilia tobaci), between flowers of the distylous Palicourea fendleri under laboratory conditions. In individual tests, we offered to the hummingbird a pollen donor flower and two emasculated recipient flowers in a controlled sequence. After each foraging bout, we counted the number of pollen grains transported from the donor flower to the stigmas of both recipient flowers. In agreement with Darwin's hypothesis, we found that hummingbirds transport pollen of "pin" flowers in significantly higher numbers to legitimate "thrum" stigmas, even if previously visiting a "pin" flower. However, "thrum" pollen was deposited in greater numbers on illegitimate "thrum" stigmas. We interpret this asymmetry largely as the consequence of floral morphology; pollen flow was greater between anthers and stigmas that exhibit greater spatial matching. In P. fendleri, the position of floral organs along the corolla tube does not always precisely correspond. In our experimental system, the probability that the pollinator extracts a pollen grain from the anther and the probability of self-pollination were both dependent on the type of floral morph. We discuss the relevance of the latter findings in relation to other studies of pollen flow in heterostylous species.

  7. Airborne ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) pollen content in the city of Zagreb and implications on pollen allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peternel, Renata; Music Milanovic, Sanja; Srnec, Lidija

    2008-01-01

    The increasing problem of sensitization to Ambrosia pollen in Europe has stimulated studies on Ambrosia pollen occurrence and pollinosis in Croatia. The aim of this study was to analyze the ragweed pollen pattern in Zagreb and to determine the incidence of sensitization to this pollen types in patients with seasonal respiratory allergy. The study was performed in the city of Zagreb during the 2002-2005 seasons. Skin prick test were performed on a total of 750 patients aged 18-80 in Zagreb between 2 January - 31 December 2004. The mean 4-year rate of ragweed pollen in the Zagreb atmosphere was 14.8% of all plant pollen. The highest rate of airborne ragweed pollen was recorded in August and September. 365 patients were allergic to ragweed pollen; 20.3% of them monosensitized; 10.9% allergic to Ambrosia and Artemisia pollen. Almost all study patients suffered the most severe symptoms in August and September. The highest proportion of allergic patients were recorded in the 31-50 age group and the lowest proportion in the >50 age group. Forecasting of allergenic pollen season in an area is a crucial pursuit for all developed countries, in order to minimize clinical symptoms in patients suffering from respiratory allergy. This can be achieved through public announcements by mass media (radio, television, internet, etc.) aiming to protect allergic individuals.

  8. Comprehensive Cell-specific Protein Analysis in Early and Late Pollen Development from Diploid Microsporocytes to Pollen Tube Growth*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ischebeck, Till; Valledor, Luis; Lyon, David; Gingl, Stephanie; Nagler, Matthias; Meijón, Mónica; Egelhofer, Volker; Weckwerth, Wolfram

    2014-01-01

    Pollen development in angiosperms is one of the most important processes controlling plant reproduction and thus productivity. At the same time, pollen development is highly sensitive to environmental fluctuations, including temperature, drought, and nutrition. Therefore, pollen biology is a major focus in applied studies and breeding approaches for improving plant productivity in a globally changing climate. The most accessible developmental stages of pollen are the mature pollen and the pollen tubes, and these are thus most frequently analyzed. To reveal a complete quantitative proteome map, we additionally addressed the very early stages, analyzing eight stages of tobacco pollen development: diploid microsporocytes, meiosis, tetrads, microspores, polarized microspores, bipolar pollen, desiccated pollen, and pollen tubes. A protocol for the isolation of the early stages was established. Proteins were extracted and analyzed by means of a new gel LC-MS fractionation protocol. In total, 3817 protein groups were identified. Quantitative analysis was performed based on peptide count. Exceedingly stage-specific differential protein regulation was observed during the conversion from the sporophytic to the gametophytic proteome. A map of highly specialized functionality for the different stages could be revealed from the metabolic activity and pronounced differentiation of proteasomal and ribosomal protein complex composition up to protective mechanisms such as high levels of heat shock proteins in the very early stages of development. PMID:24078888

  9. Comprehensive cell-specific protein analysis in early and late pollen development from diploid microsporocytes to pollen tube growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ischebeck, Till; Valledor, Luis; Lyon, David; Gingl, Stephanie; Nagler, Matthias; Meijón, Mónica; Egelhofer, Volker; Weckwerth, Wolfram

    2014-01-01

    Pollen development in angiosperms is one of the most important processes controlling plant reproduction and thus productivity. At the same time, pollen development is highly sensitive to environmental fluctuations, including temperature, drought, and nutrition. Therefore, pollen biology is a major focus in applied studies and breeding approaches for improving plant productivity in a globally changing climate. The most accessible developmental stages of pollen are the mature pollen and the pollen tubes, and these are thus most frequently analyzed. To reveal a complete quantitative proteome map, we additionally addressed the very early stages, analyzing eight stages of tobacco pollen development: diploid microsporocytes, meiosis, tetrads, microspores, polarized microspores, bipolar pollen, desiccated pollen, and pollen tubes. A protocol for the isolation of the early stages was established. Proteins were extracted and analyzed by means of a new gel LC-MS fractionation protocol. In total, 3817 protein groups were identified. Quantitative analysis was performed based on peptide count. Exceedingly stage-specific differential protein regulation was observed during the conversion from the sporophytic to the gametophytic proteome. A map of highly specialized functionality for the different stages could be revealed from the metabolic activity and pronounced differentiation of proteasomal and ribosomal protein complex composition up to protective mechanisms such as high levels of heat shock proteins in the very early stages of development.

  10. Viability of pollen grains of tetraploid banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taliane Leila Soares

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Obtaining banana tetraploid cultivars from triploid strains results in total or partial reestablishment of fertility, allowing the occurrence of some fruits with seeds, a feature that is undesirable from a marketing perspective. The objective of this study was to assess the viability of pollen of 12 banana tetraploid hybrids (AAAB by means of in vitro germination and two histochemical tests (acetocarmine and 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride. The pollen tube growth was evaluated by germinating grains in three culture media — M1: 0.03% Ca(NO3∙4H2O, 0.02% Mg(SO4∙7H2O, 0.01% KNO3, 0.01% H3BO3 and 15% sucrose; M2: 0.03% Ca(NO3∙4H2O, 0.01% KNO3, 0.01% H3BO3 and 10% sucrose; and M3: 0.015% H3BO3, 0.045% Ca3(PO42 and 25% sucrose. The acetocarmine staining indicated high viability (above 80%, except for the genotypes YB42-17 and Caprichosa, which were 76 and 70%, respectively. However, the in vitro germination rate was lower than 50% for all the genotypes, except for the hybrids YB42-17 (M1 and YB42-47 (M1. The medium M1 provided the greatest germination percentage and pollen tube growth. Among the genotypes assessed, YB42-47 presented the highest germination rate (61.5% and tube length (5.0 mm. On the other hand, the Vitória cultivar had the lowest germination percentage (8.2% in medium M1. Studies of meiosis can shed more light on the differences observed in the evaluated tetraploids, since meiotic irregularities can affect pollen viability.

  11. Wind gusts and plant aeroelasticity effects on the aerodynamics of pollen shedding: a hypothetical turbulence-initiated wind-pollination mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urzay, Javier; Llewellyn Smith, Stefan G; Thompson, Elinor; Glover, Beverley J

    2009-08-21

    Plant reproduction depends on pollen dispersal. For anemophilous (wind-pollinated) species, such as grasses and many trees, shedding pollen from the anther must be accomplished by physical mechanisms. The unknown nature of this process has led to its description as the 'paradox of pollen liberation'. A simple scaling analysis, supported by experimental measurements on typical wind-pollinated plant species, is used to estimate the suitability of previous resolutions of this paradox based on wind-gust aerodynamic models of fungal-spore liberation. According to this scaling analysis, the steady Stokes drag force is found to be large enough to liberate anemophilous pollen grains, and unsteady boundary-layer forces produced by wind gusts are found to be mostly ineffective since the ratio of the characteristic viscous time scale to the inertial time scale of acceleration of the wind stream is a small parameter for typical anemophilous species. A hypothetical model of a stochastic aeroelastic mechanism, initiated by the atmospheric turbulence typical of the micrometeorological conditions in the vicinity of the plant, is proposed to contribute to wind pollination.

  12. Pollen DNA barcoding: current applications and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Karen L; de Vere, Natasha; Keller, Alexander; Richardson, Rodney T; Gous, Annemarie; Burgess, Kevin S; Brosi, Berry J

    2016-09-01

    Identification of the species origin of pollen has many applications, including assessment of plant-pollinator networks, reconstruction of ancient plant communities, product authentication, allergen monitoring, and forensics. Such applications, however, have previously been limited by microscopy-based identification of pollen, which is slow, has low taxonomic resolution, and has few expert practitioners. One alternative is pollen DNA barcoding, which could overcome these issues. Recent studies demonstrate that both chloroplast and nuclear barcoding markers can be amplified from pollen. These recent validations of pollen metabarcoding indicate that now is the time for researchers in various fields to consider applying these methods to their research programs. In this paper, we review the nascent field of pollen DNA barcoding and discuss potential new applications of this technology, highlighting existing limitations and future research developments that will improve its utility in a wide range of applications.

  13. Analysis of airborne pollen grains in Bilecik, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türe, Cengiz; Böcük, Harun

    2009-04-01

    In this study, pollen grains in the atmosphere of Bilecik were studied for a continuous period of 2 years (2005 and 2006) by using Durham sampler. During this period, pollen grains belonging to 46 taxa were recorded, 26 of which belonged to arboreal plants and 20 to non-arboreal. Of total 14,269 pollen grains determined in Bilecik atmosphere, 6,675 were recorded in 2005 and 7,594 were in 2006. From these, 75.74% were arboreal, 21.80% were non-arboreal and 2.47% unidentifiable. Pinus sp., Poaceae, Cupressaceae, Platanus sp., Quercus sp., Salix sp., Ailanthus sp., Fagus sp., Urticaceae, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae were the main pollen producers in the atmosphere of Bilecik, respectively. Pollen concentrations reached their highest levels in May. Atmospheric pollen concentrations in February, March, September, October and November were less than those in other months.

  14. Allergenic cross-reactivity among pollens of Urticaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbí, A L; Cortes, C; Bousquet, J; Basomba, A; Cistero, A; Garcia-Selles, J; d'Amato, G; Carreira, J

    1985-01-01

    Common antigenic determinants have been observed between Parietaria and Urtica dioica pollen. The four Parietaria pollens selected (P. judaica, P. officinalis, P. lusitanica and P. mauritanica) are shown to possess a high allergenic homology. IgE-binding structures, homologous to the P. judaica main allergenic polypeptide (Pj10), were found in the other species by immunodetection. Monoclonal antibodies specific to the Pj10 polypeptide recognized proteins from the four Parietaria pollens. Skin prick test and RAST inhibition yielded results that also indicated a high allergenic cross-reactivity among these pollens, with homologous peptides bearing common antigenic and allergenic determinants. On the other hand, U. dioica pollen showed only a slight allergenic similarity to Parietaria. The potential allergenic activity of these pollens is discussed.

  15. Variation patterns of pollen production in palm flowers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alapetite, Elodie; Barfod, Anders; Albert, Beatrice

    2016-01-01

    in polyandrous species ranges from 8-9 to several hundreds. It is often heard that the more stamens are produced, the more pollen is produced, particularly in the case of the so-called “pollen flowers”, i.e. flowers in which pollen is the main food resource for floral visitors. However, the correlation between...... pollen production and stamen number has never been so far investigated. The diversity in stamen number observed among palms species and genera provides an ideal case study to test for such a correlation, taking into account phylogenetic constraints. Based on a survey of flowers from 82 species...... representative of the various palm tribes and compared it to stamen number, we show that pollen production in palms ranges from hundreds to millions grains. There is a relationship between stamen number and pollen production in our sampling, particularly in Coryphoideae and Arecoideae where there is a tendency...

  16. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion therapy in type 1 diabetes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-01-14

    Jan 14, 2013 ... Guidelines: Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion pump therapy in type 1 diabetes. 15. 2013 Volume 18 No 1. JEMDSA. Introduction. The first external insulin pump device to deliver continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII or “insulin pump”) therapy was used more than 30 years ago.

  17. The comparison of the intestinal adaptation effects of subcutaneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: Insulin has been reported to have positive effects on intestinal adaptation after short bowel syndrome when applicated oral or subcutaneously. The purpose of this study is to compare the intestinal adaptation effects of subcutaneous and oral routes of insulin in rats with short bowel syndrome. Materials and Methods: ...

  18. Cost-minimization of mabthera intravenous versus subcutaneous administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bax, P.; Postma, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To identify and compare all costs related to preparing and administrating MabThera for the intravenous and subcutaneous formulations in Dutch hematological patients. The a priori notion is that the costs of subcutaneous MabThera injections are lower compared to intravenous infusion due

  19. Hypercalcemia in Association With Subcutaneous Fat Necrosis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The case of a four weeks-old girl with subcutaneous fat necrosis and associated hypercalcemia is presented. Subcutaneous Fat Necrosis of the New born (SCFN) is an uncommon disorder which is rarely complicated with life threatening hypercalcemia. Though it is reported from many parts of the world this is the first case ...

  20. Determination of irritant threshold concentrations of multiple tree, grass, weed and mould allergens for intradermal testing of horses residing in the southern USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Martha J; Pucheu-Haston, Cherie M; Kearney, Michael T; Woodward, Michelle

    2017-12-01

    Appropriate allergen threshold concentrations (TCs) for intradermal testing (IDT) have not been established in horses for many pollen and mould allergens. To determine the TCs in non-allergic horses and describe the frequency of late phase reactions for 26 allergens, including trees, grasses, weeds and moulds in horses residing in the southern Unites States. Twenty four clinically normal horses in the southern United States. Threshold concentrations for different allergens were determined using IDT subjective measurements at 30 minutes. Delayed reactions were evaluated at 4 and 24 h. Threshold concentrations (all PNU/mL) were established for eight tree allergens (black willow 1,000, box elder 1,000, live oak 1,000, pecan 2,000, white ash 4,000, red oak 4,000, red mulberry 2,000 and green ash 2,000); two grass allergens (Johnson grass 250 PNU/mL and Kentucky blue grass 500 PNU/mL); two weeds (carelessweed 1,000 PNU/mL, great ragweed 500 PNU/mL) and one mould (Curvularia 8,000 PNU/mL). The TC was not determined due to excessive reactivity at the lowest concentration tested (1,000 PNU/mL) for bahia and perennial rye grass. Eleven other allergens did not meet the criteria to establish a TC when evaluated at 30 min due to lack of positive reactions. Multiple allergens caused positive reactions in ≥10% of horses at 4 h. Reactions at 24 h were rare with the exception of one horse. This study identified intradermal TC for multiple pollen and mould allergens in horses. These values may prove useful for optimizing allergen concentrations for IDT of allergic horses. © 2017 ESVD and ACVD.