WorldWideScience

Sample records for subcritical single reheat

  1. Exergy Analysis of a Subcritical Reheat Steam Power Plant with Regression Modeling and Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHIB ALI RAJPER

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, exergy analysis of a 210 MW SPP (Steam Power Plant is performed. Firstly, the plant is modeled and validated, followed by a parametric study to show the effects of various operating parameters on the performance parameters. The net power output, energy efficiency, and exergy efficiency are taken as the performance parameters, while the condenser pressure, main steam pressure, bled steam pressures, main steam temperature, and reheat steam temperature isnominated as the operating parameters. Moreover, multiple polynomial regression models are developed to correlate each performance parameter with the operating parameters. The performance is then optimizedby using Direct-searchmethod. According to the results, the net power output, energy efficiency, and exergy efficiency are calculated as 186.5 MW, 31.37 and 30.41%, respectively under normal operating conditions as a base case. The condenser is a major contributor towards the energy loss, followed by the boiler, whereas the highest irreversibilities occur in the boiler and turbine. According to the parametric study, variation in the operating parameters greatly influences the performance parameters. The regression models have appeared to be a good estimator of the performance parameters. The optimum net power output, energy efficiency and exergy efficiency are obtained as 227.6 MW, 37.4 and 36.4, respectively, which have been calculated along with optimal values of selected operating parameters.

  2. PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF THE SINGLE-PARAMETER SUBCRITICAL MASS LIMIT FOR PLUTONIUM METAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MITCHELL, MARK VON [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-01-10

    According to ANS-8.1, operations with fissile materials can be performed safely by complying with any of the listed single-parameter subcritical limits. For metallic units, when interspersed moderators are present, the mass limits apply to a single piece having no concave surfaces. On a practical level, when has any operation with fissile metal involved a single piece and absolutely no moderating material, e.g., water, oil, plastic, etc.? This would be rare. This paper explores the application of the single-parameter plutonium metal mass limit for realistic operational environments.

  3. First reactivity determination of a subcritical reactor using a single beam-trip and fission chambers operating in current mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Ordonez, M.; Villamarin, D.; Becares, V.; Gonzalez-Romero, E.M. [Nuclear Innovation Group, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense, Madrid (Spain); Bergloef, C. [Reactor Physics Department, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Bournos, V.; Fokov, Y.; Kiyavitskaya, H. [Joint Institute for Power and Nuclear Research, National Academy of Sciences, Minsk (Belarus)

    2009-06-15

    Transmutation of spent nuclear fuel in Accelerator-Driven Systems (ADS) is considered as a key technology for achieving sustainable nuclear energy. In the design of future ADS facilities, the reactivity monitoring system is of highest importance. An extensive experimental program devoted to reactivity monitoring of ADS has been carried out at the subcritical facility YALINA-Booster in the framework of IP-EUROTRANS. The main objective, besides the qualification of the reactivity monitoring techniques, has been to develop electronic chains that can be used in a full power ADS. For this purpose, YALINA-Booster couples a D-T neutron generator to a flexible zero-power subcritical assembly with a coupled fast-thermal neutron spectrum. The high intensity of the accelerator and the possibility to work in continuous or pulsed mode allowed the study of the current-to-flux relationship and beam-trip experiments. In addition, the experimental facility provided the opportunity to test electronic chains in current mode, which correspond to the most probable condition in a full power ADS. There exists a relationship between the reactivity of a subcritical core, the intensity of the accelerator and the neutron source intensity. Hence, by monitoring these three quantities it should be possible to determine the origin of any reactivity or power change within the subcritical assembly. We have developed the necessary acquisition system to monitor the conditions of these three variables in the millisecond scale. The current-to-flux technique provides relative changes in the behavior of the core, however, in order to determine absolute values of the reactivity, we have taken profit of short imposed beam interruptions in the millisecond scale, thus providing the possibility for applying the Source-Jerk method within few milliseconds. It is the first time that the reactivity of an ADS is determined in a single beam-trip using fission chambers operating in current mode. The experiments

  4. Observing inflationary reheating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jérôme; Ringeval, Christophe; Vennin, Vincent

    2015-02-27

    Reheating is the epoch which connects inflation to the subsequent hot big-bang phase. Conceptually very important, this era is, however, observationally poorly known. We show that the current Planck satellite measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies constrain the kinematic properties of the reheating era for most of the inflationary models. This result is obtained by deriving the marginalized posterior distributions of the reheating parameter for about 200 models of slow-roll inflation. Weighted by the statistical evidence of each model to explain the data, we show that the Planck 2013 measurements induce an average reduction of the posterior-to-prior volume by 40%. Making some additional assumptions on reheating, such as specifying a mean equation of state parameter, or focusing the analysis on peculiar scenarios, can enhance or reduce this constraint. Our study also indicates that the Bayesian evidence of a model can substantially be affected by the reheating properties. The precision of the current CMB data is therefore such that estimating the observational performance of a model now requires incorporating information about its reheating history.

  5. Reheating-era leptogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuta Hamada

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel leptogenesis scenario at the reheating era. Our setup is minimal in the sense that, in addition to the standard model Lagrangian, we only consider an inflaton and higher dimensional operators. The lepton number asymmetry is produced not by the decay of a heavy particle, but by the scattering between the standard model particles. After the decay of an inflaton, the model is described within the standard model with higher dimensional operators. The Sakharov's three conditions are satisfied by the following way. The violation of the lepton number is realized by the dimension-5 operator. The complex phase comes from the dimension-6 four lepton operator. The universe is out of equilibrium before the reheating is completed. It is found that the successful baryogenesis is realized for the wide range of parameters, the inflaton mass and reheating temperature, depending on the cutoff scale. Since we only rely on the effective Lagrangian, our scenario can be applicable to all mechanisms to generate neutrino Majorana masses.

  6. Reheating-era leptogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, Yuta, E-mail: hamada@gauge.scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Kawana, Kiyoharu

    2016-12-10

    We propose a novel leptogenesis scenario at the reheating era. Our setup is minimal in the sense that, in addition to the standard model Lagrangian, we only consider an inflaton and higher dimensional operators. The lepton number asymmetry is produced not by the decay of a heavy particle, but by the scattering between the standard model particles. After the decay of an inflaton, the model is described within the standard model with higher dimensional operators. The Sakharov's three conditions are satisfied by the following way. The violation of the lepton number is realized by the dimension-5 operator. The complex phase comes from the dimension-6 four lepton operator. The universe is out of equilibrium before the reheating is completed. It is found that the successful baryogenesis is realized for the wide range of parameters, the inflaton mass and reheating temperature, depending on the cutoff scale. Since we only rely on the effective Lagrangian, our scenario can be applicable to all mechanisms to generate neutrino Majorana masses.

  7. Constrained superfields from inflation to reheating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Dalianis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We construct effective supergravity theories from customized constrained superfields which provide a setup consistent both for the description of inflation and the subsequent reheating processes. These theories contain the minimum degrees of freedom in the bosonic sector required for single-field inflation.

  8. Reheating for closed string inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cicoli, Michele [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Mazumdar, Anupam [Lancaster Univ. (United Kingdom). Physics Dept.; Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark). Niels Bohr Institute

    2010-05-15

    We point out some of the outstanding challenges for embedding inflationary cosmology within string theory studying the process of reheating for models where the inflaton is a closed string mode parameterising the size of an internal cycle of the compactification manifold. A realistic model of inflation must explain the tiny perturbations in the cosmic microwave background radiation and also how to excite the ordinary matter degrees of freedom after inflation, required for the success of Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. We study these issues focusing on two promising inflationary models embedded in LARGE volume type IIB flux compactifications. We show that phenomenological requirements and consistency of the effective field theory treatment imply the presence at low energies of a hidden sector together with a visible sector, where the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model fields are residing. A detailed calculation of the inflaton coupling to the fields of the hidden sector, visible sector, and moduli sector, reveals that the inflaton fails to excite primarily the visible sector fields, instead hidden sector fields are excited copiously after the end of inflation. This sets severe constraints on hidden sector model building where the most promising scenario emerges as a pure N=1 SYM theory, forbidding the kinematical decay of the inflaton to the hidden sector. In this case it is possible to reheat the Universe with the visible degrees of freedom even though in some cases we discover a new tension between TeV scale SUSY and reheating on top of the well-known tension between TeV scale SUSY and inflation. (orig.)

  9. Reheating of the Universe as holographic thermalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawai, Shinsuke, E-mail: shinsuke.kawai@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 16419 (Korea, Republic of); Nakayama, Yu [California Institute of Technology, 452-48, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan)

    2016-08-10

    Assuming gauge/gravity correspondence we study reheating of the Universe using its holographic dual. Inflaton decay and thermalisation of the decay products correspond to collapse of a spherical shell and formation of a blackhole in the dual anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime. The reheating temperature is computed as the Hawking temperature of the developed blackhole probed by a dynamical boundary, and is determined by the inflaton energy density and the AdS radius, with corrections from the dynamics of the shell collapse. For given initial energy density of the inflaton field the holographic model typically gives lower reheating temperature than the instant reheating scenario, while it is shown to be safely within phenomenological bounds.

  10. Reheating of the Universe as holographic thermalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinsuke Kawai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Assuming gauge/gravity correspondence we study reheating of the Universe using its holographic dual. Inflaton decay and thermalisation of the decay products correspond to collapse of a spherical shell and formation of a blackhole in the dual anti-de Sitter (AdS spacetime. The reheating temperature is computed as the Hawking temperature of the developed blackhole probed by a dynamical boundary, and is determined by the inflaton energy density and the AdS radius, with corrections from the dynamics of the shell collapse. For given initial energy density of the inflaton field the holographic model typically gives lower reheating temperature than the instant reheating scenario, while it is shown to be safely within phenomenological bounds.

  11. [Research on Temporal and Spatial Evolution of Reheating Double-Pulse Laser-Induced Plasma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing-ge; Fu, Hong-bo; Ni, Zhi-bo; He, Wen-gan; Chen, Xing-long; Dong, Feng-zhong

    2016-03-01

    In order to investigate the emission enhancement mechanisms of reheating Double Pulse Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (DP-LIBS), single pulse LIBS (SP-LIBS) and reheating DP-LIBS were carried out on an alloy steel sample respectively. The plasma emission was collected by an Echelle spectrometer with high resolution, while the plasma structure was monitored via fast-photography. The temporal and spatial evolutio ns of the plasma generated by SP-LIBS and reheating DP-LIBS were being studied. It is found that the plasma temperature in reheating DP-LIBS was higher than that of SP-LIBS, and there was a turning point for the decay rate of plasma temperature in reheating DP-LIBS when the delay time was equal to the interpulse time of DP-LIBS. Moreover, the inte nsity of the plasma image was increased by reheating DP-LIBS, and the height and width of the central region of the plasma were increased about 23.5% and 15.1% respectively. The results of spatial distribution showed that the intensity of Fe II and N I lines in the plasma were obviously enhanced by reheating DP-LIBS when the distance from the sample surface was larger than 0.6 mm. While the intensity enhancement for Fe I lines were little, even in some positio ns the intensity of Fe I lines decreased. The plasma temperature of double-pulse configuration was about 2 000 K higher than that of SP-LIBS, and a larger hot region in the plasma was generated. It is evidenced that the emission enhancement mechanisms in reheating DP-LIBS is that the second laser pulse re-excited the plasma induced by the first laser pulse, and the higher plasma temperature resulted from the re-exciting process.

  12. Effect of Dynamic Reheating Induced by Weaving on the Microstructure of GTAW Weld Metal of 25% Cr Super Duplex Stainless Steel Weld Metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Joon Sung

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the additional growth and/or transformation of the austenite phase that occurs in weld metals of super duplex stainless steel upon reheating is known. However, the effects have not been fully investigated, especially with respect to reheating induced by weaving during single-pass welding. In this work, bead-on-pipe gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW was conducted on super duplex stainless steel to understand the effect of weaving on the microstructure of weld metal. Microstructural analysis, electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD, and focused ion beam transmission electron microscopy (FIB-TEM were carried out to investigate the relationship between weaving and microstructural change. The weaving of GTAW produced a dynamic reheated area just before the weld bead during welding. It was revealed that extensive reheated weld existed even after one welding pass, and that the content of the austenite phase in the reheated area was higher than that in the non-reheated area, indicating the existence of a large quantity of intragranular austenite phase. In addition, the Cr2N content in the reheated area was lower than that in the non-reheated area. This reduction of Cr2N was closely related to the reheating resulting from weaving. TEM analysis revealed that Cr2N in the non-reheated area was dispersed following heating and transformed to secondary austenite.

  13. Mechanisms of Subcritical Cracking in Calcite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royne, A.; Dysthe, D. K.; Bisschop, J.

    2008-12-01

    microplasticity (pile-up of dislocations in the process zone around the crack tip). In our experiment, we study the subcritical growth of a cleavage crack through a single calcite crystal. We use the well documented Double Torsion method which allows for easy study of a tensile crack growing in the specimen. We find that the environmental conditions, and in particular the availability of water, has a significant influence on both the crack tip velocity at a given load, but also the behaviour of the crack movement. Based on our experimental data, we propose what mechanisms are dominant for subcritical crack growth in calcite at various load levels.

  14. Production of massive particles during reheating

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, D J H; Riotto, Antonio; Chung, Daniel J. H.; Kolb, Edward W.; Riotto, Antonio

    1999-01-01

    What is commonly called the reheat temperature, $T_{RH}$, is not the maximum temperature obtained after inflation. The maximum temperature is, in fact, much larger than $T_{RH}$. As an application of this we consider the production of massive stable dark-matter particles of mass $M_X$ during reheating, and show that their abundance is suppressed as a power of $T_{RH}/M_X$ rather than times the reheat temperature may be produced in interesting abundance. In addition to dark matter, our analysis is relevant for baryogenesis if the baryon asymmetry is produced by the baryon (or lepton) number violating decays of superheavy bosons, and also for relic ultra-high energy cosmic rays if decays of superheavy particles are responsible for the highest energy cosmic rays.

  15. Non-perturbative reheating and Nnaturalness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Edward

    2017-11-01

    We study models in which reheating happens only through non-perturbative processes. The energy transferred can be exponentially suppressed unless the inflaton is coupled to a particle with a parametrically small mass. Additionally, in some models a light scalar with a negative mass squared parameter leads to much more efficient reheating than one with a positive mass squared of the same magnitude. If a theory contains many sectors similar to the Standard Model coupled to the inflaton via their Higgses, such dynamics can realise the Nnaturalness solution to the hierarchy problem. A sector containing a light Higgs with a non-zero vacuum expectation value is dominantly reheated and there is little energy transferred to the other sectors, consistent with cosmological constraints. The inflaton must decouple from other particles and have a flat potential at large field values, in which case the visible sector UV cutoff can be raised to 10 TeV in a simple model.

  16. Subcritical multiplication determination studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estes, G.P.; Goulding, C.A.

    1995-07-01

    A series of measurements and improvements to computational techniques are in progress at Los Alamos National Laboratory that are aimed at better understanding the determination of the reactivity of subcritical systems from measurements of the apparent multiplication of the system. Such studies are being performed in order to improve the special nuclear material (SNM) assays of unknown systems such as those encountered in SNM safeguards, arms-control verification, imports of foreign-generated SNM, etc. Improved techniques and understanding are needed since measured multiplication is not always an invariant characteristic of a subcritical system, especially if one has a system with no significant intrinsic internal neutron source that is illuminated nonuniformly with an external source (i.e., a non-normal mode system).

  17. Heat Pipe Precools and Reheats Dehumidified Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koning, R. C.; Boggs, W. H.; Barnett, U. R.; Dinh, K.

    1986-01-01

    Precooling and reheating by heat pipe reduces operating costs of air-conditioning. Warm air returned from air-conditioned space and cooled air supplied are precooled and reheated, respectively, by each other through a heat pipe. Heat-pipe technology brought to bear on problem of conserving airconditioning energy in hot, humid environments. Any increase in the cost of equipment due to installation of heat-pipe heat exchangers expected to be recovered in energy savings during service period of 2 years or less.

  18. Quantum Subcritical Bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uesugi, T.; Morikawa, M.; Shiromizu, T.

    1996-08-01

    We quantize subcritical bubbles which are formed in the weakly first order phase transition. We find that the typical size of the thermal fluctuation reduces in quantum-statistical physics. We estimate the typical size and the amplitude of thermal fluctuations near the critical temperature in the electroweak phase transition using a quantum statistical average. Furthermore, based on our study, we discuss implications for the dynamics of phase transitions.

  19. Subcritical nuclear assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega C, H. R., E-mail: fermineutron@yahoo.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2014-08-15

    A Subcritical Nuclear Assembly is a device where the nuclear-fission chain reaction is initiated and maintained using an external neutron source. It is a valuable educational and research tool where in a safe way many reactor parameters can be measured. Here, we have used the Wigner-Seitz method in the six-factor formula to calculate the effective multiplication factor of a subcritical nuclear reactor Nuclear Chicago model 9000. This reactor has approximately 2500 kg of natural uranium heterogeneously distributed in slugs. The reactor uses a {sup 239}PuBe neutron source that is located in the center of an hexagonal array. Using Monte Carlo methods, with the MCNP5 code, a three-dimensional model of the subcritical reactor was designed to estimate the effective multiplication factor, the neutron spectra, the total and thermal neutron fluences along the radial and axial axis. With the neutron spectra in two locations outside the reactor the ambient dose equivalent were estimated. (Author)

  20. No-reheat air-conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obler, H. D.

    1980-01-01

    Air conditioning system, for environmentally controlled areas containing sensitive equipment, regulates temperature and humidity without wasteful and costly reheating. System blends outside air with return air as dictated by various sensors to ensure required humidity in cooled spaces (such as computer room).

  1. Quantifying the reheating temperature of the universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupam Mazumdar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to determine an exact definition of the reheat temperature for a generic perturbative decay of the inflaton. In order to estimate the reheat temperature, there are two important conditions one needs to satisfy: (a the decay products of the inflaton must dominate the energy density of the universe, i.e. the universe becomes completely radiation dominated, and (b the decay products of the inflaton have attained local thermodynamical equilibrium. For some choices of parameters, the latter is a more stringent condition, such that the decay products may thermalise much after the beginning of radiation–domination. Consequently, we have obtained that the reheat temperature can be much lower than the standard-lore estimation. In this paper we describe under what conditions our universe could have efficient or inefficient thermalisation, and quantify the reheat temperature for both the scenarios. This result has an immediate impact on many applications which rely on the thermal history of the universe, in particular gravitino abundance.

  2. Reheat cracking susceptibility of P23 (7CrWVMoNb9-6) steel welds made using matching and mis-matching filler metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nevasmaa, Pekka; Salonen, Jorma; Auerkari, Pertti; Rantala, Juhani; Holmstroem, Stefan [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2010-07-01

    Reheat cracking sensitivity of 7CrWVMoNb9-6 (P23) thick-section multipass welds has been investigated by Gleeble simulation, mechanical testing, fractography and metallography. The results demonstrate that the experimental weld metal made using a high-Nb-W-Ti-B type filler metal was sensitive to reheat cracking, with a reduction of area no more than 2-3% in the BWI reheat cracking (RC) test. Welds made using a high-W -low-Ti type filler metal with Nb content similar to the parent steel, as well as welds make using a Ni-Nb-Ti-free-(W-free) type filler metal with the chemical composition closer to P24 grade material, were more ductile and crack-resistant, though with reduced cross-weld creep strength. Fractography of RC test specimens showed evidence of pronounced localisation of damage at the prior austenite grain boundaries of the thermally reheated, experimental P23 weld metal. The reheat cracking susceptibility of the less ductile weld metal was apparently related both to the chemical composition (higher B, Nb and Ti content) and sub-structural features of the coarse-grained reheated weld metal microstructure. Appropriate single- and multi-cycle thermal Gleeble simulations to produce representative HAY and reheated weld metal microstructures (as function of peak temperature), in conjunction with the BWI RC test were successfully applied to characterise the reheat cracking sensitivity of the candidate weld metals and parent steel HAZ. (orig.)

  3. The importance of longer wavelength reheating in dual-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coons, R. W.; Harilal, S. S.; Hassan, S. M.; Hassanein, A.

    2012-06-01

    Dual-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) provides improved sensitivity compared to conventional single-pulse LIBS. We used a combination of Nd: yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) and CO2 lasers to improve the sensitivity of LIBS. Significant emission intensity enhancement is noticed for both excited neutral lines and ionic lines for dual-pulse LIBS compared to single-pulse LIBS. However, the enhancement factor is found to be dependend on the energy levels of the lines, and resonance lines provided maximum enhancement. Our results indicate that IR reheating will cause significant improvement in sensitivity, regardless of the conditions, even with an unfocused reheating beam. The improved sensitivity with a YAG-CO2 laser combination is caused by the effective reheating of the pre-plume with a longer wavelength laser is due to efficient inverse Bremsstrahlung absorption. The role of the spot sizes, inter-pulse delay times, energies of the preheating and reheating pulses on the LIBS sensitivity improvements are discussed.

  4. Accelerator driven sub-critical core

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Peter M; Sattarov, Akhdiyor

    2015-03-17

    Systems and methods for operating an accelerator driven sub-critical core. In one embodiment, a fission power generator includes a sub-critical core and a plurality of proton beam generators. Each of the proton beam generators is configured to concurrently provide a proton beam into a different area of the sub-critical core. Each proton beam scatters neutrons within the sub-critical core. The plurality of proton beam generators provides aggregate power to the sub-critical core, via the proton beams, to scatter neutrons sufficient to initiate fission in the sub-critical core.

  5. Constrains on Kähler moduli inflation from reheating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Sukannya; Dutta, Koushik; Maharana, Anshuman

    2017-10-01

    We present predictions of the Kähler moduli inflation model for the spectral tilt by parametrizing the reheating epoch by an effective equation-of-state parameter and the number of e-foldings of reheating; and taking into account the post-inflationary history of the model. This model has an epoch in which the energy density of the universe is dominated by cold moduli particles. We compare our results with data from the Planck mission and find that exotic reheating (with effective equation of state wre greater than 1 /3 ) or dark radiation is required to match the observations. For canonical reheating case with wre=0 , we deduce log10(Tre/103 GeV )≃1190 (ns-0.956 ). We also analyze our results in the context of observations being planned for the future and their projected sensitivities.

  6. Inflation and Reheating in Spontaneously Generated Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Cerioni, A; Tronconi, A; Venturi, G

    2010-01-01

    Inflation is studied in the context of induced gravity (IG) $\\gamma \\sigma^2 R$, where $R$ is the Ricci scalar, $\\sigma$ a scalar field and $\\gamma$ a dimensionless constant, and diverse symmetry-breaking potentials $V(\\sigma)$ are considered. In particular we compared the predictions for Landau-Ginzburg (LG) and Coleman-Weinberg (CW) type potentials and their possible generalizations with the most recent data. We find that large field inflation generally leads to fewer constraints on the parameters and the shape of the potential whereas small field inflation is more problematic and, if viable, implies more constraints, in particular on the parameter $\\gamma$. We also examined the reheating phase and obtained an accurate analytical solution for the dynamics of inflaton and the Hubble parameter by using a multiple scale analysis (MSA). The solutions were then used to study the average expansion of the Universe, the average equation of state for the scalar field and both the perturbative and resonant decays of ...

  7. Device and Container for Reheating and Sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastry, Sudhir K.; Heskitt, Brian F.; Jun, Soojin; Marcy, Joseph E.; Mahna, Ritesh

    2012-01-01

    Long-duration space missions require the development of improved foods and novel packages that do not represent a significant disposal issue. In addition, it would also be desirable if rapid heating technologies could be used on Earth as well, to improve food quality during a sterilization process. For this purpose, a package equipped with electrodes was developed that will enable rapid reheating of contents via ohmic heating to serving temperature during space vehicle transit. Further, the package is designed with a resealing feature, which enables the package, once used, to contain and sterilize waste, including human waste for storage prior to jettison during a long-duration mission. Ohmic heating is a technology that has been investigated on and off for over a century. Literature indicates that foods processed by ohmic heating are of superior quality to their conventionally processed counterparts. This is due to the speed and uniformity of ohmic heating, which minimizes exposure of sensitive materials to high temperatures. In principle, the material may be heated rapidly to sterilization conditions, cooled rapidly, and stored. The ohmic heating device herein is incorporated within a package. While this by itself is not novel, a reusable feature also was developed with the intent that waste may be stored and re-sterilized within the packages. These would then serve a useful function after their use in food processing and storage. The enclosure should be designed to minimize mass (and for NASA's purposes, Equivalent System Mass, or ESM), while enabling the sterilization function. It should also be electrically insulating. For this reason, Ultem high-strength, machinable electrical insulator was used.

  8. Medium capacity reheat steam turbines; Chuyoryo sainetsu joki turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asano, S.; Takahashi, Y.; Moriyama, T. [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-12-12

    Worldwide movements for serious environmental problems and free power marketing, in addition to increasing reheat plants for the gas turbine combined cycle, have increased market needs for medium capacity reheat steam turbines. Fuji Electric has newly developed a high-performance machine to meet the market needs. The machine realizes compactness through optimum design, including the basic turbine construction, valve arrangement and security system, as well as high efficiency by using the new type profile, and is capable of good operation and manipulation using recent digital control technology. (author)

  9. CMB constraints on the inflaton couplings and reheating temperature in α-attractor inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewes, Marco; Kang, Jin U.; Mun, Ui Ri

    2017-11-01

    We study reheating in α-attractor models of inflation in which the inflaton couples to other scalars or fermions. We show that the parameter space contains viable regions in which the inflaton couplings to radiation can be determined from the properties of CMB temperature fluctuations, in particular the spectral index. This may be the only way to measure these fundamental microphysical parameters, which shaped the universe by setting the initial temperature of the hot big bang and contain important information about the embedding of a given model of inflation into a more fundamental theory of physics. The method can be applied to other models of single field inflation.

  10. Subcritical flutter in the acoustics of friction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O.N Kirillov

    2008-01-01

    ...-simple eigenfrequencies at the nodes. At contact with friction pads, the rotating continua, such as the singing wine glass or the squealing disc brake, start to vibrate owing to the subcritical flutter instability...

  11. Development and Investigation of Reactivity Measurement Methods in Subcritical Cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Johanna

    2005-05-01

    Subcriticality measurements during core loading and in future accelerator driven systems have a clear safety relevance. In this thesis two subcriticality methods are treated: the Feynman-alpha and the source modulation method. The Feynman-alpha method is a technique to determine the reactivity from the relative variance of the detector counts during a measurement period. The period length is varied to get the full time dependence of the variance-to-mean. The corresponding theoretical formula was known only with stationary sources. In this thesis, due to its relevance for novel reactivity measurement methods, the Feynman-alpha formulae for pulsed sources for both the stochastic and the deterministic cases are treated. Formulae neglecting as well as including the delayed neutrons are derived. The formulae neglecting delayed neutrons are experimentally verified with quite good agreement. The second reactivity measurement technique investigated in this thesis is the so-called source modulation technique. The theory of the method was elaborated on the assumption of point kinetics, but in practice the method will be applied by using the signal from a single local neutron detector. Applicability of the method therefore assumes point kinetic behaviour of the core. Hence, first the conditions of the point kinetic behaviour of subcritical cores was investigated. After that the performance of the source modulation technique in the general case as well as and in the limit of exact point kinetic behaviour was examined. We obtained the unexpected result that the method has a finite, non-negligible error even in the limit of point kinetic behaviour, and a substantial error in the operation range of future accelerator driven subcritical reactors (ADS). In practice therefore the method needs to be calibrated by some other method for on-line applications.

  12. IMPROVEMENT OF SLAB REHEATING PROCESS AT USIMINAS THROUGH MATHEMATICAL SIMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Adel dos Santos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Basic characteristics and application examples of the mathematical simulator for reheating process in walking-beam type furnaces, that has been developed and applied to Usiminas plate mill line at Ipatinga, are shown in this paper. This is a bi-dimensional mathematical model solved by the finite volume method, validated by temperature measurements inside the slab during heating and coded as a visual tool. Among these applications, the following can be highlighted: (i determination of suitable furnace zone temperatures and residence times for processing steels by accelerated cooling technology; (ii determination of slab average temperature at discharging as well as at each zone exit, supplying data to be fed to the automation system at the comissioning stage; (iii analyses of slab thermal distribution through the reheating process, enabling operational optimization

  13. Connecting CMB anisotropy and cold dark matter phenomenology via reheating

    OpenAIRE

    Maity, Debaprasad; Saha, Pankaj

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the properties of dark matter has been proved to be one of the most challenging problems of particle phenomenology. In this paper, we tried to understand the phenomenology of dark matter in light of very well understood properties of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropy. To connect these two, inflation and its subsequent evolution known as reheating phase play the important role. Following previous analysis, we first established one to one correspondence between the CMB ...

  14. Development of Next Generation Heating System for Scale Free Steel Reheating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Arvind C. Thekdi

    2011-01-27

    The work carried out under this project includes development and design of components, controls, and economic modeling tools that would enable the steel industry to reduce energy intensity through reduction of scale formation during the steel reheating process. Application of scale free reheating offers savings in energy used for production of steel that is lost as scale, and increase in product yield for the global steel industry. The technology can be applied to a new furnace application as well as retrofit design for conversion of existing steel reheating furnaces. The development work has resulted in the knowledge base that will enable the steel industry and steel forging industry us to reheat steel with 75% to 95% reduction in scale formation and associated energy savings during the reheating process. Scale reduction also results in additional energy savings associated with higher yield from reheat furnaces. Energy used for steel production ranges from 9 MM Btu/ton to 16.6 MM Btu/ton or the industry average of approximately 13 MM Btu/ton. Hence, reduction in scale at reheating stage would represent a substantial energy reduction for the steel industry. Potential energy savings for the US steel industry could be in excess of 25 Trillion Btu/year when the technology is applied to all reheating processes. The development work has resulted in new design of reheating process and the required burners and control systems that would allow use of this technology for steel reheating in steel as well as steel forging industries.

  15. The physics of accelerator driven sub-critical reactors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Accelerator driven systems; nuclear waste transmutation; computer codes; reactor physics; reactor noise; kinetics; burnup; transport theory; Monte Carlo; thorium utilization; neutron multiplication; sub-criticality; sub-critical facilities.

  16. Modeling of Parameters of Subcritical Assembly SAD

    CERN Document Server

    Petrochenkov, S; Puzynin, I

    2005-01-01

    The accepted conceptual design of the experimental Subcritical Assembly in Dubna (SAD) is based on the MOX core with a nominal unit capacity of 25 kW (thermal). This corresponds to the multiplication coefficient $k_{\\rm eff} =0.95$ and accelerator beam power 1 kW. A subcritical assembly driven with the existing 660 MeV proton accelerator at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research has been modelled in order to make choice of the optimal parameters for the future experiments. The Monte Carlo method was used to simulate neutron spectra, energy deposition and doses calculations. Some of the calculation results are presented in the paper.

  17. Particle creation and reheating in a braneworld inflationary scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilić, Neven; Domazet, Silvije; Djordjevic, Goran S.

    2017-10-01

    We study the cosmological particle creation in the tachyon inflation based on the D-brane dynamics in the Randall-Sundrum (RSII) model extended to include matter in the bulk. The presence of matter modifies the warp factor which results in two effects: a modification of the RSII cosmology and a modification of the tachyon potential. Besides, a string theory D-brane supports among other fields a U(1) gauge field reflecting open strings attached to the brane. We demonstrate how the interaction of the tachyon with the U(1) gauge field drives cosmological creation of massless particles and estimate the resulting reheating at the end of inflation.

  18. Application of Advanced Process Control techniques to a pusher type reheating furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanoli, S. M.; Pepe, C.; Barboni, L.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper an Advanced Process Control system aimed at controlling and optimizing a pusher type reheating furnace located in an Italian steel plant is proposed. The designed controller replaced the previous control system, based on PID controllers manually conducted by process operators. A two-layer Model Predictive Control architecture has been adopted that, exploiting a chemical, physical and economic modelling of the process, overcomes the limitations of plant operators’ mental model and knowledge. In addition, an ad hoc decoupling strategy has been implemented, allowing the selection of the manipulated variables to be used for the control of each single process variable. Finally, in order to improve the system flexibility and resilience, the controller has been equipped with a supervision module. A profitable trade-off between conflicting specifications, e.g. safety, quality and production constraints, energy saving and pollution impact, has been guaranteed. Simulation tests and real plant results demonstrated the soundness and the reliability of the proposed system.

  19. Natural inflation from 5D SUGRA and low reheat temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Paccetti Correia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by recent cosmological observations of a possibly unsuppressed primordial tensor component r of inflationary perturbations, we reanalyze in detail the 5D conformal SUGRA originated natural inflation model of Ref. [1]. The model is a supersymmetric variant of 5D extranatural inflation, also based on a shift symmetry, and leads to the potential of natural inflation. Coupling the bulk fields generating the inflaton potential via a gauge coupling to the inflaton with brane SM states we necessarily obtain a very slow gauge inflaton decay rate and a very low reheating temperature Tr≲O(100 GeV. Analysis of the required number of e-foldings (from the CMB observations leads to values of ns in the lower range of present Planck 2015 results. Some related theoretical issues of the construction, along with phenomenological and cosmological implications, are also discussed.

  20. MCNP multiplication analysis of subcritical HEU experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estes, G.P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Brockhoff, R.C. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States)

    1998-12-31

    A series of measurements and improvements to computational techniques was described in Ref. 1 that were aimed at better understanding the determination of the reactivity of subcritical systems from measurements of the multiplying characteristics of the system. This methodology has been applied to a number of the bare highly enriched uranium (HEU) measurements (simulating 0.5- to 21.5-kg balls with nesting shells) of Ref. 2, demonstrating that the experimental multiplication results can be reproduced computationally with good accuracy. This capability promises to improve special nuclear material (SNM) assays of unknown systems such as those encountered in SNM safeguards, arms-control verification, imports of foreign-generated SNM, smuggling of SNM, etc. Improved techniques and understanding are needed since traditionally measured or calculated multiplications are not always an invariant characteristic of a subcritical system, especially if one has an SNM system with no significant intrinsic internal neutron source that is illuminated nonuniformly with an external source (i.e., a nonnormal mode system). The measurement techniques used in Refs. 1 and 2 to determine multiplication are based on the Feynman variance-to-mean method, which has been previously documented in Refs. 3 and 4 and applied successfully to normal mode systems such as plutonium and uranium spheres. These techniques have been applied to nonnormal mode problems with less success, and both Refs. 1 and 2 as well as the current paper are attempts to better understand the subcritical multiplication of such systems.

  1. Subcritical neutron production using multiple accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, W.Y.; Jones, J.L. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Harmon, J.F. [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States)

    1994-12-31

    A subcritical neutron production technique using multiple accelerators is being developed to provide a selective alternative (for small volumes) to nuclear reactor neutron production. The concept combines the capabilities of multiple commercially-available linear accelerators and a compact subcritical assembly design to generate reactor-like thermal neutron fluxes (i.e., 10{sup 13}-10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}/s) in small irradiation volumes of up to 500 cm{sup 3}. In addition, fast and epithermal neutron fluxes will also be available. The neutron source utilizes radially-oriented, pulsed, electron accelerators. The subcritical neutron production assembly is in the form of a compact right-cylinder (approximately 20-cm dia.). This assembly uses an outer ring of graphite (i.e., reflector) with re-entrant holes to enable penetration of the electron beam to the internal structure which comprises of uranium as an electron convertor/neutron multiplier followed by H{sub 2}O beryllium, H{sub 2}O aluminum, and D{sub 2}O in succession toward the center. The inner-most region filled with D{sub 2}O is the central irradiation volume. The material configuration and overall design is to maximize thermal neutron fluxes in the central irradiation volume based on photoneutron/photofission and neutron multiplication processes as well as neutron transport. This assembly will be designed not to reach a nuclear critical state under any normal and/or accidental condition.

  2. Monte Carlo simulation of a perturbed subcritical core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaradat, Mustafa K.; Park, Chang Je [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Jordan Subcritical Assembly (JSA) is designed for the purpose of education, training, and experiment research. Jordan subcritical assembly is considered Jordan's First Nuclear Facility Moving Jordan into the nuclear age. It is a teaching and training experimental facility that is designed to stay in a subcriticality A subcritical assembly is a multiplying system of nuclear fuel and moderator whose effective multiplication factor is less than unity. An extraneous source of neutron is required for the operation in order to compensate for the difference between the production rate of fission neutrons in the fuel and the rate of loss caused by absorption and leakage.

  3. Reheat study and the corrosion--erosion tests at TVA's Colbert Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, R.M.; Kelso, T.M.; Robards, R.F.

    1979-05-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) is actively engaged in a pilot plant program to develop and/or evaluate wet-scrubbing processes for removing sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) from boiler flue gas. This program includes adjunct testing to evaluate ancillary systems and components. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) funded TVA to determine the operating and heat transfer characteristics for the (1) inline-indirect steam reheater, (2) flue gas recirculation reheat system, and (3) the cyclic reheat system. Tests were also made to measure the resistance of materials of construction to erosion--corrosion by process lime/limestone slurry.

  4. Uniform Secondary Cooling Pattern for Minimizing Surface Reheating of the Strand During Round Bloom Continuous Casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Helin; Long, Mujun; Yu, Sheng; Chen, Dengfu; Liu, Tao; Duan, Huamei; Chen, Huabiao

    2017-12-01

    A uniform secondary cooling pattern (USCP) for minimizing surface reheating of the strand is proposed herein, based on a two-dimensional model calibrated according to measured results. The calculated results reveal the following: appropriate extension of the secondary cooling zone significantly reduces longitudinal surface reheating of the strand; a 30° misalignment angle between two adjacent rows of nozzles in cooling zones II-V significantly reduces transverse strand surface reheating; appropriate reduction in the specific water rate significantly reduces surface reheating of the whole strand. Furthermore, a USCP was determined, including secondary cooling length of 6.07 m, misalignment angle of 30°, and specific water rate of 0.26 L kg-1. This USCP has been successfully applied in a steel plant.

  5. Standard test method for determination of "microwave safe for reheating" for ceramicware

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 This test method determines the suitability of ceramicware for use in microwave re-heating applications. Microwave ovens are mainly used for reheating and defrosting frozen foods. Severe thermal conditions can occur while reheating foods. Typical reheating of foods requires one to five min. in the microwave at the highest power settings. Longer periods than five minutes are considered cooking. Cooking test methods and standards are not addressed in this test method. Most ceramicware is minimally absorbing of the microwave energy and will not heat up significantly. Unfortunately there are some products that absorb microwave energy to a greater extent and can become very hot in the microwave and pose a serious hazard. Additionally, the nature of microwave heating introduces radiation in a non-uniform manner producing temperature differentials in the food being cooked as well as the ceramic container holding it. The differential may become great enough to thermal shock the ware and create dangerous condition...

  6. Finite Element Modeling of Reheat Stretch Blow Molding of PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Dwarak; Dupaix, Rebecca B.

    2004-06-01

    Poly (ethylene terephthalate) or PET is a polymer used as a packaging material for consumer products such as beverages, food or other liquids, and in other applications including drawn fibers and stretched films. Key features that make it widely used are its transparency, dimensional stability, gas impermeability, impact resistance, and high stiffness and strength in certain preferential directions. These commercially useful properties arise from the fact that PET crystallizes upon deformation above the glass transition temperature. Additionally, this strain-induced crystallization causes the deformation behavior of PET to be highly sensitive to processing conditions. It is thus crucial for engineers to be able to predict its performance at various process temperatures, strain rates and strain states so as to optimize the manufacturing process. In addressing these issues; a finite element analysis of the reheat blow molding process with PET has been carried out using ABAQUS. The simulation employed a constitutive model for PET developed by Dupaix and Boyce et al.. The model includes the combined effects of molecular orientation and strain-induced crystallization on strain hardening when the material is deformed above the glass transition temperature. The simulated bottles were also compared with actual blow molded bottles to evaluate the validity of the simulation.

  7. Pressure at the ISM-halo interface: A reheating frequency dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirković M.M.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The dependence of the thermal pressure of hot galactic halos on a model parameter describing the frequency of major reheating episodes during galactic history is investigated. Pressure on the interface between interstellar medium and the halo gas is especially interesting, since empirical evidence here offers one of the simplest constraints on halo models. It is shown that two-phase model of Mo & Miralda-Escudé is sufficiently robust with respect to uncertainties in the average interval between reheating.

  8. Subcritical water extraction of lipids from wet algal biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shuguang; Reddy, Harvind K.; Schaub, Tanner; Holguin, Francisco Omar

    2016-05-03

    Methods of lipid extraction from biomass, in particular wet algae, through conventionally heated subcritical water, and microwave-assisted subcritical water. In one embodiment, fatty acid methyl esters from solids in a polar phase are further extracted to increase biofuel production.

  9. Production of value added materials by subcritical water hydrolysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was the determination of the best experimental conditions for the production of useful materials such as amino acids by subcritical water hydrolysis from supercritical carbon dioxide extracted krill residues and to compare the results with raw krill. Subcritical water hydrolysis efficiency from raw and ...

  10. The physics of accelerator driven sub-critical reactors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    utilization; neutron multiplication; sub-criticality; sub-critical facilities. PACS Nos 89.30.Gg; 28.41.-I; 28.50.-k. 1. Introduction. Accelerator driven systems (ADS) are attracting worldwide attention increasingly due to their superior safety characteristics and their potential for burning actinide and fission product-waste and energy ...

  11. Subcritical water extraction of bioactive compounds from dry loquat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ERASTO

    concentrated in a rotary evaporator at 60°C until dry. The total extraction yield was obtained by the mean value of the total extracts divided by the mass of dry loquat leaves used. Subcritical water extraction. Subcritical water extraction was carried using an extractor. (Hangzhou Huali Co. Ltd, Hangzhou, China). The extractor ...

  12. Steam-Reheat Option for Supercritical-Water-Cooled Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltanov, Eugene

    SuperCritical-Water-cooled Reactors (SCWRs) are being developed as one of the Generation-IV nuclear-reactor concepts. Main objectives of the development are to increase thermal efficiency of a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) and to decrease capital and operational costs. The first objective can be achieved by introducing nuclear steam reheat inside a reactor and utilizing regenerative feedwater heaters. The second objective can be achieved by designing a steam cycle that closely matches that of the mature supercritical fossil-fuelled power plants. The feasibility of these objectives is discussed. As a part of this discussion, heat-transfer calculations have been performed and analyzed for SuperCritical-Water (SCW) and SuperHeated-Steam (SHS) channels of the proposed reactor concept. In the calculations a uniform and three non-uniform Axial Heat Flux Profiles (AHFPs) were considered for six different fuels (UO2, ThO 2, MOX, UC2, UC, and UN) and at average and maximum channel power. Bulk-fluid, sheath, and fuel centerline temperatures as well as the Heat Transfer Coefficient (HTC) profiles were obtained along the fuel-channel length. The HTC values are within a range of 4.7--20 kW/m2·K and 9.7--10 kW/m2·K for the SCW and SHS channels respectively. The main conclusion is that while all the mentioned fuels may be used for the SHS channel, only UC2, UC, or UN are suitable for a SCW channel, because their fuel centerline temperatures are at least 1000°C below melting point, while that of UO2, ThO2 , and MOX may reach melting point.

  13. Correlation Between Microstructure and Low-Temperature Impact Toughness of Simulated Reheated Zones in the Multi-pass Weld Metal of High-Strength Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yongjoon; Park, Gitae; Jeong, Seonghoon; Lee, Changhee

    2018-01-01

    A large fraction of reheated weld metal is formed during multi-pass welding, which significantly affects the mechanical properties (especially toughness) of welded structures. In this study, the low-temperature toughness of the simulated reheated zone in multi-pass weld metal was evaluated and compared to that of the as-deposited zone using microstructural analyses. Two kinds of high-strength steel welds with different hardenabilities were produced by single-pass, bead-in-groove welding, and both welds were thermally cycled to peak temperatures above Ac3 using a Gleeble simulator. When the weld metals were reheated, their toughness deteriorated in response to the increase in the fraction of detrimental microstructural components, i.e., grain boundary ferrite and coalesced bainite in the weld metals with low and high hardenabilities, respectively. In addition, toughness deterioration occurred in conjunction with an increase in the effective grain size, which was attributed to the decrease in nucleation probability of acicular ferrite; the main cause for this decrease changed depending on the hardenability of the weld metal.

  14. Effect of slab reheating temperature on recrystallization microstructure, texture and magnetic properties of Nb-containing grain-oriented silicon steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yunli; Li, Yang; Guo, Jing; Li, Jie; Du, Tiantian

    2017-10-01

    In this study, a Nb-containing grain-oriented silicon steel was chosen to investigate the effect of different slab reheating temperatures on the microstructure and texture of primary recrystallization and secondary recrystallization by optical microscope (OM), field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) equipped with electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) system and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The magnetic properties of finished product were also measured. The results show that Nb(C,N) can be formed and worked as the main inhibitor after adding Nb into the traditional grain-oriented silicon steel to lower the reheating temperature of the slab. At different low slab reheating temperatures, primary recrystallization takes place in all decarburized specimens, and at 1220 °C, the microstructure is the most fine and uniform. The types of primary recrystallization texture are consistent composed of strong {4 1 1} texture, dominated γ-fiber texture {1 1 1} and {1 1 1}, weak α-fiber texture and some Goss components. The proportions of HEGB and Σ9 boundary are the highest at 1220 °C after decarburization annealing, which is beneficial to the grain growth of primary recrystallization. After high temperature annealing, the specimen of 1220 °C slab reheating temperature can be fully recrystallized to obtain secondary recrystallization grains on the centimeter scale, and the texture component is characterized by a single Goss texture. The magnetic properties of finished product are the best, and B800 = 1.88 T, P1.7/50 = 1.31 W/kg.

  15. Dynamics of Subcritical Bubbles in First Order Phase Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiromizu, T.; Morikawa, M.; Yokoyama, J.

    1995-11-01

    We derivate the Langevin and the Fokker-Planck equations for the radius of O(3)-symmetric subcritical bubbles as a phenomenological model to treat thermal fluctuation. The effect of thermal noise on subcritical bubbles is examined. We find that the fluctuation-dissipation relation holds and that in the high temperature phase the system settles down rapidly to the thermal equilibrium state even if it was in a nonequilibrium state initially. We then estimate the typical size of subcritical bubbles as well as the amplitude of fluctuations on that scale. We also discuss their implication to the electroweak phase transition.

  16. Design, Development and Installation of Jordan Subcritical Assembly

    OpenAIRE

    Ned Xoubi

    2013-01-01

    Following its announcement in 2007 to pursue a nuclear power program and in the absence of any nuclear facility essential for the education, training, and research, Jordan decided to build a subcritical reactor as its first nuclear facility. Jordan Subcritical Assembly (JSA) is uranium fueled light water moderated and reflected subcritical reactor driven by a plutonium-beryllium source, and the core consists of 313 LEU fuel rods, loaded into a water-filled vessel in a square lattice of 19.11 ...

  17. Reheating mechanism of the curvaton with nonminimal derivative coupling to gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Taotao [Central China Normal University, Institute of Astrophysics, Wuhan (China); Central China Normal University, Key Laboratory of Quark and Lepton Physics (MOE) and College of Physical Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Feng, Kaixi [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Beijing (China)

    2017-10-15

    In this paper, we continue our study of the curvaton model with nonminimal derivative coupling (NDC) to Einstein gravity proposed in our previous work (Feng in Phys Lett B 729:99, 2014; Feng and Qiu in Phys Rev D 90(12):123508, 2014), focusing on the reheating mechanism. We found that according to whether the curvaton has or has not dominated the background after the end of inflation, it will have two different behaviors of evolution, which should be the general property of the curvaton with nonminimal couplings. This will cause two different parts of reheating, which goes on via the parametric resonance process. The reheating temperature is estimated for both cases in which reheating completes before and after curvaton domination, and the constraints are quite loose compared to that of overproduction of gravitinos. Finally we investigated the evolution of curvature perturbation during reheating. We have shown both analytically and numerically that the curvature perturbation will not blow up during the resonance process. (orig.)

  18. Astrobionibbler: In Situ Microfluidic Subcritical Water Extraction of Amino Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noell, A. C.; Fisher, A. M.; Takano, N.; Fors-Francis, K.; Sherrit, S.; Grunthaner, F.

    2016-10-01

    A fluidic-chip based instrument for subcritical water extraction (SCWE) of amino acids and other organics from powder samples has been developed. A variety of soil analog extractions have been performed to better understand SCWE capabilities.

  19. Neutron Detector Signal Processing to Calculate the Effective Neutron Multiplication Factor of Subcritical Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talamo, Alberto [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Gohar, Yousry [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division

    2016-06-01

    This report describes different methodologies to calculate the effective neutron multiplication factor of subcritical assemblies by processing the neutron detector signals using MATLAB scripts. The subcritical assembly can be driven either by a spontaneous fission neutron source (e.g. californium) or by a neutron source generated from the interactions of accelerated particles with target materials. In the latter case, when the particle accelerator operates in a pulsed mode, the signals are typically stored into two files. One file contains the time when neutron reactions occur and the other contains the times when the neutron pulses start. In both files, the time is given by an integer representing the number of time bins since the start of the counting. These signal files are used to construct the neutron count distribution from a single neutron pulse. The built-in functions of MATLAB are used to calculate the effective neutron multiplication factor through the application of the prompt decay fitting or the area method to the neutron count distribution. If the subcritical assembly is driven by a spontaneous fission neutron source, then the effective multiplication factor can be evaluated either using the prompt neutron decay constant obtained from Rossi or Feynman distributions or the Modified Source Multiplication (MSM) method.

  20. New bound on low reheating temperature for dark matter in models with early matter domination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ki-Young; Takahashi, Tomo

    2017-08-01

    We investigate a new bound on the low reheating temperature in a scenario where the Universe experiences early matter domination before reheating after which the standard big bang cosmology begins. In many models of dark matter (DM), the small scale fluctuations of DM grow during the early matter-domination era and seed the formation of the ultracompact minihalos (UCMHs). Using the constraints on the number of UCMHs from gamma-ray observations, we find a lower bound on the reheating temperature between O (10 )-O (100 ) MeV for WIMP dark matter depending on the nature of DM. A similar bound could be obtained for non-WIMP dark matter by observing UCMHs gravitationally such as pulsar timing, microlensing and so on, in some future observations.

  1. Pulsed neutron source based on accelerator-subcritical-assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Makoto; Noda, Akira; Iwashita, Yoshihisa; Okamoto, Hiromi; Shirai, Toshiyuki [Kyoto Univ., Uji (Japan). Inst. for Chemical Research

    1997-03-01

    A new pulsed neutron source which consists of a 300MeV proton linac and a nuclear fuel subcritical assembly is proposed. The proton linac produces pulsed spallation neutrons, which are multipied by the subcritical assembly. A prototype proton linac that accelerates protons up to 7MeV has been developed and a high energy section of a DAW structure is studied with a power model. Halo formations in high intensity beam are also being studied. (author)

  2. On Respiratory Rate of Cherry Tomatoes under Subcritical Heights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Duan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of subcritical drop heights on respiratory rate was studied for cherry tomatoes. The cherry tomatoes were dropped, and the mean value of O2 concentration was measured, and then the respiration rate was calculated. The results showed that the respiration rate of the cherry tomatoes increases remarkably with the dropping height. Finally, the relationship between the subcritical dropping heights and respiration rate was modeled and validated, showing good agreement.

  3. On Respiratory Rate of Cherry Tomatoes under Subcritical Heights

    OpenAIRE

    Fang Duan; Yu-fen Chen; Zhong-zheng Sun; Ming-qing Chen; Hui Zhang; Jing Zhang

    2013-01-01

    The influence of subcritical drop heights on respiratory rate was studied for cherry tomatoes. The cherry tomatoes were dropped, and the mean value of O2 concentration was measured, and then the respiration rate was calculated. The results showed that the respiration rate of the cherry tomatoes increases remarkably with the dropping height. Finally, the relationship between the subcritical dropping heights and respiration rate was modeled and validated, showing good agreement.

  4. Impact of different fules on reheat and nonreheat combined cycle plant performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tawney, R.K.; Kamali, K. (Bechtel Power Corp., Gaithersburg, MD (USA)); Yeager, W.L. (Florida Power and Light Co., Juno Beach, FL (USA))

    1988-01-01

    The combustion turbine is capable of firing a variety of gaseous and/or liquid fuels. This ability offers the power industry the advantage of utilizing the most economical fuel available in the market. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate qualitative and quantitative performance differences of combined cycle reheat versus non-reheat configurations when burning three different fuels--natural gas, distillate fuel, and coal-derived gas (coal gas). The performance data include power output, heat rates, steam produced, stack temperatures and other associated design factors.

  5. Minimal supersymmetric Higgs bosons with extra dimensions as the source of reheating and all matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enqvist, Kari; Kasuya, Shinta; Mazumdar, Anupam

    2004-08-06

    We consider the possibility that the dark energy responsible for inflation is deposited into extra dimensions outside of our observable Universe. Reheating and all matter can then be obtained from the minimal supersymmetric standard model flat direction condensate involving the Higgs bosons Hu and Hd, which acquires large amplitude by virtue of quantum fluctuations during inflation. The reheat temperature is TRH < or = 10(9) GeV so that there is no gravitino problem. We find a spectral index ns 1 with a very weak dependence on the Higgs potential.

  6. Thermal Efficiency of Cogeneration Units with Multi-Stage Reheating for Russian Municipal Heating Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny Lisin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the layout of an optimum process for supplying heat to Russian municipal heating systems operating in a market environment. We analyze and compare the standard cogeneration unit design with two-stage reheating of service water coming from controlled extraction locations and layouts that employ three in-line reheaters with heat the supply controlled by a rotary diaphragm and qualitative/quantitative methods (so-called “uncontrolled extraction”. Cogeneration unit designs are benchmarked in terms of their thermal efficiency expressed as a fuel consumption rate. The specific fuel consumption rate on electricity production is viewed as a key parameter of thermal efficiency.

  7. Effect of fluid salinity on subcritical crack propagation in calcite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostom, Fatma; Røyne, Anja; Dysthe, Dag Kristian; Renard, François

    2013-01-01

    The slow propagation of cracks, also called subcritical crack growth, is a mechanism of fracturing responsible for a ductile deformation of rocks under crustal conditions. In the present study, the double-torsion technique was used to measure the effect of fluid chemistry on the slow propagation of cracks in calcite single crystals at room temperature. Time-lapse images and measurements of force and load-point displacement allowed accurate characterization of crack velocities in a range of 10- 8 to 10- 4 m/s. Velocity curves as a function of energy-release rates were obtained for different fluid compositions, varying NH4Cl and NaCl concentrations. Our results show the presence of a threshold in fluid composition, separating two regimes: weakening conditions where the crack propagation is favored, and strengthening conditions where crack propagation slows down. We suggest that electrostatic surface forces that modify the repulsion forces between the two surfaces of the crack may be responsible for this behavior.

  8. Neutrino Physics with Accelerator Driven Subcritical Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciuffoli, Emilio

    2017-09-01

    Accelerator Driven Subcritical System (ADS) reactors are being developed around the world, to produce energy and, at the same time, to provide an efficient way to dispose of and to recycle nuclear waste. Used nuclear fuel, by itself, cannot sustain a chain reaction; however in ADS reactors the additional neutrons which are required will be supplied by a high-intensity accelerator. This accelerator will produce, as a by-product, a large quantity of {\\bar{ν }}μ via muon Decay At Rest (µDAR). Using liquid scintillators, it will be possible to to measure the CP-violating phase δCP and to look for experimental signs of the presence of sterile neutrinos in the appearance channel, testing the LSND and MiniBooNE anomalies. Even in the first stage of the project, when the beam energy will be lower, it will be possible to produce {\\bar{ν }}e via Isotope Decay At Rest (IsoDAR), which can be used to provide competitive bounds on sterile neutrinos in the disappearance channel. I will consider several experimental setups in which the antineutrinos are created using accelerators that will be constructed as part of the China-ADS program.

  9. Cooking, storage, and reheating effect on the formation of cholesterol oxidation products in processed meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad I; Min, Joong-Seok; Lee, Sang-Ok; Yim, Dong Gyun; Seol, Kuk-Hwan; Lee, Mooha; Jo, Cheorun

    2015-08-11

    Cholesterol is an important biological compound; however, its oxidation products have been proven to be harmful to human health. Cooking, storage, and reheating methods significantly affect the safety of meat products, as they contribute to the production of cholesterol oxidation products (COPs). Three cooking methods were used to cook sausages, loin ham, bacon, luncheon meat, and pressed ham, in order to investigate the effect of cooking, storage, and reheating on total cholesterol and on the formation of COPs. Cooked samples were stored at 4 °C and reheated after 3 and 6 storage days by the same cooking method or by microwaving. The samples were assessed for total lipids, cholesterol, and cholesterol oxides. The average cholesterol content in the processed meat varied from 76.0 mg/100 g to 201.70 mg/100 g. Microwaved ham showed the lowest cholesterol content compared to that of other processed meat products. Significant differences were found in cholesterol content and cholesterol oxidation products depending on cooking, storage, and reheating methods. Six cholesterol oxides were found in processed meat, of which 7β-hydroxycholesterol and α-epoxides were detected as the major oxidation products. Microwaving and oven grilling resulted in higher production of COPs in processed meat as compared with other cooking methods. Refrigerated storage tended to significantly increase the COPs content.

  10. Reheating via Gravitational Particle Production in Simple Models of Quintessence or ΛCDM Inflation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume de Haro

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We have tested some simple Λ CDM (the same test is also valid for quintessence inflation models, imposing that they match with the recent observational data provided by the BICEP and Planck’s team and leading to a reheating temperature, which is obtained via gravitational particle production after inflation, supporting the nucleosynthesis success.

  11. Subcritical water as reaction environment: fundamentals of hydrothermal biomass transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Maria; Nilges, Peter; Harnisch, Falk; Schröder, Uwe

    2011-05-23

    Subcritical water, that is, water above the boiling and below critical point, is a unique and sustainable reaction medium. Based on its solvent properties, in combination with the often considerable intrinsic water content of natural biomass, it is often considered as a potential solvent for biomass processing. Current knowledge on biomass transformation in subcritical water is, however, still rather scattered without providing a consistent picture. Concentrating on fundamental physical and chemical aspects, this review summarizes the current state of knowledge of hydrothermal biomass conversion in subcritical water. After briefly introducing subcritical water as a reaction medium, its advantages for biomass processing compared to other thermal processes are highlighted. Subsequently, the physical-chemical properties of subcritical water are discussed in the light of their impact on the occurring chemical reactions. The influence of major operational parameters, including temperature, pressure, and reactant concentration on hydrothermal biomass transformation processes are illustrated for selected carbohydrates. Major emphasis is put on the nature of the carbohydrate monomers, since the conversion of the respective polymers is analogous with the additional prior step of hydrolytic depolymerization. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Modeling of the CTEx subcritical unit using MCNPX code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Avelino [Divisao de Defesa Quimica, Biologica e Nuclear. Centro Tecnologico do Exercito - CTEx, Guaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Ademir X. da, E-mail: ademir@con.ufrj.br [Programa de Engenharia Nuclear. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ Centro de Tecnologia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rebello, Wilson F. [Secao de Engenharia Nuclear - SE/7 Instituto Militar de Engenharia - IME Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Cunha, Victor L. Lassance [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The present work aims at simulating the subcritical unit of Army Technology Center (CTEx) namely ARGUS pile (subcritical uranium-graphite arrangement) by using the computational code MCNPX. Once such modeling is finished, it could be used in k-effective calculations for systems using natural uranium as fuel, for instance. ARGUS is a subcritical assembly which uses reactor-grade graphite as moderator of fission neutrons and metallic uranium fuel rods with aluminum cladding. The pile is driven by an Am-Be spontaneous neutron source. In order to achieve a higher value for k{sub eff}, a higher concentration of U235 can be proposed, provided it safely remains below one. (author)

  13. Higgs Inflation, Reheating and Gravitino Production in No-Scale Supersymmetric GUTs

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John; Xianyu, Zhong-Zhi

    2016-08-30

    We extend our previous study of supersymmetric Higgs inflation in the context of no-scale supergravity and grand unification, to include models based on the flipped SU(5) and the Pati-Salam group. Like the previous SU(5) GUT model, these yield a class of inflation models whose inflation predictions interpolate between those of the quadratic chaotic inflation and Starobinsky-like inflation, while also avoiding tension with proton decay limits. We further analyse the reheating process in these models, and derive the number of $e$-folds, which is independent of the reheating temperature. We derive the corresponding predictions for the scalar tilt and the tensor-to-scalar ratio in cosmic microwave background perturbations, and also discuss gravitino production following inflation.

  14. Calculations of Inflaton Decays and Reheating: with Applications to No-Scale Inflation Models

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V; Olive, Keith A

    2015-01-01

    We discuss inflaton decays and reheating in no-scale Starobinsky-like models of inflation, calculating the effective equation-of-state parameter, $w$, during the epoch of inflaton decay, the reheating temperature, $T_{\\rm reh}$, and the number of inflationary e-folds, $N_*$, comparing analytical approximations with numerical calculations. We then illustrate these results with applications to models based on no-scale supergravity and motivated by generic string compactifications, including scenarios where the inflaton is identified as an untwisted-sector matter field with direct Yukawa couplings to MSSM fields, and where the inflaton decays via gravitational-strength interactions. Finally, we use our results to discuss the constraints on these models imposed by present measurements of the scalar spectral index $n_s$ and the tensor-to-scalar perturbation ratio $r$, converting them into constraints on $N_*$, the inflaton decay rate and other parameters of specific no-scale inflationary models.

  15. Inflation and reheating in scale-invariant scalar-tensor gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Tambalo, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    We consider the scale-invariant inflationary model studied in [1]. The Lagrangian includes all the scale-invariant operators that can be built with combinations of $R, R^{2}$ and one scalar field. The equations of motion show that the symmetry is spontaneously broken after an arbitrarily long inflationary period and a fundamental mass scale is generated. Upon symmetry breaking, and in the Jordan frame, both Hubble function and the scalar field undergo damped oscillations that can eventually amplify Standard Model fields and reheat the Universe. In the present work, we study in detail inflation and the reheating mechanism of this model in the Einstein frame and we compare some of the results with the latest observational data.

  16. Higgs inflation, reheating and gravitino production in no-scale Supersymmetric GUTs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, John [Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology Group,Department of Physics, King’s College London,London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Theoretical Physics Department, CERN,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); He, Hong-Jian [Institute of Modern Physics and Center for High Energy Physics, Tsinghua University,Beijing 100084 (China); Center for High Energy Physics, Peking University,Beijing 100871 (China); Xianyu, Zhong-Zhi [Center of Mathematical Sciences and Applications andDepartment of Physics, Harvard University,Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

    2016-08-30

    We extend our previous study of supersymmetric Higgs inflation in the context of no-scale supergravity and grand unification, to include models based on the flipped SU(5) and the Pati-Salam group. Like the previous SU(5) GUT model, these yield a class of inflation models whose inflation predictions interpolate between those of the quadratic chaotic inflation and Starobinsky-like inflation, while avoiding tension with proton decay limits. We further analyse the reheating process in these models, and derive the number of e-folds, which is independent of the reheating temperature. We derive the corresponding predictions for the scalar tilt and the tensor-to-scalar ratio in cosmic microwave background perturbations, as well as discussing the gravitino production following inflation.

  17. Energy conservation in reheating furnaces by reducing scrap and scale formation; Kuumamuokkauksen energiasaeaestoet romun maeaeraeae ja hilseilyae vaehentaemaellae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kivivuori, S.; Savolainen, P.; Fredriksson, J.; Paavola, J. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Materials Processing and Powder Metallurgy

    1996-12-31

    The main objective of the project `Energy Savings in Reheating Furnaces by Reducing Scrap and Scale Formation` is to reduce energy consumption and environmental harms in reheating and rolling of steel. This was done by analysing the different atmospheres in reheating furnaces of the steel companies participating in this project. These atmospheres were then simulated in a laboratory furnace. Scale formation tests with different steel grades were then carried out in these atmospheres. Scale removal tests were done to some steel grades too. The results showed that lower oxygen content - as expected - decreases oxidation despite the even higher carbondioxide content in the atmosphere. Lower oxygen content may cause difficulties in scale removal. This however is highly dependent on the steel grade. Heat treatment tests showed the effect of increased temperature and furnace time on decarburization. Some energy savings was obtained in fuel consumption by optimising the operation parameters and the atmosphere steadier in different reheating furnaces. (orig.)

  18. Further investigation about inflation and reheating stages based on the Planck and WMAP-9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghayour, Basem

    The potential V (ϕ) = λϕn is responsible for the inflation of the universe as scalar field ϕ oscillates quickly around some point where V (ϕ) has a minimum. The end of this stage has an important role on the further evolution stages of the universe. The created particles are responsible for reheating the universe at the end of this stage. The behavior of the inflation and reheating stages are often known as power law expansion S(η) ∝ η1+β, S(η) ∝ η1+βs, respectively. The reheating temperature (Trh) and βs give us valuable information about the reheating stage. Recently, people have studied about the behavior of Trh based on slow-roll inflation and initial condition of quantum normalization. It is shown that there is some discrepancy on Trh due to the amount of βs under the condition of slow-roll inflation and quantum normalization [M. Tong, Class. Quantum Grav. 30 (2013) 055013.]. Therefore, the author is believed in [M. Tong, Class. Quantum Grav. 30 (2013) 055013.] that the quantum normalization may not be a good initial condition but it seems that, we can remove this discrepancy by determining the appropriate parameter βs and hence the obtained temperatures based on the calculated βs are in favor of both mentioned conditions. Then from given βs, we can calculate Trh, tensor-to-scalar ratio r and parameters β,n based on the Planck and WMAP-9 data. The observed results of r,βs,β and n have consistency with their constrains. Also the results of Trh are in agreement with its general range and special range based on the DECIGO and BBO detectors.

  19. A unified approach to reheat in gas and steam turbine cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewins, J. [University of Cambridge (United Kingdom). Magdalene College

    2005-06-15

    A model of fluid behaviour is proposed for both air and steam in Joule, Brayton, and Rankine cycles by assuming that enthalpy is a function of temperature only. This enables reheat to be treated in a unified manner for both gas and steam turbines. Theorems for maximum power and maximum thermal efficiency are presented, with extensions to inter-cooling in gas turbines and afterburners in turbo-jet craft. (author)

  20. Supersymmetric mass spectra for gravitino dark matter with a high reheating temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Covi, L. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Olechowski, M.; Pokorski, S.; Turzynski, K. [Warsaw Univ. (Poland). Inst. of Theoretical Physics; Wells, J.D. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics

    2010-09-15

    Supersymmetric theories with gravitino dark matter generally do not allow the high reheating temperature required by thermal leptogenesis without running afoul of relic abundance or big bang nucleosynthesis constraints. We report on a successful search for parameter space that does satisfy these requirements. The main implication is the near degeneracy of the gluino with the other neutralinos in the spectrum. The leading discovery channel at the LHC for this scenario is through monojet plus missing energy events. (orig.)

  1. Microwave ion source for accelerator driven sub-critical system

    CERN Document Server

    Cui Bao Qun; Jiang Wei; LiLiQiang; WangRongWen

    2002-01-01

    A microwave ion source is under developing for a demonstration prototype of a accelerator driven sub-critical system at CIAE (China Institute of Atomic Energy), 100 mA hydrogen beam has been extracted from the source through a 7.3 mm aperture in diameter, proton ratio is more than 85%, reliability has been tested for 100 h without any failures

  2. Experimental Study of Subcritical Water Liquefaction of Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Zhe; Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    In this work, hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of wood industry residues (wood, bark, sawdust) and macroalgae for producing biofuels has been investigated under subcritical water conditions (at temperature of 300 C), with and without the presence of catalyst. The effects of catalyst and biomass type...

  3. Local energy losses at positive and negative steps in subcritical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Local energy losses occur when there is a transition in open channel flow. Even though local losses in subcritical open channel flow due to changes in channel width have been studied, to date no studies have been reported for losses due to changes in bed elevations. Steps are commonly used in engineering applications ...

  4. Monte Carlo Alpha Iteration Algorithm for a Subcritical System Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Jin Shim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The α-k iteration method which searches the fundamental mode alpha-eigenvalue via iterative updates of the fission source distribution has been successfully used for the Monte Carlo (MC alpha-static calculations of supercritical systems. However, the α-k iteration method for the deep subcritical system analysis suffers from a gigantic number of neutron generations or a huge neutron weight, which leads to an abnormal termination of the MC calculations. In order to stably estimate the prompt neutron decay constant (α of prompt subcritical systems regardless of subcriticality, we propose a new MC alpha-static calculation method named as the α iteration algorithm. The new method is derived by directly applying the power method for the α-mode eigenvalue equation and its calculation stability is achieved by controlling the number of time source neutrons which are generated in proportion to α divided by neutron speed in MC neutron transport simulations. The effectiveness of the α iteration algorithm is demonstrated for two-group homogeneous problems with varying the subcriticality by comparisons with analytic solutions. The applicability of the proposed method is evaluated for an experimental benchmark of the thorium-loaded accelerator-driven system.

  5. Local energy losses at positive and negative steps in subcritical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-04-22

    7) 554-568. MORRIS HM and WIGGERT JM (1972) Applied Hydraulics in. Engineering. John Wiley & Sons, New York. ÖRSEL SI (2002) Local Losses at a Step in a Sub-critical Open. Channel Flow. M.Sc. Thesis, Department ...

  6. Extraction of antioxidants from Chlorella sp. using subcritical water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, S. M.; Mustapa Kamal, S. M.; Harun, M. R.; Omar, R.; Siajam, S. I.

    2017-06-01

    Chlorella sp. microalgae is one of the main source of natural bioactive compounds used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Subcritical water extraction is the technique that offers an efficient, non-toxic, and environmental-friendly method to obtain natural ingredients. In this work, the extracts of Chlorella sp. microalgae was evaluated in terms of: chemical composition, extraction (polysaccharides) yield and antioxidant activity, using subcritical water extraction. Extractions were performed at temperatures ranging from 100°C to 300°C. The results show that by using subcritical water, the highest yield of polysaccharides is 23.6 that obtained at 150°C. Analysis on the polysaccharides yield show that the contents were highly influenced by the extraction temperature. The individual antioxidant activity were evaluated by in vitro assay using a free radical method. In general, the antioxidant activity of the extracts obtained at different water temperatures was high, with values of 31.08-54.29 . The results indicated that extraction by subcritical water was effective and Chlorella sp. can be a useful source of natural antioxidants.

  7. An investigation of reheat cracking in the weld heat affected zone of type 347 stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phung-On, Isaratat

    2007-12-01

    Reheat cracking has been a persistent problem for welding of many alloys such as the stabilized stainless steels: Types 321 and 347 as well as Cr-Mo-V steels. Similar problem occurs in Ni-base superalloys termed "strain-age cracking". Cracking occurs during the post weld heat treatment. The HAZ is the most susceptible area due to metallurgical reactions in solid state during both heating and cooling thermal cycle. Many investigations have been conducted to understand the RHC mechanism. There is still no comprehensive mechanism to explain its underlying mechanism. In this study, there were two proposed cracking mechanisms. The first is the formation of a PFZ resulting in local weakening and strain localization. The second is the creep-like grain boundary sliding that causes microvoid formation at the grain boundaries and the triple point junctions. Cracking occurs due to the coalescence of the microvoids that form. In this study, stabilized grade stainless steel, Type 347, was selected for investigation of reheat cracking mechanism due to the simplicity of its microstructure and understanding of its metallurgical behavior. The Gleeble(TM) 3800 system was employed due to its capability for precise control of both thermal and mechanical simulation. Cylindrical samples were subjected to thermal cycles for the HAZ simulation followed by PWHT as the reheat cracking test. "Susceptibility C-curves" were plotted as a function of PWHT temperatures and time to failure at applied stress levels of 70% and 80% yield strength. These C-curves show the possible relationship of the reheat cracking susceptibility and carbide precipitation behavior. To identify the mechanism, the sample shape was modified containing two flat surfaces at the center section. These flat surfaces were electro-polished and subjected to the HAZ simulation followed by the placement of the micro-indentation arrays. Then, the reheat cracking test was performed. The cracking mechanism was identified by tracing

  8. Fluid dynamics simulation of the reheating furnace of the continuous mill line of VBM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Lis Nunes; Silva, Ricardo Junqueira [V e M do Brasil S.A., Belo Horizonte. MG (Brazil)

    2009-11-01

    V and M do Brazil is an integrated steel mill with the production of seamless steel pipe. The manufacture process comprises heating and reheating fuel fired furnaces within two rolling mills lines. The Continuous Mill line reheating furnace has no baffle between heating and soaking zone that might cause a thermofluidodynamics influence between control zones and consequently an overall unbalance within the furnace. The combustion control mesh is based at the real measured temperature per zone. If the thermocouples of the heating zone are influenced by the heat flux coming from the soaking zone, the mesh might receive a wrong temperature signal and send to the heating zone burners a lower thermal demand than the real needed one. The flux unbalance may cause homogeneity problems and/or early equipment worn out. Using the software FLUENT, it was made a 2D fluid dynamic simulation of the reheating furnace with and without a baffle in order to have a qualitative view of its influence in the hot gas flux inside the furnace. Through the simulation it was possible to check the furnace homogeneity gain potential with the installation of the baffle and its better position. The results of this study supported the company decision to actually invest in a baffle installation in this furnace. Further studies will be done to quantify the results of the process. (author)

  9. Optimization of Subcritical Water Extraction of Resveratrol from Grape Seeds by Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajie Tian

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The subcritical water extraction (SWE is a high-efficiency and environment-friendly extraction method. The extraction of resveratrol (RES of grape seeds obtained from the wine production process was proposed using subcritical water extraction (SWE. The effects of different extraction process parameters on RES yield were investigated by single factors. Extraction optimization was conducted using response surface methodology (RSM. Extraction temperature was proven to be the most significant factor influencing RES yield. The optimal conditions was as follows: extraction pressure of 1.02 MPa, temperature of 152.32 °C, time of 24.89 min, and a solid/solvent ratio of 1:15 g/mL. Under these optimal conditions, the predicted extraction RES yield was 6.90 μg/g and the recoveries was up to 91.98%. Compared to other previous studies, this method required less pollution and less treatment time to extract RES from grape seeds. From these results, added economic value to this agroindustrial residue is proposed using environmentally friendly extraction techniques.

  10. The imprint of the Hawking effect in subcritical flows

    CERN Document Server

    Coutant, Antonin

    2016-01-01

    We study the propagation of low frequency shallow water waves on a one dimensional flow of varying depth. When taking into account dispersive effects, the linear propagation of long wavelength modes on uneven bottoms excites new solutions of the dispersion relation which possess a much shorter wavelength. The peculiarity is that one of these new solutions has a negative energy. When the flow becomes supercritical, this mode has been shown to be responsible for the (classical) analog of the Hawking effect. For subcritical flows, the production of this mode has been observed numerically and experimentally, but the precise physics governing the scattering remained unclear. In this work, we provide an analytic treatment of this effect in subcritical flows. We analyze the scattering of low frequency waves using a new perturbative series, derived from a generalization of the Bremmer series. We show that the production of short wavelength modes is governed by a complex value of the position: a complex turning point....

  11. Analysis of reactivity determination methods in the subcritical experiment Yalina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Carl-Magnus; Seltborg, Per; Åhlander, Alexandra; Gudowski, Waclaw; Stummer, Thomas; Kiyavitskaya, Hanna; Bournos, Victor; Fokov, Yurij; Serafimovich, Ivan; Chigrinov, Sergey

    2005-12-01

    Different reactivity determination methods have been investigated, based on experiments performed at the subcritical assembly Yalina in Minsk, Belarus. The development of techniques for on-line monitoring of the reactivity level in a future accelerator-driven system (ADS) is of major importance for safe operation. Since an ADS is operating in a subcritical mode, the safety margin to criticality must be sufficiently large. The investigated methods are the Slope Fit Method, the Sjöstrand Method and the Source Jerk Method. The results are compared with Monte Carlo simulations performed with different nuclear data libraries. The results of the Slope Fit Method are in good agreement with the Monte Carlo simulation results, whereas the Sjöstrand Method appears to underestimate the criticality somewhat. The Source Jerk Method is subject to inadequate statistical accuracy.

  12. A microfluidic sub-critical water extraction instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Noell, Aaron C.; Fisher, Anita; Lee, Mike C.; Takano, Nobuyuki; Bao, Xiaoqi; Kutzer, Thomas C.; Grunthaner, Frank

    2017-11-01

    This article discusses a microfluidic subcritical water extraction (SCWE) chip for autonomous extraction of amino acids from astrobiologically interesting samples. The microfluidic instrument is composed of three major components. These include a mixing chamber where the soil sample is mixed and agitated with the solvent (water), a subcritical water extraction chamber where the sample is sealed with a freeze valve at the chip inlet after a vapor bubble is injected into the inlet channels to ensure the pressure in the chip is in equilibrium with the vapor pressure and the slurry is then heated to ≤200 °C in the SCWE chamber, and a filter or settling chamber where the slurry is pumped to after extraction. The extraction yield of the microfluidic SCWE chip process ranged from 50% compared to acid hydrolysis and 80%-100% compared to a benchtop microwave SCWE for low biomass samples.

  13. A simple proof of exponential decay of subcritical contact processes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Swart, Jan M.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 170, 1-2 (2018), s. 1-9 ISSN 0178-8051 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-15238S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : subcritical contact process * sharpness of the phase transition * eigenmeasure Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.895, year: 2016 http:// library .utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/SI/swart-0462694.pdf

  14. Design, Development and Installation of Jordan Subcritical Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ned Xoubi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Following its announcement in 2007 to pursue a nuclear power program and in the absence of any nuclear facility essential for the education, training, and research, Jordan decided to build a subcritical reactor as its first nuclear facility. Jordan Subcritical Assembly (JSA is uranium fueled light water moderated and reflected subcritical reactor driven by a plutonium-beryllium source, and the core consists of 313 LEU fuel rods, loaded into a water-filled vessel in a square lattice of 19.11 mm pitch. The fuel rods are based on PWR fuel structural pattern type, made of uranium oxide (UO2 with 3.4 wt% 235U enrichment in zirconium alloy (Zr-4 cladding. Design, optimization, and verification were performed using MCNP5 nuclear code; the computed effective multiplication factor is 0.95923. The JSA is designed to fulfill the training needs of students and is equipped to perform all of the fundamental experiments required for a typical nuclear engineering university program. This paper presents the design, development, modeling, core analysis, and utilization of Jordan’s first nuclear facility and why this simplified low cost reactor presents an attractive choice to fulfill the preliminary experimental needs of nuclear engineering education in developing countries.

  15. The Free Overfall in Circular Sections with Different Flat Base in Supercritical and Subcritical Flow Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Vatankhah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A free overfall offers a simple device for flow discharge measuring by a single measurement of depth at the end of the channel yb which is known as the end depth or brink depth. When the bottom of a channel drops suddenly, the flow separates from sharp edge of the brink and the pressure distribution is not hydrostatic because of the curvature of the flow. In channels with subcritical flow regime, control section occurs at the upstream with a critical depth (yc. Although pressure distribution at the critical depth is hydrostatic, the location of the critical depth can vary with respect to the discharge value. So, the end depth at brink is offered to estimate the discharge. A unique relationship between the brink depth (yb and critical depth (yc, known as end-depth ratio (EDR = yb/yc, exist. Since a relationship between the discharge and critical depth exists, the discharge can ultimately be related to yb. However, when the approaching flow is supercritical, critical section does not exist. Therefore, the discharge will be a function of end depth and channel longitudinal slope. In current study, an analytical model is presented for a circular free overfall with different flat base height in subcritical and supercritical flow regimes. The flow over a drop in a free overfall is simulated by applying the energy to calculate the EDR and end depth-discharge (EDD relationship. End-depth-discharge relationship: The flow of a free overfall in a channel can be assumed that is similar to the flow over a sharp-crested weir by taking weir height equal to zero. It is assumed that pressure at the end section is atmospheric, and also streamlines at the end section are parallel. To account for the curvature of streamlines, the deflection of jet due to gravity, the coefficient of contraction, Cc, is considered. At a short distance upstream the end section, the pressure is hydrostatic. By applying the energy equation between end section and control

  16. Monte Carlo modeling and analyses of YALINA- booster subcritical assembly Part II : pulsed neutron source.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talamo, A.; Gohar, M. Y. A.; Rabiti, C.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2008-10-22

    One of the most reliable experimental methods for measuring the kinetic parameters of a subcritical assembly is the Sjoestrand method applied to the reaction rate generated from a pulsed neutron source. This study developed a new analytical methodology for characterizing the kinetic parameters of a subcritical assembly using the Sjoestrand method, which allows comparing the analytical and experimental time dependent reaction rates and the reactivity measurements. In this methodology, the reaction rate, detector response, is calculated due to a single neutron pulse using MCNP/MCNPX computer code or any other neutron transport code that explicitly simulates the fission delayed neutrons. The calculation simulates a single neutron pulse over a long time period until the delayed neutron contribution to the reaction is vanished. The obtained reaction rate is superimposed to itself, with respect to the time, to simulate the repeated pulse operation until the asymptotic level of the reaction rate, set by the delayed neutrons, is achieved. The superimposition of the pulse to itself was calculated by a simple C computer program. A parallel version of the C program is used due to the large amount of data being processed, e.g. by the Message Passing Interface (MPI). The new calculation methodology has shown an excellent agreement with the experimental results available from the YALINA-Booster facility of Belarus. The facility has been driven by a Deuterium-Deuterium or Deuterium-Tritium pulsed neutron source and the (n,p) reaction rate has been experimentally measured by a {sup 3}He detector. The MCNP calculation has utilized the weight window and delayed neutron biasing variance reduction techniques since the detector volume is small compared to the assembly volume. Finally, this methodology was used to calculate the IAEA benchmark of the YALINA-Booster experiment.

  17. Antilisterial properties of marinades during refrigerated storage and microwave oven reheating against post-cooking inoculated chicken breast meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouladkhah, Aliyar; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Nychas, George-John; Sofos, John N

    2013-02-01

    This study evaluated growth of Listeria monocytogenes inoculated on cooked chicken meat with different marinades and survival of the pathogen as affected by microwave oven reheating. During aerobic storage at 7 °C, on days 0, 1, 2, 4, and 7, samples were reheated by microwave oven (1100 W) for 45 or 90 s and analyzed microbiologically. L. monocytogenes counts on nonmarinated (control) samples increased (P juice were not different (P ≥ 0.05; 6.9 ± 0.1 log CFU/g) from those of the control, whereas for samples treated with the remaining marinades, pathogen counts were 0.7 (soy sauce) to 2.0 (lemon juice) log CFU/g lower (P monocytogenes counts by 1.9 to 4.1 (45 s) and >2.4 to 5.0 (90 s) log CFU/g. With similar trends across different marinates, the high levels of L. monocytogenes survivors found after microwave reheating, especially after storage for more than 2 d, indicate that length of storage and reheating time need to be considered for safe consumption of leftover cooked chicken. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. The safe, economical operation of a slightly subcritical reactor and transmutor with a small proton accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Hiroshi

    1994-04-01

    This report describes methods in which an accelerator can be used to increase the safety and neutron economy of a power reactor and transmutor of long-lived radioactive wastes, such as minor actinides and fission products, by providing neutrons for its subcritical operation. Instead of the rather large subcriticality of k=0.9--0.95 which we originally proposed for such a transmutor, we propose to use a slightly subcritical reactor, such as k=0.99, which will avoid many of the technical difficulties that are associated with large subcriticality, such as localized power peaking, radiation damage due to the injection of medium-energy protons, the high current accelerator, and the requirement for a long beam-expansion section. We analyzed the power drop that occurred in Phoenix reactor, and show that the operating this reactor in subcritical condition improves its safety.

  19. CFD analysis of temperature imbalance in superheater/reheater region of tangentially coal-fired boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainudin, A. F.; Hasini, H.; Fadhil, S. S. A.

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents a CFD analysis of the flow, velocity and temperature distribution in a 700 MW tangentially coal-fired boiler operating in Malaysia. The main objective of the analysis is to gain insights on the occurrences in the boiler so as to understand the inherent steam temperature imbalance problem. The results show that the root cause of the problem comes from the residual swirl in the horizontal pass. The deflection of the residual swirl due to the sudden reduction and expansion of the flow cross-sectional area causes velocity deviation between the left and right side of the boiler. This consequently results in flue gas temperature imbalance which has often caused tube leaks in the superheater/reheater region. Therefore, eliminating the residual swirl or restraining it from being diverted might help to alleviate the problem.

  20. μ -hybrid inflation with low reheat temperature and observable gravity waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Mansoor Ur; Shafi, Qaisar; Vardag, Fariha K.

    2017-09-01

    In μ -hybrid inflation a nonzero inflaton vacuum expectation value induced by supersymmetry breaking is proportional to the gravitino mass m3 /2, which can be exploited to resolve the minimal supersymmetric standard model μ problem. We show how this scenario can be successfully implemented with m3 /2˜1 - 100 TeV and reheat temperature as low as 1 06 GeV by employing a minimal renormalizable superpotential coupled with a well-defined nonminimal Kähler potential. The tensor-to-scalar ratio r , a canonical measure of primordial gravity waves, in most cases is less than or of the order of 10-6- 10-3 .

  1. Automatic Generation Control Study in Two Area Reheat Thermal Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritam, Anita; Sahu, Sibakanta; Rout, Sushil Dev; Ganthia, Sibani; Prasad Ganthia, Bibhu

    2017-08-01

    Due to industrial pollution our living environment destroyed. An electric grid system has may vital equipment like generator, motor, transformers and loads. There is always be an imbalance between sending end and receiving end system which cause system unstable. So this error and fault causing problem should be solved and corrected as soon as possible else it creates faults and system error and fall of efficiency of the whole power system. The main problem developed from this fault is deviation of frequency cause instability to the power system and may cause permanent damage to the system. Therefore this mechanism studied in this paper make the system stable and balance by regulating frequency at both sending and receiving end power system using automatic generation control using various controllers taking a two area reheat thermal power system into account.

  2. Hypercharged dark matter and direct detection as a probe of reheating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldstein, Brian; Ibe, Masahiro; Yanagida, Tsutomu T

    2014-03-14

    The lack of new physics at the LHC so far weakens the argument for TeV scale thermal dark matter. On the other hand, heavier, nonthermal dark matter is generally difficult to test experimentally. Here we consider the interesting and generic case of hypercharged dark matter, which can allow for heavy dark matter masses without spoiling testability. Planned direct detection experiments will be able to see a signal for masses up to an incredible 1010  GeV, and this can further serve to probe the reheating temperature up to about 109  GeV, as determined by the nonthermal dark matter relic abundance. The Z-mediated nature of the dark matter scattering may be determined in principle by comparing scattering rates on different detector nuclei, which in turn can reveal the dark matter mass. We will discuss the extent to which future experiments may be able to make such a determination.

  3. Observational signatures of the parametric amplification of gravitational waves during reheating after inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroyanagi, Sachiko; Lin, Chunshan; Sasaki, Misao; Tsujikawa, Shinji

    2018-01-01

    We study the evolution of gravitational waves (GWs) during and after inflation as well as the resulting observational consequences in a Lorentz-violating massive gravity theory with one scalar (inflaton) and two tensor degrees of freedom. We consider two explicit examples of the tensor mass mg that depends either on the inflaton field ϕ or on its time derivative ϕ ˙, both of which lead to parametric excitations of GWs during reheating after inflation. The first example is Starobinsky's R2 inflation model with a ϕ -dependent mg, and the second is a low energy-scale inflation model with a ϕ ˙-dependent mg. We compute the energy density spectrum ΩGW(k ) today of the GW background. In the Starobinsky's model, we show that the GWs can be amplified up to the detectable ranges of both cosmic microwave background and DECi-hertz Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory, but the bound from the big bang nucleosynthesis is quite tight to limit the growth. In low-scale inflation with a fast transition to the reheating stage driven by the potential V (ϕ )=M2ϕ2/2 around ϕ ≈Mpl (where Mpl is the reduced Planck mass), we find that the peak position of ΩGW(k ) induced by the parametric resonance can reach the sensitivity region of advanced LIGO for the Hubble parameter of order 1 GeV at the end of inflation. Thus, our massive gravity scenario offers exciting possibilities for probing the physics of primordial GWs at various different frequencies.

  4. Wavelength dependence of prepulse laser beams on EUV emission from CO2 reheated Sn plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, J. R.; Harilal, S. S.; Sizyuk, T.; Hassanein, A.; Rice, B.

    2012-03-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission from laser-produced plasmas (LPP) centered at 13.5 nm is considered a leading candidate for the light source in future lithography systems. Tin is currently the best material for generating this EUV emission since it emits strongly within the 13.5 nm region due to its various ionic states (Sn8+-Sn14+). Highly efficient and low-debris LPPs are a pre-requisite for their use as light sources for EUV lithography. Tin plasmas generate debris that can damage collection optics over time. Techniques to mitigate debris are needed to extend the lifetime of these components and the system. Optimization of plasma conditions is necessary for increasing EUV emission and enhancing conversion efficiency (CE). Improving the source CE is necessary in order to reduce the cost of ownership and hence, develop a commercially viable lithography system for the semiconductor industry. One method to accomplish this is to reheat pre-formed plasma with a laser pulse to enhance EUV emission. This enhancement is achieved by controlling those plasma conditions necessary for optimizing EUV emission. We investigated the role of prepulse laser wavelength on prepulse plume formation and EUV in-band signal enhancement. A 6 ns Nd:YAG laser operating at 1064 nm and 266 nm was used for generating the prepulse plume. The expanding plume was then reheated by a 35 ns CO2 laser operating at 10.6 μm. The role of prepulse wavelength and energy on EUV conversion efficiency is discussed.

  5. Subcritical and supercritical water oxidation of CELSS model wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Y.; Wydeven, T.; Koo, C.

    1989-01-01

    A mixture of ammonium hydroxide with acetic acid and a slurry of human feces, urine, and wipes were used as CELSS model wastes to be wet-oxidized at temperatures from 250 to 500 C, i.e. below and above the critical point of water (374 C and 218 kg/sq cm or 21.4 MPa). The effects of oxidation temperature ( 250-500 C) and residence time (0-120 mn) on carbon and nitrogen and on metal corrosion from the reactor material were studied. Almost all of the organic matter in the model wastes was oxidized in the temperature range from 400 to 500 C, above the critical conditions for water. In contrast, only a small portion of the organic matter was oxidized at subcritical conditions. A substantial amount of nitrogen remained in solution in the form of ammonia at temperatures ranging from 350 to 450 C suggesting that, around 400 C, organic carbon is completely oxidized and most of the nitrogen is retained in solution. The Hastelloy C-276 alloy reactor corroded during subcritical and supercritical water oxidation.

  6. Hydrolysis of sweet blue lupin hull using subcritical water technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciftci, Deniz; Saldaña, Marleny D A

    2015-10-01

    Hydrolysis of sweet blue lupin hulls was conducted in this study using subcritical water technology. Effects of process parameters, such as pressure (50-200 bar), temperature (160-220°C), flow rate (2-10 mL/min), and pH (2-12), were studied to optimize maximum hemicellulose sugars recovery in the extracts. Extracts were analyzed for total hemicellulose sugars, phenolics and organic carbon contents and solid residues left after treatments were also characterized. Temperature, flow rate, and pH had a significant effect on hemicellulose sugar removal; however, the effect of pressure was not significant. The highest yield of hemicellulose sugars in the extracts (85.5%) was found at 180°C, 50 bar, 5 mL/min and pH 6.2. The thermal stability of the solid residue obtained at optimum conditions improved after treatment and the crystallinity index increased from 11.5% to 58.6%. The results suggest that subcritical water treatment is a promising technology for hemicellulose sugars removal from biomass. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Subcritical water extractor for Mars analog soil analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amashukeli, Xenia; Grunthaner, Frank J; Patrick, Steven B; Yung, Pun To

    2008-06-01

    Abstract Technologies that enable rapid and efficient extraction of biomarker compounds from various solid matrices are a critical requirement for the successful implementation of in situ chemical analysis of the martian regolith. Here, we describe a portable subcritical water extractor that mimics multiple organic solvent polarities by tuning the dielectric constant of liquid water through adjustment of temperature and pressure. Soil samples, collected from the Yungay region of the Atacama Desert (martian regolith analogue) in the summer of 2005, were used to test the instrument's performance. The total organic carbon was extracted from the samples at concentrations of 0.2-55.4 parts per million. The extraction data were compared to the total organic carbon content in the bulk soil, which was determined via a standard analytical procedure. The instrument's performance was examined over the temperature range of 25-250 degrees C at a fixed pressure of 20.7 MPa. Under these conditions, water remains in a subcritical fluid state with a dielectric constant varying between approximately 80 (at 25 degrees C) and approximately 30 (at 250 degrees C).

  8. Thorium as a Fuel for Accelerator Driven Subcritical Electronuclear Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Barashenkov, V S; Singh, V

    2000-01-01

    Neutron yield and energy production in a very large, practically infinite, uranium and thorium target-blocks irradiated by protons with energies in the range 0.1-2 GeV are studied by Monte Carlo method. Though the comparison of uranium and thorium targets shows that the neutron yield in the latter is 30-40 % less and the energy gain is approximatelly two times smaller, accelerator Driven subcritical Systems (ADS) with thorium fuel are very perspective at the bombarding energies higher than several hundreds MeV. An admixture of fissile elements U^{233}, U^{235}, Pu^{239} in the set-up gives larger neutron multiplication which in turn shows better energy amplification. It is argued that due to the practically complete burning of the fuel in such set-up there is no need of technology of conversion of the exhaust fuel.

  9. Gravity-driven soap film dynamics in subcritical regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auliel, M. I.; Castro, F.; Sosa, R.; Artana, G.

    2015-10-01

    We undertake the analysis of soap-film dynamics with the classical approach of asymptotic expansions. We focus our analysis in vertical soap film tunnels operating in subcritical regimes with elastic Mach numbers Me=O(10-1) . Considering the associated set of nondimensional numbers that characterize this flow, we show that the flow behaves as a two-dimensional (2D) divergence free flow with variable mass density. When the soap film dynamics agrees with that of a 2D and almost constant mass density flow, the regions where the second invariant of the velocity gradient is non-null correspond to regions where the rate of change of film thickness is non-negligible.

  10. Subcritical-Water Extraction of Organics from Solid Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amashukeli, Xenia; Grunthaner, Frank; Patrick, Steven; Kirby, James; Bickler, Donald; Willis, Peter; Pelletier, Christine; Bryson, Charles

    2009-01-01

    An apparatus for extracting organic compounds from soils, sands, and other solid matrix materials utilizes water at subcritical temperature and pressure as a solvent. The apparatus, called subcritical water extractor (SCWE), is a prototype of subsystems of future instrumentation systems to be used in searching for organic compounds as signs of past or present life on Mars. An aqueous solution generated by an apparatus like this one can be analyzed by any of a variety of established chromatographic or spectroscopic means to detect the dissolved organic compound( s). The apparatus can be used on Earth: indeed, in proof-of-concept experiments, SCWE was used to extract amino acids from soils of the Atacama Desert (Chile), which was chosen because the dryness and other relevant soil conditions there approximate those on Mars. The design of the apparatus is based partly on the fact that the relative permittivity (also known as the dielectric constant) of liquid water varies with temperature and pressure. At a temperature of 30 C and a pressure of 0.1 MPa, the relative permittivity of water is 79.6, due to the strong dipole-dipole electrostatic interactions between individual molecular dipoles. As the temperature increases, increasing thermal energy causes increasing disorientation of molecular dipoles, with a consequent decrease in relative permittivity. For example, water at a temperature of 325 C and pressure of 20 MPa has a relative permittivity of 17.5, which is similar to the relative permittivities of such nonpolar organic solvents as 1-butanol (17.8). In the operation of this apparatus, the temperature and pressure of water are adjusted so that the water can be used in place of commonly used organic solvents to extract compounds that have dissimilar physical and chemical properties.

  11. Thermodynamic Analysis of a Steam Power Plant with Double Reheat and Feed Water Heaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Rashidi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A steam cycle with double reheat and turbine extraction is presented. Six heaters are used, three of them at high pressure and the other three at low pressure with deaerator. The first and second law analysis for the cycle and optimization of the thermal and exergy efficiencies are investigated. An exergy analysis is performed to guide the thermodynamic improvement for this cycle. The exergy and irreversibility analyses of each component of the cycle are determined. Effects of turbine inlet pressure, boiler exit steam temperature, and condenser pressure on the first and second laws' efficiencies are investigated. Also the best turbine extraction pressure on the first law efficiency is obtained. The results show that the biggest exergy loss occurs in the boiler followed by the turbine. The results also show that the overall thermal efficiency and the second law efficiency decrease as the condenser pressure increases for any fixed outlet boiler temperature, however, they increase as the boiler temperature increases for any condenser pressure. Furthermore, the best values of extraction pressure from high, intermediate, and low pressure turbine which give the maximum first law efficiencies are obtained based on the required heat load corresponding to each exit boiler temperature.

  12. Reheating, thermalization and non-thermal gravitino production in MSSM inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrantelli, Andrea [Tallinn University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Tallinn (Estonia)

    2017-10-15

    In the framework of MSSM inflation, matter and gravitino production are here investigated through the decay of the fields which are coupled to the udd inflaton, a gauge-invariant combination of squarks. After the end of inflation, the flat direction oscillates about the minimum of its potential, losing at each oscillation about 56% of its energy into bursts of gauge/gaugino and scalar quanta when crossing the origin. These particles then acquire a large inflaton VEV-induced mass and decay perturbatively into the MSSM quanta and gravitinos, transferring the inflaton energy very efficiently via instant preheating. Regarding thermalization, we show that the MSSM degrees of freedom thermalize very quickly, yet not immediately by virtue of the large vacuum expectation value of the inflaton, which breaks the SU(3){sub C} x U(1){sub Y} symmetry into a residual U(1). The energy transfer to the MSSM quanta is very efficient, since full thermalization is achieved after only O(40) complete oscillations. The udd inflaton thus provides an extremely efficient reheating of the Universe, with a temperature T{sub reh} = O(10{sup 8} GeV), which allows for instance several mechanisms of baryogenesis. We also compute the gravitino number density from the perturbative decay of the flat direction and of the SUSY multiplet. We find that the gravitinos are produced in negligible amount and satisfy cosmological bounds such as the Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) and dark matter (DM) constraints. (orig.)

  13. Coupled Subcritical Water and Solid Phase Extraction for In-Situ Chemical Analysis Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Leiden Measurement Technology (LMT) will design and develop a low volume analyte separation, concentration, and transfer system (ConTech), that couples a Subcritical...

  14. Theoretical Analysis for Heat Transfer Optimization in Subcritical Electrothermal Energy Storage Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Peng Hu; Gao-Wei Zhang; Long-Xiang Chen; Ming-Hou Liu

    2017-01-01

    Electrothermal energy storage (ETES) provides bulk electricity storage based on heat pump and heat engine technologies. A subcritical ETES is described in this paper. Based on the extremum principle of entransy dissipation, a geometry model is developed for heat transfer optimization for subcritical ETES. The exergy during the heat transfer process is deduced in terms of entropy production. The geometry model is validated by the extremum principle of entropy production. The theoretical analys...

  15. Subcritical Noise Analysis Measurements with Fresh and Spent Research Reactor Fuels Elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentine, T.E.; Mihalczo, J.T.; Kryter, R.C.; Miller, V.C.

    1999-02-01

    The verification of the subcriticality is of utmost importance for the safe transportation and storage of nuclear reactor fuels. Transportation containers and storage facilities are designed such that nuclear fuels remain in a subcritical state. Such designs often involve excess conservatism because of the lack of relevant experimental data to verify the accuracy of Monte Carlo codes used in nuclear criticality safety analyses. A joint experimental research program between Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Westinghouse Safety Management Solutions, Inc., and the University of Missouri was initiated to obtain measured quantities that could be directly related to the subcriticality of simple arrays of Missouri University Research Reactor (MURR) fuel elements. A series of measurement were performed to assess the reactivity of materials such as BORAL, stainless steel, aluminum, and lead that are typically used in the construction of shipping casks. These materials were positioned between the fuel elements. In addition, a limited number of measurements were performed with configurations of fresh and spent (irradiated) fuel elements to ascertain the reactivity of the spent fuel elements. In these experiments, fresh fuel elements were replaced by spent fuel elements such that the subcritical reactivity change could be measured. The results of these measurements were used by Westinghouse Safety Management Solutions to determine the subcriticality of MURR fuel elements isolated by absorbing materials. The measurements were interpreted using the MCNP-DSP Monte Carlo code to obtain the subcritical neutron multiplication factor k(sub eff), and the bias in K(sub eff) that are used in criticality safety analyses.

  16. Numerical simulations of subcritical reactor kinetics in thermal hydraulic transient phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, J.; Park, W. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    A subcritical reactor driven by a linear proton accelerator has been considered as a nuclear waste incinerator at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). Since the multiplication factor of a subcritical reactor is less than unity, to compensate exponentially decreasing fission neutrons, external neutrons form spallation reactions are essentially required for operating the reactor in its steady state. Furthermore, the profile of accelerator beam currents is very important in controlling a subcritical reactor, because the reactor power varies in accordance to the profile of external neutrons. We have developed a code system to find numerical solutions of reactor kinetics equations, which are the simplest dynamic model for controlling reactors. In a due course of our previous numerical study of point kinetics equations for critical reactors, however, we learned that the same code system can be used in studying dynamic behavior of the subcritical reactor. Our major motivation of this paper is to investigate responses of subcritical reactors for small changes in thermal hydraulic parameters. Building a thermal hydraulic model for the subcritical reactor dynamics, we performed numerical simulations for dynamic responses of the reactor based on point kinetics equations with a source term. Linearizing a set of coupled differential equations for reactor responses, we focus our research interest on dynamic responses of the reactor to variations of the thermal hydraulic parameters in transient phases. 5 refs., 8 figs. (Author)

  17. Subcritical Water Hydrolysis of Peptides: Amino Acid Side-Chain Modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Thomas; Bowra, Steve; Cooper, Helen J.

    2017-09-01

    Previously we have shown that subcritical water may be used as an alternative to enzymatic digestion in the proteolysis of proteins for bottom-up proteomics. Subcritical water hydrolysis of proteins was shown to result in protein sequence coverages greater than or equal to that obtained following digestion with trypsin; however, the percentage of peptide spectral matches for the samples treated with trypsin were consistently greater than for those treated with subcritical water. This observation suggests that in addition to cleavage of the peptide bond, subcritical water treatment results in other hydrolysis products, possibly due to modifications of amino acid side chains. Here, a model peptide comprising all common amino acid residues (VQSIKCADFLHYMENPTWGR) and two further model peptides (VCFQYMDRGDR and VQSIKADFLHYENPTWGR) were treated with subcritical water with the aim of probing any induced amino acid side-chain modifications. The hydrolysis products were analyzed by direct infusion electrospray tandem mass spectrometry, either collision-induced dissociation or electron transfer dissociation, and liquid chromatography collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry. The results show preferential oxidation of cysteine to sulfinic and sulfonic acid, and oxidation of methionine. In the absence of cysteine and methionine, oxidation of tryptophan was observed. In addition, water loss from aspartic acid and C-terminal amidation were observed in harsher subcritical water conditions. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  18. Experimental subcritical facility driven by D-D/D-T neutron generator at BARC, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Amar; Roy, Tushar; Kashyap, Yogesh; Ray, Nirmal; Shukla, Mayank; Patel, Tarun; Bajpai, Shefali; Sarkar, P. S.; Bishnoi, Saroj

    2015-05-01

    The paper presents design of an experimental subcritical assembly driven by D-D/D-T neutron and preliminary experimental measurements. The system has been developed for investigating the static and dynamic neutronic properties of accelerator driven sub-critical systems. This system is modular in design and it is first in the series of subcritical assemblies being designed. The subcritical core consists of natural uranium fuel with high density polyethylene as moderator and beryllium oxide as reflector. The fuel is embedded in high density polyethylene moderator matrix. Estimated keff of the system is ∼0.89. One of the unique features of subcritical core is the use of Beryllium oxide (BeO) as reflector and HDPE as moderator making the assembly a compact modular system. The subcritical core is coupled to Purnima Neutron Generator which works in D-D and D-T mode with both DC and pulsed operation. It has facility for online source strength monitoring using neutron tagging and programmable source modulation. Preliminary experiments have been carried out for spatial flux measurement and reactivity estimation using pulsed neutron source (PNS) techniques with D-D neutrons. Further experiments are being planned to measure the reactivity and other kinetic parameters using noise methods. This facility would also be used for carrying out studies on effect of source importance and measurement of source multiplication factor ks and external neutron source efficiency φ∗ in great details. Experiments with D-T neutrons are also underway.

  19. Upgrading the SPP-500-1 moisture separators-steam reheaters used in the Leningrad NPP turbine units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legkostupova, V. V.; Sudakov, A. V.

    2015-03-01

    The specific features of existing designs of moisture separators-steam reheaters (MSRs) and experience gained with using them at nuclear power plants are considered. Main factors causing damage to and failures of MSRs are described: nonuniform distribution of wet steam flow among the separation modules, breakthrough of moisture through the separator (and sometimes also through the steam reheater), which may lead to the occurrence of additional thermal stresses and, hence, to thermal-fatigue damage to or stress corrosion cracking of metal. MSR failure results in a less efficient operation of the turbine unit as a whole and have an adverse effect on the reliability of the low-pressure cylinder's last-stage blades. By the time the design service life of the SPP-500-1 MSRs had been exhausted in power units equipped with RBMK-1000 reactors, the number of damages inflicted to both the separation part and to the pipework and heating surface tubes was so large, that a considerable drop of MSR effectiveness and turbine unit efficiency as a whole occurred. The design of the upgraded separation part used in the SPP-500-1 MSR at the Leningrad NPP is described and its effectiveness is shown, which was confirmed by tests. First, efforts taken to achieve more uniform distribution of moisture content over the perimeter and height of steam space downstream of the separation modules and to bring it to values close to the design ones were met with success. Second, no noticeable effect of the individual specific features of separation modules on the moisture content was revealed. Recommendations on elaborating advanced designs of moisture separators-steam reheaters are given: an MSR arrangement in which the separator is placed under or on the side from the steam reheater; axial admission of wet steam for ensuring its uniform distribution among the separation modules; inlet chambers with an extended preliminary separation system and devices for uniformly distributing steam flows in the

  20. Subcritical carbon dioxide-water hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse pith for reducing sugars production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jiezhen; Chen, Xiaopeng; Wang, Linlin; Wei, Xiaojie; Wang, Huasheng; Lu, Songzhou; Li, Yunhua

    2017-03-01

    The aim of present study was to obtain total reducing sugars (TRS) by hydrolysis in subcritical CO2-water from sugarcane bagasse pith (SCBP), the fibrous residue remaining after papermaking from sugarcane bagasse. The optimum hydrolysis conditions were evaluated by L16(4(5)) orthogonal experiments. The TRS yield achieved 45.8% at the optimal conditions: 200°C, 40min, 500rmin(-1), CO2 initial pressure of 1MPa and liquid-to-solid ratio of 50:1. Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and two-dimensional heteronuclear single quantum coherence nuclear magnetic resonance were used to characterize hydrolysis liquor, treated and untreated SCBP, resulting in the removal of hemicelluloses to mainly produce xylose, glucose and arabinose during hydrolysis. The severity factors had no correlation to TRS yield, indicating that the simple kinetic processes of biomass solubilisation cannot perfectly describe the SCBP hydrolysis. The first-order kinetic model based on consecutive reaction was used to obtain rate constants, activation energies and pre-exponential factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Development study on subcriticality monitor. 1. Report under business contract with Japan Nuclear Fuel Cycle Development Institute

    CERN Document Server

    Yamada, S

    2002-01-01

    In this trust fund, we reviewed subcriticality measuring methods and neutron or gamma ray measuring and date transmission systems appropriate for realizing inexpensive on-line criticality surveillance systems, which is required for ensuring the safety of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Since the neutron flux level in subcritical systems is fairly low without external neutron sources, it is desirable to use pulse type neutron detectors for subcritical measurement systems. This logically implies that subcriticality measurement methods based on the temporal domain should be used for developing an on-line criticality surveillance system. In the deep subcriticality conditions, a strong external neutron source is needed for eactivity measurement and a D-T tube can be used in order to improve the accuracy of the measurement. A D-T tube is convenient since it is free from Tritium problem since Tritium is sealed in an airtight container and also can be controlled by power supply. Hence, under deep subcritical condit...

  2. Gravitino or axino dark matter with reheat temperature as high as 1016 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Co, Raymond T.; D'Eramo, Francesco; Hall, Lawrence J.

    2017-03-01

    A new scheme for lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) dark matter is introduced and studied in theories of TeV supersymmetry with a QCD axion, a, and a high reheat temperature after inflation, T R . A large overproduction of axinos ( ã) and gravitinos (\\tilde{G}) from scattering at T R , and from freeze-in at the TeV scale, is diluted by the late decay of a saxion condensate that arises from inflation. The two lightest superpartners are ã, with mass of order the TeV scale, and \\tilde{G} with mass m 3/2 anywhere between the keV and TeV scales, depending on the mediation scale of supersymmetry breaking. Dark matter contains both warm and cold components: for \\tilde{G} LSP the warm component arises from \\tilde{a}\\to \\tilde{G}a , while for ã LSP the warm component arises from \\tilde{G}\\to \\tilde{a}a . The free-streaming scale for the warm component is predicted to be of order 1 Mpc (and independent of m 3/2 in the case of \\tilde{G} LSP). T R can be as high as 1016 GeV, for any value of m 3/2, solving the gravitino problem. The PQ symmetry breaking scale V PQ depends on T R and m 3/2 and can be anywhere in the range (1010 - 1016) GeV. Detailed predictions are made for the lifetime of the neutralino LOSP decaying to ã+ h/Z and \\tilde{G}+h/Z/γ , which is in the range of (10-1 -106)m over much of parameter space. For an axion misalignment angle of order unity, the axion contribution to dark matter is sub-dominant, except when V PQ approaches 1016 GeV.

  3. Study on effective parameter of the triple-pressure reheat combined cycle performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Thamir K.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermodynamic analyses of the triple-pressure reheat combined cycle gas turbines with duct burner are presented and discussed in this paper. The overall performance of a combined cycle gas turbine power plant is influenced by the ambient temperature, compression ratio and turbine inlet temperature. These parameters affect the overall thermal efficiency, power output and the heat-rate. In this study a thermodynamic model was development on an existing actual combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT (In this case study, an effort has been made to enhance the performance of the CCGT through a parametric study using a thermodynamic analysis. The effect of ambient temperature and operation parameter, including compression ratio and turbine inlet temperature, on the overall performance of CCGT are investigated. The code of the performance model for CCGT power plant was developed utilizing the THERMOFLEX software. The simulating results show that the total power output and overall efficiency of a CCGT decrease with increase the ambient temperature because increase the consumption power in the air compressor of a GT. The totals power of a CCGT decreases with increase the compression rate, while the overall efficiency of a CCGT increases with increase the compression ratio to 21, after that the overall efficiency will go down. Far there more the turbine inlet temperature increases the both total power and overall efficiency increase, so the turbine inlet temperature has a strong effect on the overall performance of CCGT power plant. Also the simulation model give a good result compared with MARAFIQ CCGT power plant. With these variables, the turbine inlet temperature causes the greatest overall performance variation.

  4. Mechanisms of objectionable textural changes by microwave reheating of foods: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizrahi, Shimon

    2012-01-01

    Microwave reheating, compared to a conventional method, is notorious for lack of crust formation and severe toughening of flour and starch-based products. This review discusses how the typical thermal characteristics of microwave heating are involved in affecting the texture as well as the possible role of non-thermal effects. While low surface temperature is the well known mechanism why microwave heating is incapable of crust formation, the most severe toughening problems are caused by internal boiling. Beside moisture loss, the internally generated steam causes 2 main textural effects when it is vented out. The first is the replacing of non-condensable gases (air) in the product voids with a condensable one (steam). When the latter is condensed by cooling, a vacuum may be created in the voids causing their collapse and a formation of a more compact and tougher structure. The second textural effect involves amylose extraction from starch granules and its redistribution to eventually form a rich layer on the walls of the structural foam cells of the baked goods. Relatively fast crystallization of the amylose seems to be the main cause of toughening a short while after microwave heating. This mechanism is relevant mainly to products where starch is an important structural element. Structural disruptions by localize excessive steam pressure at hot-spots are also discussed in this review as well as methods of preventing or alleviating the most objectionable textural changes. The most effective ways of preventing these undesirable changes are by avoiding internal boiling and/or by manipulating the starch content and properties. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Subcritical hydrothermal conversion of organic wastes and biomass. Reaction pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Amadeus Castro Vega

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Hydrothermal conversion is a procedure which emulates organic matter’s natural conversion into bio-crude having physical and chemical properties analogous to petroleum. The artificial transformation of biomass requi- res previous knowledge of the main reaction routes and product availability. The main component of biomass (depolymerisation by hydrolysis is presented in hydrothermal cellulose conversion, producing oligosaccharides which exhibit dehydration and retro-aldol condensation reactions for transforming into furfurals and carboxylic acids. Other biomass components (such as lignin, proteins, and fat esters present both hydrolysis and pyrolysis reaction routes. As long as biomass mainly contains carbohydrates, subcritical hydrothermal conversion products and their wastes will be fundamentally analogous to those displaying cellulose. These substances have added- value by far surpassing raw material’s acquisition cost. When the main hydrothermal conversion products’ O/C, H/C molar ratios as reported in literature are plotted, an evolutionary tralectory for conversion products appears to be closely or even overlapped with fossil fuels’ geological evolution.

  6. Effective Subcritical Butane Extraction of Bifenthrin Residue in Black Tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yating; Gu, Lingbiao; Wang, Fei; Kong, Lingjun; Qin, Guangyong

    2017-03-30

    As a natural and healthy beverage, tea is widely enjoyed; however, the pesticide residues in tea leaves affect the quality and food safety. To develop a highly selective and efficient method for the facile removal of pesticide residues, the subcritical butane extraction (SBE) technique was employed, and three variables involving temperature, time and extraction cycles were studied. The optimum SBE conditions were found to be as follows: extraction temperature 45 °C, extraction time 30 min, number of extraction cycles 1, and in such a condition that the extraction efficiency reached as high as 92%. Further, the catechins, theanine, caffeine and aroma components, which determine the quality of the tea, fluctuated after SBE treatment. Compared with the uncrushed leaves, pesticide residues can more easily be removed from crushed leaves, and the practical extraction efficiency was 97%. These results indicate that SBE is a useful method to efficiently remove the bifenthrin, and as appearance is not relevant in the production process, tea leaves should first be crushed and then extracted in order that residual pesticides are thoroughly removed.

  7. The Chain-Length Distribution in Subcritical Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolen, Steven Douglas [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2000-06-01

    The individual fission chains that appear in any neutron multiplying system provide a means, via neutron noise analysis, to unlock a wealth of information regarding the nature of the system. This work begins by determining the probability density distributions for fission chain lengths in zero-dimensional systems over a range of prompt neutron multiplication constant (K) values. This section is followed by showing how the integral representation of the chain-length distribution can be used to obtain an estimate of the system's subcritical prompt multiplication (MP). The lifetime of the chains is then used to provide a basis for determining whether a neutron noise analysis will be successful in assessing the neutron multiplication constant, k, of the system in the presence of a strong intrinsic source. A Monte Carlo transport code, MC++, is used to model the evolution of the individual fission chains and to determine how they are influenced by spatial effects. The dissertation concludes by demonstrating how experimental validation of certain global system parameters by neutron noise analysis may be precluded in situations in which the system K is relatively low and in which realistic detector efficiencies are simulated.

  8. Catalytic upgrading of duckweed biocrude in subcritical water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Caicai; Duan, Peigao; Xu, Yuping; Wang, Bing; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Lei

    2014-08-01

    Herein, a duckweed biocrude produced from the hydrothermal liquefaction of Lemna minor was treated in subcritical water with added H₂. Effects of several different commercially available materials such as Ru/C, Pd/C, Pt/C, Pt/γ-Al₂O₃, Pt/C-sulfide, Rh/γ-Al₂O₃, activated carbon, MoS₂, Mo₂C, Co-Mo/γ-Al₂O₃, and zeolite on the yields of product fractions and the deoxygenation, denitrogenation, and desulfurization of biocrude at 350°C were examined, respectively. All the materials showed catalytic activity for deoxygenation and desulfurization of the biocrude and only Ru/C showed activity for denitrogenation. Of those catalysts examined, Pt/C showed the best performance for deoxygenation. Among all the upgraded oils, the oil produced with Ru/C shows the lowest sulfur, the highest hydrocarbon content (25.6%), the highest energy recovery (85.5%), and the highest higher heating value (42.6 MJ/kg). The gaseous products were mainly unreacted H₂, CH₄, CO₂, and C₂H6. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Reynolds number effect on VIV: from subcritical to supercritical flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triantafyllou, M.S.; Hover, F.S.; Techet, A.H. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Dept. of Ocean Engineering, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Vortex Induced Vibrations in flexibly supported rigid cylinders and long, flexible slender structures, such as cables and risers, are caused by the formation of large-scale vortices, whose dynamics are controlled to a large extend by inviscid mechanisms. Reynolds number remains a very important parameter, however, because it influences the formation and shedding mechanisms of the vortical patterns. For low Reynolds numbers, below a few thousand, a nearly complete understanding has been obtained in recent years, at least for flexibly mounted rigid cylinders. This is not the case, though, for VIV above Re=10,000 and - especially - above the critical Reynolds number of about Re=250,000 for smooth cylinders. The talk provides observed WV trends of flexibly mounted cylinders, obtained in recent experiments as function of the Reynolds number, from Re about 1,000 up to 1,000,000. In particular, similarities and differences between subcritical and supercritical force and motion data will be discussed, and conclusions on the governing principal mechanisms will be drawn, including transitions in the arrangement of vortical patterns and effects of correlation length. (authors)

  10. Effective Subcritical Butane Extraction of Bifenthrin Residue in Black Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yating Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available As a natural and healthy beverage, tea is widely enjoyed; however, the pesticide residues in tea leaves affect the quality and food safety. To develop a highly selective and efficient method for the facile removal of pesticide residues, the subcritical butane extraction (SBE technique was employed, and three variables involving temperature, time and extraction cycles were studied. The optimum SBE conditions were found to be as follows: extraction temperature 45 °C, extraction time 30 min, number of extraction cycles 1, and in such a condition that the extraction efficiency reached as high as 92%. Further, the catechins, theanine, caffeine and aroma components, which determine the quality of the tea, fluctuated after SBE treatment. Compared with the uncrushed leaves, pesticide residues can more easily be removed from crushed leaves, and the practical extraction efficiency was 97%. These results indicate that SBE is a useful method to efficiently remove the bifenthrin, and as appearance is not relevant in the production process, tea leaves should first be crushed and then extracted in order that residual pesticides are thoroughly removed.

  11. Enhanced Capabilities for Subcritical Experiments (ECSE) Risk Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urban, Mary Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Process Modeling and Analysis Group

    2016-05-02

    Risk is a factor, element, constraint, or course of action that introduces an uncertainty of outcome that could impact project objectives. Risk is an inherent part of all activities, whether the activity is simple and small, or large and complex. Risk management is a process that identifies, evaluates, handles, and monitors risks that have the potential to affect project success. The risk management process spans the entire project, from its initiation to its successful completion and closeout, including both technical and programmatic (non-technical) risks. This Risk Management Plan (RMP) defines the process to be used for identifying, evaluating, handling, and monitoring risks as part of the overall management of the Enhanced Capabilities for Subcritical Experiments (ECSE) ‘Project’. Given the changing nature of the project environment, risk management is essentially an ongoing and iterative process, which applies the best efforts of a knowledgeable project staff to a suite of focused and prioritized concerns. The risk management process itself must be continually applied throughout the project life cycle. This document was prepared in accordance with DOE O 413.3B, Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets, its associated guide for risk management DOE G 413.3-7, Risk Management Guide, and LANL ADPM AP-350-204, Risk and Opportunity Management.

  12. Femtosecond/Nanosecond dual-pulse orthogonal geometry plasma plume reheating for compositional analysis of ancient copper-based-alloy artworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santagata, A [CNR-IMIP, Sezione di Potenza, Zona Industriale di Tito Scalo, 85050 Tito Scalo (PZ) (Italy); De Giacomo, A [Universita degli Studi di Bari, Dip. Chimica, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); De Pascale, O [CNR-IMIP, Sezione di Bari, Via Amendola 122/D, 70126 Bari (Italy); Dell' Aglio, M [CNR-IMIP, Sezione di Bari, Via Amendola 122/D, 70126 Bari (Italy); Teghil, R [Universita degli Studi della Basilicata, Dip. Chimica, Via N. Sauro 85, 85100 Potenza (Italy); De Bonis, A [Universita degli Studi della Basilicata, Dip. Chimica, Via N. Sauro 85, 85100 Potenza (Italy); Corrente, M [Soprintendenza Archeologica della Puglia, Corte Lamberti 3, 70122 Bari (Italy); Parisi, G P [CNR-IMIP, Sezione di Potenza, Zona Industriale di Tito Scalo, 85050 Tito Scalo (PZ) (Italy); Orlando, S [CNR-IMIP, Sezione di Potenza, Zona Industriale di Tito Scalo, 85050 Tito Scalo (PZ) (Italy)

    2007-04-15

    Plasma plume emission spectroscopy signals induced in air by 0.8 mJ of a femtosecond- Single Pulse (fs-SP) laser beam were enhanced by using an orthogonal geometry ns-reheating Dual Pulse (DP) configuration. The plasma plume temperatures of several copper-based-alloy standards and calibration curves of their Sn and Pb contents were conveyed. The resulting data showed an independence from the matrix composition so that, even for significant wt % variation of Sn and Pb, good linear regression coefficients could be obtained (0.99 for Sn and 0.98 for Pb). The DP configuration, here reported, using a low energy (0.8 mJ) of the fs ablating laser beam, was considered for determining the Sn and Pb elemental contents of ancient copper-based-alloy artwork fragments coming from the 'Canne della Battaglia' archaeological site of Minervino Murge (Apulia - South of Italy). The results showed that, even by employing this low energy of the fs laser, which did not cause any visible damage of the ancient samples, the DP configuration supplied large enhancements and very well resolved emission lines of spectra providing information about the Sn and Pb contents which could support archaeologists work.

  13. Experimental subcritical facility driven by D-D/D-T neutron generator at BARC, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, Amar, E-mail: image@barc.gov.in; Roy, Tushar; Kashyap, Yogesh; Ray, Nirmal; Shukla, Mayank; Patel, Tarun; Bajpai, Shefali; Sarkar, P.S.; Bishnoi, Saroj

    2015-05-01

    Highlights: •Experimental subcritical facility BRAHMMA coupled to D-D/D-T neutron generator. •Preliminary results of PNS experiments reported. •Feynman-alpha noise measurements explored with continuous source. -- Abstract: The paper presents design of an experimental subcritical assembly driven by D-D/D-T neutron and preliminary experimental measurements. The system has been developed for investigating the static and dynamic neutronic properties of accelerator driven sub-critical systems. This system is modular in design and it is first in the series of subcritical assemblies being designed. The subcritical core consists of natural uranium fuel with high density polyethylene as moderator and beryllium oxide as reflector. The fuel is embedded in high density polyethylene moderator matrix. Estimated k{sub eff} of the system is ∼0.89. One of the unique features of subcritical core is the use of Beryllium oxide (BeO) as reflector and HDPE as moderator making the assembly a compact modular system. The subcritical core is coupled to Purnima Neutron Generator which works in D-D and D-T mode with both DC and pulsed operation. It has facility for online source strength monitoring using neutron tagging and programmable source modulation. Preliminary experiments have been carried out for spatial flux measurement and reactivity estimation using pulsed neutron source (PNS) techniques with D-D neutrons. Further experiments are being planned to measure the reactivity and other kinetic parameters using noise methods. This facility would also be used for carrying out studies on effect of source importance and measurement of source multiplication factor k{sub s} and external neutron source efficiency φ{sup ∗} in great details. Experiments with D-T neutrons are also underway.

  14. On the significance of the energy correlations of spallation neutrons on the neutron fluctuations in accelerator-driven subcritical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Pázsit, I; Fhager, V

    2000-01-01

    Studies of neutron fluctuations in spallation-driven subcritical systems require the use of energy-dependent master equations. In particular, calculation of the second moment of the neutron distribution requires knowledge on the energy correlations (two-point distributions) of the source particles. It is shown here that such correlations will exist even if the energies of all neutrons, generated in any single spallation event, are independent, provided that the energy distribution of the neutrons for separate spallation events is dependent on the number of neutrons generated. A simple model of number dependence of the energy spectrum is constructed, and the arising energy correlations are calculated. The error in calculating the second moment of the neutron distribution, arising when assuming zero correlations (i.e. using only one-particle energy spectra), is estimated in a simple model of neutron slowing down.

  15. High power ring methods and accelerator driven subcritical reactor application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahar, Malek Haj [Univ. of Grenoble (France)

    2016-08-07

    High power proton accelerators allow providing, by spallation reaction, the neutron fluxes necessary in the synthesis of fissile material, starting from Uranium 238 or Thorium 232. This is the basis of the concept of sub-critical operation of a reactor, for energy production or nuclear waste transmutation, with the objective of achieving cleaner, safer and more efficient process than today’s technologies allow. Designing, building and operating a proton accelerator in the 500-1000 MeV energy range, CW regime, MW power class still remains a challenge nowadays. There is a limited number of installations at present achieving beam characteristics in that class, e.g., PSI in Villigen, 590 MeV CW beam from a cyclotron, SNS in Oakland, 1 GeV pulsed beam from a linear accelerator, in addition to projects as the ESS in Europe, a 5 MW beam from a linear accelerator. Furthermore, coupling an accelerator to a sub-critical nuclear reactor is a challenging proposition: some of the key issues/requirements are the design of a spallation target to withstand high power densities as well as ensure the safety of the installation. These two domains are the grounds of the PhD work: the focus is on the high power ring methods in the frame of the KURRI FFAG collaboration in Japan: upgrade of the installation towards high intensity is crucial to demonstrate the high beam power capability of FFAG. Thus, modeling of the beam dynamics and benchmarking of different codes was undertaken to validate the simulation results. Experimental results revealed some major losses that need to be understood and eventually overcome. By developing analytical models that account for the field defects, one identified major sources of imperfection in the design of scaling FFAG that explain the important tune variations resulting in the crossing of several betatron resonances. A new formula is derived to compute the tunes and properties established that characterize the effect of the field imperfections on the

  16. Solubility of Benzo[a]pyrene and Organic Matter of Soil in Subcritical Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Sushkova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic subcritical water extraction method of benzo[a]pyrene from soils is under consideration. The optimum conditions for benzo[a]pyrene extraction from soil are described including the soil treatment by subcritical water at 250 °C and 100 atm for 30 min. The effectiveness of developed method was determined using the matrix spiking recovery technique. A comparative analysis was made to evaluate the results of benzo[a]pyrene extraction from soils using the subcritical water and organic solvents. The advantages of the subcritical water extraction involve the use of ecologically friendly solvent, a shorter time for the analysis and a higher amount of benzo[a]pyrene extracted from soil (96 %. The influence of subcritical water extraction on soil properties was measured the investigation of the processes occurring within soil under the influence the high temperature and pressure. Under appropriate conditions of the experiment there is the destruction of the soil organic matter while the composition of the soil mineral fraction remains practically unchanged.

  17. Subcritical water extraction of flavoring and phenolic compounds from cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum zeylanicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuwijitjaru, Pramote; Sayputikasikorn, Nucha; Samuhasaneetoo, Suched; Penroj, Parinda; Siriwongwilaichat, Prasong; Adachi, Shuji

    2012-01-01

    Cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) powder was treated with subcritical water at 150 and 200°C in a semi-continuous system at a constant flow rate (3 mL/min) and pressure (6 MPa). Major flavoring compounds, i.e., cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid, cinnamyl alcohol and coumarin, were extracted at lower recoveries than the extraction using methanol, suggesting that degradation of these components might occur during the subcritical water treatment. Caffeic, ferulic, p-coumaric, protocatechuic and vanillic acids were identified from the subcritical water treatment. Extraction using subcritical water was more effective to obtain these acids than methanol (50% v/v) in both number of components and recovery, especially at 200°C. Subcritical water treatment at 200°C also resulted in a higher total phenolic content and DPPH radical scavenging activity than the methanol extraction. The DPPH radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content linearly correlated but the results suggested that the extraction at 200°C might result in other products that possessed a free radical scavenging activity other than the phenolic compounds.

  18. Effect of water on critical and subcritical fracture properties of Woodford shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaofeng; Eichhubl, Peter; Olson, Jon E.

    2017-04-01

    Subcritical fracture behavior of shales under aqueous conditions is poorly characterized despite increased relevance to oil and gas resource development and seal integrity in waste disposal and subsurface carbon sequestration. We measured subcritical fracture properties of Woodford shale in ambient air, dry CO2 gas, and deionized water by using the double-torsion method. Compared to tests in ambient air, the presence of water reduces fracture toughness by 50%, subcritical index by 77%, and shear modulus by 27% and increases inelastic deformation. Comparison between test specimens coated with a hydrophobic agent and uncoated specimens demonstrates that the interaction of water with the bulk rock results in the reduction of fracture toughness and enhanced plastic effects, while water-rock interaction limited to the vicinity of the propagating fracture tip by a hydrophobic specimen coating lowers subcritical index and increases fracture velocity. The observed deviation of a rate-dependent subcritical index from the power law K-V relations for coated specimens tested in water is attributed to a time-dependent weakening process resulting from the interaction between water and clays in the vicinity of the fracture tip.

  19. Concept of turbines for ultrasupercritical, supercritical, and subcritical steam conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailov, V. E.; Khomenok, L. A.; Pichugin, I. I.; Kovalev, I. A.; Bozhko, V. V.; Vladimirskii, O. A.; Zaitsev, I. V.; Kachuriner, Yu. Ya.; Nosovitskii, I. A.; Orlik, V. G.

    2017-11-01

    The article describes the design features of condensing turbines for ultrasupercritical initial steam conditions (USSC) and large-capacity cogeneration turbines for super- and subcritical steam conditions having increased steam extractions for district heating purposes. For improving the efficiency and reliability indicators of USSC turbines, it is proposed to use forced cooling of the head high-temperature thermally stressed parts of the high- and intermediate-pressure rotors, reaction-type blades of the high-pressure cylinder (HPC) and at least the first stages of the intermediate-pressure cylinder (IPC), the double-wall HPC casing with narrow flanges of its horizontal joints, a rigid HPC rotor, an extended system of regenerative steam extractions without using extractions from the HPC flow path, and the low-pressure cylinder's inner casing moving in accordance with the IPC thermal expansions. For cogeneration turbines, it is proposed to shift the upper district heating extraction (or its significant part) to the feedwater pump turbine, which will make it possible to improve the turbine plant efficiency and arrange both district heating extractions in the IPC. In addition, in the case of using a disengaging coupling or precision conical bolts in the coupling, this solution will make it possible to disconnect the LPC in shifting the turbine to operate in the cogeneration mode. The article points out the need to intensify turbine development efforts with the use of modern methods for improving their efficiency and reliability involving, in particular, the use of relatively short 3D blades, last stages fitted with longer rotor blades, evaporation techniques for removing moisture in the last-stage diaphragm, and LPC rotor blades with radial grooves on their leading edges.

  20. Characterization of the Subcritical Water Extraction of Fluoxetine-Hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Jillian N; Thurbide, Kevin B; Lambertus, Gordon; Jensen, Eric

    2012-08-10

    The characteristics of using Subcritical Water Extraction (SWE) to recover Fluoxetine-Hydrochloride from both standard solutions and the contents of commercial capsule formulations were investigated. Analysis of solutions and extracts was done by HPLC with UV detection at 254 nm. Standard solutions of Fluoxetine-Hydrochloride were exposed to a variety of SWE operating conditions, including temperatures from 125 to 275°C and periods ranging from 5 to 30 min. Fluoxetine-Hydrochloride could be quantitatively recovered from standard solutions (1.0mg/mL) that were heated up to 175°C for 30 min, up to 200°C for 15 min, or up to 225°C for 10 min. At higher temperatures and/or times, Fluoxetine-Hydrochloride recoveries were generally incomplete and often produced decomposition by-products during the process. By comparison, the concentration of Fluoxetine-Hydrochloride in the standard solution had relatively little effect on recovery. Considering these parameters, an SWE method was developed to extract Fluoxetine-Hydrochloride from the contents of Prozac(®) capsules. It was found that Fluoxetine-Hydrochloride could be quantitatively extracted from the capsule contents in 8 min at a temperature of 200°C using 3.5 mL of water as the extraction solvent. Gelatinization of the starch excipient in the capsule contents was also observed to occur temporarily during the capsule extractions, before ultimately disappearing again. The period of this phenomenon was dependent on both temperature and sample size. The results indicate that SWE can be a very useful method for Fluoxetine-Hydrochloride extraction and suggest that it may be interesting to explore other pharmaceuticals using this method as well. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Recycling high-performance carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites using sub-critical and supercritical water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Chase C.

    of the polymer matrix. To date, very few studies have been reported in this area and the studies thus far have only focused on small scale feasibility and have only shown the recovery of random fibers. The goal of this research is to advance the knowledge in the field of sub-critical and supercritical fluid recycling by providing fundamental information that will be necessary to move this process forward to an industrial scale. This dissertation work consists of several phases of studies. In the first phase of this research, the feasibility of recycling woven CFRP was established on a scale approximately 30 times larger than previously reported. The industrial relevance was also conveyed, as the process was shown to remove up 99% of a highly cross-linked resin from an aerospace grade composite system with 100% retention of the single filament tensile strength and modulus whilst also retaining the highly valuable woven fiber structure. The second phase of research demonstrated the power of this technology to recycle multi-layer composites and provide the ability to reuse the highly valuable materials. Up to 99% resin elimination was achieved for a woven 12-layer aerospace grade composite. The recycled woven fabric layers, with excellent retention of the fiber architecture, were directly reused to fabricate reclaimed fiber composites (RFC). Manufacturing issues associated with the use of the recycled fiber were investigated. Several fabrication technologies were used to fabricate the composite, and the composites show moderate short beam shear strength and may be suitable for certain industrial applications. Moreover, fresh composites were also recycled, recovered, and reused to investigate the retention of flexural properties of the fibers after recycling. Up to 95% of the flexural strength and 98% of the flexural modulus was retained in the reclaimed fiber composites. The recycled resin residual can be incorporated into fresh resin and cured, demonstrating a near

  2. Subcritical measurements of the WINCO slab tank experiment using the source-jerk technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spriggs, G.D.; Hansen, G.E.; Martin, E.R.; Plassmann, E.A.; Pederson, R.A.; Schlesser, J.A.; Krawczyk, T.L.; Tanner, J.E.; Smolen, G.R. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA); Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (USA); Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Co., Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA); Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (USA))

    1989-01-01

    Subcritical measurements of the WINCO slab tank using the source-jerk technique are presented. This technique determines subcriticality by analyzing the transient response produced by the sudden removal of an extraneous neutron source (i.e., a source jerk). We have found that the technique can provide an accurate means of measuring k in configurations that are close to critical (i.e., 0.90 < k < 1.0). As the system becomes more subcritical (i.e., k < 0.90), spatial effects introduce significant biases depending on the source and detector positions. A comparison between the measurements and Monte Carlo code calculations is also presented. 15 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Supervision system for the plate mill reheating furnaces at Companhia Siderurgica Paulista; Sistema supervisor dos fornos de placas da linha de chapas grossas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Abner Cordeiro; Rother, Ariovaldo; Texeira, Aloisio; Ramos, Carlos; Masulo, Mario Donato [Companhia Siderurgica Paulista, SP (Brazil); Dias, Ronaldo Freitas [TSE Automacao Industrial, XX (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    The Quality Assurance System required by customers from several industrial branches are forcing suppliers to spend more and more money on technological improvements. COSIPA`s Plate Mill, following this tendency, has just installed a Supervisor System for its Reheating Furnaces, which allows the acquisition and retrieving of operational data. This information makes feasible the development of studies and projects for the continuous improvement of the reheating process. This system is reliable, shows low operational coast and has easy maintenance. Finally, last but not least, t has direct data communication with the mainframe as well, enabling interaction with furnace control and, in such way, this system can determine the reheating temperatures and rolling pitch according to the production schedule. This system has also available special software for the generation of production reports according to the QAS (Quality Assurance System) and other standards. (author) 15 figs.

  4. Apparatus and methods of reheating gas turbine cooling steam and high pressure steam turbine exhaust in a combined cycle power generating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Leroy Omar; Smith, Raub Warfield

    2002-01-01

    In a combined cycle system having a multi-pressure heat recovery steam generator, a gas turbine and steam turbine, steam for cooling gas turbine components is supplied from the intermediate pressure section of the heat recovery steam generator supplemented by a portion of the steam exhausting from the HP section of the steam turbine, steam from the gas turbine cooling cycle and the exhaust from the HP section of the steam turbine are combined for flow through a reheat section of the HRSG. The reheated steam is supplied to the IP section inlet of the steam turbine. Thus, where gas turbine cooling steam temperature is lower than optimum, a net improvement in performance is achieved by flowing the cooling steam exhausting from the gas turbine and the exhaust steam from the high pressure section of the steam turbine in series through the reheater of the HRSG for applying steam at optimum temperature to the IP section of the steam turbine.

  5. Subcritical calculation of the nuclear material warehouse;Calculo de subcriticidad del almacen del material nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia M, T.; Mazon R, R., E-mail: teodoro.garcia@inin.gob.m [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    In this work the subcritical calculation of the nuclear material warehouse of the Reactor TRIGA Mark III labyrinth in the Mexico Nuclear Center is presented. During the adaptation of the nuclear warehouse (vault I), the fuel was temporarily changed to the warehouse (vault II) and it was also carried out the subcritical calculation for this temporary arrangement. The code used for the calculation of the effective multiplication factor, it was the Monte Carlo N-Particle Extended code known as MCNPX, developed by the National Laboratory of Los Alamos, for the particles transport. (Author)

  6. Subcritical water extraction of amino acids from Mars analog soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noell, Aaron C; Fisher, Anita M; Fors-Francis, Kisa; Sherrit, Stewart

    2018-01-18

    For decades, the Martian regolith has stymied robotic mission efforts to catalog the organic molecules present. Perchlorate salts, found widely throughout Mars, are the main culprit as they breakdown and react with organics liberated from the regolith during pyrolysis, the primary extraction technique attempted to date on Mars. This work further develops subcritical water extraction (SCWE) as a technique for extraction of amino acids on future missions. The effect of SCWE temperature (185, 200, and 215°C) and duration of extraction (10-120 min) on the total amount and distribution of amino acids recovered was explored for three Mars analog soils (JSC Mars-1A simulant, an Atacama desert soil, and an Antarctic Dry Valleys soil) and bovine serum albumin (as a control solution of known amino acid content). Total amounts of amino acids extracted increased with both time and temperature; however, the distribution shifted notably due to the destruction of the amino acids with charged or polar side chains at the higher temperatures. The pure bovine serum albumin solution and JSC Mars 1A also showed lower yields than the Atacama and Antarctic extractions suggesting that SCWE may be less effective at hydrolyzing large or aggregated proteins. Changing solvent from water to a dilute (10 mM) HCl solution allowed total extraction efficiencies comparable to the higher temperature/time combinations while using the lowest temperature/time (185°C/20 min). The dilute HCl extractions also did not lead to the shift in amino acid distribution observed at the higher temperatures. Additionally, adding sodium perchlorate salt to the extraction did not interfere with recoveries. Native magnetite in the JSC Mars-1A may have been responsible for destruction of glycine, as evidenced by its uncharacteristic decrease as the temperature/time of extraction increased. This work shows that SCWE can extract high yields of native amino acids out of Mars analog soils with minimal disruption of the

  7. In-situ biodiesel and sugar production from rice bran under subcritical condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zullaikah, Siti; Rahkadima, Yulia Tri

    2015-12-01

    An integrated method of producing biodiesel and sugar using subcritical water and methanol has been employed as a potential way to reduce the high cost of single biofuel production from rice bran. The effects of temperature, methanol to water ratio and reaction time on the biodiesel yield and purity, and the concentration of sugar in hydrolysate were investigated systematically. Biodiesel with yield and purity of 65.21%and 73.53%, respectively, was obtained from rice bran with initial free fatty acid (FFA) content of 37.64% under the following conditions: T= 200 oC, P= 4.0 MPa (using CO2 as pressurizing gas), ratio of rice bran/water/methanol of 1/2/6 (g/mL/mL), and 3 h of reaction time. FFAs level was reduced to 10.00% with crude biodiesel recovery of 88.69%. However, the highest biodiesel yield (67.39%) and crude biodiesel recovery (100.00%) were obtained by decreasing the amount of methanol so that the ratio of rice bran/water/methanol became 1/4/4, g/mL/mL. In addition, the highest sugar concentration of 0.98 g/L was obtained at 180 oC and 4.0 MPa with ratio of rice bran/water/methanol of 1/4/4 (g/mL/mL) and reaction time of 3 h. Since no catalyst was employed and the biodiesel and reducing sugar were produced directly from rice bran with high water and FFA contents, the process was simple and environmentally friendly, which would make the production of biofuel more economical and sustainable.

  8. Nonlinear dynamics aspects of subcritical transitions and singular flows in viscoelastic fluids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becherer, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Recently, there has been a renewed interest in theoretical aspects of flows of viscoelastic fluids (such as dilute polymer solutions). This thesis addresses two distinct issues related to such flows. Motivated by the possible occurrence of subcritical (finite-amplitude) instabilities in parallel

  9. Subcritical water - a perspective reaction media for biomass processing to chemicals

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlovič, Irena; Škerget, Mojca; Knez, Željko

    2015-01-01

    Biomass and water are recognized as a key renewable feedstock in sustainable production of chemicals, fuels and energy. Subcritical water (SubCW), or commonly referred as hot compressed water (HCW), is the water above boiling and below critical point (CP

  10. LAVENDER: A steady-state core analysis code for design studies of accelerator driven subcritical reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Shengcheng; Wu, Hongchun; Cao, Liangzhi; Zheng, Youqi, E-mail: yqzheng@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Huang, Kai; He, Mingtao; Li, Xunzhao

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • A new code system for design studies of accelerator driven subcritical reactors (ADSRs) is developed. • S{sub N} transport solver in triangular-z meshes, fine deletion analysis and multi-channel thermal-hydraulics analysis are coupled in the code. • Numerical results indicate that the code is reliable and efficient for design studies of ADSRs. - Abstract: Accelerator driven subcritical reactors (ADSRs) have been proposed and widely investigated for the transmutation of transuranics (TRUs). ADSRs have several special characteristics, such as the subcritical core driven by spallation neutrons, anisotropic neutron flux distribution and complex geometry etc. These bring up requirements for development or extension of analysis codes to perform design studies. A code system named LAVENDER has been developed in this paper. It couples the modules for spallation target simulation and subcritical core analysis. The neutron transport-depletion calculation scheme is used based on the homogenized cross section from assembly calculations. A three-dimensional S{sub N} nodal transport code based on triangular-z meshes is employed and a multi-channel thermal-hydraulics analysis model is integrated. In the depletion calculation, the evolution of isotopic composition in the core is evaluated using the transmutation trajectory analysis algorithm (TTA) and fine depletion chains. The new code is verified by several benchmarks and code-to-code comparisons. Numerical results indicate that LAVENDER is reliable and efficient to be applied for the steady-state analysis and reactor core design of ADSRs.

  11. Promotion or suppression of glucose isomerization in subcritical aqueous straight- and branched-chain alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Da-Ming; Kobayashi, Takashi; Adachi, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    The influence of water-miscible alcohols (methanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, and t-butyl alcohol) on the isomerization of glucose to fructose and mannose was investigated under subcritical aqueous conditions (180-200 °C). Primary and secondary alcohols promoted the conversion and isomerization of glucose to afford fructose and mannose with high and low selectivity, respectively. On the other hand, the decomposition (side-reaction) of glucose was suppressed in the presence of the primary and secondary alcohols compared with that in subcritical water. The yield of fructose increased with increasing concentration of the primary and secondary alcohols, and the species of the primary and secondary alcohols tested had little effect on the isomerization behavior of glucose. In contrast, the isomerization of glucose was suppressed in subcritical aqueous t-butyl alcohol. Both the conversion of glucose and the yield of fructose decreased with increasing concentration of t-butyl alcohol. In addition, mannose was not detected in reactions using subcritical aqueous t-butyl alcohol.

  12. Subcritical localization in the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation with arbitrary power nonlinearity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, O.; Juul Rasmussen, J.; Christiansen, P.L.

    1994-01-01

    Discretizing the continuous nonlinear Schrodinger equation with arbitrary power nonlinearity influences the time evolution of its ground state solitary solution. In the subcritical case, for grid resolutions above a certain transition value, depending on the degree of nonlinearity, the solution w...

  13. Subcritical crack growth behavior of AI2O3-Glass dental composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Q.; With, G. de; Dortmans, L.J.M.G.; Feenstra, F.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the subcritical crack growth (SCG) behavior of alumina-glass dental composites. Alumina-glass composites were fabricated by infiltrating molten glass to porous alumina preforms. Rectangular bars of the composite were subject to dynamic loading in air, with

  14. Plutonium Critical Mass Curve Comparison to Mass at Upper Subcritical Limit (USL) Using Whisper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alwin, Jennifer Louise [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Monte Carlo Codes; Zhang, Ning [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Nuclear Criticality Safety Division

    2016-09-27

    Whisper is computational software designed to assist the nuclear criticality safety analyst with validation studies with the MCNP® Monte Carlo radiation transport package. Standard approaches to validation rely on the selection of benchmarks based upon expert judgment. Whisper uses sensitivity/uncertainty (S/U) methods to select relevant benchmarks to a particular application or set of applications being analyzed. Using these benchmarks, Whisper computes a calculational margin. Whisper attempts to quantify the margin of subcriticality (MOS) from errors in software and uncertainties in nuclear data. The combination of the Whisper-derived calculational margin and MOS comprise the baseline upper subcritical limit (USL), to which an additional margin may be applied by the nuclear criticality safety analyst as appropriate to ensure subcriticality. A series of critical mass curves for plutonium, similar to those found in Figure 31 of LA-10860-MS, have been generated using MCNP6.1.1 and the iterative parameter study software, WORM_Solver. The baseline USL for each of the data points of the curves was then computed using Whisper 1.1. The USL was then used to determine the equivalent mass for plutonium metal-water system. ANSI/ANS-8.1 states that it is acceptable to use handbook data, such as the data directly from the LA-10860-MS, as it is already considered validated (Section 4.3 4) “Use of subcritical limit data provided in ANSI/ANS standards or accepted reference publications does not require further validation.”). This paper attempts to take a novel approach to visualize traditional critical mass curves and allows comparison with the amount of mass for which the keff is equal to the USL (calculational margin + margin of subcriticality). However, the intent is to plot the critical mass data along with USL, not to suggest that already accepted handbook data should have new and more rigorous requirements for validation.

  15. Effect of prepulse laser wavelength on EUV emission from CO2 reheated laser-produced Sn plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, J. R.; Harilal, S. S.; Hassanein, A.; Rice, B.

    2013-03-01

    We investigated the role of prepulse laser wavelength on extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) emission and ionic debris generation. A 6 ns Nd:YAG laser operating at 266 nm was used to generate a pre-plasma that was then reheated by a 35 ns CO2 laser pumping pulse at 10.6 μm. At an ideal delay time, improvement in EUV conversion efficiency (CE) of up to 30 % was seen compared to the CE from the pumping pulse alone. It was also shown that the most probable Sn ion kinetic energies were reduced significantly with the use of a prepulse, however, ion fluence increased. These results were compared to those obtained using a 1064 nm prepulse.

  16. Influence of the reheat temperature on the efficiency of the wet-steam turbines of thermal power plants that operate under variable conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarelin, A. A.

    2017-04-01

    A brief analysis of the existing methods for controlling the operating conditions of the turbine units that operate at variable loads is presented. In practice, the outdated rule of operation is most frequently used that states that the higher the parameters of the live and reheat steam and the lower the condenser pressure are, the higher is the efficiency of the turbine unit. However, in the technical literature, there is sufficiently substantiated evidence that this approach is not always correct, especially under low loads. This applies to both the regulation of the initial and final pressure and reheat temperature t r. In the article, particular stress is laid on the controllable parameter t r, the effect of which in the operational practices, according to the results of the analysis, is underestimated. The causes are considered that constrain more effective use of reheat temperature t r as a process variable. The results of field trials to investigate the influence of t r on the efficiency of turbine units of various capacities, viz., of 210, 250, 300, and 325 MW, during operation at varying loads are presented. It is shown that a decrease in t r to an optimal value of 10-30°C, depending on the load and the condenser pressure, increases the thermal efficiency by 1-2%. The following general pattern has been set: the lower the load, the lower the optimal reheat temperature. The main causes and factors that result in more efficient use of the heat phase transition in the steam path of the low-pressure cylinder and increased efficiency of the unit under rational choice of the reheat temperature are studied.

  17. A vibrating membrane bioreactor operated at supra- and sub-critical flux: Influence of extracellular polymeric substances from yeast cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Søren Prip; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    2007-01-01

    A vibrating membrane bioreactor, in which the fouling problems are reduced by vibrating a hollow fiber membrane module, has been tested in constant flux microfiltration above (supra-critical) and below (sub-critical) an experimentally determined critical flux. Suspensions of bakers yeast cells were....... Filtration just below the critical flux (sub-critical) seems to be a good compromise between acceptable flux level and acceptable increase of fouling resistance and trans-membrane pressure (TMP) in a given time period. EPS from the yeast cells causes the membrane module to foul and part of the fouling...... is continually washed out during supra-critical flux operation whereas the washing out at sub-critical flux operation is not observed. This might be due to locally different hydrodynamic conditions at the membrane surface and pore entrances at supra- and sub-critical flux respectively....

  18. Subcritical tests - nuclear weapon testing under the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty; Subkritiske tester - kjernevaapentesting under avtalen om fullstendig proevestans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeibraaten, S

    1998-10-01

    The report discusses possible nuclear weapons related experiments and whether these are permitted under the 1996 Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). The term ''subcritical experiments'' as used in the United States includes experiments in which one studies fissile materials (so far only plutonium) under extreme conditions generated by conventional high explosives, and in which a self-sustained chain reaction never develops in the fissile material. The known facts about the American subcritical experiments are presented. There is very little reason to doubt that these experiments were indeed subcritical and therefore permitted under the CTBT. Little is known about the Russian efforts that are being made on subcritical experiments.

  19. PILOT-SCALE SUBCRITICAL WATER REMEDIATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON- AND PESTICIDE-CONTAMINATED SOIL. (R825394)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subcritical water (hot water under enough pressure to maintain the liquid state) was used to remove polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and pesticides from highly contaminated soils. Laboratory-scale (8 g of soil) experiments were used to determine conditions f...

  20. Designing a mini subcritical nuclear reactor; Diseno de un mini reactor nuclear subcritico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escobedo G, C. R.; Vega C, H. R.; Davila H, V. M., E-mail: rafelaescobedo@hotmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Jardin Juarez 147, Col. Centro, 98000 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    In this work the design of a mini subcritical nuclear reactor formed by means of light water moderator, uranium as fuel, and isotopic neutron source of {sup 239}PuBe was carried out. The design was done by Monte Carlo methods with the code MCNP5 in which uranium was modeled in an array of concentric holes cylinders of 8.5, 14.5, 20.5, 26.5, 32.5 cm of internal radius and 3 cm of thickness, 36 cm of height. Different models were made from a single fuel cylinder (natural uranium) to five. The neutron source of {sup 239}PuBe was situated in the center of the mini reactor; in each arrangement was used water as moderator. Cross sections libraries Endf/Vi were used and the number of stories was large enough to ensure less uncertainty than 3%. For each case the effective multiplication factor k{sub e}-f{sub f}, the amplification factor and the power was calculated. Outside the mini reactor the ambient dose equivalent H (10) was calculated for different cases. The value of k{sub eff}, the amplification factor and power are directly related to the number of cylinders of uranium as fuel. Although the average energy of the neutrons {sup 239}PuBe is between 4.5 and 5 MeV in the case of the mini reactor for a cylinder, in the neutron spectrum the presence of thermal neutrons does not exist, so that produced fissions are generated with fast neutrons, and in designs of two and three rings the neutron spectra shows the presence of thermal neutrons, however the fissions are being generated with fast neutrons. Finally in the four and five cases the amount of moderator is enough to thermalized the neutrons and thereby produce the fission. The maximum value for k{sub eff} was 0.82; this value is very close to the assembly of Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas generating a k{sub eff} of 0.86. According to the safety and radiation protection standards for the design of mini reactor of one, two and three cylinders they comply with the established safety, while designs of four and five

  1. Research Programme for the 660 Mev Proton Accelerator Driven MOX-Plutonium Subcritical Assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Barashenkov, V S; Buttseva, G L; Dudarev, S Yu; Polanski, A; Puzynin, I V; Sissakian, A N

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents a research programme of the Experimental Acclerator Driven System (ADS), which employs a subcritical assembly and a 660 MeV proton acceletator operating at the Laboratory of Nuclear Problems of the JINR, Dubna. MOX fuel (25% PuO_2 + 75% UO_2) designed for the BN-600 reactor use will be adopted for the core of the assembly. The present conceptual design of the experimental subcritical assembly is based on a core of a nominal unit capacity of 15 kW (thermal). This corresponds to the multiplication coefficient k_eff = 0.945, energetic gain G = 30 and the accelerator beam power 0.5 kW.

  2. Tuning colloidal interactions in subcritical solvents by solvophobicity: explicit versus implicit modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzubiella, J; Chakrabarti, J; Löwen, H

    2009-07-28

    The distance-resolved effective interaction between two colloidal particles in a subcritical solvent is explored both by an explicit and implicit modeling. An implicit solvent approach based on a simple thermodynamic interface model is tested against grand-canonical Monte Carlo computer simulations using explicit Lennard-Jones solvent molecules. Close to liquid-gas coexistence, a joint gas bubble surrounding the colloidal particle pair yields an effective attraction between the colloidal particles, the strength of which can be vastly tuned by the solvophobicity of the colloids. The implicit model is in good agreement with our explicit computer simulations, thus enabling an efficient modeling and evaluation of colloidal interactions and self-assembly in subcritical solvent environments.

  3. A fusion-driven subcritical system concept based on viable technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y.; Jiang, J.; Wang, M.; Jin, M.; FDS Team

    2011-10-01

    A fusion-driven hybrid subcritical system (FDS) concept has been designed and proposed as spent fuel burner based on viable technologies. The plasma fusion driver can be designed based on relatively easily achieved plasma parameters extrapolated from the successful operation of existing fusion experimental devices such as the EAST tokamak in China and other tokamaks in the world, and the subcritical fission blanket can be designed based on the well-developed technologies of fission power plants. The simulation calculations and performance analyses of plasma physics, neutronics, thermal-hydraulics, thermomechanics and safety have shown that the proposed concept can meet the requirements of tritium self-sufficiency and sufficient energy gain as well as effective burning of nuclear waste from fission power plants and efficient breeding of nuclear fuel to feed fission power plants.

  4. Theoretical Analysis for Heat Transfer Optimization in Subcritical Electrothermal Energy Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Hu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Electrothermal energy storage (ETES provides bulk electricity storage based on heat pump and heat engine technologies. A subcritical ETES is described in this paper. Based on the extremum principle of entransy dissipation, a geometry model is developed for heat transfer optimization for subcritical ETES. The exergy during the heat transfer process is deduced in terms of entropy production. The geometry model is validated by the extremum principle of entropy production. The theoretical analysis results show that the extremum principle of entransy dissipation is an effective criterion for the optimization, and the optimum heat transfer for different cases with the same mass flux or pressure has been discussed. The optimum heat transfer can be achieved by adjusting the mass flux and pressure of the working fluid. It also reveals that with the increase of mass flux, there is a minimum exergy in the range under consideration, and the exergy decreases with the increase of the pressure.

  5. Determination of subcriticality and effective source strength by source drop and jerk experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taninaka, Hiroshi [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kinki University, 3-4-1, Kowakae, Higashi-Osaka, 577-8502 (Japan); Hashimoto, Kengo [Atomic Energy Research Institute, Kinki University, 3-4-1, Kowakae, Higashi-Osaka, 577-8502 (Japan)

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents applicability of least squares inverse kinetics method (LSIKM) to source drop and source jerk experiments. The LSIKM can estimate both reactivity and source strength by applying least square approximation to a correlation between time-sequence count data and inverse kinetics analysis data. The experiments were performed in the UTR-KINKI reactor to demonstrate the applicability of the LSIKM. To source jerk data, for comparison, conventional integral method is also applied. In the subcriticality and source strength obtained by the LSIKM, spatial dependence is slightly observed. However, the integral method leads to significant spatial dependence. The sub-criticalities inferred from source drop data are consistent with the results from source jerk data. (authors)

  6. Influence of moderator to fuel ratio (MFR) on burning thorium in a subcritical assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojciechowski, Andrzej, E-mail: andrzej.wojciechowski@ncbj.gov.pl [National Center for Nuclear Research, Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2014-10-15

    The conversion ratio (CR) of Th-232 to U-233 calculation results for a subcritical reactor assembly is presented as a function of MFR, burnup, power density (PD) and fissile concentration. The calculated model is based on subcritical assembly which makes configuration of fuel rods and volumes of moderator and coolant changes possible. This comfortable assembly enables investigation of CR in a thorium cycle for different value of MFR. Additionally, the calculation results of U-233 saturation concentration are explained by mathematical model. The value of MFR main influences the saturation concentration of U-233 and fissile and the fissile concentration dependence of CR. The saturation value of CR is included in the range CR ∈ (0.911, 0.966) and is a slowly increasing function of MFR. The calculations were done with a MCNPX 2.7 code.

  7. Subcritical ethanol extraction of flavonoids from Moringa oleifera leaf and evaluation of antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongqiang; Gao, Yujie; Ding, Hui; Liu, Shejiang; Han, Xu; Gui, Jianzhou; Liu, Dan

    2017-03-01

    A large-scale process to extract flavonoids from Moringa oleifera leaf by subcritical ethanol was developed and HPLC-MS analysis was conducted to qualitatively identify the compounds in the extracts. To optimize the effects of process parameters on the yield of flavonoids, a Box-Behnken design combined with response surface methodology was conducted in the present work. The results indicated that the highest extraction yield of flavonoids by subcritical ethanol extraction could reach 2.60% using 70% ethanol at 126.6°C for 2.05h extraction. Under the optimized conditions, flavonoids yield was substantially improved by 26.7% compared with the traditional ethanol reflux method while the extraction time was only 2h, and obvious energy saving was observed. FRAP and DPPH assays showed that the extracts had strong antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Coupling of subcritical methanol with acidic ionic liquids for the acidity reduction of naphthenic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafar Faisal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The presence of naphthenic acids (NAs in crude oil is the major cause of corrosion in the refineries and its processing equipment. The goal of this study is to reduce the total acid number (TAN of NAs by treating them with subcritical methanol in the presence of acidic ionic liquid (AIL catalysts. Experiments were carried out in an autoclave batch reactor and the effect of different reaction parameters was investigated. It was observed that TAN reduction was positively dependent on the temperature and concentration of the AIL whereas excess of methanol has a negative effect. Approximately 90% TAN reduction was achieved under the optimized reaction conditions using [BMIM]HSO4 as catalyst. It was also perceived from the experimental results that the AILs with longer alkyl chain exhibited higher catalytic activity. The activity and stability of AIL showed that they can be promising catalyst to esterify NAs under subcritical methanol.

  9. Enhanced enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis by subcritical carbon dioxide pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongdan; Wu, Shubin

    2014-04-01

    Most biomass pretreatment processes for sugar production are run at low-solid concentration (carbon dioxide (CO2) could provide a more sustainable pretreatment medium while using relative high-solid contents (15 wt.%). The effects of subcritical CO2 pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse to the solid and glucan recoveries at different pretreatment conditions were investigated. Subsequently, enzymatic hydrolysis at different hydrolysis time was applied to obtain maximal glucose yield, which can be used for ethanol fermentation. The maximum glucose yield in enzyme hydrolyzate reached 38.5 g based on 100g raw material after 72 h of enzymatic hydrolysis, representing 93.0% glucose in sugarcane bagasse. The enhanced digestibilities of subcritical CO2 pretreated sugarcane bagasse were due to the removal of hemicellulose, which were confirmed by XRD, FTIR, SEM, and TGA analyses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Equilibria of ternary system acetic acid-water-CO2 under subcritical conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutierrez, Jose M. Jimenez; Mussatto, Solange I.; Tsou, Joana

    in a very wide range of applications. However, those conditions, especially the levels of high pressure required at larger scale, involve certain equipment limitations. An alternative to overcome those restrictions is to use subcritical carbon dioxide. In order to understand the different systems......) of the ternary system HAc—H2O—CO2 at different subcritical conditions. A proposed computer model could be validated with experimental data, leading to a certain degree of adjustment due to specific factors, such as the binary interaction parameter kij, used in the model based on the Peng-Robinson EoS coupled...... it will be returned to the atmosphere (as part of the carbon cycle), CO2 is an inexpensive and clean source with numerous industrial applications in diverse fields: from chemical processes to biotechnological purposes [1]. Many of these studies have been focused on supercritical CO2, due to its broad potential uses...

  11. Sub-Critical Closed String Field Theory in D Less Than 26

    OpenAIRE

    Kaku, Michio

    1993-01-01

    We construct the second quantized action for sub-critical closed string field theory with zero cosmological constant in dimensions $ 2 \\leq D < 26$, generalizing the non-polynomial closed string field theory action proposed by the author and the Kyoto and MIT groups for $D = 26$. The proof of gauge invariance is considerably complicated by the presence of the Liouville field $\\phi$ and the non-polynomial nature of the action. However, we explicitly show that the polyhedral vertex functions ob...

  12. Sensitivity Analysis of Core Neutronic Parameters in Electron Accelerator-driven Subcritical Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahimkhani, Marziye; Hassanzadeh, Mostafa; Feghhi, Sayed Amier Hossian; Masti, Darush

    2016-01-01

    Calculation of the core neutronic parameters is one of the key components in all nuclear reactors. In this research, the energy spectrum and spatial distribution of the neutron flux in a uranium target have been calculated. In addition, sensitivity of the core neutronic parameters in accelerator-driven subcritical advanced liquid metal reactors, such as electron beam energy (Ee) and source multiplication coefficient (ks), has been investigated. A Monte Carlo code (MCNPX_2.6) has been used to ...

  13. Subcritical mineralization of sodium salt of dodecyl benzene sulfonate using sonication-wet oxidation (SONIWO) technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhale, A D; Mahajani, V V

    2001-06-01

    Subcritical mineralization of sodium salt of dodecyl benzene sulfonate via hybrid process-sonication followed by wet oxidation (SONIWO) has been investigated. Sonication of the compound enhanced the rates and % COD reduction during wet oxidation. In this process, homogenous CuSO4 catalyst was found to be effective. In wet oxidation studies, phenol, hydroquinone, maleic acid, oxalic acid, propionic acid, and acetic acid were identified as intermediates. The global rate equations for wet oxidation in terms of COD reduction were developed.

  14. Observation of subcritical geodesic acoustic mode excitation in the large helical device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ido, T.; Itoh, K.; Lesur, M.; Osakabe, M.; Shimizu, A.; Ogawa, K.; Nishiura, M.; Yamada, I.; Yasuhara, R.; Kosuga, Y.; Sasaki, M.; Ida, K.; Inagaki, S.; Itoh, S.-I.; the LHD Experiment Group

    2017-07-01

    The abrupt and strong excitation of the geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) has been found in the large helical device (LHD), when the frequency of a chirping energetic particle-driven GAM (EGAM) approaches twice that of the GAM frequency. The temporal evolution of the phase relation between the abrupt GAM and the chirping EGAM is common in all events. The result indicates a coupling between the GAM and the EGAM. In addition, the nonlinear evolution of the growth rate of the GAM is observed, and there is a threshold in the amplitude of the GAM for the appearance of nonlinear behavior. A threshold in the amplitude of the EGAM for the abrupt excitation of the GAM is also observed. According to one theory (Lesur et al 2016 Phys. Rev. Lett. 116 015003, Itoh et al 2016 Plasma Phys. Rep. 42 418) the observed abrupt phenomenon can be interpreted as the excitation of the subcritical instability of the GAM. The excitation of a subcritical instability requires a trigger and a seed with sufficient amplitude. The observed threshold in the amplitude of the GAM seems to correspond with the threshold in the seed, and the threshold in the amplitude of the EGAM seems to correspond with the threshold in the magnitude of the trigger. Thus, the observed threshold supports the interpretation that the abrupt phenomenon is the excitation of a subcritical instability of the GAM.

  15. Efficient decomposition of perchlorate to chloride ions in subcritical water by use of steel slag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Hisao; Kamijo, Ayae; Inoue, Miki; Chino, Asako; Wu, Qian; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2016-08-03

    Decomposition of perchlorate (ClO4(-)) in subcritical water in the presence of steel slag, a by-product of the steel industry, was investigated. Reactivity of ClO4(-) was low in pure subcritical water state up to 300 °C, whereas adding steel slag efficiently accelerated the decomposition of ClO4(-) to Cl(-), with no leaching of heavy metals such as chromium and other environmentally undesirable elements (boron and fluorine). When the reaction was performed in subcritical water at a relatively low temperature (250 °C) for 6 h, virtually all ClO4(-) ions were removed from the reaction solution. The concentration of Cl(-) after the reaction was well accounted for by the sum of the amount of Cl(-) ascribed to the decomposition of ClO4(-) and the amount of Cl(-) leached from the slag. This method was successfully applied to decompose ClO4(-) in water samples collected from a man-made reflection pond following a fireworks display, even though these samples contained much higher concentrations of Cl(-) and SO4(2-) than ClO4(-).

  16. Th and U fuel photofission study by NTD for AD-MSR subcritical assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sajo-Bohus, Laszlo; Greaves, Eduardo D.; Barros, Haydn; Pino, Felix; Barrera, Maria T.; Farina, Fulvio [Universidad Simón Bolívar, Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Apdo 89000, Caracas 1080A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Davila, Jesus [Física Médica C. A. and Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2015-07-23

    During the last decade a considerable effort has been devoted for developing energy generating systems based on advanced nuclear technology within the design concepts of GEN-IV. Thorium base fuel systems such as accelerator driven nuclear reactors are one of the often mentioned attractive and affordable options. Several radiotherapy linear accelerators are on the market and due to their reliability, they could be employed as drivers for subcritical liquid fuel assemblies. Bremsstrahlung photons with energies above 5.5MeV, induce (γ,n) and (e,e’n) reactions in the W-target. Resulting gamma radiation and photo or fission neutrons may be absorbed in target materials such as thorium and uranium isotopes to induce sustained fission or nuclear transmutation in waste radioactive materials. Relevant photo driven and photo-fission reaction cross sections are important for actinides {sup 232}Th, {sup 238}U and {sup 237}Np in the radiotherapy machines energy range of 10-20 MV. In this study we employ passive nuclear track detectors (NTD) to determine fission rates and neutron production rates with the aim to establish the feasibility for gamma and photo-neutron driven subcritical assemblies. To cope with these objectives a 20 MV radiotherapy machine has been employed with a mixed fuel target. Results will support further development for a subcritical assembly employing a thorium containing liquid fuel. It is expected that acquired technological knowledge will contribute to the Venezuelan nuclear energy program.

  17. Structural Changes in Cooked Rice Treated with Cooling-Reheating Process and Coconut Milk Addition as Observed With FT-IR and 13C NMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuri Arum Anugrahati

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The molecular structural changes of food could be observed by the technique of FT-IR and 13C NMR spectroscopy. This research was aimed to study the structural changes in cooked rice treated with cooling-reheating process and coconut milk addition using FT-IR and 13C NMR. It was found that the cooling-reheating process and addition of coconut milk cause several structural changes of cooked rice. The IR analysis showed the bands at 3,400, 2,900, 1,018 and 856 cm-1 changed due to the retrogradation during cooling process. The spectrum of 13C NMR showed the change of peaks at 100.28 and 100.10 ppm. These changes may be related to the addition of coconut milk during rice cooking.

  18. Microstructural characteristics and gastro-small intestinal digestion in vitro of potato starch: Effects of refrigerated storage and reheating in microwave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colussi, Rosana; Singh, Jaspreet; Kaur, Lovedeep; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra; Stewart, Robert B; Singh, Harjinder

    2017-07-01

    The objective of our study was to evaluate paste clarity, retrogradation (syneresis %), thermal characteristics and kinetics of glucose release during in vitro gastro-small intestinal digestion of freshly cooked and refrigerated potato starch. Freshly cooked starch pastes had a paste clarity of 71%, which decreased to 35.4% whereas syneresis (%) increased after 7days of refrigerated storage. The X-ray and thermal characteristics of native, retrograded and microwave reheated starch samples differed significantly from each other. For the freshly cooked starch pastes, ∼88% starch hydrolysis was observed at the end (150min) of digestion under simulated gastro-small intestinal conditions that decreased to ∼70% for the 7day stored pastes. The hydrolysis (%) of refrigerated pastes increased to 86% and 92% after one and two cycles of microwave reheating, respectively. These results contribute to the understanding of starch retrogradation in relation to starch digestion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of heating/reheating of fats/oils, as used by Asian Indians, on trans fatty acid formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Swati; Passi, Santosh Jain; Misra, Anoop; Pant, Kamal K; Anwar, Khalid; Pandey, R M; Kardam, Vikas

    2016-12-01

    Heating/frying and reuse of edible fats/oils induces chemical changes such as formation of trans fatty acids (TFAs). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of heating/frying on formation of TFAs in fats/oils. Using gas chromatography with flame ionisation detector, TFA was estimated in six commonly used fat/oils in India (refined soybean oil, groundnut oil, olive oil, rapeseed oil, clarified butter, partially hydrogenated vegetable oil), before and after subjecting them to heating/frying at 180°C and 220°C. All six fats/oils subjected to heating/frying demonstrated an increase in TFAs (poils (after subjecting to heating/reheating) ranged between 2.30±0.89g/100g and 4.5±1.43g/100g; amongst edible fats it ranged between 2.60±0.38g/100g and 5.96±1.94g/100g. There were no significant differences between the two treatment groups (heating and frying; p=0.892). Considering the undesirable health effects of TFA, appropriate guidelines for heating/re-frying of edible fats/oils by Asian Indians should be devised. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Design of steam turbine for 593[degree]C reheat temperature. Sainetsu joki ondo 593[degree]C turbine no keikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsukuma, M.; Fujikawa, T.; Takayanagi, K. (Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-02-15

    Following the successful completion of the first stage operation with main/reheat steam temperature of 593/593 centigrade for the Wakamatsu high temperature 50MW turbine of Electric Power Development Co., the large high temperature steam turbines for the hot reheat temperature of 593 centigrade are currently being realized for the first time in Japan. Namely, the Hekinan No.3 unit of Chubu Electric Power Company is being constructed, which has 246kg/cm[sup 2], 538/593 centigrade 700MW turbine, and the design of the Nanao-Ohta No.1 unit of Hokuriku Electric Power Company is in progress, which has 246kg/cm[sup 2], 566/593 centigrade 500MW turbine. The present paper describes the results of demonstration tests of the Wakamatsu high temperature turbine conducted for three years and three months from 1986 to 1990, and introduces outline of development, features in the design, and problems to be considered of these high temperature steam turbines designed for the 593 centigrade hot reheat steam temperature. 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Simulation of primary fuel atomization processes at subcritical pressures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arienti, Marco

    2013-06-01

    This report documents results from an LDRD project for the first-principles simulation of the early stages of spray formation (primary atomization). The first part describes a Cartesian embedded-wall method for the calculation of flow internal to a real injector in a fully coupled primary calculation. The second part describes the extension to an all-velocity formulation by introducing a momentum-conservative semi-Lagrangian advection and by adding a compressible term in the Poissons equation. Accompanying the description of the new algorithms are verification tests for simple two-phase problems in the presence of a solid interface; a validation study for a scaled-up multi-hole Diesel injector; and demonstration calculations for the closing and opening transients of a single-hole injector and for the high-pressure injection of liquid fuel at supersonic velocity.

  2. The Effect of Subcritical Bone Loss and Exposure on Recurrent Instability After Arthroscopic Bankart Repair in Intercollegiate American Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickens, Jonathan F; Owens, Brett D; Cameron, Kenneth L; DeBerardino, Thomas M; Masini, Brendan D; Peck, Karen Y; Svoboda, Steven J

    2017-07-01

    There is no consensus on the optimal method of stabilization (arthroscopic or open) in collision athletes with anterior shoulder instability. To examine the effect of "subcritical" bone loss and football-specific exposure on the rate of recurrent shoulder instability after arthroscopic stabilization in an intercollegiate American football population. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Fifty intercollegiate football players underwent primary arthroscopic stabilization for anterior shoulder instability and returned to football for at least a single season. Preoperatively, 32 patients experienced recurrent subluxations, and 18 patients experienced a single or recurrent dislocation. Shoulders with glenoid bone loss >20%, an engaging Hill-Sachs lesion, an off-track lesion, and concomitant rotator cuff repair were excluded from the study. The primary outcome of interest was the ability to return to football without subsequent instability. Patients were followed for time to a subsequent instability event after return to play using days of exposure to football and total follow-up time after arthroscopic stabilization. Fifty consecutive patients returned to American football for a mean 1.5 seasons (range, 1-3) after arthroscopic stabilization. Three of 50 (6%; 95% CI, 1.3%-16.5%) patients experienced recurrent instability. There were no subsequent instability events after a mean 3.2 years of military service. All shoulders with glenoid bone loss >13.5% (n = 3) that underwent arthroscopic stabilization experienced recurrent instability upon returning to sport, while none of the shoulders with football ( X 2 = 15.80, P 13.5% glenoid bone loss had an incidence rate of 5.31 cases of recurrent instability per 1000 athlete-exposures of football. In 72,000 athlete-exposures to football with football players with <13.5% glenoid bone loss provides reliable outcomes and low recurrence rates.

  3. Evaluation of reactivity monitoring techniques at the Yalina - Booster sub-critical facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becares Palacios, V.

    2014-07-01

    The management of long-lived radioactive wastes produced by nuclear reactors constitutes one of the main challenges of nuclear technology nowadays. A possible option for its management consists in the transmutation of long lived nuclides into shorter lived ones. Accelerator Driven Subcritical Systems (ADS) are one of the technologies in development to achieve this goal. An ADS consists in a subcritical nuclear reactor maintained in a steady state by an external neutron source driven by a particle accelerator. The interest of these systems lays on its capacity to be loaded with fuels having larger contents of minor actinides than conventional critical reactors, and in this way, increasing the transmutation rates of these elements, that are the main responsible of the long-term radiotoxicity of nuclear waste. One of the key points that have been identified for the operation of an industrial-scale ADS is the need of continuously monitoring the reactivity of the subcritical system during operation. For this reason, since the 1990s a number of experiments have been conducted in zero-power subcritical assemblies (MUSE, RACE, KUCA, Yalina, GUINEVERE/FREYA) in order to experimentally validate these techniques. In this context, the present thesis is concerned with the validation of reactivity monitoring techniques at the Yalina-Booster subcritical assembly. This assembly belongs to the Joint Institute for Power and Nuclear Research (JIPNR-Sosny) of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus. Experiments concerning reactivity monitoring have been performed in this facility under the EUROTRANS project of the 6th EU Framework Program in year 2008 under the direction of CIEMAT. Two types of experiments have been carried out: experiments with a pulsed neutron source (PNS) and experiments with a continuous source with short interruptions (beam trips). For the case of the first ones, PNS experiments, two fundamental techniques exist to measure the reactivity, known as the prompt

  4. Surface chemistry and corrosion behavior of Inconel 625 and 718 in subcritical, supercritical, and ultrasupercritical water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, David; Merwin, Augustus; Karmiol, Zachary; Chidambaram, Dev, E-mail: dcc@unr.edu

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Mixtures of oxides containing Ni, Fe, Cr and Nb formed on the surface. • Short term exposure tests observed breakdown of native film. • Formation of a Fe rich oxide layer on Inconel 718 prevents mass loss. - Abstract: Corrosion behavior of Inconel 625 and 718 in subcritical, supercritical and ultrasupercritical water was studied as a function of temperature and time. The change in the chemistry of the as-received surface film on Inconel 625 and 718 after exposure to subcritical water at 325 °C and supercritical water at 425 °C and 527.5 °C for 2 h was studied. After exposure to 325 °C subcritical water, the CrO{sub 4}{sup 2−} based film formed; however minor quantities of NiFe{sub x}Cr{sub 2-x}O{sub 4} spinel compounds were observed. The oxide film formed on both alloys when exposed to supercritical water at 425 °C consisted of NiFe{sub x}Cr{sub 2-x}O{sub 4} spinel. The surface films on both alloys were identified as NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} when exposed to supercritical water at 527.5 °C. To characterize the fully developed oxide layer, studies were conducted at test solution temperatures of 527.5 and 600 °C. Samples were exposed to these temperatures for 24, 96, and 200 h. Surface chemistry was analyzed using X-ray diffraction, as well as Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies. Inconel 718 exhibited greater mass gain than Inconel 625 for all temperatures and exposure times. The differences in corrosion behavior of the two alloys are attributed to the lower content of chromium and increased iron content of Inconel 718 as compared to Inconel 625.

  5. Surface chemistry and corrosion behavior of Inconel 625 and 718 in subcritical, supercritical, and ultrasupercritical water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, David; Merwin, Augustus; Karmiol, Zachary; Chidambaram, Dev

    2017-05-01

    Corrosion behavior of Inconel 625 and 718 in subcritical, supercritical and ultrasupercritical water was studied as a function of temperature and time. The change in the chemistry of the as-received surface film on Inconel 625 and 718 after exposure to subcritical water at 325 °C and supercritical water at 425 °C and 527.5 °C for 2 h was studied. After exposure to 325 °C subcritical water, the CrO42- based film formed; however minor quantities of NiFexCr2-xO4 spinel compounds were observed. The oxide film formed on both alloys when exposed to supercritical water at 425 °C consisted of NiFexCr2-xO4 spinel. The surface films on both alloys were identified as NiFe2O4 when exposed to supercritical water at 527.5 °C. To characterize the fully developed oxide layer, studies were conducted at test solution temperatures of 527.5 and 600 °C. Samples were exposed to these temperatures for 24, 96, and 200 h. Surface chemistry was analyzed using X-ray diffraction, as well as Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies. Inconel 718 exhibited greater mass gain than Inconel 625 for all temperatures and exposure times. The differences in corrosion behavior of the two alloys are attributed to the lower content of chromium and increased iron content of Inconel 718 as compared to Inconel 625.

  6. Odd-number theorem: Optical feedback control at a subcritical Hopf bifurcation in a semiconductor laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schikora, S.; Wünsche, H.-J.; Henneberger, F.

    2011-02-01

    A subcritical Hopf bifurcation is prepared in a multisection semiconductor laser. In the free-running state, hysteresis is absent due to noise-induced escape processes. The missing branches are recovered by stabilizing them against noise through application of phase-sensitive noninvasive delayed optical feedback control. The same type of control is successfully used to stabilize the unstable pulsations born in the Hopf bifurcation. This experimental finding represents an optical counterexample to the so-called odd-number limitation of delayed feedback control. However, as a leftover of the limitation, the domains of control are extremely small.

  7. Numerical simulations of flow field in the target region of accelerator-driven subcritical reactor system

    CERN Document Server

    Chen Hai Yan

    2002-01-01

    Numerical simulations of flow field were performed by using the PHOENICS 3.2 code for the proposed spallation target of accelerator-driven subcritical reactor system (ADS). The fluid motion in the target is axisymmetric and is treated as a 2-D steady-state problem. A body-fitted coordinate system (BFC) is then chosen and a two-dimensional mesh of the flow channel is generated. Results are presented for the ADS target under both upward and downward flow, and for the target with diffuser plate installed below the window under downward flow

  8. Study on design of superconducting proton linac for accelerator driven subcritical nuclear power system

    CERN Document Server

    Yu Qi; Xu Tao Guang

    2002-01-01

    As a prior option of the next generation of energy source, the accelerator driven subcritical nuclear power system (ADS) can use efficiently the uranium and thorium resource, transmute the high-level long-lived radioactive wastes and raise nuclear safety. The ADS accelerator should provide the proton beam with tens megawatts. The superconducting linac (SCL) is a good selection of ADS accelerator because of its high efficiency and low beam loss rate. It is constitute by a series of the superconducting accelerating cavities. The cavity geometry is determined by means of the electromagnetic field computation. The SCL main parameters are determined by the particle dynamics computation

  9. Subcritical experiments at the FREYA experiment; Experimentos subcriticos en el proyecto FREYA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becares Palacios, V.; Villamarin fernandez, D.

    2013-07-01

    The FREYA Project of the 7th Framework Program is aimed to the study of the kinetics of subcritical reactors coupled to an external neutron source, and, more specifically, to the validation of reactivity monitoring techniques. CIEMAT activities within the frame of this project have consisted in analyzing the possible ways of correcting the spatial and energy effects on these reactivity monitoring techniques, as well as analyzing the effects that may have on them the presence of different materials in the reflector and the position of the neutron source.

  10. Ion acoustic wave generation by a standing electromagnetic field in a subcritical plasma

    OpenAIRE

    P. Fischer; Gauthereau, C.; Godiot, J.; G. Matthieussent

    1987-01-01

    An electromagnetic wave ( f = 9 GHz, Pi = 150 kW, τ = 1.5 μs) is launched into a subcritical argon plasma (n e ≃1011 cm-3, P0 ≃ 5 × 10-4 Torr), resulting in a standing wave. The associated ponderomotive force generates an ion acoustic wave with a wave vector equal to twice the electromagnetic one and with a frequency satisfying the usual dispersion relation (fA ≃ 150 kHz). The main features of the ion acoustic wave, as measured in this 3D experiment, agree with a simple theory. However, varyi...

  11. Hydrothermal liquefaction of Spirulina and Nannochloropsis Salina under subcritical and supercritical water conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib; Reddy, H.; Deng, S.

    2013-01-01

    Six hydrothermal liquefaction experiments on Nannochloropsis salina and Spirulina platensis at subcritical and supercritical water conditions (220-375 °C, 20-255 bar) were carried out to explore the feasibility of extracting lipids from wet algae, preserving nutrients in lipid-extracted algae solid...... on Nannochloropsis salina at 350 °C and 175 bar. For Spirulina platensis algae sample, the optimal hydrothermal liquefaction condition appears to be at 310 °C and 115 bar, while the optimal condition for Nannochloropsis salina is at 350 °C and 175 bar. Preliminary data also indicate that a lipid-extracted algae...

  12. Semiclassical Limit of the Non-linear Schroedinger-Poisson Equation With Subcritical Initial Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-12-01

    lim ∇xargψ. As noted earlier, this argument is self - consistent as long as the solution of the Euler- Poisson system (1.5)-(1.6) remains classical...00-2003 to 00-00-2003 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Semiclassical Limit of the Non-linear Schrodinger - Poisson Equation with Subcritical Initial Data 5a...classical limit of a self - consistent quantum-Vlasov equation in 3-D, Math. Models Methods Appl. Sci., 3 (1993), pp. 109–124. [SMM] C. Sparber, P. Markowich

  13. Criticality Safety Evaluation of the LLNL Inherently Safe Subcritical Assembly (ISSA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Percher, Catherine [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2012-06-19

    The LLNL Nuclear Criticality Safety Division has developed a training center to illustrate criticality safety and reactor physics concepts through hands-on experimental training. The experimental assembly, the Inherently Safe Subcritical Assembly (ISSA), uses surplus highly enriched research reactor fuel configured in a water tank. The training activities will be conducted by LLNL following the requirements of an Integration Work Sheet (IWS) and associated Safety Plan. Students will be allowed to handle the fissile material under the supervision of LLNL instructors. This report provides the technical criticality safety basis for instructional operations with the ISSA experimental assembly.

  14. The glass transition in a nutshell: a source of inspiration to describe the subcritical transition to turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauchot, Olivier; Bertin, Eric

    2014-04-01

    The starting point of the present work is the observation of possible analogies, both at the phenomenological and at the methodological level, between the subcritical transition to turbulence and the glass transition. Having recalled the phenomenology of the subcritical transition to turbulence, we review the theories of the glass transition at a very basic level, focusing on the history of their development as well as on the concepts they have elaborated. Doing so, we aim at attracting the attention on the above-mentioned analogies, which we believe could inspire new developments in the theory of the subcritical transition to turbulence. We then briefly describe a model inspired by one of the simplest and most inspiring models of the glass transition, the so-called Random Energy Model, as a first step in that direction.

  15. Applications of subcritical and supercritical water conditions for extraction, hydrolysis, gasification, and carbonization of biomass: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Lachos-Perez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes the recent essential aspects of subcritical and supercritical water technology applied tothe extraction, hydrolysis, carbonization, and gasification processes. These are clean and fast technologies which do not need pretreatment, require less reaction time, generate less corrosion and residues, do not usetoxic solvents, and reduce the synthesis of degradation byproducts. The equipment design, process parameters, and types of biomass used for subcritical and supercritical water process are presented. The benefits of catalysis to improve process efficiency are addressed. Bioactive compounds, reducing sugars, hydrogen, biodiesel, and hydrothermal char are the final products of subcritical and supercritical water processes. The present review also revisits advances of the research trends in the development of subcriticaland supercritical water process technologies.

  16. Final Progress Report: FRACTURE AND SUBCRITICAL DEBONDING IN THIN LAYERED STRUCTURES: EXPERIMENTS AND MULTI-SCALE MODELING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhold H. Dauskardt

    2005-08-30

    Final technical report detailing unique experimental and multi-scale computational modeling capabilities developed to study fracture and subcritical cracking in thin-film structures. Our program to date at Stanford has studied the mechanisms of fracture and fatigue crack-growth in structural ceramics at high temperature, bulk and thin-film glasses in selected moist environments where we demonstrated the presence of a true mechanical fatigue effect in some glass compositions. We also reported on the effects of complex environments and fatigue loading on subcritical cracking that effects the reliability of MEMS and other micro-devices using novel micro-machined silicon specimens and nanomaterial layers.

  17. Dynamic properties of nucleated microtubules: GTP utilisation in the subcritical concentration regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symmons, M F; Martin, S R; Bayley, P M

    1996-11-01

    Microtubule assembly kinetics have been studied quantitatively under solution conditions supporting microtubule dynamic instability. Purified GTP-tubulin (Tu-GTP) and covalently cross-linked short microtubule seeds (EGS-seeds; Koshland et al. (1988) Nature 331, 499) were used with and without biotinylation. Under sub-critical concentration conditions ([Tu-GTP] assembly, that was found to abolish the GDP release. The variation of the GDP release with tubulin concentration (Jh(c) plot) was determined below the critical concentration (Cc). The GDP production observed was consistent with the elongation of the observed seeded microtubules with an apparent rate constant of 1.5 x 10(6) M-1 second-1 above a threshold of approximately 1 microM tubulin. The form of this Jh(c) plot for elongation below Cc is reproduced by the Lateral Cap model for microtubule dynamic instability adapted for seeded assembly. The behaviour of the system is contrasted with that previously studied in the absence of detectable microtubule elongation (Caplow and Shanks (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265, 8935-8941). The approach provides a means of monitoring microtubule dynamics at concentrations inaccessible to optical microscopy, and shows that essentially the same dynamic mechanisms apply at all concentrations. Numerical simulation of the subcritical concentration regime shows dynamic growth features applicable to the initiation of microtubule growth in vivo.

  18. Vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy of the lowest-lying electronic state in subcritical and supercritical water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Timothy W; Janik, Ireneusz; Bartels, David M; Chipman, Daniel M

    2017-05-17

    The nature and extent of hydrogen bonding in water has been scrutinized for decades, including how it manifests in optical properties. Here we report vacuum ultraviolet absorption spectra for the lowest-lying electronic state of subcritical and supercritical water. For subcritical water, the spectrum redshifts considerably with increasing temperature, demonstrating the gradual breakdown of the hydrogen-bond network. Tuning the density at 381 °C gives insight into the extent of hydrogen bonding in supercritical water. The known gas-phase spectrum, including its vibronic structure, is duplicated in the low-density limit. With increasing density, the spectrum blueshifts and the vibronic structure is quenched as the water monomer becomes electronically perturbed. Fits to the supercritical water spectra demonstrate consistency with dimer/trimer fractions calculated from the water virial equation of state and equilibrium constants. Using the known water dimer interaction potential, we estimate the critical distance between molecules (ca. 4.5 Å) needed to explain the vibronic structure quenching.

  19. Homoclinic connections and subcritical Neimark bifurcation in a duopoly model with adaptively adjusted productions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agliari, Anna [Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche e Sociali, Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Via Emilia Parmense, 84, 29100 Piacenza (Italy)]. E-mail: anna.agliari@unicatt.it

    2006-08-15

    In this paper we study some global bifurcations arising in the Puu's oligopoly model when we assume that the producers do not adjust to the best reply but use an adaptive process to obtain at each step the new production. Such bifurcations cause the appearance of a pair of closed invariant curves, one attracting and one repelling, this latter being involved in the subcritical Neimark bifurcation of the Cournot equilibrium point. The aim of the paper is to highlight the relationship between the global bifurcations causing the appearance/disappearance of two invariant closed curves and the homoclinic connections of some saddle cycle, already conjectured in [Agliari A, Gardini L, Puu T. Some global bifurcations related to the appearance of closed invariant curves. Comput Math Simul 2005;68:201-19]. We refine the results obtained in such a paper, showing that the appearance/disappearance of closed invariant curves is not necessarily related to the existence of an attracting cycle. The characterization of the periodicity tongues (i.e. a region of the parameter space in which an attracting cycle exists) associated with a subcritical Neimark bifurcation is also discussed.

  20. Total acid number reduction kinetics of naphthenic acids using non-catalytic subcritical methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Faisal; Mandal, Pradip Chandra; Shaari, Ku Zilati bt Ku; Nadeem, Saad

    2017-10-01

    Naphthenic acids (NAs) are weak organic acids present in the heavy crude oil and Oil Sand Bitumens. Whereas, the NAs are the major cause of corrosion in different processing, handling and storage equipment's of the refinery. Esterification of these acids can be an interesting method to reduce the NAs content in the crude oil besides its esters are valuable commodity and can be used as added lubricant in the oils. In this study, NAs reduction kinetics were investigated in a batch type reactor with subcritical methanol, the experiments were performed at temperatures of 150-210°C and fixed methanol partial pressure of 2 MPa. Findings of this study demonstrate that the 59% of total acid number (TAN) reduction was achieved at the temperature of 210°C, methanol partial pressure of 2 MPa and reaction time of 150 min. The TAN reduction followed second order kinetics with activation energy and frequency factor of 54.15 KJ/mol and 7.6×103, respectively. These results suggest that subcritical methanol can be an effective to reduce the TAN non-catalytically.

  1. Kinetics and reaction pathways of total acid number reduction of cyclopentane carboxylic acid using subcritical methanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandal Pradip C.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cyclopentane carboxylic acid (CPCA is a model compound of Naphthenic acids (NAs. This objective of this paper is to discover total acid number (TAN reduction kinetics and pathways of the reaction between CAPA and subcritical methanol (SubC-MeOH. The experiments were carried out in an autoclave reactor at temperatures of 180-220°C, a methanol partial pressure (MPP of 3 MPa, reaction times of 0-30 min and CPCA initial gas phase concentrations of 0.016-0.04 g/mL. TAN content of the samples were analyzed using ASTM D 974 techniques. The reaction products were identified and quantified with the help of GC/MS and GC-FID respectively. Experimental results reveal that TAN removal kinetics followed first order kinetics with an activation energy of 13.97 kcal/mol and a pre-exponential factor of 174.21 s-1. Subcritical methanol is able to reduce TAN of CPCA decomposing CPCA into new compounds such as cyclopentane, formaldehyde, methyl acetate and 3-pentanol.

  2. Subcritical saturation of the magnetorotational instability through mean magnetic field generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jin-Han; Julien, Keith; Knobloch, Edgar

    2018-03-01

    The magnetorotational instability is widely believed to be responsible for outward angular momentum transport in astrophysical accretion discs. The efficiency of this transport depends on the amplitude of this instability in the saturated state. We employ an asymptotic expansion based on an explicit, astrophysically motivated time-scale separation between the orbital period, Alfvén crossing time and viscous or resistive dissipation time-scales, originally proposed by Knobloch and Julien, to formulate a semi-analytical description of the saturated state in an incompressible disc. In our approach a Keplerian shear flow is maintained by the central mass but the instability saturates via the generation of a mean vertical magnetic field. The theory assumes that the time-averaged angular momentum flux and the radial magnetic flux are constant and determines both self-consistently. The results predict that, depending on parameters, steady saturation may be supercritical or subcritical, and in the latter case that the upper (lower) solution branch is always stable (unstable). The angular momentum flux is always outward, consistent with the presence of accretion, and for fixed wavenumber peaks in the subcritical regime. The limit of infinite Reynolds number at large but finite magnetic Reynolds number is also discussed.

  3. Ultrasound-Enhanced Subcritical CO2 Extraction of Lutein from Chlorella pyrenoidosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiao-Dan; Hou, Yan; Huang, Xing-Xin; Qiu, Tai-Qiu; Jiang, Jian-Guo

    2015-05-13

    Lutein is an important pigment of Chlorella pyrenoidosa with many beneficial functions in human health. The main purpose of this study was to extract lutein from C. pyrenoidosa using ultrasound-enhanced subcritical CO2 extraction (USCCE). Effects of operating conditions on the extraction, including extraction pretreatment, temperature, pressure, time, CO2 flow rate, and ultrasonic power, were investigated, and an orthogonal experiment was designed to study the effects of extraction pressure, temperature, cosolvent amount, and time on the extraction yields. The USCCE method was compared with other extraction methods in terms of the yields of lutein and the microstructure of C. pyrenoidosa powder by scanning electron microscopy. A maximal extraction yield of 124.01 mg lutein/100 g crude material was achieved under optimal conditions of extraction temperature at 27 °C, extraction pressure at 21 MPa, cosolvent amount at 1.5 mL/g ethanol, and ultrasound power at 1000 W. Compared to other methods, USCCE could significantly increase the lutein extraction yield at lower extraction temperature and pressure. Furthermore, the kinetic models of USCCE and subcritical CO2 extraction (SCCE) of lutein from C. pyrenoidosa were set as E = 130.64 × (1 - e(-0.6599t)) and E = 101.82 × (1 - e(-0.5683t)), respectively. The differences of parameters in the kinetic models indicate that ultrasound was able to enhance the extraction process of SCCE.

  4. Release of phenolic acids from defatted rice bran by subcritical water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Cynthia; Tran-Thi, Ngoc Yen; Kasim, Novy S; Ju, Yi-Hsu

    2010-12-01

    Oil production from rice bran, an undervalued by-product of rice milling, produces defatted rice bran (DRB) as a waste material. Although it is considered a less valuable product, DRB still contains useful substances such as phenolic compounds with antioxidant, UV-B-protecting and anti-tumour activities. In this study the phenolic acids in DRB were extracted with subcritical water at temperatures of 125, 150, 175 and 200 °C. Analysis of total phenolics using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent showed about 2-20 g gallic acid equivalent kg(-1) bran in the extracts. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed low contents of phenolic acids (about 0.4-2 g kg(-1) bran). Ferulic, p-coumaric, gallic and caffeic acids were the major phenolic acids identified in the extracts. Thermal analysis of the phenolic acids was also done. The thermogravimetric curves showed that p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic acids started to decompose at about 170 °C, while gallic acid did not start to decompose until about 200 °C. Subcritical water can be used to hydrolyse rice bran and release phenolic compounds, but the high temperatures used in the extraction can also cause the decomposition of phenolic acids. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Pilot-scale subcritical solvent extraction of curcuminoids from Curcuma long L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hye-Lim; Chung, Myong-Soo

    2015-10-15

    Curcuminoids consisted curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin, were extracted from turmeric using subcritical solvent by varying conditions of temperature (110-150 °C), time (1-10 min), pressure (5-100 atm), solid-to-solvent ratio, and mixing ratio of solvent. Preliminary lab-scale experiments were conducted to determine the optimum extraction temperature and mixing ratio of water and ethanol for the pilot-scale extraction. The maximum yield of curcuminoids in the pilot-scale system was 13.58% (curcumin 4.94%, demethoxycurcumin 4.73%, and bisdemethoxycurcumin 3.91% in dried extracts) at 135 °C/5 min with water/ethanol mixture (50:50, v/v) as a solvent. On the other hand, the extraction yields of curcuminoids were obtained as 10.49%, 13.71% and 13.96% using the 50%, 95% and 100% ethanol, respectively, at the atmospheric condition (60 °C/120 min). Overall results showed that the subcritical solvent extraction is much faster and efficient extraction method considering extracted curcuminoids contents and has a potential to develop a commercial process for the extraction of curcuminoids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Ion-scale turbulence in MAST: anomalous transport, subcritical transitions, and comparison to BES measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wyk, F.; Highcock, E. G.; Field, A. R.; Roach, C. M.; Schekochihin, A. A.; Parra, F. I.; Dorland, W.

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the effect of varying the ion temperature gradient (ITG) and toroidal equilibrium scale sheared flow on ion-scale turbulence in the outer core of MAST by means of local gyrokinetic simulations. We show that nonlinear simulations reproduce the experimental ion heat flux and that the experimentally measured values of the ITG and the flow shear lie close to the turbulence threshold. We demonstrate that the system is subcritical in the presence of flow shear, i.e., the system is formally stable to small perturbations, but transitions to a turbulent state given a large enough initial perturbation. We propose that the transition to subcritical turbulence occurs via an intermediate state dominated by low number of coherent long-lived structures, close to threshold, which increase in number as the system is taken away from the threshold into the more strongly turbulent regime, until they fill the domain and a more conventional turbulence emerges. We show that the properties of turbulence are effectively functions of the distance to threshold, as quantified by the ion heat flux. We make quantitative comparisons of correlation lengths, times, and amplitudes between our simulations and experimental measurements using the MAST BES diagnostic. We find reasonable agreement of the correlation properties, most notably of the correlation time, for which significant discrepancies were found in previous numerical studies of MAST turbulence.

  7. Production of valued materials from squid viscera by subcritical water hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, M Salim; Ahn, Hyang-Min; Kishimura, Hideki; Chun, Byung-Soo

    2010-09-01

    Subcritical water hydrolysis was carried out to produce valued materials from squid viscera, the waste product of fish processing industries. The reaction temperatures for hydrolysis of rawand deoiled squid viscera were maintained from 180 to 280 degrees C for5 min. The ratio of material to water forhydrolysis was 1:50. Most of the proteins from deoiled squid viscera were recovered at high temperature. The protein yield in raw squid viscera hydrolyzate decreased with the rise of temperature. The reducing sugar yield was higher at high temperature in subcritical water hydrolysis of both raw and deoiled squid viscera. The highest yield of amino acids in raw and deoiled squid viscera hydrolyzates were 233.25 +/- 3.25 and 533.78 +/- 4.13 mg g(-1) at 180 and 280 degrees C, respectively. Most amino acids attained highest yield at the reaction temperature range of 180-220 degrees C and 260-280 degrees C for raw and deoiled samples, respectively. The recovery of amino acids from deoiled squid viscera was about 1.5 times higher than that of raw squid viscera.

  8. Subcritical convection in a rapidly rotating sphere at low Prandtl number

    CERN Document Server

    Guervilly, Celine

    2016-01-01

    We study non-linear convection in a low Prandtl number fluid ($Pr = 0.01-0.1$) in a rapidly rotating sphere with internal heating. We use a numerical model based on the quasi-geostrophic approximation, in which variations of the axial vorticity along the rotation axis are neglected, whereas the temperature field is fully three-dimensional. We identify two separate branches of convection close to onset: (i) a well-known weak branch for Ekman numbers greater than $10^{-6}$, which is continuous at the onset (supercritical bifurcation) and consists of a superposition of thermal Rossby waves, and (ii) a novel strong branch at lower Ekman numbers, which is discontinuous at the onset. The strong branch becomes subcritical for Ekman numbers of the order of $10^{-8}$. On the strong branch, the Reynolds number of the flow is greater than $10^3$, and a strong zonal flow with multiple jets develops, even close to the non-linear onset of convection. We find that the subcriticality is amplified by decreasing the Prandtl nu...

  9. Subcritical Thermal Convection of Liquid Metals in a Rapidly Rotating Sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, E. J.; Schaeffer, N.; Vidal, J.; Cardin, P.

    2017-09-01

    Planetary cores consist of liquid metals (low Prandtl number Pr) that convect as the core cools. Here, we study nonlinear convection in a rotating (low Ekman number Ek) planetary core using a fully 3D direct numerical simulation. Near the critical thermal forcing (Rayleigh number Ra), convection onsets as thermal Rossby waves, but as Ra increases, this state is superseded by one dominated by advection. At moderate rotation, these states (here called the weak branch and strong branch, respectively) are smoothly connected. As the planetary core rotates faster, the smooth transition is replaced by hysteresis cycles and subcriticality until the weak branch disappears entirely and the strong branch onsets in a turbulent state at Ek <10-6. Here, the strong branch persists even as the thermal forcing drops well below the linear onset of convection (Ra =0.7 Racrit in this study). We highlight the importance of the Reynolds stress, which is required for convection to subsist below the linear onset. In addition, the Péclet number is consistently above 10 in the strong branch. We further note the presence of a strong zonal flow that is nonetheless unimportant to the convective state. Our study suggests that, in the asymptotic regime of rapid rotation relevant for planetary interiors, thermal convection of liquid metals in a sphere onsets through a subcritical bifurcation.

  10. Beam transient analyses of Accelerator Driven Subcritical Reactors based on neutron transport method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Mingtao; Wu, Hongchun [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049, Shaanxi (China); Zheng, Youqi, E-mail: yqzheng@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049, Shaanxi (China); Wang, Kunpeng [Nuclear and Radiation Safety Center, PO Box 8088, Beijing 100082 (China); Li, Xunzhao; Zhou, Shengcheng [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049, Shaanxi (China)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • A transport-based kinetics code for Accelerator Driven Subcritical Reactors is developed. • The performance of different kinetics methods adapted to the ADSR is investigated. • The impacts of neutronic parameters deteriorating with fuel depletion are investigated. - Abstract: The Accelerator Driven Subcritical Reactor (ADSR) is almost external source dominated since there is no additional reactivity control mechanism in most designs. This paper focuses on beam-induced transients with an in-house developed dynamic analysis code. The performance of different kinetics methods adapted to the ADSR is investigated, including the point kinetics approximation and space–time kinetics methods. Then, the transient responds of beam trip and beam overpower are calculated and analyzed for an ADSR design dedicated for minor actinides transmutation. The impacts of some safety-related neutronics parameters deteriorating with fuel depletion are also investigated. The results show that the power distribution varying with burnup leads to large differences in temperature responds during transients, while the impacts of kinetic parameters and feedback coefficients are not very obvious. Classification: Core physic.

  11. Benzo(a)pyrene accumulation in soils of technogenic emission zone by subcritical water extraction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushkova, Svetlana; Minkina, Tatiana; Kizilkaya, Ridvan; Mandzhieva, Saglara; Batukaev, Abdulmalik; Bauer, Tatiana; Gulser, Coskun

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of research is the assessment of main marker of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contamination, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) content in soils of emission zone of the power complex plant in soils with use of ecologically clean and effective subcritical water extraction method. Studies were conducted on the soils of monitoring plots subjected to Novocherkassk Power Plant emissions from burning coal. In 2000, monitoring plots were established at different distances from the NPS (1.0-20.0 km). Soil samples for the determination of soil properties and the contents of BaP were taken from a depth of 0-20 cm. The soil cover in the region under study consisted of ordinary chernozems, meadow-chernozemic soils, and alluvial meadow soils. This soil revealed the following physical and chemical properties: Corg-3.1-5.0%, pH-7.3-7.6, ECE-31.2-47.6 mmol(+)/100g; CaCO3-0.2-1.0%, the content of physical clay - 51-67% and clay - 3-37%. BaP extraction from soils was carried out by a subcritical water extraction method. Subcritical water extraction of BaP from soil samples was conducted in a specially developed extraction cartridge made of stainless steel and equipped with screw-on caps at both ends. It was also equipped with a manometer that included a valve for pressure release to maintain an internal pressure of 100 atm. The extraction cartridge containing a sample and water was placed into an oven connected to a temperature regulator under temperature 250oC and pressure 60 atm. The BaP concentration in the acetonitrile extract was determined by HPLC. The efficiency of BaP extraction from soil was determined using a matrix spike. The main accumulation of pollutant in 20 cm layer of soils is noted directly in affected zone on the plots situated at 1.2, 1.6, 5.0, 8.0 km from emission source in the direction of prevailing winds. The maximum quantity of a pollutant was founded in the soil of the plot located mostly close to a source of pollution in the direction of prevailing winds

  12. In vitro gastrointestinal digestion of pea protein isolate as a function of pH, food matrices, autoclaving, high-pressure and re-heat treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Laguna, Laura; PICOUET, Pierre; Guàrdia, M. Dolors; Renard, Catherine; Sarkar, Anwesha

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of pH and processing conditions (autoclave at 93 °C/13 min or high pressure processing (HPP) at 600 MPa/5 min without/with follow-up reheating at 80 °C/30 min) on the digestibility of pea protein isolate. Both aqueous solutions and real food matrices (apple and carrot purees) containing pea protein was examined at 37 °C. In vitro gastrointestinal digestion was followed using sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, titrimetric technique...

  13. Symmetric and Asymmetric Reheating

    OpenAIRE

    Hardy, Edward; Unwin, James

    2017-01-01

    We study models in which the inflaton is coupled to two otherwise decoupled sectors, and the effect of preheating and related processes on their energy densities during the evolution of the universe. Over most of parameter space, preheating is not disrupted by the presence of extra sectors, and even comparatively weakly coupled sectors can get an order 1 fraction of the total energy at this time. If two sectors are both preheated, the high number densities could also lead to inflaton mediated...

  14. Analysis of product distribution and characteristics in hydrothermal liquefaction of barley straw in subcritical and supercritical water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Zhe; Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    In this study, hydrothermal liquefaction of barley straw in subcritical and supercritical water with potassium carbonate catalyst was performed in the temperatures range of 280-400°C. The influence of final reaction temperature on products yield was investigated and some physicochemical properties...

  15. Supercritical CO(2) and subcritical propane extraction of pungent paprika and quantification of carotenoids, tocopherols, and capsaicinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnayfeed, M H; Daood, H G; Illés, V; Biacs, P A

    2001-06-01

    Ground paprika (Capsicum annuum L.) was extracted with supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)) and subcritical propane at different conditions of pressure and temperature to estimate the yield and variation in carotenoid, tocopherol, and capsaicinoid contents and composition. The yield of paprika extract was found to be affected by the extraction conditions with SC-CO(2) but fairly constant at different conditions with subcritical propane. The maximum yields of oleoresin were 7.9 and 8.1% of ground paprika by SC-CO(2) and subcritical propane, respectively. The quantitative distribution of carotenoids, tocopherols, and capsaicinoids between paprika extract and powder was influenced by extraction conditions. SC-CO(2) was inefficient in the extraction of diesters of xanthophylls even at 400 bar and 55 degrees C, whereas tocopherols and capsaicinoids were easy to extract at these conditions. Under mild conditions subcritical propane was superior to SC-CO(2) in the extraction of carotenoids and tocopherols but less efficient in the extraction of capsaicinoids.

  16. Hydrolysis of polycarbonate in sub-critical water in fused silica capillary reactor with in situ Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Z.; Chou, I.-Ming; Burruss, R.C.

    2009-01-01

    The advantages of using fused silica capillary reactor (FSCR) instead of conventional autoclave for studying chemical reactions at elevated pressure and temperature conditions were demonstrated in this study, including the allowance for visual observation under a microscope and in situ Raman spectroscopic characterization of polycarbonate and coexisting phases during hydrolysis in subcritical water. ?? 2009 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  17. Radioactive isotope production for medical applications using Kharkov electron driven subcritical assembly facility.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talamo, A.; Gohar, Y.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2007-05-15

    Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT) of Ukraine has a plan to construct an accelerator driven subcritical assembly. The main functions of the subcritical assembly are the medical isotope production, neutron thereby, and the support of the Ukraine nuclear industry. Reactor physics experiments and material research will be carried out using the capabilities of this facility. The United States of America and Ukraine have started collaboration activity for developing a conceptual design for this facility with low enrichment uranium (LEU) fuel. Different conceptual designs are being developed based on the facility mission and the engineering requirements including nuclear physics, neutronics, heat transfer, thermal hydraulics, structure, and material issues. Different fuel designs with LEU and reflector materials are considered in the design process. Safety, reliability, and environmental considerations are included in the facility conceptual design. The facility is configured to accommodate future design improvements and upgrades. This report is a part of the Argonne National Laboratory Activity within this collaboration for developing and characterizing the subcritical assembly conceptual design. In this study, the medical isotope production function of the Kharkov facility is defined. First, a review was carried out to identify the medical isotopes and its medical use. Then a preliminary assessment was performed without including the self-shielding effect of the irradiated samples. Finally, more detailed investigation was carried out including the self-shielding effect, which defined the sample size and irradiation location for producing each medical isotope. In the first part, the reaction rates were calculated as the multiplication of the cross section with the unperturbed neutron flux of the facility. Over fifty isotopes were considered and all transmutation channels are used including (n,{gamma}), (n,2n), (n,p), and ({gamma},n). In the second part

  18. BLAST: a digital computer program for the dynamic simulation of the high temperature gas cooled reactor reheater-steam generator module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedrick, R.A.; Cleveland, J.C.

    1976-06-24

    BLAST simulates the high temperature gas cooled reactor reheater-steam generator module with a multi-node, fixed boundary, homogenous flow model. The time dependent conservation of energy, mass, and momentum equations are solved by an implicit integration technique. The code contains equation of state formulations for both helium and water as well as heat transfer and friction factor correlations. Normal operational transients and more severe transients such as those resulting in low and/or reverse flow can be simulated. The code calculates helium and water temperature, pressure, flow rate, and tube bulk and wall temperatures at various points within the reheater-steam generator module during the transients. BLAST predictions will be compared with dynamic test results obtained from the Fort St. Vrain reactor owned by Public Service of Colorado, and, based on these comparisons, appropriate improvements will be made in BLAST. BLAST is written in FORTRAN IV for the IBM 360/91 computer at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  19. FINAL DESIGN REVIEW REPORT Subcritical Experiments Gen 2, 3-ft Confinement Vessel Weldment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, Christopher [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-28

    A Final Design Review (FDR) of the Subcritical Experiments (SCE) Gen 2, 3-ft. Confinement Vessel Weldment was held at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) on September 14, 2017. The review was a focused review on changes only to the confinement vessel weldment (versus a system design review). The changes resulted from lessons-learned in fabricating and inspecting the current set of confinement vessels used for the SCE Program. The baseline 3-ft. confinement vessel weldment design has successfully been used (to date) for three (3) high explosive (HE) over-tests, two (2) fragment tests, and five (5) integral HE experiments. The design team applied lessons learned from fabrication and inspection of these vessel weldments to enhance fit-up, weldability, inspection, and fitness for service evaluations. The review team consisted of five (5) independent subject matter experts with engineering design, analysis, testing, fabrication, and inspection experience. The

  20. Conceptual study of high power proton linac for accelerator driven subcritical nuclear power system

    CERN Document Server

    Yu Qi; Ouyang Hua Fu; Xu Tao Guang

    2001-01-01

    As a prior option of the next generation of energy source, the accelerator driven subcritical nuclear power system (ADS) can use efficiently the uranium and thorium resource, transmute the high-level long-lived radioactive wastes and raise nuclear safety. The ADS accelerator should provide the proton beam with tens megawatts. The superconducting linac is a good selection of ADS accelerator because of its high efficiency and low beam loss rate. The ADS accelerator presented by the consists of a 5 MeV radio-frequency quadrupole, a 100 MeV independently phased superconducting cavity linac and a 1 GeV elliptical superconducting cavity linac. The accelerating structures and main parameters are determined and the research and development plan is considered

  1. Conceptual design based on scale laws and algorithms for sub-critical transmutation reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kwang Gu; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    In order to conduct the effective integration of computer-aided conceptual design for integrated nuclear power reactor, not only is a smooth information flow required, but also decision making for both conceptual design and construction process design must be synthesized. In addition to the aboves, the relations between the one step and another step and the methodologies to optimize the decision variables are verified, in this paper especially, that is, scaling laws and scaling criteria. In the respect with the running of the system, the integrated optimization process is proposed in which decisions concerning both conceptual design are simultaneously made. According to the proposed reactor types and power levels, an integrated optimization problems are formulated. This optimization is expressed as a multi-objective optimization problem. The algorithm for solving the problem is also presented. The proposed method is applied to designing a integrated sub-critical reactors. 6 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  2. Kinetic model for the esterification of oleic acid catalyzed by zinc acetate in subcritical methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Chengcai; Deng, Tiansheng [State Key Laboratory of Coal Conversion, Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 165, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030001 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Qi, Yongqin; Hou, Xianglin; Qin, Zhangfeng [State Key Laboratory of Coal Conversion, Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 165, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030001 (China)

    2010-03-15

    The esterification of oleic acid in subcritical methanol catalyzed by zinc acetate was investigated in a batch-type autoclave. The effect of reaction conditions such as temperature, pressure, reaction time and molar ratio of oleic acid to methanol on the esterification was examined. The oleic acid conversion reached 95.0% under 220 C and 6.0 MPa with the molar ratio of methanol to oleic acid being 4 and 1.0 wt% zinc acetate as catalyst. A kinetic model for the esterification was established. By fitting the kinetic model with the experimental results, the reaction order n = 2.2 and activation energy E{sub a} = 32.62 KJ/mol were obtained. (author)

  3. The mechanism of lipids extraction from wet microalgae Scenedesmus sp. by ionic liquid assisted subcritical water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhuanni; Chen, Xiaolin; Xia, Shuwei

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the total sugar concentration, protein concentration, lipid yield and morphology characteristics of the algae residue were determined to explain the mechanism of lipids extraction from wet microalgae Scenedesmus sp. by ionic liquid assisted subcritical water. The results showed similar variation for the sugar, protein and lipid. However, the total sugar was more similar to lipids yield, so the results showed that the reaction between ionic liquid and cellulose and hemicellulose in cell wall was the most important step which determined the lipids extration directly. And the total sugar variation may be representing the lipids yield. For later lipids extraction, we can determine the total sugar concentration to predict the extraction end product.

  4. An integrated green process: Subcritical water, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentation, for biohydrogen production from coconut husk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muharja, Maktum; Junianti, Fitri; Ranggina, Dian; Nurtono, Tantular; Widjaja, Arief

    2017-10-09

    The objective of this work is to develop an integrated green process of subcritical water (SCW), enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of coconut husk (CCH) to biohydrogen. The maximum sugar yield was obtained at mild severity factor. This was confirmed by the degradation of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin. The tendency of the changing of sugar yield as a result of increasing severity factor was opposite to the tendency of pH change. It was found that CO2 gave a different tendency of severity factor compared to N2 as the pressurizing gas. The result of SEM analysis confirmed the structural changes during SCW pretreatment. This study integrated three steps all of which are green processes which ensured an environmentally friendly process to produce a clean biohydrogen. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Experimental study of subcritical laboratory magnetized collisionless shocks using a laser-driven magnetic piston

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaeffer, D. B., E-mail: dschaeffer@physics.ucla.edu; Everson, E. T.; Bondarenko, A. S.; Clark, S. E.; Constantin, C. G.; Gekelman, W.; Niemann, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California—Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Winske, D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Recent experiments at the University of California, Los Angeles have successfully generated subcritical magnetized collisionless shocks, allowing new laboratory studies of shock formation relevant to space shocks. The characteristics of these shocks are compared with new data in which no shock or a pre-shock formed. The results are consistent with theory and 2D hybrid simulations and indicate that the observed shock or shock-like structures can be organized into distinct regimes by coupling strength. With additional experiments on the early time parameters of the laser plasma utilizing Thomson scattering, spectroscopy, and fast-gate filtered imaging, these regimes are found to be in good agreement with theoretical shock formation criteria.

  6. Subcritical Growth of Electron Phase-space Holes in Planetary Radiation Belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmane, Adnane; Turner, Drew L.; Wilson, Lynn B.; Dimmock, Andrew P.; Pulkkinen, Tuija I.

    2017-09-01

    The discovery of long-lived electrostatic coherent structures with large-amplitude electric fields (1≤slant E ≤slant 500 mV/m) by the Van Allen Probes has revealed alternative routes through which planetary radiation belts’ acceleration can take place. Following previous reports showing that small phase-space holes, with qφ /{T}ec≃ {10}-2{--}{10}-3, could result from electron interaction with large-amplitude whistlers, we demonstrate one possible mechanism through which holes can grow nonlinearly (I.e., γ \\propto \\sqrt{φ }) and subcritically as a result of momentum exchange between hot and cold electron populations. Our results provide an explanation for the common occurrence and fast growth of large-amplitude electron phase-space holes in the Earth’s radiation belts.

  7. A review on green trend for oil extraction using subcritical water technology and biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmoez, Weal; Ashour, Eman; Naguib, Shahenaz M

    2015-01-01

    It became a global agenda to develop clean alternative fuels which were domestically available, environmentally acceptable and technically feasible. Thus, biodiesel was destined to make a substantial contribution to the future energy demands of the domestic and industrial economies. Utilization of the non edible vegetable oils as raw materials for biodiesel production had been handled frequently for the past few years. The oil content of these seeds could be extracted by different oil extraction methods, such as mechanical extraction, solvent extraction and by subcritical water extraction technology SWT. Among them, SWT represents a new promising green extraction method. Therefore this review covered the current used non edible oil seeds for biodiesel production as well as giving a sharp focus on the efficiency of using the SWT as a promising extraction method. In addition the advantages and the disadvantages of the different biodiesel production techniques would be covered.

  8. Nonlinear elastic behavior of sub-critically damaged body armor panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jason T.; Chimenti, D. E.

    2012-05-01

    A simple go/no-go test for body armor panels using pressure-sensitive, dye-indicator film (PSF) has been shown to be statistically effective in revealing subcritical damage to body armor panels. Previous measurements have shown that static indicator levels are accurately reproduced in dynamic loading events. Further impact tests on armor worn by a human resuscitation dummy using instrumented masses with an attached accelerometer and embedded force transducer have been performed and analyzed. New impact tests have shown a reliable correlation between PSF indication (as digitized images) and impact force for a wide range of impactor energies and masses. Numerical evaluation of digital PSF images is presented and correlated with impact parameters. Relationships between impactor mass and energy, and corresponding measured force are shown. We will also report on comparisons between ballistic testing performed on panels damaged under various impact conditions and tests performed on undamaged panels.

  9. Temperature effects on diffusion coefficient for 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol in subcritical water extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilia Anisa, Nor; Azian, Noor; Sharizan, Mohd; Iwai, Yoshio

    2014-04-01

    6-gingerol and 6-shogaol are the main constituents as anti-inflammatory or bioactive compounds from zingiber officinale Roscoe. These bioactive compounds have been proven for inflammatory disease, antioxidatives and anticancer. The effect of temperature on diffusion coefficient for 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol were studied in subcritical water extraction. The diffusion coefficient was determined by Fick's second law. By neglecting external mass transfer and solid particle in spherical form, a linear portion of Ln (1-(Ct/Co)) versus time was plotted in determining the diffusion coefficient. 6-gingerol obtained the higher yield at 130°C with diffusion coefficient of 8.582x10-11 m2/s whilst for 6-shogaol, the higher yield and diffusion coefficient at 170°C and 19.417 × 10-11 m2/s.

  10. Operation and reactivity measurements of an accelerator driven subcritical TRIGA reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kelly, David Sean

    Experiments were performed at the Nuclear Engineering Teaching Laboratory (NETL) in 2005 and 2006 in which a 20 MeV linear electron accelerator operating as a photoneutron source was coupled to the TRIGA (Training, Research, Isotope production, General Atomics) Mark II research reactor at the University of Texas at Austin (UT) to simulate the operation and characteristics of a full-scale accelerator driven subcritical system (ADSS). The experimental program provided a relatively low-cost substitute for the higher power and complexity of internationally proposed systems utilizing proton accelerators and spallation neutron sources for an advanced ADSS that may be used for the burning of high-level radioactive waste. Various instrumentation methods that permitted ADSS neutron flux monitoring in high gamma radiation fields were successfully explored and the data was used to evaluate the Stochastic Pulsed Feynman method for reactivity monitoring.

  11. Experimental study of subcritical laboratory magnetized collisionless shocks using a laser-driven magnetic piston

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, D. B.; Everson, E. T.; Bondarenko, A. S.; Clark, S. E.; Constantin, C. G.; Winske, D.; Gekelman, W.; Niemann, C.

    2015-11-01

    Recent experiments at the University of California, Los Angeles have successfully generated subcritical magnetized collisionless shocks, allowing new laboratory studies of shock formation relevant to space shocks. The characteristics of these shocks are compared with new data in which no shock or a pre-shock formed. The results are consistent with theory and 2D hybrid simulations and indicate that the observed shock or shock-like structures can be organized into distinct regimes by coupling strength. With additional experiments on the early time parameters of the laser plasma utilizing Thomson scattering, spectroscopy, and fast-gate filtered imaging, these regimes are found to be in good agreement with theoretical shock formation criteria.

  12. Source-jerk method for application on ADS neutronics study The ADS is stated for Accelerator Driven sub-critical System

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu Qing Fu; Li Yi; Xia Pu; Zheng Wu Qing; Zhu Guo Sheng

    2003-01-01

    The paper is concerned in the source-jerk method used to measure the sub-criticality, and the sub-critical experiment facility, which is used for the study on the neutronics of ADS, driven by external neutron source sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf. The effects of the location of neutron source and material buffer where is at the location of the pipe of proton beam and target of fission-product dispersion on the sub-criticality of reactor are studied by source-jerk method

  13. Global bifurcations to subcritical magnetorotational dynamo action in Keplerian shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riols, A.; Rincon, F.; Cossu, C.; Lesur, G.; Longaretti, P.-Y.; Ogilvie, G. I.; Herault, J.

    2013-09-01

    Magnetorotational dynamo action in Keplerian shear flow is a three-dimensional, nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic process whose study is relevant to the understanding of accretion and magnetic field generation in astrophysics. Transition to this form of dynamo is subcritical and shares many characteristics of transition to turbulence in non-rotating hydrodynamic shear flows. This suggests that these different fluid systems become active through similar generic bifurcation mechanisms, which in both cases have eluded detailed understanding so far. In this paper, we investigate numerically the bifurcation mechanisms at work in the incompressible Keplerian magnetorotational dynamo problem in the shearing box framework. Using numerical techniques imported from dynamical systems research, we show that the onset of chaotic dynamo action at magnetic Prandtl numbers larger than unity is primarily associated with global homoclinic and heteroclinic bifurcations of nonlinear magnetorotational dynamo cycles. These global bifurcations are supplemented by local bifurcations of cycles marking the beginning of period-doubling cascades. This suggests that nonlinear magnetorotational dynamo cycles provide the pathway to turbulent injection of both kinetic and magnetic energy in incompressible magnetohydrodynamic Keplerian shear flow in the absence of an externally imposed magnetic field. Studying the nonlinear physics and bifurcations of these cycles in different regimes and configurations may subsequently help to better understand the conditions of excitation of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence and instability-driven dynamos in various astrophysical systems and laboratory experiments. The detailed characterization of global bifurcations provided for this three-dimensional subcritical fluid dynamics problem may also prove useful for the problem of transition to turbulence in hydrodynamic shear flows.

  14. Application of supercritical and subcritical fluids for the extraction of hazardous materials from soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skorupan Dara

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Subcritical and supercritical extractions are novel, non destructive techniques which can be applied for the removal of hazardous compounds from contaminated soil without any changes of the soil composition and structure. The aim of the presented review paper is to give information on up-to day results of this method commonly applied by several institutions worldwide. Interest in the application of SC CO2 has been more expressed in the last two decades, which may be related to its favorable characteristics (non-toxic, non-flammable, increase diffusion into small pores, low viscosity under SC conditions, low price and others. However, interest in wet oxidation (WO and especially in SCWO (the application of water under supercritical conditions with air has also increased in the last few years. Interest in H2O as a SC fluid, as well as in extraction with water under subcritical conditions may also be related to specific characteristics and the enhanced rate of extraction. Moreover, the solubility of some specific compounds present in soil can be easily changed by adjusting the pressure and temperature of extraction. The high price of the units designed to operate safely at a pressure and temperature much higher than the a critical one of the applied fluids is the main reason why, at present, there is no more broader application of such techniques for the removal hazardous materials from contaminated soil. In the present paper, among many literature citations and their overall review, some specific details related to the development of specific analytical methods under SC conditions are also considered.

  15. TNT and RDX degradation and extraction from contaminated soil using subcritical water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Nazrul; Shin, Moon-Su; Jo, Young-Tae; Park, Jeong-Hun

    2015-01-01

    The use of explosives either for industrial or military operations have resulted in the environmental pollution, poses ecological and health hazard. In this work, a subcritical water extraction (SCWE) process at laboratory scale was used at varying water temperature (100-175 °C) and flow rate (0.5-1.5 mL min(-1)), to treat 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) contaminated soil, to reveal information with respect to the explosives removal (based on the analyses of soil residue after extraction), and degradation performance (based on the analyses of water extracts) of this process. Continuous flow subcritical water has been considered on removal of explosives to avoid the repartitioning of non-degraded compounds to the soil upon cooling which usually occurs in the batch system. In the SCWE experiments, near complete degradation of both TNT and RDX was observed at 175 °C based on analysis of water extracts and soil. Test results also indicated that TNT removal of >99% and a complete RDX removal were achieved by this process, when the operating conditions were 1 mL min(-1), and treatment time of 20 min, after the temperature reached 175 °C. HPLC-UV and ion chromatography analysis confirmed that the explosives underwent for degradation. The low concentration of explosives found in the process wastewater indicates that water recycling may be viable, to treat additional soil. Our results have shown in the remediation of explosives contaminated soil, the effectiveness of the continuous flow SCWE process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Highly Selective and Considerable Subcritical Butane Extraction to Separate Abamectin in Green Tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yating; Gu, Lingbiao; Wang, Fei; Kong, Lingjun; Pang, Huili; Qin, Guangyong

    2017-06-01

    We specially carried out the subcritical butane extraction to separate abamectin from tea leaves. Four parameters, such as extraction temperature, extraction time, number of extraction cycles, and solid-liquid ratio were studied and optimized through the response surface methodology with design matrix developed by Box-Behnken. Seventeen experiments with three various factors and three variable levels were employed to investigate the effect of these parameters on the extraction of abamectin. Besides, catechins, theanine, caffeine, and aroma components were determined by both high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to evaluate the tea quality before and after the extraction. The results showed that the extraction temperature was the uppermost parameter compared with others. The optimal extraction conditions selected as follows: extraction temperature, 42°C; number of extraction cycles and extraction time, 1 and 30 min, respectively; and solid-liquid ratio, 1:10. Based on the above study, the separation efficiency of abamectin was up to 93.95%. It is notable that there has a quite low loss rate, including the negligible damage of aroma components, the bits reduce of catechins within the range of 0.7%-13.1%, and a handful lessen of caffeine and theanine of 1.81% and 2.6%, respectively. The proposed method suggested subcritical butane possesses solubility for lipid-soluble pesticides, and since most of the pesticides are attached to the surfaces of tea, thus the as-applied method was successfully effective to separate abamectin because of the so practical and promising method.

  17. SUB-LEU-METAL-THERM-001 SUBCRITICAL MEASUREMENTS OF LOW ENRICHED TUBULAR URANIUM METAL FUEL ELEMENTS BEFORE & AFTER IRRADIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SCHWINKENDORF, K.N.

    2006-05-12

    With the shutdown of the Hanford PUREX (Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant) reprocessing plant in the 1970s, adequate storage capacity for spent Hanford N Reactor fuel elements in the K and N Reactor pools became a concern. To maximize space utilization in the pools, accounting for fuel burnup was considered. Calculations indicated that at typical fuel exposures for N Reactor, the spent-fuel critical mass would be twice the critical mass for green fuel. A decision was reached to test the calculational result with a definitive experiment. If the results proved positive, storage capacity could be increased and N Reactor operation could be prolonged. An experiment to be conducted in the N Reactor spent-fuel storage pool was designed and assembled and the services of the Battelle Northwest Laboratories (BNWL) (now Pacific Northwest National Laboratory [PNNL]) critical mass laboratory were procured for the measurements. The experiments were performed in April 1975 in the Hanford N Reactor fuel storage pool. The fuel elements were MKIA fuel assemblies, comprising two concentric tubes of low-enriched metallic uranium. Two separate sets of measurements were performed: one with ''green'' (fresh) fuel and one with spent fuel. Both the green and spent fuel, were measured in the same geometry. The spent-fuel MKIA assemblies had an average burnup of 2865 MWd (megawatt days)/t. A constraint was imposed restricting the measurements to a subcritical limit of k{sub eff} = 0.97. Subcritical count rate data was obtained with pulsed-neutron and approach-to-critical measurements. Ten (10) configurations with green fuel and nine (9) configurations with spent fuel are described and evaluated. Of these, 3 green fuel and 4 spent fuel loading configurations were considered to serve as benchmark models. However, shortcomings in experimental data failed to meet the high standards for a benchmark problem. Nevertheless, the data provided by these subcritical measurements can

  18. SIMPLE METHOD FOR ESTIMATING POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL CONCENTRATIONS ON SOILS AND SEDIMENTS USING SUBCRITICAL WATER EXTRACTION COUPLED WITH SOLID-PHASE MICROEXTRACTION. (R825368)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rapid method for estimating polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in contaminated soils and sediments has been developed by coupling static subcritical water extraction with solid-phase microextraction (SPME). Soil, water, and internal standards are placed in a seale...

  19. Short communication: antiviral activity of subcritical water extract of Brassica juncea against influenza virus A/H1N1 in nonfat milk

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, N-K; Lee, J-H; Lim, S-M; Lee, K A; Kim, Y B; Chang, P-S; Paik, H-D

    2014-01-01

    Subcritical water extract (SWE) of Brassica juncea was studied for antiviral effects against influenza virus A/H1N1 and for the possibility of application as a nonfat milk supplement for use as an "antiviral food...

  20. Operating results of Hekinan power station No. 3 unit with elevated reheat steam temperature 593[degree]C. Koon sainen joki ondo 593[degree]C Hekinan karyoku 3 goki no shiunten jisseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohara, H. (Chubu Electric Power Co. Inc., Nagoya (Japan)); Ishimoto, R.; Kuwahara, M. (Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)); Ichimura, T.; Minami, Y. (Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-05-15

    This paper introduces the Japan's first large-capacity coal fired thermal power plant that uses elevated reheat steam temperature of 593[degree]C as a commercial power plant. This unit is characterized by the high efficiency (adoption of titanium alloy 40-inch blades in the steam turbine and the reaction stage that has been designed by analyzing three-dimensional flows), high operational characteristics (achievement in high load fluctuation rate and improvement in actuation characteristics), and low pollution (suppressed NOx emission). Considerations given in adopting the high steam temperature conditions included the following: optimization in heat conduction arrangement of reheaters on the boiler side; adequate selection of high-temperature materials; measures against high-temperature corrosion and steam oxidization; assurance of reliability in accessories to the high-temperature components; discussions on the improved 12 Cr forged rotor material on the turbine side; and search of an appropriate medium-pressure turbine rotor cooling method and high-performance high-reliability reaction blades. Results exceeding the planned values were obtained on the plant efficiency, the turbine efficiency and the boiler efficiency. Good values were acquired on the reheated steam temperature control range as the static boiler characteristics and the temperature distribution in the reheater metal. Safety was identified in the steam turbine vibration characteristics. 7 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Implementation and qualification of neutronic calculation methodology in subcritical reactors driven by external neutron sources and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Thiago Carluccio

    2011-01-01

    O trabalho teve como objetivo a investigação de Metodologias de Cálculo dos Reatores Subcríticos acionados por fonte externa de nêutrons, tais como, \\"Accelerator Driven Subcritical Reactor\\" (ADSR) e \\"Fusion Driven Subcritical Reator\\" (FDSR) , que são reatores nucleares subcríticos com uma fonte externa de nêutrons. Tais nêutrons são produzidos, no caso do ADSR, através da interação de partículas aceleradas (prótons, deutério) com um alvo (Pb, Bi, etc) ou através das reações de fusão, no c...

  2. Ginger and turmeric starches hydrolysis using subcritical water + CO2: the effect of the SFE pre-treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. M. Moreschi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the hydrolysis of fresh and dried turmeric (Curcuma longa L. and ginger (Zingiber officinale R. in the presence of subcritical water + CO2 was studied. The hydrolysis of ginger and turmeric bagasses from supercritical fluid extraction was also studied. The reactions were done using subcritical water and CO2 at 150 bar, 200 °C and reaction time of 11 minutes; the degree of reaction was monitored through the amount of starch hydrolyzed. Process yields were calculated using the amount of reducing and total sugars formed. The effects of supercritical fluid extraction in the starchy structures were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Higher degree of hydrolysis (97- 98 % were obtained for fresh materials and the highest total sugar yield (74% was established for ginger bagasse. The supercritical fluid extraction did not significantly modify the degree of hydrolysis in the tested conditions.

  3. Application of the Modified Source Multiplication (MSM) Technique to Subcritical Reactivity Worth Measurements in Thermal and Fast Reactor Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaise, Patrick; Mellier, Frédéric; Fougeras, Philippe

    2011-06-01

    The Amplified Source Multiplication (ASM) method and its improved Modified Source Multiplication (MSM) method have been widely used in the CEA's EOLE and MASURCA critical facilities over the past decades for the determination of reactivity worths by using fission chambers in subcritical configurations. The ASM methodology uses relatively simple relationships between count rates of efficient miniature fission chambers located in slightly subcritical reference and perturbed configurations. While this method works quite well for small reactivity variations, the raw results need to be corrected to take into account the flux perturbation at the fission chamber location. This is performed by applying to the measurement a correction factor called MSM. This paper describes in detail both methodologies, with their associated uncertainties. Applications on absorber cluster worth in the MISTRAL-4 full MOX mock-up core and the last core loaded in MASURCA show the importance of the MSM correction on raw ASM data.

  4. Analysis of the Temporal Response of Coupled Asymmetrical Zero-Power Subcritical Bare Metal Reactor Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klain, Kimberly L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-06-21

    The behavior of symmetrical coupled-core systems has been extensively studied, yet there is a dearth of research on asymmetrical systems due to the increased complexity of the analysis of such systems. In this research, the multipoint kinetics method is applied to asymmetrical zeropower, subcritical, bare metal reactor systems. Existing research on asymmetrical reactor systems assumes symmetry in the neutronic coupling; however, it will be shown that this cannot always be assumed. Deep subcriticality adds another layer of complexity and requires modification of the multipoint kinetics equations to account for the effect of the external neutron source. A modified set of multipoint kinetics equations is derived with this in mind. Subsequently, the Rossi-alpha equations are derived for a two-region asymmetrical reactor system. The predictive capabilities of the radiation transport code MCNP6 for neutron noise experiments are shown in a comparison to the results of a series of Rossi-alpha measurements performed by J. Mihalczo utilizing a coupled set of symmetrical bare highly-enriched uranium (HEU) cylinders. The ptrac option within MCNP6 can generate time-tagged counts in a cell (list-mode data). The list-mode data can then be processed similarly to measured data to obtain values for system parameters such as the dual prompt neutron decay constants observable in a coupled system. The results from the ptrac simulations agree well with the historical measured values. A series of case studies are conducted to study the effects of geometrical asymmetry in the coupling between two bare metal HEU cylinders. While the coupling behavior of symmetrical systems has been reported on extensively, that of asymmetrical systems remains sparse. In particular, it appears that there has been no previous research in obtaining the coupling time constants for asymmetrically-coupled systems. The difficulty in observing such systems is due in part to the inability to determine the

  5. Recovery of solid fuel from municipal solid waste by hydrothermal treatment using subcritical water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, In-Hee, E-mail: hwang@eng.hokudai.ac.jp [Laboratory of Solid Waste Disposal Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita 13 Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060 8628 (Japan); Aoyama, Hiroya; Matsuto, Toshihiko; Nakagishi, Tatsuhiro; Matsuo, Takayuki [Laboratory of Solid Waste Disposal Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita 13 Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060 8628 (Japan)

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrothermal treatment using subcritical water was studied to recover solid fuel from MSW. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer More than 75% of carbon in MSW was recovered as char. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heating value of char was comparable to that of brown coal and lignite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polyvinyl chloride was decomposed at 295 Degree-Sign C and 8 MPa and was removed by washing. - Abstract: Hydrothermal treatments using subcritical water (HTSW) such as that at 234 Degree-Sign C and 3 MPa (LT condition) and 295 Degree-Sign C and 8 MPa (HT condition) were investigated to recover solid fuel from municipal solid waste (MSW). Printing paper, dog food (DF), wooden chopsticks, and mixed plastic film and sheets of polyethylene, polypropylene, and polystyrene were prepared as model MSW components, in which polyvinylchloride (PVC) powder and sodium chloride were used to simulate Cl sources. While more than 75% of carbon in paper, DF, and wood was recovered as char under both LT and HT conditions, plastics did not degrade under either LT or HT conditions. The heating value (HV) of obtained char was 13,886-27,544 kJ/kg and was comparable to that of brown coal and lignite. Higher formation of fixed carbon and greater oxygen dissociation during HTSW were thought to improve the HV of char. Cl atoms added as PVC powder and sodium chloride to raw material remained in char after HTSW. However, most Cl originating from PVC was found to converse into soluble Cl compounds during HTSW under the HT condition and could be removed by washing. From these results, the merit of HTSW as a method of recovering solid fuel from MSW is considered to produce char with minimal carbon loss without a drying process prior to HTSW. In addition, Cl originating from PVC decomposes into soluble Cl compound under the HT condition. The combination of HTSW under the HT condition and char washing might improve the quality of char as alternative fuel.

  6. Extraction of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graceum L.) Seed Oil Using Subcritical Butane: Characterization and Process Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Ling-Biao; Liu, Xiao-Ning; Liu, Hua-Min; Pang, Hui-Li; Qin, Guang-Yong

    2017-02-02

    In this study, the subcritical butane extraction process of fenugreek seed oil was optimized using response surface methodology with a Box-Behnken design. The optimum conditions for extracted oil from fenugreek seed was as follows: extraction temperature of 43.24 °C , extraction time of 32.80 min, and particle size of 0.26 mm. No significant differences were found between the experimental and predicted values. The physical and chemical properties of the oil showed that the oil could be used as edible oil. Fatty acid composition of oils obtained by subcritical butane under the optimum conditions and by accelerated solvent extraction showed negligible difference. The oils were rich in linoleic acid (42.71%-42.80%), linolenic acid (26.03%-26.15%), and oleic acid (14.24%-14.40%). The results revealed that the proposed method was feasible, and this essay shows the way to exploit fenugreek seeds by subcritical butane extraction under the scope of edible oils.

  7. Production of medical radioactive isotopes using KIPT electron driven subcritical facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talamo, Alberto; Gohar, Yousry

    2008-05-01

    Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT) of Ukraine in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has a plan to construct an electron accelerator driven subcritical assembly. One of the facility objectives is the production of medical radioactive isotopes. This paper presents the ANL collaborative work performed for characterizing the facility performance for producing medical radioactive isotopes. First, a preliminary assessment was performed without including the self-shielding effect of the irradiated samples. Then, more detailed investigation was carried out including the self-shielding effect, which defined the sample size and location for producing each medical isotope. In the first part, the reaction rates were calculated as the multiplication of the cross section with the unperturbed neutron flux of the facility. Over fifty isotopes have been considered and all transmutation channels are used including (n, gamma), (n, 2n), (n, p), and (gamma, n). In the second part, the parent isotopes with high reaction rate were explicitly modeled in the calculations. Four irradiation locations were considered in the analyses to study the medical isotope production rate. The results show the self-shielding effect not only reduces the specific activity but it also changes the irradiation location that maximizes the specific activity. The axial and radial distributions of the parent capture rates have been examined to define the irradiation sample size of each parent isotope.

  8. CFD Analysis and Design of Detailed Target Configurations for an Accelerator-Driven Subcritical System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraus, Adam; Merzari, Elia; Sofu, Tanju; Zhong, Zhaopeng; Gohar, Yousry

    2016-08-01

    High-fidelity analysis has been utilized in the design of beam target options for an accelerator driven subcritical system. Designs featuring stacks of plates with square cross section have been investigated for both tungsten and uranium target materials. The presented work includes the first thermal-hydraulic simulations of the full, detailed target geometry. The innovative target cooling manifold design features many regions with complex flow features, including 90 bends and merging jets, which necessitate three-dimensional fluid simulations. These were performed using the commercial computational fluid dynamics code STAR-CCM+. Conjugate heat transfer was modeled between the plates, cladding, manifold structure, and fluid. Steady-state simulations were performed but lacked good residual convergence. Unsteady simulations were then performed, which converged well and demonstrated that flow instability existed in the lower portion of the manifold. It was established that the flow instability had little effect on the peak plate temperatures, which were well below the melting point. The estimated plate surface temperatures and target region pressure were shown to provide sufficient margin to subcooled boiling for standard operating conditions. This demonstrated the safety of both potential target configurations during normal operation.

  9. High-pressure cell for neutron reflectometry of supercritical and subcritical fluids at solid interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Justin R; Rother, Gernot; Browning, James F; Ankner, John F; Banuelos, Jose L; Anovitz, Lawrence M; Wesolowski, David J; Cole, David R

    2012-04-01

    A new high-pressure cell design for use in neutron reflectometry (NR) for pressures up to 50 MPa and a temperature range of 300-473 K is described. The cell design guides the neutron beam through the working crystal without passing through additional windows or the bulk fluid, which provides for a high neutron transmission, low scattering background, and low beam distortion. The o-ring seal is suitable for a wide range of subcritical and supercritical fluids and ensures high chemical and pressure stability. Wafers with a diameter of 5.08 cm (2 in.) and 5 mm or 10 mm thickness can be used with the cells, depending on the required pressure and momentum transfer range. The fluid volume in the sample cell is very small at about 0.1 ml, which minimizes scattering background and stored energy. The cell design and pressure setup for measurements with supercritical fluids are described. NR data are shown for silicon/silicon oxide and quartz wafers measured against air and subsequently within the high-pressure cell to demonstrate the neutron characteristics of the high-pressure cell. Neutron reflectivity data for supercritical CO(2) in contact with quartz and Si/SiO(2) wafers are also shown. © 2012 American Institute of Physics

  10. Complete degradation of Orange G by electrolysis in sub-critical water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Asli; Sasaki, Mitsuru; Goto, Motonobu

    2011-06-15

    Complete degradation of azo dye Orange G was studied using a 500 mL continuous flow reactor made of SUS 316 stainless steel. In this system, a titanium reactor wall acted as a cathode and a titanium plate-type electrode was used as an anode in a subcritical reaction medium. This hydrothermal electrolysis process provides an environmentally friendly route that does not use any organic solvents or catalysts to remove organic pollutants from wastewater. Reactions were carried out from 30 to 90 min residence times at a pressure of 7 MPa, and at different temperatures of 180-250°C by applying various direct currents ranging from 0.5 to 1A. Removal of dye from the product solution and conversion of TOC increased with increasing current value. Moreover, the effect of salt addition on degradation of Orange G and TOC conversion was investigated, because in real textile wastewater, many salts are also included together with dye. Addition of Na(2)CO(3) resulted in a massive degradation of the dye itself and complete mineralization of TOC, while NaCl and Na(2)SO(4) obstructed the removal of Orange G. Greater than 99% of Orange G was successfully removed from the product solution with a 98% TOC conversion. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Vortex-Induced Vibration Tests of a Marine Growth Wrapped Cylinder at Subcritical Reynolds Number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurian V. J.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vortex Induced Vibrations (VIV may cause great damage to deep water risers. Estimation of accurate hydrodynamic coefficients and response amplitudes for fouled tubular cylinders subjected to VIVs is a complex task. This paper presents the results of an extensive experimental investigation on in-line and cross-flow forces acting on cylinders wrapped with marine growth, subjected to current at Subcritical Reynolds Number. The drag and lift force coefficients have been determined through the use of the Fast Fourier Analysis methods. The different tests were conducted in the offshore engineering laboratory at Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP, Malaysia. In this study, a cylinder with outer diameter Do = 27 mm, fixed at top as cantilever beam was used. The in-line and cross-flow forces were measured using VIV Force Totaller (VIVFT. VIVFT is a two degree of freedom (2DOF forces sensor developed by UTP to measure the VIV forces. The tests were conducted for current velocity varied between 0.118 to 0.59 m/s. The test results suggest that the cylinder wrapped with marine growth has shown an overall increase in drag and inertia coefficients as well as on response amplitudes.

  12. Hydrothermal liquefaction of Spirulina and Nannochloropsis salina under subcritical and supercritical water conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toor, Saqib S; Reddy, Harvind; Deng, Shuguang; Hoffmann, Jessica; Spangsmark, Dorte; Madsen, Linda B; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo; Rosendahl, Lasse A

    2013-03-01

    Six hydrothermal liquefaction experiments on Nannochloropsis salina and Spirulina platensis at subcritical and supercritical water conditions (220–375 °C, 20–255 bar) were carried out to explore the feasibility of extracting lipids from wet algae, preserving nutrients in lipid-extracted algae solid residue, and recycling process water for algae cultivation. GC–MS, elemental analyzer, FT-IR, calorimeter and nutrient analysis were used to analyze bio-crude, lipid-extracted algae and water samples produced in the hydrothermal liquefaction process. The highest bio-crude yield of 46% was obtained on N. salina at 350 °C and 175 bar. For S. platensis algae sample, the optimal hydrothermal liquefaction condition appears to be at 310 °C and 115 bar, while the optimal condition for N. salina is at 350 °C and 175 bar. Preliminary data also indicate that a lipid-extracted algae solid residue sample obtained in the hydrothermal liquefaction process contains a high level of proteins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Energy conversion of biomass with supercritical and subcritical water using large-scale plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okajima, Idzumi; Sako, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Exploiting unused or waste biomass as an alternative fuel is currently receiving much attention because of the potential reductions in CO2 emissions and the lower cost in comparison to expensive fossil fuels. If we are to use biomass domestically or industrially, we must be able to convert biomass to high-quality and easy-to-use liquid, gas, or solid fuels that have high-calorific values, low moisture and ash contents, uniform composition, and suitable for stored over long periods. In biomass treatment, hot and high-pressure water including supercritical and subcritical water is an excellent solvent, as it is clean and safe and its action on biomass can be optimized by varying the temperature and pressure. In this article, the conversion of waste biomass to fuel using hot and high-pressure water is reviewed, and the following examples are presented: the production of large amounts of hydrogen from waste biomass, the production of cheap bioethanol from non-food raw materials, and the production of composite powder fuel from refractory waste biomass in the rubble from the Great East Japan Earthquake. Several promising techniques for the conversion of biomass have been demonstrated in large-scale plants and commercial deployment is expected in the near future. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Subcritical Butane Extraction of Wheat Germ Oil and Its Deacidification by Molecular Distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinwei Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Extraction and deacidification are important stages for wheat germ oil (WGO production. Crude WGO was extracted using subcritical butane extraction (SBE and compared with traditional solvent extraction (SE and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SCE based on the yield, chemical index and fatty acid profile. Furthermore, the effects of the molecular distillation temperature on the quality of WGO were also investigated in this study. Results indicated that WGO extracted by SBE has a higher yield of 9.10% and better quality; at the same time, its fatty acid composition has no significant difference compared with that of SE and SCE. The molecular distillation experiment showed that the acid value, peroxide value and p-anisidine value of WGO were reduced with the increase of the evaporation temperatures, and the contents of the active constituents of tocopherol, polyphenols and phytosterols are simultaneously decreased. Generally, the distillation temperature of 150 °C is an appropriate condition for WGO deacidification with the higher deacidification efficiency of 77.78% and the higher retention rate of active constituents.

  15. Studies on subcritical and overcritical density laser ablated TAC foam targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaurasia, S.; Leshma, P.; Murali, C. G.; Borisenko, N. G.; Munda, D. S.; Orekhov, A.; Gromov, A. I.; Merkuliev, Yu. A.; Dhareshwar, L. J.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, the interaction of high power laser with low density polymer foam with density as low as 2 mg/cm3, 4 mg/cm3, 20 mg/cm3 30 mg/cm3 and 50 mg/cm3 targets are investigated and compared with solid polymer targets. An understanding of such interaction is important from fusion research point of view. Low density foam coating of fusion capsule has been proposed in order to smooth in direct drive scheme and also it is being used as efficient x-ray converter in indirect drive scheme. It is observed that about 75-80% of the laser energy is absorbed in the subcritical (with density case is almost two times that measured in the over dense (supper critical) targets. The optical shadowgraphy of the targets shows that the laser coupling in low density foam is associated with a supersonic heat wave while, with increasing density this phenomenon is replaced by subsonic absorption and shock formation. In the case of a 50 mg/cm3 foams the foil velocity reduced by 35% (i.e. 5×106 cm/s), which further reduced to 3.8×106 cm/s in case solid polymer targets.

  16. Particle formation of budesonide from alcohol-modified subcritical water solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Adam G; Mammucari, Raffaella; Foster, Neil R

    2011-02-28

    Recently, subcritical water (SBCW: water that has been heated to a temperature between 100°C and 200°C at pressures of up to 70bar) has been used to dissolve several hydrophobic pharmaceutical compounds (Carr et al., 2010a). Furthermore, a number of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) have been rapidly precipitated from SBCW solutions (Carr et al., 2010b,c). It is possible to alter the precipitate morphology by altering the processing variables; including the SBCW-API solution injection temperature and adding impurities (such as pharmaceutical excipients, e.g. lactose) to the precipitation chamber. The work presented in this article demonstrates that the morphology of pharmaceutical particles can be tuned by adding organic solvents (ethanol and methanol) to the SBCW-API solutions. Particle morphology has also been tuned by adding different pharmaceutical excipients (polyethylene glycol 400 and lactose) to the precipitation chamber. Different morphologies of pharmaceutical particles were produced, ranging from nanospheres of 60nm diameter to 5μm plate particles. Budesonide was used as the model API in this study. Two experimental products were spray dried to form dry powder products. The aerodynamic particle size of the powder was established by running the powder through an Andersen Cascade Impactor. It has been shown that the drug particles produced from the SBCW micronization process, when coupled with a spray drying process, are suitable for delivery to the lungs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Polyethylene-reflected plutonium metal sphere : subcritical neutron and gamma measurements.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattingly, John K.

    2009-11-01

    Numerous benchmark measurements have been performed to enable developers of neutron transport models and codes to evaluate the accuracy of their calculations. In particular, for criticality safety applications, the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiment Program (ICSBEP) annually publishes a handbook of critical and subcritical benchmarks. Relatively fewer benchmark measurements have been performed to validate photon transport models and codes, and unlike the ICSBEP, there is no program dedicated to the evaluation and publication of photon benchmarks. Even fewer coupled neutron-photon benchmarks have been performed. This report documents a coupled neutron-photon benchmark for plutonium metal reflected by polyethylene. A 4.5-kg sphere of ?-phase, weapons-grade plutonium metal was measured in six reflected configurations: (1) Bare; (2) Reflected by 0.5 inch of high density polyethylene (HDPE); (3) Reflected by 1.0 inch of HDPE; (4) Reflected by 1.5 inches of HDPE; (5) Reflected by 3.0 inches of HDPE; and (6) Reflected by 6.0 inches of HDPE. Neutron and photon emissions from the plutonium sphere were measured using three instruments: (1) A gross neutron counter; (2) A neutron multiplicity counter; and (3) A high-resolution gamma spectrometer. This report documents the experimental conditions and results in detail sufficient to permit developers of radiation transport models and codes to construct models of the experiments and to compare their calculations to the measurements. All of the data acquired during this series of experiments are available upon request.

  18. High-pressure cell for neutron reflectometry of supercritical and subcritical fluids at solid interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Justin R.; Rother, Gernot; Browning, James F.; Ankner, John F.; Banuelos, Jose L.; Anovitz, Lawrence M.; Wesolowski, David J.; Cole, David R.

    2012-04-01

    A new high-pressure cell design for use in neutron reflectometry (NR) for pressures up to 50 MPa and a temperature range of 300-473 K is described. The cell design guides the neutron beam through the working crystal without passing through additional windows or the bulk fluid, which provides for a high neutron transmission, low scattering background, and low beam distortion. The o-ring seal is suitable for a wide range of subcritical and supercritical fluids and ensures high chemical and pressure stability. Wafers with a diameter of 5.08 cm (2 in.) and 5 mm or 10 mm thickness can be used with the cells, depending on the required pressure and momentum transfer range. The fluid volume in the sample cell is very small at about 0.1 ml, which minimizes scattering background and stored energy. The cell design and pressure setup for measurements with supercritical fluids are described. NR data are shown for silicon/silicon oxide and quartz wafers measured against air and subsequently within the high-pressure cell to demonstrate the neutron characteristics of the high-pressure cell. Neutron reflectivity data for supercritical CO2 in contact with quartz and Si/SiO2 wafers are also shown.

  19. Subcritical water extraction and characterization of bioactive compounds from Haematococcus pluvialis microalga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Meizoso, I; Jaime, L; Santoyo, S; Señoráns, F J; Cifuentes, A; Ibáñez, E

    2010-01-20

    In this work, extraction and characterization of compounds with antioxidant and antimicrobial activity from Haematococcus pluvialis microalga in red phase have been carried out. To do this, subcritical water extraction (SWE) has been combined with analytical techniques such as HPLC-DAD, HPLC-QqQ-MS and GC-MS and in vitro assays (i.e., for antioxidant and antimicrobial activity). The effect of the extraction temperature (50, 100, 150 and 200 degrees C) and solvent polarity has been studied in terms of yield and activity of the extracts. Results demonstrate that the extraction temperature has a positive influence in the extraction yield and antioxidant activity. Thus, the extraction yield achieved with this process was higher than 30% of dry weight at 200 degrees C as extraction temperature. Moreover, the extract obtained at 200 degrees C presented the highest antioxidant activity by far, while temperature does not seem to significatively affect the antimicrobial activity. Chemical composition was determined by HPLC-DAD, HPLC-QqQ-MS and GC-MS. Short chain fatty acids turned out to be responsible of the antimicrobial activity, whereas the antioxidant activity was correlated to vitamin E (present exclusively in the 200 degrees C extract), together with simple phenols, caramelization products and possible Maillard reaction products obtained during the extraction at high temperatures.

  20. High performance curcumin subcritical water extraction from turmeric (Curcuma longa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valizadeh Kiamahalleh, Mohammad; Najafpour-Darzi, Ghasem; Rahimnejad, Mostafa; Moghadamnia, Ali Akbar; Valizadeh Kiamahalleh, Meisam

    2016-06-01

    Curcumin is a hydrophobic polyphenolic compound derived from turmeric rhizome, which consists about 2-5% of the total rhizome content and is a more valuable component of turmeric. For reducing the drawbacks of conventional extraction (using organic solvents) of curcumin, the water as a clean solvent was used for extracting curcumin. Subcritical water extraction (SWE) experimental setup was fabricated in a laboratory scale and the influences of some parameters (e.g. extraction temperature, particle size, retention time and pressure) on the yield of extraction were investigated. Optimum extraction conditions such as SWE pressure of 10bar, extractive temperature of 140°C, particle size of 0.71mm and retention time of 14min were defined. The maximum amount of curcumin extracted at the optimum condition was 3.8wt%. The yield of curcumin extraction was more than 76wt% with regards to the maximum possible curcumin content of turmeric, as known to be 5%. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) images from the outer surface of turmeric, before and after extraction, clearly demonstrated the effect of each parameter; changes in porosity and hardness of turmeric that is directly related to the amount of extracted curcumin in process optimization of the extraction parameters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The TRADE experiment: shielding calculations for the building hosting the subcritical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burn, K W; Carta, M; Casalini, L; Kadi, Y; Monti, S; Nava, E; Palomba, M; Petrovich, C; Picardi, L; Rubbia, C; Troiani, F

    2005-01-01

    The TRADE project (TRiga Accelerator Driven Experiment), to be performed at the existing TRIGA reactor at ENEA Casaccia, has been proposed as a validation of the accelerator-driven system (ADS) concept. TRADE will be the first experiment in which the three main components of an ADS--the accelerator, spallation target and sub-critical blanket--are coupled at a power level sufficient to encounter reactivity feedback effects. As such, TRADE represents the necessary intermediate step in the development of hybrid transmutation systems, its expected outcomes being considered crucial--in terms of proof of stability of operation, dynamic behaviour and licensing issues--for the subsequent realisation of an ADS Transmutation Demonstrator. An essential role in the feasibility study of the experiment is played by radioprotection calculations. Such a system exhibits new characteristics with respect to a traditional reactor, owing to the presence of the proton accelerator. As beam losses always occur under normal operating conditions of an accelerator, shielding studies need to be performed not only around the reactor but also along the beam line from the accelerator to the spallation target. This paper illustrates a preliminary evaluation, using Monte Carlo methods, of the additional shielding to be located around the reactor structures, the beam transport line and the existing reactor building to allow access into the reactor hall and to restrict the doses outside to their legal limits.

  2. Optimization of subcritical water extraction of polysaccharides from Grifola frondosa using response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liuqing; Qu, Hongyuan; Mao, Guanghua; Zhao, Ting; Li, Fang; Zhu, Bole; Zhang, Bingtao; Wu, Xiangyang

    2013-01-01

    Background: This research is among the few that has been conducted on the feasibility of subcritical water extraction (SWE) as a rapid and efficient extraction tool for polysaccharides. Objective: The aim of the study was to extractand optimize the parameter conditions of SWE of polysaccharides from Grifola frondosa using response surface methodology. Materials and Methods: In the study, SWEwas applied to extractbioactive compounds from G. frondosa. A preliminary analysis was made on the physical properties and content determination of extracts using SWE and hot water extraction (HWE). Analysis of the sample residues and antioxidant activities of the polysaccharides extracted by SWE and HWE were then evaluated. Results: The optimal extraction conditions include: extraction temperature of 210°C, extraction time of 43.65 min and the ratio of water to raw material of 26.15:1. Under these optimal conditions, the experimental yield of the polysaccharides (25.1 ± 0.3%) corresponded with the mean value predicted by the model and two times more than the mean value obtained by the traditional HWE. The antioxidant activities of polysaccharides extracted by SWE were generally higher than those extracted by HWE. From the study, the SWE technology could be a time-saving, high yield, and bioactive technique for production of polysaccharides. PMID:23772107

  3. The effect of a hydroxyapatite impregnated PCL membrane in rat subcritical calvarial bone defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groppo, Monica Feresini; Caria, Paulo Henrique; Freire, Alexandre Rodrigues; Figueroba, Sidney R; Ribeiro-Neto, Wilson Alves; Bretas, Rosario Elida Suman; Prado, Felippe Bevilacqua; Haiter-Neto, Francisco; Aguiar, Flavio Henrique; Rossi, Ana Claudia

    2017-10-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of polymeric-nanofibers membranes impregnated with microparticulate hydroxyapatite (HA) in the subcritical calvarial bone defects (SCBD) healing. PCL membranes with and without HA were obtained by electrospinning. SCBD were perforated (3.3mm) in left and right sides of 36 rat calvarias. The right-side SBCD of 18 animals was filled with HA mixed with blood clot and blood clot at the contralateral side. The remaining animals received PCL+HA membrane at the right-side SCBD and PCL membrane at the contralateral side. Animals were killed after 30, 60 and 90days after surgery. Bone defect volume (in mm3) was measured by tomography (CBCT). Qualitative histological analysis and SBCD area (in mm2) were measured. Quantitative data were submitted to Kruskal-Wallis/Dunn tests. Reduction of SBCD volume was observed in all treatments but PCL. Association with HA significantly improved bone healing induced by PCL and blood clot. PCL+HA induced the lowest SBCD volume at 60 and 90days. Complete bone healing was not observed even at 90days in SCBD treated with blood clot. In every period, more bone formation was observed for SCBD treated with membranes. We concluded that both PCL membrane and HA were able to improve bone healing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Sugars and char formation on subcritical water hydrolysis of sugarcane straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachos-Perez, D; Tompsett, G A; Guerra, P; Timko, M T; Rostagno, M A; Martínez, Julian; Forster-Carneiro, T

    2017-11-01

    Subcritical water has potential as an environmentally friendly solvent for applications including hydrolysis, liquefaction, extraction, and carbonization. Here, we report hydrolysis of sugarcane straw, an abundant byproduct of sugar production, in a semi-continuous reactor at reaction temperatures ranging from 190 to 260°C and at operating pressures of 9 and 16MPa. The target hydrolysis products were total reducing sugars. The main products of sugarcane straw hydrolysis were glucose, xylose, arabinose, and galactose in addition to 5- hydroxymethylfurfural and furfural as minor byproducts. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis provided additional information on the surface and bulk composition of the residual biomass. Char was present on samples treated at temperatures equal to and greater than 190°C. Samples treated at 260°C contained approximately 20wt% char, yet retained substantial hemicellulose and cellulose content. Hydrolysis temperature of 200°C provided the greatest TRS yield while minimizing char formation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Subcritical co-solvents extraction of lipid from wet microalgae pastes of Nannochloropsis sp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min; Liu, Tianzhong; Chen, Xiaolin; Chen, Lin; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Junfeng; Gao, Lili; Chen, Yu; Peng, Xiaowei

    2012-01-01

    In this paper subcritical co-solvents extraction (SCE) of algal lipid from wet pastes of Nannochloropsis sp. is examined. The influences of five operating parameters including the ratio between ethanol to hexane, the ratio of mixed solvents to algal biomass (dry weight), extraction temperature, pressure, and time were investigated. The determined optimum extraction conditions were 3:1 (hexane to ethanol ratio), 10:1 ratio (co-solvents to microalgae (dry weight) ratio), 90°C, 1.4 MPa, and 50 min, which could produce 88% recovery rate of the total lipids. In addition, electron micrographs of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were conducted to show that the algal cell presented shrunken, collapsed with some wrinkles and microholes after SCE extraction. The main composition of total lipids extracted under the optimum conditions was TAG which represented more than 80%. And the fatty acid profile of triglycerides revealed that C16:0 (35.67 ± 0.2%), C18:1 (26.84 ± 0.044%) and C16:1 (25.96 ± 0.011%) were dominant. Practical applications: The reported method could save energy consumption significantly through avoiding deep dewatering (for example drying). The composition of the extracted lipid is suitable for the production of high quality biodiesel. PMID:22745570

  6. Microwave Assisted Extraction of Defatted Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Seed at Subcritical Conditions with Statistical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Yusoff

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Roselle seeds are the waste product of roselle processing, but they are now labeled as a polyphenol source with great herbal quality. In this work, polyphenols were extracted using ethanol-water (70% (v/v in a closed vessel under microwave irradiation. The main objective was to determine the optimal parameters statistically. The influence of extraction time (4–10 min, microwave power (100–300 W, and solvent/solid ratio (25–100 mL/g was studied. The total phenolic and flavonoids content were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminum chloride methods, respectively. Without temperature control, the subcritical conditions could occur and the highest flavonoid content (14.4251 mg QE/g was achieved at 158°C and 16.4 bar. Although the optimum MAE conditions (10 min, 300 W, and 97.7178 mL/g resulted in the highest yield (65.0367% and phenolic content (18.2244 mg GAE/g, low flavonoids content (6.4524 mg QE/g was unexpectedly obtained due to degradation at 163°C.

  7. Subcritical Growth of Electron Phase-space Holes in Planetary Radiation Belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmane, A.; Wilson, L. B., III; Turner, D. L.; Dimmock, A. P.; Pulkkinen, T. I.

    2017-12-01

    The discovery of self-sustained coherent structures with large-amplitude electric fields (E ˜ 10 - 100 mV/m) by the Van Allen Probes has revealed alternative routes through which energy-momentum exchange can take place in planetary radiation belts. When originating from energetic electrons in Landau resonance with large-amplitude whistlers, phase-space electron holes form with small amplitudes of the order of the hot to cold electron density, i.e., qφ/T_e≃ n_h/n_c ≃ 10^{-3}, and orders of magnitude smaller than observed values of the largest phase-space holes amplitude, i.e., qφ /T_e ≃ 1. In this report we present a mechanism through which electron holes can grow nonlinearly (i.e. γ ∝ √{φ}) and subcritically as a result of momentum exchange with passing (untrapped) electrons. Growth rates are computed analytically for plasma parameters consistent with those measured in the Earth's radiation belts under quiet and disturbed conditions. Our results provide an explanation for the fast growth of electron phase-space holes in the Earth's radiation belts from small initial values qφ/T_c ≃ 10^{-3}, to larger values of the order qφ /T_e ≃ 1.

  8. The Optimal Evaporation Temperature of Subcritical ORC Based on Second Law Efficiency for Waste Heat Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxiao Xu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The subcritical Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC with 28 working fluids for waste heat recovery is discussed in this paper. The effects of the temperature of the waste heat, the critical temperature of working fluids and the pinch temperature difference in the evaporator on the optimal evaporation temperature (OET of the ORC have been investigated. The second law efficiency of the system is regarded as the objective function and the evaporation temperature is optimized by using the quadratic approximations method. The results show that the OET will appear for the temperature ranges investigated when the critical temperatures of working fluids are lower than the waste heat temperatures by 18 ± 5 K under the pinch temperature difference of 5 K in the evaporator. Additionally, the ORC always exhibits the OET when the pinch temperature difference in the evaporator is raised under the fixed waste heat temperature. The maximum second law efficiency will decrease with the increase of pinch temperature difference in the evaporator.

  9. Sub-critical crack growth in silicate glasses: Role of network topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedskjaer, Morten M.; Bauchy, Mathieu

    2015-10-01

    The presence of water in the surrounding atmosphere can cause sub-critical crack growth (SCCG) in glasses, a phenomenon known as fatigue or stress corrosion. Here, to facilitate the compositional design of more fatigue-resistant glasses, we investigate the composition dependence of SCCG by studying fourteen silicate glasses. The fatigue curves (V-KI) have been obtained by indentation experiments through measurements of the crack length as a function of post-indentation fatigue duration. Interestingly, we find that the fatigue resistance parameter N is generally improved by increasing the alumina content and is thereby found to exhibit a fairly linear dependence on the measured Vickers hardness HV for a wide range of N and HV values. This finding highlights the important role of network topology in governing the SCCG in silicate glasses, since hardness has been shown to scale linearly with the number of atomic constraints. Our results therefore suggest that glasses showing under-constrained flexible networks, which feature floppy internal modes of deformation, are more readily attacked by water molecules, thus promoting stress corrosion and reducing the fatigue resistance.

  10. Efficient, high-speed methane fermentation for sewage sludge using subcritical water hydrolysis as pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Tokumoto, Hayato; Ishii, Kyoko; Ishii, Ryo

    2009-06-01

    A novel biomass-energy process for the production of methane from sewage sludge using a subcritical water (sub-CW) hydrolysis reaction as pretreatment is proposed. The main substances of sewage sludge hydrolyzed by sub-CW at 513 K for 10 min were acetic acid, formic acid, pyroglutamic acid, alanine, and glycine. Fermentation experiments were conducted in an anaerobic-sludge reactor for two different samples: real sewage sludge and a model solution containing components typically produced by the sub-CW pretreatment of sewage sludge. In the experiment for the sub-CW pretreatment of sewage sludge, methane generation was twice that for non-pretreatment after 3 days of incubation. In the model experiment, the methane conversion was about 40% with the application of mixture of organic acids and amino acids after 5 days of incubation. Furthermore, the methane conversion was about 60% for 2 days when only organic acids, such as acetic acid and formic acid, were applied. Because acetic acid is the key intermediate and main precursor of the methanogenesis step, fermentation experiments were conducted in an anaerobic-sludge reactor with high concentrations of acetic acid (0.01-0.1M). Nearly 100% of acetic acid was converted to methane and carbon dioxide in 1-3 days.

  11. Subcritical Butane Extraction of Wheat Germ Oil and Its Deacidification by Molecular Distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinwei; Sun, Dewei; Qian, Lige; Liu, Yuanfa

    2016-12-07

    Extraction and deacidification are important stages for wheat germ oil (WGO) production. Crude WGO was extracted using subcritical butane extraction (SBE) and compared with traditional solvent extraction (SE) and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SCE) based on the yield, chemical index and fatty acid profile. Furthermore, the effects of the molecular distillation temperature on the quality of WGO were also investigated in this study. Results indicated that WGO extracted by SBE has a higher yield of 9.10% and better quality; at the same time, its fatty acid composition has no significant difference compared with that of SE and SCE. The molecular distillation experiment showed that the acid value, peroxide value and p-anisidine value of WGO were reduced with the increase of the evaporation temperatures, and the contents of the active constituents of tocopherol, polyphenols and phytosterols are simultaneously decreased. Generally, the distillation temperature of 150 °C is an appropriate condition for WGO deacidification with the higher deacidification efficiency of 77.78% and the higher retention rate of active constituents.

  12. Physics design of an accelerator for an accelerator-driven subcritical system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihui Li

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available An accelerator-driven subcritical system (ADS program was launched in China in 2011, which aims to design and build an ADS demonstration facility with the capability of more than 1000 MW thermal power in multiple phases lasting about 20 years. The driver linac is defined to be 1.5 GeV in energy, 10 mA in current and in cw operation mode. To meet the extremely high reliability and availability, the linac is designed with much installed margin and fault tolerance, including hot-spare injectors and local compensation method for key element failures. The accelerator complex consists of two parallel 10-MeV injectors, a joint medium-energy beam transport line, a main linac, and a high-energy beam transport line. The superconducting acceleration structures are employed except for the radio frequency quadrupole accelerators (RFQs which are at room temperature. The general design considerations and the beam dynamics design of the driver linac complex are presented here.

  13. Subcritical Water Induced Complexation of Soy Protein and Rutin: Improved Interfacial Properties and Emulsion Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Wei; Wang, Jin-Mei; Yang, Xiao-Quan; Qi, Jun-Ru; Hou, Jun-Jie

    2016-09-01

    Rutin is a common dietary flavonoid with important antioxidant and pharmacological activities. However, its application in the food industry is limited mainly because of its poor water solubility. The subcritical water (SW) treatment provides an efficient technique to solubilize and achieve the enrichment of rutin in soy protein isolate (SPI) by inducing their complexation. The physicochemical, interfacial, and emulsifying properties of the complex were investigated and compared to the mixtures. SW treatment had much enhanced rutin-combined capacity of SPI than that of conventional method, ascribing to the well-contacted for higher water solubility of rutin with stronger collision-induced hydrophobic interactions. Compared to the mixtures of rutin with proteins, the complex exhibited an excellent surface activity and improved the physical and oxidative stability of its stabilized emulsions. This improving effect could be attributed to the targeted accumulation of rutin at the oil-water interface accompanied by the adsorption of SPI resulting in the thicker interfacial layer, as evidenced by higher interfacial protein and rutin concentrations. This study provides a novel strategy for the design and enrichment of nanovehicle providing water-insoluble hydrophobic polyphenols for interfacial delivery in food emulsified systems. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Combined subcritical water and enzymatic hydrolysis for reducing sugar production from coconut husk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muharja, Maktum; Junianti, Fitri; Nurtono, Tantular; Widjaja, Arief

    2017-05-01

    Coconut husk wastes are abundantly available in Indonesia. It has a potential to be used into alternative renewable energy sources such as hydrogen using enzymatic hydrolysis followed by a fermentation process. Unfortunately, enzymatic hydrolysis is hampered by the complex structure of lignocellulose, so the cellulose component is hard to degrade. In this study, Combined Subcritical Water (SCW) and enzymatic hydrolysis are applied to enhance fermentable, thereby reducing production of sugar from coconut husk. There were two steps in this study, the first step was coconut husk pretreated by SCW in batch reactor at 80 bar and 150-200°C for 60 minutes reaction time. Secondly, solid fraction from the results of SCW was hydrolyzed using the mixture of pure cellulose and xylanase enzymes. Analysis was conducted on untreated and SCW-treated by gravimetric assay, liquid fraction after SCW and solid fraction after enzymatic hydrolysis using DNS assay. The maximum yield of reducing sugar (including xylose, arabinose glucose, galactose, mannose) was 1.254 gr per 6 gr raw material, representing 53.95% of total sugar in coconut husk biomass which was obtained at 150°C 80 bar for 60 minutes reaction time of SCW-treated and 6 hour of enzymatic hydrolysis using mixture of pure cellulose and xylanase enzymes (18.6 U /gram of coconut husk).

  15. Single field inflation in supergravity with a U(1) gauge symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heurtier, L. [Centre de Physique Théorique, École Polytechnique, CNRS,91128 Palaiseau (France); Khalil, S. [Center for Fundamental Physics, Zewail City of Science and Technology,6 October City, Cairo (Egypt); Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University,Cairo, 11566 (Egypt); Moursy, A. [Center for Fundamental Physics, Zewail City of Science and Technology,6 October City, Cairo (Egypt)

    2015-10-19

    A single field inflation based on a supergravity model with a shift symmetry and U(1) extension of the MSSM is analyzed. We show that one of the real components of the two U(1) charged scalar fields plays the role of inflaton with an effective scalar potential similar to the “new chaotic inflation” scenario. Both non-anomalous and anomalous (with Fayet-Iliopoulos term) U(1) are studied. We show that the non-anomalous U(1) scenario is consistent with data of the cosmic microwave background and recent astrophysical measurements. A possible kinetic mixing between U(1) and U(1){sub B−L} is considered in order to allow for natural decay channels of the inflaton, leading to a reheating epoch. Upper limits on the reheating temperature thus turn out to favour an intermediate (∼O(10{sup 13}) GeV) scale B−L symmetry breaking.

  16. Conceptual design of minor actinides burner with an accelerator-driven subcritical system.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Y.; Gohar, Y. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

    2011-11-04

    In the environmental impact study of the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository, the limit of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) for disposal is assessed at 70,000 metric tons of heavy metal (MTHM), among which 63,000 MTHM are the projected SNF discharge from U.S. commercial nuclear power plants though 2011. Within the 70,000 MTHM of SNF in storage, approximately 115 tons would be minor actinides (MAs) and 585 tons would be plutonium. This study describes the conceptual design of an accelerator-driven subcritical (ADS) system intended to utilize (burn) the 115 tons of MAs. The ADS system consists of a subcritical fission blanket where the MAs fuel will be burned, a spallation neutron source to drive the fission blanket, and a radiation shield to reduce the radiation dose to an acceptable level. The spallation neutrons are generated from the interaction of a 1 GeV proton beam with a lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) or liquid lead target. In this concept, the fission blanket consists of a liquid mobile fuel and the fuel carrier can be LBE, liquid lead, or molten salt. The actinide fuel materials are dissolved, mixed, or suspended in the liquid fuel carrier. Therefore, fresh fuel can be fed into the fission blanket to adjust its reactivity and to control system power during operation. Monte Carlo analyses were performed to determine the overall parameters of an ADS system utilizing LBE as an example. Steady-state Monte Carlo simulations were studied for three fission blanket configurations that are similar except that the loaded amount of actinide fuel in the LBE is either 5, 7, or 10% of the total volume of the blanket, respectively. The neutron multiplication factor values of the three configurations are all approximately 0.98 and the MA initial inventories are each approximately 10 tons. Monte Carlo burnup simulations using the MCB5 code were performed to analyze the performance of the three conceptual ADS systems. Preliminary burnup analysis shows that all three conceptual ADS

  17. Innovative leaching of cobalt and lithium from spent lithium-ion batteries and simultaneous dechlorination of polyvinyl chloride in subcritical water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kang; Zhang, Fu-Shen

    2016-10-05

    In this work, an effective and environmentally friendly process for the recovery of cobalt (Co) and lithium (Li) from spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and simultaneously detoxification of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) in subcritical water was developed. Lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) power from spent LIBs and PVC were co-treated by subcritical water oxidation, in which PVC served as a hydrochloric acid source to promote metal leaching. The dechlorination of PVC and metal leaching was achieved simultaneously under subcritical water oxidation. More than 95% Co and nearly 98% Li were recovered under the optimum conditions: temperature 350°C, PVC/LiCoO2 ratio 3:1, time 30min, and a solid/liquid ratio 16:1 (g/L), respectively. Moreover, PVC was completely dechlorinated at temperatures above 350°C without any release of toxic chlorinated organic compounds. Assessment on economical and environmental impacts revealed that the PVC and LiCoO2 subcritical co-treatment process had significant technical, economic and environmental benefits over the traditional hydrometallurgy and pyrometallurgy processes. This innovative co-treatment process is efficient, environmentally friendly and adequate for Co and Li recovery from spent LIBs and simultaneous dechlorination of PVC in subcritical water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Enhancement of a 252Cf-based neutron beam via subcritical multiplication for neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C K; Zino, J F; Kessler, G

    2000-01-01

    Previous studies indicated that an epithermal-neutron beam based on bare 252Cf is not feasible for neutron capture therapy (NCT). It was reported that a clinically useful epithermal-neutron beam requires a minimum of 1.0 g of 252Cf, which is more than twice the US current annual supply. However, it was reasoned that the required quantity of 252Cf could be dramatically reduced when used with a subcritical multiplying assembly (SMA). This reasoning is based on the assumption that the epithermal-neutron beam intensity for NCT is directly proportional to the fission neutron population, and that the neutron multiplying factor of the SMA can be estimated by 1/(1 - k(eff)). We have performed detailed Monte Carlo calculations to investigate the validity of the above reasoning. Our results show that 1/(1 - k(eff)) grossly overestimates the beam enhancement factor for NCT. For example, Monte Carlo calculations predict a beam enhancement factor of 6.0 for an optimized SMA geometry with k(eff) = 0.968. This factor is much less than 31 predicted by 1/(1 - k(eff)). The overestimation is due to the fact that most of the neutrons produced in the SMA are self-shielded, whereas self-shielding is negligible in a bare 252Cf source. Since the beam intensity of a 0.1 g 252Cf with the optimized SMA enhancement is still more than an order of magnitude too low compared to the existing reactor beams, we conclude that the enhancement via an SMA for a 252Cf-based epithermal-neutron beam is inadequate for NCT.

  19. Catalyst-free ethyl biodiesel production from rice bran under subcritical condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zullaikah, Siti; Afifudin, Riza; Amalia, Rizky

    2015-12-01

    In-situ ethyl biodiesel production from rice bran under subcritical water and ethanol with no catalyst was employed. This process is environmentally friendly and is very flexible in term of feedstock utilization since it can handle relatively high moisture and free fatty acids (FFAs) contents. In addition, the alcohol, i.e. bioethanol, is a non-toxic, biodegradable, and green raw material when produced from non-edible biomass residues, leading to a 100% renewable biodiesel. The fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs, ethyl biodiesel) are better than fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs, methyl biodiesel) in terms of fuel properties, including cetane number, oxidation stability and cold flow properties. The influences of the operating variables such as reaction time (1 - 10 h), ethanol concentration (12.5 - 87.5%), and pressurizing gas (N2 and CO2) on the ethyl biodiesel yield and purity have been investigated systematically while the temperature and pressure were kept constant at 200 °C and 40 bar. The optimum results were obtained at 5 h reaction time and 75% ethanol concentration using CO2 as compressing gas. Ethyl biodiesel yield and purity of 58.78% and 61.35%, respectively, were obtained using rice bran with initial FFAs content of 37.64%. FFAs level was reduced to 14.22% with crude ethyl biodiesel recovery of 95.98%. Increasing the reaction time up to 10 h only increased the yield and purity by only about 3%. Under N2 atmosphere and at the same operating conditions (5h and 75% ethanol), ethyl biodiesel yield and purity decreased to 54.63% and 58.07%, respectively, while FFAs level was increased to 17.93% and crude ethyl biodiesel recovery decreased to 87.32%.

  20. Subcritical CO2 sintering of microspheres of different polymeric materials to fabricate scaffolds for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhamidipati, Manjari; Sridharan, BanuPriya; Scurto, Aaron M; Detamore, Michael S

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to use CO2 at sub-critical pressures as a tool to sinter 3D, macroporous, microsphere-based scaffolds for bone and cartilage tissue engineering. Porous scaffolds composed of ~200 μm microspheres of either poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) or polycaprolactone (PCL) were prepared using dense phase CO2 sintering, which were seeded with rat bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (rBMSCs), and exposed to either osteogenic (PLGA, PCL) or chondrogenic (PLGA) conditions for 6 weeks. Under osteogenic conditions, the PLGA constructs produced over an order of magnitude more calcium than the PCL constructs, whereas the PCL constructs had far superior mechanical and structural integrity (125 times stiffer than PLGA constructs) at week 6, along with twice the cell content of the PLGA constructs. Chondrogenic cell performance was limited in PLGA constructs, perhaps as a result of the polymer degradation rate being too high. The current study represents the first long-term culture of CO2-sintered microsphere-based scaffolds, and has established important thermodynamic differences in sintering between the selected formulations of PLGA and PCL, with the former requiring adjustment of pressure only, and the latter requiring the adjustment of both pressure and temperature. Based on more straightforward sintering conditions and more favorable cell performance, PLGA may be the material of choice for microspheres in a CO2 sintering application, although a different PLGA formulation with the encapsulation of growth factors, extracellular matrix-derived nanoparticles, and/or buffers in the microspheres may be advantageous for achieving a more superior cell performance than observed here. © 2013.

  1. Alpha Eigenvalue Estimation from Dynamic Monte Carlo Calculation for Subcritical Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaukat, Nadeem; Shim, Hyung Jin; Jang, Sang Hoon [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The dynamic Monte Carlo (DMC) method has been used in the TART code for the α eigenvalue calculations. A unique method has been equipped to measure the α in time-stepwise Monte Carlo simulations. For off-critical systems, the neutron population is allowed to change exponentially over a period of time. The neutron population is uniformly combed to return it to the neutron population started with at the beginning of time boundary. In this study, the conventional dynamic Monte Carlo method has been implemented in the McCARD. There is an exponential change of neutron population at the end of each time boundary for off-critical systems. In order to control this exponential change at the end of each time boundary, a conventional time cut-off controlling population strategy is included in the DMC module implemented in the McCARD. the conventional combing method to control the neutron population for off-critical systems is implemented. Instead of considering the cycles, the simulation is divided in time intervals. At the end of each time interval, neutron population control is applied on the banked neutrons. Randomly selected neutrons are discarded, until the size of neutron population matches the initial neutron histories at the beginning of time simulation. The prompt neutron decay constant α is estimated from DMC algorithm for subcritical systems. The effectiveness of the results is examined for two-group infinite homogeneous problems with varying the k-value. From the comparisons with the analytical solutions, it is observed that the results are quite comparable with each other for each k-value.

  2. Subcritical water extraction of antioxidant phenolic compounds from XiLan olive fruit dreg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xue-Mei; Zhu, Ping; Zhong, Qiu-Ping; Li, Meng-Ying; Ma, Han-Ruo

    2015-08-01

    Olive fruit dreg (OFD), waste from olive softdrink processing, has caused disposal problems. Nevertheless, OFD is a good source of functional ingredients, such as phenolic compounds. This study investigated the extraction conditions of phenolic compounds from OFD by using subcritical water (SCW) extraction method, antioxidant activity of SCW extracts, and components of phenolic compounds by LC-MS. SCW extraction experiments were performed in a batch stainless steel reactor at temperatures ranging from 100 to 180 °C at residence time of 5 to 60 min, and at solid-to-liquid ratio of 1:20 to 1:60. Higher recoveries of phenolic compounds [37.52 ± 0.87 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g, dry weight (DW)] were obtained at 160 °C, solid-to-liquid ratio of 1:50, and extract time of 30 min than at 2 h extraction with methanol (1.21 ± 0.16 mg GAE/g DW), ethanol (0.24 ± 0.07 mg GAE/g DW), and acetone (0.34 ± 0.01 mg GAE/g DW). The antioxidant activities of the SCW extracts were significantly stronger than those in methanol extracts at the same concentration of total phenolic contents. LC-MS analysis results indicated that SCW extracts contained higher amounts of phenolic compounds, such as chlorogenic acid, homovanillic acid, gallic acid, hydroxytyrosol, quercetin, and syringic acid. SCW at 160 °C, 30 min, and solid-to-liquid ratio of 1:50 may be a good substitute of organic solvents, such as methanol, ethanol, and acetone to recover phenolic compounds from OFD.

  3. Recovery of solid fuel from municipal solid waste by hydrothermal treatment using subcritical water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, In-Hee; Aoyama, Hiroya; Matsuto, Toshihiko; Nakagishi, Tatsuhiro; Matsuo, Takayuki

    2012-03-01

    Hydrothermal treatments using subcritical water (HTSW) such as that at 234°C and 3MPa (LT condition) and 295°C and 8MPa (HT condition) were investigated to recover solid fuel from municipal solid waste (MSW). Printing paper, dog food (DF), wooden chopsticks, and mixed plastic film and sheets of polyethylene, polypropylene, and polystyrene were prepared as model MSW components, in which polyvinylchloride (PVC) powder and sodium chloride were used to simulate Cl sources. While more than 75% of carbon in paper, DF, and wood was recovered as char under both LT and HT conditions, plastics did not degrade under either LT or HT conditions. The heating value (HV) of obtained char was 13,886-27,544 kJ/kg and was comparable to that of brown coal and lignite. Higher formation of fixed carbon and greater oxygen dissociation during HTSW were thought to improve the HV of char. Cl atoms added as PVC powder and sodium chloride to raw material remained in char after HTSW. However, most Cl originating from PVC was found to converse into soluble Cl compounds during HTSW under the HT condition and could be removed by washing. From these results, the merit of HTSW as a method of recovering solid fuel from MSW is considered to produce char with minimal carbon loss without a drying process prior to HTSW. In addition, Cl originating from PVC decomposes into soluble Cl compound under the HT condition. The combination of HTSW under the HT condition and char washing might improve the quality of char as alternative fuel. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Kinetic and Thermodynamics studies for Castor Oil Extraction Using Subcritical Water Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmoez, Wael; Ashour, Eman; Naguib, Shahenaz M; Hilal, Amr; Al Mahdy, Dalia A; Mahrous, Engy A; Abdel-Sattar, Essam

    2016-06-01

    In this work both kinetic and thermodynamics of castor oil extraction from its seeds using subcritical water technique were studied. It was found that the extraction process followed two consecutive steps. In these steps, the oil was firstly extracted from inside the powder by diffusion mechanism. Then the extracted oil, due to extending the extraction time under high temperature and pressure, was subjected to a decomposition reaction following first order mechanism. The experimental data correlated well with the irreversible consecutive unimolecular-type first order mechanism. The values of both oil extraction rate constants and decomposition rate constants were calculated through non-linear fitting using DataFit software. The extraction rate constants were found to be 0.0019, 0.024, 0.098, 0.1 and 0.117 min(-1), while the decomposition rate constants were 0.057, 0.059, 0.014, 0.019 and 0.17 min(-1) at extraction temperatures of 240, 250, 260, 270 and 280°C, respectively. The thermodynamic properties of the oil extraction process were investigated using Arrhenius equation. The values of the activation energy, Ea, and the frequency factor, A, were 73 kJ mol(-1) and 946, 002 min(-1), respectively. The physicochemical properties of the extracted castor oil including the specific gravity, viscosity, acid value, pH value and calorific value were found to be 0.947, 7.487, 1.094 mg KOH/g, 6.1, and 41.5 MJ/Kg, respectively. Gas chromatography analysis showed that ricinoleic acid (83.6%) appears as the predominant fatty acid in the extracted oil followed by oleic acid (5.5%) and linoleic acid (2.3%).

  5. SUB-LEU-METAL-THERM-001 SUBCRITICAL MEASUREMENTS OF LOW ENRICHED TUBULAR URANIUM METAL FUEL ELEMENTS BEFORE & AFTER IRRADIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TOFFER, H.

    2006-07-18

    With the shutdown of the Hanford PUREX (Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant) reprocessing plant in the 1970s, adequate storage capacity for spent Hanford N Reactor fuel elements in the K and N Reactor pools became a concern. To maximize space utilization in the pools, accounting for fuel burnup was considered. Fuel that had experienced a neutron environment in a reactor is known as spent, exposed, or irradiated fuel. In contrast fuel that has not yet been placed in a reactor is known as green, unexposed, or unirradiated fuel. Calculations indicated that at typical fuel exposures for N Reactor, the spent-fuel critical mass would be twice the critical mass for green fuel. A decision was reached to test the calculational result with a definitive experiment. If the results proved positive, storage capacity could be increased and N Reactor operation could be prolonged. An experiment to be conducted in the N Reactor spent-fuel storage pool was designed and assembled (References 1 and 2) and the services of the Battelle Northwest Laboratories (BNWL) (now Pacific Northwest National Laboratory [PNNL]) critical mass laboratory were procured for the measurements (Reference 3). The experiments were performed in April 1975 in the Hanford N Reactor fuel storage pool. The fuel elements were MKIA fuel assemblies, comprised of two concentric tubes of low-enriched metallic uranium. Two separate sets of measurements were performed: one with unirradiated fuel and one with irradiated fuel. Both the unirradiated and irradiated fuel, were measured in the same geometry. The spent-fuel MKIA assemblies had an average burnup of 2865 MWd (megawatt days)/t. A constraint was imposed restricting the measurements to a subcritical limit of k{sub eff} = 0.97. Subcritical count rate data was obtained with pulsed-neutron and approach-to-critical measurements. Ten (10) configurations with green fuel and nine (9) configurations with spent fuel are described and evaluated. Of these, three (3) green fuel

  6. Viability study for application of combined reheater cycle (CRC) to fluidized bed combustion plants; Estudio de Viabilidad para la Aplicacion del Ciclo de Recalentamiento Combinado (CRC) a Plantas de Combustion de Lecho Fuido Atmosferico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Basically, the project try to analyze the application viability of a first reheating in steam cycles of little power plants, useful mainly for biomass and wastes, in our case with coal blends; and a second reheating of the steam in conventional and fluidized bed combustion plants. Using in both cases the thermic energy of the exhaust gases from one gas turbine. The advantages of the CRC cycle are: (1) Reduction of the moisture in the turbine, increasing the energy efficiency and blade protection. (2) To take advantage of the waste gas energy from the gas turbine in optimum way. (3) Great operation flexibility under good efficiency results. In general, the system can use the synergy between gas, coal and waste energies with the highest global efficiency. (Author)

  7. Efficient decomposition of a new fluorochemical surfactant: perfluoroalkane disulfonate to fluoride ions in subcritical and supercritical water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Hisao; Saito, Hiroki; Sakai, Hidenori; Kitahara, Toshiyuki; Sakamoto, Takehiko

    2015-06-01

    Decomposition of (-)O3SC3F6SO3(-) in subcritical and supercritical water was investigated, and the results were compared with the results for C3F7SO3(-). This is the first report on the decomposition of perfluoroalkane disulfonates, which are being introduced in electronics industry as greener alternatives to environmentally persistent and bioaccumulative perfluoroalkyl surfactants. Addition of zerovalent iron to the reaction system dramatically increased the yield of F(-) in the reaction solution: when the reaction of (-)O3SC3F6SO3(-) was carried out in subcritical water at 350°C for 6h, the F(-) yield was 70%, which was 23times the yield without zerovalent iron. Prolonged reaction increased the F(-) formation: after 18h, the F(-) yield from the reaction of (-)O3SC3F6SO3(-) reached 81%, which was 2.1times the F(-) yield from the reaction of C3F7SO3(-). Although the reactivity of FeO toward these substrates was lower than zerovalent iron in subcritical water, the reactivity was enhanced when the reaction temperature was elevated to supercritical state, at which temperature FeO underwent in situ disproportionation to form zerovalent iron, which acted as the reducing agent. When the reaction of (-)O3SC3F6SO3(-) was carried out in the presence of FeO in supercritical water at 380°C for 18h, the F(-) yield reached 92%, which was the highest yield among tested. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of Subcritical Fluid Extraction on the High Quality of Headspace Oil from Jasminum sambac (L.) Aiton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Qiuping; Jin, Xinyi; Wei, Shiqin; Zheng, Gongyu; Li, Xinlei

    2016-05-01

    Subcritical fluid extraction (SFE), as a novel method, was applied to investigate the yield, quality, and sensory evaluation of headspace oil from Jasminum sambac (L.) Aiton in comparison with petroleum ether extraction (PEE). The results indicated that the yield of the headspace oil using SFE was significantly higher (P headspace oil. The contents of linalool (21.90%) and benzyl acetate (16.31%) were higher via SFE than PEE. In addition, the sensory evaluation of SFE was superior to PEE, indicating a fresh, jasmine-like odor and green-yellow color. Thus, SFE is an improved method for obtaining natural headspace oil from jasmine flowers.

  9. Effect of Subcritical Fluid Extraction on the High Quality of Headspace Oil from Jasminum sambac (L.) Aiton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-22

    Subcritical fluid extraction (SFE), as a novel method, was applied to investigate the yield, quality, and sensory evaluation of headspace oil from Jasminum sambac (L.) Aiton in comparison with petroleum ether extraction (PEE). The results indicated that the yield of the headspace oil using SFE was significantly higher (P headspace oil. The contents of linalool (21.90%) and benzyl acetate (16.31%) were higher via SFE than PEE. In addition, the sensory evaluation of SFE was superior to PEE, indicating a fresh, jasmine-like odor and green-yellow color. Thus, SFE is an improved method for obtaining natural headspace oil from jasmine flowers.

  10. The Impact of a Mild Sub-Critical Hydrothermal Carbonization Pretreatment on Umbila Wood. A Mass and Energy Balance Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Cuvilas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last years, the pretreatment of biomass as a source of energy has become one of the most important steps of biomass conversion. In this work the effect of a mild subcritical hydrothermal carbonization of a tropical woody biomass was studied. Results indicate considerable change in carbon content from 52.78% to 65.1%, reduction of oxygen content from 41.14% to 28.72% and ash slagging and fouling potential. Even though decarboxylation, decarbonylation and dehydration reactions take place, dehydration is the one that prevails. The mass and energy balance was affected by the treatment conditions than the severity of the treatment.

  11. The Effect of Chemical Composition on Microstructure and Properties of Intercritically Reheated Coarse-Grained Heat-Affected Zone in X70 Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhixiong; Kuzmikova, Lenka; Li, Huijun; Barbaro, Frank

    2013-12-01

    The current study investigates the effect of different levels of Ti, N, and Ti/N ratios on microstructure and properties in the intercritically reheated coarse-grained heat-affected zone (ICCGHAZ) of two-pass submerged arc welds in API 5L grade X70 pipe. Gleeble simulation was employed to reproduce the ICCGHAZ of actual welds. Hardness and Charpy V-notch (CVN) tests were performed on the simulated samples. The microstructure of simulated ICCGHAZ was characterized by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). LePera color etching technique was employed to identify and quantify the martensitic-austenitic (M-A) constituent. Results show that the simulated ICCGHAZ exhibited extremely low toughness, but in the studied range of Ti and N, there was no correlation with Ti/N ratio. The beneficial effect of near-stoichiometric Ti/N ratio observed in coarse-grained heat-affected zone (CGHAZ) did not translate to ICCGHAZ. This was because of the negative effect of the blocky M-A constituent formed on prior austenite grain boundaries.

  12. Warm dark matter via ultra-violet freeze-in: reheating temperature and non-thermal distribution for fermionic Higgs portal dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, John [Dept. of Physics, University of Lancaster,Lancaster LA1 4YB (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-17

    Warm dark matter (WDM) of order keV mass may be able to resolve the disagreement between structure formation in cold dark matter simulations and observations. The detailed properties of WDM will depend upon its energy distribution, in particular how it deviates from the thermal distribution usually assumed in WDM simulations. Here we focus on WDM production via the Ultra-Violet (UV) freeze-in mechanism, for the case of fermionic Higgs portal dark matter ψ produced via the portal interaction ψ-barψH{sup †}H/Λ. We introduce a new method to simplify the computation of the non-thermal energy distribution of dark matter from freeze-in. We show that the non-thermal energy distribution from UV freeze-in is hotter than the corresponding thermal distribution and has the form of a Bose-Einstein distribution with a non-thermal normalization. The resulting range of dark matter fermion mass consistent with observations is 5–7 keV. The reheating temperature must satisfy T{sub R}≳120 GeV in order to account for the observed dark matter density when m{sub ψ}≈5 keV, where the lower bound on T{sub R} corresponds to the limit where the fermion mass is entirely due to electroweak symmetry breaking via the portal interaction. The corresponding bound on the interaction scale is Λ≳6.0×10{sup 9} GeV.

  13. Operating results of 700MW coal fired supercritical once-through steam generator for Hekinan power station No.3 boiler, Chubu Electric Power Co. Inc. with elevated reheat steam temperature of 596{degree}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, S.; Ozawa, M.; Yamamoto, T.; Kuwahara, M. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Indutries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-01-01

    The demonstration test results of the 700 MW coal fired supercritical once-through steam generator for Hekinan Power Station, Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc. were reported which generator is featured by highest reheat steam temperature of 596{degree}C among commercial boilers. On static characteristics, both gross and net thermal efficiencies were higher than the design values in a load range of 30-100%, and higher by nearly 1% than those under conventional steam conditions. The metal temperature distribution of each portion was desirable, and the reheater could be well regulated below 610{degree}C lower than the design value (619{degree}C) without arrival on the alarm setting (650{degree}C). The load change of 5%/min in a high load zone and 3%/min in a low one was allowable for each coal type keeping stable steam temperature. Unburned carbon contents in fly ash was less than 2%, while NOx emission was less than 150 ppm at a boiler outlet. In addition, the unit start characteristics equivalent to those of oil fired boilers were obtained proving the possible boiler technology at 596{degree}C in reheater steam temperature. 7 figs.

  14. Innovative leaching of cobalt and lithium from spent lithium-ion batteries and simultaneous dechlorination of polyvinyl chloride in subcritical water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Kang; Zhang, Fu-Shen, E-mail: fszhang@rcees.ac.cn

    2016-10-05

    Highlights: • A co-treatment process for recovery of Co and Li and simultaneous detoxification of PVC in subcritical water was proposed. • PVC was used as a hydrochloric acid source. • More than 95% Co and nearly 98% Li were leached under the optimum conditions. • Neither corrosive acid nor reducing agent was used. • The co-treatment process has technical, economic and environmental benefits over the traditional recovery processes. - Abstract: In this work, an effective and environmentally friendly process for the recovery of cobalt (Co) and lithium (Li) from spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and simultaneously detoxification of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) in subcritical water was developed. Lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO{sub 2}) power from spent LIBs and PVC were co-treated by subcritical water oxidation, in which PVC served as a hydrochloric acid source to promote metal leaching. The dechlorination of PVC and metal leaching was achieved simultaneously under subcritical water oxidation. More than 95% Co and nearly 98% Li were recovered under the optimum conditions: temperature 350 °C, PVC/LiCoO{sub 2} ratio 3:1, time 30 min, and a solid/liquid ratio 16:1 (g/L), respectively. Moreover, PVC was completely dechlorinated at temperatures above 350 °C without any release of toxic chlorinated organic compounds. Assessment on economical and environmental impacts revealed that the PVC and LiCoO{sub 2} subcritical co-treatment process had significant technical, economic and environmental benefits over the traditional hydrometallurgy and pyrometallurgy processes. This innovative co-treatment process is efficient, environmentally friendly and adequate for Co and Li recovery from spent LIBs and simultaneous dechlorination of PVC in subcritical water.

  15. Reactivity analysis for numerical solution of the point kinetic equation for subcritical; Analise da reatividade para solucao numerica da equacao da cinetica pontual para sistemas subcriticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henrice Junior, Edson; Goncalves, Alessandro da Cruz, E-mail: ejunior@nuclear.ufrj.br, E-mail: alessandro@nuclear.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Energia Nuclear; Palma, Daniel Artur Pinheiro, E-mail: dapalma@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mesquita, Amir Zacarias, E-mail: amir@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This paper provides a comparison between the reactivity calculated by the approximation based on the multiplication factor (K{sub eff}) and a new approach for the reactivity calculation to be used in the kinetics point equation for subcritical systems. To obtain the necessary kinetic parameters as well and the reference Power value calculation and validation, a subcritical system was simulated with the Monte Carlo code Serpent. This study is important for determining nuclear Power in such systems. The results shown consistent values with the validation method and new in-depth studies to calculate the reactivity should be performed to such systems, making the issue a very current theme. (author)

  16. Geochemical controls on the kinetics of quartz fracture at subcritical tensile stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, Patricia M.

    1995-11-01

    A new kinetic model links physical and chemical controls on the subcritical fracture kinetics of quartz from the assumption that molecular level reactions governing fracture and dissolution proceed by similar pathways. The model formulation combines fracture theory with a mechanistically based description of chemical, thermal, and tensile stress effects on reactivity in aqueous environments. Water, as a vapor or liquid, promotes rupture of Si-O bonds by end-member processes: (1) reaction of a protonated surface with molecular water and (2) reaction of hydroxyl ions at an ionized surface. In humid environments, reaction frequency is determined by water accessibility to the crack tip. In wetted environments, the relative contributions of these mechanisms are determined by bulk solution composition which affects surface ionization and sol vent-surf ace interactions. The macroscopic fracture rate law is given in meters per second by the fractional sum of these end-member reaction mechanisms per a first-order equation. Agreement of this empirical rate expression with reported measurements of quartz fracture rates suggests the model is robust. It gives a good fit to fracture rates over 6 orders of magnitude and explains increasing rates with increasing solution pH, the dependence of rate upon crystallographic direction, and thermal dependence of rate over 20° to 80°C. Findings in this study suggest that (1) fracture models based upon changes in surface free energy with solution composition are macroscopic descriptions of solvent-surface interactions and parallel the mechanistic model presented here; (2) faster fracture rates observed in basic solutions are not facilitated by decreases in the activation barrier but are due to a transition in the solvent-surface reaction to give a higher reaction frequency and (3) power law expressions applied to fracture rate versus stress intensity measurements may not have direct mechanistic significance since log-linear relations

  17. Enhanced Production of Phenolic Compounds from Pumpkin Leaves by Subcritical Water Hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jeong-Yeon; Ko, Mi-Ok; Kim, Dong-Shin; Lim, Sang-Bin

    2016-06-01

    Enhanced production of individual phenolic compounds by subcritical water hydrolysis (SWH) of pumpkin leaves was investigated at various temperatures ranging from 100 to 220°C at 20 min and at various reaction times ranging from 10 to 50 min at 160°C. Caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and gentisic acid were the major phenolic compounds in the hydrolysate of pumpkin leaves. All phenolic compounds except gentisic acid showed the highest yield at 160°C, but gentisic acid showed the highest yield at 180°C. The cumulative amount of individual phenolic compounds gradually increased by 48.1, 52.2, and 78.4 μg/g dry matter at 100°C, 120°C, and 140°C, respectively, and then greatly increased by 1,477.1 μg/g dry matter at 160°C. The yields of caffeic acid and ferulic acid showed peaks at 20 min, while those of cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and procatechuic acid showed peaks at 30 min. Antioxidant activities such as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and ferric reducing antioxidant power values gradually increased with hydrolysis temperature and ranged from 6.77 to 12.42 mg ascorbic acid equivalents/g dry matter and from 4.25 to 8.92 mmol Fe(2+)/100 g dry matter, respectively. Color L* and b* values gradually decreased as hydrolysis temperature increased from 100°C to 140°C. At high temperatures (160°C to 220°C), L* and b* values decreased suddenly. The a* value peaked at 160°C and then decreased as temperature increased from 160°C to 220°C. These results suggest that SWH of pumpkin leaves was strongly influenced by hydrolysis temperature and may enhanced the production of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities.

  18. Neutronic design study of accelerator driven system (ADS) for Jordan subcritical reactor as a neutron source for nuclear research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xoubi, Ned

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a preliminary neutronic design study of an accelerator driven subcritical system for Jordan Subcritical Assembly (JSA) is presented. The conceptual design of coupling the JSA core with proton accelerator and spallation target is investigated, and its feasibility as a neutron source for nuclear research, and possibly for target irradiation and isotope production evaluated. 3D MCNPX model of the JSA reactor, the accelerator beam, and the Pb target was developed, based on actual reactor parameters. MCNPX calculations were carried out to estimate the absolute radial and axial neutron flux in the reactor, and to calculate the multiplication factor K eff and heat generated in the reactor. Numerical results showed an enormous increase in the neutron flux, by seven orders of magnitude, compared to the current JSA core design using Pu-Be source. In this research the results obtained are discussed and compared with those of the JSA, and do confirm the feasibility of utilizing the JSA as a viable nuclear research facility with adequate neutron flux. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Non-Catalytic and MgSO4 - Catalyst based Degradation of Glycerol in Subcritical and Supercritical Water Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahfud Mahfud

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to study the glycerol degradation reaction in subcritical and supercritical water media. The degradation of glycerol into other products was performed both with sulphate salt catalysts and without catalyst. The reactant was made from glycerol and water with the mass ratio of 1:10. The experiments were carried out using a batch reactor at a constant pressure of 250 kgf/cm2, with the temperature range of 200-400oC, reaction time of 30 minutes, and catalyst mol ratio in glycerol of 1:10 and 1:8. The products of the non-catalytic glycerol degradation were acetaldehyde, methanol, and ethanol. The use of sulphate salt as catalyst has high selectivity to acetaldehyde and still allows the formation alcohol product in small quantities. The mechanism of ionic reaction and free radical reaction can occur at lower temperature in hydrothermal area or subcritical water. Conversion of glycerol on catalytic reaction showed a higher yield when compared with the reaction performed without catalyst

  20. Subcritical water extraction, UPLC-Triple-TOF/MS analysis and antioxidant activity of anthocyanins from Lycium ruthenicum Murr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuwei; Luan, Guangxiang; Zhou, Wu; Meng, Jing; Wang, Honglun; Hu, Na; Suo, Yourui

    2018-05-30

    In this work, it has been developed an efficient method for extraction of anthocyanin from Lycium ruthenicum Murr. and the antioxidative activities research. Subcritical water extraction was investigated as a green technology for the extraction of anthocyanin from L. ruthenicum. Several key parameters affecting extraction efficiency were investigated and optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) combined with Box-Behnken design (BBD). The optimum extraction conditions and the desirability of model were the time of extraction = 55 min and the flow rate was 3 mL/min at 170 °C. At this operating condition, the content of anthocyanin was high to 26.33%. Subcritical water extraction was more efficient than using hot water or methyl alcohol for the extraction of anthocyanin. The composition of anthocyanins from L. ruthenicum has been investigated by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) and Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Triple-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer (UPLC-Triple-TOF/MS). Seven anthocyanins have been detected, all of which were identified and quantified. Furthermore, the anthocyanins extracted by SWE showed significantly better antioxidant activity than the anthocyanins extracted by hot water or methyl alcohol according to DPPH and ABTS assay. SWE with significantly higher anthocyanin and antioxidant activity were achieved compared to conventional methods. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of SO2 concentration as an impurity on carbon steel corrosion under subcritical CO2 environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlobo, MGR; Premlall, K.; Olubambi, PA

    2017-12-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is considered to be easier to transport over moderate distances when turned into supercritical state (dense phase) than at any other state. Because of this reason, the transportation of CO2 during carbon capture and storage requires CO2 to be at its supercritical state. CO2 temperature profile from different regions causes CO2 to deviate between supercritical and subcritical state (gas/liquid phase). In this study the influence of sulphur dioxide (SO2) on the corrosion of carbon steel was evaluated under different SO2 concentrations (0.5, 1.5 and 5%) in combination with subcritical CO2. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) were used to characterize the CO2 corrosion product layer formed on the carbon steel surface. The weight loss results showed that corrosion rate increased with SO2 concentration with corrosion rate up to 7.45 mm/year while at 0% SO2 the corrosion rate was 0.067 mm/year.

  2. Conceptual design for accelerator-driven sodium-cooled sub-critical transmutation reactors using scale laws

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kwang Gu; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    The feasibility study on conceptual design methodology for accelerator-driven sodium-cooled sub-critical transmutation reactors has been conducted to optimize the design parameters from the scale laws and validates the reactor performance with the integrated code system. A 1000 MWth sodium-cooled sub-critical transmutation reactor has been scaled and verified through the methodology in this paper, which is referred to Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR). A Pb-Bi target material and a partitioned fuel are the liquid phases, and they are cooled by the circulation of secondary Pb-Bi coolant and by primary sodium coolant, respectively. Overall key design parameters are generated from the scale laws and they are improved and validated by the integrated code system. Integrated Code System (ICS) consists of LAHET, HMCNP, ORIGEN2, and COMMIX codes and some files. Through ICS the target region, the core region, and thermal-hydraulic related regions are analyzed once-through Results of conceptual design are attached in this paper. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  3. Discharge Computation of Trapezoidal Side Weir in Subcritical Flow Regime Using Conventional Weir Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Riahi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Side weir structures are extensively used in hydraulic engineering, irrigation and environmental engineering, and it usually consists of a main weir and a lateral channel. Side weirs are also used as an emergency structure. This structure is installed on one side or both sides of the main channel to divert the flow from the main channel to the side channel. Lateral outflow takes place when the water surface in the main channel rises above the weir sill. Flow over a side weir is a typical case of spatially varied flow with decreasing discharge. There have been extensive studies on side weir overflows. Most of the previous theoretical analysis and experimental research works are related to the flow over rectangular side weirs in rectangular main channels. In the current study, the flow conditions over a trapezoidal side weir located in a rectangular main channel in subcritical flow regime is considered. Materials and Methods: The experiments were performed in a rectangular open channel having provisions for a side weir at one side of the channel. The main channel was horizontal with 12 m length, 0.25 m width, and 0.5 m height, and it was installed on a frame; lateral channel that has a length of 6 m, width of 0.25 m, and height of 1 m. It was set up parallel to the main channel; walls and its bed were made up of Plexiglas plates. The side weir was positioned at a distance of 6 m from the channel’s entrance. A total of 121 experiments on trapezoidal side weirs were carried out. Results and Discussion: For trapezoidal side weir, effective non-dimensionnal parameters were identified using dimensional analysis and Buckingham's Pi-Theorem. Finally, the following non-dimensional parameters were considered as the most effective ones on the discharge coefficient of the trapezoidal side weir flow. in which Fr1= upstream Froude number, P= hight of the trapezoidal side weir, y1= upstream water depth, z=side slope of the trapezoidal side weir

  4. Optimization of supercritical phase and combined supercritical/subcritical conversion of lignocellulose for hexose production by using a flow reaction system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Lu, Wen-Jing; Wu, Hua-Yong; Liu, Jin-Wen; Wang, Hong-Tao

    2012-12-01

    A flow reaction system was utilized to investigate lignocellulose conversion using combined supercritical/subcritical conditions for hexose production. Initially, investigation of cellulose hydrolysis in supercritical water and optimization of reaction parameters were done. Oligosaccharide yields reached over 30% at cellulose concentrations of 3-5 gL(-1) and reaction times of 6-10s at 375 °C, and 2.5-4 gL(-1) and 8-10s at 380 °C. Temperatures above 380 °C were not appropriate for the supercritical phase in the combined process. Subsequently, conversion of lignocellulosic materials under combined supercritical/subcritical conditions was studied. Around 30% hexose was produced from corn stalks under the optimal parameters for supercritical (380 °C, 23-24 MPa, 9-10s) and subcritical (240 °C, 8-9 MPa, 45-50s) phases. Flow systems utilizing the combined supercritical/subcritical technology present a promising method for lignocellulosic conversion. The results of this study provide an important guide for the operational optimization and practical application of the proposed system. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of sub-critical water as an extraction fluid for model contaminants from recycled PET for reuse as food packaging material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Amélia S F; Agnelli, José A M; Manrich, Sati

    2010-04-01

    Recycling of plastics for food-contact packaging is an important issue and research into meaningful and cost-effective solutions is in progress. In this paper, the use of sub-critical water was evaluated as an alternative way of purifying poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) flakes for direct food contact applications. The effects of temperature, pressure and flow rate were assessed on the extraction efficiency of two of the most challenging classes of contaminants (toluene and benzophenone) from PET by sub-critical water using a first-order fractional experimental design. Extraction yield was quantified using GC/FID. The most important parameter was flow rate, indicating that the decrease in sub-critical water polarity with temperature was insufficient to eliminate partition effects. Temperature was also important, but only for the optimization of toluene extraction. These results may be explained by the poor solubility of higher molar mass compounds in sub-critical water compared to lower molar mass compounds under the same conditions, and the small decrease in dielectric constant with temperature under the experimental conditions evaluated. As cleaning efficiency is low and PET is very susceptible to hydrolysis, which limits the use of higher temperatures vis-à-vis physical recycling, the proposed extraction is unsuitable for a standalone super-clean process but may be a step in the process.

  6. Analysis of Subcritical Crack Growth in Dental Ceramics Using Fracture Mechanics and Fractography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskonak, Burak; Griggs, Jason A.; Mecholsky, John J.; Yan, Jia-Hau

    2008-01-01

    .05) but did not have significantly different fracture toughness (P>0.05). Regarding critical flaw size, stressing rate had a significant effect for In-Ceram® Zirconia specimens (P≤0.05) but not for Vitadur Alpha specimens (P>0.05). Fatigue parameters, n and ln B, were 38.4 and −12.7 for Vitadur Alpha and were 13.1 and 10.4 for In-Ceram® Zirconia. Significance Moisture assisted subcritical crack growth had a more deleterious effect on In-Ceram® Zirconia core ceramic than on Vitadur Alpha porcelain. Fracture surface analysis identified fracture surface features that can potentially mislead investigators into misidentifying the critical flaw. PMID:17845817

  7. Pore pressure migration during hydraulic stimulation due to permeability enhancement by low-pressure subcritical fracture slip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukuhira, Yusuke; Moriya, Hirokazu; Ito, Takatoshi; Asanuma, Hiroshi; Häring, Markus

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the details of pressure migration during hydraulic stimulation is important for the design of an energy extraction system and reservoir management, as well as for the mitigation of hazardous-induced seismicity. Based on microseismic and regional stress information, we estimated the pore pressure increase required to generate shear slip on an existing fracture during stimulation. Spatiotemporal analysis of pore pressure migration revealed that lower pore pressure migrates farther and faster and that higher pore pressure migrates more slowly. These phenomena can be explained by the relationship between fracture permeability and stress state criticality. Subcritical fractures experience shear slip following smaller increases of pore pressure and promote migration of pore pressure because of their enhanced permeability. The difference in migration rates between lower and higher pore pressures suggests that the optimum wellhead pressure is the one that can stimulate relatively permeable fractures, selectively. Its selection optimizes economic benefits and minimizes seismic risk.

  8. High-energy-density electron beam from interaction of two successive laser pulses with subcritical-density plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Wang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available It is shown by particle-in-cell simulations that a narrow electron beam with high energy and charge density can be generated in a subcritical-density plasma by two consecutive laser pulses. Although the first laser pulse dissipates rapidly, the second pulse can propagate for a long distance in the thin wake channel created by the first pulse and can further accelerate the preaccelerated electrons therein. Given that the second pulse also self-focuses, the resulting electron beam has a narrow waist and high charge and energy densities. Such beams are useful for enhancing the target-back space-charge field in target normal sheath acceleration of ions and bremsstrahlung sources, among others.

  9. Optimization of subcritical water extraction parameters of antioxidant polyphenols from sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides L.) seed residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Ying; Zhang, Xiaofei; He, Li; Yan, Qiuli; Yuan, Fang; Gao, Yanxiang

    2015-03-01

    Polyphenols was extracted with subcritical water from the sea buckthorn seed residue (after oil recovery), and the extraction parameters were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The independent processing variables were extraction temperature, extraction time and the ratio of water to solid. The optimal extraction parameters for the extracts with highest ABTS radical scavenging activity were 120 °C, 36 min and the water to solid ratio of 20, and the maximize antioxidant capacity value was 32.42 mmol Trolox equivalent (TE)/100 g. Under the optimal conditions, the yield of total phenolics, total flavonoids and proanthocyanidins was 36.62 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g, 19.98 mg rutin equivalent (RE)/g and 10.76 mg catechin equivalents (CE)/g, respectively.

  10. Study of the enantiomeric separation of oxfendazole and cetirizine using subcritical fluid chromatography on an amylose-based column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toribio, L; del Nozal, M J; Bernal, J L; Cristofol, C; Alonso, C

    2006-07-21

    The enantiomeric separation of cetirizine and oxfendazole on a Chiralpak AD column using subcritical fluid chromatography has been studied in this work. The enantioseparation of cetirizine was only possible when 2-propanol was used as a modifier, obtaining better results in presence of the additives triethylamine (TEA) and trifluoroacetic acid (TFAA). On the contrary, 2-propanol provided the lowest enantioresolutions for oxfendazole, in this case the best results in terms of high resolution and short analysis time were obtained with ethanol. The study of the temperature effect revealed that in the case of cetirizine using 2-propanol, and oxfendazole using methanol, the separation was enthalpy-driven and the isoelution temperature was above the working range. Using ethanol or 2-propanol, the results showed that the oxfendazole enantioseparation was entropically driven and the isoelution temperatures were below the range studied.

  11. Life cycle assessment of biodiesel production from algal bio-crude oils extracted under subcritical water conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnusamy, Sundaravadivelnathan; Reddy, Harvind Kumar; Muppaneni, Tapaswy; Downes, Cara Meghan; Deng, Shuguang

    2014-10-01

    A life cycle assessment study is performed for the energy requirements and greenhouse gas emissions in an algal biodiesel production system. Subcritical water (SCW) extraction was applied for extracting bio-crude oil from algae, and conventional transesterification method was used for converting the algal oil to biodiesel. 58MJ of energy is required to produce 1kg of biodiesel without any co-products management, of which 36% was spent on cultivation and 56% on lipid extraction. SCW extraction with thermal energy recovery reduces the energy consumption by 3-5 folds when compared to the traditional solvent extraction. It is estimated that 1kg of algal biodiesel fixes about 0.6kg of CO2. An optimized case considering the energy credits from co-products could further reduce the total energy demand. The energy demand for producing 1kg of biodiesel in the optimized case is 28.23MJ. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Extraction of bioactive compounds from sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) defatted seeds using water and ethanol under sub-critical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodoira, Romina; Velez, Alexis; Andreatta, Alfonsina E; Martínez, Marcela; Maestri, Damián

    2017-12-15

    Sesame seeds contain a vast array of lignans and phenolic compounds having important biological properties. An optimized method to obtain these seed components was designed by using water and ethanol at high pressure and temperature conditions. The maximum concentrations of lignans, total phenolics, flavonoids and flavonols compounds were achieved at 220°C extraction temperature and 8MPa pressure, using 63.5% ethanol as co-solvent. Under these conditions, the obtained sesame extracts gave the best radical scavenging capacity. Kinetic studies showed a high extraction rate of phenolic compounds until the first 50min of extraction, and it was in parallel with the highest scavenging capacity. The comparison of our results with those obtained under conventional extraction conditions (normal pressure, ambient temperature) suggests that recovery of sesame bioactive compounds may be markedly enhanced using water/ethanol mixtures at sub-critical conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Performance improvement in thermal power plants. ; Design of 700MW coal-fired boiler with elevated reheat steam temperature for Hekinan No. 3 unit, Chubu Electric Power Co. Ltd. Karyoku hatsudensho no seino kojo taisaku. ; Chubu denryoku (kabu) Hekinan karyoku hatsudensho 3 go unit muke koon sainetsu joki ondo (596 degree C)saiyo boiler no keikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwahara, M.; Kajigaya, I.; Umaki, H.; Kunihiro, T. (Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries, Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-07-15

    The 700 MW coal fired super critical boiler with elevated reheat steam temperature for variable pressure operation was outlined which is under development for the Hekinan No. 3 unit, Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc. Its steam temperature was designed to be 596{degree}C at a reheater outlet and 593{degree}C at an intermediate pressure turbine inlet in the range from 35 to 100% of maximum continuous evaporation. For such high temperature steam conditions, the arrangement of reheater heating surfaces was optimized by examining both static and dynamic characteristics. Tubing materials for the reheater outlet were carefully selected in consideration of coal ash corrosion and steam side oxidation, and modified 9Cr-1Mo steel was widely adopted for high temperature parts. The seam-welded modified 9Cr-1Mo steel pipe was, in particular, adopted for hot reheat pipes, and the bending fabricability and weldability of such steel plate were tested extensively on a full-scale mock-up model to ensure a plant reliability. 1 ref., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Comparative analysis of operation and safety of subcritical nuclear systems and innovative critical reactors; Analyse comparative du fonctionnement et de la surete de systemes sous-critiques et de reacteurs critiques innovants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bokov, P.M

    2005-05-01

    The main goal of this thesis work is to investigate the role of core subcriticality for safety enhancement of advanced nuclear systems, in particular, molten salt reactors, devoted to both energy production and waste incineration/transmutation. The inherent safety is considered as ultimate goal of this safety improvement. An attempt to apply a systematic approach for the analysis of the subcriticality contribution to inherent properties of hybrid system was performed. The results of this research prove that in many cases the subcriticality may improve radically the safety characteristics of nuclear reactors, and in some configurations it helps to reach the 'absolute' intrinsic safety. In any case, a proper choice of subcriticality level makes all analyzed transients considerably slower and monotonic. It was shown that the weakest point of the independent-source systems with respect to the intrinsic safety is thermohydraulic unprotected transients, while in the case of the coupled-source systems the excess reactivity/current insertion events remain a matter of concern. To overcome these inherent drawbacks a new principle of realization of a coupled sub-critical system (DENNY concept) is proposed. In addition, the ways to remedy some particular safety-related problems with the help of the core sub-criticality are demonstrated. A preliminary safety analysis of the fast-spectrum molten salt reactor (REBUS concept) is also carried out in this thesis work. Finally, the potential of the alternative (to spallation) neutron sources for application in hybrid systems is examined. (author)

  15. Implementation and training methodology of subcritical reactors neutronic calculations triggered by external neutron source and applications; Implementacao e qualificacao de metodologia de calculos neutronicos em reatores subcriticos acionados por fonte externa de neutrons e aplicacoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carluccio, Thiago

    2011-07-01

    This works had as goal to investigate calculational methodologies on subcritical source driven reactor, such as Accelerator Driven Subcritical Reactor (ADSR) and Fusion Driven Subcritical Reactor (FDSR). Intense R and D has been done about these subcritical concepts, mainly due to Minor Actinides (MA) and Long Lived Fission Products (LLFP) transmutation possibilities. In this work, particular emphasis has been given to: (1) complement and improve calculation methodology with neutronic transmutation and decay capabilities and implement it computationally, (2) utilization of this methodology in the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) of the International Atomic Energy Agency Analytical and Experimental Benchmark Analysis of ADS and in the Collaborative Work on Use of Low Enriched Uranium in ADS, especially in the reproduction of the experimental results of the Yalina Booster subcritical assembly and study of a subcritical core of IPEN / MB-01 reactor, (3) to compare different nuclear data libraries calculation of integral parameters, such as k{sub eff} and k{sub src}, and differential distributions, such as spectrum and flux, and nuclides inventories and (4) apply the develop methodology in a study that may help future choices about dedicated transmutation system. The following tools have been used in this work: MCNP (Monte Carlo N particle transport code), MCB (enhanced version of MCNP that allows burnup calculation) and NJOY to process nuclear data from evaluated nuclear data files. (author)

  16. Comparison studies of surface cleaning methods for PAN-based carbon fibers with acetone, supercritical acetone and subcritical alkali aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Linghui; Fan, Dapeng; Huang, Yudong; Jiang, Zaixing; Zhang, Chunhua

    2012-11-01

    Four kinds of polyacrylonitrile-based carbon fibers were cleaned by three methods and were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, monofilament tensile strength test and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Experimental results of these tests reveal that the method using supercritical acetone or subcritical potassium hydroxide aqueous solution act as the processing medium shows a better cleaning effect compared to the traditional method, Soxhlet extraction with acetone. The method using supercritical acetone is more appropriate to wipe off the oxygenated contaminants on carbon fibers' surfaces and causes a relatively smaller damage to the bulk strength of each carbon fiber. As far as treating method using the subcritical alkali aqueous solution, it can thoroughly remove silicious contaminants on the surfaces of treated fibers.

  17. (n,xn) cross section measurements for Y-89 foils used as detectors for high energy neutron measurements in the deeply subcritical assembly “QUINTA”

    OpenAIRE

    Bielewicz Marcin; Kilim Stanisław; Strugalska-Gola Elżbieta; Szuta Marcin; Wojciechowski Andrzej; Tyutyunnikov Sergey; Prokofiev Alexander; Passoth Elke

    2017-01-01

    Study of the deep subcritical systems (QUINTA) using relativistic beams is performed within the project “Energy and Transmutation of Radioactive Wastes” (E&T – RAW). The experiment assembly was irradiated by deuteron/proton beam (Dubna NUCLOTRON). We calculated the neutron energy spectrum inside the whole assembly by using threshold energy (n,xn) reactions in yttrium (Y-89) foils. There are almost no experimental cross section data for those reactions. New Y-89(n,xn) cross section measurement...

  18. Subcritical Multiplication Parameters of the Accelerator-Driven System with 100 MeV Protons at the Kyoto University Critical Assembly

    OpenAIRE

    Jae-Yong Lim; Cheol Ho Pyeon; Takahiro Yagi; Tsuyoshi Misawa

    2012-01-01

    Basic experiments on the accelerator-driven system (ADS) at the Kyoto University Critical Assembly are carried out by combining a solid-moderated and -reflected core with the fixed-field alternating gradient accelerator. The reaction rates are measured by the foil activation method to obtain the subcritical multiplication parameters. The numerical calculations are conducted with the use of MCNPX and JENDL/HE-2007 to evaluate the reaction rates of activation foils set in the core region and at...

  19. Optimization of Biomass-Fuelled Combined Cooling, Heating and Power (CCHP) Systems Integrated with Subcritical or Transcritical Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs)

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Maraver; Sylvain Quoilin; Javier Royo

    2014-01-01

    This work is focused on the thermodynamic optimization of Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs), coupled with absorption or adsorption cooling units, for combined cooling heating and power (CCHP) generation from biomass combustion. Results were obtained by modelling with the main aim of providing optimization guidelines for the operating conditions of these types of systems, specifically the subcritical or transcritical ORC, when integrated in a CCHP system to supply typical heating and cooling deman...

  20. Sub-critical long-term operation of industrial scale hollow-fibre membranes in a submerged anaerobic MBR (HF-SAnMBR) system

    OpenAIRE

    Robles Martínez, Ángel; Ruano García, María Victoria; Ribes Bertomeu, José; Ferrer, J.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term performance of hollow-fibre (HF) membranes used to treat urban wastewater in a submerged anaerobic MBR when operating sub-critically. To this end, a demonstration plant with two industrial scale HF ultrafiltration membrane modules was operated under different conditions. The main factor affecting membrane performance was the concentration of mixed liquor total solids (MLTS). The reversible fouling rate remained low even when MLTS levels (abo...

  1. Effect of residence time on two-step liquefaction of rice straw in a CO2 atmosphere: Differences between subcritical water and supercritical ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tianhua; Wang, Jian; Li, Bingshuo; Kai, Xingping; Li, Rundong

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the influence of temperature and residence time on liquefaction of rice straw in subcritical CO2-subcritical water (subCO2-subH2O) and in subcritical CO2-supercritical ethanol (subCO2-scEtOH), considering the final reaction temperatures (270-345°C) and residence times (15 and 30min). Residence time was identified as a crucial parameter in the subCO2-subH2O liquefaction, whereas residence time had a marginal influence on subCO2-scEtOH liquefaction. When reaction conditions were 320°C and 15min, solvents have weak impact on the quality of bio-oil, HHV 28.57MJ/kg and 28.62MJ/kg, respectively. There was an obvious difference between the subCO2-subH2O and subCO2-scEtOH liquefaction mechanisms. In subCO2-subH2O, CO2 promoted the carbonyl reaction. In subCO2-scEtOH, supercritical ethanol have the function of donating hydrogen and promoting the reaction of hydroxyl-alkylation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison studies of surface cleaning methods for PAN-based carbon fibers with acetone, supercritical acetone and subcritical alkali aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng Linghui; Fan Dapeng [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 410, Harbin 150001 (China); Huang Yudong, E-mail: ydhuang.hit1@yahoo.com.cn [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 410, Harbin 150001 (China); Jiang Zaixing; Zhang Chunhua [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 410, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cleaning with supercritical acetone is appropriate to wipe off the oxygenated contaminants. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cleaning with supercritical acetone causes smaller damage to bulk strength of carbon fibers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cleaning with subcritical alkali aqueous solution can thoroughly remove silicious contaminants. - Abstract: Four kinds of polyacrylonitrile-based carbon fibers were cleaned by three methods and were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, monofilament tensile strength test and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Experimental results of these tests reveal that the method using supercritical acetone or subcritical potassium hydroxide aqueous solution act as the processing medium shows a better cleaning effect compared to the traditional method, Soxhlet extraction with acetone. The method using supercritical acetone is more appropriate to wipe off the oxygenated contaminants on carbon fibers' surfaces and causes a relatively smaller damage to the bulk strength of each carbon fiber. As far as treating method using the subcritical alkali aqueous solution, it can thoroughly remove silicious contaminants on the surfaces of treated fibers.

  3. Sub-critical water as a green solvent for production of valuable materials from agricultural waste biomass: A review of recent work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shitu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural waste biomass generated from agricultural production and food processing industry are abundant, such as durian  peel, mango peel, corn straw, rice bran, corn shell, potato peel and many more. Due to low commercial value, these wastes are disposed in landfill, which if not managed properly may cause environmental problems. Currently, environmental laws and regulations pertaining to the pollution from agricultural waste streams by regulatory agencies are stringent and hence the application of toxic solvents during processing has become public concern. Recent development in valuable materials extraction from the decomposition of agricultural waste by sub-critical water treatment from the published literature was review. Physico-chemical characteristic (reaction temperature, reaction time and solid to liquid ratio of the sub-critical water affecting its yield were also reviewed. The utilization of biomass residue from agriculture, forest wood production and from food and feed processing industry may be an important alternative renewable energy supply. The paper also presents future research on sub-critical water.

  4. 3D CAD model of the subcritical nuclear reactor of IPN; Modelo CAD 3D del reactor nuclear subcritico del IPN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahuamba V, F. de J.; Delfin L, A.; Gomez T, A. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Ibarra R, G.; Del Valle G, E.; Sanchez R, A., E-mail: narehc@hotmail.com [IPN, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Av. IPN, Edif. 9, Unidad Profesional Adolfo Lopez Mateos, San Pedro Zacatenco, 07738 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico)

    2016-09-15

    The three-dimensional (3D) CAD model of the subcritical reactor Chicago model 9000 of Instituto Politecnico Nacional (IPN) allows obtaining a 3D view with the dimensions of each of its components, such as: natural uranium cylindrical rods, fuel elements, hexagonal reactor core arrangement, cylindrical stainless steel tank containing the core, fuel element support grids and reactor water cleaning system. As a starting point for the development of the model, the Chicago model 9000 subcritical reactor manual provided by the manufacturer was used, the measurement and verification of the components to adapt the geometric, physical and mechanical characteristics was carried out and materials standards were used to obtain a design that allows to elaborate a new manual according to the specifications. In addition, the 3D models of the building of the Advanced Physics Laboratory, neutron generator, cobalt source and the corridors connecting to the subcritical reactor facility were developed, allowing an animated ride, developed by computer-aided design software. The manual provided by the company Nuclear Chicago, dates from the year 1959 and presents diverse deviations in the design and dimensions of the reactor components. The model developed; in addition to supporting the development of the new manual represents a learning tool to visualize the reactor components. (Author)

  5. Subcritical Multiplication Parameters of the Accelerator-Driven System with 100 MeV Protons at the Kyoto University Critical Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Yong Lim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Basic experiments on the accelerator-driven system (ADS at the Kyoto University Critical Assembly are carried out by combining a solid-moderated and -reflected core with the fixed-field alternating gradient accelerator. The reaction rates are measured by the foil activation method to obtain the subcritical multiplication parameters. The numerical calculations are conducted with the use of MCNPX and JENDL/HE-2007 to evaluate the reaction rates of activation foils set in the core region and at the location of the target. Here, a comparison between the measured and calculated eigenvalues reveals a relative difference of around 10% in C/E values. A special mention is made of the fact that the reaction rate analyses in the subcritical systems demonstrate apparently the actual effect of moving the tungsten target into the core on neutron multiplication. A series of further ADS experiments with 100 MeV protons needs to be carried out to evaluate the accuracy of subcritical multiplication parameters.

  6. Subcritical, nontypical and period-doubling bifurcations of a delta wing in a low speed wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korbahti, Banu; Kagambage, Emile; Andrianne, Thomas; Abdul Razak, Norizham; Dimitriadis, Grigorios

    2011-04-01

    Limit Cycle Oscillations (LCOs) involving Delta wings are an important area of research in modern aeroelasticity. Such phenomena can be the result of geometric or aerodynamic nonlinearity. In this paper, a flexible half-span Delta wing is tested in a low speed wind tunnel in order to investigate its dynamic response. The wing is designed to be more flexible than the models used in previous research on the subject in order to expand the airspeed range in which LCOs occur. The experiments reveal that this wing features a very rich bifurcation behavior. Three types of bifurcation are observed for the first time for such an aeroelastic system: subcritical bifurcations, period-doubling/period-halving and nontypical bifurcations. They give rise to a great variety of LCOs, even at very low angles of attack. The LCOs resulting from the nontypical bifurcation display Hopf-type behavior, i.e. having fundamental frequencies equal to one of the linear modal frequencies. All of the other LCOs have fundamental frequencies that are unrelated to the underlying linear system modes.

  7. Comparing the effect of sub-critical water extraction with conventional extraction methods on the chemical composition of Lavandula stoechas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giray, E Sultan; Kirici, Saliha; Kaya, D Alpaslan; Türk, Murat; Sönmez, Ozgür; Inan, Memet

    2008-01-15

    The volatile extract composition of Lavandula stoechas flowers obtained by hydrodistillation (HD), subcrtical water extraction (SbCWE) and organic solvent extraction under ultrasonic irradiation (USE) were estimated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). One hundred and twenty four components were detected in SbCWE extracts while 94 and 65 signals were gained from HD and USE extracts, respectively. Most of the constituents were identified. The major compounds in all three extracts were fenchon, camphor, myrtenyl acetate, myrtenol and 1,8-cineol, but they differ in quantitatively. The total monoterpene hydrocarbons are higher in HD and USE extracts than those of SbCWE extract. However, SbCWE extract had higher concentration of light oxygenated compounds which contributes to the fragrance of the oil in a major extension. Heavy-oxygenated compounds was also in higher abundance in SbCWE extract (9.90%) than those of HD and USE extracts (3.19 and 4.78%, respectively). Effect of temperature on the extraction yield of SbCWE was investigated and while oil yield was increasing with an increase in temperature, a decrease in the extraction ability of sub-critical water toward the more polar compounds such as, 1,8-cineol, camphor and fenchon, was observed. Kinetic studies shown that SbCWE is clearly quicker than conventional alternatives. Most of components of volatile compounds were extracted at 15min.

  8. Subcritical water extraction combined with molecular imprinting technology for sample preparation in the detection of triazine herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fengnian; Wang, Shanshan; She, Yongxin; Zhang, Chao; Zheng, Lufei; Jin, Maojun; Shao, Hua; Jin, Fen; Du, Xinwei; Wang, Jing

    2017-09-15

    A selective, environmentally friendly, and cost-effective sample extraction method based on a combination of subcritical water extraction (SWE) and molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) was developed for the determination of eight triazine herbicides in soil samples by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In SWE, the highest extraction yields of triazine herbicides were obtained under 150°C for 15min using 20% ethanol as the organic modifier. Addition of MIP during SWE increased the extraction efficiency, and using MIP as a selective SPE sorbent improved the enrichment capability. Soil samples were treated with the optimized extraction MIP/SWE-MISPE method and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The novel technique was then applied to soil samples for the determination of triazine herbicides, and better recoveries (78.9%-101%) were obtained compared with using SWE-MISPE (30%-67%). Moreover, this newly developed method displayed good linearity (R2>0.99) and precision (2.7-9.8%), and low enough detection limits (0.4-3.3μgkg-1). This combination of SWE and MIP technology is a simple, effective and promising method to selectively extract class-specific compounds in complex samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Dynamic Simulation of the Water-steam System in Once-through Boilers - Sub-critical Power Boiler Case -

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seongil; Choi, Sangmin [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    The dynamics of a water-steam system in a once-through boiler was simulated based on the physics-based modeling approach, representing the system in response to large load change or scale disturbance simulations. The modeling considered the mass, energy conservation, and momentum equation in the water pipe and the focus was limited to the sub-critical pressure region. An evaporator tube modeling was validated against the reference data. A simplified boiler system consisting of economizer, evaporator, and superheater was constructed to match a 500 MW power boiler. The dynamic response of the system following a disturbance was discussed along with the quantitative response characteristics. The dynamic response of the boiler system was further evaluated by checking the case of an off-design point operation of the feedwater-to-fuel supply ratio. The results re-emphasized the significance of controlling the feedwater-to-fuel supply ratio and additional design requirements of the water-steam separator and spray attemperator.

  10. Molecular modification of native coffee polysaccharide using subcritical water treatment: Structural characterization, antioxidant, and DNA protecting activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getachew, Adane Tilahun; Chun, Byung Soo

    2017-06-01

    Polysaccharides are an abundant resource in coffee beans and have proved to show numerous bioactivities. Despite their abundance, their activities are not always satisfactory mostly due to their structure and large molecular size. Molecular modifications of native polysaccharides can overcome this problem. In this study, we used a novel and green method to modify native coffee polysaccharides using subcritical water (SCW) treatment. The SCW treatment was used at the temperature of 180°C-220°C and pressure of 30-60bar. The molecular and structural modification of the polysaccharides was confirmed using several techniques such as FT-IR, UV spectroscopy, XRD, and TGA. The antioxidant activity of the modified polysaccharides was evaluated using several chemical and Saccharomyces cerevisiae-based high throughput assays. The modified polysaccharides showed high antioxidant activities in all tested assays. Moreover, the polysaccharides showed high DNA protection activities. Therefore, SCW could be employed as a green solvent for molecular modification of polysaccharides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Transient analysis of subcritical/supercritical carbon dioxide based natural circulation loop with end heat exchangers: experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ajay Kumar; Ramgopal, Maddali; Bhattacharyya, Souvik

    2017-09-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) based natural circulation loops (NCLs) has gained attention due to its compactness with higher heat transfer rate. In the present study, experimental investigations have been carried out to capture the transient behaviour of a CO2 based NCL operating under subcritical as well as supercritical conditions. Water is used as the external fluid in cold and hot heat exchangers. Results are obtained for various inlet temperatures (323-353 K) of water in the hot heat exchanger and a fixed inlet temperature (305 K) of cooling water in the cold heat exchanger. Effect of loop operating pressure (50-90 bar) on system performance is also investigated. Effect of loop tilt in two different planes (XY and YZ) is also studied in terms of transient as well as steady state behaviour of the loop. Results show that the time required to attain steady state decreases as operating pressure of the loop increases. It is also observed that the change in temperature of loop fluid (CO2) across hot or cold heat exchanger decreases as operating pressure increases.

  12. Hydrogen adsorption and diffusion, and subcritical-crack growth in high strength steels and nickel base alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, R. P.; Klier, K.; Simmons, G. W.; Chornet, E.

    1973-01-01

    Embrittlement, or the enhancement of crack growth by gaseous hydrogen in high strength alloys, is of primary interest in selecting alloys for various components in the space shuttle. Embrittlement is known to occur at hydrogen gas pressures ranging from fractions to several hundred atmospheres, and is most severe in the case of martensitic high strength steels. Kinetic information on subcritical crack growth in gaseous hydrogen is sparse at this time. Corroborative information on hydrogen adsorption and diffusion is inadequate to permit a clear determination of the rate controlling process and possible mechanism in hydrogen enhanced crack growth, and for estimating behavior over a range of temperatures and pressures. Therefore, coordinated studies of the kinetics of crack growth, and adsorption and diffusion of hydrogen, using identical materials, have been initiated. Comparable conditions of temperature and pressure will be used in the chemical and mechanical experiments. Inconel 718 alloy and 18Ni(200) maraging steel have been selected for these studies. Results from these studies are expected to provide not only a better understanding of the gaseous hydrogen embrittlement phenomenon itself, but also fundamental information on hydrogen adsorption and diffusion, and crack growth information that can be used directly for design.

  13. Solvent tailoring in coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, May 1982-August 1982. [Comparison of subcritical and supercritical conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarrer, A.R.; Guin, J.A.; Curtis, C.W.; Williams, D.C.

    1982-01-01

    The initial objective of this work was to study the phase distribution of donor solvents and solvent mixtures during the liquefaction of coal, to investigate the effects of phase distribution on coal conversion, and to determine the advantages, if any, of operating at subcritical and/or supercritical conditions. Computer simulations were used to predict the phase distribution, for various binary systems, as a function of temperature. The FLASH program was used to theoretically predict phase distribution for various model systems. Due to limitations in the computer program, success was achieved only in a few cases. Even in these cases, the existence of two-phase regions was observed only at temperatures and pressures far below normal liquefaction conditions. An extensive review of the literature was carried out in order to survey methods of experimentally studying vapor-liquid equilibria. Finally, some preliminary laboratory studies were carried out with the use of benzothiophene-dodecane as the model reaction system. It was felt that the study of the effect of reactor configuration on conversion would provide insight into whether phase distribution or mass transfer was the limiting consideration for coal conversion. However, no conclusive results were obtained from these studies.

  14. Degradation of Acid Red 274 using H2O2 in subcritical water: application of response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayan, Berkant; Gözmen, Belgin

    2012-01-30

    In this research, the degradation of Acid Red 274 (AR 274) was investigated under subcritical water conditions using H(2)O(2), which led to the oxidative degradation of Acid Red 274 up to its 80% of mineralization. The Box-Behnken design matrix and response surface methodology (RSM) were applied in designing the experiments for evaluating the interactive effects of the three most important operating variables. Thus, the interactive effects of temperature (100-250°C), oxidant (H(2)O(2)) concentration (50-250 mM), and time (30-60 min.) on the degradation of AR 274 were investigated. A total of 17 experiments were conducted in this research, and the analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that the proposed quadratic model could be used for navigating the design space. The proposed model was essentially in accordance with the experimental case with correlation coefficient R(2)=0.9930 and Adj-R(2)=0.9839, respectively. The results confirmed that RSM based on the Box-Behnken design was a compatible method for optimizing the operating conditions of AR 274 degradation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Design-theoretical study of cascade CO2 sub-critical mechanical compression/butane ejector cooling cycle

    KAUST Repository

    Petrenko, V.O.

    2011-11-01

    In this paper an innovative micro-trigeneration system composed of a cogeneration system and a cascade refrigeration cycle is proposed. The cogeneration system is a combined heat and power system for electricity generation and heat production. The cascade refrigeration cycle is the combination of a CO2 mechanical compression refrigerating machine (MCRM), powered by generated electricity, and an ejector cooling machine (ECM), driven by waste heat and using refrigerant R600. Effect of the cycle operating conditions on ejector and ejector cycle performances is studied. Optimal geometry of the ejector and performance characteristics of ECM are determined at wide range of the operating conditions. The paper also describes a theoretical analysis of the CO2 sub-critical cycle and shows the effect of the MCRM evaporating temperature on the cascade system performance. The obtained data provide necessary information to design a small-scale cascade system with cooling capacity of 10 kW for application in micro-trigeneration systems. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and IIR. All rights reserved.

  16. Operating results of 700MW coal fired supercritical once-through steam generator for Hekinan power station No. 3 boiler, Chubu Electric Power Co. , Inc. with elevated reheat steam temperature: 596[degree]C. Chubu denryoku kabushiki kaisha Hekinan karyoku hatsudensho 3 go boiler (koon sainetsu joki ondo: 596[degree]C) no shiunten jisseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishimoto, R.; Ozawa, M.; Yamamoto, T.; Kuwahara, M. (Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries, Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-03-01

    The IHI-FW 700 MW coal fired supercritical variable pressure once-through reheat type steam generator at Hekinan Power Station No. 3 boiler of Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc. started commercial operation in April 1993. This paper describes an outline of the operating results of commissioning stage, focusing on the evaluation of elevated reheat steam temperature. The boiler was the first to achieve reheat steam temperature of 596 centigrade in Japan. The evaporation of boiler is 2,250 t/h at the maximum continuous load. The boiler has advanced special merits, such as cyclic operation, environmental technology to achieve low NOx emissions, high efficiency plant due to the elevated steam temperature, etc. During commissioning, these special merits were confirmed to be satisfactory. The plant efficiencies at the generating end and the sending end were higher than those as designed. In addition, the steam temperature characteristics as designed were obtained. The metal temperature distribution of the reheater was lower than that as designed. 7 figs.

  17. Reheat cracking of austenitic stainless steels - pre-strain effect on intergranular damage; Fissuration en relaxation des aciers inoxydables austenitiques - influence de l'ecrouissage sur l'endommagement intergranulaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auzoux, Q

    2004-01-01

    Welding process induces strain in 316 stainless steel affected zones. Their microstructure was reproduce by rolling of three different steels (316L, 316L(N) et 316H). Traction, creep and relaxation tests were performed at 550 deg C and 600 deg C on smooth, notched and pre-cracked specimens. Pre-strain by rolling increases the hardness and the creep resistance because of the high dislocation density but decreases ductility because of the fast development of intergranular damage. This embrittlement leads to crack propagation during relaxation tests on pre-strained steels without distinction in respect to their carbon or nitrogen content. A new intergranular damage model was built using local micro-cracks measurements and finite elements analysis. Pre-strain effect and stress triaxiality ratio effect are reproduced by the modelling so that the reheat cracking risk near welds can now be estimated. (author)

  18. The impact of resin-coating on sub-critical crack extension in a porcelain laminate veneer material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xu; Fleming, Garry J P; Addison, Owen

    2017-05-01

    Characterisation of the interaction between crack extension, crack stabilisation and stress/strain relaxation in the polymeric matrix, the interplay between stress corrosion cracking and the mechanical response of a resin-based luting adhesive within a surface defect population could extend PLV restoration longevity by optimising cementation protocols. The aim was to investigate the influence of stress corrosion cracking and the viscoelastic behaviour of a resin-based luting adhesive independently by controlling the environmental conditions operative during test specimen fabrication. The effects of stress corrosion at ceramic crack tips and potential viscoelastic responses to loading of the resin-coated impregnating cracks were isolated. Resin-coated feldspathic ceramic test specimens were fabricated in ambient humidity or following moisture exclusion. Bi-axial flexure strengths of groups (n = 20) were determined at constant loading rates of 2.5, 10, 40, 160 or 640 N/min and data was compared with uncoated controls. Fractographic analyses were performed on all fractured test specimens. Resin-cement coating resulted in significant ceramic strengthening in all conditions tested (p < 0.01). A two-way ANOVA demonstrated that the exclusion of moisture during resin- coating significantly increased mean BFS (p<0.01) but post-hoc Tukey tests identified that moisture exclusion resulted in significant increases in BFS values only at intermediate loading rates with no significant differences observed at either the fastest or slowest loading rates (640 and 2.5 N/min, respectively). Mechanical reinforcement of PLV materials by resin-cement systems is yet to be optimized. The viscoelastic behavior of the resin-cement itself can influence the magnitude of reinforcement observed and sub-critical crack growth. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Monte Carlo modeling and analyses of YALINA-booster subcritical assembly part 1: analytical models and main neutronics parameters.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talamo, A.; Gohar, M. Y. A.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2008-09-11

    This study was carried out to model and analyze the YALINA-Booster facility, of the Joint Institute for Power and Nuclear Research of Belarus, with the long term objective of advancing the utilization of accelerator driven systems for the incineration of nuclear waste. The YALINA-Booster facility is a subcritical assembly, driven by an external neutron source, which has been constructed to study the neutron physics and to develop and refine methodologies to control the operation of accelerator driven systems. The external neutron source consists of Californium-252 spontaneous fission neutrons, 2.45 MeV neutrons from Deuterium-Deuterium reactions, or 14.1 MeV neutrons from Deuterium-Tritium reactions. In the latter two cases a deuteron beam is used to generate the neutrons. This study is a part of the collaborative activity between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) of USA and the Joint Institute for Power and Nuclear Research of Belarus. In addition, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has a coordinated research project benchmarking and comparing the results of different numerical codes with the experimental data available from the YALINA-Booster facility and ANL has a leading role coordinating the IAEA activity. The YALINA-Booster facility has been modeled according to the benchmark specifications defined for the IAEA activity without any geometrical homogenization using the Monte Carlo codes MONK and MCNP/MCNPX/MCB. The MONK model perfectly matches the MCNP one. The computational analyses have been extended through the MCB code, which is an extension of the MCNP code with burnup capability because of its additional feature for analyzing source driven multiplying assemblies. The main neutronics parameters of the YALINA-Booster facility were calculated using these computer codes with different nuclear data libraries based on ENDF/B-VI-0, -6, JEF-2.2, and JEF-3.1.

  20. Process optimization and characterization of fragrant oil from red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) seed extracted by subcritical butane extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Ling-Biao; Pang, Hui-Li; Lu, Ke-Ke; Liu, Hua-Min; Wang, Xue-De; Qin, Guang-Yong

    2017-04-01

    Red pepper seeds account for 450-500 g kg-1 of the total pepper weight and are often discarded as waste. In this study, process optimization and characterization of fragrant oil from roasted red pepper seed extracted by subcritical butane extraction were carried out. The optimal conditions of extraction were a temperature of 74.61 °C, a time of 68.65 min and a liquid/solid ratio of 30.24:1. The oil had a refractive index (25 °C) of 1.471, a relative density of 0.900, an acid value of 1.421 mg g-1 oil, an iodine value of 127.035 g per 100 g, a saponification value of 184.060 mg KOH g-1 , an unsaponifiable matter content of 12.400 g kg-1 , a peroxide value of 2.465 meq. O2 kg-1 and a viscosity of 52.094 cP. The main fatty acids in the oil were linoleic acid (72.95%) followed by palmitic acid (11.43%) and oleic acid (10.00%). The oil showed desirable thermal and oxidative stability. A total of 19 volatile compounds, mostly aldehydes and alkenes, were identified from the oil. The results indicated that the method is appropriate for the preparation of fragrant red pepper seed oil, and the oil is suitable for used as edible oil. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Physics design of a 10 MeV injector test stand for an accelerator-driven subcritical system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Yan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The 10 MeV accelerator-driven subcritical system (ADS Injector I test stand at Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP is a testing facility dedicated to demonstrate one of the two injector design schemes [Injector Scheme-I, which works at 325 MHz], for the ADS project in China. The injector is composed of two parts, the linac part and the beam dump line. The former is designed on the basis of 325 MHz four-vane type copper structure radio frequency quadrupole and superconducting (SC spoke cavities with β=0.12. The latter is designed to transport the beam coming out of the SC section of the linac to the beam dump, where the beam transverse profile is fairly enlarged and unformed to simplify the beam target design. The SC section consists of two cryomodules with 14 β=0.12 Spoke cavities, 14 solenoid and 14 BPMs in total. The first challenge in the physics design comes from the necessary space required for the cryomodule separation where the periodical lattice is destroyed at a relatively lower energy of ∼5  MeV. Another challenge is the beam dump line design, as it will be the first beam dump line being built by using a step field magnet for the transverse beam expansion and uniformity in the world. This paper gives an overview of the physics design study together with the design principles and machine construction considerations. The results of an optimized design, fabrication status and end to end simulations including machine errors are presented.

  2. The study of isochoric subcritical water using power series: A potential of energy generation with ISCW reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangian, Hanny F.; Tunena, Mercyas; Pani, Sutaryono

    2017-09-01

    The present study was aimed to analyze the behaviors of PVT and Z of ISCW (isochoric subcritical water) condition using mathematical series. The data showed that the pressure extremely increased from 15 bars until 80 bars taking only a few seconds that was probably to generate energy. The study was initiated by formulating power series in term of P and T with parameters, a0, a1, a2, a3, a4, a5, a6, and a7 whereas they were solved by performing the fitting method. By employing that technique, parameters were obtained as follows: a0= 7.63x-6, a1=0.23K/bar, a2=0.0035K2/bar2, a3=0.0068 K3/bar3, a4=8.27x10-7K4/bar4, a5=1.33x10-7K5/bar5, a6=2.18x10-8K6/bar6, and a7=3.64x10-9K7/bar7. Compressibility factor increased as pressure and temperature improved. In an isochoric condition, there was extremity that was located at a temperature above 450K in which compressibility factor abruptly increased with the tangent of the line was infinity. All parameters attaching on terms of a mathematical model proposed were assumed constant during P and T increase. At the request of the authors of the paper and with the agreement of the proceedings editor, an updated version of this article was published on 4 October 2017. The original version supplied to AIP Publishing included an incorrect spelling in the name of the first author. This has been corrected in the updated and re-published version.

  3. ECO2M: A TOUGH2 Fluid Property Module for Mixtures of Water, NaCl, and CO2, Including Super- and Sub-Critical Conditions, and Phase Change Between Liquid and Gaseous CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruess, K.

    2011-04-01

    ECO2M is a fluid property module for the TOUGH2 simulator (Version 2.0) that was designed for applications to geologic storage of CO{sub 2} in saline aquifers. It includes a comprehensive description of the thermodynamics and thermophysical properties of H{sub 2}O - NaCl - CO{sub 2} mixtures, that reproduces fluid properties largely within experimental error for temperature, pressure and salinity conditions in the range of 10 C {le} T {le} 110 C, P {le} 600 bar, and salinity from zero up to full halite saturation. The fluid property correlations used in ECO2M are identical to the earlier ECO2N fluid property package, but whereas ECO2N could represent only a single CO{sub 2}-rich phase, ECO2M can describe all possible phase conditions for brine-CO{sub 2} mixtures, including transitions between super- and sub-critical conditions, and phase change between liquid and gaseous CO{sub 2}. This allows for seamless modeling of CO{sub 2} storage and leakage. Flow processes can be modeled isothermally or non-isothermally, and phase conditions represented may include a single (aqueous or CO{sub 2}-rich) phase, as well as two-and three-phase mixtures of aqueous, liquid CO{sub 2} and gaseous CO{sub 2} phases. Fluid phases may appear or disappear in the course of a simulation, and solid salt may precipitate or dissolve. TOUGH2/ECO2M is upwardly compatible with ECO2N and accepts ECO2N-style inputs. This report gives technical specifications of ECO2M and includes instructions for preparing input data. Code applications are illustrated by means of several sample problems, including problems that had been previously solved with TOUGH2/ECO2N.

  4. Effect of Carreau-Yasuda rheological parameters on subcritical Lapwood convection in horizontal porous cavity saturated by shear-thinning fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khechiba, Khaled; Mamou, Mahmoud; Hachemi, Madjid; Delenda, Nassim; Rebhi, Redha

    2017-06-01

    The present study is focused on Lapwood convection in isotropic porous media saturated with non-Newtonian shear thinning fluid. The non-Newtonian rheological behavior of the fluid is modeled using the general viscosity model of Carreau-Yasuda. The convection configuration consists of a shallow porous cavity with a finite aspect ratio and subject to a vertical constant heat flux, whereas the vertical walls are maintained impermeable and adiabatic. An approximate analytical solution is developed on the basis of the parallel flow assumption, and numerical solutions are obtained by solving the full governing equations. The Darcy model with the Boussinesq approximation and energy transport equations are solved numerically using a finite difference method. The results are obtained in terms of the Nusselt number and the flow fields as functions of the governing parameters. A good agreement is obtained between the analytical approximation and the numerical solution of the full governing equations. The effects of the rheological parameters of the Carreau-Yasuda fluid and Rayleigh number on the onset of subcritical convection thresholds are demonstrated. Regardless of the aspect ratio of the enclosure and thermal boundary condition type, the subcritical convective flows are seen to occur below the onset of stationary convection. Correlations are proposed to estimate the subcritical Rayleigh number for the onset of finite amplitude convection as a function of the fluid rheological parameters. Linear stability of the convective motion, predicted by the parallel flow approximation, is studied, and the onset of Hopf bifurcation, from steady convective flow to oscillatory behavior, is found to depend strongly on the rheological parameters. In general, Hopf bifurcation is triggered earlier as the fluid becomes more and more shear-thinning.

  5. Optimum design and criticality safety of a beam-shaping assembly with an accelerator-driven subcritical neutron multiplier for boron neutron capture therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraga, F

    2015-12-01

    The beam-shaping assembly for boron neutron capture therapies with a compact accelerator-driven subcritical neutron multiplier was designed so that an epithermal neutron flux of 1.9×10(9) cm(-2) s(-1) at the treatment position was generated by 5 MeV protons in a beam current of 2 mA. Changes in the atomic density of (135)Xe in the nuclear fuel due to the operation of the beam-shaping assembly were estimated. The criticality safety of the beam-shaping assembly in terms of Xe poisoning is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. (n,xn) cross section measurements for Y-89 foils used as detectors for high energy neutron measurements in the deeply subcritical assembly "QUINTA"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielewicz, Marcin; Kilim, Stanisław; Strugalska-Gola, Elżbieta; Szuta, Marcin; Wojciechowski, Andrzej; Tyutyunnikov, Sergey; Prokofiev, Alexander; Passoth, Elke

    2017-09-01

    Study of the deep subcritical systems (QUINTA) using relativistic beams is performed within the project "Energy and Transmutation of Radioactive Wastes" (E&T - RAW). The experiment assembly was irradiated by deuteron/proton beam (Dubna NUCLOTRON). We calculated the neutron energy spectrum inside the whole assembly by using threshold energy (n,xn) reactions in yttrium (Y-89) foils. There are almost no experimental cross section data for those reactions. New Y-89(n,xn) cross section measurements were carried out at The Svedberg laboratory (TSL) in Uppsala, Sweden in 2015. In this paper we present preliminary results of those experiments.

  7. SubcriticalWater – a Perspective ReactionMedia for Biomass Processing to Chemicals: Study on Cellulose Conversion as aModel for Biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlovič, I.; Knez, Ž.; Škerget, M.

    2013-01-01

    Biomass and water are recognized as a key renewable feedstock in sustainable production of chemicals, fuels and energy. Subcritical water (SubCW), or commonly referred as hot compressed water (HCW), is the water above boiling and below critical point (CP; 374 °C, 22.1 MPa). It has gained great attention in the last few decades as a green, cheap, and nontoxic reagent for conversion of biomass into valuable chemicals. In this paper, hydrothermal reactions of cellulose, as the model biomass s...

  8. (n,xn cross section measurements for Y-89 foils used as detectors for high energy neutron measurements in the deeply subcritical assembly “QUINTA”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bielewicz Marcin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of the deep subcritical systems (QUINTA using relativistic beams is performed within the project “Energy and Transmutation of Radioactive Wastes” (E&T – RAW. The experiment assembly was irradiated by deuteron/proton beam (Dubna NUCLOTRON. We calculated the neutron energy spectrum inside the whole assembly by using threshold energy (n,xn reactions in yttrium (Y-89 foils. There are almost no experimental cross section data for those reactions. New Y-89(n,xn cross section measurements were carried out at The Svedberg laboratory (TSL in Uppsala, Sweden in 2015. In this paper we present preliminary results of those experiments.

  9. Subcritical crack propagation due to chemical rock weakening: macroscale chemo-plasticity and chemo-elasticity modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueckel, T.; Hu, M.

    2015-12-01

    Crack propagation in a subcritically stressed rock subject to chemically aggressive environment is analyzed and numerically simulated. Chemically induced weakening is often encountered in hydraulic fracturing of low-permeability oil/gas reservoirs and heat reservoirs, during storage of CO2 and nuclear waste corroding canisters, and other circumstances when rock matrix acidizing is involved. Upon acidizing, mineral mass dissolution is substantially enhanced weakening the rock and causing crack propagation and eventually permeability changes in the medium. The crack process zone is modeled mathematically via a chemo-plastic coupling and chemo-elastic coupling model. In plasticity a two-way coupling is postulated between mineral dissolution and a yield limit of rock matrix. The rate of dissolution is described by a rate law, but the mineral mass removal per unit volume is also a function of a variable internal specific surface area, which is in turn affected by the micro-cracking (treated as a plastic strain). The behavior of the rock matrix is modeled as rigid-plastic adding a chemical softening capacity to Cam-Clay model. Adopting the Extended Johnson's approximation of processes around the crack tip, the evolution of the stress field and deformation as a function of the chemically enhanced rock damage is modeled in a simplified way. In addition, chemical reactive transport is made dependent on plastic strain representing micro-cracking. Depending on mechanical and chemical boundary conditions, the area of enhanced chemical softening is near or somewhat away from the crack tip.In elasticity, chemo-mechanical effect is postulated via a chemical volumetric shrinkage strain proportional to mass removal variable, conceived analogously to thermal expansion. Two versions are considered: of constant coefficient of shrinkage and a variable one, coupled to deviatoric strain. Airy Potential approach used for linear elasticity is extended considering an extra term, which is

  10. Subcritical CO{sub 2} sintering of microspheres of different polymeric materials to fabricate scaffolds for tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhamidipati, Manjari; Sridharan, BanuPriya [Bioengineering Graduate Program, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States); Scurto, Aaron M. [Bioengineering Graduate Program, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States); Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States); Detamore, Michael S., E-mail: detamore@ku.edu [Bioengineering Graduate Program, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States); Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to use CO{sub 2} at sub-critical pressures as a tool to sinter 3D, macroporous, microsphere-based scaffolds for bone and cartilage tissue engineering. Porous scaffolds composed of ∼ 200 μm microspheres of either poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) or polycaprolactone (PCL) were prepared using dense phase CO{sub 2} sintering, which were seeded with rat bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (rBMSCs), and exposed to either osteogenic (PLGA, PCL) or chondrogenic (PLGA) conditions for 6 weeks. Under osteogenic conditions, the PLGA constructs produced over an order of magnitude more calcium than the PCL constructs, whereas the PCL constructs had far superior mechanical and structural integrity (125 times stiffer than PLGA constructs) at week 6, along with twice the cell content of the PLGA constructs. Chondrogenic cell performance was limited in PLGA constructs, perhaps as a result of the polymer degradation rate being too high. The current study represents the first long-term culture of CO{sub 2}-sintered microsphere-based scaffolds, and has established important thermodynamic differences in sintering between the selected formulations of PLGA and PCL, with the former requiring adjustment of pressure only, and the latter requiring the adjustment of both pressure and temperature. Based on more straightforward sintering conditions and more favorable cell performance, PLGA may be the material of choice for microspheres in a CO{sub 2} sintering application, although a different PLGA formulation with the encapsulation of growth factors, extracellular matrix-derived nanoparticles, and/or buffers in the microspheres may be advantageous for achieving a more superior cell performance than observed here. - Highlights: • The first long-term culture of CO{sub 2}-sintered microsphere-based scaffolds. • Established important thermodynamic differences between sintering PLGA and PCL. • PCL sintering with CO{sub 2} required manipulation of both

  11. Experimental Assessment of a Helical Coil Heat Exchanger Operating at Subcritical and Supercritical Conditions in a Small-Scale Solar Organic Rankine Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Lazova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the performance of a helical coil heat exchanger operating at subcritical and supercritical conditions is analysed. The counter-current heat exchanger was specially designed to operate at a maximal pressure and temperature of 42 bar and 200 °C, respectively. The small-scale solar organic Rankine cycle (ORC installation has a net power output of 3 kWe. The first tests were done in a laboratory where an electrical heater was used instead of the concentrated photovoltaic/thermal (CPV/T collectors. The inlet heating fluid temperature of the water was 95 °C. The effects of different parameters on the heat transfer rate in the heat exchanger were investigated. Particularly, the performance analysis was elaborated considering the changes of the mass flow rate of the working fluid (R-404A in the range of 0.20–0.33 kg/s and the inlet pressure varying from 18 bar up to 41 bar. Hence, the variation of the heat flux was in the range of 5–9 kW/m2. The results show that the working fluid’s mass flow rate has significant influence on the heat transfer rate rather than the operational pressure. Furthermore, from the comparison between the experimental results with the heat transfer correlations from the literature, the experimental results fall within the uncertainty range for the supercritical analysis but there is a deviation of the investigated subcritical correlations.

  12. The use of sub-critical water hydrolysis for the recovery of peptides and free amino acids from food processing wastes. Review of sources and main parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcet, Ismael; Álvarez, Carlos; Paredes, Benjamín; Díaz, Mario

    2016-03-01

    Food industry processing wastes are produced in enormous amounts every year, such wastes are usually disposed with the corresponding economical cost it implies, in the best scenario they can be used for pet food or composting. However new promising technologies and tools have been developed in the last years aimed at recovering valuable compounds from this type of materials. In particular, sub-critical water hydrolysis (SWH) has been revealed as an interesting way for recovering high added-value molecules, and its applications have been broadly referred in the bibliography. Special interest has been focused on recovering protein hydrolysates in form of peptides or amino acids, from both animal and vegetable wastes, by means of SWH. These recovered biomolecules have a capital importance in fields such as biotechnology research, nutraceuticals, and above all in food industry, where such products can be applied with very different objectives. Present work reviews the current state of art of using sub-critical water hydrolysis for protein recovering from food industry wastes. Key parameters as reaction time, temperature, amino acid degradation and kinetic constants have been discussed. Besides, the characteristics of the raw material and the type of products that can be obtained depending on the substrate have been reviewed. Finally, the application of these hydrolysates based on their functional properties and antioxidant activity is described. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Recovery of Oil with Unsaturated Fatty Acids and Polyphenols from Chaenomelessinensis (Thouin) Koehne: Process Optimization of Pilot-Scale Subcritical Fluid Assisted Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhenzhou; Zhang, Rui; Zhan, Shaoying; He, Jingren; Barba, Francisco J; Cravotto, Giancarlo; Wu, Weizhong; Li, Shuyi

    2017-10-22

    The potential effects of three modern extraction technologies (cold-pressing, microwaves and subcritical fluids) on the recovery of oil from Chaenomelessinensis (Thouin) Koehne seeds have been evaluated and compared to those of conventional chemical extraction methods (Soxhlet extraction). This oil contains unsaturated fatty acids and polyphenols. Subcritical fluid extraction (SbFE) provided the highest yield-25.79 g oil/100 g dry seeds-of the three methods. Moreover, the fatty acid composition in the oil samples was analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. This analysis showed that the percentages of monounsaturated (46.61%), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (42.14%), after applying SbFE were higher than those obtained by Soxhlet, cold-pressing or microwave-assisted extraction. In addition, the oil obtained under optimized SbFE conditions (35 min extraction at 35 °C with four extraction cycles), showed significant polyphenol (527.36 mg GAE/kg oil), and flavonoid (15.32 mg RE/kg oil), content, had a good appearance and was of high quality.

  14. YALINA facility a sub-critical Accelerator- Driven System (ADS) for nuclear energy research facility description and an overview of the research program (1997-2008).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gohar, Y.; Smith, D. L.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2010-04-28

    The YALINA facility is a zero-power, sub-critical assembly driven by a conventional neutron generator. It was conceived, constructed, and put into operation at the Radiation Physics and Chemistry Problems Institute of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus located in Minsk-Sosny, Belarus. This facility was conceived for the purpose of investigating the static and dynamic neutronics properties of accelerator driven sub-critical systems, and to serve as a neutron source for investigating the properties of nuclear reactions, in particular transmutation reactions involving minor-actinide nuclei. This report provides a detailed description of this facility and documents the progress of research carried out there during a period of approximately a decade since the facility was conceived and built until the end of 2008. During its history of development and operation to date (1997-2008), the YALINA facility has hosted several foreign groups that worked with the resident staff as collaborators. The participation of Argonne National Laboratory in the YALINA research programs commenced in 2005. For obvious reasons, special emphasis is placed in this report on the work at YALINA facility that has involved Argonne's participation. Attention is given here to the experimental program at YALINA facility as well as to analytical investigations aimed at validating codes and computational procedures and at providing a better understanding of the physics and operational behavior of the YALINA facility in particular, and ADS systems in general, during the period 1997-2008.

  15. Basic concept for an accelerator-driven subcritical system to be used as a long-pulse neutron source for Condensed Matter research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vivanco, R., E-mail: raul.vivanco.sanchez@gmail.com [ESS-BILBAO, Parque Tecnológico Bizkaia, Laida Bidea, Edificio 207 B Planta Baja, 48160 Derio (Spain); Instituto de Fusión Nuclear - UPM, ETS Ingenieros Industriales, C/ José Gutiérrez Abascal, 2, 28006 Madrid Spain (Spain); Ghiglino, A.; Vicente, J.P. de; Sordo, F.; Terrón, S.; Magán, M. [ESS-BILBAO, Parque Tecnológico Bizkaia, Laida Bidea, Edificio 207 B Planta Baja, 48160 Derio (Spain); Instituto de Fusión Nuclear - UPM, ETS Ingenieros Industriales, C/ José Gutiérrez Abascal, 2, 28006 Madrid Spain (Spain); Perlado, J.M. [Instituto de Fusión Nuclear - UPM, ETS Ingenieros Industriales, C/ José Gutiérrez Abascal, 2, 28006 Madrid Spain (Spain); Bermejo, F.J. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, IEM-CSIC, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-12-11

    A model for an accelerator-driven subcritical system to be operated as a source of cold neutrons for Condensed Matter research is developed at the conceptual level. Its baseline layout relies upon proven accelerator, spalattion target and fuel array technologies, and consists in a proton accelerator able to deliver some 67.5 mA of proton beam with kinetic energy 0.6 GeV, a pulse length of 2.86 ms, and repetition rate of 14 Hz. The particle beam hits a target of conventional design that is surrounded by a multiplicative core made of fissile/fertile material, composed by a subcritical array of fuel bars made of aluminium Cermet cooled by light water poisoned with boric acid. Relatively low enriched uranium is chosen as fissile material. An optimisation of several parameters is carried out, using as components of the objective function several characteristics pertaining the cold neutron pulse. The results show that the optimal device will deliver up to 80% of the cold neutron flux expected for some of the ongoing projects using a significantly lower proton beam power than that managed in such projects. The total power developed within the core rises up to 22.8 MW, and the criticality range shifts to a final k{sub eff} value of around 0.9 after the 50 days cycle.

  16. Integrated modeling of CO2 storage and leakage scenarios including transitions between super- and sub-critical conditions, and phase change between liquid and gaseous CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruess, K.

    2011-05-15

    Storage of CO{sub 2} in saline aquifers is intended to be at supercritical pressure and temperature conditions, but CO{sub 2} leaking from a geologic storage reservoir and migrating toward the land surface (through faults, fractures, or improperly abandoned wells) would reach subcritical conditions at depths shallower than 500-750 m. At these and shallower depths, subcritical CO{sub 2} can form two-phase mixtures of liquid and gaseous CO{sub 2}, with significant latent heat effects during boiling and condensation. Additional strongly non-isothermal effects can arise from decompression of gas-like subcritical CO{sub 2}, the so-called Joule-Thomson effect. Integrated modeling of CO{sub 2} storage and leakage requires the ability to model non-isothermal flows of brine and CO{sub 2} at conditions that range from supercritical to subcritical, including three-phase flow of aqueous phase, and both liquid and gaseous CO{sub 2}. In this paper, we describe and demonstrate comprehensive simulation capabilities that can cope with all possible phase conditions in brine-CO{sub 2} systems. Our model formulation includes: (1) an accurate description of thermophysical properties of aqueous and CO{sub 2}-rich phases as functions of temperature, pressure, salinity and CO{sub 2} content, including the mutual dissolution of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O; (2) transitions between super- and subcritical conditions, including phase change between liquid and gaseous CO{sub 2}; (3) one-, two-, and three-phase flow of brine-CO{sub 2} mixtures, including heat flow; (4) non-isothermal effects associated with phase change, mutual dissolution of CO{sub 2} and water, and (de-) compression effects; and (5) the effects of dissolved NaCl, and the possibility of precipitating solid halite, with associated porosity and permeability change. Applications to specific leakage scenarios demonstrate that the peculiar thermophysical properties of CO{sub 2} provide a potential for positive as well as negative

  17. Recuperation of the organic matter from oil shales with phenol in subcritical conditions; Recuperation a l'autoclave de la matiere organique de schistes bitumineux marocains par le phenol en conditions sub-critiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abourriche, A.; Oumam, M.; Hannache, H. [Faculte des Sciences Ben M' sik, Lab. des Materiaux Thermostructuraux, Casablanca (Morocco); Pailler, R.; Naslain, R. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., Lab. des Composites Thermostructuraux, UMR 5801 CNRS-CEA-Snecma, 33 - Pessac (France); Birot, M.; Pillot, J.P. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., Lab. de Chimie Organique et Organometallique, UMR 5802 CNRS, 33 - Pessac (France)

    2005-02-01

    Phenol was used for the recovery of the organic matter from Tarfaya's oil shales in subcritical conditions. The analyses carried out on the recovered oils revealed that phenol had a significant role on the increase of the yield of recuperation, amount of maltenes, aromatic compounds and the reduction of the amount of sulphur in oils. (author)

  18. Nuclear power history calculation for subcritical systems using Euler-MacLaurin formula; Calculo do historico de potencia nuclear para sistemas subcriticos utilizando a formula de Euler-MacLaurin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henrice Junior, Edson; Goncalves, Alessandro da Cruz, E-mail: ejunior@nuclear.ufrj.br, E-mail: alessandro@nuclear.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Palma, Daniel Arthur Pinheiro, E-mail: dapalma@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nucleara (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents an efficient method for calculating the reactivity using inverse point kinetic equation for subcritical systems by applying the Euler-MacLaurin summation formula to calculate the nuclear power history. In accordance with the accuracy of the numerical results, this method does not require a large number of points for calculation, providing accurate results with low computational cost. (author)

  19. Subcritical and supercritical water oxidation of organic, wet wastes for carbon cycling in regenerative life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronsse, Frederik; Lasseur, Christophe; Rebeyre, Pierre; Clauwaert, Peter; Luther, Amanda; Rabaey, Korneel; Zhang, Dong Dong; López Barreiro, Diego; Prins, Wolter; Brilman, Wim

    2016-07-01

    For long-term human spaceflight missions, one of the major requirements is the regenerative life support system which has to be capable of recycling carbon, nutrients and water from both solid and liquid wastes generated by the crew and by the local production of food through living organisms (higher plants, fungi, algae, bacteria, …). The European Space Agency's Life Support System, envisioned by the MELiSSA project, consists of a 5 compartment artificial ecosystem, in which the waste receiving compartment (so-called compartment I or briefly 'CI') is based on thermophilic fermentation. However, as the waste generated by the crew compartment and food production compartment contain typical plant fibres (lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose), these recalcitrant fibres end up largely unaffected in the digestate (sludge) generated in the C-I compartment. Therefore, the C-I compartment has to be supplemented with a so-called fibre degradation unit (in short, FDU) for further oxidation or degradation of said plant fibres. A potential solution to degrading these plant fibres and other recalcitrant organics is their oxidation, by means of subcritical or supercritical water, into reusable CO2 while retaining the nutrients in an organic-free liquid effluent. By taking advantage of the altered physicochemical properties of water above or near its critical point (647 K, 22.1 MPa) - including increased solubility of non-polar compounds and oxygen, ion product and diffusivity - process conditions can be created for rapid oxidation of C into CO2. In this research, the oxidizer is provided as a hydrogen peroxide solution which, at elevated temperature, will dissociated into O2. The purpose of this study is to identify ideal process conditions which (a) ensure complete oxidation of carbon, (b) retaining the nutrients other than C in the liquid effluent and (c) require as little oxidizer as possible. Experiments were conducted on a continuous, tubular heated reactor and on batch

  20. The mechanical design and fabrication of 162.5 MHz buncher for China accelerator driven sub-critical system injector II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Hai Hua; Li, Youtang [Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou (China); He, Yuan; Zhang, Bin; Huang, Shichun; Yuan, Chenzhang; Jia, Huan; Zhang, Shenghu [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou (China)

    2017-08-15

    A buncher is one of the main pieces of equipment in the medium energy beam transport line (MEBT) for China accelerator driven sub-critical system (C-ADS) Injector II. To focus the beam longitudinally and match the beam for the acceptance of the superconducting linac section, two room temperature quarter wave resonator (QWR) bunchers with frequency of 162.5 MHz have been designed as parts of the MEBT. According to the beam transmission matching of the MEBT and the geometric parameters requirements of bunchers, the unique mechanical structure and the main processing technology of buncher cavities and their couplers and tuners are described in this paper. The fabrication of bunchers and their parts have been completed and tested at high power, the test results agree well with the design requirements. These bunchers work well for about two years in Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  1. The mechanical design and fabrication of 162.5 MHz buncher for China accelerator driven sub-critical system injector II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haihua Niu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A buncher is one of the main pieces of equipment in the medium energy beam transport line (MEBT for China accelerator driven sub-critical system (C-ADS Injector II. To focus the beam longitudinally and match the beam for the acceptance of the superconducting linac section, two room temperature quarter wave resonator (QWR bunchers with frequency of 162.5 MHz have been designed as parts of the MEBT. According to the beam transmission matching of the MEBT and the geometric parameters requirements of bunchers, the unique mechanical structure and the main processing technology of buncher cavities and their couplers and tuners are described in this paper. The fabrication of bunchers and their parts have been completed and tested at high power, the test results agree well with the design requirements. These bunchers work well for about two years in Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  2. STUDY OF THE PREPARATION OF SUGAR FROM HIGH-LIGNIN LIGNOCELLULOSE APPLYING SUBCRITICAL WATER AND ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS: SYNTHESIS AND CONSUMABLE COST EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HANNY F. SANGIAN

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study concern sugars hydrolyzed from the high-lignin coconut coir dust using moderate subcritical water (SCW hydrolysis at pressures 20-40 bar for 1 h and to evaluate the consumable costs driver generated. The SCW method produced two products, sugar liquid and solid (SCW-treated substrate. The solid was proceeded to prepare the sugar via enzymatic hydrolysis using pure cellulase. Yield of sugar hydrolyzed from lignocellulose by SCW technique was 0.25 gram sugar/gram cellulose +hemicellulose, or 0.09-gram sugar/gram lignocellulose at 160 °C and 40 bar. While, the maximum yield of sugar liberated enzymatically from SCW-treated solid was 0.35-gram sugar/gram cellulose+hemicellulose, or 0.13-gram sugar/gram SCW-treated solid. It was found that carbon dioxide gas was the highest cost driving in SCW hydrolysis.

  3. Design and analysis of a single stage to orbit nuclear thermal rocket reactor engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labib, Satira, E-mail: Satira.Labib@duke-energy.com; King, Jeffrey, E-mail: kingjc@mines.edu

    2015-06-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Three NTR reactors are optimized for the single stage launch of 1–15 MT payloads. • The proposed rocket engines have specific impulses in excess of 700 s. • Reactivity and submersion criticality requirements are satisfied for each reactor. - Abstract: Recent advances in the development of high power density fuel materials have renewed interest in nuclear thermal rockets (NTRs) as a viable propulsion technology for future space exploration. This paper describes the design of three NTR reactor engines designed for the single stage to orbit launch of payloads from 1 to 15 metric tons. Thermal hydraulic and rocket engine analyses indicate that the proposed rocket engines are able to reach specific impulses in excess of 800 s. Neutronics analyses performed using MCNP5 demonstrate that the hot excess reactivity, shutdown margin, and submersion criticality requirements are satisfied for each NTR reactor. The reactors each consist of a 40 cm diameter core packed with hexagonal tungsten cermet fuel elements. The core is surrounded by radial and axial beryllium reflectors and eight boron carbide control drums. The 40 cm long reactor meets the submersion criticality requirements (a shutdown margin of at least $1 subcritical in all submersion scenarios) with no further modifications. The 80 and 120 cm long reactors include small amounts of gadolinium nitride as a spectral shift absorber to keep them subcritical upon submersion in seawater or wet sand following a launch abort.

  4. Design and construction of an automatic measurement electronic system and graphical neutron flux for the subcritical reactor; Diseno y construccion de un sistema electronico automatico de medicion y graficado del flujo neutronico para el reactor subcritico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez M, J.L.; Balderas, E.G.; Rivero G, T. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1997-07-01

    The National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) has in its installations with a nuclear subcritical reactor which was designed and constructed with the main purpose to be used in the nuclear sciences education in the Physics areas and Reactors engineering. Within the nuclear experiments that can be realized in this reactor are very interesting those about determinations of neutron and gamma fluxes spectra, since starting from these some interesting nuclear parameters can be obtained. In order to carry out this type of experiments different radioactive sources are used which exceed the permissible doses by far to human beings. Therefore it is necessary the remote handling as of the source as of detectors used in different experiments. In this work it is presented the design of an electronic system which allows the different positions inside of the tank of subcritical reactor at ININ over the radial and axial axes in manual or automatic ways. (Author)

  5. Computational investigation of 99Mo, 89Sr, and 131I production rates in a subcritical UO2(NO32 aqueous solution reactor driven by a 30-MeV proton accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Gholamzadeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of subcritical aqueous homogenous reactors driven by accelerators presents an attractive alternative for producing 99Mo. In this method, the medical isotope production system itself is used to extract 99Mo or other radioisotopes so that there is no need to irradiate common targets. In addition, it can operate at much lower power compared to a traditional reactor to produce the same amount of 99Mo by irradiating targets. In this study, the neutronic performance and 99Mo, 89Sr, and 131I production capacity of a subcritical aqueous homogenous reactor fueled with low-enriched uranyl nitrate was evaluated using the MCNPX code. A proton accelerator with a maximum 30-MeV accelerating power was used to run the subcritical core. The computational results indicate a good potential for the modeled system to produce the radioisotopes under completely safe conditions because of the high negative reactivity coefficients of the modeled core. The results show that application of an optimized beam window material can increase the fission power of the aqueous nitrate fuel up to 80%. This accelerator-based procedure using low enriched uranium nitrate fuel to produce radioisotopes presents a potentially competitive alternative in comparison with the reactor-based or other accelerator-based methods. This system produces ∼1,500 Ci/wk (∼325 6-day Ci of 99Mo at the end of a cycle.

  6. Numerical comparison of thermal hydraulic aspects of supercritical carbon dioxide and subcritical water-based natural circulation loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, Milan Krishna Singhar; Basu, Dipankar Narayan [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati (India)

    2017-02-15

    Application of the supercritical condition in reactor core cooling needs to be properly justified based on the extreme level of parameters involved. Therefore, a numerical study is presented to compare the thermalhydraulic performance of supercritical and single-phase natural circulation loops under low-to-intermediate power levels. Carbon dioxide and water are selected as respective working fluids, operating under an identical set of conditions. Accordingly, a three-dimensional computational model was developed, and solved with an appropriate turbulence model and equations of state. Large asymmetry in velocity and temperature profiles was observed in a single cross section due to local buoyancy effect, which is more prominent for supercritical fluids. Mass flow rate in a supercritical loop increases with power until a maximum is reached, which subsequently corresponds to a rapid deterioration in heat transfer coefficient. That can be identified as the limit of operation for such loops to avoid a high temperature, and therefore, the use of a supercritical loop is suggested only until the appearance of such maxima. Flow-induced heat transfer deterioration can be delayed by increasing system pressure or lowering sink temperature. Bulk temperature level throughout the loop with water as working fluid is higher than supercritical carbon dioxide. This is until the heat transfer deterioration, and hence the use of a single-phase loop is prescribed beyond that limit.

  7. Numerical Comparison of Thermalhydraulic Aspects of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide and Subcritical Water-Based Natural Circulation Loop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Krishna Singha Sarkar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Application of the supercritical condition in reactor core cooling needs to be properly justified based on the extreme level of parameters involved. Therefore, a numerical study is presented to compare the thermalhydraulic performance of supercritical and single-phase natural circulation loops under low-to-intermediate power levels. Carbon dioxide and water are selected as respective working fluids, operating under an identical set of conditions. Accordingly, a three-dimensional computational model was developed, and solved with an appropriate turbulence model and equations of state. Large asymmetry in velocity and temperature profiles was observed in a single cross section due to local buoyancy effect, which is more prominent for supercritical fluids. Mass flow rate in a supercritical loop increases with power until a maximum is reached, which subsequently corresponds to a rapid deterioration in heat transfer coefficient. That can be identified as the limit of operation for such loops to avoid a high temperature, and therefore, the use of a supercritical loop is suggested only until the appearance of such maxima. Flow-induced heat transfer deterioration can be delayed by increasing system pressure or lowering sink temperature. Bulk temperature level throughout the loop with water as working fluid is higher than supercritical carbon dioxide. This is until the heat transfer deterioration, and hence the use of a single-phase loop is prescribed beyond that limit.

  8. Experimental study on neutronics in bombardment of thick targets by high energy proton beams for accelerator-driven sub-critical system

    CERN Document Server

    Guo Shi Lun; Shi Yong Qian; Shen Qing Biao; Wan Jun Sheng; Brandt, R; Vater, P; Kulakov, B A; Krivopustov, M I; Sosnin, A N

    2002-01-01

    The experimental study on neutronics in the target region of accelerator-driven sub-critical system is carried out by using the high energy accelerator in Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia. The experiments with targets U(Pb), Pb and Hg bombarded by 0.533, 1.0, 3.7 and 7.4 GeV proton beams show that the neutron yield ratio of U(Pb) to Hg and Pb to Hg targets is (2.10 +- 0.10) and (1.76 +- 0.33), respectively. Hg target is disadvantageous to U(Pb) and Pb targets to get more neutrons. Neutron yield drops along 20 cm thick targets as the thickness penetrated by protons increases. The lower the energy of protons, the steeper the neutron yield drops. In order to get more uniform field of neutrons in the targets, the energy of protons from accelerators should not be lower than 1 GeV. The spectra of secondary neutrons produced by different energies of protons are similar, but the proportion of neutrons with higher energy gradually increases as the proton energy increases

  9. Biodiesel from Hydrolyzed Waste Cooking Oil Using a S-ZrO2/SBA-15 Super Acid Catalyst under Sub-Critical Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nobi Hossain

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to rapid changes in food habits, a substantial amount of waste fat and used oils are generated each year. Due to strong policies, the disposal of this material into nearby sewers causes ecological and environmental problems in many parts of the world. For efficient management, waste cooking oil, a less expensive, alternative and promising feedstock, can be used as a raw material for producing biofuel. In the present study, we produced a biodiesel from hydrolyzed waste cooking oil with a subcritical methanol process using a synthesized solid super acid catalyst, a sulfated zirconium oxide supported on Santa Barbara Amorphous silica (S-ZrO2/SBA-15. The characterization of the synthesized catalyst was carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET method. The catalytic effect on biodiesel production was examined by varying the parameters: temperatures of 120 to 200 °C, 5–20 min times, oil-to-methanol mole ratios between 1:5 to 1:20, and catalyst loadings of 1–2.5%. The maximum biodiesel yield was 96.383%, obtained under optimum reaction conditions of 140 °C, 10 min, and a 1:10 oil-to-methanol molar ratio with a 2.0% catalyst loading. We successfully reused the catalyst five times without regeneration with a 90% efficiency. The fuel properties were found to be within the limits set by the biodiesel standard.

  10. Design of a heterogeneous subcritical nuclear reactor with molten salts based on thorium; Diseno de un reactor nuclear subcritico heterogeneo con sales fundidas a base de torio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina C, D.; Hernandez A, P.; Letechipia de L, C.; Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Sajo B, L., E-mail: dmedina_c@hotmail.com [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Apdo. Postal 89000, Caracas 1080-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    This paper presents the design of a heterogeneous subcritical nuclear reactor with molten salts based on thorium, with graphite moderator and a {sup 252}Cf source, whose dose levels at the periphery allows its use in teaching and research activities. The design was realized by the Monte Carlo method, where the geometry, dimensions and the fuel was varied in order to obtain the best design. The result was a cubic reactor of 110 cm of side, with graphite moderator and reflector. In the central part having 9 ducts of 3 cm in diameter, eight of them are 110 cm long, which were placed on the Y axis; the separation between each duct is 10 cm. The central duct has 60 cm in length and this contains the {sup 252}Cf source, also there are two irradiation channels and the other six contain a molten salt ({sup 7}LiF - BeF{sub 2} - ThF{sub 4} - UF{sub 4}) as fuel. For the design the k{sub eff} was calculated, neutron spectra and ambient dose equivalent. In the first instance the above was calculated for a virgin fuel, was called case 1; then a percentage of {sup 233}U was used and the percentage of Th was decreased and was called case 2. This with the purpose of comparing two different fuels operating within the reactor. For the two irradiation ducts three positions are used: center, back and front, in each duct in order to have different flows. (Author)

  11. Short communication: antiviral activity of subcritical water extract of Brassica juncea against influenza virus A/H1N1 in nonfat milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, N-K; Lee, J-H; Lim, S-M; Lee, K A; Kim, Y B; Chang, P-S; Paik, H-D

    2014-09-01

    Subcritical water extract (SWE) of Brassica juncea was studied for antiviral effects against influenza virus A/H1N1 and for the possibility of application as a nonfat milk supplement for use as an "antiviral food." At maximum nontoxic concentrations, SWE had higher antiviral activity against influenza virus A/H1N1 than n-hexane, ethanol, or hot water (80°C) extracts. Addition of 0.5mg/mL of B. juncea SWE to culture medium led to 50.35% cell viability (% antiviral activity) for Madin-Darby canine kidney cells infected with influenza virus A/H1N1. Nonfat milk supplemented with 0.28mg/mL of B. juncea SWE showed 39.62% antiviral activity against influenza virus A/H1N1. Thus, the use of B. juncea SWE as a food supplement might aid in protection from influenza viral infection. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Subcritical water oxidation of 6-aminopenicillanic acid and cloxacillin using H2O2, K2S2O8, and O2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabalak, Erdal; Döndaş, H Ali; Gizir, Ahmet Murat

    2017-02-23

    This study was undertaken to investigate the degradation of 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA) and cloxacillin in aqueous solution by the combined effect of subcritical water and the oxidising agents O2, H2O2, and K2S2O8. Nano ZnO was used as a solid catalyst. Response surface methodology was used to determine the optimum experimental parameters (temperature, treatment time, and concentration of oxidising agent). For 6-APA, the maximum organic carbon (TOC) removal rates of 83.54%, 81.11% and 42.42% were obtained using H2O2, K2S2O8, and O2, respectively. For cloxacillin, the maximum TOC removal rates of 67.69%, 76.02% and 14.45% were obtained using H2O2, K2S2O8, and O2, respectively. Additionally, the impact of nano and commercial ZnO on TOC removal rates was determined. Secondary ions produced during the degradation process-such as nitrite, nitrate, sulphate and chloride-were determined using ion chromatography.

  13. Subcritical water treatment of explosive and heavy metals co-contaminated soil: Removal of the explosive, and immobilization and risk assessment of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Nazrul; Jung, Ho-Young; Park, Jeong-Hun

    2015-11-01

    Co-contamination of explosives and heavy metals (HMs) in soil, particularly army shooting range soil, has received increasing environmental concern due to toxicity and risks to ecological systems. In this study, a subcritical water (SCW) extraction process was used to remediate the explosives-plus-HMs-co-contaminated soil. A quantitative evaluation of explosives in the treated soil, compared with untreated soil, was applied to assess explosive removal. The immobilization of HMs was assessed by toxicity characteristic leaching procedure tests, and by investigating the migration of HMs fractions. The environmental risk of HMs in the soil residue was assessed according to the risk assessment code (RAC) and ecological risk indices (Er and RI). The results indicated that SCW treatment could eliminate the explosives, >99%, during the remediation, while the HM was effectively immobilized. The effect of water temperature on reducing the explosives and the risk of HMs in soil was observed. A marked increase in the non-bioavailable concentration of each HM was observed, and the leaching rate of HMs was decreased by 70-97% after SCW treatment at 250 °C, showing the effective immobilization of HMs. According to the RAC or RI, each tested HM showed no or low risk to the environment after treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Subcritical hydrothermal liquefaction of cattle manure to bio-oil: Effects of conversion parameters on bio-oil yield and characterization of bio-oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Sudong; Dolan, Ryan; Harris, Matt; Tan, Zhongchao

    2010-05-01

    In this study, cattle manure was converted to bio-oil by subcritical hydrothermal liquefaction in the presence of NaOH. The effects of conversion temperature, process gas, initial conversion pressure, residence time and mass ratio of cattle manure to water on the bio-oil yield were studied. The bio-oil was characterized in terms of elemental composition, higher heating value, ultraviolet-visible (UV/Vis) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results showed that the bio-oil yield depended on the conversion temperature and the process gas. Higher initial conversion pressure, longer residence time and larger mass ratio of cattle manure to water, however, had negative impacts on the bio-oil yield. The higher heating value of bio-oil was 35.53MJ/kg on average. The major non-polar components of bio-oil were toluene, ethyl benzene and xylene, which are components of crude oil, gasoline and diesel. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The effect of filler addition and oven temperature to the antioxidant quality in the drying of Physalis angulata fruit extract obtained by subcritical water extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanti, R. F.; Christianto, G.

    2016-01-01

    Physalis angulata or ceplukan is medicinal herb, which grows naturally in Indonesia. It has been used in traditional medicine to treat several diseases. It is also reported to have antimycobacterial, antileukemic, antipyretic. In this research, Pysalis angulata fruit was investigated for its antioxidant capacity. In order to avoid the toxic organic solvent commonly used in conventional extraction, subcritical water extraction method was used. During drying, filler which is inert was added to the extract. It can absorb water and change the oily and sticky form of extract to powder form. The effects of filler types, concentrations and drying temperatures were investigated to the antioxidant quality covering total phenol, flavonoid and antioxidant activity. The results showed that total phenol, flavonoid and antioxidant activity were improved by addition of filler because the drying time was shorter compared to extract without filler. Filler absorbs water and protects extract from exposure to heat during drying. The combination between high temperature and shorter drying time are beneficial to protect the antioxidant in extract. The type of fillers investigation showed that aerosil gave better performance compared to Microcrystalline Celullose (MCC).

  16. High-resolution gas-chromatographic analysis of the secondary metabolites obtained by subcritical-fluid extraction from Colombian rue (Ruta graveolens L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stashenko, E E; Acosta, R; Martínez, J R

    2000-07-05

    Subcritical (CO(2)) extraction, carried out in a J&W Scientific High Pressure Soxhlet Extractor, was used to isolate secondary metabolites from leaves, flowers, stems and roots of Colombian rue (Ruta graveolens L.). The various extracts were analyzed by capillary chromatography, on an HP-5 (30 m) column, using nitrogen-phosphorus, flame ionization, and mass selective detection systems. Kováts indexes and mass spectra (electron impact, 70 eV) were employed for compound identification. The extracts from the various parts of rue studied had different compositions. The number of compounds detected at concentrations above 0.01% (w/w) in the extracts from leaves, flowers, stems and roots, was 78, 45, 25 and 24, respectively. 2-Nonanone (8.9%), 2-undecanone (13.4%), chalepensin (13.0%), and geijerene (19.3%) were the main constituents found in the extracts from rue leaves, flowers, stems and roots, respectively. Furanocoumarins, furoquinolines, hydrocarbons and benzodioxol derivatives were the main compound families found in all extracts, at total concentrations between 3.7 and 33.9%, depending on the part of the plant. The extraction method used has low environmental impact and produced solvent-free extracts in good yield with no pigments, waxes, resins, or high-molecular weight compounds which may interfere with the isolation and analysis of the alkaloids responsible for rue's biological activity, which were extracted in relatively high yield.

  17. High sensitivity isotope analysis with a /sup 252/Cf--/sup 235/U fueled subcritical multiplier and low background photon detector systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wogman, N.A.; Rieck, H.G. Jr.; Laul, J.C.; MacMurdo, K.W.

    1976-09-01

    A /sup 252/Cf activation analysis facility has been developed for routine multielement analysis of a wide variety of solid and liquid samples. The facility contains six sources of /sup 252/Cf totaling slightly over 100 mg. These sources are placed in a 93 percent /sup 235/U-enriched uranium core which is subcritical with a K effective of 0.985 (multiplication factor of 66). The system produces a thermal flux on the order of 10/sup +1/ neutrons per square centimeter per second. A pneumatic rabbit system permits automatic irradiation, decay, and counting regimes to be performed unattended on the samples. The activated isotopes are analyzed through their photon emissions with state-of-the-art intrinsic Ge detectors, Ge(Li) detectors, and NaI(Tl) multidimensional gamma ray spectrometers. High efficiency (25 percent), low background, anticoincidence shielded Ge(Li) gamma ray detector systems have been constructed to provide the lowest possible background, yet maintain a peak to Compton ratio of greater than 1000 to 1. The multidimensional gamma ray spectrometer systems are composed of 23 cm diameter x 20 cm thick NaI(Tl) crystals surrounded by NaI(Tl) anticoincidence shields. The detection limits for over 65 elements have been determined for this system. Over 40 elements are detectable at the 1 part per million level at a precision of +-10 percent.

  18. Hydrogen adsorption and diffusion, and subcritical-crack growth in high-strength steels and nickel base alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, R. P.; Klier, K.; Simmons, G. W.

    1974-01-01

    Coordinated studies of the kinetics of crack growth and of hydrogen adsorption and diffusion were initiated to develop information that is needed for a clearer determination of the rate controlling process and possible mechanism for hydrogen enhanced crack growth, and for estimating behavior over a range of temperatures and pressures. Inconel 718 alloy and 18Ni(200) maraging steel were selected for these studies. 18Ni(250) maraging steel, 316 stainless steel, and iron single crystal of (111) orientation were also included in the chemistry studies. Crack growth data on 18Ni(250) maraging steel from another program are included for comparison. No sustained-load crack growth was observed for the Inconel 718 alloy in gaseous hydrogen. Gaseous hydrogen assisted crack growth in the 18Ni maraging steels were characterized by K-independent (Stage 2) extension over a wide range of hydrogen pressures (86 to 2000 torr or 12 kN/m2 to 266 kN/m2) and test temperatures (-60 C to +100 C). The higher strength 18Ni(250) maraging steel was more susceptible than the lower strength 200 grade. A transition temperature was observed, above which crack growth rates became diminishingly small.

  19. Subcritical Water Hydrolysis Effectively Reduces the In Vitro Seeding Activity of PrPSc but Fails to Inactivate the Infectivity of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Prions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Yuichi; Yoshioka, Miyako; Okada, Hiroyuki; Takata, Eri; Masujin, Kentaro; Iwamaru, Yoshifumi; Shimozaki, Noriko; Yamamura, Tomoaki; Yokoyama, Takashi; Mohri, Shirou; Tsutsumi, Yuji

    2015-01-01

    The global outbreak of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) has been attributed to the recycling of contaminated meat and bone meals (MBMs) as feed supplements. The use of MBMs has been prohibited in many countries; however, the development of a method for inactivating BSE prions could enable the efficient and safe use of these products as an organic resource. Subcritical water (SCW), which is water heated under pressure to maintain a liquid state at temperatures below the critical temperature (374°C), exhibits strong hydrolytic activity against organic compounds. In this study, we examined the residual in vitro seeding activity of protease-resistant prion protein (PrPSc) and the infectivity of BSE prions after SCW treatments. Spinal cord homogenates prepared from BSE-infected cows were treated with SCW at 230-280°C for 5-7.5 min and used to intracerebrally inoculate transgenic mice overexpressing bovine prion protein. Serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (sPMCA) analysis detected no PrPSc in the SCW-treated homogenates, and the mice treated with these samples survived for more than 700 days without any signs of disease. However, sPMCA analyses detected PrPSc accumulation in the brains of all inoculated mice. Furthermore, secondary passage mice, which inoculated with brain homogenates derived from a western blotting (WB)-positive primary passage mouse, died after an average of 240 days, similar to mice inoculated with untreated BSE-infected spinal cord homogenates. The PrPSc accumulation and vacuolation typically observed in the brains of BSE-infected mice were confirmed in these secondary passage mice, suggesting that the BSE prions maintained their infectivity after SCW treatment. One late-onset case, as well as asymptomatic but sPMCA-positive cases, were also recognized in secondary passage mice inoculated with brain homogenates from WB-negative but sPMCA-positive primary passage mice. These results indicated that SCW-mediated hydrolysis was

  20. A Comparative Study of Enantioseparations of Nα-Fmoc Proteinogenic Amino Acids on Quinine-Based Zwitterionic and Anion Exchanger-Type Chiral Stationary Phases under Hydro-Organic Liquid and Subcritical Fluid Chromatographic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyula Lajkó

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this contribution is a comparative investigation of enantioseparations of 19 Nα-Fmoc proteinogenic amino acids on Quinine-based zwitterionic and anion-exchanger type chiral stationary phases employing hydro-organic and polar-ionic liquid and subcritical fluid chromatographic conditions. Effects of mobile phase composition (including additives, e.g., water, basis and acids and nature of chiral selectors on the chromatographic performances were studied at different chromatographic modes. Thermodynamic parameters of the temperature dependent enantioseparation results were calculated in the temperature range 5–50 °C applying plots of lnα versus 1/T. The differences in standard enthalpy and standard entropy for a given pair of enantiomers were calculated and served as a basis for comparisons. Elution sequence in all cases was determined, where a general rule could be observed, both in liquid and subcritical fluid chromatographic mode the d-enantiomers eluted before the L ones. In both modes, the principles of ion exchange chromatography apply.

  1. A Comparative Study of Enantioseparations of Nα-Fmoc Proteinogenic Amino Acids on Quinine-Based Zwitterionic and Anion Exchanger-Type Chiral Stationary Phases under Hydro-Organic Liquid and Subcritical Fluid Chromatographic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajkó, Gyula; Grecsó, Nóra; Tóth, Gábor; Fülöp, Ferenc; Lindner, Wolfgang; Péter, Antal; Ilisz, István

    2016-11-22

    The focus of this contribution is a comparative investigation of enantioseparations of 19 Nα-Fmoc proteinogenic amino acids on Quinine-based zwitterionic and anion-exchanger type chiral stationary phases employing hydro-organic and polar-ionic liquid and subcritical fluid chromatographic conditions. Effects of mobile phase composition (including additives, e.g., water, basis and acids) and nature of chiral selectors on the chromatographic performances were studied at different chromatographic modes. Thermodynamic parameters of the temperature dependent enantioseparation results were calculated in the temperature range 5-50 °C applying plots of lnα versus 1/T. The differences in standard enthalpy and standard entropy for a given pair of enantiomers were calculated and served as a basis for comparisons. Elution sequence in all cases was determined, where a general rule could be observed, both in liquid and subcritical fluid chromatographic mode the d-enantiomers eluted before the L ones. In both modes, the principles of ion exchange chromatography apply.

  2. The chemistry of subcritical water reactions of a hardwood derived lignin and lignin model compounds with nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill Bembenic, Meredith A.

    Biofuels, like cellulosic ethanol, may only be cost effective if the lignin byproduct is upgraded to value-added products. However, lignin's inherent aromatic structure and interunit crosslinkages hinder effective conversion. High temperature H2O is considered for lignin conversion, because H2O exhibits unusual properties at higher temperatures (particularly at its supercritical point of 374°C and 3205 psi) including a decreased ion product and a decreased static dielectric constant (similar to those of polar organic solvents at room temperature) such that there is a high solubility for organic compounds, like lignin. Much of the research concerning lignin and supercritical H2O has focused on further decomposition to gases (e.g., H2, CH4, and CO2) where nearly no char formation is expected in the presence of a catalyst. However, the conditions required for supercritical H2O are difficult to maintain, catalysts can be expensive, and gases are not favorable to the current liquid fuel infrastructure. Reactions using Organosolv lignin, subcritical H2O (365°C) and various industrial gases (N2, H2, CO, and CO2 at an initial pressure of 500 psi) for 30 min. were examined to determine both lignin's potential to generate value-added products (e.g., monomer compounds and methanol) and the role (if any) of the H2O and the gases during the reactions. The behavior of H2O at reaction temperature and pressure is expected to be similar to the behavior of supercritical H 2O without the need to maintain supercritical conditions. Different characterization techniques were used for the products collected including primarily GC/FID-TCD of the evolved gases, GC/MS analysis of the organic liquids, solid phase microextraction analysis of the water, and solid state 13C-NMR analysis of the residues. The reactor pressure at temperature was shown to influence the reactivity of the H2O and lignin, and the highest conversions (≈54--62%) were obtained when adding a gas. However, the

  3. The Muse-4 experiment: measurement of the kinetic parameters of a subcritical system; L'experience MUSE-4: mesure des parametres cinetiques d'un systeme sous-critique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollaire, J

    2004-10-01

    Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) which are based on an external neutron source coupled to a subcritical core, offer advantages for the incineration of radioactive waste. In order to understand the neutronic specificity of such a system, during the MUSE IV experimental program, the experimental reactor MASURCA (CEA Cadarache) has been coupled to the neutrons source GENEPI. This setup has enabled the development of an on-line measurement technique of the effective multiplication factor. This measurement benefits from the characteristics of the reactor response depending on the multiplication factor at the prompt fission and delayed fission time scales. The analysis of those experiments shows that the proposed method give results in agreement with the one deduced using classical reactivity measurement techniques which can not however be used in a power ADS. (author)

  4. Neutron spectra calculation and doses in a subcritical nuclear reactor based on thorium; Calculo de espectros de neutrones y dosis en un reactor nuclear subcritico a base de Torio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina C, D.; Hernandez A, P. L.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Sajo B, L., E-mail: dmedina_c@hotmail.com [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Apdo. Postal 89000, Caracas 1080A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    This paper describes a heterogeneous subcritical nuclear reactor with molten salts based on thorium, with graphite moderator and a source of {sup 252}Cf, whose dose levels in the periphery allows its use in teaching and research activities. The design was done by the Monte Carlo method with the code MCNP5 where the geometry, dimensions and fuel was varied in order to obtain the best design. The result is a cubic reactor of 110 cm side with graphite moderator and reflector. In the central part they have 9 ducts that were placed in the direction of axis Y. The central duct contains the source of {sup 252}Cf, of 8 other ducts, are two irradiation ducts and the other six contain a molten salt ({sup 7}LiF - BeF{sub 2} - ThF{sub 4} - UF{sub 4}) as fuel. For design the k{sub eff}, neutron spectra and ambient dose equivalent was calculated. In the first instance the above calculation for a virgin fuel was called case 1, then a percentage of {sup 233}U was used and the percentage of Th was decreased and was called case 2. This with the purpose to compare two different fuels working inside the reactor. In the case 1 a value was obtained for the k{sub eff} of 0.13 and case 2 of 0.28, maintaining the subcriticality in both cases. In the dose levels the higher value is in case 2 in the axis Y with a value of 3.31 e-3 ±1.6% p Sv/Q this value is reported in for one. With this we can calculate the exposure time of personnel working in the reactor. (Author)

  5. A single-fluid multiphase formulation for diffuse-interface modeling of high-pressure liquid-fueled transcritical mixing layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jofre, Lluis; Urzay, Javier; Mani, Ali; Moin, Parviz

    2015-11-01

    Liquid propellants are often used in propulsion systems. In subcritical conditions, atomization involves the rupture of the liquid volume through the competition between aerodynamic shearing and surface tension. In contrast, the classic atomization description becomes inadequate at supercritical conditions when the characteristic temperature and pressure of the gas environment are above the corresponding critical values. In that limit, the latent heat of vaporization vanishes and there is virtually no surface tension that prevents rupture of the liquid core and diffusive mixing with the gas environment. In particular, in high-pressure gas turbines the liquid fuel is seldom preheated to supercritical temperatures before injection, and the presence of both subcritical and supercritical conditions in the combustion chamber is warranted. Consideration of the liquid phase is therefore required in addition to the gas phase and the supercritical mixture. A single-fluid multiphase formulation of this problem is presented to investigate mixing and combustion in fuel-air transcritical mixing layers. The formulation makes use of diffuse-interface concepts facilitated by the relatively larger interface thicknesses at these high pressures. Funded by AFOSR.

  6. Sequential fractionation of grape seeds into oils, polyphenols, and procyanidins via a single system employing CO2-based fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf-Khorassani, Mehdi; Taylor, Larry Thomas

    2004-05-05

    Pure supercritical CO(2) was used to remove >95% of the oil from the grape seeds. Subcritical CO(2) modified with methanol was used for the extraction of monomeric polyphenols, whereas pure methanol was used for the extraction of polyphenolic dimers/trimers and procyanidins from grape seed. At optimum conditions, 40% methanol-modified CO(2) removed >79% of catechin and epicatechin from the grape seed. This extract was light yellow in color, and no higher molecular weight procyanidins were detected. Extraction of the same sample after removal of the oils and polyphenols, but now under enhanced solvent extraction conditions using methanol as a solvent, provided a dark red solution shown via electrospray ionization HPLC-MS to contain a relatively high concentration of procyanidins. The uniqueness of the study is attested to by the use of CO(2)-based fluids and the employment of a single instrumental extraction system.

  7. Project for rationalization measures for international energy conservation. Model project concerning efficient consumption of energy for international energy conservation (Model project of waste heat recovery on billet reheating furnace); 1999 nendo kokusai energy shiyo gorika nado taisaku jigyo seika hokokusho. Kokusai energy shohi koritsuka nado model jigyo (kozai kanetsuro hainetsu kaishu model jigyo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of curtailing energy consumption in the steel industry, a heavy energy consuming industry in Thailand, a model project was carried out for waste heat recovery on a billet reheating furnace, with the fiscal 1999 results compiled. This model project is to install a high efficiency recuperator and the latest combustion control system in the existing furnace in a SISCO (The Siam Iron and Steel Co., Ltd.) plant in Thailand. This year, following the preceding year, the construction manual was prepared, as were the test run manual, performance verification manual, operation and maintenance manual, etc. Supervisors were also dispatched to the site, giving guidance of the installation work, test run and the demonstrative operation, on the basis of these documents. Operation for verifying performance of the equipment was implemented on November 17, 1999, with the intended results obtained. Subsequently, operation maintenance instructors were dispatched, with energy saving effect proved through the collection/analysis of operation data and monitoring, for example. Further, as the dissemination activities, pamphlets and videos were prepared, and seminars were held, among others. (NEDO)

  8. XPS, AES and friction studies of single-crystal silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1982-01-01

    The surface chemistry and friction behavior of a single crystal silicon carbide surface parallel to the 0001 plane in sliding contact with iron at various temperatures to 1500 C in a vacuum of 3 x 10 nPa are investigated using X-ray photoelectron and Auger electron spectroscopy. Results show that graphite and carbide-type carbon are seen primarily on the silicon carbide surface in addition to silicon at temperatures to 800 C by both types of spectroscopy. The coefficients of friction for iron sliding against a silicon carbide surface parallel to the 0001 plane surface are found to be high at temperatures up to 800 C, with the silicon and carbide-type carbon at maximum intensity in the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy at 800 C. The concentration of the graphite increases rapidly on the surface as the temperature is increased above 800 C, while the concentrations of the carbide-type carbon and silicon decrease rapidly and this presence of graphite is accompanied by a significant decrease in friction. Preheating the surfaces to 1500 C also gives dramatically lower coefficients of friction when reheating in the sliding temperature range of from room temperature to 1200 C, with this reduction in friction due to the graphite layer on the silicon carbide surface.

  9. Study in stationary state of the subcriticality of intermediate configurations of core in the reloading process of a BWR; Estudio en estado estacionario de la subcriticidad de configuraciones intermedias de nucleo en el proceso de recarga de un BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, J.L.; Montes, J.L.; Perusquia, R.; Ortiz, J.J. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: jlhm@nuclear.inin.mx

    2006-07-01

    In this work is carried out the simulation in three dimensions with the COREMASTER-PRESTO code, of the behavior of the reactor core in different stages of the change process of fuel assemblies. To carry out the simulation, this code requires of a database of nuclear parameters that includes those that can associate to the areas of an assemblies that they don't contain fuel and in its place there is moderator. These nuclear parameters are calculated with the AURORA-HELIOS-ZENITH-TABGEN system. One of the approaches that were carried out consisted on designing a 'water assemble', that is to say, an axial arrangement of 25 'water cells'. To obtain the appropriate 'water cell' its were carried out some selective test cases, since it presents in two cases the necessity to find an enough minimum value of fissile material for the correct execution of HELIOS, firstly, and later on COREMASTER-PRESTO. In the first case, the situation is solved when placing symmetrically 6 bars with natural uranium in the lateral areas of the cell; with that which the value of k{sub inf} of 0.1592 is obtained in the calculations with the HELIOS code in the cold condition to zero power (CZP), and 0% of vacuums. For the second case the cell includes symmetrically 28 bars with natural uranium, and the k{sub inf} value is 0.45290. These values are the maximum through the life of the 'cell.' As part of the activities that are developed during the fuel substitution, this the one of evaluating the subcriticality of the core each determined number of substitution movements. The obtained results when evaluating the k-effective in cold condition, in 5 different intermediate core configurations, as the loading process of the fuel advances are presented. To make the evaluation with CM-PRESTO in each configuration it was proceeded to complete the rest of the 444 assemblies with the one denominated 'water assemble'. In all the evaluated cases the

  10. Determination of the physical parameters of the nuclear subcritical assembly Chicago 9000 of the IPN using the Serpent code; Determinacion de los parametros fisicos del conjunto subcritico nuclear Chicago 9000 del IPN usando el codigo SERPENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arriaga R, L.; Del Valle G, E. [IPN, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional s/n, U.P. Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, 07738 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Gomez T, A. M., E-mail: guten_tag_04@hotmail.com [ININ, Departamento de Sistemas Nucleares, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    For the Serpent code was developed the three-dimensional model corresponding to the nuclear subcritical assembly (S A) Chicago 9000 of the Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas del Instituto Politecnico Nacional (ESFM-IPN). The model includes: a) the core, formed by 312 aluminum pipes that contain 5 nuclear fuel rods (natural uranium in metallic form), b) the multi-perforated plates where they penetrate the inferior part of each pipe to be able to remain in vertical form, c) water, acting as moderator and reflector, and d) the recipient lodging to the core. The pipes arrangement is hexagonal although the transversal section of the recipient that lodges to the core is circular. The entrance file for the Serpent code was generated with the data provided by the manual of the S A use about the composition and density of the fuel rods and others obtained in direct form of the rods, as the interior and external diameter, mass and height. Of the obtained physical parameters, those more approached to that reported in the manual of the subcritical assembly are the effective multiplication factor and the reproduction factor η. The differences can be because the description of the fuel rods provided by the manual of the S A use do not correspond those that are physically in the S A core. This difference consists on the presence of a circular central channel of 1.245 diameter centimeters in each fuel rod. The fuel rods reported in the mentioned manual do not have that channel. Although the obtained results are encouraging, we want to continue improving the model to incorporate in this the detectors, defined this way by the Serpent code, which could determine the existent neutrons flux in diverse points of interest like the axial or radial aligned points and to compare these with those that are obtained in an experimental way when a generating neutrons source (Pu-Be) is introduced. Added to this effort the cross sections for each unitary cell will be determined, so that

  11. PRELIMINARY ENVIRONMENTAL, HEALTH AND SAFETY RISK ASSESSMENT ON THE INTEGRATION OF A PROCESS UTILIZING LOW-ENERGY SOLVENTS FOR CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE ENABLED BY A COMBINATION OF ENZYMES AND VACUUM REGENERATION WITH A SUBCRITICAL PC POWER PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzgerald, David; Vidal, Rafael; Russell, Tania; Babcock, Doosan; Freeman, Charles; Bearden, Mark; Whyatt, Greg; Liu, Kun; Frimpong, Reynolds; Lu, Kunlei; Salmon, Sonja; House, Alan; Yarborough, Erin

    2014-12-31

    The results of the preliminary environmental, health and safety (EH&S) risk assessment for an enzyme-activated potassium carbonate (K2CO3) solution post-combustion CO2 capture (PCC) plant, integrated with a subcritical pulverized coal (PC) power plant, are presented. The expected emissions during normal steady-state operation have been estimated utilizing models of the PCC plant developed in AspenTech’s AspenPlus® software, bench scale test results from the University of Kentucky, and industrial experience of emission results from a slipstream PCC plant utilizing amine based solvents. A review of all potential emission species and their sources was undertaken that identified two credible emission sources, the absorber off-gas that is vented to atmosphere via a stack and the waste removed from the PCC plant in the centrifuge used to reclaim enzyme and solvent. The conditions and compositions of the emissions were calculated and the potential EH&S effects were considered as well as legislative compliance requirements. Potential mitigation methods for emissions during normal operation have been proposed and solutions to mitigate uncontrolled releases of species have been considered. The potential emissions were found to pose no significant EH&S concerns and were compliant with the Federal legislation reviewed. The limitations in predicting full scale plant performance from bench scale tests have been noted and further work on a larger scale test unit is recommended to reduce the level of uncertainty.

  12. Design of a homogeneous subcritical nuclear reactor based on thorium with a source of californium 252; Diseno de un reactor nuclear subcritico homogeneo a base de Torio con una fuente de Californio 252

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado H, C. E.; Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Sajo B, L., E-mail: ce_delgado89@hotmail.com [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Apdo. 89000, 1080A Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: One of the energy alternatives to fossil fuels which do not produce greenhouse gases is the nuclear energy. One of the drawbacks of this alternative is the generation of radioactive wastes of long half-life and its relation to the generation of nuclear materials to produce weapons of mass destruction. An option to these drawbacks of nuclear energy is to use Thorium as part of the nuclear fuel which it becomes in U{sup 233} when capturing neutrons, that is a fissile material. In this paper Monte Carlo methods were used to design a homogeneous subcritical reactor based on thorium. As neutron reflector graphite was used. The reactor core is homogeneous and is formed of 70% light water as moderator, 12% of enriched uranium UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 4} and 18% of thorium Th(NO{sub 3}){sub 4} as fuel. To start the nuclear fission chain reaction an isotopic source of californium 252 was used with an intensity of 4.6 x 10{sup 7} s{sup -1}. In the design the value of the effective multiplication factor, whose value turned out k{sub eff} <1 was calculated. Also, the neutron spectra at different distances from the source and the total fluence were calculated, as well as the values of the ambient dose equivalent in the periphery of the reactor. (Author)

  13. Simultaneous analysis for water- and fat-soluble vitamins by a novel single chromatography technique unifying supercritical fluid chromatography and liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Kaori; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Bamba, Takeshi

    2014-10-03

    Chromatography techniques usually use a single state in the mobile phase, such as liquid, gas, or supercritical fluid. Chromatographers manage one of these techniques for their purpose but are sometimes required to use multiple methods, or even worse, multiple techniques when the target compounds have a wide range of chemical properties. To overcome this challenge, we developed a single method covering a diverse compound range by means of a "unified" chromatography which completely bridges supercritical fluid chromatography and liquid chromatography. In our method, the phase state was continuously changed in the following order; supercritical, subcritical and liquid. Moreover, the gradient of the mobile phase starting at almost 100% CO2 was replaced with 100% methanol at the end completely. As a result, this approach achieved further extension of the polarity range of the mobile phase in a single run, and successfully enabled the simultaneous analysis of fat- and water-soluble vitamins with a wide logP range of -2.11 to 10.12. Furthermore, the 17 vitamins were exceptionally separated in 4min. Our results indicated that the use of dense CO2 and the replacement of CO2 by methanol are practical approaches in unified chromatography covering diverse compounds. Additionally, this is a first report to apply the novel approach to unified chromatography, and can open another door for diverse compound analysis in a single chromatographic technique with single injection, single column and single system. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Single Audit: Single Audit Act Effectiveness Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, Sally

    2002-01-01

    As discussed in the report we are releasing today, our work to review agency actions to ensure that recipients take timely and appropriate corrective actions to fix audit findings contained in single...

  15. PRELIMINARY TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY STUDY ON THE INTEGRATION OF A PROCESS UTILIZING LOW-ENERGY SOLVENTS FOR CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE ENABLED BY A COMBINATION OF ENZYMES AND ULTRASONICS WITH A SUBCRITICAL PC POWER PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaminathan, Saravanan; Kuczynska, Agnieszka; Hume, Scott; Mulgundmath, Vinay; Freeman, Charles; Bearden, Mark; Remias, Joe; Ambedkar, Balraj; Salmon, Sonja; House, Alan

    2012-11-01

    The results of the preliminary techno-economic assessment for integrating a process utilizing low-energy solvents for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture enabled by a combination of enzymes and ultrasonics with a subcritical pulverized coal (PC) power plant are presented. Four cases utilizing the enzyme-activated solvent are compared using different methodologies of regeneration against the DOE/NETL reference MEA case. The results are shown comparing the energy demand for post-combustion CO2 capture and the net higher heating value (HHV) efficiency of the power plant integrated with the post-combustion capture (PCC) plant. A levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) assessment was performed showing the costs of the options presented in the study. The key factors contributing to the reduction of LCOE were identified as enzyme make-up rate and the capability of the ultrasonic regeneration process. The net efficiency of the integrated PC power plant with CO2 capture changes from 24.9% with the reference Case 10 plant to between 24.34% and 29.97% for the vacuum regeneration options considered, and to between 26.63% and 31.41% for the ultrasonic regeneration options. The evaluation also shows the effect of the critical parameters on the LCOE, with the main variable being the initial estimation of enzyme dosing rate. The LCOE ($/MWh) values range from 112.92 to 125.23 for the vacuum regeneration options and from 108.9 to 117.50 for the ultrasonic regeneration cases considered in comparison to 119.6 for the reference Case 10. A sensitivity analysis of the effect of critical parameters on the LCOE was also performed. The results from the preliminary techno-economic assessment show that the proposed technology can be investigated further with a view to being a viable alternative to conventional CO2 scrubbing technologies.

  16. Effect of Water Environment on Subcritical Crack Growth of Machinable Ceramics; Kaisakusei seramikkusu no kiretsu shinten tokusei ni oyobosu mizu kankyo no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, K.; Kaizu, K.; Inotani, T. [Miyazaki Univ., Miyazaki (Japan); Yoshikawa, A.; Adachi, K.; Igaki, H. [Osaka Sangyo Univ., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-06-15

    The fatigue behavior of ceramics has been discussed on the basis of the relation between stress intensity facter (KI) and crack velocity (V). In this paper, the effect of environment on the relation between KI and V was studied on machinable ceramics (mica glass ceramics) and two kinds of glass ceramics with different grain sizes. The double torsion (DT) technique was used for the determination of the KI-V characteristics under different environments of air and ion-exchanged water. The characteristics of acoustic emission (AE) during stress corrosion cracking of mica glass ceramics was also examined. In water environment, the region II in the KI-V curve, in which crack velocity varies slowly with KI, disappeared. From this experimental fact, it was considered that at high KI, the crack velocity is encouraged by diffusion of the corrosive species to the crack and thus depended on the amount of water. SEM farc tography revealed that mica single crystals in the material caused crack arrest and deflection to occur. It is also found that AE event rate is quantitatively related to the crack velocity. AE measurement can be used in studying the crack propagation behavior of mica glass ceramics. 11 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Single-basined choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossert, W.; Peters, H.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Single-basined preferences generalize single-dipped preferences by allowing for multiple worst elements. These preferences have played an important role in areas such as voting, strategy-proofness and matching problems. We examine the notion of single-basinedness in a choice-theoretic setting. In

  18. Superconducting Single Photon Detectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorenbos, S.N.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is about the development of a detector for single photons, particles of light. New techniques are being developed that require high performance single photon detection, such as quantum cryptography, single molecule detection, optical radar, ballistic imaging, circuit testing and

  19. Single-Sex Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protheroe, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Although single-sex education was once the norm in the U.S., the practice has largely been confined to private schools for more than a century. However, with the introduction of the final version of the U.S. Department of Education's so-called single-sex regulations in 2006, public schools were allowed greater flexibility to offer single-sex…

  20. Single frequency intracavity SRO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abitan, Haim; Buchhave, Preben

    2000-01-01

    Summary form only given. A single resonance optical parametric oscillator (SRO) is inserted intracavity to a CW high power, single frequency, and ring Nd:YVO4 laser. We obtain a stable single frequency CW SRO with output at 1.7-1.9 μm (idler) and a resonating signal at 2.3-2.6 μm. The behavior...

  1. Towards universal axion inflation and reheating in string theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Blumenhagen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The recent BICEP2 measurements of B-modes indicate a large tensor-to-scalar ratio in inflationary cosmology, which points towards trans-Planckian evolution of the inflaton. We propose possible string-theory realizations thereof. Schemes for natural and axion monodromy inflation are presented in the framework of the type IIB large volume scenario. The inflaton in both cases is given by the universal axion and its potential is generated by F-terms. Our models are shown to feature a natural mechanism for inflaton decay into predominantly Standard Model particles.

  2. Towards universal axion inflation and reheating in string theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumenhagen, Ralph [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Plauschinn, Erik [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “Galileo Galilei”, Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2014-09-07

    The recent BICEP2 measurements of B-modes indicate a large tensor-to-scalar ratio in inflationary cosmology, which points towards trans-Planckian evolution of the inflaton. We propose possible string-theory realizations thereof. Schemes for natural and axion monodromy inflation are presented in the framework of the type IIB large volume scenario. The inflaton in both cases is given by the universal axion and its potential is generated by F-terms. Our models are shown to feature a natural mechanism for inflaton decay into predominantly Standard Model particles.

  3. SINGLE: single photon sensitive cryogenic light detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biassoni, Matteo; SINGLE Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    Thermal detectors operated at few mK as calorimeters are a powerful tool for the study of rare particle physics processes. In order to implement particle identification, light detection can be effectively performed by means of other thermal detectors operated as light sensors. This configuration can be used also in large scale, thousand-channels setups, but the light sensors must be sensitive enough to detect few, possibly a single, photons. The SINGLE project described here aims at producing silicon based, large area devices that can be operated as thermal detectors with single-photon sensitivity, and demonstrate the reliability of the performance, scalability of the production process and integrability with present and next generation cryogenic experiments for the search for rare events.

  4. Contribution to the experimental validation of the coupling between a particle accelerator and a subcritical core: Muse-3 and Muse-7 experiments; Contribution a la validation experimentale du couplage entre un accelerateur et un massif sous-critique: experience muse 3. et muse 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bompas, C.A

    2000-12-01

    As part of the research on the Hybrid Systems and more specially on the physical phenomena involved in a sub-critical core coupled with an external source, it is necessary to qualify several neutronic parameters. These parameters characterize, on the one hand, the external source supplying the core with neutrons (importance, amplification) and, on the other hand, the sub-critical core (spatial distribution of flux, power emitted from the core, reactivity, influence of a spectrum degraded by the presence of buffers like lead). The MUSE Program consists of parametric studies of configuration with different compositions at different sub-critical levels supplied by different types of external source. The first part of this work concerns the first analyses of the static results obtained during the third phase of this experimental program (MUSE-III experiment) and also the preparation of the fourth phase (MUSE-IV experiment). This study has notably concluded on the superiority of a transition zone in lead compared to a sodium zone in terms of neutronic potential (because of the (n, 2n) reaction) and of the source importance. The second part of this work concerns the interpretation of the dynamic results obtained during the MUSE-III experiment and the realization of calculations on the MUSE-IV configurations. This study has shown the important impact of the hydrogenous materials on the external source for the MUSE-III dynamic results. It has also determined the applicability of the pulsed neutron source reactivity measurement technique and optimized the position of monitors for the future MUSE-IV experiment. (authors)

  5. Simulation and parametric optimisation of thermal power plant cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ravindra Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to analyse parametric studies and optimum steam extraction pressures of three different (subcritical, supercritical and ultra-supercritical coal fired power plant cycles at a particular main steam temperature of 600 °C by keeping the reheat temperature at 537 °C and condenser pressure at 0.09 bar as constant. In order to maximize the heat rate gain possible with supercritical and ultra-supercritical steam conditions, eight stages of feed water heater arrangement with single reheater is considered. The system is optimized in such a way that the percentage exergetic losses are reduced for the increase of the exergetic efficiency and higher fuel utilization. The plant cycles are simulated and optimized by using Cycle Tempo 5.0 simulation software tool. From the simulation study, it is observed that the thermal efficiency of the three different power plant cycles obtained as 41.40, 42.48 and 43.03%, respectively. The specific coal consumption for three different power plant cycles are 0.56, 0.55 and 0.54 Tonnes/MWh. The improvement in feed water temperatures at the inlet of steam generator of respective cycles are 291, 305 and 316 °C.

  6. QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY: Single Photons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, S

    2000-12-22

    Quantum cryptography offers the potential of totally secure transfer of information, but as Benjamin discusses in this Perspective, its practical implementation hinges on being able to generate single photons (rather than two or more) at a time. Michler et al. show how this condition can be met in a quantum dot microdisk structure. Single molecules were also recently shown to allow controlled single-photon emission.

  7. Co-existence of silent and oscillatory regimes of a single neuron's activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaschenko, Tatiana; Shilnikov, Andrey; Cymbalyu, Gennady

    2008-03-01

    Bursting, tonic spiking, sub-threshold oscillations and silence are basic robust regimes of activity of a single neuron. A model of a leech heart interneuron demonstrates three different types of co-existence: (1) silence and bursting, (2) silence and tonic spiking, and (3) silence and sub-threshold oscillations. We show that these types of co-existence can be explicated by the unstable sub-threshold oscillations (USTO) separating silence and an oscillatory regime and setting the threshold between them. The range of parameters, where the co-existence is observed, is determined by the critical values at which the USTO appear and disappear. More precisely, the USTO occur through the sub-critical Andronov-Hopf bifurcation, where the rest state loses stability. Then, the USTO disappear on the homoclinic bifurcation near which the oscillatory regime disappears as a regime. The bifurcation values are calculated and shown to match the empirical transition values found in numerical experiments in Cymbalyuk et al., 2002.

  8. Note: A single specimen channel crack growth technique applied to brittle thin films on polymer substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K.; Graham, S.; Pierron, O. N.

    2017-03-01

    We introduce an external-load-assisted thin film channel crack growth technique to measure the subcritical crack growth properties of thin films (i.e., crack velocity, v, versus the strain energy release rate, G), and demonstrate it using 250-nm-thick SiNx films on poly(ethylene terephthalate) substrates. The main particularity of this technique is that it requires a polymer substrate to allow loading to large strains (in order to induce channel cracking) without substrate fracture. Its main advantages are to provide a full v-G curve with a single specimen while relying on a simple specimen preparation and straightforward crack growth characterization. Importantly, the technique can be employed for a much larger range of thin films compared to the residual-stress-driven, thin film channel crack growth tests, including ultrathin films and thin film with residual compressive stresses. The restrictions to a proper use of this technique, related to the (visco)plastic deformation of the substrate, are discussed.

  9. Single photon quantum cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beveratos, Alexios; Brouri, Rosa; Gacoin, Thierry; Villing, André; Poizat, Jean-Philippe; Grangier, Philippe

    2002-10-28

    We report the full implementation of a quantum cryptography protocol using a stream of single photon pulses generated by a stable and efficient source operating at room temperature. The single photon pulses are emitted on demand by a single nitrogen-vacancy color center in a diamond nanocrystal. The quantum bit error rate is less that 4.6% and the secure bit rate is 7700 bits/s. The overall performances of our system reaches a domain where single photons have a measurable advantage over an equivalent system based on attenuated light pulses.

  10. Single-atom nanoelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Prati, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Single-Atom Nanoelectronics covers the fabrication of single-atom devices and related technology, as well as the relevant electronic equipment and the intriguing new phenomena related to single-atom and single-electron effects in quantum devices. It also covers the alternative approaches related to both silicon- and carbon-based technologies, also from the point of view of large-scale industrial production. The publication provides a comprehensive picture of the state of the art at the cutting edge and constitutes a milestone in the emerging field of beyond-CMOS technology. Although there are

  11. Single-Phase PLLs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golestan, Saeed; Guerrero, Josep M.; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2017-01-01

    Single-phase phase-locked loops (PLLs) are popular for the synchronization and control of single-phase gridconnected converters. They are also widely used for monitoring and diagnostic purposes in the power and energy areas. In recent years, a large number of single-phase PLLs with different stru......-PLLs). The members of each category are then described and their pros and cons are discussed. This work provides a deep insight into characteristics of different single-phase PLLs and, therefore, can be considered as a reference for researchers and engineers....

  12. Single gaze gestures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllenbach, Emilie; Lilholm, Martin; Gail, Alastair

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines gaze gestures and their applicability as a generic selection method for gaze-only controlled interfaces. The method explored here is the Single Gaze Gesture (SGG), i.e. gestures consisting of a single point-to-point eye movement. Horizontal and vertical, long and short SGGs were...

  13. Single-sided NMR

    CERN Document Server

    Casanova, Federico; Blümich, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    Single-Sided NMR describes the design of the first functioning single-sided tomograph, the related measurement methods, and a number of applications. One of the key advantages to this method is the speed at which the images are obtained.

  14. Single-photon imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Seitz, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The acquisition and interpretation of images is a central capability in almost all scientific and technological domains. In particular, the acquisition of electromagnetic radiation, in the form of visible light, UV, infrared, X-ray, etc. is of enormous practical importance. The ultimate sensitivity in electronic imaging is the detection of individual photons. With this book, the first comprehensive review of all aspects of single-photon electronic imaging has been created. Topics include theoretical basics, semiconductor fabrication, single-photon detection principles, imager design and applications of different spectral domains. Today, the solid-state fabrication capabilities for several types of image sensors has advanced to a point, where uncoooled single-photon electronic imaging will soon become a consumer product. This book is giving a specialist´s view from different domains to the forthcoming “single-photon imaging” revolution. The various aspects of single-photon imaging are treated by internati...

  15. Single molecules and nanotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Vogel, Horst

    2007-01-01

    This book focuses on recent advances in the rapidly evolving field of single molecule research. These advances are of importance for the investigation of biopolymers and cellular biochemical reactions, and are essential to the development of quantitative biology. Written by leading experts in the field, the articles cover a broad range of topics, including: quantum photonics of organic dyes and inorganic nanoparticles their use in detecting properties of single molecules the monitoring of single molecule (enzymatic) reactions single protein (un)folding in nanometer-sized confined volumes the dynamics of molecular interactions in biological cells The book is written for advanced students and scientists who wish to survey the concepts, techniques and results of single molecule research and assess them for their own scientific activities.

  16. Single Nanoparticle Plasmonic Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Sriram

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of plasmonic nanomaterials in optical sensors, coupled with the advances in detection techniques, has opened the way for biosensing with single plasmonic particles. Single nanoparticle sensors offer the potential to analyse biochemical interactions at a single-molecule level, thereby allowing us to capture even more information than ensemble measurements. We introduce the concepts behind single nanoparticle sensing and how the localised surface plasmon resonances of these nanoparticles are dependent upon their materials, shape and size. Then we outline the different synthetic approaches, like citrate reduction, seed-mediated and seedless growth, that enable the synthesis of gold and silver nanospheres, nanorods, nanostars, nanoprisms and other nanostructures with tunable sizes. Further, we go into the aspects related to purification and functionalisation of nanoparticles, prior to the fabrication of sensing surfaces. Finally, the recent developments in single nanoparticle detection, spectroscopy and sensing applications are discussed.

  17. Single Policy Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronsell, Annica; Manners, Ian James

    2015-01-01

    Single policy studies are the most common form of European Union (EU) research. Single policy studies are widely used to understand the role of the EU in a wide variety of sectors, together with their development over time, and often offer public policy prescriptions. This chapter discusses...... the relevance of single policy studies in EU research and give examples of how such research can be designed and carried out. The chapter reviews three examples of single policy studies using different methods based on EU environmental policy, the EU biofuels directive, and the EU Common Security and Defence...... Policy (CSDP). The examples are illustrative of how single policy studies can be designed to use different approaches in the analysis: multiple streams approach to policy-making; a comparative hypothesis testing; and feminist institutional theory....

  18. [Biophysics of single molecules].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serdiuk, I N; Deriusheva, E I

    2011-01-01

    The modern methods of research of biological molecules whose application led to the development of a new field of science, biophysics of single molecules, are reviewed. The measurement of the characteristics of single molecules enables one to reveal their individual features, and it is just for this reason that much more information can be obtained from one molecule than from the entire ensample of molecules. The high sensitivity of the methods considered in detail makes it possible to come close to the solution of the basic problem of practical importance, namely, the determination of the nucleotide sequence of a single DNA molecule.

  19. Single neuron computation

    CERN Document Server

    McKenna, Thomas M; Zornetzer, Steven F

    1992-01-01

    This book contains twenty-two original contributions that provide a comprehensive overview of computational approaches to understanding a single neuron structure. The focus on cellular-level processes is twofold. From a computational neuroscience perspective, a thorough understanding of the information processing performed by single neurons leads to an understanding of circuit- and systems-level activity. From the standpoint of artificial neural networks (ANNs), a single real neuron is as complex an operational unit as an entire ANN, and formalizing the complex computations performed by real n

  20. Single molecule electronic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyunwook; Reed, Mark A; Lee, Takhee

    2011-04-12

    Single molecule electronic devices in which individual molecules are utilized as active electronic components constitute a promising approach for the ultimate miniaturization and integration of electronic devices in nanotechnology through the bottom-up strategy. Thus, the ability to understand, control, and exploit charge transport at the level of single molecules has become a long-standing desire of scientists and engineers from different disciplines for various potential device applications. Indeed, a study on charge transport through single molecules attached to metallic electrodes is a very challenging task, but rapid advances have been made in recent years. This review article focuses on experimental aspects of electronic devices made with single molecules, with a primary focus on the characterization and manipulation of charge transport in this regime. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Stresses of Single Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size Email Print Share Stresses of Single Parenting Page Content Article Body What are some ways ... way. Check your local library for books on parenting. Local hospitals, the YMCA, and church groups often ...

  2. Single Crystal Faceplate Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-25

    7]. Much the research at Allied-Signal, Inc. in garnet layer growth has been involved with the kinetics of crystallization of garnet from LPE melts...acceptable resolution and light output characteristics. Single crystal faceplates being evaluated are composed of yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) with an...1.1 Single Crystal Faceplate Developments Allied Signal, Inc. has done extensive development work in epitaxial layering of yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG

  3. Single-Cell Metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emara, Samy; Amer, Sara; Ali, Ahmed; Abouleila, Yasmine; Oga, April; Masujima, Tsutomu

    2017-01-01

    The dynamics of a cell is always changing. Cells move, divide, communicate, adapt, and are always reacting to their surroundings non-synchronously. Currently, single-cell metabolomics has become the leading field in understanding the phenotypical variations between them, but sample volumes, low analyte concentrations, and validating gentle sample techniques have proven great barriers toward achieving accurate and complete metabolomics profiling. Certainly, advanced technologies such as nanodevices and microfluidic arrays are making great progress, and analytical techniques, such as matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI), are gaining popularity with high-throughput methodology. Nevertheless, live single-cell mass spectrometry (LCSMS) values the sample quality and precision, turning once theoretical speculation into present-day applications in a variety of fields, including those of medicine, pharmaceutical, and agricultural industries. While there is still room for much improvement, it is clear that the metabolomics field is progressing toward analysis and discoveries at the single-cell level.

  4. Single atom microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wu; Oxley, Mark P; Lupini, Andrew R; Krivanek, Ondrej L; Pennycook, Stephen J; Idrobo, Juan-Carlos

    2012-12-01

    We show that aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy operating at low accelerating voltages is able to analyze, simultaneously and with single atom resolution and sensitivity, the local atomic configuration, chemical identities, and optical response at point defect sites in monolayer graphene. Sequential fast-scan annular dark-field (ADF) imaging provides direct visualization of point defect diffusion within the graphene lattice, with all atoms clearly resolved and identified via quantitative image analysis. Summing multiple ADF frames of stationary defects produce images with minimized statistical noise and reduced distortions of atomic positions. Electron energy-loss spectrum imaging of single atoms allows the delocalization of inelastic scattering to be quantified, and full quantum mechanical calculations are able to describe the delocalization effect with good accuracy. These capabilities open new opportunities to probe the defect structure, defect dynamics, and local optical properties in 2D materials with single atom sensitivity.

  5. SINGLE CRYSTAL NEUTRON DIFFRACTION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KOETZLE,T.F.

    2001-03-13

    Single-crystal neutron diffraction measures the elastic Bragg reflection intensities from crystals of a material, the structure of which is the subject of investigation. A single crystal is placed in a beam of neutrons produced at a nuclear reactor or at a proton accelerator-based spallation source. Single-crystal diffraction measurements are commonly made at thermal neutron beam energies, which correspond to neutron wavelengths in the neighborhood of 1 Angstrom. For high-resolution studies requiring shorter wavelengths (ca. 0.3-0.8 Angstroms), a pulsed spallation source or a high-temperature moderator (a ''hot source'') at a reactor may be used. When complex structures with large unit-cell repeats are under investigation, as is the case in structural biology, a cryogenic-temperature moderator (a ''cold source'') may be employed to obtain longer neutron wavelengths (ca. 4-10 Angstroms). A single-crystal neutron diffraction analysis will determine the crystal structure of the material, typically including its unit cell and space group, the positions of the atomic nuclei and their mean-square displacements, and relevant site occupancies. Because the neutron possesses a magnetic moment, the magnetic structure of the material can be determined as well, from the magnetic contribution to the Bragg intensities. This latter aspect falls beyond the scope of the present unit; for information on magnetic scattering of neutrons see Unit 14.3. Instruments for single-crystal diffraction (single-crystal diffractometers or SCDs) are generally available at the major neutron scattering center facilities. Beam time on many of these instruments is available through a proposal mechanism. A listing of neutron SCD instruments and their corresponding facility contacts is included in an appendix accompanying this unit.

  6. Single Cell Oncogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xin

    It is believed that cancer originates from a single cell that has gone through generations of evolution of genetic and epigenetic changes that associate with the hallmarks of cancer. In some cancers such as various types of leukemia, cancer is clonal. Yet in other cancers like glioblastoma (GBM), there is tremendous tumor heterogeneity that is likely to be caused by simultaneous evolution of multiple subclones within the same tissue. It is obvious that understanding how a single cell develops into a clonal tumor upon genetic alterations, at molecular and cellular levels, holds the key to the real appreciation of tumor etiology and ultimate solution for therapeutics. Surprisingly very little is known about the process of spontaneous tumorigenesis from single cells in human or vertebrate animal models. The main reason is the lack of technology to track the natural process of single cell changes from a homeostatic state to a progressively cancerous state. Recently, we developed a patented compound, photoactivatable (''caged'') tamoxifen analogue 4-OHC and associated technique called optochemogenetic switch (OCG switch), which we believe opens the opportunity to address this urgent biological as well as clinical question about cancer. We propose to combine OCG switch with genetically engineered mouse models of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and high grade astrocytoma (including GBM) to study how single cells, when transformed through acute loss of tumor suppressor genes PTEN and TP53 and gain of oncogenic KRAS, can develop into tumor colonies with cellular and molecular heterogeneity in these tissues. The abstract is for my invited talk in session ``Beyond Darwin: Evolution in Single Cells'' 3/18/2016 11:15 AM.

  7. Single port laparoscopic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Springborg, Henrik; Istre, Olav

    2012-01-01

    LESS, or laparo-endoscopic single site surgery, is a promising new method in minimally invasive surgery. An increasing number of surgical procedures are being performed using this technique, however, its large-scale adoption awaits results of prospective randomized controlled studies confirming...... potential benefits. Theoretically, cosmetic outcomes, postoperative pain and complication rates could be improved with use of single site surgery. This study describes introduction of the method in a private hospital in Denmark, in which 40 patients have been treated for benign gynecologic conditions...

  8. Single bubble sonoluminescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brenner, Michael P.; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha; Lohse, Detlef

    2002-01-01

    Single-bubble sonoluminescence occurs when an acoustically trapped and periodically driven gas bubble collapses so strongly that the energy focusing at collapse leads to light emission. Detailed experiments have demonstrated the unique properties of this system: the spectrum of the emitted light

  9. Single-Molecule Spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 2. Single-Molecule Spectroscopy: Every Molecule is Different! Kankan Bhattacharyya. General Article Volume 20 Issue 2 February 2015 pp 151-164. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  10. Single cell metabolomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinemann, Matthias; Zenobi, Renato

    Recent discoveries suggest that cells of a clonal population often display multiple metabolic phenotypes at the same time. Motivated by the success of mass spectrometry (MS) in the investigation of population-level metabolomics, the analytical community has initiated efforts towards MS-based single

  11. TRANSVERSITY SINGLE SPIN ASYMMETRIES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOER,D.

    2001-04-27

    The theoretical aspects of two leading twist transversity single spin asymmetries, one arising from the Collins effect and one from the interference fragmentation functions, are reviewed. Issues of factorization, evolution and Sudakov factors for the relevant observables are discussed. These theoretical considerations pinpoint the most realistic scenarios towards measurements of transversity.

  12. Single photon and nonlocality

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In a paper by Home and Agarwal [1], it is claimed that quantum nonlocality can be revealed in a simple interferometry experiment using only single particles. A critical analysis of the concept of hidden variable used by the authors of [1] shows that the reasoning is not correct.

  13. Single Value Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mader, Angelika H.; Dertien, Edwin Christian; Reidsma, Dennis; Camurri, Antonio; Costa, Cristina

    We live in a world of continuous information overflow, but the quality of information and communication is suffering. Single value devices contribute to information and communication quality by focussing on one explicit, relevant piece of information. The information is decoupled from a computer and

  14. Beyond the Single Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenney, Yekaterina

    2016-01-01

    Teachers of world literature have the opportunity to help students explore the more complex reality behind the stereotypes that they often see in the media. If we don't encourage students to challenge one-dimensional "single stories" that characterize an entire people--whether Muslims, Russians, Mexicans, African Americans, Chinese,…

  15. Single umbilical artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanthi Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The umbilical cord usually contains two arteries and one vein. The vein carries the oxygenated blood from the placenta to the fetus. The arteries carry the deoxygenated blood and the waste products from the fetus to the placenta. Occasionally, primary agenesis or secondary atrophy of one of the arteries occurs resulting in single umbilical artery.

  16. Single umbilical artery

    OpenAIRE

    Shanthi Ramesh; Sangeetha Hariprasath; Gunasekaran Anandan; P John Solomon; Vijayakumar, V.

    2015-01-01

    The umbilical cord usually contains two arteries and one vein. The vein carries the oxygenated blood from the placenta to the fetus. The arteries carry the deoxygenated blood and the waste products from the fetus to the placenta. Occasionally, primary agenesis or secondary atrophy of one of the arteries occurs resulting in single umbilical artery.

  17. Single umbilical artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Shanthi; Hariprasath, Sangeetha; Anandan, Gunasekaran; Solomon, P John; Vijayakumar, V

    2015-04-01

    The umbilical cord usually contains two arteries and one vein. The vein carries the oxygenated blood from the placenta to the fetus. The arteries carry the deoxygenated blood and the waste products from the fetus to the placenta. Occasionally, primary agenesis or secondary atrophy of one of the arteries occurs resulting in single umbilical artery.

  18. Single Electrode Heat Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Torben; Broers, G. H. J.

    1977-01-01

    The heat evolution at a single irreversibly working electrode is treated onthe basis of the Brønsted heat principle. The resulting equation is analogous to the expression for the total heat evolution in a galvanic cellwith the exception that –DeltaS is substituted by the Peltier entropy, Delta...

  19. Beware the single hit!

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The first time that single particle effects from cosmic rays on electronics were observed was in 1991, when one of the instruments aboard an ESA satellite broke down after only five days in space. On 5 July, the TS-LEA group will have completed the installation of monitors that will help to reduce similar dangerous effects on LHC electronics.

  20. Effect of a functional monomer (MDP) on the enamel bond durability of single-step self-etch adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Kenji; Takamizawa, Toshiki; Barkmeier, Wayne W; Tsubota, Keishi; Tsujimoto, Akimasa; Berry, Thomas P; Erickson, Robert L; Latta, Mark A; Miyazaki, Masashi

    2016-02-01

    The present study aimed to determine the effect of the functional monomer, 10-methacryloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (MDP), on the enamel bond durability of single-step self-etch adhesives through integrating fatigue testing and long-term water storage. An MDP-containing self-etch adhesive, Clearfil Bond SE ONE (SE), and an experimental adhesive, MDP-free (MF), which comprised the same ingredients as SE apart from MDP, were used. Shear bond strength (SBS) and shear fatigue strength (SFS) were measured with or without phosphoric acid pre-etching. The specimens were stored in distilled water for 24 h, 6 months, or 1 yr. Although similar SBS and SFS values were obtained for SE with pre-etching and for MF after 24 h of storage in distilled water, SE with pre-etching showed higher SBS and SFS values than MF after storage in water for 6 months or 1 yr. Regardless of the pre-etching procedure, SE showed higher SBS and SFS values after 6 months of storage in distilled water than after 24 h or 1 yr. To conclude, MDP might play an important role in enhancing not only bond strength but also bond durability with respect to repeated subcritical loading after long-term water storage. © 2015 Eur J Oral Sci.

  1. 75 FR 9247 - Single Family Mortgage Insurance Premium, Single Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Single Family Mortgage Insurance Premium, Single Family AGENCY: Office of the Chief... the Single Family Premium Collection Subsystem-Upfront (SFPCS-U) to remit the upfront premium to... manage and process upfront single family mortgage insurance premium collections and corrections to submit...

  2. Single frequency semiconductor lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Zujie; Chen, Gaoting; Qu, Ronghui

    2017-01-01

    This book systematically introduces the single frequency semiconductor laser, which is widely used in many vital advanced technologies, such as the laser cooling of atoms and atomic clock, high-precision measurements and spectroscopy, coherent optical communications, and advanced optical sensors. It presents both the fundamentals and characteristics of semiconductor lasers, including basic F-P structure and monolithic integrated structures; interprets laser noises and their measurements; and explains mechanisms and technologies relating to the main aspects of single frequency lasers, including external cavity lasers, frequency stabilization technologies, frequency sweeping, optical phase locked loops, and so on. It paints a clear, physical picture of related technologies and reviews new developments in the field as well. It will be a useful reference to graduate students, researchers, and engineers in the field.

  3. Watching single molecules dance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Amit Dinesh

    Molecular motors convert chemical energy, from ATP hydrolysis or ion flow, into mechanical motion. A variety of increasingly precise mechanical probes have been developed to monitor and perturb these motors at the single molecule level. Several outstanding questions can be best approached at the single molecule level. These include: how far does a motor progress per energy quanta consumed? how does its reaction cycle respond to load? how many productive catalytic cycles can it undergo per diffusional encounter with its track? and what is the mechanical stiffness of a single molecule connection? A dual beam optical trap, in conjunction with in vitro ensemble motility assays, has been used to characterize two members of the myosin superfamily: muscle myosin II and chick brain myosin V. Both move the helical polymer actin, but myosin II acts in large ensembles to drive muscle contraction or cytokinesis, while myosin V acts in small numbers to transport vesicles. An optical trapping apparatus was rendered sufficiently precise to identify a myosin working stroke with 1nm or so, barring systematic errors such as those perhaps due to random protein orientations. This and other light microscopic motility assays were used to characterize myosin V: unlike myosin II this vesicle transport protein moves through many increments of travel while remaining strongly bound to a single actin filament. The step size, stall force, and travel distance of myosin V reveal a remarkably efficient motor capable of moving along a helical track for over a micrometer without significantly spiraling around it. Such properties are fully consistent with the putative role of an organelle transport motor, present in small numbers to maintain movement over long ranges relative to cellular size scales. The contrast between myosin II and myosin V resembles that between a human running on the moon and one walking on earth, where the former allows for faster motion when in larger ensembles but for less

  4. Single Bunch Monopole Instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podobedov, B.; Heifets, S.; /SLAC

    2005-09-12

    We study single bunch stability with respect to monopole longitudinal oscillations in electron storage rings. Our analysis is different from the standard approach based on the linearized Vlasov equation. Rather, we reduce the full nonlinear Fokker-Planck equation to a Schroedinger-like equation which is subsequently analyzed by perturbation theory. We show that the Haissinski solution [3] may become unstable with respect to monopole oscillations and derive a stability criterion in terms of the ring impedance.

  5. Single port access adrenalectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellucci, Sean A; Curcillo, Paul G; Ginsberg, Phillip C; Saba, Salim C; Jaffe, Jamison S; Harmon, Justin D

    2008-08-01

    To report the first single port access (SPA) adrenalectomy to minimize patient discomfort through a less invasive procedure. We performed the first SPA in a 63-year-old, otherwise healthy Caucasian female who had a 4.5-cm left adrenal mass that was incidentally discovered on computed tomography scan of the abdomen and pelvis. Through a 2-cm single longitudinal supraumbilical incision extended down to the abdominal fascia, three 5-mm ports were placed through separate facial entry points, to make a triangular port arrangement. The adrenal vein was identified and ligated using hemoclips. The remainder of the dissection was done using hemocoagulation. The adrenal gland was extracted via an EndoCatch bag device by removing one 5-mm port and upsizing to a 12-mm port. We report on the first SPA adrenalectomy. Although this technology is still in its infancy, the use of a single port for surgery provides a means to provide a potentially better patient outcome with a less invasive procedure.

  6. Uniform Single Valued Neutrosophic Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Broumi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a new concept named the uniform single valued neutrosophic graph. An illustrative example and some properties are examined. Next, we develop an algorithmic approach for computing the complement of the single valued neutrosophic graph. A numerical example is demonstrated for computing the complement of single valued neutrosophic graphs and uniform single valued neutrosophic graph.

  7. [Single umbilical artery (SUA)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staribratova, D; Belovezhdov, V; Milchev, N; Batashki, I; Apiosjan, Zh

    2010-01-01

    Single umbilical artery (SUA) is the most common abnormality of the umbilical cord. It is associated with an increased incidence of atresia of hollow organs, renal abnormalities, limb reduction defects and spontaneous abortions. The aim of our study is to establish the association of SUA with types of malformations and the corresponding pathology of pregnancy and parturition. Although our investigation is in proof of the association of SUA with anomalies of GIT, CCS and CNS, most of our cases exhibit circulatory disturbances leading to pathology of pregnancy and delivery.

  8. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Claus; Pereira, Vania; Andersen, Jeppe Dyrberg

    2014-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most frequent DNA sequence variations in the genome. They have been studied extensively in the last decade with various purposes in mind. In this chapter, we will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using SNPs for human identification...... technologies (also called next generation sequencing or NGS) have the potential to completely transform forensic genetic investigations as we know them today. Here, we will make a short introduction to NGS and explain how NGS may combine analysis of the traditional forensic genetic markers with analysis...

  9. Single molecule logical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Nicolas; Hliwa, Mohamed; Joachim, Christian

    2012-01-01

    After almost 40 years of development, molecular electronics has given birth to many exciting ideas that range from molecular wires to molecular qubit-based quantum computers. This chapter reviews our efforts to answer a simple question: how smart can a single molecule be? In our case a molecule able to perform a simple Boolean function is a child prodigy. Following the Aviram and Ratner approach, these molecules are inserted between several conducting electrodes. The electronic conduction of the resulting molecular junction is extremely sensitive to the chemical nature of the molecule. Therefore designing this latter correctly allows the implementation of a given function inside the molecular junction. Throughout the chapter different approaches are reviewed, from hybrid devices to quantum molecular logic gates. We particularly stress that one can implement an entire logic circuit in a single molecule, using either classical-like intramolecular connections, or a deformation of the molecular orbitals induced by a conformational change of the molecule. These approaches are radically different from the hybrid-device approach, where several molecules are connected together to build the circuit.

  10. Lanthanide single molecule magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Jinkui; Zhang, Peng [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun (China). Changchun Inst. of Applied Chemistry

    2015-10-01

    This book begins by providing basic information on single-molecule magnets (SMMs), covering the magnetism of lanthanide, the characterization and relaxation dynamics of SMMs and advanced means of studying lanthanide SMMs. It then systematically introduces lanthanide SMMs ranging from mononuclear and dinuclear to polynuclear complexes, classifying them and highlighting those SMMs with high barrier and blocking temperatures - an approach that provides some very valuable indicators for the structural features needed to optimize the contribution of an Ising type spin to a molecular magnet. The final chapter presents some of the newest developments in the lanthanide SMM field, such as the design of multifunctional and stimuli-responsive magnetic materials as well as the anchoring and organization of the SMMs on surfaces. In addition, the crystal structure and magnetic data are clearly presented with a wealth of illustrations in each chapter, helping newcomers and experts alike to better grasp ongoing trends and explore new directions.

  11. Single-Axis Accelerometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Dennis Stephen (Inventor); Capo-Lugo, Pedro A. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A single-axis accelerometer includes a housing defining a sleeve. An object/mass is disposed in the sleeve for sliding movement therein in a direction aligned with the sleeve's longitudinal axis. A first piezoelectric strip, attached to a first side of the object and to the housing, is longitudinally aligned with the sleeve's longitudinal axis. The first piezoelectric strip includes a first strip of a piezoelectric material with carbon nanotubes substantially aligned along a length thereof. A second piezoelectric strip, attached to a second side of the object and to the housing, is longitudinally aligned with the sleeve's longitudinal axis. The second piezoelectric strip includes a second strip of the piezoelectric material with carbon nanotubes substantially aligned along a length thereof. A voltage sensor is electrically coupled to at least one of the first and second piezoelectric strips.

  12. Isotropic Single Negative Metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Protiva

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of simple, and therefore cheap, planar resonators for building 3D isotropic metamaterials. These resonators are: a broadside-coupled split ring resonator with a magnetic response providing negative permeability; an electric dipole terminated by a loop inductor together with a double H-shaped resonator with an electric response providing negative permittivity. Two kinds of 3D isotropic single negative metamaterials are reported. The first material consists of unit cells in the form of a cube bearing on its faces six equal planar resonators with tetrahedral symmetry. In the second material, the planar resonators boxed into spherical plastic shells and randomly distributed in a hosting material compose a real 3D volumetric metamaterial with an isotropic response. In both cases the metamaterial shows negative permittivity or permeability, according to the type of resonators that are used. The experiments prove the isotropic behavior of the cells and of the metamaterial specimens.

  13. Single Cell Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neveu, Pierre; Sinha, Deepak Kumar; Kettunen, Petronella; Vriz, Sophie; Jullien, Ludovic; Bensimon, David

    The possibility to control at specific times and specific places the activity of biomolecules (enzymes, transcription factors, RNA, hormones, etc.) is opening up new opportunities in the study of physiological processes at the single cell level in a live organism. Most existing gene expression systems allow for tissue specific induction upon feeding the organism with exogenous inducers (e.g., tetracycline). Local genetic control has earlier been achieved by micro-injection of the relevant inducer/repressor molecule, but this is an invasive and possibly traumatic technique. In this chapter, we present the requirements for a noninvasive optical control of the activity of biomolecules and review the recent advances in this new field of research.

  14. Lanthanide single molecule magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Jinkui

    2015-01-01

    This book begins by providing basic information on single-molecule magnets (SMMs), covering the magnetism of lanthanide, the characterization and relaxation dynamics of SMMs, and advanced means of studying lanthanide SMMs. It then systematically introduces lanthanide SMMs ranging from mononuclear and dinuclear to polynuclear complexes, classifying them and highlighting those SMMs with high barrier and blocking temperatures – an approach that provides some very valuable indicators for the structural features needed to optimize the contribution of an Ising type spin to a molecular magnet. The final chapter presents some of the newest developments in the lanthanide SMM field, such as the design of multifunctional and stimuli-responsive magnetic materials as well as the anchoring and organization of the SMMs on surfaces. In addition, the crystal structure and magnetic data are clearly presented with a wealth of illustrations in each chapter, helping newcomers and experts alike to better grasp ongoing trends and...

  15. Regular Single Valued Neutrosophic Hypergraphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aslam Malik

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we define the regular and totally regular single valued neutrosophic hypergraphs, and discuss the order and size along with properties of regular and totally regular single valued neutrosophic hypergraphs. We also extend work on completeness of single valued neutrosophic hypergraphs.

  16. Single Sex Education. WEEA Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Diane S.

    Title IX of the Educational Amendments of 1972 prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex in educational institutions that receive federal financial assistance. This digest focuses on the theme of single-sex education. Articles featured in this issue include: (1) "Single-Sex Education" (Diane S. Pollard); (2) "A Legal Framework for Single-Sex…

  17. A single particle energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodmer, A.R. [Illinois Univ., Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Physics]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Usmani, Q.N.; Sami, M. [Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi (India). Dept. of Physics

    1993-09-01

    We consider the binding energies of {Lambda} hypernuclei (HN), in particular the single-particle (s.p.) energy data, which have been obtained for a wide range of HN with mass numbers A {le} 89 and for orbital angular momenta {ell}{sub {Lambda}} {le} 4. We briefly review some of the relevant properties of A hypernuclei. These are nuclei {sub {Lambda}}{sup A}Z with baryon number A in which a single {Lambda} hyperon (baryon number = 1) is bound to an ordinary nucleus {sup A}Z consisting of A - 1 nucleons = Z protons + N neutrons. The {Lambda} hyperon is neutral, has spin 1/2, strangeness S = {minus}1, isospin I = O and a mass M{sub {Lambda}} = 1116 MeV/c{sup 2}. Although the {Lambda} interacts with a nucleon, its interaction is only about half as strong as that between two nucleons, and thus very roughly V{sub {Lambda}N} {approx} 0.5 V{sub NN}. As a result, the two-body {Lambda}N system is unbound, and the lightest bound HN is the three-body hypertriton {sub {Lambda}}{sup 3}H in which the {Lambda} is bound to a deuteron with the {Lambda}-d separation energy being only {approx} 0.1 MeV corresponding to an exponential tail of radius {approx} 15 fm! In strong interactions the strangeness S is of course conserved, and the {Lambda} is distinct from the nucleons. In a HN strangeness changes only in the weak decays of the {Lambda} which can decay either via ``free`` pionic decay {Lambda} {yields} N + {pi} or via induced decay {Lambda} + N {yields} N + N which is only possible in the presence of nucleons. Because of the small energy release the pionic decay is strongly suppressed in all but the lightest HN and the induced decay dominates. However, the weak decay lifetime {approx} 10{sup {minus}10}s is in fact close to the lifetime of a free {Lambda}. Since this is much longer than the strong interaction time {approx} 10{sup {minus}22}s we can ignore the weak interactions when considering the binding of HN, just as for ordinary nuclei.

  18. Single Actin Bundle Rheology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strehle, Dan; Mollenkopf, Paul; Glaser, Martin; Golde, Tom; Schuldt, Carsten; Käs, Josef A; Schnauß, Jörg

    2017-10-24

    Bundled actin structures play an essential role in the mechanical response of the actin cytoskeleton in eukaryotic cells. Although responsible for crucial cellular processes, they are rarely investigated in comparison to single filaments and isotropic networks. Presenting a highly anisotropic structure, the determination of the mechanical properties of individual bundles was previously achieved through passive approaches observing bending deformations induced by thermal fluctuations. We present a new method to determine the bending stiffness of individual bundles, by measuring the decay of an actively induced oscillation. This approach allows us to systematically test anisotropic, bundled structures. Our experiments revealed that thin, depletion force-induced bundles behave as semiflexible polymers and obey the theoretical predictions determined by the wormlike chain model. Thickening an individual bundle by merging it with other bundles enabled us to study effects that are solely based on the number of involved filaments. These thicker bundles showed a frequency-dependent bending stiffness, a behavior that is inconsistent with the predictions of the wormlike chain model. We attribute this effect to internal processes and give a possible explanation with regard to the wormlike bundle theory.

  19. Single Actin Bundle Rheology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Strehle

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Bundled actin structures play an essential role in the mechanical response of the actin cytoskeleton in eukaryotic cells. Although responsible for crucial cellular processes, they are rarely investigated in comparison to single filaments and isotropic networks. Presenting a highly anisotropic structure, the determination of the mechanical properties of individual bundles was previously achieved through passive approaches observing bending deformations induced by thermal fluctuations. We present a new method to determine the bending stiffness of individual bundles, by measuring the decay of an actively induced oscillation. This approach allows us to systematically test anisotropic, bundled structures. Our experiments revealed that thin, depletion force-induced bundles behave as semiflexible polymers and obey the theoretical predictions determined by the wormlike chain model. Thickening an individual bundle by merging it with other bundles enabled us to study effects that are solely based on the number of involved filaments. These thicker bundles showed a frequency-dependent bending stiffness, a behavior that is inconsistent with the predictions of the wormlike chain model. We attribute this effect to internal processes and give a possible explanation with regard to the wormlike bundle theory.

  20. Advances in single chain technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Burgos, Marina; Latorre-Sanchez, Alejandro; Pomposo, José A

    2015-10-07

    The recent ability to manipulate and visualize single atoms at atomic level has given rise to modern bottom-up nanotechnology. Similar exquisite degree of control at the individual polymeric chain level for producing functional soft nanoentities is expected to become a reality in the next few years through the full development of so-called "single chain technology". Ultra-small unimolecular soft nano-objects endowed with useful, autonomous and smart functions are the expected, long-term valuable output of single chain technology. This review covers the recent advances in single chain technology for the construction of soft nano-objects via chain compaction, with an emphasis in dynamic, letter-shaped and compositionally unsymmetrical single rings, complex multi-ring systems, single chain nanoparticles, tadpoles, dumbbells and hairpins, as well as the potential end-use applications of individual soft nano-objects endowed with useful functions in catalysis, sensing, drug delivery and other uses.

  1. Single wheel testers, single track testers, and instrumented tractors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Single wheel testers and single track testers are used for determining tractive performance characteristics of tires and tracks. Instrumented tractors are useful in determining the tractive performance of tractors. These machines are also used for determining soil-tire and soil-track interactions,...

  2. Microstructural Differences in the SCCG, ICCG HAZs of SA 508 Gr. 3 and 4N Low Alloy Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ki Hyoung; Wee, Dang Moon [KAIST, Advanced High Temperature Materials LAb., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yoon Sun; Kim, Min Chul; Lee, Bong Sang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    Microstructural changes, such as a grain coarsening, carbide precipitation and martensite formation, in the heat-affected zones (HAZ) of low alloy steels as in a nuclear pressure vessel generally occur and induce a deterioration of the toughness and an increase of the sensitivity to brittle fracture. Metallographic analyses of low alloy steel welds reveal considerably different regions in HAZ microstructures. In 2-pass welds, they could be categorized as seven characteristic regions that are determined by the peak temperature in the HAZ during weld thermal cycle: a coarse-grained region, a fine-grained region, an intercritical region, and subcritical region. The coarse-grained region can be categorized into four regions that are determined by the reheating temperature as follows : an unaltered coarse-grained zone (UCGHAZ), a supercritically reheated coarse-grained zone (SCRCGHAZ), an intercritically reheated coarse-grained zone (ICCGHAZ), and an subcritically reheated coarse-grained zone (SCCGHAZ). The purpose of this study is to investigate the differences of the microstructure and mechanical properties in the sub-HAZ of SA508 Gr.3 and 4N low alloy steels. From these results, the cause of a toughness degradation in the ICCG, SCCG HAZs of SA508 Gr. 3 and 4N is discussed.

  3. Single top t-channel

    CERN Document Server

    Faltermann, Nils

    2017-01-01

    The production of single top quarks allows to study the interplay of top quark physics and the electroweak sector of the standard model. Deviations from predictions can be a hint for physics beyond the standard model. The t-channel is the dominant production mode for single top quarks at the LHC. This talk presents the latest measurements from the ATLAS and CMS collaborations.

  4. Quantum transport through single molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osorio Oliveros, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis describes three-terminal transport measurements through single molecules. The interest in this field stems from the dream that single molecules will form the building blocks for future nanoscale electronic devices. The advantages are their small size -nanometers-, and their synthetic

  5. Single-Gender Schools Scrutinized

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrzycki, Jaclyn

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a study on publicly run schools in the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago which has found that, while single-sex schools may benefit female students who prefer a single-sex environment, they are not inherently beneficial for boys or most girls. While the findings are based on data from one Caribbean nation, experts say they…

  6. Single molecule electronics and devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Makusu; Taniguchi, Masateru

    2012-01-01

    The manufacture of integrated circuits with single-molecule building blocks is a goal of molecular electronics. While research in the past has been limited to bulk experiments on self-assembled monolayers, advances in technology have now enabled us to fabricate single-molecule junctions. This has led to significant progress in understanding electron transport in molecular systems at the single-molecule level and the concomitant emergence of new device concepts. Here, we review recent developments in this field. We summarize the methods currently used to form metal-molecule-metal structures and some single-molecule techniques essential for characterizing molecular junctions such as inelastic electron tunnelling spectroscopy. We then highlight several important achievements, including demonstration of single-molecule diodes, transistors, and switches that make use of electrical, photo, and mechanical stimulation to control the electron transport. We also discuss intriguing issues to be addressed further in the future such as heat and thermoelectric transport in an individual molecule.

  7. Single photon source characterization with a superconducting single photon detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadfield, Robert H; Stevens, Martin J; Gruber, Steven S; Miller, Aaron J; Schwall, Robert E; Mirin, Richard P; Nam, Sae Woo

    2005-12-26

    Superconducting single photon detectors (SSPD) based on nanopatterned niobium nitride wires offer single photon counting at fast rates, low jitter, and low dark counts, from visible wavelengths well into the infrared. We demonstrate the first use of an SSPD, packaged in a commercial cryocooler, for single photon source characterization. The source is an optically pumped, microcavity-coupled InGaAs quantum dot, emitting single photons at 902 nm. The SSPD replaces the second silicon Avalanche Photodiode (APD) in a Hanbury-Brown Twiss interferometer measurement of the source second-order correlation function, g(2)( ?). The detection efficiency of the superconducting detector system is >2 % (coupling losses included). The SSPD system electronics jitter is 170 ps, versus 550 ps for the APD unit, allowing the source spontaneous emission lifetime to be measured with improved resolution.

  8. Single banking supervision and the single supervisory mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe, C. A.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A resolution seems to have been found for the banking crisis. The first steps have been made towards the construction of the Economic and Monetary Union, steps involving the single supervision of banks, in order to avoid the discount of a new financial crisis on the expense of the EU state members. The Single Supervisory Mechanism – SSM is to become effective as of March 1, 2014, at the earliest.

  9. Do single women value early retirement more than single men?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danø, Anne Møller; Ejrnæs, Mette; Husted, Leif

    2005-01-01

    and health are important determinants of the retirement decision. Furthermore, we find substantial gender differences in the retirement pattern. Healthy single women value retirement more than healthy single men and are willing to reduce their disposable income to 74% of their previous income while men...... are willing to reduce the income to 81%. Men's retirement decision is mainly influenced by income and health, whereas women's retirement decision is also affected by education and unemployment experience...

  10. CERN Single Sign On Solution

    CERN Document Server

    Ormancey, Emmanuel

    2008-01-01

    The need for Single Sign On has always been restricted by the absence of cross platform solutions: a single sign on working only on one platform or technology is nearly useless. The recent improvements in Web Services Federation (WS-Federation) standard enabling federation of identity, attribute, authentication and authorization information can now provide real extended Single Sign On solutions. Various solutions have been investigated at CERN and now, a Web SSO solution using some parts of WS-Federation technology is available. Using the Shibboleth Service Provider module for Apache hosted web sites and Microsoft ADFS as the identity provider linked to Active Directory user, users can now authenticate on any web application using a single authentication platform, providing identity, user information (building, phone...) as well as group membership enabling authorization possibilities. A typical scenario: a CERN user can now authenticate on a Linux/Apache website using Windows Integrated credentials, and his ...

  11. Fluorescence Microscopy of Single Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Jan; van Dorp, Arthur; Renn, Alois

    2004-01-01

    The investigation of photochemistry and photophysics of individual quantum systems is described with the help of a wide-field fluorescence microscopy approach. The fluorescence single molecules are observed in real time.

  12. Single Cell Electrical Characterization Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Asraf Mansor

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Electrical properties of living cells have been proven to play significant roles in understanding of various biological activities including disease progression both at the cellular and molecular levels. Since two decades ago, many researchers have developed tools to analyze the cell’s electrical states especially in single cell analysis (SCA. In depth analysis and more fully described activities of cell differentiation and cancer can only be accomplished with single cell analysis. This growing interest was supported by the emergence of various microfluidic techniques to fulfill high precisions screening, reduced equipment cost and low analysis time for characterization of the single cell’s electrical properties, as compared to classical bulky technique. This paper presents a historical review of single cell electrical properties analysis development from classical techniques to recent advances in microfluidic techniques. Technical details of the different microfluidic techniques are highlighted, and the advantages and limitations of various microfluidic devices are discussed.

  13. Single Cell Electrical Characterization Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansor, Muhammad Asraf; Ahmad, Mohd Ridzuan

    2015-06-04

    Electrical properties of living cells have been proven to play significant roles in understanding of various biological activities including disease progression both at the cellular and molecular levels. Since two decades ago, many researchers have developed tools to analyze the cell's electrical states especially in single cell analysis (SCA). In depth analysis and more fully described activities of cell differentiation and cancer can only be accomplished with single cell analysis. This growing interest was supported by the emergence of various microfluidic techniques to fulfill high precisions screening, reduced equipment cost and low analysis time for characterization of the single cell's electrical properties, as compared to classical bulky technique. This paper presents a historical review of single cell electrical properties analysis development from classical techniques to recent advances in microfluidic techniques. Technical details of the different microfluidic techniques are highlighted, and the advantages and limitations of various microfluidic devices are discussed.

  14. Single-employer Pension Plans

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation — This spreadsheet lists the active single-employer pensions plans insured by PBGC. Plans are identified by name, employer identification number (EIN) and plan number...

  15. Microfluidics for single cell analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Marie Pødenphant

    Isolation and manipulation of single cells have gained an increasing interest from researchers because of the heterogeneity of cells from the same cell culture. Single cell analysis can ensure a better understanding of differences between individual cells and potentially solve a variety of clinical...... problems. In this thesis lab on a chip systems for rare single cell analysis are investigated. The focus was to develop a commercial, disposable device for circulating tumour cell (CTC) analysis. Such a device must be able to separate rare cells from blood samples and subsequently capture the specific...... cells, and simultaneously be fabricated and operated at low costs and be user-friendly. These challenges were addressed through development of two microfluidic devices, one for rare cell isolation based on pinched flow fractionation (PFF) and one for single cell capture based on hydrodynamic trapping...

  16. Spectroscopy of single silicon nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J.; Cichos, F.; Borczyskowski, C. von E-mail: borczyskowski@physik.tu-chemnitz.de

    2004-06-01

    Confocal microscopy has been performed on silicon nanoparticles prepared by gas-phase methods and electrochemical etching (single particles), respectively. Spectral line narrowing has been obtained for single particles. Spectra are in agreement with interstellar extended red emission (ERE) when properly choosing size distributions. Independent of preparation techniques, both types show similar behaviour with respect to (partly reversible in the dark) photobleaching accompanied by spectral red shifts on timescales of seconds upon 514 nm laser irradiation.

  17. Special Issue: Single Molecule Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Hans H. Gorris

    2015-01-01

    Technological advances in the detection and manipulation of single molecules have enabled new insights into the function, structure and interactions of biomolecules. This Special Issue was launched to account for the rapid progress in the field of “Single Molecule Techniques”. Four original research articles and seven review articles provide an introduction, as well as an in-depth discussion, of technical developments that are indispensable for the characterization of individual biomolecules....

  18. Single nanoparticle tracking spectroscopic microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haw [Moraga, CA; Cang, Hu [Berkeley, CA; Xu, Cangshan [Berkeley, CA; Wong, Chung M [San Gabriel, CA

    2011-07-19

    A system that can maintain and track the position of a single nanoparticle in three dimensions for a prolonged period has been disclosed. The system allows for continuously imaging the particle to observe any interactions it may have. The system also enables the acquisition of real-time sequential spectroscopic information from the particle. The apparatus holds great promise in performing single molecule spectroscopy and imaging on a non-stationary target.

  19. Single-tier city logistics model for single product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saragih, N. I.; Nur Bahagia, S.; Suprayogi; Syabri, I.

    2017-11-01

    This research develops single-tier city logistics model which consists of suppliers, UCCs, and retailers. The problem that will be answered in this research is how to determine the location of UCCs, to allocate retailers to opened UCCs, to assign suppliers to opened UCCs, to control inventory in the three entities involved, and to determine the route of the vehicles from opened UCCs to retailers. This model has never been developed before. All the decisions will be simultaneously optimized. Characteristic of the demand is probabilistic following a normal distribution, and the number of product is single.

  20. Single particle tracking and single molecule energy transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Bräuchle, Christoph; Michaelis, Jens

    2009-01-01

    Closing a gap in the literature, this handbook gathers all the information on single particle tracking and single molecule energy transfer. It covers all aspects of this hot and modern topic, from detecting virus entry to membrane diffusion, and from protein folding using spFRET to coupled dye systems, as well recent achievements in the field. Throughout, the first-class editors and top international authors present content of the highest quality, making this a must-have for physical chemists, spectroscopists, molecular physicists and biochemists.

  1. Single Molecule Electronics and Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Makusu; Taniguchi, Masateru

    2012-01-01

    The manufacture of integrated circuits with single-molecule building blocks is a goal of molecular electronics. While research in the past has been limited to bulk experiments on self-assembled monolayers, advances in technology have now enabled us to fabricate single-molecule junctions. This has led to significant progress in understanding electron transport in molecular systems at the single-molecule level and the concomitant emergence of new device concepts. Here, we review recent developments in this field. We summarize the methods currently used to form metal-molecule-metal structures and some single-molecule techniques essential for characterizing molecular junctions such as inelastic electron tunnelling spectroscopy. We then highlight several important achievements, including demonstration of single-molecule diodes, transistors, and switches that make use of electrical, photo, and mechanical stimulation to control the electron transport. We also discuss intriguing issues to be addressed further in the future such as heat and thermoelectric transport in an individual molecule. PMID:22969345

  2. AB008. Single port subsegmentectomy: experience of single institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chao-Chun; Chen, Ying-Yuan; Huang, Wei-Li; Yen, Yi-Ting; Lin, Tzu-Hung; Tseng, Yau-Lin

    2017-01-01

    Background For benign lesion and early stage lung cancer, the current trend is precise resection with more preservation of pulmonary function. In this study, we reviewed the perioperative date and outcome of single port subsegmentectomy in our hospital. Methods The patients who received single port subsegmentectomy from 2015/05 to 2017/09 were all included. Patients’ characteristics (age, gender), perioperative data (operative time, blood loss, intraoperative complication), and outcomes (recovery period, postoperative complication, mortality, disease free survival and overall survival of primary lung cancer) were all collected. Results There were 38 patients receiving single port subsegmentectomy in our hospital. The mean age was 63.1 years old, mean operative time was 172.2 minutes, mean blood loss was 39.5 cc, and the mean duration of chest tube placement was 2.8 days. There was no intraoperative complication or conversion. One patient had prolonged air leak (n=1, 2.6%), and another patient had bronchopleural fistula (n=1, 2.6%) who received completion lobectomy later. No recurrence or mortality developed in the 22 patients with primary lung cancer. Conclusions Single port subsegmentectomy is safe and provide precise resection for the small lung lesion. Preoperative 3D CT reconstruction helps to establish detailed surgical plan and improve surgical safety.

  3. Resolution of Single Spin Flips of a Single Proton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooser, A.; Kracke, H.; Blaum, K.; Bräuninger, S. A.; Franke, K.; Leiteritz, C.; Quint, W.; Rodegheri, C. C.; Ulmer, S.; Walz, J.

    2013-04-01

    The spin magnetic moment of a single proton in a cryogenic Penning trap was coupled to the particle’s axial motion with a superimposed magnetic bottle. Jumps in the oscillation frequency indicate spin flips and were identified using a Bayesian analysis.

  4. Resolution of Single Spin-Flips of a Single Proton

    CERN Document Server

    Mooser, A.; Blaum, K.; Bräuninger, S.A.; Franke, K.; Leiteritz, C.; Quint, W.; Rodegheri, C.C.; Ulmer, S.; Walz, J.

    2013-04-04

    The spin magnetic moment of a single proton in a cryogenic Penning trap was coupled to the particle's axial motion with a superimposed magnetic bottle. Jumps in the oscillation frequency indicate spin-flips and were identified using a Bayesian analysis.

  5. Single-cell force spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helenius, Jonne; Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp; Gaub, Hermann E; Muller, Daniel J

    2008-06-01

    The controlled adhesion of cells to each other and to the extracellular matrix is crucial for tissue development and maintenance. Numerous assays have been developed to quantify cell adhesion. Among these, the use of atomic force microscopy (AFM) for single-cell force spectroscopy (SCFS) has recently been established. This assay permits the adhesion of living cells to be studied in near-physiological conditions. This implementation of AFM allows unrivaled spatial and temporal control of cells, as well as highly quantitative force actuation and force measurement that is sufficiently sensitive to characterize the interaction of single molecules. Therefore, not only overall cell adhesion but also the properties of single adhesion-receptor-ligand interactions can be studied. Here we describe current implementations and applications of SCFS, as well as potential pitfalls, and outline how developments will provide insight into the forces, energetics and kinetics of cell-adhesion processes.

  6. From joint to single audits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus; Thinggaard, Frank

    2017-01-01

    This study analyses audit quality differences between audits by a single big audit firm and joint audits with either one or two big audit firms. We exploit the unique situation in Denmark beginning on 1 January 2005, at which time a long-standing mandatory joint audit system for listed companies...... was replaced by a voluntary joint audit system. First, we report the results of a survey of Danish CFOs’ views on and their experiences with the choice of single or joint audits and their perceptions of audit quality. Second, based on data from the mandatory joint audit abolition year and the following two...... years, we test the audit quality differences using abnormal accruals. Most CFOs perceive that audit quality by a single big four audit firm is the same as it is in joint audits with either one or two big four audit firms. The results of our empirical analysis are in line with the perceptions. We find...

  7. Polyamide 6 single polymer composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Combining the two basic techniques used for the preparation of single polymer composites (SPCs, hot compaction and film stacking, a polyamide 6 (PA 6 single polymer composite was manufactured. The starting materials were PA 6 high tenacity yarn (reinforcement and PA 6 film prepared via melt quenching (matrix, both expected to be the two principal polymorphic modifications of PA 6 and thus differing in their melting temperatures. The prepared single polymer composite is characterized by a layered structure and shows superior mechanical properties due to the good wetting – tensile modulus is improved by 200% and the ultimate tensile strength – by 300–400% as compared to the isotropic matrix film. Improvement of the interfacial adhesion via transreactions promoted by Sb2O3 as a catalyst was also undertaken.

  8. Single liner shipping service design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Christian Edinger Munk; Pisinger, David; Salazar-González, Juan-José

    2014-01-01

    demand under commercially driven constraints. This paper introduces the Single Liner Shipping Service Design Problem. Arc-flow and path-flow models are presented using state-of-the-art elements from the wide literature on pickup and delivery problems. A Branch-and-Cut-and-Price algorithm is proposed......The design of container shipping networks is an important logistics problem, involving assets and operational costs measured in billions of dollars. To guide the optimal deployment of the ships, a single vessel round trip is considered by minimizing operational costs and flowing the best paying...

  9. Single top prospects at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Cristinziani, Markus

    2008-01-01

    Single top quark processes are interesting as direct probes of the $Wtb$ vertex, and are also an important background in searches of the Higgs boson and beyond the standard model physics. Both ATLAS and CMS have performed studies with simulated data to estimate the expected uncertainty on the production cross section measurements of the three single top processes ($t$-channel, s-channel, $tW$ production) in the first years of LHC operations. Results in the different channels and for the two experiments are reported.

  10. Health Insurance without Single Crossing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boone, Jan; Schottmüller, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    Standard insurance models predict that people with high risks have high insurance coverage. It is empirically documented that people with high income have lower health risks and are better insured. We show that income differences between risk types lead to a violation of single crossing...... in an insurance model where people choose treatment intensity. We analyse different market structures and show the following: If insurers have market power, the violation of single crossing caused by income differences and endogenous treatment choice can explain the empirically observed outcome. Our results do...

  11. Single Cell Isolation and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Hu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence shows that the heterogeneity of individual cells within a genetically identical population can be critical to their peculiar function and fate. Conventional cell based assays mainly analysis the average responses from a population cells, while the difference within individual cells may often be masked. The cell size, RNA transcripts and protein expression level are quite different within individual cells and these variations are key point to answer the problems in cancer, neurobiology, stem cell biology, immunology and developmental biology. To better understand the cell-to-cell variations, the single cell analysis can provide much more detailed information which may be helpful for therapeutic decisions in an increasingly personalized medicine. In this review, we will focus on the recent development in single cell analysis, including methods used in single cell isolation, analysis and some application examples. The review provides the historical background to single cell analysis, discusses limitations, and current and future possibilities in this exciting field of research.

  12. Single chirality through crystal grinding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noorduin, W.L.

    2010-01-01

    The properties of chiral molecules in living organisms can be different for left- and right-handed molecules. Therefore, ways to produce molecules of single handedness are of paramount importance, especially for economical, high yielding processes to synthesize pharmaceutical compounds that must be

  13. Adverse selection without single crossing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schottmüller, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    solutions in a screening model that allows a one-time violation of single crossing. The results show that local and non-local incentive constraints distort the solution in opposite directions. Therefore, the optimal decision might involve distortions above as well as below the first-best decision...

  14. Prospects of Single Tax Payers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tofan Ivan M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article speaks about problem aspects of taxation, which were set by the state for the single tax administering due to permanent and system changes in the tax legislation. It shows the necessity of search for alternative methods of administering in the process of taxation of single tax payers by fiscal services. The goal of the article is the study of prospects of further taxation of entrepreneurs – single tax payers on the basis of analysis of conditions and principles created by the state for the business. The article used methods of system analysis, comparison, forecasting and modelling. It analyses the process of evolution of the simplified taxation system, accounting and reporting from the moment of its adoption until today. The article presents the structure of the quantitative composition of single tax payers depending on the selected groups. It marks out and characterises administrative and fiscal factors that do not facilitate further development of entrepreneurship in Ukraine. In the result of the conducted studies the article outlines problem aspects of organisation of taxation of the small business and offers specific and real ways of their overcoming or partial solution.

  15. Single-mode optical fibres

    CERN Document Server

    Cancellieri, G

    1991-01-01

    This book describes signal propagation in single-mode optical fibres for telecommunication applications. Such description is based on the analysis of field propagation, considering waveguide properties and also some of the particular characteristics of the material fibre. The book covers such recent advances as, coherent transmissions; optical amplification; MIR fibres; polarization maintaining; polarization diversity and photon counting.

  16. Hedging Double Barriers with Singles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sbuelz, A.

    2000-01-01

    Double barrier options provide risk managers with good-deal flexibility in tailoring portfolio returns.Their hedges offer full protection only if unwound along the barriers.This work provides non-dynamic hedges that project the risk of double barriers on to single barriers.Non-dynamic hedges

  17. Job Displacement Among Single Mothers:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Jennie E.; Thomas, Juli Simon

    2015-01-01

    Given the recent era of economic upheaval, studying the effects of job displacement has seldom been so timely and consequential. Despite a large literature associating displacement with worker well-being, relatively few studies focus on the effects of parental displacement on child well-being, and fewer still focus on implications for children of single parent households. Moreover, notwithstanding a large literature on the relationship between single motherhood and children’s outcomes, research on intergenerational effects of involuntary employment separations among single mothers is limited. Using 30 years of nationally representative panel data and propensity score matching methods, we find significant negative effects of job displacement among single mothers on children’s educational attainment and social-psychological well-being in young adulthood. Effects are concentrated among older children and children whose mothers had a low likelihood of displacement, suggesting an important role for social stigma and relative deprivation in the effects of socioeconomic shocks on child well-being. PMID:25032267

  18. Single port Billroth I gastrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy R Huddy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Experience has allowed increasingly complex procedures to be undertaken by single port surgery. We describe a technique for single port Billroth I gastrectomy with a hand-sewn intracorporeal anastomosis in the resection of a benign tumour diagnosed incidentally on a background of cholelithiasis. Materials and Methods: Single port Billroth I gastrectomy and cholecystectomy was performed using a transumbilical quadport. Flexible tipped camera and straight conventional instruments were used throughout the procedure. The stomach was mobilised including a limited lymph node dissection and resection margins in the proximal antrum and duodenum were divided with a flexible tipped laparoscopic stapler. The lesser curve was reconstructed and an intracorporal hand sewn two layer end-to-end anastomosis was performed using unidirectional barbed sutures. Intraoperative endoscopy confirmed the anastomosis to be patent without leak. Results: Enteral feed was started on the day of surgery, increasing to a full diet by day 6. Analgesic requirements were a patient-controlled analgesia morphine pump for 4 postoperative days and paracetamol for 6 days. There were no postoperative complications and the patient was discharged on the eighth day. Histology confirmed gastric submucosal lipoma. Discussion: As technology improves more complex procedures are possible by single port laparoscopic surgery. In this case, flexible tipped cameras and unidirectional barbed sutures have facilitated an intracorporal hand-sewn two layer end-to-end anastomosis. Experience will allow such techniques to become mainstream.

  19. Single carbon nanotube photovoltaic device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barkelid, K.M.; Zwiller, V.G.

    2013-01-01

    Here we present photocurrent measurements on a single suspended carbon nanotube p-n junction. The p-n junction was induced by electrostatic doping by local gates, and the E11 and E22 resonances in the nanotube could be probed using photocurrent spectroscopy. Current-voltage characteristics were

  20. Single crystalline superstructured stable single domain magnetite nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichel, Victoria; Kovács, András; Kumari, Monika; Bereczk-Tompa, Éva; Schneck, Emanuel; Diehle, Patrick; Pósfai, Mihály; Hirt, Ann M; Duchamp, Martial; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E; Faivre, Damien

    2017-03-30

    Magnetite nanoparticles exhibit magnetic properties that are size and organization dependent and, for applications that rely on their magnetic state, they usually have to be monodisperse. Forming such particles, however, has remained a challenge. Here, we synthesize 40 nm particles of magnetite in the presence of polyarginine and show that they are composed of 10 nm building blocks, yet diffract like single crystals. We use both bulk magnetic measurements and magnetic induction maps recorded from individual particles using off-axis electron holography to show that each 40 nm particle typically contains a single magnetic domain. The magnetic state is therefore determined primarily by the size of the superstructure and not by the sizes of the constituent sub-units. Our results fundamentally demonstrate the structure - property relationship in a magnetic mesoparticle.