WorldWideScience

Sample records for subcritical experiments planned

  1. Enhanced Capabilities for Subcritical Experiments (ECSE) Risk Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urban, Mary Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Process Modeling and Analysis Group

    2016-05-02

    Risk is a factor, element, constraint, or course of action that introduces an uncertainty of outcome that could impact project objectives. Risk is an inherent part of all activities, whether the activity is simple and small, or large and complex. Risk management is a process that identifies, evaluates, handles, and monitors risks that have the potential to affect project success. The risk management process spans the entire project, from its initiation to its successful completion and closeout, including both technical and programmatic (non-technical) risks. This Risk Management Plan (RMP) defines the process to be used for identifying, evaluating, handling, and monitoring risks as part of the overall management of the Enhanced Capabilities for Subcritical Experiments (ECSE) ‘Project’. Given the changing nature of the project environment, risk management is essentially an ongoing and iterative process, which applies the best efforts of a knowledgeable project staff to a suite of focused and prioritized concerns. The risk management process itself must be continually applied throughout the project life cycle. This document was prepared in accordance with DOE O 413.3B, Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets, its associated guide for risk management DOE G 413.3-7, Risk Management Guide, and LANL ADPM AP-350-204, Risk and Opportunity Management.

  2. Benchmarking criticality safety calculations with subcritical experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihalczo, J.T.

    1984-06-01

    Calculation of the neutron multiplication factor at delayed criticality may be necessary for benchmarking calculations but it may not be sufficient. The use of subcritical experiments to benchmark criticality safety calculations could result in substantial savings in fuel material costs for experiments. In some cases subcritical configurations could be used to benchmark calculations where sufficient fuel to achieve delayed criticality is not available. By performing a variety of measurements with subcritical configurations, much detailed information can be obtained which can be compared directly with calculations. This paper discusses several measurements that can be performed with subcritical assemblies and presents examples that include comparisons between calculation and experiment where possible. Where not, examples from critical experiments have been used but the measurement methods could also be used for subcritical experiments

  3. Cygnus Performance in Subcritical Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G Corrow; M Hansen; D Henderson; S Lutz; C Mitton

    2008-01-01

    The Cygnus Dual Beam Radiographic Facility consists of two identical radiographic sources with the following specifications: 4-rad dose at 1 m, 1-mm spot size, 50-ns pulse length, 2.25-MeV endpoint energy. The facility is located in an underground tunnel complex at the Nevada Test Site. Here SubCritical Experiments (SCEs) are performed to study the dynamic properties of plutonium. The Cygnus sources were developed as a primary diagnostic for these tests. Since SCEs are single-shot, high-value events - reliability and reproducibility are key issues. Enhanced reliability involves minimization of failure modes through design, inspection, and testing. Many unique hardware and operational features were incorporated into Cygnus to insure reliability. Enhanced reproducibility involves normalization of shot-to-shot output also through design, inspection, and testing. The first SCE to utilize Cygnus, Armando, was executed on May 25, 2004. A year later, April - May 2005, calibrations using a plutonium step wedge were performed. The results from this series were used for more precise interpretation of the Armando data. In the period February - May 2007 Cygnus was fielded on Thermos, which is a series of small-sample plutonium shots using a one-dimensional geometry. Pulsed power research generally dictates frequent change in hardware configuration. Conversely, SCE applications have typically required constant machine settings. Therefore, while operating during the past four years we have accumulated a large database for evaluation of machine performance under highly consistent operating conditions. Through analysis of this database Cygnus reliability and reproducibility on Armando, Step Wedge, and Thermos is presented

  4. Cygnus Performance in Subcritical Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Corrow, M. Hansen, D. Henderson, S. Lutz, C. Mitton, et al.

    2008-02-01

    The Cygnus Dual Beam Radiographic Facility consists of two identical radiographic sources with the following specifications: 4-rad dose at 1 m, 1-mm spot size, 50-ns pulse length, 2.25-MeV endpoint energy. The facility is located in an underground tunnel complex at the Nevada Test Site. Here SubCritical Experiments (SCEs) are performed to study the dynamic properties of plutonium. The Cygnus sources were developed as a primary diagnostic for these tests. Since SCEs are single-shot, high-value events - reliability and reproducibility are key issues. Enhanced reliability involves minimization of failure modes through design, inspection, and testing. Many unique hardware and operational features were incorporated into Cygnus to insure reliability. Enhanced reproducibility involves normalization of shot-to-shot output also through design, inspection, and testing. The first SCE to utilize Cygnus, Armando, was executed on May 25, 2004. A year later, April - May 2005, calibrations using a plutonium step wedge were performed. The results from this series were used for more precise interpretation of the Armando data. In the period February - May 2007 Cygnus was fielded on Thermos, which is a series of small-sample plutonium shots using a one-dimensional geometry. Pulsed power research generally dictates frequent change in hardware configuration. Conversely, SCE applications have typically required constant machine settings. Therefore, while operating during the past four years we have accumulated a large database for evaluation of machine performance under highly consistent operating conditions. Through analysis of this database Cygnus reliability and reproducibility on Armando, Step Wedge, and Thermos is presented.

  5. Analysis of the MUSE-3 subcritical experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliberti, G; Rimpault, G; Jacqmin, R; Lebrat, J F; Chauvin, J P; Granget, G [CEA Cadarache, Dept. d' Etudes des Reacteurs 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Salvatores, M [CEA Saclay, Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of the MUSE (MUltiplication avec Source Externe) experimental programme is to investigate the neutronic properties of fast sub-critical cores coupled with known external sources of neutrons. Measurements of the MUSE-3 experiments (third phase of the MUSE program) included reactivity, U-235 fission rates across various traverses, absolute fission rates and dynamic measurements. Special care was taken in assessing the various sources of errors and uncertainties affecting the results when modelling and analysing MUSE-3 experiments with the ERANOS neutronic code system. Measured and calculated values agree well with each other (discrepancies within the uncertainty bars) except absolute fission rates which are affected by the large uncertainties associated with the inherent source (30 %) and with the strength of the fusion source (25%). However, such uncertainties do not contribute to the uncertainty in the importance of the source, {phi}{sup *}, which is linked to the ratio of the measured reaction rate with and without the fusion source (the generator being switched off and on). The analysis yielded therefore valuable results, in particular on the relative importance of the source from one configuration to another. The uncertainty in the calculated {phi}{sup *}, is of 1-2% (JEF2 and ERALIB1) for configurations without diffuser and 6% for the configuration with a Pb diffuser. There is therefore no bias in this important ADS characteristic as calculations lie within the measured error bars. From this analysis, it can be concluded that MUSE-3-type experiments are suitable for the assessment of tools used for designing ADS. (author)

  6. Reactor Dynamics Experiments with a Sub-Critical Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, G.H.; Yang, Y.; Wu, L.; Momota, H.

    2004-01-01

    A resurgence in use of nuclear power is now underway worldwide. However due to the shutdown of many university research reactors , student laboratories must rely more heavily on use of sub-critical assemblies. Here a driven sub-critical is described that uses a cylindrical Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) device to provide a fusion neutron source. The small IEC neutron source would be inserted in a fuel element position, with its power input controlled externally at a control panel. This feature opens the way to use of the critical assembly for a number of transient experiments such as sub-critical pulsing and neutron wave propagation. That in turn adds important new insights and excitement for the student teaching laboratory

  7. Subcriticality determination in ADS: Valina-Booster experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, C. M.; Gudowski, W.; Fokau, A.; Bournos, V.; Fokov, Y.; Routkovskaia, C.; Serafimovich, I.; Kiyavitskaya, H.

    2007-01-01

    A major problem in operating a full-scale subcritical accelerator-driven system (ADS) is to ensure sufficient margin to criticality. Therefore, reliable techniques for subcriticality monitoring are required. In order to develop such techniques, a full understanding of existing reactivity determination methods is essential. In this work, reactivity determination methods, such as pulsed neutron source methods and noise methods, are studied experimentally in the subcritical facility YALINA-Booster. YALINA-Booster: The subcritical assembly YALINA-Booster: recently constructed at the Joint Institute for Power and Nuclear Research - Sosny, consists of a subcritical core driven by an external neutron source. The neutron source is a powerful neutron generator consisting of a deuteron accelerator and a target of deuterium or tritium embedded in titanium. Through (d, d) - or (d, t)-reactions neutrons are created with energy around 2.5 MeV and 14.1 MeV respectively. Neutrons are born in the centre of the core and multiply through a lead matrix fuelled with highly enriched uranium (90% and 36%). This zone is referred to as the booster zone and is surrounded by a thermal zone, moderated by polyethylene. In order to reach sufficient high effective multiplication factor, the thermal zone is fuelled by approximately one thousand rods of 10% enriched uranium dioxide in cylindrical geometry. To prevent thermal neutrons from diffusing into the fast booster zone, an interface, consisting of boron carbide and natural uranium rods, is located between the zones. YALINA-Booster has a radial graphite reflector of thickness 24 cm. Experiments: Experiments using the neutron source in pulsed mode will be presented, relying on methods such as the area method and the method of prompt neutron decay rate determination. Moreover, results from noise analysis using for instance the Feynman-α method will be presented

  8. Spatial and spectral effects in subcritical system pulsed experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dulla, S.; Nervo, M.; Ravetto, P.; Carta, M.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate neutronic models are needed for the interpretation of pulsed experiments in subcritical systems. In this work, the extent of spatial and spectral effects in the pulse propagation phenomena is investigated and the analysis is applied to the GUINEVERE experiment. The multigroup cross section data is generated by the Monte Carlo SERPENT code and the neutronic evolution following the source pulse is simulated by a kinetic diffusion code. The results presented show that important spatial and spectral aspects need to be properly accounted for and that a detailed energy approach may be needed to adequately capture the physical features of the system to the pulse injection. (authors)

  9. Validation of neutronic methods applied to the analysis of fast subcritical systems. The MUSE-2 experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soule, R.; Salvatores, M.; Jacqmin, R.; Martini, M.; Lebrat, J.F.; Bertrand, P.; Broccoli, U.; Peluso, V.

    1997-01-01

    In the framework of the French SPIN program devoted to the separation and the transmutation of radioactive wastes, the CEA has launched the ISAAC program to investigate the potential of accelerator-driven systems and to provide an experimental validation of the physics characteristics of these systems. The neutronics of the subcritical core needs experimental validation. This can be done by decoupling the problem of the neutron source from the problem of the subcritical medium. Experiments with a well known external source placed in a subcritical medium have been performed in the MASURCA facility. The results confirm the high accuracy achievable with such experiments and the good quality of the ERANOS code system predictions. (author)

  10. Validation of neutronic methods applied to the analysis of fast subcritical systems. The MUSE-2 experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soule, R; Salvatores, M; Jacqmin, R; Martini, M; Lebrat, J F; Bertrand, P [CEA Centre d` Etudes de Cadarache, Service de Physique des Reacteurs et du Cycle, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Broccoli, U; Peluso, V

    1998-12-31

    In the framework of the French SPIN program devoted to the separation and the transmutation of radioactive wastes, the CEA has launched the ISAAC program to investigate the potential of accelerator-driven systems and to provide an experimental validation of the physics characteristics of these systems. The neutronics of the subcritical core needs experimental validation. This can be done by decoupling the problem of the neutron source from the problem of the subcritical medium. Experiments with a well known external source placed in a subcritical medium have been performed in the MASURCA facility. The results confirm the high accuracy achievable with such experiments and the good quality of the ERANOS code system predictions. (author)

  11. K/sub infinity/-meter concept verified via subcritical-critical TRIGA experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocampo Mansilla, H.

    1983-01-01

    This work presents a technique for building a device to measure the k/sub infinity/ of a spent nuclear fuel assembly discharged from the core of a nuclear power plant. The device, called a k/sub infinity/-meter, consists of a cross-shaped subcritical assembly, two artificial neutron sources, and two separate neutron counting systems. The central position of the subcritical assembly is used to measure k/sub infinity/ of the spent fuel assembly. The initial subcritical assembly is calibrated to determine its k/sub eff/ and verify the assigned k/sub infinity/ of a selected fuel assembly placed in the central position. Count rates are taken with the fuel assembly of known k/sub infinity/'s placed in the central position and then repeated with a fuel assembly of unknown k/sub infinity/ placed in the central position. The count rate ratio of the unknown fuel assembly to the known fuel assembly is used to determine the k/sub infinity/ of the unknown fuel assembly. The k/sub infinity/ of the unknown fuel assembly is represented as a polynomial function of the count rate ratios. The coefficients of the polynomial equation are determined using the neutronic codes LEOPARD and EXTERMINATOR-II. The analytical approach has been validated by performing several subcritical/critical experiments, using the Penn State Breazeale TRIGA Reactor (PSBR), and comparing the experimental results with the calculations

  12. Sub-critical pulsed neutron experiments with uranyl nitrate solutions in spherical geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurin, Victor N.; Ryazanov, Boris G.; Sviridov, Victor I.; Volnistov, Vladimir V.

    2003-01-01

    The pulse source method is used to study homogeneous solution assemblies. Three sets of sub-critical pulse experiments with spherical tanks filled with water solution of uranyl nitrate (90% enrichment) were carried out at the RF-GS facility, Obninsk, Russia. Seven spherical tanks with the volume within the range of 1.29 L to 19.8 L were used in the experiments. Three uranium concentrations were studied, i.e. 20.7, 29.6 and 37.5 g/L. The sub-critical experiments were analyzed with the MCNP 4A code based on the Monte-Carlo method, and with ENDF/B-V library. (author)

  13. Estimation of subcriticality with the computed values analysis using MCNP of experiment on coupled cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Kiyoshi; Yamamoto, Toshihiro; Arakawa, Takuya; Naito, Yoshitaka

    1998-01-01

    Experiments on coupled cores performed at TCA were analysed using continuous energy Monte Carlo calculation code MCNP 4A. Errors of neutron multiplication factors are evaluated using Indirect Bias Estimation Method proposed by authors. Calculation for simulation of pulsed neutron method was performed for 17 X 17 + 5G + 17 x 17 core system and its of exponential experiment method was also performed for 16 x 9 + 3G + 16 x 9 and 16 x 9 + 5G + 16 x 9 core systems. Errors of neutron multiplication factors are estimated to be (-1.5) - (-0.6)% evaluated by Indirect Bias Estimation Method. Its errors evaluated by conventional pulsed neutron method and exponential experiment method are estimated to be 7%, but it is below 1% for estimation of subcriticality with the computed values by applying Indirect Bias Estimation Method. Feasibility of subcriticality management is higher by application of the method to full scale fuel strage facility. (author)

  14. Subcriticality determination of low-enriched UO2 lattices in water by exponential experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzaki, Takenori

    1991-01-01

    To determine the static k (effective neutron multiplication factor) ranging from the critical to an extremely subcritical states, the exponential experiments were performed using various sizes of light-water moderated and reflected low-enriched UO 2 lattice cores. For comparison, the pulsed neutron source experiments were also carried out. In the manner of the Gozani's bracketing method applied to the pulsed source experiment, a formula to obtain k from the measured spatial-decay constant was derived on the basis of diffusion theory. Parameters in the formulas needed to obtain k from the respective experiments were evaluated by 4-group neutron diffusion calculations. The results of the exponential experiments agreed well with those of the pulsed source experiments, the 4-group diffusion calculations and the 137-group Monte Carlo calculations. Therefore, the present data-processing method developed for the exponential experiment was demonstrated to be valid. Besides, through the examination on the parameters used in the data processing, it was found that the dependence of parameter value upon k is weak in the exponential experiment compared with that in the pulsed source experiment. This indicates the superiority of the exponential experiment over the pulsed source experiment for the subcriticality determination of a wide range. (author)

  15. Subcriticality calculations for the FFTF reverse approach to critical experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selby, D.L.; Flanagan, G.F.

    1975-01-01

    The reverse approach to critical (RAC) experiments were performed in the ZPR-IX critical facility at Argonne National Laboratory. One of the major objectives of this project is to determine the adequacy of the low-level flux monitor (LLFM) detectors for initial loading of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). 5 references

  16. Critical and sub-critical experiments on U-BeO lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoist, P.; Gourdon, Ch.; Martelly, J.; Sagot, M.; Wanner, G.

    1958-01-01

    Sub-critical experiments have allowed us to measure the material buckling of uranium natural oxide of beryllium lattices with a grid of 15 cm, and made up of uranium bars measuring 2.60 - 2.92 - 3.56 and 4.40 cm of diameter. A critical experiment has then been conducted with hollow 1.35 per cent enriched uranium bars. A study of U-BeO 18.03 cm grid lattices is at present being conducted. (author) [fr

  17. An MCNP parametric study of George C. Laurence's subcritical pile experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dranga, R.; Blomeley, L., E-mail: ruxandra.dranga@cnl.ca [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Carrington, R. [McGill Univ., Dept. of Mathematics and Statistics, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2014-12-01

    In the early 1940s at the National Research Council (NRC) Laboratories in Ottawa, Canada, Dr. George Laurence conducted several experiments to determine if a sustained nuclear fission chain reaction in a carbon-uranium arrangement (or 'pile') was possible. Although Dr. Laurence did not achieve criticality, these pioneering experiments marked a significant historical event in nuclear science, and they provided a valuable reference for subsequent experiments that led to the design of Canada's first heavy-water reactors at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories. This paper summarizes the results of a recent collaborative project between Atomic Energy of Canada Limited and the Deep River Science Academy undertaken to numerically explore the experiments carried out at the NRC Laboratories by Dr. Laurence, while teaching high school students about nuclear science and technology. In this study, a modern Monte Carlo reactor physics code, MCNP6, was utilized to identify and study the key parameters impacting the subcritical pile's neutron multiplication factor (e.g., moderation, geometry, material impurities) and quantify their effect on the extent of subcriticality. The findings presented constitute the first endeavour to model, using a current computational reactor physics tool, the seminal experiment that provided the foundation of Canada's nuclear science and technology program. (author)

  18. An MCNP parametric study of George C. Laurence's subcritical pile experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dranga, R.; Blomeley, L.; Carrington, R.

    2014-01-01

    In the early 1940s at the National Research Council (NRC) Laboratories in Ottawa, Canada, Dr. George Laurence conducted several experiments to determine if a sustained nuclear fission chain reaction in a carbon-uranium arrangement (or 'pile') was possible. Although Dr. Laurence did not achieve criticality, these pioneering experiments marked a significant historical event in nuclear science, and they provided a valuable reference for subsequent experiments that led to the design of Canada's first heavy-water reactors at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories. This paper summarizes the results of a recent collaborative project between Atomic Energy of Canada Limited and the Deep River Science Academy undertaken to numerically explore the experiments carried out at the NRC Laboratories by Dr. Laurence, while teaching high school students about nuclear science and technology. In this study, a modern Monte Carlo reactor physics code, MCNP6, was utilized to identify and study the key parameters impacting the subcritical pile's neutron multiplication factor (e.g., moderation, geometry, material impurities) and quantify their effect on the extent of subcriticality. The findings presented constitute the first endeavour to model, using a current computational reactor physics tool, the seminal experiment that provided the foundation of Canada's nuclear science and technology program. (author)

  19. FINAL DESIGN REVIEW REPORT Subcritical Experiments Gen 2, 3-ft Confinement Vessel Weldment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, Christopher [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-28

    A Final Design Review (FDR) of the Subcritical Experiments (SCE) Gen 2, 3-ft. Confinement Vessel Weldment was held at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) on September 14, 2017. The review was a focused review on changes only to the confinement vessel weldment (versus a system design review). The changes resulted from lessons-learned in fabricating and inspecting the current set of confinement vessels used for the SCE Program. The baseline 3-ft. confinement vessel weldment design has successfully been used (to date) for three (3) high explosive (HE) over-tests, two (2) fragment tests, and five (5) integral HE experiments. The design team applied lessons learned from fabrication and inspection of these vessel weldments to enhance fit-up, weldability, inspection, and fitness for service evaluations. The review team consisted of five (5) independent subject matter experts with engineering design, analysis, testing, fabrication, and inspection experience. The

  20. Subcritical experiments at the FREYA experiment; Experimentos subcriticos en el proyecto FREYA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becares Palacios, V.; Villamarin fernandez, D.

    2013-07-01

    The FREYA Project of the 7th Framework Program is aimed to the study of the kinetics of subcritical reactors coupled to an external neutron source, and, more specifically, to the validation of reactivity monitoring techniques. CIEMAT activities within the frame of this project have consisted in analyzing the possible ways of correcting the spatial and energy effects on these reactivity monitoring techniques, as well as analyzing the effects that may have on them the presence of different materials in the reflector and the position of the neutron source.

  1. The trade experiment: Shielding calculations for the building hosting the subcritical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burn, K. W.; Carta, M.; Casalini, L.; Kadi, Y.; Monti, S.; Nava, E.; Palomba, M.; Petrovich, C.; Picardi, L.; Rubbia, C.; Troiani, F.

    2005-01-01

    The TRADE project (TRIGA Accelerator Driven Experiment), to be performed at the existing TRIGA reactor at ENEA Casaccia, has been proposed as a validation of the accelerator-driven system (ADS) concept. TRADE will be the first experiment in which the three main components of an ADS-the accelerator, spallation target and sub-critical blanket-are coupled at a power level sufficient to encounter reactivity feedback effects. As such, TRADE represents the necessary intermediate step in the development of hybrid transmutation systems, its expected outcomes being considered crucial-in terms of proof of stability of operation, dynamic behaviour and licensing issues-for the subsequent realisation of an ADS Transmutation Demonstrator. An essential role in the feasibility study of the experiment is played by radioprotection calculations. Such a system exhibits new characteristics with respect to a traditional reactor, owing to the presence of the proton accelerator. As beam losses always occur under normal operating conditions of an accelerator, shielding studies need to be performed not only around the reactor but also along the beam line from the accelerator to the spallation target. This paper illustrates a preliminary evaluation, using Monte Carlo methods, of the additional shielding to be located around the reactor structures, the beam transport line and the existing reactor building to allow access into the reactor hall and to restrict the doses outside to their legal limits. (authors)

  2. Method of analysis to determine subcritical reactivity from the pulsed neutron experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, P.B.

    1975-06-01

    The published methods for the deduction of reactivity from pulsed neutron experiments on subcritical reactors are reviewed. Each method is categorized as inherently yielding a result that is either spatially independent or spatially dependent. The spatially independent results are formally identical with the static reactivity; the result does not depend, in principle, on the location of either the pulsed neutron source or the neutron detector during data collection. The spatially dependent results only approximate the static reactivity; the results are affected, in varying degrees, by the locations of the source and detector. Among the techniques yielding spatially independent results are the Space-Time method of Parks and Stewart and the Inhour method of Preskitt et al. Spatially dependent results are obtained with the Sjoestrand, Gozani, and Garelis-Russell methods which are examined with and without the kinetic distortion corrections given by Becker and Quisenberry. Intercomparisons of all methods are made with reference to pulsed neutron experiments on both unreflected and reflected reactors. Recommendations are made concerning the best choice of method under the various experimental conditions that are likely to be encountered. 14 references. (U.S.)

  3. Subcriticality determination by a new time-domain correlation experiment with a 252Cf neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishina, K.; Yamane, Y.; Ishiguro, S.; Miyoshi, Y.; Suzaki, T.; Kobayahi, I.

    1985-01-01

    As a candidate for the on-site subcriticality-monitoring method, a new time-domain correlation experiment is proposed. Hinted by the Cf-252 detector method of Mihalczo, three covariances are taken between the count of three detectors; namely an ionization chamber with Cf-252 coating, and two He-3 proportional counters. A ratio Q is formed from the three quantities such that it does not depend either on detector efficiencies or counting gate duration T, and then related to reactivity. A formulation is given deriving a theoretical expression for this Q, with the effect of higher spatial modes included. Experiments were carried out with a loading at Tank-type Critical Assembly of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, which is a slightly-enriched, and light-water moderated system. With fundamental mode approximation adopted in the data processing, reasonable agreements are observed between the present method and the reactivity scale that has been calibrated by water-level variety. The possibility of the present method is to be investigated further beyond the range of 7$ reported

  4. Final report for fuel acquisition and design of a fast subcritical blanket facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clikeman, F.M.; Ott, K.O.

    1976-01-01

    A summary is presented of work leading to the design of a subcritical facility for the study of fast reactor blankets. Included are activities related to fuel acquisition, design of the facility, and experiment planning

  5. Computer simulation of Masurca critical and subcritical experiments. Muse-4 benchmark. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The efficient and safe management of spent fuel produced during the operation of commercial nuclear power plants is an important issue. In this context, partitioning and transmutation (P and T) of minor actinides and long-lived fission products can play an important role, significantly reducing the burden on geological repositories of nuclear waste and allowing their more effective use. Various systems, including existing reactors, fast reactors and advanced systems have been considered to optimise the transmutation scheme. Recently, many countries have shown interest in accelerator-driven systems (ADS) due to their potential for transmutation of minor actinides. Much R and D work is still required in order to demonstrate their desired capability as a whole system, and the current analysis methods and nuclear data for minor actinide burners are not as well established as those for conventionally-fuelled systems. Recognizing a need for code and data validation in this area, the Nuclear Science Committee of the OECD/NEA has organised various theoretical benchmarks on ADS burners. Many improvements and clarifications concerning nuclear data and calculation methods have been achieved. However, some significant discrepancies for important parameters are not fully understood and still require clarification. Therefore, this international benchmark based on MASURCA experiments, which were carried out under the auspices of the EC 5. Framework Programme, was launched in December 2001 in co-operation with the CEA (France) and CIEMAT (Spain). The benchmark model was oriented to compare simulation predictions based on available codes and nuclear data libraries with experimental data related to TRU transmutation, criticality constants and time evolution of the neutronic flux following source variation, within liquid metal fast subcritical systems. A total of 16 different institutions participated in this first experiment based benchmark, providing 34 solutions. The large number

  6. Subcritical assemblies, use and their feasibility assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haroon, M.R.

    1982-03-01

    In developing countries, subcritical assemblies can be a useful tool for training and research in the field of nuclear technology with minimum cost. The historical development of subcritical assemblies and the reactor physics experiments which can be carried out using this facility are outlined. The different types of subcritical assemblies have been described and material requirements for each assembly have been pointed out. (author)

  7. PNS and statistical experiments simulation in subcritical systems using Monte-Carlo method on example of Yalina-Thermal assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadovich, S.; Burnos, V.; Kiyavitskaya, H.; Fokov, Y.; Talamo, A.

    2013-01-01

    In subcritical systems driven by an external neutron source, the experimental methods based on pulsed neutron source (PNS) and statistical techniques play an important role for reactivity measurement. Simulation of these methods is very time-consumed procedure. For simulations in Monte-Carlo programs several improvements for neutronic calculations have been made. This paper introduces a new method for simulating PNS and statistical measurements. In this method all events occurred in the detector during simulation are stored in a file using PTRAC feature in the MCNP. After that with a special code (or post-processing) PNS and statistical methods can be simulated. Additionally different shapes of neutron pulses and its lengths as well as dead time of detectors can be included into the simulation. The methods described above have been tested on the sub-critical assembly Yalina-Thermal, located in the Joint Institute for Power and Nuclear Research SOSNY in Minsk (Belarus). A good agreement between experiment and simulation was shown. (authors)

  8. Comparing DNS and Experiments of Subcritical Flow Past an Isolated Surface Roughness Element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolittle, Charles; Goldstein, David

    2009-11-01

    Results are presented from computational and experimental studies of subcritical roughness within a Blasius boundary layer. This work stems from discrepancies presented by Stephani and Goldstein (AIAA Paper 2009-585) where DNS results did not agree with hot-wire measurements. The near wake regions of cylindrical surface roughness elements corresponding to roughness-based Reynolds numbers Rek of about 202 are of specific concern. Laser-Doppler anemometry and flow visualization in water, as well as the same spectral DNS code used by Stephani and Goldstein are used to obtain both quantitative and qualitative comparisons with previous results. Conclusions regarding previous studies will be presented alongside discussion of current work including grid resolution studies and an examination of vorticity dynamics.

  9. Couette-Poiseuille flow experiment with zero mean advection velocity: Subcritical transition to turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, L.; Lemoult, G.; Frontczak, I.; Tuckerman, L. S.; Wesfreid, J. E.

    2017-04-01

    We present an experimental setup that creates a shear flow with zero mean advection velocity achieved by counterbalancing the nonzero streamwise pressure gradient by moving boundaries, which generates plane Couette-Poiseuille flow. We obtain experimental results in the transitional regime for this flow. Using flow visualization, we characterize the subcritical transition to turbulence in Couette-Poiseuille flow and show the existence of turbulent spots generated by a permanent perturbation. Due to the zero mean advection velocity of the base profile, these turbulent structures are nearly stationary. We distinguish two regions of the turbulent spot: the active turbulent core, which is characterized by waviness of the streaks similar to traveling waves, and the surrounding region, which includes in addition the weak undisturbed streaks and oblique waves at the laminar-turbulent interface. We also study the dependence of the size of these two regions on Reynolds number. Finally, we show that the traveling waves move in the downstream (Poiseuille) direction.

  10. Development of High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) subcriticality monitoring methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothrock, R.B.

    1991-01-01

    Use of subcritical source multiplication measurements during refueling has been investigated as a possible replacement for out-of-reactor subcriticality measurements formerly made on fresh HFIR fuel elements at the ORNL Critical Experiment Facility. These measurements have been used in the past for preparation of estimated critical rod positions, and as a partial verification, prior to reactor startup, that the requirements for operational shutdown margin would be met. Results of subcritical count rate data collection during recent HFIR refuelings and supporting calculations are described illustrating the intended measurement method and its expected uncertainty. These results are compared to historical uses of the out-of-reactor core measurements and their accuracy requirements, and a planned in-reactor test is described which will establish the sensitivity of the method and calibrate it for future routine use during HFIR refueling. 2 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  11. A small scale accelerator driven subcritical assembly development and demonstration experiment at LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wender, S.A.; Venneri, F.; Bowman, C.D.; Arthur, E.D.; Heighway, E.A.; Beard, C.A.; Bracht, R.R.; Buksa, J.J.; Chavez, W.; DeVolder, B.G.

    1994-01-01

    A small scale experiment is described that will demonstrate many of the aspects of accelerator-driven transmutation technology. This experiment uses the high-power proton beam from the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility accelerator and will be located in the Area-A experimental hall. Beam currents of up to 1 mA will be used to produce neutrons with a molten lead target. The target is surrounded by a molten salt and graphite moderator blanket. Fissionable material can be added to the molten salt to demonstrate plutonium burning or transmutation of commercial spent fuel or energy production from thorium. The experiment will be operated at power levels up to 5 MW t

  12. Critical and sub-critical experiments on U-BeO lattices; Experiences critiques et sous-critiques sur reseaux U-BeO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benoist, P.; Gourdon, Ch.; Martelly, J.; Sagot, M.; Wanner, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Deniz, V.; Joshi, B.V.; Sahai, K. [Atomic Energy Establishment Trombay (India)

    1958-07-01

    Sub-critical experiments have allowed us to measure the material buckling of uranium natural oxide of beryllium lattices with a grid of 15 cm, and made up of uranium bars measuring 2.60 - 2.92 - 3.56 and 4.40 cm of diameter. A critical experiment has then been conducted with hollow 1.35 per cent enriched uranium bars. A study of U-BeO 18.03 cm grid lattices is at present being conducted. (author)Fren. [French] Nous avons mesure par des experiences sous-critiques le laplacien matiere de reseaux uranium naturel-oxyde de beryllium, dont la maille carree a un pas de 15 cm, realises avec des barreaux d'uranium de diametres 2,60 - 2,92 - 3,56 - 4,40 cm. Une experience critique a ete faite ensuite avec des barres creuses d'uranium enrichi a 1,35 pour cent; l'etude des reseaux U-BeO de pas 18,03 cm est actuellement en cours. (auteur)

  13. Critical and sub-critical experiments on U-BeO lattices; Experiences critiques et sous-critiques sur reseaux U-BeO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benoist, P; Gourdon, Ch; Martelly, J; Sagot, M; Wanner, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Deniz, V; Joshi, B V; Sahai, K [Atomic Energy Establishment Trombay (India)

    1958-07-01

    Sub-critical experiments have allowed us to measure the material buckling of uranium natural oxide of beryllium lattices with a grid of 15 cm, and made up of uranium bars measuring 2.60 - 2.92 - 3.56 and 4.40 cm of diameter. A critical experiment has then been conducted with hollow 1.35 per cent enriched uranium bars. A study of U-BeO 18.03 cm grid lattices is at present being conducted. (author)Fren. [French] Nous avons mesure par des experiences sous-critiques le laplacien matiere de reseaux uranium naturel-oxyde de beryllium, dont la maille carree a un pas de 15 cm, realises avec des barreaux d'uranium de diametres 2,60 - 2,92 - 3,56 - 4,40 cm. Une experience critique a ete faite ensuite avec des barres creuses d'uranium enrichi a 1,35 pour cent; l'etude des reseaux U-BeO de pas 18,03 cm est actuellement en cours. (auteur)

  14. Emergency plan belgian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clymans, A.

    1989-01-01

    The Chernobyl disaster prompted authorities in Belgium to carry out a comprehensive review of all emergency plans and, in particular, those designed specifically for nuclear accidents. This review was aimed at determining what type of plans existed and to what extent such plans were operational. This paper sets out to present a broad overview of different aspects of this problem: organization of public emergency plans, co-ordination of operations, merits and demerits of centralization as opposed to decentralization, planning zones, obligation to release information to the public and relations with the media, and finally the international dimension to the problem. The author expresses the hope that the latter area will inspire practical suggestions [fr

  15. Experimental subcritical facility driven by D-D/D-T neutron generator at BARC, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, Amar, E-mail: image@barc.gov.in; Roy, Tushar; Kashyap, Yogesh; Ray, Nirmal; Shukla, Mayank; Patel, Tarun; Bajpai, Shefali; Sarkar, P.S.; Bishnoi, Saroj

    2015-05-01

    Highlights: •Experimental subcritical facility BRAHMMA coupled to D-D/D-T neutron generator. •Preliminary results of PNS experiments reported. •Feynman-alpha noise measurements explored with continuous source. -- Abstract: The paper presents design of an experimental subcritical assembly driven by D-D/D-T neutron and preliminary experimental measurements. The system has been developed for investigating the static and dynamic neutronic properties of accelerator driven sub-critical systems. This system is modular in design and it is first in the series of subcritical assemblies being designed. The subcritical core consists of natural uranium fuel with high density polyethylene as moderator and beryllium oxide as reflector. The fuel is embedded in high density polyethylene moderator matrix. Estimated k{sub eff} of the system is ∼0.89. One of the unique features of subcritical core is the use of Beryllium oxide (BeO) as reflector and HDPE as moderator making the assembly a compact modular system. The subcritical core is coupled to Purnima Neutron Generator which works in D-D and D-T mode with both DC and pulsed operation. It has facility for online source strength monitoring using neutron tagging and programmable source modulation. Preliminary experiments have been carried out for spatial flux measurement and reactivity estimation using pulsed neutron source (PNS) techniques with D-D neutrons. Further experiments are being planned to measure the reactivity and other kinetic parameters using noise methods. This facility would also be used for carrying out studies on effect of source importance and measurement of source multiplication factor k{sub s} and external neutron source efficiency φ{sup ∗} in great details. Experiments with D-T neutrons are also underway.

  16. Physics study of D-D/D-T neutron driven experimental subcritical assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, Amar

    2015-01-01

    An experimental program to design and study external source driven subcritical assembly has been initiated at BARC. This program is aimed at understanding neutronic characteristics of accelerator driven system at low power level. In this series, a zero-power, sub-critical assembly driven by a D-D/D-T neutron generator has been developed. This system is modular in design and it is first in the series of subcritical assemblies being designed. The subcritical core consists of natural uranium fuel with high density polyethylene as moderator and beryllium oxide as reflector. The subcritical core is coupled to Purnima Neutron Generator. Preliminary experiments have been carried out for spatial flux measurement and reactivity estimation using pulsed neutron source (PNS) techniques. Further experiments are being planned to measure the reactivity and other kinetic parameters using noise methods. This facility would also be used for carrying out studies on effect of source importance and measurement of source multiplication factor k s and external neutron source efficiency φ* in great details. Some experiments with D-D and D-T neutrons have been presented. (author)

  17. SUPERCOLLIDER: Planning for experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    To push forward the necessarily lengthy preparations for experiments at the proposed US Superconducting Super Collider, a Workshop on Experiments, Detectors and Experimental Areas was held at Berkeley from 7 to 17 July. Participants looked ahead to the task of extracting physics (like the search for Higgs particles, supersymmetry or other heavy quarks and leptons) from the chaos of hadron collisions at 20 TeV beam energies with luminosities in excess of 10 32 . The door would also have to be left open for unexpected physics in these higher energy regions

  18. ENHANCED ELECTROCHEMICAL PROCESSES IN SUBCRITICAL WATER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven B. Hawthorne

    2000-07-01

    This project involved designing and performing preliminary electrochemical experiments in subcritical water. An electrochemical cell with substantially better performance characteristics than presently available was designed, built, and tested successfully. The electrochemical conductivity of subcritical water increased substantially with temperature, e.g., conductivities increased by a factor of 120 when the temperature was increased from 25 to 250 C. Cyclic voltammograms obtained with platinum and nickel demonstrated that the voltage required to produce hydrogen and oxygen from water can be dropped by a factor of three in subcritical water compared to the voltages required at ambient temperatures. However, no enhancement in the degradation of 1,2-dichlorobenzene and the polychlorinated biphenyl 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl was observed with applied potential in subcritical water.

  19. Emergency planning and operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halpern, O.; Breniere, J.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to derive lessons from operating experience for the planning of emergency measures. This operating experience has two facets: it is obtained not only from the various incidents and accidents which have occurred in countries with nuclear power programmes and from the resulting application of emergency plans but also from the different exercises and simulations carried out in France and in other countries. Experience generally confirms the main approaches selected for emergency plans. The lessons to be derived are of three types: first, it appears necessary to set forth precisely the responsibilities of each person involved in order to prevent a watering-down of decisions in the event of an accident; secondly, considerable improvements need to be made in the different communication networks to be used; and thirdly, small accidents with minor radiological consequences deserve as systematic and thorough an approach as large and more improbable accidents. (author)

  20. Subcriticality determination of nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisenko, V.I.; Goranchuk, V.V.; Sidoruk, N.M.; Volokh, A.F.

    2014-01-01

    In this article the subcriticality determination of nuclear reactor is considered. Emphasized that, despite the requirements of regulatory documents on the subcriticality determination of WWER from the beginning of their operation, so far, this problem has not been solved. The results of subcriticality determination of Rossi-α method of the WWER-M is presented. The possibility of subcriticality determination of WWER is considered. The possibility of subcriticality determination of Rossi-α method with time resolution is of about 100 microseconds is also considered. The possible reasons for the error in subcriticality determination of the reactor are indicated

  1. The GENEPI-MASURCA coupling for the neutronic investigations of subcritical multiplying media in presence of an external neutron source: The MUSE experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soule, R.; Granget, G.; Chauvin, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) are being explored in France in the frame of the research program on radioactive waste management options. Besides studies aimed to clarify the motivations for ADS, a significant program has been started to validate experimentally the main physics principles of these systems. This program was initiated at CEA Cadarache in 1995, with the sponsorship of EdF and Framatome. Since 1997, the CNRS has joined the program, which is now a common CEA-CNRS- EdF-Framatome program, open to external partners, in particular the European Community in the frame of the 5th FW Program. The experimental programs allow to validate nuclear data and calculation methods used to describe the sub-critical core, in terms of reactivity, spatial flux distributions, neutron spectra and external source worth. If the source can be used in continuous and pulsed modes, static and dynamic reactivity measurements are possible. This point is of relevance, since the experimental investigation of the different techniques to monitor the sub-criticality level during the operation of an ADS is still an open question. The future MUSE program will enter a new phase in november 1999, with the installation at MASURCA of a deuteron accelerator (GENEPI accelerator), developed at the CNRS/IN2P3/ISN of Grenoble. Improved performances are expected (in terms of the quality of the neutron pulse and source intensity), and the use of both (D,D) and (D,T) reactions, will enable to explore different neutron spectra as well as source worths and their ratios to the fission neutron worths. The paper presents the GENEPI accelerator characteristics and monitoring and the experimental configurations defined for the next phase of the MUSE experiments. (author)

  2. Large subcriticality measurement by pulsed neutron method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamane, Y.; Yoshida, A.; Nishina, K.; Kobayashi, K.; Kanda, K.

    1985-01-01

    To establish the method determining large subcriticalities in the field of nuclear criticality safety, the authors performed pulsed neutron experiments using the Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUCA) at Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University and the Cockcroft-Walton type accelerator attached to the assembly. The area-ratio method proposed by Sjoestrand was employed to evaluate subcriticalities from neutron decay curves measured. This method has the shortcomings that the neutron component due to a decay of delayed neutrons remarkably decreases as the subcriticality of an objective increases. To overcome the shortcoming, the authors increased the frequency of pulsed neutron generation. The integral-version of the area-ratio method proposed by Kosaly and Fisher was employed in addition in order to remove a contamination of spatial higher modes from the decay curve. The latter becomes significant as subcriticality increases. The largest subcriticality determined in the present experiments was 125.4 dollars, which was equal to 0.5111 in a multiplication factor. The calculational values evaluated by the computer code KENO-IV with 137 energy groups based on the Monte Carlo method agreed well with those experimental values

  3. Subcritical nuclear assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega C, H. R.

    2014-08-01

    A Subcritical Nuclear Assembly is a device where the nuclear-fission chain reaction is initiated and maintained using an external neutron source. It is a valuable educational and research tool where in a safe way many reactor parameters can be measured. Here, we have used the Wigner-Seitz method in the six-factor formula to calculate the effective multiplication factor of a subcritical nuclear reactor Nuclear Chicago model 9000. This reactor has approximately 2500 kg of natural uranium heterogeneously distributed in slugs. The reactor uses a 239 PuBe neutron source that is located in the center of an hexagonal array. Using Monte Carlo methods, with the MCNP5 code, a three-dimensional model of the subcritical reactor was designed to estimate the effective multiplication factor, the neutron spectra, the total and thermal neutron fluences along the radial and axial axis. With the neutron spectra in two locations outside the reactor the ambient dose equivalent were estimated. (Author)

  4. Ensuring the validity of calculated subcritical limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, H.K.

    1977-01-01

    The care taken at the Savannah River Laboratory and Plant to ensure the validity of calculated subcritical limits is described. Close attention is given to ANSI N16.1-1975, ''Validation of Calculational Methods for Nuclear Criticality Safety.'' The computer codes used for criticality safety computations, which are listed and are briefly described, have been placed in the SRL JOSHUA system to facilitate calculation and to reduce input errors. A driver module, KOKO, simplifies and standardizes input and links the codes together in various ways. For any criticality safety evaluation, correlations of the calculational methods are made with experiment to establish bias. Occasionally subcritical experiments are performed expressly to provide benchmarks. Calculated subcritical limits contain an adequate but not excessive margin to allow for uncertainty in the bias. The final step in any criticality safety evaluation is the writing of a report describing the calculations and justifying the margin

  5. BRAHMMA - accelerator driven subcritical facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Tushar; Shukla, Shefali; Shukla, M.; Ray, N.K.; Kashyap, Y.S.; Patel, T.; Gadkari, S.C.

    2017-01-01

    Accelerator Driven Subcritical systems are being studied worldwide for their potential in burning minor actinides and reducing long term radiotoxicity of spent nuclear fuels. In order to pursue the physics studies of Accelerator Driven Subcritical systems, a thermal subcritical assembly BRAHMMA (BeOReflectedAndHDPeModeratedMultiplying Assembly) has been developed at Purnima Labs, BARC. The facility consists of two major components: Subcritical core and Accelerator (DT/ DD Purnima Neutron Generator)

  6. Modeling of Parameters of Subcritical Assembly SAD

    CERN Document Server

    Petrochenkov, S; Puzynin, I

    2005-01-01

    The accepted conceptual design of the experimental Subcritical Assembly in Dubna (SAD) is based on the MOX core with a nominal unit capacity of 25 kW (thermal). This corresponds to the multiplication coefficient $k_{\\rm eff} =0.95$ and accelerator beam power 1 kW. A subcritical assembly driven with the existing 660 MeV proton accelerator at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research has been modelled in order to make choice of the optimal parameters for the future experiments. The Monte Carlo method was used to simulate neutron spectra, energy deposition and doses calculations. Some of the calculation results are presented in the paper.

  7. Plans of LHD divertor experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyabu, Nobuyoshi; Komori, Akio; Sagara, Akio; Noda, Nobuaki; Motojima, Osamu

    1996-01-01

    Scenarios of the LHD divertor experiment are presented. In the LHD divertor experimental program, various innovative divertor concepts and technologies, developed during its design phase will be utilized to improve the plasma performance. Two divertor operational scenarios (confinement improvement by generating high temperature divertor plasma and simultaneous achievement of radiative cooling and H-mode-like confinement improvement) are among them. Local island divertor geometry has also been proposed. This new divertor has been successfully tested in the CHS device and is planned to be installed in the LHD device. In addition, technological development of new efficient hydrogen pumping schemes (carbon sheet pump and membrane pump) are being pursued for enhancement of the divertor control capability. (author)

  8. Subcritical nuclear assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega C, H. R., E-mail: fermineutron@yahoo.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2014-08-15

    A Subcritical Nuclear Assembly is a device where the nuclear-fission chain reaction is initiated and maintained using an external neutron source. It is a valuable educational and research tool where in a safe way many reactor parameters can be measured. Here, we have used the Wigner-Seitz method in the six-factor formula to calculate the effective multiplication factor of a subcritical nuclear reactor Nuclear Chicago model 9000. This reactor has approximately 2500 kg of natural uranium heterogeneously distributed in slugs. The reactor uses a {sup 239}PuBe neutron source that is located in the center of an hexagonal array. Using Monte Carlo methods, with the MCNP5 code, a three-dimensional model of the subcritical reactor was designed to estimate the effective multiplication factor, the neutron spectra, the total and thermal neutron fluences along the radial and axial axis. With the neutron spectra in two locations outside the reactor the ambient dose equivalent were estimated. (Author)

  9. Design status and future research programme for a sub-critical assembly driven by a proton accelerator with proton energy 660 MeV for experiments on long-lived fission products and minor actinides transmutation (Sad)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustov, S.A.; Mirokhin, I.V.; Morozov, N.A.; Onischenko, L.M.; Savchenko, O.V.; Sissakian, A.N.; Shvetsov, V.N.; Tretyakov, I.T.; Lopatkin, A.V.; Vorontsov, M.T.

    2003-01-01

    Report presents project for the construction of a low power integral system on the basis of the proton accelerator of energy 660 MeV and sub-critical MOX blanket with uranium-plutonium fuel. Installation includes sub-critical core with a nominal thermal power of 15-20 kW. Multiplication coefficient k eff = 0,95 and the accelerator beam power of 0.75-1 kW. The experimental programme for SAD will be focused on solving different aspects of reactor physics, reaction rates measurements and benchmarking. The first conceptual design of the SAD experiment is completed in the form of the ISTC Project Proposal 2267. Realisation of the SAD facility may be expected in about 3-4 years. (author)

  10. Subcritical tests - nuclear weapon testing under the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeibraaten, S.

    1998-10-01

    The report discusses possible nuclear weapons related experiments and whether these are permitted under the 1996 Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). The term ''subcritical experiments'' as used in the United States includes experiments in which one studies fissile materials (so far only plutonium) under extreme conditions generated by conventional high explosives, and in which a self-sustained chain reaction never develops in the fissile material. The known facts about the American subcritical experiments are presented. There is very little reason to doubt that these experiments were indeed subcritical and therefore permitted under the CTBT. Little is known about the Russian efforts that are being made on subcritical experiments

  11. The Muse-4 experiment: measurement of the kinetic parameters of a subcritical system; L'experience MUSE-4: mesure des parametres cinetiques d'un systeme sous-critique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollaire, J

    2004-10-01

    Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) which are based on an external neutron source coupled to a subcritical core, offer advantages for the incineration of radioactive waste. In order to understand the neutronic specificity of such a system, during the MUSE IV experimental program, the experimental reactor MASURCA (CEA Cadarache) has been coupled to the neutrons source GENEPI. This setup has enabled the development of an on-line measurement technique of the effective multiplication factor. This measurement benefits from the characteristics of the reactor response depending on the multiplication factor at the prompt fission and delayed fission time scales. The analysis of those experiments shows that the proposed method give results in agreement with the one deduced using classical reactivity measurement techniques which can not however be used in a power ADS. (author)

  12. Physics of subcritical multiplying regions and experimental validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvatores, M.

    1996-01-01

    The coupling of a particle accelerator with a spallation target and with a subcritical multiplying region has been proposed in the fifties and is called here a hybrid system. This article gives some ideas about the energetic balance of such a system. The possibilities of experimental validation of some properties of a subcritical multiplying region by using MASURCA facility at CEA-Cadarache are examined. The results of a preliminary experiment called MUSE are presented. (A.C.)

  13. Women's experiences with family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupte, M

    1994-06-01

    India's family planning programs target rural women because they do not have political power. Interviews with those in Maharashtra show their lack of choice and low access to resources and their need for safe contraception. In 2 rural villages, for every dead child, a woman bears, on average, 2 more children. When a child dies, villagers first suspect the mother of having performed voodoo or witchcraft. Other suspected women are deserted women, widows, and menstruating women. Health and family planning services are not based on people's perceptions of body, anatomy, illness, and cure. People are not informed about interventions, particularly contraception. Women are not comfortable with contraceptives, and when physician ignore genuine symptoms and sequelae, it reinforces women's suspicions about contraceptives. Sterilizations performed in camps result in more side effects than individually performed sterilizations. During 1975-1977, women were kidnapped and sterilized under very unhygienic conditions. Common complaints after sterilization are menstrual disturbances and lower back pain. Many private physicians treat these complaints by performing hysterectomy. Women rarely are involved in the decision-making process determining whether or not they should undergo sterilization. They are often given false promises, if they accept sterilization. Indian women have little choice in contraceptives. The low biodegradability of condoms poses a disposal problem. Health workers often dispose of IUDs, pills, and condoms which they claim have been accepted. Auxiliary nurse midwives are pressured to meet family planning targets, so they harass women to accept contraception. Village women do not trust them. Health workers often steal cases from each other. Many complain that minorities are responsible for the population explosion, but the minority's family size is basically the same as that of the majority. Low access to general health services and harassment to fulfill family

  14. Experiments Planning, Analysis, and Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, C F Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Praise for the First Edition: "If you . . . want an up-to-date, definitive reference written by authors who have contributed much to this field, then this book is an essential addition to your library."-Journal of the American Statistical Association Fully updated to reflect the major progress in the use of statistically designed experiments for product and process improvement, Experiments, Second Edition introduces some of the newest discoveries-and sheds further light on existing ones-on the design and analysis of experiments and their applications in system optimization, robustness, and tre

  15. Subcriticality monitoring method for reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Makoto.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention accurately monitors the reactor subcriticality and ensures the critical safety, irrespective of the presence or absence of artificial neutron sources. That is, when the subcriticality is monitored upon reactivity changing operation which causes reactivity change to the reactor during shutdown, neutron monitors are disposed at a plurality of monitoring positions. Then, neutron counting ratio before and after conducting the reactivity changing operation is determined. The subcriticality of the reactor is monitored by the ratio and the state of scattering of the ratio of neutron counting rate between each of the neutron monitors. With such procedures, signals of the neutron monitors are used, the characteristic that the change of the signals depend on the change of the neutron multiplication of the reactor core can be utilized whether artificial neutron sources (external neutron sources) are disposed or not. Accordingly, the subcriticality can be monitored more reliably. (I.S.)

  16. Family planning and health: the Narangwal experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruqee, R

    1983-06-01

    The findings of a 7-year field experiment conducted in the Indian Punjab show that integrating family planning with health services is more effective and efficient than providing family planning separately. The field experiment was conducted between 1968 and 1974 at Narangwal in the Indian State of Punjab. It involved 26 villages, with a total population of 35,000 in 1971-72. The demographic characteristics of the villages were found to be typical of the area. 5 groups of villages were provided with different combinations of services for health, nutrition and family planning. A control group received no project services. A population study was made of the effects of integrating family planning with maternal and child health services. A nutritional study looked at the results of integrating nutritional care and health services. The effectiveness of integration was evaluated by identifying it both with increased use of family planning and improved health. Efficiency was judged by relating effectiveness to input costs. Distribution of the benefits was also examined. The effectiveness of these different combinations of services on the use of family planning was measured: 1) by all changes in the use of modern methods of family planning, 2) by the number of new acceptors, 3) by the changes in the proportion of eligible women using contraceptives, and 4) by how many people started to use the more effective methods. Results showed the use of family planning increased substantially in the experimental groups, whereas the control group remained constant. It was also found that, though the services combining family planning with maternal health care stimulated more use of family planning, they were more costly than the more integrated srevices. The Narangwal experiment provides significant evidence in favor of combining the provision of family planning and health services, but its potential for replication on a large scale needs to be studied.

  17. Accelerator driven sub-critical core

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Peter M; Sattarov, Akhdiyor

    2015-03-17

    Systems and methods for operating an accelerator driven sub-critical core. In one embodiment, a fission power generator includes a sub-critical core and a plurality of proton beam generators. Each of the proton beam generators is configured to concurrently provide a proton beam into a different area of the sub-critical core. Each proton beam scatters neutrons within the sub-critical core. The plurality of proton beam generators provides aggregate power to the sub-critical core, via the proton beams, to scatter neutrons sufficient to initiate fission in the sub-critical core.

  18. Accelerator driven subcritical reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvatores, M.

    2001-01-01

    ADS concepts have been proposed in the last decade for a variety of applications. However, there is a convergence of interest of several countries and laboratories on the application of ADS to transmutation. This applies to plutonium, and/or minor actinides (MA) and long-lived fission products (LLFP). As far as the so-called partitioning and transmutation (PIT) strategies, it was indicated that they can be clarified according to the option taken with respect to Pu and MA, i.e., a) keep Pu and MA together, b) separate Pu from MA. At present several programs are going on ADS: in Japan, USA Europe, where activities in 9 countries are coordinated by a European Technical Working Group (ETWG), and in Russia. As far as the implications for the definition of nuclear data needs, dedicated subcritical cores should have new type of fuels (Pu+MA in different proportions). Proposals are being worked out. For example, composite (such as ceramic-metallic or ceramic-ceramic) fuels are presently under study. The actinide oxide is dispersed in a metallic matrix (Zr, or W or Mo) or in an oxide matrix (e.g., MgO). In these cases, reliable data are required for the matrix materials. As far as coolants, Pb/Bi, Pb, and gas are considered, besides Na. Hard (or very hard) fast neutron spectrum is required. As far as LLFP, transmutation strategies in ADS are proposed. Candidates are 129 I, 99 Tc, 135 Cs, but also 79 Se, 107 Pd, 93 Zr etc. At present, there is no clear option for their transmutation (one needs a high level of thermalized neutrons, support matrixes for target irradiation, isotopic separations, reprocessing techniques, etc.). Finally, ADS transmutation will give rise to fuel cycles, where very active materials will be present. Cm and higher mass isotopes (up to 252 Cf) will be contributors to dose and neutron source strength. This area will deserve attention in future, in order to define the relevant data needs. It is recommended to coordinate work on MA data as a priority

  19. Using sobol sequences for planning computer experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statnikov, I. N.; Firsov, G. I.

    2017-12-01

    Discusses the use for research of problems of multicriteria synthesis of dynamic systems method of Planning LP-search (PLP-search), which not only allows on the basis of the simulation model experiments to revise the parameter space within specified ranges of their change, but also through special randomized nature of the planning of these experiments is to apply a quantitative statistical evaluation of influence of change of varied parameters and their pairwise combinations to analyze properties of the dynamic system.Start your abstract here...

  20. Reaction kinetics of cellulose hydrolysis in subcritical and supercritical water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olanrewaju, Kazeem Bode

    The uncertainties in the continuous supply of fossil fuels from the crisis-ridden oil-rich region of the world is fast shifting focus on the need to utilize cellulosic biomass and develop more efficient technologies for its conversion to fuels and chemicals. One such technology is the rapid degradation of cellulose in supercritical water without the need for an enzyme or inorganic catalyst such as acid. This project focused on the study of reaction kinetics of cellulose hydrolysis in subcritical and supercritical water. Cellulose reactions at hydrothermal conditions can proceed via the homogeneous route involving dissolution and hydrolysis or the heterogeneous path of surface hydrolysis. The work is divided into three main parts. First, the detailed kinetic analysis of cellulose reactions in micro- and tubular reactors was conducted. Reaction kinetics models were applied, and kinetics parameters at both subcritical and supercritical conditions were evaluated. The second major task was the evaluation of yields of water soluble hydrolysates obtained from the hydrolysis of cellulose and starch in hydrothermal reactors. Lastly, changes in molecular weight distribution due to hydrothermolytic degradation of cellulose were investigated. These changes were also simulated based on different modes of scission, and the pattern generated from simulation was compared with the distribution pattern from experiments. For a better understanding of the reaction kinetics of cellulose in subcritical and supercritical water, a series of reactions was conducted in the microreactor. Hydrolysis of cellulose was performed at subcritical temperatures ranging from 270 to 340 °C (tau = 0.40--0.88 s). For the dissolution of cellulose, the reaction was conducted at supercritical temperatures ranging from 375 to 395 °C (tau = 0.27--0.44 s). The operating pressure for the reactions at both subcritical and supercritical conditions was 5000 psig. The results show that the rate-limiting step in

  1. Measurements relevant to simulating subcriticality in ADS facilities with blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titarenko, Yu. E.; Batyaev, V.F.; Borovlev, S.P.; Gladkikh, N.G.; Igumnov, M.M.; Legostaev, V.O.; Karpikhin, E.I.; Konev, V.N.; Kushnerev, Yu.T.; Popkov, V.N.; Ryazhsky, V.I.; Spiridonov, V.G.; Chernyavsky, E.V.; Shvedov, O.V.

    2009-10-01

    The work presents the results of determining the blanket subcriticality for a zero-power heavy water reactor MAKET at the Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow. The blanket is hexagonal lattice made of 36 90%-enriched 235U fuel rods spaced 173mm apart. The subcriticality was varied from ∼0.3% to 5% by adjusting the heavy water level. The subcriticality values were calibrated using the dependence of reactivity on heavy water level. The pulsed neutron source technique was used to measure the temporal dependence of neutron field at different blanket points for the calibrated subcriticality values. The subciticality values obtained in terms of the 'inverse clock' formulae using the decay constants of the measured dependences proved to differ from the calibrated subcriticalities by not more than 7% at the average. The MCNP code-aided simulations of the experiment made has given the calibrated keff values at prescribed heavy water levels and led to the neutron field decay constants at given points, which differ on the average from their experimental values by not more than 7% too. (author)

  2. Regional Development Planning in Ethiopia: Past Experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Regional Development Planning in Ethiopia: Past Experience, Current Initiatives and Future Prospects. ... Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review ... The main contention of the paper is that in the past, regional development, in line with the functional integration approach, was considered a national project.

  3. LMFBR safety experiment facility planning and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, M.G.; Scott, J.H.

    1976-01-01

    In the past two years considerable effort has been placed on the planning and design of new facilities for the resolution of LMFBR safety issues. The paper reviews the key issues, the experiments needed to resolve them, and the design aspects of proposed new facilities. In addition, it presents a decision theory approach to selecting an optimal combination of modified and new facilities

  4. Estimation of subcriticality with the computed values. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, Kiyoshi; Arakawa, Takuya; Naito, Yoshitaka [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1996-02-01

    For measurements of reactivities and neutron count rate space distributions, seven subcritical cores including non-square array cores were constructed using critical assembly TCA. MCNP-4A was used for the experimental analysis. The calculational results of the neutron count rate space distributions agreed with the measured ones within the each error range. It means that for calculation error indirect estimation method, the calculated neutron multiplication factors are equal to ones of experimental reactivities. It is shown that from these experiments and calculations estimation method of subcriticality with the computed values based on the calculation error indirect estimation method is also applicable to six non-square array cores. (author).

  5. Reactor physics experiment plan using TCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, Shoichiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2000-06-01

    The Reduced-Moderation Water Reactor (RMWR) is one of the next generation water-cooled reactors, which aims at effective utilization of uranium resource, high burn-up, long operation cycle, and plutonium multi-recycle. For verification of the feasibility, negative void reactivity coefficient and conversion ratio more than 1.0 must be confirmed. This report is to plan critical experiments using TCA in JAERI. Critical Experiments performed so far in Europe and Japan are reviewed, and no useful data are available for RMWR development. Critical experiments using TCA (Tank Type Critical Assembly) in JAERI are planned. MOX fuel rods should be prepared for the experiments and some modifications of equipment are needed for use of MOX fuel rods. This report describes the preliminary plan of physics experiments. The number of MOX-fuel rods used in the experiments is obtained by calculations and modification of the equipment for the experiments are shown. New MOX fuel and UO{sub 2} fuel rods are necessary for the RMWR critical experiments. Number of MOX fuel rods is 1000 for Plutonium fissile enrichment of 5 wt%, 1000 for 10 wt%, 1500 for 15 wt% and 500 for 20 wt%, respectively. Depleted UO{sub 2} fuel rods for blanket/buffer region are 4000. Driver fuel rods of 4.9 wt% UO{sub 2} are 3000. Modification of TCA facility is requested to treat the large amount of MOX fuels from safety point of view. Additional shielding device at the top of the tank for loading the MOX fuels and additional safety plates to ensure safety are requested. The core is divided into two regions by inserting an inner tank to avoid criticality in MOX region only. The test region is composed by MOX fuel rods in the inner tank. Criticality is established by UO{sub 2} driver fuel rods outside of the inner tank. (Tsuchihashi, K.)

  6. Experiences in manpower planning for geomatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbairn, D.

    2014-04-01

    This paper addresses the issue of manpower planning in meeting the needs of national and international economies for trained geomatics professionals. Estimated statistics for the numbers of such personnel, and experience in assessing recruitment into the profession reveal considerable skills gaps, particularly in the mature economies of the developed world. In general, centralised manpower planning has little official role in western economies. However, informal surveys of shortfalls in supply of qualified graduates in many fields, including geomatics, are undertaken by professional organisations, educational establishments and consultancies. This paper examines examples of such manpower surveys and considers whether more effective manpower planning would ensure a more efficient geomatics industry in a nation, and what the nature of such an exercise should be.

  7. Subcriticality monitoring method based on the exponential technique usable for nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzaki, T.

    1987-01-01

    Buckling measurement methods in subcritical nuclear fuel systems (negative buckling measurements in small systems are well-known as the exponential experiment) were discussed from the viewpoint of the applicability to on-site monitorings of subcriticality and fuel characteristics of interest. From demonstration experiments using the TCA, it was revealed that the method is quite promising. Applicability of the method to the critical approach in critical assemblies was also discussed. (author)

  8. Contribution to the experimental validation of the coupling between a particle accelerator and a subcritical core: Muse-3 and Muse-7 experiments; Contribution a la validation experimentale du couplage entre un accelerateur et un massif sous-critique: experience muse 3. et muse 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bompas, C A

    2000-12-01

    As part of the research on the Hybrid Systems and more specially on the physical phenomena involved in a sub-critical core coupled with an external source, it is necessary to qualify several neutronic parameters. These parameters characterize, on the one hand, the external source supplying the core with neutrons (importance, amplification) and, on the other hand, the sub-critical core (spatial distribution of flux, power emitted from the core, reactivity, influence of a spectrum degraded by the presence of buffers like lead). The MUSE Program consists of parametric studies of configuration with different compositions at different sub-critical levels supplied by different types of external source. The first part of this work concerns the first analyses of the static results obtained during the third phase of this experimental program (MUSE-III experiment) and also the preparation of the fourth phase (MUSE-IV experiment). This study has notably concluded on the superiority of a transition zone in lead compared to a sodium zone in terms of neutronic potential (because of the (n, 2n) reaction) and of the source importance. The second part of this work concerns the interpretation of the dynamic results obtained during the MUSE-III experiment and the realization of calculations on the MUSE-IV configurations. This study has shown the important impact of the hydrogenous materials on the external source for the MUSE-III dynamic results. It has also determined the applicability of the pulsed neutron source reactivity measurement technique and optimized the position of monitors for the future MUSE-IV experiment. (authors)

  9. Strategic Planning and NRC Decadal Survey Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautenbacher, C. C., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    Strategic planning exercises are routinely undertaken by a wide variety of organizations that span the private, public and academic sectors and with a wide variety of corporate goals. It is difficult to single out best procedures as the purposes of strategic planning are as varied as the organizations. As a former head of a governmental agency that requested such a NRC study, namely the first "Earth Sciences and Applications from Space" study, I will examine the process, provide my definitions and assessments of the good and the not-so-good, and compare to my experiences with other similar strategic planning exercises during my Navy, NOAA, and private sector careers. I find that there is always room for improvement, but there is no one process or procedure that can guarantee success. Overarching initial considerations that can position the effort for overall "success" will be defined and applied to the recent NSC Study: "Sea Change: 2015-2025 Decadal Survey of Ocean Science", for which I was neither an initiator nor a participant, but a very interested observer.

  10. Workshop on Subcritical Neutron Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter Sadowski; Roald Sagdeev

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary of the Workshop on Subcritical Neutron Production A workshop on Subcritical Neutron Production was sponsored by the East-West Center of the University of Maryland on October 11-13, 2004. The subject of the workshop was the application of subcritical neutrons to transmutation of actinides. The workshop was attended by members of the fission, accelerator and fusion communities. Papers on the state of development of neutron production by accelerators, fusion devices, and fission reactors were presented. Discussions were held on the potential of these technologies to solve the problems of spent nuclear waste storage and nuclear non-proliferation presented by current and future nuclear power reactors. A list of participants including their affiliation and their E-Mail addresses is attached. The workshop concluded that the technologies, presently available or under development, hold out the exciting possibility of improving the environmental quality and long term energy resources of nuclear power while strengthening proliferation resistance. The workshop participants agreed on the following statements. The workshop considered a number of technologies to deal with spent nuclear fuels and current actinide inventories. The conclusion was reached that substantial increase in nuclear power production will require that the issue of spent nuclear fuel be resolved. The Workshop concluded that 14 MeV fusion neutrons can be used to destroy nuclear reactor by-products, some of which would otherwise have to be stored for geologic periods of time. The production of 14 MeV neutrons is based on existing fusion technologies at different research institutions in several countries around the world. At the present time this technology is used to produce 14 MeV neutrons in JET. More development work will be required, however, to bring fusion technology to the level where it can be used for actinide burning on an industrial scale. The workshop concluded that the potential

  11. Reactor parameters and constants determination by using measurements in subcritical and exponential assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voi, Dante Luiz; Santos Bastos, Wilma dos

    1995-01-01

    Subcritical and exponential experiments are important for Reactor Physics integral parameter determinations both to validate and confirm theoretical models for reactor calculations. An exponential and subcritical facility has been constructed to be used on the internal thermal column of the Argonauta reactor at IEN-CNEN- Rio de Janeiro. An experimental research program has been developed for the determination of fundamental reactor constants as buckling, migration areas, resonance escape probabilities, thermal utilization, fast fission and fuel eta factors. (author) 23 refs

  12. Investigation plan for infiltration experiment in Olkiluoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtinen, A.; Lindgren, S.; Ikonen, A.

    2008-11-01

    hydrological modelling to investigate the process of infiltration. The experiment makes it possible to extend the understanding of hydrogeology in the upper part of the bedrock, which will also help in future predictions. This report describes the plans on the experimental site, field investigations, data acquisition and interpretation, and modelling approaches. (orig.)

  13. Nonlinear dead water resistance at subcritical speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grue, John

    2015-08-01

    The dead water resistance F 1 = /1 2 C d w ρ S U 2 (ρ fluid density, U ship speed, S wetted body surface, Cdw resistance coefficient) on a ship moving at subcritical speed along the upper layer of a two-layer fluid is calculated by a strongly nonlinear method assuming potential flow in each layer. The ship dimensions correspond to those of the Polar ship Fram. The ship draught, b0, is varied in the range 0.25h0-0.9h0 (h0 the upper layer depth). The calculations show that Cdw/(b0/h0)2 depends on the Froude number only, in the range close to critical speed, Fr = U/c0 ˜ 0.875-1.125 (c0 the linear internal long wave speed), irrespective of the ship draught. The function Cdw/(b0/h0)2 attains a maximum at subcritical Froude number depending on the draught. Maximum Cdw/(b0/h0)2 becomes 0.15 for Fr = 0.76, b0/h0 = 0.9, and 0.16 for Fr = 0.74, b0/h0 = 1, where the latter extrapolated value of the dead water resistance coefficient is about 60 times higher than the frictional drag coefficient and relevant for the historical dead water observations. The nonlinear Cdw significantly exceeds linear theory (Fr < 0.85). The ship generated waves have a wave height comparable to the upper layer depth. Calculations of three-dimensional wave patterns at critical speed compare well to available laboratory experiments. Upstream solitary waves are generated in a wave tank of finite width, when the layer depths differ, causing an oscillation of the force. In a wide ocean, a very wide wave system develops at critical speed. The force approaches a constant value for increasing time.

  14. Measurement of subcriticality by a pulsing α-method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jitarev, V.E.; Kachanov, V.M.; Kuzmin, A.N.

    1999-01-01

    The report presents results of a pulsing α-method [1] for determination of the WWER system subcriticality. The pulsing α-method permits to conduct measurements of system subcriticality in conditions of subcritical state and large neutron background. Therefore this method can be used for the control of a subcriticality of storehouses of a burn up nuclear fuel and stopped reactor. (Authors)

  15. Consumer experiences in a consumer-driven health plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianson, Jon B; Parente, Stephen T; Feldman, Roger

    2004-08-01

    To assess the experience of enrollees in a consumer-driven health plan (CDHP). Survey of University of Minnesota employees regarding their 2002 health benefits. Comparison of regression-adjusted mean values for CDHP and other plan enrollees: customer service, plan paperwork, overall satisfaction, and plan switching. For CDHP enrollees only, use of plan features, willingness to recommend the plan to others, and reports of particularly negative or positive experiences. There were significant differences in experiences of CDHP enrollees versus enrollees in other plans with customer service and paperwork, but similar levels of satisfaction (on a 10-point scale) with health plans. Eight percent of CDHP enrollees left their plan after one year, compared to 5 percent of enrollees leaving other plans. A minority of CDHP enrollees used online plan features, but enrollees generally were satisfied with the amount and quality of the information provided by the CDHP. Almost half reported a particularly positive experience, compared to a quarter reporting a particularly negative experience. Thirty percent said they would recommend the plan to others, while an additional 57 percent said they would recommend it depending on the situation. Much more work is needed to determine how consumer experience varies with the number and type of plan options available, the design of the CDHP, and the length of time in the CDHP. Research also is needed on the factors that affect consumer decisions to leave CDHPs.

  16. Subcritical to supercritical flow transition in a horizontal stratified flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asaka, H.; Kukita, Y.

    1995-01-01

    The conditions for a transition from hydraulically subcritical to supercritical flow in the hot legs of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) were studied using data obtained from a two-phase natural circulation experiment conducted at the ROSA-IV Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF). The LSTF is a 1/48 volumetrically-scaled simulator of a Westinghouse-type PWR. The conditions for the transition were compared with the theory of Gardner. While the model explains the trend in the experimental data, the quantitative agreement was not satisfactory. It was found that the conditions for the transition from the subcritical to supercritical flow were predicted well by introducing energy loss term into the theory. (author)

  17. Subcritical tests - nuclear weapon testing under the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty; Subkritiske tester - kjernevaapentesting under avtalen om fullstendig proevestans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeibraaten, S

    1998-10-01

    The report discusses possible nuclear weapons related experiments and whether these are permitted under the 1996 Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). The term ''subcritical experiments'' as used in the United States includes experiments in which one studies fissile materials (so far only plutonium) under extreme conditions generated by conventional high explosives, and in which a self-sustained chain reaction never develops in the fissile material. The known facts about the American subcritical experiments are presented. There is very little reason to doubt that these experiments were indeed subcritical and therefore permitted under the CTBT. Little is known about the Russian efforts that are being made on subcritical experiments.

  18. Danish Experience in Local Energy Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Sørensen, Per Alex

    2003-01-01

    The paper describes the influence from public participation brings examples of local energy planning from Ærø and Samsø islands in Denmark.......The paper describes the influence from public participation brings examples of local energy planning from Ærø and Samsø islands in Denmark....

  19. Subcritical Noise Analysis Measurements with Fresh and Spent Research Reactor Fuels Elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentine, T.E.; Mihalczo, J.T.; Kryter, R.C.; Miller, V.C.

    1999-01-01

    The verification of the subcriticality is of utmost importance for the safe transportation and storage of nuclear reactor fuels. Transportation containers and storage facilities are designed such that nuclear fuels remain in a subcritical state. Such designs often involve excess conservatism because of the lack of relevant experimental data to verify the accuracy of Monte Carlo codes used in nuclear criticality safety analyses. A joint experimental research program between Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Westinghouse Safety Management Solutions, Inc., and the University of Missouri was initiated to obtain measured quantities that could be directly related to the subcriticality of simple arrays of Missouri University Research Reactor (MURR) fuel elements. A series of measurement were performed to assess the reactivity of materials such as BORAL, stainless steel, aluminum, and lead that are typically used in the construction of shipping casks. These materials were positioned between the fuel elements. In addition, a limited number of measurements were performed with configurations of fresh and spent (irradiated) fuel elements to ascertain the reactivity of the spent fuel elements. In these experiments, fresh fuel elements were replaced by spent fuel elements such that the subcritical reactivity change could be measured. The results of these measurements were used by Westinghouse Safety Management Solutions to determine the subcriticality of MURR fuel elements isolated by absorbing materials. The measurements were interpreted using the MCNP-DSP Monte Carlo code to obtain the subcritical neutron multiplication factor k(sub eff), and the bias in K(sub eff) that are used in criticality safety analyses

  20. PILOT-SCALE SUBCRITICAL WATER REMEDIATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON- AND PESTICIDE-CONTAMINATED SOIL. (R825394)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subcritical water (hot water under enough pressure to maintain the liquid state) was used to remove polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and pesticides from highly contaminated soils. Laboratory-scale (8 g of soil) experiments were used to determine conditions f...

  1. Physics analyses of an accelerator-driven sub-critical assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naberezhnev, Dmitry G.; Gohar, Yousry; Bailey, James; Belch, Henry

    2006-06-01

    Physics analyses have been performed for an accelerator-driven sub-critical assembly as a part of the Argonne National Laboratory activity in preparation for a joint conceptual design with the Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT) of Ukraine. KIPT has a plan to construct an accelerator-driven sub-critical assembly targeted towards the medical isotope production and the support of the Ukraine nuclear industry. The external neutron source is produced either through photonuclear reactions in tungsten or uranium targets, or deuteron reactions in a beryllium target. KIPT intends using the high-enriched uranium (HEU) for the fuel of the sub-critical assembly. The main objective of this paper is to study the possibility of utilizing low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel instead of HEU fuel without penalizing the sub-critical assembly performance, in particular the neutron flux level. In the course of this activity, several studies have been carried out to investigate the main choices for the system's parameters. The external neutron source has been characterized and a pre-conceptual target design has been developed. Several sub-critical configurations with different fuel enrichments and densities have been considered. Based on our analysis, it was shown that the performance of the LEU fuel is comparable with that of the HEU fuel. The LEU fuel sub-critical assembly with 200-MeV electron energy and 100-kW electron beam power has an average total flux of ˜2.50×10 13 n/s cm 2 in the irradiation channels. The corresponding total facility power is ˜204 kW divided into 91 and 113 kW deposited in the target and sub-critical assemblies, respectively.

  2. Computer-Aided Experiment Planning toward Causal Discovery in Neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matiasz, Nicholas J; Wood, Justin; Wang, Wei; Silva, Alcino J; Hsu, William

    2017-01-01

    Computers help neuroscientists to analyze experimental results by automating the application of statistics; however, computer-aided experiment planning is far less common, due to a lack of similar quantitative formalisms for systematically assessing evidence and uncertainty. While ontologies and other Semantic Web resources help neuroscientists to assimilate required domain knowledge, experiment planning requires not only ontological but also epistemological (e.g., methodological) information regarding how knowledge was obtained. Here, we outline how epistemological principles and graphical representations of causality can be used to formalize experiment planning toward causal discovery. We outline two complementary approaches to experiment planning: one that quantifies evidence per the principles of convergence and consistency, and another that quantifies uncertainty using logical representations of constraints on causal structure. These approaches operationalize experiment planning as the search for an experiment that either maximizes evidence or minimizes uncertainty. Despite work in laboratory automation, humans must still plan experiments and will likely continue to do so for some time. There is thus a great need for experiment-planning frameworks that are not only amenable to machine computation but also useful as aids in human reasoning.

  3. US plans for burning plasma experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, D.

    1982-01-01

    The first US burning plasma experiment will be the TFTR at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The initial start-up with hydrogen is expected in December, 1983. The experiment by D-T reaction will begin in 1986. Because of the lack of shielding capability, later experiment is not yet defined. The informal scientific interaction with JET (European project) is kept. The design work on the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) continues, but is delayed. US fusion laboratories collaborated with IPP-Garching on the conceptual design of Zephyr experiment. The US continues to participate in INTOR activities, and will investigate into the critical issues relevant to both INTOR and FED in coming years. (Kato, T.)

  4. Synthesizing Disparate Experiences in Episodic Planning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ford, Anthony J; Lawton, James H

    2008-01-01

    .... Unfortunately, each planner only has access to his or her own memories. We propose to use an artificial intelligence decision aide to help bridge this gap, by reasoning over distributed collections of previous experiences...

  5. Continuous reactivity calculation for subcritical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Cristiano; Goncalves, Alessandro C.; Martinez, Aquilino S.; Silva, Fernando C. da

    2011-01-01

    With the rise of a new generation of nuclear reactors as for existence the ADS (Accelerator-Driven System), it is important to have a fast and accurate prediction of the variation in reactivity during a possible variation in the intensity of external sources. This paper presents a formulation for the calculation of reactivity in subcritical systems using the inverse method related only to nuclear power derivatives. One of the applications of the proposed method is the possibility of developing reactimeters that allow the continuous monitoring of subcritical systems. (author)

  6. Continuous reactivity calculation for subcritical system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Cristiano; Goncalves, Alessandro C.; Martinez, Aquilino S.; Silva, Fernando C. da, E-mail: cristiano@herzeleid.net, E-mail: aquilino@lmp.ufrj.br, E-mail: fernando@con.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Palma, Daniel A.P., E-mail: dapalma@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    With the rise of a new generation of nuclear reactors as for existence the ADS (Accelerator-Driven System), it is important to have a fast and accurate prediction of the variation in reactivity during a possible variation in the intensity of external sources. This paper presents a formulation for the calculation of reactivity in subcritical systems using the inverse method related only to nuclear power derivatives. One of the applications of the proposed method is the possibility of developing reactimeters that allow the continuous monitoring of subcritical systems. (author)

  7. Subcritical calculation of the nuclear material warehouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia M, T.; Mazon R, R.

    2009-01-01

    In this work the subcritical calculation of the nuclear material warehouse of the Reactor TRIGA Mark III labyrinth in the Mexico Nuclear Center is presented. During the adaptation of the nuclear warehouse (vault I), the fuel was temporarily changed to the warehouse (vault II) and it was also carried out the subcritical calculation for this temporary arrangement. The code used for the calculation of the effective multiplication factor, it was the Monte Carlo N-Particle Extended code known as MCNPX, developed by the National Laboratory of Los Alamos, for the particles transport. (Author)

  8. Neutron chain length distributions in subcritical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolen, S.D.; Spriggs, G.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, the authors present the results of the chain-length distribution as a function of k in subcritical systems. These results were obtained from a point Monte Carlo code and a three-dimensional Monte Carlo code, MC++. Based on these results, they then attempt to explain why several of the common neutron noise techniques, such as the Rossi-α and Feynman's variance-to-mean techniques, are difficult to perform in highly subcritical systems using low-efficiency detectors

  9. Protein-crystal growth experiment (planned)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, S.; Asano, K.; Hashitani, T.; Kitakohji, T.; Nemoto, H.; Kitamura, S.

    1988-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a microgravity environment on protein crystal growth, a system was developed using 5 cubic feet Get Away Special payload canister. In the experiment, protein (myoglobin) will be simultaneously crystallized from an aqueous solution in 16 crystallization units using three types of crystallization methods, i.e., batch, vapor diffusion, and free interface diffusion. Each unit has two compartments: one for the protein solution and the other for the ammonium sulfate solution. Compartments are separated by thick acrylic or thin stainless steel plates. Crystallization will be started by sliding out the plates, then will be periodically recorded up to 120 hours by a still camera. The temperature will be passively controlled by a phase transition thermal storage component and recorded in IC memory throughout the experiment. Microgravity environment can then be evaluated for protein crystal growth by comparing crystallization in space with that on Earth.

  10. Planning for an Integrated Research Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnard, J.J.; Ahle, L.E.; Bangerter, R.O.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Celata, C.M.; Faltens, A.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P.; Haber, I.; Henestroza, E.; Kishek, R.A.; Hoon, M.J.L. de; Karpenko, V.P.; Kwan, J.W.; Lee, E.P.; Logan, B.G.; Lund, S.M.; Meier, W.R.; Molvik, A.W.; Sangster, T.C.; Seidl, P.A.; Sharp, W.M.

    2000-01-01

    The authors describe the goals and research program leading to the Heavy Ion Integrated Research Experiment (IRE). They review the basic constraints which lead to a design and give examples of parameters and capabilities of an IRE. We also show design tradeoffs generated by the systems code IBEAM. A multi-pronged Phase 1 research effort is laying the groundwork for the Integrated Research Experiment. Experiment, technology development, theory, simulation, and systems studies are all playing major roles in this Phase I research. The key research areas are: (1) Source and injector (for investigation of a high brightness, multiple beam, low cost injector); (2) High current transport (to examine effects at full driver-scale line charge density, including the maximization of the beam filling-factor and control of electrons); (3) Enabling technology development (low cost and high performance magnetic core material, superconducting magnetic quadrupole arrays, insulators, and pulsers); and (4) Beam simulations and theory (for investigations of beam matching, specification of accelerator errors, studies of emittance growth, halo, and bunch compression, in the accelerator, and neutralization methods, stripping effects, spot size minimization in the chamber); and (5) Systems optimization (minimization of cost and maximization of pulse energy and beam intensity). They have begun the process of designing, simulating, and optimizing the next major heavy-ion induction accelerator, the IRE. This accelerator facility will, in turn, help provide the basis to proceed to the next step in the development of IFE as an attractive source of fusion energy

  11. Applying radiological emergency planning experience to hazardous materials emergency planning within the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foltman, A.; Newsom, D.; Lerner, K.

    1988-01-01

    The nuclear industry has extensive radiological emergency planning (REP) experience that is directly applicable to hazardous materials emergency planning. Recently, the Feed Materials Production Center near Cincinnati, Ohio, successfully demonstrated such application. The REP experience includes conceptual bases and standards for developing plans that have been tested in hundreds of full-scale exercises. The exercise program itself is also well developed. Systematic consideration of the differences between chemical and radiological hazards shows that relatively minor changes to the REP bases and standards are necessary. Conduct of full-scale, REP-type exercises serves to test the plans, provide training, and engender confidence and credibility

  12. Nuclear power in Asia: Experience and plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee Chang Kun

    1999-01-01

    Asian countries have developed ambitious energy supply programs to expand their energy supply systems to meet the growing needs of their rapidly expanding economies. Most of their new electrical generation needs will be met by coal, oil and gas. However, the consideration of growing energy demand, energy security, environmental conservation, and technology enhancement is inducing more Asian countries toward the pursuit of nuclear power development. At present, nuclear power provides about 30% of electricity in Japan, and about 40% of electricity in Korea. These and other Asian countries are presumed to significantly increase their nuclear power generation capacities in coming years. Korea's nuclear power generation facilities are projected to grow from 12 gigawatt in 1998 to 16.7 gigawatt by 2004. On the other hand, China and India have now installed nuclear capacities of about 2 gigawatt, respectively, which will increase by a factor of two or more by 2004. The installed nuclear capacity in the Asian region totalled 67 gigawatt as of the end of 1997, representing about sixteen percent of the world capacity of 369 gigawatt. Looking to the year 2010, it is anticipated that most of the world's increase in nuclear capacity will come from Asia. It is further forecasted that Asian nations will continue to expand their nuclear capacity as they move into the 21st century. For example, China plans to develop additional 18 gigawatt of nuclear power plants by the year 2010. Nuclear power is also of particular interest to a number of emerging Asian countries in view of environmental conservation and mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions in particular. Nuclear power appeals to some countries because of its high technology content. The strength in an advanced technology, such as the technological capability related to nuclear power, contributes to the overall development of the corresponding country's engineering base, enhancement of industrial infrastructure and expansion of

  13. The Importance of Experience Based Decommissioning Planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, Arne; Lidar, Per; Hedin, Gunnar; Bergh, Niklas

    2016-01-01

    Decommissioning of a nuclear facility is an extensive and multidisciplinary task, which involves the management and technical actions associated with ceasing operation and thereafter the step-by-step transfer of the facility from an operating plant to an object under decommissioning. The decommissioning phase includes dismantling of systems and components, decontamination and clearance, demolition of buildings, remediation of any contaminated ground and finally a survey of the site. Several of these activities generate radioactive or potentially radioactive waste, which has to be managed properly prior to clearance or disposal. What makes decommissioning of nuclear installations unique is to large extent the radioactive waste management. No other industries have that complex regulatory framework for the waste management. If decommissioning project in the nuclear industry does not consider the waste aspects to the extent required, there is a large risk of failure causing a reduced trust by the regulators and other stakeholders as well as cost and schedule overruns. This paper will give an overview of important aspects and findings gathered during decades of planning and conducting decommissioning and nuclear facility modernization projects. (authors)

  14. FermiGrid—experience and future plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, K.; Berman, E.; Canal, P.; Hesselroth, T.; Garzoglio, G.; Levshina, T.; Sergeev, V.; Sfiligoi, I.; Sharma, N.; Timm, S.; Yocum, D. R.

    2008-07-01

    Fermilab supports a scientific program that includes experiments and scientists located across the globe. In order to better serve this community, Fermilab has placed its production computer resources in a Campus Grid infrastructure called 'FermiGrid'. The FermiGrid infrastructure allows the large experiments at Fermilab to have priority access to their own resources, enables sharing of these resources in an opportunistic fashion, and movement of work (jobs, data) between the Campus Grid and National Grids such as Open Science Grid (OSG) and the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid Collaboration (WLCG). FermiGrid resources support multiple Virtual Organizations (VOs), including VOs from the OSG, EGEE, and the WLCG. Fermilab also makes leading contributions to the Open Science Grid in the areas of accounting, batch computing, grid security, job management, resource selection, site infrastructure, storage management, and VO services. Through the FermiGrid interfaces, authenticated and authorized VOs and individuals may access our core grid services, the 10,000+ Fermilab resident CPUs, near-petabyte (including CMS) online disk pools and the multi-petabyte Fermilab Mass Storage System. These core grid services include a site wide Globus gatekeeper, VO management services for several VOs, Fermilab site authorization services, grid user mapping services, as well as job accounting and monitoring, resource selection and data movement services. Access to these services is via standard and well-supported grid interfaces. We will report on the user experience of using the FermiGrid campus infrastructure interfaced to a national cyberinfrastructure - the successes and the problems.

  15. FermiGrid - experience and future plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadwick, K.; Berman, E.; Canal, P.; Hesselroth, T.; Garzoglio, G.; Levshina, T.; Sergeev, V.; Sfiligoi, I.; Timm, S.; Yocum, D.

    2007-01-01

    Fermilab supports a scientific program that includes experiments and scientists located across the globe. In order to better serve this community, Fermilab has placed its production computer resources in a Campus Grid infrastructure called 'FermiGrid'. The FermiGrid infrastructure allows the large experiments at Fermilab to have priority access to their own resources, enables sharing of these resources in an opportunistic fashion, and movement of work (jobs, data) between the Campus Grid and National Grids such as Open Science Grid and the WLCG. FermiGrid resources support multiple Virtual Organizations (VOs), including VOs from the Open Science Grid (OSG), EGEE and the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid Collaboration (WLCG). Fermilab also makes leading contributions to the Open Science Grid in the areas of accounting, batch computing, grid security, job management, resource selection, site infrastructure, storage management, and VO services. Through the FermiGrid interfaces, authenticated and authorized VOs and individuals may access our core grid services, the 10,000+ Fermilab resident CPUs, near-petabyte (including CMS) online disk pools and the multi-petabyte Fermilab Mass Storage System. These core grid services include a site wide Globus gatekeeper, VO management services for several VOs, Fermilab site authorization services, grid user mapping services, as well as job accounting and monitoring, resource selection and data movement services. Access to these services is via standard and well-supported grid interfaces. We will report on the user experience of using the FermiGrid campus infrastructure interfaced to a national cyberinfrastructure--the successes and the problems

  16. FermiGrid-experience and future plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadwick, K; Berman, E; Canal, P; Hesselroth, T; Garzoglio, G; Levshina, T; Sergeev, V; Sfiligoi, I; Sharma, N; Timm, S; Yocum, D R

    2008-01-01

    Fermilab supports a scientific program that includes experiments and scientists located across the globe. In order to better serve this community, Fermilab has placed its production computer resources in a Campus Grid infrastructure called 'FermiGrid'. The FermiGrid infrastructure allows the large experiments at Fermilab to have priority access to their own resources, enables sharing of these resources in an opportunistic fashion, and movement of work (jobs, data) between the Campus Grid and National Grids such as Open Science Grid (OSG) and the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid Collaboration (WLCG). FermiGrid resources support multiple Virtual Organizations (VOs), including VOs from the OSG, EGEE, and the WLCG. Fermilab also makes leading contributions to the Open Science Grid in the areas of accounting, batch computing, grid security, job management, resource selection, site infrastructure, storage management, and VO services. Through the FermiGrid interfaces, authenticated and authorized VOs and individuals may access our core grid services, the 10,000+ Fermilab resident CPUs, near-petabyte (including CMS) online disk pools and the multi-petabyte Fermilab Mass Storage System. These core grid services include a site wide Globus gatekeeper, VO management services for several VOs, Fermilab site authorization services, grid user mapping services, as well as job accounting and monitoring, resource selection and data movement services. Access to these services is via standard and well-supported grid interfaces. We will report on the user experience of using the FermiGrid campus infrastructure interfaced to a national cyberinfrastructure - the successes and the problems

  17. Solubility of Benzo[a]pyrene and Organic Matter of Soil in Subcritical Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Sushkova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic subcritical water extraction method of benzo[a]pyrene from soils is under consideration. The optimum conditions for benzo[a]pyrene extraction from soil are described including the soil treatment by subcritical water at 250 °C and 100 atm for 30 min. The effectiveness of developed method was determined using the matrix spiking recovery technique. A comparative analysis was made to evaluate the results of benzo[a]pyrene extraction from soils using the subcritical water and organic solvents. The advantages of the subcritical water extraction involve the use of ecologically friendly solvent, a shorter time for the analysis and a higher amount of benzo[a]pyrene extracted from soil (96 %. The influence of subcritical water extraction on soil properties was measured the investigation of the processes occurring within soil under the influence the high temperature and pressure. Under appropriate conditions of the experiment there is the destruction of the soil organic matter while the composition of the soil mineral fraction remains practically unchanged.

  18. Radioactive isotope production for medical applications using Kharkov electron driven subcritical assembly facility.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talamo, A.; Gohar, Y.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2007-05-15

    Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT) of Ukraine has a plan to construct an accelerator driven subcritical assembly. The main functions of the subcritical assembly are the medical isotope production, neutron thereby, and the support of the Ukraine nuclear industry. Reactor physics experiments and material research will be carried out using the capabilities of this facility. The United States of America and Ukraine have started collaboration activity for developing a conceptual design for this facility with low enrichment uranium (LEU) fuel. Different conceptual designs are being developed based on the facility mission and the engineering requirements including nuclear physics, neutronics, heat transfer, thermal hydraulics, structure, and material issues. Different fuel designs with LEU and reflector materials are considered in the design process. Safety, reliability, and environmental considerations are included in the facility conceptual design. The facility is configured to accommodate future design improvements and upgrades. This report is a part of the Argonne National Laboratory Activity within this collaboration for developing and characterizing the subcritical assembly conceptual design. In this study, the medical isotope production function of the Kharkov facility is defined. First, a review was carried out to identify the medical isotopes and its medical use. Then a preliminary assessment was performed without including the self-shielding effect of the irradiated samples. Finally, more detailed investigation was carried out including the self-shielding effect, which defined the sample size and irradiation location for producing each medical isotope. In the first part, the reaction rates were calculated as the multiplication of the cross section with the unperturbed neutron flux of the facility. Over fifty isotopes were considered and all transmutation channels are used including (n,{gamma}), (n,2n), (n,p), and ({gamma},n). In the second part

  19. Radioactive isotope production for medical applications using Kharkov electron driven subcritical assembly facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talamo, A.; Gohar, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT) of Ukraine has a plan to construct an accelerator driven subcritical assembly. The main functions of the subcritical assembly are the medical isotope production, neutron thereby, and the support of the Ukraine nuclear industry. Reactor physics experiments and material research will be carried out using the capabilities of this facility. The United States of America and Ukraine have started collaboration activity for developing a conceptual design for this facility with low enrichment uranium (LEU) fuel. Different conceptual designs are being developed based on the facility mission and the engineering requirements including nuclear physics, neutronics, heat transfer, thermal hydraulics, structure, and material issues. Different fuel designs with LEU and reflector materials are considered in the design process. Safety, reliability, and environmental considerations are included in the facility conceptual design. The facility is configured to accommodate future design improvements and upgrades. This report is a part of the Argonne National Laboratory Activity within this collaboration for developing and characterizing the subcritical assembly conceptual design. In this study, the medical isotope production function of the Kharkov facility is defined. First, a review was carried out to identify the medical isotopes and its medical use. Then a preliminary assessment was performed without including the self-shielding effect of the irradiated samples. Finally, more detailed investigation was carried out including the self-shielding effect, which defined the sample size and irradiation location for producing each medical isotope. In the first part, the reaction rates were calculated as the multiplication of the cross section with the unperturbed neutron flux of the facility. Over fifty isotopes were considered and all transmutation channels are used including (n,γ), (n,2n), (n,p), and (γ,n). In the second part, the parent

  20. Electron versus proton accelerator driven sub-critical system performance using TRIGA reactors at power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta, M.; Burgio, N.; D'Angelo, A.; Santagata, A.; Petrovich, C.; Schikorr, M.; Beller, D.; Felice, L. S.; Imel, G.; Salvatores, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides a comparison of the performance of an electron accelerator-driven experiment, under discussion within the Reactor Accelerator Coupling Experiments (RACE) Project, being conducted within the U.S. Dept. of Energy's Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), and of the proton-driven experiment TRADE (TRIGA Accelerator Driven Experiment) originally planned at ENEA-Casaccia in Italy. Both experiments foresee the coupling to sub-critical TRIGA core configurations, and are aimed to investigate the relevant kinetic and dynamic accelerator-driven systems (ADS) core behavior characteristics in the presence of thermal reactivity feedback effects. TRADE was based on the coupling of an upgraded proton cyclotron, producing neutrons via spallation reactions on a tantalum (Ta) target, with the core driven at a maximum power around 200 kW. RACE is based on the coupling of an Electron Linac accelerator, producing neutrons via photoneutron reactions on a tungsten-copper (W-Cu) or uranium (U) target, with the core driven at a maximum power around 50 kW. The paper is focused on analysis of expected dynamic power response of the RACE core following reactivity and/or source transients. TRADE and RACE target-core power coupling coefficients are compared and discussed. (authors)

  1. Burnup calculations for KIPT accelerator driven subcritical facility using Monte Carlo computer codes-MCB and MCNPX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gohar, Y.; Zhong, Z.; Talamo, A.

    2009-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) of USA and Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT) of Ukraine have been collaborating on the conceptual design development of an electron accelerator driven subcritical (ADS) facility, using the KIPT electron accelerator. The neutron source of the subcritical assembly is generated from the interaction of 100 KW electron beam with a natural uranium target. The electron beam has a uniform spatial distribution and electron energy in the range of 100 to 200 MeV. The main functions of the subcritical assembly are the production of medical isotopes and the support of the Ukraine nuclear power industry. Neutron physics experiments and material structure analyses are planned using this facility. With the 100 KW electron beam power, the total thermal power of the facility is ∼375 kW including the fission power of ∼260 kW. The burnup of the fissile materials and the buildup of fission products reduce continuously the reactivity during the operation, which reduces the neutron flux level and consequently the facility performance. To preserve the neutron flux level during the operation, fuel assemblies should be added after long operating periods to compensate for the lost reactivity. This process requires accurate prediction of the fuel burnup, the decay behavior of the fission produces, and the introduced reactivity from adding fresh fuel assemblies. The recent developments of the Monte Carlo computer codes, the high speed capability of the computer processors, and the parallel computation techniques made it possible to perform three-dimensional detailed burnup simulations. A full detailed three-dimensional geometrical model is used for the burnup simulations with continuous energy nuclear data libraries for the transport calculations and 63-multigroup or one group cross sections libraries for the depletion calculations. Monte Carlo Computer code MCNPX and MCB are utilized for this study. MCNPX transports the electrons and the

  2. Hungarian experience in using the IAEA planning methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacsko, M.

    1997-01-01

    The Hungarian Power Companies Ltd. has been using the IAEA planning methodologies since 1985 when it acquired the WASP model. Since then this model has been applied on a regular basis to determine the least cost expansion plan of the power generating system of the country. This report describes this experience as well as the application of the WASP model for other types of studies. (author)

  3. Hungarian experience in using the IAEA planning methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacsko, M [Hungarian Power Companis Ltd, Budapest (Hungary)

    1997-09-01

    The Hungarian Power Companies Ltd. has been using the IAEA planning methodologies since 1985 when it acquired the WASP model. Since then this model has been applied on a regular basis to determine the least cost expansion plan of the power generating system of the country. This report describes this experience as well as the application of the WASP model for other types of studies. (author).

  4. Turkish experience with the use of IAEA planning models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fikret, H.

    1997-01-01

    Most of the IAEA planning methodologies for energy and electricity planning have been transferred to Turkey as part of Technical Co-operation projects on the subject matter. The transfer has been supplemented by adequate training to national experts through their participation in the above projects and in the training courses on these models organized by the IAEA. The experience gathered in the use of these models in Turkey is described in this paper, highlighting how the models are imbedded in the country's planning procedure for energy and electricity matters. (author). 7 figs, 6 tabs

  5. Turkish experience with the use of IAEA planning models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fikret, H [Ministry of Energy and Natural Resouces, Ankara (Turkey)

    1997-09-01

    Most of the IAEA planning methodologies for energy and electricity planning have been transferred to Turkey as part of Technical Co-operation projects on the subject matter. The transfer has been supplemented by adequate training to national experts through their participation in the above projects and in the training courses on these models organized by the IAEA. The experience gathered in the use of these models in Turkey is described in this paper, highlighting how the models are imbedded in the country`s planning procedure for energy and electricity matters. (author). 7 figs, 6 tabs.

  6. Experimental determination of the neutron source for the Argonauta reactor subcritical assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renke, Carlos A.C.; Furieri, Rosanne C.A.A.; Pereira, Joao C.S.; Voi, Dante L.; Barbosa, Andre L.N., E-mail: renke@ien.gov.b [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The utilization of a subcritical assembly for the determination of nuclear parameters in a multiplier medium requires a well defined neutron source to carry out the experiments necessary for the acquisition of the desired data. The Argonauta research reactor installed at the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear has a subcritical assembly, under development, to be coupled at the upper part of the reactor core that will provide the needed neutrons emerging from its internal thermal column made of graphite. In order to perform neutronic calculations to compare with the experimental results, it is necessary a precise knowledge of the emergent neutron flux that will be used as neutron source in the subcritical assembly. In this work, we present the thermal neutron flux profile determined experimentally via the technique of neutron activation analysis, using dysprosium wires uniformly distributed at the top of the internal thermal neutron column of the Argonauta reactor and later submitted to a detection system using Geiger-Mueller detector. These experimental data were then compared with those obtained through neutronic calculation using HAMMER and CITATION codes in order to validate this calculation system and to define a correct neutron source distribution to be used in the subcritical assembly. This procedure avoids a coupled neutronic calculation of the subcritical assembly and the reactor core. It has also been determined the dimension of the graphite pedestal to be used in the bottom of the subcritical assembly tank in order to smooth the emergent neutron flux at the reactor top. Finally, it is estimated the thermal neutron flux inside the assembly tank when filled with water. (author)

  7. Estimation of subcriticality by neutron source multiplication method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Kiyoshi; Suzaki, Takenori; Arakawa, Takuya; Naito, Yoshitaka

    1995-03-01

    Subcritical cores were constructed in a core tank of the TCA by arraying 2.6% enriched UO 2 fuel rods into nxn square lattices of 1.956 cm pitch. Vertical distributions of the neutron count rates for the fifteen subcritical cores (n=17, 16, 14, 11, 8) with different water levels were measured at 5 cm interval with 235 U micro-fission counters at the in-core and out-core positions arranging a 252 C f neutron source at near core center. The continuous energy Monte Carlo code MCNP-4A was used for the calculation of neutron multiplication factors and neutron count rates. In this study, important conclusions are as follows: (1) Differences of neutron multiplication factors resulted from exponential experiment and MCNP-4A are below 1% in most cases. (2) Standard deviations of neutron count rates calculated from MCNP-4A with 500000 histories are 5-8%. The calculated neutron count rates are consistent with the measured one. (author)

  8. Proposed plan for critical experiments supporting thorium fuel cycle development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gore, B.F.

    1978-09-01

    A preliminary plan is proposed for critical experiments to provide data needed for the recycle of thorium based nuclear fuels. The sequence of experimentation starts with well moderated solutions followed by highly concentrated low moderated solutions. It then progresses through lattices moderated by water, by water plus soluble poisons, and by fissile solutions, to solutions poisoned by raschig rings and soluble poisons. Final experiments would treat lattices moderated by poisoned fissile solution, and arrays of stored fissile units

  9. Subcritical limits for special fissile actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, H.K.

    1980-01-01

    Critical masses and subcritical mass limits in oxide-water mixtures were calculated for actinide nuclides other than /sup 233/U, /sup 235/U, and /sup 239/Pu that have an odd number of neutrons in the nucleus; S/sub n/ transport theory was used together with cross sections, drawn from the GLASS multigroup library, developed to provide accurate forecasts of actinide production at Savannah River

  10. Spacelab operations planning. [ground handling, launch, flight and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T. J.

    1976-01-01

    The paper reviews NASA planning in the fields of ground, launch and flight operations and experiment integration to effectively operate Spacelab. Payload mission planning is discussed taking consideration of orbital analysis and the mission of a multiuser payload which may be either single or multidiscipline. Payload analytical integration - as active process of analyses to ensure that the experiment payload is compatible to the mission objectives and profile ground and flight operations and that the resource demands upon Spacelab can be satisfied - is considered. Software integration is touched upon and the major integration levels in ground operational processing of Spacelab and its experimental payloads are examined. Flight operations, encompassing the operation of the Space Transportation System and the payload, are discussed as are the initial Spacelab missions. Charts and diagrams are presented illustrating the various planning areas.

  11. The challenges and related strategies of planning for wilderness experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerri Cahill

    2012-01-01

    Planning is where science, public interests and management of wilderness areas come together. Unfortunately, science and information specifically supporting wilderness experiences, if any exists, is often perceived by managers as subjective, value laden, and hard to defend. This can sometimes lead to the tough decisions about providing high quality wilderness...

  12. Cell culture experiments planned for the space bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Dennis R.; Cross, John H.

    1987-01-01

    Culturing of cells in a pilot-scale bioreactor remains to be done in microgravity. An approach is presented based on several studies of cell culture systems. Previous and current cell culture research in microgravity which is specifically directed towards development of a space bioprocess is described. Cell culture experiments planned for a microgravity sciences mission are described in abstract form.

  13. Development of reactivity feedback effect measurement techniques under sub-critical condition in fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitano, A.; Nishi, H.; Suzuki, T.; Okajima, S.; Kanemoto, S.

    2012-01-01

    The first-of-a-kind reactor has been licensed by a safety examination of the plant design based on the measured data in precedent mock-up experiments. The validity of the safety design can be confirmed without a mock-up experiment, if the reactor feed-back characteristics can be measured before operation, with the constructed reactor itself. The 'Synthesis Method', a systematic and sophisticated method of sub-criticality measurement, is proposed in this work to ensure the safety margin before operation. The 'Synthesis Method' is based on the modified source multiplication method (MSM) combined with the noise analysis method to measure the reference sub-criticality level for MSM. A numerical simulation for the control-rod reactivity worth and the isothermal feed-back reactivity was conducted for typical fast reactors of 100 MWe-size, 300 MWe-size, 750 MWe-size, and 1500 MWe-size to investigate the applicability of Synthesis Method. The number of neutron detectors and their positions necessary for the measurement were investigated for both methods of MSM and the noise analysis by a series of parametric survey calculations. As a result, it was suggested that a neutron detector located above the core center and three or more neutron detectors located above the radial blanket region enable the measurement of sub-criticality within 10% uncertainty from -$0.5 to -$2 and within 15% uncertainty for the deeper sub-criticality. (authors)

  14. Deep subcritical levels measurements dependents upon kinetic distortion factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Shibiao; Li Xiang; Fu Guo'en; Huang Liyuan; Mu Keliang

    2013-01-01

    The measurement of deep subcritical levels, with the increase of subcriticality, showed that the results impact on the kinetic distortion effect, along with neutron flux strongly deteriorated. Using the diffusion theory, calculations have been carried out to quantify the kinetic distortion correction factors in subcritical systems, and these indicate that epithermal neutron distributions are strongly affected by kinetic distortion. Subcriticality measurements in four different rod-state combination at the zero power device was carried out. The test data analysis shows that, with increasing subcriticality, kinetic distortion effect correction factor gradually increases from 1.052 to 1.065, corresponding reactive correction amount of 0.78β eff ∼ 3.01β eff . Thus, it is necessary to consider the kinetic distortion effect in the deep subcritical reactivity measurements. (authors)

  15. Modelling of an experiment for the study of neutron spallation source at JINR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumawat, Harphool; Goyal, Uttam; Kumar, V.; Barashenkov, V.S.

    2002-01-01

    Intense neutron spallation source (INSS) is a necessary requirement of accelerator driven sub-critical systems. INSS are proposed to be generated using the high current proton beams. Some studies are conducted for the neutron flux, transmutation rates and energy gains and a larger number of related experiments are being planned

  16. Dynamic subcriticality measurements using the CF neutron noise method: Videotape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihalczo, J.T.; Blakeman, E.D.; Ragan, G.E.; Johnson, E.B.

    1987-01-01

    The capability to measure the subcriticality for a multiplying system with k-effective values as low as 0.3 was demonstrated for measurement times of approximately 10 s; the measured k-effective values obtained do not depend on the speed with which the solution height is changed or on whether the tank is filling or draining. As in previous experiments, the low-frequency ratios of spectral densities are all that are needed to obtain the k-effective value. This method's effectiveness for systems where conditions are changing with time as demonstrated, probably exceeds the dynamic requirements for most nuclear fuel plant processing applications. The calculated k-effective values using the KENO code and Hansen-Roach cross-sections compare well with the experimental values. Before the dynamic capability of the method can be considered fully explored, additional dynamic experiments are required for other geometries and fuel concentrations.

  17. Selection of initial events of accelerator driven subcritical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qianglong; Hu Liqin; Wang Jiaqun; Li Yazhou; Yang Zhiyi

    2013-01-01

    The Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) is an important tool in reactor safety analysis and a significant reference to the design and operation of reactor. It is the origin and foundation of the PSA for a reactor to select the initial events. Accelerator Driven Subcritical System (ADS) has advanced design characteristics, complicated subsystems and little engineering and operating experience, which makes it much more difficult to identify the initial events of ADS. Based on the current design project of ADS, the system's safety characteristics and special issues were analyzed in this article. After a series of deductions with Master Logic Diagram (MLD) and considering the relating experience of other advanced research reactors, a preliminary initial events was listed finally, which provided the foundation for the next safety assessment. (authors)

  18. Fostering incidental experiences of nature through green infrastructure planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beery, Thomas H; Raymond, Christopher M; Kyttä, Marketta

    2017-01-01

    of such experience for human well-being is considered. The role of green infrastructure to provide the opportunity for incidental nature experience may serve as a nudge or guide toward meaningful interaction. These ideas are explored using examples of green infrastructure design in two Nordic municipalities...... to consider this seldom addressed aspect of human interaction with nature in green infrastructure planning. Special attention has been paid to the ability of incidental nature experience to redirect attention from a primary activity toward an unplanned focus (in this case, nature phenomena). The value...

  19. Design project of fast subcritical system 'Mala Lasta'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milosevic, M.; Stefanovic, D.; Popovic, D.; Pesic, M.; Zavaljevski, N.; Nikolic, D.; Arsenovic, M.

    1988-10-01

    This report contains two parts. Part one covers the objective and fundamental elements for the choice of fast subcritical system 'Mala Lasta', review of the existing fast subcritical assemblies, and a description of the available domestic computer codes applied for calculating neutron reactor parameters. Comparison of results obtained by these codes for a number of existing subcritical assemblies was used for the choice of the design project described in part two of this report. It contains detailed description of the operating parameters of the chosen subcritical system based on the obtained calculated parameters

  20. Antares facility for inertial-fusion experiments: status and plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstone, P.D.; Allen, G.; Jansen, H.; Saxman, A.; Singer, S.; Thuot, M.

    1982-01-01

    Antares is a large, 30 to 40 kJ CO 2 laser system which will provide a base for experiments to determine the efficiency with which 10 μm light can be used to drive target implosions while maintaining an acceptable level of preheat. Construction of the facility is in the final stages and diagnostics for initial experiments are being designed and constructed with operations scheduled to begin early in FY-84. After an initial shakedown period, we expect to perform a series of measurements to determine the energy scaling of hot electron temperature and target coupling efficiency in selected set of targets including simple spheres. We also expect to continue experiments, now planned for Helios, to determine whether CO 2 -produced ions are appropriate for driving inertial fusion targets with acceptable efficiency (Helios experiments have demonstrated that as much as 40% of the incident light can be converted to fast ions). Details of these experiments, as well as plans for further experiments, are still being defined

  1. Source-jerk method for application on ADS neutronics study The ADS is stated for Accelerator Driven sub-critical System

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu Qing Fu; Li Yi; Xia Pu; Zheng Wu Qing; Zhu Guo Sheng

    2003-01-01

    The paper is concerned in the source-jerk method used to measure the sub-criticality, and the sub-critical experiment facility, which is used for the study on the neutronics of ADS, driven by external neutron source sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf. The effects of the location of neutron source and material buffer where is at the location of the pipe of proton beam and target of fission-product dispersion on the sub-criticality of reactor are studied by source-jerk method

  2. Advance Care Planning: Experience of Women With Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    recorded along with other characteristics. Inclusion criteria for the primary studies required that women with breast cancer be at least 21 years of age; cog ...W81XWH-04-1-0469 TITLE: Advance Care Planning: Experience of Women with Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Ardith Z. Doorenbos...with Breast Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-04-1-0469 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Ardith Z. Doorenbos, Ph.D

  3. Parametric analyses of planned flowing uranium hexafluoride critical experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, R. J.; Latham, T. S.

    1976-01-01

    Analytical investigations were conducted to determine preliminary design and operating characteristics of flowing uranium hexafluoride (UF6) gaseous nuclear reactor experiments in which a hybrid core configuration comprised of UF6 gas and a region of solid fuel will be employed. The investigations are part of a planned program to perform a series of experiments of increasing performance, culminating in an approximately 5 MW fissioning uranium plasma experiment. A preliminary design is described for an argon buffer gas confined, UF6 flow loop system for future use in flowing critical experiments. Initial calculations to estimate the operating characteristics of the gaseous fissioning UF6 in a confined flow test at a pressure of 4 atm, indicate temperature increases of approximately 100 and 1000 K in the UF6 may be obtained for total test power levels of 100 kW and 1 MW for test times of 320 and 32 sec, respectively.

  4. Superfluid helium at subcritical active core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'ev, V.V.; Lopatkin, A.V.; Muratov, V.G.; Rakhno, I.L.

    2002-01-01

    Power range and neutron flux wherein super thermal source was realized at high volume of superfluid helium were investigated. MCU, BRAND, MCNP codes were used for the calculation of reactors. It is shown that the availability of full-size diameter for cryogenic source of ultracold neutrons, as the source with superfluid helium is considered, is possible in the reflector of subcritical assembly. Results obtained from the MCNP-4B code application demonstrated that the density of thermal neutron flux in helium must be not higher than 2.3 x 10 11 s -1 cm -2 [ru

  5. Hydrolysis of corn oil using subcritical water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinto Jair Sebastião S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the results of a study on the use of subcritical water as both solvent and reactant for the hydrolysis of corn oil without the use of acids or alkalis at temperatures of 150-280 degreesC. Corn oil hydrolysis leads to the formation of its respective fatty acids with the same efficiency of conventional methods. Fatty acids form an important group of products, which are used in a range of applications. The confirmation and identification of the hydrolysis products was done by HT-HRGC-FID and HRGC/MS.

  6. Some neutronics of innovative subcritical assembly with fast neutron spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiyavitskaya, H.; Fokov, Yu.; Rutkovskaya, Ch.; Sadovich, S.; Kasuk, D.; Gohar, Y.; Bolshinsky, I.

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: • New assembly can be used to: • develop the experimental techniques and adapt the existing ones for monitoring the sub-criticality level, neutron spectra measurements, etc; • study the spatial kinetics of sub-critical and critical systems with fast neutron spectra; • measure the transmutation reaction rates of minor-actinides etc

  7. Choosing the optimal parameters of subcritical reactors driven by accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khudaverdyan, A.G.; Zhamkochyan, V.M.

    1998-03-01

    Physical aspects of a subcritical Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) driven by proton accelerators are considered. Estimated theoretical calculations are made for subcritical regimes of various types of reactors. It was shown that the creation of the quite effective explosion-safe NPP is real at an existing level of the accelerator technique by using available reactor units (including the serial ones). (author)

  8. Fostering incidental experiences of nature through green infrastructure planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beery, Thomas H; Raymond, Christopher M; Kyttä, Marketta; Olafsson, Anton Stahl; Plieninger, Tobias; Sandberg, Mattias; Stenseke, Marie; Tengö, Maria; Jönsson, K Ingemar

    2017-11-01

    Concern for a diminished human experience of nature and subsequent decreased human well-being is addressed via a consideration of green infrastructure's potential to facilitate unplanned or incidental nature experience. Incidental nature experience is conceptualized and illustrated in order to consider this seldom addressed aspect of human interaction with nature in green infrastructure planning. Special attention has been paid to the ability of incidental nature experience to redirect attention from a primary activity toward an unplanned focus (in this case, nature phenomena). The value of such experience for human well-being is considered. The role of green infrastructure to provide the opportunity for incidental nature experience may serve as a nudge or guide toward meaningful interaction. These ideas are explored using examples of green infrastructure design in two Nordic municipalities: Kristianstad, Sweden, and Copenhagen, Denmark. The outcome of the case study analysis coupled with the review of literature is a set of sample recommendations for how green infrastructure can be designed to support a range of incidental nature experiences with the potential to support human well-being.

  9. Steady squares and hexagons on a subcritical ramp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyle, R.B.

    1995-01-01

    Steady squares and hexagons on a subcritical ramp are studied, both analytically and numerically, within the framework of the lowest-order amplitude equations. On the subcritical ramp, the external stress or control parameter varies continuously in space from subcritical to supercritical values. At the subcritical end of the ramp, pattern formation is suppressed, and patterns fade away into the conduction solution. It is shown that three-dimensional patterns may change shape on a subcritical ramp. A square pattern becomes a pattern of rolls as it fades, with the roll axes aligned in the direction orthogonal to that in which the control parameter varies. Hexagons in systems with horizontal midplane symmetry become a pattern of rectangles before reaching the conduction solution. There is a suggestion that hexagons in systems which lack this symmetry might fade away through a roll pattern. Numerical simulations are used to illustrate these phenomena

  10. Acquisition of business intelligence from human experience in route planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello Orgaz, Gema; Barrero, David F.; R-Moreno, María D.; Camacho, David

    2015-04-01

    The logistic sector raises a number of highly challenging problems. Probably one of the most important ones is the shipping planning, i.e. plan the routes that the shippers have to follow to deliver the goods. In this article, we present an artificial intelligence-based solution that has been designed to help a logistic company to improve its routes planning process. In order to achieve this goal, the solution uses the knowledge acquired by the company drivers to propose optimised routes. Hence, the proposed solution gathers the experience of the drivers, processes it and optimises the delivery process. The solution uses data mining to extract knowledge from the company information systems and prepares it for analysis with a case-based reasoning (CBR) algorithm. The CBR obtains critical business intelligence knowledge from the drivers experience that is needed by the planner. The design of the routes is done by a genetic algorithm that, given the processed information, optimises the routes following several objectives, such as minimise the distance or time. Experimentation shows that the proposed approach is able to find routes that improve, on average, the routes made by the human experts.

  11. Subcritical limits for special fissile actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, H.K.

    1980-01-01

    Critical masses and subcritical mass limits in oxide-water mixtures were calculated for actinide nuclides other than 233 U, 235 U, and 239 Pu that have an odd number of neutrons in the nucleus: S/sub n/ transport theory was used together with cross sections, drawn from the GLASS multigroup library, developed to provide accurate forecasts of actinide production at Savannah River. The subcritical limits are 201 g for 241 Pu, 13 g for 242 /sup m/Am, 90 g for 243 Cm, 30 g for 245 Cm, 900 g for 247 Cm, 10 g for 249 Cf, and 5 g for 251 Cf. Association of 241 Pu with an equal mass of 240 Pu increases the 241 Pu limit to a value greater than that for pure 239 Pu. Association of 242 /sup m/Am with 241 Am increases the limit for the mixture to that for dry, theoretical density AmO 2 at isotopic concentrations of 242 /sup m/Am less than approx. 6%. Association of 245 Cm with 244 Cm increases the limit according to the formula 30 + 0.3 244 Cm/ 245 Cm up to the limit for dry CmO 2 . A limiting mass of 8.15 kg for plutonium containing at least 67% 238 Pu as oxide was calculated that applies (provided 240 Pu exceeds 241 Pu) with no limit on moderation. 1 figure, 5 tables

  12. Criticality Analysis of SAMOP Subcritical Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tegas-Sutondo; Syarip; Triwulan-Tjiptono

    2005-01-01

    A critically analysis has been performed for homogenous system of uranyl nitrate solution, as part of a preliminary design assessment on neutronic aspect of SAMOP sub-critical assembly. The analysis is intended to determine some critical parameters such as the minimum of critical dimension and critical mass for the desired concentration. As the basis of this analysis, it has been defined a fuel system with an enrichment of 20% for cylindrical geometry of both bare and graphite reflected of 30 cm thickness. The MCNP code has been utilized for this purpose, for variation of concentrations ranging from 150 g/l to 500 g/l. It is found that the best concentration giving the minimum geometrical dimension is around 400 g/l, for both the bare and reflected systems. Whilst the best one, of minimum critical mass is corresponding to the concentration of around 200 g/l with critical mass around 14.1 kg and 4.2 kg for the bare and reflected systems respectively. Based on the result of calculations, it is concluded that by taking into consideration of the critical limit, the SAMOP subcritical assembly is neutronically can be made. (author)

  13. Absolute measurement of the subcriticality based on the third order neutron correlation in consideration of the finite nature of neutron counts data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Tomohiro; Kitamura, Yasunori; Yamane, Yoshihiro

    2003-01-01

    We have studied a measurement of subcriticality by using the neutron correlation method. Furuhashi proposed an absolute measurement of subcriticality by using the third order neutron correlation factor X in addition to the second order neutron correlation factor Y. In actual experiments, the number of neutron counts data is not infinity so that we take the effect of the finite nature of the neutron counts data into account. We derived new formulas in consideration of the number of data and verified them. (author)

  14. Subcritical-Water Extraction of Organics from Solid Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amashukeli, Xenia; Grunthaner, Frank; Patrick, Steven; Kirby, James; Bickler, Donald; Willis, Peter; Pelletier, Christine; Bryson, Charles

    2009-01-01

    An apparatus for extracting organic compounds from soils, sands, and other solid matrix materials utilizes water at subcritical temperature and pressure as a solvent. The apparatus, called subcritical water extractor (SCWE), is a prototype of subsystems of future instrumentation systems to be used in searching for organic compounds as signs of past or present life on Mars. An aqueous solution generated by an apparatus like this one can be analyzed by any of a variety of established chromatographic or spectroscopic means to detect the dissolved organic compound( s). The apparatus can be used on Earth: indeed, in proof-of-concept experiments, SCWE was used to extract amino acids from soils of the Atacama Desert (Chile), which was chosen because the dryness and other relevant soil conditions there approximate those on Mars. The design of the apparatus is based partly on the fact that the relative permittivity (also known as the dielectric constant) of liquid water varies with temperature and pressure. At a temperature of 30 C and a pressure of 0.1 MPa, the relative permittivity of water is 79.6, due to the strong dipole-dipole electrostatic interactions between individual molecular dipoles. As the temperature increases, increasing thermal energy causes increasing disorientation of molecular dipoles, with a consequent decrease in relative permittivity. For example, water at a temperature of 325 C and pressure of 20 MPa has a relative permittivity of 17.5, which is similar to the relative permittivities of such nonpolar organic solvents as 1-butanol (17.8). In the operation of this apparatus, the temperature and pressure of water are adjusted so that the water can be used in place of commonly used organic solvents to extract compounds that have dissimilar physical and chemical properties.

  15. Bias in calculated keff from subcritical measurements by the 252Cf-source-driven noise analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihalczo, J.T.; Valentine, T.E.

    1995-01-01

    The development of MCNP-DSP, which allows direct calculation of the measured time and frequency analysis parameters from subcritical measurements using the 252 Cf-source-driven noise analysis method, permits the validation of calculational methods for criticality safety with in-plant subcritical measurements. In addition, a method of obtaining the bias in the calculations, which is essential to the criticality safety specialist, is illustrated using the results of measurements with 17.771-cm-diam, enriched (93.15), unreflected, and unmoderated uranium metal cylinders. For these uranium metal cylinders the bias obtained using MCNP-DSP and ENDF/B-V cross-section data increased with subcriticality. For a critical experiment [height (h) = 12.629 cm], it was -0.0061 ± 0.0003. For a 10.16-cm-high cylinder (k ∼ 0.93), it was 0.0060 ± 0.0016, and for a subcritical cylinder (h = 8.13 cm, k ∼ 0.85), the bias was -0.0137 ± 0.0037, more than a factor of 2 larger in magnitude. This method allows the nuclear criticality safety specialist to establish the bias in calculational methods for criticality safety from in-plant subcritical measurements by the 252 Cf-source-driven noise analysis method

  16. Experimental study on accelerator driven subcritical reactor. JAERI's nuclear research promotion program, H12-031 (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiroya, Seiji; Misawa, Tsuyoshi; Unesaki, Hironobu

    2004-03-01

    In view of the future plan of Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University (KURRI), the present study consisted of 1) the transmission experiments of high energy neutrons through materials, 2) experimental simulation of ADSR using the Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUCA), and 3) conceptual neutronics design study on Kyoto University Reactor (KUR) type ADSR using the MCNPX code. The purpose of the present study was not only to obtain the knowledge usable for the realization of ADSR as a new neutron source for research but also to select technical issues in the field of reactor physics for the development of ADSR in general. Through the present study, valuable knowledge on the basic nuclear characteristics of ADSR was obtained both theoretically and experimentally. This kind of knowledge is indispensable to promote the study on ADSR further. If one dare say the main part of knowledge in short words, the basic nuclear characteristics of ADSR is overwhelmed by the characteristics of the subcritical reactor as expected. For the realization of ADSR in the future, it is considered to be necessary to accumulate results of research steadily. For this purpose, it is inevitable 1) to compile the more precise nuclear data for the wide energy range, 2) to establish experimental techniques for reactor physics study on ADSR including subcriticality measurement and absolute neutron flux measurement from the low energy region to the high energy region, and 3) to develop neutronics calculation tools which facilitate to take into account the neutron generation process by the spallation reaction and the delayed neutron behavior. (author)

  17. AFP: First experience with data and future plans

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00184415; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Forward Proton (AFP) detector system aims at the measurement of protons scattered diffractively or electromagnetically at very small angles. The first arm of the system was installed in 2016 and AFP took data in several commissioning and physics runs. The installation of the second arm is ongoing and will be completed in time for the 2017 data taking period. This will allow the measurements of processes with two tagged forward protons being a signature of: central diffraction, exclusive production, and two-photon processes. The early results and experience from the first year of data taking is presented together with the status of the secondarm installation and plans for the future.

  18. Control System Development Plan for the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumeyer, C.; Mueller, D.; Gates, D.A.; Ferron, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has as one of its primary goals the demonstration of the attractiveness of the spherical torus concept as a fusion power plant. Central to this goal is the achievement of high plasma β ( = 2 micro 0 /B 2 a measure of the efficiency of a magnetic plasma confinement system). It has been demonstrated both theoretically and experimentally that the maximum achievable β is a strong function of both local and global plasma parameters. It is therefore important to optimize control of the plasma. To this end a phased development plan for digital plasma control on NSTX is presented. The relative level of sophistication of the control system software and hardware will be increased according to the demands of the experimental program in a three phase plan. During Day 0 (first plasma), a simple coil current control algorithm will initiate plasma operations. During the second phase (Day 1) of plasma operations the control system will continue to use the preprogrammed algorithm to initiate plasma breakdown but will then change over to a rudimentary plasma control scheme based on linear combinations of measured plasma fields and fluxes. The third phase of NSTX plasma control system development will utilize the rtEFIT code, first used on DIII-D, to determine, in real-time, the full plasma equilibrium by inverting the Grad-Shafranov equation. The details of the development plan, including a description of the proposed hardware will be presented

  19. Massive subcritical compact arrays of plutonium metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothe, R.E.

    1998-04-01

    Two experimental critical-approach programs are reported. Both were performed at the Rocky Flats Plant near Denver, Colorado; and both date back to the late 1960s. Both involve very large arrays of massive plutonium ingots. These ingots had been cast in the foundry at the Rocky Flats Plant as part of their routine production operations; they were not specially prepared for either study. Consequently, considerable variation in ingot mass is encountered. This mass varied between approximately 7 kg and a little more than 10 kg. One program, performed in the spring of 1969, involved stacked arrays of ingots contained within cylindrical, disk-shaped, thin, steel cans. This program studied four arrays defined by the pattern of steel cans in a single layer. The four were: 1 x N, 3 x N, 2 x 2 x N, and 3 x 3 x N. The second was a tightly-packed, triangular-pitched patterns; the last two were square-pitched patterns. The other program, performed about a year earlier, involved similar ingots also contained in similar steel cans, but these canned plutonium ingots were placed in commercial steel drums. This study pertained to one-, two-, and three-layered horizontal arrays of drums. All cases proved to be well subcritical. Most would have remained subcritical had the parameters of the array under study been continued infinitely beyond the reciprocal multiplication safety limit. In one case for the drum arrays, an uncertain extrapolation of the data of the earlier program suggests that criticality might have eventually been attained had several thousand additional kilograms of plutonium been available for use.

  20. Massive subcritical compact arrays of plutonium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothe, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    Two experimental critical-approach programs are reported. Both were performed at the Rocky Flats Plant near Denver, Colorado; and both date back to the late 1960s. Both involve very large arrays of massive plutonium ingots. These ingots had been cast in the foundry at the Rocky Flats Plant as part of their routine production operations; they were not specially prepared for either study. Consequently, considerable variation in ingot mass is encountered. This mass varied between approximately 7 kg and a little more than 10 kg. One program, performed in the spring of 1969, involved stacked arrays of ingots contained within cylindrical, disk-shaped, thin, steel cans. This program studied four arrays defined by the pattern of steel cans in a single layer. The four were: 1 x N, 3 x N, 2 x 2 x N, and 3 x 3 x N. The second was a tightly-packed, triangular-pitched patterns; the last two were square-pitched patterns. The other program, performed about a year earlier, involved similar ingots also contained in similar steel cans, but these canned plutonium ingots were placed in commercial steel drums. This study pertained to one-, two-, and three-layered horizontal arrays of drums. All cases proved to be well subcritical. Most would have remained subcritical had the parameters of the array under study been continued infinitely beyond the reciprocal multiplication safety limit. In one case for the drum arrays, an uncertain extrapolation of the data of the earlier program suggests that criticality might have eventually been attained had several thousand additional kilograms of plutonium been available for use

  1. Modeling of the CTEx subcritical unit using MCNPX code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Avelino; Silva, Ademir X. da; Rebello, Wilson F.; Cunha, Victor L. Lassance

    2011-01-01

    The present work aims at simulating the subcritical unit of Army Technology Center (CTEx) namely ARGUS pile (subcritical uranium-graphite arrangement) by using the computational code MCNPX. Once such modeling is finished, it could be used in k-effective calculations for systems using natural uranium as fuel, for instance. ARGUS is a subcritical assembly which uses reactor-grade graphite as moderator of fission neutrons and metallic uranium fuel rods with aluminum cladding. The pile is driven by an Am-Be spontaneous neutron source. In order to achieve a higher value for k eff , a higher concentration of U235 can be proposed, provided it safely remains below one. (author)

  2. Coupling of subcritical methanol with acidic ionic liquids for the acidity reduction of naphthenic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafar Faisal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The presence of naphthenic acids (NAs in crude oil is the major cause of corrosion in the refineries and its processing equipment. The goal of this study is to reduce the total acid number (TAN of NAs by treating them with subcritical methanol in the presence of acidic ionic liquid (AIL catalysts. Experiments were carried out in an autoclave batch reactor and the effect of different reaction parameters was investigated. It was observed that TAN reduction was positively dependent on the temperature and concentration of the AIL whereas excess of methanol has a negative effect. Approximately 90% TAN reduction was achieved under the optimized reaction conditions using [BMIM]HSO4 as catalyst. It was also perceived from the experimental results that the AILs with longer alkyl chain exhibited higher catalytic activity. The activity and stability of AIL showed that they can be promising catalyst to esterify NAs under subcritical methanol.

  3. Women's experiences of planning a vaginal breech birth in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, Caroline Se; Watts, Nicole P; Petrovska, Karolina; Sjostedt, Chauncey M; Bisits, Andrew

    2015-04-11

    In many countries, planned vaginal breech birth (VBB) is a rare event. After the Term Breech Trial in 2000, VBB reduced and caesarean section for breech presentation increased. Despite this, women still request VBB. The objective of this study was to explore the experiences and decision-making processes of women who had sought a VBB. A qualitative study using descriptive exploratory design was undertaken. Twenty-two (n = 22) women who planned a VBB, regardless of eventual mode of birth were recruited. The women had given birth at one of two maternity hospitals in Australia that supported VBB. In-depth, semi-structured interviews using an interview guide were conducted. Interviews were analysed thematically. Twenty two women were interviewed; three quarters were primiparous (n = 16; 73%). Nine (41%) were already attending a hospital that supported VBB with the remaining women moving hospitals. All women actively sought a vaginal breech birth because the baby remained breech after an external cephalic version - 12 had a vaginal birth (55%) and 10 (45%) a caesarean section after labour commenced. There were four main themes: Reacting to a loss of choice and control, Wanting information that was trustworthy, Fighting the system and seeking support for VBB and The importance of 'having a go' at VBB. Women seeking a VBB value clear, consistent and relevant information in deciding about mode of birth. Women desire autonomy to choose vaginal breech birth and to be supported in their choice with high quality care.

  4. The Program Planned for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haubenreich, Paul N.

    1967-01-01

    This document outlines the program planned for the MSRE in fiscal years 1968 and 1969. It includes a bar diagram of the program, a critical-path type diagram of the operations, and a brief description of each task. In addition to the work at the reactor site, the outline also covers activities elsewhere at ORNL and by the AEC that directly affect the reactor schedule. The amount of detail and the accuracy with which we can estimate times varies considerably among the different items on the schedule. Some items, such as annual checkouts and core sample replacement, have been done before and our time estimates do not include any contingency, In the case of such tasks as planning, reviewing, and preparing for experiments or operations, we have set target dates that appear reasonable and we fully expect to meet these. Processing the salt is a different matter. If there are no unforeseen difficulties we should finish easily in the time shown, but the operation is in part a shakedown, so delays would not be too surprising, The time for modifying the system and adding fluoroborate is, of course, uncertain because the requirements are not yet known. As the requirements develop in more detail the estimate will be updated, but we do not foresee any major dislocation in the schedule, The scheduled time for preparation of enriching salt is becoming tight because of delays in facility construction. Should there be further delays in this key item, the entire schedule would have to be reconsidered.

  5. Test plan for FY-94 digface characterization field experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josten, N.E.; Roybal, L.G.

    1994-08-01

    The digface characterization concept has been under development at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) since fiscal year (FY) 1992 through the support of the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program. A digface characterization system conducts continuous subsurface characterization simultaneously with retrieval of hazardous and radioactive waste from buried waste sites. The system deploys multiple sensors at the retrieval operation digface and collects data that provide a basis for detecting, locating, and classifying buried materials and hazardous conditions before they are disturbed by the retrieval equipment. This test plan describes ongoing efforts to test the digface characterization concept at the INEL's Cold Test Pit using a simplified prototype deployment apparatus and off-the-shelf sensors. FY-94 field experiments will explore problems in object detection and classification. Detection and classification of objects are fundamental to three of the four primary functions of digface characterization during overburden removal. This test plan establishes procedures for collecting and validating the digface characterization data sets. Analysis of these data will focus on testing and further developing analysis methods for object detection and classification during overburden removal

  6. The ATLAS Trigger: Recent Experience and Future Plans

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    This paper will give an overview of the ATLAS trigger design and its innovative features. It will describe the valuable experience gained in running the trigger reconstruction and event selection in the fastchanging environment of the detector commissioning during 2008. It will also include a description of the trigger selection menu and its 2009 deployment plan from first collisions to the nominal luminosity. ATLAS is one of the two general-purpose detectors at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The trigger system needs to efficiently reject a large rate of background events and still select potentially interesting ones with high efficiency. After a first level trigger implemented in custom electronics, the trigger event selection is made by the High Level Trigger (HLT) system, implemented in software. To reduce the processing time to manageable levels, the HLT uses seeded, step-wise and fast selection algorithms, aiming at the earliest possible rejection of background events. The ATLAS trigger event selection...

  7. AFP: First Experience with Data and Future Plans

    CERN Document Server

    Gach, Grzegorz; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the ATLAS Forward Proton (AFP) detector system is the measurement of protons scattered diffractively or electromagnetically at very small angles. The first arm of the system was installed last year and AFP took data in several commissioning and physics runs. The installation of the second arm is ongoing and will be completed in time for the 2017 data taking period. This will allow measurements of processes with two forward protons: central diffraction, exclusive production, and two-photon processes. During the presentation, the early results and experience from the first year of data taking will be presented together with the status of the second-arm installation and plans for the future.

  8. Diagnostics Plan for the National Compact Stellarator Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. Johnson; T. Brown; H. Neilson; G. Schilling; H. Takahashi; M. Zarnstorff; M. Cole; E. Lazarus; and M. Fenstermacher

    2002-01-01

    The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) is a stellarator-tokamak hybrid seeking to combine the good confinement, high beta and moderate aspect ratio of the tokamak with the quasi-steady-state operation and good stability properties of the stellarator. A preliminary list of measurement requirements, intended to satisfy the needs of the phased research plan, provides the basis for a full complement of plasma diagnostics. It is important to consider this full set, even at this early stage, to assess the adequacy of the stellarator design for diagnostic port access. The 3-D nature of the plasma is a measurement challenge, as is the necessity for high spatial resolution to assess the quality of magnetic surfaces. Other diagnostic requirements include the need for re-entrant views that penetrate the cryostat, for a convenient e-beam probe for field line mapping, and for a diagnostic neutral beam for active spectroscopy

  9. Nuclear data requirements for accelerator driven sub-critical systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The development of accelerator driven sub-critical systems (ADSS) require significant amount of new nuclear data in extended energy regions as well as for a variety of new materials. This paper reviews these perspectives in the Indian context.

  10. Sub-criticality monitoring for ADTR trademark control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashworth, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Following the debut of the Accelerator Driven Thorium Reactor (ADTR trademark) Power Station at ENC 2010 in Barcelona, thorium as a reactor fuel has gained increasing support. The ADTR trademark concept reactor introduced the combination of an accelerator driven system (ADS) with traditional control rod technology, to provide a very high gain novel sub-critical ADS reactor design. The high gain of the system, while significantly reducing the demands on the accelerator design, pushes up operational sub-criticality (k eff ) closer to unity. In this paper we review this design and the progress made since ENC 2010. We compare 2 different methods of measuring the sub-critical neutron multiplication factor as the fuel cycle develops. The paper discusses the most recent work on k eff measurement and the interesting relationship between neutron flux, accelerator current and fuel temperature when using beam pulse methods to determine operational sub-criticality, of which a European patent is being granted. (orig.)

  11. Evaluation of the criticality constant from Pulsed Neutron Source measurements in the Yalina-Booster subcritical assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bécares, V.; Villamarín, D.; Fernández-Ordóñez, M.; González-Romero, E.M.; Berglöf, C.; Bournos, V.; Fokov, Y.; Mazanik, S.; Serafimovich, I.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► New methodology proposed to determine the reactivity of subcritical systems. ► Methodology tested in PNS experiments at the Yalina-Booster subcritical assembly. ► The area-ratio and the prompt decay constant methods have been used for validation. ► The absolute reactivity of the system is determined in spite of large spatial effects. - Abstract: The prompt decay constant method and the area-ratio (Sjöstrand) method constitute the reference techniques for measuring the reactivity of a subcritical system using Pulsed Neutron Source experiments (PNS). However, different experiments have shown that in many cases it is necessary to apply corrections to the experimental results in order to take into account spectral and spatial effects. In these cases, the approach usually followed is to develop different specific correction procedures for each method. In this work we discuss the validity of prompt decay constant method and the area-ratio method in the Yalina-Booster subcritical assembly and propose a general correction procedure based on Monte Carlo simulations

  12. Experiment operations plan for the MT-4 experiment in the NRU reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russcher, G.E.; Wilson, C.L.; Parchen, L.J.; Marshall, R.K.; Hesson, G.M.; Webb, B.J.; Freshley, M.D.

    1983-06-01

    A series of thermal-hydraulic and cladding materials deformation experiments were conducted using light-water reactor fuel bundles as part of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) Simulation Program. This report is the formal operations plan for MT-4 - the fourth materials deformation experiment conducted in the National Research Universal (NRU) reactor, Chalk River, Ontario, Canada. A major objective of MT-4 was to simulate a pressurized water reactor LOCA that could induce fuel rod cladding deformation and rupture due to a short-term adiabatic transient and a peak fuel cladding temperature of 1200K (1700 0 F)

  13. Pulsed neutron source based on accelerator-subcritical-assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Makoto; Noda, Akira; Iwashita, Yoshihisa; Okamoto, Hiromi; Shirai, Toshiyuki [Kyoto Univ., Uji (Japan). Inst. for Chemical Research

    1997-03-01

    A new pulsed neutron source which consists of a 300MeV proton linac and a nuclear fuel subcritical assembly is proposed. The proton linac produces pulsed spallation neutrons, which are multipied by the subcritical assembly. A prototype proton linac that accelerates protons up to 7MeV has been developed and a high energy section of a DAW structure is studied with a power model. Halo formations in high intensity beam are also being studied. (author)

  14. Does Volunteering Experience Influence Advance Care Planning in Old Age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Huei-Wern; Khosla, Nidhi

    2016-07-01

    Advance care planning (ACP) increases the likelihood patients will receive end-of-life care that is congruent with their preferences and lowers stress among both patients and caregivers. Previous efforts to increase ACP have mainly focused on information provision in the very late stage of life. This study examines whether a relationship exists between volunteering and ACP, and whether this relationship is associated with social support. The sample comprises 877 individuals who were aged 55+ in 2008, and were deceased before 2010. The sample is derived from seven waves (1998-2010) of data from the Health and Retirement Study. Logistic regression results showed that overall ACP and durable power of attorney for health care (DPAHC) were both higher (OR = 1.61 and 1.71, respectively) for older adults with volunteering experience in the past 10 years than those without such experience. Available social support (relatives and friends living nearby) was not associated with the relationship between volunteering and ACP. Other factors related to ACP included poorer health, death being expected, death due to cancer, older age, and being a racial minority. Involving older people in volunteer work may help to increase ACP. Future research is encouraged to identify reasons for the association between volunteering and ACP.

  15. How people with cognitive disabilities experience electronic planning devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolfsson, Päivi; Lindstedt, Helena; Janeslätt, Gunnel

    2015-01-01

    People with cognitive disabilities have difficulties in accomplishing everyday tasks. Electronic planning devices (EPDs) may compensate for the gap between a person's capacity and everyday challenges. However, the devices are not always used as intended. Despite that, cognitive assistive technology has been investigated in several studies, knowledge regarding when and what makes adults decide to use EPDs is incomplete. The aim was to explore the subjective experiences of people with cognitive disabilities in relation to the use of EPDs. A qualitative approach was applied with a qualitative content analysis. Twelve respondents were interviewed with support from a study specific guide. A model representing the respondents' experiences in the use of EPDs, comprising one theme, Possibility to master my daily life, four categories, Degree of fit to my needs, I am aware of my cognitive disability, I get help to structure my everyday life and The EPD improves my volition and ten subcategories, was developed. EPDs allow people with cognitive disabilities the possibility to deal with daily challenges; those who find EPDs beneficial tend to use them. EPDs can help people with cognitive disabilities in organisation, managing time and improve volition.

  16. The planning of a passive seismic experiment: the Ketzin case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, G.; Petronio, L.

    2009-04-01

    In the last years, it has been recognized the importance of using microseismic activity data to gain information on the state and dynamics of a reservoir, notwithstanding the difficulties of recording, localizing the events, interpret them correctly, in terms of developing fractures, or thermal effects. The increasing number of CO2 storage experiments, with the necessity of providing efficient, economic, and long-term monitoring methods, both in the injection and post-injection phases, further encourage the development and improvement of recording and processing techniques. Microseismic signals are typically recorded with downhole sensors. Monitoring with surface sensors is problematic due to increased noise levels and signal attenuation particularly in the near surface. The actual detection distance depends on background noise conditions, seismic attenuation and the microseismic source strength. In the frame of the European project Co2ReMoVe and of the European Network of Excellence Co2GeoNet, a passive seismic experiment was planned in the Ketzin site for geological storage of CO2, a former gas store near Potsdam, object of the CO2SINK European project and inserted also in the European project Co2ReMoVe. Aim of the survey is to complement the CO2-SINK active seismic downhole experiments, adding precious information on the microseismicity induced by stress field changes at the reservoir level and in the overburden, due to the CO2 injection. The baseline survey was done in May 2008 by the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale-OGS (Italy), with the support of the Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum-GFZ (Germany) and the collaboration of the Institut für Geowissenschaftliche Gemeinschaftsaufgaben-GGA (Germany), shortly before the starting of the CO2 injection (June 30th 2008). A continuous monitoring (about 5 days) was performed by 2 downhole 3C geophones, and 3 surface 3C geophones located around the wells. This paper, based on the analysis of

  17. Applicability of Avery's coupled reactor theory to estimate subcriticality of test region in two region system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugo, Teruhiko

    1992-01-01

    The author examined the validity to estimate the subcriticality of a test region in a coupled reactor system using only measurable quantities on the basis of Avery's coupled reactor theory. For the purpose, we analyzed coupled reactor experiments performed at the Tank-type Critical Assembly in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute by using two region systems and evaluated the subcriticality of the test region through a numerical study. Coupling coefficients were redefined at the quasi-static state because their definitions by Avery were not clear. With the coupling coefficients obtained by the numerical calculation, the multiplication factor of the test region was evaluated by two formulas; one for the evaluation using only the measurable quantities and the other for the accurate evaluation which contains the terms dropped in the former formula by assuming the unchangeableness for the perturbation induced in a driver region. From the comparison between the results of the evaluations, it was found that the estimation using only the measurable quantities is valid only for the coupled reactor system where the subcriticality of the test region was very small within a few dollars in reactivity. Consequently, it is concluded that the estimation using only the measurable quantities is not applicable to a general coupled reactor system. (author)

  18. Plans for longitudinal and transverse neutralized beam compression experiments, and initial results from solenoid transport experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidl, P.A.; Armijo, J.; Baca, D.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Coleman, J.; Davidson, R.C.; Efthimion, P.C.; Friedman, A.; Gilson, E.P.; Grote, D.; Haber, I.; Henestroza, E.; Kaganovich, I.; Leitner, M.; Logan, B.G.; Molvik, A.W.; Rose, D.V.; Roy, P.K.; Sefkow, A.B.; Sharp, W.M.; Vay, J.L.; Waldron, W.L.; Welch, D.R.; Yu, S.S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents plans for neutralized drift compression experiments, precursors to future target heating experiments. The target-physics objective is to study warm dense matter (WDM) using short-duration (∼1 ns) ion beams that enter the targets at energies just above that at which dE/dx is maximal. High intensity on target is to be achieved by a combination of longitudinal compression and transverse focusing. This work will build upon recent success in longitudinal compression, where the ion beam was compressed lengthwise by a factor of more than 50 by first applying a linear head-to-tail velocity tilt to the beam, and then allowing the beam to drift through a dense, neutralizing background plasma. Studies on a novel pulse line ion accelerator were also carried out. It is planned to demonstrate simultaneous transverse focusing and longitudinal compression in a series of future experiments, thereby achieving conditions suitable for future WDM target experiments. Future experiments may use solenoids for transverse focusing of un-neutralized ion beams during acceleration. Recent results are reported in the transport of a high-perveance heavy ion beam in a solenoid transport channel. The principal objectives of this solenoid transport experiment are to match and transport a space-charge-dominated ion beam, and to study associated electron-cloud and gas effects that may limit the beam quality in a solenoid transport system. Ideally, the beam will establish a Brillouin-flow condition (rotation at one-half the cyclotron frequency). Other mechanisms that potentially degrade beam quality are being studied, such as focusing-field aberrations, beam halo, and separation of lattice focusing elements

  19. Third World Experience of Education for Planning: Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetteh, Austin

    1980-01-01

    Presented is an overview of the development of planning education at the undergraduate, graduate, and professional levels in Africa. Future needs include greater program flexibility and more help for developing countries to establish their own planning education programs. (WB)

  20. Grand unification and subcritical hybrid inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchmueller, Wilfried; Ishiwata, Koji

    2014-12-01

    We consider hybrid inflation for small couplings of the inflaton to matter such that the critical value of the inflaton field exceeds the Planck mass. It has recently been shown that inflation then continues at subcritical inflaton field values where quantum fluctuations generate an effective inflaton mass. The effective inflaton potential interpolates between a quadratic potential at small field values and a plateau at large field values. An analysis of the allowed parameter space leads to predictions for the scalar spectral index n s and the tensor-to-scalar ratio r similar to those of natural inflation. Using the range for n s and r favoured by the Planck data, we find that the energy scale of the plateau is constrained to the interval (1.6-2.4) x 10 16 GeV which includes the energy scale of gauge coupling unification in the supersymmetric standard model. The tensor-to-scalar ratio is predicted to have the lower bound r>0.049 for 60 e-folds before the end of inflation.

  1. Safety features of subcritical fluid fueled systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, C.R.

    1995-01-01

    Accelerator-driven transmutation technology has been under study at Los Alamos for several years for application to nuclear waste treatment, tritium production, energy generation, and recently, to the disposition of excess weapons plutonium. Studies and evaluations performed to date at Los Alamos have led to a current focus on a fluid-fuel, fission system operating in a neutron source-supported subcritical mode, using molten salt reactor technology and accelerator-driven proton-neutron spallation. In this paper, the safety features and characteristics of such systems are explored from the perspective of the fundamental nuclear safety objectives that any reactor-type system should address. This exploration is qualitative in nature and uses current vintage solid-fueled reactors as a baseline for comparison. Based on the safety perspectives presented, such systems should be capable of meeting the fundamental nuclear safety objectives. In addition, they should be able to provide the safety robustness desired for advanced reactors. However, the manner in which safety objectives and robustness are achieved is very different from that associated with conventional reactors. Also, there are a number of safety design and operational challenges that will have to be addressed for the safety potential of such systems to be credible

  2. Safety features of subcritical fluid fueled systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, C.R.

    1994-01-01

    Accelerator-driven transmutation technology has been under study at Los Alamos for several years for application to nuclear waste treatment, tritium production, energy generation, and recently, to the disposition of excess weapons plutonium. Studies and evaluations performed to date at Los Alamos have led to a current focus on a fluid-fuel, fission system operating in a neutron source-supported subcritical mode, using molten salt reactor technology and accelerator-driven proton-neutron spallation. In this paper, the safety features and characteristics of such systems are explored from the perspective of the fundamental nuclear safety objectives that any reactor-type system should address. This exploration is qualitative in nature and uses current vintage solid-fueled reactors as a baseline for comparison. Based on the safety perspectives presented, such systems should be capable of meeting the fundamental nuclear safety objectives. In addition, they should be able to provide the safety robustness desired for advanced reactors. However, the manner in which safety objectives and robustness are achieved in very different from that associated with conventional reactors. Also, there are a number of safety design and operational challenges that will have to be addressed for the safety potential of such systems to be credible

  3. Safety features of subcritical fluid fueled systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, C.R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Accelerator-driven transmutation technology has been under study at Los Alamos for several years for application to nuclear waste treatment, tritium production, energy generation, and recently, to the disposition of excess weapons plutonium. Studies and evaluations performed to date at Los Alamos have led to a current focus on a fluid-fuel, fission system operating in a neutron source-supported subcritical mode, using molten salt reactor technology and accelerator-driven proton-neutron spallation. In this paper, the safety features and characteristics of such systems are explored from the perspective of the fundamental nuclear safety objectives that any reactor-type system should address. This exploration is qualitative in nature and uses current vintage solid-fueled reactors as a baseline for comparison. Based on the safety perspectives presented, such systems should be capable of meeting the fundamental nuclear safety objectives. In addition, they should be able to provide the safety robustness desired for advanced reactors. However, the manner in which safety objectives and robustness are achieved is very different from that associated with conventional reactors. Also, there are a number of safety design and operational challenges that will have to be addressed for the safety potential of such systems to be credible.

  4. Perspectives of Forest Management Planning: Slovenian and Croatian Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Bončina, Andrej; Čavlović, Juro

    2009-01-01

    Drawing upon the historical framework of origin and development, and a long tradition in forest management planning in Slovenia and Croatia, and based on a survey of literature and research to date, this paper addresses problems and perspectives of forest management planning. Comparison is made of forest management planning concepts, which generally differ from country to country in terms of natural, social and economic circumstances. Impacts of forest management planning on the condition and...

  5. The Hemophilia Games: An Experiment in Health Education Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Heart and Lung Inst. (DHEW/PHS), Bethesda, MD.

    The Hemophilia Health Education Planning Project was designed to (1) create a set of tools useful in hemophilia planning and education, and (2) create a planning model for other diseases with similar factors. The project used the game-simulations technique which was felt to be particularly applicable to hemophilia health problems, since as a…

  6. Planned Experiments on the Princeton Advanced Test Stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanov, A.; Gilson, E. P.; Grisham, L.; Kaganovich, I.; Davidson, R. C.

    2010-11-01

    The Princeton Advanced Test Stand (PATS) device is an experimental facility based on the STS-100 high voltage test stand transferred from LBNL. It consists of a multicusp RF ion source, a pulsed extraction system capable of forming high-perveance 100keV ion beams, and a large six-foot-long vacuum with convenient access for beam diagnostics. This results in a flexible system for studying high perveance ion beams relevant to NDCX-I/II, including experiments on beam neutralization by ferroelectric plasma sources (FEPS) being developed at PPPL. Research on PATS will concern the basic physics of beam-plasma interactions, such as the effects of volume neutralization on beam emittance, as well as optimizing technology of the FEPS. PATS combines the advantage of an ion beam source and a large-volume plasma source in a chamber with ample access for diagnostics, resulting in a robust setup for investigating and improving relevant aspects of neutralized drift. There are also plans for running the ion source with strongly electro-negative gases such as chlorine, making it possible to extract positive or negative ion beams.

  7. Empirical Information Metrics for Prediction Power and Experiment Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In principle, information theory could provide useful metrics for statistical inference. In practice this is impeded by divergent assumptions: Information theory assumes the joint distribution of variables of interest is known, whereas in statistical inference it is hidden and is the goal of inference. To integrate these approaches we note a common theme they share, namely the measurement of prediction power. We generalize this concept as an information metric, subject to several requirements: Calculation of the metric must be objective or model-free; unbiased; convergent; probabilistically bounded; and low in computational complexity. Unfortunately, widely used model selection metrics such as Maximum Likelihood, the Akaike Information Criterion and Bayesian Information Criterion do not necessarily meet all these requirements. We define four distinct empirical information metrics measured via sampling, with explicit Law of Large Numbers convergence guarantees, which meet these requirements: Ie, the empirical information, a measure of average prediction power; Ib, the overfitting bias information, which measures selection bias in the modeling procedure; Ip, the potential information, which measures the total remaining information in the observations not yet discovered by the model; and Im, the model information, which measures the model’s extrapolation prediction power. Finally, we show that Ip + Ie, Ip + Im, and Ie — Im are fixed constants for a given observed dataset (i.e. prediction target, independent of the model, and thus represent a fundamental subdivision of the total information contained in the observations. We discuss the application of these metrics to modeling and experiment planning.    

  8. Plans, preferences or going with the flow: An online exploration of women's views and experiences of birth plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divall, Bernie; Spiby, Helen; Nolan, Mary; Slade, Pauline

    2017-11-01

    To explore women's views of birth plans, and experiences of their completion and use. A qualitative, descriptive study, using Internet-mediated research methods. The discussion boards of two well-known, UK-based, online parenting forums, where a series of questions relating to birth plans were posted. Members of the selected parenting forums who had written and used, or who had chosen not to write or use, a birth plan. Women responded with a range of views and experiences relating to the completion and use of birth plans. The benefits of birth plans were described in terms of communication with healthcare professionals, potentially enhancing awareness of available options, and maintaining a sense of control during labour and birth. However, many respondents believed the idea of 'planning' birth was problematic, and described a reluctance to write a formal plan. The support of healthcare professionals, particularly midwives, was considered essential to the success of both writing and using birth plans. Our findings show a continued debate among women on the benefits and challenges involved in writing and using birth plans, suggesting problems for a 'one size fits all' approach often seen in the use of birth plan templates. In the context of maternity policy supporting women's choice and personalised care, and as a way of acknowledging perceived problems of 'planning' for birth, a flexible approach to birth plans is required, including the consideration of employing alternative nomenclature. Birth plans remain a point of contention in care contexts around the world. Midwives and other healthcare providers play a central role in supporting women to discuss available options, whether or not they decide to complete a formal birth plan. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The spatial kinetic analysis of accelerator-driven subcritical reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, H.; An, Y.; Chen, X.

    1998-02-01

    The operation of the accelerator driven reactor with subcritical condition provides a more flexible choice of the reactor materials and of design parameters. A deep subcriticality is chosen sometime from the analysis of point kinetics. When a large reactor is operated in deep subcritical condition by using a localized spallation source, the power distribution has strong spatial dependence, and point kinetics does not provide proper analysis for reactor safety. In order to analyze the spatial and energy dependent kinetic behavior in the subcritical reactor, the authors developed a computation code which is composed of two parts, the first one is for creating the group cross section and the second part solves the multi-group kinetic diffusion equations. The reactor parameters such as the cross section of fission, scattering, and energy transfer among the several energy groups and regions are calculated by using a code modified from the Monte Carlo codes MCNPA and LAHET instead of the usual analytical method of ANISN, TWOTRAN codes. Thus the complicated geometry of the accelerator driven reactor core can be precisely taken into account. The authors analyzed the subcritical minor actinide transmutor studied by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) using the code

  10. A novel concept for CRIEC-driven subcritical research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieto, M.; Miley, G.H.

    2001-01-01

    A novel scheme is proposed to drive a low-power subcritical fuel assembly by means of a long Cylindrical Radially-convergent Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (CRIEC) used as a neutron source. The concept is inherently safe in the sense that the fuel assembly remains subcritical at all times. Previous work has been done for the possible implementation of CRIEC as a subcritical assembly driver for power reactors. However, it has been found that the present technology and stage of development of IEC-based neutron sources can not meet the neutron flux requirements to drive a system as big as a power reactor. Nevertheless, smaller systems, such as research and training reactors, could be successfully driven with levels of neutron flux that seem more reasonable to be achieved in the near future by IEC devices. The need for custom-made expensive nuclear fission fuel, as in the case of the TRIGA reactors, is eliminated, and the CRIEC presents substantial advantages with respect to the accelerator-driven subcritical reactors in terms of simplicity and cost. In the present paper, a conceptual design for a research/training CRIEC-driven subcritical assembly is presented, emphasizing the description, principle of operation and performance of the CRIEC neutron source, highlighting its advantages and discussing some key issues that require study for the implementation of this concept. (author)

  11. Subcriticality determination of nuclear fuel assembly by Mihalczo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamane, Yoshihiro; Watanabe, Shoji; Nishina, Kojiro; Miyoshi, Yoshinori; Suzaki, Takenori; Kobayashi, Iwao.

    1986-01-01

    To establish a technique of on-site subcriticality determination suitable for the criticality safety management of nuclear fuel assembly, the applicability of the method proposed by Mihalczo was examined with the Tank-type Critical Assembly (TCA) of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. In the Mihalczo method, cross power spectral densities and auto power spectral densities are evaluated from the output currents of an ionization chamber containing 252 Cf neutron source and two neutron detectors. The principle of this method is that the spectral ratio formed by the power spectral densities mentioned can be related to the subcriticality by the help of a stochastic theory. Throughout our data processing, an improved formula taking account of the neutron extinction at a detection process was used. Up to the subcriticality of 15 dollars, the Mihalczo method agreed with the water-level worth method, which has been a standard method of reactivity determination at the TCA facility. The systems treated in the present report hold symmetry concerning the nuclear fuel configuration and the 252 Cf chamber position. It was clarified that, contrary to Mihalczo's assertion, the factor converting the spectral ratio to a subcriticality depends on subcriticality itself. (author)

  12. Determination of neutron interaction effect and subcriticality for light water moderated UO2 lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyoshi, Y.; Suzaki, T.; Kobayashi, I.

    1984-01-01

    From the view point of nuclear criticality safety for fuel storage, transport and processing, a series of critical experiments have been performed using a Tank-type Critical Assembly (TCA) at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The first series of experiments are concerned with the neutron interaction effects between two cores composed of BWR-type fuel rods in water. The reactivity contribution from one core to another have been measured by the water level worth method and a pulsed neutron source method. Two symmetrical rectangular cores were composed in TCA and the water gap between two cores were parametrically changed. The volume ratios of water to fuel are 1.83 and 2.48 of which lattice pitches are 1.96 cm and 2.15 cm respectively. As for the pulsed neutron experiment, Gozani's area ratio method is theoretically extended to a coupled-core system, and the applicability of this method has been studied for determination of the reactivity at a subcritical state and the coupling coefficient that represents reactivity contribution from one core to another. The object of the second series of experiment is development of the technique which determine the reactivity at a high sub-critical state. The CF-252 source driven neutron noise analysis method proposed by Mihalczo has been tested in order to examine whether it could be available for measuring the subcriticality for the light water moderated system. The tested core was water reflected annular type which consisted of 308 UO 2 fuel rods and had a void region at the core center

  13. PLANS FOR WARM DENSE MATTER EXPERIMENTS AND IFE TARGET EXPERIMENTS ON NDCX-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldron, W.L.; Barnard, J.J.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Friedman, A.; Henestroza, E.; Leitner, M.; Logan, B.G.; Ni, P.A.; Roy, P.K.; Seidl, P.A.; Sharp, W.M.

    2008-01-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory (HIFS-VNL) is currently developing design concepts for NDCX-II, the second phase of the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment, which will use ion beams to explore Warm Dense Matter (WDM) and Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) target hydrodynamics. The ion induction accelerator will consist of a new short pulse injector and induction cells from the decommissioned Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). To fit within an existing building and to meet the energy and temporal requirements of various target experiments, an aggressive beam compression and acceleration schedule is planned. WDM physics and ion-driven direct drive hydrodynamics will initially be explored with 30 nC of lithium ions in experiments involving ion deposition, ablation, acceleration and stability of planar targets. Other ion sources which may deliver higher charge per bunch will be explored. A test stand has been built at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to test refurbished ATA induction cells and pulsed power hardware for voltage holding and ability to produce various compression and acceleration waveforms. Another test stand is being used to develop and characterize lithium-doped aluminosilicate ion sources. The first experiments will include heating metallic targets to 10,000 K and hydrodynamics studies with cryogenic hydrogen targets

  14. Prairie Conservation in Canada: The Prairie Conservation Action Plan Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean Nernberg; David Ingstrup

    2005-01-01

    In Canada, grassland conservation has been mobilized and directed through the development of Prairie Conservation Action Plans and Action Plan Committees in the three prairie provinces of Alberta (45 partner agencies and organizations), Saskatchewan (26 partners), and Manitoba (26 partners). In Alberta, 43 percent of the native prairie remains; in Saskatchewan and...

  15. Learning Strategic Planning from Australian and New Zealand University Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Anfu

    2014-01-01

    Initiating a strategic development plan is necessary for universities to be managed scientifically; a university's strategic development plan includes both the educational philosophy and development orientation as determined by the university, including the future reallocation of resources and measures for their integration. The development…

  16. Design and construction of an automatic measurement electronic system and graphical neutron flux for the subcritical reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez M, J.L.; Balderas, E.G.; Rivero G, T.

    1997-01-01

    The National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) has in its installations with a nuclear subcritical reactor which was designed and constructed with the main purpose to be used in the nuclear sciences education in the Physics areas and Reactors engineering. Within the nuclear experiments that can be realized in this reactor are very interesting those about determinations of neutron and gamma fluxes spectra, since starting from these some interesting nuclear parameters can be obtained. In order to carry out this type of experiments different radioactive sources are used which exceed the permissible doses by far to human beings. Therefore it is necessary the remote handling as of the source as of detectors used in different experiments. In this work it is presented the design of an electronic system which allows the different positions inside of the tank of subcritical reactor at ININ over the radial and axial axes in manual or automatic ways. (Author)

  17. Subcritical reactivity measurement at Angra 1 nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuramoto, Renato Yoichi Ribeiro; Miranda, Anselmo Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    In order to speed up the Angra 1 NPP physics tests, this work intends to develop a digital reactivity meter combined with a methodology of the modified Neutron Source Multiplication (NSM) method with correction factors for subcriticality measurements at Angra 1 NPP. In the first part of this work, we have applied the Modified Neutron Source Multiplication (MNSM) Method with fundamental mode extraction, in order to improve the monitoring of the subcriticality at Angra 1 NPP during the criticality approach. In the second part, we developed a preliminary subcritical reactivity meter algorithm based on the point-reactor inverse kinetic model with six delayed neutron groups and external neutron source. The source strength was obtained through the Least Squares Inverse Kinetics Method (LSIKM). (author)

  18. Evaluating Subcriticality during the Ebola Epidemic in West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne T A Enanoria

    Full Text Available The 2014-2015 Ebola outbreak is the largest and most widespread to date. In order to estimate ongoing transmission in the affected countries, we estimated the weekly average number of secondary cases caused by one individual infected with Ebola throughout the infectious period for each affected West African country using a stochastic hidden Markov model fitted to case data from the World Health Organization. If the average number of infections caused by one Ebola infection is less than 1.0, the epidemic is subcritical and cannot sustain itself. The epidemics in Liberia and Sierra Leone have approached subcriticality at some point during the epidemic; the epidemic in Guinea is ongoing with no evidence that it is subcritical. Response efforts to control the epidemic should continue in order to eliminate Ebola cases in West Africa.

  19. Subcritical fracture propagation in rocks: An examination using the methods of fracture mechanics and non-destructive testing. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, P. L.

    1984-01-01

    An experimental investigation of tensile rock fracture is presented with an emphasis on characterizing time dependent crack growth using the methods of fracture mechanics. Subcritical fracture experiments were performed in moist air on glass and five different rock types at crack velocities using the double torsion technique. The experimental results suggest that subcritical fracture resistance in polycrystals is dominated by microstructural effects. Evidence for gross violations of the assumptions of linear elastic fracture mechanics and double torsion theory was found in the tests on rocks. In an effort to obtain a better understanding of the physical breakdown processes associated with rock fracture, a series of nondestructive evaluation tests were performed during subcritical fracture experiments on glass and granite. Comparison of the observed process zone shape with that expected on the basis of a critical normal principal tensile stress criterion shows that the zone is much more elongated in the crack propagation direction than predicted by the continuum based microcracking model alone.

  20. PHENIX EXPERIMENT AT RHIC: DECADAL PLAN 2004-2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZAJC, W.

    2003-01-01

    The PHENIX Collaboration has developed a plan for the detailed investigation of quantum chromodynamics in the next decade. The demonstrated capabilities of the PHENIX experiment to measure rare processes in hadronic, leptonic and photonic channels, in combination with RHIC's unparalleled flexibility as a hadronic collider, provides a physics program of extraordinary breadth and depth. A superlative set of measurements to elucidate the states of both hot and cold nuclear matter, and to measure the spin structure of the proton has been identified. The components of this plan include: (1) Definitive measurements that will establish the nature of the matter created in nucleus+nucleus collisions, that will determine if the description of such matter as a quark-gluon plasma is appropriate, and that will quantify both the equilibrium and non-equilibrium features of the produced medium. (2) Precision measurements of the gluon structure of the proton, and of the spin structure of the gluon and sea-quark distributions of the proton via polarized proton+proton collisions. (3) Determination of the gluon distribution in cold nuclear matter using proton+nucleus collisions. Each of these fundamental fields of investigation will be addressed through a program of correlated measurements in some or all of the following channels: (1) Particle production at high transverse momentum, studied via single particle inclusive measurements of identified charged and neutral hadrons, multi-particle correlations and jet production. (2) Direct photon, photon+jet and virtual photon production. (3) Light and heavy vector mesons. (4) Heavy flavor production. These measurements, together with the established PHENIX abilities to identify hadrons at low transverse momentum, to perform detailed centrality selections, and to monitor polarization and luminosity with high precision create a superb opportunity for performing world-class science with PHENIX for the next decade. A portion of this program is

  1. Development, operating experience and future plan of ABWR in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ujihara, N.

    2001-01-01

    From 1974 to 1978 nuclear power plants' capacity factor decreased to a low level at the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) for stress corrosion cracking of stainless steal pipe, thermal fatigue crack of feed water spurger and vibration trouble of LPRM, etc. So, for improving that situation, we gathered the most useful BWR technology in the world at that time and we started the ABWR project to develop an ideal BWR. The goals of this development were: (1) Enhanced safety and reliability; (2) Reduced occupational radiation exposure and radioactive waste; (3) Enhanced operability and maneuverability; and (4) Improved economy. Significant improvements were induced by the adoption of the reactor internal pump, fine motion control rod drive mechanism, integral type reinforced concrete containment vessel and digital control system. After about 10 years R and D, we succeeded in the development of the compact and economic plant, ABWR (1356MW(e)) whose building volume had been reduced to 76%, compared with the previous BWR (1100MW(e)). The construction of Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Plant unit No. 6, which is the first ABWR plant in the world, was started September 1991, and that of unit No. 7 was started in February 1992. We used effective construction methods, such as large block construction method and all weather construction method, to shorten the construction duration from first concrete to commercial operation start to 51.5 months. The commercial operation start of Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Plant unit No. 6 was November 1996 and that of unit No. 7 was July 1997. After that, unit No. 6 had three times the annual outage and unit No. 7 had two times the annual outage. Both plants have good operating experiences. From commercial operation start to end of August 2000, the capacity factor of unit No. 6 is 86.4% and that of unit No. 7 is 86.9%. Now, in Taiwan, ABWR plants are under construction at Lungmen unit No. 1 and 2. In Japan, ABWR plants are under

  2. PHENIX EXPERIMENT AT RHIC: DECADAL PLAN 2004-2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ZAJC,W.ET. AL.

    2003-11-30

    The PHENIX Collaboration has developed a plan for the detailed investigation of quantum chromodynamics in the next decade. The demonstrated capabilities of the PHENIX experiment to measure rare processes in hadronic, leptonic and photonic channels, in combination with RHIC's unparalleled flexibility as a hadronic collider, provides a physics program of extraordinary breadth and depth. A superlative set of measurements to elucidate the states of both hot and cold nuclear matter, and to measure the spin structure of the proton has been identified. The components of this plan include: (1) Definitive measurements that will establish the nature of the matter created in nucleus+nucleus collisions, that will determine if the description of such matter as a quark-gluon plasma is appropriate, and that will quantify both the equilibrium and non-equilibrium features of the produced medium. (2) Precision measurements of the gluon structure of the proton, and of the spin structure of the gluon and sea-quark distributions of the proton via polarized proton+proton collisions. (3) Determination of the gluon distribution in cold nuclear matter using proton+nucleus collisions. Each of these fundamental fields of investigation will be addressed through a program of correlated measurements in some or all of the following channels: (1) Particle production at high transverse momentum, studied via single particle inclusive measurements of identified charged and neutral hadrons, multi-particle correlations and jet production. (2) Direct photon, photon+jet and virtual photon production. (3) Light and heavy vector mesons. (4) Heavy flavor production. These measurements, together with the established PHENIX abilities to identify hadrons at low transverse momentum, to perform detailed centrality selections, and to monitor polarization and luminosity with high precision create a superb opportunity for performing world-class science with PHENIX for the next decade. A portion of this

  3. MSFC Doppler Lidar Science experiments and operations plans for 1981 airborne test flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichtl, G. H.; Bilbro, J. W.; Kaufman, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    The flight experiment and operations plans for the Doppler Lidar System (DLS) are provided. Application of DLS to the study of severe storms and local weather penomena is addressed. Test plans involve 66 hours of flight time. Plans also include ground based severe storm and local weather data acquisition.

  4. ITEP Subcritical Neutron Generator driven by charged particle accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shvedov, O.V.; Chuvilo, I.V.; Vasiliev, V.V. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    A research facility prototype including a combination of a linear accelerator, a neutron generating target, a nuclear safety ensuring and means of its attainment for Subcritical Neutron Generator are considered. The scheme of the multiplying is shown. The assembly will be mounted in the body of the partly dismantled ITEP HWR. Requirements for subcritical assembly are worked out and their feasibility within the framework of the heavy-water blanket is shown. The facility`s application as a full-scale model of more powerful installations of this kind and for fundamental experimental research has been investigated.

  5. Rural Planning in Regional Development: The Kenyan Experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Newly independent governments of Asia and Africa embarked on comprehensive ... had proved very effective in assisting European countries to recover from the destruction ... rural development planning and management, poverty alleviation ...

  6. Plan gauge in pediatric radiology: dosimetry (experience of ten months)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraysse, V.; Lacaze, M.T.; Ferran, J.L.; Couture, A.; Gardien, E.

    2006-01-01

    The objectives were to optimize the radiological constants in the use of the sensors plans(shots) in general radiology. Definition of doses, calculation and communication to the parents of the received dose. (N.C.)

  7. Subcritical crack growth along polymer interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurumurthy, Charavana Kumara

    2000-10-01

    The adhesion characteristics have been investigated for a polyimide (PI)/model epoxy (ME) interface that is important for microelectronic applications. The fracture toughness (G*c) of this interface has been measured using an asymmetric double cantilever beam (ADCB) technique. The G*c is low, 10-25 J/m 2, and is sensitive to the mechanical phase angle psi. A modified ADCB setup has been used to measure the subcritical crack growth velocity v due to the stress-assisted water attack (SAWA) at various relative humidities (RH) and temperatures (T) as a function of its driving force (the strain energy release rate) G*. The threshold G* decreases remarkably. Above the threshold log v rises linearly with √ G* (a hydrolysis controlled regime) but then enters a regime where the crack velocity is almost independent of √G*, i.e., v = v* (a transport controlled regime). A model for SAWA has been developed based on thermally-activated kinetics for hydrolysis of the ester covalent bonds that bridge from one side to the other of the interface. A new technique has been developed for the determination of the fatigue crack growth under thermal (T) and hydro-thermal (HT) conditions as a function of the range in the strain energy release rate (DeltaG). Under T-fatigue, the fatigue crack growth per unit temperature cycle (da/dN) increases as a power of DeltaG, i.e., a Paris law relationship holds. The HT da/dN measured is higher than da/dN under T-fatigue conditions and has been successfully modeled as a summation of two components: (a) the da/dN due to T-fatigue and (b) the da/dN due to the SAWA along the interface for a given T-cycle. A surface modification procedure that converts a thin interpenetrated by a solvent cast ME is used to strengthen ME/PI interface. The G* c increases with the interpenetration distance w. Increasing w also improves the resistance of the PI/ME interface to SAWA with the threshold G* increasing and the water transport controlled velocity (v

  8. Designing a mini subcritical nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobedo G, C. R.; Vega C, H. R.; Davila H, V. M.

    2015-10-01

    In this work the design of a mini subcritical nuclear reactor formed by means of light water moderator, uranium as fuel, and isotopic neutron source of 239 PuBe was carried out. The design was done by Monte Carlo methods with the code MCNP5 in which uranium was modeled in an array of concentric holes cylinders of 8.5, 14.5, 20.5, 26.5, 32.5 cm of internal radius and 3 cm of thickness, 36 cm of height. Different models were made from a single fuel cylinder (natural uranium) to five. The neutron source of 239 PuBe was situated in the center of the mini reactor; in each arrangement was used water as moderator. Cross sections libraries Endf/Vi were used and the number of stories was large enough to ensure less uncertainty than 3%. For each case the effective multiplication factor k e -f f , the amplification factor and the power was calculated. Outside the mini reactor the ambient dose equivalent H (10) was calculated for different cases. The value of k eff , the amplification factor and power are directly related to the number of cylinders of uranium as fuel. Although the average energy of the neutrons 239 PuBe is between 4.5 and 5 MeV in the case of the mini reactor for a cylinder, in the neutron spectrum the presence of thermal neutrons does not exist, so that produced fissions are generated with fast neutrons, and in designs of two and three rings the neutron spectra shows the presence of thermal neutrons, however the fissions are being generated with fast neutrons. Finally in the four and five cases the amount of moderator is enough to thermalized the neutrons and thereby produce the fission. The maximum value for k eff was 0.82; this value is very close to the assembly of Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas generating a k eff of 0.86. According to the safety and radiation protection standards for the design of mini reactor of one, two and three cylinders they comply with the established safety, while designs of four and five cylinders not met. (Author)

  9. Estimation of subcriticality of TCA using 'indirect estimation method for calculation error'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, Yoshitaka; Yamamoto, Toshihiro; Arakawa, Takuya; Sakurai, Kiyoshi

    1996-01-01

    To estimate the subcriticality of neutron multiplication factor in a fissile system, 'Indirect Estimation Method for Calculation Error' is proposed. This method obtains the calculational error of neutron multiplication factor by correlating measured values with the corresponding calculated ones. This method was applied to the source multiplication and to the pulse neutron experiments conducted at TCA, and the calculation error of MCNP 4A was estimated. In the source multiplication method, the deviation of measured neutron count rate distributions from the calculated ones estimates the accuracy of calculated k eff . In the pulse neutron method, the calculation errors of prompt neutron decay constants give the accuracy of the calculated k eff . (author)

  10. Subcritical neutron generator-test facility for nuclear waste transmutation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuvilo, I.V.; Kolomiets, A.A.; Kozodaev, A.M. [ITEP, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    The development of the optimal design of high power facility for NPP transmutation and for a number of applications can not be carried out without preliminary tests of much cheaper prototypes. It has been proposed to combine in new test facility 36 MeV Linac ISTRA constructed in ITEP, original Be target and subcritical blanket that will be mounted on the place of partly disassembled heavy water ITEP experimental reactor. The basic parameters of Linac, schemes of the target and blanket are described. It will provide the direct experiments on installation which can be considered as prototype for future linac driven high power facilities.

  11. Land-Atmosphere Feedback Experiment (LAFE) Science Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wulfmeyer, Volker [University of Hohenheim; Turner, David [NOAA National Severe Storms Laboratory

    2016-07-01

    lower troposphere, including the interfacial layer of the CBL. The optimal azimuth is to the ENE of the SGP central facility, which takes advantage of both changes in the surface elevation and different crop types planted along that path. 3) The University of Wisconsin Space Science and Engineering Center Portable Atmospheric Research Center (SPARC) and the University of Oklahoma Collaborative Lower Atmospheric Mobile Profiling System (CLAMPS) operating two vertically pointing atmospheric emitted radiance interferometers (AERIs) and two Doppler lidar (DL) systems scanning cross track to the central RHI for determining the surface friction velocity and the horizontal variability of temperature, moisture, and wind. Thus, both the variability of surface fluxes and CBL dynamics and thermodynamics over the SGP site will be studied for the first time. The combination of these three components will enable us to estimate both the divergence of the latent heat profile and the advection of moisture. Thus, the moisture budget in the SGP domain can be studied. Furthermore, the simultaneous measurements of surface and entrainment fluxes as well as the daily cycle of the CBL thermodynamic state will provide a unique data set for characterizing LSA interaction in dependence of large-scale and local conditions such as soil moisture and the state of the vegetation. The measurements will also be applied for the development of improved parameterizations of surface fluxes and turbulence in the CBL. The latter is possible because mean profiles, gradients, higher-order moments, and fluxes are measured simultaneously. The results will be used for the verification of simulations of LSA feedback in large-eddy simulation (LES) and mesoscale models, which are planned for the SGP site. Due to the strong connection between the pre-convective state of the CBL and the formation of clouds and precipitation, this new generation of experiments will strongly contribute to the improvement of their

  12. Plans, preferences or going with the flow: an online exploration of women's views and experiences of birth plans

    OpenAIRE

    Divall, Bernie; Spiby, Helen; Nolan, Mary; Slade, Pauline

    2017-01-01

    Objective\\ud To explore women’s views of birth plans, and experiences of their completion and use.\\ud Design\\ud A qualitative, exploratory study, using Internet-mediated research methods.\\ud Setting\\ud The discussion boards of two well-known, UK-based, online parenting forums, where a series of questions relating to birth plans were posted.\\ud Participants\\ud Members of the selected parenting forums who had written and used, or who had chosen not to write or use, a birth plan.\\ud Findings\\ud ...

  13. Localization experience and future plan of NSLS primary components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Haesoo

    1992-01-01

    Korea Heavy Industries and Construction Company is planning to obtain technical self-reliance of the component design, manufacturing and installation of the NSLS primary components as much as the target of 87% by 1995 as indicated in the technical self-reliance plan by the Korea Electric Power Company in 1988. In order to achieve this target, Koch has been involved in the component design, manufacturing and project management of the NSLS components from the early stage of the Young 3 and 4 project. In parallel, Koch has increased the self-reliance of the various fields taking full advantage of the technical documents, computer codes, training and consultation supplied by the technology transfer agreement. This paper presents the re-evaluation of the current status of technical self reliance as well as the make up plan to be implemented during the UCH 3 and 4 project for the area identified as the weakness

  14. SUB-LEU-METAL-THERM-001 SUBCRITICAL MEASUREMENTS OF LOW ENRICHED TUBULAR URANIUM METAL FUEL ELEMENTS BEFORE and AFTER IRRADIATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SCHWINKENDORF, K.N.

    2006-01-01

    With the shutdown of the Hanford PUREX (Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant) reprocessing plant in the 1970s, adequate storage capacity for spent Hanford N Reactor fuel elements in the K and N Reactor pools became a concern. To maximize space utilization in the pools, accounting for fuel burnup was considered. Calculations indicated that at typical fuel exposures for N Reactor, the spent-fuel critical mass would be twice the critical mass for green fuel. A decision was reached to test the calculational result with a definitive experiment. If the results proved positive, storage capacity could be increased and N Reactor operation could be prolonged. An experiment to be conducted in the N Reactor spent-fuel storage pool was designed and assembled and the services of the Battelle Northwest Laboratories (BNWL) (now Pacific Northwest National Laboratory [PNNL]) critical mass laboratory were procured for the measurements. The experiments were performed in April 1975 in the Hanford N Reactor fuel storage pool. The fuel elements were MKIA fuel assemblies, comprising two concentric tubes of low-enriched metallic uranium. Two separate sets of measurements were performed: one with ''green'' (fresh) fuel and one with spent fuel. Both the green and spent fuel, were measured in the same geometry. The spent-fuel MKIA assemblies had an average burnup of 2865 MWd (megawatt days)/t. A constraint was imposed restricting the measurements to a subcritical limit of k eff = 0.97. Subcritical count rate data was obtained with pulsed-neutron and approach-to-critical measurements. Ten (10) configurations with green fuel and nine (9) configurations with spent fuel are described and evaluated. Of these, 3 green fuel and 4 spent fuel loading configurations were considered to serve as benchmark models. However, shortcomings in experimental data failed to meet the high standards for a benchmark problem. Nevertheless, the data provided by these subcritical measurements can supply useful

  15. APGEN Scheduling: 15 Years of Experience in Planning Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldague, Pierre F.; Wissler, Steve; Lenda, Matthew; Finnerty, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the scheduling capability of APGEN (Activity Plan Generator), a multi-mission planning application that is part of the NASA AMMOS (Advanced Multi- Mission Operations System), and how APGEN scheduling evolved over its applications to specific Space Missions. Our analysis identifies two major reasons for the successful application of APGEN scheduling to real problems: an expressive DSL (Domain-Specific Language) for formulating scheduling algorithms, and a well-defined process for enlisting the help of auxiliary modeling tools in providing high-fidelity, system-level simulations of the combined spacecraft and ground support system.

  16. Electric field measurements at subcritical, oblique bow shock crossings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wygant, J.R.; Bensadoun, M.; Mozer, F.S.

    1987-01-01

    Electric field measurements at oblique, subcritical bow shock crossings are presented from the ISEE 1 University of California, Berkeley, double-probe electric field experiment. The measurements averaged over the 3-s spin period of the spacecraft provide the first observations of the large-scale (100 km) laminar oscillations in the longitudinal component of the electric field associated with the whistler precursor which is characteristic of these dispersive shocks. The amplitude of the oscillations increases from ∼0.5 mV/m to a maximum of 6 mV/m across the magnetic ramp of the shock (directed along the shock normal). The calculated electric potential drops across the shocks varied from 340 to 550 volts, which is 40-60% of the observed loss of kinetic energy associated with the bulk flow of the ions. These measurements suggest that at these shocks the additional deceleration of incident ions is due to the Lorentz force. The contributions to the normal component of the large-scale electric field at the shock due to the parallel and perpendicular components (relative to the magnetic field) of the electric field are evaluated. It is shown that the perpendicular component of the electric field dominates, accounting for most of the cross-shock potential, but that there is a nonnegligible parallel component. This large-scale parallel component has a magnitude of 1-2 mV/m which sometimes results in a potential well for electrons with a depth of ∼150 eV. It is experimentally demonstrated that the dominance of the perpendicular over the parallel component of the electric field resulted in a correlation between the longitudinal component of the large-scale electric field and the fluctuations in the magnetic field component perpendicular to the coplanarity plane

  17. Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment: Science and Operations Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotamarthi, VR

    2010-06-21

    The Ganges Valley region is one of the largest and most rapidly developing sections of the Indian subcontinent. The Ganges River, which provides the region with water needed for sustaining life, is fed primarily by snow and rainfall associated with Indian summer monsoons. Impacts of changes in precipitation patterns, temperature, and the flow of the snow-fed rivers can be immense. Recent satellite-based measurements have indicated that the upper Ganges Valley has some of the highest persistently observed aerosol optical depth values. The aerosol layer covers a vast region, extending across the Indo-Gangetic Plain to the Bay of Bengal during the winter and early spring of each year. The persistent winter fog in the region is already a cause of much concern, and several studies have been proposed to understand the economic, scientific, and societal dimensions of this problem. During the INDian Ocean EXperiment (INDOEX) field studies, aerosols from this region were shown to affect cloud formation and monsoon activity over the Indian Ocean. This is one of the few regions showing a trend toward increasing surface dimming and enhanced mid-tropospheric warming. Increasing air pollution over this region could modify the radiative balance through direct, indirect, and semi-indirect effects associated with aerosols. The consequences of aerosols and associated pollution for surface insolation over the Ganges Valley and monsoons, in particular, are not well understood. The proposed field study is designed for use of (1) the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) to measure relevant radiative, cloud, convection, and aerosol optical characteristics over mainland India during an extended period of 9–12 months and (2) the G-1 aircraft and surface sites to measure relevant aerosol chemical, physical, and optical characteristics in the Ganges Valley during a period of 6–12 weeks. The aerosols in this region have complex sources, including burning of coal, biomass, and biofuels; automobile

  18. Subcritical crack growth and power law exponent of Y-Si-Al-O (-N) glasses in aqueous environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, de D.; Hintzen, H.T.J.M.; With, de G.

    2006-01-01

    The subcritical crack growth resistance in water of a Y–Si–Al–O and Y–Si–Al–O–N glasses has been investigated with three point bending experiments. It has been shown that the SCG behaviour of the Y–Si–Al–O–N glass is superior to that of the Y–Si–Al–O glass. This is reflected by the power law

  19. Local energy losses at positive and negative steps in subcritical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Local energy losses occur when there is a transition in open channel flow. Even though local losses in subcritical open channel flow due to changes in channel width have been studied, to date no studies have been reported for losses due to changes in bed elevations. Steps are commonly used in engineering applications ...

  20. Improving subcritical crack growth resistance for alumina glass dental composite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Q.; With, de G.

    2005-01-01

    The improvement of subcritical crack growth (SCG) resistance for alumina glass dental composites was explored in this study. The addition of nitrogen to the glass phases in the composite was found to increase the SCG resistance, where the SCG exponent n increases from 22 for the oxide glass

  1. Extraction of antioxidants from Chlorella sp. using subcritical water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, S. M.; Mustapa Kamal, S. M.; Harun, M. R.; Omar, R.; Siajam, S. I.

    2017-06-01

    Chlorella sp. microalgae is one of the main source of natural bioactive compounds used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Subcritical water extraction is the technique that offers an efficient, non-toxic, and environmental-friendly method to obtain natural ingredients. In this work, the extracts of Chlorella sp. microalgae was evaluated in terms of: chemical composition, extraction (polysaccharides) yield and antioxidant activity, using subcritical water extraction. Extractions were performed at temperatures ranging from 100°C to 300°C. The results show that by using subcritical water, the highest yield of polysaccharides is 23.6 that obtained at 150°C. Analysis on the polysaccharides yield show that the contents were highly influenced by the extraction temperature. The individual antioxidant activity were evaluated by in vitro assay using a free radical method. In general, the antioxidant activity of the extracts obtained at different water temperatures was high, with values of 31.08-54.29 . The results indicated that extraction by subcritical water was effective and Chlorella sp. can be a useful source of natural antioxidants.

  2. Introduction of fusion driven subcritical system plasma design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bin Wu

    2003-01-01

    Fusion driven subcritical nuclear system (FDS) is a multifunctional hybrid reactor, which could breed nuclear fuel, transmute long-lived wastes, producing tritium and so on. This paper presents an introduction of FDS plasma design. Several different advance equilibrium configurations have been proposed and a 1.5-D discharge simulation of FDS was also present

  3. Statistical planning of experiments applied in zeolite 4A synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Armindo; Santos, Liessi Luiz; Oliveira, Maria Lucia M. de; Pinto, Joao Mario Andrade

    1995-01-01

    Zeolite, an aluminum silicate which can be used in high level radioactive waste immobilization is presented. A brief description of various aspects of 4A Zeolite is made emphasizing the fractioned factorial statistic planning results, with two levels without replication, applied in the synthesis of this compound. (author). 7 refs., 3 figs

  4. Putting Action Back into Action Planning: Experiences of Career Clients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgen, William A.; Maglio, Asa-Sophia T.

    2007-01-01

    This study used the critical incident technique to investigate what helped and hindered unemployed and career-changing people in implementing the action plans they developed while participating in career or employment counseling. Information from interviews with 23 women and 16 men generated 9 categories of helping incidents and 9 categories of…

  5. Usefulness of Planning Support Systems : Conceptual perspectives and practitioners' experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelzer, P.

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation starts by observing (Chapter 1) that the question of supporting planning and policy making with dedicated information is an old and important one. In the end of the 1980s a research field emerges dedicated to specifically cater instruments to the needs of practitioners, so

  6. Comparative analysis of sub-critical transmutation reactor concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, S. H.

    1997-01-01

    The long-lived nuclear wastes have been substantially generated from the light water reactor for a few decades. The toxicity of these spent fuels will be higher than that of the uranium ore, even if those will be stored in the repository more than ten thousands. Hence the means of transmuting the key long-lived nuclear wastes, primarily the minor actinides, using a hybrid proton accelerator and subcritical transmutation reactor, are proposed. Until now, the representative concepts for a subcritical transmutation reactor are the Energy Amplifier, the OMEGA project, the ATW and the MSBR. The detailed concepts and the specifications are illustrated in Table 1. The design requirements for the subcritical transmutation reactor are the high transmutation rate of long-lived nuclear wastes, safety and economics. And to propose the subcritical transmutation reactor concepts, the coolant, the target material and fuel type are carefully considered. In these aspects, the representative concepts for a subcritical transmutation reactor in Table 1 have been surveyed. The requirements for a target and a coolant are the reliable, low maintenance operation and safe operation to minimize the wastes. The reliable, low maintenance operation and safe operation to minimize the wastes. The reliable coolant must have the low melting point, high heat capacity and excellent physical properties. And the target material must have high neutron yield for a given proton condition and easy heat removal capability. Therefore in respect with the above requirements, Pb-Bi is proposed as the coolant and the target material for the subcritical reactor. Because the neutron yield for a given proton energy increases linearly with mass number up to bismuth but in heavier elements spallation events sharply increase both the neutron and heat outputs, Pb-Bi meets not only such the requirements as the above for the coolant but also those for the coolant and target, the simplification of system can be achieved

  7. Influence of surrounding environment on subcritical crack growth in marble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nara, Yoshitaka; Kashiwaya, Koki; Nishida, Yuki; , Toshinori, Ii

    2017-06-01

    Understanding subcritical crack growth in rock is essential for determining appropriate measures to ensure the long-term integrity of rock masses surrounding structures and for construction from rock material. In this study, subcritical crack growth in marble was investigated experimentally, focusing on the influence of the surrounding environment on the relationship between the crack velocity and stress intensity factor. The crack velocity increased with increasing temperature and/or relative humidity. In all cases, the crack velocity increased with increasing stress intensity factor. However, for Carrara marble (CM) in air, we observed a region in which the crack velocity still increased with temperature, but the increase in the crack velocity with increasing stress intensity factor was not significant. This is similar to Region II of subcritical crack growth observed in glass in air. Region II in glass is controlled by mass transport to the crack tip. In the case of rock, the transport of water to the crack tip is important. In general, Region II is not observed for subcritical crack growth in rock materials, because rocks contain water. Because the porosity of CM is very low, the amount of water contained in the marble is also very small. Therefore, our results imply that we observed Region II in CM. Because the crack velocity increased in both water and air with increasing temperature and humidity, we concluded that dry conditions at low temperature are desirable for the long-term integrity of a carbonate rock mass. Additionally, mass transport to the crack tip is an important process for subcritical crack growth in rock with low porosity.

  8. Obtainment of the subcritical reactivity by mean of measurement of APSD and CPSD employing pulse mode detectors in the IPEN/MB-01 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Min

    2014-01-01

    This work presents a new experimental approach to determine the reactivity levels of subcritical systems. The method employs the subcritical kinetic model developed by Gandini and Salvatores and it is based only on measured quantities such as counting rates of the detectors employed in the experiments and the parameters arising from the least squares fitting of the APSD (Auto Power Spectral Density) and CPSD (Cross Power Spectral Density). Detector efficiencies, quantity required in other procedures such as Neutron Source Multiplication (NSM) method, are not needed in the proposed method. The only hypothesis made in the method was the independence of the effective delayed neutron fraction and the prompt neutron generation time to the subcriticality level of the system. The proposed method was applied to measure the reactivity of several subcritical configurations of the IPEN/MB-01 reactor. Measurements of APSD and CPSD were performed in several degrees of subcriticality (up to around -7000 pcm). The spectral densities data were least squares fitted to get the prompt decay mode (α) and other quantities. Beside the startup source of the facility, an external neutron source of Am-Be was installed near the core in order to improve neutron counting statistics. The final experimental results are of good quality. The proposed experimental method shows clearly that the classical point kinetic theory cannot describe the measured reactivity. Instead, the reactivity inferred from this model follows closely the subcriticality index (ζ) for the source arrangements in the experiment. The agreement of the MCNP5 and GPT-TORT results, both with ENDF/B-VII.0 as the basic nuclear data library, when compared to the corresponding experimental ones was also good. (author)

  9. Integrated planning for nuclear siting - The South African experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, J C.A.; Heidstra, N; Graupner, O F [Eskom, Johannesburg (South Africa); Hambleton-Jones, B [Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa Ltd., Pellindaba, Pretoria (South Africa)

    1990-06-01

    This paper describes the process involved in the current national programme to identify potential sites for nuclear power development in South Africa. A description is given of the sensitivity studies - the evaluation of the potential perturbations to and opportunities for the biophysical and socioeconomic environments and the suitability studies - the evaluation of environmental influences on geotechnical, safety and financial considerations. This programme is divorced from any decision of whether or not to build further nuclear power station in South Africa. The programme described is a long range land-use planning exercise considered expedient in the face of competition for land that share similar requirements as those of nuclear power station sites. It is also designed to streamline nuclear power station lead times and to make national and regional planners aware of Eskom's requirements in the drafting of their policies and plans. (author)

  10. Integrated planning for nuclear siting - The South African experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, J.C.A.; Heidstra, N.; Graupner, O.F.; Hambleton-Jones, B.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the process involved in the current national programme to identify potential sites for nuclear power development in South Africa. A description is given of the sensitivity studies - the evaluation of the potential perturbations to and opportunities for the biophysical and socioeconomic environments and the suitability studies - the evaluation of environmental influences on geotechnical, safety and financial considerations. This programme is divorced from any decision of whether or not to build further nuclear power station in South Africa. The programme described is a long range land-use planning exercise considered expedient in the face of competition for land that share similar requirements as those of nuclear power station sites. It is also designed to streamline nuclear power station lead times and to make national and regional planners aware of Eskom's requirements in the drafting of their policies and plans. (author)

  11. Military Couples’ Experiences with Natural Family Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-01

    method. Lack of endorsement was due to its unreliability for women with irregular cycles, and during breastfeeding (Geerling, 1995). It was known as...spoke to that one individual who knew my case. I used to mail in all of my charts monthly. They kept a count because I was very irregular . It was...of natural family planning in lactating women after the return of menses . American Journal of Obstetrics and Gvnecology. 165, 2037-2039. Natural

  12. Tax and green transport plans: a survey of UK experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, S.; Smith, M.; Rye, T.

    1999-01-01

    The widespread adoption of Green Transport Plans (GTPs) by employer has become an important aim of the UK government transport policy as it tries to find ways of reducing transport demand. However, the tax treatment of employee benefits that form part of many GTPs has been identified by the government and others as a potential barrier to their adoption. Based on telephone interviews with employers and meetings with tax and transport experts, this paper confirms this perception. It also explains precisely how tax forms a barrier to GTP implementation, reviews the approaches taken to this problem in three other countries and makes outline proposals for reform and further research. (Author)

  13. Women's experiences after Planned Parenthood's exclusion from a family planning program in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, C Junda; Alamgir, Hasanat; Potter, Joseph E

    2016-04-01

    We assessed the impact on depot medroxyprogesterone continuation when a large care provider was banned from a state-funded family planning program. We used three methods to assess the effect of the ban: (a) In a records review, we compared how many state program participants returned to two Planned Parenthood affiliates for a scheduled dose of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) immediately after the ban; (b) We conducted phone interviews with 224 former Planned Parenthood patients about DMPA use and access to contraception immediately after the ban; (c) We compared current contraceptive method of our interviewees to that of comparable DMPA users in the National Survey of Family Growth 2006-2010 (NSFG). (a) Fewer program clients returned for DMPA at a large urban Planned Parenthood, compared to a remotely located affiliate (14.4%, vs. 64.8%), reflecting different levels of access to alternative providers in the two cities. (b) Among program participants who went elsewhere for the injection, only 56.8% obtained it at no cost and on time. More than one in five women missed a dose because of barriers, most commonly due to difficulty finding a provider. (c) Compared to NSFG participants, our interviewees used less effective methods of contraception, even more than a year after the ban went into effect. Injectable contraception use was disrupted during the rollout of the state-funded family planning program. Women living in a remote area of Texas encountered more barriers. Requiring low-income family planning patients to switch healthcare providers has adverse consequences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Quality assurance program plan for the Reactor Research Experiment Programs (RREP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pipher, D.G.

    1982-05-01

    This document describes the Quality Assurance Program plans which will be applied to tasks on Reactor Research Experiments performed on Sandia National Laboratories' reactors. The program provides for individual project or experiment quality plan development and allows for reasonable plan flexibility and maximum plan visibility. Various controls and requirements in this program plan are considered mandatory on all features which are identified as important to public health and safety (Level I). It is the intent of this document that the Quality Assurance program comprise those elements which will provide adequate assurance that all components, equipment, and systems of the experiments will perform as designed, and hence prevent delays and costs due to rejections or failures

  15. Asian Tracer Experiment and Atmospheric Modeling (TEAM) Project: Draft Field Work Plan for the Asian Long-Range Tracer Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allwine, K Jerry; Flaherty, Julia E.

    2007-08-01

    This report provides an experimental plan for a proposed Asian long-range tracer study as part of the international Tracer Experiment and Atmospheric Modeling (TEAM) Project. The TEAM partners are China, Japan, South Korea and the United States. Optimal times of year to conduct the study, meteorological measurements needed, proposed tracer release locations, proposed tracer sampling locations and the proposed durations of tracer releases and subsequent sampling are given. Also given are the activities necessary to prepare for the study and the schedule for completing the preparation activities leading to conducting the actual field operations. This report is intended to provide the TEAM members with the information necessary for planning and conducting the Asian long-range tracer study. The experimental plan is proposed, at this time, to describe the efforts necessary to conduct the Asian long-range tracer study, and the plan will undoubtedly be revised and refined as the planning goes forward over the next year.

  16. Health Plans Can't Ignore The Customer Experience Any Longer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Erik

    2017-10-01

    With regulations limiting differentiation between products, health plans must rethink consumer experience to meet expectations of today's consumers, who seek convenience, quality, and speed from their health care organizations. Many plans understand they need to connect more effectively with their end customers, but technological, cultural, and other obstacles are in the way.

  17. Reliability-Based Optimal Design of Experiment Plans for Offshore Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Faber, Michael Havbro; Kroon, I. B.

    1993-01-01

    Design of cost optimal experiment plans on the basis of a preposterior analysis is discussed. In particular the planning of on-site response measurements on offshore structures in order to update probabilistic models for fatigue life estimation is addressed. Special emphasis is given to modelling...

  18. Indicators' role: How do they influence Strategic Environmental Assessment and Sustainable Planning - The Chinese experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jingjing; Christensen, Per; Kørnøv, Lone

    2017-08-15

    As an information carrier and communication medium, indicators provide useful decision-making assistance in setting process goals and effectively reaching the goals. The main focus of this article is to investigate indicators' role in influencing planning through Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) especially related to Chinese experiences. From the perspective of planning and decision-making theory, the influence on planning is studied as influence of planning structure and influence of planning actors. Such a conceptual framework is applied in order to demonstrate how the use of indicators can influence planning through a SEA process. The study holds two empirical levels. On a general level, based on an online survey, this article investigates SEA practitioners' experiences in using indicators. On a case level, two urban plans are selected to provide more detailed experiences. The case level investigation is based on a documentary study and individual interviews with SEA practitioners/planners. By exploring how indicators influence planning through the structure of and the actors within SEA, this study tries to provide an overview of indicators' role in SEA. The results indicate that indicators are perceived as a useful tool in the Chinese SEA system. By improving and simplifying the procedures of SEA, the indicators exert more structural influence on SEA and on plan making. On the other hand, indicators are also shown to have more influence through political actors than found among technical actors. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Dynamic Planning of Experiments for the Optimisation of Managerial Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Macák

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Time management has a crucial role in organizations and also in our personal lives. Managerial scheduling is an important tool for the time management, especially It can serve as a tool for the first phase, of time management - namely for effective planning. This paper focusses on finding the best possible setting for determining significant the best layout for activities according to the criteria of urgency and importance using a modified steepest ascent method, which can be referred as dynamic scheduling. This term indicates the nature of the method; wherein the experimental design space is changed to look for the best conditions for adjustment factors influencing a managerial process. Existing methods for layout optimization mentioned in the literature and conventionally implemented in practice have only shown local optima.

  20. Workspace experiments: a journey on planning participatory design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Souza da Conceição, Carolina; Broberg, Ole

    2017-01-01

    Summative Statement: This paper presents a resource material in planning and performing participatory workspace design processes. This material brings up design dialogues into focus and gives insights on how to stage them, bridging the gap of merging user involvement with the well-defined design...... work-practice. Problem statement: There is a widespread interest in implementing user involvement in major building and construction projects. Nevertheless, it is also often difficult to translate the contributions from users to workspace design that seriously take on board the employees’ specific work...... practices as a platform for a desired change. There is a need of tool that manages to travel into a well-defined design work-practice and merge with it. Research Objective: We developed a resource material to merge user involvement within current designers’ practices when designing new workspaces. The aim...

  1. The Fermilab ISDN Pilot Project: Experiences and future plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, D.E.; Lego, A.J.; Clifford, A.E.

    1995-12-31

    Fully operational in June of 1994, the Fermilab ISDN Pilot Project was started to gain insight into the costs and benefits of providing ISDN service to the homes of Fermilab researchers. Fourteen users were chosen from throughout Fermilab, but the number of Fermilab-employed spouses pushed the total user count to 20. Each home was equipped with a basic rate ISDN (BRI) line, a BRI Ethernet half-bridge, and an NT-1. An inter-departmental team coordinated the project. Usage at each home was tracked and frequent surveys were attempted. Lessons learned include: working with Ameritech can be difficult; careful monitoring is essential; and configuration of home computing equipment is very time consuming. Plans include moving entirely to primary rate ISDN hubs, support for different home ISDN equipment and better usage and performance tracking.

  2. The Fermilab ISDN Pilot Project: Experiences and future plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, D.E.; Lego, A.J.; Clifford, A.E.

    1995-01-01

    Fully operational in June of 1994, the Fermilab ISDN Pilot Project was started to gain insight into the costs and benefits of providing ISDN service to the homes of Fermilab researchers. Fourteen users were chosen from throughout Fermilab, but the number of Fermilab-employed spouses pushed the total user count to 20. Each home was equipped with a basic rate ISDN (BRI) line, a BRI Ethernet half-bridge, and an NT-1. An inter-departmental team coordinated the project. Usage at each home was tracked and frequent surveys were attempted. Lessons learned include: working with Ameritech can be difficult; careful monitoring is essential; and configuration of home computing equipment is very time consuming. Plans include moving entirely to primary rate ISDN hubs, support for different home ISDN equipment and better usage and performance tracking

  3. The Fermilab ISDN pilot project: experiences and future plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, D.E.; Lego, A.J.; Clifford, A.E.

    1996-01-01

    Fully operational in June of 1994, the Fermilab ISDN Pilot Project was started to gain insight into the costs and benefits of providing ISDN service to the homes of Fermilab researchers. Fourteen were chosen from throughout Fermilab, but the number of Fermilab-employed spouses pushed the total user count to 20. each home was equipped with a basic rate ISDN (BRI) Ethernet half-bridge, and an NT-1. An inter-departmental team coordinated the project. Usage at each home was tracked and frequent surveys were attempted. Lessons learned include: working with Ameritech can be difficult; careful monitoring is essential; and configuration of home computing equipment is very time consuming. Plans include moving entirely to primary rate ISDN hubs, support for different home ISDN equipment and better usage and performance tracking. (author)

  4. Benchmark Analysis of Subcritical Noise Measurements on a Nickel-Reflected Plutonium Metal Sphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John D. Bess; Jesson Hutchinson

    2009-09-01

    Subcritical experiments using californium source-driven noise analysis (CSDNA) and Feynman variance-to-mean methods were performed with an alpha-phase plutonium sphere reflected by nickel shells, up to a maximum thickness of 7.62 cm. Both methods provide means of determining the subcritical multiplication of a system containing nuclear material. A benchmark analysis of the experiments was performed for inclusion in the 2010 edition of the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments. Benchmark models have been developed that represent these subcritical experiments. An analysis of the computed eigenvalues and the uncertainty in the experiment and methods was performed. The eigenvalues computed using the CSDNA method were very close to those calculated using MCNP5; however, computed eigenvalues are used in the analysis of the CSDNA method. Independent calculations using KENO-VI provided similar eigenvalues to those determined using the CSDNA method and MCNP5. A slight trend with increasing nickel-reflector thickness was seen when comparing MCNP5 and KENO-VI results. For the 1.27-cm-thick configuration the MCNP eigenvalue was approximately 300 pcm greater. The calculated KENO eigenvalue was about 300 pcm greater for the 7.62-cm-thick configuration. The calculated results were approximately the same for a 5-cm-thick shell. The eigenvalues determined using the Feynman method are up to approximately 2.5% lower than those determined using either the CSDNA method or the Monte Carlo codes. The uncertainty in the results from either method was not large enough to account for the bias between the two experimental methods. An ongoing investigation is being performed to assess what potential uncertainties and/or biases exist that have yet to be properly accounted for. The dominant uncertainty in the CSDNA analysis was the uncertainty in selecting a neutron cross-section library for performing the analysis of the data. The uncertainty in the

  5. Chemical and nuclear emergencies: Interchanging lessons learned from planning and accident experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, V.; Sorensen, J.H.; Rogers, G.O.

    1989-01-01

    Because the goal of emergency preparedness for both chemical and nuclear hazards is to reduce human exposure to hazardous materials, this paper examines the interchange of lessons learned from emergency planning and accident experience in both industries. While the concerns are slightly different, sufficient similarity is found for each to draw implications from the others experience. Principally the chemical industry can learn from the dominant planning experience associated with nuclear power plants, while the nuclear industry can chiefly learn from the chemical industry's accident experience. 23 refs

  6. Experiments planned to be made with the synchrotron radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matz, W.

    1993-01-01

    For this working meeting, various research groups from the Land Sachsen and from the neighbouring countries Poland and the Czech Republic have been invited in order to present their materials research programmes or task-specific experiments intended to be carried out with the synchrotron radiation source to be installed in the near future. The proceedings volume in hand presents the discussion papers, which have been directly reproduced from the original foils. (orig.) [de

  7. Critical and subcritical mass calculations of fissionable nuclides based on JENDL-3.2+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuno, H.

    2002-01-01

    We calculated critical and subcritical masses of 10 fissionable actinides ( 233 U, 235 U, 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 241 Pu, 242m Am, 243 Cm, 244 Cm, 249 Cf and 251 Cf) in metal and in metal-water mixtures (except 238 Pu and 244 Cm). The calculation was made with a combination of a continuous energy Monte Carlo neutron transport code, MCNP-4B2, and the latest released version of the Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library, JENDL-3.2. Other evaluated nuclear data files, ENDF/B-VI, JEF-2.2, and JENDL-3.3 in its preliminary version were also applied to find differences in results originated from different nuclear data files. For the so-called big three fissiles ( 233 U, 235 U and 239 Pu), analyzing the criticality experiments cited in ICSBEP Handbook validated the code-library combination, and calculation errors were consequently evaluated. Estimated critical and lower limit critical masses of the big three in a sphere with/without a water or SS-304 reflector were supplied, and they were compared with the subcritical mass limits of ANS-8.1. (author)

  8. Shippingport Atomic Power Station Operating Experience, Developments and Future Plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feinroth, H.; Oldham, G.M.; Stiefel, J.T.

    1963-01-01

    This paper describes and evaluates five years of operation and test of the Shippingport Atomic Power Station and discusses the current technical developments and future plans of the Shippingport programme. This programme is directed towards development of the basic technology of light-water reactors to provide the basis for potential reduction in the costs of nuclear power. The Shippingport reactor plant has operated for over five years and has been found to integrate readily into a utility system either as a base load or peak load unit. Plant component performance has been reliable. There have been no problems in contamination or waste disposal. Access to primary coolant components for maintenance has been good, demonstrating the integrity of fuel elements. Each of the three refuelling operations performed since start-up of Shippingport has required successively less time to accomplish. Recently, the third seed was refuelled in 32 working days, about one quarter the time required for the first refuelling. The formal requirements of personnel training, written administrative procedures, power plant manuals, etc., which have been a vital factor in the successful implementation of the Shippingport programme, are described. The results obtained from the comprehensive test programme carried out at Shippingport are compared with calculations, and good agreement has been obtained. Reactor core performance, plant stability, and response to load changes, fuel element and control rod performance, long-term effects such as corrosion and radiation level build-up, component performance, etc., are discussed in this paper. The principal objective of the current and future programmes of the Shippingport Project in advancing the basic technology of water-cooled reactors is discussed. This programme includes the continued operation of the Shippingport plant, and the development, design, manufacture and test operation of a long-life, highpower density second core - Core 2. At its

  9. Solubility and degradation of paracetamol in subcritical water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emire Zuhal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, solubility and degradation of paracetamol were examined using subcritical water. Effect of temperature and static time was investigated during solubility process in subcritical water at constant pressure (50 bar. Experimental results show that temperature and static time have crucial effect on the degradation and solubility rates. Maximum mole fraction for solubility of paracetamol was obtained at 403 K as (14.68 ± 0.74×103. Approximation model for solubility of paracetamol was proposed. O2 and H2O2 were used in degradation process of paracetamol. Maximum degradation rate was found as 68.66 ± 1.05 and 100 ± 0.00 % using O2 and H2O2, respectively.

  10. Subcriticality calculation in nuclear reactors with external neutron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Adilson Costa da; Martinez, Aquilino Senra; Silva, Fernando Carvalho da [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear]. E-mails: asilva@con.ufrj.br; aquilino@lmp.ufrj.br; fernando@con.ufrj.br

    2007-07-01

    The main objective of this paper consists on the development of a methodology to monitor subcriticality. We used the inverse point kinetic equation with 6 precursor groups and external neutron sources for the calculation of reactivity. The input data for the inverse point kinetic equation was adjusted, in order to use the neutron counting rates obtained from the subcritical multiplication (1/M) in a nuclear reactor. In this paper, we assumed that the external neutron sources strength is constant and we define it in terms of a known initial condition. The results obtained from inverse point kinetic equation with external neutron sources were compared with the results obtained with a benchmark calculation, and showed good accuracy (author)

  11. Subcriticality calculation in nuclear reactors with external neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Adilson Costa da; Martinez, Aquilino Senra; Silva, Fernando Carvalho da

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this paper consists on the development of a methodology to monitor subcriticality. We used the inverse point kinetic equation with 6 precursor groups and external neutron sources for the calculation of reactivity. The input data for the inverse point kinetic equation was adjusted, in order to use the neutron counting rates obtained from the subcritical multiplication (1/M) in a nuclear reactor. In this paper, we assumed that the external neutron sources strength is constant and we define it in terms of a known initial condition. The results obtained from inverse point kinetic equation with external neutron sources were compared with the results obtained with a benchmark calculation, and showed good accuracy (author)

  12. A microfluidic sub-critical water extraction instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Noell, Aaron C.; Fisher, Anita; Lee, Mike C.; Takano, Nobuyuki; Bao, Xiaoqi; Kutzer, Thomas C.; Grunthaner, Frank

    2017-11-01

    This article discusses a microfluidic subcritical water extraction (SCWE) chip for autonomous extraction of amino acids from astrobiologically interesting samples. The microfluidic instrument is composed of three major components. These include a mixing chamber where the soil sample is mixed and agitated with the solvent (water), a subcritical water extraction chamber where the sample is sealed with a freeze valve at the chip inlet after a vapor bubble is injected into the inlet channels to ensure the pressure in the chip is in equilibrium with the vapor pressure and the slurry is then heated to ≤200 °C in the SCWE chamber, and a filter or settling chamber where the slurry is pumped to after extraction. The extraction yield of the microfluidic SCWE chip process ranged from 50% compared to acid hydrolysis and 80%-100% compared to a benchtop microwave SCWE for low biomass samples.

  13. Evaluation of subcritical hybrid systems loaded with reprocessed fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasquez, Carlos E.; Barros, Graiciany de P.; Pereira, Claubia; Veloso, Maria Auxiliadora F.; Costa, Antonella L.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Accelerator driven systems (ADS) and fusion–fission systems are investigated for transmutation and fuel regeneration. • The calculations were performed using Monteburns code. • The results indicate the most suitable system for achieve transmutation. - Abstract: Two subcritical hybrid systems containing spent fuel reprocessed by Ganex technique and spiked with thorium were submitted to neutron irradiation of two different sources: ADS (Accelerator-driven subcritical) and Fusion. The aim is to investigate the nuclear fuel evolution using reprocessed fuel and the neutronic parameters under neutron irradiation. The source multiplication factor and fuel depletion for both systems were analysed during 10 years. The simulations were performed using MONTEBURNS code (MCNP/ORIGEN). The results indicate the main differences when irradiating the fuel with different neutron sources as well as the most suitable system for achieving transmutation

  14. Simulation an Accelerator driven Subcritical Reactor core with thorium fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirmohammadi, L.; Pazirandeh, A.

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this work is simulation An Accelerator driven Subcritical core with Thorium as a new generation nuclear fuel. In this design core , A subcritical core coupled to an accelerator with proton beam (E p =1 GeV) is simulated by MCNPX code .Although the main purpose of ADS systems are transmutation and use MA (Minor Actinides) as a nuclear fuel but another use of these systems are use thorium fuel. This simulated core has two fuel assembly type : (Th-U) and (U-Pu) . Consequence , Neutronic parameters related to ADS core are calculated. It has shown that Thorium fuel is use able in this core and less nuclear waste ,Although Iran has not Thorium reserves but study on Thorium fuel cycle can open a new horizontal in use nuclear energy as a clean energy and without nuclear waste

  15. Siting of the Swedish deep geological repository - experiences and plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eng, T.; Backblom, G.; Thegerstrom, C.; Ahlbom, K.; Leijon, B.

    1996-01-01

    The paper provides a brief overview of the Swedish siting programme for a deep repository. A stepwise process is a key element in the planning and implementation of deep disposal of long-lived waste in Sweden. The local siting work is made in cooperation with the affected and concerned municipalities. The programs, decisions and results that so far have been reported and ongoing feasibility studies is a solid platform for the continuing siting work. It can be noted that the siting work in some cases has caused heavy opposition and negative opinions. Careful considerations on how to proceed to develop the necessary background material must therefore be made. The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) process that has started in conjunction with feasibility studies are judged to play an important role in the future. In this process, with extensive local involvement, critical issues can be detected at an early stage and sound ideas on both the process itself and on technical issues can be incorporated. To facilitate information exchange and cooperation between the municipalities involved and to coordinate liaison between the municipalities and county administrative boards affected by the studies, the Swedish government has appointed a National Coordinator for nuclear waste disposal. The government also has decided to provide the concerned municipalities with funding for their participation in the process. (author)

  16. Breaking rocks made easy: subcritical processes and tectonic predesign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigtlaender, Anne; Krautblatter, Michael

    2017-04-01

    In geomorphic studies, to change in landforms, e.g. by rock slope failure, fluvial or glacial erosion, a threshold is commonly assumed, which is crossed either by an increase in external driving or a decrease of internal resisting forces, respectively. If the threshold is crossed, bedrock breaks and slope fails, rivers incise and glaciers plug and sew their bed. Here we put forward a focus on the decrease of the resisting forces, as an increase in the driving forces, to match the strength of bedrock, is not that likely. We suggest that the degradation of resisting forces of bedrock can be better explained by subcritical processes like creep, fatigue and stress corrosion interplaying with tectonic predesign. Both concepts, subcritical processes and tectonic predesign have been issued in the last century, but have not been widely accepted nor have their assumptions been explicitly stressed in recent case studies. Moreover both concepts profit especially on scale issues if merged. Subcritical crack growth, includes different mechanisms promoting fractures well below the ultimate strength. Single infinitesimal but irreversible damage and deformations are induced in the material over time. They interact with inherent microstructural flaws and low applied stresses, limiting local strength and macroscopic behavior of bedrock. This reissues the concept of tectonic predesigned, as proposed by A.E. Scheidegger, which not only encompasses structural features that determine the routing of drainage patterns and shear planes, e.g. joints, faults and foliations, but also the (neo)tectonic stress-field and the (in-situ) strain state of bedrocks and mountains. Combining subcritical processes and tectonic predesign we can better explain, why and where we see a dissected, eroded and geomorphic divers' landscape. In this conceptual framework actual magnitudes of the driving forces are accounted for and so is the nature of the bedrock material, to better understand the trajectories of

  17. A simple proof of exponential decay of subcritical contact processes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Swart, Jan M.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 170, 1-2 (2018), s. 1-9 ISSN 0178-8051 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-15238S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : subcritical contact process * sharpness of the phase transition * eigenmeasure Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.895, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/SI/swart-0462694.pdf

  18. Inverse kinetics for subcritical systems with external neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho Gonçalves, Wemerson de; Martinez, Aquilino Senra; Carvalho da Silva, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • It was developed formalism for reactivity calculation. • The importance function is related to the system subcriticality. • The importance function is also related with the value of the external source. • The equations were analyzed for seven different levels of sub criticality. • The results are physically consistent with others formalism discussed in the paper. - Abstract: Nuclear reactor reactivity is one of the most important properties since it is directly related to the reactor control during the power operation. This reactivity is influenced by the neutron behavior in the reactor core. The time-dependent neutrons behavior in response to any change in material composition is important for the reactor operation safety. Transient changes may occur during the reactor startup or shutdown and due to accidental disturbances of the reactor operation. Therefore, it is very important to predict the time-dependent neutron behavior population induced by changes in neutron multiplication. Reactivity determination in subcritical systems driven by an external neutron source can be obtained through the solution of the inverse kinetics equation for subcritical nuclear reactors. The main purpose of this paper is to find the solution of the inverse kinetics equation the main purpose of this paper is to device the inverse kinetics equations for subcritical systems based in a previous paper published by the authors (Gonçalves et al., 2015) and by (Gandini and Salvatores, 2002; Dulla et al., 2006). The solutions of those equations were also obtained. Formulations presented in this paper were tested for seven different values of k eff with external neutrons source constant in time and for a powers ratio varying exponentially over time.

  19. Development and Investigation of Reactivity Measurement Methods in Subcritical Cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Johanna

    2005-05-01

    Subcriticality measurements during core loading and in future accelerator driven systems have a clear safety relevance. In this thesis two subcriticality methods are treated: the Feynman-alpha and the source modulation method. The Feynman-alpha method is a technique to determine the reactivity from the relative variance of the detector counts during a measurement period. The period length is varied to get the full time dependence of the variance-to-mean. The corresponding theoretical formula was known only with stationary sources. In this thesis, due to its relevance for novel reactivity measurement methods, the Feynman-alpha formulae for pulsed sources for both the stochastic and the deterministic cases are treated. Formulae neglecting as well as including the delayed neutrons are derived. The formulae neglecting delayed neutrons are experimentally verified with quite good agreement. The second reactivity measurement technique investigated in this thesis is the so-called source modulation technique. The theory of the method was elaborated on the assumption of point kinetics, but in practice the method will be applied by using the signal from a single local neutron detector. Applicability of the method therefore assumes point kinetic behaviour of the core. Hence, first the conditions of the point kinetic behaviour of subcritical cores was investigated. After that the performance of the source modulation technique in the general case as well as and in the limit of exact point kinetic behaviour was examined. We obtained the unexpected result that the method has a finite, non-negligible error even in the limit of point kinetic behaviour, and a substantial error in the operation range of future accelerator driven subcritical reactors (ADS). In practice therefore the method needs to be calibrated by some other method for on-line applications.

  20. Development and Investigation of Reactivity Measurement Methods in Subcritical Cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, Johanna

    2005-05-01

    Subcriticality measurements during core loading and in future accelerator driven systems have a clear safety relevance. In this thesis two subcriticality methods are treated: the Feynman-alpha and the source modulation method. The Feynman-alpha method is a technique to determine the reactivity from the relative variance of the detector counts during a measurement period. The period length is varied to get the full time dependence of the variance-to-mean. The corresponding theoretical formula was known only with stationary sources. In this thesis, due to its relevance for novel reactivity measurement methods, the Feynman-alpha formulae for pulsed sources for both the stochastic and the deterministic cases are treated. Formulae neglecting as well as including the delayed neutrons are derived. The formulae neglecting delayed neutrons are experimentally verified with quite good agreement. The second reactivity measurement technique investigated in this thesis is the so-called source modulation technique. The theory of the method was elaborated on the assumption of point kinetics, but in practice the method will be applied by using the signal from a single local neutron detector. Applicability of the method therefore assumes point kinetic behaviour of the core. Hence, first the conditions of the point kinetic behaviour of subcritical cores was investigated. After that the performance of the source modulation technique in the general case as well as and in the limit of exact point kinetic behaviour was examined. We obtained the unexpected result that the method has a finite, non-negligible error even in the limit of point kinetic behaviour, and a substantial error in the operation range of future accelerator driven subcritical reactors (ADS). In practice therefore the method needs to be calibrated by some other method for on-line applications

  1. Experimental subcritical reactivity determinations employing APSD measurements with pulse mode detectors in the IPEN/MB-01 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Adimir dos; Lee, Seung Min; Diniz, Ricardo; Jerez, Rogerio

    2011-01-01

    This work aims to determine experimentally the subcritical reactivity levels of several configurations of the IPEN/MB-01 reactor in an approach based on the subcritical kinetic model developed by Gandini and Salvatores. The procedure employs the measurements of the APSD (Auto Power Spectral Density) using pulse mode detectors. The proposed approach is based only on measured quantities such as counting rates and the parameters arising from the least square approach of the APSD. Other difficult quantity such as detector efficiencies is not needed in the method. Several measurements of APSD were performed in varying degrees of sub-criticality (up to around -7000 pcm). The APSD data were least-square fitted to get the prompt decay mode (α). Beside the startup source, an external neutron sources of Am-Be was installed near the core in order to improve neutron count statistics. The final experimental results are of very good quality. The experiment shows clearly that the classical one point kinetic theory cannot describe the measured reactivity. MCNP K eff results were compared to the corresponding experimental results. The agreement was fairly good. (author)

  2. Conceptual study of high power proton linac for accelerator driven subcritical nuclear power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Qingchang; Ouyang Huafu; Xu Taoguang

    2002-01-01

    As a prior option of the next generation of energy source, the accelerator driven subcritical nuclear power system (ADS) can use efficiently the uranium and thorium resource, transmute the high-level long-lived radioactive wastes and raise nuclear safety. The ADS accelerator should provide the proton beam with tens megawatts. The superconducting linac is a good selection of ADS accelerator because of its high efficiency and low beam loss rate. The ADS accelerator presented by the authors consists of a 5 MeV radio-frequency quadrupole, a 100 MeV independently phased superconducting cavity linac and a 1 GeV elliptical superconducting cavity linac. The accelerating structures and main parameters are determined and the research and development plan is considered

  3. Conceptual study of high power proton linac for accelerator driven subcritical nuclear power system

    CERN Document Server

    Yu Qi; Ouyang Hua Fu; Xu Tao Guang

    2001-01-01

    As a prior option of the next generation of energy source, the accelerator driven subcritical nuclear power system (ADS) can use efficiently the uranium and thorium resource, transmute the high-level long-lived radioactive wastes and raise nuclear safety. The ADS accelerator should provide the proton beam with tens megawatts. The superconducting linac is a good selection of ADS accelerator because of its high efficiency and low beam loss rate. The ADS accelerator presented by the consists of a 5 MeV radio-frequency quadrupole, a 100 MeV independently phased superconducting cavity linac and a 1 GeV elliptical superconducting cavity linac. The accelerating structures and main parameters are determined and the research and development plan is considered

  4. Measurement of kinetic parameters in the fast subcritical core MASURCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeten, Peter; Abderrahim, Hamid Aiet

    2004-01-01

    In the MUSE shared cost action of the European Fifth Framework Program measurements have been performed to investigate the neutronic behavior of the fast subcritical core MASURCA coupled with the GENEPI accelerator. The aim is to examine the applicability of different measurement techniques for the determination of the main kinetic parameters. The measurement of Rossi-alpha distributions, recorded with the accelerator turned off, showed that the analysis of the obtained distributions is feasible for deep subcritical levels, but with strongly deteriorated statistics. From Rossi-alpha distributions, recorded with the pulsed neutron source in operation, the alpha decay constant was easily derived due to good statistics on the correlated signal resulting from the strong intensity of the neutron pulse. When applying the pulsed neutron source analysis, the reactivity (in dollars) together with the ratio of the mean neutron lifetime l and the effective delayed neutron fraction β eff is immediately derived. Although these first results are very promising, further measurements are needed to qualify the method at larger subcritical levels which are representative for future ADS

  5. Calculated characteristics of subcritical assembly with anisotropic transport of neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorin, N.V.; Lipilina, E.N.; Lyutov, V.D.; Saukov, A.I.

    2003-01-01

    There was considered possibility of creating enough sub-critical system that multiply neutron fluence from a primary source by many orders. For assemblies with high neutron tie between parts, it is impossible. That is why there was developed a construction consisting of many units (cascades) having weak feedback with preceding cascades. The feedback attenuation was obtained placing layers of slow neutron absorber and moderators between the cascades of fission material. Anisotropy of fast neutron transport through the layers was used. The system consisted of many identical cascades aligning one by another. Each cascade consists of layers of moderator, fissile material and absorber of slow neutrons. The calculations were carried out using the code MCNP.4a with nuclear data library ENDF/B5. In this construction neutrons spread predominantly in one direction multiplying in each next fissile layer, and they attenuate considerably in the opposite direction. In a calculated construction, multiplication factor of one cascade is about 1.5 and multiplication factor of whole construction composed of n cascades is 1.5 n . Calculated keff value is 0.9 for one cascade and does not exceed 0.98 for a system containing any number of cascades. Therefore the assembly is always sub-critical and therefore it is safe in respect of criticality. There was considered using such a sub-critical assembly to create a powerful neutron fluence for neutron boron-capturing therapy. The system merits and demerits were discussed. (authors)

  6. Accelerator-driven subcritical facility:Conceptual design development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohar, Yousry; Bolshinsky, Igor; Naberezhnev, Dmitry; Duo, Jose; Belch, Henry; Bailey, James

    2006-06-01

    A conceptual design development of an accelerator-driven subcritical facility has been carried out in the preparation of a joint activity with Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology of Ukraine. The main functions of the facility are the medical isotope production and the support of the Ukraine nuclear industry. An electron accelerator is considered to drive the subcritical assembly. The neutron source intensity and spectrum have been studied. The energy deposition, spatial neutron generation, neutron utilization fraction, and target dimensions have been quantified to define the main target performance parameters, and to select the target material and beam parameters. Different target conceptual designs have been developed based the engineering requirements including heat transfer, thermal hydraulics, structure, and material issues. The subcritical assembly is designed to obtain the highest possible neutron flux level with a Keff of 0.98. Different fuel materials, uranium enrichments, and reflector materials are considered in the design process. The possibility of using low enrichment uranium without penalizing the facility performance is carefully evaluated. The mechanical design of the facility has been developed to maximize its utility and minimize the time for replacing the target and the fuel assemblies. Safety, reliability, and environmental considerations are included in the facility conceptual design. The facility is configured to accommodate future design improvements, upgrades, and new missions. In addition, it has large design margins to accommodate different operating conditions and parameters. In this paper, the conceptual design and the design analyses of the facility will be presented.

  7. Planned Enhanced Wakefield Transformer Ratio Experiment at Argonne Wakefield Accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Kanareykin, Alex; Gai, Wei; Jing, Chunguang; Konecny, Richard; Power, John G

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present a preliminary experimental study of a wakefield accelerating scheme that uses a carefully spaced and current ramped electron pulse train to produce wakefields that increases the transformer ratio much higher than 2. A dielectric structure was designed and fabricated to operate at 13.625 GHz with dielectric constant of 15.7. The structure will be initially excited by two beams with first and second beam charge ratio of 1:3. The expected transformer ratio is 3 and the setup can be easily extend to 4 pulses which leads to a transformer ratio of more than 6. The dielectric structure cold test results show the tube is within the specification. A set of laser splitters was also tested to produce ramped bunch train of 2 - 4 pulses. Overall design of the experiment and initial results will be presented.

  8. Radioactive waste management in Sweden experiences and plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wikstroem, M.

    1999-01-01

    Since some years, the necessary facilities are in operation in Sweden for the safe transport and storage of radioactive waste and spent fuel from nuclear power production. These include a final repository, SFR, for short-lived low and intermediate level waste, a central interim storage facility, CLAB, for spent fuel and a sea-based transport system. The experiences from the operation of these facilities have generally been very good. The next step is the development of an encapsulation facility and a deep repository for the spent nuclear fuel. R and D-work on direct disposal have been conducted in Sweden for more than 20 years. In the preferred method the spent fuel will be encapsulated in a copper canister with a steel internal structure, and the canister will then be disposed of at about 500 metres depth in the Swedish bedrock. The siting and design of the encapsulation facility and the deep repository is now in progress. (author)

  9. The TOF experiments and plans at JAERI-FNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Hiroshi

    1982-01-01

    A fast neutron source system (FNS) has been constructed at the Tokai Laboratory of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The pulse width of d-d neutron from the FNS is 1.72 ns. The length of flight path is about 33 m. Prepared detectors are a NE-213 bank, a (B-10) 4 C-NaI bank, and Li-6, Li-7 glass scintillators. Various electronic circuits are provided. A DEC VAX- 11/780 computer is used for the data processing. The experiment to measure the angle-dependent leak spectra by Li 2 O and Li plate assemblies are designed and will be done in near future. (Kato, T.)

  10. Comparison of Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory Clean Critical and Subcritical Experiments with Calculations; Etude Comparative des Calculs et des Experiences Critiques Non Empoisonnees et Souscritiques, Faits au Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory; Sravnenie chistykh kriticheskikh i podkriticheskikh opytov v nolle s raschetnymi dannymi; Comparacion de los Resultados Experimentales del Knolls Atomic Power Lamra Tory con los Valores Calculados Teoricamente en Conjuntos Criticos Limpios y Subcriticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bach, D. R.; Bistline, J. A.; Bunch, S. I.; Cerbone, R. J.; Feiner, F.; Skolnik, W.; Slovacek, R. E.; Weinstein, S. [Knolls Atomic Tower Laboratory, Schenectady, NY (United States)

    1964-02-15

    At the Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory an intensive programme of experimentation and related calculations has been underway to assess the adequacy of computational methods and nuclear data for hydrogenous systems. The programme has three general aspects: (1) Clean critical experiments with solid homogeneous fuel having a high metal-to-hydrogen volume ratio; (2) clean, plate-fuel critical experiments covering a large range of core dimension, metal-to-water ratio, fuel density and temperature; (3) prompt-neutron decay constant and steady-state spectrum measurements on subcritical systems in the same range of composition. The fuel elements for the solid homogeneous experiments are pressed compacts of ZrO{sub 2}, and highly enriched UO{sub 2}, powders uniformly mixed with paraffin. Reflector blocks With the same ZrO{sub 2}-to-paraffin ratio as the fuel blocks allow reflected cores to be constructed having uniform slowing down characteristics. The mechanics of the critical assembly are such that critical configurations are simple rectangular parallelepipeds with no channels for safety or control rods. Critical size studies of fast-leakage dominated systems (bare and reflected) have been performed and comparisons made with standard two-and three-dimensional, few-group computer programmes. In general the calculated criticality constants using the most recent nuclear data are about 3% high. The plate experiments described covered the range from room temperature to 560 Degree-Sign F and 1200 psi. To eliminate the complication of control-rod effects a determination of the temperature at which the core was critical was made with the control rods almost completely withdrawn. With the currently available crosssection information the calculated criticality is consistently high by about 2% over the whole range of experiments. Calculations of the decay constants made by the 1/v poison removal technique using standard few-group diffusion codes employing group-dependent boundary

  11. Device for investigating subcritical crack growth of RPV steel specimens under BWR conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, D.; Ahlf, J.

    1983-01-01

    An experiment is being prepared to investigate the subcritical crack growth of RPV steel specimens under cyclic load and under the environmental conditions of a BWR with regard to primary water and irradiation. The experiment will be carried out in the VAK reactor Kahl which is a boiling water reactor operating at 71 bar, 286 0 C and generating 16 MW/sub e/. The experimental setup is composed of an open frame to which a string consisting of five compact tension speciments (40 mm thickness) and connecting links is fixed. The specimen chain is set under cyclic load by a pneumatically actuated bellows unit which is attached to the frame top. Specimen strain and crack opening are measured by linear differential transformers; for temperature distribution measurements in the specimens thermocouples are applied

  12. US/Canada wheat and barley crop calender exploratory experiment implementation plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    A plan is detailed for a supplemental experiment to evaluate several crop growth stage models and crop starter models. The objective of this experiment is to provide timely information to aid in understanding crop calendars and to provide data that will allow a selection between current crop calendar models.

  13. Using Field Experiments to Evaluate the Impact of Financial Planning and Counseling Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, J. Michael

    2017-01-01

    Field experiments, which are a powerful research technique, are common in some fields, but they have not been widely used in studying the effect of financial and counseling planning interventions. Financial services can benefit from the expanded use of field experiments to explore potential causal mechanisms for the effects of financial planning…

  14. Experiences of care planning in England: interviews with patients with long term conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newbould Jenny

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence and impact of long term conditions continues to rise. Care planning for people with long term conditions has been a policy priority in England for chronic disease management. However, it is not clear how care planning is currently understood, translated and implemented in primary care. This study explores experience of care planning in patients with long term conditions in three areas in England. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews with 23 predominantly elderly patients with multiple long term conditions. The interviews were designed to explore variations in and emergent experiences of care planning. Qualitative analysis of interview transcripts involved reflexively coding and re-coding data into categories and themes. Results No participants reported experiencing explicit care planning discussions or receiving written documentation setting out a negotiated care plan and they were unfamiliar with the term ‘care planning’. However, most described some components of care planning which occurred over a number of contacts with health care professionals which we term”reactive” care planning. Here, key elements of care planning including goal setting and action planning were rare. Additionally, poor continuity and coordination of care, lack of time in consultations, and patient concerns about what was legitimate to discuss with the doctor were described. Conclusions Amongst this population, elements of care planning were present in their accounts, but a structured, comprehensive process and consequent written record (as outlined in English Department of Health policy was not evident. Further research needs to explore the advantages and disadvantages of different approaches to care planning for different patient groups.

  15. Overview, Progress, and Plans for the Compact Toroidal Hybrid Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwell, G. J.; Allen, N. R.; Ennis, D. A.; Hanson, J. D.; Howell, E. C.; Johnson, C. A.; Knowlton, S. F.; Kring, J. D.; Ma, X.; Maurer, D. A.; Ross, K. G.; Schmitt, J. C.; Traverso, P. J.; Williamson, E. N.

    2017-10-01

    The Compact Toroidal Hybrid (CTH) is an l = 2 , m = 5 torsatron/tokamak hybrid (R0 = 0.75 m, ap 0.2 m, and | B | disruption studies. The main goals of the CTH experiment are to study disruptive behavior as a function of applied 3D magnetic shaping, and to test and advance the V3FIT reconstruction code and NIMROD modeling of CTH. The disruptive density limit is observed to exceed the Greenwald limit as the vacuum transform is increased with no observed threshold for avoidance. Low-q operations (1.1 routine, with disruptions ceasing if the vacuum transform is raised above 0.07. Sawteeth are observed in CTH and have a similar phenomenology to tokamak sawteeth despite employing a 3D confining field. Application of vacuum transform has been demonstrated to reduce and eliminate the vertical drift of elongated discharges. Internal SXR diagnostics, in conjunction with external magnetics, extend the range of reconstruction accuracy into the plasma core. This work is supported by U.S. Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG02-00ER54610.

  16. Design project of fast subcritical system 'Mala Lasta'; Idejno resenje brzog podkriticnog sistema Mala LASTA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milosevic, M; Stefanovic, D; Popovic, D; Pesic, M; Zavaljevski, N; Nikolic, D; Arsenovic, M [Boris Kidric Institute of nuclear sciences Vinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1988-10-15

    This report contains two parts. Part one covers the objective and fundamental elements for the choice of fast subcritical system 'Mala Lasta', review of the existing fast subcritical assemblies, and a description of the available domestic computer codes applied for calculating neutron reactor parameters. Comparison of results obtained by these codes for a number of existing subcritical assemblies was used for the choice of the design project described in part two of this report. It contains detailed description of the operating parameters of the chosen subcritical system based on the obtained calculated parameters.

  17. Applying new science leadership theory in planning an international nursing student practice experience in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Rose Marie

    2004-09-01

    Planning an international practice experience for nursing students is a challenging, but rewarding, opportunity. Kwantlen University College faculty members' experience of planning for 8 Bachelor of Science in Nursing students to study abroad was no exception. Faculty members' and students' interest prompted a request for a placement in Nepal. The faculty members involved in the planning were dedicated to using a process that would enable them to remain true to the program philosophy and theoretical underpinnings throughout the entire experience, from the planning phase to the follow-up presentation. Using Wheatley's theory, the students and faculty members reexamined their personal leadership styles to ensure they remained relationship focused, rather than task focused. Wheatley maintained that because the potentiality lies in building strong relationships, it is important to support the creative power that lies in those involved in a project. This article describes new science leadership and relates it to the planning phase for the practice experience in Nepal. Then, reflections on how the philosophy of the program may have influenced the experience are shared. Finally, critical reflection on using this theory in nursing education is presented.

  18. Obstetrician Attitudes, Experience, and Knowledge of Planned Home Birth: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Jennifer; Mostow, Jackie; Hackney, David; Gokhale, Priyanka; Janata, Jeffrey; Greenfield, Marjorie

    2016-09-01

    The incidence of planned home birth is increasing in the United States. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists acknowledges a woman's right to make an informed choice about place of delivery, including home birth. This exploratory study measures obstetricians' attitudes, experiences, and knowledge about planned home birth, identifies associations between these factors, and compares obstetricians' responses in Ohio to those in Arizona and New Mexico. A survey about attitudes, experiences, and knowledge of planned home birth was distributed to obstetricians in Ohio, Arizona, and New Mexico. Attitude and knowledge scores were calculated for each respondent and used to evaluate associations through linear regression. Attitude and knowledge scores in states that have regulation of direct entry midwives (Arizona and New Mexico) were compared to a state which does not (Ohio). Obstetricians in all three states reported little experience and knowledge of planned home birth and overall negative attitudes. Obstetricians with stronger knowledge did not differ in their attitudes from those with less knowledge. No statistically significant differences were found when comparing attitude and knowledge scores in Ohio to Arizona and New Mexico, but Ohio obstetricians responded most negatively to the attitude questions. Obstetricians have limited knowledge and experience and hold very negative attitudes about planned home birth. Research is necessary to determine: 1) whether negative obstetrician attitudes would be modified by exposure to home birth education and experience, and, 2) whether negative obstetrician beliefs deter safe and timely transfer from home or compromise hospital care for transferred parturients. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Experiences With Insurance Plans and Providers Among Persons With Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Kathleen; Shippee, Nathan D

    2016-03-01

    This study used nationally representative household survey data to examine the association between mental illness and experiences with usual care providers and health plans among persons with public or private insurance (N=25,176). Data were from the 2004-2012 Medical Expenditure Panel Surveys. Mental illness was assessed with symptom scales of serious psychological distress and depression at two time points, and persons were categorized by whether mental illness was episodic or persistent over time. Questions about experiences with providers (four questions) and plans (five questions) were based on the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems survey. Rates of problems with plans and providers were reported for each category of mental illness, and multivariate regression was used to examine the association of problems with mental illness. Rates of problems with health plans were high, specifically for treatment approvals, finding information, and customer service, and were higher among persons with mental illness. Rates of problems with providers were lower than problems with plans, but persons with mental illness were more likely to report problems, specifically that doctors do not explain treatment options, respect treatment choices, or seek participation in decisions. Persons with mental illness reported experiencing more clinical and administrative problems at their usual source of care, although the reasons were not clear. Efforts by plans to improve health care before and after the clinical encounter and by providers to design treatments in line with patient preferences may improve experiences for all patients and particularly for those with mental illness.

  20. Operation and reactivity measurements of an accelerator driven subcritical TRIGA reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kelly, David Sean

    Experiments were performed at the Nuclear Engineering Teaching Laboratory (NETL) in 2005 and 2006 in which a 20 MeV linear electron accelerator operating as a photoneutron source was coupled to the TRIGA (Training, Research, Isotope production, General Atomics) Mark II research reactor at the University of Texas at Austin (UT) to simulate the operation and characteristics of a full-scale accelerator driven subcritical system (ADSS). The experimental program provided a relatively low-cost substitute for the higher power and complexity of internationally proposed systems utilizing proton accelerators and spallation neutron sources for an advanced ADSS that may be used for the burning of high-level radioactive waste. Various instrumentation methods that permitted ADSS neutron flux monitoring in high gamma radiation fields were successfully explored and the data was used to evaluate the Stochastic Pulsed Feynman method for reactivity monitoring.

  1. Subcritical measurements with a cylindrical tank of Pu-U nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihalczo, J.T.; Valentine, T.E.; King, W.T.

    1997-01-01

    This series of measurements with a mixed Pu-U nitrate solution (280 g Pu/liter, 180 g U/liter) in a 35.54-cm-diam cylindrical tank provides a wide variety of experimental data for subcritical configurations that can be used to verify calculational methods and nuclear data. The Pu contained 7.85 wt% 240 Pu and the uranium was natural uranium. The measurements performed were: inverse count rate, prompt neutron decay constants, inverse kinetics, and frequency analysis by the 252 Cf source driven method. These data are presented in sufficient detail that the results of the experiments can be calculated directly. For purposes of extrapolating to the delayed critical height the ratio of spectral densities was linear with height and thus provided the best estimate of critical height

  2. Subcritical crack growth and other time- and environment-dependent behavior in crustal rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, P. L.

    1984-01-01

    Stable crack growth strongly influences both the fracture strength of brittle rocks and some of the phenomena precursory to catastrophic failure. Quantification of the time and environment dependence of fracture propagation is attempted with the use of a fracture mechanics technique. Some of the difficulties encountered when applying techniques originally developed for simple synthetic materials to complex materials like rocks are examined. A picture of subcritical fracture propagation is developed that embraces the essential ingredients of the microstructure, a microcrack process zone, and the different roles that the environment plays. To do this, the results of (1) fracture mechanics experiments on five rock types, (2) optical and scanning electron microscopy, (3) studies of microstructural aspects of fracture in ceramics, and (4) exploratory tests examining the time-dependent response of rock to the application of water are examined.

  3. YALINA Booster subcritical assembly modeling and analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talamo, A.; Gohar, Y.; Aliberti, G.; Cao, Y.; Zhong, Z.; Kiyavitskaya, H.; Bournos, V.; Fokov, Y.; Routkovskaya, C.; Sadovich, S.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Accurate simulation models of the YALINA Booster assembly of the Joint Institute for Power and Nuclear Research (JIPNR)-Sosny, Belarus have been developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) of the USA. YALINA-Booster has coupled zones operating with fast and thermal neutron spectra, which requires a special attention in the modelling process. Three different uranium enrichments of 90%, 36% or 21% were used in the fast zone and 10% uranium enrichment was used in the thermal zone. Two of the most advanced Monte Carlo computer programs have been utilized for the ANL analyses: MCNP of the Los Alamos National Laboratory and MONK of the British Nuclear Fuel Limited and SERCO Assurance. The developed geometrical models for both computer programs modelled all the details of the YALINA Booster facility as described in the technical specifications defined in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) report without any geometrical approximation or material homogenization. Materials impurities and the measured material densities have been used in the models. The obtained results for the neutron multiplication factors calculated in criticality mode (keff) and in source mode (ksrc) with an external neutron source from the two Monte Carlo programs are very similar. Different external neutron sources have been investigated including californium, deuterium-deuterium (D-D), and deuterium-tritium (D-T) neutron sources. The spatial neutron flux profiles and the neutron spectra in the experimental channels were calculated. In addition, the kinetic parameters were defined including the effective delayed neutron fraction, the prompt neutron lifetime, and the neutron generation time. A new calculation methodology has been developed at ANL to simulate the pulsed neutron source experiments. In this methodology, the MCNP code is used to simulate the detector response from a single pulse of the external neutron source and a C code is used to superimpose the pulse until the

  4. Application of the Monte Carlo method to the problem of expensive experiment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrov, V.M.; Sanina, S.B.

    1989-01-01

    Numerical method for determination of the optimal experiment plan by the criterion of maximizing the information worth is suggested. The method is based on statistical mathematical simulation of possible outcomes of the experiment and on the analysis of efficiency of subsequent solutions. It is shown that results of conducted statistical simulation contain the data, enabling to determine the direction of plan correction, which provides the increase of its efficiency. A major advantages of the method are that it enables to interpret evidently all its stages and can be used in many-dimensional problems

  5. Subcritical enhanced safety molten-salt reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, P.N.; Ignatiev, V.V.; Men'shikov, L.I.; Prusakov, V.N.; Ponomarev-Stepnoy, N.N.; Subbotin, S.A.; Krasnykh, A.K.; Rudenko, V.T.; Somov, L.N.

    1995-01-01

    The nuclear power and its fuel cycle safety requirements can be met in the main by providing nuclear power with subcritical molten salt reactors (SMSR) - 'burner' with an external neutron source. The utilized molten salt fuel is the decisive advantage of the SMSR over other burners. Fissile and fertile nuclides in the burner are solved in a liquid salt in the form of fluorides. This composition acts simultaneously as: a) fuel, b) coolant, c) medium for chemical partitioning and reprocessing. The effective way of reducing the external source power consists in the cascade neutron multiplication in the system of coupled reactors with suppressed feedback between them. (author)

  6. Treatment of fluctuations of startup rates for core subcriticality monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mol, Antonio Carlos de Abreu; Martinez, Aquilino Senra

    1996-01-01

    In this paper it is presented a method to eliminate the variations in the source and intermediate range count rate, which are used for the on-line and real time monitoring of the critical safety function Subcriticality. The method may be applied to a safety parameters display system, because it is very simple and precise, which it will not affect the real time requirements of such systems. Variations in the count range could cause a temporary positive startup rate, that could lead to incorrect addressing of function restoration guideline. (author)

  7. Orbital storage and supply of subcritical liquid nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydelott, John C.

    1990-01-01

    Subcritical cryogenic fluid management has long been recognized as an enabling technology for key propulsion applications, such as space transfer vehicles (STV) and the on-orbit cryogenic fuel depots which will provide STV servicing capability. The LeRC Cryogenic Fluids Technology Office (CFTO), under the sponsorship of OAST, has the responsibility of developing the required technology via a balanced program involving analytical modeling, ground based testing, and in-space experimentation. Topics covered in viewgraph form include: cryogenic management technologies; nitrogen storage and supply; cryogenic nitrogen cooling capability; and LN2 system demonstration technical objectives.

  8. Measurement of subcritical multiplication by the interval distribution method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, G.W.

    1985-01-01

    The prompt decay constant or the subcritical neutron multiplication may be determined by measuring the distribution of the time intervals between successive neutron counts. The distribution data is analyzed by least-squares fitting to a theoretical distribution function derived from a point reactor probability model. Published results of measurements with one- and two-detector systems are discussed. Data collection times are shorter, and statistical errors are smaller the nearer the system is to delayed critical. Several of the measurements indicate that a shorter data collection time and higher accuracy are possible with the interval distribution method than with the Feynman variance method

  9. Investigation of reactivity between SiC and Nb-1Zr in planned irradiation creep experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewinsohn, C.A.; Hamilton, M.L.; Jones, R.H.

    1997-08-01

    Thermodynamic calculations and diffusion couple experiments showed that SiC and Nb-1Zr were reactive at the upper range of temperatures anticipated in the planned irradiation creep experiment. Sputter-deposited aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) was selected as a diffusion barrier coating. Experiments showed that although the coating coarsened at high temperature it was an effective barrier for diffusion of silicon from SiC into Nb-1Zr. Therefore, to avoid detrimental reactions between the SiC composite and the Nb-1Zr pressurized bladder during the planned irradiation creep experiment, a coating of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} will be required on the Nb-1Zr bladder.

  10. Activity report of working party on reactor physics of subcritical system. October 2001 to March 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-03-01

    Under the Research Committee on Reactor Physics, the Working Party on Reactor Physics of Subcritical System (ADS-WP) was set in July 2001 to research reactor physics of subcritical system such as Accelerator-Driven System (ADS). The WP, at the first meeting, discussed a guideline of its activity for two years and decided to perform theoretical research for the following subjects: (1) study of reactor physics for a subcritical core, (2) benchmark problems for a subcritical core and their calculations, (3) study of physical parameters affecting to set subcriticality of ADS, and (4) study of measurement and surveillance methods of subcriticality of a subcritical core. The activity of ADS-WP continued up to March 2003. In this duration, the members of the WP met together eight times, including four meetings jointly held with the Workshop on Accelerator-Driven Subcritical Reactor at Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute. This report summarizes the result obtained by the above WP activity and research. (author)

  11. Study on uranium-water multiplicative means of the (RESUCO-Subcritical experimental reactor of uranium with oxygen) subcritical assembly by pulsed neutron technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesus Barbosa, S. de.

    1987-01-01

    The effective multiplication factor and the nuclear parameters associated with the variation of (RESUCO- Subcritical Experimental Reactor of Uranium with Oxygen) Subcritical Assembly Configuration, using pulsed neutron technique are analysed. BF3 detectors were used to detect the variation of thermal neutrons in the system, positioned parallelly to fuel elements, and a proton recoil detector was used for monitoring the neutron generation. (M.C.K.) [pt

  12. The safe, economical operation of a slightly subcritical reactor and transmutor with a small proton accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hiroshi

    1994-01-01

    I suggest that an accelerator can be used to increase the safety and neutron economy of a power reactor and a transmutor of long-lived radioactive wastes, such as minor actinides and fission products, by providing neutrons for its subcritical operation. Instead of the large subcriticality k=0.9-0.95 which we originally proposed for such transmutor, we propose to use a slightly subcritical reactor, such as k=0.99, which will avoid many of the technical difficulties that are associated with large subcriticality, such as localized power peaking, radiation damage due to injection of medium-energy protons, the high current accelerator, and the requirement for a long beam-expansion section. We analyze the power drop that occurred in Phenix reactor, and show that the operating this reactor in subcritical conditions improves safety. (author). 13 refs., 5 figs

  13. The safe, economical operation of a slightly subcritical reactor and transmutor with a small proton accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hiroshi.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes methods in which an accelerator can be used to increase the safety and neutron economy of a power reactor and transmutor of long-lived radioactive wastes, such as minor actinides and fission products, by providing neutrons for its subcritical operation. Instead of the rather large subcriticality of k=0.9--0.95 which we originally proposed for such a transmutor, we propose to use a slightly subcritical reactor, such as k=0.99, which will avoid many of the technical difficulties that are associated with large subcriticality, such as localized power peaking, radiation damage due to the injection of medium-energy protons, the high current accelerator, and the requirement for a long beam-expansion section. We analyzed the power drop that occurred in Phoenix reactor, and show that the operating this reactor in subcritical condition improves its safety

  14. SEA in local land use planning - first experience in the Alpine States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiricka, Alexandra; Proebstl, Ulrike

    2008-01-01

    In the Alpine area, planning decisions can result in far-reaching consequences because of the high sensitivity of the Alpine ecosystems. This article is based on two hypotheses: (1) The Alpine states/regions were aware of their sensitive environment and therefore recognized the necessity of introducing a comparable instrument to assess local land use planning. (2) By introducing this differentiated assessment tool, namely SEA, an increase in costs may be the consequence. However, better and more transparent planning can contribute to the enhancement of planning standards. To reveal the validity of these assumptions the legal implementation in the Alpine countries Austria, Germany, Italy and France was examined as well as first practical experience resulting from the determined procedures. The results of the implementation process in the four states were compared and discussed on the basis of selected process steps of SEA

  15. Effect of Implementing a Birth Plan on Womens' Childbirth Experiences and Maternal & Neonatal Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahat, Amal Hussain; Mohamed, Hanan El Sayed; Elkader, Shadia Abd; El-Nemer, Amina

    2015-01-01

    Childbirth satisfaction represents a sense of feeling good about one's birth. It is thought to result from having a sense of control, having expectations met, feeling empowered, confident and supported. The aim of this study was to implement a birth plan and evaluate its effect on women's childbirth experiences and maternal, neonatal outcomes. A…

  16. Learning to Facilitate Advance Care Planning: The Novice Social Worker's Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Karla; Bowland, Sharon; Mueggenburg, Kay; Pederson, Margaret; Otten, Sheila; Renn, Tanya

    2014-01-01

    Professional leaders have identified clear roles for social workers involved in advance care planning (ACP), a facilitated process whereby individuals identify their preferences for future medical care; yet information about effective teaching practices in this area is scant. This study reports on the experiences of 14 social workers who…

  17. Pregnancy planning and risk behaviours - a survey of women's experiences in selected European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesińska-Sawicka, Małgorzata; Nagórska, Małgorzata

    2018-03-14

    Pregnancy, a special period in a woman's life, should be preceded by proper preparation: a positive attitude to procreation, selection of optimum time for becoming pregnant, starting prevention of neural tube defects, restriction of the use of drugs, smoking, etc. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of pregnancy planning and antenatal classes on the use of stimulants during pregnancy. The study group included 877 women living in 7 European countries, and their experiences of planning pregnancy and substance abuse during pregnancy were investigated. In about a half (50.3%) of respondents the pregnancy was planned. The highest percentage of mothers who planned pregnancy was recorded in Poland and Bulgaria (about 76%). By contrast, in Germany the proportion of mothers who planned pregnancy was the lowest (46.2%). Surprisingly, they became pregnant despite very frequent use of birth control (96.7%). On average, 17.3% of respondents disclosed that they drank alcohol or coffee, smoked cigarettes or used psychoactive drugs during pregnancy. Among women who did not plan to be pregnant, the use of stimulants was recorded more often. However, pregnancy planning only slightly inclined women to stop the consumption of stimulants. Attendance at antenatal classes did not have any significant effect on the use of stimulants.

  18. Yalina booster subcritical assembly performance with low enriched uranium fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talamo, Alberto; Gohar, Yousry

    2011-01-01

    The YALINA Booster facility is a subcritical assembly located in Minsk, Belarus. The facility has special features that result in fast and thermal neutron spectra in different zones. The fast zone of the assembly uses a lead matrix and uranium fuels with different enrichments: 90% and 36%, 36%, or 21%. The thermal zone of the assembly contains 10% enriched uranium fuel in a polyethylene matrix. This study discusses the performance of the three YALINA Booster configurations with the different fuel enrichments. In order to maintain the same subcriticality level in the three configurations, the number of fuel rods in the thermal zone is increased as the uranium fuel enrichment in the fast zone is decreased. The maximum number of fuel rods that can be loaded in the thermal zone is about 1185. Consequently, the neutron multiplication of the configuration with 21% enriched uranium fuel in the fast zone is enhanced by changing the position of the boron carbide and the natural uranium absorber rods, located between the fast and the thermal zones, to form an annular rather than a square arrangement. (author)

  19. Yalina booster subcritical assembly performance with low enriched uranium fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talamo, Alberto; Gohar, Yousry, E-mail: alby@anl.gov [Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL (United States)

    2011-07-01

    The YALINA Booster facility is a subcritical assembly located in Minsk, Belarus. The facility has special features that result in fast and thermal neutron spectra in different zones. The fast zone of the assembly uses a lead matrix and uranium fuels with different enrichments: 90% and 36%, 36%, or 21%. The thermal zone of the assembly contains 10% enriched uranium fuel in a polyethylene matrix. This study discusses the performance of the three YALINA Booster configurations with the different fuel enrichments. In order to maintain the same subcriticality level in the three configurations, the number of fuel rods in the thermal zone is increased as the uranium fuel enrichment in the fast zone is decreased. The maximum number of fuel rods that can be loaded in the thermal zone is about 1185. Consequently, the neutron multiplication of the configuration with 21% enriched uranium fuel in the fast zone is enhanced by changing the position of the boron carbide and the natural uranium absorber rods, located between the fast and the thermal zones, to form an annular rather than a square arrangement. (author)

  20. Candidate molten salt investigation for an accelerator driven subcritical core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sooby, E., E-mail: soobyes@tamu.edu [Texas A and M University, Accelerator Research Laboratory, 3380 University Dr. East, College Station, TX 77845 (United States); Baty, A. [Texas A and M University, Accelerator Research Laboratory, 3380 University Dr. East, College Station, TX 77845 (United States); Beneš, O. [European Commission, DG Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); McIntyre, P.; Pogue, N. [Texas A and M University, Accelerator Research Laboratory, 3380 University Dr. East, College Station, TX 77845 (United States); Salanne, M. [Université Pierre et Marie Curie, CNRS, Laboratoire PECSA, F-75005 Paris (France); Sattarov, A. [Texas A and M University, Accelerator Research Laboratory, 3380 University Dr. East, College Station, TX 77845 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • Developing accelerator driven subcritical fission to destroy transuranics in SNF. • The core is a vessel containing a molten mixture of NaCl and transuranic chlorides. • Molecular dynamics used to calculate the thermophysical properties of the salt. • Density and molecular structure for actinide salts reported here. • The neutronics of ADS fission in molten salt are presented. -- Abstract: We report a design for accelerator-driven subcritical fission in a molten salt core (ADSMS) that utilizes a fuel salt composed of NaCl and transuranic (TRU) chlorides. The ADSMS core is designed for fast neutronics (28% of neutrons >1 MeV) to optimize TRU destruction. The choice of a NaCl-based salt offers benefits for corrosion, operating temperature, and actinide solubility as compared with LiF-based fuel salts. A molecular dynamics (MD) code has been used to estimate properties of the molten salt system which are important for ADSMS design but have never been measured experimentally. Results from the MD studies are reported. Experimental measurements of fuel salt properties and studies of corrosion and radiation damage on candidate metals for the core vessel are anticipated.

  1. Candidate molten salt investigation for an accelerator driven subcritical core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sooby, E.; Baty, A.; Beneš, O.; McIntyre, P.; Pogue, N.; Salanne, M.; Sattarov, A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Developing accelerator driven subcritical fission to destroy transuranics in SNF. • The core is a vessel containing a molten mixture of NaCl and transuranic chlorides. • Molecular dynamics used to calculate the thermophysical properties of the salt. • Density and molecular structure for actinide salts reported here. • The neutronics of ADS fission in molten salt are presented. -- Abstract: We report a design for accelerator-driven subcritical fission in a molten salt core (ADSMS) that utilizes a fuel salt composed of NaCl and transuranic (TRU) chlorides. The ADSMS core is designed for fast neutronics (28% of neutrons >1 MeV) to optimize TRU destruction. The choice of a NaCl-based salt offers benefits for corrosion, operating temperature, and actinide solubility as compared with LiF-based fuel salts. A molecular dynamics (MD) code has been used to estimate properties of the molten salt system which are important for ADSMS design but have never been measured experimentally. Results from the MD studies are reported. Experimental measurements of fuel salt properties and studies of corrosion and radiation damage on candidate metals for the core vessel are anticipated

  2. Neutronic calculations for a subcritical system with external source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cintas, A; Lopasso, E.M; Marquez Damian, J. I

    2006-01-01

    We present a neutronic study on an A D S, systems capable of transmute minor actinides and fission products in order to reduce their radiotoxicity and mean-life.We compare neutronic parameters obtained with Scale/Tort and M C N P modelling a sub-critical system with source from a N E A Benchmark.Due to lack of nuclear data at the temperature of the system, we perform calculations at available temperature of libraries (300 K); to compensate the reactivity insertion due to the temperature change we reduce the size of the fuel zone in order to get a sub-critical system that allow u s to evaluate neutronic parameters of the system with source.We have found that the numerical results (neutron spectrum, neutron flux distributions and other neutronic parameters) are in agreement with the M C N P and with those of the benchmark participants even though the geometric models used are not exactly the same. We conclude that with the real temperature cross sections, the calculation scheme developed (Scale/Tort and M C N P) will give reliable results in A D S evaluations [es

  3. Neutron noise measurements at the Delphi subcritical assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szieberth, M.; Klujber, G.; Kloosterman, J. L.; De Haas, D.

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the results and evaluations of a comprehensive set of neutron noise measurements on the Delphi subcritical assembly of the Delft Univ. of Technology. The measurements investigated the effect of different source distributions (inherent spontaneous fission and 252 Cf) and the position of the detectors applied (both radially and vertically). The evaluation of the measured data has been performed by the variance-to-mean ratio (VTMR, Feynman-α), the autocorrelation (ACF, Rossi-α) and the cross-correlation (CCF) methods. The values obtained for the prompt decay constant show a strong bias, which depends both on the detector position and on the source distribution. This is due to the presence of higher modes in the system. It has been observed that the α value fitted is higher when the detector is close to the boundary of the core or to the 252 Cf point-source. The higher alpha-modes have also been observed by fitting functions describing two alpha-modes. The successful set of measurement also provides a good basis for further theoretical investigations including the Monte Carlo simulation of the noise measurements and the calculation of the alpha-modes in the Delphi subcritical assembly. (authors)

  4. Reactor physics experiments in PURNIMA sub critical facility coupled with 14 MeV neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Rajeev; Degweker, S.B.; Patel, Tarun; Bishnoi, Saroj; Adhikari, P.S.

    2011-01-01

    Accelerator Driven Sub-critical Systems (ADSS) are attracting increasing worldwide attention due to their superior safety characteristics and their potential for burning actinide and fission product waste and energy production. A number of countries around the world have drawn up roadmaps/programs for development of ADSS. Indian interest in ADSS has an additional dimension, which is related to the planned utilization of our large thorium reserves for future nuclear energy generation. A programme for development of ADSS is taken up at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) in India. This includes R and D activities for high current proton accelerator development, target development and Reactor Physics studies. As part of the ADSS Reactor Physics research programme, a sub-critical facility is coming up in BARC which will be coupled with an existing D-D/D-T neutron generator. Two types of cores are planned. In one of these, the sub-critical reactor assembly consists of natural uranium moderated by high density polyethylene (HDP) and reflected by BeO. The other consists of natural uranium moderated by light water. The maximum neutron yield of the neutron source with tritium target is around 10 10 neutron per sec. Various reactor physics experiments like measurement of the source strength, neutron flux distribution, buckling estimation and sub-critical source multiplication are planned. Apart from this, measurement of the total fission power and neutron spectrum will also be carried out. Mainly activation detectors will be used in all in-core neutron flux measurement. Measurement of the degree of sub-criticality by various deterministic and noise methods is planned. Helium detectors with advanced data acquisition card will be used for the neutron noise experiments. Noise characteristics of ADSS are expected to be different from that of traditional reactors due to the non-Poisson statistical features of the source. A new theory incorporating these features has been

  5. Experiment planning using high-level component models at W7-X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewerentz, Marc; Spring, Anett; Bluhm, Torsten; Heimann, Peter; Hennig, Christine; Kühner, Georg; Kroiss, Hugo; Krom, Johannes G.; Laqua, Heike; Maier, Josef; Riemann, Heike; Schacht, Jörg; Werner, Andreas; Zilker, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Introduction of models for an abstract description of fusion experiments. ► Component models support creating feasible experiment programs at planning time. ► Component models contain knowledge about physical and technical constraints. ► Generated views on models allow to present crucial information. - Abstract: The superconducting stellarator Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) is a fusion device, which is capable of steady state operation. Furthermore W7-X is a very complex technical system. To cope with these requirements a modular and strongly hierarchical component-based control and data acquisition system has been designed. The behavior of W7-X is characterized by thousands of technical parameters of the participating components. The intended sequential change of those parameters during an experiment is defined in an experiment program. Planning such an experiment program is a crucial and complex task. To reduce the complexity an abstract, more physics-oriented high-level layer has been introduced earlier. The so-called high-level (physics) parameters are used to encapsulate technical details. This contribution will focus on the extension of this layer to a high-level component model. It completely describes the behavior of a component for a certain period of time. It allows not only defining simple value ranges but also complex dependencies between physics parameters. This can be: dependencies within components, dependencies between components or temporal dependencies. Component models can now be analyzed to generate various views of an experiment. A first implementation of such an analyze process is already finished. A graphical preview of a planned discharge can be generated from a chronological sequence of component models. This allows physicists to survey complex planned experiment programs at a glance.

  6. Operational plans for life science payloads - From experiment selection through postflight reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccollum, G. W.; Nelson, W. G.; Wells, G. W.

    1976-01-01

    Key features of operational plans developed in a study of the Space Shuttle era life science payloads program are presented. The data describes the overall acquisition, staging, and integration of payload elements, as well as program implementation methods and mission support requirements. Five configurations were selected as representative payloads: (a) carry-on laboratories - medical emphasis experiments, (b) mini-laboratories - medical/biology experiments, (c) seven-day dedicated laboratories - medical/biology experiments, (d) 30-day dedicated laboratories - Regenerative Life Support Evaluation (RLSE) with selected life science experiments, and (e) Biomedical Experiments Scientific Satellite (BESS) - extended duration primate (Type I) and small vertebrate (Type II) missions. The recommended operational methods described in the paper are compared to the fundamental data which has been developed in the life science Spacelab Mission Simulation (SMS) test series. Areas assessed include crew training, experiment development and integration, testing, data-dissemination, organization interfaces, and principal investigator working relationships.

  7. Is it possible for knowledge-based planning to improve intensity modulated radiation therapy plan quality for planners with different planning experiences in left-sided breast cancer patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juanqi; Hu, Weigang; Yang, Zhaozhi; Chen, Xiaohui; Wu, Zhiqiang; Yu, Xiaoli; Guo, Xiaomao; Lu, Saiquan; Li, Kaixuan; Yu, Gongyi

    2017-05-22

    Knowledge-based planning (KBP) is a promising technique that can improve plan quality and increase planning efficiency. However, no attempts have been made to extend the domain of KBP for planners with different planning experiences so far. The purpose of this study was to quantify the potential gains for planners with different planning experiences after implementing KBP in intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans for left-sided breast cancer patients. The model libraries were populated with 80 expert clinical plans from treated patients who previously received left-sided breast-conserving surgery and IMRT with simultaneously integrated boost. The libraries were created on the RapidPlan TM . 6 planners with different planning experiences (2 beginner planners, 2 junior planners and 2 senior planners) generated manual and KBP optimized plans for additional 10 patients, similar to those included in the model libraries. The plan qualities were compared between manual and KBP plans. All plans were capable of achieving the prescription requirement. There were almost no statistically significant differences in terms of the planning target volume (PTV) coverage and dose conformality. It was demonstrated that the doses for most of organs-at-risk (OARs) were on average lower or equal in KBP plans compared to manual plans except for the senior planners, where the very small differences were not statistically significant. KBP data showed a systematic trend to have superior dose sparing at most parameters for the heart and ipsilateral lung. The observed decrease in the doses to these OARs could be achieved, particularly for the beginner and junior planners. Many differences were statistically significant. It is feasible to generate acceptable IMRT plans after implementing KBP for left-sided breast cancer. KBP helps to effectively improve the quality of IMRT plans against the benchmark of manual plans for less experienced planners without any manual intervention. KBP

  8. Monte Carlo modeling and analyses of YALINA- booster subcritical assembly Part II: pulsed neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talamo, A.; Gohar, M.Y.A.; Rabiti, C.

    2008-01-01

    One of the most reliable experimental methods for measuring the kinetic parameters of a subcritical assembly is the Sjoestrand method applied to the reaction rate generated from a pulsed neutron source. This study developed a new analytical methodology for characterizing the kinetic parameters of a subcritical assembly using the Sjoestrand method, which allows comparing the analytical and experimental time dependent reaction rates and the reactivity measurements. In this methodology, the reaction rate, detector response, is calculated due to a single neutron pulse using MCNP/MCNPX computer code or any other neutron transport code that explicitly simulates the fission delayed neutrons. The calculation simulates a single neutron pulse over a long time period until the delayed neutron contribution to the reaction is vanished. The obtained reaction rate is superimposed to itself, with respect to the time, to simulate the repeated pulse operation until the asymptotic level of the reaction rate, set by the delayed neutrons, is achieved. The superimposition of the pulse to itself was calculated by a simple C computer program. A parallel version of the C program is used due to the large amount of data being processed, e.g. by the Message Passing Interface (MPI). The new calculation methodology has shown an excellent agreement with the experimental results available from the YALINA-Booster facility of Belarus. The facility has been driven by a Deuterium-Deuterium or Deuterium-Tritium pulsed neutron source and the (n,p) reaction rate has been experimentally measured by a 3 He detector. The MCNP calculation has utilized the weight window and delayed neutron biasing variance reduction techniques since the detector volume is small compared to the assembly volume. Finally, this methodology was used to calculate the IAEA benchmark of the YALINA-Booster experiment

  9. Burnup studies of the subcritical fusion-driven in-zinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, C. M.; Gudowski, W.; Venneri, F.

    2007-01-01

    A fusion-driven subcritical core, 'In-Zinerator', has been proposed for nuclear waste transmutation [1]. In this concept, a powerful Z-pinch neutron source will produce pulses of 14 MeV neutrons that multiply in a surrounding subcritical core consisting of spent fuel from the LWR fuel cycle or from deep burn high temperature reactors. The proposed design has pulse frequency 0.1 Hz and a thermal power of 3 GWth. The Z-pinch fusion experiment is located at Sandia Laboratories, USA, and can today fire once a day. However, investigations have been made how to increase the frequency to several fires per minute. Each fire yields 300 MJ corresponding to 1020 neutrons per pulse. The source chamber will in the In-Zinerator concept be surrounded by spent fuel to reach an effective multiplication factor, k e ff, of 0.97. The core will be cooled by liquid lead. In this paper, the burnup of different fuel compositions in the In-Zinerator will be studied as function of initial k e ff. The Monte Carlo based continuous energy burnup code MCB [2][3]will be used. References: [1] B.B. Cipiti, Fusion Transmutation of Waste and the Role of the In-Zinerator in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle, Sandia Report SAND2006-3522, Sandia National Laboratories, USA, 2006. [2] J. Cetnar, J Wallenius and W Gudowski, MCB: A continuous energy Monte-Carlo burnup simulation code, Actinide and fission product partitioning and transmutation, Proc. of the Fifth Int. Information Exchange Meeting, Mol, Belgium, 25-27 November 1998, 523, OECD/NEA, 1998. [3] http://www.nea.fr/abs/html/nea-1643.html

  10. Mission planning for space based satellite surveillance experiments with the MSX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, R.; Fishman, T.; Robinson, E.; Viggh, H.; Wiseman, A.

    1994-01-01

    The Midcourse Space Experiment is a BMDO-sponsored scientific satellite set for launch within the year. The satellite will collect phenomenology data on missile targets, plumes, earth limb backgrounds and deep space backgrounds in the LWIR, visible and ultra-violet spectral bands. It will also conduct functional demonstrations for space-based space surveillance. The Space-Based Visible sensor, built by Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, is the primary sensor on board the MSX for demonstration of space surveillance. The SBV Processing, Operations and Control Center (SPOCC) is the mission planning and commanding center for all space surveillance experiments using the SBV and other MSX instruments. The guiding principle in the SPOCC Mission Planning System was that all routine functions be automated. Manual analyst input should be minimal. Major concepts are: (I) A high level language, called SLED, for user interface to the system; (2) A group of independent software processes which would generally be run in a pipe-line mode for experiment commanding but can be run independently for analyst assessment; (3) An integrated experiment cost computation function that permits assessment of the feasibility of the experiment. This paper will report on the design, implementation and testing of the Mission Planning System.

  11. Test plan for Fauske and Associates to perform tube propagation experiments with simulated Hanford tank wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, C.D.; Babad, H.

    1996-05-01

    This test plan, prepared at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for Westinghouse Hanford Company, provides guidance for performing tube propagation experiments on simulated Hanford tank wastes and on actual tank waste samples. Simulant compositions are defined and an experimental logic tree is provided for Fauske and Associates (FAI) to perform the experiments. From this guidance, methods and equipment for small-scale tube propagation experiments to be performed at the Hanford Site on actual tank samples will be developed. Propagation behavior of wastes will directly support the safety analysis (SARR) for the organic tanks. Tube propagation may be the definitive tool for determining the relative reactivity of the wastes contained in the Hanford tanks. FAI have performed tube propagation studies previously on simple two- and three-component surrogate mixtures. The simulant defined in this test plan more closely represents actual tank composition. Data will be used to support preparation of criteria for determining the relative safety of the organic bearing wastes

  12. Experiences and lessons learned for planning and supply of micronutrient powders interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Claudia; Sunley, Nigel; Nyhus Dhillon, Christina; Roca, Claudia; Tapia, Gustavo; Mathema, Pragya; Walton, Shelley; Situma, Ruth; Zlotkin, Stanley; DW Klemm, Rolf

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Realistic planning for a nutrition intervention is a critical component of implementation, yet effective approaches have been poorly documented. Under the auspices of “The Micronutrient Powders Consultation: Lessons Learned for Operational Guidance,” 3 working groups were formed to summarize experiences and lessons across countries regarding micronutrient powders (MNP) interventions for young children. This paper focuses on programmatic experiences in the planning stages of an MNP intervention, encompassing assessment, enabling environment and adaptation, as well as considerations for supply. Methods included a review of published and grey literature, key informant interviews, and deliberations throughout the consultation process. We found that assessments helped justify adopting an MNP intervention, but these assessments were often limited by their narrow scope and inadequate data. Establishing coordinating bodies and integrating MNP into existing policies and programmes have helped foster an enabling environment and support programme stability. Formative research and pilots have been used to adapt MNP interventions to specific contexts, but they have been insufficient to inform scale‐up. In terms of supply, most countries have opted to procure MNP through international suppliers, but this still requires understanding and navigating the local regulatory environment at the earliest stages of an intervention. Overall, these findings indicate that although some key planning and supply activities are generally undertaken, improvements are needed to plan for effective scale‐up. Much still needs to be learned on MNP planning, and we propose a set of research questions that require further investigation. PMID:28960875

  13. Computer network that assists in the planning, execution and evaluation of in-reactor experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, T.H.; Froehle, P.H.; August, C.; Baldwin, R.D.; Johanson, E.W.; Kraimer, M.R.; Simms, R.; Klickman, A.E.

    1985-01-01

    For over 20 years complex, in-reactor experiments have been performed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to investigate the performance of nuclear reactor fuel and to support the development of large computer codes that address questions of reactor safety in full-scale plants. Not only are computer codes an important end-product of the research, but computer analysis is also involved intimately at most stages of experiment planning, data reduction, and evaluation. For instance, many experiments are of sufficiently long duration or, if they are of brief duration, occur in such a purposeful sequence that need for speedy availability of on-line data is paramount. This is made possible most efficiently by computer assisted displays and evaluation. A purposeful linking of main-frame, mini, and micro computers has been effected over the past eight years which greatly enhances the speed with which experimental data are reduced to useful forms and applied to the relevant technological issues. This greater efficiency in data management led also to improvements in the planning and execution of subsequent experiments. Raw data from experiments performed at INEL is stored directly on disk and tape with the aid of minicomputers. Either during or shortly after an experiment, data may be transferred, via a direct link, to the Illinois offices of ANL where the data base is stored on a minicomputer system. This Idaho-to-Illinois link has both enhanced experiment performance and allowed rapid dissemination of results

  14. Integrating impact assessment and conflict management in urban planning: Experiences from Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltonen, Lasse; Sairinen, Rauno

    2010-01-01

    The article examines the interlinkages between recent developments in conflict management and impact assessment procedures in the context of urban planning in Finland. It sets out by introducing the fields of impact assessment and conflict mediation. It then proceeds to discuss the development of impact assessment practices and the status of conflict mediation in Finnish land use planning. The case of Korteniitty infill development plan in Jyvaeskylae is used to demonstrate how the Finnish planning system operates in conflict situations - and how social impact assessment can contribute to managing planning conflicts. The authors ask how the processes of impact assessment contribute to conflict management. Based on the Finnish experience, it is argued that social impact assessment of land use plans can contribute to conflict management, especially in the absence of institutionalised conflict mediation processes. In addition, SIA may acquire features of conflict mediation, depending on extent and intensity of stakeholder participation in the process, and the quality of linkages it between knowledge production and decision-making. Simultaneously, conflict mediation practices and theoretical insights can inform the application of SIA to help it address land use conflicts more consciously.

  15. Experience with the Agency's WASP for nuclear power planning in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-02-01

    An Advisory Group Meeting to discuss recent experience with, and to suggest improvements to, Wien Automatic System Planning Program (WASP), was held in Vienna in September 1985. It was clear from the meeting that WASP is a very useful tool as an aid in planning electric power generation systems. It is widely used in both developed and developing countries and its use will continue particularly if some of the suggestions for its improvements are implemented. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 15 presentations of this meeting

  16. Spatial Planning Experiences for Vulnerability Reduction in the Wildland-Urban Interface in Mediterranean European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galiana-Martín Luis

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Expansion of the wildland-urban interface in countries in the European Mediterranean basin is increasing vulnerability to forest fires. Despite more effective extinction systems, this is still a growing problem. This article defends the importance of spatial planning (land-use and urban planning and the need for systematic intervention to mitigate this wildfire risk. A critical review of the current situation, noting intervention focused on buildings and plots and insufficient action on intermediate spatial scales, is followed by the presentation of significant and relevant experiences in the European context.

  17. Expectations Versus Realities: Examination of the Transition Plans and Experiences of Adolescents Who are Deaf and Adolescents Who are Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullis, Michael; Davis, Cheryl; Bull, Bruce; Johnson, Brian

    1997-01-01

    Studies the congruence of transition plans of deaf adolescents (N=34) and hearing peers (N=59) to their parents' transition plans for them. Results indicate clear differences between each group, with hearing students exhibiting higher agreement of plans with experiences than did the deaf group. Deaf students exhibited low agreement indexes,…

  18. Experiences of women who planned birth in a birth centre compared to alternative planned places of birth. Results of the Dutch Birth Centre Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hitzert, M.; Hermes, M.A.; Scheerhagen, M.; Boesveld, L.C.; Wiegers, T.A.; Akker-van Marle, M.E.; Dommelen, P. van; Pal-de Bruin, K.M. de; Graaf, J.P. de

    2016-01-01

    Objective to assess the experiences with maternity care of women who planned birth in a birth centre and to compare them to alternative planned places of birth, by using the responsiveness concept of the World Health Organization. Design this study is a cross-sectional study using the ReproQ

  19. Experiences of women who planned birth in a birth centre compared to alternative planned places of birth. Results of the Dutch Birth Centre Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hitzert, M.; Hermus, M.; Scheerhagen, M.; Boesveld, I.C.; Wiegers, T.; Akker-van Marle, M.E. van den; Dommelen, P. van; Pal-de Bruin, K.M. van der; Graal, J. P. de

    2016-01-01

    Objective: to assess the experiences with maternity care of women who planned birth in a birth centre and to compare them to alternative planned places of birth, by using the responsiveness concept of the World Health Organization. Design: this study is a cross-sectional study using the ReproQ

  20. Analysis of neutronics and dynamic characteristics with reactivity injection in LBE cooled sub-critical reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Sen; Wu Yican; Jin Ming; Chen Zhibin; Bai Yunqing; Zhao Zhumin

    2014-01-01

    Accelerator Driven Sub-critical System (ADS) has particular neutronics behaviors compared with the critical system. Prompt jump approximation point reactor kinetics equations taken external source into account have been deduced using an approach of prompt jump approximation. And the relationship between injection reactivity and power ampliation has been achieved. In addition, based on the RELAP5 code the prolong development of point reactor kinetics code used into assessing sub-critical system have been promoted. Different sub-criticality (k eff = 0.90, 0.95, 0.97, 0.98 and 0.99) have been assessed in preliminary design of a type of natural circulation cooling sub-critical reactor under conditions of reactivity injection +1 β in one second. It shows that the external source prompt transient approximation method has an accurate solution after injecting reactivity around short time and has a capacity to solve the dynamic equation, and the sub-critical system has an inner stability while the deeper sub-criticality the less impact on the sub-critical system. (authors)

  1. Research project on accelerator-driven subcritical system using FFAG accelerator and Kyoto University critical assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, Kaichiro; Unesaki, Hironobu; Misawa, Tsuyoshi; Tanigaki, Minoru; Mori, Yoshiharu; Shiroya, Seiji; Inoue, Makoto; Ishi, Y.; Fukumoto, Shintaro

    2005-01-01

    The KART (Kumatori Accelerator-driven Reactor Test facility) project started in Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University in fiscal year 2002 with the grant by the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. The purpose of this research project is to demonstrate the basis feasibility of accelerator driven system (ADS), studying the effect of incident neutron energy on the effective multiplication factor in a subcritical nuclear fuel system. For this purpose, a variable-energy FFAG (Fixed Field Alternating Gradient) accelerator complex is being constructed to be coupled with the Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUCA). The FFAG proton accelerator complex consists of ion-beta, booster and main rings. This system aims to attain 1 μA proton beam with energy range from 20 to 150 MeV with a repetition rate of 120 Hz. The first beam from the FFAG complex is expected to be available by the end of FY 2005, and the experiment on ADS with KUCA and the FFAG complex (FFAG-KUCA experiment) will start in FY 2006. Before the FFAG-KUCA experiment starts, preliminary experiments with 14 MeV neutrons are currently being performed using a Cockcroft-Walton type accelerator coupled with the KUCA. Experimental data are analyzed using continuous energy Monte-Carlo codes MVP, MCNP and MNCP-X. (author)

  2. Pati-Salam version of subcritical hybrid inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, B. Charles; Raby, Stuart

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we present a model of subcritical hybrid inflation with a Pati-Salam (PS) symmetry group. Both the inflaton and waterfall fields contribute to the necessary e -foldings of inflation, while only the waterfall field spontaneously breaks PS hence monopoles produced during inflation are diluted during the inflationary epoch. The model is able to produce a tensor-to-scalar ratio, r model also incorporates a Z4R symmetry which can resolve the μ problem and suppress dimension 5 operators for proton decay, leaving over an exact R parity. Finally the model allows for a complete three-family extension with a D4 family symmetry which reproduces low energy precision electroweak and LHC data.

  3. International conference on sub-critical accelerator driven systems. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litovkina, L.P.; Titarenko, Yu.E.

    1999-01-01

    The International Meeting on Sub-Critical Accelerator Driven Systems was organized by the State Scientific Center - Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics with participation of Atomic Ministry of RF. The Meeting objective was to analyze the recent achievements and tendencies of the accelerator-driven systems development. The Meeting program covers a broad range of problems including the accelerator-driven systems (ADS) conceptual design; analyzing the ADS role in nuclear fuel cycle; accuracy of modeling the main parameters of ADS; conceptual design of high-current accelerators. Moreover, the results of recent experimental and theoretical studies on nuclear data accumulation to support the ADS technologies are presented. About 70 scientists from the main scientific centers of Russia, as well as scientists from USA, France, Belgium, India, and Yugoslavia, attended the meeting and presented 44 works [ru

  4. Experimental Study of Subcritical Water Liquefaction of Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Zhe; Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    In this work, hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of wood industry residues (wood, bark, sawdust) and macroalgae for producing biofuels has been investigated under subcritical water conditions (at temperature of 300 C), with and without the presence of catalyst. The effects of catalyst and biomass type...... bio-crudes were analyzed. The results showed that the higher heating values (HHVs) were in the range of 24.15 to 31.79 MJ/kg, and they were enhanced in the presence of catalyst, except for that of the macroalgae. The solid residues were characterized by heating value, SEM and FTIR. It was found...... that the addition of K2CO3 lowered the solids quality in terms of the heating values, while it did not have apparent effect on the functional groups of solid residues. SEM analysis of the raw biomass and solid residues revealed that the char formation for wood, sawdust and macroalgae had initially finished when...

  5. Monitoring of MNSR operation by measuring subcritical photoneutron flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, Kh.; Alsomel, N.

    2011-01-01

    Passive nondestructive assay methods are used to monitor the reactor's operation. It is required for nuclear regulatory, calculation validation and safeguards purposes. So, it plays a vital role in the safety and security of the nuclear plants. The possibility of MNSR operation monitoring by measuring the subcritical state photoneutron flux were investigated in this work. The photoneutron flux is induced by the fuels hard gamma radiation in the beryllium reflector. Theoretical formulation and experimental tests were performed. The results show that within a specified cooling time range, the photoneutron flux is induced by a single dominant hard gamma emitter such as 117 Cd (activation product) and 140 Ba ( 140 La fission product). This phenomenon was utilized to monitor the cooling time and the operation neutron flux during the last campaign. Thus a passive nondestructive assay method is proposed with regard to the reactor operation's monitoring.

  6. Economic analysis of the fusion-driven subcritical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Desuo; Wu Yican; Chu Delin; Hu Liqin

    2004-01-01

    The economic performance of the Fusion-Driven Subcritical system (FDS) is discussed. At first, as an example, the impacts of parameters, such as plasma aspect-ratio, elongation, normalized beta, on-axis toroidal field and the blanket energy-gain are analyzed on the costs of the typical case (moderate aspect-ratio) of FDS. Then, the economic characteristics of the 3 possible scenarios of FDS are estimated with respect to the neutronics parameters. The results calculated with the SYSCODE developed by the FDS team show that the cost of electricity of Scenario-1 (low aspect-ratio) and Scenario-2 (moderate aspect-ratio) of FDS is cheaper than that of pure fusion power plant at the same plane size (1 GW e ). The cost of electricity of the FDS power plant depends heavily on the functions of blanket and the blanket energy-gain. (authors)

  7. Measurement of material buckling of subcritical assembly CAPITU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pombo, J.B.S.M.

    1976-11-01

    Material buckling and cadmium ratio measurements for 5 lattices of the subcritical assembly CAPITU with UO 2 as fuel (French fuel elements) and D 2 O as moderator are reported. Flux shape method from foil activation data has been used. Some developed accessories, experimental procedures and the counting system used are also described. Flux distributions were analysed by least squares fitting method and by a moments method. Final results for material buckling were confronted with theoretical values and with values obtained by pulsed neutron techniques. A summary of the programs used for preliminary processing of counting data and for least squares fitting are included. Although the measurements involved some problems which were not definitively solved, results seem to be reasonably reliable and the methodology well implemented. (Author) [pt

  8. Subcritical Water Extraction of Monosaccharides from Oil Palm Fronds Hemicelluloses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norsyabilah, R.; Hanim, S.S.; Norsuhaila, M.H.; Noraishah, A.K.; Siti Kartina

    2013-01-01

    Oil palm plantations in Malaysia generate more than 36 million tones of pruned and felled oil palm fronds (OPF) and are generally considered as waste. The composition of monosaccharide in oil palm frond can be extracted using hydrothermal treatment for useful applications. The objectives of this study were to quantify the yield of monosaccharides at various reaction conditions; temperature 170 to 200 degree Celsius, pressure from 500 psi to 800 psi, reaction time from 5 to 15 min using subcritical water extraction and to determine the composition of oil palm frond hemicelluloses at optimum condition. The monosaccharides composition of oil palm frond hemicelluloses were analysed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The highest yield of monosaccharides can be extracted from OPF at temperature of 190 degree Celsius, pressure of 600 psi and 10 min of contact time which is xylose the most abundant composition (11.79 %) followed with arabinose (2.82 %), glucose (0.61 %) and mannose (0.66 %). (author)

  9. Subcritical crack growth in a phosphate laser glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crichton, S.N.; Tomozawa, M.; Hayden, J.S.; Suratwala, T.I.; Campbell, J.H.

    1999-11-01

    The rate of subcritical crack growth in a metaphosphate Nd-doped laser glass was measured using the double-cleavage-drilled compression (DCDC) method. The crack velocity is reported as a function of stress intensity at temperatures ranging from 296 to 573 K and in nitrogen with water vapor pressures ranging from 40 Pa (0.3 mmHg) to 4.7 x 10{sup 4} Pa (355 mmHg). The measured crack velocities follow region I, II, and III behavior similar to that reported for silicate glasses. A chemical and mass-transport-limited reaction rate model explains the behavior of the data except at high temperatures and high water vapor pressures where crack tip blunting is observed. Blunting is characterized to reinitiate slow crack growth at higher stresses. A dynamic crack tip blunting mechanism is proposed to explain the deviation from the reaction rate model.

  10. Safety and control of accelerator-driven subcritical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rief, H. [Ispra Establishment (Italy); Takahashi, H. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Long Island, NY (United States)

    1995-10-01

    To study control and safety of accelertor driven nuclear systems, a one point kinetic model was developed and programed. It deals with fast transients as a function of reactivity insertion. Doppler feedback, and the intensity of an external neutron source. The model allows for a simultaneous calculation of an equivalent critical reactor. It was validated by a comparison with a benchmark specified by the Nuclear Energy Agency Committee of Reactor Physics. Additional features are the possibility of inserting a linear or quadratic time dependent reactivity ramp which may account for gravity induced accidents like earthquakes, the possibility to shut down the external neutron source by an exponential decay law of the form exp({minus}t/{tau}), and a graphical display of the power and reactivity changes. The calculations revealed that such boosters behave quite benignly even if they are only slightly subcritical.

  11. FAMILY HEALTH STRATEGY OF PARTICIPATION IN MUNICIPAL HEALTH PLAN CONSTRUCTION: AN EXPERIENCE REPOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Ribeiro dos Santos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Municipal Health Plan is an important planning tool in the management at the Unified Health System and at the same time, a mechanism for popular participation. This study aims to report the experience of the Municipal Health Plan’s workshop conducted by a Family Health Program team in a municipality in the south of Bahia Construção do Plano Municipal de Saúde. in the year 2014. This is an experience report that consolidates itself as a descriptive research tool that presents a reflection about an action that addresses a situation experienced in the professional interest of the scientific community. The workshop included the team and community members’ participation. The population's health problems follow a national trend, highlighting problems like diabetes, hypertension, worms, abuse of alcohol and other drugs inaddition to viruses. The health system problems reveal the weaknesses in local management of the Unified Health System by the insufficiency and/or lack of resources such as drugs, tests, equipment maintenance and others. Therefore, we emphasize the importance of the Municipal Health Plan as a management tool of the Unified Health System that allows closeness between users, workers and managers, as well as being a space for policy vocalization, contributing to the real effectiveness of the Unified Health System, based on participatory planning in accordance with the needs of users.

  12. Microcredit, family planning programs, and contraceptive behavior: evidence from a field experiment in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Jaikishan; Tarozzi, Alessandro

    2011-05-01

    The impact of community-based family planning programs and access to credit on contraceptive use, fertility, and family size preferences has not been established conclusively in the literature. We provide additional evidence on the possible effect of such programs by describing the results of a randomized field experiment whose main purpose was to increase the use of contraceptive methods in rural areas of Ethiopia. In the experiment, administrative areas were randomly allocated to one of three intervention groups or to a fourth control group. In the first intervention group, both credit and family planning services were provided and the credit officers also provided information on family planning. Only credit or family planning services, but not both, were provided in the other two intervention groups, while areas in the control group received neither type of service. Using pre- and post-intervention surveys, we find that neither type of program, combined or in isolation, led to an increase in contraceptive use that is significantly greater than that observed in the control group. We conjecture that the lack of impact has much to do with the mismatch between women's preferred contraceptive method (injectibles) and the contraceptives provided by community-based agents (pills and condoms).

  13. Subcritical Water Extraction of Amino Acids from Atacama Desert Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amashukeli, Xenia; Pelletier, Christine C.; Kirby, James P.; Grunthaner, Frank J.

    2007-01-01

    Amino acids are considered organic molecular indicators in the search for extant and extinct life in the Solar System. Extraction of these molecules from a particulate solid matrix, such as Martian regolith, will be critical to their in situ detection and analysis. The goals of this study were to optimize a laboratory amino acid extraction protocol by quantitatively measuring the yields of extracted amino acids as a function of liquid water temperature and sample extraction time and to compare the results to the standard HCl vapor- phase hydrolysis yields for the same soil samples. Soil samples from the Yungay region of the Atacama Desert ( Martian regolith analog) were collected during a field study in the summer of 2005. The amino acids ( alanine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycine, serine, and valine) chosen for analysis were present in the samples at concentrations of 1 - 70 parts- per- billion. Subcritical water extraction efficiency was examined over the temperature range of 30 - 325 degrees C, at pressures of 17.2 or 20.0 MPa, and for water- sample contact equilibration times of 0 - 30 min. None of the amino acids were extracted in detectable amounts at 30 degrees C ( at 17.2 MPa), suggesting that amino acids are too strongly bound by the soil matrix to be extracted at such a low temperature. Between 150 degrees C and 250 degrees C ( at 17.2 MPa), the extraction efficiencies of glycine, alanine, and valine were observed to increase with increasing water temperature, consistent with higher solubility at higher temperatures, perhaps due to the decreasing dielectric constant of water. Amino acids were not detected in extracts collected at 325 degrees C ( at 20.0 MPa), probably due to amino acid decomposition at this temperature. The optimal subcritical water extraction conditions for these amino acids from Atacama Desert soils were achieved at 200 degrees C, 17.2 MPa, and a water- sample contact equilibration time of 10 min.

  14. Methods for the reactivity evaluation in subcritical systems analysis: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dulla, S.; Picca, P.; Carta, M.

    2011-01-01

    The assessment of the subcritical source-driven system technology for waste incineration and power production requires the development of reliable and efficient techniques for the reactivity evaluation and monitoring. Starting from the standard methods developed for close-to-criticality systems, extensive research activities have been carried out to analyze the behavior of subcritical assembly in time-dependent condition and to infer the subcriticality level from local flux values. In the present work, a review of some key aspects in the method development for ADS analysis is proposed, with special attention to the techniques for reactivity evaluation. (author)

  15. Subcritical Multiplication Parameters of the Accelerator-Driven System with 100 MeV Protons at the Kyoto University Critical Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Yong Lim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Basic experiments on the accelerator-driven system (ADS at the Kyoto University Critical Assembly are carried out by combining a solid-moderated and -reflected core with the fixed-field alternating gradient accelerator. The reaction rates are measured by the foil activation method to obtain the subcritical multiplication parameters. The numerical calculations are conducted with the use of MCNPX and JENDL/HE-2007 to evaluate the reaction rates of activation foils set in the core region and at the location of the target. Here, a comparison between the measured and calculated eigenvalues reveals a relative difference of around 10% in C/E values. A special mention is made of the fact that the reaction rate analyses in the subcritical systems demonstrate apparently the actual effect of moving the tungsten target into the core on neutron multiplication. A series of further ADS experiments with 100 MeV protons needs to be carried out to evaluate the accuracy of subcritical multiplication parameters.

  16. Polyethylene-reflected plutonium metal sphere : subcritical neutron and gamma measurements.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattingly, John K.

    2009-11-01

    Numerous benchmark measurements have been performed to enable developers of neutron transport models and codes to evaluate the accuracy of their calculations. In particular, for criticality safety applications, the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiment Program (ICSBEP) annually publishes a handbook of critical and subcritical benchmarks. Relatively fewer benchmark measurements have been performed to validate photon transport models and codes, and unlike the ICSBEP, there is no program dedicated to the evaluation and publication of photon benchmarks. Even fewer coupled neutron-photon benchmarks have been performed. This report documents a coupled neutron-photon benchmark for plutonium metal reflected by polyethylene. A 4.5-kg sphere of ?-phase, weapons-grade plutonium metal was measured in six reflected configurations: (1) Bare; (2) Reflected by 0.5 inch of high density polyethylene (HDPE); (3) Reflected by 1.0 inch of HDPE; (4) Reflected by 1.5 inches of HDPE; (5) Reflected by 3.0 inches of HDPE; and (6) Reflected by 6.0 inches of HDPE. Neutron and photon emissions from the plutonium sphere were measured using three instruments: (1) A gross neutron counter; (2) A neutron multiplicity counter; and (3) A high-resolution gamma spectrometer. This report documents the experimental conditions and results in detail sufficient to permit developers of radiation transport models and codes to construct models of the experiments and to compare their calculations to the measurements. All of the data acquired during this series of experiments are available upon request.

  17. Polyethylene-reflected plutonium metal sphere: subcritical neutron and gamma measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattingly, John K.

    2009-01-01

    Numerous benchmark measurements have been performed to enable developers of neutron transport models and codes to evaluate the accuracy of their calculations. In particular, for criticality safety applications, the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiment Program (ICSBEP) annually publishes a handbook of critical and subcritical benchmarks. Relatively fewer benchmark measurements have been performed to validate photon transport models and codes, and unlike the ICSBEP, there is no program dedicated to the evaluation and publication of photon benchmarks. Even fewer coupled neutron-photon benchmarks have been performed. This report documents a coupled neutron-photon benchmark for plutonium metal reflected by polyethylene. A 4.5-kg sphere of ?-phase, weapons-grade plutonium metal was measured in six reflected configurations: (1) Bare; (2) Reflected by 0.5 inch of high density polyethylene (HDPE); (3) Reflected by 1.0 inch of HDPE; (4) Reflected by 1.5 inches of HDPE; (5) Reflected by 3.0 inches of HDPE; and (6) Reflected by 6.0 inches of HDPE. Neutron and photon emissions from the plutonium sphere were measured using three instruments: (1) A gross neutron counter; (2) A neutron multiplicity counter; and (3) A high-resolution gamma spectrometer. This report documents the experimental conditions and results in detail sufficient to permit developers of radiation transport models and codes to construct models of the experiments and to compare their calculations to the measurements. All of the data acquired during this series of experiments are available upon request.

  18. Neutron fluctuation analysis in a subcritical multiplying system with a stochastically pulsed poisson source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostic, Lj.

    2003-01-01

    The influence of the stochastically pulsed Poisson source to the statistical properties of the subcritical multiplying system is analyzed in the paper. It is shown a strong dependence on the pulse period and pulse width of the source (author)

  19. Discriminators for the Accelerator-Based Conversion (ABC) concept using a subcritical molten salt system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, E.; Busksa, J.; Davidson, W.; Poston, D.

    1995-05-01

    Discriminators are described that quantify enhancements added to plutonium destruction and/or nuclear waste transmutation systems through use of an accelerator/fluid fuel combination. This combination produces a robust and flexible nuclear system capable of the destruction of all major long-lived actinides (including plutonium) and fission products. The discriminators discussed in this report are (1) impact of subcritical operation on safety, (2) impact of subcritical and fluid fuel operation on plutonium burnout scenarios, and (3) neutron economy enhancements brought about by subcritical operation. Neutron economy enhancements are quantified through assessment of long-term dose reduction resulting from transmutation of key fission products along with relaxation of processing frequencies afforded by subcritical operation

  20. The Moses Mabhida Medical Plan: medical care planning and execution at a FIFA2010 stadium; the Durban experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardcastle, Timothy C; Naidoo, Mergan; Samlal, Sanjay; Naidoo, Morgambery; Larsen, Timothy; Mabasu, Muzi; Ngema, Sibongiseni

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to outline the medical services provided at the Moses Mabhida Stadium, Durban, South Africa for the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) 2010 Soccer World Cup and audit the clinical services delivered to persons seeking medical assistance. Descriptive report of the medical facilities at the Moses Mabhida Stadium including the staff deployment. Retrospective data review of medical incident reports from the Stadium Medical Team. Medical staffing exceeded the local norms and was satisfactory to provide rapid intervention for all incoming patients. Senior medical presence decreased the transport to hospital rate (TTHR). A total of 316 spectators or support staff were treated during the seven matches played at the stadium. The majority of patients were male (60%), mostly of local origin, with mostly minor complaints that were treated and discharged (88.2% Green codes). The most common complaints were headache, abdominal disorders, and soft-tissue injuries. One fatality was recorded. The patient presentation rate (PPR) was 0.66/10,000 and the TTHR was overall 4.1% of all treated patients (0.027/10,000 spectators). There was little evidence to guide medical planning for staffing from the FIFA governing body. Most patients are treated and released in accordance with international literature, leading to low TTHR rates, while PPR was in line with international experience. Headache was the most common medical complaint. The blowing of Vuvuzelas(®) may have influenced the high headache rate.

  1. The experiences from implementing decision support technology to address water management plans in an operational environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McArdle, S. [4DM Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada); Tonkin, C. [Ontario Power Generation Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    This presentation described Ontario Power Generation's experience in implementing a decision support tool to enable water management plans for its operations through technology solutions. All hydroelectric producers in Ontario are required to make water management plans in order to maintain water levels and flows in their operating regions. This regulation was created in response to environmental concerns as well as to changes in the electricity market and growth of residential and cottage property near water bodies. In order to keep informed and to address compliance issues, operators and managers need situation awareness information to balance operational decisions. The online Adaptive Water Management System (AWMS) decision support tool was recently adopted by Ontario Power Generation to provide information needed to address the requirements of Water Management Plans. The AWMS provides users with information on water levels and flows; the ability to implement, modify, and manage daily instructions at the facilities; track conditions in the watershed; and, provide a status of compliance. The tool was developed by 4DM Inc. in collaboration with Ottawa St. Lawrence Plant Group for the Madawaska River Watershed Management, a model partnership between operator, regulator and Public Advisory Committee to develop a water management plan.

  2. Production of medical radioactive isotopes using KIPT electron driven subcritical facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talamo, Alberto; Gohar, Yousry

    2008-01-01

    Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT) of Ukraine in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has a plan to construct an electron accelerator driven subcritical assembly. One of the facility objectives is the production of medical radioactive isotopes. This paper presents the ANL collaborative work performed for characterizing the facility performance for producing medical radioactive isotopes. First, a preliminary assessment was performed without including the self-shielding effect of the irradiated samples. Then, more detailed investigation was carried out including the self-shielding effect, which defined the sample size and location for producing each medical isotope. In the first part, the reaction rates were calculated as the multiplication of the cross section with the unperturbed neutron flux of the facility. Over fifty isotopes have been considered and all transmutation channels are used including (n, γ), (n, 2n), (n, p), and (γ, n). In the second part, the parent isotopes with high reaction rate were explicitly modeled in the calculations. Four irradiation locations were considered in the analyses to study the medical isotope production rate. The results show the self-shielding effect not only reduces the specific activity but it also changes the irradiation location that maximizes the specific activity. The axial and radial distributions of the parent capture rates have been examined to define the irradiation sample size of each parent isotope

  3. Production of medical radioactive isotopes using KIPT electron driven subcritical facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talamo, Alberto [Nuclear Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)], E-mail: alby@anl.gov; Gohar, Yousry [Nuclear Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2008-05-15

    Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT) of Ukraine in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has a plan to construct an electron accelerator driven subcritical assembly. One of the facility objectives is the production of medical radioactive isotopes. This paper presents the ANL collaborative work performed for characterizing the facility performance for producing medical radioactive isotopes. First, a preliminary assessment was performed without including the self-shielding effect of the irradiated samples. Then, more detailed investigation was carried out including the self-shielding effect, which defined the sample size and location for producing each medical isotope. In the first part, the reaction rates were calculated as the multiplication of the cross section with the unperturbed neutron flux of the facility. Over fifty isotopes have been considered and all transmutation channels are used including (n, {gamma}), (n, 2n), (n, p), and ({gamma}, n). In the second part, the parent isotopes with high reaction rate were explicitly modeled in the calculations. Four irradiation locations were considered in the analyses to study the medical isotope production rate. The results show the self-shielding effect not only reduces the specific activity but it also changes the irradiation location that maximizes the specific activity. The axial and radial distributions of the parent capture rates have been examined to define the irradiation sample size of each parent isotope.

  4. Production of medical radioactive isotopes using KIPT electron driven subcritical facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talamo, Alberto; Gohar, Yousry

    2008-05-01

    Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT) of Ukraine in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has a plan to construct an electron accelerator driven subcritical assembly. One of the facility objectives is the production of medical radioactive isotopes. This paper presents the ANL collaborative work performed for characterizing the facility performance for producing medical radioactive isotopes. First, a preliminary assessment was performed without including the self-shielding effect of the irradiated samples. Then, more detailed investigation was carried out including the self-shielding effect, which defined the sample size and location for producing each medical isotope. In the first part, the reaction rates were calculated as the multiplication of the cross section with the unperturbed neutron flux of the facility. Over fifty isotopes have been considered and all transmutation channels are used including (n, gamma), (n, 2n), (n, p), and (gamma, n). In the second part, the parent isotopes with high reaction rate were explicitly modeled in the calculations. Four irradiation locations were considered in the analyses to study the medical isotope production rate. The results show the self-shielding effect not only reduces the specific activity but it also changes the irradiation location that maximizes the specific activity. The axial and radial distributions of the parent capture rates have been examined to define the irradiation sample size of each parent isotope.

  5. Non-Catalytic and MgSO4 - Catalyst based Degradation of Glycerol in Subcritical and Supercritical Water Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahfud Mahfud

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to study the glycerol degradation reaction in subcritical and supercritical water media. The degradation of glycerol into other products was performed both with sulphate salt catalysts and without catalyst. The reactant was made from glycerol and water with the mass ratio of 1:10. The experiments were carried out using a batch reactor at a constant pressure of 250 kgf/cm2, with the temperature range of 200-400oC, reaction time of 30 minutes, and catalyst mol ratio in glycerol of 1:10 and 1:8. The products of the non-catalytic glycerol degradation were acetaldehyde, methanol, and ethanol. The use of sulphate salt as catalyst has high selectivity to acetaldehyde and still allows the formation alcohol product in small quantities. The mechanism of ionic reaction and free radical reaction can occur at lower temperature in hydrothermal area or subcritical water. Conversion of glycerol on catalytic reaction showed a higher yield when compared with the reaction performed without catalyst

  6. Implementation and training methodology of subcritical reactors neutronic calculations triggered by external neutron source and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carluccio, Thiago

    2011-01-01

    This works had as goal to investigate calculational methodologies on subcritical source driven reactor, such as Accelerator Driven Subcritical Reactor (ADSR) and Fusion Driven Subcritical Reactor (FDSR). Intense R and D has been done about these subcritical concepts, mainly due to Minor Actinides (MA) and Long Lived Fission Products (LLFP) transmutation possibilities. In this work, particular emphasis has been given to: (1) complement and improve calculation methodology with neutronic transmutation and decay capabilities and implement it computationally, (2) utilization of this methodology in the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) of the International Atomic Energy Agency Analytical and Experimental Benchmark Analysis of ADS and in the Collaborative Work on Use of Low Enriched Uranium in ADS, especially in the reproduction of the experimental results of the Yalina Booster subcritical assembly and study of a subcritical core of IPEN / MB-01 reactor, (3) to compare different nuclear data libraries calculation of integral parameters, such as k eff and k src , and differential distributions, such as spectrum and flux, and nuclides inventories and (4) apply the develop methodology in a study that may help future choices about dedicated transmutation system. The following tools have been used in this work: MCNP (Monte Carlo N particle transport code), MCB (enhanced version of MCNP that allows burnup calculation) and NJOY to process nuclear data from evaluated nuclear data files. (author)

  7. Numerical simulations of subcritical reactor kinetics in thermal hydraulic transient phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, J; Park, W S [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-12-31

    A subcritical reactor driven by a linear proton accelerator has been considered as a nuclear waste incinerator at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). Since the multiplication factor of a subcritical reactor is less than unity, to compensate exponentially decreasing fission neutrons, external neutrons form spallation reactions are essentially required for operating the reactor in its steady state. Furthermore, the profile of accelerator beam currents is very important in controlling a subcritical reactor, because the reactor power varies in accordance to the profile of external neutrons. We have developed a code system to find numerical solutions of reactor kinetics equations, which are the simplest dynamic model for controlling reactors. In a due course of our previous numerical study of point kinetics equations for critical reactors, however, we learned that the same code system can be used in studying dynamic behavior of the subcritical reactor. Our major motivation of this paper is to investigate responses of subcritical reactors for small changes in thermal hydraulic parameters. Building a thermal hydraulic model for the subcritical reactor dynamics, we performed numerical simulations for dynamic responses of the reactor based on point kinetics equations with a source term. Linearizing a set of coupled differential equations for reactor responses, we focus our research interest on dynamic responses of the reactor to variations of the thermal hydraulic parameters in transient phases. 5 refs., 8 figs. (Author)

  8. Numerical simulations of subcritical reactor kinetics in thermal hydraulic transient phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, J.; Park, W. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    A subcritical reactor driven by a linear proton accelerator has been considered as a nuclear waste incinerator at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). Since the multiplication factor of a subcritical reactor is less than unity, to compensate exponentially decreasing fission neutrons, external neutrons form spallation reactions are essentially required for operating the reactor in its steady state. Furthermore, the profile of accelerator beam currents is very important in controlling a subcritical reactor, because the reactor power varies in accordance to the profile of external neutrons. We have developed a code system to find numerical solutions of reactor kinetics equations, which are the simplest dynamic model for controlling reactors. In a due course of our previous numerical study of point kinetics equations for critical reactors, however, we learned that the same code system can be used in studying dynamic behavior of the subcritical reactor. Our major motivation of this paper is to investigate responses of subcritical reactors for small changes in thermal hydraulic parameters. Building a thermal hydraulic model for the subcritical reactor dynamics, we performed numerical simulations for dynamic responses of the reactor based on point kinetics equations with a source term. Linearizing a set of coupled differential equations for reactor responses, we focus our research interest on dynamic responses of the reactor to variations of the thermal hydraulic parameters in transient phases. 5 refs., 8 figs. (Author)

  9. Subcritical Water Hydrolysis of Peptides: Amino Acid Side-Chain Modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Thomas; Bowra, Steve; Cooper, Helen J.

    2017-09-01

    Previously we have shown that subcritical water may be used as an alternative to enzymatic digestion in the proteolysis of proteins for bottom-up proteomics. Subcritical water hydrolysis of proteins was shown to result in protein sequence coverages greater than or equal to that obtained following digestion with trypsin; however, the percentage of peptide spectral matches for the samples treated with trypsin were consistently greater than for those treated with subcritical water. This observation suggests that in addition to cleavage of the peptide bond, subcritical water treatment results in other hydrolysis products, possibly due to modifications of amino acid side chains. Here, a model peptide comprising all common amino acid residues (VQSIKCADFLHYMENPTWGR) and two further model peptides (VCFQYMDRGDR and VQSIKADFLHYENPTWGR) were treated with subcritical water with the aim of probing any induced amino acid side-chain modifications. The hydrolysis products were analyzed by direct infusion electrospray tandem mass spectrometry, either collision-induced dissociation or electron transfer dissociation, and liquid chromatography collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry. The results show preferential oxidation of cysteine to sulfinic and sulfonic acid, and oxidation of methionine. In the absence of cysteine and methionine, oxidation of tryptophan was observed. In addition, water loss from aspartic acid and C-terminal amidation were observed in harsher subcritical water conditions. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  10. Planning for Integrated Transport in Indonesia: Some Lessons from the UK’s Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yos Sunitiyoso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion has been a major problem in many cities in Indonesia, thus requiring abetter transport policy. Many developed countries, including the United Kingdom, has beenimplementing the integrated transport policy to replace traditional transport policy that focuson only building roads to anticipate traffic demand. This paper provides a highlight on theimplementation of integrated transport policy in the United Kingdom. Some key issues thatcan be learnt by the Indonesian government from their experience are discussed. This includesthe integration within and between all types of transport, integration with land use planning,integration with environment policy and integration with policies for education, health andwealth creations. In the implementation, the policy requires continuity and stability inorganization and politics, coordination in local transport plans, more devolution on powerand revenue funding from the government in addition to capital funding.Key words: traffic congestion, integrated transport policy

  11. The Moses Mabhida Medical Plan: medical care planning and execution at a FIFA2010 stadium; the Durban experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy C Hardcastle

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Timothy C Hardcastle1,2, Mergan Naidoo3,4, Sanjay Samlal5,6, Morgambery Naidoo5,6, Timothy Larsen5,6, Muzi Mabasu5,6,7, Sibongiseni Ngema6,81Inkosi Albert Luthuli Hospital, Mayville, South Africa; 2Department of Surgery, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa; 3Wentworth Hospital, Durban, South Africa; 4Department of Family Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa; 5Emergency Medical Rescue Service, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa; 6Department of Health, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa; 7EMRS 2010 Planning Committee, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa; 8School of Public Administration and Development Management, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South AfricaAim: This paper aims to outline the medical services provided at the Moses Mabhida Stadium, Durban, South Africa for the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA 2010 Soccer World Cup and audit the clinical services delivered to persons seeking medical assistance.Methods: Descriptive report of the medical facilities at the Moses Mabhida Stadium including the staff deployment. Retrospective data review of medical incident reports from the Stadium Medical Team.Results: Medical staffing exceeded the local norms and was satisfactory to provide rapid intervention for all incoming patients. Senior medical presence decreased the transport to hospital rate (TTHR. A total of 316 spectators or support staff were treated during the seven matches played at the stadium. The majority of patients were male (60%, mostly of local origin, with mostly minor complaints that were treated and discharged (88.2% Green codes. The most common complaints were headache, abdominal disorders, and soft-tissue injuries. One fatality was recorded. The patient presentation rate (PPR was 0.66/10,000 and the TTHR was overall 4.1% of all treated patients (0.027/10,000 spectators.Conclusion: There was little evidence to guide medical planning for staffing from the FIFA governing body. Most

  12. Submersion-Subcritical Safe Space (S4) reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Jeffrey C.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    2006-01-01

    The Submersion-Subcritical Safe Space (S 4 ) reactor, developed for future space power applications and avoidance of single point failures, is presented. The S 4 reactor has a Mo-14% Re solid core, loaded with uranium nitride fuel, cooled by He-30% Xe and sized to provide 550 kWth for 7 years of equivalent full power operation. The beryllium oxide reflector of the S 4 reactor is designed to completely disassemble upon impact on water or soil. The potential of using Spectral Shift Absorber (SSA) materials in different forms to ensure that the reactor remains subcritical in the worst-case submersion accident is investigated. Nine potential SSAs are considered in terms of their effect on the thickness of the radial reflector and on the combined mass of the reactor and the radiation shadow shield. The SSA materials are incorporated as a thin (0.1 mm) coating on the outside surface of the reactor core and as core additions in three possible forms: 2.0 mm diameter pins in the interstices of the core block, 0.25 mm thick sleeves around the fuel stacks and/or additions to the uranium nitride fuel. Results show that with a boron carbide coating and 0.25 mm iridium sleeves around the fuel stacks the S 4 reactor has a reflector outer diameter of 43.5 cm with a combined reactor and shadow shield mass of 935.1 kg. The S 4 reactor with 12.5 at.% gadolinium-155 added to the fuel, 2.0 mm diameter gadolinium-155 sesquioxide interstitial pins, and a 0.1 mm thick gadolinium-155 sesquioxide coating has a slightly smaller reflector outer diameter of 43.0 cm, resulting in a smaller total reactor and shield mass of 901.7 kg. With 8.0 at.% europium-151 added to the fuel, along with europium-151 sesquioxide for the pins and coating, the reflector's outer diameter and the total reactor and shield mass are further reduced to 41.5 cm and 869.2 kg, respectively

  13. [Care plan for patients in prone decubitus. An experience from practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva Torras, E; Subirana Casacuberta, M; Sebastià, M P; Jover Sancho, C; Solà Solé, N

    1995-01-01

    Offering a specific integral attention to patients with SDRA in prone decubitus positions makes us establish a performance plan with the aim to know the problems derived from the change in position, the time staying in prone decubitus and to standardize a care plan. We review the clinic records of the patients admitted in our unit from March '93 to March '95 who were positioned in prone decubitus. Taking as a base the nursing care model of V. Henderson and the taxonomy of NANDA, we analyse the needs which have been altered, and determine the nursing diagnosis, complications and most frequent interdependent problems establishing the aim to accomplish, planning the performance and rationalization. Five patients were positioned in prone decubitus before planning the performance and four more afterwards. All the patients tolerated SNG diet keeping a correct bowel transit. One patient showed an ulcera at frontal level. There were neither comeal ulceras nor alterations in the oral mucossa. The vascular accesses remained permeable. DP caused facial and periorbital edema in all the patients. We did not observe any increase in the amount of bronchial secretions. The eight patients who tolerated the change in position stayed in prone decubitus for an average of 77 hours, with a range of 10 to 216 hours. Four patients were discharged from the hospital, two of whom showed movility alterations, independently of the time staying in prone decubitus. We state explicitly the nursing care, determine five nursing diagnosis, one problem and seven interdependent complications. Establishing the nursing care from the experience and review of the records has allowed us to be more specific and objective. Standardizing the specific care plans makes the nursing care easier when dealing with real problems as well as with the care of complications derived from this situation.

  14. Randomized field experiments for program planning, development, and evaluation: an illustrative bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boruch, R F; Mcsweeny, A J; Soderstrom, E J

    1978-11-01

    This bibliography lists references to over 300 field experiments undertaken in schools, hospitals, prisons, and other social settings, mainly in the U.S. The list is divided into 10 major categories corresponding to the type of program under examination. They include: criminal and civil justice programs, mental health, training and education, mass media, information collection, utilization, commerce and industry, welfare, health, and family planning. The main purpose of the bibliography is to provide evidence on feasibility and scope of randomized field tests, since despite their advantages, it is not always clear from managerial, political, and other constraints on research that they can be mounted. Dates of publications range from 1944 to 1978.

  15. PLN's experience with the WASP-III model in generation expansion planning for the Java system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudja, N.; Afiff, A.; Simarmata, B.

    1988-01-01

    The State Electric Power Corporation of Indonesia (PLN) was one of the first recipients of the WASP computer model, and since 1976 has been using the model (first the version WASP-II, and later the WASP-III version) for carrying out generation expansion planning studies for the country, and particularly, for the Java power system. This paper discusses PLN's experience with WASP-III and comments on some problems and constraints encountered, particularly: the time-fixed forced outage rate (FOR) assumed for generating units, simulation of the hydro system and computation time. The paper concludes with some suggestions about future enhancements to WASP-III. (author). 3 figs, 11 tabs

  16. Planning experience and prospects of local participation in implementation of nuclear power in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.A.; Islam, A.B.M.N.; Quaiyum, M.A.; Hasnat, K.A.; Hossain, M.

    1983-01-01

    The paper summarizes the overall experience of Bangladesh in planning for the introduction of its nuclear power programme. The basis for selection of the type of contract for the first nuclear power project of the country is explained. The paper then analyses the prospect of local participation in the construction of the first nuclear power station by detailing the local capabilities in fields such as civil works, civil works materials supply, electrical/mechanical supplies, mechanical fabrication/erection, transportation, etc. After analysing the domestic infrastructure, the problem areas are identified and measures necessary to improve the degree of local participation are described. (author)

  17. Development study on subcriticality monitor. 1. Report under business contract with Japan Nuclear Fuel Cycle Development Institute

    CERN Document Server

    Yamada, S

    2002-01-01

    In this trust fund, we reviewed subcriticality measuring methods and neutron or gamma ray measuring and date transmission systems appropriate for realizing inexpensive on-line criticality surveillance systems, which is required for ensuring the safety of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Since the neutron flux level in subcritical systems is fairly low without external neutron sources, it is desirable to use pulse type neutron detectors for subcritical measurement systems. This logically implies that subcriticality measurement methods based on the temporal domain should be used for developing an on-line criticality surveillance system. In the deep subcriticality conditions, a strong external neutron source is needed for eactivity measurement and a D-T tube can be used in order to improve the accuracy of the measurement. A D-T tube is convenient since it is free from Tritium problem since Tritium is sealed in an airtight container and also can be controlled by power supply. Hence, under deep subcritical condit...

  18. 252Cf-source-driven neutron noise measurements of subcriticality for a slab tank containing aqueous Pu-U nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihalczo, J.T.; Blakeman, E.D.; Ragan, G.E.; Kryter, R.C.; Robinson, R.C.; Seino, H.

    1987-08-01

    In order to study nuclear criticality safety related to the development of fast breeder technology, 252 Cf-source-driven neutron noise analysis measurements were performed with a Pu-U nitrate solution in a slab tank of various heights and thickness varying 11.43 cm to 19.05 cm. The results and conclusions of these experiments are (1) a capability to measure the subcriticality of a multiplying system of slab geometry to a k/sub eff/ as low as 0.7 was demonstrated, (2) calculated neutron multiplication factors agreed with those from the experiments within ∼0.02, and (3) the applicability of the method for plutonium solution systems was demonstrated. This paper describes measurements in which the height of the slab was varied for a fixed thickness and the thickness varied for a fixed height, which are the first applications of this measurement method to slab geometry

  19. STORMVEX: The Storm Peak Lab Cloud Property Validation Experiment Science and Operations Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mace, J; Matrosov, S; Shupe, M; Lawson, P; Hallar, G; McCubbin, I; Marchand, R; Orr, B; Coulter, R; Sedlacek, A; Avallone, L; Long, C

    2010-09-29

    During the Storm Peak Lab Cloud Property Validation Experiment (STORMVEX), a substantial correlative data set of remote sensing observations and direct in situ measurements from fixed and airborne platforms will be created in a winter season, mountainous environment. This will be accomplished by combining mountaintop observations at Storm Peak Laboratory and the airborne National Science Foundation-supported Colorado Airborne Multi-Phase Cloud Study campaign with collocated measurements from the second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2). We describe in this document the operational plans and motivating science for this experiment, which includes deployment of AMF2 to Steamboat Springs, Colorado. The intensive STORMVEX field phase will begin nominally on 1 November 2010 and extend to approximately early April 2011.

  20. Ex-vessel remote maintenance development plans for the Burning Plasma Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, T.W.; Davis, F.C.

    1991-01-01

    Remote maintenance (RM) is fundamental to the basic design requirements of the Burning Plasma Experiment (BPX), and an extensive RM development and demonstration program is planned to meet these requirements. The program first draws from the experience base that exists in the fission community and Europe's Joint European Torus (JET) Project. Successful solutions are applied where possible and, in many cases, improved in order to achieve the performance demanded by a multiyear program that must be capable of efficiently executing RM procedures. Early, concurrent efforts in the design and fabrication of prototype remote handling (RH) equipment, remote tooling, and maintainable machine components will precede an extensive use of mock-up equipment in order to test, develop, and demonstrate the technology. 7 refs,. 5 figs

  1. Application of EIA/SEA system in land use planning: Experience from Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Božidar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the experience and current status of EIA/SEA procedures and assessment methodologies in Serbia, aiming to propose strategies that can lead to effective integration of the SEA in spatial planning. Institutional and practical problems with regard to the regulations of EIA/SEA were considered. Experience from the past decade shows that implementation of EIA system in Serbia has not been effective as expected. New legislation on EIA and SEA is harmonized with corresponding EU Directives. First steps in the application of the SEA show that the main issues are screening, scooping and decision making. According to the research results, it is suggested that extra evaluation processes should be incorporated into current assessment procedures to improve their scientific validity and integrity.

  2. Concepts and Plans towards fast large scale Monte Carlo production for the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Chapman, J; Duehrssen, M; Elsing, M; Froidevaux, D; Harrington, R; Jansky, R; Langenberg, R; Mandrysch, R; Marshall, Z; Ritsch, E; Salzburger, A

    2014-01-01

    The huge success of the physics program of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) during run I relies upon a great number of simulated Monte Carlo events. This Monte Carlo production takes the biggest part of the computing resources being in use by ATLAS as of now. In this document we describe the plans to overcome the computing resource limitations for large scale Monte Carlo production in the ATLAS Experiment for run II, and beyond. A number of fast detector simulation, digitization and reconstruction techniques and are being discussed, based upon a new flexible detector simulation framework. To optimally benefit from these developments, a redesigned ATLAS MC production chain is presented at the end of this document.

  3. Concepts and Plans towards fast large scale Monte Carlo production for the ATLAS Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritsch, E.; Atlas Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    The huge success of the physics program of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) during Run 1 relies upon a great number of simulated Monte Carlo events. This Monte Carlo production takes the biggest part of the computing resources being in use by ATLAS as of now. In this document we describe the plans to overcome the computing resource limitations for large scale Monte Carlo production in the ATLAS Experiment for Run 2, and beyond. A number of fast detector simulation, digitization and reconstruction techniques are being discussed, based upon a new flexible detector simulation framework. To optimally benefit from these developments, a redesigned ATLAS MC production chain is presented at the end of this document.

  4. Onset of Fast Magnetic Reconnection via Subcritical Bifurcation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHIBIN eGUO

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We report a phase transition model for the onset of fast magnetic reconnection. By investigating the joint dynamics of streaming instability(i.e., current driven ion acoustic in this paper and current gradient driven whistler wave {color{blue} {prior to the onset of fast reconnection}}, we show that the nonlinear evolution of current sheet(CS can be described by a Landau-Ginzburg equation. The phase transition from slow reconnection to fast reconnection occurs at a critical thickness, $Delta_csimeq frac{2}{sqrt{pi}}left|frac{v_{the}}{v_c}right|d_e$, where $v_{the}$ is electron thermal velocity and $v_c$ is the velocity threshold of the streaming instability. For current driven ion acoustic, $Delta_c$ is $leq10d_e$. If the thickness of the CS is narrower than $Delta_c$, the CS subcritically bifurcates into a rough state, which facilitates breakage of the CS, and consequently initiates fast reconnection.

  5. The Chain-Length Distribution in Subcritical Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolen, Steven Douglas

    2000-01-01

    The individual fission chains that appear in any neutron multiplying system provide a means, via neutron noise analysis, to unlock a wealth of information regarding the nature of the system. This work begins by determining the probability density distributions for fission chain lengths in zero-dimensional systems over a range of prompt neutron multiplication constant (K) values. This section is followed by showing how the integral representation of the chain-length distribution can be used to obtain an estimate of the system's subcritical prompt multiplication (MP). The lifetime of the chains is then used to provide a basis for determining whether a neutron noise analysis will be successful in assessing the neutron multiplication constant, k, of the system in the presence of a strong intrinsic source. A Monte Carlo transport code, MC++, is used to model the evolution of the individual fission chains and to determine how they are influenced by spatial effects. The dissertation concludes by demonstrating how experimental validation of certain global system parameters by neutron noise analysis may be precluded in situations in which the system K is relatively low and in which realistic detector efficiencies are simulated

  6. Effective Subcritical Butane Extraction of Bifenthrin Residue in Black Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yating Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available As a natural and healthy beverage, tea is widely enjoyed; however, the pesticide residues in tea leaves affect the quality and food safety. To develop a highly selective and efficient method for the facile removal of pesticide residues, the subcritical butane extraction (SBE technique was employed, and three variables involving temperature, time and extraction cycles were studied. The optimum SBE conditions were found to be as follows: extraction temperature 45 °C, extraction time 30 min, number of extraction cycles 1, and in such a condition that the extraction efficiency reached as high as 92%. Further, the catechins, theanine, caffeine and aroma components, which determine the quality of the tea, fluctuated after SBE treatment. Compared with the uncrushed leaves, pesticide residues can more easily be removed from crushed leaves, and the practical extraction efficiency was 97%. These results indicate that SBE is a useful method to efficiently remove the bifenthrin, and as appearance is not relevant in the production process, tea leaves should first be crushed and then extracted in order that residual pesticides are thoroughly removed.

  7. Effective Subcritical Butane Extraction of Bifenthrin Residue in Black Tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yating; Gu, Lingbiao; Wang, Fei; Kong, Lingjun; Qin, Guangyong

    2017-03-30

    As a natural and healthy beverage, tea is widely enjoyed; however, the pesticide residues in tea leaves affect the quality and food safety. To develop a highly selective and efficient method for the facile removal of pesticide residues, the subcritical butane extraction (SBE) technique was employed, and three variables involving temperature, time and extraction cycles were studied. The optimum SBE conditions were found to be as follows: extraction temperature 45 °C, extraction time 30 min, number of extraction cycles 1, and in such a condition that the extraction efficiency reached as high as 92%. Further, the catechins, theanine, caffeine and aroma components, which determine the quality of the tea, fluctuated after SBE treatment. Compared with the uncrushed leaves, pesticide residues can more easily be removed from crushed leaves, and the practical extraction efficiency was 97%. These results indicate that SBE is a useful method to efficiently remove the bifenthrin, and as appearance is not relevant in the production process, tea leaves should first be crushed and then extracted in order that residual pesticides are thoroughly removed.

  8. Subcritical hydrothermal conversion of organic wastes and biomass. Reaction pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Amadeus Castro Vega

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrothermal conversion is a procedure which emulates organic matter’s natural conversion into bio-crude having physical and chemical properties analogous to petroleum. The artificial transformation of biomass requi- res previous knowledge of the main reaction routes and product availability. The main component of biomass (depolymerisation by hydrolysis is presented in hydrothermal cellulose conversion, producing oligosaccharides which exhibit dehydration and retro-aldol condensation reactions for transforming into furfurals and carboxylic acids. Other biomass components (such as lignin, proteins, and fat esters present both hydrolysis and pyrolysis reaction routes. As long as biomass mainly contains carbohydrates, subcritical hydrothermal conversion products and their wastes will be fundamentally analogous to those displaying cellulose. These substances have added- value by far surpassing raw material’s acquisition cost. When the main hydrothermal conversion products’ O/C, H/C molar ratios as reported in literature are plotted, an evolutionary tralectory for conversion products appears to be closely or even overlapped with fossil fuels’ geological evolution.

  9. Monte Carlo Modeling Electronuclear Processes in Cascade Subcritical Reactor

    CERN Document Server

    Bznuni, S A; Zhamkochyan, V M; Polyanskii, A A; Sosnin, A N; Khudaverdian, A G

    2000-01-01

    Accelerator driven subcritical cascade reactor composed of the main thermal neutron reactor constructed analogous to the core of the VVER-1000 reactor and a booster-reactor, which is constructed similar to the core of the BN-350 fast breeder reactor, is taken as a model example. It is shown by means of Monte Carlo calculations that such system is a safe energy source (k_{eff}=0.94-0.98) and it is capable of transmuting produced radioactive wastes (neutron flux density in the thermal zone is PHI^{max} (r,z)=10^{14} n/(cm^{-2} s^{-1}), neutron flux in the fast zone is respectively equal PHI^{max} (r,z)=2.25 cdot 10^{15} n/(cm^{-2} s^{-1}) if the beam current of the proton accelerator is k_{eff}=0.98 and I=5.3 mA). Suggested configuration of the "cascade" reactor system essentially reduces the requirements on the proton accelerator current.

  10. Candidate molten salt investigation for an accelerator driven subcritical core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sooby, E.; Baty, A.; Beneš, O.; McIntyre, P.; Pogue, N.; Salanne, M.; Sattarov, A.

    2013-09-01

    We report a design for accelerator-driven subcritical fission in a molten salt core (ADSMS) that utilizes a fuel salt composed of NaCl and transuranic (TRU) chlorides. The ADSMS core is designed for fast neutronics (28% of neutrons >1 MeV) to optimize TRU destruction. The choice of a NaCl-based salt offers benefits for corrosion, operating temperature, and actinide solubility as compared with LiF-based fuel salts. A molecular dynamics (MD) code has been used to estimate properties of the molten salt system which are important for ADSMS design but have never been measured experimentally. Results from the MD studies are reported. Experimental measurements of fuel salt properties and studies of corrosion and radiation damage on candidate metals for the core vessel are anticipated. A special thanks is due to Prof. Paul Madden for introducing the ADSMS group to the concept of using the molten salt as the spallation target, rather than a conventional heavy metal spallation target. This feature helps to optimize this core as a Pu/TRU burner.

  11. The Chain-Length Distribution in Subcritical Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolen, Steven Douglas [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2000-06-01

    The individual fission chains that appear in any neutron multiplying system provide a means, via neutron noise analysis, to unlock a wealth of information regarding the nature of the system. This work begins by determining the probability density distributions for fission chain lengths in zero-dimensional systems over a range of prompt neutron multiplication constant (K) values. This section is followed by showing how the integral representation of the chain-length distribution can be used to obtain an estimate of the system's subcritical prompt multiplication (MP). The lifetime of the chains is then used to provide a basis for determining whether a neutron noise analysis will be successful in assessing the neutron multiplication constant, k, of the system in the presence of a strong intrinsic source. A Monte Carlo transport code, MC++, is used to model the evolution of the individual fission chains and to determine how they are influenced by spatial effects. The dissertation concludes by demonstrating how experimental validation of certain global system parameters by neutron noise analysis may be precluded in situations in which the system K is relatively low and in which realistic detector efficiencies are simulated.

  12. Analysis of the Temporal Response of Coupled Asymmetrical Zero-Power Subcritical Bare Metal Reactor Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klain, Kimberly L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-06-21

    The behavior of symmetrical coupled-core systems has been extensively studied, yet there is a dearth of research on asymmetrical systems due to the increased complexity of the analysis of such systems. In this research, the multipoint kinetics method is applied to asymmetrical zeropower, subcritical, bare metal reactor systems. Existing research on asymmetrical reactor systems assumes symmetry in the neutronic coupling; however, it will be shown that this cannot always be assumed. Deep subcriticality adds another layer of complexity and requires modification of the multipoint kinetics equations to account for the effect of the external neutron source. A modified set of multipoint kinetics equations is derived with this in mind. Subsequently, the Rossi-alpha equations are derived for a two-region asymmetrical reactor system. The predictive capabilities of the radiation transport code MCNP6 for neutron noise experiments are shown in a comparison to the results of a series of Rossi-alpha measurements performed by J. Mihalczo utilizing a coupled set of symmetrical bare highly-enriched uranium (HEU) cylinders. The ptrac option within MCNP6 can generate time-tagged counts in a cell (list-mode data). The list-mode data can then be processed similarly to measured data to obtain values for system parameters such as the dual prompt neutron decay constants observable in a coupled system. The results from the ptrac simulations agree well with the historical measured values. A series of case studies are conducted to study the effects of geometrical asymmetry in the coupling between two bare metal HEU cylinders. While the coupling behavior of symmetrical systems has been reported on extensively, that of asymmetrical systems remains sparse. In particular, it appears that there has been no previous research in obtaining the coupling time constants for asymmetrically-coupled systems. The difficulty in observing such systems is due in part to the inability to determine the

  13. Virtual reality in decommissioning projects: experiences, lessons learned and future plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rindahl, G.; Mark, N.K.F.; Meyer, G.

    2006-01-01

    The work on Virtual Reality (VR) tools for decommissioning planning, dose estimation and work management started at the Norwegian Institute for Energy Technology (IFE) in 1999 in the VR dose project with Japan Nuclear Cycle development institute (JNC), now JAEA. The main aim of this effort has been to help minimize workers' radiation exposure, as well as help to achieve more efficient use of human resources. VR dose is now used in the decommissioning of one of JNC's reactors, the Fugen Nuclear Power Station. This VR decommissioning project has later resulted in a series of projects and applications. In addition to decommissioning, IFE also put great focus on two other branches of VR tools, namely tools for knowledge management, training and education in operating facilities and tools for control room design. During the last years, this work, beginning at different ends, has been converging more and more towards VR technology for use through out the life cycle of a facility. A VR training simulator for a refuelling machine of the Leningrad NPP (LNPP) developed in cooperation with the Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (RRC KI) is now planned to be used in connection with the decommissioning of the three intact reactors at Chernobyl in Ukraine. In this paper we describe experiences from use of VR in decommissioning processes, as well as results from bringing the VR technology initially developed for planned or productive facilities into the decommissioning toolbox. (author)

  14. An innovative approach for planning and execution of pre-experimental runs for Design of Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Arsalan Farooq

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the study of the pre-experimental planning phase of the Design of Experiments (DoE in order to improve the final product quality. The pre-experimental planning phase includes a clear identification of the problem statement, selection of control factors and their respective levels and ranges. To improve production quality based on the DoE a new approach for the pre-experimental planning phase, called Non-Conformity Matrix (NCM, is presented. This article also addresses the key steps of the pre-experimental runs considering a consumer goods manufacturing process. Results of the application for an industrial case show that this methodology can support a clear definition of the problem and also a correct identification of the factor ranges in particular situations. The proposed new approach allows modeling the entire manufacturing system holistically and correctly defining the factor ranges and respective levels for a more effective application of DoE. This new approach can be a useful resource for both research and industrial practitioners who are dedicated to large DoE projects with unknown factor interactions, when the operational levels and ranges are not completely defined.

  15. Fluid Physical and Transport Phenomena Studies aboard the International Space Station: Planned Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bhim S.

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the microgravity fluid physics and transport phenomena experiments planned for the International Spare Station. NASA's Office of Life and Microgravity Science and Applications has established a world-class research program in fluid physics and transport phenomena. This program combines the vast expertise of the world research community with NASA's unique microgravity facilities with the objectives of gaining new insight into fluid phenomena by removing the confounding effect of gravity. Due to its criticality to many terrestrial and space-based processes and phenomena, fluid physics and transport phenomena play a central role in the NASA's Microgravity Program. Through widely publicized research announcement and well established peer-reviews, the program has been able to attract a number of world-class researchers and acquired a critical mass of investigations that is now adding rapidly to this field. Currently there arc a total of 106 ground-based and 20 candidate flight principal investigators conducting research in four major thrust areas in the program: complex flows, multiphase flow and phase change, interfacial phenomena, and dynamics and instabilities. The International Space Station (ISS) to be launched in 1998, provides the microgravity research community with a unprecedented opportunity to conduct long-duration microgravity experiments which can be controlled and operated from the Principal Investigators' own laboratory. Frequent planned shuttle flights to the Station will provide opportunities to conduct many more experiments than were previously possible. NASA Lewis Research Center is in the process of designing a Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) to be located in the Laboratory Module of the ISS that will not only accommodate multiple users but, allow a broad range of fluid physics and transport phenomena experiments to be conducted in a cost effective manner.

  16. Results of 16 years' experiments at the critical facility of Valduc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houelle, M.; Mangin, D.; Maubert, L.

    After briefly recalling the sub-critical approach procedure, the fields of experimental studies on criticality explored at the Valduc Criticality Station since 1963 are listed. This was the year in which the ''appareillage B'' went into service as the first installation of sub-critical experiments of the Section [fr

  17. Experiences in planning and response for the radiological emergencies in a radioactive facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amador B, Z.H.; Perez P, S.; Torres B, M.B.; Ayra P, F.E.

    2006-01-01

    It is internationally recognized the importance of the planning and the assurance for the effective response to the radiological emergencies. In the work those experiences on this thematic one in the Isotopes Center (CENTIS), the radioactive facility where the biggest radioactive inventory is manipulated in Cuba are presented. Due to CENTIS is also the sender and main transport of radioactive materials, it is included this practice. The revision of the abnormal situations during the years 1997 at the 2005, starting from the classification adopted by the Regulatory Authority of the country is carried out. Its are register the details of these occurrences in the Radiological Events Database (BDSR). A correspondence among the radiological impact evaluated in the Emergency Plan for the possible events and that of the registered ones is obtained. The complete training programs and realization of the exercises are carried out. Those results of 3 mockeries made to full scale are picked up. It was concluded that the operational experience and the maintained infrastructure, determine the answer capacity for radiological emergencies in the CENTIS. (Author)

  18. The best laid plans? Women's choices, expectations and experiences in childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malacrida, Claudia; Boulton, Tiffany

    2014-01-01

    The past decades have seen a drastic increase in the medicalization of childbirth, evidenced by increasing Caesarean section rates in many Western countries. In a rare moment of congruence, alternative health-care providers, feminist advocates for women's health and, most recently, mainstream medical service providers have all expressed serious concerns about the rise in Caesarean section rates and women's roles in medicalization. These concerns stem from divergent philosophical positions as well as differing assumptions about the causes for increasing medicalization. Drawing on this debate, and using a feminist and governmentality framing of the problem, we interviewed 22 women who have recently had children about their birthing choices, their expectations and their birth experiences. The women's narratives revealed a disjuncture between their expectations of choosing, planning and achieving as natural a birth as possible, and their lived experiences of births that did not typically go to plan. They also reveal the disciplining qualities of both natural and medical discourses about birth and choice. Furthermore, their narratives counter assumptions that women, as ideal patient consumers, are driving medicalization.

  19. Fuzzy sets on step of planning of experiment for organization and management of construction processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lapidus Azariy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, problems of mathematical modeling and experiment planning of the organization and management of construction. The authors designated the basic restrictions and the difficulties in this field. Concluded that the planning of research experiment is possible in the information sphere with using of heuristic, graphical, mathematical models, as well as neural networks and genetic algorithms. The authors note the need for use of expert information in the case of the formalization of quality parameters. The article presented an overview of the translation methods of qualitative information into mathematical language. Comparison of methods the qualimetry of USSR scientists, the analytic hierarchy process and fuzzy set theory were performed. The benefits of the latter for interpretation of qualitative parameters were identified. The authors have given many examples of application fuzzy sets for formalization of organizational factors of construction processes. Finally, there conclusion was made about progressiveness and effectiveness of fuzzy set theory to describe the qualitative parameters of organization and management of construction.

  20. Nuclear emergency planning and response in the Netherlands: Experiences obtained from large scale exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smetsers, R.C.G.M.; Pruppers, M.J.M.; Sonderen, J.F. van

    2000-01-01

    In 1986 the Chernobyl accident led the Dutch Government to a reconsideration of their possibilities for managing nuclear emergencies. It was decided to improve both the national emergency management organization and the infrastructure for collecting and presenting technical information. The first improvement resulted in the National Plan for Nuclear Emergency Planning and Response (EPR) and the second in a series of technical facilities for the assessment of radiation doses. Since 1990, following the implementation of the EPR and most of the technical facilities, several emergency exercises have taken place to test the effectiveness of organization and infrastructure. Special emphasis has been given to the early phase of the simulated accidents. This paper summarises the experiences obtained from these exercises. Major obstacles appear to be: (1) keeping all participants properly informed during the process, (2) the difference in working attitude of technical experts and decision-makers, (3) premature orders for countermeasures and (4) the (too) large number of people involved in the decision-making process. From these experiences requirements for instruments can be deduced. Such instruments include predictive models, to be used for dose assessment in the early phase of an accident which, apart from being fast, should yield uncomplicated results suitable for decision-makers. Refinements of models, such as taking into account the specific nature of the (urban) environment, are not needed until the recovery phase of a nuclear accident. (author)

  1. The experience of a nationwide Community of Practice to set up Regional Prevention Plans in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti, Angela; Perra, Alberto; Lombardo, Flavia

    2017-07-27

    In 2010, the Italian Ministry of Health decided to start the planning process to elaborate the National Plan of Prevention 2010-2012 jointly with the 21 Regions. The National Institute of Health was responsible for supporting regional planners (RPs) by an original participatory approach of a web-based Community of Practice (CoP) to set up their own Regional Plans of Prevention. In this paper, we summarise the theoretical framework adopted, the main phases characterising the lifecycle of the nationwide CoP, the evaluation approach adopted and its findings. Following the CoP theoretical framework from Wenger, an initial group of RPs were trained on Project Cycle Management as a planning method and thereafter they started interacting on a web-based Moodle platform for 8 months. The CoP evaluation mainly took into account aspects of 'immediate value', such as members interactions within the website, and several quantitative and qualitative tools were used to monitor changes over time. Data were retrieved from Moodle statistics or directly from the RPs by the means of a Knowledge, Attitude and Practice survey, a reaction survey, SWOT analysis and focus groups. The level of individual RPs knowledge increased after the initial course from 55.7% to 75%, attitudes and competence perception about the planning process method also showed an overall favourable change. During the CoP life span, the number of members increased from the original 98 RPs to include up to 600 new members on the basis of spontaneous demand. From April 2010 to January 2011, the 'vital signs' of the CoP were monitored, including RP logins (13,450 total logins and 3744 unique logins), views (27,522) and posts (1606) distributed in 326 forum discussion threads. Data and information retrieved from quantitative and qualitative evaluation approaches proved to be useful for the management and follow-up of the CoP. The CoP experience was successful as 19 out of 20 Regions submitted their Regional Preventive

  2. Virtual planning of dental implant placement using CT double scan-technique - own experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojciechowski, W.; Urbanik, A.; Kownacki, P.; Kownacki, S.

    2007-01-01

    The correctness of CT performed with the use of a double-scan technique is the basis for achieving proper quality of 3D reconstructions of the maxilla or mandible and subsequent virtual planning of dental implant placement. The aim of this study was the presentation of the methodology of computed tomography scanning and own experience with the use of the double-scan technique. The study group included 26 individuals who underwent MDCT with a double-scan technique using a MDCT scanner SOMATOM Sensation (Siemens, Germany). The parameters of the examination: slice-collimation 10 x 0.75 mm, slice-thickness 0.75 mm. The first CT scan in the procedure was the scan of the patient wearing a radiological prosthesis and occlusal index, which was followed by a separate scan of the radiological prosthesis. These two CT scans were copied and transferred to PC with Procera Software program (Nobel Biocare, Sweden) where dental implant placement was virtually planned. In all 26 patients, precise three-dimensional reconstructions of the anatomical structure were obtained. In 11 patients, on the basis of the virtual planning, the implant placement was performed, 5 patients were referred to preparatory procedures, that is, restoration of the alveolar process, otolaryngological treatment of the maxillary sinuses. The remaining 10 patients did not qualify to the procedure because of unfavorable anatomical ideation's. Correct computed tomography with double-scan technique enables virtual planning of dental implant placement, on the basis of which the real procedure of implantation can be performed. (author)

  3. Mechanical weathering and rock erosion by climate-dependent subcritical cracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppes, Martha-Cary; Keanini, Russell

    2017-06-01

    This work constructs a fracture mechanics framework for conceptualizing mechanical rock breakdown and consequent regolith production and erosion on the surface of Earth and other terrestrial bodies. Here our analysis of fracture mechanics literature explicitly establishes for the first time that all mechanical weathering in most rock types likely progresses by climate-dependent subcritical cracking under virtually all Earth surface and near-surface environmental conditions. We substantiate and quantify this finding through development of physically based subcritical cracking and rock erosion models founded in well-vetted fracture mechanics and mechanical weathering, theory, and observation. The models show that subcritical cracking can culminate in significant rock fracture and erosion under commonly experienced environmental stress magnitudes that are significantly lower than rock critical strength. Our calculations also indicate that climate strongly influences subcritical cracking—and thus rock weathering rates—irrespective of the source of the stress (e.g., freezing, thermal cycling, and unloading). The climate dependence of subcritical cracking rates is due to the chemophysical processes acting to break bonds at crack tips experiencing these low stresses. We find that for any stress or combination of stresses lower than a rock's critical strength, linear increases in humidity lead to exponential acceleration of subcritical cracking and associated rock erosion. Our modeling also shows that these rates are sensitive to numerous other environment, rock, and mineral properties that are currently not well characterized. We propose that confining pressure from overlying soil or rock may serve to suppress subcritical cracking in near-surface environments. These results are applicable to all weathering processes.

  4. Analysis of subcritical control rod worth measurements in assembly BZB/3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giese, H.

    1981-07-01

    A series of subcritical absorber array measurements was performed in version three of the BIZET assembly BZB in order to check the ability of standard reactor computational codes used by the BIZET participants in predicting control rod worths in large fast reactors. Assembly BZB/3 was a two-zone core with a diameter of about 2.5 m and a core height of 0.89 m, fuelled with plutonium. Fifteen control rod positions and twelve secondary shutdown rod positions were simulated in the core. The measurements comprised the insertion of single absorbers as well as various groups of absorbers and were based on the modified source multiplication method. The KfK analysis was confined to the calculation of eigenvalues for different absorber arrays, also with a view to a comparison with the results of a former BZA evaluation with calculation-to-experiment values of up to C/E ∼ 1.10. The C/E-values found for BZB/3 ranged from 1.02 to 1.10 and did not show a systematic variation at different radial positions or different degrees of absorber asymmetry

  5. Catalytic effect of different reactor materials under subcritical water conditions: decarboxylation of cysteic acid into taurine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisal, M.

    2018-03-01

    In order to understand the influence of reactor materials on the catalytic effect for a particular reaction, the decomposition of cysteic acid from Ni/Fe-based alloy reactors under subcritical water conditions was examined. Experiments were carried out in three batch reactors made of Inconel 625, Hastelloy C-22 and SUS 316 over temperatures of 200 to 300 °C. The highest amount of eluted metals was found for SUS 316. The results demonstrated that reactor materials contribute to the resulting product. Under the tested conditions, cysteic acid decomposes readily with SUS 316. However, the Ni-based materials (Inconel 625 and Hastelloy C-22) show better resistance to metal elution. It was found that among the materials used in this work, SUS 316 gave the highest reaction rate constant of 0.1934 s‑1. The same results were obtained at temperatures of 260 and 300 °C. Investigation of the Arrhenius activation energy revealed that the highest activation energy was for Hastelloy C-22 (109 kJ/mol), followed by Inconel 625 (90 kJ/mol) and SUS 316 (70 kJ/mol). The decomposition rate of cysteic acid was found to follow the results for the trend of the eluted metals. Therefore, it can be concluded that the decomposition of cysteic acid was catalyzed by the elution of heavy metals from the surface of the reactor. The highest amount of taurine from the decarboxylation of cysteic acid was obtained from SUS 316.

  6. Decontamination of PCBs-containing soil using subcritical water extraction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Nazrul; Park, Jeong-Hun; Shin, Moon-Su; Park, Ha-Seung

    2014-08-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are one of the excision compounds listed at the Stockholm convention in 2001. Although their use has been heavily restricted, PCBs can be found in some specific site-contaminated soils. Either removal or destruction is required prior to disposal. The subcritical water extraction (SCWE) of organic hazardous compounds from contaminated soils is a promising technique for hazardous waste contaminated-site cleanup. In this study, the removal of PCBs by the SCWE process was investigated. The effects of temperature and treatment time on removal efficiency have been determined. In the SCWE experiments, a removal percentage of 99.7% was obtained after 1h of treatment at 250°C. The mass removal efficiency of low-chlorinated species was higher than high-chlorinated congeners at lower temperatures, but it was oppositely observed at higher temperatures because the lower chlorinated congeners are formed by dechlorination of higher chlorinated congeners. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis confirmed that the PCBs underwent partial degradation. Several degradation products including mono- and di-chlorinated biphenyls, oxygen-containing aromatic compounds, and small-size hydrocarbons were identified in the effluent water, which were not initially present in the contaminated soil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. 50 mm Diameter digital DC/pulse neutron generator for subcritical reactor test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Gang; Zhang Zhongshuai; Chi Qian; Liu Linmao

    2012-01-01

    A 50 mm diameter digital DC/pulse neutron generator was developed with 25 mm ceramic drive-in target neutron tube. It was applied in the subcritical reactor test of China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). The generator can produce neutron in three modes: DC, pulse and multiple pulse. The maximum neutron yield of the generator is 1 × 10 8 n/s, while the maximum pulse frequency is 10 kHz, and the minimum pulse width is 10 μs. As a remote controlled generator, it is small in volume, easy to be connected and controlled. The tested results indicate that penning ion source has the feature of delay time in glow discharge, and it is easier for glow discharge to happen when switching the DC voltage of penning ion source into pulse. According to these two characteristics, the generator has been modified. This improved generator can be used in many other areas including Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA), neutron testing and experiment.

  8. Subcritical Butane Extraction of Wheat Germ Oil and Its Deacidification by Molecular Distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinwei Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Extraction and deacidification are important stages for wheat germ oil (WGO production. Crude WGO was extracted using subcritical butane extraction (SBE and compared with traditional solvent extraction (SE and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SCE based on the yield, chemical index and fatty acid profile. Furthermore, the effects of the molecular distillation temperature on the quality of WGO were also investigated in this study. Results indicated that WGO extracted by SBE has a higher yield of 9.10% and better quality; at the same time, its fatty acid composition has no significant difference compared with that of SE and SCE. The molecular distillation experiment showed that the acid value, peroxide value and p-anisidine value of WGO were reduced with the increase of the evaporation temperatures, and the contents of the active constituents of tocopherol, polyphenols and phytosterols are simultaneously decreased. Generally, the distillation temperature of 150 °C is an appropriate condition for WGO deacidification with the higher deacidification efficiency of 77.78% and the higher retention rate of active constituents.

  9. 50 mm Diameter digital DC/pulse neutron generator for subcritical reactor test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Gang; Zhang Zhongshuai [Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); Chi Qian [Guang Hua College of Chang Chun University, Changchun 130117 (China); Liu Linmao, E-mail: ll888@nenu.edu.cn [Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China)

    2012-11-01

    A 50 mm diameter digital DC/pulse neutron generator was developed with 25 mm ceramic drive-in target neutron tube. It was applied in the subcritical reactor test of China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). The generator can produce neutron in three modes: DC, pulse and multiple pulse. The maximum neutron yield of the generator is 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} n/s, while the maximum pulse frequency is 10 kHz, and the minimum pulse width is 10 {mu}s. As a remote controlled generator, it is small in volume, easy to be connected and controlled. The tested results indicate that penning ion source has the feature of delay time in glow discharge, and it is easier for glow discharge to happen when switching the DC voltage of penning ion source into pulse. According to these two characteristics, the generator has been modified. This improved generator can be used in many other areas including Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA), neutron testing and experiment.

  10. Subcritical multiplication measurements with a BeO reflected 233U uranyl nitrate solution system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Job, P.K.; Srinivasan, M.; Nargundkar, V.R.; Chandramoleshwar, K.; Pasupathy, C.S.; Das, S.; Mayankutty, P.C.

    1978-01-01

    A series of subcritical multiplication measurements were carried out in PURNIMA with 233 U uranyl nitrate solution contained in all 11 x 11 cm 2 square sectional tank and reflected by 30 cm thickness of BeO on all sides. The objective of these experiments was to determine the 'Minimum critical mass' of the system in rectangular parellelopiped geometry. The rectangular aluminium core tank was attached to the bottom of an alpha tight glove box. BeO reflector was arranged below the glove box outside the core tank. The system multiplication was measured as a function of solution concentration and core volume by means of neutron detectors placed outside the assembly. The extrapolated critical mass was obtained through conventional inverse counts plot. The maximum amount of 233 U used was 120 gms. The rectangular geometry was estimated to be 235 +- 10 gms, in the concentration range of 80 to 120 gms/litre of 233 U. The experimental set up, procedure adopted, method of analysis and the details of the results are described. (author)

  11. (n,xn cross section measurements for Y-89 foils used as detectors for high energy neutron measurements in the deeply subcritical assembly “QUINTA”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bielewicz Marcin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of the deep subcritical systems (QUINTA using relativistic beams is performed within the project “Energy and Transmutation of Radioactive Wastes” (E&T – RAW. The experiment assembly was irradiated by deuteron/proton beam (Dubna NUCLOTRON. We calculated the neutron energy spectrum inside the whole assembly by using threshold energy (n,xn reactions in yttrium (Y-89 foils. There are almost no experimental cross section data for those reactions. New Y-89(n,xn cross section measurements were carried out at The Svedberg laboratory (TSL in Uppsala, Sweden in 2015. In this paper we present preliminary results of those experiments.

  12. Worklife Improvement and Leadership Development study: a learning experience in leadership development and "planned" organizational change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Greta G; Spiers, Judith A; Sharlow, Janice; Germann, Paula; Yurtseven, Ozden; Bhatti, Aslam

    2013-01-01

    In response to increasing recognition of the importance of quality health care work environments, the Alberta Cancer Board initiated a province-wide leadership development program to plan for organizational change through a series of stages. In 2004, the Leadership Development Initiative (LDI) was implemented to facilitate organizational learning using a cohort-based leadership intervention based on a communities of practice framework. The aim of the Worklife Improvement and Leadership Development study was to examine both the outcomes and experiences of participants of the LDI program to better understand leadership development, implementation, and its impact on worklife quality among 5 cohorts of health care managers and staff at the Alberta Cancer Board. This study used both structured survey and interview methods, using a pretest-intervention-posttest quasi-experiment without a control group design, to assess the effects of LDI on worklife of leaders and staff. Surveys included the Leadership Practices Inventory and Areas of Worklife Scale, which looked at meaningfulness of work and organizational engagement. Interviews and focus group data provided a more detailed description of the experience of leadership development and perceptions of organizational worklife. The study revealed layers of information about the complexity of individual and collective leadership in a cohort-based design, perceptions of leadership initiatives, organizational worklife, and planned organizational change. Our findings suggest that early changes in how leaders reflected on their own skills and practices (Leading Self) were positive; however, growing disengagement as the LDI continued was evident in the focus group data, particularly when change in behavior of others was not perceived to be evident. To support the effectiveness and success of a leadership initiative, managers and administrators need to implement strategies designed to help leaders grow and cope with ongoing flux of

  13. In-situ tuff water migration/heater experiment: experimental plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnstone, J.K.

    1980-08-01

    Tuffs on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) are currently under investigation as a potential isolation medium for heat-producing nuclear wastes. The National Academy of Sciences has concurred in our identification of the potentially large water content (less than or equal to 40 vol %) of tuffs as one of the important issues affecting their suitability for a repository. This Experimental Plan describes an in-situ experiment intended as an initial assessment of water generation/migration in response to a thermal input. The experiment will be conducted in the Grouse Canyon Welded Tuff in Tunnel U12g (G-Tunnel) located in the north-central region of the NTS. While the Grouse Canyon Welded Tuff is not a potential repository medium, it has physical, thermal, and mechanical properties very similar to those tuffs currently under consideration and is accessible at depth (400 m below the surface) in an existing facility. Other goals of the experiment are to support computer-code and instrumentation development, and to measure in-situ thermal properties. The experimental array consists of a central electrical heater, 1.2 m long x 10.2 cm diameter, surrounded by three holes for measuring water-migration behavior, two holes for measuring temperature profiles, one hole for measuring thermally induced stress in the rock, and one hole perpendicular to the heater to measure displacement with a laser. This Experimental Plan describes the experimental objectives, the technical issues, the site, the experimental array, thermal and thermomechanical modeling results, the instrumentation, the data-acquisition system, posttest characterization, and the organizational details

  14. Experiences and perspectives of older people regarding advance care planning: A meta-synthesis of qualitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Li-Shan; Huang, Xiaoyan; Hu, Wen-Yu; O'Connor, Margaret; Lee, Susan

    2017-05-01

    Studies have indicated that family members or health professionals may not know or predict their older relatives' or patients' health preferences. Although advance care planning is encouraged for older people to prepare end-of-life care, it is still challenging. To understand the experiences and perspectives of older people regarding advance care planning. A systematic review of qualitative studies and meta-synthesis was conducted. CINAHL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO databases were searched. A total of 50 articles were critically appraised and a thematic synthesis was undertaken. Four themes were identified: life versus death, internal versus external, benefits versus burdens, and controlling versus being controlled. The view of life and death influenced older people's willingness to discuss their future. The characteristics, experiences, health status, family relationship, and available resources also affected their plans of advance care planning. Older people needed to balance the benefits and burdens of advance care planning, and then judge their own ability to make decisions about end-of-life care. Older people's perspectives and experiences of advance care planning were varied and often conflicted; cultural differences amplified variances among older people. Truthful information, available resources, and family support are needed to enable older people to maintain dignity at the end of life. The views of life and death for older people from different cultures should be compared to assist health professionals to understand older people's attitudes toward advance care planning, and thus to develop appropriate strategies to promote advance care planning in different cultures.

  15. High power ring methods and accelerator driven subcritical reactor application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahar, Malek Haj [Univ. of Grenoble (France)

    2016-08-07

    High power proton accelerators allow providing, by spallation reaction, the neutron fluxes necessary in the synthesis of fissile material, starting from Uranium 238 or Thorium 232. This is the basis of the concept of sub-critical operation of a reactor, for energy production or nuclear waste transmutation, with the objective of achieving cleaner, safer and more efficient process than today’s technologies allow. Designing, building and operating a proton accelerator in the 500-1000 MeV energy range, CW regime, MW power class still remains a challenge nowadays. There is a limited number of installations at present achieving beam characteristics in that class, e.g., PSI in Villigen, 590 MeV CW beam from a cyclotron, SNS in Oakland, 1 GeV pulsed beam from a linear accelerator, in addition to projects as the ESS in Europe, a 5 MW beam from a linear accelerator. Furthermore, coupling an accelerator to a sub-critical nuclear reactor is a challenging proposition: some of the key issues/requirements are the design of a spallation target to withstand high power densities as well as ensure the safety of the installation. These two domains are the grounds of the PhD work: the focus is on the high power ring methods in the frame of the KURRI FFAG collaboration in Japan: upgrade of the installation towards high intensity is crucial to demonstrate the high beam power capability of FFAG. Thus, modeling of the beam dynamics and benchmarking of different codes was undertaken to validate the simulation results. Experimental results revealed some major losses that need to be understood and eventually overcome. By developing analytical models that account for the field defects, one identified major sources of imperfection in the design of scaling FFAG that explain the important tune variations resulting in the crossing of several betatron resonances. A new formula is derived to compute the tunes and properties established that characterize the effect of the field imperfections on the

  16. Transfer in planned home births in Sweden--effects on the experience of birth: a nationwide population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Helena E; Rådestad, Ingela J; Hildingsson, Ingegerd M

    2011-08-01

    More than 10% of all planned home births in high-income countries are completed in the hospital. The aim of this study was to compare the birth experiences among women who planned to give birth at home and completed the birth at home and women who were transferred to hospital during or immediately after the birth. All women in Sweden who had a planned home birth between 1998 and 2005 (n=671) were invited to participate in the study. The women who agreed to participate received one questionnaire for each planned home birth. Mixed methods were used for the analysis. Women who had been transferred during or immediately after the planned home birth had a more negative birth experience in general. In comparison with women who completed the birth at home, the odds ratio for being less satisfied was 13.5, CI 8.1-22.3. Reasons for being dissatisfied related to organizational factors, the way the women were treated or personal ability. Being transferred during a planned home birth negatively affects the birth experience. Treatments as well as organizational factors are considered to be obstacles for a positive birth experience when transfer is needed. Established links between the home birth setting and the hospital might enhance the opportunity for a positive birth experience irrespective of where the birth is completed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Applying lessons learned from the USAID family planning graduation experience to the GAVI graduation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Angela K; Farrell, Marguerite M; Vandenbroucke, Mary F; Fox, Elizabeth; Pablos-Mendez, Ariel

    2015-07-01

    As low income countries experience economic transition, characterized by rapid economic growth and increased government spending potential in health, they have increased fiscal space to support and sustain more of their own health programmes, decreasing need for donor development assistance. Phase out of external funds should be systematic and efforts towards this end should concentrate on government commitments towards country ownership and self-sustainability. The 2006 US Agency for International Development (USAID) family planning (FP) graduation strategy is one such example of a systematic phase-out approach. Triggers for graduation were based on pre-determined criteria and programme indicators. In 2011 the GAVI Alliance (formerly the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunizations) which primarily supports financing of new vaccines, established a graduation policy process. Countries whose gross national income per capita exceeds $1570 incrementally increase their co-financing of new vaccines over a 5-year period until they are no longer eligible to apply for new GAVI funding, although previously awarded support will continue. This article compares and contrasts the USAID and GAVI processes to apply lessons learned from the USAID FP graduation experience to the GAVI process. The findings of the review are 3-fold: (1) FP graduation plans served an important purpose by focusing on strategic needs across six graduation plan foci, facilitating graduation with pre-determined financial and technical benchmarks, (2) USAID sought to assure contraceptive security prior to graduation, phasing out of contraceptive donations first before phasing out from technical assistance in other programme areas and (3) USAID sought to sustain political support to assure financing of products and programmes continue after graduation. Improving sustainability more broadly beyond vaccine financing provides a more comprehensive approach to graduation. The USAID FP experience provides a

  18. Concept of turbines for ultrasupercritical, supercritical, and subcritical steam conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailov, V. E.; Khomenok, L. A.; Pichugin, I. I.; Kovalev, I. A.; Bozhko, V. V.; Vladimirskii, O. A.; Zaitsev, I. V.; Kachuriner, Yu. Ya.; Nosovitskii, I. A.; Orlik, V. G.

    2017-11-01

    The article describes the design features of condensing turbines for ultrasupercritical initial steam conditions (USSC) and large-capacity cogeneration turbines for super- and subcritical steam conditions having increased steam extractions for district heating purposes. For improving the efficiency and reliability indicators of USSC turbines, it is proposed to use forced cooling of the head high-temperature thermally stressed parts of the high- and intermediate-pressure rotors, reaction-type blades of the high-pressure cylinder (HPC) and at least the first stages of the intermediate-pressure cylinder (IPC), the double-wall HPC casing with narrow flanges of its horizontal joints, a rigid HPC rotor, an extended system of regenerative steam extractions without using extractions from the HPC flow path, and the low-pressure cylinder's inner casing moving in accordance with the IPC thermal expansions. For cogeneration turbines, it is proposed to shift the upper district heating extraction (or its significant part) to the feedwater pump turbine, which will make it possible to improve the turbine plant efficiency and arrange both district heating extractions in the IPC. In addition, in the case of using a disengaging coupling or precision conical bolts in the coupling, this solution will make it possible to disconnect the LPC in shifting the turbine to operate in the cogeneration mode. The article points out the need to intensify turbine development efforts with the use of modern methods for improving their efficiency and reliability involving, in particular, the use of relatively short 3D blades, last stages fitted with longer rotor blades, evaporation techniques for removing moisture in the last-stage diaphragm, and LPC rotor blades with radial grooves on their leading edges.

  19. Sub-Critical Nuclear Reactor Based on FFAG-Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hee Seok; Kang, Hung Sik; Lee, Tae Yeon [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    After the East-Japan earthquake and the subsequent nuclear disaster, the anti-nuclear mood has been wide spread. It is very unfortunate both for nuclear science community and for the future of mankind, which is threatened by two serious challenges, the global warming caused by the greenhouse effect and the shortage of energy cause by the petroleum exhaustion. While the nuclear energy seemed to be the only solution to these problems, it is clear that it has its own problems, one of which broke out so strikingly in Japan. There are also other problems such as the radiotoxic nuclear wastes that survive up to even tens of thousands years and the limited reserves of Uranium. To solve these problems of nuclear fission energy, accelerator-based sub-critical nuclear reactor was once proposed. (Its details will be explained below.) First of all, it is safe in a disaster such as an earthquake, because the deriving accelerator stops immediately by the earthquake. It also minimizes the nuclear waste problem by reducing the amount of the toxic waste and shortening their half lifetime to only a few hundred years. Finally, it solves the Uranium reserve problem because it can use Thorium as its fuel. The Thorium reserve is much larger than that of Uranium. Although the idea of the accelerator-driven nuclear reactor was proposed long time ago, it has not been utilized yet first by technical difficulty and economical reasons. The accelerator-based system needs 1 GeV, 10 MW power proton accelerator. A conventional linear accelerator would need several hundred m length, which is highly costly particularly in Korea because of the high land cost. However, recent technologies make it possible to realize that scale accelerator by a reasonable size. That is the fixed-field alternating gradient (FFAG) accelerator that is described in this article

  20. Sub-Critical Nuclear Reactor Based on FFAG-Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hee Seok; Kang, Hung Sik; Lee, Tae Yeon

    2011-01-01

    After the East-Japan earthquake and the subsequent nuclear disaster, the anti-nuclear mood has been wide spread. It is very unfortunate both for nuclear science community and for the future of mankind, which is threatened by two serious challenges, the global warming caused by the greenhouse effect and the shortage of energy cause by the petroleum exhaustion. While the nuclear energy seemed to be the only solution to these problems, it is clear that it has its own problems, one of which broke out so strikingly in Japan. There are also other problems such as the radiotoxic nuclear wastes that survive up to even tens of thousands years and the limited reserves of Uranium. To solve these problems of nuclear fission energy, accelerator-based sub-critical nuclear reactor was once proposed. (Its details will be explained below.) First of all, it is safe in a disaster such as an earthquake, because the deriving accelerator stops immediately by the earthquake. It also minimizes the nuclear waste problem by reducing the amount of the toxic waste and shortening their half lifetime to only a few hundred years. Finally, it solves the Uranium reserve problem because it can use Thorium as its fuel. The Thorium reserve is much larger than that of Uranium. Although the idea of the accelerator-driven nuclear reactor was proposed long time ago, it has not been utilized yet first by technical difficulty and economical reasons. The accelerator-based system needs 1 GeV, 10 MW power proton accelerator. A conventional linear accelerator would need several hundred m length, which is highly costly particularly in Korea because of the high land cost. However, recent technologies make it possible to realize that scale accelerator by a reasonable size. That is the fixed-field alternating gradient (FFAG) accelerator that is described in this article

  1. Subcriticality of accelerator driven system by AESJ/JAERI working party

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Tomohiko

    2002-01-01

    Under Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ) and Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), a Working Party on Reactor Physics of Accelerator-Driven System (ADS-WP) has been set since March 1999 to review and investigate special subjects related to reactor physics research of Accelerator-Driven System (ADS). In the ADS-WP, the extensive and aggressive activity is being made by 25 professional members in the field of reactor physics in Japan. The ADS is now studying three subjects related to subcriticality of ADS; (1) calculation accuracy of subcriticality on ADS, (2) critical safety issues of ADS, and (3) theoretical review of subcriticality and its measurement methods. This paper describes two topics related to the subjects (1) and (2); one is an analysis of maximum reactivity potentially inserted to a subcritical core and the other is a benchmark proposal for checking calculation accuracy of subcriticality on ADS. The full specification of the calculation benchmark will be supplied by June 2002. Researchers from overseas, especially from Korea, are welcome to join this benchmark

  2. Burning of spent fuel of an accelerator-driven modular HTGR in sub-critical condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing Xingqing; Yang Yongwei; Chang Hong; Wu Zongxin; Gu Yuxiang

    2002-01-01

    The modular high temperature gas cooled reactor (MHTGR) has good safety characteristics because of the use of coated particles in the fuel element. After the particles cool outside of the reactor for some time, the spent fuel can be re-utilized. The author describes a physics feasibility study for the burning of spent fuel from a 350 MW ring-shaped modular high temperature gas cooled reactor in an accelerator-driven sub-critical reactor. A conceptual design is given for the 30 MW accelerator-driven sub-critical reactor. The neutron transport in the sub-critical reactor was simulated using the MCNP code, and the burnup was calculated using the ORIGEN2 code. The results show that the accelerator-driven sub-critical gas-cooled reactor has reliable sub-criticality and low power density and that the spent fuel from a 350 MW ring-shaped modular high temperature gas cooled reactor can be burned to provide 20% more energy

  3. Planning the Unplanned Experiment: Assessing the Efficacy of Standards for Safety Critical Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graydon, Patrick J.; Holloway, C. Michael

    2015-01-01

    We need well-founded means of determining whether software is t for use in safety-critical applications. While software in industries such as aviation has an excellent safety record, the fact that software aws have contributed to deaths illustrates the need for justi ably high con dence in software. It is often argued that software is t for safety-critical use because it conforms to a standard for software in safety-critical systems. But little is known about whether such standards `work.' Reliance upon a standard without knowing whether it works is an experiment; without collecting data to assess the standard, this experiment is unplanned. This paper reports on a workshop intended to explore how standards could practicably be assessed. Planning the Unplanned Experiment: Assessing the Ecacy of Standards for Safety Critical Software (AESSCS) was held on 13 May 2014 in conjunction with the European Dependable Computing Conference (EDCC). We summarize and elaborate on the workshop's discussion of the topic, including both the presented positions and the dialogue that ensued.

  4. Planning the Unplanned Experiment: Towards Assessing the Efficacy of Standards for Safety-Critical Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graydon, Patrick J.; Holloway, C. M.

    2015-01-01

    Safe use of software in safety-critical applications requires well-founded means of determining whether software is fit for such use. While software in industries such as aviation has a good safety record, little is known about whether standards for software in safety-critical applications 'work' (or even what that means). It is often (implicitly) argued that software is fit for safety-critical use because it conforms to an appropriate standard. Without knowing whether a standard works, such reliance is an experiment; without carefully collecting assessment data, that experiment is unplanned. To help plan the experiment, we organized a workshop to develop practical ideas for assessing software safety standards. In this paper, we relate and elaborate on the workshop discussion, which revealed subtle but important study design considerations and practical barriers to collecting appropriate historical data and recruiting appropriate experimental subjects. We discuss assessing standards as written and as applied, several candidate definitions for what it means for a standard to 'work,' and key assessment strategies and study techniques and the pros and cons of each. Finally, we conclude with thoughts about the kinds of research that will be required and how academia, industry, and regulators might collaborate to overcome the noted barriers.

  5. Vibrational experiments at the HDR [Heissdampfreaktor]: SHAG results and planning for SHAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kot, C.A.; Malcher, L.; Steinhilber, H.

    1987-01-01

    As part of the second phase of vibrational/earthquake investigations at the HDR (Heissdampfreaktor) Test Facility in Kahl/Main, FRG, high-level shaker tests (SHAG) were performed during June and July 1986 using a coast-down shaker capable of generating 1000 tons of force. The purpose of these experiments was to investigate full-scale structural response, soil/structure interaction, and piping and equipment response under strong excitation conditions. While global safety considerations imposed load limitations, the HDR soil/structure system was nevertheless tested to incipient failure. The performance of pipe support systems in as many as seven different multiple support pipe hanger configurations, ranging from flexible to stiff systems, was evaluated in the tests. Data obtained in the tests are used to validate analysis methods. The vibrational/earthquake investigations at the HDR are continuing with the SHAM experiments, planned for the spring of 1988. In these experiments the VKL piping loop will be subjected to direct multiple-point excitation at extremely high levels. The objective is to investigate different pipe support configurations at extreme loading, to establish seismic margins for piping, and to investigate possible failure/plastification modes in an in situ piping system

  6. Czech interim spent fuel storage facility: operation experience, inspections and future plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajman, V.; Bartak, L.; Coufal, J.; Brzobohaty, K.; Kuba, S.

    1999-01-01

    The paper describes the situation in the spent fuel management in the Czech Republic. The interim Spent Fuel Storage Facility (ISFSF) at Dukovany, which was commissioned in January 1997 and is using dual transport and storage CASTOR - 440/84 casks, is briefly described. The authors deal with their experience in operating and inspecting the ISFSF Dukovany. The structure of the basic safety document 'Limits and Conditions of Normal Operation' is also mentioned, including the experience of the performance. The inspection activities focused on permanent checking of the leak tightness of the CASTOR 440/84 casks, the maximum cask temperature and inspections monitoring both the neutron and gamma dose rate as well as the surface contamination. The results of the inspections are mentioned in the presentation as well. The operator's experience with re-opening partly loaded and already dried CASTOR-440/84 cask, after its transport from NPP Jaslovske Bohunice to the NPP Dukovany is also described. The paper introduces briefly the concept of future spent fuel storage both from the NPP Dukovany and the NPP Temelin, as prepared by the CEZ. The preparatory work for the Central Interim Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Facility (CISFSF) in the Czech Republic and the information concerning the planned storage technology for this facility is discussed in the paper as well. The authors describe the site selection process and the preparatory steps concerning new spent fuel facility construction including the Environmental Impact Assessment studies. (author)

  7. Women’s experiences after Planned Parenthood’s exclusion from a family planning program in Texas☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, C. Junda; Alamgir, Hasanat; Potter, Joseph E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective We assessed the impact on depot medroxyprogesterone continuation when a large care provider was banned from a state-funded family planning program. Study Design We used three methods to assess the effect of the ban: (a) In a records review, we compared how many state program participants returned to two Planned Parenthood affiliates for a scheduled dose of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) immediately after the ban; (b) We conducted phone interviews with 224 former Planned Parenthood patients about DMPA use and access to contraception immediately after the ban; (c) We compared current contraceptive method of our interviewees to that of comparable DMPA users in the National Survey of Family Growth 2006–2010 (NSFG). Results (a) Fewer program clients returned for DMPA at a large urban Planned Parenthood, compared to a remotely located affiliate (14.4%, vs. 64.8%), reflecting different levels of access to alternative providers in the two cities. (b) Among program participants who went elsewhere for the injection, only 56.8% obtained it at no cost and on time. More than one in five women missed a dose because of barriers, most commonly due to difficulty finding a provider. (c) Compared to NSFG participants, our interviewees used less effective methods of contraception, even more than a year after the ban went into effect. Conclusions Injectable contraception use was disrupted during the rollout of the state-funded family planning program. Women living in a remote area of Texas encountered more barriers. Implications Requiring low-income family planning patients to switch healthcare providers has adverse consequences. PMID:26680757

  8. Application of the modified neutron source multiplication method for a measurement of sub-criticality in AGN-201K reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myung-Hyun Kim

    2010-01-01

    Measurement of sub-criticality is a challenging and required task in nuclear industry both for nuclear criticality safety and physics test in nuclear power plant. A relatively new method named as Modified Neutron Source Multiplication Method (MNSM) was proposed in Japan. This method is an improvement of traditional Neutron Source Multiplication (NSM) Method, in which three correction factors are applied additionally. In this study, MNSM was tested in calculation of rod worth using an educational reactor in Kyung Hee University, AGN-201K. For this study, a revised nuclear data library and a neutron transport code system TRANSX-PARTISN were used for the calculation of correction factors for various control rod positions and source locations. Experiments were designed and performed to enhance errors in NSM from the location effects of source and detectors. MNSM can correct these effects but current results showed not much correction effects. (author)

  9. Modelling of subcritical free-surface flow over an inclined backward-facing step in a water channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šulc Jan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The contribution deals with the experimental and numerical modelling of subcritical turbulent flow in an open channel with an inclined backward-facing step. The step with the inclination angle α = 20° was placed in the water channel of the cross-section 200×200 mm. Experiments were carried out by means of the PIV and LDA measuring techniques. Numerical simulations were executed by means of the commercial software ANSYS CFX 12.0. Numerical results obtained for twoequation models and EARSM turbulence model completed by transport equations for turbulent energy and specific dissipation rate were compared with experimental data. The modelling was concentrated particularly on the development of the flow separation and on the corresponding changes of free surface.

  10. Critical experiment needs and plans of the consolidated fuel reprocessing program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primm, R.T.

    1984-01-01

    An integral part of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) plan for the development of breeder reactors is the development of the capability for fuel reprocessing. The Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) was established by the DOE to identify and conduct research and development activities in this area. The DOE is currently proposing that a capability to reprocess fast reactor fuel be established in the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory. This capability would include conversion of plutonium nitrate to plutonium oxide. The reprocessing line is designated the Breeder Reprocessing Engineering Test (BRET). Criticality safety remains an important critetion in the design of the BRET. The different steps in the reprocessing are reviewed and areas where additional critical experiments are needed have been indentified as also areas where revision or clarification of existing criticality safety standards are desirable

  11. Experiment Plan of High Temperature Steam and Carbon dioxide Co-electrolysis for Synthetic Gas Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Duk-Joo; Ko, Jae-Hwa

    2008-01-01

    Currently, Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) come into the spotlight in the middle of the energy technologies of the future for highly effective conversion of fossil fuels into electricity without carbon dioxide emission. The SOFC is a reversible cell. By applying electrical power to the cell, which is solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC), it is possible to produce synthetic gas (syngas) from high temperature steam and carbon dioxide. The produced syngas (hydrogen and carbon monoxide) can be used for synthetic fuels. This SOEC technology can use high temperature from VHTRs for high efficiency. This paper describes KEPRI's experiment plan of high temperature steam and carbon co-electrolysis for syngas production using SOEC technology

  12. HACCP and water safety plans in Icelandic water supply: preliminary evaluation of experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsdóttir, María J; Gissurarson, Loftur R

    2008-09-01

    Icelandic waterworks first began implementing hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) as a preventive approach for water safety management in 1997. Since then implementation has been ongoing and currently about 68% of the Icelandic population enjoy drinking water from waterworks with a water safety plan based on HACCP. Preliminary evaluation of the success of HACCP implementation was undertaken in association with some of the waterworks that had implemented HACCP. The evaluation revealed that compliance with drinking water quality standards improved considerably following the implementation of HACCP. In response to their findings, waterworks implemented a large number of corrective actions to improve water safety. The study revealed some limitations for some, but not all, waterworks in relation to inadequate external and internal auditing and a lack of oversight by health authorities. Future studies should entail a more comprehensive study of the experience with the use of HACCP with the purpose of developing tools to promote continuing success.

  13. Operational experience of the upgraded LHC injection kicker magnets during Run 2 and future plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, M. J.; Adraktas, A.; Bregliozzi, G.; Goddard, B.; Ducimetière, L.; Salvant, B.; Sestak, J.; Vega Cid, L.; Weterings, W.; Vallgren, C. Yin

    2017-07-01

    During Run 1 of the LHC, one of the injection kicker magnets caused occasional operational delays due to beam induced heating with high bunch intensity and short bunch lengths. In addition, there were also sporadic issues with vacuum activity and electrical flashover of the injection kickers. An extensive program of studies was launched and significant upgrades were carried out during Long Shutdown 1 (LS 1). These upgrades included a new design of beam screen to reduce both beam coupling impedance of the kicker magnet and the electric field associated with the screen conductors, hence decreasing the probability of electrical breakdown in this region. This paper presents operational experience of the injection kicker magnets during the first years of Run 2 of the LHC, including a discussion of faults and kicker magnet issues that limited LHC operation. In addition, in light of these issues, plans for further upgrades are briefly discussed.

  14. EXPERIENCE AND PLANS OF THE JLAB FEL FACILITY AS A USER FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelle D. Shinn

    2007-08-26

    Jefferson Lab's IR Upgrade FEL building was planned from the beginning to be a user facility, and includes an associated 600 m2 area containing seven laboratories. The high average power capability (multikilowatt-level) in the near-infrared (1-3 microns), and many hundreds of watts at longer wavelengths, along with an ultrafast (~ 1 ps) high PRF (10's MHz) temporal structure makes this laser a unique source for both applied and basic research. In addition to the FEL, we have a dedicated laboratory capable of delivering high power (many tens of watts) of broadband THz light. After commissioning the IR Upgrade, we once again began delivering beam to users in 2005. In this presentation, I will give an overview of the FEL facility and its current performance, lessons learned over the last two years, and a synopsis of current and future experiments.

  15. A plan of reactor physics experiments for reduced-moderation water reactors with MOX fuel in TCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Shoichiro; Akie, Hiroshi; Suzaki, Takenori; Okubo, Tutomu; Usui, Shuji; Shirakawa, Toshihisa; Iwamura, Takamiti; Kugo, Teruhiko; Ishikawa, Nobuyuki

    2000-06-01

    The Reduced-Moderation Water Reactor (RMWR) is one of the next generation water-cooled reactors which aim at effective utilization of uranium resource, high burn-up, long operation cycle, and plutonium multi-recycle. For verification of the feasibility, negative void reactivity coefficient and conversion ratio more than 1.0 must be confirmed. Critical Experiments performed so far in Eualope and Japan were reviewed, and no useful data are available for RMWR development. Critical experiments using TCA (Tank Type Critical Assembly) in JAERI are planned. MOX fuel rods should be prepared for the experiments and some modifications of the equipment are needed for use of MOX fuel rods. This report describes the preliminary plan of physics experiments. The number of MOX fuel rods used in the experiments are obtained by calculations and the modification of the equipment for the experiments are shown. (author)

  16. Activities of working party on 'Subcritical core of accelerator-driven system' under the research committee on reactor physics of AESJ and JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, T.; Tsujimoto, K.; Nishihara, K.; Kitamura, Y.

    2004-01-01

    The Research Committee on Reactor Physics under the Atomic Energy Society of Japan and the Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst. organized the working party (ADS-WP) on S ubcritical Core of Accelerator-Driven System . The ADS-WP investigated reactor physics of subcriticality from the viewpoint of the accelerator driven system (ADS) since subcriticality has been almost studied from the viewpoint of critical safety. The working party was set in July 2001 and it worked for two years. The activities of the ADS-WP are (Work-I) theory of subcriticality, (Work-II) benchmark of subcritical core, (Work-III) setting of subcriticality level of ADS and (Work-JAO monitoring of subcriticality. These activities clarified about the important issues related to the subcriticality or the subcritical core from the wide ranges of theory, analysis, calculation, design and monitoring for ADS. The activities were already summarized and the report will be published in March 2004. (authors)

  17. Design and construction of an automatic measurement electronic system and graphical neutron flux for the subcritical reactor; Diseno y construccion de un sistema electronico automatico de medicion y graficado del flujo neutronico para el reactor subcritico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez M, J.L.; Balderas, E.G.; Rivero G, T. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1997-07-01

    The National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) has in its installations with a nuclear subcritical reactor which was designed and constructed with the main purpose to be used in the nuclear sciences education in the Physics areas and Reactors engineering. Within the nuclear experiments that can be realized in this reactor are very interesting those about determinations of neutron and gamma fluxes spectra, since starting from these some interesting nuclear parameters can be obtained. In order to carry out this type of experiments different radioactive sources are used which exceed the permissible doses by far to human beings. Therefore it is necessary the remote handling as of the source as of detectors used in different experiments. In this work it is presented the design of an electronic system which allows the different positions inside of the tank of subcritical reactor at ININ over the radial and axial axes in manual or automatic ways. (Author)

  18. Calculation and analysis of burnup and optimum core design in accelerator driven sub-critical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuwei; Yang Yongwei; Cui Pengfei

    2011-01-01

    The premise of the accelerator driven sub-critical system (ADS) in the accident is still subcritical, the biggest k eff change with burn time is less than 1.5% and the cladding material, HT9 steel, can withstand the maximum radiation damage, core fuel area is divided into fuel transmutation area and fuel multiplication area, and fuel transmutation area maintains the same fuel composition in the whole process. Through the analysis of the composition of the fuel, shape of core layout and the power distribution, etc., supposed outer and inner Pu enrichment ratio range of 1.0-1.5, then the fuel components of fuel multiplication area was adjusted. Time evolution of k eff was calculated by COUPLED2 which coupled with MCNP and ORIGEN. At the same time the power peaking factors, minoractinides transmutation rate desired to maximization and burnup were considered. A sub-critical system fitting for engineering practice was established. (authors)

  19. A new formulation for the importance function in the kinetics of subcritical reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Cristiano da; Senra Martinez, Aquilino; Carvalho da Silva, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► In this paper we propose a new formulation for the importance function in the kinetics of subcritical systems. ► We analyze the relevance of an external neutron source for the subcritical interval 0.95 eff eff is the multiplication factor according to the physical properties of the nuclear reactor. For the purposes of validation of the proposed method we will use, as a reference method, the expansion in modes of the time-dependent neutron flux for the solution of the onedimensional diffusion equation. It will be presented results that demonstrate the precision of the proposed method when compared to the conventional point kinetic equations. The results show that the new point kinetic equations are rather precise in the subcriticality range considered.

  20. Production of rare sugars from common sugars in subcritical aqueous ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Da-Ming; Kobayashi, Takashi; Adachi, Shuji

    2015-05-15

    A new isomerization reaction was developed to synthesize rare ketoses. D-tagatose, D-xylulose, and D-ribulose were obtained in the maximum yields of 24%, 38%, and 40%, respectively, from the corresponding aldoses, D-galactose, D-xylose, and D-ribose, by treating the aldoses with 80% (v/v) subcritical aqueous ethanol at 180°C. The maximum productivity of D-tagatose was ca. 80 g/(Lh). Increasing the concentration of ethanol significantly increased the isomerization of D-galactose. Variation in the reaction temperature did not significantly affect the production of D-tagatose from D-galactose. Subcritical aqueous ethanol converted both 2,3-threo and 2,3-erythro aldoses to the corresponding C-2 ketoses in high yields. Thus, the treatment of common aldoses in subcritical aqueous ethanol can be regarded as a new method to synthesize the corresponding rare sugars. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Transient subcritical crack-growth behavior in transformation-toughened ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauskardt, R.H.; Ritchie, R.O.; Carter, W.C.; Veirs, D.K.

    1990-01-01

    Transient subcritical crack-growth behavior following abrupt changes in the applied load are studied in transformation-toughened ceramics. A mechanics analysis is developed to model the transient nature of transformation shielding of the crack tip, K s , with subcritical crack extension following the applied load change. conditions for continued crack growth, crack growth followed by arrest, and no crack growth after the load change, are considered and related to the magnitude and sign of the applied load change and to materials properties such as the critical transformation stress. The analysis is found to provide similar trends in K s compared to values calculated from experimentally measured transformation zones in a transformation-toughened Mg-PSZ. In addition, accurate prediction of the post load-change transient crack-growth behavior is obtained using experimentally derived steady-state subcritical crack-growth relationships for cyclic fatigue in the same material

  2. Prompt neutron decay constants and subcritical measurements for material control and accountability in SHEBA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, R.; Jaegers, P.

    1998-01-01

    Rossi-Alpha measurements were performed on the SHEBA assembly to determine the prompt neutron decay constants. These prompt neutron decay constants represent an eigenvalue characteristic of this particular assembly, which can be used to infer the amount of fissile material in the assembly. In addition, subcritical measurements using Rossi-Alpha and the source-jerk techniques were also performed on the SHEBA assembly. These measurements were compared against TWODANT calculations and agreed quite well. The subcritical measurements were also used to obtain a unique signature that represented the amount of material associated with the degree of subcriticality of the SHEBA assembly. Finally, the Feynman variance-to-mean technique in conjunction with TWODANT, were used to determine the effective delayed neutron fraction for the SHEBA assembly

  3. Planning a New Education and Outreach Program Based on Past Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, W. H.; Eriksson, S. C.

    2004-12-01

    In 2004, UNAVCO, a geodetic research consortium, celebrated its 20th birthday and hired its first Education and Outreach Coordinator. UNAVCO has informally reached out to various constituents such as geodetic researchers, undergraduate and graduate students, and K-12 teachers through web-based mapping tools, short courses, and one-to-one training on research equipment. A strategically planned and implemented Education and Outreach Program will, by definition, depend on the organization's leadership and on the experience of the people leading such a program. Based on 39 years of combined experience, here are some lessons-learned that will inform UNAVCO's efforts. E & O should focus on what is special and unique to our organization. UNAVCO supports high precision, GPS, geodetic research as its primary mission. Define our audience. UNAVCO serves the research scientists at the member institutions. Do we have a broader goal of helping in the education of undergraduates? Is our work relevant in middle and secondary school? Include the audience in planning what we will do. A two-way dialogue to determine the most effective education and outreach products must balance what scientists think the audience needs and having the audience learn about a subject to help in making decisions. Involve the scientists and decision-makers in the process to develop ownership. Having people `buy in' from the beginning is important for participation, advocacy, and finding long term resources. Decide on quality and quantity. Is it important to serve large numbers of people? Would a small program that focuses on a few individuals over a long period of time serve the organization's goals better? What do we need from an E & O program? Being explicit about what an organization needs from E & O helps define what activities it will do. Does UNAVCO need visibility with members? Does the membership need help with `broader impacts'? Does UNAVCO see itself serving its members or being a `good citizen

  4. Proposed sub-criticality level for an 80 MWTHd-bismuth-cooled Ads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansani, L.; Monti, R.; Neuhold, P.

    2003-01-01

    The degree of operational sub-criticality of an Accelerator-driven System (ADS) on the one hand directly affects key accelerator system parameters, such as the proton beam current required to sustain the selected rated power level and, on the other, the likelihood of approaching or attaining criticality under abnormal or accident conditions. Then, if in all such conditions the safety goal is pursued to design the sub-critical core so that it stays away from criticality with adequate margin, the required operational sub-criticality level must be determined by a properly balanced approach between excessively demanding accelerator system performances and risk of accidental criticality. The approach must necessarily include evaluation and appropriate combination of the relevant reactivity effects (e.g. from system cool-down, postulated accident scenarios, geometrical variations) and proper consideration of specific design features (such as, for instance, the absence of safety rods, intended as neutron absorbing devices having a role equivalent to the shutdown rods in critical reactors). The paper presents a possible approach to the determination of the operational sub-criticality level of an 80 MWth Lead-Bismuth-cooled pool type ADS, initially conceived and developed by a team of Italian Organisations led by Ansaldo, with funding from the Ministry of University and Scientific and Technological Research, and currently in the process of being assessed, versus a gas-cooled concept, in the frame of a contract with the Commission of the European Communities. After a brief description of the Lead-Bismuth-cooled ADS concept relevant features and of the key safety goals in terms of required sub-criticality margin, the evaluated reactivity effects are presented, a method to combine them is discussed and a proposed operational sub-criticality level is derived. (author)

  5. Microwave tokamak experiment (MTX) first year of operation and future plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, M.C.

    1989-01-01

    The Microwave Tokamak Experiment (MTX) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) began plasma operations in November 1988, and our main goal is the study of electron-cyclotron heating (ECH) in plasma discharges. The MTX tokamak was relocated from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), and we have re-created plasma parameters that are similar to those generated while the tokamak was at MIT. After stable ohmic operation was achieved, single-pulse FEL heating experiments began. During this phase, the FEL operated at low power levels on the way to its ultimate goal of 2 GW and 140 GHz with a 30-ns pulse length. We have developed a number of new diagnostics to measure these fast FEL pulses and the resulting plasma effects. In this paper, we present results that show the correlation of MTX data with MIT data, some of the operational modifications and procedures used, results to date from preliminary tokamak operations with the FEL, and our near-term operational plans. 7 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  6. Relations between educational research, policy, planning and implementation: The Thai experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketudat, Sippanondha; Fry, Gerald

    1981-06-01

    The relations between educational research, policy, planning and implementation in Thailand are the topic of this paper. The major focus is on the research/policy linkage. A complex educational administrative structure and a pluralistic informal power structure characterize the Thai research context. A tetrahedral model of linkages provides the conceptual framework for the analysis. Details are then provided with respect to the actual operationalization of the model in terms of the Thai approach in practice. Major elements in the Thai approach include the use of expert policy committees, joint committees involving both administrators and researchers, problem-oriented seminars, and commissioned research. Actual examples of research efforts described are an educational reform study, local level school mapping, a school cluster experiment, a budget exercise to improve the equity of primary school resource allocations, and a policy evaluation of sub-district secondary schools. Finally, lessons to be learned from the Thai experience are summarized. Thailand has experienced some success in building analytical educational research capacity and ensuring its utilization. Key elements in this success have been an emphasis on strengthening human capacities; judging political will in a timely, flexible manner; creatively utilizing bureaucratic forms such as committees; and remaining both politically detached and sensitive.

  7. Pressurized-thermal-shock experiments: PTSE-1 results and PTSE-2 plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, R.H.; Nanstad, R.K.; Wanner, R.; Merkle, J.G.; Robinson, G.C.; Whitman, G.D.

    1985-01-01

    The first pressurized-thermal-shock experiment (PTSE-1) was performed with a vessel with a 1-m-long flaw in a plug of specially tempered steel having the composition of SA-508 forging steel. The second experiment (PTSE-2) will have a similar arrangement, but the material in which the flaw will be implanted is being prepared to have low tearing resistance. Special tempering of a 2 1/4 Cr - 1 Mo steel plate has been shown to induce a low Charpy impact energy in the upper-shelf temperature range. The purpose of PTSE-2 is to investigate the fracture behavior of low-upper-shelf material in a vessel under the combined loading of concurrent pressure and thermal shock. The primary objective of the experimental plan is to induce a rapidly propagating cleavage fracture under conditions that are likely to induce a ductile tearing instability at the time of arrest of the cleavage fracture. The secondary objective of the test is to extend the range of the investigation of warm prestressing. 11 figs

  8. [ProteoСat: a tool for planning of proteomic experiments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skvortsov, V S; Alekseychuk, N N; Khudyakov, D V; Mikurova, A V; Rybina, A V; Novikova, S E; Tikhonova, O V

    2015-01-01

    ProteoCat is a computer program has been designed to help researchers in the planning of large-scale proteomic experiments. The central part of this program is the subprogram of hydrolysis simulation that supports 4 proteases (trypsin, lysine C, endoproteinases AspN and GluC). For the peptides obtained after virtual hydrolysis or loaded from data file a number of properties important in mass-spectrometric experiments can be calculated or predicted. The data can be analyzed or filtered to reduce a set of peptides. The program is using new and improved modification of our methods developed to predict pI and probability of peptide detection; pI can also be predicted for a number of popular pKa's scales, proposed by other investigators. The algorithm for prediction of peptide retention time was realized similar to the algorithm used in the program SSRCalc. ProteoCat can estimate the coverage of amino acid sequences of proteins under defined limitation on peptides detection, as well as the possibility of assembly of peptide fragments with user-defined size of "sticky" ends. The program has a graphical user interface, written on JAVA and available at http://www.ibmc.msk.ru/LPCIT/ProteoCat.

  9. Integrating Collaboration, Adaptive Management, and Scenario-Planning: Experiences at Las Cienegas National Conservation Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy K. Caves

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available There is growing recognition that public lands cannot be managed as islands; rather, land management must address the ecological, social, and temporal complexity that often spans jurisdictions and traditional planning horizons. Collaborative decision making and adaptive management (CAM have been promoted as methods to reconcile competing societal demands and respond to complex ecosystem dynamics. We detail the experiences of land managers and stakeholders in using CAM at Las Cienegas National Conservation Area (LCNCA, a highly valued site under the jurisdiction of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM. The CAM process at Las Cienegas is marked by strong stakeholder engagement, with four core elements: (1 shared watershed goals with measurable resource objectives; (2 relevant and reliable scientific information; (3 mechanisms to incorporate new information into decision making; and (4 shared learning to improve both the process and management actions. The combination of stakeholder engagement and adaptive management has led to agreement on contentious issues, more innovative solutions, and more effective land management. However, the region is now experiencing rapid changes outside managers' control, including climate change, human population growth, and reduced federal budgets, with large but unpredictable impacts on natural resources. Although the CAM experience provides a strong foundation for making the difficult and contentious management decisions that such changes are likely to require, neither collaboration nor adaptive management provides a sufficient structure for addressing the externalities that drive uncontrollable and unpredictable change. As a result, LCNCA is exploring two specific modifications to CAM that may better address emerging challenges, including: (1 creating nested resource objectives to distinguish between those objectives that may be crucial to maintaining ecological resilience from those that may hinder a flexible

  10. Conceptual design of the fusion-driven subcritical system FDS-I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Y.; Zheng, S.; Zhu, X.; Wang, W.; Wang, H.; Liu, S.; Bai, Y.; Chen, H.; Hu, L.; Chen, M.; Huang, Q.; Huang, D.; Zhang, S.; Li, J.; Chu, D.; Jiang, J.; Song, Y.

    2006-01-01

    The fusion-driven subcritical system (named FDS-I) was previously proposed as an intermediate step toward the final application of fusion energy. A conceptual design of the FDS-I is presented, which consists of the fusion neutron driver with relatively easy-achieved plasma parameters, and the He-gas/liquid lithium-lead Dual-cooled subcritical Waste Transmutation (DWT) blanket used to transmute long-lived radioactive wastes and to generate energy on the basis of self-sustainable fission and fusion fuel cycle. An overview of the FDS-I is given and the specifications of the design analysis are summarized

  11. Subcritical Measurements Research Program for Fresh and Spent Materials Test Reactor Fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, A.

    1999-01-01

    'A series of subcritical noise measurements were performed on fresh and spent University of Missouri Research Reactor fuel assemblies. These experimental measurements were performed for the purposes of providing benchmark quality data for validating transport theory computer codes and nuclear cross-section data used to perform criticality safety analyses for highly enriched, uranium-aluminum Material Test Reactor fuel assemblies. A mechanical test rig was designed and built to hold up to four fuel assemblies and neutron detectors in a subcritical array. The rig provided researchers with the ability to evaluate the reactivity effects of variable fuel/detector spacing, fuel rotation, and insertion of metal reflector plates into the lattice.'

  12. Preliminary analysis of advanced equilibrium configuration for the fusion-driven subcritical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu Delin; Wu Bin; Wu Yican

    2003-01-01

    The Fusion-Driven Subcritical System (FDS) is a subcritical nuclear energy system driven by fusion neutron source. In this paper, an advanced plasma configuration for FDS system has been proposed, which aims at high beta, high bootstrap current and good confinement. A fixed-boundary equilibrium code has been used to obtain ideal equilibrium configuration. In order to determine the feasibility of FDS operation, a two-dimensional time-dependent free boundary simulation code has been adopted to simulate time-scale evolution of plasma current profile and boundary position. By analyses, the Reversed Shear mode as the most attractive one has been recommended for the FDS equilibrium configuration design

  13. Feasibility of waste transmutation using accelerator-driven IRIS subcritical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petroviae, B.; Carelli, M.; Paramonov, D.

    2001-01-01

    Waste transmutation is considered for reducing radio-toxicity of nuclear waste generated in power reactors. Accelerator driven subcritical systems (ADS) offer certain advantages over the use of nuclear reactors. Transmutation of fission products (e.g. 99 Tc) generally requires thermal neutron spectrum, while for actinides fast spectrum provides better performance. Proposed solutions to this problem include a multi-strata approach as well as a multi-zone (thermal/fast-spectrum) single systems. In this paper we examine the feasibility of employing a dual-spectrum two-zone accelerator-driven IRIS subcritical for waste transmutation. (author)

  14. Benchmarks of subcriticality in accelerator-driven system at Kyoto University Critical Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheol Ho Pyeon

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Basic research on the accelerator-driven system is conducted by combining 235U-fueled and 232Th-loaded cores in the Kyoto University Critical Assembly with the pulsed neutron generator (14 MeV neutrons and the proton beam accelerator (100 MeV protons with a heavy metal target. The results of experimental subcriticality are presented with a wide range of subcriticality level between near critical and 10,000 pcm, as obtained by the pulsed neutron source method, the Feynman-α method, and the neutron source multiplication method.

  15. Conceptual research on reactor core physics for accelerator driven sub-critical reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Zhixiang; Ding Dazhao; Liu Guisheng; Fan Sheng; Shen Qingbiao; Zhang Baocheng; Tian Ye

    2000-01-01

    The main properties of reactor core physics are analysed for accelerator driven sub-critical reactor. These properties include the breeding of fission nuclides, the condition of equilibrium, the accumulation of long-lived radioactive wastes, the effect from poison of fission products, as well as the thermal power output and the energy gain for sub-critical reactor. The comparison between thermal and fast system for main properties are carried out. The properties for a thermal-fast coupled system are also analysed

  16. Subcritical water extraction of amino acids from Mars analog soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noell, Aaron C; Fisher, Anita M; Fors-Francis, Kisa; Sherrit, Stewart

    2018-01-18

    For decades, the Martian regolith has stymied robotic mission efforts to catalog the organic molecules present. Perchlorate salts, found widely throughout Mars, are the main culprit as they breakdown and react with organics liberated from the regolith during pyrolysis, the primary extraction technique attempted to date on Mars. This work further develops subcritical water extraction (SCWE) as a technique for extraction of amino acids on future missions. The effect of SCWE temperature (185, 200, and 215°C) and duration of extraction (10-120 min) on the total amount and distribution of amino acids recovered was explored for three Mars analog soils (JSC Mars-1A simulant, an Atacama desert soil, and an Antarctic Dry Valleys soil) and bovine serum albumin (as a control solution of known amino acid content). Total amounts of amino acids extracted increased with both time and temperature; however, the distribution shifted notably due to the destruction of the amino acids with charged or polar side chains at the higher temperatures. The pure bovine serum albumin solution and JSC Mars 1A also showed lower yields than the Atacama and Antarctic extractions suggesting that SCWE may be less effective at hydrolyzing large or aggregated proteins. Changing solvent from water to a dilute (10 mM) HCl solution allowed total extraction efficiencies comparable to the higher temperature/time combinations while using the lowest temperature/time (185°C/20 min). The dilute HCl extractions also did not lead to the shift in amino acid distribution observed at the higher temperatures. Additionally, adding sodium perchlorate salt to the extraction did not interfere with recoveries. Native magnetite in the JSC Mars-1A may have been responsible for destruction of glycine, as evidenced by its uncharacteristic decrease as the temperature/time of extraction increased. This work shows that SCWE can extract high yields of native amino acids out of Mars analog soils with minimal disruption of the

  17. Delimitation and Classified Planning Management of Functional Renovation Zone: Experience of and Discussion on Shenzhen's Practice of Urban Renewal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Wenxuan; Tong De; Liu Qing; Feng Changchun; Liu Jinxin

    2016-01-01

    Urban renewal is one of the important issues of urban development in China.Along with its development in the contemporary time,China has seen considerable achievements and problems as well in urban renewal.Taking into account that Shenzhen has carried out plenty of explorations on urban planning renewal,this paper takes it as an example to firstly analyze the plights of its urban renewal planning,the shortcomings of its urban renewal projects,and the advantages of functional renovation zones to manifest the necessity of the delimitation and classified planning management of functional renovation zone in urban renewal.It then summarizes the experience of its urban renewal unit planning in terms of the methods of zoning and implementation,and finally discusses the conceptual connotations of functional renovation zone,as well as the logic and characteristics of renovations of its delimitation and classified planning management,in hope of providing other Chinese cities with some references.

  18. [Possibility of 3D Printing in Ophthalmology - First Experiences by Stereotactic Radiosurgery Planning Scheme of Intraocular Tumor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furdová, A; Furdová, Ad; Thurzo, A; Šramka, M; Chorvát, M; Králik, G

    Nowadays 3D printing allows us to create physical objects on the basis of digital data. Thanks to its rapid development the use enormously increased in medicine too. Its creations facilitate surgical planning processes, education and research in context of organ transplantation, individualization prostheses, breast forms, and others.Our article describes the wide range of applied 3D printing technology possibilities in ophthalmology. It is focusing on innovative implementation of eye tumors treatment planning in stereotactic radiosurgery irradiation.We analyze our first experience with 3D printing model of the eye in intraocular tumor planning stereotactic radiosurgery. 3D printing, model, Fused Deposition Modelling, stereotactic radiosurgery, prostheses, intraocular tumor.

  19. DebriSat - A Planned Laboratory-Based Satellite Impact Experiment for Breakup Fragment Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, J.-C.; Fitz-Coy, N.; Werremeyer, M.; Huynh, T.; Voelker, M.; Opiela, J.

    2012-01-01

    DebriSat is a planned laboratory ]based satellite hypervelocity impact experiment. The goal of the project is to characterize the orbital debris that would be generated by a hypervelocity collision involving a modern satellite in low Earth orbit (LEO). The DebriSat project will update and expand upon the information obtained in the 1992 Satellite Orbital Debris Characterization Impact Test (SOCIT), which characterized the breakup of a 1960 's US Navy Transit satellite. There are three phases to this project: the design and fabrication of an engineering model representing a modern, 50-cm/50-kg class LEO satellite known as DebriSat; conduction of a laboratory-based hypervelocity impact to catastrophically break up the satellite; and characterization of the properties of breakup fragments down to 2 mm in size. The data obtained, including fragment size, area ]to ]mass ratio, density, shape, material composition, optical properties, and radar cross ]section distributions, will be used to supplement the DoD fs and NASA fs satellite breakup models to better describe the breakup outcome of a modern satellite. Updated breakup models will improve mission planning, environmental models, and event response. The DebriSat project is sponsored by the Air Force fs Space and Missile Systems Center and the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office. The design and fabrication of DebriSat is led by University of Florida with subject matter experts f support from The Aerospace Corporation. The major milestones of the project include the complete fabrication of DebriSat by September 2013, the hypervelocity impact of DebriSat at the Air Force fs Arnold Engineering Development Complex in early 2014, and fragment characterization and data analyses in late 2014.

  20. OPEN COURSEWARE IN DESIGN AND PLANNING EDUCATION AND UTILIZATION OF DISTANCE EDUCATION OPPORTUNITY: Anadolu University Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hicran Hanım HALAC

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Depending on the evolving technological possibilities, distance and online education applications have gradually gained more significance in the education system. Regarding the issues, such as advancements in the server services, disc capacity, cloud computing opportunities resulting from the increase in the number of the broadband internet users, web design applications; and increase in the number of mobile device and social media users and the time spent on the internet, traditional reading and working habits as well as the preferred information resources of man have considerably changed. In accordance with these changes, it has become an inevitable necessity to improve the higher education courses and learning materials. Any higher education system, which fails to keep up with these requirements, will inevitably have difficulties in providing the students with the necessary knowledge and skills within an appropriate workload frame. Within this context, one of the fields to benefit from distance and online education opportunities is undoubtedly “architecture and design education”. Although the use of computer technologies is inevasible and highly intensive in this field, the speed of conformance with the rapid technological changes and the adoption of the advancements is considerably slow compared to others. However, it is still among the fields where the technological opportunities are utilized at most. Thereby, distance and online education technologies present an essential potential to help students achieve the required planning and architectural knowledge and skills. In this respect, this article evaluates the distance and online education opportunities for design and planning education through the experience of Anadolu University.

  1. A modernized and versatile startup reactivity measuring system installed at NPP Paks and its application for subcritical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czibok, T.; Dezso, Z.; Horvath, Cs.; Lipcsei, S.; Vegh, J.; Pos, I.

    2006-01-01

    In 2004 the Hungarian Paks NPP completed a project for upgrading the reactivity measuring system applied during reactor startup experiments. Almost all components of the previous system were replaced, only ex-core ionisation chambers remained unaltered. New hardware and software components were introduced for neutron flux signal handling, for data acquisition, as well as for measurement evaluation and data presentation. High-precision picoamper meters were installed at each reactor unit, current signals are handled by a portable signal processing unit. The system applies an accurate on-line reactivity calculation algorithm based on the point-kinetic model with six delayed neutron groups. Detailed off-line evaluation and analysis of startup measurements can be performed on the portable unit, as well. The paper describes the architecture, data acquisition modules, services and man-machine interface of the new system. Functions and results are illustrated with measured data recorded during a startup of Unit 3. In 2003 and 2004 the RMR was installed and tested at all Paks NPP units successfully and now it is in regular use during unit startups. The second part of the paper illustrates an extension of the new system to perform reactivity measurements using the well-known Rossi-α and Feynman-α statistical methods. The modified system was needed to estimate the reactivity of a subcritical system formed by damaged fuel assemblies stored at the fuel service pit of Paks Unit 2. Theoretical background of the applied algorithms is outlined, then results of validation tests and on site measurements are treated. The measurements have shown that the subcriticality of the damaged fuel was sufficiently deep if the high boron concentration in the fuel service pit was maintained

  2. NEW APPROACH TO TERRITORIAL PLANNING IN UKRAINE TAKING INTO ACCOUNT PROCESSE OF DECENTRALIZATIONAND AUSTRIAS EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorosh A.M

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Scientific publications, legislation on spatial planning in Ukraine and spatial planning in Austria are analysed. Ukrainian spatial planning system is divided into urban planning and land management planning.According to the Law of Ukraine "On regulation of urban development" urban planning documentation is developed for: the entire territory of Ukraine, the region (a part of Ukraine’s territory and as well for settlements and their parts.According to the Law of Ukraine "On Land Management" most land management documents are developed on the local level.Only two types of land management documentation are developedon the regional level, namely: a land management schemes and feasibility studies of land use and land protection of administrative units; b land management projects for the establishment (changing of the boundaries of administrative units. Such projects as land management projects on ordering the territory for urban needs and land management projects on ordering the residential areas are developed on the local level.Other land management documentation is developed for a particular land parcel (setting boundaries, separation, change of purpose and so on., or has a narrow specialization (area organization of agricultural land parcels, or providing the environmental and economic assessment of crop rotation. It’s found that almost all planning tolls belong to urban planning. Austrian spatial planning has three levels with clear division of competences in all areas. Planning occurs at the level of the federal government, the federal land and the community. Also nominal spatial planning and professional planning in various fields, which has a significant impact on the environment is defined. Analysis of planning competencies at various levels shows that the lower the level of planning, the higher competence in nominal spatial planning and the lower in professional planning. At first a concept of local development which contains the ideas

  3. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging for surgical planning in pediatric patients: a preliminary experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Jarod L; Griffin, Natalie; Hacker, Carl D; Vellimana, Ananth K; Akbari, S Hassan; Shimony, Joshua S; Smyth, Matthew D; Leuthardt, Eric C; Limbrick, David D

    2017-12-01

    OBJECTIVE Cerebral mapping for surgical planning and operative guidance is a challenging task in neurosurgery. Pediatric patients are often poor candidates for many modern mapping techniques because of inability to cooperate due to their immature age, cognitive deficits, or other factors. Resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) is uniquely suited to benefit pediatric patients because it is inherently noninvasive and does not require task performance or significant cooperation. Recent advances in the field have made mapping cerebral networks possible on an individual basis for use in clinical decision making. The authors present their initial experience translating rs-fMRI into clinical practice for surgical planning in pediatric patients. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed cases in which the rs-fMRI analysis technique was used prior to craniotomy in pediatric patients undergoing surgery in their institution. Resting-state analysis was performed using a previously trained machine-learning algorithm for identification of resting-state networks on an individual basis. Network maps were uploaded to the clinical imaging and surgical navigation systems. Patient demographic and clinical characteristics, including need for sedation during imaging and use of task-based fMRI, were also recorded. RESULTS Twenty patients underwent rs-fMRI prior to craniotomy between December 2013 and June 2016. Their ages ranged from 1.9 to 18.4 years, and 12 were male. Five of the 20 patients also underwent task-based fMRI and one underwent awake craniotomy. Six patients required sedation to tolerate MRI acquisition, including resting-state sequences. Exemplar cases are presented including anatomical and resting-state functional imaging. CONCLUSIONS Resting-state fMRI is a rapidly advancing field of study allowing for whole brain analysis by a noninvasive modality. It is applicable to a wide range of patients and effective even under general anesthesia. The nature of resting

  4. Cost optimization of ADS design: Comparative study of externally driven heterogeneous and homogeneous two-zone subcritical reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulik, Volodymyr; Tkaczyk, Alan H.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The optimization of two-zone homogeneous subcritical systems has been performed. • A Serpent model for two-zone heterogeneous subcritical systems has been developed. • The optimization of two-zone heterogeneous subcritical systems has been carried out. • Economically optimal core composition of two-zone subcritical system was found. • The neutron spectra of the heterogeneous subcritical systems have been obtained. - Abstract: Subcritical systems driven by external neutron sources, commonly known as Accelerator-Driven System (ADS), are one type of advanced nuclear reactor exhibiting attractive characteristics, distinguished from the traditional critical systems by their intrinsic safety features. In addition, an ADS can be used for the transmutation of the nuclear waste, accumulated during the operation of existing reactors. The optimization of a subcritical nuclear reactor in terms of materials (fuel content, coolant, etc.), geometrical, and economical parameters is a crucial step in the process of their design and construction. This article describes the optimization modeling performed for homogeneous and heterogeneous two-zone subcritical systems in terms of geometry of the fuel zones. Economical assessment was also carried out for the costs of the fuel in the core of the system. Optimization modeling was performed with the Serpent-1.1.18 Monte Carlo code. The model of a two-zone subcritical system with a fast inner and a thermal gas-cooled graphite-moderated outer zone was developed, simulated, and analyzed. The optimal value for the pitch of fuel elements in the thermal outer zone was investigated from the viewpoint of the cost of subcritical system. As the main goal of ADS development is nuclear waste transmutation, neutron spectra for both fast and thermal zones were obtained for different system configurations. The results of optimization modeling of homogeneous and heterogeneous two-zone subcritical systems show that an optimal

  5. Sensitivity Analysis of Core Neutronic Parameters in Electron Accelerator-driven Subcritical Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marziye Ebrahimkhani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Calculation of the core neutronic parameters is one of the key components in all nuclear reactors. In this research, the energy spectrum and spatial distribution of the neutron flux in a uranium target have been calculated. In addition, sensitivity of the core neutronic parameters in accelerator-driven subcritical advanced liquid metal reactors, such as electron beam energy (Ee and source multiplication coefficient (ks, has been investigated. A Monte Carlo code (MCNPX_2.6 has been used to calculate neutronic parameters such as effective multiplication coefficient (keff, net neutron multiplication (M, neutron yield (Yn/e, energy constant gain (G0, energy gain (G, importance of neutron source (φ∗, axial and radial distributions of neutron flux, and power peaking factor (Pmax/Pave in two axial and radial directions of the reactor core for four fuel loading patterns. According to the results, safety margin and accelerator current (Ie have been decreased in the highest case of ks, but G and φ∗ have increased by 88.9% and 21.6%, respectively. In addition, for LP1 loading pattern, with increasing Ee from 100 MeV up to 1 GeV, Yn/e and G improved by 91.09% and 10.21%, and Ie and Pacc decreased by 91.05% and 10.57%, respectively. The results indicate that placement of the Np–Pu assemblies on the periphery allows for a consistent keff because the Np–Pu assemblies experience less burn-up.

  6. Treatment of radioactive ionic exchange resins by super- and sub-critical water oxidation (SCWO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyeongsook; Son, Soon Hwan; Kim, Kwang Sin; Han, Joo Hee; Han, Kee Do; Do, Seung Hoe

    2010-01-01

    As the usage of ion exchange resins increases the inventory of spent ion exchange resins increases in nuclear power plants. This study is to find an environmental-friendly process to treat theses spent resins. The test samples were prepared by diluting the slurry made by wet ball milling the spent cationic exchange resins for 24 h. The spent cationic exchange resins were separated from mixed ion exchange resins by a fluidized bed gravimetric separator. The decomposition of the samples was investigated with super-critical water oxidation (SCWO) equipment. A statistical test method - the central composite design as a statistical design of experiments - was adopted to find the optimum condition to decompose the spent exchange resins. The optimum condition was 60% of excess oxygen, 22.5 min of residence time, 0.615 wt% of NaOH, 358 of reaction temperature, and 3600 psi of reaction pressure, which is a sub-critical condition. The liquid product of the decomposition has the characteristics of 80-185 ppm of COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand), 4.0-6.0 of pH, and <1.0 ppm of corrosive components (Ni, Fe, Cr, and Mo). The exhaust gas from the SCWO equipment contained NOx of 0 ppm, SOx of 3 ppm (environment exhaust standard in Korea: NOx 200 ppm, SOx 300 ppm). Co-substituted mock samples were prepared to simulate spent cationic exchange resins from nuclear power plants which can contain radioactive Co isotopes. The conditions to obtain organic compound destruction ratio which conforms the effluent stand for the mock samples were found. The treated water filtered with 0.2-filter contained less than 1 ppm of Co. Thus Co recovery rate of more 99% was achieved.

  7. Calculation of Upper Subcritical Limits for Nuclear Criticality in a Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.W. Pegram

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to present the methodology to be used for development of the Subcritical Limit (SL) for post closure conditions for the Yucca Mountain repository. The SL is a value based on a set of benchmark criticality multiplier, k eff results that are outputs of the MCNP calculation method. This SL accounts for calculational biases and associated uncertainties resulting from the use of MCNP as the method of assessing k eff . The context for an SL estimate include the range of applicability (based on the set of MCNP results) and the type of SL required for the application at hand. This document will include illustrative calculations for each of three approaches. The data sets used for the example calculations are identified in Section 5.1. These represent three waste categories, and SLs for each of these sets of experiments will be computed in this document. Future MCNP data sets will be analyzed using the methods discussed here. The treatment of the biases evaluated on sets of k eff results via MCNP is statistical in nature. This document does not address additional non-statistical contributions to the bias margin, acknowledging that regulatory requirements may impose additional administrative penalties. Potentially, there are other biases or margins that should be accounted for when assessing criticality (k eff ). Only aspects of the bias as determined using the stated assumptions and benchmark critical data sets will be included in the methods and sample calculations in this document. The set of benchmark experiments used in the validation of the computational system should be representative of the composition, configuration, and nuclear characteristics for the application at hand. In this work, a range of critical experiments will be the basis of establishing the SL for three categories of waste types that will be in the repository. The ultimate purpose of this document is to present methods that will effectively characterize the MCNP

  8. Young People's Preferences for Family Planning Service Providers in Rural Malawi: A Discrete Choice Experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Michaels-Igbokwe

    Full Text Available To quantify the impact of service provider characteristics on young people's choice of family planning (FP service provider in rural Malawi in order to identify strategies for increasing access and uptake of FP among youth.A discrete choice experiment was developed to assess the relative impact of service characteristics on preferences for FP service providers among young people (aged 15-24. Four alternative providers were included (government facility, private facility, outreach and community based distribution of FP and described by six attributes (the distance between participants' home and the service delivery point, frequency of service delivery, waiting time at the facility, service providers' attitude, availability of FP commodities and price. A random parameters logit model was used to estimate preferences for service providers and the likely uptake of services following the expansion of outreach and community based distribution (CBDA services. In the choice experiment young people were twice as likely to choose a friendly provider (government service odds ratio [OR] = 2.45, p<0.01; private service OR = 1.99, p<0.01; CBDA OR = 1.88, p<0.01 and more than two to three times more likely to choose a provider with an adequate supply of FP commodities (government service OR = 2.48, p<0.01; private service OR = 2.33, p<0.01; CBDA = 3.85, p<0.01. Uptake of community based services was greater than facility based services across a variety of simulated service scenarios indicating that such services may be an effective means of expanding access for youth in rural areas and an important tool for increasing service uptake among youth.Ensuring that services are acceptable to young people may require additional training for service providers in order to ensure that all providers are friendly and non-judgemental when dealing with younger clients and to ensure that supplies are consistently available.

  9. UK experience of planning the nuclear contribution to the UK power programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catchpole, S.; Jenkin, F.P.

    1977-01-01

    The paper outlines U.K. experience in planning nuclear programmes. It examines the factors which have determined the size of such programmes together with those factors which have influenced their implementation. The paper also discusses the role which the utility has played in the deployment of nuclear power in the U.K. At present, nuclear energy can only be utilised on a large scale via the electricity route and the forecasting of electricity demand is therefore a key element in determining the size of the nuclear programme. Other important issues which affect the nuclear contribution are: national fuel policies, discontinuities in price and availability of imported fossil fuels, plant capital costs, fuel price relativities, plant siting, rate of introduction of new nuclear systems, manufacturer's capability, public attitudes towards nuclear power and financing. These issues are dealt with in some detail including their relative importance in the U.K. The paper also discusses the contribution of the various nuclear bodies in the U.K. in securing the implementation of the nuclear programmes. From the inception of nuclear power in the U.K., it has been recognised that a major utility has a central role to play not only in commercial operation but also in the procurement of plant and materials. As explained in the paper this ''informed buyer'' approach, which is being increasingly adopted by other major utilities, calls for an organisation and technical infrastructure far more complex than is the case for fossil plants. The requirements of safety, which is unambiguously the responsibility of the utility, and of high availability of plant operation demand a rigorous approach to design, quality assurance, project management, construction and operation. To this must be added sound research and development and staff training facilities. The paper explains how experience in these vital areas has been built up

  10. Latest experiences and future plans on NSLS-II insertion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanabe, T.; Hidaka, Y.; Kitegi, C.; Hidas, D.; Musardo, M.; Harder, D. A.; Rank, J.; Cappadoro, P.; Fernandes, H.; Corwin, T. [Energy Sciences Directorate, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, U.S.A (United States)

    2016-07-27

    National Synchrotron Light Source-II (NSLS-II) is the latest storage ring of 3 GeV energy at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The horizontal emittance of the electron beam with the currently installed six damping wigglers is 0.9 nm.rad, which could be further reduced to 0.5 nm.rad with more insertion devices (IDs). With only one RF cavity the beam current is restricted to 200 mA. Five hundred mA operation is envisaged for next year with an addition of the second cavity. Six (plus two branches) beamlines have been commissioned in the initial phase of the project. In July 2015, three NIH funded beamlines called “Advanced Beamlines for Biological Investigations with X-rays” (ABBIX) will be added for operation. This paper describes the experiences of ID development, installation, and commissioning for the NSLS-II project as well as our future plans to improve the performance of the facility in terms of source development.

  11. LAMOST Experiment for Galactic Understanding and Exploration (LEGUE) — The survey's science plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Licai; Liu Chao; Chen Yuqin; Li Jing; Newberg Heidi Jo; Carlin, Jeffrey L.; Beers, Timothy C.; Chen Li; Hou Jinliang; Christlieb, Norbert; Grillmair, Carl J.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Han Zhanwen; Wang Bo; Lee, Hsu-Tai; Lépine, Sébastien; Liu Xiaowei; Pan Kaike; Sellwood, J. A.; Wang Hongchi

    2012-01-01

    We describe the current plans for a spectroscopic survey of millions of stars in the Milky Way galaxy using the Guo Shou Jing Telescope (GSJT, formerly called the Large sky Area Multi-Object fiber Spectroscopic Telescope — LAMOST). The survey will obtain spectra for 2.5 million stars brighter than r < 19 during dark/grey time, and 5 million stars brighter than r < 17 or J < 16 on nights that are moonlit or have low transparency. The survey will begin in the fall of 2012, and will run for at least four years. The telescope's design constrains the optimal declination range for observations to 10° < δ < 50°, and site conditions lead to an emphasis on stars in the direction of the Galactic anticenter. The survey is divided into three parts with different target selection strategies: disk, anticenter, and spheroid. The resulting dataset will be used to study the merger history of the Milky Way, the substructure and evolution of the disks, the nature of the first generation of stars through identification of the lowest metallicity stars, and star formation through study of open clusters and OB associations. Detailed design of the LAMOST Experiment for Galactic Understanding and Exploration (LEGUE) survey will be completed in summer 2012, after a review of the results of the pilot survey.

  12. [Patient safety culture in hospitals: experiences in planning, organising and conducting a survey among hospital staff].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vegten, Amanda; Pfeiffer, Yvonne; Giuliani, Francesca; Manser, Tanja

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the first hospital-wide survey on patient safety climate, involving all staff (medical and non-medical), in the German-speaking area. Its aim is to share our experiences with planning, organising and conducting this survey. The study was performed at the university hospital in Zurich and had a response rate of 46.8% (2,897 valid questionnaires). The survey instrument ("Patientensicherheitsklimainventar") was based on the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (AHRQ). Primarily it allowed for assessing the current patient safety climate as well as identifying specific areas for improvement and creating a hospital-wide awareness and acceptance for patient safety issues and interventions (e.g., the introduction of a Critical Incident Reporting System [CIRS]). We discuss the basic principles and the feedback concept guiding the organisation of the overall project. Critical to the success of this project were the guaranteed anonymity of the respondents, adequate communication through well-established channels within the organisation and the commitment of the management across all project phases. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  13. What are community nurses experiences of assessing frailty and assisting in planning subsequent interventions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Hannah

    2017-09-02

    With an ageing population and increasing focus on community care, this study aimed to explore the experiences of community nurses in assessing frailty and planning interventions around frailty. Six community nurses were recruited for face-to-face semi-structured interviews as part of this qualitative study which was underpinned by a competence framework ( Royal College of Nursing, 2009 ). Thematic analysis was used and frailty was identified as an emerging topic within practice. Participants discussed several aspects associated with frailty; however, some uncertainty around the concept of frailty and its definition was noted, particularly for staff who had received limited frailty training. Participants had a growing awareness of frailty in practice, but challenges-including time constraints and staffing within some roles, a perception of limited services to support older people, and for some a lack of confidence and training-presented barriers to frailty assessment. The Rockwood frailty scale was used by participants within practice, but evidence suggested it was felt to lack validity within the community setting.

  14. A case method for Sales and Operations Planning: a learning experience from Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Felipe Scavarda

    Full Text Available Abstract Adequate preparation, learning, and training is required for Sales and Operations Planning (S&OP to aid organizations in achieving the full expected benefits from its implementation. This paper presents a case method for S&OP and the learning experience of its application at the University of Münster (Germany. The “constructive alignment principle” was applied with a “team teaching” approach, involving an executive from the case company. Students improved their knowledge on S&OP and their analytical skills by understanding the conceptual S&OP building blocks and by learning how to deal with them to provide a solution for a case based on a real-life situation. The learning results were evaluated positively during the discipline’s student evaluation of teaching (SET. The applied case method enhanced the student’s motivation and engagement (e.g., higher preparation effort and class attendance, which were considered higher than in other disciplines with the traditional lecture-based education.

  15. LAVENDER: A steady-state core analysis code for design studies of accelerator driven subcritical reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Shengcheng; Wu, Hongchun; Cao, Liangzhi; Zheng, Youqi, E-mail: yqzheng@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Huang, Kai; He, Mingtao; Li, Xunzhao

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • A new code system for design studies of accelerator driven subcritical reactors (ADSRs) is developed. • S{sub N} transport solver in triangular-z meshes, fine deletion analysis and multi-channel thermal-hydraulics analysis are coupled in the code. • Numerical results indicate that the code is reliable and efficient for design studies of ADSRs. - Abstract: Accelerator driven subcritical reactors (ADSRs) have been proposed and widely investigated for the transmutation of transuranics (TRUs). ADSRs have several special characteristics, such as the subcritical core driven by spallation neutrons, anisotropic neutron flux distribution and complex geometry etc. These bring up requirements for development or extension of analysis codes to perform design studies. A code system named LAVENDER has been developed in this paper. It couples the modules for spallation target simulation and subcritical core analysis. The neutron transport-depletion calculation scheme is used based on the homogenized cross section from assembly calculations. A three-dimensional S{sub N} nodal transport code based on triangular-z meshes is employed and a multi-channel thermal-hydraulics analysis model is integrated. In the depletion calculation, the evolution of isotopic composition in the core is evaluated using the transmutation trajectory analysis algorithm (TTA) and fine depletion chains. The new code is verified by several benchmarks and code-to-code comparisons. Numerical results indicate that LAVENDER is reliable and efficient to be applied for the steady-state analysis and reactor core design of ADSRs.

  16. Analysis on burn-up behaviors for accelerator-driven sub-critical facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Guisheng; Zhao Zhixiang; Zhang Baocheng; Shen Qinbiao; Ding Dazhao

    2000-01-01

    An analysis is performed on burn-up behaviors for accelerator-driven sub-critical reactor by means of the code PASC-1 for neutronics calculation, the code CBURN for burn-up calculation and 44 group constants is processed by CENDL-2 and ENDF/B-6 using NJOY-91.91

  17. Subcritical molten salt reactor with fast/intermediate spectrum for minor actinides transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degtyarev, Alexey M.; Feinberg, Olga S.; Kolyaskin, Oleg E.; Myasnikov, Andrey A.; Karmanov, Fedor I.; Kuznetsov, Andrey Yu.; Ponomarev, Leonid I.; Seregin, Mikhail B.; Sidorkin, Stanislav F.

    2011-01-01

    The subcritical molten-salt reactor for transmutation of Am and Cm with the fast-intermediate neutron spectrum is suggested. It is shown that ∼10 such reactor-burners is enough to support the future nuclear power based on the fast reactors as well as for the transmutation of Am and Cm accumulated in the spent fuel storages. (author)

  18. MCNPX and MCB coupled methodology for the burnup calculation of the KIPT accelerator driven subcritical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Z.; Gohar, Y.; Talamo, A.

    2009-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) of USA and Kharkov Inst. of Physics and Technology (KIPT) of Ukraine have been collaborating on the conceptual design development of an electron accelerator driven subcritical facility (ADS). The facility will be utilized for basic research, medical isotopes production, and training young nuclear specialists. The burnup methodology and analysis of the KIPT ADS are presented in this paper. MCNPX and MCB Monte Carlo computer codes have been utilized. MCNPX has the capability of performing electron, photon and neutron coupled transport problems, but it lacks the burnup capability for driven subcritical systems. MCB has the capability for performing the burnup calculation of driven subcritical systems, while it cannot transport electrons. A calculational methodology coupling MCNPX and MCB has been developed, which can exploit the electrons transport capability of MCNPX for neutron production and the burnup capability of MCB for driven subcritical systems. In this procedure, a neutron source file is generated using MCNPX transport calculation, preserving the neutrons yield from photonuclear reactions initiated by electrons, and this source file is utilized by MCB for the burnup analyses with the same geometrical model. In this way, the ADS depletion calculation can be accurately. (authors)

  19. Subcritical wet air oxidation of organic solvents and chelating agents of the nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachir, Souley

    1999-01-01

    This document deals with the environment control, more specially organic solvents and chelating agents destruction, employed in the nuclear industry. This work details the subcritical wet air oxidation process. Another part of the document deals with the possible coupling between this process and the biodegradation technic in the framework of the sewage sludges treatment. (A.L.B.)

  20. Subcritical crack growth behavior of AI2O3-Glass dental composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Q.; With, G. de; Dortmans, L.J.M.G.; Feenstra, F.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the subcritical crack growth (SCG) behavior of alumina-glass dental composites. Alumina-glass composites were fabricated by infiltrating molten glass to porous alumina preforms. Rectangular bars of the composite were subject to dynamic loading in air, with

  1. Promotion or suppression of glucose isomerization in subcritical aqueous straight- and branched-chain alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Da-Ming; Kobayashi, Takashi; Adachi, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    The influence of water-miscible alcohols (methanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, and t-butyl alcohol) on the isomerization of glucose to fructose and mannose was investigated under subcritical aqueous conditions (180-200 °C). Primary and secondary alcohols promoted the conversion and isomerization of glucose to afford fructose and mannose with high and low selectivity, respectively. On the other hand, the decomposition (side-reaction) of glucose was suppressed in the presence of the primary and secondary alcohols compared with that in subcritical water. The yield of fructose increased with increasing concentration of the primary and secondary alcohols, and the species of the primary and secondary alcohols tested had little effect on the isomerization behavior of glucose. In contrast, the isomerization of glucose was suppressed in subcritical aqueous t-butyl alcohol. Both the conversion of glucose and the yield of fructose decreased with increasing concentration of t-butyl alcohol. In addition, mannose was not detected in reactions using subcritical aqueous t-butyl alcohol.

  2. Nuclear power history calculation for subcritical systems using Euler-MacLaurin formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henrice Junior, Edson; Goncalves, Alessandro da Cruz

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an efficient method for calculating the reactivity using inverse point kinetic equation for subcritical systems by applying the Euler-MacLaurin summation formula to calculate the nuclear power history. In accordance with the accuracy of the numerical results, this method does not require a large number of points for calculation, providing accurate results with low computational cost. (author)

  3. Accelerator Driven Sub-Critical System for the Radioactive Waste Transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avramovic, I.; Pesic, M.

    2008-01-01

    Spent nuclear fuel discharged from nuclear power plants is the main problem during design of radioactive waste disposal. Most of the hazard stems from only a few chemical elements. The radiotoxicity of these elements can be efficiently reduced using partitioning and transmutation in fast reactors and accelerator driven subcritical systems. (author)

  4. Sports Management for Sports Massification Planned and Executed by Social Organizations. Critics to Models, Experiences and Proposal Methodological Accompaniment

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenza Antonia Reyes de Duran

    2016-01-01

    The proposal analysis, interpretation, disassembly, self-criticism and guidance is born and comes from work experience planned mass sports and social organizations opposed-not in the conventional sense comparative-private business models and sport, state and management. The contribution made by the sports management experience from positions of power, either state or business are undeniable and its impact is difficult to express in numbers for its humanistic value, which is incalculable. Howe...

  5. Hybridisation of solar and geothermal energy in both subcritical and supercritical Organic Rankine Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Cheng

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Hybrid solar and geothermal energy conversion system was modelled using subcritical and supercritical ORCs. • Solar thermal and geothermal energy can be effectively hybridised. • Greater thermodynamic advantages and economic benefits can be achieved using the supercritical hybrid plant. • Hybrid plants can produce up to 19% more annual electricity than the two stand-alone plants. • Solar-to-electricity cost in the supercritical hybrid plant is about 4–19% less than in the subcritical plant. - Abstract: A supercritical Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) is renowned for higher conversion efficiency than the conventional ORC due to a better thermal match (i.e. reduced irreversibility) presented in the heat exchanger unit. This improved thermal match is a result of the obscured liquid-to-vapor boundary of the organic working fluid at supercritical states. Stand-alone solar thermal power generation and stand-alone geothermal power generation using a supercritical ORC have been widely investigated. However, the power generation capability of a single supercritical ORC using combined solar and geothermal energy has not been examined. This paper thus investigates the hybridisation of solar and geothermal energy in a supercritical ORC to explore the benefit from the potential synergies of such a hybrid platform. Its performances were also compared with those of a subcritical hybrid plant, stand-alone solar and geothermal plants. All simulations and modelling of the power cycles were carried out using process simulation package Aspen HYSYS. The performances of the hybrid plant were then assessed using technical analysis, economic analysis, and the figure of merit analysis. The results of the technical analysis show that thermodynamically, the hybrid plant using a supercritical ORC outperforms the hybrid plant using a subcritical ORC if at least 66% of its exergy input is met by solar energy (i.e. a solar exergy fraction of >66%), namely producing 4–17

  6. Hybridisation of solar and geothermal energy in both subcritical and supercritical Organic Rankine Cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Hybrid solar and geothermal energy conversion system was modelled using subcritical and supercritical ORCs. • Solar thermal and geothermal energy can be effectively hybridised. • Greater thermodynamic advantages and economic benefits can be achieved using the supercritical hybrid plant. • Hybrid plants can produce up to 19% more annual electricity than the two stand-alone plants. • Solar-to-electricity cost in the supercritical hybrid plant is about 4–19% less than in the subcritical plant. - Abstract: A supercritical Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) is renowned for higher conversion efficiency than the conventional ORC due to a better thermal match (i.e. reduced irreversibility) presented in the heat exchanger unit. This improved thermal match is a result of the obscured liquid-to-vapor boundary of the organic working fluid at supercritical states. Stand-alone solar thermal power generation and stand-alone geothermal power generation using a supercritical ORC have been widely investigated. However, the power generation capability of a single supercritical ORC using combined solar and geothermal energy has not been examined. This paper thus investigates the hybridisation of solar and geothermal energy in a supercritical ORC to explore the benefit from the potential synergies of such a hybrid platform. Its performances were also compared with those of a subcritical hybrid plant, stand-alone solar and geothermal plants. All simulations and modelling of the power cycles were carried out using process simulation package Aspen HYSYS. The performances of the hybrid plant were then assessed using technical analysis, economic analysis, and the figure of merit analysis. The results of the technical analysis show that thermodynamically, the hybrid plant using a supercritical ORC outperforms the hybrid plant using a subcritical ORC if at least 66% of its exergy input is met by solar energy (i.e. a solar exergy fraction of >66%), namely producing 4–17

  7. Experiments towards model-based testing using Plan 9: Labelled transition file systems, stacking file systems, on-the-fly coverage measuring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belinfante, Axel; Guardiola, G.; Soriano, E.; Ballesteros, F.J.

    2006-01-01

    We report on experiments that we did on Plan 9/Inferno to gain more experience with the file-system-as-tool-interface approach. We reimplemented functionality that we earlier worked on in Unix, trying to use Plan 9 file system interfaces. The application domain for those experiments was model-based

  8. Program management plan for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Remediation Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    The primary mission of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) Remediation Project is to effectively implement the risk-reduction strategies and technical plans to stabilize and prevent further migration of uranium within the MSRE facility, remove the uranium and fuel salts from the system, and dispose of the fuel and flush salts by storage in appropriate depositories to bring the facility to a surveillance and maintenance condition before decontamination and decommissioning. This Project Management Plan (PMP) for the MSRE Remediation Project details project purpose; technical objectives, milestones, and cost objectives; work plan; work breakdown structure (WBS); schedule; management organization and responsibilities; project management performance measurement planning, and control; conduct of operations; configuration management; environmental, safety, and health compliance; quality assurance; operational readiness reviews; and training

  9. Program management plan for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Remediation Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    The primary mission of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) Remediation Project is to effectively implement the risk-reduction strategies and technical plans to stabilize and prevent further migration of uranium within the MSRE facility, remove the uranium and fuel salts from the system, and dispose of the fuel and flush salts by storage in appropriate depositories to bring the facility to a surveillance and maintenance condition before decontamination and decommissioning. This Project Management Plan (PMP) for the MSRE Remediation Project details project purpose; technical objectives, milestones, and cost objectives; work plan; work breakdown structure (WBS); schedule; management organization and responsibilities; project management performance measurement planning, and control; conduct of operations; configuration management; environmental, safety, and health compliance; quality assurance; operational readiness reviews; and training.

  10. Supplemental US/Canada wheat and barley exploratory experiment implementation plan: Evaluation of a procedure 1A technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    A plan is presented for a supplemental experiment to evaluate a sample allocation technique for selecting picture elements from remotely sensed multispectral imagery for labeling in connection with a new crop proportion estimation technique. The method of evaluating an improved allocation and proportion estimation technique is also provided.

  11. Digital Story-Based Problem Solving Applications: Preservice Primary Teachers' Experiences and Future Integration Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Çigdem; Sancar-Tokmak, Hatice

    2017-01-01

    This case study investigates how preservice primary school teachers describe their experiences with digital story-based problem solving applications and their plans for the future integration of this technology into their teaching. Totally 113 preservice primary school teachers participated in the study. Data collection tools included a…

  12. A Grounded Theory of Preservice Music Educators' Lesson Planning Processes within Field Experience Methods Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Elizabeth Cassidy; Bond, Vanessa L.; Powell, Sean R.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to understand the process of field experience lesson planning for preservice music educators enrolled in choral, general, and instrumental music education courses within three university contexts. Data sources included multiple interviews, written responses, and field texts from 42 participants. Four…

  13. Comparison of the transient behavior of lead-based advanced critical and sub-critical reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Gang; Gu Zhixing; Wang Zhen; Jin Ming; Bai Yunqing

    2014-01-01

    A lead-based reactor developed by FDS Team is proposed in 2011 and designed to be 10 MW. It is a pool type reactor and the primary coolant is driven by natural circulation. The reactor has two operation modes, which are a lead-based critical fast reactor mode and a lead-based sub-critical reactor mode. The conceptual designs of the two modes are both completed by 2013. In this paper, four transient accidents were simulated for both the critical and sub-critical reactors above by NTC-2D code, which is developed by FDS Team for advanced reactor safety analysis. The four accidents were protected and unprotected loss of heat sink accidents (PLOHS and ULOHS), protected and unprotected transient overpower accidents (PTOP and UTOP). The simulation results of the two reactors were compared and analyzed. The results showed that during PLOHS and PTOP accidents for both the two modes, all the key parameters (core power, fuel, cladding and coolant temperatures in the hottest channel) decreased to very small values after the reactor scrammed, which meant the reactors under the two modes were both safe. For ULOHS, the fuel, cladding and coolant temperatures of the sub-critical reactor increased bigger than those of the critical one. For UTOP, the parameters above of the critical fast reactor were much bigger than those of the sub-critical one. The analysis results showed different safety advantages of the lead-based critical fast and sub-critical reactors during different transient accidents. (author)

  14. Plutonium Critical Mass Curve Comparison to Mass at Upper Subcritical Limit (USL) Using Whisper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alwin, Jennifer Louise; Zhang, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Whisper is computational software designed to assist the nuclear criticality safety analyst with validation studies with the MCNP ® Monte Carlo radiation transport package. Standard approaches to validation rely on the selection of benchmarks based upon expert judgment. Whisper uses sensitivity/uncertainty (S/U) methods to select relevant benchmarks to a particular application or set of applications being analyzed. Using these benchmarks, Whisper computes a calculational margin. Whisper attempts to quantify the margin of subcriticality (MOS) from errors in software and uncertainties in nuclear data. The combination of the Whisper-derived calculational margin and MOS comprise the baseline upper subcritical limit (USL), to which an additional margin may be applied by the nuclear criticality safety analyst as appropriate to ensure subcriticality. A series of critical mass curves for plutonium, similar to those found in Figure 31 of LA-10860-MS, have been generated using MCNP6.1.1 and the iterative parameter study software, WORM S olver. The baseline USL for each of the data points of the curves was then computed using Whisper 1.1. The USL was then used to determine the equivalent mass for plutonium metal-water system. ANSI/ANS-8.1 states that it is acceptable to use handbook data, such as the data directly from the LA-10860-MS, as it is already considered validated (Section 4.3 4) ''Use of subcritical limit data provided in ANSI/ANS standards or accepted reference publications does not require further validation.''). This paper attempts to take a novel approach to visualize traditional critical mass curves and allows comparison with the amount of mass for which the k eff is equal to the USL (calculational margin + margin of subcriticality). However, the intent is to plot the critical mass data along with USL, not to suggest that already accepted handbook data should have new and more rigorous requirements for validation.

  15. Pregnancy planning and risk behaviours – a survey of women’s experiences in selected European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Lesińska-Sawicka

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy, a special period in a woman’s life, should be preceded by proper preparation: a positive attitude to procreation, selection of optimum time for becoming pregnant, starting prevention of neural tube defects, restriction of the use of drugs, smoking, etc. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of pregnancy planning and antenatal classes on the use of stimulants during pregnancy. The study group included 877 women living in 7 European countries, and their experiences of planning pregnancy and substance abuse during pregnancy were investigated. In about a half (50.3% of respondents the pregnancy was planned. The highest percentage of mothers who planned pregnancy was recorded in Poland and Bulgaria (about 76%. By contrast, in Germany the proportion of mothers who planned pregnancy was the lowest (46.2%. Surprisingly, they became pregnant despite very frequent use of birth control (96.7%. On average, 17.3% of respondents disclosed that they drank alcohol or coffee, smoked cigarettes or used psychoactive drugs during pregnancy. Among women who did not plan to be pregnant, the use of stimulants was recorded more often. However, pregnancy planning only slightly inclined women to stop the consumption of stimulants. Attendance at antenatal classes did not have any significant effect on the use of stimulants.

  16. Obtainment of the subcritical reactivity by mean of measurement of APSD and CPSD employing pulse mode detectors in the IPEN/MB-01 reactor; Obtencao de reatividade subcritica por meio de medidas de APSD e CPSD utilizando detectores modo pulso no Reator IPEN/MB-01

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Min

    2014-07-01

    This work presents a new experimental approach to determine the reactivity levels of subcritical systems. The method employs the subcritical kinetic model developed by Gandini and Salvatores and it is based only on measured quantities such as counting rates of the detectors employed in the experiments and the parameters arising from the least squares fitting of the APSD (Auto Power Spectral Density) and CPSD (Cross Power Spectral Density). Detector efficiencies, quantity required in other procedures such as Neutron Source Multiplication (NSM) method, are not needed in the proposed method. The only hypothesis made in the method was the independence of the effective delayed neutron fraction and the prompt neutron generation time to the subcriticality level of the system. The proposed method was applied to measure the reactivity of several subcritical configurations of the IPEN/MB-01 reactor. Measurements of APSD and CPSD were performed in several degrees of subcriticality (up to around -7000 pcm). The spectral densities data were least squares fitted to get the prompt decay mode (α) and other quantities. Beside the startup source of the facility, an external neutron source of Am-Be was installed near the core in order to improve neutron counting statistics. The final experimental results are of good quality. The proposed experimental method shows clearly that the classical point kinetic theory cannot describe the measured reactivity. Instead, the reactivity inferred from this model follows closely the subcriticality index (ζ) for the source arrangements in the experiment. The agreement of the MCNP5 and GPT-TORT results, both with ENDF/B-VII.0 as the basic nuclear data library, when compared to the corresponding experimental ones was also good. (author)

  17. Advisory group meeting on design and performance of reactor and subcritical blanket systems with lead and lead-bismuth as coolant and/or target material. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the IAEA Advisory Group Meeting (AGM) on Design and Performance of Reactor and Sub-critical Blanket Systems with Lead and Lead-Bismuth as Coolant and/or Target Material was to provide a forum for international information exchange on all the topics relevant to Pb and Pb/Bi cooled critical and sub-critical reactors. In addition, the AGM aimed at: (1) finding ways and means to improve international co-ordination efforts in this area; (2) obtaining advice from the Member States with regard to the activities to be implemented in this area by the IAEA, in order to best meet their needs; and (3) laying out the plans for an effective co-ordination and support of the R and D activities in this area. The AGM stressed that nuclear energy is a realistic solution to satisfy the energy demand, considering the limited resources of fossil fuel, its uneven distribution in the world and the impact of its use on the planet, and taking into account the expected doubling of the world population in the 21st century and tripling of the electricity demand (especially in the developing countries). However, the AGM concluded that the development of an innovative nuclear technology meeting the following requirements must be pursued: (a) deterministic exclusion of any severe accident; (b) proliferation resistance; (c) cost competitiveness with alternative energy sources; (d) sustainable fuel supply; and (e) solution of the radioactive waste management problem

  18. Plant life extension program for Indian PHWR power plants - Actual experience and future plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, M.B.; Ghoshal, B.; Shirolkar, K.M.; Ahmad, S.N.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited (NPCIL) is responsible for design, construction and operation for all nuclear power plants in India. Currently, it has fourteen (14) reactor units under operation and another eight units are under various stages of planning and construction. India has adopted Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs) for the initial phase of its nuclear power program. In the earlier PHWRs zircaloy-2 has been used as coolant tube material. Subsequent studies and experience have shown their life to be considerably lower (about 10 full power years) than originally estimated. This meant that reactors at Rajasthan - 1 and 2 Madras - 1 and 2 Narora - 1 and 2 and Kakrapara-1 would require en-masse coolant channel replacement at least once in their lifetime. Subsequent reactors from Kakrapara-2 onwards would not need this en-masse coolant channel replacement as the coolant tube material has been upgraded to Zr 2.5% Nb. En-masse coolant channel replacement and other life extension work have been carried out successfully in Rajasthan Unit-2 (RAPS-2). Madras unit-2 (MAPS-2) has been shutdown since January 2002 and preparatory work for en-masse coolant channel replacement and plant life extension is in progress. This paper discusses in brief the experience of RAPS-2 in carrying out the above jobs as well as the strategies being adopted for MAPS-2. Since the coolant channel replacement work requires a plant outage of about 18 months, this opportunity is used to extend life of existing systems as well as upgradation work. This life extension and upgradation program is based on the results of detailed in service inspection, evaluation of performance of critical equipment, obsolescence and other strategic reasons. This paper discusses in detail some of the major areas of work done, for example introduction of supplementary control room, process control, computer based plant information and event analysis systems, provision of enhanced

  19. Laboratory Guide for Residual Stress Sample Alignment and Experiment Planning-October 2011 Version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornwell, Paris A [ORNL; Bunn, Jeffrey R [ORNL; Schmidlin, Joshua E [ORNL; Hubbard, Camden R [ORNL

    2012-04-01

    The December 2010 version of the guide, ORNL/TM-2008/159, by Jeff Bunn, Josh Schmidlin, Camden Hubbard, and Paris Cornwell, has been further revised due to a major change in the GeoMagic Studio software for constructing a surface model. The Studio software update also includes a plug-in module to operate the FARO Scan Arm. Other revisions for clarity were also made. The purpose of this revision document is to guide the reader through the process of laser alignment used by NRSF2 at HFIR and VULCAN at SNS. This system was created to increase the spatial accuracy of the measurement points in a sample, reduce the use of neutron time used for alignment, improve experiment planning, and reduce operator error. The need for spatial resolution has been driven by the reduction in gauge volumes to the sub-millimeter level, steep strain gradients in some samples, and requests to mount multiple samples within a few days for relating data from each sample to a common sample coordinate system. The first step in this process involves mounting the sample on an indexer table in a laboratory set up for offline sample mounting and alignment in the same manner it would be mounted at either instrument. In the shared laboratory, a FARO ScanArm is used to measure the coordinates of points on the sample surface ('point cloud'), specific features and fiducial points. A Sample Coordinate System (SCS) needs to be established first. This is an advantage of the technique because the SCS can be defined in such a way to facilitate simple definition of measurement points within the sample. Next, samples are typically mounted to a frame of 80/20 and fiducial points are attached to the sample or frame then measured in the established sample coordinate system. The laser scan probe on the ScanArm can then be used to scan in an 'as-is' model of the sample as well as mounting hardware. GeoMagic Studio 12 is the software package used to construct the model from the point cloud the

  20. Laboratory Guide for Residual Stress Sample Alignment and Experiment Planning-October 2011 Version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornwell, Paris A.; Bunn, Jeffrey R.; Schmidlin, Joshua E.; Hubbard, Camden R.

    2012-01-01

    The December 2010 version of the guide, ORNL/TM-2008/159, by Jeff Bunn, Josh Schmidlin, Camden Hubbard, and Paris Cornwell, has been further revised due to a major change in the GeoMagic Studio software for constructing a surface model. The Studio software update also includes a plug-in module to operate the FARO Scan Arm. Other revisions for clarity were also made. The purpose of this revision document is to guide the reader through the process of laser alignment used by NRSF2 at HFIR and VULCAN at SNS. This system was created to increase the spatial accuracy of the measurement points in a sample, reduce the use of neutron time used for alignment, improve experiment planning, and reduce operator error. The need for spatial resolution has been driven by the reduction in gauge volumes to the sub-millimeter level, steep strain gradients in some samples, and requests to mount multiple samples within a few days for relating data from each sample to a common sample coordinate system. The first step in this process involves mounting the sample on an indexer table in a laboratory set up for offline sample mounting and alignment in the same manner it would be mounted at either instrument. In the shared laboratory, a FARO ScanArm is used to measure the coordinates of points on the sample surface ('point cloud'), specific features and fiducial points. A Sample Coordinate System (SCS) needs to be established first. This is an advantage of the technique because the SCS can be defined in such a way to facilitate simple definition of measurement points within the sample. Next, samples are typically mounted to a frame of 80/20 and fiducial points are attached to the sample or frame then measured in the established sample coordinate system. The laser scan probe on the ScanArm can then be used to scan in an 'as-is' model of the sample as well as mounting hardware. GeoMagic Studio 12 is the software package used to construct the model from the point cloud the scan arm creates. Once

  1. Theoretical Antecedents of Standing at Work: An Experience Sampling Approach Using the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, M. Renée Umstattd; Wu, Cindy; Walsh, Shana M.

    2016-01-01

    Time spent sitting has been associated with an increased risk of diabetes, cancer, obesity, and mental health impairments. However, 75% of Americans spend most of their days sitting, with work-sitting accounting for 63% of total daily sitting time. Little research examining theory-based antecedents of standing or sitting has been conducted. This lack of solid groundwork makes it difficult to design effective intervention strategies to decrease sitting behaviors. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) as our theoretical lens to better understand factors related with beneficial standing behaviors already being practiced, we examined relationships between TPB constructs and time spent standing at work among “positive deviants” (those successful in behavior change). Experience sampling methodology (ESM), 4 times a day (midmorning, before lunch, afternoon, and before leaving work) for 5 consecutive workdays (Monday to Friday), was used to assess employees' standing time. TPB scales assessing attitude (α = 0.81–0.84), norms (α = 0.83), perceived behavioral control (α = 0.77), and intention (α = 0.78) were developed using recommended methods and collected once on the Friday before the ESM surveys started. ESM data are hierarchically nested, therefore we tested our hypotheses using multilevel structural equation modeling with Mplus. Hourly full-time university employees (n = 50; 70.6% female, 84.3% white, mean age = 44 (SD = 11), 88.2% in full-time staff positions) with sedentary occupation types (time at desk while working ≥6 hours/day) participated. A total of 871 daily surveys were completed. Only perceived behavioral control (β = 0.45, p deviance approach to enhance perceived behavioral control, in addition to implementing environmental changes like installing standing desks. PMID:29546189

  2. How public issues shape environmental restoration plans - experiences with Colorado UMTRA projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, B.; Monaghan, J.

    1991-01-01

    Federal environmental restoration plans are being significantly impacted by open-quotes grassrootsclose quotes public pressure and by community demands, some of which have little relation to the technical standards of remediation and which go well beyond authorizing legislation. These demands often represent significant additional project costs. A review of Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Program experiences in Colorado suggests that the more serious open-quotes grassrootsclose quotes issues associated with remediation rarely diminish and, in fact, will intensify over time. This presents program administrators with the dilemma of attempting to adhere to program mandates and keep projects within budget, while at the same time trying to be responsive to community concerns. Such high-profiled community debates have the ability to delay remediation and even jeopardize important projects. After prolonged public debate, when it becomes clear an issue will not dissipate, project officials may be forced to meet certain community demands. Often, this results in not only increased costs, but a loss of public confidence in clean-up efforts. Evidence also suggests, however, that when critical public issues can be identified and addressed before they become overly contentious, significant problems and controversy can be avoided; but, the situation is made difficult because project officials often lack the policy guidance to determine which, if any, community demands should be addressed and to what extent they should be met. The adoption of several key public policy principles by program administrators will provide a greater ability to address community demands in a timely and successful manner

  3. The communicative ideology in spatial planning : some critical reflections based on the Dutch experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogd, H; Woltjer, J

    1999-01-01

    Communicative, or collaborative, planning has received a lot of attention recently. Many planners today agree that planning should be a process of facilitating community collaboration for consensus-building. As a consequence, it seems that communicative rationality is becoming more important in

  4. The communicative ideology in spatial planning: some critical reflections based on the Dutch experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogd, H.; Woltjer, J.

    1999-01-01

    Communicative, or collaborative, planning has received a lot of attention recently. Many planners today agree that planning should be a process of facilitating community collaboration for consensus-building. As a consequence, it seems that communicative rationality is becoming more important in

  5. Considerations on the Use of Visual Tools in Planning Processes: A Brazilian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Zyngier

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper assumes that citizen participation does not really happen in relation to current urban planning practice for a number of reasons. First of all, many planning processes do not involve citizens as ideally they should. Secondly, although if they involve citizens, many planning processes are not able to communicate them the actual questions to deal with. Thirdly, many citizens have not a sufficient knowledge or ability to understand the planning issues. Therefore, the paper supposes that the use of visual interfaces can collaborate to organize data and improve the involvement of citizens within planning processes. Focusing on the Brazilian reality, the case study present two selected areas with great relevance for the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte’s (MRBH: Santa Lúcia, within the municipality of Belo Horizonte, and the neighborhood Vale do Sereno, in the Nova Lima municipality. The areas result under a great pressure and intensification of anthropic interventions, containing consolidated occupancy. The example on the two areas shows how urban planning still lacks a systematization of data. This also implies that the two municipalities not consider the communication of information as a priority for developing cities. Although current information technology can offer advantages for implementing the planning processes though visual languages, harder efforts are required to build the communication process between people, including communication as part of the planning process.

  6. Exploring governance learning: How policymakers draw on evidence, experience and intuition in designing participatory flood risk planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newig, Jens; Kochskämper, Elisa; Challies, Edward; Jager, Nicolas W

    2016-01-01

    The importance of designing suitable participatory governance processes is generally acknowledged. However, less emphasis has been put on how decision-makers design such processes, and how they learn about doing so. While the policy learning literature has tended to focus on the substance of policy, little research is available on learning about the design of governance. Here, we explore different approaches to learning among German policymakers engaged in implementing the European Floods Directive. We draw on official planning documents and expert interviews with state-level policymakers to focus on learning about the procedural aspects of designing and conducting participatory flood risk management planning. Drawing on the policy learning and evidence-based governance literatures, we conceptualise six types of instrumental 'governance learning' according to sources of learning (endogenous and exogenous) and modes of learning (serial and parallel). We empirically apply this typology in the context of diverse participatory flood risk management planning processes currently unfolding across the German federal states. We find that during the first Floods Directive planning cycle, policymakers have tended to rely on prior experience in their own federal states with planning under the Water Framework Directive to inform the design and carrying out of participatory processes. In contrast, policymakers only sporadically look to experiences from other jurisdictions as a deliberate learning strategy. We argue that there is scope for more coordinated and systematic learning on designing effective governance, and that the latter might benefit from more openness to experimentation and learning on the part of policymakers.

  7. Health and safety plan for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment remediation project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burman, S.N.; Uziel, M.S.

    1995-12-01

    The Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., (Energy Systems) policy is to provide a safe and healthful workplace for all employees and subcontractors. The accomplishment of the policy requires that operations at the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) facility at the Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are guided by an overall plan and consistent proactive approach to safety and health (S and H) issues. The policy and procedures in this plan apply to all MSRE operations. The provisions of this plan are to be carried out whenever activities are initiated at the MSRE that could be a threat to human health or the environment. This plan implements a policy and establishes criteria for the development of procedures for day-to-day operations to prevent or minimize any adverse impact to the environment and personnel safety and health and to meet standards that define acceptable management of hazardous and radioactive materials and wastes. The plan is written to utilize past experience and the best management practices to minimize hazards to human health or the environment from events such as fires, explosions, falls, mechanical hazards, or any unplanned release of hazardous or radioactive materials to the air.

  8. Health and safety plan for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment remediation project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burman, S.N.; Uziel, M.S.

    1995-12-01

    The Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., (Energy Systems) policy is to provide a safe and healthful workplace for all employees and subcontractors. The accomplishment of the policy requires that operations at the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) facility at the Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are guided by an overall plan and consistent proactive approach to safety and health (S and H) issues. The policy and procedures in this plan apply to all MSRE operations. The provisions of this plan are to be carried out whenever activities are initiated at the MSRE that could be a threat to human health or the environment. This plan implements a policy and establishes criteria for the development of procedures for day-to-day operations to prevent or minimize any adverse impact to the environment and personnel safety and health and to meet standards that define acceptable management of hazardous and radioactive materials and wastes. The plan is written to utilize past experience and the best management practices to minimize hazards to human health or the environment from events such as fires, explosions, falls, mechanical hazards, or any unplanned release of hazardous or radioactive materials to the air

  9. The strategies, experiences and future challenges of the information component in the Indonesian Family Planning Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyono, H

    1988-12-01

    In 1957, the Indonesian Planned Parenthood Federation was established. In 1970, the National Family Planning Board (BKKBN) was created. The current contraceptive prevalence rate is 45-50%. The family planning program began with a health-oriented approach. To promote acceptance, religious leaders were asked to provide legitimacy to the program. Through their efforts, it became possible to include all the means and medication used for family planning services within the program. In developing an IEC strategy to encourage couples to accept family planning, 3 main factors were studied: 1) the types of innovations that were to be introduced, 2) the characteristics of the Indonesian community, and 3) the need for an IEC strategy to convey the programs messages the community and make the community itself the agent of the innovation being introduced. The elements of the strategy were introduced stage by stage to avoid unnecessary debate. Another strategic step was the introduction of family planning using a community approach. A 3rd strategic step was a shift from couples as family planning acceptors to the introduction of the norm of a small, happy, and prosperous family. The 1st stage, expansion of program coverage, 1) promoted the need for and desirability of family planning to make the small and happy family the norm and 2) supplied contraceptives and information about contraceptives throughout Indonesia. The 2nd stage, the program maintenance approach, included 1) an increase in the frequency of visits to villages by mobile family planning teams, 2) the integration of family planning activities with other health-related activities, and 3) giving people a wider choice of methods and helping them to choose the most suitable method for them. The 3rd stage made family planning a community activity, integrated within the economic and social fabric of community life. The general strategy of the IEC program is to make the various target groups full family planning

  10. Improving family planning services delivery and uptake: experiences from the "Reversing the Stall in Fertility Decline in Western Kenya Project".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amo-Adjei, Joshua; Mutua, Michael; Athero, Sherine; Izugbara, Chimaraoke; Ezeh, Alex

    2017-10-10

    In this paper, we reflect on our experiences of implementing a multipronged intervention to improve sexual and reproductive health outcomes. The project used family planning as its entry point and was implemented in two high fertility counties-Busia and Siaya in Kenya. The intervention, implemented by a seven-member consortium, involved: family planning services delivery; regular training of service providers to deliver high quality services; monitoring and evaluation; strengthening of commodity chain delivery and forecasting; school-based and out-of-school based sexuality education; and advocacy and stakeholder engagements at the community, county and national levels. Over a 5-year period, the project contributed to raising demand for family planning considerably, evidenced in fertility decline. It also improved the capacity of family planning services providers, increased commitment and awareness of county government and other community stakeholders on the importance of investments in family planning. Our collaborations with organisations interested in sexual and reproductive health issues substantially enhanced the consortium's ability to increase demand for, and supply of family planning commodities. These collaborations are proving useful in the continuity and sustainability of project achievements.

  11. Dose planning objectives in anal canal cancer IMRT: the TROG ANROTAT experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Elizabeth, E-mail: elizabeth@mebrown.net [Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Cray, Alison [Peter MacCallum Cancer Cancer Centre, Box Hill, Victoria (Australia); Haworth, Annette [Peter MacCallum Cancer Cancer Centre, Box Hill, Victoria (Australia); University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Chander, Sarat [Peter MacCallum Cancer Cancer Centre, Box Hill, Victoria (Australia); Lin, Robert [Medica Oncology, Hurstville, New South Wales (Australia); Subramanian, Brindha; Ng, Michael [Radiation Oncology Victoria, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia)

    2015-06-15

    Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is ideal for anal canal cancer (ACC), delivering high doses to irregular tumour volumes whilst minimising dose to surrounding normal tissues. Establishing achievable dose objectives is a challenge. The purpose of this paper was to utilise data collected in the Assessment of New Radiation Oncology Treatments and Technologies (ANROTAT) project to evaluate the feasibility of ACC IMRT dose planning objectives employed in the Australian situation. Ten Australian centres were randomly allocated three data sets from 15 non-identifiable computed tomography data sets representing a range of disease stages and gender. Each data set was planned by two different centres, producing 30 plans. All tumour and organ at risk (OAR) contours, prescription and dose constraint details were provided. Dose–volume histograms (DVHs) for each plan were analysed to evaluate the feasibility of dose planning objectives provided. All dose planning objectives for the bone marrow (BM) and femoral heads were achieved. Median planned doses exceeded one or more objectives for bowel, external genitalia and bladder. This reached statistical significance for bowel V30 (P = 0.04), V45 (P < 0.001), V50 (P < 0.001), external genitalia V20 (P < 0.001) and bladder V35 (P < 0.001), V40 (P = 0.01). Gender was found to be the only significant factor in the likelihood of achieving the bowel V50 (P = 0.03) and BM V30 constraints (P = 0.04). The dose planning objectives used in the ANROTAT project provide a good starting point for ACC IMRT planning. To facilitate clinical implementation, it is important to prioritise OAR objectives and recognise factors that affect the achievability of these objectives.

  12. Yielding impressive results. The Egyptian experience in family planning communication campaign has been an exemplary model for many developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wafai, M

    1994-09-01

    In Egypt the current use of family planning methods nearly doubled from 1980 to 1992. The toughest obstacles to the promotion of family planning are the deeply rooted pronatalism, the high rate of illiteracy, and low use of print media. The early efforts of the 1960s through the 1970s helped raise people's awareness of the problem, but traditional attitudes to family planning persisted. The Information, Education and Communication (IEC) Center established in 1979 in the State Information Service (SIS) of the Ministry of Information spearheaded the IEC efforts for family planning throughout the country. The Egyptian Contraceptives Prevalence Survey conducted in 1984 showed that the current use of family planning methods had increased 6.1% from the 1980 level, and that 56% of married women wished to stop having children, but were afraid of side effects of contraceptive use. The SIS/IEC Center launched a creative mass media campaign using TV spots and dramas. It also pioneered community-based public communication activities on population and family planning by organizing population communication forums. The local communication work is implemented by each of the 60 regional offices of SIS. Other government agencies, such as Health Insurance Organization, also launched IEC campaigns promoting their own services. Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) such as the Family of the Future and the Clinical Service Improvement Project also engaged in social marketing of contraceptives. The use of family planning methods mounted between 1980 and 1992 from 24% to nearly 48%, and the method of choice shifted from the pill to the IUD. The country's crude birth rate declined steadily from 40 per 1000 population in 1985 down to 29/1000 in 1992. The six major factors for success included an innovative communication program, religious support, political commitment, an improved service delivery system, involvement of NGOs, and the economic influence. The Egyptian experience in family

  13. Development and evaluation of a specialized task taxonomy for spatial planning - A map literacy experiment with topographic maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautenbach, Victoria; Coetzee, Serena; Çöltekin, Arzu

    2017-05-01

    Topographic maps are among the most commonly used map types, however, their complex and information-rich designs depicting natural, human-made and cultural features make them difficult to read. Regardless of their complexity, spatial planners make extensive use of topographic maps in their work. On the other hand, various studies suggest that map literacy among the development planning professionals in South Africa is not very high. The widespread use of topographic maps combined with the low levels of map literacy presents challenges for effective development planning. In this paper we address some of these challenges by developing a specialized task taxonomy based on systematically assessed map literacy levels; and conducting an empirical experiment with topographic maps to evaluate our task taxonomy. In such empirical studies if non-realistic tasks are used, the results of map literacy tests may be skewed. Furthermore, experience and familiarity with the studied map type play a role in map literacy. There is thus a need to develop map literacy tests aimed at planners specifically. We developed a taxonomy of realistic map reading tasks typically executed during the planning process. The taxonomy defines six levels tasks of increasing difficulty and complexity, ranging from recognising symbols to extracting knowledge. We hypothesized that competence in the first four levels indicates functional map literacy. In this paper, we present results from an empirical experiment with 49 map literate participants solving a subset of tasks from the first four levels of the taxonomy with a topographic map. Our findings suggest that the proposed taxonomy is a good reference for evaluating topographic map literacy. Participants solved the tasks on all four levels as expected and we therefore conclude that the experiment based on the first four levels of the taxonomy successfully determined the functional map literacy of the participants. We plan to continue the study for the

  14. The negative effect of financial constraints on planning prevention activities: some evidence from the Italian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, Annalisa; De Vito, Corrado; Marzuillo, Carolina; Massimi, Azzurra; D'Andrea, Elvira; Villari, Paolo

    2015-12-01

    This study was aimed to assess the association between regional financial deficits and Recovery Plans and the quality of the 702 projects developed by the Italian Regions within the National Prevention Plan 2010-13. Multivariate analyses showed significant associations between Recovery Plans and low quality of projects, possibly due to weak regional public health capacities. Regions with Recovery Plans are likely to focus mainly on short-term issues with a high impact on health care costs, leaving few resources available for prevention. A different approach to financial deficit focused on long-term strategies, including those for health promotion and disease prevention, is needed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  15. Early Experience with Employee Choice of Consumer-Directed Health Plans and Satisfaction with Enrollment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowles, Jinnet Briggs; Kind, Elizabeth A; Braun, Barbara L; Bertko, John

    2004-01-01

    Objective To assess the initial impact of offering consumer-defined health plan (CDHP) options on employees. Data Sources/Study Setting A mail survey of 4,680 employees in the corporate offices of Humana Inc. in June 2001. Study Design The study was a cross-sectional mail survey of employees aged 18 and older who were eligible for health care benefits. The survey was conducted following open enrollment. The primary outcome is the choice of consumer-directed health plan or not; the secondary outcome is satisfaction with the enrollment process. Important covariates include sociodemographic characteristics (age, gender, race, educational level, exempt or nonexempt status, type of coverage), health status, health care utilization, and plan design preferences. Data Collection Methods A six-page questionnaire was mailed to the home of each employee, followed by a reminder postcard and two subsequent mailings to nonrespondents. Principal Findings The response rate was 66.2 percent. Seven percent selected one of the two new plan options. Because there were no meaningful differences between employees choosing either of the two new options, these groups were combined in multivariate analysis. A logistic regression modeled the likelihood of choosing the novel plan options. Those selecting the new plans were less likely to be black (odds ratio [OR] 0.46), less likely to have only Humana coverage (OR 0.30), and more likely to have single coverage (OR 1.77). They were less likely to have a chronic health problem (OR 0.56) and more likely to have had no recent medical visits (OR 3.21). They were more likely to believe that lowest premiums were the most important plan attribute (OR 2.89) and to think there were big differences in the premiums of available plans (OR 5.19). Employees in fair or poor health were more likely to have a difficult time during the online enrollment process. They were more likely to find the communications very helpful (OR 0.42) and the benefits

  16. Coaching small communities towards a climate stretegy plan -- experiences from Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gormsen, D. [City of Malmoe (Sweden). Environment Dept.

    2008-07-01

    Working on climate change mitigation and adaptation is often more difficult for small communities than is the case for larger cities. Smaller cities and towns may lack the resources and time to take up this work in a comprehensive manner, which is usually not prescribed as a local governmental task by national law but instead is performed voluntarily. In Sweden, applications for a national climate investment fund have shown that small and medium-sized communities are represented to a very small degree among applicants to the fund. To address this gap, the Swedish Network of Municipalities on Climate Change initiated a project called 'Climate coaching -- support to local activities on climate change in small communities', which started in January 2007. Twenty-three small communities joined the project that aims at the production of sustainable energy and the development of climate plans in at least 11 of the participants by September 2008. The remaining communities should by then at least be in the process of developing a climate strategy. The communities receive direct support from a climate coach who visits the communities, arranges seminars of common interest to the participants, and gives support via email and telephone. Additional support comes also from the existing Swedish Network of Municipalities on Climate Change and their 23 members. The results show so far that a number of factors are important for the success of local work. These include the following: The responsibility for the work has to be clear within the municipal organization; The responsible officers need to have time and resources which will allow them to work with climate issues; The politicians should support the commitment of the officers; and It is also important that attention is paid to the establishment of a suitable internal organization for climate mitigation and adaptation, and that this process is allowed to take time. When these issues are in place this will guarantee that

  17. Theoretical Antecedents of Standing at Work: An Experience Sampling Approach Using the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, M Renée Umstattd; Wu, Cindy; Walsh, Shana M

    2016-01-01

    Time spent sitting has been associated with an increased risk of diabetes, cancer, obesity, and mental health impairments. However, 75% of Americans spend most of their days sitting, with work-sitting accounting for 63% of total daily sitting time. Little research examining theory-based antecedents of standing or sitting has been conducted. This lack of solid groundwork makes it difficult to design effective intervention strategies to decrease sitting behaviors. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) as our theoretical lens to better understand factors related with beneficial standing behaviors already being practiced, we examined relationships between TPB constructs and time spent standing at work among "positive deviants" (those successful in behavior change). Experience sampling methodology (ESM), 4 times a day (midmorning, before lunch, afternoon, and before leaving work) for 5 consecutive workdays (Monday to Friday), was used to assess employees' standing time. TPB scales assessing attitude (α = 0.81-0.84), norms (α = 0.83), perceived behavioral control (α = 0.77), and intention (α = 0.78) were developed using recommended methods and collected once on the Friday before the ESM surveys started. ESM data are hierarchically nested, therefore we tested our hypotheses using multilevel structural equation modeling with Mplus. Hourly full-time university employees (n = 50; 70.6% female, 84.3% white, mean age = 44 (SD = 11), 88.2% in full-time staff positions) with sedentary occupation types (time at desk while working ≥6 hours/day) participated. A total of 871 daily surveys were completed. Only perceived behavioral control (β = 0.45, p work-standing at the event-level (model fit: just fit); mediation through intention was not supported. This is the first study to examine theoretical antecedents of real-time work-standing in a naturalistic field setting among positive deviants. These relationships should be further examined, and behavioral intervention

  18. OEDGE modeling for the planned tungsten ring experiment on DIII-D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D. Elder

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The OEDGE code is used to model tungsten erosion and transport for experiments with toroidal rings of high-Z metal tiles in the DIII-D tokamak. Such modeling is needed for both experimental and diagnostic design to have estimates of the expected core and edge tungsten density and to understand the various factors contributing to the uncertainties in these calculations. OEDGE simulations are performed using the planned experimental magnetic geometries and plasma conditions typical of both L-mode and inter-ELM H-mode discharges in DIII-D. OEDGE plasma reconstruction based on specific representative discharges for similar geometries is used to determine the plasma conditions applied to tungsten plasma impurity simulations. A new model for tungsten erosion in OEDGE was developed which imports charge-state resolved carbon impurity fluxes and impact energies from a separate OEDGE run which models the carbon production, transport and deposition for the same plasma conditions as the tungsten simulations. These values are then used to calculate the gross tungsten physical sputtering due to carbon plasma impurities which is then added to any sputtering by deuterium ions; tungsten self-sputtering is also included. The code results are found to be dependent on the following factors: divertor geometry and closure, the choice of cross-field anomalous transport coefficients, divertor plasma conditions (affecting both tungsten source strength and transport, the choice of tungsten atomic physics data used in the model (in particular ionization rate for W-atoms, and the model of the carbon flux and energy used for calculating the tungsten source due to sputtering. Core tungsten density is found to be of order 1015m−3 (excluding effects of any core transport barrier and with significant variability depending on the other factors mentioned with density decaying into the scrape off layer. For the typical core density in the plasma conditions examined of 2 to 4

  19. Theoretical Antecedents of Standing at Work: An Experience Sampling Approach Using the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Renée Umstattd Meyer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Time spent sitting has been associated with an increased risk of diabetes, cancer, obesity, and mental health impairments. However, 75% of Americans spend most of their days sitting, with work-sitting accounting for 63% of total daily sitting time. Little research examining theory-based antecedents of standing or sitting has been conducted. This lack of solid groundwork makes it difficult to design effective intervention strategies to decrease sitting behaviors. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB as our theoretical lens to better understand factors related with beneficial standing behaviors already being practiced, we examined relationships between TPB constructs and time spent standing at work among “positive deviants” (those successful in behavior change. Experience sampling methodology (ESM, 4 times a day (midmorning, before lunch, afternoon, and before leaving work for 5 consecutive workdays (Monday to Friday, was used to assess employees’ standing time. TPB scales assessing attitude (α = 0.81–0.84, norms (α = 0.83, perceived behavioral control (α = 0.77, and intention (α = 0.78 were developed using recommended methods and collected once on the Friday before the ESM surveys started. ESM data are hierarchically nested, therefore we tested our hypotheses using multilevel structural equation modeling with Mplus. Hourly full-time university employees (n = 50; 70.6% female, 84.3% white, mean age = 44 (SD = 11, 88.2%in full-time staff positions with sedentary occupation types (time at desk while working ≥6 hours/day participated. A total of 871 daily surveys were completed. Only perceived behavioral control (β = 0.45, p < 0.05 was related with work-standing at the event-level (model fit: just fit; mediation through intention was not supported. This is the first study to examine theoretical antecedents of real-time work-standing in a naturalistic field setting among positive deviants. These relationships should be further

  20. Improvisation Planning and Jam Session Design using concepts of Sequence Variation and Flow Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Dubnov , Shlomo; Assayag , Gérard

    2005-01-01

    cote interne IRCAM: Assayag05a; National audience; We describe a model for improvisation design based on Factor Oracle automation, which is extended to perform learning and analysis of incoming sequences in terms of sequence variation parameters, namely replication, recombination and innovation. These parameters describe the improvisation plan and allow the design of new improvisations or analysis and modification of plans of existing improvisations. We further introduce an idea of flow exper...

  1. More than 2 years' experience with computer-aided irradiation planning in clinical routine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, H.; Rathje, J.

    1976-01-01

    This is a report on an irradiation planning system which has been used for about 2 years in the department of radiotherapy in the general hospital in Altona. Hard- and software as well as the mathematical model for the description of the dose distribution are described. The compromise between the required accuray of the irradiation plan and the investment in computer-technical activities and computer time is discussed. (orig./LN) [de

  2. Experience of domestic violence routine screening in Family Planning NSW clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Tara; Botfield, Jessica R; Estoesta, Jane; Markham, Pippa; Robertson, Sarah; McGeechan, Kevin

    2017-04-01

    This study reviewed implementation of the Domestic Violence Routine Screening (DVRS) program at Family Planning NSW and outcomes of screening to determine the feasibility of routine screening in a family planning setting and the suitability of this program in the context of women's reproductive and sexual health. A retrospective review of medical records was undertaken of eligible women attending Family Planning NSW clinics between 1 January and 31 December 2015. Modified Poisson regression was used to estimate prevalence ratios and assess association between binary outcomes and client characteristics. Of 13440 eligible women, 5491 were screened (41%). Number of visits, clinic attended, age, employment status and disability were associated with completion of screening. In all, 220 women (4.0%) disclosed domestic violence. Factors associated with disclosure were clinic attended, age group, region of birth, employment status, education and disability. Women who disclosed domestic violence were more likely to have discussed issues related to sexually transmissible infections in their consultation. All women who disclosed were assessed for any safety concerns and offered a range of suitable referral options. Although routine screening may not be appropriate in all health settings, given associations between domestic violence and sexual and reproductive health, a DVRS program is considered appropriate in sexual and reproductive health clinics and appears to be feasible in a service such as Family Planning NSW. Consistent implementation of the program should continue at Family Planning NSW and be expanded to other family planning services in Australia to support identification and early intervention for women affected by domestic violence.

  3. Integrating family planning into postpartum care through modern quality improvement: experience from Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, Youssef; Rahimzai, Mirwais; Ahmadzai, Malalah; Clark, Phyllis Annie; Kamgang, Evelyn

    2014-05-01

    To address low contraceptive use in Afghanistan, we supported 2 large public maternity hospitals and 3 private hospitals in Kabul to use modern quality improvement (QI) methods to integrate family planning into postpartum care. In 2012, QI teams comprising hospital staff applied root cause analysis to identify barriers to integrated postpartum family planning (PPFP) services and to develop solutions for how to integrate services. Changes made to service provision to address identified barriers included creating a private counseling space near the postpartum ward, providing PPFP counseling training and job aids to staff, and involving husbands and mothers-in-law in counseling in person or via mobile phones. After 10 months, the proportion of postpartum women who received family planning counseling before discharge in the 5 hospitals increased from 36% to 55%, and the proportion of women who received family planning counseling with their husbands rose from 18% to 90%. In addition, the proportion of postpartum women who agreed to use family planning and left the hospital with their preferred method increased from 12% to 95%. Follow-up telephone surveys with a random sample of women who had received PPFP services in the 2 public hospitals and a control group of postpartum women who had received routine hospital services found significant differences in the proportion of women with self-reported pregnancies: 3% vs. 15%, respectively, 6 months after discharge; 6% vs. 22% at 12 months; and 14% vs. 35% at 18 months (P family planning and postpartum services by testing changes they deemed feasible.

  4. Preliminary experience with SpineEOS, a new software for 3D planning in AIS surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Emmanuelle; Mazda, Keyvan; Simon, Anne-Laure; Ilharreborde, Brice

    2018-04-24

    Preoperative planning of scoliosis surgery is essential in the effective treatment of spine pathology. Thus, precontoured rods have been recently developed to avoid iatrogenic sagittal misalignment and rod breakage. Some specific issues exist in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), such as a less distal lower instrumented level, a great variability in the location of inflection point (transition from lumbar lordosis to thoracic kyphosis), and sagittal correction is limited by both bone-implant interface. Since 2007, stereoradiographic imaging system is used and allows for 3D reconstructions. Therefore, a software was developed to perform preoperative 3D surgical planning and to provide rod's shape and length. The goal of this preliminary study was to assess the feasibility, reliability, and the clinical relevance of this new software. Retrospective study on 47 AIS patients operated with the same surgical technique: posteromedial translation through posterior approach with lumbar screws and thoracic sublaminar bands. Pre- and postoperatively, 3D reconstructions were performed on stereoradiographic images (EOS system, Paris, France) and compared. Then, the software was used to plan the surgical correction and determine rod's shape and length. Simulated spine and rods were compared to postoperative real 3D reconstructions. 3D reconstructions and planning were performed by an independent observer. 3D simulations were performed on the 47 patients. No difference was found between the simulated model and the postoperative 3D reconstructions in terms of sagittal parameters. Postoperatively, 21% of LL were not within reference values. Postoperative SVA was 20 mm anterior in 2/3 of the cases. Postoperative rods were significantly longer than precontoured rods planned with the software (mean 10 mm). Inflection points were different on the rods used and the planned rods (2.3 levels on average). In this preliminary study, the software based on 3D stereoradiography low

  5. Estimation of the sub-criticality of the sodium-cooled fast reactor Monju using the modified neutron source multiplication method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truchet, G.; Van Rooijen, W. F. G.; Shimazu, Y.; Yamaguchi, K.

    2012-01-01

    The Modified Neutron Source Method (MNSM) is applied to the Monju reactor. This static method to estimate sub-criticality has already given good results on commercial Pressurized Water Reactors. The MNSM consists both in the extraction of the fundamental mode seen by a detector to avoid the effect of higher modes near sources, and the correction of flux distortion effects due to control rod movement. Among Monju's particularities that have a big influence on MNSM factors are: the presence of two californium sources and the position of the detector which is located far from the core outside of the reactor vessel. The importance of spontaneous fission and (α, n) reactions which have increased during the shutdown period of 15 years will also be discussed. The relative position of detectors and sources deeply affect the correction factors in some regions. In order to evaluate the detector count rate, an analytical propagation has been conducted from the reactor vessel. For two subcritical states, an estimation of the reactivity has been made and compared to experimental data obtained in the restart experiments at Monju (2010). (authors)

  6. An analysis of operational experience during low power and shutdown and a plan for addressing human reliability assessment issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barriere, M.; Luckas, W.; Whitehead, D.; Ramey-Smith, A.

    1994-06-01

    Recent nuclear power plant events (e.g. Chernobyl, Diablo Canyon, and Vogtle) and US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reports (e.g. NUREG-1449) have led to concerns regarding human reliability during low power and shutdown (LP ampersand S) conditions and limitations of human reliability analysis (HRA) methodologies in adequately representing the LP ampersand S environment. As a result of these concerns, the NRC initiated two parallel research projects to assess the influence of LP ampersand S conditions on human reliability through an analysis of operational experience at pressurized water reactors (PWRs) an boiling water reactors (BWRs). These research projects, performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory for PWRS, and Sandia National Laboratories for BWRs, identified unique aspects of human performance during LP ampersand S conditions and provided a program plan for research and development necessary to improve existing HRA methodologies. This report documents the results of the analysis of LP ampersand S operating experience and describes the improved HRA program plan

  7. Unavoidable food supply chain waste: acid-free pectin extraction from mango peel via subcritical water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, H; Matharu, A S

    2017-09-21

    Mango peel is the major by-product of mango processing, and compromises 7-24% of the total mango weight. In this study, pectin was extracted from mango peel waste by using subcritical water extraction (SWE) in the absence of mineral acid. A highest yield of 18.34% was achieved from the Kesar variety and the pectin was characterised using ATR-IR spectroscopy, TGA and 13 C solid-state NMR spectroscopy to confirm the structure. The degree of esterification (DE) of the pectin was analysed with both titrimetry and 13 C solid-state NMR spectroscopy, and a high DE (>70%) was observed for all three varieties (Keitt, Sindhri and Kesar). This is the first report on acid-free subcritical water extraction of pectin from mango peel, which provides a green route for the valorisation of mango peel waste and contributes to a source of biobased materials and chemicals for a sustainable 21 st century.

  8. Research Programme for the 660 Mev Proton Accelerator Driven MOX-Plutonium Subcritical Assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Barashenkov, V S; Buttseva, G L; Dudarev, S Yu; Polanski, A; Puzynin, I V; Sissakian, A N

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents a research programme of the Experimental Acclerator Driven System (ADS), which employs a subcritical assembly and a 660 MeV proton acceletator operating at the Laboratory of Nuclear Problems of the JINR, Dubna. MOX fuel (25% PuO_2 + 75% UO_2) designed for the BN-600 reactor use will be adopted for the core of the assembly. The present conceptual design of the experimental subcritical assembly is based on a core of a nominal unit capacity of 15 kW (thermal). This corresponds to the multiplication coefficient k_eff = 0.945, energetic gain G = 30 and the accelerator beam power 0.5 kW.

  9. Novel Production Method for Plant Polyphenol from Livestock Excrement Using Subcritical Water Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayu Yamamoto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant polyphenol, including vanillin, is often used as the intermediate materials of the medicines and vanilla flavoring. In agriculture generally vanillin is produced from vanilla plant and in industry from lignin of disposed wood pulp. We have recently developed a method for the production of plant polyphenol with the excrement as a natural resource of lignin, of the herbivorous animals, by using the subcritical water. The method for using the subcritical water is superior to that of the supercritical water because in the latter complete decomposition occurs. We have successfully produced the vanillin, protocatechuic acid, vanillic acid, and syringic acid in products. Our method is simpler and more efficient not only because it requires the shorter treatment time but also because it releases less amount of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.

  10. Prospects of subcritical molten salt reactor for minor actinides incineration in closed fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseev, Pavel N.; Balanin, Andrey L.; Dudnikov, Anatoly A.; Fomichenko, Petr A.; Nevinitsa, Vladimir A.; Frolov, Aleksey A.; Lubina, Anna S.; Sedov, Aleksey A.; Subbotin, Aleksey S.; Blandinsky, Viktor Yu. [Nuclear Research Centre ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-15

    A subcritical molten salt reactor is proposed for minor actinides (separated from spent fuel VVER-1000 light water reactor) incineration and for {sup 233}U conversion from {sup 232}Th. Here the subcritical molten salt reactor with fuel composition of heavy nuclide fluorides in molten LiF - NaF - KF salt and with external neutron source, based on 1 GeV proton accelerator and molten salt cooled tungsten target is considered. The paper presents the results of parametrical analysis of equilibrium nuclide composition of molten salt reactor with minor actinides feed in dependence of core dimensions, average neutron flux and external neutron source intensity. Reactor design is defined; requirements to external neutron source are posed; heavy nuclides equilibrium and fuel cycle main parameters are calculated.

  11. Theoretical Analysis for Heat Transfer Optimization in Subcritical Electrothermal Energy Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Hu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Electrothermal energy storage (ETES provides bulk electricity storage based on heat pump and heat engine technologies. A subcritical ETES is described in this paper. Based on the extremum principle of entransy dissipation, a geometry model is developed for heat transfer optimization for subcritical ETES. The exergy during the heat transfer process is deduced in terms of entropy production. The geometry model is validated by the extremum principle of entropy production. The theoretical analysis results show that the extremum principle of entransy dissipation is an effective criterion for the optimization, and the optimum heat transfer for different cases with the same mass flux or pressure has been discussed. The optimum heat transfer can be achieved by adjusting the mass flux and pressure of the working fluid. It also reveals that with the increase of mass flux, there is a minimum exergy in the range under consideration, and the exergy decreases with the increase of the pressure.

  12. Observations of the severity of notch-root radius in initiation of subcritical crack growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, W.G.; Eiholzer, C.R.; Tupper, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    Slow bend tests were conducted on Charpy specimens containing precracks or machined notches of 0.10 or 0.25 mm radius. The test specimens were fabricated from three heats of annealed Type 304 stainless steel. The purpose of these tests was to examine the effects of notch root radius, in very ductile materials, on initiation of subcritical crack growth. In addition, it was intended to establish the critical values of J, COD, etc. for the single-edge notch specimen for comparison with results obtained from specimens containing surface flaws. This paper will briefly describe only those results of the calculation for J. The tests were monitored by acoustic emission to identify the load corresponding to initiation of subcritical crack growth, by a crack-opening displacement gage (COD), by cross-head displacement, and by stop-action photography

  13. Comparison between two gas-cooled TRU burner subcritical reactors: fusion-fission and ADS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carluccio, T.; Rossi, P.C.R.; Angelo, G.; Maiorino, J.R.

    2011-01-01

    This work shows a preliminary comparative study between two gas cooled subcritical fast reactor as dedicated transuranics (TRU) transmuters: using a spallation neutron source or a D-T fusion neutron source based on ITER. The two concepts are compared in terms of a minor actinides burning performance. Further investigations are required to choose the best partition and transmutation strategy. Mainly due to geometric factors, the ADS shows better neutron multiplication. Other designs, like SABR and lead cooled ADS may show better performances than a Gas Coolead Subcritical Fast Reactors and should be investigated. We noticed that both designs can be utilized to transmutation. Besides the diverse source neutron spectra, we may notice that the geometric design and cycle parameters play a more important role. (author)

  14. Temperature Profile of the Solution Vessel of an Accelerator-Driven Subcritical Fissile Solution System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Steven Karl [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Determan, John C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-09-14

    Dynamic System Simulation (DSS) models of fissile solution systems have been developed and verified against a variety of historical configurations. DSS techniques have been applied specifically to subcritical accelerator-driven systems using fissile solution fuels of uranium. Initial DSS models were developed in DESIRE, a specialized simulation scripting language. In order to tailor the DSS models to specifically meet needs of system designers they were converted to a Visual Studio implementation, and one of these subsequently to National Instrument’s LabVIEW for human factors engineering and operator training. Specific operational characteristics of subcritical accelerator-driven systems have been examined using a DSS model tailored to this particular class using fissile fuel.

  15. Temperature Profile of the Solution Vessel of an Accelerator-Driven Subcritical Fissile Solution System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Steven Karl; Determan, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic System Simulation (DSS) models of fissile solution systems have been developed and verified against a variety of historical configurations. DSS techniques have been applied specifically to subcritical accelerator-driven systems using fissile solution fuels of uranium. Initial DSS models were developed in DESIRE, a specialized simulation scripting language. In order to tailor the DSS models to specifically meet needs of system designers they were converted to a Visual Studio implementation, and one of these subsequently to National Instrument's LabVIEW for human factors engineering and operator training. Specific operational characteristics of subcritical accelerator-driven systems have been examined using a DSS model tailored to this particular class using fissile fuel.

  16. Subcritical ethanol extraction of flavonoids from Moringa oleifera leaf and evaluation of antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongqiang; Gao, Yujie; Ding, Hui; Liu, Shejiang; Han, Xu; Gui, Jianzhou; Liu, Dan

    2017-03-01

    A large-scale process to extract flavonoids from Moringa oleifera leaf by subcritical ethanol was developed and HPLC-MS analysis was conducted to qualitatively identify the compounds in the extracts. To optimize the effects of process parameters on the yield of flavonoids, a Box-Behnken design combined with response surface methodology was conducted in the present work. The results indicated that the highest extraction yield of flavonoids by subcritical ethanol extraction could reach 2.60% using 70% ethanol at 126.6°C for 2.05h extraction. Under the optimized conditions, flavonoids yield was substantially improved by 26.7% compared with the traditional ethanol reflux method while the extraction time was only 2h, and obvious energy saving was observed. FRAP and DPPH assays showed that the extracts had strong antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Research programme for the 660 MeV proton accelerator driven MOX-plutonium subcritical assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barashenkov, V.S.; Buttsev, V.S.; Buttseva, G.L.; Dudarev, S.Yu.; Polanski, A.; Puzynin, I.V.; Sissakyan, A.N.

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents a research programme of the Experimental Accelerator Driven System (ADS), which employs a subcritical assembly and a 660 MeV proton accelerator operating at the Laboratory of Nuclear Problems of the JINR, Dubna. MOX fuel (25% PuO 2 + 75% UO 2 ) designed for the BN-600 reactor use will be adopted for the core of the assembly. The present conceptual design of the experimental subcritical assembly is based on a core of a nominal unit capacity of 15 kW (thermal). This corresponds to the multiplication coefficient k eff = 0.945, energetic gain G=30 and the accelerator beam power 0.5 kW

  18. Influence of moderator to fuel ratio (MFR) on burning thorium in a subcritical assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojciechowski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    The conversion ratio (CR) of Th-232 to U-233 calculation results for a subcritical reactor assembly is presented as a function of MFR, burnup, power density (PD) and fissile concentration. The calculated model is based on subcritical assembly which makes configuration of fuel rods and volumes of moderator and coolant changes possible. This comfortable assembly enables investigation of CR in a thorium cycle for different value of MFR. Additionally, the calculation results of U-233 saturation concentration are explained by mathematical model. The value of MFR main influences the saturation concentration of U-233 and fissile and the fissile concentration dependence of CR. The saturation value of CR is included in the range CR ∈ (0.911, 0.966) and is a slowly increasing function of MFR. The calculations were done with a MCNPX 2.7 code

  19. Innovation in Management Plans for Community Conserved Areas: Experiences from Australian Indigenous Protected Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyn Davies

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing attention to formal recognition of indigenous and community conserved areas (ICCAs as part of national and/or global protected area systems is generating novel encounters between the customary institutions through which indigenous peoples and local communities manage these traditional estates and the bureaucratic institutions of protected area management planning. Although management plans are widely considered to be important to effective management of protected areas, little guidance has been available about how their form and content can effectively reflect the distinctive socio-cultural and political characteristics of ICCAs. This gap has been particularly apparent in Australia where a trend to rapidly increased formal engagement of indigenous people in environmental management resulted, by 2012, in 50 indigenous groups voluntarily declaring their intent to manage all or part of their estates for conservation in perpetuity, as an indigenous protected area (IPA. Development and adoption of a management plan is central to the process through which the Australian Government recognizes these voluntary declarations and invests resources in IPA management. We identified four types of innovations, apparent in some recent IPA plans, which reflect the distinctive socio-cultural and political characteristics of ICCAs and support indigenous people as the primary decision makers and drivers of knowledge integration in IPAs. These are (1 a focus on customary institutions in governance; (2 strategic planning approaches that respond to interlinkages of stewardship between people, place, plants, and animals; (3 planning frameworks that bridge scales by considering values and issues across the whole of an indigenous people's territory; and (4 varied communication modes appropriate to varied audiences, including an emphasis on visual and spatial modes. Further research is warranted into how governance and management of IPAs, and the plans that

  20. Pregnancy planning and risk behaviours – a survey of women’s experiences in selected European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Małgorzata Lesińska-Sawicka; Małgorzata Nagórska

    2018-01-01

    Pregnancy, a special period in a woman’s life, should be preceded by proper preparation: a positive attitude to procreation, selection of optimum time for becoming pregnant, starting prevention of neural tube defects, restriction of the use of drugs, smoking, etc. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of pregnancy planning and antenatal classes on the use of stimulants during pregnancy. The study group included 877 women living in 7 European countries, and their experiences of pla...