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Sample records for subcortical brain regions

  1. Altered Spontaneous Brain Activity in Cortical and Subcortical Regions in Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The present study aimed to explore the changes of amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF at rest in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD. Methods. Twenty-four PD patients and 22 healthy age-matched controls participated in the study. ALFF was measured on the whole brain of all participants. A two-sample t-test was then performed to detect the group differences with age, gender, education level, head motion, and gray matter volume as covariates. Results. It was showed that PD patients had significantly decreased ALFF in the left thalamus/caudate and right insula/inferior prefrontal gyrus, whereas they had increased ALFF in the right medial prefrontal cortex (BA 8/6 and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA 9/10. Conclusions. Our results indicated that significant alterations of ALFF in the subcortical regions and prefrontal cortex have been detected in PD patients, independent of age, gender, education, head motion, and structural atrophy. The current findings further provide insights into the biological mechanism of the disease.

  2. Assessing denoising strategies to increase signal to noise ratio in spinal cord and in brain cortical and subcortical regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maugeri, L.; Moraschi, M.; Summers, P.; Favilla, S.; Mascali, D.; Cedola, A.; Porro, C. A.; Giove, F.; Fratini, M.

    2018-02-01

    Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) based on Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) contrast has become one of the most powerful tools in neuroscience research. On the other hand, fMRI approaches have seen limited use in the study of spinal cord and subcortical brain regions (such as the brainstem and portions of the diencephalon). Indeed obtaining good BOLD signal in these areas still represents a technical and scientific challenge, due to poor control of physiological noise and to a limited overall quality of the functional series. A solution can be found in the combination of optimized experimental procedures at acquisition stage, and well-adapted artifact mitigation procedures in the data processing. In this framework, we studied two different data processing strategies to reduce physiological noise in cortical and subcortical brain regions and in the spinal cord, based on the aCompCor and RETROICOR denoising tools respectively. The study, performed in healthy subjects, was carried out using an ad hoc isometric motor task. We observed an increased signal to noise ratio in the denoised functional time series in the spinal cord and in the subcortical brain region.

  3. Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hibar, D.P.; Stein, J.L.; Renteria, M.E.; Arias-Vasquez, A.; Desrivières, S.; Jahanshad, N.; Toro, R.; Wittfeld, K.; Abramovic, L.; Andersson, M.; Aribisala, B.S.; Armstrong, N.J.; Bernard, M.; Bohlken, M.M.; Biks, M.P.; Bralten, J.; Brown, A.A.; Chakravarty, M.M.; Chen, Q.; Ching, C.R.K.; Cuellar-Partida, G.; den Braber, A.; Giddaluru, S.; Goldman, A.L.; Grimm, O.; Guadalupe, T.; Hass, J.; Woldehawariat, G.; Holmes, A.J.; Hoogman, M.; Janowitz, D.; Jia, T.; Kim, S.; Klein, M.; Kraemer, B.; Lee, P.H.; Olde Loohuis, L.M.; Luciano, M.; Macare, C.; Mather, K.A.; Mattheisen, M.; Milaneschi, Y.; Nho, K.; Papmeyer, M.; Ramasamy, A.; Risacher, S.L.; Roiz-Santiañez, R.; Rose, E.J.; Salami, A.; Sämann, P.G.; Schmaal, L.; Schork, A.J.; Shin, J.; Strike, L.T.; Teumer, A.; Donkelaar, M.M.J.; van Eijk, K.R.; Walters, R.K.; Westlye, L.T.; Welan, C.D.; Winkler, A.M.; Zwiers, M.P.; Alhusaini, S.; Athanasiu, L.; Ehrlich, S.; Hakobjan, M.M.H.; Hartberg, C.B.; Haukvik, U.K.; Heister, A.J.G.A.M.; Hoehn, D.; Kasperaviciute, D.; Liewald, D.C.M.; Lopez, L.M.; Makkinje, R.R.; Matarin, M.; Naber, M.A.M.; Reese McKay, D.; Needham, M.; Nugent, A.C.; Pütz, B.; Royle, N.A.; Shen, L.; Sprooten, E.; Trabzuni, D.; van der Marel, S.S.L.; van Hulzen, K.J.E.; Walton, E.; Wolf, C.; Almasy, L.; Ames, D.; Arepalli, S.; Assareh, A.A.; Bastin, M.E.; Brodaty, H.; Bulayeva, K.B.; Carless, M.A.; Cichon, S.; Corvin, A.; Curran, J.E.; Czisch, M.; de Zubicaray, G.I.; Dillman, A.; Duggirala, R.; Dyer, T.D.; Erk, S.; Fedko, I.O.; Ferrucci, L.; Foroud, T.M.; Fox, P.T.; Fukunaga, M.; Gibbs, J.R.; Göring, H.H.H.; Green, R.C.; Guelfi, S.; Hansell, N.K.; Hartman, C.A.; Hegenscheid, K.; Heinz, A.; Hernandez, D.G.; Heslenfeld, D.J.; Hoekstra, P.J.; Holsboer, F.; Homuth, G.; Hottenga, J.J.; Ikeda, M.; Jack, C.R., Jr.; Jenkinson, M.; Johnson, R.; Kanai, R.; Keil, M.; Kent, J.W. Jr.; Kochunov, P.; Kwok, J.B.; Lawrie, S.M.; Liu, X.; Longo, D.L.; McMahon, K.L.; Meisenzahl, E.; Melle, I.; Mohnke, S.; Montgomery, G.W.; Mostert, J.C.; Mühleisen, T.W.; Nalls, M.A.; Nichols, T.E.; Nilsson, L.G.; Nöthen, M.M.; Ohi, K.; Olvera, R.L.; Perez-Iglesias, R.; Pike, G.B.; Potkin, S.G.; Reinvang, I.; Reppermund, S.; Rietschel, M.; Romanczuk-Seiferth, N.; Rosen, G.D.; Rujescu, D.; Schnell, K.; Schofield, P.R.; Smith, C.; Steen, V.M.; Sussmann, J.E.; Thalamuthu, A.; Toga, A.W.; Traynor, B.J.; Troncoso, J.; Turner, J.A.; Valdés Hernández, M.C.; van t Ent, D.; van der Brug, M.; van der Wee, N.J.A.; van Tol, M.J.; Veltman, D.J.; Wassink, T.H.; Westmann, E.; Zielke, R.H.; Zonderman, A.B.; Ashbrook, D.G.; Hager, R.; Lu, L.; McMahon, F.J.; Morris, D.W.; Williams, R.W.; Brunner, H.G.; Buckner, R.L.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Cahn, W.; Calhoun, V.D.; Cavalleri, G.L.; Crespo-Facorro, B.; Dale, A.M.; Davies, G.E.; Delanty, N.; Depondt, C.; Djurovic, S.; Drevets, W.C.; Espeseth, T.; Gollub, R.L.; Ho, B.C.; Hoffmann, W.; Hosten, N.; Kahn, R.S.; Le Hellard, S.; Meyer-Lindenberg, A.; Müller-Myhsok, B.; Nauck, M.; Nyberg, L.; Pandolfo, M.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Roffman, J.L.; Sisodiya, SM; Smoller, J.W.; van Bokhoven, H.; van Haren, N.E.M.; Völzke, H.; Walter, H.; Weiner, M.W.; Wen, W.; White, T.; Agartz, I.; Andreassen, O.A.; Blangero, J.; Boomsma, D.I.; Brouwer, R.M.; Cannon, D.M.; Cookson, M.R.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Deary, I.J.; Donohoe, G.; Fernandez, G.; Fisher, S.E.; Francks, C.; Glahn, D.C.; Grabe, H.J.; Gruber, O.; Hardy, J.; Hashimoto, R.; Hulshoff Pol, H.E.; Jönsson, E.G.; Kloszewska, I.; Lovestone, S.; Mattay, V.S.; Mecocci, P.; McDonald, C.; McIntosh, A.M.; Ophoff, R.A.; Paus, T.; Pausova, Z.; Ryten, M.; Sachdev, P.S.; Saykin, A.J.; Simmons, A.; Singleton, A.; Soininen, H.; Wardlaw, J.M.; Weale, M.E.; Weinberger, D.R.; Adams, H.H.H.; Launer, L.J.; Seiler, S.; Schmidt, R.; Chauhan, G.; Satizabal, C.L.; Becker, J.T.; Yanek, L.; van der Lee, S.J.; Ebling, M.; Fischl, B.; Longstreth, Jr. W.T.; Greve, D.; Schmidt, H.; Nyquist, P.; Vinke, L.N.; van Duijn, C.M.; Xue, L.; Mazoyer, B.; Bis, J.C.; Gudnason, V.; Seshadri, S.; Arfan Ikram, M.; Martin, N.G.; Wright, M.J.; Schumann, G.; Franke, B.; Thompson, P.M.; Medland, S.E.

    2015-01-01

    The highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences. Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement, learning, memory and motivation, and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease. To investigate how common

  4. Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.P. Hibar (Derrek); J.L. Stein; M.E. Rentería (Miguel); A. Arias-Vásquez (Alejandro); S. Desrivières (Sylvane); N. Jahanshad (Neda); R. Toro (Roberto); K. Wittfeld (Katharina); L. Abramovic (Lucija); M. Andersson (Micael); B. Aribisala (Benjamin); N.J. Armstrong (Nicola J.); M. Bernard (Manon); M.M. Bohlken (Marc M.); M.P.M. Boks (Marco); L.B.C. Bralten (Linda); A.A. Brown (Andrew); M.M. Chakravarty (M. Mallar); Q. Chen (Qiang); C.R.K. Ching (Christopher); G. Cuellar-Partida (Gabriel); A. den Braber (Anouk); S. Giddaluru (Sudheer); A.L. Goldman (Aaron L.); O. Grimm (Oliver); T. Guadalupe (Tulio); J. Hass (Johanna); G. Woldehawariat (Girma); A.J. Holmes (Avram); M. Hoogman (Martine); D. Janowitz (Deborah); T. Jia (Tianye); S. Kim (Shinseog); M. Klein (Marieke); B. Kraemer (Bernd); P.H. Lee (Phil H.); L.M. Olde Loohuis (Loes M.); M. Luciano (Michelle); C. MacAre (Christine); R. Mather; M. Mattheisen (Manuel); Y. Milaneschi (Yuri); K. Nho (Kwangsik); M. Papmeyer (Martina); A. Ramasamy (Adaikalavan); S.L. Risacher (Shannon); R. Roiz-Santiañez (Roberto); E.J. Rose (Emma); A. Salami (Alireza); P.G. Sämann (Philipp); L. Schmaal (Lianne); N.J. Schork (Nicholas); J. Shin (Jean); L.T. Strike (Lachlan); A. Teumer (Alexander); M.M.J. Van Donkelaar (Marjolein M. J.); K.R. van Eijk (Kristel); R.K. Walters (Raymond); L.T. Westlye (Lars); C.D. Whelan (Christopher); A.M. Winkler (Anderson); M.P. Zwiers (Marcel); S. Alhusaini (Saud); L. Athanasiu (Lavinia); S.M. Ehrlich (Stefan); M. Hakobjan (Marina); C.B. Hartberg (Cecilie B.); U.K. Haukvik (Unn); A.J.G.A.M. Heister (Angelien J. G. A. M.); D. Hoehn (David); D. Kasperaviciute (Dalia); D.C. Liewald (David C.); L.M. Lopez (Lorna); R.R.R. Makkinje (Remco R. R.); M. Matarin (Mar); M.A.M. Naber (Marlies A. M.); D. Reese McKay; M. Needham (Margaret); A.C. Nugent (Allison); B. Pütz (Benno); N.A. Royle (Natalie); L. Shen (Li); R. Sprooten (Roy); D. Trabzuni (Danyah); S.S.L. Van Der Marel (Saskia S. L.); K.J.E. Van Hulzen (Kimm J. E.); E. Walton (Esther); A. Björnsson (Asgeir); L. Almasy (Laura); D.J. Ames (David); S. Arepalli (Sampath); A.A. Assareh; M.E. Bastin (Mark); H. Brodaty (Henry); K. Bulayeva (Kazima); M.A. Carless (Melanie); S. Cichon (Sven); A. Corvin (Aiden); J.E. Curran (Joanne); M. Czisch (Michael); G.I. de Zubicaray (Greig); A. Dillman (Allissa); A. Duggirala (Aparna); M.D. Dyer (Matthew); S. Erk; I. Fedko (Iryna); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); T. Foroud (Tatiana); P.T. Fox (Peter); M. Fukunaga (Masaki); J. Raphael Gibbs; H.H.H. Göring (Harald H.); R.C. Green (Robert C.); S. Guelfi (Sebastian); N.K. Hansell (Narelle); C.A. Hartman (Catharina); K. Hegenscheid (Katrin); J. Heinz (Judith); D.G. Hernandez (Dena); D.J. Heslenfeld (Dirk); P.J. Hoekstra (Pieter); F. Holsboer; G. Homuth (Georg); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); M. Ikeda (Masashi); C.R. Jack Jr. (Clifford); S. Jenkinson (Sarah); R. Johnson (Robert); R. Kanai (Ryota); M. Keil (Maria); J.W. Kent (Jack W.); P. Kochunov (Peter); J.B. Kwok (John B.); S. Lawrie (Stephen); X. Liu (Xinmin); D.L. Longo (Dan L.); K.L. Mcmahon (Katie); E. Meisenzahl (Eva); I. Melle (Ingrid); S. Mohnke (Sebastian); G.W. Montgomery (Grant); J.C. Mostert (Jeanette C.); T.W. Mühleisen (Thomas); M.A. Nalls (Michael); T.E. Nichols (Thomas); L.G. Nilsson; M.M. Nöthen (Markus); K. Ohi (Kazutaka); R.L. Olvera (Rene); R. Perez-Iglesias (Rocio); G. Bruce Pike; S.G. Potkin (Steven); I. Reinvang (Ivar); S. Reppermund; M. Rietschel (Marcella); N. Seiferth (Nina); G.D. Rosen (Glenn D.); D. Rujescu (Dan); K. Schnell (Kerry); C.J. Schofield (Christopher); C. Smith (Colin); V.M. Steen (Vidar); J. Sussmann (Jessika); A. Thalamuthu (Anbupalam); A.W. Toga (Arthur W.); B. Traynor (Bryan); J.C. Troncoso (Juan); J. Turner (Jessica); M.C. Valdés Hernández (Maria); D. van 't Ent (Dennis); M.P. van der Brug (Marcel); N.J. van der Wee (Nic); M.J.D. van Tol (Marie-José); D.J. Veltman (Dick); A.M.J. Wassink (Annemarie); E. Westman (Eric); R.H. Zielke (Ronald H.); A.B. Zonderman (Alan B.); D.G. Ashbrook (David G.); R. Hager (Reinmar); L. Lu (Lu); F.J. Mcmahon (Francis J); D.W. Morris (Derek W); R.W. Williams (Robert W.); H.G. Brunner; M. Buckner; J.K. Buitelaar (Jan K.); W. Cahn (Wiepke); V.D. Calhoun Vince D. (V.); G. Cavalleri (Gianpiero); B. Crespo-Facorro (Benedicto); A.M. Dale (Anders); G.E. Davies (Gareth); N. Delanty; C. Depondt (Chantal); S. Djurovic (Srdjan); D.A. Drevets (Douglas); T. Espeseth (Thomas); R.L. Gollub (Randy); B.C. Ho (Beng ); W. Hoffmann (Wolfgang); N. Hosten (Norbert); R. Kahn (René); S. Le Hellard (Stephanie); A. Meyer-Lindenberg; B. Müller-Myhsok (B.); M. Nauck (Matthias); L. Nyberg (Lars); M. Pandolfo (Massimo); B.W.J.H. Penninx (Brenda); J.L. Roffman (Joshua); S.M. Sisodiya (Sanjay); J.W. Smoller; H. van Bokhoven (Hans); N.E.M. van Haren (Neeltje E.); H. Völzke (Henry); H.J. Walter (Henrik); M.W. Weiner (Michael); W. Wen (Wei); T.J.H. White (Tonya); I. Agartz (Ingrid); O.A. Andreassen (Ole); J. Blangero (John); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); R.M. Brouwer (Rachel); D.M. Cannon (Dara); M.R. Cookson (Mark); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); I.J. Deary (Ian J.); D.J. Donohoe (Dennis); G. Fernandez (Guillén); S.E. Fisher (Simon); C. Francks (Clyde); D.C. Glahn (David); H.J. Grabe (Hans Jörgen); O. Gruber (Oliver); J. Hardy (John); R. Hashimoto (Ryota); H.E. Hulshoff Pol (Hilleke); E.G. Jönsson (Erik); I. Kloszewska (Iwona); S. Lovestone (Simon); V.S. Mattay (Venkata S.); P. Mecocci (Patrizia); C. McDonald (Colm); A.M. McIntosh (Andrew); R.A. Ophoff (Roel); T. Paus (Tomas); Z. Pausova (Zdenka); M. Ryten (Mina); P.S. Sachdev (Perminder); A.J. Saykin (Andrew); A. Simmons (Andrew); A. Singleton (Andrew); H. Soininen (H.); J.M. Wardlaw (J.); M.E. Weale (Michael); D.R. Weinberger (Daniel); H.H.H. Adams (Hieab); L.J. Launer (Lenore); S. Seiler (Stephan); R. Schmidt (Reinhold); G. Chauhan (Ganesh); C.L. Satizabal (Claudia L.); J.T. Becker (James); L.R. Yanek (Lisa); S.J. van der Lee (Sven); M. Ebling (Maritza); B. Fischl (Bruce); W.T. Longstreth Jr; D. Greve (Douglas); R. Schmidt (Reinhold); P. Nyquist (Paul); L.N. Vinke (Louis N.); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); L. Xue (Luting); B. Mazoyer (Bernard); J.C. Bis (Joshua); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); S. Seshadri (Sudha); M.A. Ikram (Arfan); N.G. Martin (Nicholas); M.J. Wright (Margaret); G. Schumann (Gunter); B. Franke (Barbara); P.M. Thompson (Paul); S.E. Medland (Sarah Elizabeth)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences. Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement, learning, memory and motivation, and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease. To investigate

  5. Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hibar, Derrek P.; Stein, Jason L.; Renteria, Miguel E.; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Desrivieres, Sylvane; Jahanshad, Neda; Toro, Roberto; Wittfeld, Katharina; Abramovic, Lucija; Andersson, Micael; Aribisala, Benjamin S.; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Bernard, Manon; Bohlken, Marc M.; Boks, Marco P.; Bralten, Janita; Brown, Andrew A.; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Chen, Qiang; Ching, Christopher R. K.; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; den Braber, Anouk; Giddaluru, Sudheer; Goldman, Aaron L.; Grimm, Oliver; Guadalupe, Tulio; Hass, Johanna; Woldehawariat, Girma; Holmes, Avram J.; Hoogman, Martine; Janowitz, Deborah; Jia, Tianye; Kim, Sungeun; Klein, Marieke; Kraemer, Bernd; Lee, Phil H.; Loohuis, Loes M. Olde; Luciano, Michelle; Macare, Christine; Mather, Karen A.; Mattheisen, Manuel; Milaneschi, Yuri; Nho, Kwangsik; Papmeyer, Martina; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Risacher, Shannon L.; Roiz-Santianez, Roberto; Rose, Emma J.; Salami, Alireza; Saemann, Philipp G.; Schmaal, Lianne; Schork, Andrew J.; Shin, Jean; Strike, Lachlan T.; Teumer, Alexander; van Donkelaar, Marjolein M. J.; van Eijk, Kristel R.; Walters, Raymond K.; Westlye, Lars T.; Whelan, Christopher D.; Winkler, Anderson M.; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Alhusaini, Saud; Athanasiu, Lavinia; Ehrlich, Stefan; Hakobjan, Marina M. H.; Hartberg, Cecilie B.; Haukvik, Unn K.; Heister, Angelien J. G. A. M.; Hoehn, David; Kasperaviciute, Dalia; Liewald, David C. M.; Lopez, Lorna M.; Makkinje, Remco R. R.; Matarin, Mar; Naber, Marlies A. M.; McKay, D. Reese; Needham, Margaret; Nugent, Allison C.; Puetz, Benno; Royle, Natalie A.; Shen, Li; Sprooten, Emma; Trabzuni, Daniah; van der Marel, Saskia S. L.; van Hulzen, Kimm J. E.; Walton, Esther; Wolf, Christiane; Almasy, Laura; Ames, David; Arepalli, Sampath; Assareh, Amelia A.; Bastin, Mark E.; Brodaty, Henry; Bulayeva, Kazima B.; Carless, Melanie A.; Cichon, Sven; Corvin, Aiden; Curran, Joanne E.; Czisch, Michael; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; Dillman, Allissa; Duggirala, Ravi; Dyer, Thomas D.; Erk, Susanne; Fedko, Iryna O.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Fox, Peter T.; Fukunaga, Masaki; Gibbs, J. Raphael; Goering, Harald H. H.; Green, Robert C.; Guelfi, Sebastian; Hansell, Narelle K.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Heinz, Andreas; Hernandez, Dena G.; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Holsboer, Florian; Homuth, Georg; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Ikeda, Masashi; Jack, Clifford R.; Jenkinson, Mark; Johnson, Robert; Kanai, Ryota; Keil, Maria; Kent, Jack W.; Kochunov, Peter; Kwok, John B.; Lawrie, Stephen M.; Liu, Xinmin; Longo, Dan L.; McMahon, Katie L.; Meisenzah, Eva; Melle, Ingrid; Mahnke, Sebastian; Montgomery, Grant W.; Mostert, Jeanette C.; Muehleisen, Thomas W.; Nalls, Michael A.; Nichols, Thomas E.; Nilsson, Lars G.; Noethen, Markus M.; Ohi, Kazutaka; Olvera, Rene L.; Perez-Iglesias, Rocio; Pike, G. Bruce; Potkin, Steven G.; Reinvang, Ivar; Reppermund, Simone; Rietschel, Marcella; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Rosen, Glenn D.; Rujescu, Dan; Schnell, Knut; Schofield, Peter R.; Smith, Colin; Steen, Vidar M.; Sussmann, Jessika E.; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Toga, Arthur W.; Traynor, Bryan J.; Troncoso, Juan; Turner, Jessica A.; Valdes Hernandez, Maria C.; van't Ent, Dennis; van der Brug, Marcel; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Veltman, Dick J.; Wassink, Thomas H.; Westman, Eric; Zielke, Ronald H.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Ashbrook, David G.; Hager, Reinmar; Lu, Lu; McMahon, Francis J.; Morris, Derek W.; Williams, Robert W.; Brunner, Han G.; Buckner, Randy L.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Cahn, Wiepke; Calhoun, Vince D.; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L.; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Dale, Anders M.; Davies, Gareth E.; Delanty, Norman; Depondt, Chantal; Djurovic, Srdjan; Drevets, Wayne C.; Espeseth, Thomas; Gollub, Randy L.; Ho, Beng-Choon; Hoffman, Wolfgang; Hosten, Norbert; Kahn, Rene S.; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Mueller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nauck, Matthias; Nyberg, Lars; Pandolfo, Massimo; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Roffman, Joshua L.; Sisodiya, Sanjay M.; Smoller, Jordan W.; van Bokhoven, Hans; van Haren, Neeltje E. M.; Voelzke, Henry; Walter, Henrik; Weiner, Michael W.; Wen, Wei; White, Tonya; Agartz, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A.; Blangero, John; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Brouwer, Rachel M.; Cannon, Dara M.; Cookson, Mark R.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Deary, Ian J.; Donohoe, Gary; Fernandez, Guillen; Fisher, Simon E.; Francks, Clyde; Glahn, David C.; Grabe, Hans J.; Gruber, Oliver; Hardy, John; Hashimoto, Ryota; Pol, Hilleke E. Hulshoff; Joensson, Erik G.; Kloszewska, Iwona; Lovestone, Simon; Mattay, Venkata S.; Mecocci, Patrizia; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew M.; Ophoff, Roel A.; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Ryten, Mina; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Simmons, Andy; Singleton, Andrew; Soininen, Hilkka; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Weale, Michael E.; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Adams, Hieab H. H.; Launer, Lenore J.; Seiler, Stephan; Schmidt, Reinhold; Chauhan, Ganesh; Satizabal, Claudia L.; Becker, James T.; Yanek, Lisa; van der Lee, Sven J.; Ebling, Maritza; Fischl, Bruce; Longstreth, W. T.; Greve, Douglas; Schmidt, Helena; Nyquist, Paul; Vinke, Louis N.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Xue, Luting; Mazoyer, Bernard; Bis, Joshua C.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Seshadri, Sudha; Ikram, M. Arfan; Martin, Nicholas G.; Wright, Margaret J.; Schumann, Gunter; Franke, Barbara; Thompson, Paul M.; Medland, Sarah E.

    2015-01-01

    The highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences(1). Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement(2), learning, memory(3) and motivation(4), and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease(5). To

  6. Subcortical Brain Morphology in Schizophrenia : Descriptive analysis based on MRI findings of subcortical brain volumes

    OpenAIRE

    Gunleiksrud, Sindre

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate magnetic resonance images (MR) from patients with schizophrenia and healthy control subjects for difference in brain morphology with focus on subcortical brain volumes. Method: The study compared fourteen subcortical brain structure volumes of 96 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia (n=81) or schizoaffective disorder (n=15) with 106 healthy control subjects. Volume measures were obtained using voxel-based morphometry (FreeSurfer software suite) of ...

  7. Structural plasticity of remote cortical brain regions is determined by connectivity to the primary lesion in subcortical stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Bastian; Schulz, Robert; Bönstrup, Marlene; Hummel, Friedhelm C; Sedlacik, Jan; Fiehler, Jens; Gerloff, Christian; Thomalla, Götz

    2015-09-01

    Cortical atrophy as demonstrated by measurement of cortical thickness (CT) is a hallmark of various neurodegenerative diseases. In the wake of an acute ischemic stroke, brain architecture undergoes dynamic changes that can be tracked by structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging studies as soon as 3 months after stroke. In this study, we measured changes of CT in cortical areas connected to subcortical stroke lesions in 12 patients with upper extremity paresis combining white-matter tractography and semi-automatic measurement of CT using the Freesurfer software. Three months after stroke, a significant decrease in CT of -2.6% (median, upper/lower boundary of 95% confidence interval -4.1%/-1.1%) was detected in areas connected to ischemic lesions, whereas CT in unconnected cortical areas remained largely unchanged. A cluster of significant cortical thinning was detected in the superior frontal gyrus of the stroke hemisphere using a surface-based general linear model correcting for multiple comparisons. There was no significant correlation of changes in CT with clinical outcome parameters. Our results show a specific impact of subcortical lesions on distant, yet connected cortical areas explainable by secondary neuro-axonal degeneration of distant areas.

  8. Subcortical surgical anatomy of the lateral frontal region: human white matter dissection and correlations with functional insights provided by intraoperative direct brain stimulation: laboratory investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Benedictis, Alessandro; Sarubbo, Silvio; Duffau, Hugues

    2012-12-01

    Recent neuroimaging and surgical results support the crucial role of white matter in mediating motor and higher-level processing within the frontal lobe, while suggesting the limited compensatory capacity after damage to subcortical structures. Consequently, an accurate knowledge of the anatomofunctional organization of the pathways running within this region is mandatory for planning safe and effective surgical approaches to different diseases. The aim of this dissection study was to improve the neurosurgeon's awareness of the subcortical anatomofunctional architecture for a lateral approach to the frontal region, to optimize both resection and postoperative outcome. Ten human hemispheres (5 left, 5 right) were dissected according to the Klingler technique. Proceeding lateromedially, the main association and projection tracts as well as the deeper basal structures were identified. The authors describe the anatomy and the relationships among the exposed structures in both a systematic and topographical surgical perspective. Structural results were also correlated to the functional responses obtained during resections of infiltrative frontal tumors guided by direct cortico-subcortical electrostimulation with patients in the awake condition. The eloquent boundaries crucial for a safe frontal lobectomy or an extensive lesionectomy are as follows: 1) the motor cortex; 2) the pyramidal tract and premotor fibers in the posterior and posteromedial part of the surgical field; 3) the inferior frontooccipital fascicle and the superior longitudinal fascicle posterolaterally; and 4) underneath the inferior frontal gyrus, the head of the caudate nucleus, and the tip of the frontal horn of the lateral ventricle in the depth. Optimization of results following brain surgery, especially within the frontal lobe, requires a perfect knowledge of functional anatomy, not only at the cortical level but also with regard to subcortical white matter connectivity.

  9. Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibar, Derrek P; Stein, Jason L; Renteria, Miguel E; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Desrivières, Sylvane; Jahanshad, Neda; Toro, Roberto; Wittfeld, Katharina; Abramovic, Lucija; Andersson, Micael; Aribisala, Benjamin S; Armstrong, Nicola J; Bernard, Manon; Bohlken, Marc M; Boks, Marco P; Bralten, Janita; Brown, Andrew A; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Chen, Qiang; Ching, Christopher R K; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; den Braber, Anouk; Giddaluru, Sudheer; Goldman, Aaron L; Grimm, Oliver; Guadalupe, Tulio; Hass, Johanna; Woldehawariat, Girma; Holmes, Avram J; Hoogman, Martine; Janowitz, Deborah; Jia, Tianye; Kim, Sungeun; Klein, Marieke; Kraemer, Bernd; Lee, Phil H; Olde Loohuis, Loes M; Luciano, Michelle; Macare, Christine; Mather, Karen A; Mattheisen, Manuel; Milaneschi, Yuri; Nho, Kwangsik; Papmeyer, Martina; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Risacher, Shannon L; Roiz-Santiañez, Roberto; Rose, Emma J; Salami, Alireza; Sämann, Philipp G; Schmaal, Lianne; Schork, Andrew J; Shin, Jean; Strike, Lachlan T; Teumer, Alexander; van Donkelaar, Marjolein M J; van Eijk, Kristel R; Walters, Raymond K; Westlye, Lars T; Whelan, Christopher D; Winkler, Anderson M; Zwiers, Marcel P; Alhusaini, Saud; Athanasiu, Lavinia; Ehrlich, Stefan; Hakobjan, Marina M H; Hartberg, Cecilie B; Haukvik, Unn K; Heister, Angelien J G A M; Hoehn, David; Kasperaviciute, Dalia; Liewald, David C M; Lopez, Lorna M; Makkinje, Remco R R; Matarin, Mar; Naber, Marlies A M; McKay, D Reese; Needham, Margaret; Nugent, Allison C; Pütz, Benno; Royle, Natalie A; Shen, Li; Sprooten, Emma; Trabzuni, Daniah; van der Marel, Saskia S L; van Hulzen, Kimm J E; Walton, Esther; Wolf, Christiane; Almasy, Laura; Ames, David; Arepalli, Sampath; Assareh, Amelia A; Bastin, Mark E; Brodaty, Henry; Bulayeva, Kazima B; Carless, Melanie A; Cichon, Sven; Corvin, Aiden; Curran, Joanne E; Czisch, Michael; de Zubicaray, Greig I; Dillman, Allissa; Duggirala, Ravi; Dyer, Thomas D; Erk, Susanne; Fedko, Iryna O; Ferrucci, Luigi; Foroud, Tatiana M; Fox, Peter T; Fukunaga, Masaki; Gibbs, J Raphael; Göring, Harald H H; Green, Robert C; Guelfi, Sebastian; Hansell, Narelle K; Hartman, Catharina A; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Heinz, Andreas; Hernandez, Dena G; Heslenfeld, Dirk J; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Holsboer, Florian; Homuth, Georg; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Ikeda, Masashi; Jack, Clifford R; Jenkinson, Mark; Johnson, Robert; Kanai, Ryota; Keil, Maria; Kent, Jack W; Kochunov, Peter; Kwok, John B; Lawrie, Stephen M; Liu, Xinmin; Longo, Dan L; McMahon, Katie L; Meisenzahl, Eva; Melle, Ingrid; Mohnke, Sebastian; Montgomery, Grant W; Mostert, Jeanette C; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Nalls, Michael A; Nichols, Thomas E; Nilsson, Lars G; Nöthen, Markus M; Ohi, Kazutaka; Olvera, Rene L; Perez-Iglesias, Rocio; Pike, G Bruce; Potkin, Steven G; Reinvang, Ivar; Reppermund, Simone; Rietschel, Marcella; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Rosen, Glenn D; Rujescu, Dan; Schnell, Knut; Schofield, Peter R; Smith, Colin; Steen, Vidar M; Sussmann, Jessika E; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Toga, Arthur W; Traynor, Bryan J; Troncoso, Juan; Turner, Jessica A; Valdés Hernández, Maria C; van 't Ent, Dennis; van der Brug, Marcel; van der Wee, Nic J A; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Veltman, Dick J; Wassink, Thomas H; Westman, Eric; Zielke, Ronald H; Zonderman, Alan B; Ashbrook, David G; Hager, Reinmar; Lu, Lu; McMahon, Francis J; Morris, Derek W; Williams, Robert W; Brunner, Han G; Buckner, Randy L; Buitelaar, Jan K; Cahn, Wiepke; Calhoun, Vince D; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Dale, Anders M; Davies, Gareth E; Delanty, Norman; Depondt, Chantal; Djurovic, Srdjan; Drevets, Wayne C; Espeseth, Thomas; Gollub, Randy L; Ho, Beng-Choon; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hosten, Norbert; Kahn, René S; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nauck, Matthias; Nyberg, Lars; Pandolfo, Massimo; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Roffman, Joshua L; Sisodiya, Sanjay M; Smoller, Jordan W; van Bokhoven, Hans; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Völzke, Henry; Walter, Henrik; Weiner, Michael W; Wen, Wei; White, Tonya; Agartz, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A; Blangero, John; Boomsma, Dorret I; Brouwer, Rachel M; Cannon, Dara M; Cookson, Mark R; de Geus, Eco J C; Deary, Ian J; Donohoe, Gary; Fernández, Guillén; Fisher, Simon E; Francks, Clyde; Glahn, David C; Grabe, Hans J; Gruber, Oliver; Hardy, John; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Jönsson, Erik G; Kloszewska, Iwona; Lovestone, Simon; Mattay, Venkata S; Mecocci, Patrizia; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew M; Ophoff, Roel A; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Ryten, Mina; Sachdev, Perminder S; Saykin, Andrew J; Simmons, Andy; Singleton, Andrew; Soininen, Hilkka; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Weale, Michael E; Weinberger, Daniel R; Adams, Hieab H H; Launer, Lenore J; Seiler, Stephan; Schmidt, Reinhold; Chauhan, Ganesh; Satizabal, Claudia L; Becker, James T; Yanek, Lisa; van der Lee, Sven J; Ebling, Maritza; Fischl, Bruce; Longstreth, W T; Greve, Douglas; Schmidt, Helena; Nyquist, Paul; Vinke, Louis N; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Xue, Luting; Mazoyer, Bernard; Bis, Joshua C; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Seshadri, Sudha; Ikram, M Arfan; Martin, Nicholas G; Wright, Margaret J; Schumann, Gunter; Franke, Barbara; Thompson, Paul M; Medland, Sarah E

    2015-04-09

    The highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences. Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement, learning, memory and motivation, and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease. To investigate how common genetic variants affect the structure of these brain regions, here we conduct genome-wide association studies of the volumes of seven subcortical regions and the intracranial volume derived from magnetic resonance images of 30,717 individuals from 50 cohorts. We identify five novel genetic variants influencing the volumes of the putamen and caudate nucleus. We also find stronger evidence for three loci with previously established influences on hippocampal volume and intracranial volume. These variants show specific volumetric effects on brain structures rather than global effects across structures. The strongest effects were found for the putamen, where a novel intergenic locus with replicable influence on volume (rs945270; P = 1.08 × 10(-33); 0.52% variance explained) showed evidence of altering the expression of the KTN1 gene in both brain and blood tissue. Variants influencing putamen volume clustered near developmental genes that regulate apoptosis, axon guidance and vesicle transport. Identification of these genetic variants provides insight into the causes of variability in human brain development, and may help to determine mechanisms of neuropsychiatric dysfunction.

  10. Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibar, Derrek P.; Stein, Jason L.; Renteria, Miguel E.; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Desrivières, Sylvane; Jahanshad, Neda; Toro, Roberto; Wittfeld, Katharina; Abramovic, Lucija; Andersson, Micael; Aribisala, Benjamin S.; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Bernard, Manon; Bohlken, Marc M.; Boks, Marco P.; Bralten, Janita; Brown, Andrew A.; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Chen, Qiang; Ching, Christopher R. K.; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; den Braber, Anouk; Giddaluru, Sudheer; Goldman, Aaron L.; Grimm, Oliver; Guadalupe, Tulio; Hass, Johanna; Woldehawariat, Girma; Holmes, Avram J.; Hoogman, Martine; Janowitz, Deborah; Jia, Tianye; Kim, Sungeun; Klein, Marieke; Kraemer, Bernd; Lee, Phil H.; Olde Loohuis, Loes M.; Luciano, Michelle; Macare, Christine; Mather, Karen A.; Mattheisen, Manuel; Milaneschi, Yuri; Nho, Kwangsik; Papmeyer, Martina; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Risacher, Shannon L.; Roiz-Santiañez, Roberto; Rose, Emma J.; Salami, Alireza; Sämann, Philipp G.; Schmaal, Lianne; Schork, Andrew J.; Shin, Jean; Strike, Lachlan T.; Teumer, Alexander; van Donkelaar, Marjolein M. J.; van Eijk, Kristel R.; Walters, Raymond K.; Westlye, Lars T.; Whelan, Christopher D.; Winkler, Anderson M.; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Alhusaini, Saud; Athanasiu, Lavinia; Ehrlich, Stefan; Hakobjan, Marina M. H.; Hartberg, Cecilie B.; Haukvik, Unn K.; Heister, Angelien J. G. A. M.; Hoehn, David; Kasperaviciute, Dalia; Liewald, David C. M.; Lopez, Lorna M.; Makkinje, Remco R. R.; Matarin, Mar; Naber, Marlies A. M.; McKay, D. Reese; Needham, Margaret; Nugent, Allison C.; Pütz, Benno; Royle, Natalie A.; Shen, Li; Sprooten, Emma; Trabzuni, Daniah; van der Marel, Saskia S. L.; van Hulzen, Kimm J. E.; Walton, Esther; Wolf, Christiane; Almasy, Laura; Ames, David; Arepalli, Sampath; Assareh, Amelia A.; Bastin, Mark E.; Brodaty, Henry; Bulayeva, Kazima B.; Carless, Melanie A.; Cichon, Sven; Corvin, Aiden; Curran, Joanne E.; Czisch, Michael; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; Dillman, Allissa; Duggirala, Ravi; Dyer, Thomas D.; Erk, Susanne; Fedko, Iryna O.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Fox, Peter T.; Fukunaga, Masaki; Gibbs, J. Raphael; Göring, Harald H. H.; Green, Robert C.; Guelfi, Sebastian; Hansell, Narelle K.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Heinz, Andreas; Hernandez, Dena G.; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Holsboer, Florian; Homuth, Georg; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Ikeda, Masashi; Jack, Clifford R.; Jenkinson, Mark; Johnson, Robert; Kanai, Ryota; Keil, Maria; Kent, Jack W.; Kochunov, Peter; Kwok, John B.; Lawrie, Stephen M.; Liu, Xinmin; Longo, Dan L.; McMahon, Katie L.; Meisenzahl, Eva; Melle, Ingrid; Mohnke, Sebastian; Montgomery, Grant W.; Mostert, Jeanette C.; Mühleisen, Thomas W.; Nalls, Michael A.; Nichols, Thomas E.; Nilsson, Lars G.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Ohi, Kazutaka; Olvera, Rene L.; Perez-Iglesias, Rocio; Pike, G. Bruce; Potkin, Steven G.; Reinvang, Ivar; Reppermund, Simone; Rietschel, Marcella; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Rosen, Glenn D.; Rujescu, Dan; Schnell, Knut; Schofield, Peter R.; Smith, Colin; Steen, Vidar M.; Sussmann, Jessika E.; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Toga, Arthur W.; Traynor, Bryan J.; Troncoso, Juan; Turner, Jessica A.; Valdés Hernández, Maria C.; van ’t Ent, Dennis; van der Brug, Marcel; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Veltman, Dick J.; Wassink, Thomas H.; Westman, Eric; Zielke, Ronald H.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Ashbrook, David G.; Hager, Reinmar; Lu, Lu; McMahon, Francis J.; Morris, Derek W.; Williams, Robert W.; Brunner, Han G.; Buckner, Randy L.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Cahn, Wiepke; Calhoun, Vince D.; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L.; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Dale, Anders M.; Davies, Gareth E.; Delanty, Norman; Depondt, Chantal; Djurovic, Srdjan; Drevets, Wayne C.; Espeseth, Thomas; Gollub, Randy L.; Ho, Beng-Choon; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hosten, Norbert; Kahn, René S.; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nauck, Matthias; Nyberg, Lars; Pandolfo, Massimo; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Roffman, Joshua L.; Sisodiya, Sanjay M.; Smoller, Jordan W.; van Bokhoven, Hans; van Haren, Neeltje E. M.; Völzke, Henry; Walter, Henrik; Weiner, Michael W.; Wen, Wei; White, Tonya; Agartz, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A.; Blangero, John; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Brouwer, Rachel M.; Cannon, Dara M.; Cookson, Mark R.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Deary, Ian J.; Donohoe, Gary; Fernández, Guillén; Fisher, Simon E.; Francks, Clyde; Glahn, David C.; Grabe, Hans J.; Gruber, Oliver; Hardy, John; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E.; Jönsson, Erik G.; Kloszewska, Iwona; Lovestone, Simon; Mattay, Venkata S.; Mecocci, Patrizia; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew M.; Ophoff, Roel A.; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Ryten, Mina; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Simmons, Andy; Singleton, Andrew; Soininen, Hilkka; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Weale, Michael E.; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Adams, Hieab H. H.; Launer, Lenore J.; Seiler, Stephan; Schmidt, Reinhold; Chauhan, Ganesh; Satizabal, Claudia L.; Becker, James T.; Yanek, Lisa; van der Lee, Sven J.; Ebling, Maritza; Fischl, Bruce; Longstreth, W. T.; Greve, Douglas; Schmidt, Helena; Nyquist, Paul; Vinke, Louis N.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Xue, Luting; Mazoyer, Bernard; Bis, Joshua C.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Seshadri, Sudha; Ikram, M. Arfan; Martin, Nicholas G.; Wright, Margaret J.; Schumann, Gunter; Franke, Barbara; Thompson, Paul M.; Medland, Sarah E.

    2015-01-01

    The highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences1. Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement2, learning, memory3 and motivation4, and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease2. To investigate how common genetic variants affect the structure of these brain regions, here we conduct genome-wide association studies of the volumes of seven subcortical regions and the intracranial volume derived from magnetic resonance images of 30,717 individuals from 50 cohorts. We identify five novel genetic variants influencing the volumes of the putamen and caudate nucleus. We also find stronger evidence for three loci with previously established influences on hippocampal volume5 and intracranial volume6. These variants show specific volumetric effects on brain structures rather than global effects across structures. The strongest effects were found for the putamen, where a novel intergenic locus with replicable influence on volume (rs945270; P = 1.08 × 10−33; 0.52% variance explained) showed evidence of altering the expression of the KTN1 gene in both brain and blood tissue. Variants influencing putamen volume clustered near developmental genes that regulate apoptosis, axon guidance and vesicle transport. Identification of these genetic variants provides insight into the causes of variability inhuman brain development, and may help to determine mechanisms of neuropsychiatric dysfunction. PMID:25607358

  11. Mapping abnormal subcortical brain morphometry in an elderly HIV+ cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Benjamin S C; Valcour, Victor G; Wendelken-Riegelhaupt, Lauren; Esmaeili-Firidouni, Pardis; Joshi, Shantanu H; Gutman, Boris A; Thompson, Paul M

    2015-01-01

    Over 50% of HIV + individuals exhibit neurocognitive impairment and subcortical atrophy, but the profile of brain abnormalities associated with HIV is still poorly understood. Using surface-based shape analyses, we mapped the 3D profile of subcortical morphometry in 63 elderly HIV + participants and 31 uninfected controls. The thalamus, caudate, putamen, pallidum, hippocampus, amygdala, brainstem, accumbens, callosum and ventricles were segmented from high-resolution MRIs. To investigate shape-based morphometry, we analyzed the Jacobian determinant (JD) and radial distances (RD) defined on each region's surfaces. We also investigated effects of nadir CD4 + T-cell counts, viral load, time since diagnosis (TSD) and cognition on subcortical morphology. Lastly, we explored whether HIV + participants were distinguishable from unaffected controls in a machine learning context. All shape and volume features were included in a random forest (RF) model. The model was validated with 2-fold cross-validation. Volumes of HIV + participants' bilateral thalamus, left pallidum, left putamen and callosum were significantly reduced while ventricular spaces were enlarged. Significant shape variation was associated with HIV status, TSD and the Wechsler adult intelligence scale. HIV + people had diffuse atrophy, particularly in the caudate, putamen, hippocampus and thalamus. Unexpectedly, extended TSD was associated with increased thickness of the anterior right pallidum. In the classification of HIV + participants vs. controls, our RF model attained an area under the curve of 72%.

  12. Mapping abnormal subcortical brain morphometry in an elderly HIV+ cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin S.C. Wade

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over 50% of HIV+ individuals exhibit neurocognitive impairment and subcortical atrophy, but the profile of brain abnormalities associated with HIV is still poorly understood. Using surface-based shape analyses, we mapped the 3D profile of subcortical morphometry in 63 elderly HIV+ participants and 31 uninfected controls. The thalamus, caudate, putamen, pallidum, hippocampus, amygdala, brainstem, accumbens, callosum and ventricles were segmented from high-resolution MRIs. To investigate shape-based morphometry, we analyzed the Jacobian determinant (JD and radial distances (RD defined on each region's surfaces. We also investigated effects of nadir CD4+ T-cell counts, viral load, time since diagnosis (TSD and cognition on subcortical morphology. Lastly, we explored whether HIV+ participants were distinguishable from unaffected controls in a machine learning context. All shape and volume features were included in a random forest (RF model. The model was validated with 2-fold cross-validation. Volumes of HIV+ participants' bilateral thalamus, left pallidum, left putamen and callosum were significantly reduced while ventricular spaces were enlarged. Significant shape variation was associated with HIV status, TSD and the Wechsler adult intelligence scale. HIV+ people had diffuse atrophy, particularly in the caudate, putamen, hippocampus and thalamus. Unexpectedly, extended TSD was associated with increased thickness of the anterior right pallidum. In the classification of HIV+ participants vs. controls, our RF model attained an area under the curve of 72%.

  13. Cortical and subcortical mechanisms of brain-machine interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchesotti, Silvia; Martuzzi, Roberto; Schurger, Aaron; Blefari, Maria Laura; Del Millán, José R; Bleuler, Hannes; Blanke, Olaf

    2017-06-01

    Technical advances in the field of Brain-Machine Interfaces (BMIs) enable users to control a variety of external devices such as robotic arms, wheelchairs, virtual entities and communication systems through the decoding of brain signals in real time. Most BMI systems sample activity from restricted brain regions, typically the motor and premotor cortex, with limited spatial resolution. Despite the growing number of applications, the cortical and subcortical systems involved in BMI control are currently unknown at the whole-brain level. Here, we provide a comprehensive and detailed report of the areas active during on-line BMI control. We recorded functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data while participants controlled an EEG-based BMI inside the scanner. We identified the regions activated during BMI control and how they overlap with those involved in motor imagery (without any BMI control). In addition, we investigated which regions reflect the subjective sense of controlling a BMI, the sense of agency for BMI-actions. Our data revealed an extended cortical-subcortical network involved in operating a motor-imagery BMI. This includes not only sensorimotor regions but also the posterior parietal cortex, the insula and the lateral occipital cortex. Interestingly, the basal ganglia and the anterior cingulate cortex were involved in the subjective sense of controlling the BMI. These results inform basic neuroscience by showing that the mechanisms of BMI control extend beyond sensorimotor cortices. This knowledge may be useful for the development of BMIs that offer a more natural and embodied feeling of control for the user. Hum Brain Mapp 38:2971-2989, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Cortical and subcortical brain alterations in Juvenile Absence Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Tondelli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the common assumption that genetic generalized epilepsies are characterized by a macroscopically normal brain on magnetic resonance imaging, subtle structural brain alterations have been detected by advanced neuroimaging techniques in Childhood Absence Epilepsy syndrome. We applied quantitative structural MRI analysis to a group of adolescents and adults with Juvenile Absence Epilepsy (JAE in order to investigate micro-structural brain changes using different brain measures. We examined grey matter volumes, cortical thickness, surface areas, and subcortical volumes in 24 patients with JAE compared to 24 healthy controls; whole-brain voxel-based morphometry (VBM and Freesurfer analyses were used. When compared to healthy controls, patients revealed both grey matter volume and surface area reduction in bilateral frontal regions, anterior cingulate, and right mesial-temporal lobe. Correlation analysis with disease duration showed that longer disease was correlated with reduced surface area in right pre- and post-central gyrus. A possible effect of valproate treatment on brain structures was excluded. Our results indicate that subtle structural brain changes are detectable in JAE and are mainly located in anterior nodes of regions known to be crucial for awareness, attention and memory.

  15. The influence of puberty on subcortical brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddings, Anne-Lise; Mills, Kathryn L; Clasen, Liv S; Giedd, Jay N; Viner, Russell M; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2014-03-01

    Puberty is characterized by hormonal, physical and psychological transformation. The human brain undergoes significant changes between childhood and adulthood, but little is known about how puberty influences its structural development. Using a longitudinal sample of 711 magnetic resonance imaging scans from 275 individuals aged 7-20years, we examined how subcortical brain regions change in relation to puberty. Our regions of interest included the amygdala, hippocampus and corpus striatum including the nucleus accumbens (NA), caudate, putamen and globus pallidus (GP). Pubertal development was significantly related to structural volume in all six regions in both sexes. Pubertal development and age had both independent and interactive influences on volume for the amygdala, hippocampus and putamen in both sexes, and the caudate in females. There was an interactive puberty-by-age effect on volume for the NA and GP in both sexes, and the caudate in males. These findings suggest a significant role for puberty in structural brain development. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Genetic influences on schizophrenia and subcortical brain volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franke, Barbara; Stein, Jason L; Ripke, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    and subcortical volume measures either at the level of common variant genetic architecture or for single genetic markers. These results provide a proof of concept (albeit based on a limited set of structural brain measures) and define a roadmap for future studies investigating the genetic covariance between...... genome-wide data to investigate genetic overlap. Here we integrated results from common variant studies of schizophrenia (33,636 cases, 43,008 controls) and volumes of several (mainly subcortical) brain structures (11,840 subjects). We did not find evidence of genetic overlap between schizophrenia risk...

  17. Reduced prefrontal and increased subcortical brain functioning assessed using positron emission tomography in predatory and affective murderers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, A; Meloy, J R; Bihrle, S; Stoddard, J; LaCasse, L; Buchsbaum, M S

    1998-01-01

    There appear to be no brain imaging studies investigating which brain mechanisms subserve affective, impulsive violence versus planned, predatory violence. It was hypothesized that affectively violent offenders would have lower prefrontal activity, higher subcortical activity, and reduced prefrontal/subcortical ratios relative to controls, while predatory violent offenders would show relatively normal brain functioning. Glucose metabolism was assessed using positron emission tomography in 41 comparisons, 15 predatory murderers, and nine affective murderers in left and right hemisphere prefrontal (medial and lateral) and subcortical (amygdala, midbrain, hippocampus, and thalamus) regions. Affective murderers relative to comparisons had lower left and right prefrontal functioning, higher right hemisphere subcortical functioning, and lower right hemisphere prefrontal/subcortical ratios. In contrast, predatory murderers had prefrontal functioning that was more equivalent to comparisons, while also having excessively high right subcortical activity. Results support the hypothesis that emotional, unplanned impulsive murderers are less able to regulate and control aggressive impulses generated from subcortical structures due to deficient prefrontal regulation. It is hypothesized that excessive subcortical activity predisposes to aggressive behaviour, but that while predatory murderers have sufficiently good prefrontal functioning to regulate these aggressive impulses, the affective murderers lack such prefrontal control over emotion regulation.

  18. PET studies of brain energy metabolism in a model of subcortical dementia: progressive supranuclear Palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blin, J.; Baron, J.C.; Cambon, H.

    1988-01-01

    In 41 patients with clinically determined Progressive Supranuclear Palsy, a model of degenerative subcortical dementia, alterations in regional brain energy metabolism with respect to control subjects have been investigated using positron computed tomography and correlated to clinical and neuropsychological scores. A generalized significant reduction in brain metabolism was found, which predominated in the prefrontal cortex in accordance with, and statistically correlated to, the frontal neuropsychological score

  19. Altered modulation of prefrontal and subcortical brain activity in newly diagnosed schizophrenia and schizophreniform disorder. A regional cerebral blood flow study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, P; Holm, S; Friberg, L

    1991-01-01

    To measure prefrontal and subcortical activity during a cognitive task, we examined 19 newly diagnosed schizophrenics and patients with schizophreniform psychosis. Seven healthy volunteers served as controls. The patients were drug naive or had received neuroleptics for a few days only. Cerebral ...

  20. Early developmental gene enhancers affect subcortical volumes in the adult human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Martin; Guadalupe, Tulio; Franke, Barbara; Hibar, Derrek P; Renteria, Miguel E; Stein, Jason L; Thompson, Paul M; Francks, Clyde; Vernes, Sonja C; Fisher, Simon E

    2016-05-01

    Genome-wide association screens aim to identify common genetic variants contributing to the phenotypic variability of complex traits, such as human height or brain morphology. The identified genetic variants are mostly within noncoding genomic regions and the biology of the genotype-phenotype association typically remains unclear. In this article, we propose a complementary targeted strategy to reveal the genetic underpinnings of variability in subcortical brain volumes, by specifically selecting genomic loci that are experimentally validated forebrain enhancers, active in early embryonic development. We hypothesized that genetic variation within these enhancers may affect the development and ultimately the structure of subcortical brain regions in adults. We tested whether variants in forebrain enhancer regions showed an overall enrichment of association with volumetric variation in subcortical structures of >13,000 healthy adults. We observed significant enrichment of genomic loci that affect the volume of the hippocampus within forebrain enhancers (empirical P = 0.0015), a finding which robustly passed the adjusted threshold for testing of multiple brain phenotypes (cutoff of P < 0.0083 at an alpha of 0.05). In analyses of individual single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we identified an association upstream of the ID2 gene with rs7588305 and variation in hippocampal volume. This SNP-based association survived multiple-testing correction for the number of SNPs analyzed but not for the number of subcortical structures. Targeting known regulatory regions offers a way to understand the underlying biology that connects genotypes to phenotypes, particularly in the context of neuroimaging genetics. This biology-driven approach generates testable hypotheses regarding the functional biology of identified associations. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1788-1800, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The developing human brain: age-related changes in cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Dafna; Leung, Rachel C; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Lerch, Jason P; Taylor, Margot J

    2016-04-01

    This study is the first to characterize normal development and sex differences across neuroanatomical structures in cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar brain regions in a single large cohort. One hundred and ninety-two magnetic resonance images were examined from 96 typically developing females and 96 age-matched typically developing males from 4 to 18 years of age. Image segmentation of the cortex was conducted with CIVET, while that of the cerebellum, hippocampi, thalamus, and basal ganglia were conducted using the MAGeT algorithm. Cortical thickness analysis revealed that most cortical regions decrease linearly, while surface area increases linearly with age. Volume relative to total cerebrum followed a quadratic trend with age, with only the left supramarginal gyrus showing sexual dimorphism. Hippocampal relative volume increased linearly, while the thalamus, caudate, and putamen decreased linearly, and the cerebellum did not change with age. The relative volumes of several subcortical subregions followed inverted U-shaped trends that peaked at ~12 years of age. Many subcortical structures were found to be larger in females than in males, independently of age, while others showed a sex-by-age interaction. This study provides a comprehensive assessment of cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar growth patterns during normal development, and draws attention to the role of sex on neuroanatomical maturation throughout childhood and adolescence.

  2. Intra- and interhemispheric variations of diffusivity in subcortical white matter in normal human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshiura, Takashi; Noguchi, Tomoyuki; Hiwatashi, Akio; Togao, Osamu; Yamashita, Koji; Nagao, Eiki; Kamano, Hironori; Honda, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Our purpose was to reveal potential regional variations in water molecular diffusivity within each cerebral hemisphere and across the right and left hemispheres. Diffusion-weighted images of 44 healthy right-handed adult male subjects were obtained using a diffusion tensor imaging sequence. Mean diffusivity (MD) values in subcortical white matter (WM) within 39 regions in each hemisphere were measured using an automated method. Intrahemispheric comparisons of MDs in subcortical WM were performed among six brain regions (frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal lobes and pre- and postcentral gyri). Interhemispheric comparisons of MDs were performed between the right and left counterparts of the 39 regions. In both hemispheres, diffusivity in the precentral gyrus was lower than those in other regions, while diffusivity in the parietal lobe was higher than others. MD asymmetry in which the left was lower than the right was found in the parietal lobe, middle occipital gyrus, and medial and orbital aspects of the frontal lobe. The converse asymmetry was revealed in the frontal operculum, supplementary motor cortex, temporal lobe, limbic cortices, precuneus and cuneus. Our results revealed significant intra- and interhemispheric regional variations in MD in subcortical WM, which may be related to different densities of axons and myelin sheaths. (orig.)

  3. Intra- and interhemispheric variations of diffusivity in subcortical white matter in normal human brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshiura, Takashi; Noguchi, Tomoyuki; Hiwatashi, Akio; Togao, Osamu; Yamashita, Koji; Nagao, Eiki; Kamano, Hironori; Honda, Hiroshi [Kyushu University, Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2010-01-15

    Our purpose was to reveal potential regional variations in water molecular diffusivity within each cerebral hemisphere and across the right and left hemispheres. Diffusion-weighted images of 44 healthy right-handed adult male subjects were obtained using a diffusion tensor imaging sequence. Mean diffusivity (MD) values in subcortical white matter (WM) within 39 regions in each hemisphere were measured using an automated method. Intrahemispheric comparisons of MDs in subcortical WM were performed among six brain regions (frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal lobes and pre- and postcentral gyri). Interhemispheric comparisons of MDs were performed between the right and left counterparts of the 39 regions. In both hemispheres, diffusivity in the precentral gyrus was lower than those in other regions, while diffusivity in the parietal lobe was higher than others. MD asymmetry in which the left was lower than the right was found in the parietal lobe, middle occipital gyrus, and medial and orbital aspects of the frontal lobe. The converse asymmetry was revealed in the frontal operculum, supplementary motor cortex, temporal lobe, limbic cortices, precuneus and cuneus. Our results revealed significant intra- and interhemispheric regional variations in MD in subcortical WM, which may be related to different densities of axons and myelin sheaths. (orig.)

  4. Development and heritability of subcortical brain volumes at age 9 and 12

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swagerman, S.C.; Brouwer, R.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Hulshoff Pol, H.E.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2014-01-01

    Subcortical brain structures are involved in a variety of cognitive and emotional functions and follow different trajectories of increase and decrease in volume from childhood to adulthood. The heritability of development of subcortical brain volumes during adolescence has not been studied

  5. Disturbed oscillatory brain dynamics in subcortical ischemic vascular dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Straaten Elisabeth CW

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background White matter hyperintensities (WMH can lead to dementia but the underlying physiological mechanisms are unclear. We compared relative oscillatory power from electroencephalographic studies (EEGs of 17 patients with subcortical ischemic vascular dementia, based on extensive white matter hyperintensities (SIVD-WMH with 17 controls to investigate physiological changes underlying this diagnosis. Results Differences between the groups were large, with a decrease of relative power of fast activity in patients (alpha power 0.25 ± 0.12 versus 0.38 ± 0.13, p = 0.01; beta power 0.08 ± 0.04 versus 0.19 ± 0.07; p Conclusions This pattern of disturbance in oscillatory brain activity indicate loss of connections between neurons, providing a first step in the understanding of cognitive dysfunction in SIVD-WMH.

  6. Subcortical regional morphology correlates with fluid and spatial intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgaleta, Miguel; MacDonald, Penny A; Martínez, Kenia; Román, Francisco J; Álvarez-Linera, Juan; Ramos González, Ana; Karama, Sherif; Colom, Roberto

    2014-05-01

    Neuroimaging studies have revealed associations between intelligence and brain morphology. However, researchers have focused primarily on the anatomical features of the cerebral cortex, whereas subcortical structures, such as the basal ganglia (BG), have often been neglected despite extensive functional evidence on their relation with higher-order cognition. Here we performed shape analyses to understand how individual differences in BG local morphology account for variability in cognitive performance. Structural MRI was acquired in 104 young adults (45 men, 59 women, mean age = 19.83, SD = 1.64), and the outer surface of striatal structures (caudate, nucleus accumbens, and putamen), globus pallidus, and thalamus was estimated for each subject and hemisphere. Further, nine cognitive tests were used to measure fluid (Gf), crystallized (Gc), and spatial intelligence (Gv). Latent scores for these factors were computed by means of confirmatory factor analysis and regressed vertex-wise against subcortical shape (local displacements of vertex position), controlling for age, sex, and adjusted for brain size. Significant results (FDR intelligence-related prefrontal areas. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Progressively Disrupted Brain Functional Connectivity Network in Subcortical Ischemic Vascular Cognitive Impairment Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Linqiong; Chen, Lin; Wang, Li; Zhang, Jingna; Zhang, Ye; Li, Pengyue; Li, Chuanming; Qiu, Mingguo

    2018-01-01

    Cognitive impairment caused by subcortical ischemic vascular disease (SIVD) has been elucidated by many neuroimaging studies. However, little is known regarding the changes in brain functional connectivity networks in relation to the severity of cognitive impairment in SIVD. In the present study, 20 subcortical ischemic vascular cognitive impairment no dementia patients (SIVCIND) and 20 dementia patients (SIVaD) were enrolled; additionally, 19 normal controls were recruited. Each participant underwent a resting-state functional MRI scan. Whole-brain functional networks were analyzed with graph theory and network-based statistics (NBS) to study the functional organization of networks and find alterations in functional connectivity among brain regions. After adjustments for age, gender, and duration of formal education, there were significant group differences for two network functional organization indices, global efficiency and local efficiency, which decreased (NC > SIVCIND > SIVaD) as cognitive impairment worsened. Between-group differences in functional connectivity (NBS corrected, p  impairment worsened, with an increased number of decreased connections between brain regions. We also observed more reductions in nodal efficiency in the prefrontal and temporal cortices for SIVaD than for SIVCIND. These findings indicated a progressively disrupted pattern of the brain functional connectivity network with increased cognitive impairment and showed promise for the development of reliable biomarkers of network metric changes related to cognitive impairment caused by SIVD.

  8. Mapping Subcortical Brain Maturation during Adolescence: Evidence of Hemisphere-and Sex-Specific Longitudinal Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennison, Meg; Whittle, Sarah; Yücel, Murat; Vijayakumar, Nandita; Kline, Alexandria; Simmons, Julian; Allen, Nicholas B.

    2013-01-01

    Early to mid-adolescence is an important developmental period for subcortical brain maturation, but longitudinal studies of these neurodevelopmental changes are lacking. The present study acquired repeated magnetic resonance images from 60 adolescent subjects (28 female) at ages 12.5 and 16.5 years to map changes in subcortical structure volumes.…

  9. Acute phencyclidine administration induces c-Fos-immunoreactivity in interneurons in cortical and subcortical regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hervig, Mona E; Thomsen, Morten S; Kalló, Imre

    2016-01-01

    and thalamus of rats. A single dose of PCP (10mg/kg, s.c.) significantly increased total number of c-Fos-IR in: (1) the prelimbic, infralimbic, anterior cingulate, ventrolateral orbital, motor, somatosensory and retrosplenial cortices as well as the nucleus accumbens (NAc), field CA1 of the hippocampus (CA1......) field of hippocampus and mediodorsal thalamus (MD); (2) PV-IR cells in the ventrolateral orbitofrontal and retrosplenial cortices and CA1 field of hippocampus; and (3) CB-IR cells in the motor cortex. Overall, our data indicate that PCP activates a wide range of cortical and subcortical brain regions...... and subcortical areas, but whether such induction occurs in specific populations of GABAergic interneuron subtypes still remains to be established. We performed an immunohistochemical analysis of the PCP-induced c-Fos-immunoreactivity (IR) in parvalbumin (PV) and calbindin (CB) interneuron subtypes in the cortex...

  10. Brain-wide Maps Reveal Stereotyped Cell-Type-Based Cortical Architecture and Subcortical Sexual Dimorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yongsoo; Yang, Guangyu Robert; Pradhan, Kith; Venkataraju, Kannan Umadevi; Bota, Mihail; García Del Molino, Luis Carlos; Fitzgerald, Greg; Ram, Keerthi; He, Miao; Levine, Jesse Maurica; Mitra, Partha; Huang, Z Josh; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Osten, Pavel

    2017-10-05

    The stereotyped features of neuronal circuits are those most likely to explain the remarkable capacity of the brain to process information and govern behaviors, yet it has not been possible to comprehensively quantify neuronal distributions across animals or genders due to the size and complexity of the mammalian brain. Here we apply our quantitative brain-wide (qBrain) mapping platform to document the stereotyped distributions of mainly inhibitory cell types. We discover an unexpected cortical organizing principle: sensory-motor areas are dominated by output-modulating parvalbumin-positive interneurons, whereas association, including frontal, areas are dominated by input-modulating somatostatin-positive interneurons. Furthermore, we identify local cell type distributions with more cells in the female brain in 10 out of 11 sexually dimorphic subcortical areas, in contrast to the overall larger brains in males. The qBrain resource can be further mined to link stereotyped aspects of neuronal distributions to known and unknown functions of diverse brain regions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Human subcortical brain asymmetries in 15,847 people worldwide reveal effects of age and sex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guadalupe, Tulio; Mathias, Samuel R.; vanErp, Theo G.M.; Whelan, Christopher D.; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Abe, Yoshinari; Abramovic, Lucija; Agartz, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A.; Arias-Vásquez, Alejandro; Aribisala, Benjamin S.; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Arolt, Volker; Artiges, Eric; Ayesa-Arriola, Rosa; Baboyan, Vatche G.; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth; Bastin, Mark E.; Baune, Bernhard T.; Blangero, John; Bokde, Arun L.W.; Boedhoe, Premika S.W.; Bose, Anushree; Brem, Silvia; Brodaty, Henry; Bromberg, Uli; Brooks, Samantha; Büchel, Christian; Buitelaar, Jan; Calhoun, Vince D.; Cannon, Dara M.; Cattrell, Anna; Cheng, Yuqi; Conrod, Patricia J.; Conzelmann, Annette; Corvin, Aiden; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Crivello, Fabrice; Dannlowski, Udo; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; de Zwarte, Sonja M.C.; Deary, Ian J.; Desrivières, Sylvane; Doan, Nhat Trung; Donohoe, Gary; Dørum, Erlend S.; Ehrlich, Stefan; Espeseth, Thomas; Fernández, Guillén; Flor, Herta; Fouche, Jean Paul; Frouin, Vincent; Fukunaga, Masaki; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Gill, Michael; Suarez, Andrea Gonzalez; Gowland, Penny; Grabe, Hans J.; Grotegerd, Dominik; Gruber, Oliver; Hagenaars, Saskia; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hauser, Tobias U.; Heinz, Andreas; Hibar, Derrek P.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Hoogman, Martine; Howells, Fleur M.; Hu, Hao; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E.; Huyser, Chaim; Ittermann, Bernd; Jahanshad, Neda; Jönsson, Erik G.; Jurk, Sarah; Kahn, Rene S.; Kelly, Sinead; Kraemer, Bernd; Kugel, Harald; Kwon, Jun Soo; Lemaitre, Herve; Lesch, Klaus Peter; Lochner, Christine; Luciano, Michelle; Marquand, Andre F.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Martínez-Zalacaín, Ignacio; Martinot, Jean Luc; Mataix-Cols, David; Mather, Karen; McDonald, Colm; McMahon, Katie L.; Medland, Sarah E.; Menchón, José M.; Morris, Derek W.; Mothersill, Omar; Maniega, Susana Munoz; Mwangi, Benson; Nakamae, Takashi; Nakao, Tomohiro; Narayanaswaamy, Janardhanan C.; Nees, Frauke; Nordvik, Jan E.; Onnink, A. Marten H.; Opel, Nils; Ophoff, Roel; Paillère Martinot, Marie Laure; Papadopoulos Orfanos, Dimitri; Pauli, Paul; Paus, Tomáš; Poustka, Luise; Reddy, Janardhan Yc; Renteria, Miguel E.; Roiz-Santiáñez, Roberto; Roos, Annerine; Royle, Natalie A.; Sachdev, Perminder; Sánchez-Juan, Pascual; Schmaal, Lianne; Schumann, Gunter; Shumskaya, Elena; Smolka, Michael N.; Soares, Jair C.; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Stein, Dan J.; Strike, Lachlan T.; Toro, Roberto; Turner, Jessica A.; Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie; Uhlmann, Anne; Hernández, Maria Valdés; van den Heuvel, Odile A.; van der Meer, Dennis; van Haren, Neeltje E.M.; Veltman, Dick J.; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Vetter, Nora C.; Vuletic, Daniella; Walitza, Susanne; Walter, Henrik; Walton, Esther; Wang, Zhen; Wardlaw, Joanna; Wen, Wei; Westlye, Lars T.; Whelan, Robert; Wittfeld, Katharina; Wolfers, Thomas; Wright, Margaret J.; Xu, Jian; Xu, Xiufeng; Yun, Je Yeon; Zhao, Jing Jing; Franke, Barbara; Thompson, Paul M.; Glahn, David C.; Mazoyer, Bernard; Fisher, Simon E.; Francks, Clyde

    2017-01-01

    The two hemispheres of the human brain differ functionally and structurally. Despite over a century of research, the extent to which brain asymmetry is influenced by sex, handedness, age, and genetic factors is still controversial. Here we present the largest ever analysis of subcortical brain

  12. Disrupted topological organization of resting-state functional brain network in subcortical vascular mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Li-Ye; Liang, Xia; Liu, Da-Ming; Sun, Bo; Ying, Sun; Yang, Dong-Bo; Li, Qing-Bin; Jiang, Chuan-Lu; Han, Ying

    2015-10-01

    Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated both structural and functional abnormalities in widespread brain regions in patients with subcortical vascular mild cognitive impairment (svMCI). However, whether and how these changes alter functional brain network organization remains largely unknown. We recruited 21 patients with svMCI and 26 healthy control (HC) subjects who underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans. Graph theory-based network analyses were used to investigate alterations in the topological organization of functional brain networks. Compared with the HC individuals, the patients with svMCI showed disrupted global network topology with significantly increased path length and modularity. Modular structure was also impaired in the svMCI patients with a notable rearrangement of the executive control module, where the parietal regions were split out and grouped as a separate module. The svMCI patients also revealed deficits in the intra- and/or intermodule connectivity of several brain regions. Specifically, the within-module degree was decreased in the middle cingulate gyrus while it was increased in the left anterior insula, medial prefrontal cortex and cuneus. Additionally, increased intermodule connectivity was observed in the inferior and superior parietal gyrus, which was associated with worse cognitive performance in the svMCI patients. Together, our results indicate that svMCI patients exhibit dysregulation of the topological organization of functional brain networks, which has important implications for understanding the pathophysiological mechanism of svMCI. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Diffusion tractography of the subcortical auditory system in a postmortem human brain

    OpenAIRE

    Sitek, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    The subcortical auditory system is challenging to identify with standard human brain imaging techniques: MRI signal decreases toward the center of the brain as well as at higher resolution, both of which are necessary for imaging small brainstem auditory structures.Using high-resolution diffusion-weighted MRI, we asked:Can we identify auditory structures and connections in high-resolution ex vivo images?Which structures and connections can be mapped in vivo?

  14. Morphology of subcortical brain nuclei is associated with autonomic function in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffle, James K; Coen, Steven J; Giampietro, Vincent; Williams, Steven C R; Apkarian, A Vania; Farmer, Adam D; Aziz, Qasim

    2018-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is a brain body interface which serves to maintain homeostasis by influencing a plethora of physiological processes, including metabolism, cardiorespiratory regulation and nociception. Accumulating evidence suggests that ANS function is disturbed in numerous prevalent clinical disorders, including irritable bowel syndrome and fibromyalgia. While the brain is a central hub for regulating autonomic function, the association between resting autonomic activity and subcortical morphology has not been comprehensively studied and thus was our aim. In 27 healthy subjects [14 male and 13 female; mean age 30 years (range 22-53 years)], we quantified resting ANS function using validated indices of cardiac sympathetic index (CSI) and parasympathetic cardiac vagal tone (CVT). High resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired, and differences in subcortical nuclei shape, that is, 'deformation', contingent on resting ANS activity were investigated. CSI positively correlated with outward deformation of the brainstem, right nucleus accumbens, right amygdala and bilateral pallidum (all thresholded to corrected P right amygdala and pallidum (all thresholded to corrected P Left and right putamen volume positively correlated with CVT (r = 0.62, P = 0.0047 and r = 0.59, P = 0.008, respectively), as did the brainstem (r = 0.46, P = 0.049). These data provide novel evidence that resting autonomic state is associated with differences in the shape and volume of subcortical nuclei. Thus, subcortical morphological brain differences in various disorders may partly be attributable to perturbation in autonomic function. Further work is warranted to investigate these findings in clinical populations. Hum Brain Mapp 39:381-392, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Human subcortical brain asymmetries in 15,847 people worldwide reveal effects of age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadalupe, Tulio; Mathias, Samuel R; vanErp, Theo G M; Whelan, Christopher D; Zwiers, Marcel P; Abe, Yoshinari; Abramovic, Lucija; Agartz, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A; Arias-Vásquez, Alejandro; Aribisala, Benjamin S; Armstrong, Nicola J; Arolt, Volker; Artiges, Eric; Ayesa-Arriola, Rosa; Baboyan, Vatche G; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth; Bastin, Mark E; Baune, Bernhard T; Blangero, John; Bokde, Arun L W; Boedhoe, Premika S W; Bose, Anushree; Brem, Silvia; Brodaty, Henry; Bromberg, Uli; Brooks, Samantha; Büchel, Christian; Buitelaar, Jan; Calhoun, Vince D; Cannon, Dara M; Cattrell, Anna; Cheng, Yuqi; Conrod, Patricia J; Conzelmann, Annette; Corvin, Aiden; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Crivello, Fabrice; Dannlowski, Udo; de Zubicaray, Greig I; de Zwarte, Sonja M C; Deary, Ian J; Desrivières, Sylvane; Doan, Nhat Trung; Donohoe, Gary; Dørum, Erlend S; Ehrlich, Stefan; Espeseth, Thomas; Fernández, Guillén; Flor, Herta; Fouche, Jean-Paul; Frouin, Vincent; Fukunaga, Masaki; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Gill, Michael; Suarez, Andrea Gonzalez; Gowland, Penny; Grabe, Hans J; Grotegerd, Dominik; Gruber, Oliver; Hagenaars, Saskia; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hauser, Tobias U; Heinz, Andreas; Hibar, Derrek P; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Hoogman, Martine; Howells, Fleur M; Hu, Hao; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Huyser, Chaim; Ittermann, Bernd; Jahanshad, Neda; Jönsson, Erik G; Jurk, Sarah; Kahn, Rene S; Kelly, Sinead; Kraemer, Bernd; Kugel, Harald; Kwon, Jun Soo; Lemaitre, Herve; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Lochner, Christine; Luciano, Michelle; Marquand, Andre F; Martin, Nicholas G; Martínez-Zalacaín, Ignacio; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Mataix-Cols, David; Mather, Karen; McDonald, Colm; McMahon, Katie L; Medland, Sarah E; Menchón, José M; Morris, Derek W; Mothersill, Omar; Maniega, Susana Munoz; Mwangi, Benson; Nakamae, Takashi; Nakao, Tomohiro; Narayanaswaamy, Janardhanan C; Nees, Frauke; Nordvik, Jan E; Onnink, A Marten H; Opel, Nils; Ophoff, Roel; Paillère Martinot, Marie-Laure; Papadopoulos Orfanos, Dimitri; Pauli, Paul; Paus, Tomáš; Poustka, Luise; Reddy, Janardhan Yc; Renteria, Miguel E; Roiz-Santiáñez, Roberto; Roos, Annerine; Royle, Natalie A; Sachdev, Perminder; Sánchez-Juan, Pascual; Schmaal, Lianne; Schumann, Gunter; Shumskaya, Elena; Smolka, Michael N; Soares, Jair C; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Stein, Dan J; Strike, Lachlan T; Toro, Roberto; Turner, Jessica A; Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie; Uhlmann, Anne; Hernández, Maria Valdés; van den Heuvel, Odile A; van der Meer, Dennis; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Veltman, Dick J; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Vetter, Nora C; Vuletic, Daniella; Walitza, Susanne; Walter, Henrik; Walton, Esther; Wang, Zhen; Wardlaw, Joanna; Wen, Wei; Westlye, Lars T; Whelan, Robert; Wittfeld, Katharina; Wolfers, Thomas; Wright, Margaret J; Xu, Jian; Xu, Xiufeng; Yun, Je-Yeon; Zhao, JingJing; Franke, Barbara; Thompson, Paul M; Glahn, David C; Mazoyer, Bernard; Fisher, Simon E; Francks, Clyde

    2017-10-01

    The two hemispheres of the human brain differ functionally and structurally. Despite over a century of research, the extent to which brain asymmetry is influenced by sex, handedness, age, and genetic factors is still controversial. Here we present the largest ever analysis of subcortical brain asymmetries, in a harmonized multi-site study using meta-analysis methods. Volumetric asymmetry of seven subcortical structures was assessed in 15,847 MRI scans from 52 datasets worldwide. There were sex differences in the asymmetry of the globus pallidus and putamen. Heritability estimates, derived from 1170 subjects belonging to 71 extended pedigrees, revealed that additive genetic factors influenced the asymmetry of these two structures and that of the hippocampus and thalamus. Handedness had no detectable effect on subcortical asymmetries, even in this unprecedented sample size, but the asymmetry of the putamen varied with age. Genetic drivers of asymmetry in the hippocampus, thalamus and basal ganglia may affect variability in human cognition, including susceptibility to psychiatric disorders.

  16. A high-resolution probabilistic in vivo atlas of human subcortical brain nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli, Wolfgang M; Nili, Amanda N; Tyszka, J Michael

    2018-04-17

    Recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging methods, including data acquisition, pre-processing and analysis, have benefited research on the contributions of subcortical brain nuclei to human cognition and behavior. At the same time, these developments have led to an increasing need for a high-resolution probabilistic in vivo anatomical atlas of subcortical nuclei. In order to address this need, we constructed high spatial resolution, three-dimensional templates, using high-accuracy diffeomorphic registration of T 1 - and T 2 - weighted structural images from 168 typical adults between 22 and 35 years old. In these templates, many tissue boundaries are clearly visible, which would otherwise be impossible to delineate in data from individual studies. The resulting delineations of subcortical nuclei complement current histology-based atlases. We further created a companion library of software tools for atlas development, to offer an open and evolving resource for the creation of a crowd-sourced in vivo probabilistic anatomical atlas of the human brain.

  17. Subcortical heterotopia appearing as huge midline mass in the newborn brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumura, Shinobu; Watanabe, Toshihide; Kimura, Sachiko; Ochi, Satoko; Yoshifuji, Kazuhisa; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki

    2016-02-01

    We report the case of a 2-year-old boy who showed a huge midline mass in the brain at prenatal assessment. After birth, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a conglomerate mass with an infolded microgyrus at the midline, which was suspected as a midline brain-in-brain malformation. MRI also showed incomplete cleavage of his frontal cortex and thalamus, consistent with lobar holoprosencephaly. The patient underwent an incisional biopsy of the mass on the second day of life. The mass consisted of normal central nervous tissue with gray and white matter, representing a heterotopic brain. The malformation was considered to be a subcortical heterotopia. With maturity, focal signal changes and decreased cerebral perfusion became clear on brain imaging, suggesting secondary glial degeneration. Coincident with these MRI abnormalities, the child developed psychomotor retardation and severe epilepsy focused on the side of the intracranial mass.

  18. Impairment of visuospatial/visuoconstructional skills in multiple sclerosis patients: the correlation with regional lesion load and subcortical atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasescu, R; Cerezo Garcia, M; Aladro Benito, Y

    2016-04-01

    About 20% to 26% of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) show alterations in visuospatial/visuoconstructive (VS-VC) skills even though temporo-parieto-occipital impairment is a frequent finding in magnetic resonance imaging. No studies have specifically analysed the relationship between these functions and lesion volume (LV) in these specific brain areas. To evaluate the relationship between VS-VC impairment and magnetic resonance imaging temporo-parieto-occipital LV with subcortical atrophy in patients with MS. Of 100 MS patients undergoing a routine neuropsychological evaluation, 21 were selected because they displayed VS-VC impairments in the following tests: Incomplete picture, Block design (WAIS-III), and Rey-Osterrieth complex figure test. We also selected 13 MS patients without cognitive impairment (control group). Regional LV was measured in FLAIR and T1-weighted images using a semiautomated method; subcortical atrophy was measured by bicaudate ratio and third ventricle width. Partial correlations (controlling for age and years of school) and linear regression analysis were employed to analyse correlations between magnetic resonance imaging parameters and cognitive performance. All measures of LV and brain atrophy were significantly higher in patients with cognitive impairment. Regional LV, bicaudate ratio, and third ventricle width are significantly and inversely correlated with cognitive performance; the strongest correlation was between third ventricle width and VC performance (Block design: P=.001; Rey-Osterrieth complex figure: P<.000). In the multivariate analysis, third ventricle width only had a significant effect on performance of VC tasks (Block design: P=.000; Rey-Osterrieth complex figure: P=.000), and regional FLAIR VL was linked to the VS task (Incomplete picture; P=.002). Measures of subcortical atrophy explain the variations in performance on visuocostructive tasks, and regional FLAIR VL measures are linked to VS tasks. Copyright © 2015

  19. Serial recording of median nerve stimulated subcortical somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) in developing brain death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchner, H; Ferbert, A; Hacke, W

    1988-01-01

    Subcortical somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) to median nerve stimulation were recorded serially in 35 patients during the evolution towards brain death and in brain death. Neuropathological alterations of the central nervous system down to the C1/C2 spinal cord segment in brain death are well known. SEP components supposed to be generated above this level should be lost in brain death, while components generated below should not be altered. Erb's point, scalp and neck potentials were recorded at C3/4, or over the spinous process C7, using an Fz reference. In 10 patients additional montages, including spinous process C2-Fz, a non-cephalic reference (Fz-contralateral shoulder) and a posterior to anterior neck montage (spinous process C7-jugulum) were used. The cephalic referenced N9 and N11 peaks remained unchanged until brain death. N9 and N11 decreased in parallel in amplitude and increased in latency after systemic effects like hypoxia or hypothermia occurred. The cephalic referenced 'N14' decreased in amplitude and increased in latency after the clinical brain death syndrome was observed, while N13 in the posterior to anterior neck montage remained unchanged. The alteration of 'N14' went parallel to the decrease of the P14 amplitude. The subcortical SEPs in the cephalic referenced lead are supposed to be a peak composed by a horizontally orientated dorsal horn generated N13 and a rostrally orientated P14 arising at the level of the foramen magnum. The deterioration of the non-cephalic referenced P14 and of its cephalic referenced reflection 'N14' seems to provide an additional objective criterion for the diagnosis of brain death.

  20. Bilingualism at the core of the brain. Structural differences between bilinguals and monolinguals revealed by subcortical shape analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgaleta, Miguel; Sanjuán, Ana; Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Sebastian-Galles, Núria; Ávila, César

    2016-01-15

    Naturally acquiring a language shapes the human brain through a long-lasting learning and practice process. This is supported by previous studies showing that managing more than one language from early childhood has an impact on brain structure and function. However, to what extent bilingual individuals present neuroanatomical peculiarities at the subcortical level with respect to monolinguals is yet not well understood, despite the key role of subcortical gray matter for a number of language functions, including monitoring of speech production and language control - two processes especially solicited by bilinguals. Here we addressed this issue by performing a subcortical surface-based analysis in a sample of monolinguals and simultaneous bilinguals (N=88) that only differed in their language experience from birth. This analysis allowed us to study with great anatomical precision the potential differences in morphology of key subcortical structures, namely, the caudate, accumbens, putamen, globus pallidus and thalamus. Vertexwise analyses revealed significantly expanded subcortical structures for bilinguals compared to monolinguals, localized in bilateral putamen and thalamus, as well as in the left globus pallidus and right caudate nucleus. A topographical interpretation of our results suggests that a more complex phonological system in bilinguals may lead to a greater development of a subcortical brain network involved in monitoring articulatory processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Cortical and Subcortical Brain Morphometry Differences Between Patients With Autism Spectrum Disorder and Healthy Individuals Across the Lifespan: Results From the ENIGMA ASD Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooij, Daan; Anagnostou, Evdokia; Arango, Celso; Auzias, Guillaume; Behrmann, Marlene; Busatto, Geraldo F; Calderoni, Sara; Daly, Eileen; Deruelle, Christine; Di Martino, Adriana; Dinstein, Ilan; Duran, Fabio Luis Souza; Durston, Sarah; Ecker, Christine; Fair, Damien; Fedor, Jennifer; Fitzgerald, Jackie; Freitag, Christine M; Gallagher, Louise; Gori, Ilaria; Haar, Shlomi; Hoekstra, Liesbeth; Jahanshad, Neda; Jalbrzikowski, Maria; Janssen, Joost; Lerch, Jason; Luna, Beatriz; Martinho, Mauricio Moller; McGrath, Jane; Muratori, Filippo; Murphy, Clodagh M; Murphy, Declan G M; O'Hearn, Kirsten; Oranje, Bob; Parellada, Mara; Retico, Alessandra; Rosa, Pedro; Rubia, Katya; Shook, Devon; Taylor, Margot; Thompson, Paul M; Tosetti, Michela; Wallace, Gregory L; Zhou, Fengfeng; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2018-04-01

    Neuroimaging studies show structural differences in both cortical and subcortical brain regions in children and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared with healthy subjects. Findings are inconsistent, however, and it is unclear how differences develop across the lifespan. The authors investigated brain morphometry differences between individuals with ASD and healthy subjects, cross-sectionally across the lifespan, in a large multinational sample from the Enhancing Neuroimaging Genetics Through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) ASD working group. The sample comprised 1,571 patients with ASD and 1,651 healthy control subjects (age range, 2-64 years) from 49 participating sites. MRI scans were preprocessed at individual sites with a harmonized protocol based on a validated automated-segmentation software program. Mega-analyses were used to test for case-control differences in subcortical volumes, cortical thickness, and surface area. Development of brain morphometry over the lifespan was modeled using a fractional polynomial approach. The case-control mega-analysis demonstrated that ASD was associated with smaller subcortical volumes of the pallidum, putamen, amygdala, and nucleus accumbens (effect sizes [Cohen's d], 0.13 to -0.13), as well as increased cortical thickness in the frontal cortex and decreased thickness in the temporal cortex (effect sizes, -0.21 to 0.20). Analyses of age effects indicate that the development of cortical thickness is altered in ASD, with the largest differences occurring around adolescence. No age-by-ASD interactions were observed in the subcortical partitions. The ENIGMA ASD working group provides the largest study of brain morphometry differences in ASD to date, using a well-established, validated, publicly available analysis pipeline. ASD patients showed altered morphometry in the cognitive and affective parts of the striatum, frontal cortex, and temporal cortex. Complex developmental trajectories were observed for the different

  2. Cortical thickness and subcortical brain volumes in professional rugby league players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Wojtowicz

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine cortical thickness and subcortical volumes in professional rugby players with an extensive history of concussions compared to control subjects. Method: Participants included 24 active and former professional rugby league players [Age M(SD = 33.3(6.3; Range = 21–44] with an extensive history of concussion and 18 age- and education-matched controls with no history of neurotrauma or participation in contact sports. Participants underwent T1-weighted imaging and completed a neuropsychological battery, including two tests of memory. Whole brain cortical thickness analysis and structural volume analysis was performed using FreeSurfer version 6.0. Results: Professional rugby league players reported greater alcohol consumption (p < .001 and had significantly worse delayed recall of a visually complex design (p = .04. They did not differ from controls on other clinical outcome measures. There were no differences in cortical thickness between the groups. Professional players had smaller whole brain (p = .003, bilateral hippocampi (ps = .03, and left amygdala volumes (p = .01 compared to healthy controls. Within the players group, there were significant associations between greater alcohol use and smaller bilateral hippocampi and left amygdala volumes. There were no associations between structural volumes and history of concussions or memory performance. Conclusions: The literature examining cortical thickness in athletes with a history of multiple concussions is mixed. We did not observe differences in cortical thickness in professional rugby league players compared to controls. However, smaller subcortical volumes were found in players that were, in part, associated with greater alcohol consumption. Keywords: Volumetric MRI, Cortical thickness, Concussion, Brain morphometry, Athletes, Rugby

  3. Relative cortico-subcortical shift in brain activity but preserved training-induced neural modulation in older adults during bimanual motor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Monteiro, Thiago; Beets, Iseult A M; Boisgontier, Matthieu P; Gooijers, Jolien; Pauwels, Lisa; Chalavi, Sima; King, Brad; Albouy, Geneviève; Swinnen, Stephan P

    2017-10-01

    To study age-related differences in neural activation during motor learning, functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired from 25 young (mean 21.5-year old) and 18 older adults (mean 68.6-year old) while performing a bimanual coordination task before (pretest) and after (posttest) a 2-week training intervention on the task. We studied whether task-related brain activity and training-induced brain activation changes differed between age groups, particularly with respect to the hyperactivation typically observed in older adults. Findings revealed that older adults showed lower performance levels than younger adults but similar learning capability. At the cerebral level, the task-related hyperactivation in parietofrontal areas and underactivation in subcortical areas observed in older adults were not differentially modulated by the training intervention. However, brain activity related to task planning and execution decreased from pretest to posttest in temporo-parieto-frontal areas and subcortical areas in both age groups, suggesting similar processes of enhanced activation efficiency with advanced skill level. Furthermore, older adults who displayed higher activity in prefrontal regions at pretest demonstrated larger training-induced performance gains. In conclusion, in spite of prominent age-related brain activation differences during movement planning and execution, the mechanisms of learning-related reduction of brain activation appear to be similar in both groups. Importantly, cerebral activity during early learning can differentially predict the amplitude of the training-induced performance benefit between young and older adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Parcellating an individual subject's cortical and subcortical brain structures using snowball sampling of resting-state correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wig, Gagan S; Laumann, Timothy O; Cohen, Alexander L; Power, Jonathan D; Nelson, Steven M; Glasser, Matthew F; Miezin, Francis M; Snyder, Abraham Z; Schlaggar, Bradley L; Petersen, Steven E

    2014-08-01

    We describe methods for parcellating an individual subject's cortical and subcortical brain structures using resting-state functional correlations (RSFCs). Inspired by approaches from social network analysis, we first describe the application of snowball sampling on RSFC data (RSFC-Snowballing) to identify the centers of cortical areas, subdivisions of subcortical nuclei, and the cerebellum. RSFC-Snowballing parcellation is then compared with parcellation derived from identifying locations where RSFC maps exhibit abrupt transitions (RSFC-Boundary Mapping). RSFC-Snowballing and RSFC-Boundary Mapping largely complement one another, but also provide unique parcellation information; together, the methods identify independent entities with distinct functional correlations across many cortical and subcortical locations in the brain. RSFC parcellation is relatively reliable within a subject scanned across multiple days, and while the locations of many area centers and boundaries appear to exhibit considerable overlap across subjects, there is also cross-subject variability-reinforcing the motivation to parcellate brains at the level of individuals. Finally, examination of a large meta-analysis of task-evoked functional magnetic resonance imaging data reveals that area centers defined by task-evoked activity exhibit correspondence with area centers defined by RSFC-Snowballing. This observation provides important evidence for the ability of RSFC to parcellate broad expanses of an individual's brain into functionally meaningful units. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press.

  5. Developmentally Sensitive Interaction Effects of Genes and the Social Environment on Total and Subcortical Brain Volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Jennifer S; Arias Vásquez, Alejandro; Franke, Barbara; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Heslenfeld, Dirk J; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Faraone, Stephen V; Buitelaar, Jan K; Hartman, Catharina A

    2016-01-01

    Smaller total brain and subcortical volumes have been linked to psychopathology including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Identifying mechanisms underlying these alterations, therefore, is of great importance. We investigated the role of gene-environment interactions (GxE) in interindividual variability of total gray matter (GM), caudate, and putamen volumes. Brain volumes were derived from structural magnetic resonance imaging scans in participants with (N = 312) and without ADHD (N = 437) from N = 402 families (age M = 17.00, SD = 3.60). GxE effects between DAT1, 5-HTT, and DRD4 and social environments (maternal expressed warmth and criticism; positive and deviant peer affiliation) as well as the possible moderating effect of age were examined using linear mixed modeling. We also tested whether findings depended on ADHD severity. Deviant peer affiliation was associated with lower caudate volume. Participants with low deviant peer affiliations had larger total GM volumes with increasing age. Likewise, developmentally sensitive GxE effects were found on total GM and putamen volume. For total GM, differential age effects were found for DAT1 9-repeat and HTTLPR L/L genotypes, depending on the amount of positive peer affiliation. For putamen volume, DRD4 7-repeat carriers and DAT1 10/10 homozygotes showed opposite age relations depending on positive peer affiliation and maternal criticism, respectively. All results were independent of ADHD severity. The presence of differential age-dependent GxE effects might explain the diverse and sometimes opposing results of environmental and genetic effects on brain volumes observed so far.

  6. Developmentally Sensitive Interaction Effects of Genes and the Social Environment on Total and Subcortical Brain Volumes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S Richards

    Full Text Available Smaller total brain and subcortical volumes have been linked to psychopathology including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Identifying mechanisms underlying these alterations, therefore, is of great importance. We investigated the role of gene-environment interactions (GxE in interindividual variability of total gray matter (GM, caudate, and putamen volumes. Brain volumes were derived from structural magnetic resonance imaging scans in participants with (N = 312 and without ADHD (N = 437 from N = 402 families (age M = 17.00, SD = 3.60. GxE effects between DAT1, 5-HTT, and DRD4 and social environments (maternal expressed warmth and criticism; positive and deviant peer affiliation as well as the possible moderating effect of age were examined using linear mixed modeling. We also tested whether findings depended on ADHD severity. Deviant peer affiliation was associated with lower caudate volume. Participants with low deviant peer affiliations had larger total GM volumes with increasing age. Likewise, developmentally sensitive GxE effects were found on total GM and putamen volume. For total GM, differential age effects were found for DAT1 9-repeat and HTTLPR L/L genotypes, depending on the amount of positive peer affiliation. For putamen volume, DRD4 7-repeat carriers and DAT1 10/10 homozygotes showed opposite age relations depending on positive peer affiliation and maternal criticism, respectively. All results were independent of ADHD severity. The presence of differential age-dependent GxE effects might explain the diverse and sometimes opposing results of environmental and genetic effects on brain volumes observed so far.

  7. Aggrecan-based extracellular matrix shows unique cortical features and conserved subcortical principles of mammalian brain organization in the Madagascan lesser hedgehog tenrec (Echinops telfairi Martin, 1838).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawski, M; Brückner, G; Jäger, C; Seeger, G; Künzle, H; Arendt, T

    2010-02-03

    The Madagascan tenrecs (Afrotheria), an ancient mammalian clade, are characterized by unique brain anatomy. Striking features are an expanded paleocortex but a small and poorly differentiated neocortex devoid of a distinct granular layer IV. To investigate the organization of cortical areas we analyzed extracellular matrix components in perineuronal nets (PNs) using antibodies to aggrecan, lectin staining and hyaluronan-binding protein. Selected subcortical regions were studied to correlate the cortical patterns with features in evolutionary conserved systems. In the neocortex, paleocortex and hippocampus PNs were associated with nonpyramidal neurons. Quantitative analysis in the cerebral cortex revealed area-specific proportions and laminar distribution patterns of neurons ensheathed by PNs. Cortical PNs showed divergent structural phenotypes. Diffuse PNs forming a cotton wool-like perisomatic rim were characteristic of the paleocortex. These PNs were associated with a dense pericellular plexus of calretinin-immunoreactive fibres. Clearly contoured PNs were devoid of a calretinin-positive plexus and predominated in the neocortex and hippocampus. The organization of the extracellular matrix in subcortical nuclei followed the widely distributed mammalian type. We conclude that molecular properties of the aggrecan-based extracellular matrix are conserved during evolution of mammals; however, the matrix scaffold is adapted to specific wiring patterns of cortical and subcortical neuronal networks. Copyright 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Regional growth and atlasing of the developing human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makropoulos, Antonios; Aljabar, Paul; Wright, Robert; Hüning, Britta; Merchant, Nazakat; Arichi, Tomoki; Tusor, Nora; Hajnal, Joseph V; Edwards, A David; Counsell, Serena J; Rueckert, Daniel

    2016-01-15

    Detailed morphometric analysis of the neonatal brain is required to characterise brain development and define neuroimaging biomarkers related to impaired brain growth. Accurate automatic segmentation of neonatal brain MRI is a prerequisite to analyse large datasets. We have previously presented an accurate and robust automatic segmentation technique for parcellating the neonatal brain into multiple cortical and subcortical regions. In this study, we further extend our segmentation method to detect cortical sulci and provide a detailed delineation of the cortical ribbon. These detailed segmentations are used to build a 4-dimensional spatio-temporal structural atlas of the brain for 82 cortical and subcortical structures throughout this developmental period. We employ the algorithm to segment an extensive database of 420 MR images of the developing brain, from 27 to 45weeks post-menstrual age at imaging. Regional volumetric and cortical surface measurements are derived and used to investigate brain growth and development during this critical period and to assess the impact of immaturity at birth. Whole brain volume, the absolute volume of all structures studied, cortical curvature and cortical surface area increased with increasing age at scan. Relative volumes of cortical grey matter, cerebellum and cerebrospinal fluid increased with age at scan, while relative volumes of white matter, ventricles, brainstem and basal ganglia and thalami decreased. Preterm infants at term had smaller whole brain volumes, reduced regional white matter and cortical and subcortical grey matter volumes, and reduced cortical surface area compared with term born controls, while ventricular volume was greater in the preterm group. Increasing prematurity at birth was associated with a reduction in total and regional white matter, cortical and subcortical grey matter volume, an increase in ventricular volume, and reduced cortical surface area. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by

  9. Correlating subcortical interhemispheric connectivity and cortical hemispheric dominance in brain tumor patients: A repetitive navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollmann, Nico; Ille, Sebastian; Tussis, Lorena; Maurer, Stefanie; Hauck, Theresa; Negwer, Chiara; Bauer, Jan S; Ringel, Florian; Meyer, Bernhard; Krieg, Sandro M

    2016-02-01

    The present study aims to investigate the relationship between transcallosal interhemispheric connectivity (IC) and hemispheric language lateralization by using a novel approach including repetitive navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), hemispheric dominance ratio (HDR) calculation, and rTMS-based diffusion tensor imaging fiber tracking (DTI FT). 31 patients with left-sided perisylvian brain lesions underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and rTMS language mapping. Cortical language-positive rTMS spots were used to calculate HDRs (HDR: quotient of the left-sided divided by right-sided naming error rates for corresponding left- and right-sided cortical regions) and to create regions of interest (ROIs) for DTI FT. Then, fibers connecting the rTMS-based ROIs of both hemispheres were tracked, and the correlation of IC to HDRs was calculated via Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rs). Fibers connecting rTMS-based ROIs of both hemispheres were detected in 12 patients (38.7%). Within the patients in which IC was detected, the mean number of subcortical IC fibers ± standard deviation (SD) was 138.0 ± 346.5 (median: 7.5; range: 1-1,217 fibers). Regarding rs for the correlation of HDRs and fiber numbers of patients that showed IC, only moderate correlation was revealed. Our approach might be beneficial and technically feasible for further investigation of the relationship between IC and language lateralization. However, only moderate correlation was revealed in the present study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A Case of Generalized Auditory Agnosia with Unilateral Subcortical Brain Lesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Hyee; Kim, Soo Yeon; Kim, Sook Hee; Chang, Jae Hyeok; Shin, Yong Beom; Ko, Hyun-Yoon

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms and functional anatomy underlying the early stages of speech perception are still not well understood. Auditory agnosia is a deficit of auditory object processing defined as a disability to recognize spoken languages and/or nonverbal environmental sounds and music despite adequate hearing while spontaneous speech, reading and writing are preserved. Usually, either the bilateral or unilateral temporal lobe, especially the transverse gyral lesions, are responsible for auditory agnosia. Subcortical lesions without cortical damage rarely causes auditory agnosia. We present a 73-year-old right-handed male with generalized auditory agnosia caused by a unilateral subcortical lesion. He was not able to repeat or dictate but to perform fluent and comprehensible speech. He could understand and read written words and phrases. His auditory brainstem evoked potential and audiometry were intact. This case suggested that the subcortical lesion involving unilateral acoustic radiation could cause generalized auditory agnosia. PMID:23342322

  11. Early developmental gene enhancers affect subcortical volumes in the adult human brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, M.; Guadalupe, T.M.; Franke, B.; Hibar, D.P.; Renteria, M.E.; Stein, J.L.; Thompson, P.M.; Francks, C.; Vernes, S.C; Fisher, S.E.

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association screens aim to identify common genetic variants contributing to the phenotypic variability of complex traits, such as human height or brain morphology. The identified genetic variants are mostly within noncoding genomic regions and the biology of the genotype-phenotype

  12. Thyroid Hormone-Dependent Formation of a Subcortical Band Heterotopia (SBH) in the Neonatal Brain is not Exacerbated Under Conditions of Low Dietary Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are critical for brain development. Modest TH insufficiency in pregnant rats induced by propylthiouracil (PTU) results in formation of a structural abnormality, a subcortical band heterotopia (SBH), in brains of offspring. PTU reduces TH by inhibiting the s...

  13. Subcortical brain volume differences in participants with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoogman, Martine; Bralten, Janita; Hibar, Derrek P

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neuroimaging studies have shown structural alterations in several brain regions in children and adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Through the formation of the international ENIGMA ADHD Working Group, we aimed to address weaknesses of previous imaging studies...... and adults for the pallidum (p=0·79) or thalamus (p=0·89). Case-control differences in adults were non-significant (all p>0·03). Psychostimulant medication use (all p>0·15) or symptom scores (all p>0·02) did not influence results, nor did the presence of comorbid psychiatric disorders (all p>0...

  14. Involvement of Subcortical Brain Structures During Olfactory Stimulation in Multiple Chemical Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandrini, Marco; Micarelli, Alessandro; Chiaravalloti, Agostino; Bruno, Ernesto; Danieli, Roberta; Pierantozzi, Mariangela; Genovesi, Giuseppe; Öberg, Johanna; Pagani, Marco; Schillaci, Orazio

    2016-03-01

    Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) patients usually react to odour compounds and the majority of neuroimaging studies assessed, especially at the cortical level, many olfactory-related correlates. The purpose of the present study was to depict sub-cortical metabolic changes during a neutral (NC) and pure (OC) olfactory stimulation by using a recently validated (18)F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography/computer tomography procedure in 26 MCS and 11 healthy (HC) resting subjects undergoing a battery of clinical tests. Twelve subcortical volumes of interest were identified by the automated anatomical labeling library and normalized to thalamus FDG uptake. In both groups, when comparing OC to NC, the within-subjects ANOVA demonstrated a relative decreased metabolism in bilateral putamen and hippocampus and a relative increased metabolism in bilateral amygdala, olfactory cortex (OLF), caudate and pallidum. The between-groups ANOVA demonstrated in MCS a significant higher metabolism in bilateral OLF during NC. As in HC subjects negative correlations were found in OC between FDG uptake in bilateral amygdala and hippocampus and odor pleasantness scale, the latter positively correlated with MCS subjects' bilateral putamen FDG uptake in OC. Besides FDG uptake resemblances in both groups were found, for the first time a relative higher metabolism increase in OLF in MCS subjects at rest with respect to HC was found. When merging this aspect to the different subcortical FDG uptake correlations patterns in the two groups, the present study demonstrated to describe a peculiar metabolic index of behavioral and neurological aspects of MCS complaints.

  15. Genetic influences on schizophrenia and subcortical brain volumes: large-scale proof of concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franke, Barbara; Stein, Jason L.; Ripke, Stephan; Anttila, Verneri; Hibar, Derrek P.; van Hulzen, Kimm J. E.; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Smoller, Jordan W.; Nichols, Thomas E.; Neale, Michael C.; McIntosh, Andrew M.; Lee, Phil; McMahon, Francis J.; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Mattheisen, Manuel; Andreassen, Ole A.; Gruber, Oliver; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Roiz-Santiañez, Roberto; Saykin, Andrew J.; Ehrlich, Stefan; Mather, Karen A.; Turner, Jessica A.; Schwarz, Emanuel; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Yao, Yin; Ho, Yvonne Y. W.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Wright, Margaret J.; O'Donovan, Michael C.; Thompson, Paul M.; Neale, Benjamin M.; Medland, Sarah E.; Sullivan, Patrick F.; Corvin, Aiden; Walters, James T. R.; Farh, Kai-How; Holmans, Peter A.; Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan; Collier, David A.; Huang, Hailiang; Pers, Tune H.; Agartz, Ingrid; Agerbo, Esben; Albus, Margot; Alexander, Madeline; Amin, Farooq; Bacanu, Silviu A.; Begemann, Martin; Belliveau, Richard A.; Bene, Judit; Bergen, Sarah E.; Bevilacqua, Elizabeth; Bigdeli, Tim B.; Black, Donald W.; Bruggeman, Richard; Buccola, Nancy G.; Buckner, Randy L.; Byerley, William F.; Cahn, Wiepke; Cai, Guiqing; Cairns, Murray J.; Campion, Dominique; Cantor, Rita M.; Carr, Vaughan J.; Carrera, Noa; Catts, Stanley V.; Chambert, Kimberley D.; Chan, Raymond C. K.; Chen, Eric Y. H.; Chen, Ronald Y. L.; Cheng, Wei; Cheung, Eric F. C.; Chong, Siow Ann; Cloninger, C. Robert; Cohen, David; Cohen, Nadine; Cormican, Paul; Craddock, Nick; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Crowley, James J.; Curtis, David; Davidson, Michael; Davis, Kenneth L.; Degenhardt, Franziska; del Favero, Jurgen; DeLisi, Lynn E.; Demontis, Ditte; Dikeos, Dimitris; Dinan, Timothy; Djurovic, Srdjan; Donohoe, Gary; Drapeau, Elodie; Duan, Jubao; Dudbridge, Frank; Eichhammer, Peter; Eriksson, Johan; Escott-Price, Valentina; Essioux, Laurent; Fanous, Ayman H.; Farrell, Martilias S.; Frank, Josef; Franke, Lude; Freedman, Robert; Freimer, Nelson B.; Friedman, Joseph I.; Fromer, Menachem; Genovese, Giulio; Georgieva, Lyudmila; Gershon, Elliot S.; Giegling, Ina; Giusti-Rodríguez, Paola; Godard, Stephanie; Goldstein, Jacqueline I.; Gopal, Srihari; Gratten, Jacob; de Haan, Lieuwe; Hammer, Christian; Hamshere, Marian L.; Hansen, Mark; Hansen, Thomas; Haroutunian, Vahram; Hartmann, Annette M.; Henskens, Frans A.; Herms, Stefan L.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Hoffmann, Per; Hofman, Andrea; Hollegaard, Mads V.; Hougaard, David M.; Ikeda, Masashi; Joa, Inge; Julià, Antonio; Kähler, Anna K.; Kahn, René S.; Kalaydjieva, Luba; Karachanak-Yankova, Sena; Karjalainen, Juha; Kavanagh, David; Keller, Matthew C.; Kelly, Brian J.; Kennedy, James L.; Khrunin, Andrey; Kim, Yunjung; Klovins, Janis; Knowles, James A.; Konte, Bettina; Kucinskas, Vaidutis; Kucinskiene, Zita Ausrele; Kuzelova-Ptackova, Hana; Laurent, Claudine; Lee, S. Hong; Keong, Jimmy Lee Chee; Legge, Sophie E.; Lerer, Bernard; Li, Miaoxin; Li, Tao; Liang, Kung-Yee; Lieberman, Jeffrey; Limborska, Svetlana; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Loughland, Carmel M.; Lubinski, Jan; Macek, Milan; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Maher, Brion S.; Maier, Wolfgang; Mallet, Jacques; Marsal, Sara; Mattingsdal, Morten; McCarley, Robert W.; McDonald, Colm; Meier, Sandra; Meijer, Carin J.; Melegh, Bela; Melle, Ingrid; Mesholam-Gately, Raquelle I.; Metspalu, Andres; Michie, Patricia T.; Milani, Lili; Milanova, Vihra; Mokrab, Younes; Morris, Derek W.; Mors, Ole; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Murphy, Kieran C.; Murray, Robin M.; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Nelis, Mari; Nenadic, Igor; Nertney, Deborah A.; Nestadt, Gerald; Nicodemus, Kristin K.; Nikitina-Zake, Liene; Nisenbaum, Laura; Nordin, Annelie; O'Callaghan, Eadbhard; O'Dushlaine, Colm; O'Neill, F. Anthony; Oh, Sang-Yun; Olincy, Ann; Olsen, Line; van Os, Jim; Pantelis, Christos; Papadimitriou, George N.; Papiol, Sergi; Parkhomenko, Elena; Pato, Michele T.; Paunio, Tiina; Perkins, Diana O.; Pietiläinen, Olli; Pimm, Jonathan; Pocklington, Andrew J.; Powell, John; Price, Alkes; Pulver, Ann E.; Purcell, Shaun M.; Quested, Digby; Rasmussen, Henrik B.; Reichenberg, Abraham; Reimers, Mark A.; Richards, Alexander L.; Roffman, Joshua L.; Roussos, Panos; Ruderfer, Douglas M.; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanders, Alan R.; Schall, Ulrich; Schubert, Christian R.; Schulze, Thomas G.; Schwab, Sibylle G.; Scolnick, Edward M.; Scott, Rodney J.; Seidman, Larry J.; Shi, Jianxin; Silverman, Jeremy M.; Sim, Kang; Slominsky, Petr; So, Hon-Cheong; Söderman, Erik; Spencer, Chris C. A.; Stahl, Eli A.; Stogmann, Elisabeth; Straub, Richard E.; Strengman, Eric; Strohmaier, Jana; Stroup, T. Scott; Subramaniam, Mythily; Suvisaari, Jaana; Svrakic, Dragan M.; Szatkiewicz, Jin P.; Thirumalai, Srinivas; Toncheva, Draga; Tooney, Paul A.; Veijola, Juha; Waddington, John; Walsh, Dermot; Wang, Dai; Wang, Qiang; Webb, Bradley T.; Weiser, Mark; Wildenauer, Dieter B.; Williams, Nigel M.; Williams, Stephanie; Witt, Stephanie H.; Wolen, Aaron R.; Wong, Emily H. M.; Wormley, Brandon K.; Wu, Jing Qin; Xi, Hualin Simon; Zai, Clement C.; Zheng, Xuebin; Zimprich, Fritz; Wray, Naomi R.; Visscher, Peter M.; Adolfsson, Rolf; Blackwood, Douglas H. R.; Børglum, Anders D.; Bramon, Elvira; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Cichon, Sven; Darvasi, Ariel; Domenici, Enrico; Ehrenreich, Hannelore; Esko, Tõnu; Gejman, Pablo V.; Gill, Michael; Gurling, Hugh; Hultman, Christina M.; Iwata, Nakao; Jablensky, Assen V.; Jönsson, Erik G.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Kirov, George; Knight, Jo; Lencz, Todd; Levinson, Douglas F.; Li, Qingqin S.; Liu, Jianjun; Malhotra, Anil K.; McCarroll, Steven A.; McQuillin, Andrew; Moran, Jennifer L.; Mortensen, Preben B.; Mowry, Bryan J.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Ophoff, Roel A.; Owen, Michael J.; Palotie, Aarno; Pato, Carlos N.; Petryshen, Tracey L.; Posthuma, Danielle; Rietschel, Marcella; Riley, Brien P.; Rujescu, Dan; Sham, Pak C.; Sklar, Pamela; Clair, David St; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Wendland, Jens R.; Werge, Thomas; Daly, Mark J.; Renteria, Miguel E.; Desrivières, Sylvane; Jahanshad, Neda; Toro, Roberto; Wittfeld, Katharina; Abramovic, Lucija; Andersson, Micael; Aribisala, Benjamin S.; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Bernard, Manon; Bohlken, Marc M.; Boks, Marco P.; Bralten, Janita; Brown, Andrew A.; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Chen, Qiang; Ching, Christopher R. K.; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; den Braber, Anouk; Giddaluru, Sudheer; Goldman, Aaron L.; Grimm, Oliver; Guadalupe, Tulio; Hass, Johanna; Woldehawariat, Girma; Holmes, Avram J.; Hoogman, Martine; Janowitz, Deborah; Jia, Tianye; Kim, Sungeun; Klein, Marieke; Kraemer, Bernd; Loohuis, Loes M. Olde; Luciano, Michelle; Macare, Christine; Milaneschi, Yuri; Nho, Kwangsik; Papmeyer, Martina; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Risacher, Shannon L.; Rose, Emma J.; Salami, Alireza; Sämann, Philipp G.; Schmaal, Lianne; Schork, Andrew J.; Shin, Jean; Strike, Lachlan T.; Teumer, Alexander; van Donkelaar, Marjolein M. J.; van Eijk, Kristel R.; Walters, Raymond K.; Westlye, Lars T.; Whelan, Christopher D.; Winkler, Anderson M.; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Alhusaini, Saud; Athanasiu, Lavinia; Hakobjan, Marina M. H.; Hartberg, Cecilie B.; Haukvik, Unn; Heister, Angelien J. G. A. M.; Höhn, David; Kasperaviciute, Dalia; Liewald, David C. M.; Lopez, Lorna M.; Makkinje, Remco R. R.; Matarin, Mar; Naber, Marlies A. M.; McKay, David R.; Needham, Margaret; Nugent, Allison C.; Pütz, Benno; Royle, Natalie A.; Shen, Li; Sprooten, Emma; Trabzuni, Daniah; van der Marel, Saskia S. L.; Walton, Esther; Wolf, Christiane; Almasy, Laura; Ames, David; Arepalli, Sampath; Assareh, Amelia A.; Bastin, Mark E.; Brodaty, Henry; Bulayeva, Kazima B.; Carless, Melanie A.; Curran, Joanne E.; Czisch, Michael; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; Dillman, Allissa; Duggirala, Ravi; Dyer, Thomas D.; Erk, Susanne; Fedko, Iryna O.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Fox, Peter T.; Fukunaga, Masaki; Gibbs, Raphael; Göring, Harald H. H.; Green, Robert C.; Guelfi, Sebastian; Hansell, Narelle K.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Heinz, Andreas; Hernandez, Dena G.; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Holsboer, Florian; Homuth, Georg; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Jack, Clifford R.; Jenkinson, Mark; Johnson, Robert; Kanai, Ryota; Keil, Maria; Kent, Jack W.; Kochunov, Peter; Kwok, John B.; Lawrie, Stephen M.; Liu, Xinmin; Longo, Dan L.; McMahon, Katie L.; Meisenzahl, Eva; Mohnke, Sebastian; Montgomery, Grant W.; Mostert, Jeanette C.; Mühleisen, Thomas W.; Nalls, Michael A.; Nilsson, Lars G.; Ohi, Kazutaka; Olvera, Rene L.; Perez-Iglesias, Rocio; Pike, G. Bruce; Potkin, Steven G.; Reinvang, Ivar; Reppermund, Simone; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Rosen, Glenn D.; Schnell, Knut; Schofield, Peter R.; Smith, Colin; Steen, Vidar M.; Sussmann, Jessika E.; Toga, Arthur W.; Traynor, Bryan; Troncoso, Juan; Hernández, Maria C. Valdés; van 't Ent, Dennis; van der Brug, Marcel; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Veltman, Dick J.; Wassink, Thomas H.; Westman, Eric; Zielke, Ronald H.; Zonderman, Alan; Ashbrook, David G.; Hager, Reinmar; Lu, Lu; Williams, Robert W.; Brunner, Han G.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Calhoun, Vince D.; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L.; Dale, Anders M.; Davies, Gareth E.; Delanty, Norman; Depondt, Chantal; Drevets, Wayne C.; Espeseth, Thomas; Gollub, Randy L.; Ho, Beng-Choon; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hosten, Norbert; LeHellard, Stephanie; Nauck, Matthias; Nyberg, Lars; Pandolfo, Massimo; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Sisodiya, Sanjay M.; van Bokhoven, Hans; van Haren, Neeltje E. M.; Völzke, Henry; Walter, Henrik; Weiner, Michael W.; Wen, Wei; White, Tonya; Blangero, John; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Brouwer, Rachel M.; Cannon, Dara M.; Cookson, Mark R.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Deary, Ian J.; Fernández, Guillén; Fisher, Simon E.; Francks, Clyde; Glahn, David C.; Grabe, Hans J.; Hardy, John; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E.; Kloszewska, Iwona; Lovestone, Simon; Mattay, Venkata S.; Mecocci, Patrizia; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Ryten, Mina; Simmons, Andy; Singleton, Andrew; Soininen, Hilkka; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Weale, Michael E.; Adams, Hieab H. H.; Launer, Lenore J.; Seiler, Stephan; Schmidt, Reinhold; Chauhan, Ganesh; Satizabal, Claudia L.; Becker, James T.; Yanek, Lisa; van der Lee, Sven J.; Ebling, Maritza; Fischl, Bruce; Longstreth, W. T.; Greve, Douglas; Schmidt, Helena; Nyquist, Paul; Vinke, Louis N.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Luting, Xue; Mazoyer, Bernard; Bis, Joshua C.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Seshadri, Sudha; Ikram, M. Arfan; Schumann, Gunter

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a devastating psychiatric illness with high heritability. Brain structure and function differ, on average, between people with schizophrenia and healthy individuals. As common genetic associations are emerging for both schizophrenia and brain imaging phenotypes, we can now use

  16. Toward defining deep brain stimulation targets in MNI space: A subcortical atlas based on multimodal MRI, histology and structural connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, Siobhan; Plettig, Philip; Li, Ningfei; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Collins, D Louis; Herrington, Todd M; Kühn, Andrea A; Horn, Andreas

    2018-04-15

    Three-dimensional atlases of subcortical brain structures are valuable tools to reference anatomy in neuroscience and neurology. For instance, they can be used to study the position and shape of the three most common deep brain stimulation (DBS) targets, the subthalamic nucleus (STN), internal part of the pallidum (GPi) and ventral intermediate nucleus of the thalamus (VIM) in spatial relationship to DBS electrodes. Here, we present a composite atlas based on manual segmentations of a multimodal high resolution brain template, histology and structural connectivity. In a first step, four key structures were defined on the template itself using a combination of multispectral image analysis and manual segmentation. Second, these structures were used as anchor points to coregister a detailed histological atlas into standard space. Results show that this approach significantly improved coregistration accuracy over previously published methods. Finally, a sub-segmentation of STN and GPi into functional zones was achieved based on structural connectivity. The result is a composite atlas that defines key nuclei on the template itself, fills the gaps between them using histology and further subdivides them using structural connectivity. We show that the atlas can be used to segment DBS targets in single subjects, yielding more accurate results compared to priorly published atlases. The atlas will be made publicly available and constitutes a resource to study DBS electrode localizations in combination with modern neuroimaging methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. An improved FSL-FIRST pipeline for subcortical gray matter segmentation to study abnormal brain anatomy using quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiang; Deistung, Andreas; Dwyer, Michael G; Hagemeier, Jesper; Polak, Paul; Lebenberg, Jessica; Frouin, Frédérique; Zivadinov, Robert; Reichenbach, Jürgen R; Schweser, Ferdinand

    2017-06-01

    Accurate and robust segmentation of subcortical gray matter (SGM) nuclei is required in many neuroimaging applications. FMRIB's Integrated Registration and Segmentation Tool (FIRST) is one of the most popular software tools for automated subcortical segmentation based on T 1 -weighted (T1w) images. In this work, we demonstrate that FIRST tends to produce inaccurate SGM segmentation results in the case of abnormal brain anatomy, such as present in atrophied brains, due to a poor spatial match of the subcortical structures with the training data in the MNI space as well as due to insufficient contrast of SGM structures on T1w images. Consequently, such deviations from the average brain anatomy may introduce analysis bias in clinical studies, which may not always be obvious and potentially remain unidentified. To improve the segmentation of subcortical nuclei, we propose to use FIRST in combination with a special Hybrid image Contrast (HC) and Non-Linear (nl) registration module (HC-nlFIRST), where the hybrid image contrast is derived from T1w images and magnetic susceptibility maps to create subcortical contrast that is similar to that in the Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI) template. In our approach, a nonlinear registration replaces FIRST's default linear registration, yielding a more accurate alignment of the input data to the MNI template. We evaluated our method on 82 subjects with particularly abnormal brain anatomy, selected from a database of >2000 clinical cases. Qualitative and quantitative analyses revealed that HC-nlFIRST provides improved segmentation compared to the default FIRST method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Acute Psychosis Associated with Subcortical Stroke: Comparison between Basal Ganglia and Mid-Brain Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron McMurtray

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute onset of psychosis in an older or elderly individual without history of previous psychiatric disorders should prompt a thorough workup for neurologic causes of psychiatric symptoms. This report compares and contrasts clinical features of new onset of psychotic symptoms between two patients, one with an acute basal ganglia hemorrhagic stroke and another with an acute mid-brain ischemic stroke. Delusions and hallucinations due to basal ganglia lesions are theorized to develop as a result of frontal lobe dysfunction causing impairment of reality checking pathways in the brain, while visual hallucinations due to mid-brain lesions are theorized to develop due to dysregulation of inhibitory control of the ponto-geniculate-occipital system. Psychotic symptoms occurring due to stroke demonstrate varied clinical characteristics that depend on the location of the stroke within the brain. Treatment with antipsychotic medications may provide symptomatic relief.

  19. Subcortical brain alterations in major depressive disorder : findings from the ENIGMA Major Depressive Disorder working group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmaal, L.; Veltman, D. J.; van Erp, T. G. M.; Saemann, P. G.; Frodl, T.; Jahanshad, N.; Loehrer, E.; Tiemeier, H.; Hofman, A.; Niessen, W. J.; Vernooij, M. W.; Ikram, M. A.; Wittfeld, K.; Grabe, H. J.; Block, A.; Hegenscheid, K.; Voelzke, H.; Hoehn, D.; Czisch, M.; Lagopoulos, J.; Hatton, S. N.; Hickie, I. B.; Goya-Maldonado, R.; Kraemer, B.; Gruber, O.; Couvy-Duchesne, B.; Renteria, M. E.; Strike, L. T.; Mills, N. T.; de Zubicaray, G. I.; McMahon, K. L.; Medland, S. E.; Martin, N. G.; Gillespie, N. A.; Wright, M. J.; Hall, G.B.; MacQueen, G. M.; Frey, E. M.; Carballedo, A.; van Velzen, L. S.; van Tol, M. J.; van der Wee, N. J.; Veer, I. M.; Walter, H.; Schnell, K.; Schramm, E.; Normann, C.; Schoepf, D.; Konrad, C.; Penninx, B. W. J. H.

    The pattern of structural brain alterations associated with major depressive disorder (MDD) remains unresolved. This is in part due to small sample sizes of neuroimaging studies resulting in limited statistical power, disease heterogeneity and the complex interactions between clinical

  20. Assessment of T2- and T1-weighted MRI brain lesion load in patients with subcortical vascular encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gass, A.; Oster, M.; Cohen, S.; Daffertshofer, M.; Schwartz, A.; Hennerici, M.G.

    1998-01-01

    Previous cross-sectional studies in patients with subcortical vascular encephalopathy (SVE) have shown little or no correlation between brain lesion load and clinical disability, which could be due to the low specificity of T2-weighted MRI. Recent studies have indicated that T1-weighted MRI may be more specific than T2-weighted MRI for severe tissue destruction. We studied 37 patients with a diagnosis of SVE and 11 normal controls with standardised T1- and T2-weighted MRI. All patients underwent detailed clinical assessment including a neuropsychological test battery and computerised gait analysis. Both the T2- and T1-weighted total MRI lesion loads different between patients and controls different, particularly T1. The ratio of T2-/T1-weighted lesion load was lower in controls than in patients. There was no overall correlation of T1- or T2-weighted lesion load with clinical disability, but group comparison of patients with severe and mild clinical deficits showed different lesion loads. We suggest that T1- and T2-weighted MRI lesion loads demonstrate relevant structural abnormality in patients with SVE. (orig.)

  1. Relationship between extent of brain hypoperfused area and functional outcome in patients with a small subcortical infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaka, Yoshinari; Imaizumi, Masatoshi; Ashida, Keiichi; Nakayama, Hirofumi; Iiji, Osamu; Itoi, Yoshihito; Furukawa, Toshiyuki

    1992-01-01

    We performed 123 I-IMP single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in 43 patients who had a small infarction ( 2 =29.3; p 123 I-IMP SPECT in patients with a small infarction may discriminate lacunar infarction from embolic or hemodynamic infarction, which was caused by vascular lesions of major cerebral arteries, in subcortical area. Our study suggests that functional outcome is better in lacunar infarction than embolic or hemodynamic infarction in subcortical area. (author)

  2. Genetic influences on individual differences in longitudinal changes in global and subcortical brain volumes: Results of the ENIGMA plasticity working group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Rachel M; Panizzon, Matthew S; Glahn, David C; Hibar, Derrek P; Hua, Xue; Jahanshad, Neda; Abramovic, Lucija; de Zubicaray, Greig I; Franz, Carol E; Hansell, Narelle K; Hickie, Ian B; Koenis, Marinka M G; Martin, Nicholas G; Mather, Karen A; McMahon, Katie L; Schnack, Hugo G; Strike, Lachlan T; Swagerman, Suzanne C; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Wen, Wei; Gilmore, John H; Gogtay, Nitin; Kahn, René S; Sachdev, Perminder S; Wright, Margaret J; Boomsma, Dorret I; Kremen, William S; Thompson, Paul M; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E

    2017-09-01

    Structural brain changes that occur during development and ageing are related to mental health and general cognitive functioning. Individuals differ in the extent to which their brain volumes change over time, but whether these differences can be attributed to differences in their genotypes has not been widely studied. Here we estimate heritability (h 2 ) of changes in global and subcortical brain volumes in five longitudinal twin cohorts from across the world and in different stages of the lifespan (N = 861). Heritability estimates of brain changes were significant and ranged from 16% (caudate) to 42% (cerebellar gray matter) for all global and most subcortical volumes (with the exception of thalamus and pallidum). Heritability estimates of change rates were generally higher in adults than in children suggesting an increasing influence of genetic factors explaining individual differences in brain structural changes with age. In children, environmental influences in part explained individual differences in developmental changes in brain structure. Multivariate genetic modeling showed that genetic influences of change rates and baseline volume significantly overlapped for many structures. The genetic influences explaining individual differences in the change rate for cerebellum, cerebellar gray matter and lateral ventricles were independent of the genetic influences explaining differences in their baseline volumes. These results imply the existence of genetic variants that are specific for brain plasticity, rather than brain volume itself. Identifying these genes may increase our understanding of brain development and ageing and possibly have implications for diseases that are characterized by deviant developmental trajectories of brain structure. Hum Brain Mapp 38:4444-4458, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The anatomy of the human medial forebrain bundle: Ventral tegmental area connections to reward-associated subcortical and frontal lobe regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Arnd Coenen

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite their importance in reward, motivation, and learning there is only sparse anatomical knowledge about the human medial forebrain bundle (MFB and the connectivity of the ventral tegmental area (VTA. A thorough anatomical and microstructural description of the reward related PFC/OFC regions and their connection to the VTA - the superolateral branch of the MFB (slMFB - is however mandatory to enable an interpretation of distinct therapeutic effects from different interventional treatment modalities in neuropsychiatric disorders (DBS, TMS etc.. This work aims at a normative description of the human MFB (and more detailed the slMFB anatomy with respect to distant prefrontal connections and microstructural features. Methods and material: Healthy subjects (n = 55; mean age ± SD, 40 ± 10 years; 32 females underwent high resolution anatomical magnetic resonance imaging including diffusion tensor imaging. Connectivity of the VTA and the resulting slMFB were investigated on the group level using a global tractography approach. The Desikan/Killiany parceling (8 segments of the prefrontal cortex was used to describe sub-segments of the MFB. A qualitative overlap with Brodmann areas was additionally described. Additionally, a pure visual analysis was performed comparing local and global tracking approaches for their ability to fully visualize the slMFB. Results: The MFB could be robustly described both in the present sample as well as in additional control analyses in data from the human connectome project. Most VTA- connections reached the superior frontal gyrus, the middel frontal gyrus and the lateral orbitofrontal region corresponding to Brodmann areas 10, 9, 8, 11, and 11m. The projections to these regions comprised 97% (right and 98% (left of the total relative fiber counts of the slMFB. Discussion: The anatomical description of the human MFB shows far reaching connectivity of VTA to reward-related subcortical and

  4. Cortical grey matter and subcortical white matter brain microstructural changes in schizophrenia are localised and age independent: a case-control diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiapponi, Chiara; Piras, Fabrizio; Piras, Federica; Fagioli, Sabrina; Caltagirone, Carlo; Spalletta, Gianfranco

    2013-01-01

    It is still unknown whether the structural brain impairments that characterize schizophrenia (SZ) worsen during the lifetime. Here, we aimed to describe age-related microstructural brain changes in cortical grey matter and subcortical white matter of patients affected by SZ. In this diffusion tensor imaging study, we included 69 patients diagnosed with SZ and 69 healthy control (HC) subjects, age and gender matched. We carried out analyses of covariance, with diagnosis as fixed factor and brain diffusion-related parameters as dependent variables, and controlled for the effect of education. White matter fractional anisotropy decreased in the entire age range spanned (18-65 years) in both SZ and HC and was significantly lower in younger patients with SZ, with no interaction (age by diagnosis) effect in fiber tracts including corpus callosum, corona radiata, thalamic radiations and external capsule. Also, grey matter mean diffusivity increased in the entire age range in both SZ and HC and was significantly higher in younger patients, with no age by diagnosis interaction in the left frontal operculum cortex, left insula and left planum polare and in the right temporal pole and right intracalcarine cortex. In individuals with SZ we found that localized brain cortical and white matter subcortical microstructural impairments appear early in life but do not worsen in the 18-65 year age range.

  5. Cortical grey matter and subcortical white matter brain microstructural changes in schizophrenia are localised and age independent: a case-control diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Chiapponi

    Full Text Available It is still unknown whether the structural brain impairments that characterize schizophrenia (SZ worsen during the lifetime. Here, we aimed to describe age-related microstructural brain changes in cortical grey matter and subcortical white matter of patients affected by SZ. In this diffusion tensor imaging study, we included 69 patients diagnosed with SZ and 69 healthy control (HC subjects, age and gender matched. We carried out analyses of covariance, with diagnosis as fixed factor and brain diffusion-related parameters as dependent variables, and controlled for the effect of education. White matter fractional anisotropy decreased in the entire age range spanned (18-65 years in both SZ and HC and was significantly lower in younger patients with SZ, with no interaction (age by diagnosis effect in fiber tracts including corpus callosum, corona radiata, thalamic radiations and external capsule. Also, grey matter mean diffusivity increased in the entire age range in both SZ and HC and was significantly higher in younger patients, with no age by diagnosis interaction in the left frontal operculum cortex, left insula and left planum polare and in the right temporal pole and right intracalcarine cortex. In individuals with SZ we found that localized brain cortical and white matter subcortical microstructural impairments appear early in life but do not worsen in the 18-65 year age range.

  6. Multi-scale radiomic analysis of sub-cortical regions in MRI related to autism, gender and age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaddad, Ahmad; Desrosiers, Christian; Toews, Matthew

    2017-03-01

    We propose using multi-scale image textures to investigate links between neuroanatomical regions and clinical variables in MRI. Texture features are derived at multiple scales of resolution based on the Laplacian-of-Gaussian (LoG) filter. Three quantifier functions (Average, Standard Deviation and Entropy) are used to summarize texture statistics within standard, automatically segmented neuroanatomical regions. Significance tests are performed to identify regional texture differences between ASD vs. TDC and male vs. female groups, as well as correlations with age (corrected p brain imaging data exchange (ABIDE) brain MRI dataset is used to evaluate texture features derived from 31 brain regions from 1112 subjects including 573 typically developing control (TDC, 99 females, 474 males) and 539 Autism spectrum disorder (ASD, 65 female and 474 male) subjects. Statistically significant texture differences between ASD vs. TDC groups are identified asymmetrically in the right hippocampus, left choroid-plexus and corpus callosum (CC), and symmetrically in the cerebellar white matter. Sex-related texture differences in TDC subjects are found in primarily in the left amygdala, left cerebellar white matter, and brain stem. Correlations between age and texture in TDC subjects are found in the thalamus-proper, caudate and pallidum, most exhibiting bilateral symmetry.

  7. Molecular and Functional Properties of Regional Astrocytes in the Adult Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Lydie; Chiang, Ming Sum R; Higashimori, Haruki; Shoneye, Temitope; Iyer, Lakshmanan K; Yelick, Julia; Tai, Albert; Yang, Yongjie

    2017-09-06

    The molecular signature and functional properties of astroglial subtypes in the adult CNS remain largely undefined. By using translational ribosome affinity purification followed by RNA-Seq, we profiled astroglial ribosome-associated (presumably translating) mRNAs in major cortical and subcortical brain regions (cortex, hippocampus, caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens, thalamus, and hypothalamus) of BAC aldh1l1 -translational ribosome affinity purification (TRAP) mice (both sexes). We found that the expression of astroglial translating mRNAs closely follows the dorsoventral axis, especially from cortex/hippocampus to thalamus/hypothalamus posteriorly. This region-specific expression pattern of genes, such as synaptogenic modulator sparc and transcriptional factors ( emx2 , lhx2 , and hopx ), was validated by qRT-PCR and immunostaining in brain sections. Interestingly, cortical or subcortical astrocytes selectively promote neurite growth and synaptic activity of neurons only from the same region in mismatched cocultures, exhibiting region-matched astrocyte to neuron communication. Overall, these results generated new molecular signature of astrocyte types in the adult CNS, providing insights into their origin and functional diversity. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We investigated the in vivo molecular and functional heterogeneity of astrocytes inter-regionally from adult brain. Our results showed that the expression pattern of ribosome-associated mRNA profiles in astrocytes closely follows the dorsoventral axis, especially posteriorly from cortex/hippocampus to thalamus/hypothalamus. In line with this, our functional results further demonstrated region-selective roles of cortical and subcortical astrocytes in regulating cortical or subcortical neuronal synaptogenesis and maturation. These in vivo studies provide a previously uncharacterized and important molecular atlas for exploring region-specific astroglial functions. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/378706-12$15.00/0.

  8. Magnetisation transfer measurements of the subcortical grey and white matter in Parkinson's disease with and without dementia and in progressive supranuclear palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanyu, H.; Asano, T.; Sakurai, H.; Takasaki, M.; Shindo, H.; Abe, K.

    2001-01-01

    We measured the magnetisation transfer ratio (MTR) in the subcortical grey and white matter of 11 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) without dementia, six with PD with dementia (PDD), six with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), and 12 elderly control subjects to assess regional differences in structural brain damage. There were no significant differences in MTR in any region between PD and controls. However, patients with PDD had significantly lower MTR in the subcortical white matter, including the frontal white matter and the genu of the corpus callosum than the controls, whereas PSP had significantly lower MTR in the subcortical grey matter, including the putamen, globus pallidus and thalamus, in addition to the subcortical white matter. This suggests that regional patterns of structural brain damage can be detected using the magnetisation transfer technique. Measurement of MTR in the subcortical grey and white matter may be useful in differential diagnosis. (orig.)

  9. Thyroid Malignancy Association with Cortical and Subcortical Brain SPECT Changes In Patients Presenting with a Myalgic Encephalomyelitis / Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyde, Byron; Leveille, Jean; Vaudrey, Sheila; Green, Tracy

    2007-01-01

    Thyroid malignancy in ME/CFS patients greatly exceeds the normal incidence of thyroid malignancy in any known subgroup. The thyroid malignancy incidence in the ME/CFS group may exceed 6,000 / 100,000. As part of their investigation, Myalgic Encephalomyelitis / Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) patients should be examined by thyroid ultrasound for evidence of thyroid pathology and malignancy. Thyroid pathology may be missed in this group of patients if investigation relies only upon serum testing for TSH, FT3, FT4, microsomal and thyroglobulin antibodies, which are usually normal. Thyroid uptake scans tend also to be normal and may also miss malignant lesions. A newly recognized syndrome may exist in ME/CFS patients characterized by: (a) thyroid malignancy, (b) persistent abnormal cortical and subcortical SPECT brain scans (NeuroSPECT), (c) failure of thyroidectomy surgery and hormone replacement to correct the fatigue syndrome, and (d) an unusual high incidence of cervical vertebrae osteoarthritic changes. ME/CFS patients with treated non-malignant thyroid disease and abnormal NeuroSPECT scans may also fail to improve despite adequate thyroid hormone replacement. A brief summary of the differences between ME and CFS is discussed. Lee, Hur and Ahn [1] stated that thyroid malignancy is said to be an infrequent occurrence found in 0.5 to 3 patients per 100,000 in the general population. They noted that in a subgroup of patients booked for mammography, a thyroid ultrasound was also performed. In this group, they found thyroid malignancy frequency was as high as 3 per 100,000. It is not known if their subgroup was at a higher risk for malignancy. Mittelstaedt [2] in the Globe and Mail states that thyroid malignancy was 15 per 100,000. In the past 100 patients whom I have investigated for (ME/CFS)[3], with or without associated Fibromyalgia Syndrome (FS), I have found that 6% of these patients had thyroid malignancy. In each of these patients the diagnosis was made by

  10. Subcortical White Matter Changes with Normal Aging Detected by Multi-Shot High Resolution Diffusion Tensor Imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Xie

    Full Text Available Subcortical white matter builds neural connections between cortical and subcortical regions and constitutes the basis of neural networks. It plays a very important role in normal brain function. Various studies have shown that white matter deteriorates with aging. However, due to the limited spatial resolution provided by traditional diffusion imaging techniques, microstructural information from subcortical white matter with normal aging has not been comprehensively assessed. This study aims to investigate the deterioration effect with aging in the subcortical white matter and provide a baseline standard for pathological disorder diagnosis. We apply our newly developed multi-shot high resolution diffusion tensor imaging, using self-feeding multiplexed sensitivity-encoding, to measure subcortical white matter changes in regions of interest of healthy persons with a wide age range. Results show significant fractional anisotropy decline and radial diffusivity increasing with age, especially in the anterior part of the brain. We also find that subcortical white matter has more prominent changes than white matter close to the central brain. The observed changes in the subcortical white matter may be indicative of a mild demyelination and a loss of myelinated axons, which may contribute to normal age-related functional decline.

  11. The effect of duration of illness and antipsychotics on subcortical volumes in schizophrenia: Analysis of 778 subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Hashimoto

    2018-01-01

    Discussion: A large sample size, uniform data collection methodology and robust statistical analysis are strengths of the current study. This result suggests that we need special attention to discuss about relationship between subcortical regional brain volumes and pathophysiology of schizophrenia because regional brain volumes may be affected by antipsychotic medication.

  12. Brain Regions Related to Impulsivity Mediate the Effects of Early Adversity on Antisocial Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Scott; Chaarani, Bader; Kan, Kees-Jan; Spechler, Philip A; Orr, Catherine; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth; Bokde, Arun L W; Bromberg, Uli; Büchel, Christian; Cattrell, Anna; Conrod, Patricia J; Desrivières, Sylvane; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Gallinat, Jürgen; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Paillère Martinot, Marie-Laure; Artiges, Eric; Nees, Frauke; Papadopoulos-Orfanos, Dimitri; Poustka, Luise; Smolka, Michael N; Jurk, Sarah; Walter, Henrik; Whelan, Robert; Schumann, Gunter; Althoff, Robert R; Garavan, Hugh

    2017-08-15

    Individual differences in impulsivity and early adversity are known to be strong predictors of adolescent antisocial behavior. However, the neurobiological bases of impulsivity and their relation to antisocial behavior and adversity are poorly understood. Impulsivity was estimated with a temporal discounting task. Voxel-based morphometry was used to determine the brain structural correlates of temporal discounting in a large cohort (n = 1830) of 14- to 15-year-old children. Mediation analysis was then used to determine whether the volumes of brain regions associated with temporal discounting mediate the relation between adverse life events (e.g., family conflict, serious accidents) and antisocial behaviors (e.g., precocious sexual activity, bullying, illicit substance use). Greater temporal discounting (more impulsivity) was associated with 1) lower volume in frontomedial cortex and bilateral insula and 2) greater volume in a subcortical region encompassing the ventral striatum, hypothalamus and anterior thalamus. The volume ratio between these cortical and subcortical regions was found to partially mediate the relation between adverse life events and antisocial behavior. Temporal discounting is related to regions of the brain involved in reward processing and interoception. The results support a developmental imbalance model of impulsivity and are consistent with the idea that negative environmental factors can alter the developing brain in ways that promote antisocial behavior. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Disruptions in cortico-subcortical covariance networks associated with anxiety in new-onset childhood epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Garcia-Ramos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders represent a prevalent psychiatric comorbidity in both adults and children with epilepsy for which the etiology remains controversial. Neurobiological contributions have been suggested, but only limited evidence suggests abnormal brain volumes particularly in children with epilepsy and anxiety. Since the brain develops in an organized fashion, covariance analyses between different brain regions can be investigated as a network and analyzed using graph theory methods. We examined 46 healthy children (HC and youth with recent onset idiopathic epilepsies with (n = 24 and without (n = 62 anxiety disorders. Graph theory (GT analyses based on the covariance between the volumes of 85 cortical/subcortical regions were investigated. Both groups with epilepsy demonstrated less inter-modular relationships in the synchronization of cortical/subcortical volumes compared to controls, with the epilepsy and anxiety group presenting the strongest modular organization. Frontal and occipital regions in non-anxious epilepsy, and areas throughout the brain in children with epilepsy and anxiety, showed the highest centrality compared to controls. Furthermore, most of the nodes correlating to amygdala volumes were subcortical structures, with the exception of the left insula and the right frontal pole, which presented high betweenness centrality (BC; therefore, their influence in the network is not necessarily local but potentially influencing other more distant regions. In conclusion, children with recent onset epilepsy and anxiety demonstrate large scale disruptions in cortical and subcortical brain regions. Network science may not only provide insight into the possible neurobiological correlates of important comorbidities of epilepsy, but also the ways that cortical and subcortical disruption occurs.

  14. The subcortical role of language processing. High level linguistic features such as ambiguity-resolution and the human brain; an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketteler, Daniel; Kastrau, Frank; Vohn, Rene; Huber, Walter

    2008-02-15

    In the present study, we were interested in the neurofunctional representations of ambiguity processing by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twelve right-handed, healthy adults aged between 21 and 29 years (6 male, 6 female) underwent an ambiguity resolution task with 4 different conditions (dominant vs. non-dominant; dominant vs. distractor; non-dominant vs. distractor; distractor vs. distractor). After subtraction of the corresponding control task (distractor vs. distractor) we found significant activation especially in the thalamus and some parts of the basal ganglia (caudate nucleus, putamen). Our findings implicate a participation of the thalamus and other basal ganglia circuits in high level linguistic functions and match with theoretical considerations on this highly controversial topic. Subcortical neural circuits probably become activated when the language processing system cannot rely entirely on automatic mechanisms but has to recruit controlled processes as well. Furthermore, we found broad activation in the inferior parietal lobule, the prefrontal gyrus, pre-SMA and SMA and the cingulate cortex. This might reflect a strategic semantic search mechanism which probably can be illustrated with connectionist models of language processing. According to this, we hypothesize a neuroregulatory role for the thalamus and basal ganglia in regulating and monitoring the release of preformulated language segments for motor programming and semantic verification. According to our findings there is strong evidence, that especially the thalamus, the caudate nucleus, the cingulate cortex, the inferior parietal lobule and the prefrontal cortex are responsible for an accurate ambiguity resolution in the human brain.

  15. Implicit sequence-specific motor learning after sub-cortical stroke is associated with increased prefrontal brain activations: An fMRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Sean K.; Randhawa, Bubblepreet; Wessel, Brenda; Boyd, Lara A.

    2010-01-01

    Implicit motor learning is preserved after stroke, but how the brain compensates for damage to facilitate learning is unclear. We used a random effects analysis to determine how stroke alters patterns of brain activity during implicit sequence-specific motor learning as compared to general improvements in motor control. Nine healthy participants and 9 individuals with chronic, right focal sub-cortical stroke performed a continuous joystick-based tracking task during an initial fMRI session, over 5 days of practice, and a retention test during a separate fMRI session. Sequence-specific implicit motor learning was differentiated from general improvements in motor control by comparing tracking performance on a novel, repeated tracking sequences during early practice and again at the retention test. Both groups demonstrated implicit sequence-specific motor learning at the retention test, yet substantial differences were apparent. At retention, healthy control participants demonstrated increased BOLD response in left dorsal premotor cortex (BA 6) but decreased BOLD response left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC; BA 9) during repeated sequence tracking. In contrast, at retention individuals with stroke did not show this reduction in DLPFC during repeated tracking. Instead implicit sequence-specific motor learning and general improvements in motor control were associated with increased BOLD response in the left middle frontal gyrus BA 8, regardless of sequence type after stroke. These data emphasize the potential importance of a prefrontal-based attentional network for implicit motor learning after stroke. The present study is the first to highlight the importance of the prefrontal cortex for implicit sequence-specific motor learning after stroke. PMID:20725908

  16. Comparing Two Processing Pipelines to Measure Subcortical and Cortical Volumes in Patients with and without Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Matthew W; Hannemann, Nathan P; York, Gerald E; Ritter, John L; Kini, Jonathan A; Lewis, Jeffrey D; Sherman, Paul M; Velez, Carmen S; Drennon, Ann Marie; Bolzenius, Jacob D; Tate, David F

    2017-07-01

    To compare volumetric results from NeuroQuant® and FreeSurfer in a service member setting. Since the advent of medical imaging, quantification of brain anatomy has been a major research and clinical effort. Rapid advancement of methods to automate quantification and to deploy this information into clinical practice has surfaced in recent years. NeuroQuant® is one such tool that has recently been used in clinical settings. Accurate volumetric data are useful in many clinical indications; therefore, it is important to assess the intermethod reliability and concurrent validity of similar volume quantifying tools. Volumetric data from 148 U.S. service members across three different experimental groups participating in a study of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) were examined. Groups included mTBI (n = 71), posttraumatic stress disorder (n = 22), or a noncranial orthopedic injury (n = 55). Correlation coefficients and nonparametric group mean comparisons were used to assess reliability and concurrent validity, respectively. Comparison of these methods across our entire sample demonstrates generally fair to excellent reliability as evidenced by large intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC = .4 to .99), but little concurrent validity as evidenced by significantly different Mann-Whitney U comparisons for 26 of 30 brain structures measured. While reliability between the two segmenting tools is fair to excellent, volumetric outcomes are statistically different between the two methods. As suggested by both developers, structure segmentation should be visually verified prior to clinical use and rigor should be used when interpreting results generated by either method. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  17. An Allometric Analysis of Sex and Sex Chromosome Dosage Effects on Subcortical Anatomy in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clasen, Liv; Giedd, Jay N.; Blumenthal, Jonathan; Lerch, Jason P.; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Raznahan, Armin

    2016-01-01

    , regional brain allometry (nonlinear scaling) poses largely unaddressed methodological and theoretical challenges for such research. We build the first set of allometric norms for global and regional subcortical anatomy, and use these to dissect out the complex, distributed and topologically organized patterns of areal contraction and expansion, which characterize sex and SCD effects on subcortical anatomy. Our data inform basic research into the patterning of neuroanatomical variation, and the clinical neuroscience of sex-chromosome aneuploidy. PMID:26911691

  18. Functional connectivity in cortico-subcortical brain networks underlying reward processing in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldehinkel, Marianne; Beckmann, Christian F.; Franke, Barbara; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Heslenfeld, Dirk; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Mennes, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) display aberrant reward-related behavior. Task-based fMRI studies have related atypical reward processing in ADHD to altered BOLD activity in regions underlying reward processing such as ventral striatum and orbitofrontal

  19. THE TIME COURSE OF ABNORMALITIES IN THE BRAIN SUBCORTICAL VISUAL CENTRE FOLLOWING EARLY IMPAIRMENT OF BINOCULAR EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Alekseenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Amblyopia related to congenital strabismus belongs to neurological disorders since it is caused by structural and functional remodeling of the visual parts of the brain without any baseline retinal pathology. Although a large number of animal studies on experimentally induced strabismus, as well as clinical cases have been published, the mechanisms and time course of the processes within the brain structures are not fully understood. Aim: To study the time course of abnormalities in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGNd in animals with surgically induced convergent strabismus. LGNd is the structure through which the information from the retina goes to the visual cortex separately for each eye. Materials and methods: 14 strabismic and 17 intact kittens of four age groups were studied. Histochemical method was used to identify cytochrome oxidase which is a  mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme whose activity correlates with neuronal functional activity. Optical density in eye-specific layers  A  and A1 was measured on the images of stained LGNd sections, with calculation of the contrast difference between them. Results: In strabismic kittens, there were changes in activity of A and A1 layers in the projection of the central part of visual field in LGNd of both hemispheres. At early stages of their formation, a relative decrease in activity was found in both hemispheres in the LGNd layers innervated through non-crossed pathways from both retinae. Thereafter, the time course of abnormalities in LGNd of both hemispheres was different. In the hemisphere ipsilateral to the squinting eye, the difference in layer activity was highest at the age from 3 to 5 months. However, in the opposite hemisphere the same difference indicating a decreased activity in the layer of the squinting eye were observed only at the age of 5 months. Conclusion: The process of amblyopia development during congenital convergent strabismus is

  20. Serotonin-stimulated phosphoinositide turnover: mediation by the S2 binding site in rat cerebral cortex but not in subcortical regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conn, P.J.; Sanders-Bush, E.

    1985-01-01

    In rat cerebral cortex, serotonin (5-HT) stimulates phosphoinositide turnover with an EC50 of 1 microM in the presence of pargyline. The EC50 is 16-fold higher in the absence of pargyline. Selective S2 antagonists inhibit 5-HT-stimulated phosphoinositide turnover. Schild analysis of the blockade by ketanserin of the 5-HT effect gives an estimated Kd of ketanserin for the phosphoinositide-linked receptor of 11.7 nM, which agrees with the Kd (3.5 nM) of [ 3 H]ketanserin for the S2 site. Furthermore, MK-212, 5-HT and 5-fluorotryptamine stimulate phosphoinositide turnover with potencies that resemble their potencies at the S2 but not the S1 binding site. Of 11 agonists tested, the tryptamine derivatives tend to be more efficacious than the piperazine derivatives. The selective S1 agonist 8-hydroxy-2-(di-N-propylamino)tetralin is inactive at stimulating phosphoinositide turnover. No significant relationship exists between the regional distributions of 5-HT-stimulated phosphoinositide turnover and S2 binding sites. Furthermore, the S2 antagonist ketanserin is less potent and less efficacious in hippocampus and limbic forebrain than in cerebral cortex. These data suggest that 5-HT-stimulated phosphoinositide turnover is linked to the S2 binding site in rat cerebral cortex. However, 5-HT increases phosphoinositide turnover in subcortical regions by mechanisms other than stimulation of the S2 receptor

  1. Subcortical brain volume differences in participants with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adults : A cross-sectional mega-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogman, Martine; Bralten, Janita; Hibar, Derrek P.; Mennes, Maarten; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Schweren, Lizanne S. J.; van Hulzen, Kimm J. E.; Medland, Sarah E.; Shumskaya, Elena; Jahanshad, Neda; de Zeeuw, Patrick; Szekely, Eszter; Sudre, Gustavo; Wolfers, Thomas; Onnink, Alberdingk M. H.; Dammers, Janneke T.; Mostert, Jeanette C.; Vives-Gilabert, Yolanda; Kohls, Gregor; Oberwelland, Eileen; Seitz, Jochen; Schulte-Ruether, Martin; Ambrosino, Sara; Doyle, Alysa E.; Hovik, Marie F.; Dramsdahl, Margaretha; Tamm, Leanne; van Erp, Theo G. M.; Dale, Anders; Schork, Andrew; Conzelmann, Annette; Zierhut, Kathrin; Baur, Ramona; McCarthy, Hazel; Yoncheva, Yuliya N.; Cubillo, Ana; Chantiluke, Kaylita; Mehta, Mitul A.; Paloyelis, Yannis; Hohmann, Sarah; Baumeister, Sarah; Bramati, Ivanei; Mattos, Paulo; Tovar-Moll, Fernanda; Douglas, Pamela; Banaschewski, Tobias; Brandeis, Daniel; Kuntsi, Jonna; Asherson, Philip; Rubia, Katya; Kelly, Clare; Di Martino, Adriana; Milham, Michael P.; Castellanos, Francisco X.; Frodl, Thomas; Zentis, Mariam; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Reif, Andreas; Pauli, Paul; Jernigan, Terry L.; Haavik, Jan; Plessen, Kerstin J.; Lundervold, Astri J.; Hugdahl, Kenneth; Seidman, Larry J.; Biederman, Joseph; Rommelse, Nanda; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Oosterlaan, Jaap; von Polier, Georg; Konrad, Kerstin; Vilarroya, Oscar; Antoni Ramos-Quiroga, Josep; Carles Soliva, Joan; Durston, Sarah; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Shaw, Philip; Thompson, Paul M.; Franke, Barbara

    Background Neuroimaging studies have shown structural alterations in several brain regions in children and adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Through the formation of the international ENIGMA ADHD Working Group, we aimed to address weaknesses of previous imaging studies and

  2. Reliability and statistical power analysis of cortical and subcortical FreeSurfer metrics in a large sample of healthy elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, Franziskus; Mérillat, Susan; Bezzola, Ladina; Hirsiger, Sarah; Philipp, Michel; Madhyastha, Tara; Jäncke, Lutz

    2015-03-01

    FreeSurfer is a tool to quantify cortical and subcortical brain anatomy automatically and noninvasively. Previous studies have reported reliability and statistical power analyses in relatively small samples or only selected one aspect of brain anatomy. Here, we investigated reliability and statistical power of cortical thickness, surface area, volume, and the volume of subcortical structures in a large sample (N=189) of healthy elderly subjects (64+ years). Reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient) of cortical and subcortical parameters is generally high (cortical: ICCs>0.87, subcortical: ICCs>0.95). Surface-based smoothing increases reliability of cortical thickness maps, while it decreases reliability of cortical surface area and volume. Nevertheless, statistical power of all measures benefits from smoothing. When aiming to detect a 10% difference between groups, the number of subjects required to test effects with sufficient power over the entire cortex varies between cortical measures (cortical thickness: N=39, surface area: N=21, volume: N=81; 10mm smoothing, power=0.8, α=0.05). For subcortical regions this number is between 16 and 76 subjects, depending on the region. We also demonstrate the advantage of within-subject designs over between-subject designs. Furthermore, we publicly provide a tool that allows researchers to perform a priori power analysis and sensitivity analysis to help evaluate previously published studies and to design future studies with sufficient statistical power. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The relationship between subcortical brain volume and striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in healthy humans assessed with [11 C]-raclopride and [11 C]-(+)-PHNO PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravaggio, Fernando; Ku Chung, Jun; Plitman, Eric; Boileau, Isabelle; Gerretsen, Philip; Kim, Julia; Iwata, Yusuke; Patel, Raihaan; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Remington, Gary; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2017-11-01

    Abnormalities in dopamine (DA) and brain morphology are observed in several neuropsychiatric disorders. However, it is not fully understood how these abnormalities may relate to one another. For such in vivo findings to be used as biomarkers for neuropsychiatric disease, it must be understood how variability in DA relates to brain structure under healthy conditions. We explored how the availability of striatal DA D 2/3 receptors (D 2/3 R) is related to the volume of subcortical brain structures in a sample of healthy humans. Differences in D 2/3 R availability measured with an antagonist radiotracer ([ 11 C]-raclopride) versus an agonist radiotracer ([ 11 C]-(+)-PHNO) were examined. Data from 62 subjects scanned with [ 11 C]-raclopride (mean age = 38.98 ± 14.45; 23 female) and 68 subjects scanned with [ 11 C]-(+)-PHNO (mean age = 38.54 ± 14.59; 25 female) were used. Subcortical volumes were extracted from T1-weighted images using the Multiple Automatically Generated Templates (MAGeT-Brain) algorithm. Partial correlations were used controlling for age, gender, and total brain volume. For [ 11 C]-(+)-PHNO, ventral caudate volumes were positively correlated with BP ND in the dorsal caudate and globus pallidus (GP). Ventral striatum (VS) volumes were positively correlated with BP ND in the VS. With [ 11 C]-raclopride, BP ND in the VS was negatively correlated with subiculum volume of the hippocampus. Moreover, BP ND in the GP was negatively correlated with the volume of the lateral posterior nucleus of the thalamus. Findings are purely exploratory and presented corrected and uncorrected for multiple comparisons. We hope they will help inform the interpretation of future PET studies where concurrent changes in D 2/3 R and brain morphology are observed. Hum Brain Mapp 38:5519-5534, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Subcortical vascular cognitive impairment, no dementia : EEG global power independently predicts vascular impairment and brain symmetry index reflects severity of cognitive decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheorajpanday, Rishi V.A.; Mariën, Peter; Nagels, Guy; Weeren, Arie J.T.M.; Saerens, Jos; Van Putten, Michel J.A.M.; de Deyn, Peter P.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Vascular cognitive impairment, no dementia (vCIND) is a prevalent and potentially preventable disorder. Clinical presentation of the small-vessel subcortical subtype may be insidious, and differential difficulties can arise with mild cognitive impairment. We investigated EEG

  5. Subcortical Vascular Cognitive Impairment, No Dementia : EEG Global Power Independently Predicts Vascular Impairment and Brain Symmetry Index Reflects Severity of Cognitive Decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheorajpanday, Rishi V. A.; Marien, Peter; Nagels, Guy; Weeren, Arie J. T. M.; Saerens, Jos; van Putten, Michel J. A. M.; De Deyn, Peter P.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose:Vascular cognitive impairment, no dementia (vCIND) is a prevalent and potentially preventable disorder. Clinical presentation of the small-vessel subcortical subtype may be insidious, and differential difficulties can arise with mild cognitive impairment. We investigated EEG

  6. May functional imaging be helpful for behavioral assessment in children? Regions of motor and associative cortico-subcortical circuits can be differentiated by laterality and rostrality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia M. August

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cortico-subcortical circuits are organized into the sensorimotor, associative and limbic loop. These neuronal preconditions play an important role regarding the understanding and treatment of behavioral problems in children. Differencing evidence argues for a lateralized organization of the sensorimotor loop and a bilateral (i.e. non-lateralized organization of the associative loop. However, a firm behavioral-neurobiological distinction of these circuits has been difficult, specifically in children. Objectives: Thus, the aim was a comprehensive functional visualization and differentiation of the sensorimotor and the associative circuit during childhood. As a new approach, laterality and rostrality features were used to distinguish between the two circuits within one single motor task. Methods: 24 healthy boys performed self-paced index finger tapping with each hand separately during functional magnetic resonance imaging at 3 Tesla. Results: A contrast analysis for left against right hand movement revealed lateralized activation in typical sensorimotor regions such as primary sensorimotor cortex, caudal supplementary motor area (SMA, caudal putamen and thalamus. A conjunction analysis confirmed bilateral involvement of known associative regions including pre-SMA, rostral SMA and rostral putamen. Conclusion: A functional visualization of two distinct corticostriatal circuits is provided in childhood. Both, the sensorimotor and associative circuit may be discriminated by their laterality characteristics already in minors. Additionally, the results support the concept of a modified functional subdivision of the SMA in a rostral (associative and caudal (motor part. A further development of this approach might help to nurture behavioral assessment and neurofeedback training in child mental health.

  7. Use of Anisotropy, 3D Segmented Atlas, and Computational Analysis to Identify Gray Matter Subcortical Lesions Common to Concussive Injury from Different Sites on the Cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Kulkarni

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI can occur anywhere along the cortical mantel. While the cortical contusions may be random and disparate in their locations, the clinical outcomes are often similar and difficult to explain. Thus a question that arises is, do concussions at different sites on the cortex affect similar subcortical brain regions? To address this question we used a fluid percussion model to concuss the right caudal or rostral cortices in rats. Five days later, diffusion tensor MRI data were acquired for indices of anisotropy (IA for use in a novel method of analysis to detect changes in gray matter microarchitecture. IA values from over 20,000 voxels were registered into a 3D segmented, annotated rat atlas covering 150 brain areas. Comparisons between left and right hemispheres revealed a small population of subcortical sites with altered IA values. Rostral and caudal concussions were of striking similarity in the impacted subcortical locations, particularly the central nucleus of the amygdala, laterodorsal thalamus, and hippocampal complex. Subsequent immunohistochemical analysis of these sites showed significant neuroinflammation. This study presents three significant findings that advance our understanding and evaluation of TBI: 1 the introduction of a new method to identify highly localized disturbances in discrete gray matter, subcortical brain nuclei without postmortem histology, 2 the use of this method to demonstrate that separate injuries to the rostral and caudal cortex produce the same subcortical, disturbances, and 3 the central nucleus of the amygdala, critical in the regulation of emotion, is vulnerable to concussion.

  8. Evolution of brain region volumes during artificial selection for relative brain size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrschal, Alexander; Zeng, Hong-Li; van der Bijl, Wouter; Öhman-Mägi, Caroline; Kotrschal, Kurt; Pelckmans, Kristiaan; Kolm, Niclas

    2017-12-01

    The vertebrate brain shows an extremely conserved layout across taxa. Still, the relative sizes of separate brain regions vary markedly between species. One interesting pattern is that larger brains seem associated with increased relative sizes only of certain brain regions, for instance telencephalon and cerebellum. Till now, the evolutionary association between separate brain regions and overall brain size is based on comparative evidence and remains experimentally untested. Here, we test the evolutionary response of brain regions to directional selection on brain size in guppies (Poecilia reticulata) selected for large and small relative brain size. In these animals, artificial selection led to a fast response in relative brain size, while body size remained unchanged. We use microcomputer tomography to investigate how the volumes of 11 main brain regions respond to selection for larger versus smaller brains. We found no differences in relative brain region volumes between large- and small-brained animals and only minor sex-specific variation. Also, selection did not change allometric scaling between brain and brain region sizes. Our results suggest that brain regions respond similarly to strong directional selection on relative brain size, which indicates that brain anatomy variation in contemporary species most likely stem from direct selection on key regions. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  9. Antagonism at the NR2B subunit of NMDA receptors induces increased connectivity of the prefrontal and subcortical regions regulating reward behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gass, Natalia; Becker, Robert; Sack, Markus; Schwarz, Adam J; Reinwald, Jonathan; Cosa-Linan, Alejandro; Zheng, Lei; von Hohenberg, Christian Clemm; Inta, Dragos; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Weber-Fahr, Wolfgang; Gass, Peter; Sartorius, Alexander

    2018-04-01

    Evidence indicates that ketamine's rapid antidepressant efficacy likely results from its antagonism of NR2B-subunit-containing NMDA receptors (NMDAR). Since ketamine equally blocks NR2A- and NR2B-containing NMDAR, and has affinity to other receptors, NR2B-selective drugs might have improved therapeutic efficiency and side effect profile. We aimed to compare the effects of (S)-ketamine and two different types of NR2B-selective antagonists on functional brain networks in rats, in order to find common circuits, where their effects intersect, and that might explain their antidepressant action. The experimental design comprised four parallel groups of rats (N = 37), each receiving (S)-Ketamine, CP-101,606, Ro 25-6981 or saline. After compound injection, we acquired resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging time series. We used graph theoretical approach to calculate brain network properties. Ketamine and CP-101,606 diminished the global clustering coefficient and small-worldness index. At the nodal level, all compounds induced increased connectivity of the regions mediating reward and cognitive aspects of emotional processing, such as ventromedial prefrontal cortex, septal nuclei, and nucleus accumbens. The dorsal hippocampus and regions involved in sensory processing and aversion, such as superior and inferior colliculi, exhibited an opposite effect. The effects common to ketamine and NR2B-selective compounds were localized to the same brain regions as those reported in depression, but in the opposite direction. The upregulation of the reward circuitry might partially underlie the antidepressant and anti-anhedonic effects of the antagonists and could potentially serve as a translational imaging phenotype for testing putative antidepressants, especially those targeting the NR2B receptor subtype.

  10. Dysphagia Post Subcortical and Supratentorial Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Ping; Chen, Xuhui; Zhu, Lequn; Xu, Shuangjin; Huang, Li; Li, Xiangcui; Ye, Qing; Ding, Ruiying

    2016-01-01

    Studies have recognized that the damage in the subcortical and supratentorial regions may affect voluntary and involuntary aspects of the swallowing function. The current study attempted to explore the dysphagia characteristics in patients with subcortical and supratentorial stroke. Twelve post first or second subcortical and supratentorial stroke patients were included in the study. The location of the stroke was ascertained by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. The characteristics of swallowing disorder were assessed by video fluoroscopic swallowing assessment/fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing. The following main parameters were analyzed: oral transit time, pharyngeal delay time, presence of cricopharyngeal muscle achalasia (CMA), distance of laryngeal elevation, the amounts of vallecular residue and pyriform sinus residue (PSR), and the extent of pharyngeal contraction. Eighty-three percent of the 12 patients were found suffering from pharyngeal dysphagia, with 50% having 50%-100% PSRs, 50% having pharyngeal delay, and 41.6% cases demonstrating CMA. Simple regression analysis showed PSRs were most strongly associated with CMA. Pharyngeal delay in the study can be caused by infarcts of basal ganglia/thalamus, infarcts of sensory tract, infarcts of swallowing motor pathways in the centrum semiovale, or a combination of the three. Subcortical and supratentorial stroke may result in pharyngeal dysphagia such as PSR and pharyngeal delay. PSR was mainly caused by CMA. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Altered relationships between rCBF in different brain regions of never-treated schizophrenics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabri, O.; Schreckenberger, M.; Cremerius, U.; Dickmann, C.; Schulz, G.; Zimny, M.; Buell, U.; Erkwoh, R.; Owega, A.; Sass, H.

    1997-01-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate the relations between regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) of different brain regions in acute schizophrenia and following neuroleptic treatment. Methods: Twenty-two never-treated, acute schizophrenic patients were examined with HMPAO brain SPECT and assessed psychopathologically, and reexamined following neuroleptic treatment (over 96.8 days) and psychopathological remission. rCBF was determined by region/cerebellar count quotients obtained from 98 irregular regions of interest (ROIs), summed up to 11 ROIs on each hemisphere. In acute schizophrenics, interregional rCBF correlations of each ROI to every other ROI were compared to the interregional correlations following neuroleptic treatment and to those of controls. Results: All significant correlations of rCBF ratios of different brain regions were exclusively positive in controls and patients. In controls, all ROIs of one hemisphere except the mesial temporal ROI correlated significantly to its contralateral ROI. Each hemisphere showed significant frontal-temporal correlations, as well as cortical-subcortical and some cortico-limbic. In contrast, in acute schizophrenics nearly every ROI correlated significantly with every other ROI, without a grouping or relation of the rCBF of certain ROIs as in controls. After neuroleptic treatment and clinical improvement, this diffuse pattern of correlations remained. Conclusions: These results indicate differences in the neuronal interplay between regions in schizophrenic and healthy subjects. In nevertreated schizophrenics, diffuse interregional rCBF correlations can be seen as a sign of change and dysfunction of the systems regulating specificity and diversity of the neuronal functions. Neuroleptic therapy and psychopathologic remission showed no normalizing effect on interregional correlations. (orig.) [de

  12. Genetic influences on individual differences in longitudinal changes in global and subcortical brain volumes : Results of the ENIGMA plasticity working group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Rachel M; Panizzon, Matthew S; Glahn, David C; Hibar, Derrek P; Hua, Xue; Jahanshad, Neda; Abramovic, Lucija; De Zubicaray, Greig I; Franz, Carol E; Hansell, Narelle K; Hickie, Ian B; Koenis, Marinka M G; Martin, Nicholas G; Mather, Karen A; McMahon, Katie L; Schnack, Hugo G; Strike, Lachlan T; Swagerman, Suzanne C; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Wen, Wei; Gilmore, John H; Gogtay, Nitin; Kahn, René S; Sachdev, Perminder S; Wright, Margaret J; Boomsma, Dorret I; Kremen, William S; Thompson, Paul M; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E

    2017-01-01

    Structural brain changes that occur during development and ageing are related to mental health and general cognitive functioning. Individuals differ in the extent to which their brain volumes change over time, but whether these differences can be attributed to differences in their genotypes has not

  13. Differential effects of ethanol on regional glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmitter pathways in mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Vivek; Veeraiah, Pandichelvam; Subramaniam, Vaidyanathan; Patel, Anant Bahadur

    2014-03-01

    This study investigates the effects of ethanol on neuronal and astroglial metabolism using (1)H-[(13)C]-NMR spectroscopy in conjunction with infusion of [1,6-(13)C2]/[1-(13)C]glucose or [2-(13)C]acetate, respectively. A three-compartment metabolic model was fitted to the (13)C turnover of GluC3 , GluC4, GABAC 2, GABAC 3, AspC3 , and GlnC4 from [1,6-(13)C2 ]glucose to determine the rates of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) and neurotransmitter cycle associated with glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons. The ratio of neurotransmitter cycle to TCA cycle fluxes for glutamatergic and GABAegic neurons was obtained from the steady-state [2-(13)C]acetate experiment and used as constraints during the metabolic model fitting. (1)H MRS measurement suggests that depletion of ethanol from cerebral cortex follows zero order kinetics with rate 0.18 ± 0.04 μmol/g/min. Acute exposure of ethanol reduces the level of glutamate and aspartate in cortical region. GlnC4 labeling was found to be unchanged from a 15 min infusion of [2-(13)C]acetate suggesting that acute ethanol exposure does not affect astroglial metabolism in naive mice. Rates of TCA and neurotransmitter cycle associated with glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons were found to be significantly reduced in cortical and subcortical regions. Acute exposure of ethanol perturbs the level of neurometabolites and decreases the excitatory and inhibitory activity differentially across the regions of brain. Depletion of ethanol and its effect on brain functions were measured using (1)H and (1)H-[(13)C]-NMR spectroscopy in conjunction with infusion of (13)C-labeled substrates. Ethanol depletion from brain follows zero order kinetics. Ethanol perturbs level of glutamate, and the excitatory and inhibitory activity in mice brain. © 2013 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  14. The beta1 subunit of the Na,K-ATPase pump interacts with megalencephalic leucoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts protein 1 (MLC1) in brain astrocytes: new insights into MLC pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brignone, Maria S; Lanciotti, Angela; Macioce, Pompeo; Macchia, Gianfranco; Gaetani, Matteo; Aloisi, Francesca; Petrucci, Tamara C; Ambrosini, Elena

    2011-01-01

    Megalencephalic leucoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts (MLC) is a rare congenital leucodystrophy caused by mutations in MLC1, a membrane protein of unknown function. MLC1 expression in astrocyte end-feet contacting blood vessels and meninges, along with brain swelling, fluid cysts and myelin vacuolation observed in MLC patients, suggests a possible role for MLC1 in the regulation of fluid and ion homeostasis and cellular volume changes. To identify MLC1 direct interactors and dissect the molecular pathways in which MLC1 is involved, we used NH2-MLC1 domain as a bait to screen a human brain library in a yeast two-hybrid assay. We identified the β1 subunit of the Na,K-ATPase pump as one of the interacting clones and confirmed it by pull-downs, co-fractionation assays and immunofluorescence stainings in human and rat astrocytes in vitro and in brain tissue. By performing ouabain-affinity chromatography on astrocyte and brain extracts, we isolated MLC1 and the whole Na,K-ATPase enzyme in a multiprotein complex that included Kir4.1, syntrophin and dystrobrevin. Because Na,K-ATPase is involved in intracellular osmotic control and volume regulation, we investigated the effect of hypo-osmotic stress on MLC1/Na,K-ATPase relationship in astrocytes. We found that hypo-osmotic conditions increased MLC1 membrane expression and favoured MLC1/Na,K-ATPase-β1 association. Moreover, hypo-osmosis induced astrocyte swelling and the reversible formation of endosome-derived vacuoles, where the two proteins co-localized. These data suggest that through its interaction with Na,K-ATPase, MLC1 is involved in the control of intracellular osmotic conditions and volume regulation in astrocytes, opening new perspectives for understanding the pathological mechanisms of MLC disease.

  15. Subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy (Binswanger disease)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Settanni, F.; Dumont, P.; Casella, C.L.; Pascuzzi, L.; Cecilio, S.; Caldas, J.G.

    1992-01-01

    Four patients with variable clinical and tomographic features were diagnosed as having subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy (Binswanger disease). This diagnosis was done based on the presence of subacute progression of focal cerebral deficits, presence of hypertension, systemic vascular disease and dementia. The pathogenesis of subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy is unknown; possible mechanism include diffuse ischemia and fluid transudation with subsequent gliosis related to subacute hypertensive encephalopathy. (author)

  16. Thyroid Hormone-Dependent Formation of a Subcortical Band Heterotopia (SBH) in the Neonatal Brain is not Exacerbated Under Conditions of Low Dietary Iron (FeD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although the critical role of thyroid hormone (TH) in brain development is well established - severe deficiency producing significant neurological dysfunction - there is a paucity of data on neurological impairments that accompany modest degrees of TH disruption. Quantitative m...

  17. Central region morphometry in a child brain; Age and gender ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Data on central region morphometry of a child brain is important not only in terms of providing us with information about central region anatomy of the brain but also in terms of the help of this information for the plans to be applied in neurosurgery. Objective: In the present study, central region morphometry of a ...

  18. Total and regional brain volumes in a population-based normative sample from 4 to 18 years: the NIH MRI Study of Normal Brain Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Using a population-based sampling strategy, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Normal Brain Development compiled a longitudinal normative reference database of neuroimaging and correlated clinical/behavioral data from a demographically representative sample of healthy children and adolescents aged newborn through early adulthood. The present paper reports brain volume data for 325 children, ages 4.5-18 years, from the first cross-sectional time point. Measures included volumes of whole-brain gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM), left and right lateral ventricles, frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital lobe GM and WM, subcortical GM (thalamus, caudate, putamen, and globus pallidus), cerebellum, and brainstem. Associations with cross-sectional age, sex, family income, parental education, and body mass index (BMI) were evaluated. Key observations are: 1) age-related decreases in lobar GM most prominent in parietal and occipital cortex; 2) age-related increases in lobar WM, greatest in occipital, followed by the temporal lobe; 3) age-related trajectories predominantly curvilinear in females, but linear in males; and 4) small systematic associations of brain tissue volumes with BMI but not with IQ, family income, or parental education. These findings constitute a normative reference on regional brain volumes in children and adolescents.

  19. Whole-brain functional connectivity during emotional word classification in medication-free Major Depressive Disorder: Abnormal salience circuitry and relations to positive emotionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tol, Marie-José; Veer, Ilya M.; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; Aleman, André; van Buchem, Mark A.; Rombouts, Serge A. R. B.; Zitman, Frans G.; Veltman, Dick J.; Johnstone, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) has been associated with biased processing and abnormal regulation of negative and positive information, which may result from compromised coordinated activity of prefrontal and subcortical brain regions involved in evaluating emotional information. We tested whether

  20. Whole-brain functional connectivity during emotional word classification in medication-free Major Depressive Disorder : Abnormal salience circuitry and relations to positive emotionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tol, Marie-Jose; Veer, Ilya M.; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; Aleman, Andre; van Buchem, Mark A.; Rombouts, Serge A. R. B.; Zitman, Frans G.; Veltman, Dick J.; Johnstone, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) has been associated with biased processing and abnormal regulation of negative and positive information, which may result from compromised coordinated activity of prefrontal and subcortical brain regions involved in evaluating emotional information. We tested whether

  1. How does transcranial DC stimulation of the primary motor cortex alter regional neuronal activity in the human brain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Nicolas; Siebner, Hartwig R; Ward, Nick S; Lee, Lucy; Nitsche, Michael A; Paulus, Walter; Rothwell, John C; Lemon, Roger N; Frackowiak, Richard S

    2005-07-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the primary motor hand area (M1) can produce lasting polarity-specific effects on corticospinal excitability and motor learning in humans. In 16 healthy volunteers, O positron emission tomography (PET) of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) at rest and during finger movements was used to map lasting changes in regional synaptic activity following 10 min of tDCS (+/-1 mA). Bipolar tDCS was given through electrodes placed over the left M1 and right frontopolar cortex. Eight subjects received anodal or cathodal tDCS of the left M1, respectively. When compared to sham tDCS, anodal and cathodal tDCS induced widespread increases and decreases in rCBF in cortical and subcortical areas. These changes in rCBF were of the same magnitude as task-related rCBF changes during finger movements and remained stable throughout the 50-min period of PET scanning. Relative increases in rCBF after real tDCS compared to sham tDCS were found in the left M1, right frontal pole, right primary sensorimotor cortex and posterior brain regions irrespective of polarity. With the exception of some posterior and ventral areas, anodal tDCS increased rCBF in many cortical and subcortical regions compared to cathodal tDCS. Only the left dorsal premotor cortex demonstrated an increase in movement related activity after cathodal tDCS, however, modest compared with the relatively strong movement-independent effects of tDCS. Otherwise, movement related activity was unaffected by tDCS. Our results indicate that tDCS is an effective means of provoking sustained and widespread changes in regional neuronal activity. The extensive spatial and temporal effects of tDCS need to be taken into account when tDCS is used to modify brain function.

  2. Central region morphometry in a child brain; Age and gender ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-10-10

    Oct 10, 2013 ... Background: Data on central region morphometry of a child brain is important not only in terms of ... brain volume reaches the peak at the age of 14.5 in men ..... child and adolescent brain and effects of genetic variation.

  3. Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Developments: Implications for Clinical Assessment in Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccia, Angela Hein; Meulenbroek, Peter; Turkstra, Lyn S.

    2009-01-01

    Adolescence is a time of significant physical, social, and emotional developments, accompanied by changes in cognitive and language skills. Underlying these are significant developments in brain structures and functions including changes in cortical and subcortical gray matter and white matter tracts. Among the brain regions that develop during…

  4. An unusual case of cerebral autosomal-dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy with occipital lobe involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trikamji, Bhavesh; Thomas, Mariam; Hathout, Gasser; Mishra, Shrikant

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is an autosomal dominant angiopathy caused by a mutation in the notch 3 gene on chromosome 19. Clinically, patients may be asymptomatic or can present with recurrent ischemic episodes and strokes leading to dementia, depression, pseudobulbar palsy, and hemi- or quadraplegia. Additional manifestations that have been described include migraine (mostly with aura), psychiatric disturbances, and epileptic seizures. Neuroimaging is essential to the diagnosis of CADASIL. On imaging CADASIL is characterized by symmetric involvement by confluent lesions located subcortically in the frontal and temporal lobes as well as in the insula, periventricularly, in the centrum semiovale, in the internal and external capsule, basal ganglia, and brain stem; with relative sparing of the fronto-orbital and the occipital subcortical regions. We describe a 49 year old male with CADASIL with absence of temporal lobe findings on MRI but predominant lesions within the periventricular white matter, occipital lobes with extension into the subcortical frontal lobes, corpus callosum and cerebellar white matter. Although CADASIL characteristically presents with anterior temporal lobe involvement, these findings may be absent and our case addresses the atypical imaging findings in CADASIL.

  5. An unusual case of cerebral autosomal-dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy with occipital lobe involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavesh Trikamji

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL is an autosomal dominant angiopathy caused by a mutation in the notch 3 gene on chromosome 19. Clinically, patients may be asymptomatic or can present with recurrent ischemic episodes and strokes leading to dementia, depression, pseudobulbar palsy, and hemi- or quadraplegia. Additional manifestations that have been described include migraine (mostly with aura, psychiatric disturbances, and epileptic seizures. Neuroimaging is essential to the diagnosis of CADASIL. On imaging CADASIL is characterized by symmetric involvement by confluent lesions located subcortically in the frontal and temporal lobes as well as in the insula, periventricularly, in the centrum semiovale, in the internal and external capsule, basal ganglia, and brain stem; with relative sparing of the fronto-orbital and the occipital subcortical regions. We describe a 49 year old male with CADASIL with absence of temporal lobe findings on MRI but predominant lesions within the periventricular white matter, occipital lobes with extension into the subcortical frontal lobes, corpus callosum and cerebellar white matter. Although CADASIL characteristically presents with anterior temporal lobe involvement, these findings may be absent and our case addresses the atypical imaging findings in CADASIL.

  6. Neonatal subcortical bruising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delanghe, Gwenda; Squier, Waney; Sonnaert, Michel; Dudink, Jeroen; Lequin, Maarten; Govaert, Paul

    A specific type of acute brain injury can occur during birth, presenting on ultrasound examination with focal, unilateral, or asymmetrical change in the core of the superior frontal gyri. Ultrasound inspection of the superior gyri near the convexity of the frontal lobe is warranted following

  7. Frontal and subcortical grey matter reductions in PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Doherty, Daniel C M; Tickell, Ashleigh; Ryder, Will; Chan, Charles; Hermens, Daniel F; Bennett, Maxwell R; Lagopoulos, Jim

    2017-08-30

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterised by a range of debilitating psychological, physical and cognitive symptoms. PTSD has been associated with grey matter atrophy in limbic and frontal cortical brain regions. However, previous studies have reported heterogeneous findings, with grey matter changes observed beyond limbic/frontal areas. Seventy-five adults were recruited from the community, 25 diagnosed with PTSD along with 25 healthy and 25 trauma exposed age and gender matched controls. Participants underwent clinical assessment and magnetic resonance imaging. The data-analyses method Voxel Based Morphometry (VBM) was used to estimate cortical grey matter volumes. When compared to both healthy and trauma exposed controls, PTSD subjects demonstrated decreased grey matter volumes within subcortical brain regions-including the hippocampus and amygdala-along with reductions in the anterior cingulate cortex, frontal medial cortex, middle frontal gyrus, superior frontal gyrus, paracingulate gyrus, and precuneus cortex. Significant negative correlations were found between total CAPS lifetime clinical scores/sub-scores and GM volume of both the PTSD and TC groups. GM volumes of the left rACC and right amygdala showed a significant negative correlation within PTSD diagnosed subjects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Subcortical Band Heterotopia (SBH) in Rat Offspring Following Maternal Hypothyroxinemia: Structural and Functional Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid hormones (TH) play crucial roles in brain maturation, neuronal migration, and neocortical lamination. Subcortical band heterotopia (SBH) represent a class of neuronal migration errors in humans that are often associated with childhood epilepsy. We have previously reported...

  9. Measurement and genetics of human subcortical and hippocampal asymmetries in large datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadalupe, Tulio; Zwiers, Marcel P; Teumer, Alexander; Wittfeld, Katharina; Vasquez, Alejandro Arias; Hoogman, Martine; Hagoort, Peter; Fernandez, Guillen; Buitelaar, Jan; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Völzke, Henry; Franke, Barbara; Fisher, Simon E; Grabe, Hans J; Francks, Clyde

    2014-07-01

    Functional and anatomical asymmetries are prevalent features of the human brain, linked to gender, handedness, and cognition. However, little is known about the neurodevelopmental processes involved. In zebrafish, asymmetries arise in the diencephalon before extending within the central nervous system. We aimed to identify genes involved in the development of subtle, left-right volumetric asymmetries of human subcortical structures using large datasets. We first tested the feasibility of measuring left-right volume differences in such large-scale samples, as assessed by two automated methods of subcortical segmentation (FSL|FIRST and FreeSurfer), using data from 235 subjects who had undergone MRI twice. We tested the agreement between the first and second scan, and the agreement between the segmentation methods, for measures of bilateral volumes of six subcortical structures and the hippocampus, and their volumetric asymmetries. We also tested whether there were biases introduced by left-right differences in the regional atlases used by the methods, by analyzing left-right flipped images. While many bilateral volumes were measured well (scan-rescan r = 0.6-0.8), most asymmetries, with the exception of the caudate nucleus, showed lower repeatabilites. We meta-analyzed genome-wide association scan results for caudate nucleus asymmetry in a combined sample of 3,028 adult subjects but did not detect associations at genome-wide significance (P left-right patterning of the viscera. Our results provide important information for researchers who are currently aiming to carry out large-scale genome-wide studies of subcortical and hippocampal volumes, and their asymmetries. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Fused cerebral organoids model interactions between brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Joshua A; Reumann, Daniel; Bian, Shan; Lévi-Strauss, Julie; Knoblich, Juergen A

    2017-07-01

    Human brain development involves complex interactions between different regions, including long-distance neuronal migration or formation of major axonal tracts. Different brain regions can be cultured in vitro within 3D cerebral organoids, but the random arrangement of regional identities limits the reliable analysis of complex phenotypes. Here, we describe a coculture method combining brain regions of choice within one organoid tissue. By fusing organoids of dorsal and ventral forebrain identities, we generate a dorsal-ventral axis. Using fluorescent reporters, we demonstrate CXCR4-dependent GABAergic interneuron migration from ventral to dorsal forebrain and describe methodology for time-lapse imaging of human interneuron migration. Our results demonstrate that cerebral organoid fusion cultures can model complex interactions between different brain regions. Combined with reprogramming technology, fusions should offer researchers the possibility to analyze complex neurodevelopmental defects using cells from neurological disease patients and to test potential therapeutic compounds.

  11. Anatomo-functional study of the temporo-parieto-occipital region: dissection, tractographic and brain mapping evidence from a neurosurgical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Benedictis, Alessandro; Duffau, Hugues; Paradiso, Beatrice; Grandi, Enrico; Balbi, Sergio; Granieri, Enrico; Colarusso, Enzo; Chioffi, Franco; Marras, Carlo Efisio; Sarubbo, Silvio

    2014-01-01

    The temporo-parieto-occipital (TPO) junction is a complex brain territory heavily involved in several high-level neurological functions, such as language, visuo-spatial recognition, writing, reading, symbol processing, calculation, self-processing, working memory, musical memory, and face and object recognition. Recent studies indicate that this area is covered by a thick network of white matter (WM) connections, which provide efficient and multimodal integration of information between both local and distant cortical nodes. It is important for neurosurgeons to have good knowledge of the three-dimensional subcortical organisation of this highly connected region to minimise post-operative permanent deficits. The aim of this dissection study was to highlight the subcortical functional anatomy from a topographical surgical perspective. Eight human hemispheres (four left, four right) obtained from four human cadavers were dissected according to Klingler's technique. Proceeding latero-medially, the authors describe the anatomical courses of and the relationships between the main pathways crossing the TPO. The results obtained from dissection were first integrated with diffusion tensor imaging reconstructions and subsequently with functional data obtained from three surgical cases, all resection of infiltrating glial tumours using direct electrical mapping in awake patients. The subcortical limits for performing safe lesionectomies within the TPO region are as follows: within the parietal region, the anterior horizontal part of the superior longitudinal fasciculus and, more deeply, the arcuate fasciculus; dorsally, the vertical projective thalamo-cortical fibres. For lesions located within the temporal and occipital lobes, the resection should be tailored according to the orientation of the horizontal associative pathways (the inferior fronto-occipital fascicle, inferior longitudinal fascicle and optic radiation). The relationships between the WM tracts and the ventricle

  12. [Successive subcortical hemorrhages in the superior parietal lobule and postcentral gyrus in a 23-year-old female].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, K; Yoshikawa, H; Komai, K; Takamori, M

    1998-04-01

    We report a non-hypertensive 23-year-old female with successive hemorrhages in parietal subcortical regions. She had first experienced a transient pain in the left upper extremity one month before admission. She noticed dysesthesia in the same limb and weakness on her left hand, and, five days after, visited our hospital because of suddenly developed convulsion in the limb and loss of consciousness for a few minutes. Neurological examination revealed distal dominant flaccid paresis, positive pathological reflex and touch and position sense disturbances in the affected limb. Brain CT detected two high-density areas in the parietal lobe. Brain MRI demonstrated an acute phase subcortical hematoma in the left postcentral gyrus and a subacute phase one in the left superior parietal lobule. SPECT indicated hypoperfusion in the left frontal and parietal cortex. Cerebral angiography showed no abnormal findings. Her symptoms gradually improved, but left ulnar-type pseudoradicular sensory impairment remained on discharge. We considered the hemorrhage in this patient have arisen from rupture of cavernous hemangioma, because she was relatively young, the hematomas were oval in shape and successively developed in the left parietal lobe. Our patient suggests that a subcortical hemorrhage in the post-central gyrus causes flaccid paresis and pyramidal tract involvement.

  13. Age-and Brain Region-Specific Differences in Mitochondrial ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitochondria are central regulators of energy homeostasis and play a pivotal role in mechanisms of cellular senescence. The objective of the present study was to evaluate mitochondrial bio­-energetic parameters in five brain regions [brainstem (BS), frontal cortex (FC), cerebellum (CER), striatum (STR), hippocampus (HIP)] of four diverse age groups [1 Month (young), 4 Month (adult), 12 Month (middle-aged), 24 Month (old age)] to understand age-related differences in selected brain regions and their contribution to age-related chemical sensitivity. Mitochondrial bioenergetics parameters and enzyme activity were measured under identical conditions across multiple age groups and brain regions in Brown Norway rats (n = 5). The results indicate age- and brain region-specific patterns in mitochondrial functional endpoints. For example, an age-specific decline in ATP synthesis (State 111 respiration) was observed in BS and HIP. Similarly, the maximal respiratory capacities (State V1 and V2) showed age-specific declines in all brain regions examined (young > adult > middle-aged > old age). Amongst all regions, HIP had the greatest change in mitochondrial bioenergetics, showing declines in the 4, 12 and 24 Month age groups. Activities of mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC) and electron transport chain (ETC) complexes I, II, and IV enzymes were also age- and brain-region specific. In general changes associated with age were more pronounced, with

  14. Cellular complexity in subcortical white matter: a distributed control circuit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Jorge A

    2018-03-01

    The subcortical white matter (SWM) has been traditionally considered as a site for passive-neutral-information transfer through cerebral cortex association and projection fibers. Yet, the presence of subcortical neuronal and glial "interstitial" cells expressing immunolabelled neurotransmitters/neuromodulators and synaptic vesicular proteins, and recent immunohistochemical and electrophysiological observations on the rat visual cortex as well as interactive regulation of myelinating processes support the possibility that SWM nests subcortical, regionally variable, distributed neuronal-glial circuits, that could influence information transfer. Their hypothetical involvement in regulating the timing and signal transfer probability at the SWM axonal components ought to be considered and experimentally analysed. Thus, the "interstitial" neuronal cells-associated with local glial cells-traditionally considered to be vestigial and functionally inert under normal conditions, they may well turn to be critical in regulating information transfer at the SWM.

  15. Differentiating functional brain regions using optical coherence tomography (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Daniel A.; Bow, Hansen C.; Shen, Jin-H.; Joos, Karen M.; Skala, Melissa C.

    2017-02-01

    The human brain is made up of functional regions governing movement, sensation, language, and cognition. Unintentional injury during neurosurgery can result in significant neurological deficits and morbidity. The current standard for localizing function to brain tissue during surgery, intraoperative electrical stimulation or recording, significantly increases the risk, time, and cost of the procedure. There is a need for a fast, cost-effective, and high-resolution intraoperative technique that can avoid damage to functional brain regions. We propose that optical coherence tomography (OCT) can fill this niche by imaging differences in the cellular composition and organization of functional brain areas. We hypothesized this would manifest as differences in the attenuation coefficient measured using OCT. Five functional regions (prefrontal, somatosensory, auditory, visual, and cerebellum) were imaged in ex vivo porcine brains (n=3), a model chosen due to a similar white/gray matter ratio as human brains. The attenuation coefficient was calculated using a depth-resolved model and quantitatively validated with Intralipid phantoms across a physiological range of attenuation coefficients (absolute difference Nissl-stained histology will be used to validate our results and correlate OCT-measured attenuation coefficients to neuronal density. Additional development and validation of OCT algorithms to discriminate brain regions are planned to improve the safety and efficacy of neurosurgical procedures such as biopsy, electrode placement, and tissue resection.

  16. Nontraumatic temporal subcortical hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisberg, L.A.; Stazio, A.; Shamsnia, M.; Elliott, D.; Charity Hospital, New Orleans, LA

    1990-01-01

    Thirty patients with temporal hematomas were analyzed. Four with frontal extension survived. Of 6 with ganglionic extension, three had residual deficit. Of 8 with parietal extension, 4 had delayed deterioration and died, two patients recovered, and two with peritumoral hemorrhage due to glioblastoma multiforme died. Five patients with posterior temporal hematomas recovered. In 7 patients with basal-inferior temporal hematomas, angiography showed aneurysms in 3 cases, angiomas in 2 cases and no vascular lesion in 2 cases. Of 23 cases with negative angiography and no systemic cause for temporal hematoma, 12 patients were hypertensive and 11 were normotensive. Ten hypertensive patients without evidence of chronic vascular disease had the largest hematomas, extending into the parietal or ganglionic regions. Seven of these patients died; 3 had residual deficit. Eleven normotensive and two hypertensive patients with evidence of chronic vascular change had smaller hematomas. They survived with good functional recovery. (orig.)

  17. Brain tissue- and region-specific abnormalities on volumetric MRI scans in 21 patients with Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnston Jennifer

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS is a heterogeneous human disorder inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, and characterized by the primary findings of obesity, polydactyly, hypogonadism, and learning and behavioural problems. BBS mouse models have a neuroanatomical phenotype consisting of third and lateral ventriculomegaly, thinning of the cerebral cortex, and reduction in the size of the corpus striatum and hippocampus. These abnormalities raise the question of whether humans with BBS have a characteristic morphologic brain phenotype. Further, although behavioral, developmental, neurological and motor defects have been noted in patients with BBS, to date, there are limited reports of brain findings in BBS. The present study represents the largest systematic evaluation for the presence of structural brain malformations and/or progressive changes, which may contribute to these functional problems. Methods A case-control study of 21 patients, most aged 13-35 years, except for 2 patients aged 4 and 8 years, who were diagnosed with BBS by clinical criteria and genetic analysis of known BBS genes, and were evaluated by qualitative and volumetric brain MRI scans. Healthy controls were matched 3:1 by age, sex and race. Statistical analysis was performed using SAS language with SAS STAT procedures. Results All 21 patients with BBS were found to have statistically significant region- and tissue-specific patterns of brain abnormalities. There was 1 normal intracranial volume; 2 reduced white matter in all regions of the brain, but most in the occipital region; 3 preserved gray matter volume, with increased cerebral cortex volume in only the occipital lobe; 4 reduced gray matter in the subcortical regions of the brain, including the caudate, putamen and thalamus, but not in the cerebellum; and 5 increased cerebrospinal fluid volume. Conclusions There are distinct and characteristic abnormalities in tissue- and region- specific volumes

  18. Automated recognition of brain region mentions in neuroscience literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon French

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The ability to computationally extract mentions of neuroanatomical regions from the literature would assist linking to other entities within and outside of an article. Examples include extracting reports of connectivity or region-specific gene expression. To facilitate text mining of neuroscience literature we have created a corpus of manually annotated brain region mentions. The corpus contains 1,377 abstracts with 18,242 brain region annotations. Interannotator agreement was evaluated for a subset of the documents, and was 90.7% and 96.7% for strict and lenient matching respectively. We observed a large vocabulary of over 6,000 unique brain region terms and 17,000 words. For automatic extraction of brain region mentions we evaluated simple dictionary methods and complex natural language processing techniques. The dictionary methods based on neuroanatomical lexicons recalled 36% of the mentions with 57% precision. The best performance was achieved using a conditional random field (CRF with a rich feature set. Features were based on morphological, lexical, syntactic and contextual information. The CRF recalled 76% of mentions at 81% precision, by counting partial matches recall and precision increase to 86% and 92% respectively. We suspect a large amount of error is due to coordinating conjunctions, previously unseen words and brain regions of less commonly studied organisms. We found context windows, lemmatization and abbreviation expansion to be the most informative techniques. The corpus is freely available at http://www.chibi.ubc.ca/WhiteText/.

  19. Regional distribution of serotonin transporter protein in postmortem human brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kish, Stephen J. [Human Neurochemical Pathology Laboratory, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada)]. E-mail: Stephen_Kish@CAMH.net; Furukawa, Yoshiaki [Human Neurochemical Pathology Laboratory, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Chang Lijan [Human Neurochemical Pathology Laboratory, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Tong Junchao [Human Neurochemical Pathology Laboratory, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Ginovart, Nathalie [PET Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Wilson, Alan [PET Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Houle, Sylvain [PET Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Meyer, Jeffrey H. [PET Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada)

    2005-02-01

    Introduction: The primary approach in assessing the status of brain serotonin neurons in human conditions such as major depression and exposure to the illicit drug ecstasy has been the use of neuroimaging procedures involving radiotracers that bind to the serotonin transporter (SERT). However, there has been no consistency in the selection of a 'SERT-free' reference region for the estimation of free and nonspecific binding, as occipital cortex, cerebellum and white matter have all been employed. Objective and Methods: To identify areas of human brain that might have very low SERT levels, we measured, by a semiquantitative Western blotting procedure, SERT protein immunoreactivity throughout the postmortem brain of seven normal adult subjects. Results: Serotonin transporter could be quantitated in all examined brain areas. However, the SERT concentration in cerebellar cortex and white matter were only at trace values, being approximately 20% of average cerebral cortex and 5% of average striatum values. Conclusion: Although none of the examined brain areas are completely free of SERT, human cerebellar cortex has low SERT binding as compared to other examined brain regions, with the exception of white matter. Since the cerebellar cortical SERT binding is not zero, this region will not be a suitable reference region for SERT radioligands with very low free and nonspecific binding. For SERT radioligands with reasonably high free and nonspecific binding, the cerebellar cortex should be a useful reference region, provided other necessary radioligand assumptions are met.

  20. Regional distribution of serotonin transporter protein in postmortem human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kish, Stephen J.; Furukawa, Yoshiaki; Chang Lijan; Tong Junchao; Ginovart, Nathalie; Wilson, Alan; Houle, Sylvain; Meyer, Jeffrey H.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: The primary approach in assessing the status of brain serotonin neurons in human conditions such as major depression and exposure to the illicit drug ecstasy has been the use of neuroimaging procedures involving radiotracers that bind to the serotonin transporter (SERT). However, there has been no consistency in the selection of a 'SERT-free' reference region for the estimation of free and nonspecific binding, as occipital cortex, cerebellum and white matter have all been employed. Objective and Methods: To identify areas of human brain that might have very low SERT levels, we measured, by a semiquantitative Western blotting procedure, SERT protein immunoreactivity throughout the postmortem brain of seven normal adult subjects. Results: Serotonin transporter could be quantitated in all examined brain areas. However, the SERT concentration in cerebellar cortex and white matter were only at trace values, being approximately 20% of average cerebral cortex and 5% of average striatum values. Conclusion: Although none of the examined brain areas are completely free of SERT, human cerebellar cortex has low SERT binding as compared to other examined brain regions, with the exception of white matter. Since the cerebellar cortical SERT binding is not zero, this region will not be a suitable reference region for SERT radioligands with very low free and nonspecific binding. For SERT radioligands with reasonably high free and nonspecific binding, the cerebellar cortex should be a useful reference region, provided other necessary radioligand assumptions are met

  1. Large-scale cortico-subcortical functional networks in focal epilepsies: The role of the basal ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Výtvarová

    2017-01-01

    Significance: Focal epilepsies affect large-scale brain networks beyond the epileptogenic zones. Cortico-subcortical functional connectivity disturbance was displayed in LTLE, FLE, and POLE. Significant changes in the resting-state functional connectivity between cortical and subcortical structures suggest an important role of the BG and thalamus in focal epilepsies.

  2. [A Case of Amusia Following Right Temporal Subcortical Hemorrhage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayoshi, Narumi; Arai, Takao; Tanno, Maiko; Watanabe, Motoi; Suzuki, Tadashi; Akasaki, Yasuharu; Murayama, Yuichi

    2017-07-01

    A woman in her 60s presented with amusia due to a localized subcortical hemorrhage of the right temporal lobe. No other symptoms of higher brain dysfunction or body paralysis were observed. One characteristic symptom in this case was rhythm impairment. Few cases of this impairment have been previously reported, and the responsible lesion and underlying mechanisms are still a matter of speculation. However, in this case, a relationship with the right temporal lobe was indicated.

  3. Human capital in European peripheral regions: brain - drain and brain - gain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, Franciscus H.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Project goal - The overall goal of the project is to build a legitimate transnational network to transfer ideas and experiences and implement measures to reduce brain drain and foster brain gain while reinforcing the economical and spatial development of peripheral regions in NWE. This means a

  4. Regional changes in brain 2-14C-deoxyglucose uptake induced by convulsant and non-convulsant doses of lindane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanfeliu, C.; Sola, C.; Camon, L.; Martinez, E.; Rodriguez-Farre, E.

    1990-01-01

    Lindane-induced dose- and time-related changes in regional 2-14C-deoxyglucose (2-DG) uptake were examined in 59 discrete rat brain structures using the 2-DG autoradiographic technique. At different times (0.5-144 hr) after administration of a seizure-inducing single dose of lindane (60 mg/kg), 2-DG uptake was significantly increased in 18 cortical and subcortical regions mainly related to the limbic system (e.g., Ammon's horn, dentate gyrus, septal nuclei, nucleus accumbens, olfactory cortex) and extrapyramidal and sensory-motor areas (e.g., cerebellar cortex, red nucleus, medial vestibular nucleus). There was also a significant increase in superior colliculus layer II. In addition, significant decreases occurred in a group of 6 regions (e.g., auditory and motor cortices). Non-convulsing animals treated with the same dose of lindane showed a regional pattern of 2-DG uptake less modified than the convulsant group. A non-convulsant single dose of lindane (30 mg/kg) also modified significantly the 2-DG uptake (0.5-24 hr) in some brain areas. Although the various single doses of lindane tested produced different altered patterns of brain 2-DG uptake, some structures showed a similar trend in their modification (e.g., superior colliculi and accumbens, raphe and red nuclei). Repeated non-convulsant doses of lindane produced defined and long-lasting significant elevations of 2-DG uptake in some subcortical structures. Considering the treated groups all together, 2-DG uptake increased significantly in 26 of the 59 regions examined but only decreased significantly in 9 of them during the course of lindane effects. This fact can be related to the stimulant action described for this neurotoxic agent. The observed pattern provides a descriptive approach to the functional alterations occurring in vivo during the course of lindane intoxication

  5. Cognitively Engaging Activity is Associated with Greater Cortical and Subcortical Volumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talia R. Seider

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As the population ages and dementia becomes a growing healthcare concern, it is increasingly important to identify targets for intervention to delay or attenuate cognitive decline. Research has shown that the most successful interventions aim at altering lifestyle factors. Thus, this study examined how involvement in physical, cognitive, and social activity is related to brain structure in older adults. Sixty-five adults (mean age = 71.4 years, standard deviation = 8.9 received the Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS, a questionnaire that polls everyday activities in which older adults may be involved, and also underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging. Stepwise regression with backwards selection was used to predict weekly time spent in either social, cognitive, light physical, or heavy physical activity from the volume of one of the cortical or subcortical regions of interest (corrected by intracranial volume as well as age, education, and gender as control variables. Regressions revealed that more time spent in cognitive activity was associated with greater volumes of all brain regions studied: total cortex (β = .289, p = .014, frontal (β = .276, p = .019, parietal (β = .305, p = .009, temporal (β = .275, p = .020, and occipital (β = .256, p = .030 lobes, and thalamus (β = .310, p = .010, caudate (β = .233, p = .049, hippocampus (β = .286, p = .017, and amygdala (β = .336, p = .004. These effects remained even after accounting for the positive association between cognitive activity and education. No other activity variable was associated with brain volumes. Results indicate that time spent in cognitively engaging activity is associated with greater cortical and subcortical brain volume. Findings suggest that interventions aimed at increasing levels of cognitive activity may delay cognitive consequences of aging and decrease the risk of developing dementia.

  6. Brain in complex regional pain syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Hotta, Jaakko

    2017-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) causes disabling and severe limb pain that is difficult to treat. The pain typically increases during motor actions, but is present also at rest. The pathophysiology of CRPS is incompletely understood. Some of the symptoms suggest involvement of the central nervous system, and accordingly, patients have been shown to display alterations in, for instance, the primary sensorimotor cortex (SM1) and indications of neuroinflammation. More thorough pathophysiol...

  7. Exercise increases blood flow to locomotor, vestibular, cardiorespiratory and visual regions of the brain in miniature swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delp, M. D.; Armstrong, R. B.; Godfrey, D. A.; Laughlin, M. H.; Ross, C. D.; Wilkerson, M. K.

    2001-01-01

    1. The purpose of these experiments was to use radiolabelled microspheres to measure blood flow distribution within the brain, and in particular to areas associated with motor function, maintenance of equilibrium, cardiorespiratory control, vision, hearing and smell, at rest and during exercise in miniature swine. Exercise consisted of steady-state treadmill running at intensities eliciting 70 and 100 % maximal oxygen consumption (V(O(2),max)). 2. Mean arterial pressure was elevated by 17 and 26 % above that at rest during exercise at 70 and 100 % V(O(2),max), respectively. 3. Mean brain blood flow increased 24 and 25 % at 70 and 100 % V(O(2),max), respectively. Blood flow was not locally elevated to cortical regions associated with motor and somatosensory functions during exercise, but was increased to several subcortical areas that are involved in the control of locomotion. 4. Exercise elevated perfusion and diminished vascular resistance in several regions of the brain related to the maintenance of equilibrium (vestibular nuclear area, cerebellar ventral vermis and floccular lobe), cardiorespiratory control (medulla and pons), and vision (dorsal occipital cortex, superior colliculi and lateral geniculate body). Conversely, blood flow to regions related to hearing (cochlear nuclei, inferior colliculi and temporal cortex) and smell (olfactory bulbs and rhinencephalon) were unaltered by exercise and associated with increases in vascular resistance. 5. The data indicate that blood flow increases as a function of exercise intensity to several areas of the brain associated with integrating sensory input and motor output (anterior and dorsal cerebellar vermis) and the maintenance of equilibrium (vestibular nuclei). Additionally, there was an intensity-dependent decrease of vascular resistance in the dorsal cerebellar vermis.

  8. Regional brain morphometry predicts memory rehabilitation outcome after traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary E Strangman

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive deficits following traumatic brain injury (TBI commonly include difficulties with memory, attention, and executive dysfunction. These deficits are amenable to cognitive rehabilitation, but optimally selecting rehabilitation programs for individual patients remains a challenge. Recent methods for quantifying regional brain morphometry allow for automated quantification of tissue volumes in numerous distinct brain structures. We hypothesized that such quantitative structural information could help identify individuals more or less likely to benefit from memory rehabilitation. Fifty individuals with TBI of all severities who reported having memory difficulties first underwent structural MRI scanning. They then participated in a 12 session memory rehabilitation program emphasizing internal memory strategies (I-MEMS. Primary outcome measures (HVLT, RBMT were collected at the time of the MRI scan, immediately following therapy, and again at one month post-therapy. Regional brain volumes were used to predict outcome, adjusting for standard predictors (e.g., injury severity, age, education, pretest scores. We identified several brain regions that provided significant predictions of rehabilitation outcome, including the volume of the hippocampus, the lateral prefrontal cortex, the thalamus, and several subregions of the cingulate cortex. The prediction range of regional brain volumes were in some cases nearly equal in magnitude to prediction ranges provided by pretest scores on the outcome variable. We conclude that specific cerebral networks including these regions may contribute to learning during I-MEMS rehabilitation, and suggest that morphometric measures may provide substantial predictive value for rehabilitation outcome in other cognitive interventions as well.

  9. Whole brain and brain regional coexpression network interactions associated with predisposition to alcohol consumption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren A Vanderlinden

    Full Text Available To identify brain transcriptional networks that may predispose an animal to consume alcohol, we used weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA. Candidate coexpression modules are those with an eigengene expression level that correlates significantly with the level of alcohol consumption across a panel of BXD recombinant inbred mouse strains, and that share a genomic region that regulates the module transcript expression levels (mQTL with a genomic region that regulates alcohol consumption (bQTL. To address a controversy regarding utility of gene expression profiles from whole brain, vs specific brain regions, as indicators of the relationship of gene expression to phenotype, we compared candidate coexpression modules from whole brain gene expression data (gathered with Affymetrix 430 v2 arrays in the Colorado laboratories and from gene expression data from 6 brain regions (nucleus accumbens (NA; prefrontal cortex (PFC; ventral tegmental area (VTA; striatum (ST; hippocampus (HP; cerebellum (CB available from GeneNetwork. The candidate modules were used to construct candidate eigengene networks across brain regions, resulting in three "meta-modules", composed of candidate modules from two or more brain regions (NA, PFC, ST, VTA and whole brain. To mitigate the potential influence of chromosomal location of transcripts and cis-eQTLs in linkage disequilibrium, we calculated a semi-partial correlation of the transcripts in the meta-modules with alcohol consumption conditional on the transcripts' cis-eQTLs. The function of transcripts that retained the correlation with the phenotype after correction for the strong genetic influence, implicates processes of protein metabolism in the ER and Golgi as influencing susceptibility to variation in alcohol consumption. Integration of these data with human GWAS provides further information on the function of polymorphisms associated with alcohol-related traits.

  10. Normalized regional brain atrophy measurements in multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zivadinov, Robert; Locatelli, Laura; Stival, Barbara; Bratina, Alessio; Nasuelli, Davide; Zorzon, Marino; Grop, Attilio; Brnabic-Razmilic, Ozana

    2003-01-01

    There is still a controversy regarding the best regional brain atrophy measurements in multiple sclerosis (MS) studies. The aim of this study was to establish whether, in a cross-sectional study, the normalized measurements of regional brain atrophy correlate better with the MRI-defined regional brain lesions than the absolute measurements of regional brain atrophy. We assessed 45 patients with clinically definite relapsing-remitting (RR) MS (median disease duration 12 years), and measured T1-lesion load (LL) and T2-LL of frontal lobes and pons, using a reproducible semi-automated technique. The regional brain parenchymal volume (RBPV) of frontal lobes and pons was obtained by use of a computerized interactive program, which incorporates semi-automated and automated segmentation processes. A normalized measurement, the regional brain parenchymal fraction (RBPF), was calculated as the ratio of RBPV to the total volume of the parenchyma and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the frontal lobes and in the region of the pons. The total regional brain volume fraction (TRBVF) was obtained after we had corrected for the total volume of the parenchyma and the CSF in the frontal lobes and in the region of the pons for the total intracranial volume. The mean coefficient of variation (CV) for RBPF of the pons was 1% for intra-observer reproducibility and 1.4% for inter-observer reproducibility. Generally, the normalized measurements of regional brain atrophy correlated with regional brain volumes and disability better than did the absolute measurements. RBPF and TRBVF correlated with T2-LL of the pons (r=-0.37, P=0.011, and r= -0.40, P=0.0005 respectively) and with T1-LL of the pons (r=-0.27, P=0.046, and r=-0.31, P=0.04, respectively), whereas RBPV did not (r=-0.18, P = NS). T1-LL of the frontal lobes was related to RBPF (r=-0.32, P=0.033) and TRBVF (r=-0.29, P=0.05), but not to RBPV (R=-0.27, P= NS). There was only a trend of correlation between T2-LL of the frontal lobes and

  11. Brain region-dependent differential expression of alpha-synuclein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Katsutoshi; Watanabe, Yoshihisa; Tsujimura, Atsushi; Tanaka, Masaki

    2016-04-15

    α-Synuclein, the major constituent of Lewy bodies (LBs), is normally expressed in presynapses and is involved in synaptic function. Abnormal intracellular aggregation of α-synuclein is observed as LBs and Lewy neurites in neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease (PD) or dementia with Lewy bodies. Accumulated evidence suggests that abundant intracellular expression of α-synuclein is one of the risk factors for pathological aggregation. Recently, we reported differential expression patterns of α-synuclein between excitatory and inhibitory hippocampal neurons. Here we further investigated the precise expression profile in the adult mouse brain with special reference to vulnerable regions along the progression of idiopathic PD. The results show that α-synuclein was highly expressed in the neuronal cell bodies of some early PD-affected brain regions, such as the olfactory bulb, dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, and substantia nigra pars compacta. Synaptic expression of α-synuclein was mostly accompanied by expression of vesicular glutamate transporter-1, an excitatory presynaptic marker. In contrast, expression of α-synuclein in the GABAergic inhibitory synapses was different among brain regions. α-Synuclein was clearly expressed in inhibitory synapses in the external plexiform layer of the olfactory bulb, globus pallidus, and substantia nigra pars reticulata, but not in the cerebral cortex, subthalamic nucleus, or thalamus. These results suggest that some neurons in early PD-affected human brain regions express high levels of perikaryal α-synuclein, as happens in the mouse brain. Additionally, synaptic profiles expressing α-synuclein are different in various brain regions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Regional cerebral blood flow measurement in brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izunaga, Hiroshi; Hirota, Yoshihisa; Takahashi, Mutsumasa; Fuwa, Isao; Kodama, Takafumi; Matsukado, Yasuhiko

    1986-01-01

    The regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) was determined on seventeen patients with brain tumors. Ring type single photon emission CT (SPECT) was used following intravenous injection of 133 Xe. Case materials included eleven meningiomas and six malignant gliomas. Evaluation was performed with emphasis on the following points; 1. Correlation of the flow data within tumors to the angiographic tumor stains, 2. Influence of tumors on the cerebral blood flow of the normal brain tissue, 3. Correlation between degree of peripheral edema and the flow data of the affected hemispheres. There was significant correlation between flow data within tumors and angiographic tumor stains in meningiomas. Influence of tumors on cerebral blood flow of the normal tissue was greater in meningiomas than in gliomas. There was negative correlation between the degree of peripheral edema and the flow data of the affected hemisphere. It has been concluded that the measurement of CBF in brain tumors is a valuable method in evaluation of brain tumors. (author)

  13. Regional cerebral blood flow measurement in brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izunaga, Hiroshi; Hirota, Yoshihisa; Takahashi, Mutsumasa; Fuwa, Isao; Kodama, Takafumi; Matsukado, Yasuhiko

    1986-10-01

    The regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) was determined on seventeen patients with brain tumors. Ring type single photon emission CT (SPECT) was used following intravenous injection of /sup 133/Xe. Case materials included eleven meningiomas and six malignant gliomas. Evaluation was performed with emphasis on the following points; 1. Correlation of the flow data within tumors to the angiographic tumor stains, 2. Influence of tumors on the cerebral blood flow of the normal brain tissue, 3. Correlation between degree of peripheral edema and the flow data of the affected hemispheres. There was significant correlation between flow data within tumors and angiographic tumor stains in meningiomas. Influence of tumors on cerebral blood flow of the normal tissue was greater in meningiomas than in gliomas. There was negative correlation between the degree of peripheral edema and the flow data of the affected hemisphere. It has been concluded that the measurement of CBF in brain tumors is a valuable method in evaluation of brain tumors.

  14. Brain Regions Underlying Word Finding Difficulties in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebuchon-Da Fonseca, Agnes; Guedj, Eric; Alario, F-Xavier; Laguitton, Virginie; Mundler, Olivier; Chauvel, Patrick; Liegeois-Chauvel, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Word finding difficulties are often reported by epileptic patients with seizures originating from the language dominant cerebral hemisphere, for example, in temporal lobe epilepsy. Evidence regarding the brain regions underlying this deficit comes from studies of peri-operative electro-cortical stimulation, as well as post-surgical performance.…

  15. Protein profiles of serum, brain regions and hypophyses of pubertal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of dietary fumonisin B1 (FB1 ), a toxin produced mainly by Fusarium verticillioides and F. proliferatum that grow on maize worldwide, on protein profiles of serum, brain regions and hypophyses were studied in 24 male Large White weanling pigs randomly divided into four groups (n = 6). In a completely ...

  16. Larger Gray Matter Volume in the Basal Ganglia of Heavy Cannabis Users Detected by Voxel-Based Morphometry and Subcortical Volumetric Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Alcázar, Ana; Gonzalvo, Begoña; Canales-Rodríguez, Erick J; Blanco, Laura; Bachiller, Diana; Romaguera, Anna; Monté-Rubio, Gemma C; Roncero, Carlos; McKenna, Peter J; Pomarol-Clotet, Edith

    2018-01-01

    Background: Structural imaging studies of cannabis users have found evidence of both cortical and subcortical volume reductions, especially in cannabinoid receptor-rich regions such as the hippocampus and amygdala. However, the findings have not been consistent. In the present study, we examined a sample of adult heavy cannabis users without other substance abuse to determine whether long-term use is associated with brain structural changes, especially in the subcortical regions. Method: We compared the gray matter volume of 14 long-term, heavy cannabis users with non-using controls. To provide robust findings, we conducted two separate studies using two different MRI techniques. Each study used the same sample of cannabis users and a different control group, respectively. Both control groups were independent of each other. First, whole-brain voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to compare the cannabis users against 28 matched controls (HC1 group). Second, a volumetric analysis of subcortical regions was performed to assess differences between the cannabis users and a sample of 100 matched controls (HC2 group) obtained from a local database of healthy volunteers. Results: The VBM study revealed that, compared to the control group HC1, the cannabis users did not show cortical differences nor smaller volume in any subcortical structure but showed a cluster ( p users showed significantly larger volumes in the putamen ( p = 0.001) and pallidum ( p = 0.0015). Subtle trends, only significant at the uncorrected level, were also found in the caudate ( p = 0.05) and nucleus accumbens ( p = 0.047). Conclusions: This study does not support previous findings of hippocampal and/or amygdala structural changes in long-term, heavy cannabis users. It does, however, provide evidence of basal ganglia volume increases.

  17. Influence of ketamine on regional brain glucose use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, D.W.; Mans, A.M.; Biebuyck, J.F.; Hawkins, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of different doses of ketamine on cerebral function at the level of individual brain structures as reflected by glucose use. Rats received either 5 or 30 mg/kg ketamine intravenously as a loading dose, followed by an infusion to maintain a steady-state level of the drug. An additional group received 30 mg/kg as a single injection only, and was studied 20 min later, by which time they were recovering consciousness (withdrawal group). Regional brain energy metabolism was evaluated with [6- 14 C]glucose and quantitative autoradiography during a 5-min experimental period. A subhypnotic, steady-state dose (5 mg/kg) of ketamine caused a stimulation of glucose use in most brain areas, with an average increase of 20%. At the larger steady-state dose (30 mg/kg, which is sufficient to cause anesthesia), there was no significant effect on most brain regions; some sensory nuclei were depressed (inferior colliculus, -29%; cerebellar dentate nucleus, -18%; vestibular nucleus, -16%), but glucose use in the ventral posterior hippocampus was increased by 33%. In contrast, during withdrawal from a 30-mg/kg bolus, there was a stimulation of glucose use throughout the brain (21-78%), at a time when plasma ketamine levels were similar to the levels in the 5 mg/kg group. At each steady-state dose, as well as during withdrawal, ketamine caused a notable stimulation of glucose use by the hippocampus

  18. Subcortical encoding of sound is enhanced in bilinguals and relates to executive function advantages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krizman, Jennifer; Marian, Viorica; Shook, Anthony; Skoe, Erika; Kraus, Nina

    2012-01-01

    Bilingualism profoundly affects the brain, yielding functional and structural changes in cortical regions dedicated to language processing and executive function [Crinion J, et al. (2006) Science 312:1537–1540; Kim KHS, et al. (1997) Nature 388:171–174]. Comparatively, musical training, another type of sensory enrichment, translates to expertise in cognitive processing and refined biological processing of sound in both cortical and subcortical structures. Therefore, we asked whether bilingualism can also promote experience-dependent plasticity in subcortical auditory processing. We found that adolescent bilinguals, listening to the speech syllable [da], encoded the stimulus more robustly than age-matched monolinguals. Specifically, bilinguals showed enhanced encoding of the fundamental frequency, a feature known to underlie pitch perception and grouping of auditory objects. This enhancement was associated with executive function advantages. Thus, through experience-related tuning of attention, the bilingual auditory system becomes highly efficient in automatically processing sound. This study provides biological evidence for system-wide neural plasticity in auditory experts that facilitates a tight coupling of sensory and cognitive functions. PMID:22547804

  19. Differential susceptibility of brain regions to tributyltin chloride toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Sumonto; Siddiqui, Waseem A; Khandelwal, Shashi

    2015-12-01

    Tributyltin (TBT), a well-known endocrine disruptor, is an omnipresent environmental pollutant and is explicitly used in many industrial applications. Previously we have shown its neurotoxic potential on cerebral cortex of male Wistar rats. As the effect of TBT on other brain regions is not known, we planned this study to evaluate its effect on four brain regions (cerebellum, hippocampus, hypothalamus, and striatum). Four-week-old male Wistar rats were gavaged with a single dose of TBT-chloride (TBTC) (10, 20, and 30 mg/kg) and sacrificed on days 3 and 7, respectively. Effect of TBTC on blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and tin (Sn) accumulation were measured. Oxidative stress indexes such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), reduced and oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio, lipid peroxidation, and protein carbonylation were analyzed as they play an imperative role in various neuropathological conditions. Since metal catalyzed reactions are a major source of oxidant generation, levels of essential metals like iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), and calcium (Ca) were estimated. We found that TBTC disrupted BBB and increased Sn accumulation, both of which appear significantly correlated. Altered metal homeostasis and ROS generation accompanied by elevated lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation indicated oxidative damage which appeared more pronounced in the striatum than in cerebellum, hippocampus, and hypothalamus. This could be associated to the depleted GSH levels in striatum. These results suggest that striatum is more susceptible to TBTC induced oxidative damage as compared with other brain regions under study. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Altered structural brain changes and neurocognitive performance in pediatric HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh K. Yadav

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric HIV patients often suffer with neurodevelopmental delay and subsequently cognitive impairment. While tissue injury in cortical and subcortical regions in the brain of adult HIV patients has been well reported there is sparse knowledge about these changes in perinatally HIV infected pediatric patients. We analyzed cortical thickness, subcortical volume, structural connectivity, and neurocognitive functions in pediatric HIV patients and compared with those of pediatric healthy controls. With informed consent, 34 perinatally infected pediatric HIV patients and 32 age and gender matched pediatric healthy controls underwent neurocognitive assessment and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI on a 3 T clinical scanner. Altered cortical thickness, subcortical volumes, and abnormal neuropsychological test scores were observed in pediatric HIV patients. The structural network connectivity analysis depicted lower connection strengths, lower clustering coefficients, and higher path length in pediatric HIV patients than healthy controls. The network betweenness and network hubs in cortico-limbic regions were distorted in pediatric HIV patients. The findings suggest that altered cortical and subcortical structures and regional brain connectivity in pediatric HIV patients may contribute to deficits in their neurocognitive functions. Further, longitudinal studies are required for better understanding of the effect of HIV pathogenesis on brain structural changes throughout the brain development process under standard ART treatment.

  1. Cortical and Subcortical Structural Plasticity Associated with the Glioma Volumes in Patients with Cerebral Gliomas Revealed by Surface-Based Morphometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinping Xu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Postlesional plasticity has been identified in patients with cerebral gliomas by inducing a large functional reshaping of brain networks. Although numerous non-invasive functional neuroimaging methods have extensively investigated the mechanisms of this functional redistribution in patients with cerebral gliomas, little effort has been made to investigate the structural plasticity of cortical and subcortical structures associated with the glioma volume. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether the contralateral cortical and subcortical structures are able to actively reorganize by themselves in these patients. The compensation mechanism following contralateral cortical and subcortical structural plasticity is considered. We adopted the surface-based morphometry to investigate the difference of cortical and subcortical gray matter (GM volumes in a cohort of 14 healthy controls and 13 patients with left-hemisphere cerebral gliomas [including 1 patients with World Health Organization (WHO I, 8 WHO II, and 4 WHO III]. The glioma volume ranges from 5.1633 to 208.165 cm2. Compared to healthy controls, we found significantly increased GM volume of the right cuneus and the left thalamus, as well as a trend toward enlargement in the right globus pallidus in patients with cerebral gliomas. Moreover, the GM volumes of these regions were positively correlated with the glioma volumes of the patients. These results provide evidence of cortical and subcortical enlargement, suggesting the usefulness of surface-based morphometry to investigate the structural plasticity. Moreover, the structural plasticity might be acted as the compensation mechanism to better fulfill its functions in patients with cerebral gliomas as the gliomas get larger.

  2. White matter pathology and disconnection in the frontal lobe in cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craggs, Lucinda J L; Yamamoto, Yumi; Ihara, Masafumi; Fenwick, Richard; Burke, Matthew; Oakley, Arthur E; Roeber, Sigrun; Duering, Marco; Kretzschmar, Hans; Kalaria, Raj N

    2014-08-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging indicates diffuse white matter (WM) changes are associated with cognitive impairment in cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL). We examined whether the distribution of axonal abnormalities is related to microvascular pathology in the underlying WM. We used post-mortem brains from CADASIL subjects and similar age cognitively normal controls to examine WM axonal changes, microvascular pathology, and glial reaction in up to 16 different regions extending rostro-caudally through the cerebrum. Using unbiased stereological methods, we estimated length densities of affected axons immunostained with neurofilament antibody SMI32. Standard immunohistochemistry was used to assess amyloid precursor protein immunoreactivity per WM area. To relate WM changes to microvascular pathology, we also determined the sclerotic index (SI) in WM arterioles. The degree of WM pathology consistently scored higher across all brain regions in CADASIL subjects (Pneurones connecting to targets in the subcortical structures. © 2013 The Authors. Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Neuropathological Society.

  3. Formulaic language in cortical and subcortical disease: Evidence of the dual process model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Bridges

    2014-04-01

    of formulaic language is at least partially modulated by the intact subcortical region, supporting the dual process model. Subcortical disease: Parkinson’s disease and recited speech Evidence of the involvement of subcortical structures in the production of formulaic language also comes from studies of subcortical injury. An examination of the spontaneous speech of people with basal ganglia stroke found fewer formulaic expressions than healthy adults or people with left hemisphere lesions (Sidtis et al., 2009; Illes et al., 1988. Similarly, a case study of a man post-subcortical stroke described deficits in the ability to recite prayers, a longer form of formulaic language (Speedie et al., 1993. A study of individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD, a progressive disease causing dysfunction of the basal ganglia circuitry, sought to extend Speedie et al.’s (1993 findings with group data (Bridges et al., 2013b. Two groups of people with PD (M age = 60.9, 6 with deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS, and 7 without STN-DBS, and another 7 healthy participants (HC were asked to recite familiar poems, prayers and rhymes (Humpty Dumpty, Twinkle Twinkle Little Star, Mary Had a Little Lamb, Jack and Jill, Roses are Red, Sticks and Stones, The Lord’s Prayer, and The Pledge of Allegiance. Groups were compared for the percent of error words produced (out of all non-target words produced during the task. The STN-DBS group in the OFF condition (a more severe state of subcortical dysfunction produced significantly more error words (37.13% than HCs (17.44%. The STN-DBS group in the ON condition (33.34% and the PD group without STN-DBS (21.53% fell between the STN-DBS OFF condition and HCs. These results provide further support for the dual process model of language production, as individuals with the most severe state of subcortical dysfunction perform poorly on recited speech tasks when compared to healthy adults, indicating the importance of intact

  4. Common DNA methylation alterations in multiple brain regions in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladd-Acosta, C; Hansen, K D; Briem, E; Fallin, M D; Kaufmann, W E; Feinberg, A P

    2014-08-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are increasingly common neurodevelopmental disorders defined clinically by a triad of features including impairment in social interaction, impairment in communication in social situations and restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior and interests, with considerable phenotypic heterogeneity among individuals. Although heritability estimates for ASD are high, conventional genetic-based efforts to identify genes involved in ASD have yielded only few reproducible candidate genes that account for only a small proportion of ASDs. There is mounting evidence to suggest environmental and epigenetic factors play a stronger role in the etiology of ASD than previously thought. To begin to understand the contribution of epigenetics to ASD, we have examined DNA methylation (DNAm) in a pilot study of postmortem brain tissue from 19 autism cases and 21 unrelated controls, among three brain regions including dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, temporal cortex and cerebellum. We measured over 485,000 CpG loci across a diverse set of functionally relevant genomic regions using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip and identified four genome-wide significant differentially methylated regions (DMRs) using a bump hunting approach and a permutation-based multiple testing correction method. We replicated 3/4 DMRs identified in our genome-wide screen in a different set of samples and across different brain regions. The DMRs identified in this study represent suggestive evidence for commonly altered methylation sites in ASD and provide several promising new candidate genes.

  5. Time series analysis of brain regional volume by MR image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Mika; Tarusawa, Ayaka; Nihei, Mitsuyo; Fukami, Tadanori; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Wu, Jin; Ishiwata, Kiichi; Ishii, Kenji

    2010-01-01

    The present study proposed a methodology of time series analysis of volumes of frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital lobes and cerebellum because such volumetric reports along the process of individual's aging have been scarcely presented. Subjects analyzed were brain images of 2 healthy males and 18 females of av. age of 69.0 y, of which T1-weighted 3D SPGR (spoiled gradient recalled in the steady state) acquisitions with a GE SIGNA EXCITE HD 1.5T machine were conducted for 4 times in the time series of 42-50 months. The image size was 256 x 256 x (86-124) voxels with digitization level 16 bits. As the template for the regions, the standard gray matter atlas (icbn452 a tlas p robability g ray) and its labeled one (icbn.Labels), provided by UCLA Laboratory of Neuro Imaging, were used for individual's standardization. Segmentation, normalization and coregistration were performed with the MR imaging software SPM8 (Statistic Parametric Mapping 8). Volumes of regions were calculated as their voxel ratio to the whole brain voxel in percent. It was found that the regional volumes decreased with aging in all above lobes examined and cerebellum in average percent per year of -0.11, -0.07, -0.04, -0.02, and -0.03, respectively. The procedure for calculation of the regional volumes, which has been manually operated hitherto, can be automatically conducted for the individual brain using the standard atlases above. (T.T.)

  6. Symbolic joint entropy reveals the coupling of various brain regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaofei; Huang, Xiaolin; Du, Sidan; Liu, Hongxing; Ning, Xinbao

    2018-01-01

    The convergence and divergence of oscillatory behavior of different brain regions are very important for the procedure of information processing. Measurements of coupling or correlation are very useful to study the difference of brain activities. In this study, EEG signals were collected from ten subjects under two conditions, i.e. eyes closed state and idle with eyes open. We propose a nonlinear algorithm, symbolic joint entropy, to compare the coupling strength among the frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital lobes and between two different states. Instead of decomposing the EEG into different frequency bands (theta, alpha, beta, gamma etc.), the novel algorithm is to investigate the coupling from the entire spectrum of brain wave activities above 4Hz. The coupling coefficients in two states with different time delay steps are compared and the group statistics are presented as well. We find that the coupling coefficient of eyes open state with delay consistently lower than that of eyes close state across the group except for one subject, whereas the results without delay are not consistent. The differences between two brain states with non-zero delay can reveal the intrinsic inter-region coupling better. We also use the well-known Hénon map data to validate the algorithm proposed in this paper. The result shows that the method is robust and has a great potential for other physiologic time series.

  7. Technical principles of direct bipolar electrostimulation for cortical and subcortical mapping in awake craniotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallud, J; Mandonnet, E; Corns, R; Dezamis, E; Parraga, E; Zanello, M; Spena, G

    2017-06-01

    Intraoperative application of electrical current to the brain is a standard technique during brain surgery for inferring the function of the underlying brain. The purpose of intraoperative functional mapping is to reliably identify cortical areas and subcortical pathways involved in eloquent functions, especially motor, sensory, language and cognitive functions. The aim of this article is to review the rationale and the electrophysiological principles of the use of direct bipolar electrostimulation for cortical and subcortical mapping under awake conditions. Direct electrical stimulation is a window into the whole functional network that sustains a particular function. It is an accurate (spatial resolution of about 5mm) and a reproducible technique particularly adapted to clinical practice for brain resection in eloquent areas. If the procedure is rigorously applied, the sensitivity of direct electrical stimulation for the detection of cortical and subcortical eloquent areas is nearly 100%. The main disadvantage of this technique is its suboptimal specificity. Another limitation is the identification of eloquent areas during surgery, which, however, could have been functionally compensated postoperatively if removed surgically. Direct electrical stimulation is an easy, accurate, reliable and safe invasive technique for the intraoperative detection of both cortical and subcortical functional brain connectivity for clinical purpose. In our opinion, it is the optimal technique for minimizing the risk of neurological sequelae when resecting in eloquent brain areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. A probabilistic approach to delineating functional brain regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalbitzer, Jan; Svarer, Claus; Frokjaer, Vibe G

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a reliable observer-independent approach to delineating volumes of interest (VOIs) for functional brain regions that are not identifiable on structural MR images. The case is made for the raphe nuclei, a collection of nuclei situated in the brain stem known...... to be densely packed with serotonin transporters (5-hydroxytryptaminic [5-HTT] system). METHODS: A template set for the raphe nuclei, based on their high content of 5-HTT as visualized in parametric (11)C-labeled 3-amino-4-(2-dimethylaminomethyl-phenylsulfanyl)-benzonitrile PET images, was created for 10...... healthy subjects. The templates were subsequently included in the region sets used in a previously published automatic MRI-based approach to create an observer- and activity-independent probabilistic VOI map. The probabilistic map approach was tested in a different group of 10 subjects and compared...

  9. Radiological diagnosis of periventricular and subcortical leukomalacia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taboada, D.; Alonso, A.; Olague, R.; Mulas, F.; Andres, V.

    1980-08-01

    Nine newborn infants with histories of perinatal asphyxia are presented. The pneumoencephalographic findings which led to the diagnosis are typical and constant. They include marked subcortical atrophy with rounded, dilated, and undisplaced lateral ventricles. Cystography with 3 cc of air demonstrated multiple subcortical and paraventricular cavities, without communication with the ventricular system, but with the typical honeycomb appearance of paraventricular and subcortical leukomalacia described in postmortem findings. The CT findings are typical, and provide the location of the cavities as well as their density.

  10. Traumatic brain injury causes long-term behavioral changes related to region-specific increases of cerebral blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöttker, Bruno; Stöber, Franziska; Hummel, Regina; Angenstein, Frank; Radyushkin, Konstantin; Goldschmidt, Jürgen; Schäfer, Michael K E

    2017-12-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of disability and death and survivors often suffer from long-lasting motor impairment, cognitive deficits, anxiety disorders and epilepsy. Few experimental studies have investigated long-term sequelae after TBI and relations between behavioral changes and neural activity patterns remain elusive. We examined these issues in a murine model of TBI combining histology, behavioral analyses and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) as a proxy for neural activity. Adult C57Bl/6N mice were subjected to unilateral cortical impact injury and investigated at early (15-57 days after lesion, dal) and late (184-225 dal) post-traumatic time points. TBI caused pronounced tissue loss of the parietal cortex and subcortical structures and enduring neurological deficits. Marked perilesional astro- and microgliosis was found at 57 dal and declined at 225 dal. Motor and gait pattern deficits occurred at early time points after TBI and improved over the time. In contrast, impaired performance in the Morris water maze test and decreased anxiety-like behavior persisted together with an increased susceptibility to pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures suggesting alterations in neural activity patterns. Accordingly, SPECT imaging of CBF indicated asymmetric hemispheric baseline neural activity patterns. In the ipsilateral hemisphere, increased baseline neural activity was found in the amygdala. In the contralateral hemisphere, homotopic to the structural brain damage, the hippocampus and distinct cortex regions displayed increased baseline neural activity. Thus, regionally elevated CBF along with behavioral alterations indicate that increased neural activity is critically involved in the long-lasting consequences of TBI.

  11. Subcortical functional reorganization due to early blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coullon, Gaelle S L; Jiang, Fang; Fine, Ione; Watkins, Kate E; Bridge, Holly

    2015-04-01

    Lack of visual input early in life results in occipital cortical responses to auditory and tactile stimuli. However, it remains unclear whether cross-modal plasticity also occurs in subcortical pathways. With the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging, auditory responses were compared across individuals with congenital anophthalmia (absence of eyes), those with early onset (in the first few years of life) blindness, and normally sighted individuals. We find that the superior colliculus, a "visual" subcortical structure, is recruited by the auditory system in congenital and early onset blindness. Additionally, auditory subcortical responses to monaural stimuli were altered as a result of blindness. Specifically, responses in the auditory thalamus were equally strong to contralateral and ipsilateral stimulation in both groups of blind subjects, whereas sighted controls showed stronger responses to contralateral stimulation. These findings suggest that early blindness results in substantial reorganization of subcortical auditory responses. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Altered Regional Brain Cortical Thickness in Pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M. Macey

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available RationaleObstructive sleep apnea (OSA affects 2–5% of all children and is associated with cognitive and behavioral deficits, resulting in poor school performance. These psychological deficits may arise from brain injury, as seen in preliminary findings of lower gray matter volume among pediatric OSA patients. However, the psychological deficits in OSA are closely related to functions in the cortex, and such brain areas have not been specifically assessed. The objective was to determine whether cortical thickness, a marker of possible brain injury, is altered in children with OSA.MethodsWe examined regional brain cortical thicknesses using high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance images in 16 pediatric OSA patients (8 males; mean age ± SD = 8.4 ± 1.2 years; mean apnea/hypopnea index ± SD = 11 ± 6 events/h and 138 controls (8.3 ± 1.1 years; 62 male; 138 subjects from the NIH Pediatric MRI database to identify cortical thickness differences in pediatric OSA subjects.ResultsCortical thinning occurred in multiple regions including the superior frontal, ventral medial prefrontal, and superior parietal cortices. The left side showed greater thinning in the superior frontal cortex. Cortical thickening was observed in bilateral precentral gyrus, mid-to-posterior insular cortices, and left central gyrus, as well as right anterior insula cortex.ConclusionChanges in cortical thickness are present in children with OSA and likely indicate disruption to neural developmental processes, including maturational patterns of cortical volume increases and synaptic pruning. Regions with thicker cortices may reflect inflammation or astrocyte activation. Both the thinning and thickening associated with OSA in children may contribute to the cognitive and behavioral dysfunction frequently found in the condition.

  13. Regional magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the brain in autistic individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hisaoka, S.; Harada, M.; Nishitani, H.; Mori, K.

    2001-01-01

    We studied the variations in the concentration of metabolites with brain region and age in autistic individuals and normal controls using multiple analysis of covariance. We examined 55 autistic individuals (2-21 years old, 47 male and eight female) and 51 normal children (3 months-15 years old, 26 boys and 25 girls). Single volumes of interest were placed in the frontal, parietal and temporal region on both sides, the brain stem and cingulate gyrus. The concentration of each metabolite was quantified by the water reference method. The concentration of N-acetylaspartate in the temporal regions (Brodmann's areas 41 and 42) in the autistic individuals were significantly lower than those in the controls (P < 0.05), but concentrations in other regions were not significantly different between the autistic individuals and controls. This suggests low density or dysfunction of neurones in Brodmann's areas 41 and 42 in autistic individual, which might be related to the disturbances of the sensory speech centre (Wernicke's area) in autism. (orig.)

  14. Regional magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the brain in autistic individuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hisaoka, S; Harada, M; Nishitani, H [Dept. of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Tokushima (Japan); Mori, K [Dept. of Paediatrics, School of Medicine, University of Tokushima (Japan)

    2001-06-01

    We studied the variations in the concentration of metabolites with brain region and age in autistic individuals and normal controls using multiple analysis of covariance. We examined 55 autistic individuals (2-21 years old, 47 male and eight female) and 51 normal children (3 months-15 years old, 26 boys and 25 girls). Single volumes of interest were placed in the frontal, parietal and temporal region on both sides, the brain stem and cingulate gyrus. The concentration of each metabolite was quantified by the water reference method. The concentration of N-acetylaspartate in the temporal regions (Brodmann's areas 41 and 42) in the autistic individuals were significantly lower than those in the controls (P < 0.05), but concentrations in other regions were not significantly different between the autistic individuals and controls. This suggests low density or dysfunction of neurones in Brodmann's areas 41 and 42 in autistic individual, which might be related to the disturbances of the sensory speech centre (Wernicke's area) in autism. (orig.)

  15. Region based Brain Computer Interface for a home control application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akman Aydin, Eda; Bay, Omer Faruk; Guler, Inan

    2015-08-01

    Environment control is one of the important challenges for disabled people who suffer from neuromuscular diseases. Brain Computer Interface (BCI) provides a communication channel between the human brain and the environment without requiring any muscular activation. The most important expectation for a home control application is high accuracy and reliable control. Region-based paradigm is a stimulus paradigm based on oddball principle and requires selection of a target at two levels. This paper presents an application of region based paradigm for a smart home control application for people with neuromuscular diseases. In this study, a region based stimulus interface containing 49 commands was designed. Five non-disabled subjects were attended to the experiments. Offline analysis results of the experiments yielded 95% accuracy for five flashes. This result showed that region based paradigm can be used to select commands of a smart home control application with high accuracy in the low number of repetitions successfully. Furthermore, a statistically significant difference was not observed between the level accuracies.

  16. Regional magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the brain in autistic individuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hisaoka, S.; Harada, M.; Nishitani, H. [Dept. of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Tokushima (Japan); Mori, K. [Dept. of Paediatrics, School of Medicine, University of Tokushima (Japan)

    2001-06-01

    We studied the variations in the concentration of metabolites with brain region and age in autistic individuals and normal controls using multiple analysis of covariance. We examined 55 autistic individuals (2-21 years old, 47 male and eight female) and 51 normal children (3 months-15 years old, 26 boys and 25 girls). Single volumes of interest were placed in the frontal, parietal and temporal region on both sides, the brain stem and cingulate gyrus. The concentration of each metabolite was quantified by the water reference method. The concentration of N-acetylaspartate in the temporal regions (Brodmann's areas 41 and 42) in the autistic individuals were significantly lower than those in the controls (P < 0.05), but concentrations in other regions were not significantly different between the autistic individuals and controls. This suggests low density or dysfunction of neurones in Brodmann's areas 41 and 42 in autistic individual, which might be related to the disturbances of the sensory speech centre (Wernicke's area) in autism. (orig.)

  17. Assessing cortical and subcortical changes in a western diet mouse model using spectral/Fourier domain OCT (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernucci, Marcel T.; Norman, Jennifer E.; Merkle, Conrad W.; Aung, Hnin H.; Rutkowsky, Jennifer; Rutledge, John C.; Srinivasan, Vivek J.

    2017-02-01

    The Western diet, causative in the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, has recently been associated with the development of diffuse white matter disease (WMD) and other subcortical changes. Yet, little is known about the pathophysiological mechanisms by which a high-fat diet can cause WMD. Mechanistic studies of deep brain regions in mice have been challenging due to a lack of non-invasive, high-resolution, and deep imaging technologies. Here we used Optical Coherence Tomography to study mouse cortical/subcortical structures noninvasively and in vivo. To better understand the role of Western Diet in the development of WMD, intensity and Doppler flow OCT images, obtained using a 1300 nm spectral / Fourier domain OCT system, were used to observe the structural and functional alterations in the cortex and corpus callosum of Western Diet and control diet mouse models. Specifically, we applied segmentation to the OCT images to identify the boundaries of the cortex/corpus callosum, and further quantify the layer thicknesses across animals between the two diet groups. Furthermore, microvasculature alterations such as changes in spatiotemporal flow profiles within diving arterioles, arteriole diameter, and collateral tortuosity were analyzed. In the current study, while the arteriole vessel diameters between the two diet groups was comparable, we show that collateral tortuosity was significantly higher in the Western diet group, compared to control diet group, possibly indicating remodeling of brain vasculature due to dietary changes. Moreover, there is evidence showing that the corpus callosum is thinner in Western diet mice, indicative of tissue atrophy.

  18. Brain noise is task dependent and region specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misić, Bratislav; Mills, Travis; Taylor, Margot J; McIntosh, Anthony R

    2010-11-01

    The emerging organization of anatomical and functional connections during human brain development is thought to facilitate global integration of information. Recent empirical and computational studies have shown that this enhanced capacity for information processing enables a diversified dynamic repertoire that manifests in neural activity as irregularity and noise. However, transient functional networks unfold over multiple time, scales and the embedding of a particular region depends not only on development, but also on the manner in which sensory and cognitive systems are engaged. Here we show that noise is a facet of neural activity that is also sensitive to the task context and is highly region specific. Children (6-16 yr) and adults (20-41 yr) performed a one-back face recognition task with inverted and upright faces. Neuromagnetic activity was estimated at several hundred sources in the brain by applying a beamforming technique to the magnetoencephalogram (MEG). During development, neural activity became more variable across the whole brain, with most robust increases in medial parietal regions, such as the precuneus and posterior cingulate cortex. For young children and adults, activity evoked by upright faces was more variable and noisy compared with inverted faces, and this effect was reliable only in the right fusiform gyrus. These results are consistent with the notion that upright faces engender a variety of integrative neural computations, such as the relations among facial features and their holistic constitution. This study shows that transient changes in functional integration modulated by task demand are evident in the variability of regional neural activity.

  19. Awake Craniotomy in Arteriovenous Malformation Surgery: The Usefulness of Cortical and Subcortical Mapping of Language Function in Selected Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Alexander J; Schaffer, Sarah G; Nardi, Dominic J; Chalif, David J; Katz, Jeffery; Dehdashti, Amir R

    2015-11-01

    Awake craniotomy for removal of intra-axial lesions is a well-established procedure. Few studies, however, have investigated the usefulness of this approach for resection of arteriovenous malformations adjacent to eloquent language areas. We demonstrate our experience by using cortical stimulation mapping and report for the first time on the usefulness of subcortical stimulation with interrogation of language function during resection of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) located near language zones. Patients undergoing awake craniotomy for AVMs located in language zones and at least 5 mm away from the closest functional magnetic resonance imaging activation were analyzed. During surgery, cortical bipolar stimulation at 50 Hz, with an intensity of 2 mA, increased to a maximum of 10 mA was performed in the region around the AVM before claiming it negative for language function. In positive language site, the area was restimulated 3 times to confirm the functional deficit. The AVM resection was started based on cortical mapping findings. Further subcortical stimulation performed in concert with speech interrogation by the neuropsychologist continued at key points throughout the resection as feasible. The usefulness of cortical and subcortical stimulation in addition to patient outcomes was analyzed. Between March 2009 and September 2014, 42 brain AVM resections were performed. Four patients with left-sided language zone AVMs underwent awake craniotomy. The AVM locations were fronto-opercular in 2 patients and posterior temporal in 2. The AVM Spetzler-Martin grades were II (2 patients) and III (2 patients). In 1 patient, complete speech arrest was noticed during mapping of the peri-malformation zone, which was not breached during resection. In a second patient who initially demonstrated negative cortical mapping, a speech deficit was noticed during resection and subcortical stimulation. This guided the approach to protect and avoid the sensitive zone. This patient

  20. Radioreceptor assay of opioid peptides in selected canine brain regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desiderio, D.M.; Takeshita, H.

    1985-09-01

    A radioreceptor assay using the opioid delta receptor-preferring ligand D-/sup 2/ala, D-/sup 5/leu leucine enkephalin (/sup 3/H-DADL) and the broader-specificity ligand /sup 3/H-etorphine was used to measure five HPLC-purified neuropeptide fractions derived from the peptide-rich fraction of tissue homogenates of nine anatomical regions of the canine brain. The receptoractive peptides studied were methionine enkephalin, alpha-neo-endorphin, dynorphin 1-8, methionine enkephalin-Arg-Phe, and leucine enkephalin. These peptides derive from two larger precursors: proenkephalin A, which contains methionine enkephalin, leucine enkephalin, methionine enkephalin-Arg-Phe; and proenkephalin B, which contains alpha-neo-endorphin and dynorphin 1-8. Receptoractive peptides were measured in the peptide-rich fraction derived from homogenates of canine hypothalamus, pituitary, caudate nucleus, amygdala, hippocampus, mid-brain, thalamus, pons-medulla, and cortex.

  1. Radioreceptor assay of opioid peptides in selected canine brain regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desiderio, D.M.; Takeshita, H.

    1985-01-01

    A radioreceptor assay using the opioid delta receptor-preferring ligand D- 2 ala, D- 5 leu leucine enkephalin ( 3 H-DADL) and the broader-specificity ligand 3 H-etorphine was used to measure five HPLC-purified neuropeptide fractions derived from the peptide-rich fraction of tissue homogenates of nine anatomical regions of the canine brain. The receptoractive peptides studied were methionine enkephalin, alpha-neo-endorphin, dynorphin 1-8, methionine enkephalin-Arg-Phe, and leucine enkephalin. These peptides derive from two larger precursors: proenkephalin A, which contains methionine enkephalin, leucine enkephalin, methionine enkephalin-Arg-Phe; and proenkephalin B, which contains alpha-neo-endorphin and dynorphin 1-8. Receptoractive peptides were measured in the peptide-rich fraction derived from homogenates of canine hypothalamus, pituitary, caudate nucleus, amygdala, hippocampus, mid-brain, thalamus, pons-medulla, and cortex

  2. Psychopathic traits are associated with cortical and subcortical volume alterations in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Joana B; Ferreira-Santos, Fernando; Almeida, Pedro R; Barbosa, Fernando; Marques-Teixeira, João; Marsh, Abigail A

    2015-12-01

    Research suggests psychopathy is associated with structural brain alterations that may contribute to the affective and interpersonal deficits frequently observed in individuals with high psychopathic traits. However, the regional alterations related to different components of psychopathy are still unclear. We used voxel-based morphometry to characterize the structural correlates of psychopathy in a sample of 35 healthy adults assessed with the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure. Furthermore, we examined the regional grey matter alterations associated with the components described by the triarchic model. Our results showed that, after accounting for variation in total intracranial volume, age and IQ, overall psychopathy was negatively associated with grey matter volume in the left putamen and amygdala. Additional regression analysis with anatomical regions of interests revealed total triPM score was also associated with increased lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and caudate volume. Boldness was positively associated with volume in the right insula. Meanness was positively associated with lateral OFC and striatum volume, and negatively associated with amygdala volume. Finally, disinhibition was negatively associated with amygdala volume. Results highlight the contribution of both subcortical and cortical brain alterations for subclinical psychopathy and are discussed in light of prior research and theoretical accounts about the neurobiological bases of psychopathic traits. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Acute stress evokes sexually dimorphic, stressor-specific patterns of neural activation across multiple limbic brain regions in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Ankit; Chaudhari, Karina; Vaidya, Vidita A

    2018-03-01

    Stress enhances the risk for psychiatric disorders such as anxiety and depression. Stress responses vary across sex and may underlie the heightened vulnerability to psychopathology in females. Here, we examined the influence of acute immobilization stress (AIS) and a two-day short-term forced swim stress (FS) on neural activation in multiple cortical and subcortical brain regions, implicated as targets of stress and in the regulation of neuroendocrine stress responses, in male and female rats using Fos as a neural activity marker. AIS evoked a sex-dependent pattern of neural activation within the cingulate and infralimbic subdivisions of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), lateral septum (LS), habenula, and hippocampal subfields. The degree of neural activation in the mPFC, LS, and habenula was higher in males. Female rats exhibited reduced Fos positive cell numbers in the dentate gyrus hippocampal subfield, an effect not observed in males. We addressed whether the sexually dimorphic neural activation pattern noted following AIS was also observed with the short-term stress of FS. In the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and the amygdala, FS similar to AIS resulted in robust increases in neural activation in both sexes. The pattern of neural activation evoked by FS was distinct across sexes, with a heightened neural activation noted in the prelimbic mPFC subdivision and hippocampal subfields in females and differed from the pattern noted with AIS. This indicates that the sex differences in neural activation patterns observed within stress-responsive brain regions are dependent on the nature of stressor experience.

  4. Regional distribution of enkephalinase in rat brain by autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waksman, G.; Hamel, E.; Besselievre, R.; Fournie-Zaluski, M.C.; Roques, B.P.; Bouboutou, R.

    1984-01-01

    The first visualization of enkephalinase (neutral metalloendopeptidase, E.C.3.4.24.11) in rat brain was obtained by autoradiography, using a new tritiated inhibitor: [ 3 H]N-[(R, S) 3-(N-hydroxy) carboxamido-2-benzyl propanoyl]-glycine ( 3 H-HCBP-Gly). The preliminary analysis of sections clearly showed a discrete localization of enkephalinase in enkephalin enriched regions, such as caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus, and substantia nigra. Moreover 3 H-HCBP-Gly binding also occured in choroid plexus and spinal cord [fr

  5. Subcortical structures in humans can be facilitated by transcranial direct current stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nonnekes, Johan Hendrik; Arrogi, Anass; Munneke, Moniek; van Asseldonk, Edwin H.F.; Oude Nijhuis, Lars; Geurts, Alexander; Weerdesteyn, Vivian

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique that alters cortical excitability via application of a weak direct current. Interestingly, it was demonstrated in cats that tDCS can facilitate subcortical structures as well (Bolzonii et al., J

  6. Subcortical structures in humans can be facilitated by transcranial direct current stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nonnekes, J.H.; Arrogi, A.; Munneke, M.A.M.; Asseldonk, E.H. van; Nijhuis, L.B.; Geurts, A.C.H.; Weerdesteyn, V.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique that alters cortical excitability. Interestingly, in recent animal studies facilitatory effects of tDCS have also been observed on subcortical structures. Here, we sought to provide evidence for the potential

  7. Subcortical Structures in Humans Can Be Facilitated by Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nonnekes, Johan Hendrik; Arrogi, A.; Munneke, M.A.M.; van Asseldonk, Edwin H.F.; Oude Nijhuis, L.B.; Geurts, A.C.; Weerdesteyn, V.

    2014-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique that alters cortical excitability. Interestingly, in recent animal studies facilitatory effects of tDCS have also been observed on subcortical structures. Here, we sought to provide evidence for the potential

  8. Neurons derived from different brain regions are inherently different in vitro: a novel multiregional brain-on-a-chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauth, Stephanie; Maoz, Ben M; Sheehy, Sean P; Hemphill, Matthew A; Murty, Tara; Macedonia, Mary Kate; Greer, Angie M; Budnik, Bogdan; Parker, Kevin Kit

    2017-03-01

    Brain in vitro models are critically important to developing our understanding of basic nervous system cellular physiology, potential neurotoxic effects of chemicals, and specific cellular mechanisms of many disease states. In this study, we sought to address key shortcomings of current brain in vitro models: the scarcity of comparative data for cells originating from distinct brain regions and the lack of multiregional brain in vitro models. We demonstrated that rat neurons from different brain regions exhibit unique profiles regarding their cell composition, protein expression, metabolism, and electrical activity in vitro. In vivo, the brain is unique in its structural and functional organization, and the interactions and communication between different brain areas are essential components of proper brain function. This fact and the observation that neurons from different areas of the brain exhibit unique behaviors in vitro underline the importance of establishing multiregional brain in vitro models. Therefore, we here developed a multiregional brain-on-a-chip and observed a reduction of overall firing activity, as well as altered amounts of astrocytes and specific neuronal cell types compared with separately cultured neurons. Furthermore, this multiregional model was used to study the effects of phencyclidine, a drug known to induce schizophrenia-like symptoms in vivo, on individual brain areas separately while monitoring downstream effects on interconnected regions. Overall, this work provides a comparison of cells from different brain regions in vitro and introduces a multiregional brain-on-a-chip that enables the development of unique disease models incorporating essential in vivo features. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Due to the scarcity of comparative data for cells from different brain regions in vitro, we demonstrated that neurons isolated from distinct brain areas exhibit unique behaviors in vitro. Moreover, in vivo proper brain function is dependent on the

  9. Larger Gray Matter Volume in the Basal Ganglia of Heavy Cannabis Users Detected by Voxel-Based Morphometry and Subcortical Volumetric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Moreno-Alcázar

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Structural imaging studies of cannabis users have found evidence of both cortical and subcortical volume reductions, especially in cannabinoid receptor-rich regions such as the hippocampus and amygdala. However, the findings have not been consistent. In the present study, we examined a sample of adult heavy cannabis users without other substance abuse to determine whether long-term use is associated with brain structural changes, especially in the subcortical regions.Method: We compared the gray matter volume of 14 long-term, heavy cannabis users with non-using controls. To provide robust findings, we conducted two separate studies using two different MRI techniques. Each study used the same sample of cannabis users and a different control group, respectively. Both control groups were independent of each other. First, whole-brain voxel-based morphometry (VBM was used to compare the cannabis users against 28 matched controls (HC1 group. Second, a volumetric analysis of subcortical regions was performed to assess differences between the cannabis users and a sample of 100 matched controls (HC2 group obtained from a local database of healthy volunteers.Results: The VBM study revealed that, compared to the control group HC1, the cannabis users did not show cortical differences nor smaller volume in any subcortical structure but showed a cluster (p < 0.001 of larger GM volume in the basal ganglia, involving the caudate, putamen, pallidum, and nucleus accumbens, bilaterally. The subcortical volumetric analysis revealed that, compared to the control group HC2, the cannabis users showed significantly larger volumes in the putamen (p = 0.001 and pallidum (p = 0.0015. Subtle trends, only significant at the uncorrected level, were also found in the caudate (p = 0.05 and nucleus accumbens (p = 0.047.Conclusions: This study does not support previous findings of hippocampal and/or amygdala structural changes in long-term, heavy cannabis users. It

  10. Regional cerebral blood flow in the patient with brain tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchida, Shohei

    1993-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured with xenon-enhanced CT (Xe-CT) in 21 cases of intracranial tumors (13 meningiomas, 5 gliomas, 3 metastatic brain tumors). Peritumoral edema was graded as mild, moderate or severe based on the extent of edema on CT and MRI. According to intratumoral blood flow distribution patterns, three patterns were classified as central type with relatively high blood flow at the center of the tumor, homogeneous type with an almost homogeneous blood flow distribution, and marginal type with relatively high blood flow at the periphery of the tumor. High grade astrocytoma and metastatic brain tumor showed marginal type blood flow and moderate or severe edema except in one case. Five meningiomas with severe peritumoral edema revealed marginal type blood flow and four with mild peritumoral edema showed central type blood flow, except for one case. No correlation was found between the extent of peritumoral edema and histological subtype, tumor size, location, duration of clinical history, vascularization on angiogram, and mean blood flow in the tumor. These results suggest that blood flow distribution patterns within the tumor may affect the extension of peritumoral edema. Pre- and postoperative rCBFs were evaluated with Xe-CT and IMP-SPECT in 7 cases, mean rCBF of peritumoral edema was 6.2 ml/100 g/min preoperatively, and discrepancy between rCBF on Xe-CT and that on IMP-SPECT was shown in the remote cortical region ipsilateral to the tumor. Postoperative rCBF revealed an improved blood flow in both adjacent and remote areas, suggesting that the decreased blood flow associated with brain tumors might be relieved after surgery. (author) 53 refs

  11. Acetamiprid Accumulates in Different Amounts in Murine Brain Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayato Terayama

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Neonicotinoids such as acetamiprid (ACE belong to a new and widely used single class of pesticides. Neonicotinoids mimic the chemical structure of nicotine and share agonist activity with the nicotine acetylcholine receptor (nAchR. Neonicotinoids are widely considered to be safe in humans; however, they have recently been implicated in a number of human health disorders. A wide range of musculoskeletal and neuromuscular disorders associated with high doses of neonicotinoids administered to animals have also been reported. Consequently, we used a mouse model to investigate the response of the central nervous system to ACE treatment. Our results show that exposure to ACE-containing water for three or seven days (decuple and centuple of no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL/day caused a decrease in body weight in 10-week old A/JJmsSlc (A/J mice. However, the treatments did not affect brain histology or expression of CD34. ACE concentrations were significantly higher in the midbrain of ACE-treated mice than that of the normal and vehicle groups. Expression levels of α7, α4, and β2 nAChRs were found to be low in the olfactory bulb and midbrain of normal mice. Furthermore, in the experimental group (centuple ACE-containing water for seven days, β2 nAChR expression decreased in many brain regions. Information regarding the amount of accumulated ACE and expression levels of the acetylcholine receptor in each region of the brain is important for understanding any clinical symptoms that may be associated with ACE exposure.

  12. Cortical and Subcortical Coordination of Visual Spatial Attention Revealed by Simultaneous EEG-fMRI Recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jessica J; Boehler, Carsten N; Roberts, Kenneth C; Chen, Ling-Chia; Krebs, Ruth M; Song, Allen W; Woldorff, Marty G

    2017-08-16

    Visual spatial attention has been studied in humans with both electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) individually. However, due to the intrinsic limitations of each of these methods used alone, our understanding of the systems-level mechanisms underlying attentional control remains limited. Here, we examined trial-to-trial covariations of concurrently recorded EEG and fMRI in a cued visual spatial attention task in humans, which allowed delineation of both the generators and modulators of the cue-triggered event-related oscillatory brain activity underlying attentional control function. The fMRI activity in visual cortical regions contralateral to the cued direction of attention covaried positively with occipital gamma-band EEG, consistent with activation of cortical regions representing attended locations in space. In contrast, fMRI activity in ipsilateral visual cortical regions covaried inversely with occipital alpha-band oscillations, consistent with attention-related suppression of the irrelevant hemispace. Moreover, the pulvinar nucleus of the thalamus covaried with both of these spatially specific, attention-related, oscillatory EEG modulations. Because the pulvinar's neuroanatomical geometry makes it unlikely to be a direct generator of the scalp-recorded EEG, these covariational patterns appear to reflect the pulvinar's role as a regulatory control structure, sending spatially specific signals to modulate visual cortex excitability proactively. Together, these combined EEG/fMRI results illuminate the dynamically interacting cortical and subcortical processes underlying spatial attention, providing important insight not realizable using either method alone. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Noninvasive recordings of changes in the brain's blood flow using functional magnetic resonance imaging and electrical activity using electroencephalography in humans have individually shown that shifting attention to a location in space

  13. Brain Region-Specific Activity Patterns after Recent or Remote Memory Retrieval of Auditory Conditioned Fear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jeong-Tae; Jhang, Jinho; Kim, Hyung-Su; Lee, Sujin; Han, Jin-Hee

    2012-01-01

    Memory is thought to be sparsely encoded throughout multiple brain regions forming unique memory trace. Although evidence has established that the amygdala is a key brain site for memory storage and retrieval of auditory conditioned fear memory, it remains elusive whether the auditory brain regions may be involved in fear memory storage or…

  14. Subcortical volume and cortical surface architecture in women with acute and remitted anorexia nervosa: An exploratory neuroimaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Amy E; Voineskos, Aristotle N; French, Leon; Kaplan, Allan S

    2018-04-13

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a highly heritable psychiatric disorder characterized by starvation and emaciation and associated with changes in brain structure. The precise nature of these changes remains unclear, as does their developmental time course and capacity for reversal with weight-restoration. In this comprehensive neuroimaging study, we sought to characterize these changes by measuring subcortical volume and cortical surface architecture in women with acute and remitted AN. Structural magnetic resonance imaging data was acquired from underweight women with a current diagnosis of AN (acAN: n = 23), weight-recovered women with a past diagnosis of AN (recAN: n = 24), and female controls (HC: n = 24). Subcortical segmentation and cortical surface reconstruction were performed with FreeSurfer 6.0.0, and group differences in regional volume and vertex-wise, cortex-wide thickness, surface area, and local gyrification index (LGI), a measure of folding, were tested with separate univariate analyses of covariance. Mean hippocampal and thalamic volumes were significantly reduced in acAN participants, as was mean cortical thickness in four frontal and temporal clusters. Mean LGI was significantly reduced in acAN and recAN participants in five frontal and parietal clusters. No significant group differences in cortical surface area were detected. Reductions in subcortical volume, cortical thickness, and right postcentral LGI were unique to women with acute AN, indicating state-dependence and pointing towards cellular remodeling and sulcal widening as consequences of disease manifestation. Reductions in bilateral frontal LGI were observed in women with acute and remitted AN, suggesting a role of atypical neurodevelopment in disease vulnerability. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Tartrazine induced neurobiochemical alterations in rat brain sub-regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Diksha; Vyas, Krati; Singh, Shakuntala; John, P J; Soni, Inderpal

    2018-03-01

    Tartrazine is a synthetic lemon yellow azo dye primarily used as a food coloring. The present study aimed to screen the neurobiochemical effects of Tartrazine in Wistar rats after administering the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) level. Tartrazine (7.5 mg/kg b.w.) was administered to 21 day old weanling rats through oral gavage once daily for 40 consecutive days. On 41st day, the animals were sacrificed and brain sub regions namely, frontal cortex, corpus striatum, hippocampus and cerebellum were used to determine activities of anti-oxidant enzymes viz. Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT), Glutathione-Stransferase (GST), Glutathione Reductase (GR) and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) and levels of lipid peroxides using Thio-barbituric Acid Reactive Substance (TBARS) assay. Our investigation showed a significant decrease in SOD and CAT activity, whereas there occurred a decline in GST and GR activity with an increase in GPx activity to counteract the oxidative damage caused by significantly increased levels of lipid peroxides. The possible mechanism of this oxidative damage might be attributed to the production of sulphanilc acid as a metabolite in azofission of tartrazine. It may be concluded that the ADI levels of food azo dyes adversely affect and alter biochemical markers of brain tissue and cause oxidative damage. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Bilingualism alters brain functional connectivity between "control" regions and "language" regions: Evidence from bimodal bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Le; Abutalebi, Jubin; Zou, Lijuan; Yan, Xin; Liu, Lanfang; Feng, Xiaoxia; Wang, Ruiming; Guo, Taomei; Ding, Guosheng

    2015-05-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies have revealed that bilingualism induces both structural and functional neuroplasticity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and the left caudate nucleus (LCN), both of which are associated with cognitive control. Since these "control" regions should work together with other language regions during language processing, we hypothesized that bilingualism may also alter the functional interaction between the dACC/LCN and language regions. Here we tested this hypothesis by exploring the functional connectivity (FC) in bimodal bilinguals and monolinguals using functional MRI when they either performed a picture naming task with spoken language or were in resting state. We found that for bimodal bilinguals who use spoken and sign languages, the FC of the dACC with regions involved in spoken language (e.g. the left superior temporal gyrus) was stronger in performing the task, but weaker in the resting state as compared to monolinguals. For the LCN, its intrinsic FC with sign language regions including the left inferior temporo-occipital part and right inferior and superior parietal lobules was increased in the bilinguals. These results demonstrate that bilingual experience may alter the brain functional interaction between "control" regions and "language" regions. For different control regions, the FC alters in different ways. The findings also deepen our understanding of the functional roles of the dACC and LCN in language processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. On the etiology of incident brain lacunes: longitudinal observations from the LADIS study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gouw, A.A.; Flier, W.M. van der; Pantoni, L.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We investigated regional differences in MRI characteristics and risk factor profiles of incident lacunes over a 3-year period. METHODS: Baseline and 3-year follow-up MRI were collected within the LADIS study (n=358). Incident lacunes were characterized with respect to brain...... region, their appearance within pre-existent white matter hyperintensities (WMH), surrounding WMH size, and risk factors. RESULTS: 106 incident lacunes were observed in 62 patients (58 subcortical white matter [WM], 35 basal ganglia, and 13 infratentorial). Incident subcortical WM lacunes occurred more...

  18. [Subcortical laminar heterotopia 'double cortex syndrome'].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teplyshova, A M; Gaskin, V V; Kustov, G V; Gudkova, A A; Luzin, R V; Trifonov, I S; Lebedeva, A V

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a clinical case of a 29-year-old patient with 'Double cortex syndrome' with epilepsy, intellectual and mental disorders. Subcortical band heterotopia is a rare disorder of neuronal migration. Such patients typically present with epilepsy and variable degrees of mental retardation and behavioral and intellectual disturbances. The main diagnostic method is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

  19. Fractal Dimension Analysis of Subcortical Gray Matter Structures in Schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guihu Zhao

    Full Text Available A failure of adaptive inference-misinterpreting available sensory information for appropriate perception and action-is at the heart of clinical manifestations of schizophrenia, implicating key subcortical structures in the brain including the hippocampus. We used high-resolution, three-dimensional (3D fractal geometry analysis to study subtle and potentially biologically relevant structural alterations (in the geometry of protrusions, gyri and indentations, sulci in subcortical gray matter (GM in patients with schizophrenia relative to healthy individuals. In particular, we focus on utilizing Fractal Dimension (FD, a compact shape descriptor that can be computed using inputs with irregular (i.e., not necessarily smooth surfaces in order to quantify complexity (of geometrical properties and configurations of structures across spatial scales of subcortical GM in this disorder. Probabilistic (entropy-based information FD was computed based on the box-counting approach for each of the seven subcortical structures, bilaterally, as well as the brainstem from high-resolution magnetic resonance (MR images in chronic patients with schizophrenia (n = 19 and age-matched healthy controls (n = 19 (age ranges: patients, 22.7-54.3 and healthy controls, 24.9-51.6 years old. We found a significant reduction of FD in the left hippocampus (median: 2.1460, range: 2.07-2.18 vs. median: 2.1730, range: 2.15-2.23, p<0.001; Cohen's effect size, U3 = 0.8158 (95% Confidence Intervals, CIs: 0.6316, 1.0, the right hippocampus (median: 2.1430, range: 2.05-2.19 vs. median: 2.1760, range: 2.12-2.21, p = 0.004; U3 = 0.8421 (CIs: 0.5263, 1, as well as left thalamus (median: 2.4230, range: 2.40-2.44, p = 0.005; U3 = 0.7895 (CIs: 0.5789, 0.9473 in schizophrenia patients, relative to healthy individuals. Our findings provide in-vivo quantitative evidence for reduced surface complexity of hippocampus, with reduced FD indicating a less complex, less regular GM surface detected in

  20. Segmentation of brain parenchymal regions into gray matter and white matter with Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Chiaki; Yoshiura, Takashi; Yamashita, Yasuo; Magome, Taiki; Honda, Hiroshi; Arimura, Hidetaka; Toyofuku, Fukai; Ohki, Masafumi

    2010-01-01

    It is very difficult and time consuming for neuroradiologists to estimate the degree of cerebral atrophy based on the volume of cortical regions etc. Our purpose of this study was to develop an automated segmentation of the brain parenchyma into gray and white matter regions with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in three-dimensional (3D) T1-weighted MR images. Our proposed method consisted of extraction of a brain parenchymal region based on a brain model matching and segmentation of the brain parenchyma into gray and white matter regions based on a fuzzy c-means (FCM) algorithm. We applied our proposed method to MR images of the whole brains obtained from 9 cases, including 4 clinically AD cases and 5 control cases. The mean volume percentage of a cortical region (41.7%) to a brain parenchymal region in AD patients was smaller than that (45.2%) in the control subjects (p=0.000462). (author)

  1. A Means for the Scintigraphic Imaging of Regional Brain Dynamics. Regional Cerebral Blood Flow and Regional Cerebral Blood Volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potchen, E. J.; Bentley, R.; Gerth, W.; Hill, R. L.; Davis, D. O. [Washington University School Of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1969-05-15

    The use of freely diffusable inert radioactive gas as a washout indicator to measure regional cerebral blood flow has become a standardized kinetic procedure in many laboratories. Recent investigations with this technique have led us to conclude that we can reliably distinguish regional flow with perfusion against regional flow without perfusion from the early portion of the curve. Based on a detailed study of the early curve kinetics in patients with and without cerebral vascular disease we have defined the sampling duration necessary for application of the Anger gamma camera imaging process to regional changes in cerebral radioactivity. Using a standard camera and a small computer, a procedure has been developed and based upon entire field to determine the time of maximum height followed by analysis of the data in a matrix. This will permit a contour plot presentation of calculated regional cerebral blood flow in millilitres per 100 grams perfused brain per minute. In addition, we propose to augment this data by the display of regional non-perfusion blood flow versus regional cerebral flow with perfusion. Preliminary investigation on sampling duration, and Compton scattering were prerequisite to clinical scintigraphy of regional cerebral blood flow. In addition, the method of interface for the conventional Anger gamma camera to digital computers used in this procedure are discussed. Applications to further assess regional cerebral dynamics by scintigraphy are presented. (author)

  2. Comparison of regional brain atrophy and cognitive impairment between pure akinesia with gait freezing and Richardson's syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jin Yong; Yun, Hyuk Jin; Sunwoo, Mun Kyung; Ham, Jee Hyun; Lee, Jong-Min; Sohn, Young H.; Lee, Phil Hyu

    2015-01-01

    Pure akinesia with gait freezing (PAGF) is considered a clinical phenotype of progressive supranuclear palsy. The brain atrophy and cognitive deficits in PAGF are expected to be less prominent than in classical Richardson's syndrome (RS), but this hypothesis has not been explored yet. We reviewed the medical records of 28 patients with probable RS, 19 with PAGF, and 29 healthy controls, and compared cortical thickness, subcortical gray matter volume, and neuropsychological performance among the three groups. Patients with PAGF had thinner cortices in frontal, inferior parietal, and temporal areas compared with controls; however, areas of cortical thinning in PAGF patients were less extensive than those in RS patients. In PAGF patients, hippocampal, and thalamic volumes were also smaller than controls, whereas subcortical gray matter volumes in PAGF and RS patients were comparable. In a comparison of neuropsychological tests, PAGF patients had better cognitive performance in executive function, visual memory, and visuospatial function than RS patients had. These results demonstrate that cognitive impairment, cortical thinning, and subcortical gray matter atrophy in PAGF patients resemble to those in RS patients, though the severity of cortical thinning and cognitive dysfunction is milder. Our results suggest that, PAGF and RS may share same pathology but that it appears to affect a smaller proportion of the cortex in PAGF. PMID:26483680

  3. Comparison of regional brain atrophy and cognitive impairment between pure akinesia with gait freezing and Richardson’s syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Yong eHong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Pure akinesia with gait freezing (PAGF is considered a clinical phenotype of progressive supranuclear palsy. The brain atrophy and cognitive deficits in PAGF are expected to be less prominent than in classical Richardson’s syndrome (RS, but this hypothesis has not been explored yet. We reviewed the medical records of 28 patients with probable RS, 19 with PAGF, and 29 healthy controls, and compared cortical thickness, subcortical grey matter volume, and neuropsychological performance among the three groups. Patients with PAGF had thinner cortices in frontal, inferior parietal, and temporal areas compared with controls; however, areas of cortical thinning in PAGF patients were less extensive than those in RS patients. In PAGF patients, hippocampal and thalamic volumes were also smaller than controls, whereas subcortical grey matter volumes in PAGF and RS patients were comparable. In a comparison of neuropsychological tests, PAGF patients had better cognitive performance in executive function, visual memory, and visuospatial function than RS patients had. These results demonstrate that cognitive impairment, cortical thinning, and subcortical grey matter atrophy in PAGF patients resemble to those in RS patients, though the severity of cortical thinning and cognitive dysfunction is milder. Our results suggest that PAGF and RS may share same pathology but that it appears to affect a smaller proportion of the cortex in PAGF.

  4. Application of Intraoperative Ultrasonography for Guiding Microneurosurgical Resection of Small Subcortical Lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jia; Duan, Yun You; Liu, Xi; Wang, Yu; Gao, Guo Dong; Qin, Huai Zhou; Wang, Liang

    2011-01-01

    We wanted to evaluate the clinical value of intraoperative ultrasonography for real-time guidance when performing microneurosurgical resection of small subcortical lesions. Fifty-two patients with small subcortical lesions were involved in this study. The pathological diagnoses were cavernous hemangioma in 25 cases, cerebral glioma in eight cases, abscess in eight cases, small inflammatory lesion in five cases, brain parasite infection in four cases and the presence of an intracranial foreign body in two cases. An ultrasonic probe was sterilized and lightly placed on the surface of the brain during the operation. The location, extent, characteristics and adjacent tissue of the lesion were observed by high frequency ultrasonography during the operation. All the lesions were located in the cortex and their mean size was 1.3 ± 0.2 cm. Intraoperative ultrasonography accurately located all the small subcortical lesions, and so the neurosurgeon could provide appropriate treatment. Different lesion pathologies presented with different ultrasonic appearances. Cavernous hemangioma exhibited irregular shapes with distinct margins and it was mildly hyperechoic or hyperechoic. The majority of the cerebral gliomas displayed irregular shapes with indistinct margins, and they often showed cystic and solid mixed echoes. Postoperative imaging identified that the lesions had completely disappeared, and the original symptoms of all the patients were significantly alleviated. Intraoperative ultrasonography can help accurately locate small subcortical lesions and it is helpful for selecting the proper approach and guiding thorough resection of these lesions.

  5. Application of Intraoperative Ultrasonography for Guiding Microneurosurgical Resection of Small Subcortical Lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jia; Duan, Yun You; Liu, Xi; Wang, Yu; Gao, Guo Dong; Qin, Huai Zhou; Wang, Liang [Tangdu Hospital of the Fourth Military Medicine University, Xi an (China)

    2011-10-15

    We wanted to evaluate the clinical value of intraoperative ultrasonography for real-time guidance when performing microneurosurgical resection of small subcortical lesions. Fifty-two patients with small subcortical lesions were involved in this study. The pathological diagnoses were cavernous hemangioma in 25 cases, cerebral glioma in eight cases, abscess in eight cases, small inflammatory lesion in five cases, brain parasite infection in four cases and the presence of an intracranial foreign body in two cases. An ultrasonic probe was sterilized and lightly placed on the surface of the brain during the operation. The location, extent, characteristics and adjacent tissue of the lesion were observed by high frequency ultrasonography during the operation. All the lesions were located in the cortex and their mean size was 1.3 {+-} 0.2 cm. Intraoperative ultrasonography accurately located all the small subcortical lesions, and so the neurosurgeon could provide appropriate treatment. Different lesion pathologies presented with different ultrasonic appearances. Cavernous hemangioma exhibited irregular shapes with distinct margins and it was mildly hyperechoic or hyperechoic. The majority of the cerebral gliomas displayed irregular shapes with indistinct margins, and they often showed cystic and solid mixed echoes. Postoperative imaging identified that the lesions had completely disappeared, and the original symptoms of all the patients were significantly alleviated. Intraoperative ultrasonography can help accurately locate small subcortical lesions and it is helpful for selecting the proper approach and guiding thorough resection of these lesions.

  6. CT findings and clinical analysis of subcortical hematomas in elderly patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Yasushi; Tanaka, Akira; Yoshinaga, Shinya; Kimura, Masato

    1991-01-01

    Ten elderly patients (73-87 years, 78.4 years on the average) with subcortical hematomas were divided into two groups according to the shape of the hematoma on a CT scan: a lobulated group (6 patients) and a global group (4 patients). The lobulated group had a history of hypertension in one patient. The hematomas extended widely around the parietal lobe and were accompanied by perifocal edema, brain shifts and subarachnoid hemorrhages, deep consciousness disturbances, and poor prognosis of life and function. Amyloid depositions in the arteries around the hematomas were confirmed histologically in one patient. The global group had a history of hypertension in two patients. The hematomas were localized in the parietal, temporal, or occipital lobe without perifocal edema, brain shift and subarachnoid hemorrhages, and accompanied by mild consciousness disturbances. The life prognosis was good, but the functional prognosis was poor, with a subsequent development of dementia. A lobulated subcortical hematoma is thought to be due to amyloid angiopathy, while a global subcortical hematoma is thought to be due to hypertension. A surgical evacuation is seldom indicated for either type of subcortical hematoma in elderly patients. (author)

  7. Regional cerebral blood flow in psychiatry: The resting and activated brains of schizophrenic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gur, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    The investigation of regional brain functioning in schizophrenia has been based on behavioral techniques. Although results are sometimes inconsistent, the behavioral observations suggest left hemispheric dysfunction and left hemispheric overreaction. Recent developments in neuroimaging technology make possible major refinements in assessing regional brain function. Both anatomical and physiological information now be used to study regional brain development in psychiatric disorders. This chapter describes the application of one method - the xenon-133 technique for measuring regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) - in studying the resting and activated brains of schizoprenic patients

  8. Age- and Brain Region-Specific Differences in Mitochondrial Bioenergetics in Brown Norway Rats

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Differences in various mitochondrial bioenergetics parameters in different brain regions in different age groups. This dataset is associated with the following...

  9. Spatial Navigation Impairment Is Associated with Alterations in Subcortical Intrinsic Activity in Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Resting-State fMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Qing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Impairment of spatial navigation (SN skills is one of the features of the Alzheimer’s disease (AD already at the stage of mild cognitive impairment (MCI. We used a computer-based battery of spatial navigation tests to measure the SN performance in 22 MCI patients as well as 21 normal controls (NC. In order to evaluate intrinsic activity in the subcortical regions that may play a role in SN, we measured ALFF, fALFF, and ReHo derived within 14 subcortical regions. We observed reductions of intrinsic activity in MCI patients. We also demonstrated that the MCI versus NC group difference can modulate activity-behavior relationship, that is, the correlation slopes between ReHo and allocentric SN task total errors were significantly different between NC and MCI groups in the right hippocampus (interaction F=4.44, p=0.05, pallidum (F=8.97, p=0.005, and thalamus (F=5.95, p=0.02, which were negative in NC (right hippocampus, r=−0.49; right pallidum, r=−0.50; right thalamus, r=−0.45; all p0.2. These findings may provide a novel insight of the brain mechanism associated with SN impairment in MCI and indicated a stage specificity of brain-behavior correlation in dementia. This trial is registered with ChiCTR-BRC-17011316.

  10. Subcortical intelligence: caudate volume predicts IQ in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazioplene, Rachael G; G Ryman, Sephira; Gray, Jeremy R; Rustichini, Aldo; Jung, Rex E; DeYoung, Colin G

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the association between size of the caudate nuclei and intelligence. Based on the central role of the caudate in learning, as well as neuroimaging studies linking greater caudate volume to better attentional function, verbal ability, and dopamine receptor availability, we hypothesized the existence of a positive association between intelligence and caudate volume in three large independent samples of healthy adults (total N = 517). Regression of IQ onto bilateral caudate volume controlling for age, sex, and total brain volume indicated a significant positive correlation between caudate volume and intelligence, with a comparable magnitude of effect across each of the three samples. No other subcortical structures were independently associated with IQ, suggesting a specific biological link between caudate morphology and intelligence. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Automated selection of brain regions for real-time fMRI brain-computer interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lührs, Michael; Sorger, Bettina; Goebel, Rainer; Esposito, Fabrizio

    2017-02-01

    Objective. Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) implemented with real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI) use fMRI time-courses from predefined regions of interest (ROIs). To reach best performances, localizer experiments and on-site expert supervision are required for ROI definition. To automate this step, we developed two unsupervised computational techniques based on the general linear model (GLM) and independent component analysis (ICA) of rt-fMRI data, and compared their performances on a communication BCI. Approach. 3 T fMRI data of six volunteers were re-analyzed in simulated real-time. During a localizer run, participants performed three mental tasks following visual cues. During two communication runs, a letter-spelling display guided the subjects to freely encode letters by performing one of the mental tasks with a specific timing. GLM- and ICA-based procedures were used to decode each letter, respectively using compact ROIs and whole-brain distributed spatio-temporal patterns of fMRI activity, automatically defined from subject-specific or group-level maps. Main results. Letter-decoding performances were comparable to supervised methods. In combination with a similarity-based criterion, GLM- and ICA-based approaches successfully decoded more than 80% (average) of the letters. Subject-specific maps yielded optimal performances. Significance. Automated solutions for ROI selection may help accelerating the translation of rt-fMRI BCIs from research to clinical applications.

  12. Understanding emotion with brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa, Luiz

    2018-02-01

    Emotional processing appears to be interlocked with perception, cognition, motivation, and action. These interactions are supported by the brain's large-scale non-modular anatomical and functional architectures. An important component of this organization involves characterizing the brain in terms of networks. Two aspects of brain networks are discussed: brain networks should be considered as inherently overlapping (not disjoint) and dynamic (not static). Recent work on multivariate pattern analysis shows that affective dimensions can be detected in the activity of distributed neural systems that span cortical and subcortical regions. More broadly, the paper considers how we should think of causation in complex systems like the brain, so as to inform the relationship between emotion and other mental aspects, such as cognition.

  13. Brain Region-Dependent Rejection of Neural Precursor Cell Transplants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Fainstein

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The concept of CNS as an immune-privileged site has been challenged by the occurrence of immune surveillance and allogeneic graft rejection in the brain. Here we examined whether the immune response to allogeneic neural grafts is determined by the site of implantation in the CNS. Dramatic regional differences were observed between immune responses to allogeneic neural precursor/stem cell (NPC grafts in the striatum vs. the hippocampus. Striatal grafts were heavily infiltrated with IBA-1+ microglia/macrophages and CD3+ T cells and completely rejected. In contrast, hippocampal grafts exhibited milder IBA-1+ cell infiltration, were not penetrated efficiently by CD3+ cells, and survived efficiently for at least 2 months. To evaluate whether the hippocampal protective effect is universal, astrocytes were then transplanted. Allogeneic astrocyte grafts elicited a vigorous rejection process from the hippocampus. CD200, a major immune-inhibitory signal, plays an important role in protecting grafts from rejection. Indeed, CD200 knock out NPC grafts were rejected more efficiently than wild type NPCs from the striatum. However, lack of CD200 expression did not elicit NPC graft rejection from the hippocampus. In conclusion, the hippocampus has partial immune-privilege properties that are restricted to NPCs and are CD200-independent. The unique hippocampal milieu may be protective for allogeneic NPC grafts, through host-graft interactions enabling sustained immune-regulatory properties of transplanted NPCs. These findings have implications for providing adequate immunosuppression in clinical translation of cell therapy.

  14. Regional differences in brain glucose metabolism determined by imaging mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    André Kleinridders; Heather A. Ferris; Michelle L. Reyzer; Michaela Rath; Marion Soto; M. Lisa Manier; Jeffrey Spraggins; Zhihong Yang; Robert C. Stanton; Richard M. Caprioli; C. Ronald Kahn

    2018-01-01

    Objective: Glucose is the major energy substrate of the brain and crucial for normal brain function. In diabetes, the brain is subject to episodes of hypo- and hyperglycemia resulting in acute outcomes ranging from confusion to seizures, while chronic metabolic dysregulation puts patients at increased risk for depression and Alzheimer's disease. In the present study, we aimed to determine how glucose is metabolized in different regions of the brain using imaging mass spectrometry (IMS). Metho...

  15. Distinct subcortical volume alterations in pediatric and adult OCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boedhoe, Premika S.W.; Schmaal, Lianne; Abe, Yoshinari; Ameis, Stephanie H.; Arnold, Paul D.; Batistuzzo, Marcelo C.; Benedetti, Francesco; Beucke, Jan C.; Bollettini, Irene; Bose, Anushree; Brem, Silvia; Calvo, Anna; Cheng, Yuqi; Cho, Kang Ik K.; Dallaspezia, Sara; Denys, Damiaan; Fitzgerald, Kate D.; Fouche, Jean-Paul; Giménez, Mònica; Gruner, Patricia; Hanna, Gregory L.; Hibar, Derrek P.; Hoexter, Marcelo Q.; Huyser, Chaim; Ikari, Keisuke; Jahanshad, Neda; Kathmann, Norbert; Kaufmann, Christian; Koch, Kathrin; Kwon, Jun Soo; Lazaro, Luisa; Liu, Yanni; Lochner, Christine; Marsh, Rachel; Martínez-Zalacaín, Ignacio; Mataix-Cols, David; Menchón, José M.; Minuzzii, Luciano; Nakamae, Takashi; Nakao, Tomohiro; Narayanaswamy, Janardhanan C.; Piras, Fabrizio; Piras, Federica; Pittenger, Christopher; Reddy, Y.C. Janardhan; Sato, Joao R.; Simpson, H. Blair; Soreni, Noam; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Spalletta, Gianfranco; Stevens, Michael C.; Szeszko, Philip R.; Tolin, David F.; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Walitza, Susanne; Wang, Zhen; van Wingen, Guido A.; Xu, Jian; Xu, Xiufeng; Yun, Je-Yeon; Zhao, Qing; Thompson, Paul M.; Stein, Dan J.; van den Heuvel, Odile A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Structural brain imaging studies in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) have produced inconsistent findings. This may be partially due to limited statistical power from relatively small samples and clinical heterogeneity related to variation in disease profile and developmental stage. Methods To address these limitations, we conducted a meta- and mega-analysis of data from OCD sites worldwide. T1 images from 1,830 OCD patients and 1,759 controls were analyzed, using coordinated and standardized processing, to identify subcortical brain volumes that differ in OCD patients and healthy controls. We additionally examined potential modulating effects of clinical characteristics on morphological differences in OCD patients. Results The meta-analysis indicated that adult patients had significantly smaller hippocampal volumes (Cohen’s d=−0.13; p=5.1x10−3, % difference −2.80) and larger pallidum volumes (d=0.16; p=1.6x10−3, % difference 3.16) compared to adult controls. Both effects were stronger in medicated patients compared to controls (d=−0.29; p=2.4x10−5, % difference −4.18 and d=0.29; p=1.2x10−5, % difference 4.38, respectively). Unmedicated pediatric patients had larger thalamic volumes (d=0.38, p=2.1x10−3) compared to pediatric controls. None of these findings were mediated by sample characteristics such as mean age or field strength. Overall the mega-analysis yielded similar results. Conclusion Our study indicates a different pattern of subcortical abnormalities in pediatric versus adult OCD patients. The pallidum and hippocampus seem to be of importance in adult OCD, whereas the thalamus seems to be key in pediatric OCD. This highlights the potential importance of neurodevelopmental alterations in OCD, and suggests that further research on neuroplasticity in OCD may be useful. PMID:27609241

  16. Functional Connectivity of Multiple Brain Regions Required for the Consolidation of Social Recognition Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimizu, Toshiyuki; Kenney, Justin W; Okano, Emiko; Kadoma, Kazune; Frankland, Paul W; Kida, Satoshi

    2017-04-12

    Social recognition memory is an essential and basic component of social behavior that is used to discriminate familiar and novel animals/humans. Previous studies have shown the importance of several brain regions for social recognition memories; however, the mechanisms underlying the consolidation of social recognition memory at the molecular and anatomic levels remain unknown. Here, we show a brain network necessary for the generation of social recognition memory in mice. A mouse genetic study showed that cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB)-mediated transcription is required for the formation of social recognition memory. Importantly, significant inductions of the CREB target immediate-early genes c-fos and Arc were observed in the hippocampus (CA1 and CA3 regions), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and amygdala (basolateral region) when social recognition memory was generated. Pharmacological experiments using a microinfusion of the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin showed that protein synthesis in these brain regions is required for the consolidation of social recognition memory. These findings suggested that social recognition memory is consolidated through the activation of CREB-mediated gene expression in the hippocampus/mPFC/ACC/amygdala. Network analyses suggested that these four brain regions show functional connectivity with other brain regions and, more importantly, that the hippocampus functions as a hub to integrate brain networks and generate social recognition memory, whereas the ACC and amygdala are important for coordinating brain activity when social interaction is initiated by connecting with other brain regions. We have found that a brain network composed of the hippocampus/mPFC/ACC/amygdala is required for the consolidation of social recognition memory. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Here, we identify brain networks composed of multiple brain regions for the consolidation of social recognition memory. We

  17. Implications of Subcortical structures in Aphasia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Alamri

    2015-04-01

    Taken together, the results indicate that aphasia is a common outcome after a lesion to subcortical structures. Findings show that 110 out of 394 aphasic patients with lesion in the basal ganglia exhibited comprehension deficits, while 31 participants out of 288 with thalamic aphasia. Likewise, 129 aphasics of affected basal ganglia out of 394 had impaired naming, whereas 12 participants had impaired naming out of 288 individuals with thalamic aphasia. See figure 1. Figure 1: The percentage of language impairment in two sets of aphasic patients (the thalamus and the basal ganglia. Despite contradictory results and even cases of double dissociation (for an example of absence of language deficits in the event of thalamic lesions see Cappa et al., 1986, our literature review confirms the major role of subcortical structures in language processing.

  18. Data mining a functional neuroimaging database for functional segregation in brain regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup; Balslev, Daniela; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2006-01-01

    We describe a specialized neuroinformatic data mining technique in connection with a meta-analytic functional neuroimaging database: We mine for functional segregation within brain regions by identifying journal articles that report brain activations within the regions and clustering the abstract...

  19. Carnosine reverses the aging-induced down regulation of brain regional serotonergic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Soumyabrata; Ghosh, Tushar K; Poddar, Mrinal K

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to study the role of carnosine, an endogenous dipeptide biomolecule, on brain regional (cerebral cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus and pons-medulla) serotonergic system during aging. Results showed an aging-induced brain region specific significant (a) increase in Trp (except cerebral cortex) and their 5-HIAA steady state level with an increase in their 5-HIAA accumulation and declination, (b) decrease in their both 5-HT steady state level and 5-HT accumulation (except cerebral cortex). A significant decrease in brain regional 5-HT/Trp ratio (except cerebral cortex) and increase in 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio were also observed during aging. Carnosine at lower dosages (0.5-1.0μg/Kg/day, i.t. for 21 consecutive days) didn't produce any significant response in any of the brain regions, but higher dosages (2.0-2.5μg/Kg/day, i.t. for 21 consecutive days) showed a significant response on those aging-induced brain regional serotonergic parameters. The treatment with carnosine (2.0μg/Kg/day, i.t. for 21 consecutive days), attenuated these brain regional aging-induced serotonergic parameters and restored towards their basal levels that observed in 4 months young control rats. These results suggest that carnosine attenuates and restores the aging-induced brain regional down regulation of serotonergic system towards that observed in young rats' brain regions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Data mining a functional neuroimaging database for functional|segregation in brain regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup

    2006-01-01

    We describe a specialized neuroinformatic data mining technique in connection with a meta-analytic functional neuroimaging database: We mine for functional segregation within brain regions by identifying journal articles that report brain activations within the regions and clustering the abstract...

  1. Changes of brain metabolite concentrations during maturation in different brain regions measured by chemical shift imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bültmann, Eva; Nägele, Thomas; Lanfermann, Heinrich; Klose, Uwe

    2017-01-01

    We examined the effect of maturation on the regional distribution of brain metabolite concentrations using multivoxel chemical shift imaging. From our pool of pediatric MRI examinations, we retrospectively selected patients showing a normal cerebral MRI scan or no pathologic signal abnormalities at the level of the two-dimensional 1H MRS-CSI sequence and an age-appropriate global neurological development, except for focal neurological deficits. Seventy-one patients (4.5 months-20 years) were identified. Using LC Model, spectra were evaluated from voxels in the white matter, caudate head, and corpus callosum. The concentration of total N-acetylaspartate increased in all regions during infancy and childhood except in the right caudate head where it remained constant. The concentration of total creatine decreased in the caudate nucleus and splenium and minimally in the frontal white matter and genu. It remained largely constant in the parietal white matter. The concentration of choline-containing compounds had the tendency to decrease in all regions except in the parietal white matter where it remained constant. The concentration of myoinositol decreased slightly in the splenium and right frontal white matter, remained constant on the left side and in the caudate nucleus, and rose slightly in the parietal white matter and genu. CSI determined metabolite concentrations in multiple cerebral regions during routine MRI. The obtained data will be helpful in future pediatric CSI measurements deciding whether the ratios of the main metabolites are within the range of normal values or have to be considered as probably pathologic.

  2. Changes of brain metabolite concentrations during maturation in different brain regions measured by chemical shift imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueltmann, Eva; Lanfermann, Heinrich; Naegele, Thomas; Klose, Uwe

    2017-01-01

    We examined the effect of maturation on the regional distribution of brain metabolite concentrations using multivoxel chemical shift imaging. From our pool of pediatric MRI examinations, we retrospectively selected patients showing a normal cerebral MRI scan or no pathologic signal abnormalities at the level of the two-dimensional 1H MRS-CSI sequence and an age-appropriate global neurological development, except for focal neurological deficits. Seventy-one patients (4.5 months-20 years) were identified. Using LC Model, spectra were evaluated from voxels in the white matter, caudate head, and corpus callosum. The concentration of total N-acetylaspartate increased in all regions during infancy and childhood except in the right caudate head where it remained constant. The concentration of total creatine decreased in the caudate nucleus and splenium and minimally in the frontal white matter and genu. It remained largely constant in the parietal white matter. The concentration of choline-containing compounds had the tendency to decrease in all regions except in the parietal white matter where it remained constant. The concentration of myoinositol decreased slightly in the splenium and right frontal white matter, remained constant on the left side and in the caudate nucleus, and rose slightly in the parietal white matter and genu. CSI determined metabolite concentrations in multiple cerebral regions during routine MRI. The obtained data will be helpful in future pediatric CSI measurements deciding whether the ratios of the main metabolites are within the range of normal values or have to be considered as probably pathologic. (orig.)

  3. Changes of brain metabolite concentrations during maturation in different brain regions measured by chemical shift imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bueltmann, Eva; Lanfermann, Heinrich [Hannover Medical School, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Hannover (Germany); Naegele, Thomas [University of Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Radiological University Hospital, Tuebingen (Germany); Klose, Uwe [University of Tuebingen, Section of Experimental MR of the CNS, Department of Neuroradiology, Radiological University Hospital, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2017-01-15

    We examined the effect of maturation on the regional distribution of brain metabolite concentrations using multivoxel chemical shift imaging. From our pool of pediatric MRI examinations, we retrospectively selected patients showing a normal cerebral MRI scan or no pathologic signal abnormalities at the level of the two-dimensional 1H MRS-CSI sequence and an age-appropriate global neurological development, except for focal neurological deficits. Seventy-one patients (4.5 months-20 years) were identified. Using LC Model, spectra were evaluated from voxels in the white matter, caudate head, and corpus callosum. The concentration of total N-acetylaspartate increased in all regions during infancy and childhood except in the right caudate head where it remained constant. The concentration of total creatine decreased in the caudate nucleus and splenium and minimally in the frontal white matter and genu. It remained largely constant in the parietal white matter. The concentration of choline-containing compounds had the tendency to decrease in all regions except in the parietal white matter where it remained constant. The concentration of myoinositol decreased slightly in the splenium and right frontal white matter, remained constant on the left side and in the caudate nucleus, and rose slightly in the parietal white matter and genu. CSI determined metabolite concentrations in multiple cerebral regions during routine MRI. The obtained data will be helpful in future pediatric CSI measurements deciding whether the ratios of the main metabolites are within the range of normal values or have to be considered as probably pathologic. (orig.)

  4. Brain regions involved in observing and trying to interpret dog behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmet, Charlotte; van der Wiel, Alko; Brass, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    Humans and dogs have interacted for millennia. As a result, humans (and especially dog owners) sometimes try to interpret dog behaviour. While there is extensive research on the brain regions that are involved in mentalizing about other peoples' behaviour, surprisingly little is known of whether we use these same brain regions to mentalize about animal behaviour. In this fMRI study we investigate whether brain regions involved in mentalizing about human behaviour are also engaged when observing dog behaviour. Here we show that these brain regions are more engaged when observing dog behaviour that is difficult to interpret compared to dog behaviour that is easy to interpret. Interestingly, these results were not only obtained when participants were instructed to infer reasons for the behaviour but also when they passively viewed the behaviour, indicating that these brain regions are activated by spontaneous mentalizing processes.

  5. Subcortical pathways: Towards a better understanding of auditory disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Richard A; Gourévitch, Boris; Portfors, Christine V

    2018-05-01

    Hearing loss is a significant problem that affects at least 15% of the population. This percentage, however, is likely significantly higher because of a variety of auditory disorders that are not identifiable through traditional tests of peripheral hearing ability. In these disorders, individuals have difficulty understanding speech, particularly in noisy environments, even though the sounds are loud enough to hear. The underlying mechanisms leading to such deficits are not well understood. To enable the development of suitable treatments to alleviate or prevent such disorders, the affected processing pathways must be identified. Historically, mechanisms underlying speech processing have been thought to be a property of the auditory cortex and thus the study of auditory disorders has largely focused on cortical impairments and/or cognitive processes. As we review here, however, there is strong evidence to suggest that, in fact, deficits in subcortical pathways play a significant role in auditory disorders. In this review, we highlight the role of the auditory brainstem and midbrain in processing complex sounds and discuss how deficits in these regions may contribute to auditory dysfunction. We discuss current research with animal models of human hearing and then consider human studies that implicate impairments in subcortical processing that may contribute to auditory disorders. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Pathways linking regional hyperintensities in the brain and slower gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolandzadeh, Niousha; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa; Aizenstein, Howard; Harris, Tamara; Launer, Lenore; Yaffe, Kristine; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Newman, Anne; Rosano, Caterina

    2014-10-01

    Cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) are involved in the evolution of impaired mobility and executive functions. Executive functions and mobility are also associated. Thus, WMHs may impair mobility directly, by disrupting mobility-related circuits, or indirectly, by disrupting circuits responsible for executive functions. Understanding the mechanisms underlying impaired mobility in late life will increase our capacity to develop effective interventions. To identify regional WMHs most related to slower gait and to examine whether these regional WMHs directly impact mobility, or indirectly by executive functions. Cross-sectional study. Twenty-one WMH variables (i.e., total WMH volume and WMHs in 20 tracts), gait speed, global cognition (Modified Mini-Mental State Examination; 3MS), and executive functions and processing speed (Digit-Symbol Substitution Test; DSST) were assessed. An L1-L2 regularized regression (i.e., Elastic Net model) identified the WMH variables most related to slower gait. Multivariable linear regression models quantified the association between these WMH variables and gait speed. Formal tests of mediation were also conducted. Community-based sample. Two hundred fifty-three adults (mean age: 83years, 58% women, 41% black). Gait speed. In older adults with an average gait speed of 0.91m/sec, total WMH volume, WMHs located in the right anterior thalamic radiation (ATRR) and frontal corpuscallosum (CCF) were most associated with slower gait. There was a >10% slower gait for each standard deviation of WMH in CCF, ATRR or total brain (standardized beta in m/sec [p value]: -0.11 [p=0.046], -0.15 [p=0.007] and -0.14 [p=0.010], respectively). These associations were substantially and significantly attenuated after adjustment for DSST. This effect was stronger for WMH in CCF than for ATRR or total WMH (standardized beta in m/sec [p value]: -0.07 [p=0.190], -0.12 [p=0.024] and -0.10 [p=0.049], respectively). Adjustment for 3MS did not change these

  7. Examining the subcortical infarcts in the era of acute multimodality CT imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindy Tan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lacunar infarcts have been characterized as small subcortical infarcts, resulting from in situ microatheroma or lipohyalinosis in small vessels. Based on this hypothesis, such infarcts should not be associated with large areas of perfusion deficits extending beyond subcortical regions to involve cortical regions. By contrast, selected small subcortical infarcts, as defined by MR imaging in the subacute or chronic stage, may initially have large perfusion deficits or related large vessel occlusions. These infarcts with ‘lacunar’ phenotype may also be caused by disease in the parent vessel and may have very different stroke mechanisms from small vessel disease. Our aim was to describe differences in imaging characteristics between patients with small subcortical infarction with ‘lacunar phenotype’ from those with lacunar mechanism. Methods: Patients undergoing acute CT Perfusion/angiography (CTP/CTA within 6 hours of symptom onset and follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI for ischaemic stroke were included (2009-2013. A lacunar infarct was defined as a single subcortical infarct (SSI ≤20 mm on follow-up MRI. Presence of perfusion deficits, vessel occlusion and infarct dimensions were compared between lacunar infarcts and other topographical infarct types. Results: Overall, 182 patients (mean age 66.4±15.3 years, 66% male were included. SSI occurred in 31 (17% patients. Of these, 12 (39% patients had a perfusion deficit compared with those with any cortical infarction (120/142, 67%, and the smallest SSI with a perfusion deficit had a diameter of <5mm. The majority of patients with SSI (8/12, 66.7% had a relevant vessel occlusion. A quarter of SSIs had a large-artery stroke mechanism evident on acute CTP/CTA. Lacunar mechanism was present in 3/8 patients with corona radiata, 5/10 lentiform nucleus, 5/6 posterior limb of internal capsule PLIC, 3/5 thalamic infarcts and 1/2 miscellaneous locations. There was a trend toward

  8. Regional infant brain development: an MRI-based morphometric analysis in 3 to 13 month olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Myong-Sun; Ortiz-Mantilla, Silvia; Makris, Nikos; Gregas, Matt; Bacic, Janine; Haehn, Daniel; Kennedy, David; Pienaar, Rudolph; Caviness, Verne S; Benasich, April A; Grant, P Ellen

    2013-09-01

    Elucidation of infant brain development is a critically important goal given the enduring impact of these early processes on various domains including later cognition and language. Although infants' whole-brain growth rates have long been available, regional growth rates have not been reported systematically. Accordingly, relatively less is known about the dynamics and organization of typically developing infant brains. Here we report global and regional volumetric growth of cerebrum, cerebellum, and brainstem with gender dimorphism, in 33 cross-sectional scans, over 3 to 13 months, using T1-weighted 3-dimensional spoiled gradient echo images and detailed semi-automated brain segmentation. Except for the midbrain and lateral ventricles, all absolute volumes of brain regions showed significant growth, with 6 different patterns of volumetric change. When normalized to the whole brain, the regional increase was characterized by 5 differential patterns. The putamen, cerebellar hemispheres, and total cerebellum were the only regions that showed positive growth in the normalized brain. Our results show region-specific patterns of volumetric change and contribute to the systematic understanding of infant brain development. This study greatly expands our knowledge of normal development and in future may provide a basis for identifying early deviation above and beyond normative variation that might signal higher risk for neurological disorders.

  9. Subcortical hyperintensity volumetrics in Alzheimer’s disease and normal elderly in the Sunnybrook Dementia Study: correlations with atrophy, executive function, mental processing speed, and verbal memory

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez, Joel; McNeely, Alicia A; Scott, Christopher JM; Stuss, Donald T; Black, Sandra E

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Subcortical hyperintensities (SHs) are radiological entities commonly observed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and normal elderly controls. Although the presence of SH is believed to indicate some form of subcortical vasculopathy, pathological heterogeneity, methodological differences, and the contribution of brain atrophy associated with AD pathology have yielded inconsistent results in the literature. Methods Using the Lesion Explor...

  10. Major Shifts in Glial Regional Identity Are a Transcriptional Hallmark of Human Brain Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Soreq, Lilach; Rose, Jamie; Soreq, Eyal; Hardy, John; Trabzuni, Daniah; Cookson, Mark R.; Smith, Colin; Ryten, Mina; Patani, Rickie; Ule, Jernej

    2017-01-01

    Summary Gene expression studies suggest that aging of the human brain is determined by a complex interplay of molecular events, although both its region- and cell-type-specific consequences remain poorly understood. Here, we extensively characterized aging-altered gene expression changes across ten human brain regions from 480 individuals ranging in?age from 16 to 106 years. We show that astrocyte-?and oligodendrocyte-specific genes, but not neuron-specific genes, shift their regional express...

  11. Somatic DNA recombination yielding circular DNA and deletion of a genomic region in embryonic brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Toyoki; Chijiiwa, Yoshiharu; Tsuji, Hideo; Sakoda, Saburo; Tani, Kenzaburo; Suzuki, Tomokazu

    2004-01-01

    In this study, a mouse genomic region is identified that undergoes DNA rearrangement and yields circular DNA in brain during embryogenesis. External region-directed inverse polymerase chain reaction on circular DNA extracted from late embryonic brain tissue repeatedly detected DNA of this region containing recombination joints. Wide-range genomic PCR and digestion-circularization PCR analysis showed this region underwent recombination accompanied with deletion of intervening sequences, including the circularized regions. This region was mapped by fluorescence in situ hybridization to C1 on mouse chromosome 16, where no gene and no physiological DNA rearrangement had been identified. DNA sequence in the region has segmental homology to an orthologous region on human chromosome 3q.13. These observations demonstrated somatic DNA recombination yielding genomic deletions in brain during embryogenesis

  12. Automatic detection of the hippocampal region associated with Alzheimer's disease from microscopic images of mice brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albaidhani, Tahseen; Hawkes, Cheryl; Jassim, Sabah; Al-Assam, Hisham

    2016-05-01

    The hippocampus is the region of the brain that is primarily associated with memory and spatial navigation. It is one of the first brain regions to be damaged when a person suffers from Alzheimer's disease. Recent research in this field has focussed on the assessment of damage to different blood vessels within the hippocampal region from a high throughput brain microscopic images. The ultimate aim of our research is the creation of an automatic system to count and classify different blood vessels such as capillaries, veins, and arteries in the hippocampus region. This work should provide biologists with efficient and accurate tools in their investigation of the causes of Alzheimer's disease. Locating the boundary of the Region of Interest in the hippocampus from microscopic images of mice brain is the first essential stage towards developing such a system. This task benefits from the variation in colour channels and texture between the two sides of the hippocampus and the boundary region. Accordingly, the developed initial step of our research to locating the hippocampus edge uses a colour-based segmentation of the brain image followed by Hough transforms on the colour channel that isolate the hippocampus region. The output is then used to split the brain image into two sides of the detected section of the boundary: the inside region and the outside region. Experimental results on a sufficiently number of microscopic images demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed solution.

  13. A Novel Missense Mutation of Doublecortin: Mutation Analysis of Korean Patients with Subcortical Band Heterotopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myeong-Kyu; Park, Man-Seok; Kim, Byeong-Chae; Cho, Ki-Hyun; Kim, Young-Seon; Kim, Jin-Hee; Heo, Tag; Kim, Eun-Young

    2005-01-01

    The neuronal migration disorders, X-linked lissencephaly syndrome (XLIS) and subcortical band heterotopia (SBH), also called "double cortex", have been linked to missense, nonsense, aberrant splicing, deletion, and insertion mutations in doublecortin (DCX) in families and sporadic cases. Most DCX mutations identified to date are located in two evolutionarily conserved domains. We performed mutation analysis of DCX in two Korean patients with SBH. The SBH patients had mild to moderate developmental delays, drug-resistant generalized seizures, and diffuse thick SBH upon brain MRI. Sequence analysis of the DCX coding region in Patient 1 revealed a c.386 C>T change in exon 3. The sequence variation results in a serine to leucine amino acid change at position 129 (S129L), which has not been found in other family members of Patient 1 or in a large panel of 120 control X-chromosomes. We report here a novel c.386 C>T mutation of DCX that is responsible for SBH. PMID:16100463

  14. Training conquers multitasking costs by dividing task representations in the frontoparietal-subcortical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, K G; Dux, Paul E

    2015-11-17

    Negotiating the information-rich sensory world often requires the concurrent management of multiple tasks. Despite this requirement, humans are thought to be poor at multitasking because of the processing limitations of frontoparietal and subcortical (FP-SC) brain regions. Although training is known to improve multitasking performance, it is unknown how the FP-SC system functionally changes to support improved multitasking. To address this question, we characterized the FP-SC changes that predict training outcomes using an individual differences approach. Participants (n = 100) performed single and multiple tasks in pre- and posttraining magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) sessions interspersed by either a multitasking or an active-control training regimen. Multivoxel pattern analyses (MVPA) revealed that training induced multitasking improvements were predicted by divergence in the FP-SC blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response patterns to the trained tasks. Importantly, this finding was only observed for participants who completed training on the component (single) tasks and their combination (multitask) and not for the control group. Therefore, the FP-SC system supports multitasking behavior by segregating constituent task representations.

  15. Brain region specific mitophagy capacity could contribute to selective neuronal vulnerability in Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zabel Claus

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Parkinson's disease (PD is histologically well defined by its characteristic degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Remarkably, divergent PD-related mutations can generate comparable brain region specific pathologies. This indicates that some intrinsic region-specificity respecting differential neuron vulnerability exists, which codetermines the disease progression. To gain insight into the pathomechanism of PD, we investigated protein expression and protein oxidation patterns of three different brain regions in a PD mouse model, the PINK1 knockout mice (PINK1-KO, in comparison to wild type control mice. The dysfunction of PINK1 presumably affects mitochondrial turnover by disturbing mitochondrial autophagic pathways. The three brain regions investigated are the midbrain, which is the location of substantia nigra; striatum, the major efferent region of substantia nigra; and cerebral cortex, which is more distal to PD pathology. In all three regions, mitochondrial proteins responsible for energy metabolism and membrane potential were significantly altered in the PINK1-KO mice, but with very different region specific accents in terms of up/down-regulations. This suggests that disturbed mitophagy presumably induced by PINK1 knockout has heterogeneous impacts on different brain regions. Specifically, the midbrain tissue seems to be most severely hit by defective mitochondrial turnover, whereas cortex and striatum could compensate for mitophagy nonfunction by feedback stimulation of other catabolic programs. In addition, cerebral cortex tissues showed the mildest level of protein oxidation in both PINK1-KO and wild type mice, indicating either a better oxidative protection or less reactive oxygen species (ROS pressure in this brain region. Ultra-structural histological examination in normal mouse brain revealed higher incidences of mitophagy vacuoles in cerebral cortex than in striatum and substantia

  16. Quantitative expression profile of distinct functional regions in the adult mouse brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeya Kasukawa

    Full Text Available The adult mammalian brain is composed of distinct regions with specialized roles including regulation of circadian clocks, feeding, sleep/awake, and seasonal rhythms. To find quantitative differences of expression among such various brain regions, we conducted the BrainStars (B* project, in which we profiled the genome-wide expression of ∼50 small brain regions, including sensory centers, and centers for motion, time, memory, fear, and feeding. To avoid confounds from temporal differences in gene expression, we sampled each region every 4 hours for 24 hours, and pooled the samples for DNA-microarray assays. Therefore, we focused on spatial differences in gene expression. We used informatics to identify candidate genes with expression changes showing high or low expression in specific regions. We also identified candidate genes with stable expression across brain regions that can be used as new internal control genes, and ligand-receptor interactions of neurohormones and neurotransmitters. Through these analyses, we found 8,159 multi-state genes, 2,212 regional marker gene candidates for 44 small brain regions, 915 internal control gene candidates, and 23,864 inferred ligand-receptor interactions. We also found that these sets include well-known genes as well as novel candidate genes that might be related to specific functions in brain regions. We used our findings to develop an integrated database (http://brainstars.org/ for exploring genome-wide expression in the adult mouse brain, and have made this database openly accessible. These new resources will help accelerate the functional analysis of the mammalian brain and the elucidation of its regulatory network systems.

  17. HTLV-I carrier with unusual brain MR imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yata, Shinsaku; Ogawa, Toshihide; Sugihara, Shuji; Matsusue, Eiji; Fujii, Shinya; Kinoshita, Toshibumi [Tottori University, Department of Pathophysiological and Therapeutic Science, Yonago (Japan); Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, Yonago (Japan)

    2004-09-01

    We describe unusual brain MR imaging findings in a patient who is an HTLV-I carrier without myelopathy. T2-weighted MR images showed hyperintense signal abnormalities in the pyramidal tract, superior and middle cerebellar peduncles, and decussation of the superior cerebellar peduncles, in addition to subcortical white matter involvement. Diffusion-weighted images also showed hyperintense signal abnormalities in the same regions by T2 shine-through effect. (orig.)

  18. Multiple determinants of whole and regional brain volume among terrestrial carnivorans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli M Swanson

    Full Text Available Mammalian brain volumes vary considerably, even after controlling for body size. Although several hypotheses have been proposed to explain this variation, most research in mammals on the evolution of encephalization has focused on primates, leaving the generality of these explanations uncertain. Furthermore, much research still addresses only one hypothesis at a time, despite the demonstrated importance of considering multiple factors simultaneously. We used phylogenetic comparative methods to investigate simultaneously the importance of several factors previously hypothesized to be important in neural evolution among mammalian carnivores, including social complexity, forelimb use, home range size, diet, life history, phylogeny, and recent evolutionary changes in body size. We also tested hypotheses suggesting roles for these variables in determining the relative volume of four brain regions measured using computed tomography. Our data suggest that, in contrast to brain size in primates, carnivoran brain size may lag behind body size over evolutionary time. Moreover, carnivore species that primarily consume vertebrates have the largest brains. Although we found no support for a role of social complexity in overall encephalization, relative cerebrum volume correlated positively with sociality. Finally, our results support negative relationships among different brain regions after accounting for overall endocranial volume, suggesting that increased size of one brain regions is often accompanied by reduced size in other regions rather than overall brain expansion.

  19. Regional volumes and spatial volumetric distribution of gray matter in the gender dysphoric brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekzema, E.; Schagen, S.E.E.; Kreukels, B.P.C.; Veltman, D.J.; Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.; Delemarre-van d Waal, H.A.; Bakkera, J.

    2015-01-01

    The sexual differentiation of the brain is primarily driven by gonadal hormones during fetal development. Leading theories on the etiology of gender dysphoria (GD) involve deviations herein. To examine whether there are signs of a sex-atypical brain development in GD, we quantified regional neural

  20. Regional volumes and spatial volumetric distribution of gray matter in the gender dysphoric brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekzema, Elseline; Schagen, Sebastian E E; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; Veltman, Dick J; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Delemarre-van de Waal, Henriette; Bakker, J.

    The sexual differentiation of the brain is primarily driven by gonadal hormones during fetal development. Leading theories on the etiology of gender dysphoria (GD) involve deviations herein. To examine whether there are signs of a sex-atypical brain development in GD, we quantified regional neural

  1. Double Cortex Syndrome (Subcortical Band Heterotopia): A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momen, Ali Akbar; Momen, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Objective Approximately 5-10% of preschool age children are considered developmentally disabled. Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) plays a key role in the diagnostic evaluation in these children. Many congenital or acquired brain anomalies are revealed with MRIs. Although the majority of these abnormalities are sporadic but patients with subcortical band heterotopia or double cortex syndrome have sex-linked inheritance. We are going to present the first case in Iran from Ahvaz city, which was presented with status epilepticus associated with developmental delay and finally diagnosed as double cortex syndrome, because band heterotopia cases especially for continuous or generalized form is rare. A 4.5-year-old developmentally delayed girl was admitted for generalized tonic clonic seizure attack of 1 hr, upward gaze, locked mouth, and urinary incontinence (status epilepticus) in the child neurology ward. She had a history of recurrent seizures that started as febrile seizures since she was 12 months of age and had frequent admissions for having recurrent seizure attacks. She was the only child of consanguineous parents with negative family history of any neurologic problems. She was a product of uneventful term pregnancy, vaginal delivery with a low Apgar score at birth who was admitted for six days in the neonatal ward for hypotonia and cyanosis. At 4.5 years of age, she had HC: 45cm (spike-wave discharges. A brain MRI showed corpus callosal dysplasia, generalized band heterotopia, and polymicrogyria. She was discharged home with oral valproate and regular outpatient follow-ups. In the diagnostic evaluation of developmentally delayed and epileptic children, a brain MRI is strongly recommended for accurate diagnosis of anomalies such as neuronal migration disorders (band heterotopia) and others, because appropriate therapeutic management, prognosis, prevention, and genetic counseling for prenatal diagnosis are dependent on definite diagnosis of the proband case.

  2. Regional differences in gene expression and promoter usage in aged human brains

    KAUST Repository

    Pardo, Luba M.; Rizzu, Patrizia; Francescatto, Margherita; Vitezic, Morana; Leday, Gwenaë l G.R.; Sanchez, Javier Simon; Khamis, Abdullah M.; Takahashi, Hazuki; van de Berg, Wilma D.J.; Medvedeva, Yulia A.; van de Wiel, Mark A.; Daub, Carsten O.; Carninci, Piero; Heutink, Peter

    2013-01-01

    To characterize the promoterome of caudate and putamen regions (striatum), frontal and temporal cortices, and hippocampi from aged human brains, we used high-throughput cap analysis of gene expression to profile the transcription start sites

  3. Exosomal biomarkers of brain insulin resistance associated with regional atrophy in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Roger J; Mustapic, Maja; Goetzl, Edward J; Kapogiannis, Dimitrios

    2017-04-01

    Brain insulin resistance (IR), which depends on insulin-receptor-substrate-1 (IRS-1) phosphorylation, is characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previously, we demonstrated higher pSer312-IRS-1 (ineffective insulin signaling) and lower p-panTyr-IRS-1 (effective insulin signaling) in neural origin-enriched plasma exosomes of AD patients vs. Here, we hypothesized that these exosomal biomarkers associate with brain atrophy in AD. We studied 24 subjects with biomarker-supported probable AD (low CSF Aβ 42 ). Exosomes were isolated from plasma, enriched for neural origin using immunoprecipitation for L1CAM, and measured for pSer 312 - and p-panTyr-IRS-1 phosphotypes. MPRAGE images were segmented by brain tissue type and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis for gray matter against pSer 312 - and p-panTyr-IRS-1 was conducted. Given the regionally variable brain expression of IRS-1, we used the Allen Brain Atlas to make spatial comparisons between VBM results and IRS-1 expression. Brain volume was positively associated with P-panTyr-IRS-1 and negatively associated with pSer 312 -IRS-1 in a strikingly similar regional pattern (bilateral parietal-occipital junction, R middle temporal gyrus). This volumetric association pattern was spatially correlated with Allen Human Brain atlas normal brain IRS-1 expression. Exosomal biomarkers of brain IR are thus associated with atrophy in AD as could be expected by their pathophysiological roles and do so in a pattern that reflects regional IRS-1 expression. Furthermore, neural-origin plasma exosomes may recover molecular signals from specific brain regions. Hum Brain Mapp 38:1933-1940, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Developmental Changes in Brain Network Hub Connectivity in Late Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Simon T E; Lubman, Dan I; Yücel, Murat; Allen, Nicholas B; Whittle, Sarah; Fulcher, Ben D; Zalesky, Andrew; Fornito, Alex

    2015-06-17

    The human brain undergoes substantial development throughout adolescence and into early adulthood. This maturational process is thought to include the refinement of connectivity between putative connectivity hub regions of the brain, which collectively form a dense core that enhances the functional integration of anatomically distributed, and functionally specialized, neural systems. Here, we used longitudinal diffusion magnetic resonance imaging to characterize changes in connectivity between 80 cortical and subcortical anatomical regions over a 2 year period in 31 adolescents between the ages of 15 and 19 years. Connectome-wide analysis indicated that only a small subset of connections showed evidence of statistically significant developmental change over the study period, with 8% and 6% of connections demonstrating decreased and increased structural connectivity, respectively. Nonetheless, these connections linked 93% and 90% of the 80 regions, respectively, pointing to a selective, yet anatomically distributed pattern of developmental changes that involves most of the brain. Hub regions showed a distinct tendency to be highly connected to each other, indicating robust "rich-club" organization. Moreover, connectivity between hubs was disproportionately influenced by development, such that connectivity between subcortical hubs decreased over time, whereas frontal-subcortical and frontal-parietal hub-hub connectivity increased over time. These findings suggest that late adolescence is characterized by selective, yet significant remodeling of hub-hub connectivity, with the topological organization of hubs shifting emphasis from subcortical hubs in favor of an increasingly prominent role for frontal hub regions. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/359078-10$15.00/0.

  5. The rehabilitation of attention in patients with mild cognitive impairment and brain subcortical vascular changes using the Attention Process Training-II. The RehAtt Study: rationale, design and methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvadori, Emilia; Poggesi, Anna; Valenti, Raffaella; Della Rocca, Eleonora; Diciotti, Stefano; Mascalchi, Mario; Inzitari, Domenico; Pantoni, Leonardo

    2016-10-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) may cause attentional and executive cognitive deficits. No drug is currently available to improve cognitive performance or to prevent dementia in SVD patients, and cognitive rehabilitation could be a promising approach. We aimed to investigate: (1) the effectiveness of the Attention Process Training-II program in the rehabilitation of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and SVD; (2) the impact of the induced cognitive improvement on functionality and quality of life; (3) the effect of training on brain activity at rest and the possibility of a training-induced plasticity effect. The RehAtt study is designed as a 3-year prospective, single-blinded, randomized clinical trial. Inclusion criteria were: (1) MCI defined according to Winblad et al. criteria; (2) evidence of impairment across attention neuropsychological tests; (3) evidence on MRI of moderate/severe white matter hyperintensities. All enrolled patients are evaluated at baseline, and after 6 and 12 months, according to an extensive clinical, functional, MRI and neuropsychological protocol. The baseline RehAtt cohort includes 44 patients (66 % males, mean ± SD age and years of education 75.3 ± 6.8 and 8.3 ± 4.3, respectively). After baseline assessment, patients have been randomly assigned to 'attention training' or 'standard care'. Treatments and follow-up visits at 6 months are completed, while follow-up visits at 12 months are ongoing. This study is the first attempt to reduce attention deficits in patients affected by MCI with SVD. The results of this pilot experience will represent an essential background for designing larger multicenter, prospective, double-blinded, randomized and controlled clinical trials. NCT02033850 (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier).

  6. Regional brain distribution of toluene in rats and in a human autopsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ameno, Kiyoshi; Kiriu, Takahiro; Fuke, Chiaki; Ameno, Setsuko; Shinohara, Toyohiko; Ijiri, Iwao (Kagawa Medical School (Japan). Dept. of Forensic Medicine)

    1992-02-01

    Toluene concentrations in 9 brain regions of acutely exposed rats and that in 11 brain regions of a human case who inhaled toluene prior to death are described. After exposure to toluene by inhalation (2000 or 10 000 ppm) for 0.5 h or by oral dosing (400 mg/kg.), rats were killed by decapitation 0.5 and 4 h after onset of inhalation and 2 and 10 h after oral ingestion. After each experimental condition the highest range of brain region/blood toluene concentration ratio (BBCR) was in the brain stem regions (2.85-3.22) such as the pons and medulla oblongata, the middle range (1.77-2.12) in the midbrain, thalamus, caudate-putamen, hypothalamus and cerebellum, and the lowest range (1.22-1.64) in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. These distribution patterns were quite constant. Toluene concentration in various brain regions were unevenly distributed and directly related blood levels. In a human case who had inhaled toluene vapor, the distribution among brain regions was relatively similar to that in rats, the highest concentration ratios being in the corpus callosum (BBCR:2.66) and the lowest in the hippocampus (BBCR:1.47). (orig.).

  7. Obligatory and facultative brain regions for voice-identity recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roswandowitz, Claudia; Kappes, Claudia; Obrig, Hellmuth; von Kriegstein, Katharina

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Recognizing the identity of others by their voice is an important skill for social interactions. To date, it remains controversial which parts of the brain are critical structures for this skill. Based on neuroimaging findings, standard models of person-identity recognition suggest that the right temporal lobe is the hub for voice-identity recognition. Neuropsychological case studies, however, reported selective deficits of voice-identity recognition in patients predominantly with right inferior parietal lobe lesions. Here, our aim was to work towards resolving the discrepancy between neuroimaging studies and neuropsychological case studies to find out which brain structures are critical for voice-identity recognition in humans. We performed a voxel-based lesion-behaviour mapping study in a cohort of patients (n = 58) with unilateral focal brain lesions. The study included a comprehensive behavioural test battery on voice-identity recognition of newly learned (voice-name, voice-face association learning) and familiar voices (famous voice recognition) as well as visual (face-identity recognition) and acoustic control tests (vocal-pitch and vocal-timbre discrimination). The study also comprised clinically established tests (neuropsychological assessment, audiometry) and high-resolution structural brain images. The three key findings were: (i) a strong association between voice-identity recognition performance and right posterior/mid temporal and right inferior parietal lobe lesions; (ii) a selective association between right posterior/mid temporal lobe lesions and voice-identity recognition performance when face-identity recognition performance was factored out; and (iii) an association of right inferior parietal lobe lesions with tasks requiring the association between voices and faces but not voices and names. The results imply that the right posterior/mid temporal lobe is an obligatory structure for voice-identity recognition, while the inferior parietal

  8. Obligatory and facultative brain regions for voice-identity recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roswandowitz, Claudia; Kappes, Claudia; Obrig, Hellmuth; von Kriegstein, Katharina

    2018-01-01

    Recognizing the identity of others by their voice is an important skill for social interactions. To date, it remains controversial which parts of the brain are critical structures for this skill. Based on neuroimaging findings, standard models of person-identity recognition suggest that the right temporal lobe is the hub for voice-identity recognition. Neuropsychological case studies, however, reported selective deficits of voice-identity recognition in patients predominantly with right inferior parietal lobe lesions. Here, our aim was to work towards resolving the discrepancy between neuroimaging studies and neuropsychological case studies to find out which brain structures are critical for voice-identity recognition in humans. We performed a voxel-based lesion-behaviour mapping study in a cohort of patients (n = 58) with unilateral focal brain lesions. The study included a comprehensive behavioural test battery on voice-identity recognition of newly learned (voice-name, voice-face association learning) and familiar voices (famous voice recognition) as well as visual (face-identity recognition) and acoustic control tests (vocal-pitch and vocal-timbre discrimination). The study also comprised clinically established tests (neuropsychological assessment, audiometry) and high-resolution structural brain images. The three key findings were: (i) a strong association between voice-identity recognition performance and right posterior/mid temporal and right inferior parietal lobe lesions; (ii) a selective association between right posterior/mid temporal lobe lesions and voice-identity recognition performance when face-identity recognition performance was factored out; and (iii) an association of right inferior parietal lobe lesions with tasks requiring the association between voices and faces but not voices and names. The results imply that the right posterior/mid temporal lobe is an obligatory structure for voice-identity recognition, while the inferior parietal lobe is

  9. Carnosine: effect on aging-induced increase in brain regional monoamine oxidase-A activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Soumyabrata; Poddar, Mrinal K

    2015-03-01

    Aging is a natural biological process associated with several neurological disorders along with the biochemical changes in brain. Aim of the present investigation is to study the effect of carnosine (0.5-2.5μg/kg/day, i.t. for 21 consecutive days) on aging-induced changes in brain regional (cerebral cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus and pons-medulla) mitochondrial monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) activity with its kinetic parameters. The results of the present study are: (1) The brain regional mitochondrial MAO-A activity and their kinetic parameters (except in Km of pons-medulla) were significantly increased with the increase of age (4-24 months), (2) Aging-induced increase of brain regional MAO-A activity including its Vmax were attenuated with higher dosages of carnosine (1.0-2.5μg/kg/day) and restored toward the activity that observed in young, though its lower dosage (0.5μg/kg/day) were ineffective in these brain regional MAO-A activity, (3) Carnosine at higher dosage in young rats, unlike aged rats significantly inhibited all the brain regional MAO-A activity by reducing their only Vmax excepting cerebral cortex, where Km was also significantly enhanced. These results suggest that carnosine attenuated the aging-induced increase of brain regional MAO-A activity by attenuating its kinetic parameters and restored toward the results of MAO-A activity that observed in corresponding brain regions of young rats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  10. Smaller Hippocampal Volume in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Multisite ENIGMA-PGC Study: Subcortical Volumetry Results From Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Consortia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logue, Mark W; van Rooij, Sanne J H; Dennis, Emily L; Davis, Sarah L; Hayes, Jasmeet P; Stevens, Jennifer S; Densmore, Maria; Haswell, Courtney C; Ipser, Jonathan; Koch, Saskia B J; Korgaonkar, Mayuresh; Lebois, Lauren A M; Peverill, Matthew; Baker, Justin T; Boedhoe, Premika S W; Frijling, Jessie L; Gruber, Staci A; Harpaz-Rotem, Ilan; Jahanshad, Neda; Koopowitz, Sheri; Levy, Ifat; Nawijn, Laura; O'Connor, Lauren; Olff, Miranda; Salat, David H; Sheridan, Margaret A; Spielberg, Jeffrey M; van Zuiden, Mirjam; Winternitz, Sherry R; Wolff, Jonathan D; Wolf, Erika J; Wang, Xin; Wrocklage, Kristen; Abdallah, Chadi G; Bryant, Richard A; Geuze, Elbert; Jovanovic, Tanja; Kaufman, Milissa L; King, Anthony P; Krystal, John H; Lagopoulos, Jim; Bennett, Maxwell; Lanius, Ruth; Liberzon, Israel; McGlinchey, Regina E; McLaughlin, Katie A; Milberg, William P; Miller, Mark W; Ressler, Kerry J; Veltman, Dick J; Stein, Dan J; Thomaes, Kathleen; Thompson, Paul M; Morey, Rajendra A

    2018-02-01

    Many studies report smaller hippocampal and amygdala volumes in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but findings have not always been consistent. Here, we present the results of a large-scale neuroimaging consortium study on PTSD conducted by the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC)-Enhancing Neuroimaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) PTSD Working Group. We analyzed neuroimaging and clinical data from 1868 subjects (794 PTSD patients) contributed by 16 cohorts, representing the largest neuroimaging study of PTSD to date. We assessed the volumes of eight subcortical structures (nucleus accumbens, amygdala, caudate, hippocampus, pallidum, putamen, thalamus, and lateral ventricle). We used a standardized image-analysis and quality-control pipeline established by the ENIGMA consortium. In a meta-analysis of all samples, we found significantly smaller hippocampi in subjects with current PTSD compared with trauma-exposed control subjects (Cohen's d = -0.17, p = .00054), and smaller amygdalae (d = -0.11, p = .025), although the amygdala finding did not survive a significance level that was Bonferroni corrected for multiple subcortical region comparisons (p < .0063). Our study is not subject to the biases of meta-analyses of published data, and it represents an important milestone in an ongoing collaborative effort to examine the neurobiological underpinnings of PTSD and the brain's response to trauma. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Gait and Equilibrium in Subcortical Vascular Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Moretti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Subcortical vascular dementia is a clinical entity, widespread, even challenging to diagnose and correctly treat. Patients with this diagnosis are old, frail, often with concomitant pathologies, and therefore, with many drugs in therapy. We tried to diagnose and follow up for three years more than 600 patients. Study subjects were men and women, not bedridden, aged 68–94 years, outpatients, recruited from June, 1st 2007 to June, 1st 2010. We examined them clinically, neurologically, with specific consideration on drug therapies. Our aim has been to define gait and imbalance problem, if eventually coexistent with the pathology of white matter and/or with the worsening of the deterioration. Drug intake interference has been detected and considered.

  12. Long-term global and regional brain volume changes following severe traumatic brain injury: A longitudinal study with clinical correlates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidaros, Annette; Skimminge, Arnold Jesper Møller; Liptrot, Matthew George

    2009-01-01

    with percent brain volume change (%BVC) ranging between − 0.6% and − 9.4% (mean − 4.0%). %BVC correlated significantly with injury severity, functional status at both scans, and with 1-year outcome. Moreover, %BVC improved prediction of long-term functional status over and above what could be predicted using......Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in neurodegenerative changes that progress for months, perhaps even years post-injury. However, there is little information on the spatial distribution and the clinical significance of this late atrophy. In 24 patients who had sustained severe TBI we acquired 3D...... scan time point using SIENAX. Regional distribution of atrophy was evaluated using tensor-based morphometry (TBM). At the first scan time point, brain parenchymal volume was reduced by mean 8.4% in patients as compared to controls. During the scan interval, patients exhibited continued atrophy...

  13. Brain Region and Cell Type Transcripts for Informative Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    related with neurological condition and is on average larger in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The blue circle region represents the...in a number of neurological conditions. Furthermore, this region is usually larger for schizophrenia , bipolar disorder, and Alzheimer’s disease...pathways such as calcium signaling pathway, mapK signaling pathway, Gaba pathway, and long- term depression pathways etc., are confirmed pathways through

  14. Alterations in regional homogeneity of resting-state brain activity in internet gaming addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Guangheng

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backgrounds Internet gaming addiction (IGA, as a subtype of internet addiction disorder, is rapidly becoming a prevalent mental health concern around the world. The neurobiological underpinnings of IGA should be studied to unravel the potential heterogeneity of IGA. This study investigated the brain functions in IGA patients with resting-state fMRI. Methods Fifteen IGA subjects and fourteen healthy controls participated in this study. Regional homogeneity (ReHo measures were used to detect the abnormal functional integrations. Results Comparing to the healthy controls, IGA subjects show enhanced ReHo in brainstem, inferior parietal lobule, left posterior cerebellum, and left middle frontal gyrus. All of these regions are thought related with sensory-motor coordination. In addition, IGA subjects show decreased ReHo in temporal, occipital and parietal brain regions. These regions are thought responsible for visual and auditory functions. Conclusions Our results suggest that long-time online game playing enhanced the brain synchronization in sensory-motor coordination related brain regions and decreased the excitability in visual and auditory related brain regions.

  15. Total regional and global number of synapses in the human brain neocortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Y.; Nyengaard, J.R.; Groot, D.M.G. de; Jorgen, H.; Gundersen, G.

    2001-01-01

    An estimator of the total number of synapses in neocortex of human autopsy brains based on unbiased stereological principles is described. Each randomly chosen cerebral hemisphere was stratified into the four major neocortical regions. Uniform sampling with a varying sampling fraction in each region

  16. Longitudinal Regional Brain Development and Clinical Risk Factors in Extremely Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersbergen, Karina J; Makropoulos, Antonios; Aljabar, Paul; Groenendaal, Floris; de Vries, Linda S; Counsell, Serena J; Benders, Manon J N L

    2016-11-01

    To investigate third-trimester extrauterine brain growth and correlate this with clinical risk factors in the neonatal period, using serially acquired brain tissue volumes in a large, unselected cohort of extremely preterm born infants. Preterm infants (gestational age regions covering the entire brain. Multivariable regression analysis was used to determine the influence of clinical variables on volumes at both scans, as well as on volumetric growth. MRIs at term equivalent age were available for 210 infants and serial data were available for 131 infants. Growth over these 10 weeks was greatest for the cerebellum, with an increase of 258%. Sex, birth weight z-score, and prolonged mechanical ventilation showed global effects on brain volumes on both scans. The effect of brain injury on ventricular size was already visible at 30 weeks, whereas growth data and volumes at term-equivalent age revealed the effect of brain injury on the cerebellum. This study provides data about third-trimester extrauterine volumetric brain growth in preterm infants. Both global and local effects of several common clinical risk factors were found to influence serial volumetric measurements, highlighting the vulnerability of the human brain, especially in the presence of brain injury, during this period. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of regional gene expression differences in the brains of the domestic dog and human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kennerly Erin

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Comparison of the expression profiles of 2,721 genes in the cerebellum, cortex and pituitary gland of three American Staffordshire terriers, one beagle and one fox hound revealed regional expression differences in the brain but failed to reveal marked differences among breeds, or even individual dogs. Approximately 85 per cent (42 of 49 orthologue comparisons of the regional differences in the dog are similar to those that differentiate the analogous human brain regions. A smaller percentage of human differences were replicated in the dog, particularly in the cortex, which may generally be evolving more rapidly than other brain regions in mammals. This study lays the foundation for detailed analysis of the population structure of transcriptional variation as it relates to cognitive and neurological phenotypes in the domestic dog.

  18. Artefactual subcortical hyperperfusion in PET studies normalized to global mean: lessons from Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borghammer, Per; Cumming, Paul; Aanerud, Joel

    2008-01-01

    not be detected with present instrumentation and typically-used sample sizes. CONCLUSION: Imposing focal decreases on cortical CBF in conjunction with global mean normalization gives rise to spurious relative CBF increases in all of the regions reported to be hyperactive in PD. Since no PET study has reported......AIM: Recent studies of Parkinson's disease (PD) report subcortical increases of cerebral blood flow (CBF) or cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRglc), after conventional normalization to the global mean. However, if the global mean CBF or CMRglc is decreased in the PD group, this normalization...... necessarily generates artificial relative increases in regions unaffected by the disease. This potential bias may explain the reported subcortical increases in PD. To test this hypothesis, we performed simulations with manipulation and subsequently analysis of sets of quantitative CBF maps by voxel...

  19. Development of large-scale functional brain networks in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaustubh Supekar

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The ontogeny of large-scale functional organization of the human brain is not well understood. Here we use network analysis of intrinsic functional connectivity to characterize the organization of brain networks in 23 children (ages 7-9 y and 22 young-adults (ages 19-22 y. Comparison of network properties, including path-length, clustering-coefficient, hierarchy, and regional connectivity, revealed that although children and young-adults' brains have similar "small-world" organization at the global level, they differ significantly in hierarchical organization and interregional connectivity. We found that subcortical areas were more strongly connected with primary sensory, association, and paralimbic areas in children, whereas young-adults showed stronger cortico-cortical connectivity between paralimbic, limbic, and association areas. Further, combined analysis of functional connectivity with wiring distance measures derived from white-matter fiber tracking revealed that the development of large-scale brain networks is characterized by weakening of short-range functional connectivity and strengthening of long-range functional connectivity. Importantly, our findings show that the dynamic process of over-connectivity followed by pruning, which rewires connectivity at the neuronal level, also operates at the systems level, helping to reconfigure and rebalance subcortical and paralimbic connectivity in the developing brain. Our study demonstrates the usefulness of network analysis of brain connectivity to elucidate key principles underlying functional brain maturation, paving the way for novel studies of disrupted brain connectivity in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism.

  20. Development of large-scale functional brain networks in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supekar, Kaustubh; Musen, Mark; Menon, Vinod

    2009-07-01

    The ontogeny of large-scale functional organization of the human brain is not well understood. Here we use network analysis of intrinsic functional connectivity to characterize the organization of brain networks in 23 children (ages 7-9 y) and 22 young-adults (ages 19-22 y). Comparison of network properties, including path-length, clustering-coefficient, hierarchy, and regional connectivity, revealed that although children and young-adults' brains have similar "small-world" organization at the global level, they differ significantly in hierarchical organization and interregional connectivity. We found that subcortical areas were more strongly connected with primary sensory, association, and paralimbic areas in children, whereas young-adults showed stronger cortico-cortical connectivity between paralimbic, limbic, and association areas. Further, combined analysis of functional connectivity with wiring distance measures derived from white-matter fiber tracking revealed that the development of large-scale brain networks is characterized by weakening of short-range functional connectivity and strengthening of long-range functional connectivity. Importantly, our findings show that the dynamic process of over-connectivity followed by pruning, which rewires connectivity at the neuronal level, also operates at the systems level, helping to reconfigure and rebalance subcortical and paralimbic connectivity in the developing brain. Our study demonstrates the usefulness of network analysis of brain connectivity to elucidate key principles underlying functional brain maturation, paving the way for novel studies of disrupted brain connectivity in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism.

  1. Brain regions involved in voluntary movements as revealed by radioisotopic mapping of CBF or CMR-glucose changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, N A; Ingvar, D H

    1990-01-01

    Mapping of cortical and subcortical grey matter active during voluntary movements by means of measurements of local increases of CBF or CMR-Glucose is reviewed. Most of the studies concern observations in man during hand movements using the intracarotid Xenon-133 injection technique, an approach...... that only allows to image the cortex of the hemisphere on one side (the injected side) of the brain. The results show that simple static or repetitive movements mainly activate the contralateral primary hand area (MI and SI); complex preprogrammed or spontaneous purposeful movements the supplementary motor...... area SMA on both sides increase in CBF/CMR-glucose and even internally ("mentally") going through the trained movements, causes such changes; complex purposeful movements also activate the premotor cortex, a response that is bilateral with greatest response contralaterally. Studies in patients...

  2. Reversible and regionally selective downregulation of brain cannabinoid CB1 receptors in chronic daily cannabis smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirvonen, J; Goodwin, R S; Li, C-T; Terry, G E; Zoghbi, S S; Morse, C; Pike, V W; Volkow, N D; Huestis, M A; Innis, R B

    2012-06-01

    Chronic cannabis (marijuana, hashish) smoking can result in dependence. Rodent studies show reversible downregulation of brain cannabinoid CB(1) (cannabinoid receptor type 1) receptors after chronic exposure to cannabis. However, whether downregulation occurs in humans who chronically smoke cannabis is unknown. Here we show, using positron emission tomography imaging, reversible and regionally selective downregulation of brain cannabinoid CB(1) receptors in human subjects who chronically smoke cannabis. Downregulation correlated with years of cannabis smoking and was selective to cortical brain regions. After ∼4 weeks of continuously monitored abstinence from cannabis on a secure research unit, CB(1) receptor density returned to normal levels. This is the first direct demonstration of cortical cannabinoid CB(1) receptor downregulation as a neuroadaptation that may promote cannabis dependence in human brain.

  3. Neural Correlates of Indicators of Sound Change in Cantonese: Evidence from Cortical and Subcortical Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggu, Akshay R; Liu, Fang; Antoniou, Mark; Wong, Patrick C M

    2016-01-01

    Across time, languages undergo changes in phonetic, syntactic, and semantic dimensions. Social, cognitive, and cultural factors contribute to sound change, a phenomenon in which the phonetics of a language undergo changes over time. Individuals who misperceive and produce speech in a slightly divergent manner (called innovators ) contribute to variability in the society, eventually leading to sound change. However, the cause of variability in these individuals is still unknown. In this study, we examined whether such misperceptions are represented in neural processes of the auditory system. We investigated behavioral, subcortical (via FFR), and cortical (via P300) manifestations of sound change processing in Cantonese, a Chinese language in which several lexical tones are merging. Across the merging categories, we observed a similar gradation of speech perception abilities in both behavior and the brain (subcortical and cortical processes). Further, we also found that behavioral evidence of tone merging correlated with subjects' encoding at the subcortical and cortical levels. These findings indicate that tone-merger categories, that are indicators of sound change in Cantonese, are represented neurophysiologically with high fidelity. Using our results, we speculate that innovators encode speech in a slightly deviant neurophysiological manner, and thus produce speech divergently that eventually spreads across the community and contributes to sound change.

  4. Reversible and regionally selective downregulation of brain cannabinoid CB1 receptors in chronic daily cannabis smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Hirvonen, J; Goodwin, RS; Li, C-T; Terry, GE; Zoghbi, SS; Morse, C; Pike, VW; Volkow, ND; Huestis, MA; Innis, RB

    2011-01-01

    Chronic cannabis (marijuana, hashish) smoking can result in dependence. Rodent studies show reversible downregulation of brain cannabinoid CB1 (cannabinoid receptor type 1) receptors after chronic exposure to cannabis. However, whether downregulation occurs in humans who chronically smoke cannabis is unknown. Here we show, using positron emission tomography imaging, reversible and regionally selective downregulation of brain cannabinoid CB1 receptors in human subjects who chronically smoke ca...

  5. Extracellular matrix organization in various regions of rat brain grey matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brückner, G; Härtig, W; Kacza, J; Seeger, J; Welt, K; Brauer, K

    1996-05-01

    Previous studies revealed the concentration of extracellular matrix proteoglycans in the so-called perineuronal nets on the one hand and in certain zones of the neuropil on the other. This nonhomogeneous distribution suggested a non-random chemical and spatial heterogeneity of the extracellular space. In the present investigation, regions dominated by one of both distribution patterns, i.e. piriform and parietal cortex, reticular thalamic nucleus, medial septum/diagonal band complex and cerebellar nuclei, were selected for correlative light and electron microscopic analysis. The labelling was performed by the use of the N-acetylgalactosamine-binding plant lectin Wisteria floribunda agglutinin visualized by peroxidase staining and additionally by photoconversion of red carbocyanine fluorescence labelling for electron microscopy. The intense labelling of the neuropil of a superficial piriform region, presumably identical with sublayer Ia, was confined to a fine meshwork spreading over the extracellular space between non-myelinated axons, dendrites and glial profiles. In the reticular thalamic nucleus the neuronal cell bodies were embedded in zones of labelled neuropil. In contrast to these patterns, the labelled extracellular matrix in different cortical layers and in the other subcortical regions was concentrated in perineuronal nets as large accumulations at surface areas of the neuronal perikarya and dendrites and the attached presynaptic boutons. Astrocytic processes usually were separated from the neuronal surface by the interposed extracellular material. Despite a great variability, the width of the extracellular space containing the labelled matrix components in all perineuronal nets appeared to be considerably larger than that in the labelled zones of neuropil and the non-labelled microenvironment of other neurons. Our results support the view that differences expressed in topographical and spatial peculiarities of the extracellular matrix constituents are

  6. Regional cerebral blood flow and brain atrophy in senile dementia of Alzheimer type (SDAT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Kazunori; Kobayashi, Shoutai; Yamaguchi, Shuhei; Kitani, Mituhiro; Tsunematsu, Tokugoro

    1987-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between the reduction of cerebal blood flow and brain atrophy in SDAT, these were measured in 13 cases of senile dementia of Alzheimer type, and compared to 15 cases of multi-infarct Dementia, 39 cases of lacunar infarction without dementia (non-demented CVD group) and 69 cases of aged normal control. Brain atrophy was evaluated by two-dimensional method on CT film by digitizer and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured by 133 Xe inhalation method. The degree of brain atrophy in SDAT was almost similar of that of MID. But it was more severe than that of non-demented group. MID showed the lowest rCBF among these groups. SDAT showed significantly lower rCBF than that of aged control, but rCBF in SDAT was equal to that of lacunar stroke without dementia. Focal reduction of cerebral blood flow in bilateral fronto-parietal and left occipital regions were observed in SDAT. Verbal intelligence score (Hasegawa's score) correlated with rCBF and brain atrophy index in MID, and a tendency of correlation between rCBF and brain atrophy in MID was also observed. However, there was no correlation among those indices in SDAT. These findings suggest that the loss of brain substance dose not correspond to the reduction of rCBF in SDAT and simultaneous measurement of rCBF and brain atrophy was useful to differ SDAT from MID. (author)

  7. Structural covariance of brain region volumes is associated with both structural connectivity and transcriptomic similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Yohan; Fernandes, Darren J; French, Leon; Ellegood, Jacob; Cahill, Lindsay S; Vousden, Dulcie A; Spencer Noakes, Leigh; Scholz, Jan; van Eede, Matthijs C; Nieman, Brian J; Sled, John G; Lerch, Jason P

    2018-05-18

    An organizational pattern seen in the brain, termed structural covariance, is the statistical association of pairs of brain regions in their anatomical properties. These associations, measured across a population as covariances or correlations usually in cortical thickness or volume, are thought to reflect genetic and environmental underpinnings. Here, we examine the biological basis of structural volume covariance in the mouse brain. We first examined large scale associations between brain region volumes using an atlas-based approach that parcellated the entire mouse brain into 318 regions over which correlations in volume were assessed, for volumes obtained from 153 mouse brain images via high-resolution MRI. We then used a seed-based approach and determined, for 108 different seed regions across the brain and using mouse gene expression and connectivity data from the Allen Institute for Brain Science, the variation in structural covariance data that could be explained by distance to seed, transcriptomic similarity to seed, and connectivity to seed. We found that overall, correlations in structure volumes hierarchically clustered into distinct anatomical systems, similar to findings from other studies and similar to other types of networks in the brain, including structural connectivity and transcriptomic similarity networks. Across seeds, this structural covariance was significantly explained by distance (17% of the variation, up to a maximum of 49% for structural covariance to the visceral area of the cortex), transcriptomic similarity (13% of the variation, up to maximum of 28% for structural covariance to the primary visual area) and connectivity (15% of the variation, up to a maximum of 36% for structural covariance to the intermediate reticular nucleus in the medulla) of covarying structures. Together, distance, connectivity, and transcriptomic similarity explained 37% of structural covariance, up to a maximum of 63% for structural covariance to the

  8. AUTOMATED CLASSIFICATION AND SEGREGATION OF BRAIN MRI IMAGES INTO IMAGES CAPTURED WITH RESPECT TO VENTRICULAR REGION AND EYE-BALL REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Arunkumar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI images of the brain are used for detection of various brain diseases including tumor. In such cases, classification of MRI images captured with respect to ventricular and eye ball regions helps in automated location and classification of such diseases. The methods employed in the paper can segregate the given MRI images of brain into images of brain captured with respect to ventricular region and images of brain captured with respect to eye ball region. First, the given MRI image of brain is segmented using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO algorithm, which is an optimized algorithm for MRI image segmentation. The algorithm proposed in the paper is then applied on the segmented image. The algorithm detects whether the image consist of a ventricular region or an eye ball region and classifies it accordingly.

  9. Attentional Performance is Correlated with the Local Regional Efficiency of Intrinsic Brain Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhai eXu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Attention is a crucial brain function for human beings. Using neuropsychological paradigms and task-based functional brain imaging, previous studies have indicated that widely distributed brain regions are engaged in three distinct attention subsystems: alerting, orienting and executive control (EC. Here, we explored the potential contribution of spontaneous brain activity to attention by examining whether resting-state activity could account for individual differences of the attentional performance in normal individuals. The resting-state functional images and behavioral data from attention network test (ANT task were collected in 59 healthy subjects. Graph analysis was conducted to obtain the characteristics of functional brain networks and linear regression analyses were used to explore their relationships with behavioral performances of the three attentional components. We found that there was no significant relationship between the attentional performance and the global measures, while the attentional performance was associated with specific local regional efficiency. These regions related to the scores of alerting, orienting and EC largely overlapped with the regions activated in previous task-related functional imaging studies, and were consistent with the intrinsic dorsal and ventral attention networks (DAN/VAN. In addition, the strong associations between the attentional performance and specific regional efficiency suggested that there was a possible relationship between the DAN/VAN and task performances in the ANT. We concluded that the intrinsic activity of the human brain could reflect the processing efficiency of the attention system. Our findings revealed a robust evidence for the functional significance of the efficiently organized intrinsic brain network for highly productive cognitions and the hypothesized role of the DAN/ VAN at rest.

  10. Moral values are associated with individual differences in regional brain volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Gary J; Kanai, Ryota; Bates, Timothy C; Rees, Geraint

    2012-08-01

    Moral sentiment has been hypothesized to reflect evolved adaptations to social living. If so, individual differences in moral values may relate to regional variation in brain structure. We tested this hypothesis in a sample of 70 young, healthy adults examining whether differences on two major dimensions of moral values were significantly associated with regional gray matter volume. The two clusters of moral values assessed were "individualizing" (values of harm/care and fairness) and "binding" (deference to authority, in-group loyalty, and purity/sanctity). Individualizing was positively associated with left dorsomedial pFC volume and negatively associated with bilateral precuneus volume. For binding, a significant positive association was found for bilateral subcallosal gyrus and a trend to significance for the left anterior insula volume. These findings demonstrate that variation in moral sentiment reflects individual differences in brain structure and suggest a biological basis for moral sentiment, distributed across multiple brain regions.

  11. Hierarchical clustering into groups of human brain regions according to elemental composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stedman, J.D.; Spyrou, N.M.

    1998-01-01

    Thirteen brain regions were dissected from both hemispheres of fifteen 'normal' ageing subjects (8 females, 7 males) of mean age 79±7 years. Elemental compositions were determined by simultaneous application of particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and Rutherford backscattering (RBS) analyses using a 2 MeV, 4 nA proton beam scanned over 4 mm 2 of the sample surface. Elemental concentrations were found to be dependent upon the brain region and hemisphere studied. Hierarchical cluster analysis was applied to group the brain regions according to the sample concentrations of eight elements. The resulting dendrogram is presented and its clusters related to the sample compositions of grey and white matter. (author)

  12. Functional photoacoustic imaging to observe regional brain activation induced by cocaine hydrochloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Janggun; Yang, Xinmai

    2011-09-01

    Photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) was used to detect small animal brain activation in response to drug abuse. Cocaine hydrochloride in saline solution was injected into the blood stream of Sprague Dawley rats through tail veins. The rat brain functional change in response to the injection of drug was then monitored by the PAM technique. Images in the coronal view of the rat brain at the locations of 1.2 and 3.4 mm posterior to bregma were obtained. The resulted photoacoustic (PA) images showed the regional changes in the blood volume. Additionally, the regional changes in blood oxygenation were also presented. The results demonstrated that PA imaging is capable of monitoring regional hemodynamic changes induced by drug abuse.

  13. Regional brain [(11)C]carfentanil binding following tobacco smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domino, Edward F; Hirasawa-Fujita, Mika; Ni, Lisong; Guthrie, Sally K; Zubieta, Jon Kar

    2015-06-03

    To determine if overnight tobacco abstinent carriers of the AG or GG (*G) vs. the AA variant of the human mu opioid receptor (OPRM1) A118G polymorphism (rs1799971) differ in [(11)C]carfentanil binding after tobacco smoking. Twenty healthy American male smokers who abstained from tobacco overnight were genotyped and completed positron emission tomography (PET) scans with the mu opioid receptor agonist, [(11)C]carfentanil. They smoked deniconized (denic) and average nicotine (avnic) cigarettes during the PET scans. Smoking avnic cigarette decreased the binding potential (BPND) of [(11)C]carfentanil in the right medial prefrontal cortex (mPfc; 6, 56, 18), left anterior medial prefrontal cortex (amPfc; -2, 46, 44), right ventral striatum (vStr; 16, 3, -10), left insula (Ins; -42, 10, -12), right hippocampus (Hippo; 18, -6, -14) and left cerebellum (Cbl; -10, -88, -34), and increased the BPND in left amygdala (Amy; -20, 0, -22), left putamen (Put; -22, 10, -6) and left nucleus accumbens (NAcc; -10, 12, -8). In the AA allele carriers, avnic cigarette smoking significantly changed the BPND compared to after denic smoking in most brain areas listed above. However in the *G carriers the significant BPND changes were confirmed in only amPfc and vStr. Free mu opioid receptor availability was significantly less in the *G than the AA carriers in the Amy and NAcc. The present study demonstrates that BPND changes induced by avnic smoking in OPRM1 *G carriers were blunted compared to the AA carriers. Also *G smokers had less free mu opioid receptor availability in Amy and NAcc. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Regional apparent diffusion coefficient values in 3rd trimester fetal brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, Chen; Weisz, Boaz; Lipitz, Shlomo; Katorza, Eldad; Yaniv, Gal; Bergman, Dafi; Biegon, Anat

    2014-01-01

    Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in the developing fetus can be used in the diagnosis and prognosis of prenatal brain pathologies. To this end, we measured regional ADC in a relatively large cohort of normal fetal brains in utero. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) was performed in 48 non-sedated 3rd trimester fetuses with normal structural MR imaging results. ADC was measured in white matter (frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes), basal ganglia, thalamus, pons, and cerebellum. Regional ADC values were compared by one-way ANOVA with gestational age as covariate. Regression analysis was used to examine gestational age-related changes in regional ADC. Four other cases of CMV infection were also examined. Median gestational age was 32 weeks (range, 26-33 weeks). There was a highly significant effect of region on ADC, whereby ADC values were highest in white matter, with significantly lower values in basal ganglia and cerebellum and the lowest values in thalamus and pons. ADC did not significantly change with gestational age in any of the regions tested. In the four cases with fetal CMV infection, ADC value was associated with a global decrease. ADC values in normal fetal brain are relatively stable during the third trimester, show consistent regional variation, and can make an important contribution to the early diagnosis and possibly prognosis of fetal brain pathologies. (orig.)

  15. Regional apparent diffusion coefficient values in 3rd trimester fetal brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Chen [Tel Aviv University, Department of Radiology, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer (affiliated to the Sackler School of Medicine), Tel Aviv (Israel); Sheba Medical Center, Diagnostic Imaging, 52621, Tel Hashomer (Israel); Weisz, Boaz; Lipitz, Shlomo; Katorza, Eldad [Tel Aviv University, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer (affiliated to the Sackler School of Medicine), Tel Aviv (Israel); Yaniv, Gal; Bergman, Dafi [Tel Aviv University, Department of Radiology, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer (affiliated to the Sackler School of Medicine), Tel Aviv (Israel); Biegon, Anat [Stony Brook University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in the developing fetus can be used in the diagnosis and prognosis of prenatal brain pathologies. To this end, we measured regional ADC in a relatively large cohort of normal fetal brains in utero. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) was performed in 48 non-sedated 3rd trimester fetuses with normal structural MR imaging results. ADC was measured in white matter (frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes), basal ganglia, thalamus, pons, and cerebellum. Regional ADC values were compared by one-way ANOVA with gestational age as covariate. Regression analysis was used to examine gestational age-related changes in regional ADC. Four other cases of CMV infection were also examined. Median gestational age was 32 weeks (range, 26-33 weeks). There was a highly significant effect of region on ADC, whereby ADC values were highest in white matter, with significantly lower values in basal ganglia and cerebellum and the lowest values in thalamus and pons. ADC did not significantly change with gestational age in any of the regions tested. In the four cases with fetal CMV infection, ADC value was associated with a global decrease. ADC values in normal fetal brain are relatively stable during the third trimester, show consistent regional variation, and can make an important contribution to the early diagnosis and possibly prognosis of fetal brain pathologies. (orig.)

  16. The impact of ADHD persistence, recent cannabis use, and age of regular cannabis use onset on subcortical volume and cortical thickness in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisdahl, Krista M; Tamm, Leanne; Epstein, Jeffery N; Jernigan, Terry; Molina, Brooke S G; Hinshaw, Stephen P; Swanson, James M; Newman, Erik; Kelly, Clare; Bjork, James M

    2016-04-01

    Both Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and chronic cannabis (CAN) use have been associated with brain structural abnormalities, although little is known about the effects of both in young adults. Participants included: those with a childhood diagnosis of ADHD who were CAN users (ADHD_CAN; n=37) and non-users (NU) (ADHD_NU; n=44) and a local normative comparison group (LNCG) who did (LNCG_CAN; n=18) and did not (LNCG_NU; n=21) use CAN regularly. Multiple regressions and MANCOVAs were used to examine the independent and interactive effects of a childhood ADHD diagnosis and CAN group status and age of onset (CUO) on subcortical volumes and cortical thickness. After controlling for age, gender, total brain volume, nicotine use, and past-year binge drinking, childhood ADHD diagnosis did not predict brain structure; however, persistence of ADHD was associated with smaller left precentral/postcentral cortical thickness. Compared to all non-users, CAN users had decreased cortical thickness in right hemisphere superior frontal sulcus, anterior cingulate, and isthmus of cingulate gyrus regions and left hemisphere superior frontal sulcus and precentral gyrus regions. Early cannabis use age of onset (CUO) in those with ADHD predicted greater right hemisphere superior frontal and postcentral cortical thickness. Young adults with persistent ADHD demonstrated brain structure abnormalities in regions underlying motor control, working memory and inhibitory control. Further, CAN use was linked with abnormal brain structure in regions with high concentrations of cannabinoid receptors. Additional large-scale longitudinal studies are needed to clarify how substance use impacts neurodevelopment in youth with and without ADHD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Regional gray matter growth, sexual dimorphism, and cerebral asymmetry in the neonatal brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, John H; Lin, Weili; Prastawa, Marcel W; Looney, Christopher B; Vetsa, Y Sampath K; Knickmeyer, Rebecca C; Evans, Dianne D; Smith, J Keith; Hamer, Robert M; Lieberman, Jeffrey A; Gerig, Guido

    2007-02-07

    Although there has been recent interest in the study of childhood and adolescent brain development, very little is known about normal brain development in the first few months of life. In older children, there are regional differences in cortical gray matter development, whereas cortical gray and white matter growth after birth has not been studied to a great extent. The adult human brain is also characterized by cerebral asymmetries and sexual dimorphisms, although very little is known about how these asymmetries and dimorphisms develop. We used magnetic resonance imaging and an automatic segmentation methodology to study brain structure in 74 neonates in the first few weeks after birth. We found robust cortical gray matter growth compared with white matter growth, with occipital regions growing much faster than prefrontal regions. Sexual dimorphism is present at birth, with males having larger total brain cortical gray and white matter volumes than females. In contrast to adults and older children, the left hemisphere is larger than the right hemisphere, and the normal pattern of fronto-occipital asymmetry described in older children and adults is not present. Regional differences in cortical gray matter growth are likely related to differential maturation of sensory and motor systems compared with prefrontal executive function after birth. These findings also indicate that whereas some adult patterns of sexual dimorphism and cerebral asymmetries are present at birth, others develop after birth.

  18. Identification of a set of genes showing regionally enriched expression in the mouse brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marra Marco A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Pleiades Promoter Project aims to improve gene therapy by designing human mini-promoters ( Results We have utilized LongSAGE to identify regionally enriched transcripts in the adult mouse brain. As supplemental strategies, we also performed a meta-analysis of published literature and inspected the Allen Brain Atlas in situ hybridization data. From a set of approximately 30,000 mouse genes, 237 were identified as showing specific or enriched expression in 30 target regions of the mouse brain. GO term over-representation among these genes revealed co-involvement in various aspects of central nervous system development and physiology. Conclusion Using a multi-faceted expression validation approach, we have identified mouse genes whose human orthologs are good candidates for design of mini-promoters. These mouse genes represent molecular markers in several discrete brain regions/cell-types, which could potentially provide a mechanistic explanation of unique functions performed by each region. This set of markers may also serve as a resource for further studies of gene regulatory elements influencing brain expression.

  19. Molecular regionalization in the compact brain of the meiofaunal annelid Dinophilus gyrociliatus (Dinophilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Kerbl

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Annelida is a morphologically diverse animal group that exhibits a remarkable variety in nervous system architecture (e.g., number and location of longitudinal cords, architecture of the brain. Despite this heterogeneity of neural arrangements, the molecular profiles related to central nervous system patterning seem to be conserved even between distantly related annelids. In particular, comparative molecular studies on brain and anterior neural region patterning genes have focused so far mainly on indirect-developing macrofaunal taxa. Therefore, analyses on microscopic, direct-developing annelids are important to attain a general picture of the evolutionary events underlying the vast diversity of annelid neuroanatomy. Results We have analyzed the expression domains of 11 evolutionarily conserved genes involved in brain and anterior neural patterning in adult females of the direct-developing meiofaunal annelid Dinophilus gyrociliatus. The small, compact brain shows expression of dimmed, foxg, goosecoid, homeobrain, nk2.1, orthodenticle, orthopedia, pax6, six3/6 and synaptotagmin-1. Although most of the studied markers localize to specific brain areas, the genes six3/6 and synaptotagmin-1 are expressed in nearly all perikarya of the brain. All genes except for goosecoid, pax6 and nk2.2 overlap in the anterior brain region, while the respective expression domains are more separated in the posterior brain. Conclusions Our findings reveal that the expression patterns of the genes foxg, orthodenticle, orthopedia and six3/6 correlate with those described in Platynereis dumerilii larvae, and homeobrain, nk2.1, orthodenticle and synaptotagmin-1 resemble the pattern of late larvae of Capitella teleta. Although data on other annelids are limited, molecular similarities between adult Dinophilus and larval Platynereis and Capitella suggest an overall conservation of molecular mechanisms patterning the anterior neural regions, independent

  20. Cortical region of interest definition on SPECT brain images using X-ray CT registration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzourio, N.; Sutton, D. (Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Orsay (France). Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot); Joliot, M. (Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Orsay (France). Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot INSERM, Orsay (France)); Mazoyer, B.M. (Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Orsay (France). Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot Antenne d' Information Medicale, C.H.U. Bichat, Paris (France)); Charlot, V. (Hopital Louis Mourier, Colombes (France). Service de Psychiatrie); Salamon, G. (CHU La Timone, Marseille (France). Service de Neuroradiologie)

    1992-11-01

    We present a method for brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) analysis based on individual registration of anatomical (CT) and functional ([sup 133]Xe regional cerebral blood flow) images and on the definition of three-dimensional functional regions of interest. Registration of CT and SPECT is performed through adjustment of CT-defined cortex limits to the SPECT image. Regions are defined by sectioning a cortical ribbon on the CT images, copied over the SPECT images and pooled through slices to give 3D cortical regions of interest. The proposed method shows good intra- and interobserver reproducibility (regional intraclass correlation coefficient [approx equal]0.98), and good accuracy in terms of repositioning ([approx equal]3.5 mm) as compared to the SPECT image resolution (14 mm). The method should be particularly useful for analysing SPECT studies when variations in brain anatomy (normal or abnormal) must be accounted for. (orig.).

  1. Tactile interactions activate mirror system regions in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKyton, Ayelet

    2011-12-07

    Communicating with others is essential for the development of a society. Although types of communications, such as language and visual gestures, were thoroughly investigated in the past, little research has been done to investigate interactions through touch. To study this we used functional magnetic resonance imaging. Twelve participants were scanned with their eyes covered while stroking four kinds of items, representing different somatosensory stimuli: a human hand, a realistic rubber hand, an object, and a simple texture. Although the human and the rubber hands had the same overall shape, in three regions there was significantly more blood oxygen level dependent activation when touching the real hand: the anterior medial prefrontal cortex, the ventral premotor cortex, and the posterior superior temporal cortex. The last two regions are part of the mirror network and are known to be activated through visual interactions such as gestures. Interestingly, in this study, these areas were activated through a somatosensory interaction. A control experiment was performed to eliminate confounds of temperature, texture, and imagery, suggesting that the activation in these areas was correlated with the touch of a human hand. These results reveal the neuronal network working behind human tactile interactions, and highlight the participation of the mirror system in such functions.

  2. Relative activity of cerebral subcortical gray matter in varying states of attention and awareness in normal subjects and patient studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.; Chen, C.T.; Levy, J.; Wagner, N.; Spire, J.P.; Jacobsen, J.; Meltzer, H.; Metz, J.; Beck, R.N.

    1985-01-01

    An important aspect of the study of brain function involves measurement of the relationships; between activities in the subcortical gray matter of the caudate and of the thalamus; and between these structures and functional cortical areas. The authors have studied these relationships in 22 subjects under different conditions of activation, sleep and sensory deprivation using a PET VI system and F-18-2DG to determine regional cerebral metabolism. Subject activating conditions were maintained throughout the period of equilibration of F-18-2DG and E.E.G.'s were monitored. Multiple tomographic slices of 1-2 million counts were obtained simultaneously with slice separation of 14mm and each plane parallel to the cantho-meatal line. In activated and non-activated awake conditions for normal subjects, left and right thalmus-to-caudate ratios were similar and greater than unity. This relationship was maintained in non-REM sleep, but was reversed and divergent in REM sleep and sensory deprivation; this was also evident in 3/4 narcoleptics awake and asleep in non-REM and REM and 2/3 schizophrenics and affective disorder, subjects. This approach appears to have potential for characterizating normal and disordered regional cerebral function

  3. Immersive bilingualism reshapes the core of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliatsikas, Christos; DeLuca, Vincent; Moschopoulou, Elisavet; Saddy, James Douglas

    2017-05-01

    Bilingualism has been shown to affect the structure of the brain, including cortical regions related to language. Less is known about subcortical structures, such as the basal ganglia, which underlie speech monitoring and language selection, processes that are crucial for bilinguals, as well as other linguistic functions, such as grammatical and phonological acquisition and processing. Simultaneous bilinguals have demonstrated significant reshaping of the basal ganglia and the thalamus compared to monolinguals. However, it is not clear whether these effects are due to learning of the second language (L2) at a very young age or simply due to continuous usage of two languages. Here, we show that bilingualism-induced subcortical effects are directly related to the amount of continuous L2 usage, or L2 immersion. We found significant subcortical reshaping in non-simultaneous (or sequential) bilinguals with extensive immersion in a bilingual environment, closely mirroring the recent findings in simultaneous bilinguals. Importantly, some of these effects were positively correlated to the amount of L2 immersion. Conversely, sequential bilinguals with comparable proficiency and age of acquisition (AoA) but limited immersion did not show similar effects. Our results provide structural evidence to suggestions that L2 acquisition continuously occurs in an immersive environment, and is expressed as dynamic reshaping of the core of the brain. These findings propose that second language learning in the brain is a dynamic procedure which depends on active and continuous L2 usage.

  4. Brain regional uptake of radioactive Sc, Mn, Zn, Se, Rb and Zr tracers into normal mice during aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, R.; Enomoto, S.

    2001-01-01

    Radioactive multitracer technique was applied to study the brain regional uptake of trace elements by the normal mice during aging. The brain regional radioactivities of 46 Sc, 54 Mn, 65 Zn, 75 Se, 83 Rb and 88 Zr were measured 48 hours after intraperitoneal injection of a solution in normal mice aged 6 to 52 weeks to evaluate the brain regional (corpus striatum, cerebellum, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and pons and medulla) uptakes. The radioactive distributions of 46 Sc, 54 Mn and 88 Zr tracers were variable and region-specific in the brain, while those of 65 Zn, 75 Se and 83 Rb tracers were comparable among all regions of interest. The brain regional uptakes of all tracers slightly increased with age from 10 to 28 weeks, and then remained constant during aging after 28 weeks. These uptake variations may be involved in the functional degenerative process of the blood-brain barrier during aging. (author)

  5. Region-specific protein misfolding cyclic amplification reproduces brain tropism of prion strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privat, Nicolas; Levavasseur, Etienne; Yildirim, Serfildan; Hannaoui, Samia; Brandel, Jean-Philippe; Laplanche, Jean-Louis; Béringue, Vincent; Seilhean, Danielle; Haïk, Stéphane

    2017-10-06

    Human prion diseases such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease are transmissible brain proteinopathies, characterized by the accumulation of a misfolded isoform of the host cellular prion protein (PrP) in the brain. According to the prion model, prions are defined as proteinaceous infectious particles composed solely of this abnormal isoform of PrP (PrP Sc ). Even in the absence of genetic material, various prion strains can be propagated in experimental models. They can be distinguished by the pattern of disease they produce and especially by the localization of PrP Sc deposits within the brain and the spongiform lesions they induce. The mechanisms involved in this strain-specific targeting of distinct brain regions still are a fundamental, unresolved question in prion research. To address this question, we exploited a prion conversion in vitro assay, protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA), by using experimental scrapie and human prion strains as seeds and specific brain regions from mice and humans as substrates. We show here that region-specific PMCA in part reproduces the specific brain targeting observed in experimental, acquired, and sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob diseases. Furthermore, we provide evidence that, in addition to cellular prion protein, other region- and species-specific molecular factors influence the strain-dependent prion conversion process. This important step toward understanding prion strain propagation in the human brain may impact research on the molecular factors involved in protein misfolding and the development of ultrasensitive methods for diagnosing prion disease. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Big Cat Coalitions: A Comparative Analysis of Regional Brain Volumes in Felidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Sharleen T; Arsznov, Bradley M; Hristova, Ani E; Yoon, Elise J; Lundrigan, Barbara L

    2016-01-01

    Broad-based species comparisons across mammalian orders suggest a number of factors that might influence the evolution of large brains. However, the relationship between these factors and total and regional brain size remains unclear. This study investigated the relationship between relative brain size and regional brain volumes and sociality in 13 felid species in hopes of revealing relationships that are not detected in more inclusive comparative studies. In addition, a more detailed analysis was conducted of four focal species: lions ( Panthera leo ), leopards ( Panthera pardus ), cougars ( Puma concolor ), and cheetahs ( Acinonyx jubatus ). These species differ markedly in sociality and behavioral flexibility, factors hypothesized to contribute to increased relative brain size and/or frontal cortex size. Lions are the only truly social species, living in prides. Although cheetahs are largely solitary, males often form small groups. Both leopards and cougars are solitary. Of the four species, leopards exhibit the most behavioral flexibility, readily adapting to changing circumstances. Regional brain volumes were analyzed using computed tomography. Skulls ( n = 75) were scanned to create three-dimensional virtual endocasts, and regional brain volumes were measured using either sulcal or bony landmarks obtained from the endocasts or skulls. Phylogenetic least squares regression analyses found that sociality does not correspond with larger relative brain size in these species. However, the sociality/solitary variable significantly predicted anterior cerebrum (AC) volume, a region that includes frontal cortex. This latter finding is despite the fact that the two social species in our sample, lions and cheetahs, possess the largest and smallest relative AC volumes, respectively. Additionally, an ANOVA comparing regional brain volumes in four focal species revealed that lions and leopards, while not significantly different from one another, have relatively larger AC

  7. Big Cat Coalitions: A comparative analysis of regional brain volumes in Felidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharleen T Sakai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Broad-based species comparisons across mammalian orders suggest a number of factors that might influence the evolution of large brains. However, the relationship between these factors and total and regional brain size remains unclear. This study investigated the relationship between relative brain size and regional brain volumes and sociality in 13 felid species in hopes of revealing relationships that are not detected in more inclusive comparative studies. In addition, a more detailed analysis was conducted of 4 focal species: lions (Panthera leo, leopards (Panthera pardus, cougars (Puma concolor, and cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus. These species differ markedly in sociality and behavioral flexibility, factors hypothesized to contribute to increased relative brain size and/or frontal cortex size. Lions are the only truly social species, living in prides. Although cheetahs are largely solitary, males often form small groups. Both leopards and cougars are solitary. Of the four species, leopards exhibit the most behavioral flexibility, readily adapting to changing circumstances. Regional brain volumes were analyzed using computed tomography (CT. Skulls (n=75 were scanned to create three-dimensional virtual endocasts, and regional brain volumes were measured using either sulcal or bony landmarks obtained from the endocasts or skulls. Phylogenetic least squares (PGLS regression analyses found that sociality does not correspond with larger relative brain size in these species. However, the sociality/solitary variable significantly predicted anterior cerebrum (AC volume, a region that includes frontal cortex. This latter finding is despite the fact that the two social species in our sample, lions and cheetahs, possess the largest and smallest relative AC volumes, respectively. Additionally, an ANOVA comparing regional brain volumes in 4 focal species revealed that lions and leopards, while not significantly different from one another, have relatively

  8. Region-Specific Defects of Respiratory Capacities in the Ndufs4(KO Mouse Brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernst-Bernhard Kayser

    Full Text Available Lack of NDUFS4, a subunit of mitochondrial complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase, causes Leigh syndrome (LS, a progressive encephalomyopathy. Knocking out Ndufs4, either systemically or in brain only, elicits LS in mice. In patients as well as in KO mice distinct regions of the brain degenerate while surrounding tissue survives despite systemic complex I dysfunction. For the understanding of disease etiology and ultimately for the development of rationale treatments for LS, it appears important to uncover the mechanisms that govern focal neurodegeneration.Here we used the Ndufs4(KO mouse to investigate whether regional and temporal differences in respiratory capacity of the brain could be correlated with neurodegeneration. In the KO the respiratory capacity of synaptosomes from the degeneration prone regions olfactory bulb, brainstem and cerebellum was significantly decreased. The difference was measurable even before the onset of neurological symptoms. Furthermore, neither compensating nor exacerbating changes in glycolytic capacity of the synaptosomes were found. By contrast, the KO retained near normal levels of synaptosomal respiration in the degeneration-resistant/resilient "rest" of the brain. We also investigated non-synaptic mitochondria. The KO expectedly had diminished capacity for oxidative phosphorylation (state 3 respiration with complex I dependent substrate combinations pyruvate/malate and glutamate/malate but surprisingly had normal activity with α-ketoglutarate/malate. No correlation between oxidative phosphorylation (pyruvate/malate driven state 3 respiration and neurodegeneration was found: Notably, state 3 remained constant in the KO while in controls it tended to increase with time leading to significant differences between the genotypes in older mice in both vulnerable and resilient brain regions. Neither regional ROS damage, measured as HNE-modified protein, nor regional complex I stability, assessed by blue native

  9. Chronic ethanol exposure produces time- and brain region-dependent changes in gene coexpression networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Osterndorff-Kahanek

    Full Text Available Repeated ethanol exposure and withdrawal in mice increases voluntary drinking and represents an animal model of physical dependence. We examined time- and brain region-dependent changes in gene coexpression networks in amygdala (AMY, nucleus accumbens (NAC, prefrontal cortex (PFC, and liver after four weekly cycles of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE vapor exposure in C57BL/6J mice. Microarrays were used to compare gene expression profiles at 0-, 8-, and 120-hours following the last ethanol exposure. Each brain region exhibited a large number of differentially expressed genes (2,000-3,000 at the 0- and 8-hour time points, but fewer changes were detected at the 120-hour time point (400-600. Within each region, there was little gene overlap across time (~20%. All brain regions were significantly enriched with differentially expressed immune-related genes at the 8-hour time point. Weighted gene correlation network analysis identified modules that were highly enriched with differentially expressed genes at the 0- and 8-hour time points with virtually no enrichment at 120 hours. Modules enriched for both ethanol-responsive and cell-specific genes were identified in each brain region. These results indicate that chronic alcohol exposure causes global 'rewiring' of coexpression systems involving glial and immune signaling as well as neuronal genes.

  10. Regional Brain Activation during Meditation Shows Time and Practice Effects: An Exploratory FMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Baron Short

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Meditation involves attentional regulation and may lead to increased activity in brain regions associated with attention such as dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined whether DLPFC and ACC were activated during meditation. Subjects who meditate were recruited and scanned on a 3.0 Tesla scanner. Subjects meditated for four sessions of 12 min and performed four sessions of a 6 min control task. Individual and group t-maps were generated of overall meditation response versus control response and late meditation response versus early meditation response for each subject and time courses were plotted. For the overall group (n = 13, and using an overall brain analysis, there were no statistically significant regional activations of interest using conservative thresholds. A region of interest analysis of the entire group time courses of DLPFC and ACC were statistically more active throughout meditation in comparison to the control task. Moreover, dividing the cohort into short (n = 8 and long-term (n = 5 practitioners (>10 years revealed that the time courses of long-term practitioners had significantly more consistent and sustained activation in the DLPFC and the ACC during meditation versus control in comparison to short-term practitioners. The regional brain activations in the more practised subjects may correlate with better sustained attention and attentional error monitoring. In summary, brain regions associated with attention vary over the time of a meditation session and may differ between long- and short-term meditation practitioners.

  11. Combining region- and network-level brain-behavior relationships in a structural equation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolt, Taylor; Prince, Emily B; Nomi, Jason S; Messinger, Daniel; Llabre, Maria M; Uddin, Lucina Q

    2018-01-15

    Brain-behavior associations in fMRI studies are typically restricted to a single level of analysis: either a circumscribed brain region-of-interest (ROI) or a larger network of brain regions. However, this common practice may not always account for the interdependencies among ROIs of the same network or potentially unique information at the ROI-level, respectively. To account for both sources of information, we combined measurement and structural components of structural equation modeling (SEM) approaches to empirically derive networks from ROI activity, and to assess the association of both individual ROIs and their respective whole-brain activation networks with task performance using three large task-fMRI datasets and two separate brain parcellation schemes. The results for working memory and relational tasks revealed that well-known ROI-performance associations are either non-significant or reversed when accounting for the ROI's common association with its corresponding network, and that the network as a whole is instead robustly associated with task performance. The results for the arithmetic task revealed that in certain cases, an ROI can be robustly associated with task performance, even when accounting for its associated network. The SEM framework described in this study provides researchers additional flexibility in testing brain-behavior relationships, as well as a principled way to combine ROI- and network-levels of analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Regional differences in actomyosin contraction shape the primary vesicles in the embryonic chicken brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filas, Benjamen A; Oltean, Alina; Majidi, Shabnam; Bayly, Philip V; Taber, Larry A; Beebe, David C

    2012-01-01

    In the early embryo, the brain initially forms as a relatively straight, cylindrical epithelial tube composed of neural stem cells. The brain tube then divides into three primary vesicles (forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain), as well as a series of bulges (rhombomeres) in the hindbrain. The boundaries between these subdivisions have been well studied as regions of differential gene expression, but the morphogenetic mechanisms that generate these constrictions are not well understood. Here, we show that regional variations in actomyosin-based contractility play a major role in vesicle formation in the embryonic chicken brain. In particular, boundaries did not form in brains exposed to the nonmuscle myosin II inhibitor blebbistatin, whereas increasing contractile force using calyculin or ATP deepened boundaries considerably. Tissue staining showed that contraction likely occurs at the inner part of the wall, as F-actin and phosphorylated myosin are concentrated at the apical side. However, relatively little actin and myosin was found in rhombomere boundaries. To determine the specific physical mechanisms that drive vesicle formation, we developed a finite-element model for the brain tube. Regional apical contraction was simulated in the model, with contractile anisotropy and strength estimated from contractile protein distributions and measurements of cell shapes. The model shows that a combination of circumferential contraction in the boundary regions and relatively isotropic contraction between boundaries can generate realistic morphologies for the primary vesicles. In contrast, rhombomere formation likely involves longitudinal contraction between boundaries. Further simulations suggest that these different mechanisms are dictated by regional differences in initial morphology and the need to withstand cerebrospinal fluid pressure. This study provides a new understanding of early brain morphogenesis. (paper)

  13. Correspondence Between Aberrant Intrinsic Network Connectivity and Gray-Matter Volume in the Ventral Brain of Preterm Born Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäuml, Josef G; Daamen, Marcel; Meng, Chun; Neitzel, Julia; Scheef, Lukas; Jaekel, Julia; Busch, Barbara; Baumann, Nicole; Bartmann, Peter; Wolke, Dieter; Boecker, Henning; Wohlschläger, Afra M; Sorg, Christian

    2015-11-01

    Widespread brain changes are present in preterm born infants, adolescents, and even adults. While neurobiological models of prematurity facilitate powerful explanations for the adverse effects of preterm birth on the developing brain at microscale, convincing linking principles at large-scale level to explain the widespread nature of brain changes are still missing. We investigated effects of preterm birth on the brain's large-scale intrinsic networks and their relation to brain structure in preterm born adults. In 95 preterm and 83 full-term born adults, structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging at-rest was used to analyze both voxel-based morphometry and spatial patterns of functional connectivity in ongoing blood oxygenation level-dependent activity. Differences in intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) were found in cortical and subcortical networks. Structural differences were located in subcortical, temporal, and cingulate areas. Critically, for preterm born adults, iFC-network differences were overlapping and correlating with aberrant regional gray-matter (GM) volume specifically in subcortical and temporal areas. Overlapping changes were predicted by prematurity and in particular by neonatal medical complications. These results provide evidence that preterm birth has long-lasting effects on functional connectivity of intrinsic networks, and these changes are specifically related to structural alterations in ventral brain GM. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Structural covariance networks in the mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagani, Marco; Bifone, Angelo; Gozzi, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    The presence of networks of correlation between regional gray matter volume as measured across subjects in a group of individuals has been consistently described in several human studies, an approach termed structural covariance MRI (scMRI). Complementary to prevalent brain mapping modalities like functional and diffusion-weighted imaging, the approach can provide precious insights into the mutual influence of trophic and plastic processes in health and pathological states. To investigate whether analogous scMRI networks are present in lower mammal species amenable to genetic and experimental manipulation such as the laboratory mouse, we employed high resolution morphoanatomical MRI in a large cohort of genetically-homogeneous wild-type mice (C57Bl6/J) and mapped scMRI networks using a seed-based approach. We show that the mouse brain exhibits robust homotopic scMRI networks in both primary and associative cortices, a finding corroborated by independent component analyses of cortical volumes. Subcortical structures also showed highly symmetric inter-hemispheric correlations, with evidence of distributed antero-posterior networks in diencephalic regions of the thalamus and hypothalamus. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed six identifiable clusters of cortical and sub-cortical regions corresponding to previously described neuroanatomical systems. Our work documents the presence of homotopic cortical and subcortical scMRI networks in the mouse brain, thus supporting the use of this species to investigate the elusive biological and neuroanatomical underpinnings of scMRI network development and its derangement in neuropathological states. The identification of scMRI networks in genetically homogeneous inbred mice is consistent with the emerging view of a key role of environmental factors in shaping these correlational networks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Regional amino acid transport into brain during diabetes: Effect of plasma amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mans, A.M.; DeJoseph, M.R.; Davis, D.W.; Hawkins, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Transport of phenylalanine and lysine into the brain was measured in 4-wk streptozotocin-diabetic rats to assess the effect on the neutral and basic amino acid transport systems at the blood-brain barrier. Amino acid concentrations in plasma and brain were also measured. Regional permeability-times-surface area (PS) products and influx were determined using a continuous infusion method and quantitative autoradiography. The PS of phenylalanine was decreased by an average of 40% throughout the entire brain. Influx was depressed by 35%. The PS of lysine was increased by an average of 44%, but the influx was decreased by 27%. Several plasma neutral amino acids (branched chain) were increased, whereas all basic amino acids were decreased. Brain tryptophan, phenylalanine, tyrosine, methionine, and lysine contents were markedly decreased. The transport changes were almost entirely accounted for by the alterations in the concentrations of the plasma amino acids that compete for the neutral and basic amino acid carriers. The reduced influx could be responsible for the low brain content of some essential amino acids, with possibly deleterious consequences for brain functions

  16. Positron-emission tomography of brain regions activated by recognition of familiar music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, M; Takeda, K; Nagata, K; Shimosegawa, E; Kuzuhara, S

    2006-05-01

    We can easily recognize familiar music by listening to only one or 2 of its opening bars, but the brain regions that participate in this cognitive processing remain undetermined. We used positron-emission tomography (PET) to study changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) that occur during listening to familiar music. We used a PET subtraction technique to elucidate the brain regions associated with the recognition of familiar melodies such as well-known nursery tunes. Nonmusicians performed 2 kinds of musical tasks: judging the familiarity of musical pieces (familiarity task) and detecting deliberately altered notes in the pieces (alteration-detecting task). During the familiarity task, bilateral anterior portions of bilateral temporal lobes, superior temporal regions, and parahippocampal gyri were activated. The alteration-detecting task bilaterally activated regions in the precunei, superior/inferior parietal lobules, and lateral surface of frontal lobes, which seemed to show a correlation with the analysis of music. We hypothesize that during the familiarity task, activated brain regions participate in retrieval from long-term memory and verbal and emotional processing of familiar melodies. Our results reinforced the hypothesis reported in the literature as a result of group and case studies, that temporal lobe regions participate in the recognition of familiar melodies.

  17. Role of Prion Replication in the Strain-dependent Brain Regional Distribution of Prions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ping Ping; Morales, Rodrigo; Duran-Aniotz, Claudia; Moreno-Gonzalez, Ines; Khan, Uffaf; Soto, Claudio

    2016-06-10

    One intriguing feature of prion diseases is their strain variation. Prion strains are differentiated by the clinical consequences they generate in the host, their biochemical properties, and their potential to infect other animal species. The selective targeting of these agents to specific brain structures have been extensively used to characterize prion strains. However, the molecular basis dictating strain-specific neurotropism are still elusive. In this study, isolated brain structures from animals infected with four hamster prion strains (HY, DY, 139H, and SSLOW) were analyzed for their content of protease-resistant PrP(Sc) Our data show that these strains have different profiles of PrP deposition along the brain. These patterns of accumulation, which were independent of regional PrP(C) production, were not reproduced by in vitro replication when different brain regions were used as substrate for the misfolding-amplification reaction. On the contrary, our results show that in vitro replication efficiency depended exclusively on the amount of PrP(C) present in each part of the brain. Our results suggest that the variable regional distribution of PrP(Sc) in distinct strains is not determined by differences on prion formation, but on other factors or cellular pathways. Our findings may contribute to understand the molecular mechanisms of prion pathogenesis and strain diversity. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Altered regional homogeneity of spontaneous brain activity in idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanping; Zhang, Xiaoling; Guan, Qiaobing; Wan, Lihong; Yi, Yahui; Liu, Chun-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The pathophysiology of idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia (ITN) has conventionally been thought to be induced by neurovascular compression theory. Recent structural brain imaging evidence has suggested an additional central component for ITN pathophysiology. However, far less attention has been given to investigations of the basis of abnormal resting-state brain activity in these patients. The objective of this study was to investigate local brain activity in patients with ITN and its correlation with clinical variables of pain. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 17 patients with ITN and 19 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were analyzed using regional homogeneity (ReHo) analysis, which is a data-driven approach used to measure the regional synchronization of spontaneous brain activity. Patients with ITN had decreased ReHo in the left amygdala, right parahippocampal gyrus, and left cerebellum and increased ReHo in the right inferior temporal gyrus, right thalamus, right inferior parietal lobule, and left postcentral gyrus (corrected). Furthermore, the increase in ReHo in the left precentral gyrus was positively correlated with visual analog scale (r=0.54; P=0.002). Our study found abnormal functional homogeneity of intrinsic brain activity in several regions in ITN, suggesting the maladaptivity of the process of daily pain attacks and a central role for the pathophysiology of ITN.

  19. Brain region's relative proximity as marker for Alzheimer's disease based on structural MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erleben, Lene Lillemark; Sørensen, Lauge Emil; Pai, Akshay Sadananda Uppinakudru

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive, incurable neurodegenerative disease and the most common type of dementia. It cannot be prevented, cured or drastically slowed, even though AD research has increased in the past 5-10 years. Instead of focusing on the brain volume or on the single...... brain structures like hippocampus, this paper investigates the relationship and proximity between regions in the brain and uses this information as a novel way of classifying normal control (NC), mild cognitive impaired (MCI), and AD subjects.METHODS:A longitudinal cohort of 528 subjects (170 NC, 240...... to whole brain and hippocampus volume.RESULTS:We found that both our markers was able to significantly classify the subjects. The surface connectivity marker showed the best results with an area under the curve (AUC) at 0.877 (p...

  20. Differences between child and adult large-scale functional brain networks for reading tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Gao, Yue; Di, Qiqi; Hu, Jiali; Lu, Chunming; Nan, Yun; Booth, James R; Liu, Li

    2018-02-01

    Reading is an important high-level cognitive function of the human brain, requiring interaction among multiple brain regions. Revealing differences between children's large-scale functional brain networks for reading tasks and those of adults helps us to understand how the functional network changes over reading development. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging data of 17 adults (19-28 years old) and 16 children (11-13 years old), and graph theoretical analyses to investigate age-related changes in large-scale functional networks during rhyming and meaning judgment tasks on pairs of visually presented Chinese characters. We found that: (1) adults had stronger inter-regional connectivity and nodal degree in occipital regions, while children had stronger inter-regional connectivity in temporal regions, suggesting that adults rely more on visual orthographic processing whereas children rely more on auditory phonological processing during reading. (2) Only adults showed between-task differences in inter-regional connectivity and nodal degree, whereas children showed no task differences, suggesting the topological organization of adults' reading network is more specialized. (3) Children showed greater inter-regional connectivity and nodal degree than adults in multiple subcortical regions; the hubs in children were more distributed in subcortical regions while the hubs in adults were more distributed in cortical regions. These findings suggest that reading development is manifested by a shift from reliance on subcortical to cortical regions. Taken together, our study suggests that Chinese reading development is supported by developmental changes in brain connectivity properties, and some of these changes may be domain-general while others may be specific to the reading domain. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Brain Regions and Neuropsychological Deficits in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Erdem

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Neurobiological factors had been shown to play an important role in the emergence of obsessive-compulsive disorder by the information obtained from the methods developed over the years. According to the neuropsychological perspective, the defects had been detected mainly in executive functions, in attention, memory, visual-spatial functions; and abnormalities had been described in the frontal lobe, cingulate cortex, basal ganglia, and thalamus regions of the patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. The main and the most repeated abnormalities in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder are dysfunctions in executive function and visual memory. Dysfunctions of the inhibitory processes associated with the dominant frontal area lead to an insufficiency on the inhibition of verbal functions. Excessive activation of the orbitofrontal cortex that mediate the behavioral response suppression function in obsessive-compulsive disorder demonstrated by functional imaging techniques. Repeated-resistant behaviors (eg: compulsions are composed by the deteriorations of the inhibitions of motor or cognitive programs in basal ganglions provided through cycles of frontal lobe. The findings of clinical observations in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder could be considered as a reflection of excessive work in 'error detection system' which is the cause of the thoughts that something goes wrong and efforts to achieve perfection. As neurobiological, this finding is observed as excessive activity in orbitofrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex representing the ability of humans to provide and detect errors. It is is expected to develop the vehicles that are more sensitive to the characteristics of cognitive deficits in obsessive-compulsive disorder. In addition to the neuropsychological tests, using electrophysiological and advanced functional imaging techniques will put forward a better underlying the physiopathology of this disorder in order to

  2. Detection of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury with 3D-enhanced T2* weighted angiography (ESWAN) imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gang, QiangQiang, E-mail: rousikang@163.com; Zhang, Jianing, E-mail: 1325916060@qq.com; Hao, Peng, E-mail: 1043600590@qq.com; Xu, Yikai, E-mail: yikaivip@163.com

    2013-11-01

    Objective: To demonstrate the use of 3D-enhanced T2* weighted angiography (ESWAN) imaging for the observation and quantification of the evolution of brain injury induced by a recently developed model of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HI/R) in neonatal piglets. Methods: For these experiments, newborn piglets were subjected to HI/R injury, during which ESWAN scanning was performed, followed by H and E staining and immunohistochemistry of AQP-4 expression. Results: In the striatum, values from T2* weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) increased and reached their highest level at 3 days post injury, whereas T2* values increased and peaked at 24 h in the subcortical region. The change in T2* values was concordant with brain edema. Phase values in the subcortical border region were not dependent on time post-injury. Magnitude values were significantly different from the control group, and increased gradually over time in the subcortical border region. Susceptibility-weighted images (SWI) indicated small petechial hemorrhages in the striatum and thalamus, as well as dilated intramedullary veins. Conclusion: SWI images can be used to detect white and gray matter microhemorrhages and dilated intramedullary veins. The T2*, phase, and magnitude map can also reflect the development of brain injury. Our data illustrate that ESWAN imaging can increase the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of MRI in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

  3. Detection of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury with 3D-enhanced T2* weighted angiography (ESWAN) imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gang, QiangQiang; Zhang, Jianing; Hao, Peng; Xu, Yikai

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To demonstrate the use of 3D-enhanced T2* weighted angiography (ESWAN) imaging for the observation and quantification of the evolution of brain injury induced by a recently developed model of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HI/R) in neonatal piglets. Methods: For these experiments, newborn piglets were subjected to HI/R injury, during which ESWAN scanning was performed, followed by H and E staining and immunohistochemistry of AQP-4 expression. Results: In the striatum, values from T2* weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) increased and reached their highest level at 3 days post injury, whereas T2* values increased and peaked at 24 h in the subcortical region. The change in T2* values was concordant with brain edema. Phase values in the subcortical border region were not dependent on time post-injury. Magnitude values were significantly different from the control group, and increased gradually over time in the subcortical border region. Susceptibility-weighted images (SWI) indicated small petechial hemorrhages in the striatum and thalamus, as well as dilated intramedullary veins. Conclusion: SWI images can be used to detect white and gray matter microhemorrhages and dilated intramedullary veins. The T2*, phase, and magnitude map can also reflect the development of brain injury. Our data illustrate that ESWAN imaging can increase the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of MRI in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy

  4. Aberrant topological patterns of brain structural network in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Clarissa Lin; Chen, Zhang; Beltramini, Guilherme Coco; Coan, Ana Carolina; Morita, Marcia Elisabete; Kubota, Bruno; Bergo, Felipe; Beaulieu, Christian; Cendes, Fernando; Gross, Donald William

    2015-12-01

    Although altered large-scale brain network organization in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) has been shown using morphologic measurements such as cortical thickness, these studies, have not included critical subcortical structures (such as hippocampus and amygdala) and have had relatively small sample sizes. Here, we investigated differences in topological organization of the brain volumetric networks between patients with right TLE (RTLE) and left TLE (LTLE) with unilateral hippocampal atrophy. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 86 LTLE patients, 70 RTLE patients, and 116 controls. RTLE and LTLE groups were balanced for gender (p = 0.64), seizure frequency (Mann-Whitney U test, p = 0.94), age (p = 0.39), age of seizure onset (p = 0.21), and duration of disease (p = 0.69). Brain networks were constructed by thresholding correlation matrices of volumes from 80 cortical/subcortical regions (parcellated with Freesurfer v5.3 https://surfer.nmr.mgh.harvard.edu/) that were then analyzed using graph theoretical approaches. We identified reduced cortical/subcortical connectivity including bilateral hippocampus in both TLE groups, with the most significant interregional correlation increases occurring within the limbic system in LTLE and contralateral hemisphere in RTLE. Both TLE groups demonstrated less optimal topological organization, with decreased global efficiency and increased local efficiency and clustering coefficient. LTLE also displayed a more pronounced network disruption. Contrary to controls, hub nodes in both TLE groups were not distributed across whole brain, but rather found primarily in the paralimbic/limbic and temporal association cortices. Regions with increased centrality were concentrated in occipital lobes for LTLE and contralateral limbic/temporal areas for RTLE. These findings provide first evidence of altered topological organization of the whole brain volumetric network in TLE, with disruption of the coordinated patterns of

  5. Regional brain gray and white matter changes in perinatally HIV-infected adolescents☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Manoj K.; Nagarajan, Rajakumar; Keller, Margaret A.; Kumar, Rajesh; Nielsen-Saines, Karin; Michalik, David E.; Deville, Jaime; Church, Joseph A.; Thomas, M. Albert

    2013-01-01

    Despite the success of antiretroviral therapy (ART), perinatally infected HIV remains a major health problem worldwide. Although advance neuroimaging studies have investigated structural brain changes in HIV-infected adults, regional gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volume changes have not been reported in perinatally HIV-infected adolescents and young adults. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated regional GM and WM changes in 16 HIV-infected youths receiving ART (age 17.0 ± 2.9 years) compared with age-matched 14 healthy controls (age 16.3 ± 2.3 years) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based high-resolution T1-weighted images with voxel based morphometry (VBM) analyses. White matter atrophy appeared in perinatally HIV-infected youths in brain areas including the bilateral posterior corpus callosum (CC), bilateral external capsule, bilateral ventral temporal WM, mid cerebral peduncles, and basal pons over controls. Gray matter volume increase was observed in HIV-infected youths for several regions including the left superior frontal gyrus, inferior occipital gyrus, gyrus rectus, right mid cingulum, parahippocampal gyrus, bilateral inferior temporal gyrus, and middle temporal gyrus compared with controls. Global WM and GM volumes did not differ significantly between groups. These results indicate WM injury in perinatally HIV-infected youths, but the interpretation of the GM results, which appeared as increased regional volumes, is not clear. Further longitudinal studies are needed to clarify if our results represent active ongoing brain infection or toxicity from HIV treatment resulting in neuronal cell swelling and regional increased GM volume. Our findings suggest that assessment of regional GM and WM volume changes, based on VBM procedures, may be an additional measure to assess brain integrity in HIV-infected youths and to evaluate success of current ART therapy for efficacy in the brain. PMID:24380059

  6. Regional brain gray and white matter changes in perinatally HIV-infected adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj K. Sarma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the success of antiretroviral therapy (ART, perinatally infected HIV remains a major health problem worldwide. Although advance neuroimaging studies have investigated structural brain changes in HIV-infected adults, regional gray matter (GM and white matter (WM volume changes have not been reported in perinatally HIV-infected adolescents and young adults. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated regional GM and WM changes in 16 HIV-infected youths receiving ART (age 17.0 ± 2.9 years compared with age-matched 14 healthy controls (age 16.3 ± 2.3 years using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI-based high-resolution T1-weighted images with voxel based morphometry (VBM analyses. White matter atrophy appeared in perinatally HIV-infected youths in brain areas including the bilateral posterior corpus callosum (CC, bilateral external capsule, bilateral ventral temporal WM, mid cerebral peduncles, and basal pons over controls. Gray matter volume increase was observed in HIV-infected youths for several regions including the left superior frontal gyrus, inferior occipital gyrus, gyrus rectus, right mid cingulum, parahippocampal gyrus, bilateral inferior temporal gyrus, and middle temporal gyrus compared with controls. Global WM and GM volumes did not differ significantly between groups. These results indicate WM injury in perinatally HIV-infected youths, but the interpretation of the GM results, which appeared as increased regional volumes, is not clear. Further longitudinal studies are needed to clarify if our results represent active ongoing brain infection or toxicity from HIV treatment resulting in neuronal cell swelling and regional increased GM volume. Our findings suggest that assessment of regional GM and WM volume changes, based on VBM procedures, may be an additional measure to assess brain integrity in HIV-infected youths and to evaluate success of current ART therapy for efficacy in the brain.

  7. Cognitive control of drug craving inhibits brain reward regions in cocaine abusers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkow, N.D.; Fowler, J.; Wang, G.J.; Telang, F.; Logan, J.; Jayne, M.; Ma, Y.; Pradhan, K.; Wong, C.T.; Swanson, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Loss of control over drug taking is considered a hallmark of addiction and is critical in relapse. Dysfunction of frontal brain regions involved with inhibitory control may underlie this behavior. We evaluated whether addicted subjects when instructed to purposefully control their craving responses to drug-conditioned stimuli can inhibit limbic brain regions implicated in drug craving. We used PET and 2-deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-D-glucose to measure brain glucose metabolism (marker of brain function) in 24 cocaine abusers who watched a cocaine-cue video and compared brain activation with and without instructions to cognitively inhibit craving. A third scan was obtained at baseline (without video). Statistical parametric mapping was used for analysis and corroborated with regions of interest. The cocaine-cue video increased craving during the no-inhibition condition (pre 3 {+-} 3, post 6 {+-} 3; p < 0.001) but not when subjects were instructed to inhibit craving (pre 3 {+-} 2, post 3 {+-} 3). Comparisons with baseline showed visual activation for both cocaine-cue conditions and limbic inhibition (accumbens, orbitofrontal, insula, cingulate) when subjects purposefully inhibited craving (p < 0.001). Comparison between cocaine-cue conditions showed lower metabolism with cognitive inhibition in right orbitofrontal cortex and right accumbens (p < 0.005), which was associated with right inferior frontal activation (r = -0.62, p < 0.005). Decreases in metabolism in brain regions that process the predictive (nucleus accumbens) and motivational value (orbitofrontal cortex) of drug-conditioned stimuli were elicited by instruction to inhibit cue-induced craving. This suggests that cocaine abusers may retain some ability to inhibit craving and that strengthening fronto-accumbal regulation may be therapeutically beneficial in addiction.

  8. Neuropeptide processing in regional brain slices: Effect of conformation and sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Z.W.; Bijl, W.A.; van Nispen, J.W.; Brendel, K.; Davis, T.P. (Univ. of Arizona, Tucson (USA))

    1990-05-01

    The central enzymatic stability of des-enkephalin-gamma-endorphin and its synthetic analogs (cycloN alpha 6, C delta 11)beta-endorphin-(6-17) and (Pro7, Lys(Ac)9)-beta-endorphin(6-17) was studied in vitro using a newly developed, regionally dissected rat brain slice, time course incubation procedure. Tissue slice viability was estimated as the ability of the brain slice to take up or release gamma-(3H)aminobutyric acid after high K+ stimulation. Results demonstrated stability of uptake/release up to 5 hr of incubation, suggesting tissue viability over this period. The estimated half-life of peptides based on the results obtained in our incubation protocol suggest that the peptides studied are metabolized at different rates in the individual brain regions tested. A good correlation exists between the high enzyme activity of neutral endopeptidase and the rapid degradation of des-enkephalin-gamma-endorphin and (cycloN alpha 6, C delata 11)beta-endorphin-(6-17) in caudate putamen. Proline substitution combined with lysine acetylation appears to improve resistance to enzymatic metabolism in caudate putamen and hypothalamus. However, cyclization of des-enkephalin-gamma-endorphin forming an amide bond between the alpha-NH2 of the N-terminal threonine and the gamma-COOH of glutamic acid did not improve peptide stability in any brain region tested. The present study has shown that the brain slice technique is a valid and unique approach to study neuropeptide metabolism in small, discrete regions of rat brain where peptides, peptidases and receptors are colocalized and that specific structural modifications can improve peptide stability.

  9. Cognitive control of drug craving inhibits brain reward regions in cocaine abusers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkow, N.D.; Fowler, J.; Wang, G.J.; Telang, F.; Logan, J.; Jayne, M.; Ma, Y.; Pradhan, K.; Wong, C.T.; Swanson, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Loss of control over drug taking is considered a hallmark of addiction and is critical in relapse. Dysfunction of frontal brain regions involved with inhibitory control may underlie this behavior. We evaluated whether addicted subjects when instructed to purposefully control their craving responses to drug-conditioned stimuli can inhibit limbic brain regions implicated in drug craving. We used PET and 2-deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-D-glucose to measure brain glucose metabolism (marker of brain function) in 24 cocaine abusers who watched a cocaine-cue video and compared brain activation with and without instructions to cognitively inhibit craving. A third scan was obtained at baseline (without video). Statistical parametric mapping was used for analysis and corroborated with regions of interest. The cocaine-cue video increased craving during the no-inhibition condition (pre 3 ± 3, post 6 ± 3; p < 0.001) but not when subjects were instructed to inhibit craving (pre 3 ± 2, post 3 ± 3). Comparisons with baseline showed visual activation for both cocaine-cue conditions and limbic inhibition (accumbens, orbitofrontal, insula, cingulate) when subjects purposefully inhibited craving (p < 0.001). Comparison between cocaine-cue conditions showed lower metabolism with cognitive inhibition in right orbitofrontal cortex and right accumbens (p < 0.005), which was associated with right inferior frontal activation (r = -0.62, p < 0.005). Decreases in metabolism in brain regions that process the predictive (nucleus accumbens) and motivational value (orbitofrontal cortex) of drug-conditioned stimuli were elicited by instruction to inhibit cue-induced craving. This suggests that cocaine abusers may retain some ability to inhibit craving and that strengthening fronto-accumbal regulation may be therapeutically beneficial in addiction.

  10. Major Shifts in Glial Regional Identity Are a Transcriptional Hallmark of Human Brain Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilach Soreq

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene expression studies suggest that aging of the human brain is determined by a complex interplay of molecular events, although both its region- and cell-type-specific consequences remain poorly understood. Here, we extensively characterized aging-altered gene expression changes across ten human brain regions from 480 individuals ranging in age from 16 to 106 years. We show that astrocyte- and oligodendrocyte-specific genes, but not neuron-specific genes, shift their regional expression patterns upon aging, particularly in the hippocampus and substantia nigra, while the expression of microglia- and endothelial-specific genes increase in all brain regions. In line with these changes, high-resolution immunohistochemistry demonstrated decreased numbers of oligodendrocytes and of neuronal subpopulations in the aging brain cortex. Finally, glial-specific genes predict age with greater precision than neuron-specific genes, thus highlighting the need for greater mechanistic understanding of neuron-glia interactions in aging and late-life diseases.

  11. Major Shifts in Glial Regional Identity Are a Transcriptional Hallmark of Human Brain Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soreq, Lilach; Rose, Jamie; Soreq, Eyal; Hardy, John; Trabzuni, Daniah; Cookson, Mark R; Smith, Colin; Ryten, Mina; Patani, Rickie; Ule, Jernej

    2017-01-10

    Gene expression studies suggest that aging of the human brain is determined by a complex interplay of molecular events, although both its region- and cell-type-specific consequences remain poorly understood. Here, we extensively characterized aging-altered gene expression changes across ten human brain regions from 480 individuals ranging in age from 16 to 106 years. We show that astrocyte- and oligodendrocyte-specific genes, but not neuron-specific genes, shift their regional expression patterns upon aging, particularly in the hippocampus and substantia nigra, while the expression of microglia- and endothelial-specific genes increase in all brain regions. In line with these changes, high-resolution immunohistochemistry demonstrated decreased numbers of oligodendrocytes and of neuronal subpopulations in the aging brain cortex. Finally, glial-specific genes predict age with greater precision than neuron-specific genes, thus highlighting the need for greater mechanistic understanding of neuron-glia interactions in aging and late-life diseases. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Brain regions for sound processing and song release in a small grasshopper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balvantray Bhavsar, Mit; Stumpner, Andreas; Heinrich, Ralf

    2017-05-01

    We investigated brain regions - mostly neuropils - that process auditory information relevant for the initiation of response songs of female grasshoppers Chorthippus biguttulus during bidirectional intraspecific acoustic communication. Male-female acoustic duets in the species Ch. biguttulus require the perception of sounds, their recognition as a species- and gender-specific signal and the initiation of commands that activate thoracic pattern generating circuits to drive the sound-producing stridulatory movements of the hind legs. To study sensory-to-motor processing during acoustic communication we used multielectrodes that allowed simultaneous recordings of acoustically stimulated electrical activity from several ascending auditory interneurons or local brain neurons and subsequent electrical stimulation of the recording site. Auditory activity was detected in the lateral protocerebrum (where most of the described ascending auditory interneurons terminate), in the superior medial protocerebrum and in the central complex, that has previously been implicated in the control of sound production. Neural responses to behaviorally attractive sound stimuli showed no or only poor correlation with behavioral responses. Current injections into the lateral protocerebrum, the central complex and the deuto-/tritocerebrum (close to the cerebro-cervical fascicles), but not into the superior medial protocerebrum, elicited species-typical stridulation with high success rate. Latencies and numbers of phrases produced by electrical stimulation were different between these brain regions. Our results indicate three brain regions (likely neuropils) where auditory activity can be detected with two of these regions being potentially involved in song initiation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Age-and Brain Region-Specific Differences in Mitochondrial Bioenergetics in Brown Norway Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitochondria are central regulators of energy homeostasis and play a pivotal role in mechanisms of cellular senescence. The objective of the present study was to evaluate mitochondrial bio­-energetic parameters in five brain regions [brainstem (BS), frontal cortex (FC), cerebellu...

  14. Comparison of Regional Brain Perfusion Levels in Chronically Smoking and Non-Smoking Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy C. Durazzo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Chronic cigarette smoking is associated with numerous abnormalities in brain neurobiology, but few studies specifically investigated the chronic effects of smoking (compared to the acute effects of smoking, nicotine administration, or nicotine withdrawal on cerebral perfusion (i.e., blood flow. Predominately middle-aged male (47 ± 11 years of age smokers (n = 34 and non-smokers (n = 27 were compared on regional cortical perfusion measured by continuous arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance studies at 4 Tesla. Smokers showed significantly lower perfusion than non-smokers in the bilateral medial and lateral orbitofrontal cortices, bilateral inferior parietal lobules, bilateral superior temporal gyri, left posterior cingulate, right isthmus of cingulate, and right supramarginal gyrus. Greater lifetime duration of smoking (adjusted for age was related to lower perfusion in multiple brain regions. The results indicated smokers showed significant perfusion deficits in anterior cortical regions implicated in the development, progression, and maintenance of all addictive disorders. Smokers concurrently demonstrated reduced blood flow in posterior brain regions that show morphological and metabolic aberrations as well as elevated beta amyloid deposition demonstrated by those with early stage Alzheimer disease. The findings provide additional novel evidence of the adverse effects of cigarette smoking on the human brain.

  15. Age- and brain region-dependent α-synuclein oligomerization is attributed to alterations in intrinsic enzymes regulating α-synuclein phosphorylation in aging monkey brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min; Yang, Weiwei; Li, Xin; Li, Xuran; Wang, Peng; Yue, Feng; Yang, Hui; Chan, Piu; Yu, Shun

    2016-02-23

    We previously reported that the levels of α-syn oligomers, which play pivotal pathogenic roles in age-related Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies, increase heterogeneously in the aging brain. Here, we show that exogenous α-syn incubated with brain extracts from older cynomolgus monkeys and in Lewy body pathology (LBP)-susceptible brain regions (striatum and hippocampus) forms higher amounts of phosphorylated and oligomeric α-syn than that in extracts from younger monkeys and LBP-insusceptible brain regions (cerebellum and occipital cortex). The increased α-syn phosphorylation and oligomerization in the brain extracts from older monkeys and in LBP-susceptible brain regions were associated with higher levels of polo-like kinase 2 (PLK2), an enzyme promoting α-syn phosphorylation, and lower activity of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), an enzyme inhibiting α-syn phosphorylation, in these brain extracts. Further, the extent of the age- and brain-dependent increase in α-syn phosphorylation and oligomerization was reduced by inhibition of PLK2 and activation of PP2A. Inversely, phosphorylated α-syn oligomers reduced the activity of PP2A and showed potent cytotoxicity. In addition, the activity of GCase and the levels of ceramide, a product of GCase shown to activate PP2A, were lower in brain extracts from older monkeys and in LBP-susceptible brain regions. Our results suggest a role for altered intrinsic metabolic enzymes in age- and brain region-dependent α-syn oligomerization in aging brains.

  16. Region-specific maturation of cerebral cortex in human fetal brain: diffusion tensor imaging and histology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivedi, Richa; Gupta, Rakesh K.; Saksena, Sona; Husain, Nuzhat; Srivastava, Savita; Rathore, Ram K.S.; Sarma, Manoj K.; Malik, Gyanendra K.; Das, Vinita; Pradhan, Mandakini; Pandey, Chandra M.; Narayana, Ponnada A.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunohistochemical analysis in different cortical regions in fetal brains at different gestational age (GA) were performed. DTI was performed on 50 freshly aborted fetal brains with GA ranging from 12 to 42 weeks to compare age-related fractional anisotropy (FA) changes in different cerebral cortical regions that include frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes at the level of thalami. GFAP immunostaining was performed and the percentage of GFAP-positive areas was quantified. The cortical FA values in the frontal lobe peaked at around 26 weeks of GA, occipital and temporal lobes at around 20 weeks, and parietal lobe at around 23 weeks. A significant, but modest, positive correlation (r=0.31, p=0.02) was observed between cortical FA values and percentage area of GFAP expression in cortical region around the time period during which the migrational events are at its peak, i.e., GA ≤ 28 weeks for frontal cortical region and GA≤22 weeks for rest of the lobes. The DTI-derived FA quantification with its GFAP immunohistologic correlation in cortical regions of the various lobes of the cerebral hemispheres supports region-specific migrational and maturational events in human fetal brain. (orig.)

  17. Region-specific maturation of cerebral cortex in human fetal brain: diffusion tensor imaging and histology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivedi, Richa; Gupta, Rakesh K.; Saksena, Sona [Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiodiagnosis, Lucknow, UP (India); Husain, Nuzhat; Srivastava, Savita [CSM Medical University, Department of Pathology, Lucknow (India); Rathore, Ram K.S.; Sarma, Manoj K. [Indian Institute of Technology, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Kanpur (India); Malik, Gyanendra K. [CSM Medical University, Department of Pediatrics, Lucknow (India); Das, Vinita [CSM Medical University, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Lucknow (India); Pradhan, Mandakini [Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Medical Genetics, Lucknow (India); Pandey, Chandra M. [Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Biostatistics, Lucknow (India); Narayana, Ponnada A. [University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, Houston, TX (United States)

    2009-09-15

    In this study, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunohistochemical analysis in different cortical regions in fetal brains at different gestational age (GA) were performed. DTI was performed on 50 freshly aborted fetal brains with GA ranging from 12 to 42 weeks to compare age-related fractional anisotropy (FA) changes in different cerebral cortical regions that include frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes at the level of thalami. GFAP immunostaining was performed and the percentage of GFAP-positive areas was quantified. The cortical FA values in the frontal lobe peaked at around 26 weeks of GA, occipital and temporal lobes at around 20 weeks, and parietal lobe at around 23 weeks. A significant, but modest, positive correlation (r=0.31, p=0.02) was observed between cortical FA values and percentage area of GFAP expression in cortical region around the time period during which the migrational events are at its peak, i.e., GA {<=} 28 weeks for frontal cortical region and GA{<=}22 weeks for rest of the lobes. The DTI-derived FA quantification with its GFAP immunohistologic correlation in cortical regions of the various lobes of the cerebral hemispheres supports region-specific migrational and maturational events in human fetal brain. (orig.)

  18. Delineation of separate brain regions used for scientific versus engineering modes of thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Clair C.

    1994-08-01

    Powerful, latent abilities for extreme sophistication in abstract rationalization as potential biological adaptive behavioral responses were installed entirely through accident and inadvertence by biological evolution in the Homo sapiens sapiens species of brain. These potentials were never used, either in precursor species as factors in evolutionary increase in hominid brain mass, nor in less sophisticated forms within social environments characterized by Hss tribal brain population densities. Those latent abilities for unnatural biological adaptive behavior were forced to become manifest in various ways by growths in sophistication of communication interactions engendered by large growths in brain population densities brought on by developments in agriculture at the onset of the Holocene. It is proposed that differences probably exist between regions of the Hss brain involved in utilitarian, engineering types of problem conceptualization-solving versus regions of the brain involved in nonutilitarian, artistic-scientific types of problem conceptualization-solving. Populations isolated on separate continents from diffusive contact and influence on cultural developments, and selected for comparison of developments during equivalent stages of technological and social sophistication in matching 4000 year periods, show, at the ends of those periods, marked differences in aesthetic attributes expressed in cosmogonies, music, and writing (nonutilitarian thinking related to science and art). On the other hand the two cultures show virtually identical developments in three major stages of metallurgical technologies (utilitarian thinking related to engineering). Such archaeological data suggest that utilitarian modes of thought may utilize combinations of neuronal circuits in brain regions that are conserved among tribal populations territorially separated from each other for tens of thousands of years. Such conservation may not be true for neuronal circuits involved in

  19. Serotonin regulates brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in select brain regions during acute psychological stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De-guo Jiang; Shi-li Jin; Gong-ying Li; Qing-qing Li; Zhi-ruo Li; Hong-xia Ma; Chuan-jun Zhuo; Rong-huan Jiang; Min-jie Ye

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that serotonin (5-HT) might interact with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) during the stress response. However, the relationship between 5-HT and BDNF expression under purely psychological stress is unclear. In this study, one hour before psychological stress exposure, the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT or antagonist MDL73005, or the 5-HT2A receptor agonist DOI or antagonist ketanserin were administered to rats exposed to psychological stress. Immunohistochemistry andin situ hybridization revealed that after psychological stress, with the exception of the ventral tegmental area, BDNF protein and mRNA expression levels were higher in the 5-HT1A and the 5-HT2A receptor agonist groups compared with the solvent control no-stress or psychological stress group in the CA1 and CA3 of the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, central amygdaloid nucleus, dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, dentate gyrus, shell of the nucleus accumbens and the midbrain periaqueductal gray. There was no signiifcant difference between the two agonist groups. In contrast, after stress exposure, BDNF protein and mRNA expression levels were lower in the 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptor antagonist groups than in the solvent control non-stress group, with the exception of the ventral tegmental area. Our ifndings suggest that 5-HT regulates BDNF expression in a rat model of acute psychological stress.

  20. Normal regional brain iron concentration in restless legs syndrome measured by MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Knake

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Susanne Knake1, Johannes T Heverhagen2, Katja Menzler1, Boris Keil2, Wolfgang H Oertel1, Karin Stiasny-Kolster11Department of Neurology, Center of Nervous Diseases, 2Department of Radiology, Philipps University, Marburg, GermanyAbstract: Using a T2* gradient echo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI sequence, regional T2 signal intensity (SI values, a surrogate marker for T2 values, were determined in 12 regions of interest (substantia nigra, pallidum, caudate head, thalamus, occipital white matter, and frontal white matter bilaterally and in two reference regions (cerebrospinal fluid and bone in 12 patients suffering from moderate to severe idiopathic restless legs syndrome (RLS; mean age 58.5 ± 8.7 years for 12.1 ± 9.1 years and in 12 healthy control subjects (mean age 56.8 ± 10.6 years. Iron deposits shorten T2 relaxation times on T2-weighted MRI. We used regional T2* SI to estimate regional T2-values. A T2-change ratio was calculated for each region of interest relative to the reference regions. We did not find significant differences in any of the investigated brain regions. In addition, serum measures involved in iron metabolism did not correlate with T2 SI values. We could not replicate earlier findings describing reduced regional brain iron concentrations in patients with RLS. Our results do not support the view of substantially impaired regional brain iron in RLS.Keywords: restless legs syndrome, pathophysiology, iron, MRI, substantia nigra

  1. Novel region of interest interrogation technique for diffusion tensor imaging analysis in the canine brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jonathan Y; Middleton, Dana M; Chen, Steven; White, Leonard; Ellinwood, N Matthew; Dickson, Patricia; Vite, Charles; Bradbury, Allison; Provenzale, James M

    2017-08-01

    Purpose We describe a novel technique for measuring diffusion tensor imaging metrics in the canine brain. We hypothesized that a standard method for region of interest placement could be developed that is highly reproducible, with less than 10% difference in measurements between raters. Methods Two sets of canine brains (three seven-week-old full-brains and two 17-week-old single hemispheres) were scanned ex-vivo on a 7T small-animal magnetic resonance imaging system. Strict region of interest placement criteria were developed and then used by two raters to independently measure diffusion tensor imaging metrics within four different white-matter regions within each specimen. Average values of fractional anisotropy, radial diffusivity, and the three eigenvalues (λ1, λ2, and λ3) within each region in each specimen overall and within each individual image slice were compared between raters by calculating the percentage difference between raters for each metric. Results The mean percentage difference between raters for all diffusion tensor imaging metrics when pooled by each region and specimen was 1.44% (range: 0.01-5.17%). The mean percentage difference between raters for all diffusion tensor imaging metrics when compared by individual image slice was 2.23% (range: 0.75-4.58%) per hemisphere. Conclusion Our results indicate that the technique described is highly reproducible, even when applied to canine specimens of differing age, morphology, and image resolution. We propose this technique for future studies of diffusion tensor imaging analysis in canine brains and for cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of canine brain models of human central nervous system disease.

  2. On the blood-brain barrier to peptides: [3H]gonadotropin-releasing hormone accumulation by eighteen regions of the rat brain and by anterior pituitary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermisch, A.; Ruehle, H.J.; Klauschenz, E.; Kretzschmar, R.

    1984-01-01

    After intracarotid injection of [ 3 H]gonadotropin-releasing hormone ([ 3 H]GnRH) the mean accumulation of radioactivity per unit wet weight of 18 brain samples investigated and the anterior pituitary was 0.38 +- 0.11% g -1 of the injected tracer dose. This indicates a low but measurable brain uptake of the peptide. The brain uptake of [ 3 H]GnRH in blood-brain barrier (BBB)-protected regions is 5% of that of separately investigated [ 3 H]OH. In BBB-free regions the accumulation of radioactivity was more than 25-fold higher than in BBB-protected regions. The accumulation of [ 3 H]GnRH among regions with BBB varies less than among regions with leaky endothelia. The data presented for [ 3 H]GnRH are similar to those for other peptides so far investigated. (author)

  3. Individual differences in personality traits reflect structural variance in specific brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardini, Simona; Cloninger, C Robert; Venneri, Annalena

    2009-06-30

    Personality dimensions such as novelty seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA), reward dependence (RD) and persistence (PER) are said to be heritable, stable across time and dependent on genetic and neurobiological factors. Recently a better understanding of the relationship between personality traits and brain structures/systems has become possible due to advances in neuroimaging techniques. This Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) study investigated if individual differences in these personality traits reflected structural variance in specific brain regions. A large sample of eighty five young adult participants completed the Three-dimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) and had their brain imaged with MRI. A voxel-based correlation analysis was carried out between individuals' personality trait scores and grey matter volume values extracted from 3D brain scans. NS correlated positively with grey matter volume in frontal and posterior cingulate regions. HA showed a negative correlation with grey matter volume in orbito-frontal, occipital and parietal structures. RD was negatively correlated with grey matter volume in the caudate nucleus and in the rectal frontal gyrus. PER showed a positive correlation with grey matter volume in the precuneus, paracentral lobule and parahippocampal gyrus. These results indicate that individual differences in the main personality dimensions of NS, HA, RD and PER, may reflect structural variance in specific brain areas.

  4. Regional brain activation associated with addiction of computer games in adolescents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Y. H.; Shin, O. J.; Ko, Y. W.; Kim, H. J.; Yun, M. J.; Lee, J. D. [College of Medicine, Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    Excessive computer game (CG) playing may cause not only behavioral addiction, but also potential negative effects on developing brain. It is necessary to reveal how brain is affected by excessive use of CG playing and behavioral addiction of it. By using PET, we address the issue seeking to identifying patterns of regional brain activation associated with behavioral addiction and excessive use of CG playing by adolescents. 6 normal control and 8 adolescents who were met by the criteria of behavioral addiction on the survey as addiction groups with an addiction of CG playing were participated. Initial screening survey which is the adapted version of DSM-IV for pathologic gambling was done. PET were performed twice in each participants both during resting state and after 20 min playing of CG. Psychological test including Youth Self Report (YSR), memory and attention test and vocabulary item from KWAIS were performed. Scores of the vocabulary item from KWAIS and social competence from YSR were significantly lower in the addiction group. On PET, addiction group showed higher resting metabolism on inferior frontal, premotor, prefrontal and superior temporal area. Adolescents with addiction of CG revealed different patterns of regional brain activation comparing to control groups. These suggest behavioral addiction and excessive use of CG may result in functional alteration of developing brain in adolescents.

  5. Regional brain activation associated with addiction of computer games in adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Y. H.; Shin, O. J.; Ko, Y. W.; Kim, H. J.; Yun, M. J.; Lee, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Excessive computer game (CG) playing may cause not only behavioral addiction, but also potential negative effects on developing brain. It is necessary to reveal how brain is affected by excessive use of CG playing and behavioral addiction of it. By using PET, we address the issue seeking to identifying patterns of regional brain activation associated with behavioral addiction and excessive use of CG playing by adolescents. 6 normal control and 8 adolescents who were met by the criteria of behavioral addiction on the survey as addiction groups with an addiction of CG playing were participated. Initial screening survey which is the adapted version of DSM-IV for pathologic gambling was done. PET were performed twice in each participants both during resting state and after 20 min playing of CG. Psychological test including Youth Self Report (YSR), memory and attention test and vocabulary item from KWAIS were performed. Scores of the vocabulary item from KWAIS and social competence from YSR were significantly lower in the addiction group. On PET, addiction group showed higher resting metabolism on inferior frontal, premotor, prefrontal and superior temporal area. Adolescents with addiction of CG revealed different patterns of regional brain activation comparing to control groups. These suggest behavioral addiction and excessive use of CG may result in functional alteration of developing brain in adolescents

  6. Regional brain glucose use in unstressed rats after two days of starvation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mans, A.M.; Davis, D.W.; Hawkins, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Regional brain glucose use was measured in conscious, unrestrained, fed rats and after 2 days of starvation, using quantitative autoradiography and [6- 14 C]glucose. Plasma glucose, lactate, and ketone body concentrations and brain glucose and lactate content were measured in separate groups of rats. Glucose concentrations were lower in starved rats in both plasma and brain; plasma ketone body concentrations were elevated. Glucose use was found to be lower throughout the brain by about 12%. While some areas seemed to be affected more than others, statistical analysis showed that none were exceptionally different. The results could not be explained by increased loss of 14 C as lactate or pyruvate during the experimental period, because the arteriovenous differences of these species were insignificant. The calculated contribution by ketone bodies to the total energy consumption was between 3 and 9% for the brain as a whole in the starved rats and could, therefore, partially account for the depression seen in glucose use. It was concluded that glucose oxidation is slightly depressed throughout the brain after 2 days of starvation

  7. Axial diffusivity changes in the motor pathway above stroke foci and functional recovery after subcortical infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Peng, Kangqiang; Dang, Chao; Tan, Shuangquan; Chen, Hongbing; Xie, Chuanmiao; Xing, Shihui; Zeng, Jinsheng

    2018-01-01

    Secondary degeneration of the fiber tract of the motor pathway below infarct foci and functional recovery after stroke have been well demonstrated, but the role of the fiber tract above stroke foci remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate diffusion changes in motor fibers above the lesion and identify predictors of motor improvement within 12 weeks after subcortical infarction. Diffusion tensor imaging and the Fugl-Meyer (FM) scale were conducted 1, 4, and 12 weeks (W) after a subcortical infarct. Proportional recovery model residuals were used to assign patients to proportional recovery and poor recovery groups. Region of interest analysis was used to assess diffusion changes in the motor pathway above and below a stroke lesion. Multivariable linear regression was employed to identify predictors of motor improvement within 12 weeks after stroke. Axial diffusivity (AD) in the underlying white matter of the ipsilesional primary motor area (PMA) and cerebral peduncle (CP) in both proportional and poor recovery groups was lower at W1 compared to the controls and values in the contralesional PMA and CP (all P motor improvement within 12 weeks after stroke in patients with proportional or poor recovery. Increases of AD in the motor pathway above stroke foci may be associated with motor recovery after subcortical infarction. Early measurement of diffusion metrics in the ipsilesional non-ischemic motor pathway has limited value in predicting future motor improvement patterns (proportional or poor recovery).

  8. Behavioral and subcortical signatures of musical expertise in Mandarin Chinese speakers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin Dawson

    Full Text Available Both musical training and native language have been shown to have experience-based plastic effects on auditory processing. However, the combined effects within individuals are unclear. Recent research suggests that musical training and tone language speaking are not clearly additive in their effects on processing of auditory features and that there may be a disconnect between perceptual and neural signatures of auditory feature processing. The literature has only recently begun to investigate the effects of musical expertise on basic auditory processing for different linguistic groups. This work provides a profile of primary auditory feature discrimination for Mandarin speaking musicians and nonmusicians. The musicians showed enhanced perceptual discrimination for both frequency and duration as well as enhanced duration discrimination in a multifeature discrimination task, compared to nonmusicians. However, there were no differences between the groups in duration processing of nonspeech sounds at a subcortical level or in subcortical frequency representation of a nonnative tone contour, for fo or for the first or second formant region. The results indicate that musical expertise provides a cognitive, but not subcortical, advantage in a population of Mandarin speakers.

  9. Shared rhythmic subcortical GABAergic input to the entorhinal cortex and presubiculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viney, Tim James; Salib, Minas; Joshi, Abhilasha; Unal, Gunes; Berry, Naomi; Somogyi, Peter

    2018-04-05

    Rhythmic theta frequency (~5-12 Hz) oscillations coordinate neuronal synchrony and higher frequency oscillations across the cortex. Spatial navigation and context-dependent episodic memories are represented in several interconnected regions including the hippocampal and entorhinal cortices, but the cellular mechanisms for their dynamic coupling remain to be defined. Using monosynaptically-restricted retrograde viral tracing in mice, we identified a subcortical GABAergic input from the medial septum that terminated in the entorhinal cortex, with collaterals innervating the dorsal presubiculum. Extracellularly recording and labeling GABAergic entorhinal-projecting neurons in awake behaving mice show that these subcortical neurons, named orchid cells, fire in long rhythmic bursts during immobility and locomotion. Orchid cells discharge near the peak of hippocampal and entorhinal theta oscillations, couple to entorhinal gamma oscillations, and target subpopulations of extra-hippocampal GABAergic interneurons. Thus, orchid cells are a specialized source of rhythmic subcortical GABAergic modulation of 'upstream' and 'downstream' cortico-cortical circuits involved in mnemonic functions. © 2018, Viney et al.

  10. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes through Integrated Study of Alzheimer's Disease Affected Brain Regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha Puthiyedth

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is the most common form of dementia in older adults that damages the brain and results in impaired memory, thinking and behaviour. The identification of differentially expressed genes and related pathways among affected brain regions can provide more information on the mechanisms of AD. In the past decade, several studies have reported many genes that are associated with AD. This wealth of information has become difficult to follow and interpret as most of the results are conflicting. In that case, it is worth doing an integrated study of multiple datasets that helps to increase the total number of samples and the statistical power in detecting biomarkers. In this study, we present an integrated analysis of five different brain region datasets and introduce new genes that warrant further investigation.The aim of our study is to apply a novel combinatorial optimisation based meta-analysis approach to identify differentially expressed genes that are associated to AD across brain regions. In this study, microarray gene expression data from 161 samples (74 non-demented controls, 87 AD from the Entorhinal Cortex (EC, Hippocampus (HIP, Middle temporal gyrus (MTG, Posterior cingulate cortex (PC, Superior frontal gyrus (SFG and visual cortex (VCX brain regions were integrated and analysed using our method. The results are then compared to two popular meta-analysis methods, RankProd and GeneMeta, and to what can be obtained by analysing the individual datasets.We find genes related with AD that are consistent with existing studies, and new candidate genes not previously related with AD. Our study confirms the up-regualtion of INFAR2 and PTMA along with the down regulation of GPHN, RAB2A, PSMD14 and FGF. Novel genes PSMB2, WNK1, RPL15, SEMA4C, RWDD2A and LARGE are found to be differentially expressed across all brain regions. Further investigation on these genes may provide new insights into the development of AD. In addition, we

  11. Rapid eye movement sleep deprivation induces an increase in acetylcholinesterase activity in discrete rat brain regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito M.A.C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Some upper brainstem cholinergic neurons (pedunculopontine and laterodorsal tegmental nuclei are involved in the generation of rapid eye movement (REM sleep and project rostrally to the thalamus and caudally to the medulla oblongata. A previous report showed that 96 h of REM sleep deprivation in rats induced an increase in the activity of brainstem acetylcholinesterase (Achase, the enzyme which inactivates acetylcholine (Ach in the synaptic cleft. There was no change in the enzyme's activity in the whole brain and cerebrum. The components of the cholinergic synaptic endings (for example, Achase are not uniformly distributed throughout the discrete regions of the brain. In order to detect possible regional changes we measured Achase activity in several discrete rat brain regions (medulla oblongata, pons, thalamus, striatum, hippocampus and cerebral cortex after 96 h of REM sleep deprivation. Naive adult male Wistar rats were deprived of REM sleep using the flower-pot technique, while control rats were left in their home cages. Total, membrane-bound and soluble Achase activities (nmol of thiocholine formed min-1 mg protein-1 were assayed photometrically. The results (mean ± SD obtained showed a statistically significant (Student t-test increase in total Achase activity in the pons (control: 147.8 ± 12.8, REM sleep-deprived: 169.3 ± 17.4, N = 6 for both groups, P<0.025 and thalamus (control: 167.4 ± 29.0, REM sleep-deprived: 191.9 ± 15.4, N = 6 for both groups, P<0.05. Increases in membrane-bound Achase activity in the pons (control: 171.0 ± 14.7, REM sleep-deprived: 189.5 ± 19.5, N = 6 for both groups, P<0.05 and soluble enzyme activity in the medulla oblongata (control: 147.6 ± 16.3, REM sleep-deprived: 163.8 ± 8.3, N = 6 for both groups, P<0.05 were also observed. There were no statistically significant differences in the enzyme's activity in the other brain regions assayed. The present findings show that the increase in Achase activity

  12. Regional homogeneity of resting-state brain abnormalities in bipolar and unipolar depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chun-Hong; Ma, Xin; Wu, Xia; Zhang, Yu; Zhou, Fu-Chun; Li, Feng; Tie, Chang-Le; Dong, Jie; Wang, Yong-Jun; Yang, Zhi; Wang, Chuan-Yue

    2013-03-05

    Bipolar disorder patients experiencing a depressive episode (BD-dep) without an observed history of mania are often misdiagnosed and are consequently treated as having unipolar depression (UD), leading to inadequate treatment and poor outcomes. An essential solution to this problem is to identify objective biological markers that distinguish BD-dep and UD patients at an early stage. However, studies directly comparing the brain dysfunctions associated with BD-dep and UD are rare. More importantly, the specificity of the differences in brain activity between these mental disorders has not been examined. With whole-brain regional homogeneity analysis and region-of-interest (ROI) based receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, we aimed to compare the resting-state brain activity of BD-dep and UD patients. Furthermore, we examined the specific differences and whether these differences were attributed to the brain abnormality caused by BD-dep, UD, or both. Twenty-one bipolar and 21 unipolar depressed patients, as well as 26 healthy subjects matched for gender, age, and educational levels, participated in the study. We compared the differences in the regional homogeneity (ReHo) of the BD-dep and UD groups and further identified their pathophysiological abnormality. In the brain regions showing a difference between the BD-dep and UD groups, we further conducted receptive operation characteristic (ROC) analyses to confirm the effectiveness of the identified difference in classifying the patients. We observed ReHo differences between the BD-dep and UD groups in the right ventrolateral middle frontal gyrus, right dorsal anterior insular, right ventral anterior insular, right cerebellum posterior gyrus, right posterior cingulate cortex, right parahippocampal gyrus, and left cerebellum anterior gyrus. Further ROI comparisons and ROC analysis on these ROIs showed that the right parahippocampal gyrus reflected abnormality specific to the BD-dep group, while the right

  13. Altered regional homogeneity of spontaneous brain activity in idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Y

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Yanping Wang,1,2 Xiaoling Zhang,2 Qiaobing Guan,2 Lihong Wan,2 Yahui Yi,2 Chun-Feng Liu1 1Department of Neurology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, 2Department of Neurology, The Second Hospital of Jiaxing City, Jiaxing, Zhejiang Province, People’s Republic of China Abstract: The pathophysiology of idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia (ITN has conventionally been thought to be induced by neurovascular compression theory. Recent structural brain imaging evidence has suggested an additional central component for ITN pathophysiology. However, far less attention has been given to investigations of the basis of abnormal resting-state brain activity in these patients. The objective of this study was to investigate local brain activity in patients with ITN and its correlation with clinical variables of pain. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 17 patients with ITN and 19 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were analyzed using regional homogeneity (ReHo analysis, which is a data-driven approach used to measure the regional synchronization of spontaneous brain activity. Patients with ITN had decreased ReHo in the left amygdala, right parahippocampal gyrus, and left cerebellum and increased ReHo in the right inferior temporal gyrus, right thalamus, right inferior parietal lobule, and left postcentral gyrus (corrected. Furthermore, the increase in ReHo in the left precentral gyrus was positively correlated with visual analog scale (r=0.54; P=0.002. Our study found abnormal functional homogeneity of intrinsic brain activity in several regions in ITN, suggesting the maladaptivity of the process of daily pain attacks and a central role for the pathophysiology of ITN. Keywords: trigeminal neuralgia, resting fMRI, brain, chronic pain, local connectivity

  14. Regional brain glucose metabolism and blood flow in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakobsen, J.; Nedergaard, M.; Aarslew-Jensen, M.; Diemer, N.H.

    1990-01-01

    Brain regional glucose metabolism and regional blood flow were measured from autoradiographs by the uptake of [ 3 H]-2-deoxy-D-glucose and [ 14 C]iodoantipyrine in streptozocin-induced diabetic (STZ-D) rats. After 2 days of diabetes, glucose metabolism in the neocortex, basal ganglia, and white matter increased by 34, 37, and 8%, respectively, whereas blood flow was unchanged. After 4 mo, glucose metabolism in the same three regions was decreased by 32, 43, and 60%. This reduction was paralleled by a statistically nonsignificant reduction in blood flow in neocortex and basal ganglia. It is suggested that the decrease of brain glucose metabolism in STZ-D reflects increased ketone body oxidation and reduction of electrochemical work

  15. A Bayesian Model of Category-Specific Emotional Brain Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wager, Tor D.; Kang, Jian; Johnson, Timothy D.; Nichols, Thomas E.; Satpute, Ajay B.; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2015-01-01

    Understanding emotion is critical for a science of healthy and disordered brain function, but the neurophysiological basis of emotional experience is still poorly understood. We analyzed human brain activity patterns from 148 studies of emotion categories (2159 total participants) using a novel hierarchical Bayesian model. The model allowed us to classify which of five categories—fear, anger, disgust, sadness, or happiness—is engaged by a study with 66% accuracy (43-86% across categories). Analyses of the activity patterns encoded in the model revealed that each emotion category is associated with unique, prototypical patterns of activity across multiple brain systems including the cortex, thalamus, amygdala, and other structures. The results indicate that emotion categories are not contained within any one region or system, but are represented as configurations across multiple brain networks. The model provides a precise summary of the prototypical patterns for each emotion category, and demonstrates that a sufficient characterization of emotion categories relies on (a) differential patterns of involvement in neocortical systems that differ between humans and other species, and (b) distinctive patterns of cortical-subcortical interactions. Thus, these findings are incompatible with several contemporary theories of emotion, including those that emphasize emotion-dedicated brain systems and those that propose emotion is localized primarily in subcortical activity. They are consistent with componential and constructionist views, which propose that emotions are differentiated by a combination of perceptual, mnemonic, prospective, and motivational elements. Such brain-based models of emotion provide a foundation for new translational and clinical approaches. PMID:25853490

  16. Effect of CDP-choline on the biosynthesis of phospholipids in brain regions during hypoxic treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberghina, M.; Viola, M.; Serra, I.; Mistretta, A.; Giuffrida, A.M.

    1981-01-01

    Acute administration of CDP-choline (i.p. 100 mg/Kg b.w.), 10 min before the intraventricular injection of labeled precursors, [2-3H] glycerol and [1-14C]-palmitate, was able to correct the impairment caused by hypoxic treatment of lipid metabolism in some brain regions, ie, cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum, and brainstem. After CDP-choline treatment, an increase of the specific radioactivity of total lipids and of phospholipids was observed in mitochondria purified from the three above-mentioned brain regions of the hypoxic animals, while no effect on the other subcellular fractions was found. CDP-Choline had a stimulating effect particularly on the incorporation of both precursors into mitochondrial PC, PE, and polyglycerophosphatides isolated form the three brain regions examined. The results obtained show that the action of CDP-choline in restoring lipid metabolism was more pronounced in brain mitochondria, which, among subcellular fractions, were the most affected by the hypoxic treatment

  17. Repeated verum but not placebo acupuncture normalizes connectivity in brain regions dysregulated in chronic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Egorova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture, an ancient East Asian therapy, is aimed at rectifying the imbalance within the body caused by disease. Studies evaluating the efficacy of acupuncture with neuroimaging tend to concentrate on brain regions within the pain matrix, associated with acute pain. We, however, focused on the effect of repeated acupuncture treatment specifically on brain regions known to support functions dysregulated in chronic pain disorders. Transition to chronic pain is associated with increased attention to pain, emotional rumination, nociceptive memory and avoidance learning, resulting in brain connectivity changes, specifically affecting the periaqueductal gray (PAG, medial frontal cortex (MFC and bilateral hippocampus (Hpc. We demonstrate that the PAG–MFC and PAG–Hpc connectivity in patients with chronic pain due to knee osteoarthritis indeed correlates with clinical severity scores and further show that verum acupuncture-induced improvement in pain scores (compared to sham is related to the modulation of PAG–MFC and PAG–Hpc connectivity in the predicted direction. This study shows that repeated verum acupuncture might act by restoring the balance in the connectivity of the key pain brain regions, altering pain-related attention and memory.

  18. Regional homogeneity of the resting-state brain activity correlates with individual intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Leiqiong; Song, Ming; Jiang, Tianzi; Zhang, Yunting; Yu, Chunshui

    2011-01-25

    Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging has confirmed that the strengths of the long distance functional connectivity between different brain areas are correlated with individual differences in intelligence. However, the association between the local connectivity within a specific brain region and intelligence during rest remains largely unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between local connectivity and intelligence. Fifty-nine right-handed healthy adults participated in the study. The regional homogeneity (ReHo) was used to assess the strength of local connectivity. The associations between ReHo and full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) scores were studied in a voxel-wise manner using partial correlation analysis controlling for age and sex. We found that the FSIQ scores were positively correlated with the ReHo values of the bilateral inferior parietal lobules, middle frontal, parahippocampal and inferior temporal gyri, the right thalamus, superior frontal and fusiform gyri, and the left superior parietal lobule. The main findings are consistent with the parieto-frontal integration theory (P-FIT) of intelligence, supporting the view that general intelligence involves multiple brain regions throughout the brain. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Common brain regions underlying different arithmetic operations as revealed by conjunct fMRI-BOLD activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehr, Thorsten; Code, Chris; Herrmann, Manfred

    2007-10-03

    The issue of how and where arithmetic operations are represented in the brain has been addressed in numerous studies. Lesion studies suggest that a network of different brain areas are involved in mental calculation. Neuroimaging studies have reported inferior parietal and lateral frontal activations during mental arithmetic using tasks of different complexities and using different operators (addition, subtraction, etc.). Indeed, it has been difficult to compare brain activation across studies because of the variety of different operators and different presentation modalities used. The present experiment examined fMRI-BOLD activity in participants during calculation tasks entailing different arithmetic operations -- addition, subtraction, multiplication and division -- of different complexities. Functional imaging data revealed a common activation pattern comprising right precuneus, left and right middle and superior frontal regions during all arithmetic operations. All other regional activations were operation specific and distributed in prominently frontal, parietal and central regions when contrasting complex and simple calculation tasks. The present results largely confirm former studies suggesting that activation patterns due to mental arithmetic appear to reflect a basic anatomical substrate of working memory, numerical knowledge and processing based on finger counting, and derived from a network originally related to finger movement. We emphasize that in mental arithmetic research different arithmetic operations should always be examined and discussed independently of each other in order to avoid invalid generalizations on arithmetics and involved brain areas.

  20. Regional volumes and spatial volumetric distribution of gray matter in the gender dysphoric brain.

    OpenAIRE

    Hoekzema, Elseline; Schagen, Sebastian E. E.; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P. C.; Veltman, Dick J.; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T.; Delemarre-van de Waal, Henriette; Bakker, Julie

    2015-01-01

    The sexual differentiation of the brain is primarily driven by gonadal hormones during fetal development. Leading theories on the etiology of gender dysphoria (GD) involve deviations herein. To examine whether there are signs of a sex-atypical brain development in GD, we quantified regional neural gray matter (GM) volumes in 55 female-to-male and 38 male-to-female adolescents, 44 boys and 52 girls without GD and applied both univariate and multivariate analyses. In girls, more GM volume was o...

  1. Mapping a2 Adrenoceptors of the Human Brain with 11C-Yohimbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nahimi, Adjmal; Jakobsen, Steen; Munk, Ole

    2015-01-01

    A previous study from this laboratory suggested that 11C-yohimbine, a selective α2-adrenoceptor antagonist, is an appropriate ligand for PET of α2 adrenoceptors that passes readily from blood to brain tissue in pigs but not in rodents. To test usefulness in humans, we determined blood–brain...... values of VT ranged from 0.82 mL cm−3 in the right frontal cortex to 0.46 mL cm−3 in the corpus callosum, with intermediate VT values in subcortical structures. Binding potentials averaged 0.6–0.8 in the cortex and 0.2–0.5 in subcortical regions. Conclusion: The maps of 11C-yohimbine binding to α2...... adrenoceptors in human brain had the highest values in cortical areas and hippocampus, with moderate values in subcortical structures, as found also in vitro. The results confirm the usefulness of the tracer 11C-yohimbine for mapping α2 adrenoceptors in human brain in vivo....

  2. Theory of Mind Performance in Children Correlates with Functional Specialization of a Brain Region for Thinking about Thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gweon, Hyowon; Dodell-Feder, David; Bedny, Marina; Saxe, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Thinking about other people's thoughts recruits a specific group of brain regions, including the temporo-parietal junctions (TPJ), precuneus (PC), and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC). The same brain regions were recruited when children (N = 20, 5-11 years) and adults (N = 8) listened to descriptions of characters' mental states, compared to…

  3. Lutein Is Differentially Deposited across Brain Regions following Formula or Breast Feeding of Infant Rhesus Macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Sookyoung; Ranard, Katherine M; Neuringer, Martha; Johnson, Emily E; Renner, Lauren; Kuchan, Matthew J; Pereira, Suzette L; Johnson, Elizabeth J; Erdman, John W

    2018-01-01

    Lutein, a yellow xanthophyll, selectively accumulates in primate retina and brain. Lutein may play a critical role in neural and retinal development, but few studies have investigated the impact of dietary source on its bioaccumulation in infants. We explored the bioaccumulation of lutein in infant rhesus macaques following breastfeeding or formula-feeding. From birth to 6 mo of age, male and female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were either breastfed (BF) (n = 8), fed a formula supplemented with lutein, zeaxanthin, β-carotene, and lycopene (237, 19.0, 74.2, and 338 nmol/kg, supplemented formula-fed; SF) (n = 8), or fed a formula with low amounts of these carotenoids (38.6, 2.3, 21.5, and 0 nmol/kg, unsupplemented formula-fed; UF) (n = 7). The concentrations of carotenoids in serum and tissues were analyzed by HPLC. At 6 mo of age, the BF group exhibited significantly higher lutein concentrations in serum, all brain regions, macular and peripheral retina, adipose tissue, liver, and other tissues compared to both formula-fed groups (P Lutein concentrations were higher in the SF group than in the UF group in serum and all tissues, with the exception of macular retina. Lutein was differentially distributed across brain areas, with the highest concentrations in the occipital cortex, regardless of the diet. Zeaxanthin was present in all brain regions but only in the BF infants; it was present in both retinal regions in all groups but was significantly enhanced in BF infants compared to either formula group (P lutein concentrations compared to unsupplemented formula, concentrations were still well below those in BF infants. Regardless of diet, occipital cortex showed selectively higher lutein deposition than other brain regions, suggesting lutein's role in visual processing in early life. © 2018 American Society for Nutrition. All rights reserved.

  4. Regional Brain Shrinkage over Two Years: Individual Differences and Effects of Pro-Inflammatory Genetic Polymorphisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, N.; Ghisletta, P.; Dahle, C.L.; Bender, A.R.; Yang, Y.; Yuan, P.; Daugherty, A.M.; Raz, N.

    2014-01-01

    We examined regional changes in brain volume in healthy adults (N = 167, age 19-79 years at baseline; N = 90 at follow-up) over approximately two years. With latent change score models, we evaluated mean change and individual differences in rates of change in 10 anatomically-defined and manually-traced regions of interest (ROIs): lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC), orbital frontal cortex (OF), prefrontal white matter (PFw), hippocampus (HC), parahippocampal gyrus (PhG), caudate nucleus (Cd), putamen (Pt), insula (In), cerebellar hemispheres (CbH), and primary visual cortex (VC). Significant mean shrinkage was observed in the HC, CbH, In, OF, and the PhG, and individual differences in change were noted in all regions, except the OF. Pro-inflammatory genetic variants mediated shrinkage in PhG and CbH. Carriers of two T alleles of interleukin-1β (IL-1βC-511T, rs16944) and a T allele of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFRC677T, rs1801133) polymorphisms showed increased PhG shrinkage. No effects of a pro-inflammatory polymorphism for C-reactive protein (CRP-286C>A>T, rs3091244) or apolipoprotein (APOE) ε4 allele were noted. These results replicate the pattern of brain shrinkage observed in previous studies, with a notable exception of the LPFC thus casting doubt on the unique importance of prefrontal cortex in aging. Larger baseline volumes of CbH and In were associated with increased shrinkage, in conflict with the brain reserve hypothesis. Contrary to previous reports, we observed no significant linear effects of age and hypertension on regional brain shrinkage. Our findings warrant further investigation of the effects of neuroinflammation on structural brain change throughout the lifespan. PMID:25264227

  5. High-resolution temporal and regional mapping of MAPT expression and splicing in human brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefti, Marco M; Farrell, Kurt; Kim, SoongHo; Bowles, Kathryn R; Fowkes, Mary E; Raj, Towfique; Crary, John F

    2018-01-01

    The microtubule associated protein tau plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disease. Recent studies suggest that tau also plays a role in disorders of neuronal connectivity, including epilepsy and post-traumatic stress disorder. Animal studies have shown that the MAPT gene, which codes for the tau protein, undergoes complex pre-mRNA alternative splicing to produce multiple isoforms during brain development. Human data, particularly on temporal and regional variation in tau splicing during development are however lacking. In this study, we present the first detailed examination of the temporal and regional sequence of MAPT alternative splicing in the developing human brain. We used a novel computational analysis of large transcriptomic datasets (total n = 502 patients), quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and western blotting to examine tau expression and splicing in post-mortem human fetal, pediatric and adult brains. We found that MAPT exons 2 and 10 undergo abrupt shifts in expression during the perinatal period that are unique in the canonical human microtubule-associated protein family, while exon 3 showed small but significant temporal variation. Tau isoform expression may be a marker of neuronal maturation, temporally correlated with the onset of axonal growth. Immature brain regions such as the ganglionic eminence and rhombic lip had very low tau expression, but within more mature regions, there was little variation in tau expression or splicing. We thus demonstrate an abrupt, evolutionarily conserved shift in tau isoform expression during the human perinatal period that may be due to tau expression in maturing neurons. Alternative splicing of the MAPT pre-mRNA may play a vital role in normal brain development across multiple species and provides a basis for future investigations into the developmental and pathological functions of the tau protein.

  6. Recreational marijuana use impacts white matter integrity and subcortical (but not cortical) morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Joseph M; Paschall, Courtnie J; Banich, Marie T

    2016-01-01

    A recent shift in legal and social attitudes toward marijuana use has also spawned a surge of interest in understanding the effects of marijuana use on the brain. There is considerable evidence that an adolescent onset of marijuana use negatively impacts white matter coherence. On the other hand, a recent well-controlled study demonstrated no effects of marijuana use on the morphometry of subcortical or cortical structures when users and non-users were matched for alcohol use. Regardless, most studies have involved small, carefully selected samples, so the ability to generalize to larger populations is limited. In an attempt to address this issue, we examined the effects of marijuana use on white matter integrity and cortical and subcortical morphometry using data from the Human Connectome Project (HCP) consortium. The HCP data consists of ultra-high resolution neuroimaging data from a large community sample, including 466 adults reporting recreational marijuana use. Rather than just contrasting two groups of individuals who vary significantly in marijuana usage as typifies prior studies, we leveraged the large sample size provided by the HCP data to examine parametric effects of recreational marijuana use. Our results indicate that the earlier the age of onset of marijuana use, the lower was white matter coherence. Age of onset also also affected the shape of the accumbens, while the number of lifetime uses impacted the shape of the amygdala and hippocampus. Marijuana use had no effect on cortical volumes. These findings suggest subtle but significant effects of recreational marijuana use on brain structure.

  7. Brain region distribution and patterns of bioaccumulative perfluoroalkyl carboxylates and sulfonates in east greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves, Alana K; Letcher, Robert J; Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune

    2013-03-01

    The present study investigated the comparative accumulation of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in eight brain regions of polar bears (Ursus maritimus, n = 19) collected in 2006 from Scoresby Sound, East Greenland. The PFAAs studied were perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs, C(6) -C(15) chain lengths) and sulfonates (C(4) , C(6) , C(8) , and C(10) chain lengths) as well as selected precursors including perfluorooctane sulfonamide. On a wet-weight basis, blood-brain barrier transport of PFAAs occurred for all brain regions, although inner regions of the brain closer to incoming blood flow (pons/medulla, thalamus, and hypothalamus) contained consistently higher PFAA concentrations compared to outer brain regions (cerebellum, striatum, and frontal, occipital, and temporal cortices). For pons/medulla, thalamus, and hypothalamus, the most concentrated PFAAs were perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), ranging from 47 to 58 ng/g wet weight, and perfluorotridecanoic acid, ranging from 43 to 49 ng/g wet weight. However, PFOS and the longer-chain PFCAs (C(10) -C(15) ) were significantly (p  0.05) different among brain regions. The burden of the sum of PFCAs, perfluoroalkyl sulfonates, and perfluorooctane sulfonamide in the brain (average mass, 392 g) was estimated to be 46 µg. The present study demonstrates that both PFCAs and perfluoroalkyl sulfonates cross the blood-brain barrier in polar bears and that wet-weight concentrations are brain region-specific. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  8. Functional integration changes in regional brain glucose metabolism from childhood to adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotta, Nicola; Archambaud, Frédérique; Goldman, Serge; Baete, Kristof; Van Laere, Koen; Wens, Vincent; Van Bogaert, Patrick; Chiron, Catherine; De Tiège, Xavier

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the age-related changes in resting-state neurometabolic connectivity from childhood to adulthood (6-50 years old). Fifty-four healthy adult subjects and twenty-three pseudo-healthy children underwent [(18) F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography at rest. Using statistical parametric mapping (SPM8), age and age squared were first used as covariate of interest to identify linear and non-linear age effects on the regional distribution of glucose metabolism throughout the brain. Then, by selecting voxels of interest (VOI) within the regions showing significant age-related metabolic changes, a psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis was used to search for age-induced changes in the contribution of VOIs to the metabolic activity in other brain areas. Significant linear or non-linear age-related changes in regional glucose metabolism were found in prefrontal cortices (DMPFC/ACC), cerebellar lobules, and thalamo-hippocampal areas bilaterally. Decreases were found in the contribution of thalamic, hippocampal, and cerebellar regions to DMPFC/ACC metabolic activity as well as in the contribution of hippocampi to preSMA and right IFG metabolic activities. Increases were found in the contribution of the right hippocampus to insular cortex and of the cerebellar lobule IX to superior parietal cortex metabolic activities. This study evidences significant linear or non-linear age-related changes in regional glucose metabolism of mesial prefrontal, thalamic, mesiotemporal, and cerebellar areas, associated with significant modifications in neurometabolic connectivity involving fronto-thalamic, fronto-hippocampal, and fronto-cerebellar networks. These changes in functional brain integration likely represent a metabolic correlate of age-dependent effects on sensory, motor, and high-level cognitive functional networks. Hum Brain Mapp 37:3017-3030, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Region-specific changes in presynaptic agmatine and glutamate levels in the aged rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Y; Liu, P; Leitch, B

    2016-01-15

    During the normal aging process, the brain undergoes a range of biochemical and structural alterations, which may contribute to deterioration of sensory and cognitive functions. Age-related deficits are associated with altered efficacy of synaptic neurotransmission. Emerging evidence indicates that levels of agmatine, a putative neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain, are altered in a region-specific manner during the aging process. The gross tissue content of agmatine in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of aged rat brains is decreased whereas levels in the temporal cortex (TE) are increased. However, it is not known whether these changes in gross tissue levels are also mirrored by changes in agmatine levels at synapses and thus could potentially contribute to altered synaptic function with age. In the present study, agmatine levels in presynaptic terminals in the PFC and TE regions (300 terminals/region) of young (3month; n=3) and aged (24month; n=3) brains of male Sprague-Dawley rats were compared using quantitative post-embedding immunogold electron-microscopy. Presynaptic levels of agmatine were significantly increased in the TE region (60%; pagmatine and glutamate were co-localized in the same synaptic terminals, and quantitative analyses revealed significantly reduced glutamate levels in agmatine-immunopositive synaptic terminals in both regions in aged rats compared to young animals. This study, for the first time, demonstrates differential effects of aging on agmatine and glutamate in the presynaptic terminals of PFC and TE. Future research is required to understand the functional significance of these changes and the underlying mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Brain regions with mirror properties: a meta-analysis of 125 human fMRI studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenberghs, Pascal; Cunnington, Ross; Mattingley, Jason B

    2012-01-01

    Mirror neurons in macaque area F5 fire when an animal performs an action, such as a mouth or limb movement, and also when the animal passively observes an identical or similar action performed by another individual. Brain-imaging studies in humans conducted over the last 20 years have repeatedly attempted to reveal analogous brain regions with mirror properties in humans, with broad and often speculative claims about their functional significance across a range of cognitive domains, from language to social cognition. Despite such concerted efforts, the likely neural substrates of these mirror regions have remained controversial, and indeed the very existence of a distinct subcategory of human neurons with mirroring properties has been questioned. Here we used activation likelihood estimation (ALE), to provide a quantitative index of the consistency of patterns of fMRI activity measured in human studies of action observation and action execution. From an initial sample of more than 300 published works, data from 125 papers met our strict inclusion and exclusion criteria. The analysis revealed 14 separate clusters in which activation has been consistently attributed to brain regions with mirror properties, encompassing 9 different Brodmann areas. These clusters were located in areas purported to show mirroring properties in the macaque, such as the inferior parietal lobule, inferior frontal gyrus and the adjacent ventral premotor cortex, but surprisingly also in regions such as the primary visual cortex, cerebellum and parts of the limbic system. Our findings suggest a core network of human brain regions that possess mirror properties associated with action observation and execution, with additional areas recruited during tasks that engage non-motor functions, such as auditory, somatosensory and affective components. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of Navigation-Related Brain Regions in Migratory versus Non-Migratory Noctuid Moths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liv de Vries

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Brain structure and function are tightly correlated across all animals. While these relations are ultimately manifestations of differently wired neurons, many changes in neural circuit architecture lead to larger-scale alterations visible already at the level of brain regions. Locating such differences has served as a beacon for identifying brain areas that are strongly associated with the ecological needs of a species—thus guiding the way towards more detailed investigations of how brains underlie species-specific behaviors. Particularly in relation to sensory requirements, volume-differences in neural tissue between closely related species reflect evolutionary investments that correspond to sensory abilities. Likewise, memory-demands imposed by lifestyle have revealed similar adaptations in regions associated with learning. Whether this is also the case for species that differ in their navigational strategy is currently unknown. While the brain regions associated with navigational control in insects have been identified (central complex (CX, lateral complex (LX and anterior optic tubercles (AOTU, it remains unknown in what way evolutionary investments have been made to accommodate particularly demanding navigational strategies. We have thus generated average-shape atlases of navigation-related brain regions of a migratory and a non-migratory noctuid moth and used volumetric analysis to identify differences. We further compared the results to identical data from Monarch butterflies. Whereas we found differences in the size of the nodular unit of the AOTU, the LX and the protocerebral bridge (PB between the two moths, these did not unambiguously reflect migratory behavior across all three species. We conclude that navigational strategy, at least in the case of long-distance migration in lepidopteran insects, is not easily deductible from overall neuropil anatomy. This suggests that the adaptations needed to ensure successful migratory behavior

  12. Metabolic enhancer piracetam attenuates rotenone induced oxidative stress: a study in different rat brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Dinesh Kumar; Joshi, Neeraj; Raju, Kunumuri Sivarama; Wahajuddin, Muhammad; Singh, Rama Kant; Singh, Sarika

    2015-01-01

    Piracetam is clinically being used nootropic drug but the details of its neuroprotective mechanism are not well studied. The present study was conducted to assess the effects of piracetam on rotenone induced oxidative stress by using both ex vivo and in vivo test systems. Rats were treated with piracetam (600 mg/kg b.w. oral) for seven constitutive days prior to rotenone administration (intracerebroventricular, 12 µg) in rat brain. Rotenone induced oxidative stress was assessed after 1 h and 24 h of rotenone administration. Ex vivo estimations were performed by using two experimental designs. In one experimental design the rat brain homogenate was treated with rotenone (1 mM, 2 mM and 4 mM) and rotenone+piracetam (10 mM) for 1 h. While in second experimental design the rats were pretreated with piracetam for seven consecutive days. On eighth day the rats were sacrificed, brain homogenate was prepared and treated with rotenone (1 mM, 2 mM and 4mM) for 1h. After treatment the glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were estimated in brain homogenate. In vivo study showed that pretreatment of piracetam offered significant protection against rotenone induced decreased GSH and increased MDA level though the protection was region specific. But the co-treatment of piracetam with rotenone did not offer significant protection against rotenone induced oxidative stress in ex vivo study. Whereas ex vivo experiments in rat brain homogenate of piracetam pretreated rats, showed the significant protection against rotenone induced oxidative stress. Findings indicated that pretreatment of piracetam significantly attenuated the rotenone induced oxidative stress though the protection was region specific. Piracetam treatment to rats led to its absorption and accumulation in different brain regions as assessed by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. In conclusion, study indicates the piracetam is able to enhance the antioxidant capacity in brain cells

  13. Demyelination of subcortical nuclei in multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krutenkova, E; Aitmagambetova, G; Khodanovich, M; Yarnykh, V; Bowen, J; Gangadharan, B; Henson, L; Mayadev, A; Repovic, P; Qian, P

    2016-01-01

    Myelin containing in basal ganglia in multiple sclerosis patients was evaluated using new noninvasive quantitative MRI method fast whole brain macromolecular proton fraction mapping. Myelin level in globus pallidus and putamen significantly decreased in multiple sclerosis patients as compared with healthy control subjects but not in substantia nigra and caudate nucleus. (paper)

  14. Demyelination of subcortical nuclei in multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krutenkova, E.; Aitmagambetova, G.; Khodanovich, M.; Bowen, J.; Gangadharan, B.; Henson, L.; Mayadev, A.; Repovic, P.; Qian, P.; Yarnykh, V.

    2016-02-01

    Myelin containing in basal ganglia in multiple sclerosis patients was evaluated using new noninvasive quantitative MRI method fast whole brain macromolecular proton fraction mapping. Myelin level in globus pallidus and putamen significantly decreased in multiple sclerosis patients as compared with healthy control subjects but not in substantia nigra and caudate nucleus.

  15. Comparing brain graphs in which nodes are regions of interest or independent components: A simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qingbao; Du, Yuhui; Chen, Jiayu; He, Hao; Sui, Jing; Pearlson, Godfrey; Calhoun, Vince D

    2017-11-01

    A key challenge in building a brain graph using fMRI data is how to define the nodes. Spatial brain components estimated by independent components analysis (ICA) and regions of interest (ROIs) determined by brain atlas are two popular methods to define nodes in brain graphs. It is difficult to evaluate which method is better in real fMRI data. Here we perform a simulation study and evaluate the accuracies of a few graph metrics in graphs with nodes of ICA components, ROIs, or modified ROIs in four simulation scenarios. Graph measures with ICA nodes are more accurate than graphs with ROI nodes in all cases. Graph measures with modified ROI nodes are modulated by artifacts. The correlations of graph metrics across subjects between graphs with ICA nodes and ground truth are higher than the correlations between graphs with ROI nodes and ground truth in scenarios with large overlapped spatial sources. Moreover, moving the location of ROIs would largely decrease the correlations in all scenarios. Evaluating graphs with different nodes is promising in simulated data rather than real data because different scenarios can be simulated and measures of different graphs can be compared with a known ground truth. Since ROIs defined using brain atlas may not correspond well to real functional boundaries, overall findings of this work suggest that it is more appropriate to define nodes using data-driven ICA than ROI approaches in real fMRI data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Enkephalin dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase (enkephalinase) activity: selective radioassay, properties, and regional distribution in human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llorens, C.; Malfroy, B.; Schwartz, J.C.; Gacel, G.; Roques, B.P.; Roy, J.; Morgat, J.L.; Javoy-Agid, F.; Agid, Y.

    1982-01-01

    The compound [ 3 H-Tyr 1 ,D-Ala 2 ,Leu-OH 5 ]enkephalin has been synthesised as a potentially selective substrate for enkephalin dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase (enkephalinase) activity in brain. Incubations in the presence of homogenates and particulate fractions from rodent and human brain result in the formation of [ 3 H]Tyr-D-Ala-Gly, which can be conveniently isolated by polystyrene bead column chromatography. The enzyme activity responsible for the hydrolysis of the Gly 3 -Phe 4 amide bond of this substrate displays close resemblance to that hydrolysing the natural enkephalins at the same level. In addition, enkephalinase activity characterised in postmortem human brain is closely similar to that in rodent brain, with regard to optimal pH and apparent affinities of various substrates and inhibitors, including the potent compound thiorphan. Enkephalinase activity is distributed in a highly heterogeneous fashion among regions of human brain, the highest levels being found in globus pallidus and pars reticulata of the substantia nigra. This distribution is poorly correlated with that of opiate receptor binding sites but displays some resemblance to that of reported Met 5 -enkephalin levels. (author)

  17. Abnormal Brain Responses to Action Observation in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Jaakko; Saari, Jukka; Koskinen, Miika; Hlushchuk, Yevhen; Forss, Nina; Hari, Riitta

    2017-03-01

    Patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) display various abnormalities in central motor function, and their pain is intensified when they perform or just observe motor actions. In this study, we examined the abnormalities of brain responses to action observation in CRPS. We analyzed 3-T functional magnetic resonance images from 13 upper limb CRPS patients (all female, ages 31-58 years) and 13 healthy, age- and sex-matched control subjects. The functional magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired while the subjects viewed brief videos of hand actions shown in the first-person perspective. A pattern-classification analysis was applied to characterize brain areas where the activation pattern differed between CRPS patients and healthy subjects. Brain areas with statistically significant group differences (q frontal gyrus, secondary somatosensory cortex, inferior parietal lobule, orbitofrontal cortex, and thalamus. Our findings indicate that CRPS impairs action observation by affecting brain areas related to pain processing and motor control. This article shows that in CRPS, the observation of others' motor actions induces abnormal neural activity in brain areas essential for sensorimotor functions and pain. These results build the cerebral basis for action-observation impairments in CRPS. Copyright © 2016 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Glucose metabolism in different regions of the rat brain under hypokinetic stress influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konitzer, K.; Voigt, S.

    1980-01-01

    Glucose metabolism in rats kept under long term hypokinetic stress was studied in 7 brain regions. Determination was made of the regional levels of glucose, lactate, glutamate, glutamine, aspartate, gamma-aminobutyrate and the incorporation of C-14 from plasma glucose into these metabolites, in glycogen and protein. From the content and activity data the regional glucose flux was approximated quantitatively. Under normal conditions the activity gradient cortex and frontal pole cerebellum, thalamus and mesencephalon, hypothalamus and pons and medulla is identical with that of the regional blood supply (measured with I131 serum albumin as the blood marker). Within the first days of immobilization a functional hypoxia occurred in all brain regions and the utilization of cycle amino acids for protein synthesis was strongly diminished. After the first week of stress the capillary volumes of all regions increased, aerobic glucose metabolism was enhanced (factors 1.3 - 2.0) and the incorporation of glucose C-14 via cycle amino acids into protein was considerably potentiated. The metabolic parameters normalized between the 7th and 11th week of stress. Blood supply and metabolic rate increased most in the hypothalamus.

  19. A Method for Automatic Extracting Intracranial Region in MR Brain Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Keiji; Miura, Shin; Nishida, Makoto; Kageyama, Yoichi; Namura, Ikuro

    It is well known that temporal lobe in MR brain image is in use for estimating the grade of Alzheimer-type dementia. It is difficult to use only region of temporal lobe for estimating the grade of Alzheimer-type dementia. From the standpoint for supporting the medical specialists, this paper proposes a data processing approach on the automatic extraction of the intracranial region from the MR brain image. The method is able to eliminate the cranium region with the laplacian histogram method and the brainstem with the feature points which are related to the observations given by a medical specialist. In order to examine the usefulness of the proposed approach, the percentage of the temporal lobe in the intracranial region was calculated. As a result, the percentage of temporal lobe in the intracranial region on the process of the grade was in agreement with the visual sense standards of temporal lobe atrophy given by the medical specialist. It became clear that intracranial region extracted by the proposed method was good for estimating the grade of Alzheimer-type dementia.

  20. Functional connections between activated and deactivated brain regions mediate emotional interference during externally directed cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Plinio, Simone; Ferri, Francesca; Marzetti, Laura; Romani, Gian Luca; Northoff, Georg; Pizzella, Vittorio

    2018-04-24

    Recent evidence shows that task-deactivations are functionally relevant for cognitive performance. Indeed, higher cognitive engagement has been associated with higher suppression of activity in task-deactivated brain regions - usually ascribed to the Default Mode Network (DMN). Moreover, a negative correlation between these regions and areas actively engaged by the task is associated with better performance. DMN regions show positive modulation during autobiographical, social, and emotional tasks. However, it is not clear how processing of emotional stimuli affects the interplay between the DMN and executive brain regions. We studied this interplay in an fMRI experiment using emotional negative stimuli as distractors. Activity modulations induced by the emotional interference of negative stimuli were found in frontal, parietal, and visual areas, and were associated with modulations of functional connectivity between these task-activated areas and DMN regions. A worse performance was predicted both by lower activity in the superior parietal cortex and higher connectivity between visual areas and frontal DMN regions. Connectivity between right inferior frontal gyrus and several DMN regions in the left hemisphere was related to the behavioral performance. This relation was weaker in the negative than in the neutral condition, likely suggesting less functional inhibitions of DMN regions during emotional processing. These results show that both executive and DMN regions are crucial for the emotional interference process and suggest that DMN connections are related to the interplay between externally-directed and internally-focused processes. Among DMN regions, superior frontal gyrus may be a key node in regulating the interference triggered by emotional stimuli. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Brain functional network connectivity based on a visual task: visual information processing-related brain regions are significantly activated in the task state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-li Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is not clear whether the method used in functional brain-network related research can be applied to explore the feature binding mechanism of visual perception. In this study, we investigated feature binding of color and shape in visual perception. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected from 38 healthy volunteers at rest and while performing a visual perception task to construct brain networks active during resting and task states. Results showed that brain regions involved in visual information processing were obviously activated during the task. The components were partitioned using a greedy algorithm, indicating the visual network existed during the resting state. Z-values in the vision-related brain regions were calculated, confirming the dynamic balance of the brain network. Connectivity between brain regions was determined, and the result showed that occipital and lingual gyri were stable brain regions in the visual system network, the parietal lobe played a very important role in the binding process of color features and shape features, and the fusiform and inferior temporal gyri were crucial for processing color and shape information. Experimental findings indicate that understanding visual feature binding and cognitive processes will help establish computational models of vision, improve image recognition technology, and provide a new theoretical mechanism for feature binding in visual perception.

  2. Time-dependent regional brain distribution of methadone and naltrexone in the treatment of opioid addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teklezgi, Belin G; Pamreddy, Annapurna; Baijnath, Sooraj; Kruger, Hendrik G; Naicker, Tricia; Gopal, Nirmala D; Govender, Thavendran

    2018-02-14

    Opioid addiction is a serious public health concern with severe health and social implications; therefore, extensive therapeutic efforts are required to keep users drug free. The two main pharmacological interventions, in the treatment of addiction, involve management with methadone an mu (μ)-opioid agonist and treatment with naltrexone, μ-opioid, kappa (κ)-opioid and delta (δ)-opioid antagonist. MET and NAL are believed to help individuals to derive maximum benefit from treatment and undergo a full recovery. The aim of this study was to determine the localization and distribution of MET and NAL, over a 24-hour period in rodent brain, in order to investigate the differences in their respective regional brain distributions. This would provide a better understanding of the role of each individual drug in the treatment of addiction, especially NAL, whose efficacy is controversial. Tissue distribution was determined by using mass spectrometric imaging (MSI), in combination with quantification via liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. MSI image analysis showed that MET was highly localized in the striatal and hippocampal regions, including the nucleus caudate, putamen and the upper cortex. NAL was distributed with high intensities in the mesocorticolimbic system including areas of the cortex, caudate putamen and ventral pallidum regions. Our results demonstrate that MET and NAL are highly localized in the brain regions with a high density of μ-receptors, the primary sites of heroin binding. These areas are strongly implicated in the development of addiction and are the major pathways that mediate brain stimulation during reward. © 2018 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  3. Aging-induced changes in brain regional serotonin receptor binding: Effect of Carnosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, S; Poddar, M K

    2016-04-05

    Monoamine neurotransmitter, serotonin (5-HT) has its own specific receptors in both pre- and post-synapse. In the present study the role of carnosine on aging-induced changes of [(3)H]-5-HT receptor binding in different brain regions in a rat model was studied. The results showed that during aging (18 and 24 months) the [(3)H]-5-HT receptor binding was reduced in hippocampus, hypothalamus and pons-medulla with a decrease in their both Bmax and KD but in cerebral cortex the [(3)H]-5-HT binding was increased with the increase of its only Bmax. The aging-induced changes in [(3)H]-5-HT receptor binding with carnosine (2.0 μg/kg/day, intrathecally, for 21 consecutive days) attenuated in (a) 24-month-aged rats irrespective of the brain regions with the attenuation of its Bmax except hypothalamus where both Bmax and KD were significantly attenuated, (b) hippocampus and hypothalamus of 18-month-aged rats with the attenuation of its Bmax, and restored toward the [(3)H]-5-HT receptor binding that observed in 4-month-young rats. The decrease in pons-medullary [(3)H]-5-HT binding including its Bmax of 18-month-aged rats was promoted with carnosine without any significant change in its cerebral cortex. The [(3)H]-5-HT receptor binding with the same dosages of carnosine in 4-month-young rats (a) increased in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus with the increase in their only Bmax whereas (b) decreased in hypothalamus and pons-medulla with a decrease in their both Bmax and KD. These results suggest that carnosine treatment may (a) play a preventive role in aging-induced brain region-specific changes in serotonergic activity (b) not be worthy in 4-month-young rats in relation to the brain regional serotonergic activity. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Study of diffusion tensor imaging in subcortical ischemic vascular cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-ying GUO

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective Using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI to explore the microstructure changes of white matter in subcortical ischemic vascular cognitive impairment (SIVCI and its correlation with cognitive function.  Methods Forty-nine patients with subcortical ischemic cerebrovascular diseases were collected. By using Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (CDR, they were classified into 10 cases of vascular dementia (VaD group, 20 cases of vascular cognitive impairment-no dementia (VCIND group and 19 cases of normal cognitive function (control group. Conventional MRI and DTI were performed in all cases. Based on the DTI data, voxel-based analysis was used to assess the whole brain region. Correlation analysis was applied to illustrate the relationship between DTI parameters and cognitive scale in VaD patients.  Results Compared with the control group, fractional anisotropy (FA values of patients in VaD group decreased in medial prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, corpus callosum stem, bilateral parietal lobes, right temporal lobe and bilateral orbitofrontal lobes (P = 0.000, for all, and FA values of patients in VCIND group decreased in right inferior frontal gyrus, right hippocampus and bilateral precuneus (P = 0.000, for all. Compared with VCIND group, FA values of patients in VaD group decreased in medial prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, corpus callosum, bilateral parietal lobes and right temporal lobe (P = 0.000, for all. Compared with the control group, mean diffusivity (MD values in VaD group increased in medial prefrontal cortex, corpus callosum, bilateral parietal lobes, bilateral temporal lobes and anterior cingulate (P = 0.000, for all, while in VCIND group increased in bilateral precuneus and right hippocampus (P = 0.000, for all. Compared with VCIND group, MD values in VaD group increased in right medial prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, corpus callosum stem, bilateral parietal lobes and bilateral temporal lobes (P = 0

  5. Pain sensitivity is inversely related to regional grey matter density in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Nichole M; Zeidan, Fadel; Lobanov, Oleg V; Hadsel, Morten S; Martucci, Katherine T; Quevedo, Alexandre S; Starr, Christopher J; Nahman-Averbuch, Hadas; Weissman-Fogel, Irit; Granovsky, Yelena; Yarnitsky, David; Coghill, Robert C

    2014-03-01

    Pain is a highly personal experience that varies substantially among individuals. In search of an anatomical correlate of pain sensitivity, we used voxel-based morphometry to investigate the relationship between grey matter density across the whole brain and interindividual differences in pain sensitivity in 116 healthy volunteers (62 women, 54 men). Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and psychophysical data from 10 previous functional MRI studies were used. Age, sex, unpleasantness ratings, scanner sequence, and sensory testing location were added to the model as covariates. Regression analysis of grey matter density across the whole brain and thermal pain intensity ratings at 49°C revealed a significant inverse relationship between pain sensitivity and grey matter density in bilateral regions of the posterior cingulate cortex, precuneus, intraparietal sulcus, and inferior parietal lobule. Unilateral regions of the left primary somatosensory cortex also exhibited this inverse relationship. No regions showed a positive relationship to pain sensitivity. These structural variations occurred in areas associated with the default mode network, attentional direction and shifting, as well as somatosensory processing. These findings underscore the potential importance of processes related to default mode thought and attention in shaping individual differences in pain sensitivity and indicate that pain sensitivity can potentially be predicted on the basis of brain structure. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Circuit-wide Transcriptional Profiling Reveals Brain Region-Specific Gene Networks Regulating Depression Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagot, Rosemary C; Cates, Hannah M; Purushothaman, Immanuel; Lorsch, Zachary S; Walker, Deena M; Wang, Junshi; Huang, Xiaojie; Schlüter, Oliver M; Maze, Ian; Peña, Catherine J; Heller, Elizabeth A; Issler, Orna; Wang, Minghui; Song, Won-Min; Stein, Jason L; Liu, Xiaochuan; Doyle, Marie A; Scobie, Kimberly N; Sun, Hao Sheng; Neve, Rachael L; Geschwind, Daniel; Dong, Yan; Shen, Li; Zhang, Bin; Nestler, Eric J

    2016-06-01

    Depression is a complex, heterogeneous disorder and a leading contributor to the global burden of disease. Most previous research has focused on individual brain regions and genes contributing to depression. However, emerging evidence in humans and animal models suggests that dysregulated circuit function and gene expression across multiple brain regions drive depressive phenotypes. Here, we performed RNA sequencing on four brain regions from control animals and those susceptible or resilient to chronic social defeat stress at multiple time points. We employed an integrative network biology approach to identify transcriptional networks and key driver genes that regulate susceptibility to depressive-like symptoms. Further, we validated in vivo several key drivers and their associated transcriptional networks that regulate depression susceptibility and confirmed their functional significance at the levels of gene transcription, synaptic regulation, and behavior. Our study reveals novel transcriptional networks that control stress susceptibility and offers fundamentally new leads for antidepressant drug discovery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Regional brain structural abnormality in ischemic stroke patients: a voxel-based morphometry study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our previous study used regional homogeneity analysis and found that activity in some brain areas of patients with ischemic stroke changed significantly. In the current study, we examined structural changes in these brain regions by taking structural magnetic resonance imaging scans of 11 ischemic stroke patients and 15 healthy participants, and analyzing the data using voxel-based morphometry. Compared with healthy participants, patients exhibited higher gray matter density in the left inferior occipital gyrus and right anterior white matter tract. In contrast, gray matter density in the right cerebellum, left precentral gyrus, right middle frontal gyrus, and left middle temporal gyrus was less in ischemic stroke patients. The changes of gray matter density in the middle frontal gyrus were negatively associated with the clinical rating scales of the Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment (r = -0.609, P = 0.047 and the left middle temporal gyrus was negatively correlated with the clinical rating scales of the nervous functional deficiency scale (r = -0.737, P = 0.010. Our findings can objectively identify the functional abnormality in some brain regions of ischemic stroke patients.

  8. High permeability cores to optimize the stimulation of deeply located brain regions using transcranial magnetic stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvador, R; Miranda, P C; Roth, Y; Zangen, A

    2009-01-01

    Efficient stimulation of deeply located brain regions with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) poses many challenges, arising from the fact that the induced field decays rapidly and becomes less focal with depth. We propose a new method to improve the efficiency of TMS of deep brain regions that combines high permeability cores, to increase focality and field intensity, with a coil specifically designed to induce a field that decays slowly with increasing depth. The performance of the proposed design was investigated using the finite element method to determine the total electric field induced by this coil/core arrangement on a realistically shaped homogeneous head model. The calculations show that the inclusion of the cores increases the field's magnitude by as much as 25% while also decreasing the field's decay with depth along specific directions. The focality, as measured by the area where the field's norm is greater than 1/√2 of its maximum value, is also improved by as much as 15% with some core arrangements. The coil's inductance is not significantly increased by the cores. These results show that the presence of the cores might make this specially designed coil even more suited for the effective stimulation of deep brain regions.

  9. High permeability cores to optimize the stimulation of deeply located brain regions using transcranial magnetic stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, R.; Miranda, P. C.; Roth, Y.; Zangen, A.

    2009-05-01

    Efficient stimulation of deeply located brain regions with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) poses many challenges, arising from the fact that the induced field decays rapidly and becomes less focal with depth. We propose a new method to improve the efficiency of TMS of deep brain regions that combines high permeability cores, to increase focality and field intensity, with a coil specifically designed to induce a field that decays slowly with increasing depth. The performance of the proposed design was investigated using the finite element method to determine the total electric field induced by this coil/core arrangement on a realistically shaped homogeneous head model. The calculations show that the inclusion of the cores increases the field's magnitude by as much as 25% while also decreasing the field's decay with depth along specific directions. The focality, as measured by the area where the field's norm is greater than 1/\\sqrt 2 of its maximum value, is also improved by as much as 15% with some core arrangements. The coil's inductance is not significantly increased by the cores. These results show that the presence of the cores might make this specially designed coil even more suited for the effective stimulation of deep brain regions.

  10. High permeability cores to optimize the stimulation of deeply located brain regions using transcranial magnetic stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvador, R; Miranda, P C [Institute of Biophysics and Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Sciences, University of Lisbon, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Roth, Y [Advanced Technology Center, Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer (Israel); Zangen, A [Neurobiology Department, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)], E-mail: rnsalvador@fc.ul.pt

    2009-05-21

    Efficient stimulation of deeply located brain regions with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) poses many challenges, arising from the fact that the induced field decays rapidly and becomes less focal with depth. We propose a new method to improve the efficiency of TMS of deep brain regions that combines high permeability cores, to increase focality and field intensity, with a coil specifically designed to induce a field that decays slowly with increasing depth. The performance of the proposed design was investigated using the finite element method to determine the total electric field induced by this coil/core arrangement on a realistically shaped homogeneous head model. The calculations show that the inclusion of the cores increases the field's magnitude by as much as 25% while also decreasing the field's decay with depth along specific directions. The focality, as measured by the area where the field's norm is greater than 1/{radical}2 of its maximum value, is also improved by as much as 15% with some core arrangements. The coil's inductance is not significantly increased by the cores. These results show that the presence of the cores might make this specially designed coil even more suited for the effective stimulation of deep brain regions.

  11. Financial literacy is associated with medial brain region functional connectivity in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, S Duke; Boyle, Patricia A; Yu, Lei; Fleischman, Debra A; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; Leurgans, Sue; Bennett, David A

    2014-01-01

    Financial literacy refers to the ability to access and utilize financial information in ways that promote better outcomes. In old age, financial literacy has been associated with a wide range of positive characteristics; however, the neural correlates remain unclear. Recent work has suggested greater co-activity between anterior-posterior medial brain regions is associated with better brain functioning. We hypothesized financial literacy would be associated with this pattern. We assessed whole-brain functional connectivity to a posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) seed region of interest (ROI) in 138 participants of the Rush Memory and Aging Project. Results revealed financial literacy was associated with greater functional connectivity between the PCC and three regions: the right ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), the left postcentral gyrus, and the right precuneus. Results also revealed financial literacy was associated negatively with functional connectivity between the PCC and left caudate. Post hoc analyses showed the PCC-vmPFC relationship accounted for the most variance in a regression model adjusted for all four significant functional connectivity relationships, demographic factors, and global cognition. These findings provide information on the neural mechanisms associated with financial literacy in old age. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of cadmium exposure on lipids, lipid peroxidation and metal distribution in rat brain regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, T; Ali, M M; Chandra, S V

    1985-01-01

    Effect of cadmium treatment on brain lipids, lipid peroxidation and distribution of Zn, Cu and Fe in rat brain regions was investigated. Adult male rats were exposed to Cd (100 ppm Cd as cadmium acetate) in drinking water for 30 days. The Cd exposure resulted in a significant decrease in the phospholipid content and an increase in the lipid peroxidation in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum. The total lipid content was not affected in any of the regions but a significant decrease in cholesterol and cerebroside contents were observed only in the cerebral cortex. A positive correlation between the increase in lipid peroxidation and decrease in the phospholipid content in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum was observed. A maximum accumulation of Cd occurred in the cerebral cortex. The Cu and Fe contents were significantly increased but the Zn levels decreased in the Cd-treated rats in all but the midbrain region. Results suggest that the increased peroxidation decomposition of structural lipids and the altered distribution of the essential trace metals in brain may play a significant role in Cd-induced neurotoxicity. 27 references, 2 tables.

  13. Regional glucose utilization and blood flow in experimental brain tumors studied by double tracer autoradiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, A.; Sako, K.; Diksic, M.; Yamamoto, Y.L.; Feindel, W.

    1985-01-01

    Coupling of regional glucose utilization (GLU) and blood flow (CBF) was examined in rats with implanted brain tumors (AA ascites tumor) by quantitative double tracer autoradiography using YF-2-fluorodeoxyglucose and 14C-iodoantipyrine. Four to 13 days after implantation, the animals were injected with the two tracers to obtain autoradiograms from the same brain section before and after the decay of YF. The autoradiograms were then analyzed by an image processor to obtain a metabolic coupling index (MCI = GLU/CBF). In the tumor, high GLU and low CBF were uncoupled to give a high MCI which implied anerobic glycolysis. In large tumors, the CBF was even lower. In the peri-tumoral region, GLU was reduced and reduction was lowest around the larger tumors. CBF in the peri-tumoral region was also reduced, but this reduction became less as the distance from the tumor margin increased. The GLU and CBF of white matter was little influenced by the presence of tumors except for some reduction in these values in relation to the larger tumors. The MCI in the tumor was higher than in the cortex of the same as well as the opposite hemisphere. These findings indicate that the metabolism and blood flow of the tumor and surrounding brain are variable and directly related to tumor size.

  14. Anxiety type modulates immediate versus delayed engagement of attention-related brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielberg, Jeffrey M; De Leon, Angeline A; Bredemeier, Keith; Heller, Wendy; Engels, Anna S; Warren, Stacie L; Crocker, Laura D; Sutton, Bradley P; Miller, Gregory A

    2013-09-01

    Background Habituation of the fear response, critical for the treatment of anxiety, is inconsistently observed during exposure to threatening stimuli. One potential explanation for this inconsistency is differential attentional engagement with negatively valenced stimuli as a function of anxiety type. Methods The present study tested this hypothesis by examining patterns of neural habituation associated with anxious arousal, characterized by panic symptoms and immediate engagement with negatively valenced stimuli, versus anxious apprehension, characterized by engagement in worry to distract from negatively valenced stimuli. Results As predicted, the two anxiety types evidenced distinct patterns of attentional engagement. Anxious arousal was associated with immediate activation in attention-related brain regions that habituated over time, whereas anxious apprehension was associated with delayed activation in attention-related brain regions that occurred only after habituation in a worry-related brain region. Conclusions Results further elucidate mechanisms involved in attention to negatively valenced stimuli and indicate that anxiety is a heterogeneous construct with regard to attention to such stimuli.

  15. Relationship between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperament factor of personality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sang Soo; Lee, Eun Ju; Yoon, Eun Jin; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Lee, Won Woo; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Temperament factor of personality has been considered to have correlation with activity in a specific central monoaminergic system. In an attempt to explore neuronal substrate of biogenetic personality traits, we examined the relationship between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperament factor of personality. Twenty right-handed healthy subjects (age, 24{+-}4 yr: 10 females and 10 males) were studied with FDG PET. Their temperaments were assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), which consisted of four temperament factors (harm avoidance (HA), novelty seeking (NS), reward dependence (RD), persistency) and three personality factors. The relationship between regional glucose metabolism and each temperament score was tested using SPM99 (P < 0.005, uncorrected). NS score was negatively correlated with glucose metabolism in the frontal areas, insula, and superior temporal gyrus mainly in the right hemisphere. Positive correlation between NS score and glucose metabolism was observed in the left superior temporal gyrus. HA score showed negative correlation with glucose metabolism in the middle and orbitofrontal gyri as well as in the parahippocampal gyrus. RD score was positively correlated with glucose metabolism in the left middle frontal gyrus and negative correlated in the posterior cingulate gyrus and caudate nucleus. We identified the relationship between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperamental personality trait. Each temperament factor had a relation with functions of specific brain areas. These results help understand biological background of personality and specific feedback circuits associated with each temperament factor.

  16. Relationship between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperament factor of personality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sang Soo; Lee, Eun Ju; Yoon, Eun Jin; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Lee, Won Woo; Kim, Sang Eun

    2005-01-01

    Temperament factor of personality has been considered to have correlation with activity in a specific central monoaminergic system. In an attempt to explore neuronal substrate of biogenetic personality traits, we examined the relationship between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperament factor of personality. Twenty right-handed healthy subjects (age, 24±4 yr: 10 females and 10 males) were studied with FDG PET. Their temperaments were assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), which consisted of four temperament factors (harm avoidance (HA), novelty seeking (NS), reward dependence (RD), persistency) and three personality factors. The relationship between regional glucose metabolism and each temperament score was tested using SPM99 (P < 0.005, uncorrected). NS score was negatively correlated with glucose metabolism in the frontal areas, insula, and superior temporal gyrus mainly in the right hemisphere. Positive correlation between NS score and glucose metabolism was observed in the left superior temporal gyrus. HA score showed negative correlation with glucose metabolism in the middle and orbitofrontal gyri as well as in the parahippocampal gyrus. RD score was positively correlated with glucose metabolism in the left middle frontal gyrus and negative correlated in the posterior cingulate gyrus and caudate nucleus. We identified the relationship between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperamental personality trait. Each temperament factor had a relation with functions of specific brain areas. These results help understand biological background of personality and specific feedback circuits associated with each temperament factor

  17. Brain alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex: kinetic properties, regional distribution, and effects of inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, J C; Cooper, A J

    1986-11-01

    The substrate and cofactor requirements and some kinetic properties of the alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC; EC 1.2.4.2, EC 2.3.1.61, and EC 1.6.4.3) in purified rat brain mitochondria were studied. Brain mitochondrial KGDHC showed absolute requirement for alpha-ketoglutarate, CoA and NAD, and only partial requirement for added thiamine pyrophosphate, but no requirement for Mg2+ under the assay conditions employed in this study. The pH optimum was between 7.2 and 7.4, but, at pH values below 7.0 or above 7.8, KGDHC activity decreased markedly. KGDHC activity in various brain regions followed the rank order: cerebral cortex greater than cerebellum greater than or equal to midbrain greater than striatum = hippocampus greater than hypothalamus greater than pons and medulla greater than olfactory bulb. Significant inhibition of brain mitochondrial KGDHC was noted at pathological concentrations of ammonia (0.2-2 mM). However, the purified bovine heart KGDHC and KGDHC activity in isolated rat heart mitochondria were much less sensitive to inhibition. At 5 mM both beta-methylene-D,L-aspartate and D,L-vinylglycine (inhibitors of cerebral glucose oxidation) inhibited the purified heart but not the brain mitochondrial enzyme complex. At approximately 10 microM, calcium slightly stimulated (by 10-15%) the brain mitochondrial KGDHC. At concentrations above 100 microM, calcium (IC50 = 1 mM) inhibited both brain mitochondrial and purified heart KGDHC. The present results suggest that some of the kinetic properties of the rat brain mitochondrial KGDHC differ from those of the purified bovine heart and rat heart mitochondrial enzyme complexes. They also suggest that the inhibition of KGDHC by ammonia and the consequent effect on the citric acid cycle fluxes may be of pathophysiological and/or pathogenetic importance in hyperammonemia and in diseases (e.g., hepatic encephalopathy, inborn errors of urea metabolism, Reye's syndrome) where hyperammonemia is a

  18. Stability of whole brain and regional network topology within and between resting and cognitive states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzucidlo, Justyna K; Roseman, Paige L; Laurienti, Paul J; Dagenbach, Dale

    2013-01-01

    Graph-theory based analyses of resting state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) data have been used to map the network organization of the brain. While numerous analyses of resting state brain organization exist, many questions remain unexplored. The present study examines the stability of findings based on this approach over repeated resting state and working memory state sessions within the same individuals. This allows assessment of stability of network topology within the same state for both rest and working memory, and between rest and working memory as well. fMRI scans were performed on five participants while at rest and while performing the 2-back working memory task five times each, with task state alternating while they were in the scanner. Voxel-based whole brain network analyses were performed on the resulting data along with analyses of functional connectivity in regions associated with resting state and working memory. Network topology was fairly stable across repeated sessions of the same task, but varied significantly between rest and working memory. In the whole brain analysis, local efficiency, Eloc, differed significantly between rest and working memory. Analyses of network statistics for the precuneus and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex revealed significant differences in degree as a function of task state for both regions and in local efficiency for the precuneus. Conversely, no significant differences were observed across repeated sessions of the same state. These findings suggest that network topology is fairly stable within individuals across time for the same state, but also fluid between states. Whole brain voxel-based network analyses may prove to be a valuable tool for exploring how functional connectivity changes in response to task demands.

  19. Postmenopausal hormone therapy and regional brain volumes: the WHIMS-MRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, S M; Espeland, M A; Jaramillo, S A; Hirsch, C; Stefanick, M L; Murray, A M; Ockene, J; Davatzikos, C

    2009-01-13

    To determine whether menopausal hormone therapy (HT) affects regional brain volumes, including hippocampal and frontal regions. Brain MRI scans were obtained in a subset of 1,403 women aged 71-89 years who participated in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS). WHIMS was an ancillary study to the Women's Health Initiative, which consisted of two randomized, placebo-controlled trials: 0.625 mg conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) with or without 2.5 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) in one daily tablet. Scans were performed, on average, 3.0 years post-trial for the CEE + MPA trial and 1.4 years post-trial for the CEE-Alone trial; average on-trial follow-up intervals were 4.0 years for CEE + MPA and 5.6 years for CEE-Alone. Total brain, ventricular, hippocampal, and frontal lobe volumes, adjusted for age, clinic site, estimated intracranial volume, and dementia risk factors, were the main outcome variables. Compared with placebo, covariate-adjusted mean frontal lobe volume was 2.37 cm(3) lower among women assigned to HT (p = 0.004), mean hippocampal volume was slightly (0.10 cm(3)) lower (p = 0.05), and differences in total brain volume approached significance (p = 0.07). Results were similar for CEE + MPA and CEE-Alone. HT-associated reductions in hippocampal volumes were greatest in women with the lowest baseline Modified Mini-Mental State Examination scores (scores equine estrogens with or without MPA are associated with greater brain atrophy among women aged 65 years and older; however, the adverse effects are most evident in women experiencing cognitive deficits before initiating hormone therapy.

  20. Regional specificity in deltamethrin induced cytochrome P450 expression in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, Sanjay; Johri, Ashu; Dhawan, Alok; Seth, Prahlad K.; Parmar, Devendra

    2006-01-01

    Oral administration of deltamethrin (5 mg/kg x 7 or 15 or 21 days) was found to produce a time-dependent increase in the mRNA expression of xenobiotic metabolizing cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1), 1A2 and CYP2B1, 2B2 isoenzymes in rat brain. RT-PCR studies further showed that increase in the mRNA expression of these CYP isoenzymes observed after 21 days of exposure was region specific. Hippocampus exhibited maximum increase in the mRNA expression of CYP1A1, which was followed by pons-medulla, cerebellum and hypothalamus. The mRNA expression of CYP2B1 also exhibited maximum increase in the hypothalamus and hippocampus followed by almost similar increase in midbrain and cerebellum. In contrast, mRNA expression of CYP1A2 and CYP2B2, the constitutive isoenzymes exhibited relatively higher increase in pons-medulla, cerebellum and frontal cortex. Immunoblotting studies carried out with polyclonal antibody raised against rat liver CYP1A1/1A2 or CYP2B1/2B2 isoenzymes also showed increase in immunoreactivity comigrating with CYP1A1/1A2 or 2B1/2B2 in the microsomal fractions isolated from hippocampus, hypothalamus and cerebellum of rat treated with deltamethrin. Though the exact relationship of the xenobiotic metabolizing CYPs with the physiological function of the brain is yet to be clearly understood, the increase in the mRNA expression of the CYPs in the brain regions that regulate specific brain functions affected by deltamethrin have further indicated that modulation of these CYPs could be associated with the various endogenous functions of the brain

  1. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type I Affects Brain Structure in Prefrontal and Motor Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleger, Burkhard; Draganski, Bogdan; Schwenkreis, Peter; Lenz, Melanie; Nicolas, Volkmar; Maier, Christoph; Tegenthoff, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a rare but debilitating pain disorder that mostly occurs after injuries to the upper limb. A number of studies indicated altered brain function in CRPS, whereas possible influences on brain structure remain poorly investigated. We acquired structural magnetic resonance imaging data from CRPS type I patients and applied voxel-by-voxel statistics to compare white and gray matter brain segments of CRPS patients with matched controls. Patients and controls were statistically compared in two different ways: First, we applied a 2-sample ttest to compare whole brain white and gray matter structure between patients and controls. Second, we aimed to assess structural alterations specifically of the primary somatosensory (S1) and motor cortex (M1) contralateral to the CRPS affected side. To this end, MRI scans of patients with left-sided CRPS (and matched controls) were horizontally flipped before preprocessing and region-of-interest-based group comparison. The unpaired ttest of the “non-flipped” data revealed that CRPS patients presented increased gray matter density in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. The same test applied to the “flipped” data showed further increases in gray matter density, not in the S1, but in the M1 contralateral to the CRPS-affected limb which were inversely related to decreased white matter density of the internal capsule within the ipsilateral brain hemisphere. The gray-white matter interaction between motor cortex and internal capsule suggests compensatory mechanisms within the central motor system possibly due to motor dysfunction. Altered gray matter structure in dorsomedial prefrontal cortex may occur in response to emotional processes such as pain-related suffering or elevated analgesic top-down control. PMID:24416397

  2. Complex regional pain syndrome type I affects brain structure in prefrontal and motor cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkhard Pleger

    Full Text Available The complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS is a rare but debilitating pain disorder that mostly occurs after injuries to the upper limb. A number of studies indicated altered brain function in CRPS, whereas possible influences on brain structure remain poorly investigated. We acquired structural magnetic resonance imaging data from CRPS type I patients and applied voxel-by-voxel statistics to compare white and gray matter brain segments of CRPS patients with matched controls. Patients and controls were statistically compared in two different ways: First, we applied a 2-sample ttest to compare whole brain white and gray matter structure between patients and controls. Second, we aimed to assess structural alterations specifically of the primary somatosensory (S1 and motor cortex (M1 contralateral to the CRPS affected side. To this end, MRI scans of patients with left-sided CRPS (and matched controls were horizontally flipped before preprocessing and region-of-interest-based group comparison. The unpaired ttest of the "non-flipped" data revealed that CRPS patients presented increased gray matter density in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. The same test applied to the "flipped" data showed further increases in gray matter density, not in the S1, but in the M1 contralateral to the CRPS-affected limb which were inversely related to decreased white matter density of the internal capsule within the ipsilateral brain hemisphere. The gray-white matter interaction between motor cortex and internal capsule suggests compensatory mechanisms within the central motor system possibly due to motor dysfunction. Altered gray matter structure in dorsomedial prefrontal cortex may occur in response to emotional processes such as pain-related suffering or elevated analgesic top-down control.

  3. Region-specific reduction in brain volume in young adults with perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregant, Tina; Rados, Milan; Vasung, Lana; Derganc, Metka; Evans, Alan C; Neubauer, David; Kostovic, Ivica

    2013-11-01

    A severe form of perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) carries a high risk of perinatal death and severe neurological sequelae while in mild HIE only discrete cognitive disorders may occur. To compare total brain volumes and region-specific cortical measurements between young adults with mild-moderate perinatal HIE and a healthy control group of the same age. MR imaging was performed in a cohort of 14 young adults (9 males, 5 females) with a history of mild or moderate perinatal HIE. The control group consisted of healthy participants, matched with HIE group by age and gender. Volumetric analysis was done after the processing of MR images using a fully automated CIVET pipeline. We measured gyrification indexes, total brain volume, volume of grey and white matter, and of cerebrospinal fluid. We also measured volume, thickness and area of the cerebral cortex in the parietal, occipital, frontal, and temporal lobe, and of the isthmus cinguli, parahippocampal and cingulated gyrus, and insula. The HIE patient group showed smaller absolute volumetric data. Statistically significant (p right hemisphere, of cortical areas in the right temporal lobe and parahippocampal gyrus, of cortical volumes in the right temporal lobe and of cortical thickness in the right isthmus of the cingulate gyrus were found. Comparison between the healthy group and the HIE group of the same gender showed statistically significant changes in the male HIE patients, where a significant reduction was found in whole brain volume; left parietal, bilateral temporal, and right parahippocampal gyrus cortical areas; and bilateral temporal lobe cortical volume. Our analysis of total brain volumes and region-specific corticometric parameters suggests that mild-moderate forms of perinatal HIE lead to reductions in whole brain volumes. In the study reductions were most pronounced in temporal lobe and parahippocampal gyrus. Copyright © 2013 European Paediatric Neurology Society. All rights reserved.

  4. Stability of whole brain and regional network topology within and between resting and cognitive states.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna K Rzucidlo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Graph-theory based analyses of resting state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI data have been used to map the network organization of the brain. While numerous analyses of resting state brain organization exist, many questions remain unexplored. The present study examines the stability of findings based on this approach over repeated resting state and working memory state sessions within the same individuals. This allows assessment of stability of network topology within the same state for both rest and working memory, and between rest and working memory as well. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: fMRI scans were performed on five participants while at rest and while performing the 2-back working memory task five times each, with task state alternating while they were in the scanner. Voxel-based whole brain network analyses were performed on the resulting data along with analyses of functional connectivity in regions associated with resting state and working memory. Network topology was fairly stable across repeated sessions of the same task, but varied significantly between rest and working memory. In the whole brain analysis, local efficiency, Eloc, differed significantly between rest and working memory. Analyses of network statistics for the precuneus and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex revealed significant differences in degree as a function of task state for both regions and in local efficiency for the precuneus. Conversely, no significant differences were observed across repeated sessions of the same state. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that network topology is fairly stable within individuals across time for the same state, but also fluid between states. Whole brain voxel-based network analyses may prove to be a valuable tool for exploring how functional connectivity changes in response to task demands.

  5. Food and drug cues activate similar brain regions: a meta-analysis of functional MRI studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, D W; Fellows, L K; Small, D M; Dagher, A

    2012-06-06

    In healthy individuals, food cues can trigger hunger and feeding behavior. Likewise, smoking cues can trigger craving and relapse in smokers. Brain imaging studies report that structures involved in appetitive behaviors and reward, notably the insula, striatum, amygdala and orbital frontal cortex, tend to be activated by both visual food and smoking cues. Here, by carrying out a meta-analysis of human neuro-imaging studies, we investigate the neural network activated by: 1) food versus neutral cues (14 studies, 142 foci) 2) smoking versus neutral cues (15 studies, 176 foci) 3) smoking versus neutral cues when correlated with craving scores (7 studies, 108 foci). PubMed was used to identify cue-reactivity imaging studies that compared brain response to visual food or smoking cues to neutral cues. Fourteen articles were identified for the food meta-analysis and fifteen articles were identified for the smoking meta-analysis. Six articles were identified for the smoking cue correlated with craving analysis. Meta-analyses were carried out using activation likelihood estimation. Food cues were associated with increased blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response in the left amygdala, bilateral insula, bilateral orbital frontal cortex, and striatum. Smoking cues were associated with increased BOLD signal in the same areas, with the exception of the insula. However, the smoking meta-analysis of brain maps correlating cue-reactivity with subjective craving did identify the insula, suggesting that insula activation is only found when craving levels are high. The brain areas identified here are involved in learning, memory and motivation, and their cue-induced activity is an index of the incentive salience of the cues. Using meta-analytic techniques to combine a series of studies, we found that food and smoking cues activate comparable brain networks. There is significant overlap in brain regions responding to conditioned cues associated with natural and drug rewards

  6. Background field removal using a region adaptive kernel for quantitative susceptibility mapping of human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jinsheng; Bao, Lijun; Li, Xu; van Zijl, Peter C. M.; Chen, Zhong

    2017-08-01

    Background field removal is an important MR phase preprocessing step for quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM). It separates the local field induced by tissue magnetic susceptibility sources from the background field generated by sources outside a region of interest, e.g. brain, such as air-tissue interface. In the vicinity of air-tissue boundary, e.g. skull and paranasal sinuses, where large susceptibility variations exist, present background field removal methods are usually insufficient and these regions often need to be excluded by brain mask erosion at the expense of losing information of local field and thus susceptibility measures in these regions. In this paper, we propose an extension to the variable-kernel sophisticated harmonic artifact reduction for phase data (V-SHARP) background field removal method using a region adaptive kernel (R-SHARP), in which a scalable spherical Gaussian kernel (SGK) is employed with its kernel radius and weights adjustable according to an energy "functional" reflecting the magnitude of field variation. Such an energy functional is defined in terms of a contour and two fitting functions incorporating regularization terms, from which a curve evolution model in level set formation is derived for energy minimization. We utilize it to detect regions of with a large field gradient caused by strong susceptibility variation. In such regions, the SGK will have a small radius and high weight at the sphere center in a manner adaptive to the voxel energy of the field perturbation. Using the proposed method, the background field generated from external sources can be effectively removed to get a more accurate estimation of the local field and thus of the QSM dipole inversion to map local tissue susceptibility sources. Numerical simulation, phantom and in vivo human brain data demonstrate improved performance of R-SHARP compared to V-SHARP and RESHARP (regularization enabled SHARP) methods, even when the whole paranasal sinus regions

  7. Background field removal using a region adaptive kernel for quantitative susceptibility mapping of human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jinsheng; Bao, Lijun; Li, Xu; van Zijl, Peter C M; Chen, Zhong

    2017-08-01

    Background field removal is an important MR phase preprocessing step for quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM). It separates the local field induced by tissue magnetic susceptibility sources from the background field generated by sources outside a region of interest, e.g. brain, such as air-tissue interface. In the vicinity of air-tissue boundary, e.g. skull and paranasal sinuses, where large susceptibility variations exist, present background field removal methods are usually insufficient and these regions often need to be excluded by brain mask erosion at the expense of losing information of local field and thus susceptibility measures in these regions. In this paper, we propose an extension to the variable-kernel sophisticated harmonic artifact reduction for phase data (V-SHARP) background field removal method using a region adaptive kernel (R-SHARP), in which a scalable spherical Gaussian kernel (SGK) is employed with its kernel radius and weights adjustable according to an energy "functional" reflecting the magnitude of field variation. Such an energy functional is defined in terms of a contour and two fitting functions incorporating regularization terms, from which a curve evolution model in level set formation is derived for energy minimization. We utilize it to detect regions of with a large field gradient caused by strong susceptibility variation. In such regions, the SGK will have a small radius and high weight at the sphere center in a manner adaptive to the voxel energy of the field perturbation. Using the proposed method, the background field generated from external sources can be effectively removed to get a more accurate estimation of the local field and thus of the QSM dipole inversion to map local tissue susceptibility sources. Numerical simulation, phantom and in vivo human brain data demonstrate improved performance of R-SHARP compared to V-SHARP and RESHARP (regularization enabled SHARP) methods, even when the whole paranasal sinus regions

  8. Brain volume reductions in adolescent heavy drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squeglia, Lindsay M; Rinker, Daniel A; Bartsch, Hauke; Castro, Norma; Chung, Yoonho; Dale, Anders M; Jernigan, Terry L; Tapert, Susan F

    2014-07-01

    Brain abnormalities in adolescent heavy drinkers may result from alcohol exposure, or stem from pre-existing neural features. This longitudinal morphometric study investigated 40 healthy adolescents, ages 12-17 at study entry, half of whom (n=20) initiated heavy drinking over the 3-year follow-up. Both assessments included high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. FreeSurfer was used to segment brain volumes, which were measured longitudinally using the newly developed quantitative anatomic regional change analysis (QUARC) tool. At baseline, participants who later transitioned into heavy drinking showed smaller left cingulate, pars triangularis, and rostral anterior cingulate volume, and less right cerebellar white matter volumes (pteens. Over time, participants who initiated heavy drinking showed significantly greater volume reduction in the left ventral diencephalon, left inferior and middle temporal gyrus, and left caudate and brain stem, compared to substance-naïve youth (pbrain regions in future drinkers and greater brain volume reduction in subcortical and temporal regions after alcohol use was initiated. This is consistent with literature showing pre-existing cognitive deficits on tasks recruited by frontal regions, as well as post-drinking consequences on brain regions involved in language and spatial tasks. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Leptin Receptor Deficiency is Associated With Upregulation of Cannabinoid 1 Receptors in Limbic Brain Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    THANOS, PANAYOTIS K.; RAMALHETE, ROBERTO C.; MICHAELIDES, MICHAEL; PIYIS, YIANNI K.; WANG, GENE-JACK; VOLKOW, NORA D.

    2009-01-01

    Leptin receptor dysfunction results in overeating and obesity. Leptin regulates hypothalamic signaling that underlies the motivation to hyperphagia, but the interaction between leptin and cannabinoid signaling is poorly understood. We evaluated the role of cannabinoid 1 receptors (CB1R) in overeating and the effects of food deprivation on CB1R in the brain. One-month-old Zucker rats were divided into unrestricted and restricted (fed 70% of unrestricted rats) diet groups and maintained until adulthood (4 months). Levels of relative binding sites of CB1R (CB1R binding levels) were assessed using [3H] SR141716A in vitro autoradiography. These levels were higher (except cerebellum and hypothalamus) at 4 months than at 1 month of age. One month CB1R binding levels for most brain regions did not differ between Ob and Lean (Le) rats (except in frontal and cingulate cortices in Le and in the hypothalamus in Ob). Four month Ob rats had higher CB1R binding levels than Le in most brain regions and food restriction was associated with higher CB1R levels in all brain regions in Ob, but not in Le rats. CB1R binding levels increased between adolescence and young adulthood which we believe was influenced by leptin and food availability. The high levels of CB1R in Ob rats suggest that leptin's inhibition of food-intake is in part mediated by downregulation of CB1R and that leptin interferes with CB1R upregulation under food-deprivation conditions. These results are consistent with prior findings showing increased levels of endogenous cannabinoids in the Ob rats corroborating the regulation of cannabinoid signaling by leptin. PMID:18563836

  10. Regional volumes and spatial volumetric distribution of gray matter in the gender dysphoric brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekzema, Elseline; Schagen, Sebastian E E; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; Veltman, Dick J; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Delemarre-van de Waal, Henriette; Bakker, Julie

    2015-05-01

    The sexual differentiation of the brain is primarily driven by gonadal hormones during fetal development. Leading theories on the etiology of gender dysphoria (GD) involve deviations herein. To examine whether there are signs of a sex-atypical brain development in GD, we quantified regional neural gray matter (GM) volumes in 55 female-to-male and 38 male-to-female adolescents, 44 boys and 52 girls without GD and applied both univariate and multivariate analyses. In girls, more GM volume was observed in the left superior medial frontal cortex, while boys had more volume in the bilateral superior posterior hemispheres of the cerebellum and the hypothalamus. Regarding the GD groups, at whole-brain level they differed only from individuals sharing their gender identity but not from their natal sex. Accordingly, using multivariate pattern recognition analyses, the GD groups could more accurately be automatically discriminated from individuals sharing their gender identity than those sharing their natal sex based on spatially distributed GM patterns. However, region of interest analyses indicated less GM volume in the right cerebellum and more volume in the medial frontal cortex in female-to-males in comparison to girls without GD, while male-to-females had less volume in the bilateral cerebellum and hypothalamus than natal boys. Deviations from the natal sex within sexually dimorphic structures were also observed in the untreated subsamples. Our findings thus indicate that GM distribution and regional volumes in GD adolescents are largely in accordance with their respective natal sex. However, there are subtle deviations from the natal sex in sexually dimorphic structures, which can represent signs of a partial sex-atypical differentiation of the brain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A tensor-based morphometry analysis of regional differences in brain volume in relation to prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meintjes, E M; Narr, K L; van der Kouwe, A J W; Molteno, C D; Pirnia, T; Gutman, B; Woods, R P; Thompson, P M; Jacobson, J L; Jacobson, S W

    2014-01-01

    Reductions in brain volumes represent a neurobiological signature of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Less clear is how regional brain tissue reductions differ after normalizing for brain size differences linked with FASD and whether these profiles can predict the degree of prenatal exposure to alcohol. To examine associations of regional brain tissue excesses/deficits with degree of prenatal alcohol exposure and diagnosis with and without correction for overall brain volume, tensor-based morphometry (TBM) methods were applied to structural imaging data from a well-characterized, demographically homogeneous sample of children diagnosed with FASD (n = 39, 9.6-11.0 years) and controls (n = 16, 9.5-11.0 years). Degree of prenatal alcohol exposure was significantly associated with regionally pervasive brain tissue reductions in: (1) the thalamus, midbrain, and ventromedial frontal lobe, (2) the superior cerebellum and inferior occipital lobe, (3) the dorsolateral frontal cortex, and (4) the precuneus and superior parietal lobule. When overall brain size was factored out of the analysis on a subject-by-subject basis, no regions showed significant associations with alcohol exposure. FASD diagnosis was associated with a similar deformation pattern, but few of the regions survived FDR correction. In data-driven independent component analyses (ICA) regional brain tissue deformations successfully distinguished individuals based on extent of prenatal alcohol exposure and to a lesser degree, diagnosis. The greater sensitivity of the continuous measure of alcohol exposure compared with the categorical diagnosis across diverse brain regions underscores the dose dependence of these effects. The ICA results illustrate that profiles of brain tissue alterations may be a useful indicator of prenatal alcohol exposure when reliable historical data are not available and facial features are not apparent.

  12. A tensor-based morphometry analysis of regional differences in brain volume in relation to prenatal alcohol exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.M. Meintjes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reductions in brain volumes represent a neurobiological signature of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD. Less clear is how regional brain tissue reductions differ after normalizing for brain size differences linked with FASD and whether these profiles can predict the degree of prenatal exposure to alcohol. To examine associations of regional brain tissue excesses/deficits with degree of prenatal alcohol exposure and diagnosis with and without correction for overall brain volume, tensor-based morphometry (TBM methods were applied to structural imaging data from a well-characterized, demographically homogeneous sample of children diagnosed with FASD (n = 39, 9.6–11.0 years and controls (n = 16, 9.5–11.0 years. Degree of prenatal alcohol exposure was significantly associated with regionally pervasive brain tissue reductions in: (1 the thalamus, midbrain, and ventromedial frontal lobe, (2 the superior cerebellum and inferior occipital lobe, (3 the dorsolateral frontal cortex, and (4 the precuneus and superior parietal lobule. When overall brain size was factored out of the analysis on a subject-by-subject basis, no regions showed significant associations with alcohol exposure. FASD diagnosis was associated with a similar deformation pattern, but few of the regions survived FDR correction. In data-driven independent component analyses (ICA regional brain tissue deformations successfully distinguished individuals based on extent of prenatal alcohol exposure and to a lesser degree, diagnosis. The greater sensitivity of the continuous measure of alcohol exposure compared with the categorical diagnosis across diverse brain regions underscores the dose dependence of these effects. The ICA results illustrate that profiles of brain tissue alterations may be a useful indicator of prenatal alcohol exposure when reliable historical data are not available and facial features are not apparent.

  13. Mercury distribution and speciation in different brain regions of beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostertag, Sonja K.; Stern, Gary A.; Wang, Feiyue; Lemes, Marcos; Chan, Hing Man

    2013-01-01

    The toxicokinetics of mercury (Hg) in key species of Arctic ecosystem are poorly understood. We sampled five brain regions (frontal lobe, temporal lobe, cerebellum, brain stem and spinal cord) from beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) harvested in 2006, 2008, and 2010 from the eastern Beaufort Sea, Canada, and measured total Hg (HgT) and total selenium (SeT) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), mercury analyzer or cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry, and the chemical forms using a high performance liquid chromatography ICP-MS. At least 14% of the beluga whales had HgT concentrations higher than the levels of observable adverse effect (6.0 mg kg −1 wet weight (ww)) in primates. The concentrations of HgT differed between brain regions; median concentrations (mg kg −1 ww) were 2.34 (0.06 to 22.6, 81) (range, n) in temporal lobe, 1.84 (0.12 to 21.9, 77) in frontal lobe, 1.84 (0.05 to 16.9, 83) in cerebellum, 1.25 (0.02 to 11.1, 77) in spinal cord and 1.32 (0.13 to 15.2, 39) in brain stem. Total Hg concentrations in the cerebellum increased with age (p −1 ww) was positively associated with HgT concentration, and the percent MeHg (4 to 109%) decreased exponentially with increasing HgT concentration in the spinal cord, cerebellum, frontal lobe and temporal lobe. There was a positive association between SeT and HgT in all brain regions (p < 0.05) suggesting that Se may play a role in the detoxification of Hg in the brain. The concentration of HgT in the cerebellum was significantly associated with HgT in other organs. Therefore, HgT concentrations in organs that are frequently sampled in bio-monitoring studies could be used to estimate HgT concentrations in the cerebellum, which is the target organ of MeHg toxicity. - Highlights: • Mercury concentrations were highest in the temporal lobe of beluga whales. • Selenium and mercury concentrations were strongly correlated. • Total mercury concentrations in the cerebellum increased with

  14. Intrinsic brain networks normalize with treatment in pediatric complex regional pain syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, Lino; Sava, Simona; Simons, Laura E.; Drosos, Athena M.; Sethna, Navil; Berde, Charles; Lebel, Alyssa A.; Borsook, David

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric complex regional pain syndrome (P-CRPS) offers a unique model of chronic neuropathic pain as it either resolves spontaneously or through therapeutic interventions in most patients. Here we evaluated brain changes in well-characterized children and adolescents with P-CRPS by measuring resting state networks before and following a brief (median = 3 weeks) but intensive physical and psychological treatment program, and compared them to matched healthy controls. Differences in intrinsic brain networks were observed in P-CRPS compared to controls before treatment (disease state) with the most prominent differences in the fronto-parietal, salience, default mode, central executive, and sensorimotor networks. Following treatment, behavioral measures demonstrated a reduction of symptoms and improvement of physical state (pain levels and motor functioning). Correlation of network connectivities with spontaneous pain measures pre- and post-treatment indicated concomitant reductions in connectivity in salience, central executive, default mode and sensorimotor networks (treatment effects). These results suggest a rapid alteration in global brain networks with treatment and provide a venue to assess brain changes in CRPS pre- and post-treatment, and to evaluate therapeutic effects. PMID:25379449

  15. Intrinsic brain networks normalize with treatment in pediatric complex regional pain syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lino Becerra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric complex regional pain syndrome (P-CRPS offers a unique model of chronic neuropathic pain as it either resolves spontaneously or through therapeutic interventions in most patients. Here we evaluated brain changes in well-characterized children and adolescents with P-CRPS by measuring resting state networks before and following a brief (median = 3 weeks but intensive physical and psychological treatment program, and compared them to matched healthy controls. Differences in intrinsic brain networks were observed in P-CRPS compared to controls before treatment (disease state with the most prominent differences in the fronto-parietal, salience, default mode, central executive, and sensorimotor networks. Following treatment, behavioral measures demonstrated a reduction of symptoms and improvement of physical state (pain levels and motor functioning. Correlation of network connectivities with spontaneous pain measures pre- and post-treatment indicated concomitant reductions in connectivity in salience, central executive, default mode and sensorimotor networks (treatment effects. These results suggest a rapid alteration in global brain networks with treatment and provide a venue to assess brain changes in CRPS pre- and post-treatment, and to evaluate therapeutic effects.

  16. Presentation of regional cerebral blood flow in amphetamine abusers by 99Tcm-HMPAO brain SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, C.H.; Wang, S.J.; Yeh, S.H.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the effectiveness of 99 Tc m -hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime ( 99 Tc m -HMPAO) brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in the assessment of the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in amphetamine abusers. Twenty-one amphetamine abusers were included and 99 Tc m -HMPAO brain SPECT performed to evaluate rCBF. The drug-using periods ranged from 1 month to several years. The demonstrated neuropsychogenic symptoms and signs of the abusers were from normal presentation to various neurologic complications. The brain SPECT scans were interpreted visually as either normal or abnormal. The degree of abnormality was classified into mild or severe. The results revealed that (a) most SPECT studies in abusers show small defects (95%, 20/21 cases); 71% (15/21) of cases revealed multiple defects over both hemispheres (classified as severe); 24% (5/21) of the cases had focal defects (classified as mild); and only one case (5%, 1/21) demonstrated a normal SPECT finding; (b) the degree of abnormality on SPECT scans was not related to the dose and duration of drug use or the severity of the neuropsychiatric symptoms and signs. In conclusion, 99 Tc m -HMPAO brain SPECT is a sensitive but not specific test for neuropsychogenic abnormalities associated with amphetamine abuse. (Author)

  17. Pseudotyped Lentiviral Vectors for Retrograde Gene Delivery into Target Brain Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenta Kobayashi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Gene transfer through retrograde axonal transport of viral vectors offers a substantial advantage for analyzing roles of specific neuronal pathways or cell types forming complex neural networks. This genetic approach may also be useful in gene therapy trials by enabling delivery of transgenes into a target brain region distant from the injection site of the vectors. Pseudotyping of a lentiviral vector based on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 with various fusion envelope glycoproteins composed of different combinations of rabies virus glycoprotein (RV-G and vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G enhances the efficiency of retrograde gene transfer in both rodent and nonhuman primate brains. The most recently developed lentiviral vector is a pseudotype with fusion glycoprotein type E (FuG-E, which demonstrates highly efficient retrograde gene transfer in the brain. The FuG-E–pseudotyped vector permits powerful experimental strategies for more precisely investigating the mechanisms underlying various brain functions. It also contributes to the development of new gene therapy approaches for neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease, by delivering genes required for survival and protection into specific neuronal populations. In this review article, we report the properties of the FuG-E–pseudotyped vector, and we describe the application of the vector to neural circuit analysis and the potential use of the FuG-E vector in gene therapy for Parkinson’s disease.

  18. Protein phosphorylation systems in postmortem human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walaas, S.I.; Perdahl-Wallace, E.; Winblad, B.; Greengard, P.

    1989-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation systems regulated by cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cyclic AMP), or calcium in conjunction with calmodulin or phospholipid/diacylglycerol, have been studied by phosphorylation in vitro of particulate and soluble fractions from human postmortem brain samples. One-dimensional or two-dimensional gel electrophoretic protein separations were used for analysis. Protein phosphorylation catalyzed by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase was found to be highly active in both particulate and soluble preparations throughout the human CNS, with groups of both widely distributed and region-specific substrates being observed in different brain nuclei. Dopamine-innervated parts of the basal ganglia and cerebral cortex contained the phosphoproteins previously observed in rodent basal ganglia. In contrast, calcium/phospholipid-dependent and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphorylation systems were less prominent in human postmortem brain than in rodent brain, and only a few widely distributed substrates for these protein kinases were found. Protein staining indicated that postmortem proteolysis, particularly of high-molecular-mass proteins, was prominent in deeply located, subcortical regions in the human brain. Our results indicate that it is feasible to use human postmortem brain samples, when obtained under carefully controlled conditions, for qualitative studies on brain protein phosphorylation. Such studies should be of value in studies on human neurological and/or psychiatric disorders

  19. Subcortical aphasia and cerebral blood flow using SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celsis, P.; Puel, M.; Demonet, J.P.; Bonafe, A.; Cardebat, D.; Viallard, G.; Pujol, T.; Marc-Vergnes, J.P.; Rascol, A.

    1985-01-01

    Possible cerebral blood flow (CBF) alteration in subcortical aphasia was investigated by single-photon emission tomography (SPECT). The results confirm the capsulo-striatal lesions and also point to the high rate of ipsilateral thalamic and cortical dysfunction. (author). 8 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab

  20. Neuropsychological Profile of Children with Subcortical Band Heterotopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer-Smith, Megan; Leventer, Richard; Jacobs, Rani; De Luca, Cinzia; Anderson, Vicki

    2009-01-01

    Aim: Subcortical band heterotopia (SBH) or "double cortex" is a malformation of cortical development resulting from impaired neuronal migration. So far, research has focused on the neurological, neuroimaging, and genetic correlates of SBH. More recently, clinical reports and small sample studies have documented neuropsychological dysfunction in…

  1. Phonemic Characteristics of Apraxia of Speech Resulting from Subcortical Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peach, Richard K.; Tonkovich, John D.

    2004-01-01

    Reports describing subcortical apraxia of speech (AOS) have received little consideration in the development of recent speech processing models because the speech characteristics of patients with this diagnosis have not been described precisely. We describe a case of AOS with aphasia secondary to basal ganglia hemorrhage. Speech-language symptoms…

  2. Regional differences in gene expression and promoter usage in aged human brains

    KAUST Repository

    Pardo, Luba M.

    2013-02-19

    To characterize the promoterome of caudate and putamen regions (striatum), frontal and temporal cortices, and hippocampi from aged human brains, we used high-throughput cap analysis of gene expression to profile the transcription start sites and to quantify the differences in gene expression across the 5 brain regions. We also analyzed the extent to which methylation influenced the observed expression profiles. We sequenced more than 71 million cap analysis of gene expression tags corresponding to 70,202 promoter regions and 16,888 genes. More than 7000 transcripts were differentially expressed, mainly because of differential alternative promoter usage. Unexpectedly, 7% of differentially expressed genes were neurodevelopmental transcription factors. Functional pathway analysis on the differentially expressed genes revealed an overrepresentation of several signaling pathways (e.g., fibroblast growth factor and wnt signaling) in hippocampus and striatum. We also found that although 73% of methylation signals mapped within genes, the influence of methylation on the expression profile was small. Our study underscores alternative promoter usage as an important mechanism for determining the regional differences in gene expression at old age.

  3. Functional brain imaging across development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubia, Katya

    2013-12-01

    The developmental cognitive neuroscience literature has grown exponentially over the last decade. This paper reviews the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) literature on brain function development of typically late developing functions of cognitive and motivation control, timing and attention as well as of resting state neural networks. Evidence shows that between childhood and adulthood, concomitant with cognitive maturation, there is progressively increased functional activation in task-relevant lateral and medial frontal, striatal and parieto-temporal brain regions that mediate these higher level control functions. This is accompanied by progressively stronger functional inter-regional connectivity within task-relevant fronto-striatal and fronto-parieto-temporal networks. Negative age associations are observed in earlier developing posterior and limbic regions, suggesting a shift with age from the recruitment of "bottom-up" processing regions towards "top-down" fronto-cortical and fronto-subcortical connections, leading to a more mature, supervised cognition. The resting state fMRI literature further complements this evidence by showing progressively stronger deactivation with age in anti-correlated task-negative resting state networks, which is associated with better task performance. Furthermore, connectivity analyses during the resting state show that with development increasingly stronger long-range connections are being formed, for example, between fronto-parietal and fronto-cerebellar connections, in both task-positive networks and in task-negative default mode networks, together with progressively lesser short-range connections, suggesting progressive functional integration and segregation with age. Overall, evidence suggests that throughout development between childhood and adulthood, there is progressive refinement and integration of both task-positive fronto-cortical and fronto-subcortical activation and task-negative deactivation, leading to

  4. Regional ADC values of the normal brain: differences due to age, gender, and laterality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naganawa, Shinji; Ishigaki, Takeo [Department of Radiology, Nagoya University School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Shouwa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Sato, Kimihide; Katagiri, Toshio; Mimura, Takeo [Department of Radiology, First Kamiida General Hospital (Japan)

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stability of measurement for apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in normal brain, to clarify the effect of aging on ADC values, to compare ADC values between men and women, and to compare ADC values between right and left sides of the brain. To evaluate the stability of measurements, five normal volunteers (four men and one woman) were examined five times on different days. Then, 294 subjects with normal MR imaging (147 men and 147 women; age range 20-89 years) were measured. The ADC measurement in normal volunteers was stable. The ADC values stayed within the 5% deviation of average values in all volunteers (mean{+-}standard deviation 2.3{+-}1.2%). The ADC values gradually increased by aging in all regions. In thalamus, no significant difference was seen between right and left in the subjects under 60 years; however, right side showed higher values in the subjects over 60 years (p<0.01). In the subjects under 60 years, women showed higher values in right frontal, bilateral thalamus, and temporal (p<0.01); however, in the subjects over 60 years, no region showed difference between men and women. The knowledge obtained in this study may be helpful to understand the developmental and aging mechanisms of normal brain and may be useful for the future quantitative study as a reference. (orig.)

  5. Regional ADC values of the normal brain: differences due to age, gender, and laterality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naganawa, Shinji; Ishigaki, Takeo; Sato, Kimihide; Katagiri, Toshio; Mimura, Takeo

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stability of measurement for apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in normal brain, to clarify the effect of aging on ADC values, to compare ADC values between men and women, and to compare ADC values between right and left sides of the brain. To evaluate the stability of measurements, five normal volunteers (four men and one woman) were examined five times on different days. Then, 294 subjects with normal MR imaging (147 men and 147 women; age range 20-89 years) were measured. The ADC measurement in normal volunteers was stable. The ADC values stayed within the 5% deviation of average values in all volunteers (mean±standard deviation 2.3±1.2%). The ADC values gradually increased by aging in all regions. In thalamus, no significant difference was seen between right and left in the subjects under 60 years; however, right side showed higher values in the subjects over 60 years (p<0.01). In the subjects under 60 years, women showed higher values in right frontal, bilateral thalamus, and temporal (p<0.01); however, in the subjects over 60 years, no region showed difference between men and women. The knowledge obtained in this study may be helpful to understand the developmental and aging mechanisms of normal brain and may be useful for the future quantitative study as a reference. (orig.)

  6. Effects of feedborne fusarium mycotoxins on brain regional neurochemistry of turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girish, C K; MacDonald, E J; Scheinin, M; Smith, T K

    2008-07-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on brain regional neurochemistry of turkeys. The possible preventative effect of a poly-meric glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent (GMA) was also determined. Forty-five 1-d-old male turkey poults were fed wheat-, corn-, and soybean meal-based diets up to wk 6, formulated with control grains, contaminated grains, or contaminated grains + 0.2% GMA. Deoxynivalenol was the major contaminant, and the concentrations were 2.2 and 3.3 mg/kg of feed during starter and grower phases, respectively. Concentrations of brain monoamine neurotransmitters and metabolites were measured in discrete regions of the brain including the pons, hypothalamus, and cortex by HPLC with electrochemical detection. Neurotransmitters and metabolites analyzed included norepinephrine, dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA). The concentration of 5-HIAA and the 5-HIAA:5-HT-ratio were significantly decreased in pons after feeding contaminated grains. Dietary supplementation with GMA prevented these effects. In the pons, a significant positive correlation (r = 0.52, P effects on the concentrations of neurotransmitters and metabolites in hypothalamus and cortex. It was concluded that consumption of grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins adversely altered the pons serotonergic system of turkeys. Supplementation with GMA partially inhibited these effects.

  7. Brain metabolism in patients with freezing of gait after hypoxic-ischemic brain injury: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seo Yeon; Lee, Sang Chul; Kim, Na Young; An, Young-Sil; Kim, Yong Wook

    2017-11-01

    Movement disorders are 1 of the long-term neurological complications that can occur after hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HIBI). However, freezing of gait (FOG) after HIBI is rare. The aim of this study was to examine the brain metabolism of patients with FOG after HIBI using F-18 fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (F-18 FDG PET).We consecutively enrolled 11 patients with FOG after HIBI. The patients' overall brain metabolism was measured by F-18 FDG PET, and we compared their regional brain metabolic activity with that from 15 healthy controls using a voxel-by-voxel-based statistical mapping analysis. Additionally, we correlated each patient's FOG severity with the brain metabolism using a covariance analysis.Patients with FOG had significantly decreased brain glucose metabolism in the midbrain, bilateral thalamus, bilateral cingulate gyri, right supramarginal gyrus, right angular gyrus, right paracentral lobule, and left precentral gyrus (PFDR-corrected brain metabolism were noted in patients with FOG. The covariance analysis identified significant correlations between the FOG severity and the brain metabolism in the right lingual gyrus, left fusiform gyrus, and bilateral cerebellar crus I (Puncorrected brain regions in the gait-related neural network, including the cerebral cortex, subcortical structures, brainstem, and cerebellum, may significantly contribute to the development of FOG in HIBI. Moreover, the FOG severity may be associated with the visual cortex and cerebellar regions.

  8. Modulation of Cortical-subcortical Networks in Parkinson’s Disease by Applied Field Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher William Hess

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies suggest that endogenous field effects may play a role in neuronal oscillations and communication. Non-invasive transcranial electrical stimulation with low-intensity currents can also have direct effects on the underlying cortex as well as distant network effects. While Parkinson's disease (PD is amenable to invasive neuromodulation in the basal ganglia by deep brain stimulation, techniques of non-invasive neuromodulation like transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS and transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS are being investigated as possible therapies. tDCS and tACS have the potential to influence the abnormal cortical-subcortical network activity that occurs in PD through sub-threshold changes in cortical excitability or through entrainment or disruption of ongoing rhythmic cortical activity. This may allow for the targeting of specific features of the disease involving abnormal oscillatory activity, as well as the enhancement of potential cortical compensation for basal ganglia dysfunction and modulation of cortical plasticity in neurorehabilitation. However, little is currently known about how cortical stimulation will affect subcortical structures, the size of any effect, and the factors of stimulation that will influence these effects.

  9. [Left lateral gaze paresis due to subcortical hematoma in the right precentral gyrus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, K; Takamori, M

    1998-03-01

    We report a case of transient left lateral gaze paresis due to a hemorrhagic lesion restricted in the right precentral gyrus. A 74-year-old female experienced a sudden clumsiness of the left upper extremity. A neurological examination revealed a left central facial paresis, distal dominant muscle weakness in the left upper limb and left lateral gaze paresis. There were no other focal neurological signs. Laboratory data were all normal. Brain CTs and MRIs demonstrated a subcortical hematoma in the right precentral gyrus. The neurological symptoms and signs disappeared over seven days. A recent physiological study suggested that the human frontal eye field (FEF) is located in the posterior part of the middle frontal gyrus (Brodmann's area 8) and the precentral gyrus around the precentral sulcus. More recent studies stressed the role of the precentral sulcus and the precentral gyrus. Our case supports those physiological findings. The hematoma affected both the FEF and its underlying white matter in our case. We assume the lateral gaze paresis is attributable to the disruption of the fibers from the FEF. It is likely that fibers for motor control of the face, upper extremity, and lateral gaze lie adjacently in the subcortical area.

  10. Intraoperative Subcortical Electrical Mapping of the Optic Tract in Awake Surgery Using a Virtual Reality Headset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerand, Edouard; Le Renard, Marc; Hue, Sophie; Lemée, Jean-Michel; Klinger, Evelyne; Menei, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Brain mapping during awake craniotomy is a well-known technique to preserve neurological functions, especially the language. It is still challenging to map the optic radiations due to the difficulty to test the visual field intraoperatively. To assess the visual field during awake craniotomy, we developed the Functions' Explorer based on a virtual reality headset (FEX-VRH). The impaired visual field of 10 patients was tested with automated perimetry (the gold standard examination) and the FEX-VRH. The proof-of-concept test was done during the surgery performed on a patient who was blind in his right eye and presenting with a left parietotemporal glioblastoma. The FEX-VRH was used intraoperatively, simultaneously with direct subcortical electrostimulation, allowing identification and preservation of the optic radiations. The FEX-VRH detected 9 of the 10 visual field defects found by automated perimetry. The patient who underwent an awake craniotomy with intraoperative mapping of the optic tract using the FEX-VRH had no permanent postoperative visual field defect. Intraoperative visual field assessment with the FEX-VRH during direct subcortical electrostimulation is a promising approach to mapping the optical radiations and preventing a permanent visual field defect during awake surgery for epilepsy or tumor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Expression of Tau Pathology-Related Proteins in Different Brain Regions: A Molecular Basis of Tau Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wen; Wu, Feng; Zhang, Yanchong; Gong, Cheng-Xin; Iqbal, Khalid; Liu, Fei

    2017-01-01

    Microtubule-associated protein tau is hyperphosphorylated and aggregated in affected neurons in Alzheimer disease (AD) brains. The tau pathology starts from the entorhinal cortex (EC), spreads to the hippocampus and frontal and temporal cortices, and finally to all isocortex areas, but the cerebellum is spared from tau lesions. The molecular basis of differential vulnerability of different brain regions to tau pathology is not understood. In the present study, we analyzed brain regional expressions of tau and tau pathology-related proteins. We found that tau was hyperphosphorylated at multiple sites in the frontal cortex (FC), but not in the cerebellum, from AD brain. The level of tau expression in the cerebellum was about 1/4 of that seen in the frontal and temporal cortices in human brain. In the rat brain, the expression level of tau with three microtubule-binding repeats (3R-tau) was comparable in the hippocampus, EC, FC, parietal-temporal cortex (PTC), occipital-temporal cortex (OTC), striatum, thalamus, olfactory bulb (OB) and cerebellum. However, the expression level of 4R-tau was the highest in the EC and the lowest in the cerebellum. Tau phosphatases, kinases, microtubule-related proteins and other tau pathology-related proteins were also expressed in a region-specific manner in the rat brain. These results suggest that higher levels of tau and tau kinases in the EC and low levels of these proteins in the cerebellum may accounts for the vulnerability and resistance of these representative brain regions to the development of tau pathology, respectively. The present study provides the regional expression profiles of tau and tau pathology-related proteins in the brain, which may help understand the brain regional vulnerability to tau pathology in neurodegenerative tauopathies.

  12. Extrinsic and Intrinsic Brain Network Connectivity Maintains Cognition across the Lifespan Despite Accelerated Decay of Regional Brain Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvetanov, Kamen A; Henson, Richard N A; Tyler, Lorraine K; Razi, Adeel; Geerligs, Linda; Ham, Timothy E; Rowe, James B

    2016-03-16

    -based cohort (n = 602, 18-88 years), separating neural connectivity from vascular components of fMRI signals. Cognitive ability was influenced by the strength of connection within and between functional brain networks, and this positive relationship increased with age. In older adults, there was more rapid decay of intrinsic neuronal activity in multiple regions of the brain networks, which related to cognitive performance. Our data demonstrate increased reliance on network flexibility to maintain cognitive function, in the presence of more rapid decay of neural activity. These insights will facilitate the development of new strategies to maintain cognitive ability. Copyright © 2016 Tsvetanov et al.

  13. Regional distribution of TL-201 in the brain and spinal cord after injection into the cerebrospinal fluid: Imaging of brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, D.V.; Rubertone, J.; Vincent, S.; Brady, L.W. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Radiotracers are typically employed to evaluate the brain ventricular space; however, there are no agents designed to be taken up into specific neuronal regions after injection into the cerebrospinal fluids (CSF). The authors report studies in which T1-201 was stereotaxically administered into the lateral or fourth ventricles of Sprague-Dawley rats. Brains were removed (n = 42) 2-6 hours after injection and sectioned for apposition to autoradiographic film. Specific uptake was observed in active neurons of the diencephalon, mesencephalon, cerebellum, brain stem, and spinal gray matter. Astrocytoma cell implants into the caudate nucleus of Sprague-Dawley rats induced histologically confirmed brain tumors (n = 5). Significant localization of T1-201 was observed in the tumor 4 hours after injection into the lateral ventricle. These findings suggest that T1-201 may be useful for delineating specific neuronal function via CSF circulation and for imaging actively growing brain tumors

  14. Regional Differences in Brain Volume Predict the Acquisition of Skill in a Complex Real-Time Strategy Videogame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Chandramallika; Voss, Michelle W.; Erickson, Kirk I.; Boot, Walter R.; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have found that differences in brain volume among older adults predict performance in laboratory tasks of executive control, memory, and motor learning. In the present study we asked whether regional differences in brain volume as assessed by the application of a voxel-based morphometry technique on high resolution MRI would also…

  15. Methylphenidate and Atomoxetine Inhibit Social Play Behavior through Prefrontal and Subcortical Limbic Mechanisms in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achterberg, E.J. Marijke; van Kerkhof, Linda W.M.; Damsteegt, Ruth; Trezza, Viviana

    2015-01-01

    Positive social interactions during the juvenile and adolescent phases of life, in the form of social play behavior, are important for social and cognitive development. However, the neural mechanisms of social play behavior remain incompletely understood. We have previously shown that methylphenidate and atomoxetine, drugs widely used for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), suppress social play in rats through a noradrenergic mechanism of action. Here, we aimed to identify the neural substrates of the play-suppressant effects of these drugs. Methylphenidate is thought to exert its effects on cognition and emotion through limbic corticostriatal systems. Therefore, methylphenidate was infused into prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortical regions as well as into several subcortical limbic areas implicated in social play. Infusion of methylphenidate into the anterior cingulate cortex, infralimbic cortex, basolateral amygdala, and habenula inhibited social play, but not social exploratory behavior or locomotor activity. Consistent with a noradrenergic mechanism of action of methylphenidate, infusion of the noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine into these same regions also reduced social play. Methylphenidate administration into the prelimbic, medial/ventral orbitofrontal, and ventrolateral orbitofrontal cortex, mediodorsal thalamus, or nucleus accumbens shell was ineffective. Our data show that the inhibitory effects of methylphenidate and atomoxetine on social play are mediated through a distributed network of prefrontal and limbic subcortical regions implicated in cognitive control and emotional processes. These findings increase our understanding of the neural underpinnings of this developmentally important social behavior, as well as the mechanism of action of two widely used treatments for ADHD. PMID:25568111

  16. Recurrent activity in higher order, modality non-specific brain regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, Hans Olav Christensen; Joensson, Morten; Biermann-Ruben, Katja

    2011-01-01

    It has been proposed that the workings of the brain are mainly intrinsically generated recurrent neuronal activity, with sensory inputs as modifiers of such activity in both sensory and higher order modality non-specific regions. This is supported by the demonstration of recurrent neuronal activity...... in the visual system as a response to visual stimulation. In contrast recurrent activity has never been demonstrated before in higher order modality non-specific regions. Using magneto-encephalography and Granger causality analysis, we tested in a paralimbic network the hypothesis that stimulation may enhance...... causal recurrent interaction between higher-order, modality non-specific regions. The network includes anterior cingulate/medial prefrontal and posterior cingulate/medial parietal cortices together with pulvinar thalami, a network known to be effective in autobiographic memory retrieval and self...

  17. A Novel Histogram Region Merging Based Multithreshold Segmentation Algorithm for MR Brain Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siyan Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Multithreshold segmentation algorithm is time-consuming, and the time complexity will increase exponentially with the increase of thresholds. In order to reduce the time complexity, a novel multithreshold segmentation algorithm is proposed in this paper. First, all gray levels are used as thresholds, so the histogram of the original image is divided into 256 small regions, and each region corresponds to one gray level. Then, two adjacent regions are merged in each iteration by a new designed scheme, and a threshold is removed each time. To improve the accuracy of the merger operation, variance and probability are used as energy. No matter how many the thresholds are, the time complexity of the algorithm is stable at O(L. Finally, the experiment is conducted on many MR brain images to verify the performance of the proposed algorithm. Experiment results show that our method can reduce the running time effectively and obtain segmentation results with high accuracy.

  18. Assessment of regional glucose metabolism in aging brain and dementia with positron-emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reivich, M.; Alavi, A.; Ferris, S.; Christman, D.; Fowler, J.; MacGregor, R.; Farkas, T.; Greenberg, J.; Dann, R.; Wolf, A.

    1981-01-01

    This paper explores the alterations in regional glucose metabolism that occur in elderly subjects and those with senile dementia compared to normal young volunteers. Results showed a tendency for the frontal regions to have a lower metabolic rate in patients with dementia although this did not reach the level of significance when compared to the elderly control subjects. The changes in glucose metabolism were symmetrical in both the left and right hemispheres. There was a lack of correlation between the mean cortical metabolic rates for glucose and the global mental function in the patients with senile dementia. This is at variance with most of the regional cerebral blood flow data that has been collected. This may be partly related to the use of substrates other than glucose by the brain in elderly and demented subjects. (PSB)

  19. Aberrant regional brain activities in alcohol dependence: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tu XZ

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Xianzhu Tu,1 Juanjuan Wang,2 Xuming Liu,3 Jiyong Zheng4 1Department of Psychiatry, Seventh People’s Hospital of Wenzhou City, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Neurology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Radiology, The Third Clinical Institute Affiliated to Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China; 4Department of Medical Imaging, The Affiliated Huai’an No 1 People’s Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Huai’an, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China Objective: Whether moderate alcohol consumption has health benefits remains controversial, but the harmful effects of excessive alcohol consumption on behavior and brain function are well recognized. The aim of this study was to investigate alcohol-induced regional brain activities and their relationships with behavioral factors. Subjects and methods: A total of 29 alcohol-dependent subjects (9 females and 20 males and 29 status-matched healthy controls (11 females and 18 males were recruited. Severity of alcohol dependence questionnaire (SADQ and alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT were used to evaluate the severity of alcohol craving. Regional homogeneity (ReHo analysis was used to explore the alcohol-induced regional brain changes. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was used to investigate the ability of regional brain activities to distinguish alcohol-dependent subjects from healthy controls. Pearson correlations were used to investigate the relationships between alcohol-induced ReHo differences and behavioral factors. Results: Alcohol-dependent subjects related to healthy controls showed higher ReHo areas in the right superior frontal gyrus (SFG, bilateral medial frontal gyrus (MFG, left precentral gyrus (PG, bilateral middle temporal gyrus (MTG, and right inferior temporal gyrus (ITG and lower ReHo areas in

  20. Glutamatergic and GABAergic TCA cycle and neurotransmitter cycling fluxes in different regions of mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Vivek; Ambadipudi, Susmitha; Patel, Anant B

    2013-10-01

    The (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies together with the infusion of (13)C-labeled substrates in rats and humans have provided important insight into brain energy metabolism. In the present study, we have extended a three-compartment metabolic model in mouse to investigate glutamatergic and GABAergic tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and neurotransmitter cycle fluxes across different regions of the brain. The (13)C turnover of amino acids from [1,6-(13)C2]glucose was monitored ex vivo using (1)H-[(13)C]-NMR spectroscopy. The astroglial glutamate pool size, one of the important parameters of the model, was estimated by a short infusion of [2-(13)C]acetate. The ratio Vcyc/VTCA was calculated from the steady-state acetate experiment. The (13)C turnover curves of [4-(13)C]/[3-(13)C]glutamate, [4-(13)C]glutamine, [2-(13)C]/[3-(13)C]GABA, and [3-(13)C]aspartate from [1,6-(13)C2]glucose were analyzed using a three-compartment metabolic model to estimate the rates of the TCA cycle and neurotransmitter cycle associated with glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons. The glutamatergic TCA cycle rate was found to be highest in the cerebral cortex (0.91 ± 0.05 μmol/g per minute) and least in the hippocampal region (0.64 ± 0.07 μmol/g per minute) of the mouse brain. In contrast, the GABAergic TCA cycle flux was found to be highest in the thalamus-hypothalamus (0.28 ± 0.01 μmol/g per minute) and least in the cerebral cortex (0.24 ± 0.02 μmol/g per minute). These findings indicate that the energetics of excitatory and inhibitory function is distinct across the mouse brain.

  1. Protective role of Cynodon dactylon in ameliorating the aluminium-induced neurotoxicity in rat brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumathi, Thangarajan; Shobana, Chandrasekar; Kumari, Balasubramanian Rathina; Nandhini, Devarajulu Nisha

    2011-12-01

    Cynodon dactylon (Poaceae) is a creeping grass used as a traditional ayurvedic medicine in India. Aluminium-induced neurotoxicity is well known and different salts of aluminium have been reported to accelerate damage to biomolecules like lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether the aqueous extract of C. dactylon (AECD) could potentially prevent aluminium-induced neurotoxicity in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum of the rat brain. Male albino rats were administered with AlCl(3) at a dose of 4.2 mg/kg/day i.p. for 4 weeks. Experimental rats were given C. dactylon extract in two different doses of 300 mg and 750 mg/keg/day orally 1 h prior to the AlCl(3) administration for 4 weeks. At the end of the experiments, antioxidant status and activities of ATPases in cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum of rat brain were measured. Aluminium administration significantly decreased the level of GSH and the activities of SOD, GPx, GST, Na(+)/K(+) ATPase, and Mg(2+) ATPase and increased the level of lipid peroxidation (LPO) in all the brain regions when compared with control rats. Pre-treatment with AECD at a dose of 750 mg/kg b.w increased the antioxidant status and activities of membrane-bound enzymes (Na(+)/K(+) ATPase and Mg(2+) ATPase) and also decreased the level of LPO significantly, when compared with aluminium-induced rats. The results of this study indicated that AECD has potential to protect the various brain regions from aluminium-induced neurotoxicity.

  2. Region of interest evaluation of SPECT image reconstruction methods using a realistic brain phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Weishi; Glick, S.J.; Soares, E.J.

    1996-01-01

    A realistic numerical brain phantom, developed by Zubal et al, was used for a region-of-interest evaluation of the accuracy and noise variance of the following SPECT reconstruction methods: (1) Maximum-Likelihood reconstruction using the Expectation-Maximization (ML-EM) algorithm; (2) an EM algorithm using ordered-subsets (OS-EM); (3) a re-scaled block iterative EM algorithm (RBI-EM); and (4) a filtered backprojection algorithm that uses a combination of the Bellini method for attenuation compensation and an iterative spatial blurring correction method using the frequency-distance principle (FDP). The Zubal phantom was made from segmented MRI slices of the brain, so that neuro-anatomical structures are well defined and indexed. Small regions-of-interest (ROIs) from the white matter, grey matter in the center of the brain and grey matter from the peripheral area of the brain were selected for the evaluation. Photon attenuation and distance-dependent collimator blurring were modeled. Multiple independent noise realizations were generated for two different count levels. The simulation study showed that the ROI bias measured for the EM-based algorithms decreased as the iteration number increased, and that the OS-EM and RBI-EM algorithms (16 and 64 subsets were used) achieved the equivalent accuracy of the ML-EM algorithm at about the same noise variance, with much fewer number of iterations. The Bellini-FDP restoration algorithm converged fast and required less computation per iteration. The ML-EM algorithm had a slightly better ROI bias vs. variance trade-off than the other algorithms

  3. Brain regions involved in ingestive behavior and related psychological constructs in people undergoing calorie restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahathuduwa, Chanaka N; Boyd, Lori A; Davis, Tyler; O'Boyle, Michael; Binks, Martin

    2016-12-01

    Human food intake is regulated by physiological energy homeostatic mechanisms and hedonic mechanisms. These are affected by both very short-term and longer-term calorie restriction (CR). To date, there are parallel discussions in the literature that fail to integrate across these disciplines and topics. First, much of the available neuroimaging research focusses on specific functional paradigms (e.g. reward, energy homeostasis). These paradigms often fail to consider more complex and inclusive models that examine how potential brain regions of interest interact to influence ingestion. Second, the paradigms used focus primarily on short-term CR (fasting) which has limited generalizability to clinical application. Finally, the behavioral literature, while frequently examining longer-term CR and related psychological constructs in the context of weight management (e.g. hedonic restraint, 'liking', 'wanting' and food craving), fails to adequately tie these phenomena to underlying neural mechanisms. The result is a less than complete picture of the brain's role in the complexity of the human experience of ingestion. This disconnect highlights a major limitation in the CR literature, where attempts are persistently made to exert behavioral control over ingestion, without fully understanding the complex bio behavioral systems involved. In this review we attempt to summarize all potential brain regions important for human ingestion, present a broad conceptual overview of the brain's multifaceted role in ingestive behavior, the human (psychological) experiences related to ingestion and to examine how these factors differ according to three forms of CR. These include short-term fasting, extended CR, and restrained eating. We aim to bring together the neuroimaging literature with the behavioral literature within a conceptual framework that may inform future translational research. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Behavioral stress alters corticolimbic microglia in a sex- and brain region-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollinger, Justin L; Collins, Kaitlyn E; Patel, Rushi; Wellman, Cara L

    2017-01-01

    Women are more susceptible to numerous stress-linked psychological disorders (e.g., depression) characterized by dysfunction of corticolimbic brain regions critical for emotion regulation and cognitive function. Although sparsely investigated, a number of studies indicate sex differences in stress effects on neuronal structure, function, and behaviors associated with these regions. We recently demonstrated a basal sex difference in- and differential effects of stress on- microglial activation in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). The resident immune cells of the brain, microglia are implicated in synaptic and dendritic plasticity, and cognitive-behavioral function. Here, we examined the effects of acute (3h/day, 1 day) and chronic (3h/day, 10 days) restraint stress on microglial density and morphology, as well as immune factor expression in orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), basolateral amygdala (BLA), and dorsal hippocampus (DHC) in male and female rats. Microglia were visualized, classified based on their morphology, and stereologically counted. Microglia-associated transcripts (CD40, iNOS, Arg1, CX3CL1, CX3CR1, CD200, and CD200R) were assessed in brain punches from each region. Expression of genes linked with cellular stress, neuroimmune state, and neuron-microglia communication varied between unstressed male and female rats in a region-specific manner. In OFC, chronic stress upregulated a wider variety of immune factors in females than in males. Acute stress increased microglia-associated transcripts in BLA in males, whereas chronic stress altered immune factor expression in BLA more broadly in females. In DHC, chronic stress increased immune factor expression in males but not females. Moreover, acute and chronic stress differentially affected microglial morphological activation state in male and female rats across all brain regions investigated. In males, chronic stress altered microglial activation in a pattern consistent with microglial involvement in stress

  5. Behavioral stress alters corticolimbic microglia in a sex- and brain region-specific manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollinger, Justin L.; Collins, Kaitlyn E.; Patel, Rushi

    2017-01-01

    Women are more susceptible to numerous stress-linked psychological disorders (e.g., depression) characterized by dysfunction of corticolimbic brain regions critical for emotion regulation and cognitive function. Although sparsely investigated, a number of studies indicate sex differences in stress effects on neuronal structure, function, and behaviors associated with these regions. We recently demonstrated a basal sex difference in- and differential effects of stress on- microglial activation in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). The resident immune cells of the brain, microglia are implicated in synaptic and dendritic plasticity, and cognitive-behavioral function. Here, we examined the effects of acute (3h/day, 1 day) and chronic (3h/day, 10 days) restraint stress on microglial density and morphology, as well as immune factor expression in orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), basolateral amygdala (BLA), and dorsal hippocampus (DHC) in male and female rats. Microglia were visualized, classified based on their morphology, and stereologically counted. Microglia-associated transcripts (CD40, iNOS, Arg1, CX3CL1, CX3CR1, CD200, and CD200R) were assessed in brain punches from each region. Expression of genes linked with cellular stress, neuroimmune state, and neuron-microglia communication varied between unstressed male and female rats in a region-specific manner. In OFC, chronic stress upregulated a wider variety of immune factors in females than in males. Acute stress increased microglia-associated transcripts in BLA in males, whereas chronic stress altered immune factor expression in BLA more broadly in females. In DHC, chronic stress increased immune factor expression in males but not females. Moreover, acute and chronic stress differentially affected microglial morphological activation state in male and female rats across all brain regions investigated. In males, chronic stress altered microglial activation in a pattern consistent with microglial involvement in stress

  6. Altered spontaneous brain activity in adolescent boys with pure conduct disorder revealed by regional homogeneity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiong; Zhang, Xiaocui; Dong, Daifeng; Wang, Xiang; Yao, Shuqiao

    2017-07-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have revealed abnormal neural activity in several brain regions of adolescents with conduct disorder (CD) performing various tasks. However, little is known about the spontaneous neural activity in people with CD in a resting state. The aims of this study were to investigate CD-associated regional activity abnormalities and to explore the relationship between behavioral impulsivity and regional activity abnormalities. Resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) scans were administered to 28 adolescents with CD and 28 age-, gender-, and IQ-matched healthy controls (HCs). The rs-fMRI data were subjected to regional homogeneity (ReHo) analysis. ReHo can demonstrate the temporal synchrony of regional blood oxygen level-dependent signals and reflect the coordination of local neuronal activity facilitating similar goals or representations. Compared to HCs, the CD group showed increased ReHo bilaterally in the insula as well as decreased ReHo in the right inferior parietal lobule, right middle temporal gyrus and right fusiform gyrus, left anterior cerebellum anterior, and right posterior cerebellum. In the CD group, mean ReHo values in the left and the right insula correlated positively with Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS) total scores. The results suggest that CD is associated with abnormal intrinsic brain activity, mainly in the cerebellum and temporal-parietal-limbic cortices, regions that are related to emotional and cognitive processing. BIS scores in adolescents with CD may reflect severity of abnormal neuronal synchronization in the insula.

  7. Altered intrinsic functional brain architecture in female patients with bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Kong, Qing-Mei; Li, Ke; Li, Xue-Ni; Zeng, Ya-Wei; Chen, Chao; Qian, Ying; Feng, Shi-Jie; Li, Ji-Tao; Su, Yun'Ai; Correll, Christoph U; Mitchell, Philip B; Yan, Chao-Gan; Zhang, Da-Rong; Si, Tian-Mei

    2017-11-01

    Bulimia nervosa is a severe psychiatric syndrome with uncertain pathogenesis. Neural systems involved in sensorimotor and visual processing, reward and impulsive control may contribute to the binge eating and purging behaviours characterizing bulimia nervosa. However, little is known about the alterations of functional organization of whole brain networks in individuals with this disorder. We used resting-state functional MRI and graph theory to characterize functional brain networks of unmedicated women with bulimia nervosa and healthy women. We included 44 unmedicated women with bulimia nervosa and 44 healthy women in our analyses. Women with bulimia nervosa showed increased clustering coefficient and path length compared with control women. The nodal strength in patients with the disorder was higher in the sensorimotor and visual regions as well as the precuneus, but lower in several subcortical regions, such as the hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus and orbitofrontal cortex. Patients also showed hyperconnectivity primarily involving sensorimotor and unimodal visual association regions, but hypoconnectivity involving subcortical (striatum, thalamus), limbic (amygdala, hippocampus) and paralimbic (orbitofrontal cortex, parahippocampal gyrus) regions. The topological aberrations correlated significantly with scores of bulimia and drive for thinness and with body mass index. We reruited patients with only acute bulimia nervosa, so it is unclear whether the topological abnormalities comprise vulnerability markers for the disorder developing or the changes associated with illness state. Our findings show altered intrinsic functional brain architecture, specifically abnormal global and local efficiency, as well as nodal- and network-level connectivity across sensorimotor, visual, subcortical and limbic systems in women with bulimia nervosa, suggesting that it is a disorder of dysfunctional integration among large-scale distributed brain regions. These abnormalities

  8. Regional cerebral blood flow assessed by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in dogs with congenital portosystemic shunt and hepatic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Or, Matan; Peremans, Kathelijne; Martlé, Valentine; Vandermeulen, Eva; Bosmans, Tim; Devriendt, Nausikaa; de Rooster, Hilde

    2017-02-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in eight dogs with congenital portosystemic shunt (PSS) and hepatic encephalopathy (HE) was compared with rCBF in eight healthy control dogs using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with a 99m technetium-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ( 99m Tc-HMPAO) tracer. SPECT scans were abnormal in all PSS dogs. Compared to the control group, rCBF in PSS dogs was significantly decreased in the temporal lobes and increased in the subcortical (thalamic and striatal) area. Brain perfusion imaging alterations observed in the dogs with PSS and HE are similar to those in human patients with HE. These findings suggest that dogs with HE and PSS have altered perfusion of mainly the subcortical and the temporal regions of the brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Brain reward region responsivity of adolescents with and without parental substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Yokum, Sonja

    2014-09-01

    The present study tested the competing hypotheses that adolescents at risk for future substance abuse and dependence by virtue of parental substance use disorders show either weaker or stronger responsivity of brain regions implicated in reward relative to youth without parental history of substance use disorders. Adolescents (n = 52) matched on demographics with and without parental substance use disorders, as determined by diagnostic interviews, who denied substance use in the past year were compared on functional MRI (fMRI) paradigms assessing neural response to receipt and anticipated receipt of monetary and food reward. Parental-history-positive versus -negative adolescents showed greater activation in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and bilateral putamen, and less activation in the fusiform gyrus and inferior temporal gyrus in response to anticipating winning money, as well as greater activation in the left midbrain and right paracentral lobule, and less activation in the right middle frontal gyrus in response to milkshake receipt. Results indicate that adolescents at risk for future onset of substance use disorders show elevated responsivity of brain regions implicated in reward, extending results from 2 smaller prior studies that found that individuals with versus without parental alcohol use disorders showed greater reward region response to anticipated monetary reward and pictures of alcohol. Collectively, results provide support for the reward surfeit model of substance use disorders, rather than the reward deficit model.

  10. Brain activity dynamics in human parietal regions during spontaneous switches in bistable perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megumi, Fukuda; Bahrami, Bahador; Kanai, Ryota; Rees, Geraint

    2015-02-15

    The neural mechanisms underlying conscious visual perception have been extensively investigated using bistable perception paradigms. Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies suggest that the right anterior superior parietal (r-aSPL) and the right posterior superior parietal lobule (r-pSPL) have opposite roles in triggering perceptual reversals. It has been proposed that these two areas are part of a hierarchical network whose dynamics determine perceptual switches. However, how these two parietal regions interact with each other and with the rest of the brain during bistable perception is not known. Here, we investigated such a model by recording brain activity using fMRI while participants viewed a bistable structure-from-motion stimulus. Using dynamic causal modeling (DCM), we found that resolving such perceptual ambiguity was specifically associated with reciprocal interactions between these parietal regions and V5/MT. Strikingly, the strength of bottom-up coupling between V5/MT to r-pSPL and from r-pSPL to r-aSPL predicted individual mean dominance duration. Our findings are consistent with a hierarchical predictive coding model of parietal involvement in bistable perception and suggest that visual information processing underlying spontaneous perceptual switches can be described as changes in connectivity strength between parietal and visual cortical regions. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Region-specific expression of mitochondrial complex I genes during murine brain development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Wirtz

    Full Text Available Mutations in the nuclear encoded subunits of mitochondrial complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase may cause circumscribed cerebral lesions ranging from degeneration of the striatal and brainstem gray matter (Leigh syndrome to leukodystrophy. We hypothesized that such pattern of regional pathology might be due to local differences in the dependence on complex I function. Using in situ hybridization we investigated the relative expression of 33 nuclear encoded complex I subunits in different brain regions of the mouse at E11.5, E17.5, P1, P11, P28 and adult (12 weeks. With respect to timing and relative intensity of complex I gene expression we found a highly variant pattern in different regions during development. High average expression levels were detected in periods of intense neurogenesis. In cerebellar Purkinje and in hippocampal CA1/CA3 pyramidal neurons we found a second even higher peak during the period of synaptogenesis and maturation. The extraordinary dependence of these structures on complex I gene expression during synaptogenesis is in accord with our recent findings that gamma oscillations--known to be associated with higher cognitive functions of the mammalian brain--strongly depend on the complex I activity. However, with the exception of the mesencephalon, we detected only average complex I expression levels in the striatum and basal ganglia, which does not explain the exquisite vulnerability of these structures in mitochondrial disorders.

  12. encephalo- disease) Subcortical arteriosclerotic pathy (Binswanger's

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tions between motor and sensory regions, with aphasia, hemi- anopia, hemiparesis and hemi-anaesthesia. These symptoms an: quite stable, and are accompanied by progressive mental decline leading eventually to complete loss of mental faculties. During the course of the disease 'apoplectiform anacks' with dizziness,.

  13. Regional brain activity during early visual perception in unaffected siblings of schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Junghee; Cohen, Mark S; Engel, Stephen A; Glahn, David; Nuechterlein, Keith H; Wynn, Jonathan K; Green, Michael F

    2010-07-01

    Visual masking paradigms assess the early part of visual information processing, which may reflect vulnerability measures for schizophrenia. We examined the neural substrates of visual backward performance in unaffected sibling of schizophrenia patients using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twenty-one unaffected siblings of schizophrenia patients and 19 healthy controls performed a backward masking task and three functional localizer tasks to identify three visual processing regions of interest (ROI): lateral occipital complex (LO), the motion-sensitive area, and retinotopic areas. In the masking task, we systematically manipulated stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs). We analyzed fMRI data in two complementary ways: 1) an ROI approach for three visual areas, and 2) a whole-brain analysis. The groups did not differ in behavioral performance. For ROI analysis, both groups increased activation as SOAs increased in LO. Groups did not differ in activation levels of the three ROIs. For whole-brain analysis, controls increased activation as a function of SOAs, compared with siblings in several regions (i.e., anterior cingulate cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, inferior prefrontal cortex, inferior parietal lobule). The study found: 1) area LO showed sensitivity to the masking effect in both groups; 2) siblings did not differ from controls in activation of LO; and 3) groups differed significantly in several brain regions outside visual processing areas that have been related to attentional or re-entrant processes. These findings suggest that LO dysfunction may be a disease indicator rather than a risk indicator for schizophrenia. Copyright 2010 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Revealing the cerebral regions and networks mediating vulnerability to depression: oxidative metabolism mapping of rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harro, Jaanus; Kanarik, Margus; Kaart, Tanel; Matrov, Denis; Kõiv, Kadri; Mällo, Tanel; Del Río, Joaquin; Tordera, Rosa M; Ramirez, Maria J

    2014-07-01

    The large variety of available animal models has revealed much on the neurobiology of depression, but each model appears as specific to a significant extent, and distinction between stress response, pathogenesis of depression and underlying vulnerability is difficult to make. Evidence from epidemiological studies suggests that depression occurs in biologically predisposed subjects under impact of adverse life events. We applied the diathesis-stress concept to reveal brain regions and functional networks that mediate vulnerability to depression and response to chronic stress by collapsing data on cerebral long term neuronal activity as measured by cytochrome c oxidase histochemistry in distinct animal models. Rats were rendered vulnerable to depression either by partial serotonergic lesion or by maternal deprivation, or selected for a vulnerable phenotype (low positive affect, low novelty-related activity or high hedonic response). Environmental adversity was brought about by applying chronic variable stress or chronic social defeat. Several brain regions, most significantly median raphe, habenula, retrosplenial cortex and reticular thalamus, were universally implicated in long-term metabolic stress response, vulnerability to depression, or both. Vulnerability was associated with higher oxidative metabolism levels as compared to resilience to chronic stress. Chronic stress, in contrast, had three distinct patterns of effect on oxidative metabolism in vulnerable vs. resilient animals. In general, associations between regional activities in several brain circuits were strongest in vulnerable animals, and chronic stress disrupted this interrelatedness. These findings highlight networks that underlie resilience to stress, and the distinct response to stress that occurs in vulnerable subjects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Differential Recruitment of Brain Regions During Response Inhibition in Children Prenatally Exposed to Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodali, Vikas N; Jacobson, Joseph L; Lindinger, Nadine M; Dodge, Neil C; Molteno, Christopher D; Meintjes, Ernesta M; Jacobson, Sandra W

    2017-02-01

    Response inhibition is a distinct aspect of executive function that is frequently impaired in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). We used a Go/NoGo (GNG) task in a functional MRI protocol to investigate differential activation of brain regions in the response inhibition network in children diagnosed with full or partial fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS/PFAS), compared with healthy controls. A rapid, event-related task with 120 Go and 60 NoGo trials was used to study children aged 8 to 12 years-8 with FAS/PFAS, 17 controls. Letters were projected sequentially, with Go and NoGo trials randomly interspersed across the task. BOLD signal in the whole brain was contrasted for the correct NoGo minus correct Go trials between the FAS/PFAS and control groups. Compared to the FAS/PFAS group, controls showed greater activation of the inferior frontal and anterior cingulate network linked to response inhibition in typically developing children. By contrast, the FAS/PFAS group showed greater BOLD response in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and other middle prefrontal regions, suggesting compensation for inefficient function of pathways that normally mediate inhibitory processing. All group differences were significant after control for potential confounding variables. None of the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on activation of the regions associated with response inhibition were attributable to the effects of this exposure on IQ. This is the first FASD GNG study in which all participants in the exposed group met criteria for a diagnosis of full FAS or PFAS. Although FASD is frequently comorbid with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, the pattern of brain activation seen in these disorders differs, suggesting that different neural pathways mediate response inhibition in FASD and that different interventions for FASD are, therefore, warranted. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  16. Regional brain changes occurring during disobedience to "experts" in financial decision-making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Y M Suen

    Full Text Available It is well recognized that individuals follow "Expert" advice, even when flawed and offers no advantage, and sometimes leads to disadvantages. The neurobiology underlying this is uncertain, and in particular there is an incomplete understanding of which brain regions are most involved when individuals chose to disobey an expert. To study this we examined functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI differences during an investment game where subjects received differentially credible investment advice. Participants (n = 42; 32 males played an investment game, in which they could Buy or Not Buy a sequence of stocks. The better they did, the more money they made. Participants received either "Expert" advice or "Peer" advice. Those receiving Expert advice were told the advice came from a certified financial "Expert". Those receiving Peer Advice were told the advice was that of the student administering the scans, who deliberately dressed and acted casually. Both streams of advice were predetermined and identical. The advice was scripted to be helpful initially, but progressively worse as the task continued, becoming 100% wrong by the end of the task. Subjects receiving Expert Advice followed the advice significantly longer on average, even though this was progressively worse advice. Thus, following Expert advice had poorer consequences for individuals, but this did not dissuade them from continuing to follow the advice. In contrast, when subjects disobeyed Expert advice they exhibited significant anterior cingulate cortex (ACC and superior frontal gyrus activation relative to those disobeying Peer advice. These findings may suggest that in subjects who defy authority, or believe they are doing so (in this case by disobeying an "Expert" there is increased activation of these two brain regions. This may have relevance to several areas of behavior, and the potential role of these two brain regions in regard to disobedience behavior requires further

  17. Brain region-specific expression of MeCP2 isoforms correlates with DNA methylation within Mecp2 regulatory elements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl O Olson

    Full Text Available MeCP2 is a critical epigenetic regulator in brain and its abnormal expression or compromised function leads to a spectrum of neurological disorders including Rett Syndrome and autism. Altered expression of the two MeCP2 isoforms, MeCP2E1 and MeCP2E2 has been implicated in neurological complications. However, expression, regulation and functions of the two isoforms are largely uncharacterized. Previously, we showed the role of MeCP2E1 in neuronal maturation and reported MeCP2E1 as the major protein isoform in the adult mouse brain, embryonic neurons and astrocytes. Recently, we showed that DNA methylation at the regulatory elements (REs within the Mecp2 promoter and intron 1 impact the expression of Mecp2 isoforms in differentiating neural stem cells. This current study is aimed for a comparative analysis of temporal, regional and cell type-specific expression of MeCP2 isoforms in the developing and adult mouse brain. MeCP2E2 displayed a later expression onset than MeCP2E1 during mouse brain development. In the adult female and male brain hippocampus, both MeCP2 isoforms were detected in neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Furthermore, MeCP2E1 expression was relatively uniform in different brain regions (olfactory bulb, striatum, cortex, hippocampus, thalamus, brainstem and cerebellum, whereas MeCP2E2 showed differential enrichment in these brain regions. Both MeCP2 isoforms showed relatively similar distribution in these brain regions, except for cerebellum. Lastly, a preferential correlation was observed between DNA methylation at specific CpG dinucleotides within the REs and Mecp2 isoform-specific expression in these brain regions. Taken together, we show that MeCP2 isoforms display differential expression patterns during brain development and in adult mouse brain regions. DNA methylation patterns at the Mecp2 REs may impact this differential expression of Mecp2/MeCP2 isoforms in brain regions. Our results significantly contribute

  18. Do spotty high intensity regions found in basal ganglia on MRI T2-weighted brain images of elderly subjects indicate gliosis? Comparison of brain MRI T2-weighted images of elderly subjects and necropsy brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murai, Hiroshi; Hattori, Hideyuki; Matsumoto, Masayuki

    2001-01-01

    Spotty high intensity regions are frequently found on the MRI T2-weighted brain images (T2WI) of elderly people. High intensity regions with a diameter of 3 mm or less have been considered as expanded perivascular space with no pathological implications on radiological diagnosis. However, its morphometrical basis is not clear. We examined the character of the spotty regions using brain MRI of brain screening subjects, and studied morphometrically arteriolosclerosis and perivascular tissue damage using necropsy brains of subjects aged 65 years and over. The size, number and location of the spotty high intensity regions were examined using the brain MRI of 109 T2WI which is used for brain screening at Kanazawa Medical University Hospital. The frontal lobe, temporal lobe, parietal lobe, hippocampus, midbrain and basal ganglia were sampled from 15 subjects aged 65 years and over, and the tissue sections were processed for HE stain, Elastica van Gieson stain and immunostaining with GFAP. We took photographs of brain arterioli and surrounding parenchyma with a digital telescope camera and the degree of arterioscleosis and tissue damage were assessed by measurements with an image analyzer. Spotty high intensity regions on T2WI with a diameter of 3 mm or less were observed in 95.5% subjects aged 65 years and over. 69.4% spotty region was observed in basal ganglia. There was a significant correlation between age and size. In morphometrical examination, at the basal ganglia, the density of GFAP-positive astrocytes in the perivascular tissue had a significant positive correlation with the proportional thickness of the adventitia, which is an index of arteriosclerosis, and a significant negative correlation with the size of the perivascular space. The results suggested that the spotty regions in the brain MRI of elderly people do not represent dilatations of the perivascular space, but is mild brain damage caused by arteriosclerosis. (author)

  19. Multivoxel 1H-MR spectroscopy in evaluating perienhancement region of brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Maosheng; Pan Zhiyong; Cao Zhijian; Wang Wei; Zheng Meijun; Ni Guibao

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the predictive value of multivoxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in evaluating the metabolic changes in perienhancement area of brain tumors. Methods: Fifty-one intracranial tumor patients were recruited in this study with 24 astrocytomas [grade II(8), III(7), IV(9)], 15 metastases, and 12 meningiomas. Multivoxel proton MRS was performed on a 1.5 TMR scanner using point-resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) sequence with TE of 144 ms and TR of 1000 ms. Spectra of three voxels were taken from A) enhanced, solid part of the tumor, B) perienhancement region (PER, with T 2 hyperintense areas), and C) corresponding contralateral normal appearing white matter, and those regions were evaluated in every patients. Fitted areas in the spectrum for N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline (Cho), creatine (Cr), lipid/ lactate, and myo-Inositol (mI) metabolite peaks were measured and NAA/Cho, NAA/Cr, Cho/Cho (normal), Cho/Cr (n) ratios were calculated for each voxel (0.562 cm 3 in size). One way ANOVA (SPSS 11.0 for windows, Chicago, Ill.) was used for statistical analysis in metabolic ratio's difference among the brain tumors. Results: In voxel A (MRS from the solid enhanced part of the lesion), the ratios of NAA/Cho and Cho/Cho (n) changed significantly by comparing with that of normal control brain tissues, but there was no significant difference among gliomas, metastases, and meningiomas (P>0.05). On the contrary, in voxel B of MRS from perienhancement region, NAA/Cho, Cho/Cho (n), and Cho/Cr (n) ratios revealed strong correlations between metabolite concentrations and tumor types, allowing the differentiation of glial tumors from both metastases and meningiomas (P<0.05). The mean values of PER for glial tumor, metastasis, and meningiomas were 0.89, 1.31, and 1.32 for NAA/Cho; 1.54, 1.78, and 1.87 for NAA/Cr; 1.47, 1.01, and 0.96 for Cho/Cho (n); and 1.75, 1.13 and, 1.21 for Cho/Cr (n), respectively. Conclusion: Evaluation of brain tumors and

  20. Regional brain volumes, diffusivity, and metabolite changes after electroconvulsive therapy for severe depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, A.; Magnusson, P.; Hanson, Lars G.

    2016-01-01

    , and metabolite changes in 19 patients receiving ECT for severe depression. Other regions of interest included the amygdala, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), orbitofrontal cortex, and hypothalamus. Patients received a 3T MR scan before ECT (TP1), 1 week (TP2), and 4 weeks (TP3) after ECT. Results......: Hippocampal and amygdala volume increased significantly at TP2 and continued to be increased at TP3. DLPFC exhibited a transient volume reduction at TP2. DTI revealed a reduced anisotropy and diffusivity of the hippocampus at TP2. We found no significant post-ECT changes in brain metabolite concentrations...